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Sample records for nutritional-toxicological conflict related

  1. Probabilistic intake assessment of multiple compounds as a tool to quantify the nutritional-toxicological conflict related to seafood consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sioen, Isabelle; Van Camp, John; Verdonck, Frederik; Verbeke, Wim; Vanhonacker, Filiep; Willems, Jan; De Henauw, Stefaan

    2008-04-01

    Seafood represents a natural source of valuable nutrients (e.g., long chain omega-3 poly-unsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFAs), vitamin D, and iodine), but the favourable health perception is troubled by the presence of contaminants (e.g., PCBs, dioxin-like compounds, and (methyl) mercury (MeHg)). This dualism forms the basis for an important public health conflict. The objective of this study was to calculate and evaluate the simultaneous intake of multiple beneficial and harmful compounds (LC n-3 PUFAs, vitamin D, iodine, (Me)Hg, PCBs, and dioxin-like compounds) via seafood consumption in Belgium. A methodology and a software module were developed for executing probabilistic assessments of the simultaneous intake of multiple compounds leading to better insight in the problematic nature of food items involving both health benefits and risks. The simulations concerning seafood consumption in Belgium predicted that, as far as only seafood consumption is concerned, the considered populations do not reach a sufficiently high intake for the three nutrients considered (LC n-3 PUFAs, vitamin D, and iodine). Regarding the contaminants, (Me)Hg contamination of seafood on the Belgian market does not seem to be an issue of major toxicological concern. In contrast, for dioxin-like compounds the tolerable daily intake is reached by people with high seafood consumption.

  2. Nutritional toxicology: basic principles and actual problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathcock, J N

    1990-01-01

    Nutritional toxicology is a specialty that combines the backgrounds and research approaches of nutrition and toxicology. Many problems of substantial importance to health and food safety involve interactions of nutrition process and requirement with the effects of toxicological impact. Solution of these problems requires research that meets the procedural and design criteria of experimental nutrition and these of experimental toxicology. The relationships may be described in three basic categories: (1) influence of nutrition on toxicities; (2) influence of toxicants on nutrition; and (3) toxicities of nutrients. Trypsin inhibitor research, an example of diet impacting on toxicological response, illustrates the necessity of controlling nutritional composition aspects that can confound the results. Prolonged acetaminophen administration provides an example of the effects of toxicants on nutritional requirement and function which could be important for persons with marginal sulphur amino acid intake.

  3. A Nutritional-Toxicological Assessment of Antarctic Krill Oil versus Fish Oil Dietary Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtson Nash, Susan M.; Schlabach, Martin; Nichols, Peter D.

    2014-01-01

    Fish oil dietary supplements and complementary medicines are pitched to play a role of increasing strategic importance in meeting daily requirements of essential nutrients, such as long-chain (≥C20, LC) omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin D. Recently a new product category, derived from Antarctic krill, has been launched on the omega-3 nutriceutical market. Antarctic krill oil is marketed as demonstrating a greater ease of absorption due to higher phospholipid content, as being sourced through sustainable fisheries and being free of toxins and pollutants; however, limited data is available on the latter component. Persistent Organic Pollutants (POP) encompass a range of toxic, man-made contaminants that accumulate preferentially in marine ecosystems and in the lipid reserves of organisms. Extraction and concentration of fish oils therefore represents an inherent nutritional-toxicological conflict. This study aimed to provide the first quantitative comparison of the nutritional (EPA and DHA) versus the toxicological profiles of Antarctic krill oil products, relative to various fish oil categories available on the Australian market. Krill oil products were found to adhere closely to EPA and DHA manufacturer specifications and overall were ranked as containing intermediate levels of POP contaminants when compared to the other products analysed. Monitoring of the pollutant content of fish and krill oil products will become increasingly important with expanding regulatory specifications for chemical thresholds. PMID:25170991

  4. A Nutritional-Toxicological Assessment of Antarctic Krill Oil versus Fish Oil Dietary Supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan M. Bengtson Nash

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Fish oil dietary supplements and complementary medicines are pitched to play a role of increasing strategic importance in meeting daily requirements of essential nutrients, such as long-chain (≥C20, LC omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin D. Recently a new product category, derived from Antarctic krill, has been launched on the omega-3 nutriceutical market. Antarctic krill oil is marketed as demonstrating a greater ease of absorption due to higher phospholipid content, as being sourced through sustainable fisheries and being free of toxins and pollutants; however, limited data is available on the latter component. Persistent Organic Pollutants (POP encompass a range of toxic, man-made contaminants that accumulate preferentially in marine ecosystems and in the lipid reserves of organisms. Extraction and concentration of fish oils therefore represents an inherent nutritional-toxicological conflict. This study aimed to provide the first quantitative comparison of the nutritional (EPA and DHA versus the toxicological profiles of Antarctic krill oil products, relative to various fish oil categories available on the Australian market. Krill oil products were found to adhere closely to EPA and DHA manufacturer specifications and overall were ranked as containing intermediate levels of POP contaminants when compared to the other products analysed. Monitoring of the pollutant content of fish and krill oil products will become increasingly important with expanding regulatory specifications for chemical thresholds.

  5. Making sense of all the conflict: a theoretical review and critique of conflict-related ERPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Michael J; Clayson, Peter E; Clawson, Ann

    2014-09-01

    Cognitive control theory suggests that goal-directed behavior is governed by a dynamic interplay between areas of the prefrontal cortex. Critical to cognitive control is the detection and resolution of competing stimulus or response representations (i.e., conflict). Event-related potential (ERP) research provides a window into the nature and precise temporal sequence of conflict monitoring. We critically review the research on conflict-related ERPs, including the error-related negativity (ERN), Flanker N2, Stroop N450 and conflict slow potential (conflict SP or negative slow wave [NSW]), and provide an analysis of how these ERPs inform conflict monitoring theory. Overall, there is considerable evidence that amplitude of the ERN is sensitive to the degree of response conflict, consistent with a role in conflict monitoring. It remains unclear, however, to what degree contextual, individual, affective, and motivational factors influence ERN amplitudes and how ERN amplitudes are related to regulative changes in behavior. The Flanker N2, Stroop N450, and conflict SP ERPs represent distinct conflict-monitoring processes that reflect conflict detection (N2, N450) and conflict adjustment or resolution processes (N2, conflict SP). The investigation of conflict adaptation effects (i.e., sequence or sequential trial effects) shows that the N2 and conflict SP reflect post-conflict adjustments in cognitive control, but the N450 generally does not. Conflict-related ERP research provides a promising avenue for understanding the effects of individual differences on cognitive control processes in healthy, neurologic and psychiatric populations. Comparisons between the major conflict-related ERPs and suggestions for future studies to clarify the nature of conflict-related neural processes are provided. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Substantive and relational effectiveness of organizational conflict behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Euwema, M C; Van de Vliert, E; Bakker, A B

    2003-01-01

    In this observation study the theory of conglomerated conflict behavior is tested. The impact of seven conflict behaviors on substantive and relational conflict outcomes is examined through multiple independent observations of 103 Dutch nurse managers handling a standardized conflict. Results show t

  7. Interparental Conflict in Context: Exploring Relations between Parenting Processes and Children's Conflict Appraisals

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBoard-Lucas, Renee L.; Fosco, Gregory M.; Raynor, Sarah R.; Grych, John H.

    2010-01-01

    Children's appraisals of conflict are a mechanism by which parental discord can lead to child maladjustment. The cognitive-contextual framework proposes that parent-child relationships may affect how children perceive conflict, but this idea has rarely been examined empirically. This study investigated relations between conflict appraisals,…

  8. Conflict-related mortality: an analysis of 37 datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha-Sapir, Debarati; Panhuis, Willem Gijsbert

    2004-12-01

    Mortality rates are among the main indicators of the human impact of armed conflict and many surveys have assessed this impact both for targeting and evaluating humanitarian aid programmes. Almost no epidemiological analysis such as calculating relative risk was performed nor were reference values clearly described. Here the aim is to review published mortality rates for a better understanding of age-specific mortality in armed conflict. Published mortality rates from conflict situations were collected and pre-conflict reference rates composed. We calculated the relative risk of dying in conflict compared to pre-conflict for children under 5 and people older than five years old. Although limited by reporting inadequacies, the results confirm the high vulnerability of children or = 5 year olds. Although not entirely new, this observation is not fully understood. Further systematic epidemiological research is needed to estimate and understand the impact of armed conflict on mortality.

  9. Detecting misinformation and knowledge conflicts in relational data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levchuk, Georgiy; Jackobsen, Matthew; Riordan, Brian

    2014-06-01

    Information fusion is required for many mission-critical intelligence analysis tasks. Using knowledge extracted from various sources, including entities, relations, and events, intelligence analysts respond to commander's information requests, integrate facts into summaries about current situations, augment existing knowledge with inferred information, make predictions about the future, and develop action plans. However, information fusion solutions often fail because of conflicting and redundant knowledge contained in multiple sources. Most knowledge conflicts in the past were due to translation errors and reporter bias, and thus could be managed. Current and future intelligence analysis, especially in denied areas, must deal with open source data processing, where there is much greater presence of intentional misinformation. In this paper, we describe a model for detecting conflicts in multi-source textual knowledge. Our model is based on constructing semantic graphs representing patterns of multi-source knowledge conflicts and anomalies, and detecting these conflicts by matching pattern graphs against the data graph constructed using soft co-reference between entities and events in multiple sources. The conflict detection process maintains the uncertainty throughout all phases, providing full traceability and enabling incremental updates of the detection results as new knowledge or modification to previously analyzed information are obtained. Detected conflicts are presented to analysts for further investigation. In the experimental study with SYNCOIN dataset, our algorithms achieved perfect conflict detection in ideal situation (no missing data) while producing 82% recall and 90% precision in realistic noise situation (15% of missing attributes).

  10. Within-Family Conflict Behaviors as Predictors of Conflict in Adolescent Romantic Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling, Nancy; Cohan, Catherine L.; Burns, Andrew; Thompson, Louisa

    2008-01-01

    Continuity in conflict behaviors from (a) adolescents' behavior with parents and their behavior with romantic partners and (b) from parents' marriage to adolescents' romantic relationships were examined in a sample of 58 mother-father-adolescent families and the adolescents' romantic partners. The social relations model was used to analyze…

  11. Exploring conflict- and target-related movement of visual attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, Mike; Garling, Marco; Luna-Rodriguez, Aquiles; Jacobsen, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Intermixing trials of a visual search task with trials of a modified flanker task, the authors investigated whether the presentation of conflicting distractors at only one side (left or right) of a target stimulus triggers shifts of visual attention towards the contralateral side. Search time patterns provided evidence for lateral attention shifts only when participants performed the flanker task under an instruction assumed to widen the focus of attention, demonstrating that instruction-based control settings of an otherwise identical task can impact performance in an unrelated task. Contrasting conditions with response-related and response-unrelated distractors showed that shifting attention does not depend on response conflict and may be explained as stimulus-conflict-related withdrawal or target-related deployment of attention.

  12. Personality, Relationship Conflict, and Teamwork-Related Mental Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vîrgă, Delia; CurŞeu, Petru Lucian; Maricuţoiu, Laurenţiu; Sava, Florin A.; Macsinga, Irina; Măgurean, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    This study seeks to explore whether neuroticism, agreeableness, and conscientiousness moderate the influence of relationship conflict experienced in groups on changes in group members' evaluative cognitions related to teamwork quality (teamwork-related mental models). Data from 216 students, nested in 48 groups were analyzed using a multilevel modeling approach. Our results show that the experience of relationship conflict leads to a negative shift from the pre-task to the post-task teamwork-related mental models. Moreover, the results indicate that conscientiousness buffered the negative association between relationship conflict and the change in teamwork-related mental models. Our results did not support the hypothesized moderating effect of agreeableness and show that the detrimental effect of relationship conflict on the shift in teamwork-related mental models is accentuated for group members scoring low rather than high on neuroticism. These findings open new research venues for exploring the association between personality, coping styles and change in teamwork-related mental models. PMID:25372143

  13. Personality, relationship conflict, and teamwork-related mental models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vîrgă, Delia; Curşeu, Petru Lucian; CurŞeu, Petru Lucian; Maricuţoiu, Laurenţiu; Sava, Florin A; Macsinga, Irina; Măgurean, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    This study seeks to explore whether neuroticism, agreeableness, and conscientiousness moderate the influence of relationship conflict experienced in groups on changes in group members' evaluative cognitions related to teamwork quality (teamwork-related mental models). Data from 216 students, nested in 48 groups were analyzed using a multilevel modeling approach. Our results show that the experience of relationship conflict leads to a negative shift from the pre-task to the post-task teamwork-related mental models. Moreover, the results indicate that conscientiousness buffered the negative association between relationship conflict and the change in teamwork-related mental models. Our results did not support the hypothesized moderating effect of agreeableness and show that the detrimental effect of relationship conflict on the shift in teamwork-related mental models is accentuated for group members scoring low rather than high on neuroticism. These findings open new research venues for exploring the association between personality, coping styles and change in teamwork-related mental models.

  14. Comprehending Conflicting Science-Related Texts: Graphs as Plausibility Cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isberner, Maj-Britt; Richter, Tobias; Maier, Johanna; Knuth-Herzig, Katja; Horz, Holger; Schnotz, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    When reading conflicting science-related texts, readers may attend to cues which allow them to assess plausibility. One such plausibility cue is the use of graphs in the texts, which are regarded as typical of "hard science." The goal of our study was to investigate the effects of the presence of graphs on the perceived plausibility and…

  15. Heart rate during conflicts predicts post-conflict stress-related behavior in greylag geese.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia A F Wascher

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Social stressors are known to be among the most potent stressors in group-living animals. This is not only manifested in individual physiology (heart rate, glucocorticoids, but also in how individuals behave directly after a conflict. Certain 'stress-related behaviors' such as autopreening, body shaking, scratching and vigilance have been suggested to indicate an individual's emotional state. Such behaviors may also alleviate stress, but the behavioral context and physiological basis of those behaviors is still poorly understood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We recorded beat-to-beat heart rates (HR of 22 greylag geese in response to agonistic encounters using fully implanted sensor-transmitter packages. Additionally, for 143 major events we analyzed the behavior shown by our focal animals in the first two minutes after an interaction. Our results show that the HR during encounters and characteristics of the interaction predicted the frequency and duration of behaviors shown after a conflict. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: To our knowledge this is the first study to quantify the physiological and behavioral responses to single agonistic encounters and to link this to post conflict behavior. Our results demonstrate that 'stress-related behaviors' are flexibly modulated by the characteristics of the preceding aggressive interaction and reflect the individual's emotional strain, which is linked to autonomic arousal. We found no support for the stress-alleviating hypothesis, but we propose that stress-related behaviors may play a role in communication with other group members, particularly with pair-partners.

  16. Gender relations and conflicts in fathering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, J

    1995-01-01

    The Caribbean Child Development Centre (CCDC) sought data to support the development of ways to meet regional parenting education needs. When CCDC realized that data on the relationship of Caribbean men and the family were virtually nonexistent, it conducted a survey of 700 men in two urban and two rural communities and sponsored discussion groups composed of men and women from the same or adjacent communities. The specific goals were 1) to provide a sociohistorical perspective on the family roles of men in the region; 2) to describe current male attitudes and behaviors related to family life and childbearing; 3) to generate data using participatory research techniques; 4) to present the data in a form useful to a wide audience; and 5) to create research tools that could be applied elsewhere in the region. The study revealed that a man's family is defined differently at different points of his life and that the primary role of the man in a Jamaican family is that of provider. The primary role of a mother is seen as providing care of the children and the home. Despite the pervasive nature of these beliefs, socioeconomic change has made it difficult for men and women to fulfill their traditional roles. Thus, a man can choose to demonstrate manhood by being a progenitor, by acquiring a large number of women, by engaging in criminal or violent behavior, by migrating to seek work, or by nurturing his children and participating in domestic tasks. It was found that men contribute more to family life than stereotypes suggest but that male status is not enhanced by participating in domestic chores. Fatherhood is an important step toward maturity, but children born early in a man's life may be cut off from the man when the mother enters another relationship. As may be expected, poverty and economic deprivation affect child-rearing practices in a negative manner. Future research should be directed to how well children born in early relationships are reared by stepfathers

  17. Oiling the Wheels of Conflict? Local Grievances, Relative Deprivation and the Potential for Conflict in Cape Three Points, Ghana.

    OpenAIRE

    Warden, Edwin Wuadom

    2015-01-01

    Natural resource, particularly oil, has been predicted to be a core factor of internal conflicts in the post-cold war era (Le Billon, 2001; Klare, 2001). This thesis explores the potential for conflict in new and emerging petro-states where recent oil discoveries have raised concerns about the risk of oil conflict occurring. The relative deprivation theory (Gurr, 1970) serves as the main theoretical point of discussion for this study. Using a case study of Cape Three Points in ...

  18. Lifeworld conflicts and relation rebirth of couple dancing sport participants.

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    Park, Ji-Yeon; Yoon, Yong-Jin

    2013-04-01

    This study aims to analyze how the conflict factors occur in lifeworld between couples are healed up through participating in the couple dancing sport, that is, how the couples are reborn to recover the relationship, and why they select the dancing sport for such an intermediate instrument. To achieve such research aims, a qualitative research has been conducted subjecting 5 couples, 10 people who both a couple is participating in the dancing sport activity. The results according to this research procedure are concluded in the following. First, the marital conflict factors occur in lifeworld include day-to-day factors, distance of conjugal relations, expression of negative emotion, etc. Second, the motives for selecting the dancing sport to resolve the marital conflict factors comprise of suggestions from surroundings, mass media, filling up the empty nest, proposals during consultation treatments, problem recognitions of conjugal relations, mutual agreement between a couple, etc. Third, the relation recovered through the couple dancing sport activity, i.e., the rebirth is deemed to be resulted from the promotion of communication opportunities through the couple dancing sport, formation of emotional communion between the couple, building new feelings between the couple, etc.

  19. Natural landscape features, human-related attractants, and conflict hotspots: A spatial analysis of human-grizzly bear conflicts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, S.M.; Madel, M.J.; Mattson, D.J.; Graham, J.M.; Burchfield, J.A.; Belsky, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    There is a long history of conflict in the western United States between humans and grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) involving agricultural attractants. However, little is known about the spatial dimensions of this conflict and the relative importance of different attractants. This study was undertaken to better understand the spatial and functional components of conflict between humans and grizzly bears on privately owned agricultural lands in Montana. Our investigations focused on spatial associations of rivers and creeks, livestock pastures, boneyards (livestock carcass dump sites), beehives, and grizzly bear habitat with reported human-grizzly bear conflicts during 1986-2001. We based our analysis on a survey of 61 of 64 livestock producers in our study in the Rocky Mountain East Front, Montana. With the assistance of livestock and honey producers, we mapped the locations of cattle and sheep pastures, boneyards, and beehives. We used density surface mapping to identify seasonal clusters of conflicts that we term conflict hotspots. Hotspots accounted for 75% of all conflicts and encompassed approximately 8% of the study area. We also differentiated chronic (4 or more years of conflicts) from non-chronic hotspots (fewer than 4 years of conflict). The 10 chronic hotpots accounted for 58% of all conflicts. Based on Monte Carlo simulations, we found that conflict locations were most strongly associated with rivers and creeks followed by sheep lambing areas and fall sheep pastures. Conflicts also were associated with cattle calving areas, spring cow-calf pastures, summer and fall cattle pastures, and boneyards. The Monte Carlo simulations indicated associations between conflict locations and unprotected beehives at specific analysis scales. Protected (fenced) beehives were less likely to experience conflicts than unprotected beehives. Conflicts occurred at a greater rate in riparian and wetland vegetation than would be expected. The majority of conflicts occurred in a

  20. Praxis development in relation to gang conflicts in Copenhagen, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørck, Line Lerche; Hussain, Khaled; Møller-Andersen, Camilla

    2013-01-01

    The primary question addressed in this article is how to understand and produce praxis development in the complex and contentious field of street communities of young marginalized men, an area highlighted almost on a daily basis in the Danish media under headlines with terms such as ‘foreigner...... problems’, ‘ghetto problems’, ‘gang conflicts’ and ‘gang war’. Since 2009, activists and professionals related to this field have gathered at Grundtvigs Højskole where they initiated and inspired community building activities in relation to the recent gang conflicts in the Copenhagen area of Denmark...... in social work practice, community building activities and praxis research....

  1. IDENTITY AS A RELATION OF CONFLICT IN INDIGENOUS EDUCATION

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    Flávia Roberta Busarello

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze the relationship of identity, to understand how they can generate conflicts and prejudices and how education can interact as an agent to overcome these reactions that often undermine the dignity of life. This article was based on literature review and arguments in meetings for study and discussion of the Research Group EDUCOGITANS Philosophy and Education as well as meetings related to research funded by CAPES /FINEP, "Pedagogical-Didactic Planning and Intercultural Training of Teachers for the revitalization of the language and culture in Indigenous Schools Xokleng Laklãnõ and howler in Santa Catarina, "linked to the Centre for Indigenous Education.

  2. Secure Attachment Conceptualizations: The Influence of General and Specific Relational Models on Conflict Beliefs and Conflict Resolution Styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl C. Woolley

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Attachment theory focuses on the cognitive models that underlie our interactions with attachment figures. Global or generalized mental models are thought to develop on the basis of attachment models with parents and might form the initial basis of internal working models in novel relationships. However, as discrepant information presents itself in a new relationship, it is thought that specific relational models develop. When conflict arises it can threaten the attachment bonds of the relationship. An Internet survey of 134 individuals in couple relationships was conducted to test the influence of secure parental and partner attachment conceptualizations on romantic relationship variables (conflict beliefs and conflict resolution styles. Results indicated that for the most part relationship variables were influenced by current secure romantic attachment conceptualizations. Analyses also indicated differential gender results for positive problem solving in terms of secure parental and partner attachment. Secure parental attachment was also found to impact on the report of compliant behavior during conflict resolution. Lastly, the belief that arguing is threatening was found to be impacted by an interaction effect between parental and partner attachment. In general secure partner attachment was more predictive of conflict resolution behavior and conflict beliefs, than a global attachment model. However, it would appear that the global attachment model can be activated in the context of the current relationship under certain conditions. This research lends support to the notion that generalized and specific attachment representations impacts differently on close relationship functioning, and encourages a further mapping of relationship functions in this regard.

  3. Mother-Adolescent Conflict: Stability, Change, and Relations with Externalizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofer, Claire; Eisenberg, Nancy; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Morris, Amanda S.; Gershoff, Elizabeth; Valiente, Carlos; Kupfer, Anne; Eggum, Natalie D.

    2013-01-01

    Stability and change in mother-adolescent conflict reactions (CRs) and the prediction of CRs from adolescents' earlier behavior problems (and vice versa) were examined with 131 mothers and their adolescents (63 boys). Dyads engaged in a 6-min conflict discussion twice, 2 years apart ["M" age was 13 at Time 1 (T1)]. Non-verbal expressive…

  4. When and why creativity-related conflict with coworkers can hamper creative employees' individual job performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, Onne; Giebels, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    We examined when and why focal employees' creativity-related conflict with coworkers is related to their individual job performance. As hypothesized, a survey among 113 employees in 14 manufacturing work groups showed that creativity-related conflict with coworkers escalates into dysfunctional relat

  5. Age-related deficits of conflict resolution mainly affect early information processing stages – an ERP study with different conflict types

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    Margarethe eKorsch

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aging is usually accompanied by alterations of cognitive control functions such as conflict processing. Recent research suggests that aging effects on cognitive control seem to vary with degree and source of conflict, and conflict specific aging effects on performance measures as well as neural activation patterns have been shown. However, there is sparse information whether and how aging affects different stages of conflict processing as indicated by event related potentials (ERP such as the P2, N2 and P3 components. In the present study 19 young and 23 elderly adults performed a combined Flanker conflict and stimulus-response-conflict (SRC task. Analysis of the median reaction times revealed an increased SRC related conflict effect in elderly. ERP analysis furthermore demonstrated an age-related increase of the P2 amplitude in response to the SRC task. In addition, elderly adults exhibited an increased P3 amplitude modulation induced by incongruent SRC and Flanker conflict trials.

  6. PUBLIC RELATIONS PROFESSIONALS’ PERCEPTION OF CONFLICT MANAGEMENT AS A MANAGEMENT FUNCTION

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    Tugce Ertem Eray

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Conflicts are a part of daily life that people encounter at home, work, and in organizations. It is evident that organizational conflicts are becoming more complex. In this respect, it is important for senior executives not to disregard these conflicts and involve public relations professionals in the conflict management processes. Hence, it is expected that public relations professionals become participants in the strategic planning process and that senior management relies on their experience and talents during the strategic planning process of organizations and resolution of issues. Another definition of public relations has emerged over the past years, even though the recent definitions of public relations focus on developing mutually beneficial relationships between organizations and their publics. Glen T. Cameron from University of Missouri defines public relations as management of conflict and competition strategically for the benefit of one’s own organization and, if possible, mutual benefit of organizations and individuals. It is impossible to disregard the influence of public relations professionals on managing the conflicts between an organization and its peers, and hence it is important to conduct further research on their approach to conflict management. With this motive, research questions have been generated based on the data presented by Professor Kenneth Plowman as a result of his analysis of strategic management of public relations in conflict management. Using the semi-structured interview technique, public relations professionals in Turkey were asked to describe their approach to conflict management.

  7. The Impact of Organizational Culture and Job Related Affective Well Being on Employees’ Conflict Resolution Styles

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    Nurdan Özarallı

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the impact of cooperative or competitive organizational culture and employees’ job related affective well being on their preferred conflict resolution styles. A total of 236 white collar employees in the private sector completed questionnaires on “Organizational Culture“, “Job Related Affective Well Being“and “Conflict Resolution Styles“. Results indicated that employees working in a cooperative organizational culture would choose problem solving, compromising and accomodating conflict resolution styles while those working in a competitive work environment would choose forcing and avoiding strategies. Results also showed that while positive job related affective well being is a major predictor o problem solving, compromising, accomodating and avoiding conflict resolution styles, negative job related affective well being significantly predicts forcing and avoiding strategies. Overall, the results draw attention to the preferred conflict resolution strategies assumed by Turkish employees, the role of the conflict environment as well as actors’ affective well being

  8. University-Industry Relations: Is There a Conflict?

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    Brown, Theodore L.

    1985-01-01

    The forms of university-industry relationships, the advantages to the various parties involved, and the potential conflicts and tensions are outlined. Some guidelines for finding solutions and new modes of interaction are suggested. (MSE)

  9. Workplace conflicts and psychological work-related injuries: our experience in Italy

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    Giuseppe Taino

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In Europe, all countries regularly recognise mental disorders as workplace accidents (mainly post-traumatic stress disorders. However, there has been little emphasis on this emerging issue in Italy. Our discussion focuses on a recent case report regarding an employee who was affected by an acute anxiety disorder after a common workplace conflict with a coworker. Given that prolonged and unresolved relationship conflicts may result in more extreme forms of conflict known as workplace bullying, relationship conflicts should be minimised or prevented as early as possible. These conflicts can also lead to acute stress disorders, particularly in workers who are at-risk for stress disorders. To prevent psychological work-related injuries, occupational stakeholders should use assessments for work-related stress as a framework for addressing all organisational risk factors that are related to workplace relationships and conflict.

  10. Interparental Conflict Styles and Parenting Behaviors: Associations with Overt and Relational Aggression among Chinese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Putallaz, Martha; Su, Yanjie

    2011-01-01

    This study examined how interparental conflict styles related to Chinese children's overt and relational aggression directly and indirectly through parenting behaviors. Mothers (n = 670) and fathers (n = 570) reported their overt and covert interparental conflict styles and different parenting behaviors. Children's (n = 671) aggression was…

  11. Interparental Conflict Styles and Parenting Behaviors: Associations with Overt and Relational Aggression among Chinese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Putallaz, Martha; Su, Yanjie

    2011-01-01

    This study examined how interparental conflict styles related to Chinese children's overt and relational aggression directly and indirectly through parenting behaviors. Mothers (n = 670) and fathers (n = 570) reported their overt and covert interparental conflict styles and different parenting behaviors. Children's (n = 671) aggression was…

  12. Pain and Defense versus Grace and Justice: The Relational Conflict and Restoration Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sells, James N.; Beckenbach, John; Patrick, Shawn

    2009-01-01

    The article presents an integrated theoretical perspective on the origin, maintenance and alteration of relational conflict. It suggests that relational conflict and reconciliation can be understood as two behavioral alternatives that couples respond with during the experience of pain or other negative emotion. The presence of pain elicits a…

  13. Praxis development in relation to gang conflicts in Copenhagen, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørck, Line Lerche; Hussain, Khaled; Møller-Andersen, Camilla;

    2013-01-01

    . The article explores these practices and changes, including some of the communal initiatives arising in response to the escalating gang conflicts. The conflict and community building activities are contextualized in terms of broader tendencies and changes in Danish society, from enduring struggles with ethnic...... othering of young minority men since the late 1990s, to other societal changes escalating ‘gang-conflicts’ to ‘gang-war’. The article examines how these changes produce new dynamics, tensions and dimensions of binary thinking, which in turn creates new dilemmas in the everyday lives of the people involved...

  14. Land related grievances shape tropical forest-cover in areas affected by armed-conflict

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nunez, Augusto Carlos Castro; Mertz, Ole; Buritica, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Armed-conflicts often occur in tropical areas considered to be of high ‘conservation-value’, termed as such for their biodiversity or carbon-storage functions. Despite this important overlap, few studies have assessed how forest-biomass is affected by armed-conflicts. Thus, in this paper we develop...... a multinomial logit model to examine how outcomes of the interactions between carbon-storage, armed-conflict and deforestation rates are linked to social, institutional and economic factors. We use Colombia as a case study because of its protracted armed-conflict, high forest-cover, sustained deforestation...... a research gap by providing statistically sound evidence for associations between armed-conflicts and land-related grievances, which has rarely been demonstrated empirically. Our results also suggest that forest commons are associated with reduced armed-conflict, and simultaneously provide contributions...

  15. Secure Attachment Conceptualizations: The Influence of General and Specific Relational Models on Conflict Beliefs and Conflict Resolution Styles

    OpenAIRE

    Cheryl C. Woolley; Dave Clarke; Karin du Plessis

    2007-01-01

    Attachment theory focuses on the cognitive models that underlie our interactions with attachment figures. Global or generalized mental models are thought to develop on the basis of attachment models with parents and might form the initial basis of internal working models in novel relationships. However, as discrepant information presents itself in a new relationship, it is thought that specific relational models develop. When conflict arises it can threaten the attachment bonds of the relatio...

  16. Adolescent Triangulation into Parental Conflicts: Longitudinal Implications for Appraisals and Adolescent-Parent Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fosco, Gregory M.; Grych, John H.

    2010-01-01

    Although triangulation into parental conflict is a risk factor for child and adolescent maladjustment, little is known about how triangulation affects adolescents' functioning or the factors that lead children to be drawn into parental disagreements. This prospective study examined the relations between triangulation, appraisals of conflict, and…

  17. Communicating anger and contempt in intergroup conflict : Exploring their relational functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vos, Bartholomeus

    2015-01-01

    Although the experience of anger in intergroup conflict is typically viewed as a destructive force that is best kept under wraps, the current dissertation suggests that its communication can help de-escalate intergroup conflict because of its relational function. Specifically, this entails that the

  18. Reciprocal Relations between Student-Teacher Conflict, Children's Social Skills and Externalizing Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skalická, Vera; Stenseng, Frode; Wichstrøm, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Research suggests that the relation between student-teacher conflict and children's externalizing behavior might be reciprocal, and possibly also between student-teacher conflict and children's social skills. Because children with externalizing behavior also tend to display low levels of social skills, we do not know if one or both of these…

  19. Communicating anger and contempt in intergroup conflict : Exploring their relational functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vos, Bartholomeus

    2015-01-01

    Although the experience of anger in intergroup conflict is typically viewed as a destructive force that is best kept under wraps, the current dissertation suggests that its communication can help de-escalate intergroup conflict because of its relational function. Specifically, this entails that the

  20. "Consent" or "Coercion"? Removing Conflict of Interest from Staff-Student Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacchi, Carol

    1994-01-01

    A model for regulating faculty-student consensual sexual relations in colleges and universities is offered. The model focuses on both removing conflict of interest and expanding women's ability to define the kinds of relationships they want. Standards for conflict of interest and unethical sexual advances are outlined. (MSE)

  1. Adolescent Triangulation into Parental Conflicts: Longitudinal Implications for Appraisals and Adolescent-Parent Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fosco, Gregory M.; Grych, John H.

    2010-01-01

    Although triangulation into parental conflict is a risk factor for child and adolescent maladjustment, little is known about how triangulation affects adolescents' functioning or the factors that lead children to be drawn into parental disagreements. This prospective study examined the relations between triangulation, appraisals of conflict, and…

  2. Relating Climate and Enviornmental Stress to Conflict... or Cooperation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, C. P.

    2016-12-01

    There are many factors which contribute to social unrest, including governance, economy, access to resources and others. As global climate change progresses, many regions and nations, particularly those that are most vulnerable and least resilient, will face increasing challenges with respect to water and food scarcity. Increasing population and demand for water, combined with declining access to groundwater, will greatly increase exisiting vulnerability. Syria, Yemen and other countries serve as examples of nations that have experienced increasing both environmental stress and conflict. The Syria case in particular has had clear global repercussions, most notably contributing to a global refugee crisis. However, there are also examples of nations that have experienced increasing environmental stress that instead demonstrated transboundary water cooperation rather than conflict. An important and emerging body of work is that which seeks to better understand and characterize real-time resilience and vulnerability in order to better mitigate the consequences of future regional climate change. Prediction of potential conflict is a formidable challenge, one that is highly complex and multivariate, operating on many different temporal and spatial scales.

  3. Patterns of suicidal ideation and behavior in Northern Ireland and associations with conflict related trauma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siobhan O'Neill

    Full Text Available In this study, data from the World Mental Health Survey's Northern Ireland (NI Study of Health and Stress (NISHS was used to assess the associations between conflict- and non-conflict-related traumatic events and suicidal behaviour, controlling for age and gender and the effects of mental disorders in NI. DSM mental disorders and suicidal ideation, plans and attempts were assessed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI in a multi-stage, clustered area probability household sample (N = 4,340, response rate 68.4%. The traumatic event categories were based on event types listed in the PTSD section of the CIDI. Suicidal ideation and attempts were more common in women than men, however, rates of suicide plans were similar for both genders. People with mood, anxiety and substance disorders were significantly more likely than those without to endorse suicidal ideation, plan or attempt. The highest odds ratios for all suicidal behaviors were for people with any mental disorder. However, the odds of seriously considering suicide were significantly higher for people with conflict and non-conflict-related traumatic events compared with people who had not experienced a traumatic event. The odds of having a suicide plan remain significantly higher for people with conflict-related traumatic events compared to those with only non-conflict-related events and no traumatic events. Finally, the odds of suicide attempt were significantly higher for people who have only non-conflict-related traumatic events compared with the other two categories. The results suggest that traumatic events associated with the NI conflict may be associated with suicidal ideation and plans, and this effect appears to be in addition to that explained by the presence of mental disorders. The reduced rates of suicide attempts among people who have had a conflict-related traumatic event may reflect a higher rate of single, fatal suicide attempts in this population.

  4. Psychological conflicts between relatives during the long-term course after successful living organ donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greif-Higer, G; Wandel, E; Otto, G; Galle, P R; Beutel, M E

    2008-05-01

    The German transplantation law prefers living organ donation between close relatives and spouses, which is assumed to guarantee unequivocal altruistic motivation. Since 2001, 68 recipient-donor-pairs, who aspired to have a renal or liver transplantation, underwent a systematic psychosomatic evaluation. Meanwhile, 43 transplantations were performed including 34 renal and 9 liver cases. Seventeen recipient-donor-pairs were readministered evaluations by the department of psychosomatic medicine after 1 to 6 years after transplantation for long-term follow-up. In 10 cases of medically successful transplantation, we identified severe conflicts between donor, recipient, and next-of-kin. Major conflicts are presented by case vignettes regarding deterioration of a previously conflicted marriage, noncompliance of the recipient due to a marital stalemate, and family conflict revolving around refusal to donate. Based on these findings, concise assessments of donor-recipient-pairs are recommended regardless of family relationships. Particular attention must be paid to signs of conflict both before and after transplantation.

  5. How do working-memory-related demand, reasoning ability and aversive reinforcement modulate conflict monitoring?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja eLeue

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Conflict monitoring is a process of stimulus evaluation and a pre-requisite for subsequent recruitment of cognitive control and behavioral adaptations. This study investigated how experimentally manipulated working-memory-related cognitive demand and aversive reinforcement modulate individual differences of conflict monitoring intensity and behavioral adjustments. Individual differences were assessed by means of an anxiety-related trait dimension (trait-BIS and by means of reasoning abilities–a core determinant of intelligence. Moreover, we investigated the special role of verbal reasoning ability and figural reasoning ability for the modulation of the conflict monitoring intensity. Ninety participants performed a go/nogo task with four conditions each comprising a combination of low vs. high working-memory-related cognitive demand and low vs. high aversive reinforcement. No effect of aversive reinforcement was observed for the N2 amplitude. The fronto-central nogo N2 amplitude was more pronounced for high demand vs. low demand suggesting that cognitive demand served as an aversive costly event. Higher total reasoning abilities were associated with more intense conflict monitoring and shorter response times with increasing aversive reinforcement (defined as verbal error-feedback vs. monetary loss. Individuals with higher trait-BIS scores demonstrated a more intense conflict monitoring even in conditions with low aversive reinforcement and also a more cautious responding (i.e., response times slowing with increasing aversive reinforcement indicating a focus on negative feedback prevention. The findings provide evidence for the conflict-monitoring theory and suggest that working-memory-related demand overrules the impact of aversive reinforcement on conflict monitoring intensity. Reasoning abilities and anxiety-related traits go along with an intensification of conflict monitoring but differences in the flexibility of behavioral adjustment.

  6. How do working-memory-related demand, reasoning ability and aversive reinforcement modulate conflict monitoring?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leue, Anja; Weber, Bernd; Beauducel, André

    2014-01-01

    Conflict monitoring is a process of stimulus evaluation and a pre-requisite for subsequent recruitment of cognitive control and behavioral adaptations. This study investigated how experimentally manipulated working-memory-related cognitive demand and aversive reinforcement modulate individual differences of conflict monitoring intensity and behavioral adjustments. Individual differences were assessed by means of an anxiety-related trait dimension (trait-BIS) and by means of reasoning abilities-a core determinant of intelligence. Moreover, we investigated the special role of verbal reasoning ability and figural reasoning ability for the modulation of the conflict monitoring intensity. Ninety participants performed a go/nogo task with four conditions each comprising a combination of low vs. high working-memory-related cognitive demand and low vs. high aversive reinforcement. No effect of aversive reinforcement was observed for the N2 amplitude. The fronto-central nogo N2 amplitude was more pronounced for high demand vs. low demand suggesting that cognitive demand served as an aversive costly event. Higher total reasoning abilities were associated with more intense conflict monitoring and shorter response times with increasing aversive reinforcement (defined as verbal error-feedback vs. monetary loss). Individuals with higher trait-BIS scores demonstrated a more intense conflict monitoring even in conditions with low aversive reinforcement and also a more cautious responding (i.e., response times slowing) with increasing aversive reinforcement indicating a focus on negative feedback prevention. The findings provide evidence for the conflict monitoring theory and suggest that working-memory-related demand overrules the impact of aversive reinforcement on conflict monitoring intensity. Reasoning abilities and anxiety-related traits go along with an intensification of conflict monitoring but differences in the flexibility of behavioral adjustment.

  7. Marital conflict and parental responses to infant negative emotions: Relations with toddler emotional regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel, Leslie A; Umemura, Tomo; Jacobvitz, Deborah; Hazen, Nancy

    2015-08-01

    According to family systems theory, children's emotional development is likely to be influenced by family interactions at multiple levels, including marital, mother-child, and father-child interactions, as well as by interrelations between these levels. The purpose of the present study was to examine parents' marital conflict and mothers' and fathers' distressed responses to their infant's negative emotions, assessed when their child was 8 and 24 months old, in addition to interactions between parents' marital conflict and their distressed responses, as predictors of their toddler's negative and flat/withdrawn affect at 24 months. Higher marital conflict during infancy and toddlerhood predicted both increased negative and increased flat/withdrawn affect during toddlerhood. In addition, toddlers' negative (but not flat) affect was related to mothers' distressed responses, but was only related to father's distressed responses when martial conflict was high. Implications of this study for parent education and family intervention were discussed.

  8. Romantic Relationship Length and its Perceived Quality: Mediating Role of Facebook-Related Conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. M. Saidur Rahaman

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate how Facebook use is leading to negative relationship outcomes such as cheating and breakup by assessing users’ perceived relationship qualities. It was hypothesized that Facebook-related conflict will be negatively related with users’ relationship length and will also be negatively related with their perceived relationship satisfaction, commitment, and love. Facebook-related conflict further mediates the relationship between relationship length and perceived relationship satisfaction, commitment, and love. Self-report data were gathered from participants (N = 101 in an online survey by employing standard questionnaires. A set of regression and mediation analyses confirmed all the hypotheses of the study. That is, Facebook-related conflict mediates the relationship between relationship length and perceived relationship satisfaction, commitment, and love. Moreover, the magnitude of mediation was highest for relationship satisfaction. Implications for future research and contributions are discussed.

  9. Romantic Relationship Length and its Perceived Quality: Mediating Role of Facebook-Related Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahaman, H M Saidur

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how Facebook use is leading to negative relationship outcomes such as cheating and breakup by assessing users' perceived relationship qualities. It was hypothesized that Facebook-related conflict will be negatively related with users' relationship length and will also be negatively related with their perceived relationship satisfaction, commitment, and love. Facebook-related conflict further mediates the relationship between relationship length and perceived relationship satisfaction, commitment, and love. Self-report data were gathered from participants (N = 101) in an online survey by employing standard questionnaires. A set of regression and mediation analyses confirmed all the hypotheses of the study. That is, Facebook-related conflict mediates the relationship between relationship length and perceived relationship satisfaction, commitment, and love. Moreover, the magnitude of mediation was highest for relationship satisfaction. Implications for future research and contributions are discussed.

  10. Critical care nurses' perceptions of their roles in family-team conflicts related to treatment plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Marie Patricia; Throndson, Karen; Dyck, Felicia

    2012-03-01

    Conflict over treatment plans is a cause of concern for those working in critical care environments. The purpose of this study was to explore and describe critical care nurses' perceptions of their roles in situations of conflict between family members and health-care providers in intensive care units. Using a qualitative descriptive design, 12 critical care nurses were interviewed individually and 4 experienced critical care nurses participated in focus group interviews. The roles described by the nurses were as follows: providing safe, competent, quality care to patients; building or restoring relationships of trust with families; and supporting other nurses. The nurses highlighted the level of stress when conflict arises, the need to be cautious in providing care and communicating with family members, and the need for support for nurses. More research related to working in situations of conflict is required, as is enhanced education for critical care nurses.

  11. 76 FR 63573 - Roundtable on Issues Relating to Conflict Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-13

    ... Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (the ``Act''), which relates to reporting requirements..., affected issuers, human rights organizations, and other stakeholders. The roundtable will consist of a...

  12. Industrial relations conflict in Irish hospitals: a review of Labour Court cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowman, Jennifer; Keating, Mary A

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the nature of industrial relations (IR), and IR conflict in the Irish healthcare sector. The paper is based on a thematic analysis of Labour Court cases concerning hospitals over a ten-year period. The findings of the paper indicate that the nature of IR conflict is changing in healthcare. The paper suggests that alternative manifestations of IR conflict evident in the Irish healthcare sector include: absenteeism as a form of temporary exit; and resistance. The key groups in the sector are discussed in the context of their contrasting disputes. The themes which characterise negotiations are identified as precedent, procedure and partnership. The research was conducted in the healthcare sector, and thus its transferability is limited. Caution is also required as the research pertains to one national setting, which despite sharing some structural similarities with other health and IR systems, is a unique context. The paper highlights the importance of recognising IR conflict in its various forms. It is further suggested that managing the process of IR conflict may be significant in furthering change agendas. The value of the paper centres on the investigation of alternative manifestations of IR conflict in the healthcare sector.

  13. Breach of belongingness: Newcomer relationship conflict, information, and task-related outcomes during organizational socialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nifadkar, Sushil S; Bauer, Talya N

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies of newcomer socialization have underlined the importance of newcomers' information seeking for their adjustment to the organization, and the conflict literature has consistently reported negative effects of relationship conflict with coworkers. However, to date, no study has examined the consequences of relationship conflict on newcomers' information seeking. In this study, we examined newcomers' reactions when they have relationship conflict with their coworkers, and hence cannot obtain necessary information from them. Drawing upon belongingness theory, we propose a model that moves from breach of belongingness to its proximal and distal consequences, to newcomer information seeking, and then to task-related outcomes. In particular, we propose that second paths exist-first coworker-centric and the other supervisor-centric-that may have simultaneous yet contrasting influence on newcomer adjustment. To test our model, we employ a 3-wave data collection research design with egocentric and Likert-type multisource surveys among a sample of new software engineers and their supervisors working in India. This study contributes to the field by linking the literatures on relationship conflict and newcomer information seeking and suggesting that despite conflict with coworkers, newcomers may succeed in organizations by building relationships with and obtaining information from supervisors.

  14. Bridging international relations and disaster studies: the case of disaster-conflict scholarship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollis, Simon

    2017-04-28

    International relations and disaster studies have much to gain by thinking critically about their respective theoretical and epistemological assumptions. Yet, few studies to date have sought to assess the potential value of linking these two disciplines. This paper begins to address this shortfall by examining the relationship between disasters and conflict as a research sphere that intersects international relations and disaster studies. Through an analysis of whether or not disasters contribute to intra-national and international conflict, this paper not only provides a review of the state of the art, but also serves to invite scholars to reflect on related concepts from other fields to strengthen their own approaches to the study of disasters in an international setting. An evaluation of the conceptual and theoretical contributions of each subject area provides useful heuristics for the development of disaster-conflict scholarship and encourages alternative modes of knowledge production through interdisciplinarity. © 2017 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2017.

  15. Cooperation and conflict in host-microbe relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulvestad, Elling

    2009-05-01

    Hosts and microbes associate in a variety of relations along a continuum ranging from symbiotic to pathogenic. Defence mechanisms have been evolutionarily selected in both hosts and microbes to protect the organism's integrity. Such defences have to be utilized with caution. They must be adapted to the tasks at hand; otherwise any symbiotic relation would be impossible. To explain this cautionary use of defences we need to understand how life on Earth evolved into cooperative and competing entities at various levels of organization. The purpose of this article is to review theory and selected mechanisms relating to the evolution and development of host-microbe interactions, with special emphasis on host responses. The rationale is that without theory, extrapolations from misleading observations can dominate and distort, for a significant time, the course of a scientific field. The argument is set forth that social evolution theory provides a conceptual framework for addressing questions relating to interaction between hosts and microbes. The article is a partial summary of arguments presented in my book Defending life - the nature of host-parasite relations.

  16. Exposure to conflict and violence across contexts: relations to adjustment among Palestinian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubow, Eric F; Boxer, Paul; Huesmann, L Rowell; Shikaki, Khalil; Landau, Simha; Gvirsman, Shira Dvir; Ginges, Jeremy

    2010-01-01

    Despite extensive literatures on the impact on children of exposure to violence in families, neighborhoods, and peer groups, there has been relatively little effort evaluating their cumulative impact. There also has been less attention to the effects of exposure to political conflict and violence. We collected data from a representative sample of 600 Palestinian youths (3 age cohorts: 8, 11, and 14 years old) to evaluate the relation of exposure to political conflict and violence, and violence in the family, community, and school, to posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms and aggressive behavior. Results highlight the additive effects of exposure to political conflict and violence, suggesting that interventionists should consider the full spectrum of sources of environmental risk for PTS symptoms and aggressive behavior.

  17. Chinese-US Relations: Moving Toward Greater Cooperation or Conflict?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    uters, 13 January 2013, http://www.reuters.com/article/2013/01/14/us-china- forex -investment -idUSBRE90D05T20130114. 45. Keith Bradsher, “After...Ballistic Missiles: Technical Report APA-TR-2010-0802,” Air Power Aus- tralia, August 2010, http://www.ausairpower.net/APA-PLA-Ballistic-Missiles.html...Chinese-US Relations Strategic Studies Quarterly ♦ Winter 2013 [ 45 ] 82. If internal DoD analysis is correct, US bases in Japan and on Guam are the

  18. Functional definition of the N450 event-related brain potential marker of conflict processing: a numerical stroop study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szűcs Dénes

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several conflict processing studies aimed to dissociate neuroimaging phenomena related to stimulus and response conflict processing. However, previous studies typically did not include a paradigm-independent measure of either stimulus or response conflict. Here we have combined electro-myography (EMG with event-related brain potentials (ERPs in order to determine whether a particularly robust marker of conflict processing, the N450 ERP effect usually related to the activity of the Anterior Cingulate Cortex (ACC, is related to stimulus- or to response-conflict processing. EMG provided paradigm-independent measure of response conflict. In a numerical Stroop paradigm participants compared pairs of digits and pressed a button on the side where they saw the larger digit. 50% of digit-pairs were preceded by an effective cue which provided accurate information about the required response. 50% of trials were preceded by a neutral cue which did not communicate the side of response. Results EMG showed that response conflict was significantly larger in neutrally than in effectively cued trials. The N450 was similar when response conflict was high and when it was low. Conclusions We conclude that the N450 is related to stimulus or abstract, rather than to response conflict detection/resolution. Findings may enable timing ACC conflict effects.

  19. Who died? The murder of collaterals related to intimate partner conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobash, Russell P; Dobash, R Emerson

    2012-06-01

    Using data from the Murder in Britain Study, the authors focus on murders that are related to intimate partner conflict but involve the killing of a person other than the intimate partner. Intimate partner collateral murders (IPCM) include children, allies, and new partners. The findings expand the number and types of murder associated with intimate partner conflict, characterize the three main types of collaterals, compare the childhood and adulthood of the perpetrators of intimate partner murder [IPM] (n = 104) and IPCM (n = 62), and reflect similarities and differences. Various disciplinary approaches are reflected in the research design, data collection, findings, and conclusions.

  20. Emotion Understanding and Reconciliation in Overt and Relational Conflict Scenarios among Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Zongqing; Li, Yan; Su, Yanjie

    2014-01-01

    This study examined emotion understanding and reconciliation in 47 (24 girls) 4-6-year-old preschool children. Participants first completed emotion recognition tasks and then answered questions regarding reconciliation tendencies and affective perspective-taking in a series of overt and relational aggressive conflict scenarios. Children's…

  1. Effectiveness of the United Nations Security Council to Prevent Conflict Related Sexual Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-09

    3 Definition of Terms Conflict-Related Sexual Violence (CRSV)—Rape, sexual slavery, forced prostitution, forced pregnancy , forced abortion... Stress Disorder, and anxiety. Below is a brief testimony from a Rwandan woman named Goretti. I was taken by force, they were wild animals. You knew it...reconstruction or self-confidence, which are characteristics of depression and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. Although, Goretti does not show signs

  2. Does Family Experience Influence Political Beliefs? Relation between Interparental Conflict Perceptions and Political Efficacy in Late Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serek, Jan; Lacinova, Lenka; Macek, Petr

    2012-01-01

    The study examined the relation between adolescents' interparental conflict perceptions and their political efficacy regarding local issues. Longitudinal data (age 15 and 17) from 444 adolescents were analyzed using structural equation modeling. Results showed that young people experiencing frequent interparental conflict reported an increase in…

  3. Trajectories of Change and Relationship between Parent-Adolescent School-Related Conflict and Academic Achievement in Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brkovic, Irma; Keresteš, Gordana; Puklek Levpušc?ek, Melita

    2014-01-01

    The study explored changes in parent-adolescent school-related conflict rate and academic performance over a 5-year period among Croatian early adolescents and gender differences in these changes. Furthermore, it examined the relationship between conflict and achievement. The study was performed by applying an accelerated approach to overlapping…

  4. Combining general relativity and quantum theory points of conflict and contact

    CERN Document Server

    Padmanabhan, T

    2001-01-01

    The issues related to bringing together the principles of general relativity and quantum theory are discussed. After briefly summarising the points of conflict between the two formalisms I focus on four specific themes in which some contact has been established in the past between GR and quantum field theory: (i) The role of planck length in the microstructure of spacetime (ii) The role of quantum effects in cosmology and origin of the universe (iii) The thermodynamics of spacetimes with horizons and especially the concept of entropy related to spacetime geometry (iv) The problem of the cosmological constant.

  5. Brain Activations Related to Saccadic Response Conflict are not Sensitive to Time on Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beldzik, Ewa; Domagalik, Aleksandra; Oginska, Halszka; Marek, Tadeusz; Fafrowicz, Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    Establishing a role of the dorsal medial frontal cortex in the performance monitoring and cognitive control has been a challenge to neuroscientists for the past decade. In light of recent findings, the conflict monitoring hypothesis has been elaborated to an action-outcome predictor theory. One of the findings that led to this re-evaluation was the fMRI study in which conflict-related brain activity was investigated in terms of the so-called time on task effect, i.e., a linear increase of the BOLD signal with longer response times. The aim of this study was to investigate brain regions involved in the processing of saccadic response conflict and to account for the time on task effect. A modified spatial cueing task was implemented in the event-related fMRI study with oculomotor responses. The results revealed several brain regions which show higher activity for incongruent trials in comparison to the congruent ones, including pre-supplementary motor area together with the frontal and parietal regions. Further analysis accounting for the effect of response time provided evidence that these brain activations were not sensitive to time on task but reflected purely the congruency effect.

  6. Brain activations related to saccadic response conflict are not sensitive to time on task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa eBeldzik

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Establishing a role of the dorsal medial frontal cortex in the performance monitoring and cognitive control has been a challenge to neuroscientists for the past decade. In light of recent findings, the conflict monitoring hypothesis has been elaborated to an action-outcome predictor theory. One of the findings that led to this re-evaluation was the fMRI study in which conflict-related brain activity was investigated in terms of the so-called time on task effect, i.e. a linear increase of the BOLD signal with longer response times. The aim of this study was to investigate brain regions involved in the processing of saccadic response conflict and to account for the time on task effect. A modified spatial cueing task was implemented in the event-related fMRI study with oculomotor responses. The results revealed several brain regions which show higher activity for incongruent trials in comparison to the congruent ones, including pre-supplementary motor area together with the frontal and parietal regions. Further analysis accounting for the effect of response time provided evidence that these brain activations were not sensitive to time on task but reflected purely the congruency effect.

  7. An invisible touch: Body-related multisensory conflicts modulate visual consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomon, Roy; Galli, Giulia; Łukowska, Marta; Faivre, Nathan; Ruiz, Javier Bello; Blanke, Olaf

    2016-07-29

    The majority of scientific studies on consciousness have focused on vision, exploring the cognitive and neural mechanisms of conscious access to visual stimuli. In parallel, studies on bodily consciousness have revealed that bodily (i.e. tactile, proprioceptive, visceral, vestibular) signals are the basis for the sense of self. However, the role of bodily signals in the formation of visual consciousness is not well understood. Here we investigated how body-related visuo-tactile stimulation modulates conscious access to visual stimuli. We used a robotic platform to apply controlled tactile stimulation to the participants' back while they viewed a dot moving either in synchrony or asynchrony with the touch on their back. Critically, the dot was rendered invisible through continuous flash suppression. Manipulating the visual context by presenting the dot moving on either a body form, or a non-bodily object we show that: (i) conflict induced by synchronous visuo-tactile stimulation in a body context is associated with a delayed conscious access compared to asynchronous visuo-tactile stimulation, (ii) this effect occurs only in the context of a visual body form, and (iii) is not due to detection or response biases. The results indicate that body-related visuo-tactile conflicts impact visual consciousness by facilitating access of non-conflicting visual information to awareness, and that these are sensitive to the visual context in which they are presented, highlighting the interplay between bodily signals and visual experience.

  8. Why are Industrial Relations in Spain Competitive? Trust in Management, Union Support and Conflict Behaviour in Worker Representatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Elgoibar

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In the current context of limited resources and economic, social and labour changes, organizational conflicts are becoming more and more competitive. Two possible explanations for this approach to conflict in Spain are the low trust between unions and management and the long tradition of confrontation in industrial relations. In this study we analyse the conflict pattern from worker representatives and the relation to trust in management and union support. The hypotheses are tested in a quantitative study of 719 representatives. Results show that a representatives use a competitive conflict style; b trust is negatively related to this style; and c union support is positively related to the style. We explore how societal culture and historical industrial relations tradition explain these relations.

  9. Relations between mothers' daily work, home, and relationship stress with characteristics of mother-child conflict interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jackie A; Boyer, Brittany P; Villarreal, Deyaun L; Smith, Olivia A

    2017-06-01

    This study examined whether daily variations in levels of mothers' work, home, and relationship stress were related to collaborative and oppositional qualities of mother-child conflict interactions across 1 week. Mothers reported on 1 specific conflict interaction with their 5- to 8-year-old child and their work, home, and relationship stress through online surveys each day for 7 consecutive days. Diary data from 142 mothers were analyzed in 6 multilevel models, each including within- and between-family levels of a stressor predicting collaborative or oppositional conflict qualities. Results suggested that families in the sample differed from each other, and also varied during the week, in collaborative and oppositional conflict qualities as well as stress in all 3 domains. Mothers reported a greater degree of oppositional conflict qualities on days characterized by higher perceptions of home chaos. Additionally, mothers who reported higher average levels of negativity in romantic relationships endorsed oppositional conflict qualities to a greater extent than mothers with lower relationship negativity. Two multilevel models including all 3 stressors in relation to collaborative and oppositional conflict revealed that for mothers managing multiple roles, average romantic relationship stress was the most important unique contributor to mother-child conflict qualities and daily relationship stress was particularly influential among mothers with sons compared to those with daughters. Results support the spillover hypothesis of stress within the family system and are discussed in terms of mothers' coping mechanisms and emotional engagement. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Work-Family Conflict and Oral and General Health-Related Quality of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kiran A; Spencer, A John; Roberts-Thomson, Kaye F; Brennan, David S

    2015-08-01

    The characteristics of the work environment and relationships with family roles may impact on health and be of public health significance. The aims were to investigate the cross-sectional association of work-family conflict with oral- and general health-related quality of life, and well-being. A random sample of 45-54-year olds from Adelaide, South Australia, was surveyed by self-complete questionnaire in 2004-2005 (n = 879, response rate = 43.8%). Health-related quality of life was measured with the OHIP-14 and EQ-VAS instruments, and well-being by the Satisfaction With Life Scale. In adjusted analyses controlling for sex, income, education, tooth brushing frequency and social support, the higher Family Interferes with Work (FIW) tertile and the middle tertile of Work Interferes with Family (WIF) were associated with more oral health-related impacts as measured by OHIP-14 in relation to problems with teeth, mouth or dentures (Beta = 1.64, P < 0.05 and Beta = 2.85, P < 0.01). Both middle and higher tertiles of WIF were associated with lower general health (Beta = -4.20 and -5.71, P < 0.01) and well-being (Beta = -1.17 and -1.56, P < 0.01). Work-family conflict was associated with more oral health impacts and lower general health and well-being among employed middle-aged adults. This supports the view of work-family conflict as a psychosocial risk factor for health outcomes spanning function, health perceptions and well-being, and encompassing both oral health and general health.

  11. Teaching a Relational Approach to Climate Change: Working with People and Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearns, F.

    2015-12-01

    In 2010, science and technology studies expert Sheila Jasanoff concluded an article in Science by observing that the scientific community "…has demonstrated that it can learn and change in its methods of representing science to scientists. That ingenuity should now be directed toward building relationships of trust and respect with the global citizens whose future climate science has undertaken to predict and reshape." This kind of statement indicates a large shift in the focus on climate-related work, in a sense concluding that the scientific conclusions are well-established, but there is a human-to-human, relationship-based element of the work that needs attention. At the same time, there is increasing emphasis on transitioning to more participatory models of research, practice, and engagement in climate work, the human relationships that underlie these approaches are rarely explicitly addressed. For example, conflict, a key relational process, is often an inevitable element of engagement in societal processes. Although conflict can lead toward more successful long-term solutions if addressed constructively, dealing with it can be highly uncomfortable on an individual level and is often avoided. Acknowledging the often pivotal role conflict plays in eventual solutions bolsters the notion of complementing current training with a focus on relationship building. Professional development to increase relational capacity is being adopted in fields such as law and medicine; these same approaches are also increasingly relevant for climate practitioners where strong emotions such as grief and anxiety are often present for both practitioners and those they interact with. A framework for teaching and learning to effectively interact in this rich, relational world will be presented.

  12. Direction of shift rotation among three-shift workers in relation to psychological health and work-family conflict

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ludovic GPM van Amelsvoort; Nicole WH Jansen; Gerard MH Swaen; Piet A van den Brandt; IJmert Kant

    2004-01-01

    Objectives The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the direction of shift rotation was related to the need for recovery, fatigue, sleep quality, work-family conflict, and leisure time...

  13. Relations of parenting quality, interparental conflict, and overnights with mental health problems of children in divorcing families with high legal conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandler, Irwin N; Wheeler, Lorey A; Braver, Sanford L

    2013-12-01

    The current study examined the associations between child mental health problems and the quality of maternal and paternal parenting, and how these associations were moderated by three contextual factors: quality of parenting by the other parent, interparental conflict, and the number of overnights parents had with the child. Data for the current study came from a sample of divorcing families who are in high legal conflict over developing or maintaining a parenting plan following divorce. Analyses revealed that the associations between child mental health problems and positive maternal and paternal parenting were moderated by the quality of parenting provided by the other parent and by the number of overnights children spent with parents, but not by the level of interparental conflict. When parenting by the other parent and number of overnights were considered together in the same model, only number of overnights moderated the relations between parenting and child-behavior problems. The results support the proposition that the well-being of children in high-conflict divorcing families is better when they spend adequate time with at least one parent who provides high-quality parenting.

  14. Childhood interparental conflict and HPA axis activity in young adulthood: examining nonlinear relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagan, Melissa J; Roubinov, Danielle S; Purdom Marreiro, Catherine L; Luecken, Linda J

    2014-05-01

    Relations between early adversity and the neuroendocrine stress response are most often tested in a linear framework. Findings from studies of nonlinear relations between early stress and reactivity in childhood are suggestive, but curvilinear associations between childhood family stress and stress reactivity at later developmental stages remain unexplored. The current study examined curvilinear relations between childhood interparental conflict (IPC) and cortisol reactivity in young adulthood. Participants (n = 91; Mean age = 18.7, SD = .97; 59% White, 25% Hispanic) reported on the frequency and intensity of childhood exposure to IPC and salivary cortisol was sampled before and after a challenging interpersonal role-play task. Significant curvilinear relations were found such that higher total cortisol and cortisol reactivity during the task was observed among youth reporting lower and higher frequency of IPC, suggesting that moderate IPC exposure may be associated with lower cortisol activity at a later developmental stage.

  15. Event-related potentials for post-error and post-conflict slowing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Chang

    Full Text Available In a reaction time task, people typically slow down following an error or conflict, each called post-error slowing (PES and post-conflict slowing (PCS. Despite many studies of the cognitive mechanisms, the neural responses of PES and PCS continue to be debated. In this study, we combined high-density array EEG and a stop-signal task to examine event-related potentials of PES and PCS in sixteen young adult participants. The results showed that the amplitude of N2 is greater during PES but not PCS. In contrast, the peak latency of N2 is longer for PCS but not PES. Furthermore, error-positivity (Pe but not error-related negativity (ERN was greater in the stop error trials preceding PES than non-PES trials, suggesting that PES is related to participants' awareness of the error. Together, these findings extend earlier work of cognitive control by specifying the neural correlates of PES and PCS in the stop signal task.

  16. Communication of job-related information and work family conflict in dual-career couples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bedelia Theunissen

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available It is known that work-family conflict is a determinant of marital dissatisfaction. The goal of this study was to determine whether inadequate communication regarding the sharing of job-related information between dual-career spouses contributes to marital dissatisfaction. The Work Perception Questionnaire (WPQ was designed and administered to obtain information on dimensions that 80 dual-career couples (married or in co-habitation perceived to contribute to marital conflict and that have an impact on the quality of their relationships. The main findings indicated that male partners experienced more marital conflict than their female partners if they did not have adequate job-related information about their partner’s work. However, the findings for the female partners were nonsignificant. The implications of the findings are discussed. Opsomming Dit is algemeen bekend dat werk- en gesinskonflik ‘n oorsaak van huweliksontevredenheid is. Die doel van hierdie studie was om te bepaal of ontoereikende kommunikasie oor werksverwante inligting tussen gades in dubbelloopbaanverhoudings ‘n bydraende faktor tot huweliksontevredenheid is. Die Werk Persepsie Vraelys (WPV is ontwerp en toegepas ten einde inligting te versamel rakende sekere dimensies wat volgens die persepsies van 80 dubbelloopbaanpare (wat getroud is of saamwoon aanleiding gee tot huwelikskonflik en wat moontlik ‘n impak op die gehalte van hul verhouding mag hê. Die belangrikste bevinding was dat manlike gades meer huwelikskonflik ervaar indien hul gades nie werksverwante inligting met hulle deel nie. Die resultate vir vroulike gades was egter nie beduidend nie. Die implikasies van die resultate word bespreek.

  17. Understanding and mapping local conflicts related to protected areas in small islands: a case study of the Azores archipelago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Bragagnolo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Establishing Protected Areas (PAs is considered one of the most appropriate ways to conserve nature and cultural landscapes. However, conservation constraints can generate social conflicts, especially at a local level. In small islands (SIs, local conflicts may escalate due to an increase in competition for limited space and resources. Pico island in the Azores Archipelago (Portugal, part of the Outermost European region, was considered a good case to study conservation-development conflicts due to the amount of designated protected land (> 35% of its surface and the approval of a new Azorean PA network in 2007. This paper presents a new approach to understanding and mapping local conflicts within PAs in SIs by integrating qualitative data and spatially explicit information. This research takes stock of the benefits, needs and constraints related to Pico Natural Park as perceived by local stakeholders through face-to-face semi-structured interviews; it subsequently identifies and transposes the conflicts distilled from stakeholder discourse into spatially representative visual maps via GIS. Research outcomes show that PAs are perceived mainly as constraints to local development, showing inconsistency between local expectations and regional conservation policy. This highlights the importance of including public participation processes prior to any implementation of conservation strategies. The proposed method provides a springboard towards effective conflict management for PAs on Pico island, showing a relatively low-cost and straightforward approach to minimising future local conflicts which could be adapted to other similar Outermost European regions and SIs.

  18. Mind your own business!! Longitudinal relations between perceived privacy invasion and adolescent-parent conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.T. Hawk; L. Keijsers; W.W., III Hale; W. Meeus

    2009-01-01

    Privacy coordination between adolescents and their parents is difficult, as adolescents' changing roles require adjustments to expectations about family boundaries. Adolescents' perceptions of privacy invasion likely provoke conflicts with parents, but higher levels of conflict may also foster invas

  19. Child-Related Interparental Conflict in Infancy Predicts Child Cognitive Functioning in a Nationally Representative Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendry, Patricia; Adam, Emma K.

    2013-01-01

    While associations between exposure to marital conflict and child development have been documented extensively in middle childhood and adolescence, few studies have examined the developmental consequences of conflict exposure in infancy. Moreover, those that have examined marital conflict in infancy tended to focus on consequences of conflict…

  20. Human recognition memory and conflict control: An event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, T; Liu, X; Xiao, T; Shi, J

    2016-01-28

    The relationship between recognition memory and cognitive control is an important research topic. The current study investigated how conflict control influences an individual's emotional memory. During the encoding phase, participants were required to judge the affective valence of a Chinese Chengyu word (either positive or negative) in a modified Simon paradigm and to remember the word. Half of the words were presented in the congruent condition and the other half were displayed in the incongruent condition. During the retrieval phase, participants were instructed to make an 'old/new judgment' and decide whether the word had been presented previously. Electrophysiological responses were recorded using the event-related potential (ERP) technique. The behavioral results of retrieval processes showed that participants remembered more positive than negative words when they were encoded in the congruent condition. The electrophysiological results revealed that the retrieval of words encoded in the incongruent condition elicited less negative frontal negativity (FN) and early posterior negativity (EPN) amplitudes than those encoded in the congruent condition. The retrieval of words encoded in the incongruent condition induced greater late positive complex (LPC) amplitudes, relative to those encoded in the congruent condition on the left hemisphere. It was also observed that the recognition of positive words induced faster LPC responses than negative words when they were encoded in the incongruent condition. The present electrophysiological study illustrates that emotional memory processes may be affected by conflict control. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Age-related reorganization of functional networks for successful conflict resolution: a combined functional and structural MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Tilman; Müller-Oehring, Eva M; Chanraud, Sandra; Rosenbloom, Margaret J; Pfefferbaum, Adolf; Sullivan, Edith V

    2011-11-01

    Aging has readily observable effects on the ability to resolve conflict between competing stimulus attributes that are likely related to selective structural and functional brain changes. To identify age-related differences in neural circuits subserving conflict processing, we combined structural and functional MRI and a Stroop Match-to-Sample task involving perceptual cueing and repetition to modulate resources in healthy young and older adults. In our Stroop Match-to-Sample task, older adults handled conflict by activating a frontoparietal attention system more than young adults and engaged a visuomotor network more than young adults when processing repetitive conflict and when processing conflict following valid perceptual cueing. By contrast, young adults activated frontal regions more than older adults when processing conflict with perceptual cueing. These differential activation patterns were not correlated with regional gray matter volume despite smaller volumes in older than young adults. Given comparable performance in speed and accuracy of responding between both groups, these data suggest that successful aging is associated with functional reorganization of neural systems to accommodate functionally increasing task demands on perceptual and attentional operations.

  2. Conflict-Related Sexual Violence and the Policy Implications of Recent Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Jean Wood

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Scholars increasingly document different forms of conflict-related sexual violence, their distinct causes, and their sharply varying deployment by armed organizations. In this paper, I first summarize recent research on this variation, emphasizing findings that contradict or complicate popular beliefs. I then discuss distinct interpretations of the claim that such violence is part of a continuum of violence between peace and war. After analyzing recent research on the internal dynamics of armed organizations, I suggest that widespread rape often occurs as a practice rather than as a strategy. Finally, I advance some principles to guide policy in light of recent research.

  3. Associations of adult separation anxiety disorder with conflict-related trauma, ongoing adversity, and the psychosocial disruptions of mass conflict among West Papuan refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Alvin Kuowei; Rees, Susan; Kareth, Moses; Silove, Derrick

    2016-03-01

    Refugees commonly experience traumatic events that threaten the self and close others, suggesting the possibility that they may experience overlapping symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and separation anxiety disorder (SAD). We examine this possibility among West Papua refugees (n = 230) displaced to Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea. We also examine associations between the combined PTSD-SAD construct and indices of past trauma exposure, ongoing adversity, and the psychosocial disruptions caused by mass conflict and displacement. We applied culturally adapted interview modules to assess symptoms of PTSD, SAD, traumatic events (TEs), ongoing adversity, and 5 psychosocial dimensions. Latent class analysis identified a PTSD class (23%), a posttraumatic (PT) SAD class (22%), and a low-symptom class (55%). Compared with the low-symptom class, both the PTSD and PT-SAD classes endorsed higher levels of exposure to all domains of TEs (conflict-related trauma, witnessing murder, childhood related adversities, traumatic losses, and health stress) and ongoing adversity (access to health care, displacement/separation, safety in the community, and access to basic needs), but the 2 comorbid groups did not differ on these indices. The PT-SAD class alone scored higher than the low-symptom reference class in relation to disruptions to the psychosocial domains (safety/security, bonds/network, access to justice, roles/identities, existential meaning) and higher than the PTSD class on safety/security, justice and roles/identities. Our findings suggest that the PT-SAD pattern may represent a response to the most severe forms of psychosocial disruptions of mass conflict among refugees. A focus on separation anxiety may enhance psychotherapies designed to treat PTSD in refugees. (PsycINFO Database Record

  4. A review of cognitive conflicts research: a meta-analytic study of prevalence and relation to symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montesano A

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Adrián Montesano,1 María Angeles López-González,2 Luis Angel Saúl,2 Guillem Feixas1 1Department of Personality, Assessment and Psychological Treatments, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, 2Department of Personality, Assessment and Psychological Treatments, Faculty of Psychology, National Distance Education University, Madrid, Spain Abstract: Recent research has highlighted the role of implicative dilemmas in a variety of clinical conditions. These dilemmas are a type of cognitive conflict, in which different aspects of the self are countered in such a way that a desired change in a personal dimension (eg, symptom improvement may be hindered by the need of personal coherence in another dimension. The aim of this study was to summarize, using a meta-analytical approach, the evidence relating to the presence and the level of this conflict, as well as its relationship with well-being, in various clinical samples. A systematic review using multiple electronic databases found that out of 37 articles assessed for eligibility, nine fulfilled the inclusion criteria for meta-analysis. Random effects model was applied when computing mean effect sizes and testing for heterogeneity level. Statistically significant associations were observed between the clinical status and the presence of dilemmas, as well as level of conflict across several clinical conditions. Likewise, the level of conflict was associated with symptom severity. Results highlighted the clinical relevance and the transdiagnostic nature of implicative dilemmas. Keywords: implicative dilemmas, cognitive conflicts, intrapersonal conflicts, meta-analysis

  5. When Ideology Meets Conflict-Related Content: Influences on Emotion Generation and Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pliskin, Ruthie; Halperin, Eran; Bar-Tal, Daniel; Sheppes, Gal

    2017-04-17

    Do rightists and leftists experience information about suffering and harm with differing emotional intensities, depending on the identity of target depicted? Do they consequently choose differently how to regulate or cope with these emotions? Research has identified ideological differences in emotional processes, but it has yet to identify what types of content lead to ideological differences in emotional intensity or whether these content-dependent differences relate to differing preferences for engaging versus disengaging emotion-regulation strategies. We posited that right-left differences in experienced emotional intensity would be context-dependent, emerging mostly in response to depictions of harm to the outgroup, in accordance with the centrality of intergroup attitudes to ideological self-placement in conflict. Study 1 (N = 83) supported this hypothesis, with leftists (vs. rightists) experiencing outgroup harm (but not ingroup harm or conflict-irrelevant harm) with greater emotional intensity. Study 2 (N = 101), which replicated this finding, additionally examined whether behavioral differences in regulatory choice consequently emerge mostly regarding outgroup harm. We tested 2 competing hypotheses as to the nature of these differences: (a) the intensity hypothesis, positing that leftists (more than rightists) would regulate their intensified reactions to outgroup harm through disengagement-distraction (vs. engagement-reappraisal) due to a documented greater preference for disengaging coping strategies as intensity increases, and (b) the motivation hypothesis, positing that leftists (more than rightists) would prefer engagement-reappraisal (vs. disengagement-distraction), consistent with leftists' documented greater preference for intergroup empathy. Results exclusively supported the intensity hypothesis, and the significance of both studies is discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Relational Identity Theory: A Systematic Approach for Transforming the Emotional Dimension of Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Daniel L.

    2010-01-01

    Emotions are a vital dimension in conflicts among nation-states and communities affiliated by common ethnic, economic, or political interests. Yet the individuals most responsible for managing such conflicts--heads of state, CEOs, intellectual or religious leaders--are often blind to the psychological forces affecting their interests. During 20…

  7. The Role of Gender and How It Relates to Conflict Management Style and School Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, Chris Harriet; Martin, Barbara N.; Hutchinson, Sandy

    2006-01-01

    This investigation focused on principals, by gender, and the impact that the principals' conflict management style had on cultural aspects in schools. Findings were: principals with a conflict management style that is high in dominating show lower school culture scores in professional development, and, conversely, principals with a conflict…

  8. Work family conflict in its relations to perceived working situation and work engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mache, Stefanie; Bernburg, Monika; Groneberg, David A; Klapp, Burghard F; Danzer, Gerhard

    2016-02-15

    These days physicians' work is characterized by an increase in economic demands, pressure and challenges in establishing a balance between work and family life. The current study investigates the relationship between physicians' job demands and resources, perceived job stress, work-family conflict, work engagement and job satisfaction. 564 clinicians specialising in different medical fields participated in the cross-sectional study. Self-administered questionnaires, including the COPSOQ and the UWES- Scale were administered. Our results illustrated significant relationships between physicians' work engagement and their job satisfaction as well as between job stress and work family conflict. Moreover, perceived job stress moderated the effect of high job demands on work family conflict. In addition, significant gender differences have been found in perceived stress levels, work family conflict and work engagement. This study proves and verified associations between work engagement, work-family conflict, job demands and resources that may influence employees' satisfaction. Implications for both working physicians and hospital management are given.

  9. The effects of age, sex, and hormones on emotional conflict-related brain response during adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cservenka, Anita; Stroup, Madison L; Etkin, Amit; Nagel, Bonnie J

    2015-10-01

    While cognitive and emotional systems both undergo development during adolescence, few studies have explored top-down inhibitory control brain activity in the context of affective processing, critical to informing adolescent psychopathology. In this study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine brain response during an Emotional Conflict (EmC) Task across 10-15-year-old youth. During the EmC Task, participants indicated the emotion of facial expressions, while disregarding emotion-congruent and incongruent words printed across the faces. We examined the relationships of age, sex, and gonadal hormones with brain activity on Incongruent vs. Congruent trials. Age was negatively associated with middle frontal gyrus activity, controlling for performance and movement confounds. Sex differences were present in occipital and parietal cortices, and were driven by activation in females, and deactivation in males to Congruent trials. Testosterone was negatively related with frontal and striatal brain response in males, and cerebellar and precuneus response in females. Estradiol was negatively related with fronto-cerebellar, cingulate, and precuneus brain activity in males, and positively related with occipital response in females. To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the effects of age, sex, and sex steroids during an emotion-cognition task in adolescents. Further research is needed to examine longitudinal development of emotion-cognition interactions and deviations in psychiatric disorders in adolescence.

  10. Conflict of roles: a conflict of ideas? The unsettled relations between care team staff and independent mental health advocates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeown, Mick; Ridley, Julie; Newbigging, Karen; Machin, Karen; Poursanidou, Konstantina; Cruse, Kaaren

    2014-10-01

    Drawing on a national study of independent mental health advocacy, we explored the social relations of independent advocacy. The study was commissioned by the Department of Health (England), and involved a case study design covering eight different geographies and service configurations, and interviews or focus groups with a total of 289 stakeholders across two phases of inquiry. This paper focused on the analysis of qualitative data relevant to the relationship between mental health-care services and independent advocacy services, drawn from interviews with 214 participants in phase two of the study. Discussion of these particular findings affords insights into the working relations of independent advocacy within mental health services beset by reorganizational change and funding cuts, and increasing levels of legally-sanctioned compulsion and coercion. We offer a matrix, which accounts for the different types of working relationships that can arise, and how these are associated with various levels of understanding of independent advocacy and appreciation for the value of advocacy. The discussion is framed by the wider literature on advocacy and the claims by practitioners, such as nurses, for an advocacy role as part of their professional repertoire.

  11. MULTICULTURALISM AND RELIGIOUS-BASED CONFLICT: EVENTS OF CONFLICT BASED ON ETHNICITY, RELIGION, RACE, AND INTER-GROUP RELATIONS (SARA IN THE CITY OF PONTIANAK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lailial Muhtifah

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available There is a tendency of similar idea that caught the conflict prevention and management efforts nowadays to the articles of the Charter of Medina which was religious-based and containing the theory of civil society. It I mostly on the handling of conflict which tends to take preventive measures and to stop the conflict directly, as well as making a comprehensive synergistic effort to mange conflict. Conflict prevention is a core component of a comprehensive Conflict Management Program. This paper explores the conflict that occurred in Ponianak between a group of people from ethnic Dayak and members of an Islamic organization in 2012 which includes an important lesson for the people of West Kalimantan, both for the government and the community elements especially in dealing with a dispute between different groups of people. An integrative prevention has been proven to be able to answer the question of handling a conflict that has a potential to escalate into a full-scale riot. This work concludes that an integrative conflict handling model may become a viable alternative model to be adopted by the community of West Kalimantan in particular and other societies in general. A synergic integrative conflict handling model that reflects local wisdom of the people of Pontianak is expected to inspire real peace for various communities with a multicultural background. Key words: multicultural, religious-based conflict, ethnicity, religion

  12. An Analysis of Student Affairs Professionals' Management of Role Conflict and Multiple Roles in Relation to Work/Life Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, Nicole Lepone

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this inquiry is to study how student affairs professionals manage role conflict in relation to work/life balance based on the challenging culture of the field. The underlying goals are to identify the barriers or challenges of managing multiple roles as a student affairs administrator and identify strategies to assist employees in…

  13. An Analysis of Student Affairs Professionals' Management of Role Conflict and Multiple Roles in Relation to Work/Life Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, Nicole Lepone

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this inquiry is to study how student affairs professionals manage role conflict in relation to work/life balance based on the challenging culture of the field. The underlying goals are to identify the barriers or challenges of managing multiple roles as a student affairs administrator and identify strategies to assist employees in…

  14. What Mothers Say and What They Do: The Relation between Parenting, Theory of Mind, Language and Conflict/Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffman, Ted; Slade, Lance; Devitt, Kerry; Crowe, Elena

    2006-01-01

    We used a longitudinal study with 55 middle- and upper middle-class children to investigate the relation between early mother characteristics (e.g. mental state talk, general parenting style) and later child characteristics (e.g. theory of mind, conflict/cooperation). Children were tested once when they were around 3 years and then again around 4…

  15. Work-related smartphone use, work–family conflict and family role performance: The role of segmentation preference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derks, D.; Bakker, A.B; Peters, P.; Wingerden, P. van

    2016-01-01

    Is work-related smartphone use during off-job time associated with lower conflict owing to the blurring of the boundaries between work and family life? Or does it help employees juggling work and family demands? The present four-day quantitative diary study (N = 71 employees, N = 265–280 data

  16. The relation between the political and the intellectual elite. Conflict and/or collaboration?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADRIAN SAMOILĂ

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This work is the written text of an argumentative discourse supporting that intellectuals in general and the intellectual elite in particular cannot govern a state directly, in terms of professional status, profession, social status and role, but only in the form of advisors to those who are at the top of the governmental pyramid, and at the same time it would not be good that this happen. Taking this into account, there are three types of relations that can be established between the political and the intellectual elite, namely collaboration, conflict and neutrality, with the first two being stronger. I propose a theorization of the concept of elite, starting with Vilfredo Paretto and ending with Max Weber, through the concepts put forward by Edward Shills, Wright Mills, Roberto Michels and Gaetano Mosca. I have always had in mind the extremely significant distinction made by sociologist Max Weber between profession and vocation, this approach being a methodological support for demonstrating here the difference between the professional intellectual and the politician in power.

  17. Metamorphoses of the interpretation of dreams. Freud's conflicted relations with his book of the century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubrich-Simitis, I

    2000-12-01

    The author takes the centenary of 'The Interpretation of Dreams' at the turn of the twenty-first century as the occasion for a reconstruction of the metamorphoses of Freud's magnum opus, as revealed in his changing and conflicted relations with the book in the course of his life. She tracks the vicissitudes of this relationship from the period of the work's gestation at the end of the nineteenth century through the editions published in Freud's lifetime, distinguishing various phases of revision and demonstrating connections with some of his other key writings and the development of psychoanalytic theory. Attention is drawn to the changes in the structure and style of the work in the successive editions, to the varying distance adopted by Freud between himself and his 'book of the century', and to the role assigned to his colleagues in its evolution. It is pointed out that Freud himself considered psychoanalysis to have originated with the publication of 'The Interpretation of Dreams', and that he felt, in his last years, that his colleagues' interest in dreams and their interpretation was flagging. The author concludes with a brief consideration of the significance of dream interpretation in present-day psychoanalytic theory and practice.

  18. Peer Conflict and Intrafamily Conflict: Are They Conceptual Bridges?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maccoby, Eleanor E.

    1996-01-01

    Reviews the articles on peer and intrafamily conflict in this issue, focusing on ways in which conflict in these two different settings might be related to one another. Notes that although conflict-resolution styles may carry over to some extent from conflict among family members to conflict among peers, there are some important differences. (MDM)

  19. Environmental pollutions associated to conflicts in Iraq and related health problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shammari, Ahmed Majeed

    2016-06-01

    Several wars and a 13-year embargo as well as several years of civil war with the recent war on terrorism have cumulatively damaged Iraq's land, air, water, and health infrastructure. The sand particles in Iraq contain toxic substances, which dates back to the pollution caused by military actions that disassemble the desert sands and turn it into light dust. This dust reaches cities as dust storms that effect most Iraqi cities. The presence of depleted uranium (DU) in the Iraqi food chain is documented by measuring the uranium in animals organs in different Iraqi cities with the highest concentration in the south of Iraq. One of the major sites of pollution in Iraq is the Al-twaitha nuclear research site. The nuclear research reactors were destroyed in the 1991 Gulf War. Barrels containing radioactive materials and sources were stolen from the site in the 2003 war. This resulted in considerable radioactive pollution at the site and in its surrounding areas. Soil sample have been found to be contaminated by Cs-137and Co-60. Cancer and birth defects are most associated with the environmental pollution caused by the conflicts. All studies related to this by Iraqi researchers are discussed in this review. From studying the Iraqi scientific publications, we can conclude that Basrah, Baghdad, Faluja, Mosul and Thi-Qar are the most effected cities in Iraq. This review concludes that the presence of a heavily contaminated environment with war related pollutants in most of the Iraqi cities needs much attention and huge effort to reduce the related health problems.

  20. Role conflict, uncertainty in illness, and illness-related communication avoidance: College students facing familial chronic illness

    OpenAIRE

    Suchak, Meghana

    2014-01-01

    The focus of the current study was on examining possible differences in college students' adjustment based on residency status (i.e., international Asian vs. domestic students) and illness status (i.e., having a family member with a chronic illness vs. not having a family member with a chronic illness). The study also examined the associations between overall college student adjustment and the family and illness-related factors of role conflict, uncertainty in illness, and illness-related com...

  1. Flexibility conflict?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delsen, L.W.M.

    2002-01-01

    The chapter deals with the presupposed conflict of interests between employers and employees resulting from a decoupling of operating hours and working times. It starts from the notion that both long operating hours and flexibility are relative concepts. As there is some discretion, the ultimate

  2. Children's Increased Emotional Egocentricity Compared to Adults Is Mediated by Age-Related Differences in Conflict Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Ferdinand; Singer, Tania; Steinbeis, Nikolaus

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the cognitive mechanisms underlying age-related differences in emotional egocentricity bias (EEB) between children (aged 7-12 years, n = 30) and adults (aged 20-30 years, n = 30) using a novel paradigm of visuogustatory stimulation to induce pleasant and unpleasant emotions. Both children and adults showed an EBB, but that of children was larger. The EEB did not correlate with other measures of egocentricity. Crucially, the developmental differences in EEB were mediated by age-related changes in conflict processing and not visual perspective taking, response inhibition, or processing speed. This indicates that different types of egocentricity develop independently of one another and that the increased ability to overcome EEB can be explained by age-related improvements in conflict processing.

  3. Reducing conflict-related employee strain: the benefits of an internal locus of control and a problem-solving conflict management strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, M.T.M.; Beersma, B.; Evers, A.

    2011-01-01

    Workplace conflict is a potent stressor, but most previous research has focused on its effect on productivity and performance rather than on individual well-being. This paper examines the moderating roles of an individual's internal locus of control and a problem-solving conflict management

  4. Reducing conflict-related employee strain: the benefits of an internal locus of control and a problem-solving conflict management strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, M.T.M.; Beersma, B.; Evers, A.

    2011-01-01

    Workplace conflict is a potent stressor, but most previous research has focused on its effect on productivity and performance rather than on individual well-being. This paper examines the moderating roles of an individual's internal locus of control and a problem-solving conflict management strategy

  5. USING CONFLICT MAPPING TO FOSTER PEACE-RELATED LEARNING AND CHANGE IN SCHOOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaughn Mitchell John

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available South African societies, including learners in primary and secondary schools, experience high levels of violent conflict. The lack of interventions in terms of peace education and peace building is cause for concern. Driven by an interest to build educators’ capacity and agency to become agents of change in the face of growing conflict and violence, this article discusses a mapping project which gets educators to explore their schools using a participatory process and to plan appropriate interventions in response. It considers how Freirian-inspired critical reflection and dialogical learning can be used to stimulate peace education and peace building in schools.

  6. Interparental Conflict Relative to Suicidal Ideation in Chinese Adolescents: The Roles of Coping Strategies and Meaning in Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongwei Zhang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to explore the paths between interparental conflict and Chinese adolescents’ suicidal ideation. Altogether 931 adolescents (Mage = 17.84, SD = 0.77, females = 531 completed the Dyadic Consensus Scale, Self-Report Coping Scale, Meaning in Life Questionnaire, and Positive and Negative Suicide Ideation questionnaires. Mediation analyses were conducted, focusing on the relations between interparental conflict and suicidal ideation along with coping styles and a sense of meaning in life. The results showed that interparental conflict indirectly predicted adolescents’ suicidal ideation via three mediators: coping-approach strategies, presence of meaning, and the joint serial effects of coping-approach strategies and presence of meaning in Chinese adolescents. In addition, boys were more likely to be at risk for suicidal ideation than girls, so were 10th graders compared to 11th graders. These findings supported a combined distress-to-meaninglessness line of thinking along with the use of coping-approach strategies to depress self-harm ideation. Generally, interparental conflict should be kept out of youngsters’ immediate vicinity as a preventive measure of suicidal ideation.

  7. Navigating Conflicts Related to Religious and Non-Religious Identity on Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Eboo; Montero, Janina; Love, Cindi; Giess, Mary Ellen

    2016-01-01

    Matters of interreligious engagement and worldview orientation are becoming more salient on campuses across the country. All-comers policies, conflicts about the Middle East, and intersections of spirituality with other aspects of identity present challenges for professionals working with students on college campuses. This article will discuss…

  8. Overview of studies on the conflict method.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hondel, M. van de & Kraay, J.H.

    1978-01-01

    The conflict method is a method which observes those types of (serious) conflict behaviours by road users that are considered related to unsafe traffic behaviour. This international overview on the conflict method has collected several conflict techniques actually in use.

  9. How can we cooperate better? The determinants of conflict solving competence in Polish pediatric nurses’ relations with parents of hospitalized children

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    Magdalena Chrzan-Dętkoś

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Our pilot study carried out at two Polish pediatric hospital departments revealed that conflicts with parents of hospitalized children represent the main concern of pediatric nurses. The aim of this study was to examine factors determining the conflict solving competence in pediatric nurses in order to develop effective communication training programs for pediatric ward staff. Participants and procedure A total of 78 pediatric nurses completed measures of occupational and perceived stress, conflict modes and competence in solving conflicts with parents of hospitalized children. Results The key factor influencing conflict solving competence was the level of perceived stress and supervisor support. Conclusions Systemic supervised activities aimed at reducing the level of stress, e.g. Balint groups or reflective supervision, could be helpful in mastering the conflict solving competences. Also a paradigm shift from the individual patient to his/her family considered as a patient could potentially improve nurse-parent relations.

  10. Does more (or less) lead to violence? Application of the relative deprivation hypothesis on economic inequalityinduced conflicts

    OpenAIRE

    Džuverović, Nemanja

    2013-01-01

    This article employs the relative deprivation theory in order to explain the formation of violent conflicts induced by an increase in economic inequality. By using the frustration-aggression hypothesis, the author attempts to illustrate how the rise in inequality, caused by changed economic structure, can be transformed into violence, often accompanied by material and human casualties. In addition to the theoretical framework, the article relies on empirical studies carried out by...

  11. Applying the nominal group technique in an employment relations conflict situation: A case study of a university maintenance section in South Africa

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    Cornelis (Kees S. van der Waal

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available After a breakdown in employment relations in the maintenance section of a higher education institution, the authors were asked to intervene in order to try and solve the employment relations conflict situation. It was decided to employ the Nominal Group Technique (NGT as a tool in problem identification during conflict in the workplace. An initial investigation of documentation and interviews with prominent individuals in the organisation was carried out. The NGT was then used in four focus group discussions to determine the important issues as seen by staff members. The NGT facilitates the determination of shared perceptions and the ranking of ideas. The NGT was used in diverse groups, necessitating adaptations to the technique. The perceived causes of the conflict were established. The NGT can be used in a conflict situation in the workplace in order to establish the perceived causes of employment relations conflict.

  12. Cultural competency, autonomy, and spiritual conflicts related to Reiki/CAM therapies: Should patients be informed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvonio, Maria Marra

    2014-02-01

    The use of complementary and alternative medicines (CAM) such as Reiki is on the rise in healthcare centers. Reiki is associated with a spirituality that conflicts with some belief systems. Catholic healthcare facilities are restricted from offering this therapy because it conflicts with the teachings of the Catholic Church. However, hospitals are offering it without disclosing the spiritual aspects of it to patients. This article will address the ethical concerns and possible legal implications associated with the present process of offering Reiki. It will address these concerns based on the Joint Commission's Standard of Cultural Competency and the ethical principles of autonomy and informed consent. A proposal will also be introduced identifying specific information which Reiki/CAM practitioners should offer to their patients out of respect of their autonomy as well as their cultural, spiritual, and religious beliefs.

  13. Conflict, negotiation and cooperation: an analysis of these parameters in international relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scher, J M

    1975-01-01

    Ways in which political conflicts may be stimulated, reduced, enhanced, and managed are discussed. Human political space and time concepts are explained, while distinct ways of perceiving, exploring, and affecting the world are developed in detail. Everyday communication as opposed to political communication is described, as are their dimensions, effectors, and/or the events that they effect. The thesis is suggested that political communication demands a special morality and a special understanding of interaction at a political level. A taste of the range and delicacy of the interlacing flow of conflict, negotiation and cooperation is given and the final contention is that j order to be a true and competent leader of an effective modern state these delicate tools must be immediately evocable.

  14. Cognitive and emotional conflicts of counter-conformity choice in purchasing books online: an event-related potentials study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mingliang; Ma, Qingguo; Li, Minle; Lai, Hongxia; Wang, Xiaoyi; Shu, Liangchao

    2010-12-01

    Using event-related potentials (ERPs), this study investigated the neural substrates of the conflicts in counter-conformity choices in purchasing books online. For each trial, a participant decided whether to buy a book according to the title keyword, as well as the numbers of positive and negative reviews on the book. A participant's choice was termed conformity if she/he decided to buy the book under the condition of consistently positive reviews, or not to buy the book under the condition of consistently negative reviews, whereas the case was counter-conformity if a participant did the opposite. In the time window 300-600ms after the stimulus onset, a strong negative deflection of ERP (N500) was recorded when participants made counter-conformity choices. The topographic distribution of the N500 (N400-like) is not typical of the semantic N400. The N500 might be evoked by the cognitive and emotional conflicts faced by participants in counter-conformity choices. The present findings provide evidence that the N400 can be elicited by non-semantic conflicts. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Development of the time course for processing conflict: an event-related potentials study with 4 year olds and adults

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    Posner Michael I

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tasks involving conflict are widely used to study executive attention. In the flanker task, a target stimulus is surrounded by distracting information that can be congruent or incongruent with the correct response. Developmental differences in the time course of brain activations involved in conflict processing were examined for 22 four year old children and 18 adults. Subjects performed a child-friendly flanker task while their brain activity was registered using a high-density electroencephalography system. Results General differences were found in the amplitude and time course of event-related potentials (ERPs between children and adults that are consistent with their differences in reaction time. In addition, the congruency of flankers affected both the amplitude and latency of some of the ERP components. These effects were delayed and sustained for longer periods of time in the children compared to the adults. Conclusions These differences constitute neural correlates of children's greater difficulty in monitoring and resolving conflict in this and similar tasks.

  16. Gender differences in work stress, related to organizational conflicts and organizational constrains: An empirical research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgia Kaltsidou

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In modern era, stress at workplace is a component of employees' and organizations' daily routine. The current research intends to study the gender differences as far as the ways that stress is witnessed in the workplace is concerned. Participants in this study were 231 Greek adults, employed at various workplaces. During their working hours they were asked to fill in a questionnaire which contained two different measurement scales. The main hypothesis was that men would show interpersonal conflicts at workplace to a larger extent; also that both men and women would not be so different on stress that stems from organizational constraints. The research findings did not confirm all the research hypotheses, because men were found to express their stress at a larger extent through interpersonal conflicts with their colleagues as a result of organizational constraints. The research data on the different stress manifestations at workplace are in accord with the relevant bibliography. Finally, this study contributes to the empirical support of the existence of gender differences in stress manifestations at workplace,even though the questionnaire that was used was no validated in Greece.

  17. Effects of Cognitive Versus Cognitive-Behavioral Divorce-Parenting Programs on Parental Conflict, Intimate Violence, Parental Communication, Divorce-Related Parental Behaviors and Children's Behavioral Problems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Whitworth, James

    2000-01-01

    .... The two-group pretest- posttest design with a three-month follow-up measured parents knowledge of divorce-related parenting behaviors, reports of intimate violence, destructive conflict tactics...

  18. Brain Mechanismof Resp onse Conflict and Stimulus Conflict:Evidence from an Event-Related Potential Study%反应与刺激冲突的脑机制差异:来自ERP研究的证据

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱桂凤; 张庆林

    2014-01-01

    采用事件相关电位技术( ERP),用侧抑制任务探讨了刺激和反应冲突的脑内时程动态变化。行为数据表明,冲突条件的反应时显著长于无冲突条件,表现出明显的干扰效应;脑电数据表明,在300-450ms内,反应冲突比无冲突诱发了一个更负的 ERP成分( N300-450),主要分布于额顶部,偶极子溯源分析发现,这一负成分可能主要源于ACC;而刺激冲突与无冲突相比在350-450ms内,也诱发了一个更负的ERP成分(N350-450),该负成分可能主要源于丘脑附近。这一结果表明,刺激与反应冲突所涉及的大脑机制可能并不相同。%In the present study,the event-related potential( ERP) and flanker task was used to investigate the neural cor-relation of response conflict and stimulus conflict.Compared with the no conflict condition,behaviourally, there was obvious interference effect of the two conflict conditions.The brain electricity data showed that:response conflict e-licited a more negative ERP deflection than did the no conflict task in the time window from 300-450ms, and di-pole source analysis of difference wave indicated that one generator localized in ACC.Stimulus conflict elicited a more negative ERP deflection than did the no conflict task in the time window from 350-450ms, and dipole source analysis of difference wave indicated that one generator localized in thalamus.This result indicated that different conflicts may related to different brain mechanism.

  19. Conflict-related trauma and bereavement: exploring differential symptom profiles of prolonged grief and posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heeke, Carina; Stammel, Nadine; Heinrich, Manuel; Knaevelsrud, Christine

    2017-03-29

    Exposure to trauma and bereavement is common in conflict-affected regions. Previous research suggests considerable heterogeneity in responses to trauma and loss with varying symptom representations. The purpose of the current study was to (1) identify classes of prolonged grief disorder (PGD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom profiles among individuals who were exposed to both trauma and loss due to the Colombian armed conflict and (2) to examine whether sociodemographic, loss and trauma-related characteristics could predict class membership. Three hundred eight victims of internal displacement who had experienced trauma and loss were assessed through measures of PGD (PG-13), PTSD (PCL-C), and social support (DUKE-UNC). Latent class analysis (LCA) was performed to analyze differential profiles by symptoms of PGD and PTSD and multinomial logistic regression was used to analyze predictors of class membership. LCA revealed a four-class solution: a resilient class (23.6%), a PTSD-class (23.3%), a predominately PGD class (25.3%) and a high distress-class with overall high values of PGD and PTSD (27.8%). Relative to the resilient class, membership to the PGD class was predicted by the loss of a close family member and the exposure to a higher number of assaultive traumatic events, whereas membership to the PTSD class was predicted by the perception of less social support. Compared to the resilient class, participants in the high distress-class were more likely to be female, to have lost a close relative, experienced more accidental and assaultive traumatic events, and perceived less social support. Specific symptom profiles emerged following exposure to trauma and loss within the context of the Colombian armed conflict. Profiles were associated with distinct types of traumatic experiences, the degree of closeness to the person lost, the amount of social support perceived, and gender. The results have implications for identifying distressed subgroups and

  20. Conflict Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, William; Koue, Glen

    1991-01-01

    Discusses general issues involved in conflict management and provides more specific examples of conflict management in libraries. Causes of conflict are considered, including organizational structure, departmentalization, performance appraisal, poor communication, and technological change; and methods of dealing with conflict are described,…

  1. Safety surrogate histograms (SSH): A novel real-time safety assessment of dilemma zone related conflicts at signalized intersections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanipoor Machiani, Sahar; Abbas, Montasir

    2016-11-01

    Drivers' indecisiveness in dilemma zones (DZ) could result in crash-prone situations at signalized intersections. DZ is to the area ahead of an intersection in which drivers encounter a dilemma regarding whether to stop or proceed through the intersection when the signal turns yellow. An improper decision to stop by the leading driver, combined with the following driver deciding to go, can result in a rear-end collision, unless the following driver recognizes a collision is imminent and adjusts his or her behavior at or shortly after the onset of yellow. Considering the significance of DZ-related crashes, a comprehensive safety measure is needed to characterize the level of safety at signalized intersections. In this study, a novel safety surrogate measure was developed utilizing real-time radar field data. This new measure, called safety surrogate histogram (SSH), captures the degree and frequency of DZ-related conflicts at each intersection approach. SSH includes detailed information regarding the possibility of crashes, because it is calculated based on the vehicles conflicts. An example illustrating the application of the new methodology at two study sites in Virginia is presented and discussed, and a comparison is provided between SSH and other DZ-related safety surrogate measures mentioned in the literature. The results of the study reveal the efficacy of the SSH as complementary to existing surrogate measures.

  2. Livestock/animal assets buffer the impact of conflict-related traumatic events on mental health symptoms for rural women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Nancy; Perrin, Nancy A; Kohli, Anjalee; Remy, Mitima Mpanano

    2014-01-01

    In the context of multiple adversities, women are demonstrating resilience in rebuilding their futures, through participation in microfinance programs. In addition to the economic benefits of microfinance, there is evidence to suggest that it is an effective vehicle for improving health. The parent study is a community-based trial to evaluate the effectiveness of a livestock microfinance intervention, Pigs for Peace (PFP), on health and economic outcomes with households in 10 villages in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. The analysis for this manuscript includes only baseline data from female participants enrolled in the ongoing parent study. Multiple regression analysis was used to examine if livestock/animal asset value moderates the relationship between conflict-related traumatic events and current mental health symptoms. The majority of women are 25 years or older, married, have on average 4 children in the home and have never attended school. Nearly 50% of women report having at least one livestock/animal asset at baseline. Over the past 10 years, women report on average more than 4 (M = 4.31, SD 3·64) traumatic events (range 0-18). Women reported symptoms consistent with PTSD with a mean score of ·2.30 (SD = 0·66 range 0-4) and depression with a mean score of 1.86 (SD = 0·49, range 0-3.47). The livestock/animal asset value by conflict-related traumatic events interaction was significant for both the PTSD (p = 0·021) and depression (p = 0·002) symptom models. The study provides evidence of the moderating affect of livestock/animal assets on mental health symptoms for women who have experienced conflict. The findings supports evidence about the importance of livestock/animal assets to economics in rural households but expands on previous research by demonstrating the psychosocial effects of these assets on women's health. clinicaltrials.gov NCT02008708.

  3. Exploring Supervisor-Related Job Resources as Mediators between Supervisor Conflict and Job Attitudes in Hospital Employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achim Elfering

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: Conflicts with supervisors are likely to reduce job resources and in turn to lower job attitudes. Work design in hospitals should, therefore, address interpersonal working conditions and conflict management in leadership development.

  4. Development and validation of the work-family-school role conflicts and role-related social support scales among registered nurses with multiple roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lijuan; Song, Rhayun

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop work-family-school role conflicts and role-related social support scales, and to validate the psychometrics of those scales among registered nurses with multiple roles. The concepts, generation of items, and the scale domains of work-family-school role conflicts and role-related social support scales were constructed based on a review of the literature. The validity and reliability of the scales were examined by administering them to 201 registered nurses who were recruited from 8 university hospitals in South Korea. The content validity was examined by nursing experts using a content validity index. Exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis were used to establish the construct validity. The correlation with depression was examined to assess concurrent validity. Finally, internal consistency was assessed using Cronbach's alpha coefficients. The work-family-school role conflicts scale comprised ten items with three factors: work-school-to-family conflict (three items), family-school-to-work conflict (three items), and work-family-to-school conflict (four items). The role-related social support scale comprised nine items with three factors: support from family (three items), support from work (three items), and support from school (three items). Cronbach's alphas were 0.83 and 0.76 for the work-family-school role conflicts and role-related social support scales, respectively. Both instruments exhibited acceptable construct and concurrent validity. The validity and reliability of the developed scales indicate their potential usefulness for the assessment of work-family-school role conflict and role-related social support among registered nurses with multiple roles in Korea. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Conflict and performance monitoring throughout the lifespan: An event-related potential (ERP) and temporospatial component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clawson, Ann; Clayson, Peter E; Keith, Cierra M; Catron, Christina; Larson, Michael J

    2017-03-01

    Cognitive control includes higher-level cognitive processes used to evaluate environmental conflict. Given the importance of cognitive control in regulating behavior, understanding the developmental course of these processes may contribute to a greater understanding of normal and abnormal development. We examined behavioral (response times [RTs], error rates) and event-related potential data (N2, error-related negativity [ERN], correct-response negativity [CRN], error positivity [Pe]) during a flanker task in cross-sectional groups of 45 youth (ages 8-18), 52 younger adults (ages 20-28), and 58 older adults (ages 56-91). Younger adults displayed the most efficient processing, including significantly reduced CRN and N2 amplitude, increased Pe amplitude, and significantly better task performance than youth or older adults (e.g., faster RTs, fewer errors). Youth displayed larger CRN and N2, attenuated Pe, and significantly worse task performance than younger adults. Older adults fell either between youth and younger adults (e.g., CRN amplitudes, N2 amplitudes) or displayed neural and behavioral performance that was similar to youth (e.g., Pe amplitudes, error rates). These findings point to underdeveloped neural and cognitive processes early in life and reduced efficiency in older adulthood, contributing to poor implementation and modulation of cognitive control in response to conflict. Thus, cognitive control processing appears to reach peak performance and efficiency in younger adulthood, marked by improved task performance with less neural activation.

  6. Cognitive control adjustments in healthy older and younger adults: Conflict adaptation, the error-related negativity (ERN), and evidence of generalized decline with age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Michael J; Clayson, Peter E; Keith, Cierra M; Hunt, Isaac J; Hedges, Dawson W; Nielsen, Brent L; Call, Vaughn R A

    2016-03-01

    Older adults display alterations in neural reflections of conflict-related processing. We examined response times (RTs), error rates, and event-related potential (ERP; N2 and P3 components) indices of conflict adaptation (i.e., congruency sequence effects) a cognitive control process wherein previous-trial congruency influences current-trial performance, along with post-error slowing, correct-related negativity (CRN), error-related negativity (ERN) and error positivity (Pe) amplitudes in 65 healthy older adults and 94 healthy younger adults. Older adults showed generalized slowing, had decreased post-error slowing, and committed more errors than younger adults. Both older and younger adults showed conflict adaptation effects; magnitude of conflict adaptation did not differ by age. N2 amplitudes were similar between groups; younger, but not older, adults showed conflict adaptation effects for P3 component amplitudes. CRN and Pe, but not ERN, amplitudes differed between groups. Data support generalized declines in cognitive control processes in older adults without specific deficits in conflict adaptation.

  7. European Insecurity: Managing Changing Relations at Home and Abroad : Interviews with Dr. Margriet Drent and Dr. Bibi van Ginkel of the Security and Conflict Programme of the Netherlands Institute of International Relations ‘Clingendael’

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fraser, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Interviews with Dr. Margriet Drent and Dr. Bibi van Ginkel of the Security and Conflict Programme of the Netherlands Institute of International Relations 'Clingendael' Dr. Margriet Drent is a Senior Research Fellow at the Security and Conflict Programme of the Netherlands Institute of International

  8. Nurses' practice environment and work-family conflict in relation to burn out: a multilevel modelling approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanze Leineweber

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To investigate associations between nurse work practice environment measured at department level and individual level work-family conflict on burnout, measured as emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and personal accomplishment among Swedish RNs. METHODS: A multilevel model was fit with the individual RN at the 1st, and the hospital department at the 2nd level using cross-sectional RN survey data from the Swedish part of RN4CAST, an EU 7th framework project. The data analysed here is based on a national sample of 8,620 RNs from 369 departments in 53 hospitals. RESULTS: Generally, RNs reported high values of personal accomplishment and lower values of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization. High work-family conflict increased the risk for emotional exhaustion, but for neither depersonalization nor personal accomplishment. On department level adequate staffing and good leadership and support for nurses reduced the risk for emotional exhaustion and depersonalization. Personal accomplishment was statistically significantly related to staff adequacy. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that adequate staffing, good leadership, and support for nurses are crucial for RNs' mental health. Our findings also highlight the importance of hospital managers developing policies and practices to facilitate the successful combination of work with private life for employees.

  9. Gendered experiences of conflict and co-operation in heterosexual relations of Somalis in exile in Gothenburg, Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aden, A S; Dahlgren, L; Tarsitani, G

    2004-01-01

    Political upheaval and poverty at home has been forcing many Somalis to immigrate. These immigrants do not only leave their physical house, families, relatives, loved ones, friends, but also familiarities, culture, customs, and often they do end up in no man's land being between their own and new home culture. Available reports suggest that there are about 15,000 Somalis in Sweden and their majority came here from late 1989 to 1996. About one third these immigrants live in and around the city of Gothenburg. This paper explores and describes gendered experiences of conflict and co-operation in heterosexual relations of Somalis in exile in Gothenburg, Sweden. A qualitative sociological in-depth interviews with 6 women and 7 men was performed during May 1999 to January 2000. A follow up focus group interviews with 10 people (2 women and 8 men) was also carried on. The results show that both the Somali culture and Muslim religion do not support the children being taught sex education in schools or the names of the sex organs being pronounced other than to be used as metaphors. The girls, unlike their age group males, experience a very painful and terrifying process during childhood in which their self-esteem is downgraded by means of serious degrading traditional active violence such as female genital mutilation and visible virginity control. The narratives tell stories in which Somali women are degraded and expected to obey in situations characterised by their man's arbitrariness. They are subject to a very extensive form of social control, which is especially pronounced on issues regarding sexuality. Their integrity as women is, consequently set aside. When Somali refugees came to Sweden some of them came to adopt much of the modern lifestyle and cultural norm systems, preferable young people and some of the females. Relating to a new culture with its new expectations on the norm obedience also created changes in self-esteem. Exile situation tends to generate

  10. Generating Conflict for Greater Good: Utilizing Contingency Theory to Assess Black and Mainstream Newspapers as Public Relations Vehicles to Promote Better Health among African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumpkins, Crystal Y; Bae, Jiyang; Cameron, Glen T

    2010-03-01

    The potential use of strategic conflict management ( Wilcox and Cameron, 2006; Cameron, Wilcox, Reber and Shin ( in press) as a health advocacy tool in US African-American and mainstream newspapers, arguing that escalation of conflict can increase effectiveness of health-related news releases. For health communicators focusing on at-risk populations with poor health outcomes, such goals would include increased awareness of health problems and solutions, along with increased motivation arising from indignation over health disparities. Content analysis of 1,197 stories in 24 Black and 12 mainstream newspapers showed that more conflict factors were present in Black vs. mainstream newspapers, suggesting a way to strategically place health messages in news releases disseminated to newspapers that motivate at-risk publics to better health. The findings suggest that conflict factors such as racial disparity data regarding health issues may enhance media advocacy.

  11. Generating Conflict for Greater Good: Utilizing Contingency Theory to Assess Black and Mainstream Newspapers as Public Relations Vehicles to Promote Better Health among African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumpkins, Crystal Y.; Bae, Jiyang; Cameron, Glen T.

    2010-01-01

    The potential use of strategic conflict management ( Wilcox and Cameron, 2006; Cameron, Wilcox, Reber and Shin ( in press) as a health advocacy tool in US African-American and mainstream newspapers, arguing that escalation of conflict can increase effectiveness of health-related news releases. For health communicators focusing on at-risk populations with poor health outcomes, such goals would include increased awareness of health problems and solutions, along with increased motivation arising from indignation over health disparities. Content analysis of 1,197 stories in 24 Black and 12 mainstream newspapers showed that more conflict factors were present in Black vs. mainstream newspapers, suggesting a way to strategically place health messages in news releases disseminated to newspapers that motivate at-risk publics to better health. The findings suggest that conflict factors such as racial disparity data regarding health issues may enhance media advocacy. PMID:22822291

  12. Livestock/animal assets buffer the impact of conflict-related traumatic events on mental health symptoms for rural women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Glass

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In the context of multiple adversities, women are demonstrating resilience in rebuilding their futures, through participation in microfinance programs. In addition to the economic benefits of microfinance, there is evidence to suggest that it is an effective vehicle for improving health. METHODS: The parent study is a community-based trial to evaluate the effectiveness of a livestock microfinance intervention, Pigs for Peace (PFP, on health and economic outcomes with households in 10 villages in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. The analysis for this manuscript includes only baseline data from female participants enrolled in the ongoing parent study. Multiple regression analysis was used to examine if livestock/animal asset value moderates the relationship between conflict-related traumatic events and current mental health symptoms. FINDINGS: The majority of women are 25 years or older, married, have on average 4 children in the home and have never attended school. Nearly 50% of women report having at least one livestock/animal asset at baseline. Over the past 10 years, women report on average more than 4 (M = 4.31, SD 3·64 traumatic events (range 0-18. Women reported symptoms consistent with PTSD with a mean score of ·2.30 (SD = 0·66 range 0-4 and depression with a mean score of 1.86 (SD = 0·49, range 0-3.47. The livestock/animal asset value by conflict-related traumatic events interaction was significant for both the PTSD (p = 0·021 and depression (p = 0·002 symptom models. INTERPRETATION: The study provides evidence of the moderating affect of livestock/animal assets on mental health symptoms for women who have experienced conflict. The findings supports evidence about the importance of livestock/animal assets to economics in rural households but expands on previous research by demonstrating the psychosocial effects of these assets on women's health. TRIAL REGISTRATION: clinicaltrials.gov NCT02008708.

  13. Conflict monitoring and stimulus categorization processes involved in the prosocial attitude implicit association test: Evidence from event-related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Fengqiu; Zheng, Zhiwei; Wang, Ya; Cui, Jifang; Chen, Yinghe

    2015-08-01

    The implicit association test (IAT) is a promising method used to assess individual implicit attitudes by indirectly measuring the strengths of associations between target and attribute categories. To date, the cognitive processes involved in the prosocial attitude IAT task have received little attention. The present study examined the temporal dynamics of the IAT that measures prosocial attitude using event-related potentials (ERPs). ERP results revealed enhanced N2 amplitudes for incongruent trials when compared with congruent trials and enhanced P300 amplitudes for congruent trials when compared with incongruent trials. In addition, the N2 amplitude differences were significantly correlated with individual prosocial behavior (the amount of donation). Our findings suggest that conflict monitoring and stimulus categorization processes are involved in the prosocial attitude IAT task and that the ERP indices of IATs that measure prosocial attitude may predict individual prosocial behavior.

  14. The Limits of Interdependence: Cooperation and Conflict in Sino-Japanese Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Eldridge

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the introduction of Deng Xiaoping’s Open Door policy in 1979, the value and complexity of Sino-Japanese economic ties have grown exponentially. However, even as economic ties have developed, security relations have deteriorated as perceptions of a ‘China threat’ and a ‘re-militarised Japan’ have emerged in Tokyo and Beijing. The simultaneous existence of these trends challenges international relations theory. Economic interdependence theories expect that the development of economic relations reduces the role of security in bilateral relations. Conversely, neorealist theories posit that, given the preeminence of national security, a perception of threat will cool economic relations. Sino-Japanese economic relations have demonstrable bilateral benefits. Additionally, economic relations have created interest groups invested in maintaining good relations. These groups have successfully managed economic friction points and integrated bilateral trade. However, economic interdependence seems not to translate to the security calculus confirming neorealism’s contention that national security is preeminent. In particular, Japan’s development of Ballistic Missile Defence (BMD illustrates the insignificance of economic ties in security planning. That said, it is equally true that perceptions of threat appear to have little influence on bilateral economic interdependence. Therefore, Sino-Japanese relations are best described by applying interdependence and neorealist theories in a complementary approach.

  15. Multicultural team conflict management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Heinz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the potential problems related to conflict resolution while cooperating in multicultural teams. Special attention is paid to specific character of such teams as well as to the concept of productive conflict and the ways of resolving it. The experiences gained in the Erasmus Intenstive Programme - Effective Working in Multicultural Teams were used.

  16. Multicultural team conflict management

    OpenAIRE

    Krystyna Heinz

    2014-01-01

    The article presents the potential problems related to conflict resolution while cooperating in multicultural teams. Special attention is paid to specific character of such teams as well as to the concept of productive conflict and the ways of resolving it. The experiences gained in the Erasmus Intenstive Programme - Effective Working in Multicultural Teams were used.

  17. Review of Selected Dissertations Addressing School Public Relations, Administrator Communication, and Conflict Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decman, John M.; Simieou, Felix, III

    2009-01-01

    This article is an extension to Kowalski's (2005) identification of possible lines of scholarly inquiry into themes related to schools and public relations. The article first cites professional accreditation standards for educational leaders as significant factors in providing a framework for increased scholarly inquiry. It then summarizes the…

  18. Review of Selected Dissertations Addressing School Public Relations, Administrator Communication, and Conflict Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decman, John M.; Simieou, Felix, III

    2009-01-01

    This article is an extension to Kowalski's (2005) identification of possible lines of scholarly inquiry into themes related to schools and public relations. The article first cites professional accreditation standards for educational leaders as significant factors in providing a framework for increased scholarly inquiry. It then summarizes the…

  19. Competition, Conflict, and Coalitions: Black-Latino/a Relations within Institutions of Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Literte, Patricia E.

    2011-01-01

    This case study examines Black-Latino/a relations at a public university in California, which has a 31% Black and 40% Latino/a student population. In-depth interviews with students and administrators indicate that Black and Latino/a students do recognize that they share similar educational and socioeconomic obstacles; however, there is little to…

  20. 3 CFR - Unexpected Urgent Refugee and Migration Needs Related to the Continuing Conflict in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Unexpected Urgent Refugee and Migration Needs... Presidential Determination No. 2009-16 of March 11, 2009 Unexpected Urgent Refugee and Migration Needs Related... Migration and Refugee Assistance Act of 1962 (the “Act”), as amended (22 U.S.C. 2601), I hereby...

  1. The Impact of Deliberative Strategy Dissociates ERP Components Related to Conflict Processing vs. Reinforcement Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Christopher M; Holroyd, Clay B

    2012-01-01

    We applied the event-related brain potential (ERP) technique to investigate the involvement of two neuromodulatory systems in learning and decision making: The locus coeruleus-norepinephrine system (NE system) and the mesencephalic dopamine system (DA system). We have previously presented evidence that the N2, a negative deflection in the ERP elicited by task-relevant events that begins approximately 200 ms after onset of the eliciting stimulus and that is sensitive to low-probability events, is a manifestation of cortex-wide noradrenergic modulation recruited to facilitate the processing of unexpected stimuli. Further, we hold that the impact of DA reinforcement learning signals on the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) produces a component of the ERP called the feedback-related negativity (FRN). The N2 and the FRN share a similar time range, a similar topography, and similar antecedent conditions. We varied factors related to the degree of cognitive deliberation across a series of experiments to dissociate these two ERP components. Across four experiments we varied the demand for a deliberative strategy, from passively watching feedback, to more complex/challenging decision tasks. Consistent with our predictions, the FRN was largest in the experiment involving active learning and smallest in the experiment involving passive learning whereas the N2 exhibited the opposite effect. Within each experiment, when subjects attended to color, the N2 was maximal at frontal-central sites, and when they attended to gender it was maximal over lateral-occipital areas, whereas the topology of the FRN was frontal-central in both task conditions. We conclude that both the DA system and the NE system act in concert when learning from rewards that vary in expectedness, but that the DA system is relatively more exercised when subjects are relatively more engaged by the learning task.

  2. Managing work–family conflict in the medical profession: working conditions and individual resources as related factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mache, Stefanie; Bernburg, Monika; Vitzthum, Karin; Groneberg, David A; Klapp, Burghard F; Danzer, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study developed and tested a research model that examined the effects of working conditions and individual resources on work–family conflict (WFC) using data collected from physicians working at German clinics. Material and methods This is a cross-sectional study of 727 physicians working in German hospitals. The work environment, WFC and individual resources were measured by the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire, the WFC Scale, the Brief Resilient Coping Scale and the Questionnaire for Self-efficacy, Optimism and Pessimism. Descriptive, correlation and linear regression analyses were applied. Results Clinical doctors working in German hospitals perceived high levels of WFC (mean=76). Sociodemographic differences were found for age, marital status and presence of children with regard to WFC. No significant gender differences were found. WFCs were positively related to high workloads and quantitative job demands. Job resources (eg, influence at work, social support) and personal resources (eg, resilient coping behaviour and self-efficacy) were negatively associated with physicians’ WFCs. Interaction terms suggest that job and personal resources buffer the effects of job demands on WFC. Conclusions In this study, WFC was prevalent among German clinicians. Factors of work organisation as well as factors of interpersonal relations at work were identified as significant predictors for WFC. Our results give a strong indication that both individual and organisational factors are related to WFC. Results may play an important role in optimising clinical care. Practical implications for physicians’ career planning and recommendations for future research are discussed. PMID:25941177

  3. Resolving conflicting social categories: the role of age-related executive ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutter, Russell R C; Wood, Chantelle; Dodd, Georgina F

    2012-02-01

    We investigated the effect of age-related decline in executive ability on the application of emergent features to incongruent social category conjunctions (e.g., male midwife). When forming an impression of an incongruent conjunction, older adults used more emergent attributes (attributes associated exclusively with the category conjunction and not the constituents), relative to younger adults. Moreover, this relationship was mediated by a reduction in inhibitory ability (measured using a Stroop task) and processing speed (measured using a Digit Symbol Substitution Test, DSST). These findings are consistent with the notion that executive ability is pivotal in understanding social functioning in older adults. We discuss the implications of these findings for the continuing development of models outlining the processes and stages involved in perceiving social category conjunctions.

  4. Group-based Compunction and Anger: Their Antecedents and Consequences in Relation to Colonial Conflicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Figueiredo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Group-based emotions can be experienced by group members for the past misdeeds of their ingroup towards an outgroup.. The present study examines distinct antecedents and consequences of group-based compunction and anger in two countries with a history of colonization (Portugal, N = 280 and the Netherlands, N = 184. While previous research has focused mainly on ingroup-focused antecedents of group-based emotions, such as ingroup identification and perceptions of responsibility, our research also analyzed outgroup-focused variables, such as outgroup identification and meta-perceptions. Multiple group structural equation modeling showed that group-based compunction and group-based anger have similar antecedents (exonerating cognitions, collectivism, outgroup identification and meta-perceptions. Furthermore, the results showed that the two emotions have distinct but related consequences for the improvement of intergroup relations (compensation, subjective importance of discussing the past and forgiveness assignment.

  5. Trade, Conflict and Sentiments: Multi-relational Organization of Large-scale Social Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Szell, Michael; Thurner, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    The capacity to collect fingerprints of individuals in online media has revolutionized the way researchers explore human society. Social systems can be seen as a non-linear superposition of a multitude of complex social networks, where nodes represent individuals and links capture a variety of different social relations. Much emphasis has been put on the network topology of social interactions, however, the multi-dimensional nature of these interactions has largely been ignored in empirical studies, mostly because of lack of data. Here, for the first time, we analyze a complete, multi-relational, large social network of a society consisting of the 300,000 odd players of a massive multiplayer online game. We extract networks of six different types of one-to-one interactions between the players. Three of them carry a positive connotation (friendship, communication, trade), three a negative (enmity, armed aggression, punishment). We first analyze these types of networks as separate entities and find that negativ...

  6. Searching for Conflict Related Missing Persons in Timor-Leste: Technical, Political and Cultural Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Kinsella

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines the context in which many thousands of people went missing in Timor-Leste between 1975 and 1999. The issues related to estimating the exact number of missing are discussed, followed by a review of the mechanisms implemented by the government and civil society since independence to attempt to examine and investigate the fate of missing persons. The paper then examines the technical details involved with searching for the missing which impact on the effectiveness of the different mechanisms. Further complexities related to scientific and religious/cultural beliefs when dealing with the missing are discussed. The paper concludes with providing suggestions for ways that the future search for the missing can realistically continue in light of other competing development priorities.

  7. Celebritizing Conflict

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richey, Lisa Ann; Budabin, Alexandra Cosima

    2016-01-01

    From serving as United Nations ambassadors to appearing as spokespersons for major NGO campaigns, global celebrities have become increasingly important in international development assistance. Acting as “aid celebrities,” they are indelibly linked with humanitarian work and public engagement.2 In......, conflict, and development in Africa.......From serving as United Nations ambassadors to appearing as spokespersons for major NGO campaigns, global celebrities have become increasingly important in international development assistance. Acting as “aid celebrities,” they are indelibly linked with humanitarian work and public engagement.2...... In the policy realm, celebrity endorsement may shift attention, shape decisions, and build or erode key alliances. Meanwhile, the figure of the celebrity offers an enticing lens to refract critical issues of power, influence, and voice within neoliberal north-south relations. This essay, using emerging...

  8. Predictors of posttraumatic stress-related impairment in victims of terrorism and ongoing conflict in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chipman, Katie J; Palmieri, Patrick A; Canetti, Daphna; Johnson, Robert J; Hobfoll, Stevan E

    2011-05-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence of self-reported impairment (Criterion F) as part of a probable DSM-IV diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) within a sample of 1001 Israeli Jews subjected to direct and indirect exposure to rocket attacks. Further, the present study aimed to investigate predictors of endorsing posttraumatic stress (PTS)-related impairment, with specific attention to the influence of resources and resource loss. Data were collected via phone surveys. Twenty-nine percent of the sample reported impairment; however, only 19% of those reporting impairment met criteria for probable PTSD. Logistic regression results indicated that psychosocial resource losses, experiencing personal injury or injury to a family member or close friend, experiencing other major life stressors in the past year, having poorer health, having significant sleep difficulty, and having traditional (moderate) religious practices, significantly predicted PTS-related impairment. Results suggest that addressing impairment only within the context of full PTSD misses many individuals experiencing significant PTS-related impairment.

  9. Conflict: Organizational

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clegg, Stewart; Mikkelsen, Elisabeth Naima; Sewell, Graham

    2015-01-01

    . In contrast, anthropological treatments take a more socially and historically embedded approach to organizational conflict, focusing on how organizational actors establish negotiated orders of understanding. In a break with the social psychological and anthropological approaches, neo-Darwinians explain......This article examines four contemporary treatments of the problem of organizational conflict: social psychological, anthropological, neo-Darwinian, and neo-Machiavellian. Social psychological treatments of organizational conflict focus on the dyadic relationship between individual disputants...

  10. Irrational beliefs and marital conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, A T; de Beer, Z C

    1998-02-01

    To test the hypothesis that the major irrational evaluative beliefs postulated by Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy are related to marital conflict, 15 married couples participated in a thought-listing procedure. During this procedure, three idiosyncratic scenes portraying marital conflict and three control scenes free of conflict were identified for and presented to each member of the dyad. Analysis indicated that the conflict-portraying scenes were associated with significantly more irrational evaluative beliefs and significantly fewer rational cognitions than the control scenes.

  11. Conflict and memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagoner, Brady; Brescó, Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    This introduction to the special issue on conflict and memory aims to underscore the importance of memory (whether individual and collective) in relation to intergroup conflicts. We argue that the way in which societies reconstruct and bring the past into the present—especially, the historical past......—is crucial when it comes to the study of intergroup conflict dynamics. In this regard, we also highlight the growing importance of memory studies within the area of social sciences as well as the multiple ways of approaching memory. Drawing from this wide theoretical framework, we introduce the articles...... of this issue, eight articles that tackle the role of memory in different conflicts, whether currently under way, in progress of being resolved, in postwar settings, or in contexts conflicts expected to happen do not arise....

  12. Conflict Resolution

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and shift the focus more to the social impact of growth ana away from growth .... Perspectives on, and approaches towards, conflict and conflict resolution .... transformation, and changes in values and ethical approaches (such as nepotism ... education, life expectancy, employment, childbirth survival and similar indica-.

  13. Leaving NIMBYs behind – Uncertainty within space-related conflicts over offshore wind farms in Scotland and Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudolph, David Philipp

    Offshore wind farms are widely considered to become a cornerstone of energy transition for securing the energy supply and tackling climate change simultaneously. But recent developments have demonstrated that offshore wind farms are far from being conflict-free, evoking confrontations with other...... stakeholder interests. Drawing on comparative case studies in Scotland and Germany, this paper addresses and explores various conflict lines emerging from the installation of offshore wind farms and contesting local community interests and concerns. Local resistance against wind farms opens up a vast debate...... farms draw on specific narratives in order to justify and legitimate their stances. This paper explores the story lines local actors (re-)produce to cope with and overcome various conflict situations. In doing so, a framework reflecting on structural, subjective and spatial components of conflicts...

  14. Effect of variable number of tandem repeats polymorphism in the human dopamine transporter gene on conflict information processing according to event-related potential

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chunyu Han; Yuping Wang; Xin Wang; Ying Liu

    2010-01-01

    The dopamine transporter(DAT)is responsible for dopamine reuptake from the synaptic cleft.A variable number of tandem repeats polymorphism in the DAT gene is related to DAT availability and has been associated with cognition.With the advantage of high-time resolution,event-related potential is an important method to study the time course of human information processing.Previous results have suggested that dopamine exhibits a close relationship with conflicting information processing.Therefore,the present study assumed that conflicting information processing could be influenced by DAT variable number of tandem repeats polymorphism.To confirm this,the present study analyzed the influence of DAT genotypes on N270,which is presumed to reflect neural activity of conflict information processing in young healthy adults.A S1-S2 matching task was performed in healthy adults with 10/10 genotype(n = 14)and 10/9genotypes(n = 14),respectively,when event-related potentials were recorded.Results demonstrated that subjects with the 10/10 genotype exhibited shorter N270 latency and quicker reaction times compared with subjects with the 10/9 genotype.There were no differences in N270amplitude between the two genotypes.These results suggested that 10/10 genotype subjects more efficiently processed conflict information.

  15. Conflict prevention, conflict mitigation, and manifestations of conflict during emergency department consultations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Teresa; Bakewell, Francis; Orlich, Donika; Sherbino, Jonathan

    2014-03-01

    The objective was to determine the causes of and mitigating factors for conflict between emergency physicians and other colleagues during consultations. From March to September 2010, a total of 61 physicians (31 residents and 30 attendings from emergency medicine [EM], internal medicine, and general surgery) were interviewed about how junior learners should be taught about emergency department (ED) consultations. During these interviews, they were asked if and how conflict manifests during the ED consultation process. Two investigators reviewed the transcripts independently to generate themes related to conflict until saturation was reached. Disagreements were resolved by consensus. The trustworthiness of the analysis was ensured by generating an audit trail, which was subsequently audited by an investigator not involved with the initial analysis. This analysis was compared to previously proposed models of trust and conflict from the sociology and business literature. All participants recalled some manifestation of conflict. There were 12 negative conflict-producing themes and 10 protective conflict-mitigating themes. When comparing these themes to a previously developed model of the domains of trust, each theme mapped to domains of the model. Conflict affects the ED consultation process. Areas that lead to conflict are identified that map to previous models of trust and conflict. This work extends the current understanding about intradisciplinary conflict in the clinical realm. These new findings may improve the understanding of the nature of conflicts that occur and form the foundation for interventions that may decrease conflict during ED consultations. © 2014 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  16. Effect of an armed conflict on relative socioeconomic position of rural households: case study from western Côte d'Ivoire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fürst Thomas

    2010-08-01

    . However, the results indicate significant changes in livelihood strategies with a significant return to agricultural production and a decrease in the diversity of socioeconomic activities. Conclusion Situational constraints and methodological obstacles are inherent in conflict settings and hamper conflict-related socioeconomic research. Furthermore, sensitive methods to assess and meaningfully interpret longitudinal micro-level wealth data from low-income countries are lacking. Despite compelling evidence of socioeconomic dynamics triggered by armed conflicts at the macro-level, we could not identify similar effects at the micro-level. A deeper understanding of household profiles that are more resilient to armed conflict could help to better prevent and/or alleviate adverse conflict-related and increasingly civilian-borne socioeconomic effects.

  17. Family conflicts and conflict resolution regarding food choices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Maria; Brunsø, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies on family decision‐making show that not only parents but also children participate actively in and achieve influence on the decision process, for instance during food buying. When decision‐making includes several active participants, conflicts may occur, but not much research deals...... with food‐related conflicts, conflict resolutions or specific influence techniques with a focus on parents and tweens in family decision‐making. This article focuses on parents and tweens’ joint decision processes in evaluation and choice of food, specifically conflicts and conflict resolution. Assumptions...

  18. Functional imaging of decision conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pochon, Jean-Baptiste; Riis, Jason; Sanfey, Alan G; Nystrom, Leigh E; Cohen, Jonathan D

    2008-03-26

    Decision conflict occurs when people feel uncertain as to which option to choose from a set of similarly attractive (or unattractive) options, with many studies demonstrating that this conflict can lead to suboptimal decision making. In this article, we investigate the neurobiological underpinnings of decision conflict, in particular, the involvement of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Previous studies have implicated the ACC in conflict monitoring during perceptual tasks, but there is considerable controversy as to whether the ACC actually indexes conflict related to choice, or merely conflict related to selection of competing motor responses. In a functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we dissociate the decision and response phases of a decision task, and show that the ACC does indeed index conflict at the decision stage. Furthermore, we show that it does so for a complex decision task, one that requires the integration of beliefs and preferences and not just perceptual judgments.

  19. Resolving Marital Conflicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islami Hatixhe

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Couple relations are characterized as relations of an intimate nature dominated by constant interaction or strong interdependence and mutual influence of intense feelings between spouses. In marriages where there is conflict, there are typical examples of interaction, which result in high proportion of negative communicative acts that affect the quality of marital relationships such as: loss of confidence, the emergence of frustration, feelings of anxiety, discomfort, leading to escalation of marital conflicts. Communication as a variable has a large impact on the resolution of marital conflicts. The obtained results of our research indicate that the choice of different strategies of behavior in conflict situations among our respondents primarily depend on: the degree of persistence in the pursuit of its own interests and level of cooperation in addressing the interests of others.

  20. The Effects of Acute Dopamine Precursor Depletion on the Cognitive Control Functions of Performance Monitoring and Conflict Processing: An Event-Related Potential (ERP) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primosch, Mark; Leyton, Marco; Steffensen, Scott C.

    2015-01-01

    Studies using medications and psychiatric populations implicate dopamine in cognitive control and performance monitoring processes. However, side effects associated with medication or studying psychiatric groups may confound the relationship between dopamine and cognitive control. To circumvent such possibilities, we utilized a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, within-subjects design wherein participants were administered a nutritionally-balanced amino acid mixture (BAL) and an amino acid mixture deficient in the dopamine precursors tyrosine (TYR) and phenylalanine (PHE) on two separate occasions. Order of sessions was randomly assigned. Cognitive control and performance monitoring were assessed using response times (RT), error rates, the N450, an event-related potential (ERP) index of conflict monitoring, the conflict slow potential (conflict SP), an ERP index of conflict resolution, and the error-related negativity (ERN) and error positivity (Pe), ERPs associated with performance monitoring. Participants were twelve males who completed a Stroop color-word task while ERPs were collected four hours following acute PHE and TYR depletion (APTD) or balanced (BAL) mixture ingestion in two separate sessions. N450 and conflict SP ERP amplitudes significantly differentiated congruent from incongruent trials, but did not differ as a function of APTD or BAL mixture ingestion. Similarly, ERN and Pe amplitudes showed significant differences between error and correct trials that were not different between APTD and BAL conditions. Findings indicate that acute dopamine precursor depletion does not significantly alter cognitive control and performance monitoring ERPs. Current results do not preclude the role of dopamine in these processes, but suggest that multiple methods for dopamine-related hypothesis testing are needed. PMID:26492082

  1. Long-term effects of conflict-related sexual violence compared with non-sexual war trauma in female World War II survivors: a matched pairs study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwert, Philipp; Glaesmer, Heide; Eichhorn, Svenja; Grundke, Elena; Pietrzak, Robert H; Freyberger, Harald J; Klauer, Thomas

    2014-08-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the long-term effects of conflict-related sexual violence experienced at the end of World War II (WWII) with non-sexual WWII trauma (e.g., being exposed to shell shock or physical violence). A total of 27 elderly wartime rape survivors were compared to age- and gender-matched control subjects who were drawn from a larger sample of subjects over 70 years of age who had experienced WWII-related trauma. A modified version of the Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale was used to assess trauma characteristics and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and the Brief Symptom Inventory-18 was used to assess current psychopathology. Additionally, measures of posttraumatic growth (Posttraumatic Growth Inventory) and social acknowledgement as a trauma survivor (Social Acknowledgement Questionnaire) were used to assess two mediating variables in post-trauma conditions of rape victims. Women exposed to conflict-related sexual violence reported greater severity of PTSD-related avoidance and hyperarousal symptoms, as well as anxiety, compared with female long-term survivors of non-sexual WWII trauma. The vast majority (80.9 %) of these women also reported severe sexual problems during their lifetimes relative to 19.0 % of women who experienced non-sexual war trauma. Women exposed to conflict-related sexual violence also reported greater posttraumatic growth, but less social acknowledgement as trauma survivors, compared to survivors of non-sexual war trauma. The results were consistent with emerging neurobiological research, which suggests that different traumas may be differentially associated with long-term posttraumatic sequelae in sexual assault survivors than in other survivor groups and highlights the need to treat (or better prevent) deleterious effects of conflict-related sexual violence in current worldwide crisis zones.

  2. Exploring Supervisor-Related Job Resources as Mediators between Supervisor Conflict and Job Attitudes in Hospital Employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfering, Achim; Gerhardt, Christin; Grebner, Simone; Müller, Urs

    2017-03-01

    Conservation of resources theory assumes loss of resources as a cause of job strain. In hospital work, conflicts with supervisors are tested to predict lower resources, that is, supervisory social support, participation possibilities, and appreciation. All three resources are expected to predict, in turn, experienced stress (job strain) and lower job satisfaction, lower affective commitment, and a higher resigned attitude towards the job (job attitudes). The sample included 1,073 employees from 14 Swiss hospitals (n = 604 nurses, n = 81 physicians, n = 135 medical therapists, and n = 253 technical and administrative staff). Of the total sample, 83.1% were female and 38.9% worked full-time. The median tenure was between 7 years and 10 years. Constructs were assessed by online questionnaires. Structural equation modeling was used to test mediation. Structural equation modeling confirmed the negative association of conflict with supervisors and job resources. Tests of indirect paths to resources as a link between conflicts with supervisors and job attitudes were significant. For nurses, social support, participation and appreciation showed a significant indirect path, while among medical technicians the indirect paths included social support and appreciation, and among physicians only appreciation showed a significant indirect path. In medical therapists no indirect path was significant. Job resources did not mediate the link between conflict with supervisors and stress in any occupational group. Conflicts with supervisors are likely to reduce job resources and in turn to lower job attitudes. Work design in hospitals should, therefore, address interpersonal working conditions and conflict management in leadership development.

  3. A holistic approach to natural resource conflict

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bond, Jennifer Lauren

    2014-01-01

    and institutional factors which impact on the conflict complex. The critical features of the conflict from the perspective of pastoralists and farmers in Laikipia were found to be related to trust, communication, security, governance, marginalisation and violence. By conducting a thorough conflict context analysis...... incorporating social, ecological and institutional elements, valuable insights can be gleaned, leading to a more holistic conflict management approach....

  4. Stimulus conflict triggers behavioral avoidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dignath, David; Eder, Andreas B

    2015-12-01

    According to a recent extension of the conflict-monitoring theory, conflict between two competing response tendencies is registered as an aversive event and triggers a motivation to avoid the source of conflict. In the present study, we tested this assumption. Over five experiments, we examined whether conflict is associated with an avoidance motivation and whether stimulus conflict or response conflict triggers an avoidance tendency. Participants first performed a color Stroop task. In a subsequent motivation test, participants responded to Stroop stimuli with approach- and avoidance-related lever movements. These results showed that Stroop-conflict stimuli increased the frequency of avoidance responses in a free-choice motivation test, and also increased the speed of avoidance relative to approach responses in a forced-choice test. High and low proportions of response conflict in the Stroop task had no effect on avoidance in the motivation test. Avoidance of conflict was, however, obtained even with new conflict stimuli that had not been presented before in a Stroop task, and when the Stroop task was replaced with an unrelated filler task. Taken together, these results suggest that stimulus conflict is sufficient to trigger avoidance.

  5. Conflict management: importance and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKibben, Laurie

    2017-01-26

    Conflict is a consistent and unavoidable issue within healthcare teams. Despite training of nurse leaders and managers around areas of conflict resolution, the problem of staff relations, stress, sickness and retention remain. Conflict arises from issues with interpersonal relationships, change and poor leadership. New members of staff entering an already established healthcare team should be supported and integrated, to encourage mutual role respect between all team members and establish positive working relationships, in order to maximise patient care. This paper explores the concept of conflict, the importance of addressing causes of conflict, effective management, and the relevance of positive approaches to conflict resolution. Good leadership, nurturing positive team dynamics and communication, encourages shared problem solving and acceptance of change. Furthermore mutual respect fosters a more positive working environment for those in healthcare teams. As conflict has direct implications for patients, positive resolution is essential, to promote safe and effective delivery of care, whilst encouraging therapeutic relationships between colleagues and managers.

  6. Social Psychological Consequences of Interpersonal Relations: A Confirmatory Approach to Testing Deutsch's Theory of Cooperation and Conflict Resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Quahwu

    This study tested M. Deutsch's theory of cooperation and conflict resolution using an intervention project at an inner city alternative high school in New York City. The study was designed to test the theory by confirmatory structural modeling and by evaluating the intervention. The procedure involved a pre- and post-test procedure administered…

  7. Factorial structure of complicated grief: associations with loss-related traumatic events and psychosocial impacts of mass conflict amongst West Papuan refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Alvin Kuowei; Rees, Susan; Chen, Jack; Kareth, Moses; Silove, Derrick

    2016-03-01

    Definitions of complicated grief vary across diagnostic systems, being represented as persistent complex bereavement (PCB) in DSM-5 and prolonged grief disorder (PGD) in the proposed revision of the ICD system. A past study in a high-income country has identified a six-factor structure for complicated grief, but there are no data testing this or any other model across cultures. The present study reports findings from a survey amongst West Papuan refugees (n = 230, response rate = 92 %) residing in Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea. We applied culturally adapted measures of conflict-related traumatic event (TEs) (drawing specifically on domains of conflict and loss), symptoms of complicated grief adapted and modified to the culture, and a multidimensional psychosocial index of the broader effects of conflict and displacement. Confirmatory factor analysis yielded a single higher order construct of complicated grief comprising six factors of yearning/preoccupation; shock/disbelief; anger/negative appraisal; behavioural change; estrangement from others/impairment; and a novel dimension of confusion/diminished identity. In contrast, our analysis failed to support DSM or ICD models of PCB or PGD. A Multiple Indicators Multiple Causes (MIMIC) model revealed that traumatic loss and the sense of injustice each were associated with the unitary construct of complicated grief and its subdomains of yearning/preoccupation; shock/disbelief; anger/negative appraisal (exclusive to injustice); and estrangement from others/social impairment (exclusive to TE domain of conflict and loss). Conflict and loss associated with feelings of injustice may be especially pathogenic in generating the anger/negative appraisal component of complicated grief amongst refugees.

  8. Agreeableness as a moderator of interpersonal conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen-Campbell, L A; Graziano, W G

    2001-04-01

    This multimethod research linked the Big Five personality dimensions to interpersonal conflicts. Agreeableness was the focus because this dimension is associated with motives to maintain positive interpersonal relations. Converging responses to both hypothetical conflicts and to diary records of actual daily interpersonal conflicts across a two-week period were assessed. Agreeableness was expected to moderate affective responses and tactical choices during conflicts. Patterns of daily conflict were related to self-reported reactions to hypothetical conflicts and to teacher-rated adjustment in adolescents. As predicted, Agreeableness was related to responsiveness to conflict. Agreeableness differences and use of destructive tactics in conflict were significantly related to evaluations of the individual's adjustment by knowledgeable raters. Among the Big Five dimensions, Agreeableness was most closely associated with processes and outcomes during interpersonal conflict.

  9. Differential selection on pollen and pistil traits in relation to pollen competition in the context of a sexual conflict over timing of stigma receptivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lankinen, Åsa; Strandh, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Sexual conflict and its evolutionary consequences are understudied in plants, but the theory of sexual conflict may help explain how selection generates and maintains variability. Here, we investigated selection on pollen and pistil traits when pollen arrives sequentially to partially receptive pistils in relation to pollen competition and a sexual conflict over timing of stigma receptivity in the mixed-mating annual Collinsia heterophylla (Plantaginaceae). In this species the conflict is generated by early fertilizing pollen that reduces seed production, which is counteracted by delaying receptivity in the recipient. We performed sequential two-donor pollinations at early floral developmental stages involving two pollen deposition schedules (with or without a time lag of 1 day), using only outcross or self and outcross pollen. We investigated pollen and pistil traits in relation to siring success (male fitness) and seed production (female fitness). In contrast to previous findings in receptive pistils in C. heterophylla and in other species, last arriving pollen donors showed highest siring success in partially receptive pistils. The last male advantage was weaker when self pollen was the first arriving donor. Two measures of germination rate (early and late) and pollen tube growth rate of first arriving donors were important for siring success in crosses with a time lag, while only late germination rate had an effect in contemporary crosses. Curiously, late stigma receptivity was negatively related to seed production in our contemporary crosses, which was opposite to expectation. Our results in combination with previous studies suggest that pollen and pistil traits in C. heterophylla are differentially advantageous depending on stage of floral development and varying pollen deposition schedules. Variation in success of these traits over floral development time may result from sexually antagonistic selection. PMID:27562796

  10. Conflict, Space and Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Schoonderbeek

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Footprint 19 focuses on the more recent roles of architecture in the contemporary spaces of conflict. Departing from a spatial understanding of geopolitical, climatological and economical conflicts, the various contributions highlight the large scale and phenomenal transitions in the physical world and in society by extrapolating, through examples, the abundance of relations that can be traced between conflict, territory and architecture. Conflict areas often prove to be fertile grounds for innovation and for the emergence of new spatial forms. The issue reports on the state of perpetual global unrest in architecture through a series of articles and case studies that highlight the consequences of conflicts in the places and spaces that we inhabit. In the introduction, these are discussed as an interlinked global reality rather than as isolated incidents. In doing so, the contemporary spaces of conflict are positioned in the context of emerging global trends, conditions, and discourses in the attempt to address their indicative symptoms while reflecting on their underlying causes.

  11. Words of Violence: “Fear Speech,” or How Violent Conflict Escalation Relates to the Freedom of Expression

    OpenAIRE

    Buyse, Antoine

    2014-01-01

    The limits of the freedom of expression are a perennial discussion in human rights discourse. This article focuses on identifying yardsticks to establish the boundaries of freedom of expression in cases where violence is a risk. It does so by using insights from the social sciences on the escalation of violent conflict. By emphasizing the interaction between violence and discourse, and its effect on antagonisms between groups, it offers an interdisciplinary perspective on an ongoing legal deb...

  12. conflict Liberia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction. “War is hell... it has an impact on the people who take part that ... end of civil war there is a 44% likelihood of return to conflict.3 .... sample key informants, and lack of evidence based responses.15 ... economies will experience civil war, in contrast to the 1% risk for ..... Evidence,. Practice and Emerging Concepts.

  13. Plotting Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Margaret Ann; Wilkinson, John Provost

    1997-01-01

    Conflict management theory is illustrated in a series of hypothetical scenarios, typical of library situations. Each scenario is discussed in terms of a specific management theory and the theories are transposed into useful management tools by plotting each situation along relevant axes. (Author/AEF)

  14. 饲用豆科植物中单宁和相关多酚的营养毒理学%Nutritional toxicology of tannins and related polyphenols in forage legumes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞志申

    2002-01-01

    本文扼要叙述了饲用豆科植物中单宁和相关多酚对其营养价值正反两方面的影响及对于微生物和反刍动物的毒性,并对饲用豆科植物中单宁的分子遗传学进行了讨论.

  15. Fistula and other adverse reproductive health outcomes among women victims of conflict-related sexual violence: a population-based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dossa, Nissou Ines; Zunzunegui, Maria Victoria; Hatem, Marie; Fraser, William

    2014-03-01

    Sexual violence (SV) is being used widely as a weapon of war. However, few studies have investigated its health effects. The objective of the present study is to investigate the relationship between sexual violence and several serious reproductive health conditions including fistula. We conducted a cross-sectional study among 320 women living in Goma, the Democratic Republic of Congo. We assessed the association of four outcomes: fistula, chronic pelvic pain, desire for sex, and desire for children, with SV in two contexts: conflict-related and nonconflict-related. Two groups of women: those who experienced conflict-related sexual violence (CRSV) and those who experienced nonconflict-related sexual violence (NCRSV), were compared with women who had not experienced SV. Data were collected by trained interviewers using a standard questionnaire. Compared with women who did not experience SV, after adjustment for potential confounders, women who experienced CRSV were significantly more likely to have fistula (OR = 11.1, 95% CI [3.1-39.3]), chronic pelvic pain (OR = 5.1, 95% CI [2.4-10.9]), and absence of desire for sex (OR = 3.5, 95% CI [1.7-6.9]) and children (OR = 3.5, 95% CI [1.6-7.8]). Women who experienced NCRSV were more likely to report absence of desire for children (OR = 2.7, 95% CI [1.1-6.5]), and seemed more likely to report chronic pelvic pain (OR = 2.3, 95% CI [0.95-5.8]), although the difference was not statistically significant. Women who experienced NCRSV did not have higher odds for fistula and absence of sexual desire. Conflict-related sexual violence can contribute to women's adverse reproductive health outcomes. Its impact is more devastating than that of NCRSV. © 2014, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2014, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Extension agents and conflict narratives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bond, Jennifer Lauren

    2016-01-01

    conflict. Originality: This work contributes to a growing body of literature interested in the role of extension agents in conflict management. By applying Q methodology, this work has shown that while extension agents are involved in conflict management, their perceptions of these conflicts are subjective......Purpose: This work investigated the narratives of development extensionists in relation to natural resource conflict, in order to understand the competing discourses surrounding the wicked problems of natural resource management in Laikipia County, Kenya. Methodology: Q methodology was used...... to elicit the conflict narratives present among extension professionals. A concourse of 221 statements were devised from interviews and group discussions with key informants and a final sample of 49 statements was used for the sorting. Thirteen Q-sorts were undertaken with among rural extension...

  17. Conflict and conflict resolution in Africa: Engaging the colonial factor

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    economic institutions on the various African conflicts, may not provide the ... regional diversities, and rendered conflictual by gross inequities in power relations ..... 1 East Timor formerly in Indonesia, and Tibet in China appear to belong to this .... urgency concerning the conflict in Burundi, the focus was mainly on diplomatic.

  18. Conflicting Notions on Violence and PTSD in the Military: Institutional and Personal Narratives of Combat-Related Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molendijk, Tine; Kramer, Eric-Hans; Verweij, Désirée

    2016-09-01

    Research indicates that soldiers struggling with PTSD under-utilize mental health care. Quantitative studies of barriers to care point to the importance of soldiers' beliefs about mental health and mental health interventions in their care-seeking behavior, yet these studies still struggle to understand the particular beliefs involved and the ways they impact care-seeking behavior. This preliminary study makes a start in examining these questions through qualitative literature analysis. It maps out dominant messages surrounding PTSD in military mental health interventions, and explores how they can both shape and conflict with soldiers' personal notions. It does so by analyzing these messages and notions as institutional and personal (illness) narratives. Institutional military PTSD-narratives, which draw on mainstream scientific and clinical models, appear to communicate contradictory notions on the meanings of violence and its psychological consequences, often without acknowledging these contradictions. As such, these narratives seem to shape struggles of soldiers, both within themselves and with the military institution. The identified conflicts indicate, contrary to the individualizing and decontextualizing focus of dominant PTSD-understandings, that soldiers' struggles also have social and moral dimensions. This has important implications for both research into PTSD-interventions and understandings of PTSD as such.

  19. Work-life conflict and associations with work- and nonwork-related factors and with physical and mental health outcomes: a nationally representative cross-sectional study in Switzerland

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hämmig, Oliver; Gutzwiller, Felix; Bauer, Georg

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present cross-sectional study was to examine work- and nonwork- related factors and physical and mental health outcomes associated with combined time- and strain-based work-life conflict (WLC...

  20. Conceptions of Conflict in Organizational Conflict Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Elisabeth Naima; Clegg, Stewart

    2017-01-01

    Diverse and often unacknowledged assumptions underlie organizational conflict research. In this essay, we identify distinct ways of conceptualizing conflict in the theoretical domain of organizational conflict with the aim of setting a new critical agenda for reflexivity in conflict research....... In doing so, we first apply a genealogical approach to study conceptions of conflict, and we find that three distinct and essentially contested conceptions frame studies of conflict at work. Second, we employ two empirical examples of conflict to illustrate how organizational conflict research can benefit...... from a more reflexive approach and advance our understanding of conflict. In this essay, we emphasize how philosophical and political assumptions about conflict frame knowledge production within the field and we encourage future theory development to build on different notions of conflict to become...

  1. Intergenerational Conflicts among Latinos in Early Adulthood: Separating Values Conflicts with Parents from Acculturation Conflicts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Jessica; Basanez, Tatiana; Farahmand, Anahita

    2010-01-01

    An investigation of Latino and non-Latino college students sought to examine the ways in which perceived intergenerational conflicts with parents are related to acculturation, family dynamics, and psychosocial functioning. Participants reported the extent to which they experienced two types of intergenerational conflicts with parents:…

  2. Prevalence of different head-neck positions in horses shown at dressage competitions and their relation to conflict behaviour and performance marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kienapfel, Kathrin; Link, Yvonne; König V Borstel, Uta

    2014-01-01

    Much controversy exists among riders, and in particular among those practicing dressage, regarding what can be considered an "appropriate" Head-Neck-Position (HNP). The objective was to assess the prevalence of different HNPs in the field, the behavioural reactions of horses during warm-up and competition rides in relation to HNP and the relation between HNP and marks achieved in the competition. Horses (n = 171) were selected during dressage competitions according to their HNP (3 categories based on the degree of flexion), and their behaviour was recorded during 3 minutes each of riding in the warm-up area and in the competition. Scans were carried out on an additional 355 horses every 15 minutes to determine the proportion of each HNP in the warm-up area. Sixty-nine percent of the 355 horses were ridden with their nasal planes behind the vertical in the warm-up area, 19% were ridden at or behind the vertical and only 12% were ridden with their nasal plane in front of the vertical. Horses carrying their nasal plane behind the vertical exhibited significantly (P<0.0001) more conflict behaviours than horses with their nose held in front of the vertical. Horses were commonly presented with a less flexed HNP during competition compared to warm-up (P<0.05). A HNP behind the vertical was penalised with lower marks in the lower (P = 0.0434) but not in the higher (P = 0.9629) competition levels. Horses in higher classes showed more (P = 0.0015) conflict behaviour than those in lower classes. In conclusion, dressage horses are commonly ridden during warm-up for competitions with their nasal plane behind the vertical, and this posture seems to cause significantly more conflict behaviour than HNPs in front of the vertical.

  3. Prevalence of different head-neck positions in horses shown at dressage competitions and their relation to conflict behaviour and performance marks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin Kienapfel

    Full Text Available Much controversy exists among riders, and in particular among those practicing dressage, regarding what can be considered an "appropriate" Head-Neck-Position (HNP. The objective was to assess the prevalence of different HNPs in the field, the behavioural reactions of horses during warm-up and competition rides in relation to HNP and the relation between HNP and marks achieved in the competition. Horses (n = 171 were selected during dressage competitions according to their HNP (3 categories based on the degree of flexion, and their behaviour was recorded during 3 minutes each of riding in the warm-up area and in the competition. Scans were carried out on an additional 355 horses every 15 minutes to determine the proportion of each HNP in the warm-up area. Sixty-nine percent of the 355 horses were ridden with their nasal planes behind the vertical in the warm-up area, 19% were ridden at or behind the vertical and only 12% were ridden with their nasal plane in front of the vertical. Horses carrying their nasal plane behind the vertical exhibited significantly (P<0.0001 more conflict behaviours than horses with their nose held in front of the vertical. Horses were commonly presented with a less flexed HNP during competition compared to warm-up (P<0.05. A HNP behind the vertical was penalised with lower marks in the lower (P = 0.0434 but not in the higher (P = 0.9629 competition levels. Horses in higher classes showed more (P = 0.0015 conflict behaviour than those in lower classes. In conclusion, dressage horses are commonly ridden during warm-up for competitions with their nasal plane behind the vertical, and this posture seems to cause significantly more conflict behaviour than HNPs in front of the vertical.

  4. Predictors of Strength of In-Group Identity in Northern Ireland: Impact of Past Sectarian Conflict, Relative Deprivation, and Church Attendance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goeke-Morey, Marcie C; Taylor, Laura K; Merrilees, Christine E; Cummings, E Mark

    2015-07-01

    Social identity in Northern Ireland is multifaceted, with historical, religious, political, social, economic, and psychological underpinnings. Understanding the factors that influence the strength of identity with the Protestant or Catholic community, the two predominate social groups in Northern Ireland, has implications for individual well-being as well as for the continuation of tension and violence in this setting of protracted intergroup conflict. This study examined predictors of the strength of in-group identity in 692 women (mean age 37 years) in post-accord Northern Ireland. For Catholics, strength of in-group identity was positively linked to past negative impact of sectarian conflict and more frequent current church attendance, whereas for Protestants, strength of in-group identity was related to greater status satisfaction regarding access to jobs, standard of living, and political power compared to Catholics; that is, those who felt less relative deprivation. The discussion considers the differences in the factors underlying stronger identity for Protestants and Catholics in this context.

  5. No evidence for lymphatic filariasis transmission in big cities affected by conflict related rural-urban migration in Sierra Leone and Liberia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dziedzom K de Souza

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In West Africa, the principal vectors of lymphatic filariasis (LF are Anopheles species with Culex species playing only a minor role in transmission, if any. Being a predominantly rural disease, the question remains whether conflict-related migration of rural populations into urban areas would be sufficient for active transmission of the parasite. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We examined LF transmission in urban areas in post-conflict Sierra Leone and Liberia that experienced significant rural-urban migration. Mosquitoes from Freetown and Monrovia, were analyzed for infection with Wuchereria bancrofti. We also undertook a transmission assessment survey (TAS in Bo and Pujehun districts in Sierra Leone. The majority of the mosquitoes collected were Culex species, while Anopheles species were present in low numbers. The mosquitoes were analyzed in pools, with a maximum of 20 mosquitoes per pool. In both countries, a total of 1731 An. gambiae and 14342 Culex were analyzed for W. bancrofti, using the PCR. Two pools of Culex mosquitoes and 1 pool of An. gambiae were found infected from one community in Freetown. Pool screening analysis indicated a maximum likelihood of infection of 0.004 (95% CI of 0.00012-0.021 and 0.015 (95% CI of 0.0018-0.052 for the An. gambiae and Culex respectively. The results indicate that An. gambiae is present in low numbers, with a microfilaria prevalence breaking threshold value not sufficient to maintain transmission. The results of the TAS in Bo and Pujehun also indicated an antigen prevalence of 0.19% and 0.67% in children, respectively. This is well below the recommended 2% level for stopping MDA in Anopheles transmission areas, according to WHO guidelines. CONCLUSIONS: We found no evidence for active transmission of LF in cities, where internally displaced persons from rural areas lived for many years during the more than 10 years conflict in Sierra Leone and Liberia.

  6. Theorizing the Land-Violent Conflict Nexus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, Van Mathijs; Haar, Van Der G.

    2016-01-01

    While disputes over land are prominent in many situations of protracted violent conflict, questions remain about the precise relationships between land and violent conflict. Political ecology and legal anthropology have rightly questioned dominant approaches in theorizing land-related conflict

  7. Theorizing the Land - Violent Conflict Nexus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, M. van; Haar, G. van der

    2016-01-01

    While disputes over land are prominent in many situations of protracted violent conflict, questions remain about the precise relationships between land and violent conflict. Political ecology and legal anthropology have rightly questioned dominant approaches in theorizing land-related conflict that

  8. Relationship of work-family conflict with burnout and marital satisfaction: cross-domain or source attribution relations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagherzadeh, Razieh; Taghizadeh, Ziba; Mohammadi, Eesa; Kazemnejad, Anoshirvan; Pourreza, Abolghasem; Ebadi, Abbas

    2016-01-01

    Background: The present study was conducted to examine the relationship between two dimensions of work-family conflict (WFC) with marital satisfaction and burnout in a society in which few studies have been done about the consequences of WFC. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2015. Surveys were distributed to 420 employed married women with various jobs living in Bushehr province, Iran. Data were collected using a questionnaire for demographic characteristic, the Netmeyer’s WFC questionnaire, Maslach Burnout Inventory: General Survey (MBI-GS), and Enrich maritalsatisfaction questionnaire. The data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results: There was a negatively significant association between work interference with family(WIF) and overall burnout as well as emotional exhaustion (P < .01). Family interference with work (FIW) was significantly associated with depersonalization (P < .01). The overall marital satisfaction and its subscales were significantly associated with WIF (P < .01) and FIW (P < .01 for overall marital satisfaction and P < .05 for its subscales). Conclusion: In terms of practical implication, to avoid creating disadvantages of WIF and FIW,facilitation in two domains of improving work and family conditions can be a useful means to prevent WFC and its consequences. PMID:27123434

  9. APPROACH TO TEAM CONFLICT RESOLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enes Huseinagić

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This work includes research of team conflict resolution styles in sports by basketball coaches. This research was conducted at the European Junior Basketball Championship B Division held from July 23 to August 2, 2009 in Sarajevo. Research tasks were created with the goal to establish styles for resolving team conflict by coaches in basketball, to determine dominating styles and with the help of a questionnaire to analyze opinion about correlation of the offered styles and their effectiveness. The questionnaire created by Kreitner and Kinicki (1998, has given answers on these hypotheses. Sample was comprised of 14 coaches from 24 basketball teams which took part in competition. The research was conducted through the questionnaire which covered five different conflict resolution styles: bonding, reconciling, imposing, avoiding and compromise. Coaches of tested teams who have dominating styles for resolving team conflicts caused by certain reasons, have shown that hypothesis relating to coach’s different adaptational styles of conflict resolution is completely confirmed.

  10. A Mediated Moderation Analysis of the Relations Among Past Performance, Team Efficacy and Team Conflict%团队过往绩效、效能感与冲突关系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卫旭华; 刘咏梅

    2014-01-01

    Most conflict researchers focused on the effects of team conflict on team outcomes, but they ignored the antecede-nts of conflict and the transformation mechanism between different types of conflict, which is not conducive to manage team conflict at the source. Using input-mediator-output-input (IMOI) model, this study investigated the relations among team past performance, team efficacy, task conflict and relationship conflict. Based on data from 185 employees of 43 field teams, results showed that team past performance had a strong explanatory power of conflict. Specifically, task conflict was an important mediator between past performance and relationship conflict, whereas team efficacy was a mediated moderator between past performance and relationship conflict. Implications for future conflict management research are also discussed.%冲突理论研究者大多关注团队冲突的后果,却忽视了团队冲突的诱发因素及不同类型冲突的转化机制,这不利于从源头上管理冲突。借鉴“输入-中介-结果-输入”(IMOI)模型,考察了团队过往绩效、效能感、任务冲突与关系冲突的关系机制。通过对43个团队185名成员实地数据的分析,结果显示,团队过往绩效对团队冲突有着很强的解释力。其中,任务冲突在过往绩效与关系冲突的关系链中扮演了重要的中介角色,而团队效能感则是过往绩效与关系冲突关系链中有中介的调节变量。

  11. Conflict transformation: A longitudinal investigation of the relationships between different types of intragroup conflict and the moderating role of conflict resolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greer, L.L.; Jehn, K.A.; Mannix, E.A.

    2008-01-01

    In this longitudinal study, the authors examine the relationships between task, relationship, and process conflict over time. They also look at the role of conflict resolution in determining whether certain forms of intragroup conflict are related to the appearance of other forms of conflict over ti

  12. Varieties of Organizational Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pondy, Louis R.

    1969-01-01

    The viewpoints and findings of the seven empirical studies of organizational conflict contained in this issue are compared and contrasted. A distinction is made between conflict within a stable organization structure and conflict aimed at changing the organization structure. (Author)

  13. Healthy Conflict Management

    OpenAIRE

    Brower, Naomi

    2012-01-01

    Without healthy conflict management skills, conflict can often escalate or intensify over time. This fact sheet gives tips on utilizing key negotiation skills to help individuals effectively address and cope with conflict and potentially build stronger relationships with others.

  14. The Study of Narcissism Based on the Relational-Conflict Model%关系-冲突模型视野下的自恋研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡智勇; 赵玉晶

    2011-01-01

    史蒂芬A.米切尔(Stephen A.Mitchell,1946-2000)是当代美国精神分析领域的一位重要理论家,他在对精神分析思想史进行系统梳理和比较研究的基础上提出了自己的关系-冲突模型(relational-conflict model).在这个模型中,自恋被认为既不是纯粹的防御措施,也不是单纯的创造力源泉;而是一种互动形式、一种开场白策略.

  15. Conflict and human African trypanosomiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrang-Ford, Lea; Lundine, Jamie; Breau, Sebastien

    2011-02-01

    Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT) has reemerged in sub-Saharan Africa as a disease of major public health importance. The success of HAT elimination in sub-Saharan Africa is subject to the feasibility of controlling, eliminating, or mitigating the determinants of incidence in affected countries. Conflict has been widely recognized and cited as a contributing factor to the resurgence of HAT in many countries, as well as to continuing HAT incidence in politically unstable and resource-poor regions. Despite extensive anecdotal and qualitative recognition of the role of conflict, there has been no quantitative research of this topic at the population level in affected African countries. We characterize the qualitative and quantitative associations between HAT incidence and conflict-related processes in HAT-affected African countries over the past 30 years. HAT and conflict-related data were collected for 35 affected countries in sub-Saharan Africa for the years 1976-2004. Descriptive and univariate inferential statistics, as well as negative binomial regression modeling, are used to assess the associations between HAT and conflict. A space-time scan statistic is used to identify significant incidence clusters. Clusters of HAT incidence over the past 30 years have predominantly coincided with periods of conflict or socio-political instability. HAT cases occurred significantly more often in countries and during years with conflict, high political terror, and internationalized civil war. The results indicate a lag period between the start of conflict events and a peak in incidence of approximately 10 years. We recommend explicit consideration and quantification of socio-political measures such as conflict and terror indices in GIS (Geographic Information Systems)-based risk assessments for HAT policy and intervention.

  16. A Derived Relations Analysis of Approach-Avoidance Conflict: Implications for the Behavioral Analysis of Human Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannon, Steven; Roche, Bryan; Kanter, Jonathan W.; Forsyth, John P.; Linehan, Conor

    2011-01-01

    The current article reports two experiments designed to examine the effects of creating competing approach and avoidance response functions for 2 stimuli that participate in the same derived stimulus relation. Experiment 1 involved establishing each of 2 distinct members (i.e., B1 and D1) of the same 1-node equivalence relation (A-B-C-D) as a…

  17. Does relative out-group size in neighborhoods drive down associational life of Whites in the U.S.? Testing constrict, conflict and contact theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savelkoul, Michael; Hewstone, Miles; Scheepers, Peer; Stolle, Dietlind

    2015-07-01

    We test whether a larger percentage of non-Whites in neighborhoods decreases associational involvement and build on earlier research in three ways. First, we explicitly consider the ethnic composition of organizations, distinguishing involvement in bridging (with out-group members) and bonding (only in-group members) organizations. Second, we start from constrict theory and test competing sets of predictions derived from conflict and contact theories to explain these relationships. Third, we examine whether relative out-group size affects involvement in different types of voluntary organizations equally. Using data from the 2005 U.S. 'Citizenship, Involvement, Democracy' survey, the percentage of non-Whites in neighborhoods is largely unrelated with associational involvement or perceived ethnic threat. However, perceiving ethnic threat is consistently negatively related with involvement in bridging organizations. Simultaneously, a larger percentage of non-Whites fosters intergroup contact, which is negatively related with perceptions of ethnic threat and involvement in bonding leisure organizations. Our results shed more light on the relationship between the relative out-group size in neighborhoods and associational involvement as well as underlying explanations for this link.

  18. Managing relationship conflict and the effectiveness of organizational teams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Dreu, C.K.W.; van Vianen, A.E.M.

    2001-01-01

    Past research has revealed that team effectiveness and satisfaction suffer when teams experience relationship conflict - conflict related to interpersonal issues, political norms and values, and personal taste. This study examined how teams should respond to these conflicts. Three types of conflict

  19. The Conflict Pyramid: A Holistic Approach to Structuring Conflict Resolution in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakvoort, Ilse

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines how the conflict pyramid, originally defined and used by Richard Cohen, can be used as a model to describe the relations between different conflict resolution education programs and activities included in the programs. The central questions posed in the paper are: How can Richard Cohen's conflict pyramid be used as a model for…

  20. CROSS CULTURAL CONFLICT RESOLUTION STYLES: DATA REVISITED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuray ALAGÖZLÜ

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The way conflicts are solved is thought to be culturally learned (Hammer, 2005; therefore, this is reflected through language use. Conflicts, as inevitable parts of communication, naturally mirror cultural differences. Intercultural conflict styles have been studied so far by various researchers. How conflicts are initiated, maintained and escalated or terminated are all culture bound (Leung, 2002 and all the related stages vary from one culture to another. In the related literature, there have been attempts to describe different conflict handling classifications. Using Hammer’s (2005 categorization that was found to be more refined and summative, conflict resolution styles of Turkish and American College students were explored using Discourse Completion Tests (DCT with eight conflict situations where the respondents were required to write verbal solutions to overcome the conflicts described in the test. Those utterances were categorized according to Directness/Indirectness Scale modified from Hammer’s (2005 “International Conflict Style Inventory (ICSI” that classifies intercultural conflict resolution styles as high/low level of directness and high/low level of emotional expressiveness. It is believed that the study provides insight into intercultural communication as there are culturally generalizable (etic and learned patterns of conflict resolution styles pertinent to different cultures (Hammer, 2009, p. 223; Ting-Toomey, 1994.

  1. Music Is Not Our Enemy, but Noise Should Be Regulated: Thoughts on Shooting/Conflicts Related to Dama Square Dance in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lijun

    2014-01-01

    While Dama square dance is gaining popularity in China, especially with middle-aged and older-adult women--hence the "Dama" (Chinese for "big mamas") moniker--there have been conflicts due to the loud music played for the activity. After a brief explanation of Dama square dance and a description of the context of the conflicts,…

  2. Trauma-Related Impairment in Children--A Survey in Sri Lankan Provinces Affected by Armed Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbert, Thomas; Schauer, Maggie; Schauer, Elisabeth; Huschka, Bianca; Hirth, Michael; Neuner, Frank

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: The present study examined traumatic experiences, PTSD, and co-morbid symptoms in relation to neuropsychological and school performance in school children affected by two decades of civil war and unrest. Method: The epidemiological survey of children's mental health included a representative sample of 420 school children. Local…

  3. The dissociable neural dynamics of cognitive conflict and emotional conflict control: An ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Song; Li, Yu; Kong, Xia; He, Qiaolin; Liu, Jia; Qiu, Jiang

    2016-04-21

    This study investigated differences in the neural time-course of cognitive conflict and emotional conflict control, using event-related potentials (ERPs). Although imaging studies have provided some evidence that distinct, dissociable neural systems underlie emotional and nonemotional conflict resolution, no ERP study has directly compared these two types of conflict. Therefore, the present study used a modified face-word Stroop task to explore the electrophysiological correlates of cognitive and emotional conflict control. The behavioral data showed that the difference in response time of congruency (incongruent condition minus the congruent condition) was larger in the cognitive conflict task than in the emotional conflict task, which indicated that cognitive conflict was stronger than the emotional conflict in the present tasks. Analysis of the ERP data revealed a main effect of task type on N2, which may be associated with top-down attention. The N450 results showed an interaction between cognitive and emotional conflict, which might be related to conflict detection. In addition, we found the incongruent condition elicited a larger SP than the congruent condition, which might be related to conflict resolution.

  4. Contention management model based on relativity-detection of conflicts%基于冲突相关性检测的竞争管理模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    初才俊; 胡大裟; 蒋玉明

    2013-01-01

    在无干扰特性下的软件事务存储系统中,竞争管理策略直接应用于冲突事务的消解,对具有整个系统的性能有直接的影响.针对现有竞争管理决策方式相对单一而产生的性能不稳定问题,提出了基于冲突相关性检测的竞争管理模型.该方法可以从过去的仲裁记录中分析冲突事务中存在的关联性,并把检测到的关联性作为当前冲突的决策依据,从而得到较优的冲突处理结果.在仿真平台采用该方法对部分基准数据结构的测试数据表明,该方法检测到并且帮助提交的冲突关联事务最多可占系统吞吐量的30%,其事务吞吐总量比其他参照对象的平均值高出约11%,具有较好的灵活度和适用性.%Contention Manager (CM),which is used for the resolution of conflicting transactions,plays a significant role in the obstruction-free software transactional memory.The relativity-detection contention management model was put forward to solve the problem that the existing contention management policies' performance is sensitive to their workloads.This model could detect and analyze the relativity of conflict from the past decision-making records,then took the relativity as the basis of the current arbitration,so that it helped to get more favorable resolution results.Two benchmarks were tested and the experimental results show that it has the advantages of being flexible and adaptable.The number of detected transactions,which is committed finally,can be accounted for up to 30% of the throughput of the system.Using this model,the total transaction throughput is about 11% higher than the other reference objects.

  5. Conflict Resolution in Organization through Strategic Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Zafar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study reveals the conflict Resolution in organization through Strategic management. There are different causes of conflicts within Organization and impact of conflicts on organization performance. The past decade researches identify the negative relation of conflict with employee performance. The research methodology was case study approach of different National and Multinational companies. The aim of study is to alleviate conflicts in organization through strategic management for enhancing organizational performance and managing change in order to attain competitive edge in this dynamic era. This paper covers the role of strategic management in resolving and minimizing conflict that brings positive impact on organization. Conflict in the workplace just seems to be a fact of life. The fact that conflict exists, however, is not necessarily a bad thing: As long as it is resolved effectively, it can lead to personal and professional growth. Conflict in the workplace is a painful reality and a key reason for poor productivity and frustration. Conflict does not magically go away and only gets worse when ignored. So to resolve conflicts strategic management is important.

  6. Hemodynamic and electrophysiological signals of conflict processing in the Chinese-character Stroop task: a simultaneous near-infrared spectroscopy and event-related potential study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Jiahuan; Li, Ting; Zhang, Zhongxing; Gong, Hui

    2009-09-01

    A dual-modality method combining continuous-wave near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and event-related potentials (ERPs) was developed for the Chinese-character color-word Stroop task, which included congruent, incongruent, and neutral stimuli. Sixteen native Chinese speakers participated in this study. Hemodynamic and electrophysiological signals in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) were monitored simultaneously by NIRS and ERP. The hemodynamic signals were represented by relative changes in oxy-, deoxy-, and total hemoglobin concentration, whereas the electrophysiological signals were characterized by the parameters P450, N500, and P600. Both types of signals measured at four regions of the PFC were analyzed and compared spatially and temporally among the three different stimuli. We found that P600 signals correlated significantly with the hemodynamic parameters, suggesting that the PFC executes conflict-solving function. Additionally, we observed that the change in deoxy-Hb concentration showed higher sensitivity in response to the Stroop task than other hemodynamic signals. Correlation between NIRS and ERP signals revealed that the vascular response reflects the cumulative effect of neural activities. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that this new dual-modality method is a useful approach to obtaining more information during cognitive and physiological studies.

  7. Unconsciously triggered conflict adaptation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon van Gaal

    Full Text Available In conflict tasks such as the Stroop, the Eriksen flanker or the Simon task, it is generally observed that the detection of conflict in the current trial reduces the impact of conflicting information in the subsequent trial; a phenomenon termed conflict adaptation. This higher-order cognitive control function has been assumed to be restricted to cases where conflict is experienced consciously. In the present experiment we manipulated the awareness of conflict-inducing stimuli in a metacontrast masking paradigm to directly test this assumption. Conflicting response tendencies were elicited either consciously (through primes that were weakly masked or unconsciously (strongly masked primes. We demonstrate trial-by-trial conflict adaptation effects after conscious as well as unconscious conflict, which could not be explained by direct stimulus/response repetitions. These findings show that unconscious information can have a longer-lasting influence on our behavior than previously thought and further stretch the functional boundaries of unconscious cognition.

  8. Intragroup conflicts and efficiency of production group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidorenkov A.V.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Analysis results of relationships of three levels of the conflict (interpersonal, microgroup and group on two types (the job and subject with indicators of subjectively perceived performance and social effectiveness of small groups and informal subgroups are provided. On selection of 42 work groups (N=334 employees it is established that performance efficiency of group according to the experts has inverse relation from all levels and types of the conflict, and by estimates of members of group — from two types of the microgroup conflict. The same type of effectiveness of informal subgroups on one indicator has inverse relation from the group conflict, and on another — from the interpersonal and microgroup conflict. Social effectiveness of group is connected with the interpersonal and group conflict, and informal subgroups are connected with the interpersonal and microgroup conflict. Levels and types of the conflict cause efficiency of group and subgroup not only separately, but also in a combination with each other. Six regression models, four of which display relationships at the same time of several levels and types of the conflict with performance effectiveness of group, and two — with social effectiveness of subgroup are revealed. Mediated and direct relationships of levels and types of the conflict with efficiency of group and subgroup are established.

  9. The organizational costs of ethical conflicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, William A; Weeks, William B; Campfield, Justin M

    2008-01-01

    Ethical conflicts are a common phenomenon in today's healthcare settings. As healthcare executives focus on balancing quality care and cost containment, recognizing the costs associated with ethical conflicts is only logical. In this article, we present five case vignettes to identify several general cost categories related to ethical conflicts, including operational costs, legal costs, and marketing and public relations costs. In each of these cost categories, the associated direct, indirect, and long-term costs of the ethical conflict are explored as well. Our analysis suggests that organizations have, in addition to philosophical reasons, financial incentives to focus on decreasing the occurrence of ethical conflicts. The cost categories affected by ethical conflicts are not insignificant. Such conflicts can affect staff morale and lower the organization's overall culture and profit margin. Therefore, organizations should develop mechanisms and strategies for decreasing and possibly preventing ethical conflicts. The strategies suggested in this article seek to shift the organization's focus when dealing with conflicts, from just reacting to moving upstream-that is, understanding the root causes of ethical conflicts and employing approaches designed to reduce their occurrence and associated costs. Such an effort has the potential to enhance the organization's overall culture and ultimately lead to organizational success.

  10. How can we cooperate better? The determinants of conflict solving competence in Polish pediatric nurses’ relations with parents of hospitalized children

    OpenAIRE

    Magdalena Chrzan-Dętkoś; Agnieszka Pietkiewicz

    2015-01-01

    Background Our pilot study carried out at two Polish pediatric hospital departments revealed that conflicts with parents of hospitalized children represent the main concern of pediatric nurses. The aim of this study was to examine factors determining the conflict solving competence in pediatric nurses in order to develop effective communication training programs for pediatric ward staff. Participants and procedure A total of 78 pediatric nurses completed measures of occupa...

  11. Lessons Learned from the Niger Delta Conflict: A Policy Recommendation for a New Framework for Relations Between Extractive Companies and Host Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilman, Alison

    The tumultuous experience of the Shell Petroleum Development Company of Nigeria Ltd (SPDC) in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria has contributed to the debates surrounding the role of transnational companies in their host communities and the impact that resource extraction has on the economic development of emerging countries. The case study demonstrates that methods used by extraction companies for interacting with their host communities are ineffective and superficial. Using the lessons learned from the Niger Delta conflict, this thesis proposes a new strategy, entitled community- corporate diplomacy, and a protocol for companies to implement before opening production sites in Africa. The proposed strategy and an accompanying protocol offer a break from the status quo in that they are built upon an understanding of the specificities of the African continent, that host communities need to be respected as key stakeholders, and that extraction activities have a higher risk of negatively impacting neighboring communities. The recommendation could be applied to other countries and industries, but the increasing importance of African natural resources, the particularities of African political and social structures and the effects of extraction activities make this proposal especially important for extractive companies beginning production in Africa. Keywords: Nigeria, Niger Delta, Shell, corporate social responsibility, transnational advocacy networks, multi-stakeholder initiatives, community relations, corporate diplomacy, Africa, extractive industries.

  12. Celebritizing Conflict

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richey, Lisa Ann; Budabin, Alexandra Cosima

    2016-01-01

    In the policy realm, celebrity endorsement may shift attention, shape decisions, and build or erode key alliances. Meanwhile, the figure of the celebrity offers an enticing lens to refract critical issues of power, influence, and voice within neoliberal north-south relations. This essay, using emerging......From serving as United Nations ambassadors to appearing as spokespersons for major NGO campaigns, global celebrities have become increasingly important in international development assistance. Acting as “aid celebrities,” they are indelibly linked with humanitarian work and public engagement.2...... literature on celebrities in north-south relations, analyzes the celebrity discourses and practices of the professional entertainer Ben Affleck and his engagement in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) in order to understand how celebrities intersect with and popularize representations of poverty...

  13. Socioeconomic perspectives on violent conflict in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    M. Zulfan Tadjoeddin; Anis Chowdhury

    2009-01-01

    Focused around the greed and/or grievance theses, a large part of the economics of conflict literature concerns itself with civil war. This article provides socioeconomic perspectives on contemporary conflict in Indonesia. Three categories of violent conflict in the country are separatist violence, ethnic/sectarian violence, and routine violence. We argue that two elements of the grievance argument, namely relative deprivation and horizontal inequality, are particularly useful for analyzing t...

  14. Interparental Conflict and Adolescents' Romantic Relationship Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Valerie A.; Furman, Wyndol

    2010-01-01

    This study examined associations between interparental conflict and adolescents' romantic relationship conflict. High school seniors (N = 183) who lived with married parents completed questionnaires about their parents' marriage and their own romantic relationships. A subset of 88 adolescents was also observed interacting with their romantic…

  15. The Relationship of Interpersonal Conflict Handling Styles and Marital Conflicts Among Iranian Divorcing Couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navidian, Ali; Bahari, Farshad; Kermansaravi, Fatihe

    2014-01-01

    Background: Various research studies have suggested that among other variables that couples remain married if they successfully manage their interactions (marital communication based on acceptance of individual differences, problem solving skills, forgiveness, collaborative decision making, empathy and active listening) and constructively manage conflict. Purpose: The study was aimed at examining the relation of conflict handling styles and marital conflicts among divorcing couples. Methods: As a descriptive–comparative study 60 couples out of 440 couples referred to the Crisis Intervention Center of the Isfahan Well-being Organization have selected. The tools implemented were Marital Conflicts (Barati & Sanaei, 1996) and Interpersonal Conflict Handling Styles Questionnaires (Thomas-Kilman, 1975). Their total reliabilities were, respectively, 0.74 and 0.87. Results: Findings showed that there are no significant differences among their conflict handling styles and marital conflicts. Also, there was positive correlation between avoidance and competition styles and negative one between compromise, accommodation, and cooperation styles with marital conflicts. That is, these styles reduced couples’ conflicts. Finally, wives had tendency to apply accommodation style and husbands tended to use accommodation and cooperation styles to handle their conflicts. Conclusions: It is suggested to be studied couples’ views toward their own styles to handle marital conflicts and holding training courses to orient couples with advantages and disadvantages of marital conflict handling styles. PMID:25363128

  16. Globalization and Conflict Management in Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ilker Gumuseli

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Globalization has brought many changes on the education systems and schools. These changes will be exemplified from thebasis of school finance, employee rights, curriculum, administration, and school-environment relations in this study. The studyalso reviews common types of conflicts experienced at schools as a result of globalization and the ways in which conflict couldbe managed. Following topics were discussed in the article: ‘Conflicts emerged from perspectives towards globalization,conflicts emerged from cross cultural differences, conflicts sourced from changes in the teaching and learning processes,conflicts sourced from the standardization efforts, conflicts sourced from the change in school-parents relations, conflictssourced from the process of finance related activities and conflicts sourced from information, communication andeducational technologies’. This article argues that schools cannot be isolated from the effects of globalization. Therefore sinceconflict is a normal occurrence in schools, school administrators should discover constructive approaches through carefuldiagnosis and an approach that transforms the conflicting situations into constructive experiences for the school and theeducation.

  17. From Conflict to Congruence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michlowski, Aida A.

    1999-01-01

    Conflict resolution has moved into the classroom. Peaceful conflict resolution includes negotiation, peer mediation, and arbitration. Data on conflict-resolution programs have turned up interesting objectives and outcomes. Curriculum approaches include classroom discipline, peace education, multicultural perspective, and just community. Teaching…

  18. Conflict resolution in adolescent relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Doorn, M.D.

    2008-01-01

    Conflict is an inevitable feature of social relationships. When people interact, disagreements may arise. Especially in close relationships, people sometimes disagree. Although conflict might jeopardize relationships, conflict is not necessarily detrimental. The way conflicts are handled is importan

  19. Discrimination of the Law of Armed Conflict and Related Concepts%武装冲突法与相关概念辨析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢丹; 胡志鹏

    2014-01-01

    目前,在我国军事法学界对于战争和武装冲突法律制度有国际战争法、武装冲突法、国际人道法和国际人权法等称谓。笔者认为武装冲突法继承了国际战争法的大部分内容,是后者的现代表述。而国际人道法是武装冲突法中关于人道主义保护的内容,为其所包含。国际人权法与武装冲突法中的人道主义保护内容有着明显的区别,但在同一种精神和价值下呈现出相互交融的趋势。因此,笔者认为用武装冲突法表述上述法律体系最为恰当。%At present , there are four tiles , which are law of war , law of armed conflict , international humani-tarian law and international human rights law , for the legal system of wars and armed conflicts in our country .I be-lieve that the law of armed conflict has inherited most contents of the law of war , the latter is a modern expression . And international humanitarian law is a part of the law of armed conflict .International human rights law and hu-manitarian protection content in law of armed conflict has a clear distinction , but in the same spirit and values showing a trend of interacting with each other .Therefore, I believe the law of armed conflict is the most appropriate tile for the legal system .

  20. Teaching Communication and Conflict as a Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Christina G.

    2017-01-01

    Courses: Communication and Conflict. Objectives: Through the use of a game-based framework, students will build intrinsic motivation to engage with course material and course content, and will engage their critical-thinking, problem-solving, and communication skills in relation to conflict management over the length of the course. A list of…

  1. Music is not our enemy, but noise should be regulated: thoughts on shooting/conflicts related to Dama square dance in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lijun

    2014-09-01

    While Dama square dance is gaining popularity in China, especially with middle-aged and older-adult women-hence the "Dama" (Chinese for "big mamas") moniker-there have been conflicts due to the loud music played for the activity. After a brief explanation of Dama square dance and a description of the context of the conflicts, this commentary shares some thoughts on the issues raised, reviews the negative impact and regulation of noise, and calls for creating more public green space in Chinese cities and for developing a new music delivery system that could eliminate public music noise for group physical activities.

  2. Conflict or Consensus?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Annika; Poulsen, Birgitte

    forms of institutional design of citizen participation processes, less attention has been paid to the role of public administrators, and their role in facilitating processes of citizen participation. Public administrators have to work with diverse groups of citizens with diverging, and often conflicting......, interests. However, many public administrators have not been adequately exposed to the rationales of conflicts and the skills in resolving conflicts. The aim of this paper is to analyse the different types of conflicts that public administrators experience in formal processes of citizen involvement. Whereas...... the literature of deliberative democracy claims that consensus is most often the result of rational deliberative processes, the claim of this paper is that conflicts is more likely a natural and integrated part of such deliberative acts. Conflicts are, thus, seen as inevitable. Also conflicts may function...

  3. Managing intercultural conflict effectively

    CERN Document Server

    Ting-Toomey, Stella

    2001-01-01

    In this volume, Ting-Toomey and Oetzel accomplish two objectives: to explain the culture-based situational conflict model, including the relationship among conflict, ethnicity, and culture; and, second, integrate theory and practice in the discussion of interpersonal conflict in culture, ethnic, and gender contexts. While the book is theoretically directed, it is also a down-to-earth practical book that contains ample examples, conflict dialogues, and critical incidents. Managing Intercultural Conflict Effectively helps to illustrate the complexity of intercultural conflict interactions and readers will gain a broad yet integrative perspective in assessing intercultural conflict situations. The book is a multidisciplinary text that draws from the research work of a variety of disciplines such as cross-cultural psychology, social psychology, sociology, marital and family studies, international management, and communication.

  4. Intergroup conflict and rational decision making.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Martínez-Tur

    Full Text Available The literature has been relatively silent about post-conflict processes. However, understanding the way humans deal with post-conflict situations is a challenge in our societies. With this in mind, we focus the present study on the rationality of cooperative decision making after an intergroup conflict, i.e., the extent to which groups take advantage of post-conflict situations to obtain benefits from collaborating with the other group involved in the conflict. Based on dual-process theories of thinking and affect heuristic, we propose that intergroup conflict hinders the rationality of cooperative decision making. We also hypothesize that this rationality improves when groups are involved in an in-group deliberative discussion. Results of a laboratory experiment support the idea that intergroup conflict -associated with indicators of the activation of negative feelings (negative affect state and heart rate- has a negative effect on the aforementioned rationality over time and on both group and individual decision making. Although intergroup conflict leads to sub-optimal decision making, rationality improves when groups and individuals subjected to intergroup conflict make decisions after an in-group deliberative discussion. Additionally, the increased rationality of the group decision making after the deliberative discussion is transferred to subsequent individual decision making.

  5. Intergroup conflict and rational decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Tur, Vicente; Peñarroja, Vicente; Serrano, Miguel A; Hidalgo, Vanesa; Moliner, Carolina; Salvador, Alicia; Alacreu-Crespo, Adrián; Gracia, Esther; Molina, Agustín

    2014-01-01

    The literature has been relatively silent about post-conflict processes. However, understanding the way humans deal with post-conflict situations is a challenge in our societies. With this in mind, we focus the present study on the rationality of cooperative decision making after an intergroup conflict, i.e., the extent to which groups take advantage of post-conflict situations to obtain benefits from collaborating with the other group involved in the conflict. Based on dual-process theories of thinking and affect heuristic, we propose that intergroup conflict hinders the rationality of cooperative decision making. We also hypothesize that this rationality improves when groups are involved in an in-group deliberative discussion. Results of a laboratory experiment support the idea that intergroup conflict -associated with indicators of the activation of negative feelings (negative affect state and heart rate)- has a negative effect on the aforementioned rationality over time and on both group and individual decision making. Although intergroup conflict leads to sub-optimal decision making, rationality improves when groups and individuals subjected to intergroup conflict make decisions after an in-group deliberative discussion. Additionally, the increased rationality of the group decision making after the deliberative discussion is transferred to subsequent individual decision making.

  6. The relationship between task conflict, task performance and team member satisfaction: the mediating role of relationship conflict

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Task conflict and its potential positive effect on team outcomes has been questioned over the years. The findings have been inconsistent, with different studies indicating that task conflict can be positively related, negatively related or unrelated to measures of team outcomes. This study is a response to the request presented in de Wit, Greer and Jehn s (2012) recent meta-analysis, to further investigate the effect relationship conflict can have on the association between task conflict and...

  7. Interpersonal conflict, agreeableness, and personality development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen-Campbell, Lauri A; Gleason, Katie A; Adams, Ryan; Malcolm, Kenya T

    2003-12-01

    This multimethod research linked the Big-Five personality dimensions to interpersonal conflict in childhood. Agreeableness was the personality dimension of focus because this dimension has been associated with maintaining positive interpersonal relations in adolescents and adults. In two studies, elementary school children were assessed on the Big-Five domains of personality. Study 1 (n=276) showed that agreeableness was uniquely associated with endorsements of conflict resolution tactics in children as well as parent and teacher reports of coping and adjustment. Study 2 (n=234) revealed that children's perceptions of themselves and others during conflict was influenced by their agreeableness regardless of their partner's agreeableness. Observers also reported that pairs higher in agreeableness had more harmonious, constructive conflicts. Overall findings suggest that of the Big-Five dimensions, agreeableness is most closely associated with processes and outcomes related to interpersonal conflict and adjustment in children.

  8. Conflict-Specific Aging Effects Mainly Manifest in Early Information Processing Stages-An ERP Study with Different Conflict Types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korsch, Margarethe; Frühholz, Sascha; Herrmann, Manfred

    2016-01-01

    Aging is usually accompanied by alterations of cognitive control functions such as conflict processing. Recent research suggests that aging effects on cognitive control seem to vary with degree and source of conflict, and conflict specific aging effects on performance measures as well as neural activation patterns have been shown. However, there is sparse information whether and how aging affects different stages of conflict processing as indicated by event related potentials (ERPs) such as the P2, N2 and P3 components. In the present study, 19 young and 23 elderly adults performed a combined Flanker conflict and stimulus-response-conflict (SRC) task. Analysis of the reaction times (RTs) revealed an increased SRC related conflict effect in elderly. ERP analysis furthermore demonstrated an age-related increase of the P2 amplitude in response to the SRC task. In addition, elderly adults exhibited an increased P3 amplitude modulation induced by incongruent SRC and Flanker conflict trials.

  9. Conflict in organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kesting, Peter; Smolinski, Remigiusz; Speakman, Ian

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this conceptual paper is to apply the insights of recent routine research in the area of conflict and conflict management. As a result, the authors identify four different types of conflict sources that are rooted in routines and the specific difficulties connected with their change......: the repetitive character of routine, disagreement over the “validity” of the existing routines, disagreement concerning the definition of new targets, and resistance towards change processes. Further the authors point to the inherent tendency to routinize conflict management strategies and the risks...... that are associated with this process. As a result, this paper offers new insights into the causes and structure of conflicts triggered by change processes as well as into the management of repetitive conflicts....

  10. Error Negativity Does Not Reflect Conflict: A Reappraisal of Conflict Monitoring and Anterior Cingulate Cortex Activity

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Our ability to detect and correct errors is essential for our adaptive behavior. The conflict-loop theory states that the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) plays a key role in detecting the need to increase control through conflict monitoring. Such monitoring is assumed to manifest itself in an electroencephalographic (EEG) component, the "error negativity" (Ne or "error-related negativity" [ERN]). We have directly tested the hypothesis that the ACC monitors conflict through simulation and expe...

  11. Associations of Conflict-Related Trauma and Ongoing Stressors with the Mental Health and Functioning of West Papuan Refugees in Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea (PNG.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvin Kuowei Tay

    Full Text Available Documentation is limited in relation to the mental health of the people of West Papua, a territory that has been exposed to decades-long political persecution. We examined associations of traumatic events (TEs and current stressors with mental disorder and functioning, amongst 230 West Papuan refugees residing in six settlements in Port Morseby, Papua New Guinea (PNG. We used culturally adapted modules to assess exposure to TEs and mental disorders. Current stressors and functioning were assessed using modifications of measures developed by the World Health Organization (WHO. 129 of 230 respondents (56% reported exposure to at least one traumatic event (TE, including: political upheaval (36.5%, witnessing or hearing about family members tortured and murdered (33.9%, and not being able to access medical care for family members (33%. One fifth of respondents (47, 20.4% experienced exposure to high levels of TEs (16 to 23. 211 (91.7% endorsed at least one or more ongoing stressors, including: exposure to illicit substance use in the community (91.7%, problems with safety and the protection of women (89.6%, no access to legal rights and citizenship (88.3%, and lack of adequate shelter and facilities (85.2%. A quarter (26.9% met criteria for one or more current mental disorder, and 69.1% reported functional impairment ranging from mild to extreme. Mental disorder was associated with being male (adjusted odds ratio=2.00; 95% CI=1.01-3.97, and exposure to the highest category of ongoing stressors (AOR=2.89; 95% CI=1.08-7.72. The TE count showed a dose-response pattern in its relationship with functional impairment, the greatest risk (AOR=11.47; 95% CI=2.11-62.37 being for those experiencing the highest level of TE exposure (16-23 events. West Papuans living in settlements in Port Moresby reported a range of TEs, ongoing stressors and associated mental disorders characteristic of populations exposed to mass conflict and persecution, prolonged

  12. Associations of Conflict-Related Trauma and Ongoing Stressors with the Mental Health and Functioning of West Papuan Refugees in Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea (PNG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Alvin Kuowei; Rees, Susan; Chen, Jack; Kareth, Moses; Lahe, Sylvester; Kitau, Russell; David, Kura; Sonoling, Joyce; Silove, Derrick

    2015-01-01

    Documentation is limited in relation to the mental health of the people of West Papua, a territory that has been exposed to decades-long political persecution. We examined associations of traumatic events (TEs) and current stressors with mental disorder and functioning, amongst 230 West Papuan refugees residing in six settlements in Port Morseby, Papua New Guinea (PNG). We used culturally adapted modules to assess exposure to TEs and mental disorders. Current stressors and functioning were assessed using modifications of measures developed by the World Health Organization (WHO). 129 of 230 respondents (56%) reported exposure to at least one traumatic event (TE), including: political upheaval (36.5%), witnessing or hearing about family members tortured and murdered (33.9%), and not being able to access medical care for family members (33%). One fifth of respondents (47, 20.4%) experienced exposure to high levels of TEs (16 to 23). 211 (91.7%) endorsed at least one or more ongoing stressors, including: exposure to illicit substance use in the community (91.7%), problems with safety and the protection of women (89.6%), no access to legal rights and citizenship (88.3%), and lack of adequate shelter and facilities (85.2%). A quarter (26.9%) met criteria for one or more current mental disorder, and 69.1% reported functional impairment ranging from mild to extreme. Mental disorder was associated with being male (adjusted odds ratio=2.00; 95% CI=1.01-3.97), and exposure to the highest category of ongoing stressors (AOR=2.89; 95% CI=1.08-7.72). The TE count showed a dose-response pattern in its relationship with functional impairment, the greatest risk (AOR=11.47; 95% CI=2.11-62.37) being for those experiencing the highest level of TE exposure (16-23 events). West Papuans living in settlements in Port Moresby reported a range of TEs, ongoing stressors and associated mental disorders characteristic of populations exposed to mass conflict and persecution, prolonged

  13. Actor proliferation and the fragmentation of violent groups in conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caitriona Dowd

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel application of a measure of actor fragmentation drawn from electoral studies to the growing field of conflict event data. The application facilitates comparison of conflict environments over time and across cases, while enabling researchers to take account of the relative activity levels of diverse actors. Analysis of the measure suggests that a fragmentation index diverges from a simple count of active conflict agents in important instances, including in providing a more accurate measure of dominant and weaker conflict agents, capturing dynamics of escalation and continuation of conflict over time and across country cases, and reflecting the coalescence of conflict agents around dominant conflict cleavages. The findings suggest that future research may benefit from combining measures of the discrete count of groups and their relative activity levels in order to accurately capture evolving conflict dynamics.

  14. Peace process in cultural conflict: The role of the media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dov Shinar

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available This article explores (1 the cultural nature of the Palestinian-Israeli conflict; (2 the "intractability" of cultural conflicts; (3 conflict management models: reconciliation/"end-of-conflict" versus "conflict transformation" and their relation to cultural conflict; (4 the serious consequences of the wrong matching of models and conflicts, such as using the reconciliation model in cultural conflict; (5 the changing role of the media in international relations, and their contribution to the "crisis of expectations" that came to fruition in September 2000, with the eruption of the Intifada; (6 the possibility of the media contributing to peace processes; and (7 implications of the media adoption of the conflict transformation model. The premises are that, unlike other violent confrontations, the Middle Eastern conflict is fundamentally cultural, particularly in its Palestinian-Israeli version; that cultural conflicts are "intractable" (Lederach, 1998; Burgess&Burgess, 1996; Kraybill, 1995, in the sense that they are very difficult, perhaps impossible to resolve; that reconciliation is not the only possible or desirable outcome of conflict: transformation (Vayrynen, 1991 is another viable option; that mistaken interpretations of conflict-resolution strategies can lead to "crises of expectations" in policy-making, in the media, and in public opinion; and that the media can play important roles in these processes.

  15. Passive responses to interpersonal conflict at work amplify employee strain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, M.T.M.; de Dreu, C.K.W.; Evers, A.; van Dierendonck, D.

    2009-01-01

    Interpersonal conflict at work correlates with stress related outcomes such as psychological strain and exhaustion. Consistent with conflict theory, we argued that this relationship is moderated by the way conflict is managed. Cross-sectional data collected in The Netherlands, from students with par

  16. Passive responses to interpersonal conflict at work amplify employee strain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, M.T.M.; de Dreu, C.K.W.; Evers, A.; van Dierendonck, D.

    2009-01-01

    Interpersonal conflict at work correlates with stress related outcomes such as psychological strain and exhaustion. Consistent with conflict theory, we argued that this relationship is moderated by the way conflict is managed. Cross-sectional data collected in The Netherlands, from students with

  17. On how the motor cortices resolve an inter-hemispheric response conflict: an event-related EEG potential-guided TMS study of the flankers task

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verleger, Rolf; Kuniecki, Michal; Möller, Friderike

    2009-01-01

    An important aspect of human motor control is the ability to resolve conflicting response tendencies. Here we used single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to track the time course of excitability changes in the primary motor hand areas (M1(HAND)) while the motor system resolved respo...... of the correct response in the other. This integrated implementation of response activation and cancellation at the level of the M1(HAND) presumably represents a downstream effect orchestrated by premotor brain regions....

  18. Pedagogical and conflict situations of teacher of physical training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pechko O.M.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The article reveals the essence of pedagogical and conflict situations between teacher and student. Considered ways of solving and preventing pedagogical and conflict situations in school. Principal reasons of conflict situations are selected, situations of activity, conduct and relations. The receptions of influence of teacher of physical culture are separated on personality of schoolchildren. It is well-proven that the profession of teacher of physical culture supposes possibility of conflict situations.

  19. Ethical conflict in critical care nursing: correlation between exposure and types

    OpenAIRE

    Falcó Pegueroles, Anna M. (Anna Marta); Lluch Canut, Ma. Teresa; Roldán Merino, Juan Francisco; Goberna Tricas, Josefina; Guàrdia Olmos, Joan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Ethical conflicts in nursing have generally been studied in terms of temporal frequency and the degree of conflict. This study presents a new perspective for examining ethical conflict in terms of the degree of exposure to conflict and its typology. Objectives: The aim was to examine the level of exposure to ethical conflict for professional nurses in critical care units and to analyze the relation between this level and the types of ethical conflict and moral states. Research des...

  20. Adolescent Girls' Perceptions of Daily Conflicts with Their Mothers: Within-Conflict Sequences and Their Relationship to Autonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtwarck-Aschoff, Anna; Kunnen, Saskia; van Geert, Paul

    2010-01-01

    This article reports on a 1-year diary study of conflicts between seventeen 15-year-old girls and their mothers assessing (a) within-conflict sequences according to the emotional processes related to a girl's level of self-assertion and perceived control and (b) the relationship between these within-conflict sequences and the level of autonomy.…

  1. Public participation as participatory conflict resolution: Shortcomings ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    conflict resolution approaches to resolve public participation stalemates, and in the process, to .... Firstly, although unequal relations of power were .... develop strategies for community involvement, including: communication strategies ...

  2. The Times and the Northern Ireland Conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zouhaïr Abassi

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: In societies in conflict the role of the media is supposed to be neutral and to report conflicts fairly and with balanced analyses. By their public debates on conflicts they are also supposed to take part in pacifying societies and in helping to bring peace. Cottle (1997, for instance, explained that even though some findings related to the British media and its reporting of the Northern Ireland conflict were relevant, he argued that they needed revision. Consequently, he proposed new paradigms of media studies. Elliott (1977 and Curtis(1996 showed that the British media concentrated on violence in general and on republican violence in particular. Moreover, they argued that the British media neglected social and political contexts in their reporting of the conflict. The aim of this paper is then to examine some aspects of how the British media cover the Northern Ireland conflict. We studied the coverage of the Northern Ireland conflict by The (London Times (1990-1995. We used a discourse analysis method to study the paper’s discourse structure in its representation of the Northern Ireland conflict.

  3. Exploring how Conflict Management Training Changes Workplace Conflicts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Elisabeth Naima

    2012-01-01

    as a catalyst for the development of new sensemakings about workplace conflicts. These included increasing acknowledgement of workplace conflicts, recognition of interdependent and context embedded relationships in interpersonal conflicts, and enactment of active resistance in a subordinated occupational group...

  4. Climate shocks and conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papaioannou, Kostadis J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper offers a historical micro-level analysis of the impact of climate shocks on the incidence of civil conflict in colonial Nigeria (1912-1945). Primary historical sources on court cases, prisoners and homicides are used to capture conflict. To measure climate shocks we use the deviation f

  5. Conflicts as Aversive Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreisbach, Gesine; Fischer, Rico

    2012-01-01

    Theories of human action control deal with the question of how cognitive control is dynamically adjusted to task demands. The conflict monitoring theory of anterior cingulate (ACC) function suggests that the ACC monitors for response conflicts in the ongoing processing stream thereby triggering the mobilization of cognitive control. Alternatively,…

  6. High-Conflict Divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Janet R.

    1994-01-01

    Reviews available research studies of high-conflict divorce and its effects on children. Factors believed to contribute to high-conflict divorce are explored, and a model of their interrelationships is proposed. Dispute resolution, intervention, and prevention programs are discussed, and implications for social policy are outlined. (SLD)

  7. Conflicts as Aversive Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreisbach, Gesine; Fischer, Rico

    2012-01-01

    Theories of human action control deal with the question of how cognitive control is dynamically adjusted to task demands. The conflict monitoring theory of anterior cingulate (ACC) function suggests that the ACC monitors for response conflicts in the ongoing processing stream thereby triggering the mobilization of cognitive control. Alternatively,…

  8. Managing Conflict during Divorce

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... managed conflict between parents increases children’s risk of behavior problems, depression, substance abuse and dependence, poor social ... doctor, a change in the parenting plan, or involvement of a new stepparent. This ... AAMFT Consumer Update "Managing Conflict During Divorce" pamphlets to market ...

  9. Conflicts in Anna Karenina

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨恋

    2011-01-01

    Anna Karenina is a huge classic tragedy which is created by Tolstoy.This paper mainly talks about the conflict in the classic fictional story of Anna Karenina,which involves the conflicts between religious ethics,capitalistic new ideas,bravery and limitation,love for son and love for a lover,plus the variances between rural custom culture and urban culture.

  10. Conflicts in Anna Karenina

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨恋

    2011-01-01

    Anna Karenina is a huge classic tragedy which is created by Tolstoy. This paper mainly talks about the conflict in the classic fictional story of Anna Karenina, which involves the conflicts between religious ethics, capitalistic new ideas, bravery and limitation, love for son and love for a lover, plus the variances between rural custom culture and urban culture.

  11. Relations of production and capital-labor conflict in the political economy / Relaciones de producción y conflicto capital-trabajo en la economía política

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahd Boundi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the interpretation made by different schools of economics about the relations of production and the capital-labor conflict, in order to connect with the social and political study of economic reality. For this, we will perform a comparative literature, beginning with Marx’s contributions about class relations, law of value, price formation and profit, and its connection with Ricardo’s theory. So, we will examine the influence exercised by the Marxian theory in neoclassical approach, Schumpeter thought and Kalecki analysis.

  12. Interpersonal Conflicts and Styles of Managing Conflicts among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    conflict, conflict management, student experience, diversity, ethnicity, gender, undergraduate studies, ... it causes disagreements, stress, social chaos, destruction and violence between groups. ... to constructive in the mode of interaction.

  13. [Conflict of interests and scientific publications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matías-Guiu, J; García-Ramos, R

    2012-01-01

    The potential relationships of interest between authors, reviewers, editors and financial management of the journals can lead to a conflict of interest in their performances. It analyzes the potential conflicts of interest in the papers, with extreme examples, assessing the need for careful statement of the relations, especially economic. Potential conflicts of interest should be transparent and the knowledge and values should be an objective of the magazines. The declaration of relationships should be required in the communication of research, but their existence should not prejudge misconduct. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. Crimea and the Russian-Ukrainian Conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Bebler

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The recent Russian-Ukrainian dispute over Crimea attracted wide international attention. The purpose of this paper is to explain its historic, demographic, legal, political and military strategic background, its similarities with and differences from other “frozen” conflicts on the periphery of the former Soviet Union, the roles of three main parties directly involved in the Crimean conflict, its linkage with secessionist attempts in Eastern and Southern Ukraine, wider international ramifications of the conflict and the ensuing deterioration of the West’s relations with the Russian Federation.

  15. The emotive causes of recurrent international conflicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, William J; Brecke, Peter

    2003-03-01

    Many international conflicts are recurrent, and many of these are characterized by periods of violence, including wars, that are hard to describe as planned products of rational decision-making. Analysis of these conflicts according to rational-choice international-relations theory or constructivist approaches has been less revealing than might have been hoped. We consider the possibility that emotive causes could better explain, or at least improve the explanation of, observed patterns. We offer three emotive models of recurrent conflict and we outline a method by which the reliability of emotive explanations derived from these models could be tested prospectively.

  16. Dealing with conflict - The role of the ward sister

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.M. Cremer

    1980-09-01

    Full Text Available In the course of her duties, the ward sister has to contend with many forms of conflict, discord and dissension. These involve conflict of the intrapersonal, interpersonal and intergroup varieties. Conflict is in the main, disruptive and dysfunctional. Skilful management, however, embodying cooperative effort in its reduction can produce constructive and positive results. Conflict management strategies are therefore either restrictive or constructive. Persons in serious conflict suffer varied degrees of personality disequilibrium, which necessitates emotional first aid or crisis intervention. Such primary preventive care is applicable to patients, their relatives, and members of the nursing staff in such need.

  17. Ethnic Conflicts and Governmental Conflict Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    manipulation by ethnic leaders. Thus, there are bidirectional relationships between hegemonic aspirations and ethnic leaders. Most of the time ethnic...perhaps the strongest and clearest statement of national identity. In essence, they serve as modern totems that bear a special relationship to the...Assessment of Interracial /Interethnic Conflict in Los Angeles,” 2002, Center for Research in Society and Politics, University of California. Serwer, Daniel

  18. Approaches to Conflict and Conflict Resolution in Toddler Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashby, Nicole; Neilsen-Hewett, Cathrine

    2012-01-01

    The importance of conflict and its resolution for children's short- and long-term adjustment has been well established within the research literature. Conflict and conflict resolution differs according to a number of constructs, including age, gender and relationship status. The purpose of this study was to explore conflict origins, resolution…

  19. High-conflict divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, J R

    1994-01-01

    This article reviews available research studies of high-conflict divorce and its effects on children. Interparental conflict after divorce (defined as verbal and physical aggression, overt hostility, and distrust) and the primary parent's emotional distress are jointly predictive of more problematic parent-child relationships and greater child emotional and behavioral maladjustment. As a group, children of high-conflict divorce as defined above, especially boys, are two to four times more likely to be clinically disturbed in emotions and behavior compared with national norms. Court-ordered joint physical custody and frequent visitation arrangements in high-conflict divorce tend to be associated with poorer child outcomes, especially for girls. Types of intervention programs and social policy appropriate for these kinds of families are presented.

  20. Conflicts and Negotiations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Israel adopts a two-pronged strategy to dominate the Middle East situation Recently, Israel has had several conflicts with its Middle East neighbors. At the same time, however, it has prepared to begin direct negotiations with the Palestinians.

  1. Managing conflicts of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sade, Robert M; Akins, Cary W; Weisel, Richard D

    2015-04-01

    The more extensive conflict of interest information will permit reviewers and editors to ensure the accuracy, balance,and lack of bias of papers accepted for publication.Therefore, a brief conflict statement will be published on the cover page and a more extensive description will be published at the end of the paper to allow concerned readers to make their own judgments about the quality of the information reported.

  2. Perceived needs for the information communication technology (ICT)-based personalized health management program, and its association with information provision, health-related quality of life (HRQOL), and decisional conflict in cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Jin Ah; Chang, Yoon Jung; Shin, Aesun; Noh, Dong-Young; Han, Wonshik; Yang, Han-Kwang; Kim, Young Whan; Kim, Young Tae; Jeong, Seoung-Yong; Yoon, Jung-Hwan; Kim, Yoon Jun; Heo, Daesuk; Kim, Tae-You; Oh, Do-Youn; Wu, Hong-Gyun; Kim, Hak Jae; Chie, Eui Kyu; Kang, Keon Wook; Kim, Ju Han; Yun, Young Ho

    2017-01-05

    The use of information communication technology (ICT)-based tailored health management program can have significant health impacts for cancer patients. Information provision, health-related quality of life (HRQOL), and decision conflicts were analyzed for their relationship with need for an ICT-based personalized health management program in Korean cancer survivors. The health program needs of 625 cancer survivors from two Korean hospitals were analyzed in this cross-sectional study. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify factors related to the need for an ICT-based tailored health management system. Association of the highest such need with medical information experience, HRQOL, and decision conflicts was determined. Furthermore, patient intentions and expectations for a web- or smartphone-based tailored health management program were investigated. Cancer survivors indicated high personalized health management program needs. Patients reporting the highest need included those with higher income (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.70; 95% [confidence interval] CI, 1.10-2.63), those who had received enough information regarding helping themselves (aOR, 1.71; 95% CI, 1.09-2.66), and those who wished to receive more information (aOR, 1.59; 95% CI, 0.97-2.61). Participants with cognitive functioning problems (aOR, 2.87; 95%CI, 1.34-6.17) or appetite loss (aOR, 1.77; 95% CI, 1.07-2.93) indicated need for a tailored health care program. Patients who perceived greater support from the decision-making process also showed the highest need for an ICT-based program (aOR, 0.49; 95% CI, 0.30-0.82). We found that higher income, information provision experience, problematic HRQOL, and decisional conflicts are significantly associated with the need for an ICT-based tailored self-management program. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. 亲子冲突和亲子亲合对初中生关系攻击的影响%Effects of parent-adolescent conflict and cohesion on relational aggression among junior students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭雪晴; 李雨柳; 杨思墨; 王婉纯; 谢莉莉

    2015-01-01

    目的 探讨亲子冲突、亲子亲合对初中生关系攻击的影响.方法 采用亲子冲突问卷、亲子亲合问卷、关系攻击问卷对392名初中生进行测查.结果 初中生关系攻击总体上较少[(22.52±5.15)分],男生和女生关系攻击得分分别为(22.93±5.43)分,(22.00±4.73)分,初一、初二、初三学生得分分别为(22.72±5.14)分,(22.64±5.67)分,(21.93±4.22)分,差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05);关系攻击与双亲冲突频率、冲突强度均呈显著正相关(r=0.269,r=0.307,r=0.268,r=0.271,P<0.01),与父子亲合显著负相关(r=-0.171,P<0.01);亲子亲合能显著地负向预测关系攻击(β=-0.123,P<0.05),亲子冲突强度能显著地正向预测关系攻击(β=0.301,P<0.01).结论 亲子冲突、亲子亲和对初中生关系攻击有显著影响.%Objective To explore the effects of parent-adolescent conflict and cohesion on relational aggression among junior students.Methods Parent-adolescent Conflict Questionnaires,Parent-adolescent Cohesion Questionnaires,and the Relational Aggression Questionnaires were used in investigating 392 junior students.Results The level of relational aggression of junior students was low (22.52±5.15).There was no differences between relational aggression of male students (22.93± 5.43) and female students (22.00± 4.73) (P> 0.05),and of grade 1 students(22.72±5.14)and grade 2 students(22.64±5.67),grade 3 students(21.93±4.22) (P>0.05).The students' relational aggression showed a significantly positive correlation with frequency and intensity of parent-adolescent conflict(r=0.269,r=0.307,r=0.268,r=0.271,P<0.01),and negative correlation with father-adolescent cohesion(r=-0.171,P<0.01).Parent-adolescent cohesion was negative predictor of relational aggression(β=-0.123,P<0.05),and the intensity of parent-adolescent conflict was positive predictor(β=0.301,P<0.01).Conclusion Parent-adolescent conflict and cohesion have significant effect on relational

  4. Food Insecurity and Conflict Dynamics: Causal Linkages and Complex Feedbacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cullen Hendrix

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses two related topics: 1 the circular link between food insecurity and conflict, with particular emphasis on the Sahel, and 2 the potential role of food security interventions in reducing the risk of violent conflicts. While we eschew mono-causal explanations of conflict, acute food insecurity can be a factor in popular mobilization and a risk multiplier. Moreover, violent conflict itself is a major driver of acute food insecurity. If food insecurity is a threat multiplier for conflict, improving food security can reduce tensions and contribute to more stable environments. If these interventions are done right, the vicious cycle of food insecurity and conflict can be transformed into a virtuous cycle of food security and stability that provides peace dividends, reduces conflict drivers, enhances social cohesion, rebuilds social trust, and builds the legitimacy and capacity of governments.

  5. Role of Managers in Solving Conflicts in the Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelin ŞAHİN YARBAĞ

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Conflict means a clash of opinions in the simplest term. It is clear that clash of opinions will be everywhere if human is there and this will cause conflicts. In that case, it is possible and should be expected there will be conflicts in the organizations in which many different people work together, have different cultures and world views, with different education and equipments, different expectations and purposes. Firstly, this study defines conflict and conflict in the organization. It tries to emphasize the importance of the issue of conflict in the organization by focusing on reasons, sources, types and phases of the conflicts. The cause-effect relations are examined and suggestions for both managers and academicians are provided.

  6. Conflicting Interpretations of Scientific Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galamba, Arthur

    2016-05-01

    Not surprisingly historical studies have suggested that there is a distance between concepts of teaching methods, their interpretations and their actual use in the classroom. This issue, however, is not always pitched to the personal level in historical studies, which may provide an alternative insight on how teachers conceptualise and engage with concepts of teaching methods. This article provides a case study on this level of conceptualisation by telling the story of Rómulo de Carvalho, an educator from mid-twentieth century Portugal, who for over 40 years engaged with the heuristic and Socratic methods. The overall argument is that concepts of teaching methods are open to different interpretations and are conceptualised within the melting pot of external social pressures and personal teaching preferences. The practice and thoughts of Carvalho about teaching methods are scrutinised to unveil his conflicting stances: Carvalho was a man able to question the tenets of heurism, but who publicly praised the heurism-like "discovery learning" method years later. The first part of the article contextualises the arrival of heurism in Portugal and how Carvalho attacked its philosophical tenets. In the second part, it dwells on his conflicting positions in relation to pupil-centred approaches. The article concludes with an appreciation of the embedded conflicting nature of the appropriation of concepts of teaching methods, and of Carvalho's contribution to the development of the philosophy of practical work in school science.

  7. Conflict in Cyber Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Karsten; Ringsmose, Jens

    hostility from theoretical, political, strategic and legal perspectives. In doing so, and in contrast to current literature, cyber-security is analysed through a multidimensional lens, as opposed to being treated solely as a military or criminal issues, for example. The individual chapters map out...... the different scholarly and political positions associated with various key aspects of cyber conflict and seek to answer the following questions: do existing theories provide sufficient answers to the current challenges posed by conflict in cyberspace, and, if not, could alternative approaches be developed......?; how do states and non-state actors make use of cyber-weapons when pursuing strategic and political aims?; and, how does the advent of conflict in cyberspace challenge our established legal framework? By asking important strategic questions on the theoretical, strategic, ethical and legal implications...

  8. The NPD team conflict

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Zheng; Lin, Chih-Cheng; Tanev, Stoyan

    2012-01-01

    The complexities of new product development (NPD) teams present both opportunities and challenges to organizations. Very few researches have examined the combined effect of culture and geographical dispersion on teams. Especially, the role of distance still remains an open question. This paper...... elaborates on the role of culture diversity and geographical dispersion in NPD team conflict. A simulation is conducted where organizations may be regarded as complex systems to affect the team conflict with a variety of influences. The results firstly indicate that there are two dimensions of NPD team...... conflict: stable and unstable dimensions with four elements: task characteristics, group members’ relationship, cultural diversity and geographical dispersion; secondly, there are two phenomena whereby the geographical dispersion influences the NPD team interaction, and the influence between cultural...

  9. Education in conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, I

    1999-11-01

    The provision of education is affected in many different ways by political and civil unrest and armed conflict. During armed conflict, the lack of adequate financial support for the maintenance of school buildings, supplies and teacher's salaries becomes particularly acute. Other factors include the destruction of school buildings and other infrastructures in time of war, and the targeting of teachers by acts of violence. This paper explores the impact of conflict on the educational opportunities of men and women. Interventions to address the educational needs of children are also discussed. Among these programs are the Oxfam programs in Bhutan, Sri Lanka, Nicaragua, Bosnia, and Eritrea which have provided psychosocial support and human rights education to refugee and displaced women and children through the provision of educational material and by training teachers.

  10. Conflicting Interests in User Requirements for Customization and Personalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jannick Kirk

    2015-01-01

    The term 'user requirements' appears unproblematic until it is confronted with conflicting interests of who 'the user' is or should be. Customization and personalization can in this context be understood as designers' attempt to avoid or soften the conflict related to the shaping of user requirem......The term 'user requirements' appears unproblematic until it is confronted with conflicting interests of who 'the user' is or should be. Customization and personalization can in this context be understood as designers' attempt to avoid or soften the conflict related to the shaping of user...

  11. Reward and punishment effects on error processing and conflict control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgit eStürmer

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Recently, positive mood has been shown to reduce cognitive conflicts and adaptation related to conflict control. Van Steenbergen et al. (2009 proposed that short-term adaptation after conflict is driven by the aversive quality of the conflict. They reasoned that monetary gain and its positive emotional consequences might counteract the aversive quality of the preceding conflict and hence reduce subsequent conflict-driven adaptation processes. According to Ashby et al. (1999, however, positive affect increases cognitive flexibility and might, therefore, support cognitive conflict control.In two experiments, we combined Simon-type conflicts with monetary gains and losses in between trials and analyzed event-related brain potentials (ERPs. In Experiment 1 gains and losses were applied randomly as a lottery in between two Simon trials whereas in the second experiment gains and losses were related to behavioral performance. Either the 25 % fastest responses were rewarded or the 25 % slowest responses were penalized. In Experiment 1 conflict adaptation was not at all modulated by gains and losses and in Experiment 2 conflict adaptation increased after a gain. In addition we analyzed the error-related negativity (ERN in Experiment 2 – a brain signal proposed to be related to the reward prediction error and response conflicts. The ERN and post-error slowing were enlarged in the context of reward. We conclude that a context of reward increases the subjective value of an error, thus, enhancing error adaptation. However, modulatory effects of affective states on cognitive conflict control are much more limited as previously asserted.

  12. Stacked Law Land, Property and Conflict in Honduras

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roquas, E.

    2002-01-01

    Property conflicts have an enormous impact on relations between the members of farm households and their families. Given the long duration, frequency and intensity of these conflicts an investigation of how they arise and how they affect the daily lives of, and relations

  13. Systematic medical data collection of intentional injuries during armed conflicts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helweg-Larsen, Karin; Abdel-Jabbar Al-Qadi, Ashraf Hasan; Al-Jabriri, Jalal;

    2004-01-01

    A study was undertaken on implementing medical data collection as a tool to assess the relative number and character of intentional injuries before and during an armed conflict.......A study was undertaken on implementing medical data collection as a tool to assess the relative number and character of intentional injuries before and during an armed conflict....

  14. Conflict acts as an implicit cost in reinforcement learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, James F; Masters, Sean E; Bath, Kevin; Frank, Michael J

    2014-11-04

    Conflict has been proposed to act as a cost in action selection, implying a general function of medio-frontal cortex in the adaptation to aversive events. Here we investigate if response conflict acts as a cost during reinforcement learning by modulating experienced reward values in cortical and striatal systems. Electroencephalography recordings show that conflict diminishes the relationship between reward-related frontal theta power and cue preference yet it enhances the relationship between punishment and cue avoidance. Individual differences in the cost of conflict on reward versus punishment sensitivity are also related to a genetic polymorphism associated with striatal D1 versus D2 pathway balance (DARPP-32). We manipulate these patterns with the D2 agent cabergoline, which induces a strong bias to amplify the aversive value of punishment outcomes following conflict. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that interactive cortico-striatal systems implicitly modulate experienced reward and punishment values as a function of conflict.

  15. CONFLICTS PREVENTION IN TEAM- WORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean de PERSON

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Building a trust atmosphere and mobilization in a team or an organizationremains the dream of every manager. This article analyses the internalmechanism of a conflict through life positions diagram in which direction anddominance diagrams appear. The first diagonal, the dominance one, revealsan animal behavior, the latter including both positive aspirations (++ quarter,and also deceptions (-- quarter.Passing over crisis situations requires from managers to outrun, through theirstyle and actions the dominance diagonal and pass to a game with reciprocalgaining (++ quarter, based on trust, that color relations between people andrelease their energy.

  16. INFLUENCE OF PARENT-ADOLESCENT CONFLICT FREQUENCY ON ADOLESCENT FAMILY SATISFACTION AND SELF-SATISFACTION IN CHINA: CONFLICT COPING TACTICS AS MODERATORS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hongyu; Xu, Yan; Wang, Fang; Jiang, Jiang; Zhang, Xiaohui

    2015-12-01

    Existing studies have found that parent-adolescent conflict frequency and conflict coping tactics influence adolescent family satisfaction and self-satisfaction under the background of Western culture. However, due to differences between Eastern and Western cultures, it is unknown whether previous results of the Western population can be extended to Chinese adolescents. The present study investigated grade differences in parent-adolescent conflict frequency and conflict coping tactics and examined the moderating effects of conflict coping tactics on the relationships between conflict frequency and adolescent family satisfaction and between conflict frequency and adolescent self-satisfaction. Chinese adolescents in Grades 7, 8, 10, and 11 (N = 524) completed measures on conflict frequency, conflict coping tactics, family satisfaction, and self-satisfaction. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) and structural equation model analyses found, first, that conflict frequency decreased with grade level. For coping tactics, conciliation, avoidance, and assertion behaviors increased with grade level. Second, conflict frequency was negatively related to family satisfaction regardless of conciliation and avoidance tactics. By contrast, conflict frequency was negatively related to self-satisfaction when high conciliation and high avoidance behaviors were practiced. In addition, at low conflict frequency conciliation was positively associated with self-satisfaction and was not significant at high conflict frequency.

  17. Communication that builds teams: assessing a nursing conflict intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicotera, Anne Maydan; Mahon, Margaret M; Wright, Kevin B

    2014-01-01

    Quality communication is essential for building strong nursing teams. Structurational divergence (SD) theory explains how institutional factors can result in poor communication and conflict cycles; the theory has been developed in nursing context, although it is applicable to all organizational settings. We describe the design, implementation, and evaluation of an intervention to reduce SD and improve nurses' work life and team-member relationships. An intensive 9-hour course provided training in conflict/SD analysis and dialogic conflict/SD management to 36 working nurses from a variety of settings. Quantitative pre- and posttests were administered, with a comparison sample. The course reduced measures of negative conflict attitudes and behaviors: direct personalization, persecution feelings, negative relational effects, ambiguity intolerance, and triangulation (gossiping and complaining to uninvolved third parties). The course also increased important attitudes necessary for productive dialogue and conflict management: perceptions of positive relational effects, conflict liking, and positive beliefs about arguing. As compared with nonparticipants, participant posttests showed lower conflict persecution; higher recognition of positive relational effects; lower perceptions of negative relational effects; higher conflict liking; lower ambiguity intolerance; and lower tendency to triangulate. Qualitatively, participants perceived better understanding of, and felt more empowered to manage, workplace conflicts and to sustain healthier workplace relationships. This intervention can help nurses develop tools to improve system-level function and build productive team relationships.

  18. [Types of conflicts and conflict management among Hungarian healthcare workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csupor, Éva; Kuna, Ágnes; Pintér, Judit Nóra; Kaló, Zsuzsa; Csabai, Márta

    2017-04-01

    Efficient communication, conflict management and cooperation are the key factors of a successful patient care. This study is part of an international comparative research. The aim of this study is to unfold conflicts among healthcare workers. 73 healthcare workers were interviewed using a standardized interview protocol. The in-person interviews used the critical incident method. 30 interviews (15 doctors, 15 nurses) were analysed with the Atlas.ti 7 content analysis software. The sources, types, effects of conflicts and conflict management strategies were investigated. The content analysis unfolded the specificities of conflicts in healthcare based on personal experiences. Organizational hierarchy was a substantial source of conflict, especially among physicians, which originates from implicit rules. As a result of the avoiding conflict management the conflicts remain partly unresolved which has negative individual and group effect. Our conceptual framework helps to develop a proper intervention specific to healthcare. Orv. Hetil., 2017, 158(16), 625-632.

  19. Editorial Commentary: Editor's Conflict of Interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubowitz, James H

    2015-09-01

    The Editor-in-chief has recused himself from industry consulting, which he performed before assuming the position, and returned related royalties and divested related stock options, in order to mitigate against conflict-of-interest. The Editor discloses affiliation with an institution that receives support from diverse industry partners in support of research and education.

  20. Islamophobia, Conflict and Citizenship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inman, Sally; Mc Cormack, Pip; Walker, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses some preliminary findings of the English part of a European Commission Fundamental Rights and Citizenship funded project "Children's Voices" (2011-2013) concerned with exploring and understanding children and young people's experiences of interethnic conflict and violence in primary and secondary schools. This is a…

  1. Conflict exposure and competitiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cecchi, Francesco; Leuveld, Koen; Voors, Maarten

    2016-01-01

    We use data from a street football tournament and a series of lab-in-field experiments in postconflict Sierra Leone to examine the impact of exposure to conflict violence on competitive behavior. We find that football players who experienced more intense exposure to violence are more likely to get a

  2. Disengaging from Conflict Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Nicholas J.

    2014-01-01

    Youth in pain often show self-defeating and destructive patterns of behavior which should be seen as calls for help and positive support. Instead, deep-seated brain programs and cultural beliefs about discipline can trigger angry or avoidant behavior by adults who deal with these young people. This brief introduction to the Conflict Cycle…

  3. Conflict exposure and competitiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cecchi, Francesco; Leuveld, Koen; Voors, Maarten

    2016-01-01

    We use data from a street football tournament and a series of lab-in-field experiments in postconflict Sierra Leone to examine the impact of exposure to conflict violence on competitive behavior. We find that football players who experienced more intense exposure to violence are more likely to get a

  4. Conflict Resolution Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busselle, Tish

    This 7-day unit, intended for use with secondary students, contains a statement of rationale and objectives, lesson plans, class assignments, teacher and student bibliographies, and suggestions for instructional materials on conflict resolution between individuals, groups, and nations. Among the six objectives listed for the unit are: 1) explain…

  5. Spousal Conflicts of Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Shana R.

    2005-01-01

    Romantic relationships bud and sometimes bloom in the school district workplace. When those relationships involve a sitting member of a school board or an administrator with responsibility for managing other employees, questions about a conflict of interest will be raised. Most states have laws prohibiting a public official from taking official…

  6. Conflicts in interpretation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, G.; Hendriks, P.; Hoop, H. de; Krämer, I.; Swart, Henriëtte de; Zwarts, J.

    2007-01-01

    The leading hypothesis of this paper is that interpretation is a process of constraint satisfaction, conflict resolution, and optimization, along the lines of Optimality Theory. Support for this view is drawn from very different domains, and based on both experimental and theoretical research. We di

  7. Interpretation as conflict resolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, Henriëtte de; Zwart, J.

    Semantic interpretation is not a simple process. When we want to know what a given sentence means, more is needed than just a simple ‘adding up’ of the meanings of the component words. Not only can the words in a sentence interact and conflict with each other, but also with the linguistic and

  8. Conflict among Testing Procedures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-04-01

    AM4ONG TESTING PROCEDURES? Daniel F . Kohler April 1982 ( i’ 4:3 rpis tsnlb u lailtsd P-6765 8 8 O1 V 068 The Rand Paper Series Papers are issued by...TESTING PROCEDURES? Daniel F . Kohler April 1982 : i ! ,I I CONFLICT AMONG TESTING PROCEDURES? 1. Introduction "- Savin [1976] and Berndt and Savin [19771

  9. Conflict in organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kesting, Peter; Smolinski, Remigiusz; Speakman, Ian

    2012-01-01

    : the repetitive character of routine, disagreement over the “validity” of the existing routines, disagreement concerning the definition of new targets, and resistance towards change processes. Further the authors point to the inherent tendency to routinize conflict management strategies and the risks...

  10. Stacked Law Land, Property and Conflict in Honduras

    OpenAIRE

    Roquas, E.

    2002-01-01

    Property conflicts have an enormous impact on relations between the members of farm households and their families. Given the long duration, frequency and intensity of these conflicts an investigation of how they arise and how they affect the daily lives of, and relationships between, landholders is certainly warranted. Conflicts over land visibly manifest themselves in destroyed fences, stolen crops, poisoned dogs, horses that are set free, bloody machetazos, hails of stones between children ...

  11. Conflict management, Part 1. Conflict management checklist: a diagnostic tool for assessing conflict in organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siders, C T; Aschenbrener, C A

    1999-01-01

    Complex interpersonal conflicts are inevitable in the high speed, high stakes, pressured work of health care. Poorly managed, conflict saps productivity, erodes trust, and spawns additional disputes. Well managed, conflict can enhance the self-confidence and self-esteem of the parties, build relationships, and engender creative solutions beyond expectations. Just as thoughtful differential diagnosis precedes optimum treatment in the doctor-patient relationship, management of conflict is greatly enhanced when preceded by careful assessment. In the first of two articles, the authors present a diagnostic approach, the Conflict Management Checklist, to increase self-awareness and decrease anxiety around conflict.

  12. Conflict of estrogenic activity by various phthalates between in vitro and in vivo models related to the expression of Calbindin-D9k.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Eui-Ju; Ji, Youn-Kyu; Choi, Kyung-Chul; Manabe, Noboru; Jeung, Eui-Bae

    2005-04-01

    estrogenic effects of various phthalates conducted in vitro and in vivo expression of CaBP-9k may produce conflicting results.

  13. Armed conflict and child health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieder, Michael; Choonara, Imti

    2012-01-01

    Armed conflict has a major impact on child health throughout the world. One in six children worldwide lives in an area of armed conflict and civilians are more likely to die than soldiers as a result of the conflict. In stark contrast to the effect on children, the international arms trade results in huge profits for the large corporations involved in producing arms, weapons and munitions. Armed conflict is not inevitable but is an important health issue that should be prevented.

  14. Organizational Conflict: Causes and Manifestations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacks, Eugene

    1979-01-01

    No group (within an organization) can be entirely harmonious, but conflict is not an altogether disruptive factor. A delicate balance is required to obtain the advantages and restrict the disadvantages of organizational conflict. The causes and forms of organizational conflict are examined. (JMD)

  15. 75 FR 80947 - Conflict Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-23

    ... violence in the eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo, particularly sexual- and gender-based violence... conflict free,'' the facilities used to process the conflict minerals, the country of origin of the conflict minerals, and ``the efforts to determine the mine or location of origin with the greatest...

  16. Sources of Inter-package Conflicts in Debian

    CERN Document Server

    Artho, Cyrille; Suzaki, Kuniyasu; Zacchiroli, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    Inter-package conflicts require the presence of two or more packages in a particular configuration, and thus tend to be harder to detect and localize than conventional (intra-package) defects. Hundreds of such inter-package conflicts go undetected by the normal testing and distribution process until they are later reported by a user. The reason for this is that current meta-data is not fine-grained and accurate enough to cover all common types of conflicts. A case study of inter-package conflicts in Debian has shown that with more detailed package meta-data, at least one third of all package conflicts could be prevented relatively easily, while another one third could be found by targeted testing of packages that share common resources or characteristics. This paper reports the case study and proposes ideas to detect inter-package conflicts in the future.

  17. The relationship between sexual selection and sexual conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokko, Hanna; Jennions, Michael D

    2014-09-01

    Evolutionary conflicts of interest arise whenever genetically different individuals interact and their routes to fitness maximization differ. Sexual selection favors traits that increase an individual's competitiveness to acquire mates and fertilizations. Sexual conflict occurs if an individual of sex A's relative fitness would increase if it had a "tool" that could alter what an individual of sex B does (including the parental genes transferred), at a cost to B's fitness. This definition clarifies several issues: Conflict is very common and, although it extends outside traits under sexual selection, sexual selection is a ready source of sexual conflict. Sexual conflict and sexual selection should not be presented as alternative explanations for trait evolution. Conflict is closely linked to the concept of a lag load, which is context-dependent and sex-specific. This makes it possible to ask if one sex can "win." We expect higher population fitness if females win.

  18. A case of administrative conflict: observations on the dynamic framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thienhaus, O J

    1989-01-01

    A situation is described of suddenly erupting conflict in an interdisciplinary meeting of psychiatric hospital staff. The conflict is related to the systemic impact of recent changes in psychiatric hospital practice. The observed affect and interpersonal dynamics are reviewed in the context of different conceptual frameworks. These include Maslow's hierarchy of needs model, the group focal conflict paradigm and the concept of scapegoating. The use and integration of these three approaches toward understanding affectively laden administrative conflict are discussed. Specific reference is made to the utilization of such understanding in developing leadership skills in a multi-disciplinary mental health setting.

  19. It's not just conflict that motivates killing of orangutans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline T Davis

    Full Text Available We investigated why orangutans are being killed in Kalimantan, Indonesia, and the role of conflict in these killings. Based on an analysis of interview data from over 5,000 respondents in over 450 villages, we also assessed the socio-ecological factors associated with conflict and non-conflict killings. Most respondents never kill orangutans. Those who reported having personally killed an orangutan primarily did so for non-conflict reasons; for example, 56% of these respondents said that the reason they had killed an orangutan was to eat it. Of the conflict-related reasons for killing, the most common reasons orangutans were killed was fear of orangutans or in self-defence. A similar pattern was evident among reports of orangutan killing by other people in the villages. Regression analyses indicated that religion and the percentage of intact forest around villages were the strongest socio-ecological predictors of whether orangutans were killed for conflict or non-conflict related reasons. Our data indicate that between 44,170 and 66,570 orangutans were killed in Kalimantan within the respondents' active hunting lifetimes: between 12,690 and 29,024 for conflict reasons (95%CI and between 26,361 and 41,688 for non-conflict reasons (95% CI. These findings confirm that habitat protection alone will not ensure the survival of orangutans in Indonesian Borneo, and that effective reduction of orangutan killings is urgently needed.

  20. Review of EU Conflict Management in DRC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The report present the backdrop on EU's involvement in the DRC conflict, its history, the nature of the conflict......The report present the backdrop on EU's involvement in the DRC conflict, its history, the nature of the conflict...

  1. Abacus of Frozen Conflicts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Italy in 275 BC, the Gallic, Gothic , and Heruli invasions of the Roman Empire in the third century AD, and the Muslim conquest of Persia in 636 AD.4...war. A. THE SPIRAL MODEL The theoretical literature of interstate conflict is dominated by two conceptual models, classical Deterrence Theory...large body of literature on the causes of war, there is a stark contrast in the ways in which political scientists and historians view the concept

  2. Conflict engagement: workplace dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerardi, Debra

    2015-04-01

    This article is one in a series on conflict. It is part of an ongoing series on leadership coordinated by the American Organization of Nurse Executives (AONE), highlighting topics of interest to nurse managers and emerging nurse leaders. The AONE provides leadership, professional development, advocacy, and research to advance nursing practice and patient care, promote nursing leadership excellence, and shape public policy for health care.

  3. Prevalence of different head-neck positions in horses shown at dressage competitions and their relation to conflict behaviour and performance marks.

    OpenAIRE

    Kathrin Kienapfel; Yvonne Link; Uta König V Borstel

    2014-01-01

    Much controversy exists among riders, and in particular among those practicing dressage, regarding what can be considered an “appropriate” Head-Neck-Position (HNP). The objective was to assess the prevalence of different HNPs in the field, the behavioural reactions of horses during warm-up and competition rides in relation to HNP and the relation between HNP and marks achieved in the competition. Horses (n = 171) were selected during dressage competitions according to their HNP (3 categories ...

  4. Email Adaptation for Conflict Handling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Joyce Yi‐Hui; Panteli, Niki; Bülow, Anne Marie

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores the context of email‐based communication in anestablished but fragile, inter‐organisational partnership, which wasoften overlain with conflict. Drawing upon adaptation theory, thisstudy explores how participants adapt to the use of email to handleconflict. Extensive data were...... the leanness of email in managing conflict, we found that underthe described conflict situation the very leanness of emailwas appreciated and thus, exploited by those concerned tomanage the conflict situation. Specifically, we identified 4 keyconflict‐triggered adaptation strategies, namely......, interactionavoidance, disempowering, blame‐protection, and image‐shelteringthat drove the ways in which email was adapted to maintainorganisational partnerships under conflict....

  5. Emotion and goal-directed behavior: ERP evidence on cognitive and emotional conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinchenko, Artyom; Kanske, Philipp; Obermeier, Christian; Schröger, Erich; Kotz, Sonja A

    2015-11-01

    Cognitive control supports goal-directed behavior by resolving conflict among opposing action tendencies. Emotion can trigger cognitive control processes, thus speeding up conflict processing when the target dimension of stimuli is emotional. However, it is unclear what role emotionality of the target dimension plays in the processing of emotional conflict (e.g. in irony). In two EEG experiments, we compared the influence of emotional valence of the target (emotional, neutral) in cognitive and emotional conflict processing. To maximally approximate real-life communication, we used audiovisual stimuli. Participants either categorized spoken vowels (cognitive conflict) or their emotional valence (emotional conflict), while visual information was congruent or incongruent. Emotional target dimension facilitated both cognitive and emotional conflict processing, as shown in a reduced reaction time conflict effect. In contrast, the N100 in the event-related potentials showed a conflict-specific reversal: the conflict effect was larger for emotional compared with neutral trials in cognitive conflict and smaller in emotional conflict. Additionally, domain-general conflict effects were observed in the P200 and N200 responses. The current findings confirm that emotions have a strong influence on cognitive and emotional conflict processing. They also highlight the complexity and heterogeneity of the interaction of emotion with different types of conflict. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Friendship and gender in preschoolers’ conflicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania M. Sperb

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Investigated the role of friendship and gender on conflict episodes of 48 preschoolers aged approximately 5 years and 8 months. Children were organized in dyads of same-sex friends and non-friends. Conflict situations were coded according to incidence, type, termination strategies, and finalizations. Gender differences were detected for type of conflict, with girls using more reasons for oppositions than boys. Termination strategies were used with a joint effect of friendship and gender: girl-friends preferred the tactic of standing firm whereas boy-friends chose more negotiation as means to deal with a disagreement, compared to the non-friend dyads. As for the results on conflict finalizations, friendship relations accounted for a significant difference found for agreement, while gender showed to be related to the use of disengagement among girls. Combined analysis between termination strategies and conflict finalizations indicated two significant differences: the first was related to friendship, through which children used more negotiation leading to agreement; the second showed a joint effect of friendship and gender, where non-friend girls tended to negotiate to reach disengagement, more often that non-friend boys. Findings for termination strategies – with girl-friends being more incisive and firm with their partners – diverge from the results provided by empirical literature, where boys are described as more autonomy- and domain oriented, and girls are prone to intimacy and social well-being in their relationships. Results are discussed with basis on previous studies conducted on conflict among preschoolers with considerations about the effects of gender and type of relationship.

  7. FUZZY PREFERENCES IN CONFLICTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mubarak S. AL-MUTAIRI; Keith W. HIPEL; Mohamed S. KAMEL

    2008-01-01

    A systematic fuzzy approach is developed to model fuzziness and uncertainties in the preferences of decision makers involved in a conflict. This unique fuzzy preference formulation is used within the paradigm of the Graph Model for Conflict Resolution in which a given dispute is modeled in terms of decision makers, each decision maker's courses of actions or options, and each decision maker's preferences concerning the states or outcomes which could take place. In order to be able to determine the stability of each state for each decision maker and the possible equilibria or resolutions, a range of solution concepts describing potential human behavior under conflict are defined for use with fuzzy preferences. More specifically, strong and weak definitions of stability are provided for the solution concepts called Nash, general metarational, symmetric metarational, and sequential stability. To illustrate how these solution concepts can be conveniently used in practice, they are applied to a dispute over the contamination of an aquifer by a chemical company located in Elmira, Ontario, Canada.

  8. Timing of cyber conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelrod, Robert; Iliev, Rumen

    2014-01-28

    Nations are accumulating cyber resources in the form of stockpiles of zero-day exploits as well as other novel methods of engaging in future cyber conflict against selected targets. This paper analyzes the optimal timing for the use of such cyber resources. A simple mathematical model is offered to clarify how the timing of such a choice can depend on the stakes involved in the present situation, as well as the characteristics of the resource for exploitation. The model deals with the question of when the resource should be used given that its use today may well prevent it from being available for use later. The analysis provides concepts, theory, applications, and distinctions to promote the understanding strategy aspects of cyber conflict. Case studies include the Stuxnet attack on Iran's nuclear program, the Iranian cyber attack on the energy firm Saudi Aramco, the persistent cyber espionage carried out by the Chinese military, and an analogous case of economic coercion by China in a dispute with Japan. The effects of the rapidly expanding market for zero-day exploits are also analyzed. The goal of the paper is to promote the understanding of this domain of cyber conflict to mitigate the harm it can do, and harness the capabilities it can provide.

  9. Conflict Resolution in Computer Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Mojarov

    2015-01-01

    shortcoming in preventing impasses is a need to have a priori information on the future demand for resources, and it is not always possible.One of ways to "struggle" against impasses when there is no a priori information on the process demand for resources is to detect deadlocks. Detection of impasses (without leading to their resolution yet is a periodical use of the algorithm which checks current distribution of resources to reveal whether there is an impasse and if it exists what processes are involved in it.The work objective is to develop methods and algorithms allowing us to minimize losses because of impasses in CS using the optimum strategy of conflict resolution. The offered approach is especially effective to eliminate deadlocks in management (control computer systems having a fixed set of programmes.The article offers a developed efficient strategy of the information processes management in multiprocessing CS, which detects and prevents impasses. The strategy is based on allocation of indivisible resources to computing processes so that losses caused by conflicts are minimized. The article studies a multi-criterion problem of indivisible resources allocation to the processes, with the optimality principle expressed by the known binary relation over set of average vectors of penalties for conflicts in each of resources. It is shown that sharing a decision theory tool and a classical one allows more efficient problem solution to eliminate deadlock. The feature of suggesting effective methods and algorithms to eliminate deadlocks is that they can be used in CS development and operation in real time. The article-given example shows that the proposed method and algorithm for the impasse resolution in multiprocessing CS are capable and promising.The offered method and algorithm provide reducing the average number of CS conflicts by 30-40 %.

  10. Stacked law : land, property and conflict in Honduras

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roquas, E.

    2002-01-01

    Property conflicts have an enormous impact on relations between the members of farm households and their families. Given the long duration, frequency and intensity of these conflicts an investigation of how they arise and how they affect the daily lives

  11. Work-Family Conflict and Working Conditions in Western Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallie, Duncan; Russell, Helen

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the influence of working conditions on work-family conflict (WFC) among married/cohabiting employees across seven European countries. Using data from the European Social Survey, the paper first investigates the role of working conditions relative to household level characteristics in mediating work-family conflict at the…

  12. Conflict and memory: The past in the present

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagoner, Brady; Brescó, Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    This introduction to the special issue on conflict and memory aims to underscore the importance of memory (whether individual and collective) in relation to intergroup conflicts. We argue that the way in which societies reconstruct and bring the past into the present—especially, the historical past...

  13. identifying the critical causes of conflict in construction projects in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2016-04-02

    Apr 2, 2016 ... Both questionnaire survey and interview were used to capture the perspective of consultants ... related phases- briefing, design, construction and ... evaluation were responsible for conflicts. ... in Nigeria using a mixed method research approach. ..... [11] Dada, M. O. “Analysis of Conflict Centers in Projects.

  14. Effects of Network Segregation in Intergroup Conflict : An Experimental Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takács, Károly

    2006-01-01

    Dense in-group and scarce out-group relations (network segregation) often support the emergence of conflicts between groups. A key underlying mechanism is social control that helps to overcome the collective action problem within groups, but contributes to harmful conflicts among them in segregated

  15. Stacked law : land, property and conflict in Honduras

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roquas, E.

    2002-01-01

    Property conflicts have an enormous impact on relations between the members of farm households and their families. Given the long duration, frequency and intensity of these conflicts an investigation of how they arise and how they affect the daily lives of

  16. Conflict Frequency and Relationship Quality across the Transition to Parenthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluwer, Esther S.; Johnson, Matthew D.

    2007-01-01

    Longitudinal data from 293 Dutch couples were used to examine the association between conflict frequency and relationship quality across the transition to parenthood, which is known as one of the most challenging events in the early stages of marriage. More frequent conflict during pregnancy was related to lower levels of relationship quality…

  17. Irevisiting The Greed And Grievance Explanations For Violent Internal Conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.M. Murshed (Syed)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractTwo phenomena have been recently utilised to explain conflict onset among rational choice analysts: greed and grievance. The former reflects elite competition over valuable natural resource rents. The latter argues that relative deprivation and the grievance it produces fuels conflict.

  18. CONFLICT OF INTERESTS IN TRANSFER PRICING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Osvald

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the conditions of globalization all the companies try to find the effective ways of maximizing their profit. One of the instruments is the system of the transfer pricing that helps to optimize the costs and allocate effective the resources of the company. Transfer pricing has detrimental effect on the economy of countries, though the governments use the regulations to minimize this effect on their economy. In this case the conflict of interests appears. Paper deals with an analysis of the functions and reasons of the economic agents which use the transfer prices to demonstrate the conflict of interests in transfer pricing. The purpose of the study is the determination of the best ways to solve the conflict situations in the process of transfer pricing according to the economic interests of the agents: company and government and within the company: headquarters and subsidiaries. The main point of resolving the conflict between company and government is to make clear regulations of transfer pricing for enterprises and productive relations between company and government. The methods to resolve the conflict within the company are: clear guidelines, decentralization and motivation for stuff members.

  19. Predicting Future Conflict under REDD+ Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra Silori

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available With the current complexity of issues facing forest and land management, the implementation of the REDD+ initiative comes with significant risks, including conflict. While the exact nature and shape of conflict in REDD+ implementation is difficult to pinpoint, this study aims to build a preliminary predictive framework to identify possible sources of impairment that may result in conflict over management of forests and natural resources. The framework was developed from an extensive literature review and was tested in three REDD+ pilot project sites in Nepal. The results indicate that most of the sources of impairment are present in all study sites, particularly issues relating to benefit sharing, which have been main drivers of conflict prior to REDD+. While we found that the application of the framework has been useful in the Nepalese context, there are some limitations in its scope and precision. Nonetheless, this study points to important implications with regards to REDD+ implementation and conflict management that can be useful for policy makers and practitioners involved in REDD+ strategy designs, as well as other areas of forest management involving outsiders and communities.

  20. Community conflict in the nuclear power issue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burt, R.S.

    1978-05-01

    This is the first of a two part discussion the purpose of which is to demonstrate that a frankly structural, or network, approach to the analysis of community decision-making allows an observer to anticipate and manage community response to specific policies. Here I am concerned with anticipating community response. In part two (Burt, 1978), I am concerned with conflict resolution strategies. The specific policy used as illustration is siting nuclear power facilities. Published accounts of siting nuclear facilities are used to identify basic social parameters of the nuclear power issue as a community conflict. Changes in the form and content of relations in the network among opponents and proponents of a facility are described. Subsequently, the description is used to specify a causal model of the manner in which conflict escalation is promoted or inhibited by the characteristics and leadership structure of a community in which a nuclear facility is proposed. Hypotheses are derived predicting what types of communities can be expected to become embroiled in conflict and the process that conflict escalation will follow.

  1. Teachers' Burnout, Depression, Role Ambiguity and Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papastylianou, Antonia; Kaila, Maria; Polychronopoulos, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigates issues associated with teachers' burnout in primary education as related to depression and role conflict-ambiguity. At the time of the study the participants (562 teachers) were working in seventy nine (79) Primary Education State Schools in Greece (Athens and two prefectures in the southern part of the country). The…

  2. Dutch aid to education and conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopes Cardozo, M.T.A.; Novelli, M.

    2010-01-01

    This report focuses on developments in Dutch aid to education in conflict affected areas in the last decade, with a focus on the period 2007‐2010, when ex‐Minister for International Development, Koenders was in office. In this relatively brief time frame, Koenders prioritised development cooperation

  3. Identifying latent conflict in collective bargaining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterkamp, M; Akkerman, A

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to find indicators of the substantive incentives for industrial conflict. We argue that collective decision-making models can be helpful in developing such a measurement tool. These indicators will enable scholars in industrial relations to distinguish the substantive

  4. Mediating Social Conflict: A Ford Foundation Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford Foundation, New York, NY.

    Third-party intervention is increasingly recognized as an effective means of settling social, institutional, community, and interpersonal disputes. Traditionally, mediation efforts have been directed toward conflicts involving labor/management relations. Since the 1960s, however, mediation efforts have also been applied to situations involving…

  5. Dutch aid to education and conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopes Cardozo, M.T.A.; Novelli, M.

    2010-01-01

    This report focuses on developments in Dutch aid to education in conflict affected areas in the last decade, with a focus on the period 2007‐2010, when ex‐Minister for International Development, Koenders was in office. In this relatively brief time frame, Koenders prioritised development cooperation

  6. Children's Reasoning about Interpersonal and Moral Conflicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetana, Judith G.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Two studies of third, sixth, and ninth graders were conducted to determine whether the children made judgments about both justice and interpersonal relations in conflict situations. Results demonstrate that concerns with justice and interpersonal relationships coexist in judgments of male and female children. The ways in which these concerns are…

  7. Reputation and the evolution of conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElreath, Richard

    2003-02-01

    The outcomes of conflicts in many human societies generate reputation effects that influence the nature of later conflicts. Those willing to escalate over even trivial offenses are considered honorable whereas those who do not are considered dishonorable (Nisbett & Cohen, 1996). Here I extend Maynard Smith's hawk-dove model of animal conflict to explore the logic of a strategy which uses reputation about its opponents to regulate its behavior. I show that a reputation-based strategy does well when (1) the value of the resource is large relative to the cost of losing a fight, (2) communities are stable, and (3) reputations are well known but subject to some amount of error. Reputation-based strategies may thus result in greater willingness to fight, but less fighting at equilibrium, depending upon the nature of the contests and the local socioecology. Additionally, this strategy is robust in the presence of poor knowledge about reputation.

  8. Sources of marital conflict in five cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Lisa M; Nowak, Nicole; Weisfeld, Glenn E; Weisfeld, Carol C; Shattuck, Kraig S; Imamoğlu, Olcay E; Butovskaya, Marina; Shen, Jiliang

    2015-01-05

    This analysis of previously collected data examined four fitness-relevant issues for their possible role in marital conflict. These were sex, finances, division of labor, and raising children, selected in light of their pertinence to sex differences in reproductive strategies. Over 2,000 couples in five diverse cultures were studied. Marital conflict was assessed by the Problems with Partner scale, which was previously shown to demonstrate measurement invariance across cultures and genders. All four issues were significantly related to perceived marital problems in almost all cases. Thus, conflict tended to arise around issues relevant to reproductive strategies. A few cultural idiosyncrasies emerged and are discussed. In all cultures, wives reported more problems than husbands. Another important issue was kindness. The results suggest that a key factor in marital success or failure may be kindness necessary to sustain this prolonged and intimate relationship of cooperation for raising one's offspring.

  9. Sources of Marital Conflict in Five Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa M. Dillon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This analysis of previously collected data examined four fitness-relevant issues for their possible role in marital conflict. These were sex, finances, division of labor, and raising children, selected in light of their pertinence to sex differences in reproductive strategies. Over 2,000 couples in five diverse cultures were studied. Marital conflict was assessed by the Problems with Partner scale, which was previously shown to demonstrate measurement invariance across cultures and genders. All four issues were significantly related to perceived marital problems in almost all cases. Thus, conflict tended to arise around issues relevant to reproductive strategies. A few cultural idiosyncrasies emerged and are discussed. In all cultures, wives reported more problems than husbands. Another important issue was kindness. The results suggest that a key factor in marital success or failure may be kindness necessary to sustain this prolonged and intimate relationship of cooperation for raising one's offspring.

  10. Data Conflict Resolution Using Trust Mappings

    CERN Document Server

    Gatterbauer, Wolfgang; 10.1145/1807167.1807193

    2010-01-01

    In massively collaborative projects such as scientific or community databases, users often need to agree or disagree on the content of individual data items. On the other hand, trust relationships often exist between users, allowing them to accept or reject other users' beliefs by default. As those trust relationships become complex, however, it becomes difficult to define and compute a consistent snapshot of the conflicting information. Previous solutions to a related problem, the update reconciliation problem, are dependent on the order in which the updates are processed and, therefore, do not guarantee a globally consistent snapshot. This paper proposes the first principled solution to the automatic conflict resolution problem in a community database. Our semantics is based on the certain tuples of all stable models of a logic program. While evaluating stable models in general is well known to be hard, even for very simple logic programs, we show that the conflict resolution problem admits a PTIME solution...

  11. What role for government? The promotion of civil society through forestry-related climate change interventions in post-conflict Nepal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rutt, Rebecca Leigh; Lund, Jens Friis

    2014-01-01

    This study examines rationales behind the choice of local interlocutors by forestry-related climate change projects in post-conflict Nepal. In their stated objectives, all projects claim to involve the government, and most project decision makers are in favor of government involvement, yet project...

  12. Principals' and Teachers' Use of Conflict Management Strategies on Secondary Students' Conflict Resolution in Rivers State-Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalagbor, Levi Doe; Nnokam, Nyege Chinda

    2015-01-01

    The study was designed to identify the principals' and teachers' level of utilization of conflict management strategies: integrating, dominating, compromising and avoiding strategies on secondary students' conflict resolution and their related implications in the internal school administration. Four research questions and four hypotheses addressed…

  13. Adolescent Girls' Perceptions of Daily Conflicts With Their Mothers : Within-Conflict Sequences and Their Relationship to Autonomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lichtwarck-Aschoff, Anna; Kunnen, Saskia; van Geert, Paul

    2010-01-01

    This article reports on a 1-year diary study of conflicts between seventeen 15-year-old girls and their mothers assessing (a) within-conflict sequences according to the emotional processes related to a girl's level of self-assertion and perceived control and (b) the relationship between these within

  14. Adolescent girls' perceptions of daily conflicts with their mothers: Within-conflict sequences and their relationship to autonomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lichtwarck-Aschoff, A.; Kunnen, E.S.; Geert, P.L.C. van

    2010-01-01

    This article reports on a 1-year diary study of conflicts between seventeen 15-year-old girls and their mothers assessing (a) within-conflict sequences according to the emotional processes related to a girl's level of self-assertion and perceived control and (b) the relationship between these within

  15. No effect of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation over the motor cortex on response-related ERPs during a conflict task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Christian Conley

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS over the motor cortex is considered a potential treatment for motor rehabilitation following stroke and other neurological pathologies. However, both the context under which this stimulation is effective and the underlying mechanisms remain to be determined. In this study, we examined the mechanisms by which anodal tDCS may affect motor performance by recording event-related potentials (ERPs during a cued go/nogo task after anodal tDCS over dominant M1 in young adults (Experiment 1 and both dominant and non-dominant M1 in old adults (Experiment 2. In both experiments, anodal tDCS had no effect on either response time or response-related ERPs, including the cue-locked contingent negative variation (CNV and both target-locked and response-locked lateralised readiness potentials (LRP. Bayesian model selection analyses showed that, for all measures, the null effects model was stronger than a model including anodal tDCS vs. sham. We conclude that anodal tDCS has no effect on response time or response-related ERPs during a cued go/nogo task in either young or old adults.

  16. Conflict resolution in healthcare management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipcamon, James D; Mainwaring, Brian A

    2004-01-01

    Conflict causes decided tension in the workplace and often produces poor professional outcomes. A manager dealing with conflict can experience a crisis of confidence and often ends up second-guessing himself or herself, regardless of how a situation has been handled. In some organizations, conflict is not viewed positively or as an opportunity for improvement. In these organizations, most individuals will see conflict as being unproductive, unpleasant, and a waste of time and energy. Yet, conflict provides employees with critical feedback on how things are going. When viewed in a positive context, even personality conflicts may provide information to the healthcare manager about what is not working in the organization. If conflict is not directed and controlled, it can have damaging effects in the workplace, stifling the growth of departments and deflating employee morale. Our job as healthcare managers is to deal with conflict so that it does not decrease productivity or detract from the provision of patient-centered care. There are 4 general sources for interpersonal conflict: personal differences, informational deficiency, role incompatibility, and environmental stress. There are 5 common responses used in dealing with conflict: forcing, accommodating, avoiding, compromising, and collaborating. Healthcare managers should become comfortable with using all of these approaches.

  17. The Migration-Interstate Conflict Nexus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabastiano Rwengabo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available When and how does forced migration strain security relations between neighbouring States? Drawing from secondary research on two interstate conflicts in Africa’s Great Lakes Region during the 1970s and 1990s, I examine the socio-political conditions in both the migrants’ home and recipient States that interweave migrants into both States’ security calculations. I argue that refugees strain neighbouring States’ security relations under conditions of domestic socio-political violence, geographical proximity, and opportunities for refugees’ forced-return mobilisation. Evidence from the 1978-79 Uganda-Tanzania war, and the post-1994 DRC-Rwanda conflict, indicates that given these conditions forced migration strains interstate security relations by arousing suspicion and fear of migrants living in neighbouring States among leaders of refugees’ home country; and provoking migrants’ desire to forcefully return home expressed through politico-military mobilisation and declaration of war. Sending States pressure host States to ‘contain’ refugees’ mobilisation for forceful return. When recipient States are unable or unwilling to satisfy sending States’ demands, refugees become infused in both countries’ security calculations. These convergent processes generate interstate conflicts and may result in armed confrontation. The findings are useful for grasping the transformation of civil wars into transnational and regional conflicts, such as prevailed in the Region since the 1990s.

  18. Intrafamily and intragenomic conflicts in human warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Recent years have seen an explosion of multidisciplinary interest in ancient human warfare. Theory has emphasized a key role for kin-selected cooperation, modulated by sex-specific demography, in explaining intergroup violence. However, conflicts of interest remain a relatively underexplored factor in the evolutionary-ecological study of warfare, with little consideration given to which parties influence the decision to go to war and how their motivations may differ. We develop a mathematical model to investigate the interplay between sex-specific demography and human warfare, showing that: the ecology of warfare drives the evolution of sex-biased dispersal; sex-biased dispersal modulates intrafamily and intragenomic conflicts in relation to warfare; intragenomic conflict drives parent-of-origin-specific patterns of gene expression—i.e. ‘genomic imprinting’—in relation to warfare phenotypes; and an ecological perspective of conflicts at the levels of the gene, individual, and social group yields novel predictions as to pathologies associated with mutations and epimutations at loci underpinning human violence. PMID:28228515

  19. Cross Cultural Conflicts in Not Without my Daughter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setyoningsih Setyoningsih

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify and analyze the cultural conflicts between the main characters in the novel Not Without my Daughter (NW. The analysis was carried out through the following process. The first procedure related to problems of classification i.e. cross cultural conflicts. The next phase of data analysis related to the colletion data of cross cultural conflicts in NW. The last phase is presentation the result of the analysis that had been conducted in this research. Having analyzed the data, the researcher concludes  that cultural conflicts occured in NW because of  stereotype, prejudice, and ethnocentrism. Cultural conflicts can be prevented if we increase our awareness of our own attitudes and learn to be sensitive to cross-cultural differences. However, if we develop intercultural sensitivity, it does not mean that we need to lose our cultural identities-but rather that we recognize cultural influences within ourselves and within others.

  20. Power effects on cognitive control: Turning conflict into action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Petra C; Kleiman, Tali; Amodio, David M

    2015-06-01

    Power is known to promote effective goal pursuit, especially when it requires one to overcome distractions or bias. We proposed that this effect involves the ability to engage and implement cognitive control. In Study 1, we demonstrated that power enhances behavioral performance on a response conflict task and that it does so by enhancing controlled processing rather than by reducing automatic processing. In Study 2, we used an event-related potential index of anterior cingulate activity to test whether power effects on control were due to enhanced conflict sensitivity or action implementation. Power did not significantly affect neural sensitivity to conflict; rather, high power was associated with a stronger link between conflict processing and intended action, relative to low power. These findings suggest a new perspective on how social factors can affect controlled processing and offer new evidence regarding the transition between conflict detection and the implementation of action control.

  1. Grin and Bear It?: Employees' Use of Surface Acting During Co-worker Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Ashley E; Bruk-Lee, Valentina; Spector, Paul E

    2017-04-01

    Using survey data from 459 employed individuals, the conditional indirect effects of three types of interpersonal conflict at work on strains and performance through surface acting were tested. Results indicated that task, relationship and non-task organizational conflict were positively related to depressive and physical symptoms and negatively related to performance. Task conflict had a significantly weaker association with employee outcomes than either relationship or non-task organizational conflict. Surface acting negatively related to all types of conflict, although it had a weaker association with relationship conflict than task or non-task organizational conflict. Support was found for moderated mediation relationships whereby surface acting mediated the associations between all types of conflict with depressive symptoms, as well as the association between relationship and non-task organizational conflict with physical symptoms, when conflict was infrequent. Surface acting also mediated the associations between all types of conflict and performance when conflict was frequent. Future research directions are discussed that can advance our theoretical understanding of how emotional labour and interpersonal conflict interact to affect employees, as well as further our ability to improve employee well-being and organizational functioning. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Children in Conflict Zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, A N; Prasad, P L

    2009-04-01

    The nature of war has changed dramatically. Today's conflicts happen where people live and they take a brutal toll on children. Heavy bombardment and destruction in war creates a humanitarian crisis where there is lack of adequate food, clean water and medicine. The consequences of war can have major impact on the health of children for years to come. Traumatic events can have a profound and lasting impact on the emotional, cognitive, behavioral and physiological functioning of an individual. Depending on the circumstances, the psychosocial impacts of disasters can range from mild stress reactions to problems such as anxiety, depression, substance abuse and post traumatic stress disorders (PTSD).

  3. Trust, conflict, and cooperation: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balliet, Daniel; Van Lange, Paul A M

    2013-09-01

    Many theories of trust emphasize that trust is most relevant to behavior in situations involving a conflict of interests. However, it is not clear how trust relates to behavior across situations that differ in the degree of conflicting interest: Does trust matter more when the conflict of interest is small or large? According to an interdependence perspective, trust becomes an especially important determinant of behavior in situations involving larger, compared to smaller, degrees of conflicting interests. To examine this perspective, we conducted a meta-analysis involving 212 effect sizes on the relation between trust (both state and dispositional trust in others) and cooperation in social dilemmas-situations that involve varying degrees of conflict between self-interest and collective interest. Results revealed that the positive relation between trust and cooperation is stronger when there is a larger, compared to smaller, degree of conflict. We also examined several other possible moderators of the relation between trust and cooperation. The relation between trust and cooperation was stronger during individual, compared to intergroup, interactions but did not vary as a function of the situation being either a one-shot or repeated interaction. We also find differences across countries in the extent that people condition their own cooperation based on their trust in others. We discuss how the results support an emerging consensus about trust being limited to situations of conflict and address some theoretical and societal implications for our understanding of how and why trust is so important to social interactions and relationships.

  4. Afetividade e conflito familiar e sua relação com a depressão em crianças e adolescentes Affectivity and family conflict and their relation with depression in children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maycoln L. M Teodoro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A presença de uma relação saudável da criança com seus pais é um fator importante na prevenção de psicopatologias como a depressão. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi investigar as propriedades psicométricas do Familiograma, associando os seus resultados de afetividade e conflito familiar com a intensidade da sintomatologia depressiva em crianças e adolescentes. Participaram do estudo 234 estudantes (133 do sexo feminino, 56,8% com idades entre oito a 14 anos (Média=11,19, DP=1,76. Os participantes responderam o Familiograma e o Inventário de Depressão Infantil. O Familiograma apresentou propriedades psicométricas satisfatórias. A depressão correlacionou-se negativamente com a afetividade (r=-0,33 e positivamente com o conflito (r=0,32. Os resultados apontam para a associação entre relações familiares pouco afetivas e conflituosas com a intensidade dos sintomas depressivos.The presence of a healthy relation between a child and his/her parents is an important factor for the prevention of psychopathologies as depression. The objective of this research was to investigate the psychometrics properties of the Familiogram, and the association of the results of affectivity and family conflict with the intensity of depressive symptoms in children and adolescents. Two hundred thirty four students participated of the study (133 female, 56.8% and their ages ranged from 8 to 14 years old (Mean=11.19, SD=1.76. The participants answered the Familiogram and the Children Depression Inventory. The Familiogram presented satisfactory psychometrics properties. Depression correlated negatively with the affectivity (r=-0.33 and positively with the conflict (r=0.32. Results point to the association of little affective and problematic family relations with the intensity of the depressive symptoms.

  5. Tools for productively managing conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucker, Deborah

    2012-06-01

    In scientific teams as in life, conflicts arise. This paper aims to provide an introduction to tools and skills to help in managing conflicts in practice. Using a structured approach enables the concerns and interests of all involved to be identified and clarified. It also permits a better understanding of yourself and others and will help empower those in conflict to find acceptable and workable resolutions.

  6. Task versus relationship conflict, team performance, and team member satisfaction: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Dreu, Carsten K W; Weingart, Laurie R

    2003-08-01

    This study provides a meta-analysis of research on the associations between relationship conflict, task conflict, team performance, and team member satisfaction. Consistent with past theorizing, results revealed strong and negative correlations between relationship conflict, team performance, and team member satisfaction. In contrast to what has been suggested in both academic research and introductory textbooks, however, results also revealed strong and negative (instead of the predicted positive) correlations between task conflict team performance, and team member satisfaction. As predicted, conflict had stronger negative relations with team performance in highly complex (decision making, project, mixed) than in less complex (production) tasks. Finally, task conflict was less negatively related to team performance when task conflict and relationship conflict were weakly, rather than strongly, correlated.

  7. Armed conflict and child health

    OpenAIRE

    Rieder, Michael; Choonara, Imti

    2012-01-01

    Armed conflict has a major impact on child health\\ud throughout the world. One in six children worldwide lives\\ud in an area of armed conflict and civilians are more likely\\ud to die than soldiers as a result of the conflict. In stark\\ud contrast to the effect on children, the international arms\\ud trade results in huge profits for the large corporations\\ud involved in producing arms, weapons and munitions.\\ud Armed conflict is not inevitable but is an important\\ud health issue that should be...

  8. The cultural contagion of conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelfand, Michele; Shteynberg, Garriy; Lee, Tiane; Lun, Janetta; Lyons, Sarah; Bell, Chris; Chiao, Joan Y.; Bruss, C. Bayan; Al Dabbagh, May; Aycan, Zeynep; Abdel-Latif, Abdel-Hamid; Dagher, Munqith; Khashan, Hilal; Soomro, Nazar

    2012-01-01

    Anecdotal evidence abounds that conflicts between two individuals can spread across networks to involve a multitude of others. We advance a cultural transmission model of intergroup conflict where conflict contagion is seen as a consequence of universal human traits (ingroup preference, outgroup hostility; i.e. parochial altruism) which give their strongest expression in particular cultural contexts. Qualitative interviews conducted in the Middle East, USA and Canada suggest that parochial altruism processes vary across cultural groups and are most likely to occur in collectivistic cultural contexts that have high ingroup loyalty. Implications for future neuroscience and computational research needed to understand the emergence of intergroup conflict are discussed. PMID:22271785

  9. Probabilistic aspects of analysis and information operation of the system in situations of conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Gluschenko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The problems of research of the parameters interaction structure and the conflict formation are considered in the stochastic systems by the general system theory. The mathematical aspects of relations conflict, promotion and indifference are analyzed. We consider the information approach for the analysis of the conflict.

  10. Adolescent-Parent Conflict in Middle-Class African American Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, Cheryl; Smetana, Judith

    1999-01-01

    Examined conflicts between middle-class African American preadolescents/early adolescents and their parents. Found that conflicts were relatively frequent, of low intensity, and occurred over issues such as the adolescent's room, chores, activity choices, and homework. Early adolescents rated conflicts as more intense than preadolescents. Mothers'…

  11. Towards managing diversity: Cultural aspects of conflict management in organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothea Hamdorf

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated cultural aspects of conflict management in organizations in response to the growing need for an understanding of how people from diverse cultural backgrounds can work together without the often-resulting problem of intercultural conflict. Culture was evaluated through self-assessments of how independent or interdependent the subjects were (Markus & Kitayama, 1991, and conflict behavior through eight conflict management styles: dominating, integrating, compromising, avoiding, obliging, emotion, neglect and third-party help (Rahim, 1983; Ting-Toomey et al., 2000. Furthermore, drawing upon face-negotiation theory (Ting-Toomey, 1988; Ting-Toomey & Kurogi, 1998, a test was made of whether self-face, other-face and mutual-face concerns could explain cultural differences in conflict behavior. A total of 185 professionals from different countries completed an Internet questionnaire. An exploratory factor analysis of the eight styles revealed three factors which seem to describe direct, indirect and integrating plus compromising conflict behaviors. In line with this study's hypotheses, persons with a tendency to act independently mentioned direct styles, as well as integrating, and persons with a tendency to act interdependently mentioned indirect styles in addition to integrating and compromising. Furthermore, a concern for self-face maintenance was related to direct conflict behavior, a concern for other-face maintenance to indirect conflict behavior, and a concern for mutual-face maintenance to integrating and compromising. However, persons with a tendency to act independently do not seem to be particularly concerned about self-face maintenance. Persons with a tendency to act interdependently, on the other hand, show other- and mutual-face concerns in conflict situations. It was concluded that face concerns do play a crucial role, but mainly in explaining the conflict behavior of persons with a tendency to act interdependently

  12. Activation of self-knowledge reduces conflict during occupational choice: an ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakao, Takashi; Takezawa, Tomohiro; Shiraishi, Maiko; Miyatani, Makoto

    2009-01-01

    We investigated whether the activation of self-knowledge reduces conflict during occupational choice, which can elicit many correct answers. Conflict was measured via event-related brain potentials (ERPs). Results of this study showed that activation of self-knowledge reduces conflict during occupational choice. Our results suggest that, in a situation in which two or more possible correct answers exist, people use self-knowledge as a benchmark to reduce conflict by biasing either choice of behavior.

  13. Research on Intellectual Property Conflicts Identification in Knowledge Transferring among EC Enterprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Shibin

    As the lacks of existing research about intellectual property conflicts management of EC enterprise, the paper analysis the intellectual property conflicts in knowledge transferring among EC enterprises by intellectual property types, then, the paper makes research on intellectual property conflicts identification in knowledge transferring among EC enterprises, and gives relative assumption, meanwhile, the paper makes quantities identification of intellectual property conflicts in knowledge transferring among EC enterprises by evidential theory, finally, the paper gives the further research orientations.

  14. Parental Conflict and its Effects on Youth Self Esteem (A Study At University of Punjab)

    OpenAIRE

    Salma Nazir; Sidra Saeed; Malik Muhammad Sohail; Falak Sher; Zarqa Azhar; Muhammad Rizwan Safdar

    2012-01-01

    This research was conducted to probe the effects of parental conflict on youth self esteem. Objective of study was to explore reasons behind parental conflict, to measure the level of parental conflict on behavior of children, to find out change in the behavior of children, to identify the role of parents in the self esteem of children, to know how parent conflict and self esteem of children are related. Some 200 students from different departments of university of Punjab were selected by usi...

  15. Endangered Species Act and energy facility planning: compliance and conflict

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shreeve, D; Calef, C; Nagy, J

    1978-05-01

    New energy facilities such as coal mines, gasification plants, refineries, and power plants--because of their severe environmental impacts--may, if sited haphazardly, jeopardize endangered species. By law, conflicts between energy-facility siting and endangered species occurrence must be minimized. To assess the likelihood of such conflicts arising, the authors used data from the Fish and Wildlife Service, Endangered Species Office, that describe the species' ranges by county. This data set was matched with county-level occurrences of imminent energy developments to find counties of overlap and hence potential conflict. An index was developed to measure the likelihood of actual conflict occurring in such counties. Factors determining the index are: numbers of endangered species inhabiting the county, number of energy-related developments, and to what degree the county remains in a wild or undeveloped state. Maps were prepared showing (1) geographic ranges of endangered species by taxonomic groups (mammals, fish, etc.) and (2) counties of conflict.

  16. Context specificity of conflict frequency-dependent control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vietze, Ina; Wendt, Mike

    2009-07-01

    Interference in the Eriksen flanker task has been shown to be reduced when the (relative) frequency of conflicting stimuli is increased, a modulation thought to reflect a higher degree of processing selectivity under conditions of frequent conflict (Botvinick, Braver, Barch, Carter, & Cohen, 2001). Previous studies suggest that stimulus location acts as a contextual cue, resulting in location-specific adjustment of processing selectivity when different locations are associated with differential conflict frequencies (Corballis & Gratton, 2003; Wendt, Kluwe, & Vietze, 2008). In the current study we extend these findings by showing that not only stimulus location but also stimulus colour can be used for context-specific adjustments. These findings suggest that processing selectivity is adjusted in parallel with current stimulus processing, potentially serving to resolve a current conflict rather than to prepare for an upcoming new conflict.

  17. From conflict and misunderstanding to respect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvitković, Ivan

    2017-04-01

    Sociologists of the 19(th) and the 20(th) centuries were tackling the relation between science and religion. A few models of these relations were offered, by which the monopoly over the truth by any one of those is crashed. Therefore, there are a few models but each is with lots of limitations. None is sufficient to explain the relation between the science and religion, but each contributes to certain extent to better understanding of those relations. Almost every one of the interpretations was under the influence of the social (particularly ideological and political) conditions in which they were emerging. One of those could be named as "Riding on an old horse: there is no reconciliation between faith and reason". Is the enlightenment theory the source of a conflict between "faith" and "reason"? What is it that leads to the conflict of the science and religion? From rejection to acceptance - a view on Darwin's theory then and now. do creationist theories lead to exacerbation of relations between the science and religion? Postmodernism on the relation of science and religion. Stand views of religious communities - science and religion are not in conflict. Examples that confirm such opinion. Many priests and Islamic teachers have given their contributions to the development of science (technology, medicine, geography, architecture, urbanism, music etc.). Isn't it that the calendars, past (Egyptian, Chinese, Aztec etc.) and present (Hindu, Jewish, Islamic, Gregorian etc.) have come from the umbrella of religions. Are conflicts between science and religion the matter of the past? Disputes over use of drugs in rituals exist even today. Religion and science are autonomous fields - but where is the border between them? Technology and religions. How religions refer to technology. Examples of applications of technical achievements in religious activities. An ecological theory that is being developed within sociology of religion focuses on the relation of religions and

  18. Public management and public relation analysis of conflicts of interest based on the new situation%基于新形势的公共管理与公共利益冲突关系分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢秀娟

    2015-01-01

    公共管理是一项以政府为执行主体,从事管理各项公共事务,提高为人民服务的质量,达到公共利益最大化的工作。公共管理是一个过程,公共利益是公共管理的执行结果。本文将三个方面来阐述:公共管理和公共利益的概念和本质、两者之间的冲突和联系,以了解在新形势下,如何更好的调节公共管理与公共利益的关系,实现人民利益最大化。%The government as the main body in the execution of public management, engaged in all public affairs management, improve the quality of service for the people, to maximize public interests. Is a process of public management, public interest is the result of execution of public management. This article to illustrate the three aspects: the concept and essence of public administration and public interests, the conflict between the two and contact, to learn in the new situation, how to better regulate the interests of the public management and public relations, to maximize the interests of the people.

  19. Does conflict matter in the success of mass collaboration? Investigating antecedents and consequence of conflict in Wikipedia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kewen; WU; Qinghua; ZHU; Julita; VASSILEVA; Yuxiang; ZHAO

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Web2.0 has facilitated the emergence of mass collaboration. Being a new model of virtual collaboration, mass collaboration has distinct characteristics such as self-organized voluntary participation and many-to-many communications mechanism. Behind the sparking achievements, mass collaboration systems are suffering from high coordination cost, reflecting intense conflict among the participants. This study explains how conflict interacts with its antecedents(participation and task complexity) and decedent(group performance) related to the mass collaboration process.Design/methodology/approach: Theoretical model is built upon literatures. Twenty-six measurable items, including social network indices used to reflect conflicts(e.g., density and degree), are extracted from Wikipedia database. The structural equation modeling is used to validate the proposed model.Findings: Participation increases task complexity, conflict and performance; task complexity and conflict increase group performance, but task complexity decreases conflict.Research limitations: This study is limited to one mass collaboration platform, other contexts can cause variance in the result. More characteristics of conflict network(e.g., self-loop)should be taken into consideration in future studies.Practical implications: Conflict management is critical to mass collaboration, and functions that increase the awareness of conflict may motivate users to participant, resulting better group performance.Originality/value: Few studies have investigated the consequences of conflict in mass collaboration context. Meanwhile, limited number of social network studies build network based on negative link. Moreover, most of extant studies on Wiki are descriptive researches without theoretical model. This study builds a theoretical model and incorporates social network approach to explore the influence of conflict.

  20. International Conflict Studies as a Research and Teaching Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Viktorovna Khudaykulova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes international conflict studies as a science and an educational discipline. The analysis of the subject field and professional terminology adopted in this area both in Russian and in English is provided. Formation of international conflict studies as a distinct field of study in the United States and Western Europe is described. The results of analysis of 10 leading foreign schools on international conflict studies are presented. The main factors that were taken into account in identifying the leading centers were the existence of a separate research (educational analysis units of international conflicts, the world's leading scientific journals on conflict resolution, as well as databases for the analysis of international conflicts. The role of professional associations, education consortia and international organizations (UNESCO in the study of international conflicts is described. An analysis of the leading think tanks on defense and national security (as rated by Philadelphia think tank ranking is also provided. Particular attention is given to interdisciplinary research methodology of international conflicts and the structure of educational programs at leading schools in the world in international relations. The author summarizes the recommendations of the Association of Professional Schools of International Affairs (APSIA to create educational programs of this kind.

  1. [Relationship of perception conflict and assertiveness in nurses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojčić, Živko; Perković, Lada; Stašević, Ina; Stojčić, Nevena; Ropac, Darko

    2014-06-01

    At their workplace, nurses are exposed to a number of conflict situations. On dealing with such situations, a significant role is played by assertiveness skills. Assertiveness is the necessity of efficient communication between nurses and patients. Thus, development of these skills can enhance patient confidence in the nursing profession. The aim of the study was to determine whether there are differences in assertiveness with respect to age and sex, and whether there is and what is the connection between assertiveness, potential sources of conflict at work, conflicts due to the behavior of associates, resolving conflicts and self-assessment in resolving conflicts. The survey included 87 hospital nurses. The questionnaire included assessment of assertiveness. On processing the results, we calculated the indicators of descriptive statistics, carried out the variance analysis and t-test, and calculated Pearson's correlation coefficients. It was found that the majority of subjects expressed a medium level of assertiveness, i.e. they could be considered as relatively assertive persons. There were significant differences in assertiveness according to age of the subjects and length of service, where the oldest age group was significantly less assertive. More assertive subjects frequently observed behaviors that may be a source of conflict and problems in the organization of work. At the same time, they often had conflicts because of such behavior, which indicated that more assertive subjects were bolder and more secure. More assertive subjects believed that they were more successful in resolving conflicts than non-assertive subjects.

  2. Resolving environmental disputes: from conflict to consensus

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sidaway, Roger

    2005-01-01

    ... The Function of Social Conflict Conflicts Spiralling out of Control Dynamic Analyses of Natural Resource Conflicts and Cooperation in Natural Resource Management Dynamic Analysis of the Conflict over the Designation of the Pentland Hills Regional Park, 1983- 1985 Dynamic Analysis of Moorland Access in the Peak District Ways of Dealing with Conflict ...

  3. Conflict Management Strategies in Workplace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄玉霞

    2011-01-01

    As we all know, it is inevitable to be confronted with verbal aggressiveness by employees, peers, and supervisors in the workplace. In order to avoid these conflict with others in the future workplace, this paper is to discuss about the management strategies dealing with these conflicts.

  4. Social networks and intergroup conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takács, Károly

    2002-01-01

    Conflicts between groups are among the most challenging problems of mankind. They arise as groups compete for the possession of certain scarce resources. Under what conditions does such competition lead to conflict or to a peaceful coexistence? Why do individual group members, despite the likelihood

  5. Leadership Strategies for Managing Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kormanski, Chuck

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the impact of conflict in small group development theory. Views conflict as a positive, normally occurring behavior and presents leadership strategies involving withdrawal, suppression, integration, compromise, and power. Examines situational contingencies and presents a rationale for strategy selection and intervention. (Author)

  6. Functional imaging of decision conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pochon, J.B.; Riis, J.; Sanfey, A.G.; Nystrom, L.E.; Cohen, J.D.

    2008-01-01

    Decision conflict occurs when people feel uncertain as to which option to choose from a set of similarly attractive ( or unattractive) options, with many studies demonstrating that this conflict can lead to suboptimal decision making. In this article, we investigate the neurobiological underpinnings

  7. Climate Change, Conflict, and Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akresh, Richard

    2016-01-01

    We have good reason to predict that a warming climate will produce more conflict and violence. A growing contingent of researchers has been examining the relationship in recent years, and they've found that hotter temperatures and reduced rainfall are linked to increases in conflict at all scales, from interpersonal violence to war. Children are…

  8. Conflict-Induced Perceptual Filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, Mike; Luna-Rodriguez, Aquiles; Jacobsen, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    In a variety of conflict paradigms, target and distractor stimuli are defined in terms of perceptual features. Interference evoked by distractor stimuli tends to be reduced when the ratio of congruent to incongruent trials is decreased, suggesting conflict-induced perceptual filtering (i.e., adjusting the processing weights assigned to stimuli…

  9. International Dimensions of Internal Conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.W. Metternich; K.S. Gleditsch; H. Dorussen; A. Ruggeri

    2012-01-01

    Civil wars are by definition violent conflicts between a state and some form of non-state actors (Sambanis 2004b). Perhaps not surprisingly, most scholars have looked for features within countries to account for why such conflicts break out and how they evolve (Blattman and Miguel 2010). However, it

  10. New Approaches to Conflict Resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford Foundation, New York, NY.

    This paper addresses the future role of the Ford Foundation in helping to improve society's capacity to resolve conflicts. Part I discusses the problem. In recent years America has had many sorts of conflicts and disputes. Examples are racial equality, energy allocation, environmental protection, consumer rights, and equal educational opportunity.…

  11. Structural embeddedness and intergroup conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takacs, K

    2001-01-01

    Social structure affects the likelihood of group conflicts, although it has been disregarded by previous explanations. This study extends the intergroup public goods game model and integrates the influence of structural embeddedness and social incentives in the analysis of harmful group conflict. Th

  12. Substance abuse treatment response in a Latino sample: the influence of family conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish, Jessica N; Maier, Candice A; Priest, Jacob B

    2015-02-01

    Latino Americans report underutilization of treatment and poor treatment response for substance use and abuse compared to other racial/ethnic groups; thus, it is important to assess factors that contribute to these disparities. The current study objective was to assess the influence of family conflict on substance abuse treatment response in a sample of Latino Americans using two different yet complementary analyses. First, ordinary least squares regression was used to assess the association between overall family conflict and pre- and post-treatment substance use. Second, repeated measures latent class analysis was used to identify groups based on family member conflict and timing of conflict during treatment. Findings indicated that family conflict contributed unique variance to concurrent substance use; however pre-treatment family conflict was not related to post-treatment outcomes. Results also identified three distinct family conflict groups: no/low conflict, pre-treatment conflict, and post-treatment conflict who differed in pre- and post-treatment substance use. Post hoc investigation revealed that those who experienced pre-treatment conflict but low post-treatment conflict showed the greatest decrease in substance use. Findings highlight the importance of considering family conflict during all stages of treatment for Latino American substance users. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Adolescents' Conflict Management Styles with Mothers: Longitudinal Associations with Parenting and Reactance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missotten, Lies Christine; Luyckx, Koen; Branje, Susan; Van Petegem, Stijn

    2017-01-18

    Adolescents' conflict management styles with parents are assumed to have an important impact on the quality of the parent-adolescent relationship and on adolescents' psychosocial development. Longitudinal research investigating possible determinants of these conflict management skills is scarce. The parenting context and adolescents' tendency to reject maternal authority are expected to shape adolescents' conflict management styles. Therefore, the present three-wave longitudinal study focuses on how parenting and adolescents' reactance relates to adolescents' conflict management styles and conflict frequency with mothers over time, and whether reactance may also explain the associations between parenting and certain conflict variables. We addressed these research questions by using a hybrid cross-lagged panel model with parenting as a latent variable (i.e., supportive parenting) and the other variables as manifest variables. Supportive parenting was measured by four well-known parenting dimensions: autonomy support, responsiveness, psychological control, and harsh control. Four conflict styles were investigated: positive problem solving, withdrawal, conflict engagement, and compliance. Questionnaires were completed by 812 adolescents at three annual waves (52% girls at Time 1). Supportive parenting was associated with fewer conflicts, more positive problem solving, and less compliance and reactance over time. Reactance was associated with more conflicts, conflict engagement and withdrawal, and less compliance. We did not find evidence for the mediating role of reactance in the over-time associations between parenting and adolescents' conflict management and frequency. Both parenting and reactance appeared important and unique determinants for adolescents' conflict management styles and frequency.

  14. Conflict in a changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carleton, T.; Hsiang, S. M.; Burke, M.

    2016-05-01

    A growing body of research illuminates the role that changes in climate have had on violent conflict and social instability in the recent past. Across a diversity of contexts, high temperatures and irregular rainfall have been causally linked to a range of conflict outcomes. These findings can be paired with climate model output to generate projections of the impact future climate change may have on conflicts such as crime and civil war. However, there are large degrees of uncertainty in such projections, arising from (i) the statistical uncertainty involved in regression analysis, (ii) divergent climate model predictions, and (iii) the unknown ability of human societies to adapt to future climate change. In this article, we review the empirical evidence of the climate-conflict relationship, provide insight into the likely extent and feasibility of adaptation to climate change as it pertains to human conflict, and discuss new methods that can be used to provide projections that capture these three sources of uncertainty.

  15. INTELLIGENT RESOLUTION OF COOPERATIVE CONFLICT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    First, the concept of cooperative conflict is presented, and the characteristic of cooperative air combat is researched. Then, four methods of conflict resolution are designed by way of the first order predicate logic, I.e., link-up, coordination, accommodation and integration, and corresponding examples are given. A 2 vs 2 air combat simulation was carried out; after conflict resolution, the loss ratio is dropped to 0.54 from the original 1.32, so the enhancement of effectiveness is notable. The present research findings are that the wide conflicts discover the essence of multi-fighter cooperation, I.e., to as fully as possible enhance the effectiveness of each fighter to attain global optimization, and that the possibility of conflict resolution shows the application prospect. The proposed method in this paper is a helpful try to the application of the Fifth Generation Computer in the new generation of C3I system.

  16. CONFLICT PERSONALITY AS A PARTICIPANT OF CONFLICT DISCOURSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyranyan Margarita Yuryevna

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The conflict discourse as a communicative event reveals the characteristics of its participants as linguistic personalities. In this respect, this study enables us to reveal and describe their personal and social features. Undoubtedly, the individual characteristics of participants, their cultural and ideological differences and similarities have a great impact on the interaction process in general and on the use of linguistic means in particular. To better understand the nature of conflict discourse, its causes and consequences, one should take into account that adverse behaviour depends on the personality type and the role the speaker plays in different situations. Conflict personality is referred to as an archetype, transcendental phenomenon common to everybody. The research revealed such key characteristics typical of conflict personality as: verbal (use of language units with "conflict" connotation, the "manipulation" of speech means that convey negative, conflict meaning in particular contexts and non-verbal (communicative aim, communication medium, pre- and post-supposition of the speaker and the listener, mode of behaviour. It also proved that conflict patterns of behavior may lead to confrontation and/or transfer of collaborative interaction into an adverse one.

  17. Co-operation and conflict in a hospital: interprofessional differences in perception and management of conflicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skjørshammer, M

    2001-02-01

    This article presents a case study of a Norwegian hospital, analysing how health professionals manage conflicts related to work co-operation. Altogether, 29 health professionals working in the hospital were interviewed, and data was analysed according to a grounded theory approach. When in conflict, health professionals seem to use three major approaches to handling the situation: avoidance, forcing and negotiation, and usually in that order. Avoidance behaviour or suppression is the most common reaction to an emerging conflict. If the use of power does not re-establish a balance between the participants, one negotiates. These conflict styles seem to be determined by two major factors: the perceived interdependence between parties and the perceived urgency of doing something about the situation. Nurses and physicians in particular seem to differ considerably in their perception of what is a conflict and when to do something about it. Such differences in perceptions and the extensive use of avoidance represent important challenges to managers and clinical leaders when it comes to advancing interprofessional co-operation.

  18. Mental models at work: cognitive causes and consequences of conflict in organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halevy, Nir; Cohen, Taya R; Chou, Eileen Y; Katz, James J; Panter, A T

    2014-01-01

    This research investigated the reciprocal relationship between mental models of conflict and various forms of dysfunctional social relations in organizations, including experiences of task and relationship conflicts, interpersonal hostility, workplace ostracism, and abusive supervision. We conceptualize individual differences in conflict construals as reflecting variation in people's belief structures about conflict and explore how different elements in people's associative networks-in particular, their beliefs about their best and worst strategy in conflict-relate to their personality, shape their experiences of workplace conflict, and influence others' behavioral intentions toward them. Five studies using a variety of methods (including cross-sectional surveys, a 12-week longitudinal diary study, and an experiment) show that the best strategy beliefs relate in theoretically meaningful ways to individuals' personality, shape social interactions and relationships significantly more than the worst strategy beliefs, and are updated over time as a result of individuals' ongoing experiences of conflict.

  19. The emergence of the Activity Reduces Conflict Associated Strain (ARCAS) model: a test of a conditional mediation model of workplace conflict and employee strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, Maria T M; Beersma, Bianca; Cornelissen, Roosmarijn A W M

    2012-07-01

    To test and extend the emerging Activity Reduces Conflict-Associated Strain (ARCAS) model, we predicted that the relationship between task conflict and employee strain would be weakened to the extent that people experience high organization-based self-esteem (OBSE). A survey among Dutch employees demonstrated that, consistent with the model, the conflict-employee strain relationship was weaker the higher employees' OBSE and the more they engaged in active problem-solving conflict management. Our data also revealed that higher levels of OBSE were related to more problem-solving conflict management. Moreover, consistent with the ARCAS model, we could confirm a conditional mediation model in which organization-based self-esteem through its relationship with problem-solving conflict management weakened the relationship between task conflict and employee strain. Potential applications of the results are discussed.

  20. Conflict, Postconflict, and the Functions of the University: Lessons from Colombia and Other Armed Conflicts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, Ivan Francisco

    2013-01-01

    "Education and conflict" has emerged as a new field of study during the last two decades. However, higher education is still relatively absent from this debate as most of the research has focused on primary and non-formal education. This dissertation is an exploratory qualitative study on the potential role of higher education in…

  1. Building a Successful School Conflict Resolution Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbus, Judith

    1994-01-01

    Looks at components of conflict resolution programs in Toronto elementary schools. Describes how curriculum, peer resolution, and management work interdependently to support conflict resolution. Discusses establishing a program and lists key components of successful conflict resolution programs. (SR)

  2. Trust: An innovative tool for investigating marital conflict in response to a novel stressor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas-Thompson, Rachel G; George, Melissa W; Quinn-Sparks, Amy R

    2016-08-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate an innovative approach to elicit marital conflict behaviors in response to a novel stressor. Past research has relied exclusively on assessments of marital conflict that measure reoccurring or past conflict. Couples engaged in 2 interactions: (a) a standardized conflict discussion and (b) the Timed Reconstruction of Unseen Structures Together (TRUST) task, in which couples worked together to solve an unfamiliar problem. Results indicated that the TRUST task was effective at eliciting both positive and negative conflict behaviors and explained unique variance in self-reports of marital conflict and resolution after controlling for behavior during the standardized conflict discussion. Couples on average displayed more positive and fewer negative conflict behaviors during the TRUST task relative to the conflict discussion task and also rated the novel task as more difficult and stressful. In bivariate analyses, negative behaviors during the TRUST task were related to self-reports of marital conflict and resolution in expected directions for both men and women. In contrast, men who displayed more positive behaviors during the TRUST task self-reported more frequent and intense marital conflict; positive behaviors during the TRUST task were unrelated to women's self-reports of marital conflict or resolution. Implications and directions for future research are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record

  3. ERP correlates of the conflict level in the multi-response Stroop task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuderski, Adam; Senderecka, Magdalena; Kałamała, Patrycja; Kroczek, Bartłomiej; Ociepka, Michał

    2016-11-01

    This EEG study (N=33) examined event-related potentials associated with conflict between activated responses in the Stroop task, in order to examine the conflict monitoring theory of cognitive control, which predicts the strength of exerted control to be proportional to the detected level of conflict. However, existing research manipulated the sole presence/absence of conflict, but not its exact level. Here, by using a modified color-word task that allowed multiple correct responses for target colors, as well as multiple incorrect responses for distractor words, we manipulated the level of conflict among activated responses (and not only its presence). We expected that a larger number of activated incorrect responses (i.e., a presumably higher conflict) would entail more pronounced conflict-related potentials. Indeed, two components of the N450 wave, parietal negativity and medial frontal negativity, were more negatively deflected when conflict was higher, than when it was lower, visibly responding to the level of conflict. Slow potential weakly responded to the sheer presence of conflict, but not to its level. These results can be plausibly explained by the conflict monitoring theory with a modified conflict evaluation formula, whereas they are at odds with several alternative theories of cognitive control.

  4. Geopolitical Dimensions of the Syrian Conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Wakim

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article touches upon geopolitical dimension of the Syrian conflict. The authors consider in details regional subdivision of Syria and relations of Syrian regions with border countries. The authors of the article conclude that Arab nationalism as the Syrian state ideology and positioning of Syria as the center of Arab world were indispensable taking into account multiconfessional nature of Syria. Authors study the geostrategical doctrine of Hafez Asad (1970-2000 aimed to restore the territorial integrity of Syria (return of the Golan heights and creation of Great Syria, bring to light reasons of the alliances of Syria with Soviet Union and Iran. The authors discover reasons of hostility toward Syria from such actors as United States, Saudi Arabia, Turkey. The hostile attitude of the US political elites toward the Syrian state can be explained by American intention to undermine strategic partnership between Syria and Iran. Enmity of Saudi hostility toward the Syrian regime began with the assassination of the Lebanese Prime Minister Rafic Hariri (2005. This action destroyed the political balance in Lebanon and was considered by the Saudis as a threat to their interests. Article contains analysis of the Syrian role in the Saudi-Iranian rivalry. To opinion of the authors, Turkish involvement in the Syrian conflict began with the attempts of the regime’s change in this country and evolved to the defense of Turkish national interests from the Kurdish factor. The authors make some conclusions about the role of US, Iran, Saudi Arabia, Turkey in the Syrian conflicts. In the article it’s made some forecasts about the development of Syrian conflict. The authors especially predict possibility of disintegration of the Syrian state according to spheres of influence of the external actors involved to this conflict with Mediterranean coast, Homs and Damascus under the control of government, northern regions of the country under Kurdish control, Raqqa

  5. Managing conflict between large carnivores and livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Eeden, Lily M; Crowther, Mathew S; Dickman, Chris R; Macdonald, David W; Ripple, William J; Ritchie, Euan G; Newsome, Thomas M

    2017-05-29

    Large carnivores are persecuted globally because they threaten human industries and livelihoods. How this conflict is managed has consequences for the conservation of large carnivores and biodiversity more broadly. Mitigating human-predator conflict should be evidence-based and accommodate people's values while protecting carnivores. Despite much research into human and large-carnivore coexistence strategies, there have been few attempts to document the success of conflict-mitigation strategies on a global scale. We conducted a meta-analysis of global research on conflict mitigation related to large carnivores and humans. We focused on conflicts that arise from the threat large carnivores pose to livestock. We first used structured and unstructured searching to identify replicated studies that used before-after or control-impact design to measure change in livestock loss as a result of implementing a management intervention. We then extracted relevant data from these studies to calculate an overall effect size for each intervention type. Research effort and focus varied among continents and aligned with the histories and cultures that shaped livestock production and attitudes toward carnivores. Livestock guardian animals most effectively reduced livestock losses. Lethal control was the second most effective control, although its success varied the most, and guardian animals and lethal control did not differ significantly. Financial incentives have promoted tolerance of large carnivores in some settings and reduced retaliatory killings. We suggest coexistence strategies be location-specific, incorporate cultural values and environmental conditions, and be designed such that return on financial investment can be evaluated. Improved monitoring of mitigation measures is urgently required to promote effective evidence-based policy. © 2017 Society for Conservation Biology.

  6. Police suicide research: conflict and consensus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Violanti, John M

    2008-01-01

    Despite new frontiers in suicide research over the past ten years, police suicide remains a difficult, persistent, and controversial problem. Controversy appears to focus on the accuracy and validity of police suicide rates, but other controversies exist as well. This is likely due to studies that are methodologically flawed, incomplete, or specific to limited geographic areas. The objective of this paper is to review issues related to both conflicts and consensus on police suicide.

  7. Climate change, conflict and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, Devin C; Butler, Colin D; Morisetti, Neil

    2015-10-01

    Future climate change is predicted to diminish essential natural resource availability in many regions and perhaps globally. The resulting scarcity of water, food and livelihoods could lead to increasingly desperate populations that challenge governments, enhancing the risk of intra- and interstate conflict. Defence establishments and some political scientists view climate change as a potential threat to peace. While the medical literature increasingly recognises climate change as a fundamental health risk, the dimension of climate change-associated conflict has so far received little attention, despite its profound health implications. Many analysts link climate change with a heightened risk of conflict via causal pathways which involve diminishing or changing resource availability. Plausible consequences include: increased frequency of civil conflict in developing countries; terrorism, asymmetric warfare, state failure; and major regional conflicts. The medical understanding of these threats is inadequate, given the scale of health implications. The medical and public health communities have often been reluctant to interpret conflict as a health issue. However, at times, medical workers have proven powerful and effective peace advocates, most notably with regard to nuclear disarmament. The public is more motivated to mitigate climate change when it is framed as a health issue. Improved medical understanding of the association between climate change and conflict could strengthen mitigation efforts and increase cooperation to cope with the climate change that is now inevitable. © The Royal Society of Medicine.

  8. Three dimensions in rhetorical conflict analysis: A topological model

    OpenAIRE

    Trygve Svensson

    2016-01-01

    Conflict is omnipresent in human relations. So is rhetoric in conflict situations. Hence, there is a danger of taking conflict and its different forms of resolution for granted when we do rhetorical analysis. “Rhetoric” is often used as a general and non-scientific term in the social sciences; the same is the case for “conflict” in rhetorical scholarship. Hence, there is a need for concrete analytical tools. This article suggests a topological model to analyze three dimensions of rhetoric in ...

  9. Conflict Risk and its Implications on Economy and Financial System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umit Hacioglu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Considering the impacts of the conflict on the economic parameters in terms of macroeconomics, the following factors might affect the profitability of the company: foreign capital outflows, decrease in exports, increase in the interest rates, disruption of the investment climate, increase in the exchange rates, increase in the costs of import entry etc. Due to the expectable decrease in profit shares as to the investors, the contraction in the risk appetite will cause volatility in the prices of equity securities markets based on the impacts of the conflict, and the equity securities will depreciate. In this study, the main contributions on conflict risk and related econometric models have been discussed.

  10. Humour Use Between Spouses and Positive and Negative Interpersonal Behaviours During Conflict

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The present research investigated the relation between the use of positive, negative and instrumental humour in the context of romantic relationships and relational well-being as assessed by positive and negative patterns of conflict resolution behaviour. A sample of 116 heterosexual married couples completed scales of relational humour use as well as conflict resolution behaviour. Behaviour of couples while attempting to resolve a relationship based conflict was also coded by independent rat...

  11. Mental set and creative thought in social conflict: threat rigidity versus motivated focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Dreu, Carsten K W; Nijstad, Bernard A

    2008-09-01

    According to the traditional threat-rigidity reasoning, people in social conflict will be less flexible, less creative, more narrow-minded, and more rigid in their thinking when they adopt a conflict rather than a cooperation mental set. The authors propose and test an alternative, motivated focus account that better fits existing evidence. The authors report experimental results inconsistent with a threat-rigidity account, but supporting the idea that people focus their cognitive resources on conflict-related material more when in a conflict rather than a cooperation mental set: Disputants with a conflict (cooperation) set have broader (smaller) and more (less) inclusive cognitive categories when the domain of thought is (un)related to conflict (Experiment 1a-1b). Furthermore, they generate more, and more original competition tactics (Experiments 2-4), especially when they have low rather than high need for cognitive closure. Implications for conflict theory, for motivated information processing, and creativity research are discussed.

  12. When Task Conflict Becomes Personal: The Impact of Perceived Team Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenter, Hannes; van Emmerik, Hetty; Schreurs, Bert; Kuypers, Tom; van Iterson, Ad; Notelaers, Guy

    2016-10-01

    Although potentially beneficial, task conflict may threaten teams because it often leads to relationship conflict. Prior research has identified a set of interpersonal factors (e.g., team communication, team trust) that help attenuate this association. The purpose of this article is to provide an alternative perspective that focuses on the moderating role of performance-related factors (i.e., perceived team performance). Using social identity theory, we build a model that predicts how task conflict associates with growth in relationship conflict and how perceived team performance influences this association. We test a three-wave longitudinal model by means of random coefficient growth modeling, using data from 60 ongoing teams working in a health care organization. Results provide partial support for our hypotheses. Only when perceived team performance is low, do task conflicts relate with growth in relationship conflict. We conclude that perceived team performance seems to enable teams to uncouple task from relationship conflict.

  13. Information system conflicts: causes and types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Boonstra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Conflicts are an inherent part of organizational life and managers deal with confrontations and conflicts on an almost daily basis. Information Systems (IS implementations are a type of change that often leads to open or hidden conflicts. Managers and others involved can only deal with such conflicts effectively if they understand the nature and causes of information system conflicts (IS conflicts. To contribute to such an understanding, this study focuses on the analysis of IS conflicts. In so doing, it aims to identify various types of IS conflicts and to develop a framework that can be helpful in assessing these conflicts. To this end, we have conducted a meta-ethnographic study – that is, we synthesized earlier case studies in which IS conflicts are described. We purposefully selected 11 descriptions of IS conflicts and we analyzed the topics, contexts, and processes of these conflicts. Based on this analysis, we propose a two-dimensional framework of IS conflicts that leads to a categorization involving four IS conflict types: task; implementation process; structure; and value conflicts. Based on the conflicts that were studied, this paper also reveals that, in reality, many IS conflicts have a hybrid form and develop from one type to another over time.

  14. MANAGING CONFLICT IN ENGINEERING PROJECTS: NEW ZEALAND EXPERIENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Naismith

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available There is a wealth of knowledge concerning conflict management and its resolution in the workplace, however there is a dearth of information relating to conflict management and its resolution in engineering project management. This paper set out to examine the reality of conflict management in engineering project management in New Zealand. This was achieved through a review of credible literature sources and the completion of a pilot study to gain subject matter expert perspectives. The research suggests that conflicts can be destructive, resulting in anxiety and strong emotional responses leading to reflexive reactions including avoidance, aggression, fight, hostility and a breakdown in communications and relationships. Findings indicate that managing a project structure is synonymous with handling conflict and these disagreements can be detrimental to the success of a project. The initial results suggest that a number of factors act as drivers of conflict in engineering projects in New Zealand. These drivers are: power, personality, group dynamics and organisation culture. The conflict resolution tools cited as being widely used for engineering projects are collaboration and negotiation. The paper also offers recommendations for future research.

  15. Sustained attention ability in schizophrenia: Investigation of conflict monitoring mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoonakker, Marc; Doignon-Camus, Nadège; Marques-Carneiro, José Eduardo; Bonnefond, Anne

    2017-09-01

    The main goal of the current study was to assess, with a time-on-task approach, sustained attention ability in schizophrenia, and to investigate conflict monitoring underlying this ability. Behavioral and event-related potentials data (N2 and P3a amplitudes) were recorded in a long-lasting sustained attention Go/NoGo task (sustained attention to response task, SART), over a period of 30min, in 29 patients with schizophrenia and 29 pair-matched healthy subjects. Our results revealed spared sustained attention ability in patients throughout the task. Impairment of conflict detection (N2) in patients was particularly significant at the end of the task. Furthermore, both schizophrenia and healthy subjects exhibited a decline in conflict detection from the beginning to the middle of the task. Whereas controls' conflict detection recovered in the last part of the task, patients' did not, suggesting a deficit in recovery processes reflecting a lack of additional resources sustained attention Go/NoGo task. Conflict resolution (P3a) was preserved throughout the task in both groups. Conflict monitoring processes are increasingly impaired in schizophrenia during a long-lasting sustained attention Go/NoGo task. This impairment at the end of the task may rely on deficit in recovery processes, rather than a deficit in conflict detection per se in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Forest conflict in Thailand: northern minorities in focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hares, Minna

    2009-03-01

    This paper aims at exploring the local background of and solutions to the forest conflict in upland areas inhabited by ethnic minorities, who are called hill tribes, in northern Thailand. A so-called hill tribe problem has been officially identified as a result of the slash-and-burn cultivation and other perceived problems, such as opium poppy cultivation, illegal immigration, and the suspicion of disloyalty to the state. This has created distrust and tension between the groups and authorities. The local conflict has recently been related to the dilemma of conserving the forest from all human interference, while many people live and make their livelihood within and adjacent to the protected areas. Furthermore, as the results imply, strictly protected areas and reforestation have also increased the competition over land and natural resources and, thereby, the likelihood of local conflicts. The scarcity and pollution of water, illegal logging, and poor fire control have contributed to the conflicts between local communities. The conflicts between the local communities and officials have been nourished by political and public discussions. Using definitions and terms with negative connotations and ignoring the heterogeneity between the groups or labeling some groups as malevolent have increased distrust and strengthened existing stereotypical images. Conflict resolution starts with efforts toward better mutual understanding, and changes in structures and attitudes are necessary. Local cooperation, utilization of traditional methods, and local institutions are central to conflict solving.

  17. Forest Conflict in Thailand: Northern Minorities in Focus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hares, Minna

    2009-03-01

    This paper aims at exploring the local background of and solutions to the forest conflict in upland areas inhabited by ethnic minorities, who are called hill tribes, in northern Thailand. A so-called hill tribe problem has been officially identified as a result of the slash-and-burn cultivation and other perceived problems, such as opium poppy cultivation, illegal immigration, and the suspicion of disloyalty to the state. This has created distrust and tension between the groups and authorities. The local conflict has recently been related to the dilemma of conserving the forest from all human interference, while many people live and make their livelihood within and adjacent to the protected areas. Furthermore, as the results imply, strictly protected areas and reforestation have also increased the competition over land and natural resources and, thereby, the likelihood of local conflicts. The scarcity and pollution of water, illegal logging, and poor fire control have contributed to the conflicts between local communities. The conflicts between the local communities and officials have been nourished by political and public discussions. Using definitions and terms with negative connotations and ignoring the heterogeneity between the groups or labeling some groups as malevolent have increased distrust and strengthened existing stereotypical images. Conflict resolution starts with efforts toward better mutual understanding, and changes in structures and attitudes are necessary. Local cooperation, utilization of traditional methods, and local institutions are central to conflict solving.

  18. Fluid intelligence and neural mechanisms of conflict adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Tongran; Jiannong, Shi; Xiao, Tong

    2016-01-01

    The current study investigated whether adolescents with different intellectual levels have different conflict adaptation processes. Adolescents with high and average IQ abilities were enrolled, and their behavioral responses and event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded during a modified Erik...... adaptation control processing with smaller SP amplitude-CAE values. In conclusion, the present study revealed the essential association between fluid intelligence and conflict adaptation processes....

  19. Impact of conflict in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Touré

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Since independence, few African countries have beenspared violence and armed conflict. Two West Africanresearch networks recently organised an internationalcolloquium to assess the impact and develop linkagesbetween education, peace and democracy.

  20. Conflicted Pasts and National Identities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    With reference to current theories of cultural memory, the book explores how memories of war and conflict are passed from generation to generation, how these complex processes have transformed and shaped collective identities, and how they still inform national "conversations"....

  1. Does conflict control occur without awareness? Evidence from an ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Baoxi; Xiang, Ling; Li, Juan

    2013-01-15

    The relationship between conflict control and awareness has attracted extensive interest. Although researchers have investigated the relationship between response conflict and awareness, it still remains unclear whether stimulus conflict can occur outside of awareness. In addition, previous studies on the role of awareness in conflict control have ignored the fact that conflict control includes both conflict detection and resolution. A modified version of the flanker task was used to manipulate stimulus and response conflicts under both masked and unmasked conditions. The masked condition elicited a sequence of distinct event-related potential components that were also observed in the unmasked condition. N2 amplitudes presented the following pattern: incongruent-eligible>incongruent-ineligible>congruent, they did not show any difference under the masked and unmasked conditions, suggesting that detection of stimulus-related conflict revealed by the comparison between incongruent-ineligible and congruent trials, and response-related conflict revealed by the comparison between incongruent-eligible and incongruent-ineligible trials can occur in the absence of awareness, and unconscious conflict detection might involve the same neural network employed for conscious conflict detection. Late positive component (LPC) amplitudes also presented as incongruent-eligible>incongruent-ineligible>congruent at CPz and Pz, irrespective of conscious awareness. However, LPC amplitudes under the masked condition were markedly reduced compared to unmasked trials. These LPC findings suggest that stimulus- and response-related conflict resolution can occur in the absence of awareness; furthermore, unconscious conflict resolution might involve a weaker cognitive control network compared to conscious conflict resolution. These findings have important implications for the theories concerning the relationship between cognitive control and awareness.

  2. Ottoman-Hungarian Conflict through Venetian Eyes

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    N. Zeynep YELÇE

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The new phase in Ottoman-Hungarian relations starting with the ascension of Süleyman I and the following period of conflict have been thoroughly examined by scholars; causes and effects have been analyzed; and the process has been evaluated in a wide array of perspectives ranging from evaluations as a process of glorious conquest to a process of tragic enslavement. This paper moves away from such grand narratives to explore the way the process was perceived by contemporaries as they lived through the conflict. As such, this paper focuses on the letters of Lorenzo Orio, the Venetian ambassador in Buda between 1519-1523. From his arrival in Buda on June 5, 1519, to his presentation of his report to the Pregadi on December 22, 1523; Orio has been a close witness of the relations and conflicts between the Ottomans, Habsburgs, and the Hungarians. The information offered by Orio in these tumultuous times, as he tried to present a neutral stance for Venice, has not only added to the soft power of Venice but presents us the experience and perception of an era. In other words, it opens a window to the rumors, gossip, fears, and hopes in the daily lives of the contemporaries.

  3. Teaching Conflict: Professionalism and Medical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, K J

    2015-12-01

    Resistance by physicians, medical researchers, medical educators, and medical students to pharmaceutical industry influence in medicine is often based on the notion that physicians (guided by the ethics of their profession) and the industry (guided by profit) are in conflict. This criticism has taken the form of a professional movement opposing conflict of interest (COI) in medicine and medical education and has resulted in policies and guidelines that frame COI as the problem and outline measures to address this problem. In this paper, I offer a critique of this focus on COI that is grounded in a broader critique of neo-liberalism, arguing it individualizes the relationship between physicians and industry, too neatly delineates between the two entities, and reduces the network of social, economic, and political relations to this one dilemma.

  4. Conflicts and alliances in insect families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundström, L.; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan

    2001-01-01

    Hamilton's principle of inclusive fitness implies that reproductive altruism can evolve, because individuals can pass on genes not only through their own offspring, but also through the offspring of their relatives. Social insects are spectacular examples of how some individuals may be selected...... to forgo reproduction and instead help others reproduce. Social Hymenoptera are also special because relatedness patterns within families can be asymmetrical, so that optimal sex-ratios, preferred male parentage or preferred mating frequencies become objects of reproductive conflict. The now extensive...... of kin selection as a major evolutionary force, the results suggest that workers frequently control sex allocation. However, the very establishment of such worker control has made new conflicts come to light, between mothers and fathers and between adult individuals and brood. Evidence...

  5. Conflicts Over "Conflict": Preventing Fragmentation of International Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adarsh Ramanujan

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Public international law does not envisage a single source of law; nor does it contemplate a single supreme law-creating body. Conflict between various norms, whatever be their nature, is therefore an inevitability. Such conflicts are one of the many causes that affect the ability of the legal system to maintain stability and accountability. Resolving such conflicts is essential to ensure that any system does not fall under its own weight. The importance of resolving conflicts is amplified in the context of the public international law regime, which consists of a number of sub-systems, thereby resulting in a higher probability of conflicts. Equally important to the issue of resolving conflict is identifying when the solution is to be applied. After all, what good is any “ultimate answer” without identifying the “ultimate question”! In other words, one must first identify the existence of a conflict to resolve it. Very few publicists of international repute have, however, dealt with this issue, in particular, in sufficient substantive detail. Despite the limited number of opinions, there is, unfortunately, no consensus on this topic. The present comment portrays the author’s view on this issue. In this comment, the question has been analyzed with a very simple policy objective: avoiding fragmentation of international law. The author’s views are presented by way of critically examining the opinion of Joost Pauwelyn, a noted scholar in this field, who has most recently dealt with this issue in a comprehensive manner. Moulded into this crtique are three hypothetical scenarios that would allow the reader to grasp the significance of the question.

  6. Oral buspirone causes a shift in the dose-response curve between the elevated-plus maze and Vogel conflict tests in Long-Evans rats: relation of brain levels of buspirone and 1-PP to anxiolytic action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidya, A H; Rosenthal, D I; Lang, W; Crooke, J J; Benjamin, D; Ilyin, S E; Reitz, A B

    2005-05-01

    Most studies concerning the effects of oral buspirone in the rat elevated plus-maze (EPM) test, spontaneous motor activity (SMA) test, and Vogel conflict (VC) test have used Sprague-Dawley or Wistar rats. Although it has been documented that the behavior of Long-Evans rats is more sensitive to detection of anxiolytics when compared to the aforementioned strains, the effects of oral buspirone have not been fully characterized in the Long-Evans strain in the EPM and VC tests. Thus, we studied the effects of orally administered buspirone (0.03-10.0 mg/kg) in the EPM, SMA, and VC (0.3-60.0 mg/kg) tests in Long-Evans rats. In a separate experiment, brain and plasma concentrations of buspirone and 1-(2-pyrimidinyl)-piperazine (1-PP) were determined after oral administration of buspirone (0.3 and 10 mg/kg) to relate the behavioral effects of buspirone with brain and plasma concentrations of buspirone and 1-PP. Our results showed that buspirone exhibited an inverted-U-shaped dose-response curve in both the EPM and the VC tests. In the EPM, buspirone produced anxiolytic activity in a low, narrow dose-range (0.03, 0.1, 0.3 mg/kg, p.o.) with maximum efficacy at 0.3 mg/kg, whereas in the VC test, significant anxiolytic activity was observed in a high, narrow dose-range (10, 30 mg/kg, p.o.) with maximum efficacy occurring at 10 mg/kg. In the SMA test, buspirone (10 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly decreased horizontal activity and vertical movements suggestive of sedation. Also, one hour following oral doses of buspirone (0.3 and 10 mg/kg), both buspirone and 1-PP concentrations were higher in brain when compared with those in plasma. Additionally, the concentrations of 1-PP were always higher in brain and in plasma compared with the concentrations of buspirone. Of particular interest is our finding of the shift in the dose-response curve between the EPM and VC tests. This shift in the dose-response curve is discussed in relation to brain levels of buspirone and 1-PP levels and their

  7. Work-life conflict and associations with work- and nonwork-related factors and with physical and mental health outcomes: a nationally representative cross-sectional study in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gutzwiller Felix

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the present cross-sectional study was to examine work- and nonwork- related factors and physical and mental health outcomes associated with combined time- and strain-based work-life conflict (WLC among adult employees living and working in Switzerland as well as possible gender differences in this regard. Methods The data used for the study were taken from wave 6 of the nationally representative Swiss Household Panel (SHP collected in 2004. The analysis was restricted to 4'371 employees aged 20 to 64 years. Trivariate crosstabulations and multivariate linear and logistic regression analyses stratified by gender were performed in order to calculate gender-specific prevalence rates (%, beta coefficients (β and crude as well as multiple adjusted odds ratios (OR as measures of association. Results Every eighth person (12.5% within the study population has a high or very high WLC score. Prevalence rates are clearly above average in men and women with higher education, in executive positions or managerial functions, in full-time jobs, with variable work schedules, regular overtime, long commuting time to work and job insecurity. Working overtime regularly, having variable work schedules and being in a management position are most strongly associated with WLC in men, whereas in women the level of employment is the strongest explanatory variable by far, followed by variable work schedules and high job status (managerial position. In both men and women, WLC is associated with several physical and mental health problems. Employees with high or very high WLC show a comparatively high relative risk of self-reported poor health, anxiety and depression, lack of energy and optimism, serious backache, headaches, sleep disorders and fatigue. While overall prevalence rate of (very high WLC is higher in men than in women, associations between degrees of WLC and most health outcomes are stronger in women than in men. Conclusion This

  8. Securing Security Governance in Post-conflict Situation : A Framework of Conflict Prevention through ECOWARN in West African Region

    OpenAIRE

    Yamane, Tatsuo

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on an analytical approach of “security governance” in light of post-conflict situation and aims to examine a system of conflict prevention in the West African region from a viewpoint of the approach. The security governance initially developed security studies of International Relations especially for the regional governance in the field of European security. On that basis of making and developing the new perspective for the region, it currently goes to expand the subject...

  9. Humour Use Between Spouses and Positive and Negative Interpersonal Behaviours During Conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorne Campbell

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The present research investigated the relation between the use of positive, negative and instrumental humour in the context of romantic relationships and relational well-being as assessed by positive and negative patterns of conflict resolution behaviour. A sample of 116 heterosexual married couples completed scales of relational humour use as well as conflict resolution behaviour. Behaviour of couples while attempting to resolve a relationship based conflict was also coded by independent raters. Actor-Partner Interdependence Model (APIM analyses showed patterns of actor and partner effects for each type of humour use. Specifically, positive humour use of both partners predicted more positive conflict resolution, whereas negative humour use of both partners predicted less positive conflict resolution. Additionally, instrumental humour use of both partners seemed to predict greater apathy during conflict resolution. Implications for considering couple humor use, assessed for both partners of the dyad, for understanding relational well-being are discussed.

  10. Information system conflicts : causes and types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonstra, Albert; de Vries, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Conflicts are an inherent part of organizational life and managers deal with confrontations and conflicts on an almost daily basis. IS implementations are a type of change that often leads to open or hidden conflicts. Managers and others involved can only deal with such conflicts effectively if they

  11. Handling Conflict in the Work Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Ernest W.

    1997-01-01

    Discussion of workplace conflict management examines erroneous assumptions inherent in traditional reaction patterns, considers key elements of planning for conflict prevention, and some workplace strategies to help minimize conflicts. Several approaches to conflict management, and their outcomes, are highlighted, and stages of the…

  12. Information system conflicts : causes and types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonstra, Albert; de Vries, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Conflicts are an inherent part of organizational life and managers deal with confrontations and conflicts on an almost daily basis. IS implementations are a type of change that often leads to open or hidden conflicts. Managers and others involved can only deal with such conflicts effectively if they

  13. Sovereignty in Conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Besson

    2004-09-01

    implied by constitutional pluralism, while also enhancing the legitimacy of the European polity. This can be observed in the context of difficult issues such as constitutional conflicts, legislative cooperation and, finally, multi-level constitutionalism.

  14. Double Dose: High Family Conflict Enhances the Effect of Media Violence Exposure on Adolescents’ Aggression

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    Patti M. Valkenburg

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We investigated how exposure to media violence and family conflict affects adolescents’ subsequent aggressive behavior. We expected a double dose effect, meaning that high media violence exposure would lead to higher levels of aggression for adolescents in high conflict families compared to low conflict families. A total of 499 adolescents (aged 10 to 14, 48% girls participated in a two-wave longitudinal survey (4-month interval. Survey questions assessed their exposure to violence on television and in electronic games, family conflict, and aggressive behavior. Analyses revealed a significant interaction between media violence and family conflict. In families with higher conflict, higher media violence exposure was related to increased subsequent aggression. This study is the first to show a double dose effect of media violence and family conflict on adolescents’ aggression. These findings underscore the important role of the family in shaping the effects of adolescents’ media use on their social development.

  15. Social capital, conflict, and adaptive collaborative governance: exploring the dialectic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia McDougall

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Previously lineal and centralized natural resource management and development paradigms have shifted toward the recognition of complexity and dynamism of social-ecological systems, and toward more adaptive, decentralized, and collaborative models. However, certain messy and surprising dynamics remain under-recognized, including the inherent interplay between conflict, social capital, and governance. In this study we consider the dynamic intersections of these three often (seemingly disparate phenomena. In particular, we consider the changes in social capital and conflict that accompanied a transition by local groups toward adaptive collaborative governance. The findings are drawn from multiyear research into community forestry in Nepal using comparative case studies. The study illustrates the complex, surprising, and dialectical relations among these three phenomena. Findings include: a demonstration of the pervasive nature of conflict and "dark side" of social capital; that collaborative efforts changed social capital, rather than simply enhancing it; and that conflict at varying scales ultimately had some constructive influences.

  16. Bilingualism tunes the anterior cingulate cortex for conflict monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abutalebi, Jubin; Della Rosa, Pasquale Anthony; Green, David W; Hernandez, Mireia; Scifo, Paola; Keim, Roland; Cappa, Stefano F; Costa, Albert

    2012-09-01

    Monitoring and controlling 2 language systems is fundamental to language use in bilinguals. Here, we reveal in a combined functional (event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging) and structural neuroimaging (voxel-based morphometry) study that dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), a structure tightly bound to domain-general executive control functions, is a common locus for language control and resolving nonverbal conflict. We also show an experience-dependent effect in the same region: Bilinguals use this structure more efficiently than monolinguals to monitor nonlinguistic cognitive conflicts. They adapted better to conflicting situations showing less ACC activity while outperforming monolinguals. Importantly, for bilinguals, brain activity in the ACC, as well as behavioral measures, also correlated positively with local gray matter volume. These results suggest that early learning and lifelong practice of 2 languages exert a strong impact upon human neocortical development. The bilingual brain adapts better to resolve cognitive conflicts in domain-general cognitive tasks.

  17. Conflicting views on elder care responsibility in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kristen Schultz

    2016-05-01

    I examine the attitudinal ambivalence created by conflicting social expectations regarding parent-child devotion, filial obligation and family membership, and gender norms in a national population of Japanese adults. I ask: in a context of rapidly changing family and elder care norms, how do different beliefs and attitudes overlap and conflict and how are they related to elder care preferences? I analyze data from the 2006 Japanese General Social Survey and use Latent Class Analysis to identify latent groups in the population defined by their beliefs and examine the relationship between class membership and elder care preferences. I found variation in the population with respect to the measured beliefs as well as a relationship between patterns of beliefs and choice of elder caregiver. I found conflicting expectations regarding elder care responsibility in one latent class and this class also expressed elder care preferences that conflict with at least some of their strongly held beliefs.

  18. Kantian fractionalization predicts the conflict propensity of the international system

    CERN Document Server

    Cranmer, Skyler J; Mucha, Peter J

    2014-01-01

    The study of complex social and political phenomena with the perspective and methods of network science has proven fruitful in a variety of areas, including applications in political science and more narrowly the field of international relations. We propose a new line of research in the study of international conflict by showing that the multiplex fractionalization of the international system (which we label Kantian fractionalization) is a powerful predictor of the propensity for violent interstate conflict, a key indicator of the system's stability. In so doing, we also demonstrate the first use of multislice modularity for community detection in a multiplex network application. Even after controlling for established system-level conflict indicators, we find that Kantian fractionalization contributes more to model fit for violent interstate conflict than previously established measures. Moreover, evaluating the influence of each of the constituent networks shows that joint democracy plays little, if any, rol...

  19. Generational Differences in Work-Family Conflict and Synergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas J. Beutell

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines differences in work-family conflict and synergy among the four generational groups represented in the contemporary workforce: Generation Y Generation X, Baby Boomers, and Matures using data from the 2008 National Study of the Changing Workforce (n = 3,502. Significant generational differences were found for work-family conflict (work interfering with family and family interfering with work but not for work-family synergy. Mental health and job pressure were the best predictors of work interfering with family conflict for each generational group. Work-family synergy presented a more complex picture. Work-family conflict and synergy were significantly related to job, marital, and life satisfaction. Implications and directions for future research are discussed.

  20. Three dimensions in rhetorical conflict analysis: A topological model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trygve Svensson

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Conflict is omnipresent in human relations. So is rhetoric in conflict situations. Hence, there is a danger of taking conflict and its different forms of resolution for granted when we do rhetorical analysis. “Rhetoric” is often used as a general and non-scientific term in the social sciences; the same is the case for “conflict” in rhetorical scholarship. Hence, there is a need for concrete analytical tools. This article suggests a topological model to analyze three dimensions of rhetoric in conflict resolution, management or handling. Using “I’ve Been to the Mountaintop,” the famous last speech of Martin Luther King Jr., as an example, I use the model to give an analytic overview.

  1. The Structure of Collective Conflict Management Networks: Looking Beyond the Intuition of Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Pellon, Gaëlle

    2015-01-01

    Drawing from the results of an empirical study of the conflict in South-Ossetia (Georgia) and building on social network analysis and inter-organisational theory, this contribution challenges current IR approaches of inter-organisational cooperation in conflict management. Collective conflict management is conceptualised as a dynamic system of a selected set of actors engaged in persistent and structured inter-organisational relations. Using the new Database On Inter-Organisational Relations ...

  2. Interpersonal conflict and health perceptions in long-distance caregiving relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevan, Jennifer L; Vreeburg, Sean K; Verdugo, Sherri; Sparks, Lisa

    2012-08-01

    With job markets expanding globally and life expectancy continually increasing, more demands are being placed on distant relatives to provide care for their aging family members, creating a health care situation known as long-distance caregiving. An online survey explored the relations between negative health perceptions by long-distance caregivers and conflict frequency and conflict strategy usage. The authors observed positive significant relations between distant caregiver negative health perceptions and conflict frequency and usage of the distributive and avoidance conflict strategies. However, they observed no significant associations between distant caregiver negative health perceptions and usage of the two integrative strategies. Implications for long-distance caregiving communication are discussed.

  3. Religious Values and Conflict of Laws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Tonolo

    2016-02-01

    Abstract: The wide evolution of private international law is currently recalling attention to the general aspects of the discipline. Europeanization and globalisation of sources of private international law do not preclude the chance that conflict of laws should also deal with individual identities. To the extent that the European systems have hitherto offered to the application of foreign laws, we are faced with the problem of survival in Europe of an idea of the personality of laws. In fact it’s generally accepted that conflict of laws faces the individual identities of people involved in international relations. Cultural identity may be considered collective and individual at the same time, because each member of the group has an identity of its own. Religious values ontribute to defining the cultural identity of individuals: be it in Europe or other countries, cultures, values, civilization, religion, are never absent from the solutions of personal status. Stepping back from the analysis of some cases where religious values are relevant, this Article aims at a theoretical analysis of the subject, involving the contrast between value pluralism, conflict of laws and fundamental rights.

  4. Adolescents in conflict: Intercultural contact attitudes of immigrant mothers and adolescents as predictors of family conflicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titzmann, Peter F; Sonnenberg, Katharina

    2016-08-01

    Recent research demonstrates that intergenerational differences in immigrant families' adaptation can be detrimental for family functioning. However, most of the findings originate from immigrant groups in North America who face different situations compared with European Diaspora returnees. This comparative study investigated whether ethnic German Diaspora immigrant adolescents' and mothers' disagreement about the desirability of adolescents' intercultural contact with native peers relates to more conflict in the family domain. In addition, we accounted for general developmental factors predicting family conflict by considering adolescents' background in terms of prosocial behaviour and hyperactivity. Participants comprised 185 Diaspora immigrant mother-adolescent dyads from the former Soviet Union living in Germany (adolescents: mean age 15.7 years, 60% female) and 197 native German mother-adolescent dyads (adolescents: mean age 14.7 years, 53% female). Results indicated a similar level of family conflict in immigrant and native families. However, conflict was elevated in those immigrant families disagreeing on intercultural contact attitudes, independent of the significant effects of adolescents' background of prosocial behaviour or hyperactivity. Our study highlights potential side effects in the family domain, if immigrant adolescents and parents disagree in their attitude regarding adaptation to the host culture's life domains, such as contact with native peers.

  5. Conflict and the women of Chad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sy, A D

    1993-06-01

    Chad was used as an example of how women and children were the most affected during national and international conflicts. The conditions of women before and during the conflict were described. Chad has been a country involved in a war provoked by psychological differences between the way of life, economic activity, and culture of Arab Muslims who are nomadic pastoralists, and Animist and Christian farmers. The important year was 1979, when the country was torn apart by civil war. Women before the conflict were part of a patriarchal society of men heading households and sole producers for the family. One decision maker controlled family matters: the man. Men also possessed all household goods. Women were biological and social producers, and value was placed on having large numbers of children. Muslim women lived in seclusion. Married women, who engaged in commercial activity, were mocked and exposed their husbands to the humiliation of not being able to provide sufficiently for the family. Between 1979 and 1982, many men were exiled to other countries nearby, which sometimes meant the abandonment of women and children. The remaining men were limited in their ability to earn money, and reverted to fishing, farming, and hunting. Gender relations changed. Survival strategies were developed, such as women working as domestics or selling products. Petty trading and agricultural and market gardening enterprises were flourishing. Women learned skills in dressmaking, embroidery, or knitting. Sometimes long distances were traveled in order to secure income. Women set up their own banking system with a system of "tontines" or savings cooperatives. The war's impact was to disrupt social and private life, which allowed women to enter the public domain and contribute to economic security. The downside of the conflict was the toll in human life and poverty for vast numbers of women and children. The physical, financial, and psychological exhaustion helped to create an awareness

  6. CONFLICT AS A SOURCE ETIOLOGY PATHOLOGY IN ORGANIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Mazanowska

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The slightest conflict resulting in the organization is able to bring quite a lot of human energy and effort, cause all kinds of damage not only material but also moral or social. In a modern economy based on knowledge, possession by management, although the basic knowledge about the sources of the origin of the conflict, holistic course and how to solve should be an essential link for the proper functioning of the company. The ability to recognize the signals of conflicts arising in the workplace, may allow for accurate diagnosis supervisor of the substrate and the immediate reaction towards their elimination. Topics addressed in the publication relates, inter alia, the nature and object of the conflict. The study verified the plane of its creation. It also discusses the process of conflict situations-interactions on human behaviour within the company. Bearing in mind that the conflict causes a lot of negative socio-economic, this article is a contribution to the debate on the degree of its occurrence in the organization. The main aim of this article is to find confirmation of the thesis that the conflict is the etiology of problems in interpersonal relations in the company thereby causing undesirable pathological phenomena, causing disorganization in the functioning of the entire organizational structure. In order to achieve that objective formulated analysed the existing literature on the subject, are examples of the increasing conflicts and their consequences. The author on the basis of the foregoing attempts to identify the problem and assess its negative impact on the organization. As a result of these activities were used by individual cases.

  7. How to Preempt Team Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toegel, Ginka; Barsoux, Jean-Louis

    2016-06-01

    Team conflict can add value or destroy it. Good conflict fosters respectful debate and yields mutually agreed-upon solutions that are often far superior to those first offered. Bad conflict occurs when team members simply can't get past their differences, killing productivity and stifling innovation. Destructive conflict typically stems not from differences of opinion but from a perceived incompatibility between the way certain team members think and act. The conventional approach to working through such conflict is to respond to clashes as they arise. But this approach routinely fails because it allows frustrations to build for too long, making it difficult to reset negative impressions and restore trust. In their research on team dynamics and experience working with executive teams, Toegel and Barsoux have found a proactive approach to be much more effective. In this article, they introduce a methodology that focuses on how people look, act, speak, think, and feel. Team leaders facilitate five conversations--one focused on each category--before the team gets under way, to build a shared understanding of the process, rather than the content, of work and lay the foundation for effective collaboration.

  8. Moral dimensions of human-wildlife conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lute, Michelle L; Navarrete, Carlos David; Nelson, Michael Paul; Gore, Meredith L

    2016-12-01

    Despite increasing support for conservation globally, controversy over specific conservation policies persists among diverse stakeholders. Investigating the links between morals in relation to conservation can help increase understanding about why humans support or oppose policy, especially related to human-wildlife conflict or human conflict over wildlife. Yet the moral dimension of human-wildlife conflict has mostly gone unconsidered and unmeasured; thus, policy and programmatic efforts to reduce controversy may be missing a key part of the equation. We conducted a web-based survey (n = 1239 respondents) in Michigan (U.S.A.) to investigate cognitive and emotional influences on the value-behavior relationship. Respondents were identified by their interest and involvement in Michigan wolf management. The survey consisted of questions about values, emotions, cognitions, and behaviors relative to wolves in Michigan. We used path analysis to explore whether emotions and cognitions mediated the relationship between value and behavior. Most respondents attributed intrinsic value to wolves (n = 734) and all life (n = 773) and engaged in behaviors that benefited wolf populations and ecosystems regardless of stakeholder group (e.g., environmentalist, farmer). Attributing intrinsic value to wolves was positively related to favorable emotions toward wolves and cognitive assessments that hunting and trapping of wolves is unacceptable. Despite similarities in attribution of intrinsic value, groups differed in emotions and cognitions about wolf hunting. These differences provide a useful way to predict stakeholder behavior. Our findings may inform interventions aimed at increasing support for wolf management policies and positive interactions among stakeholders and wildlife. Leveraging agreement over intrinsic value may foster cooperation among stakeholders and garner support for controversial conservation policy. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  9. The Relationship Between the Occurrence of Conflicts in the Work Unit, the Conflict Management Styles in the Work Unit and Workplace Bullying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elfi Baillien

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The current study examines the relationship between the occurrence of conflicts in the work unit and conflict management styles in the work unit, and workplace bullying. First, we assume a positive relationship between the occurrence of conflicts and bullying; and that the conflict management styles 'fighting', 'avoiding' and 'yielding' associate positively and 'problem solving' associates negatively with bullying. Second, we expect that the work unit's conflict management styles moderate the relationship between the occurrence of conflicts and bullying. Results ('N' = 942 revealed a positive association between the occurrence of conflicts and bullying, as well as between fighting and bullying. Problem solving related negatively with bullying. Unexpectedly, we found no moderation. Our findings suggest that particularly the occurrence of conflicts relate to bullying, which may be owed to a strong negative connotation associated with (many conflicts at work or to its negative impact on the work unit's social climate. Organisations may also encourage problem solving and discourage fighting to prevent bullying.

  10. How Norms Can Generate Conflict: An Experiment on the Failure of Cooperative Micro-Motives on the Macro-Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Fabian; Rauhut, Heiko; Helbing, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    Why does the adherence to norms not prevent conflict? While the current literature focuses on the emergence, maintenance and impact of norms with regard to cooperation, the issue of norm-related conflict deserves more attention. We develop a general game theoretical model of "normative conflict" and explain how transaction failures on the…

  11. Indigenous Perspectives: the Post-Conflict Landscapes of Rwanda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Killian Doherty

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Much of Rwanda’s conflict can be traced to the relation between human (culture and non-human (nature that defined territories and ethnic divisions in pre-colonial Rwanda. These human and non-human relations, exploited by European colonialism, have become increasingly estranged through the influence of Eurocentric forms of architecture, urban and rural planning. This practice-based research explores the relations between Rwanda’s human settlements and the landscape to provide insight into emergent spaces of conflict. The hope is that where a meeting of different perspectives is articulated a form of architecture as mediation may emerge.

  12. Revisiting peace and conflict studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagmann, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    In this article, I will first draw attention to the surprising, but ultimately problematic trajectory of peace studies from the period of the Cold War to the present day. This is a trajectory from ‘peace’ as a critique of dominant geopolitics to one of ‘peace’ that has become part of the very...... the broad variety of existing units of analysis, motivations, theories and methodologies of peace and conflict studies. Thirdly, I will propose a number of suggestions for a research attitude that, in absence of a better word, I subsume under the heading of ‘critical peace and conflict research’, striving...... to understand peace and conflict as concomitantly subjective and objective, as critique and hegemony, as normative and value-free, as local and global....

  13. Conflict Management Training in China: The Value of Cooperative Conflict Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjosvold, Dean; Ding, Daniel

    2001-01-01

    Asserts the value of a theory for conflict management training and summarizes the theory of cooperative and competitive conflict and its empirical base. Outlines the theory's specific implications for conflict management training in China. (EV)

  14. The cost of ignoring gender in conflict and post-conflict situations: A feminist perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Puechguirbal

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available

    This article focuses on the cost of ignoring gender when analyzing conflict and post-conflict environments. It explains how a feminist perspective allows us to uncover hidden gender power relations and deconstruct the so-called gender-neutral approach in international relations. By highlighting the differential impact of war on women and men as regards security issues, we understand why the cessation of hostility is not always synonymous with peace for women. We also understand how patriarchy resurfaces after a war and marginalizes women who are mainly seen as powerless victims and sidelined in peace talks that promote a conservative return to the status quo ante bellum.

  15. Modeling and Controlling Interstate Conflict

    CERN Document Server

    Marwala, Tshilidzi

    2007-01-01

    Bayesian neural networks were used to model the relationship between input parameters, Democracy, Allies, Contingency, Distance, Capability, Dependency and Major Power, and the output parameter which is either peace or conflict. The automatic relevance determination was used to rank the importance of input variables. Control theory approach was used to identify input variables that would give a peaceful outcome. It was found that using all four controllable variables Democracy, Allies, Capability and Dependency; or using only Dependency or only Capabilities avoids all the predicted conflicts.

  16. Inductive game theory and the dynamics of animal conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeDeo, Simon; Krakauer, David C; Flack, Jessica C

    2010-05-13

    Conflict destabilizes social interactions and impedes cooperation at multiple scales of biological organization. Of fundamental interest are the causes of turbulent periods of conflict. We analyze conflict dynamics in an monkey society model system. We develop a technique, Inductive Game Theory, to extract directly from time-series data the decision-making strategies used by individuals and groups. This technique uses Monte Carlo simulation to test alternative causal models of conflict dynamics. We find individuals base their decision to fight on memory of social factors, not on short timescale ecological resource competition. Furthermore, the social assessments on which these decisions are based are triadic (self in relation to another pair of individuals), not pairwise. We show that this triadic decision making causes long conflict cascades and that there is a high population cost of the large fights associated with these cascades. These results suggest that individual agency has been over-emphasized in the social evolution of complex aggregates, and that pair-wise formalisms are inadequate. An appreciation of the empirical foundations of the collective dynamics of conflict is a crucial step towards its effective management.

  17. Peace studies and conflict resolution: the need for transdisciplinarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galtung, Johan

    2010-02-01

    Peace studies seeks to understand the negation of violence through conflict transformation, cooperation and harmony by drawing from many disciplines, including psychology, sociology and anthropology, political science, economics, international relations, international law and history. This raises the problem of the complementarity, coexistence and integration of different systems of knowledge. In fact, all of the human and social sciences are products of the post-Westphalian state system and so reify the state and its internal and international system and focus on this as the main source of political conflict. Conflicts, however, can arise from other distinctions involving gender, generation, race, class and so on. To contribute to peace building and conflict resolution, the social sciences must be globalized, developing theories that address conflicts at the levels of interpersonal interaction (micro), within countries (meso), between nations (macro ), and between whole regions or civilizations (mega). Psychiatry and the "psy" disciplines can contribute to peace building and conflict resolution through understanding the interactions between processes at each of these levels and the mental health or illness of individuals.

  18. Decentralized Planning for Pre-Conflict and Post-Conflict ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-10-02

    Oct 2, 2012 ... of “The Cost of Armed Conflicts in Developing Countries,” indicated that ... where children (potential marriage partners) are discouraged from ..... To assess the impact made so far by the Bawku Municipal Assembly and ...

  19. Women in conflict and indigenous conflict resolution among the Issa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. This article tries to show the impacts of conflict on women, the role of women in ..... to raiding, they are not armed and are not able to defend themselves when they are ... Mothers instruct and bless their children in the following ways:.

  20. Some notes on: "What tasks is a traffic conflicts technique intended for?". Contribution to the International Seminar on Traffic Conflicts, Oslo, September 26- 27, 1977.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oppe, S.

    1977-01-01

    Road safety can be measured by means of accident analysis. Another measuring method is the conflicts technique. In this article the validity of the conflicts technique is related to the reliability of the two measuring methods. A decision procedure is given for deciding between the two methods when

  1. Effects of Role Conflict on Counselor Trainees' Self-Statements, Anxiety Level, and Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedlander, Myrna L.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Investigated if and how role conflict affects counselor trainees' self-statements, anxiety level, and performance. Results suggested role conflict may produce few adverse effects on beginning trainees' self-evaluations, affect, or behavior. Trainee performance was inversely related to anxiety level, and anxiety was inversely related to strength of…

  2. Conflict between Work and Family among New Zealand Teachers with Dependent Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Melanie; Rose, Dennis; Sanders, Matthew; Randle, Fiona

    2012-01-01

    Changes in family and employment patterns have lead to an increasing need for families to balance work and family roles. Little research has examined work and family conflict among teachers. In the present study, 69 New Zealand teachers completed a survey examining occupational-related demands, family-related demands, work and family conflict, and…

  3. The Interactive Effects of Marital Conflict and Divorce on Parent-Adult Children's Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tianyi; Pettit, Gregory S.; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Bates, John E.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines main effect and interactive models of the relations between marital conflict, divorce, and parent-adult child relationships and gender differences in these relations. Data were drawn from a longitudinal study of a community sample (N = 585). Parental marital conflict and divorce were measured from age 5 through age 17 years.…

  4. Parental conflict and self-esteem: the rest of the story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlak, J L; Klein, H A

    1997-09-01

    Previous research has supported the hypothesis that high levels of marital conflict are related to lower self-esteem in children. In this study, 122 young adults completed the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Questionnaire and the Student Interparental Conflict Scale, as well as the Parental Nurturance Scale and the Parental Authority Questionnaire. One parent of each young adult completed the Parent Interparental Conflict Scale, the O'Leary-Porter Overt Hostility Scale, and a modified Parental Authority Questionnaire. Perceived interparental conflict and parental style discrepancies in nurturance and in authoritarianism were significantly and negatively related to self-esteem, but the best predictors of self-esteem were the parental styles themselves. Warm, nurturant parents were more likely to have high self-esteem children and demonstrated less conflict in marital partnerships. Correlations between marital conflict and self-esteem may reflect parental characteristics.

  5. Perceiving interpersonal conflict and reacting to it: the case for agreeableness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziano, W G; Jensen-Campbell, L A; Hair, E C

    1996-04-01

    Two converging, multimethod studies probed the hypothesis that individual differences in Agreeableness are related to patterns of interpersonal conflict. In Study 1, participants (N = 263) evaluated the efficacy of 11 modes of conflict resolution within the context of 5 different interpersonal relationships. Across all relationships, high- and low-agreeable participants rated negotiation and disengagement tactics as better choices that power assertion tactics. However, low-agreeable participants rated power assertion as a better choice than did high-agreeable participants. In Study 2, participants (N = 124) were assigned partners and were asked to resolve jointly 2 social conflict problems. Partners were videotaped, and observers coded behaviors. Participants also completed ratings of perceived conflict, partner perception, and liking of their partner. Agreeableness differences, sex of participant, and type of dyad partner were related to patterns of interpersonal conflict. Results were discussed in terms of personality and social influences during interpersonal conflict.

  6. Toward a Complexity Paradigm for Understanding Gender Role Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enns, Carolyn Zerbe

    2008-01-01

    The well-developed body of theory and research on men's gender role conflict provides an excellent foundation for developing increasingly complex models of men's gender-related concerns. Theorists and researchers are encouraged to incorporate themes related to social structural aspects of gender as well as to examine the ways in which men's…

  7. Relationship and task conflict at work: interactive short-term effects on angry mood and somatic complaints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Laurenz L; Gross, Sven; Spector, Paul E; Semmer, Norbert K

    2013-04-01

    Our research examined short-term within-person effects of relationship and task conflict on angry mood and somatic complaints. We assumed that conflicts of both kinds would be prospectively related to both indicators of impaired well-being, that the effect of relationship conflict would be stronger than the effect of task conflict, and that the effect of relationship conflict would be stronger when task conflict is low than when it is high. We tested our hypotheses with a daily diary study with ratings made 3 times/day for 2 weeks, involving 131 participants. We found a prospective main effect of relationship conflict on angry mood, but not on somatic complaints. In contrast, controlling for relationship conflict, task conflict was unrelated to both angry mood and somatic complaints. Supporting our assumption, task conflict moderated the effect of relationship conflict. Relationship conflict had a prospective effect on angry mood and somatic complaints that lasted until the next day if, and only if, task conflict was low.

  8. Competition≠Conflict

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Fu: The above discussions clearly show that the cooled relations between the United States and Russia lie in the basic factor that the political development in Russia has failed to meet American wishes. The catalytic factor of such relations probably could be found in the issues of strategic competition that confirm with "the cold peace. " Of course, we may discuss whether on earth there is such a competition. If there is,then what are Russia's conditions and considerations in the competition? The competitions between America and Russia are different from that between the United States and the Soviet Union in the Cold War years, but they can also be seen in geostrategic competition as well as in the means of strategic competition.

  9. Sexual conflict and life histories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wedell, N.; Kvarnemo, C.; Lessells, C.M.; Tregenza, T.

    2006-01-01

    There is burgeoning interest in the costs of mating and in how this leads to sex differences in the optimal mating rate. Here, we attempt to look beyond an exclusive focus on matings to examine the fundamental conflicts that arise out of the fact that sexual reproduction involves investment in offsp

  10. 77 FR 56273 - Conflict Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-12

    ... opportunity to improve a company's existing risk management and supply chain management, stimulating... Minerals Already in the Supply Chain a. Proposed Rules b. Comments on the Proposed Rules c. Final Rule 6... Content and Supply Chain Due Diligence 1. Content of the Conflict Minerals Report a. Proposed Rules...

  11. Email Adaptation for Conflict Handling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Joyce Yi‐Hui; Panteli, Niki; Bülow, Anne Marie

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores the context of email‐based communication in anestablished but fragile, inter‐organisational partnership, which wasoften overlain with conflict. Drawing upon adaptation theory, thisstudy explores how participants adapt to the use of email to handleconflict. Extensive data were ...

  12. Sexual conflict and life histories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wedell, N.; Kvarnemo, C.; Lessells, C.M.; Tregenza, T.

    2006-01-01

    There is burgeoning interest in the costs of mating and in how this leads to sex differences in the optimal mating rate. Here, we attempt to look beyond an exclusive focus on matings to examine the fundamental conflicts that arise out of the fact that sexual reproduction involves investment in

  13. Games, the Socialization of Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton-Smith, Brian

    The function of games in a society is discussed in this paper. An earlier definition of games as a concretistic way of processing information of cultural antitheses is enlarged to include a more bio-adaptive definition: the game is also a socialization of conflict. This view is compared and contrasted with those of Sigmund Freud and G. H. Mead.…

  14. The Danish Muhammad Cartoon Conflict

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hervik, Peter

    story. It will do so by situating the conflict more firmly in its proper socio-historical context by drawing on the author’s basic research on the Danish news media’s coverage of ethnic and religious minorities since the mid 1990s. The author uses thick contextualization to analyze this very current...

  15. The paradox of intragroup conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, Franciscus Remendus Cornelis de

    2013-01-01

    During group decision making, people often experience disagreements in which they need to choose between their own viewpoint and the viewpoint of another group member, for example, when cabinet members disagree about the best decision to tackle a crisis. These intragroup conflicts often pose a parad

  16. Discussing Conflict in Contemporary China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miletic, Tania; Bretherton, Diane

    2016-01-01

    The research suggests there is a gap in the peace studies and conflict resolution literature, with little representation or understanding of Chinese perspectives. In a project to address this gap, the researchers conducted interviews individually with 30 participants identified as "emerging leaders," who came from diverse universities…

  17. Sexual conflict and life histories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wedell, N.; Kvarnemo, C.; Lessells, C.M.; Tregenza, T.

    2006-01-01

    There is burgeoning interest in the costs of mating and in how this leads to sex differences in the optimal mating rate. Here, we attempt to look beyond an exclusive focus on matings to examine the fundamental conflicts that arise out of the fact that sexual reproduction involves investment in offsp

  18. Intragroup Conflict during Study Abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodycott, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Co-national groups of individuals from the same country can provide members with psychological and sociocultural support when coping with the stresses of studying abroad. This article examines intragroup task and relationship conflict that occurred in one co-national group during a 14-week short-term study abroad program. Findings reveal the…

  19. Group conflict and faculty engagement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selmer, Jan; Jonasson, Charlotte; Lauring, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    engagement has been argued to lead to more satisfied, more productive and healthier staff. In this study, based on a sample consisting of 489 members of multicultural university departments, we set out to investigate the relationship between trust, conflict and academic staff engagement. More specifically we...

  20. Internal Conflicts in Muslim Societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashiq Ali Shah

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of psychological theories and the social dynamics of the society help identify salient attributes and processes relevant to conflict among Muslims. The psychodynamic concept of personality and frustration-aggression hypothesis account for the socialization practices in the Muslim societies, emotional instability, unfavorable evaluation of those holding a different viewpoint and venting out one's aggression on the weaker. The tendency of the Muslims to praise their sect/tribe/religious group leads to a groupthink situation that polarizes intergroup relationships. The acts of categorization in group and out group, as postulated by the social identity theory, contribute towards the distorted perception of each other. The Islamic notions of brotherhood, unity and ethnic identity as means of personal identification and social interaction seems to have been forgotten by the Muslims. Though the Western social-psychological constructs are helpful in understanding the causes of conflict among Muslims, they are not germane to Muslim societies. The group belongingness and group favouritism is not necessarily a tool of discrimination and conflict but is an essential component of one's survival in a collectivist society. The Western theories also do not address the economic and political circumstances responsible for the multitude of conflicts among Muslims.

  1. Games, the Socialization of Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton-Smith, Brian

    The function of games in a society is discussed in this paper. An earlier definition of games as a concretistic way of processing information of cultural antitheses is enlarged to include a more bio-adaptive definition: the game is also a socialization of conflict. This view is compared and contrasted with those of Sigmund Freud and G. H. Mead.…

  2. Authority, Conflict, and Teacher Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spady, William G.

    1973-01-01

    An analysis which attempts to link all three of the sources of conflict in schools, which appear to reside in three overlapping arenas: the goals and functions of public schools, the nature of the roles that are defined by these functions, and the manner or style in which these roles are played out. (Author/JM)

  3. Role of commitment to the supervisor, leader-member exchange, and supervisor-based self-esteem in employee-supervisor conflicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Guylaine; Vandenberghe, Christian

    2009-02-01

    Using survey data from 240 employees working in a variety of organizations, the authors examined the relations among commitment to the supervisor, leader-member exchange, supervisor-based self-esteem (SBSE), and relationship and substantive supervisor-subordinate conflicts. They found affective commitment was negatively related to both types of conflicts; perceived lack of alternatives commitment was positively related to relationship conflicts; and leader-member exchange was negatively related to substantive conflicts. SBSE was negatively associated with both types of conflicts. In addition, when SBSE was low, affective commitment was more strongly related to both types of conflicts, and normative commitment more strongly and positively related to substantive conflicts. The authors discuss the implications of these findings for the understanding of employee-supervisor conflicts.

  4. 重建社会信仰治理社会冲突的相关问题研究%Issues Related to Management of Social Conflict and Reconstruction of Social Beliefs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李锐; 徐彬

    2015-01-01

    在我国经济社会转型过程中,民众的社会信仰悄然发生着变异,出现个人信仰“物质化”、道德信仰“冷漠化”、政治信仰“偏执化”的倾向。社会信仰的变异倾向冲击着社会和谐的基础,引发一系列的冲突。个人信仰的物质化使不同阶层间的逐利过程互不相容,引发物质冲突;道德信仰的“冷漠化”与市场经济的基本要求相背,引发激烈的观念冲突;政治信仰的“偏执化”加深了官民冲突。重建社会信仰,就必须修复民众的义利观,不断加强政治建设,完善政府与民众沟通的平台。%In the process of economic and social transformation,social beliefs of our people have quietly undergone changes:the personal belief of “materialism”,moral belief of “indifference”and political belief of “paranoid tendency”.The above changes in social beliefs have affected the foundation of social harmony,triggering a series of conflicts.The personal belief makes profit materialization process between different classed incompatible,causing physical conflict.The moral belief of “indifference”is contrary to the basic requirements of the market economy,trigG gering fierce conflict concept.The political belief “of paranoia”has deepened the conflict between officials and the public.Rebuilding social beliefs,we must fix people′s concept of justice and benG efit,continue to strengthen political construction,and improve the communication platform beG tween government and the public.

  5. Oil and fish conflict: Implications for ocean management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, H.

    1992-01-01

    Ocean management seeks to increase net benefits from overall resource allocations for the various marine uses through fostering policy integration on the ocean dimension. This concept has been challenged for cutting off links of these uses along their respective functional or sectoral lines. While the sectoral approach still dominates the marine management, the degree of the need for policy integration on the ocean dimension, its scope and form, becomes a fundamental marine policy issue. The present dissertation explores this issue though assessing the level of the conflict between marine fisheries and offshore oil development and its implication for ocean management within the United States. The conflicts assessed are related to offshore installations, debris, collision and geophysical survey, as well as operational discharges, oil spills, and onshore impacts. Criteria for the assessment include probability and intensity of biogeochemical interactions, the associated socioeconomic impacts, the related concerns, and the tractability of the consequences. Some interconnections of the existing management systems which have important bearings on the resolution of the conflict are characterized and evaluated as to their adequacies. In the United States, oil and fish conflict largely concerns the impacts of Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) activities on the coastal fisheries. The study found that the conflict is either regionally significant or locally serious; and that costs of the conflict, including the costs of conflict resolution efforts themselves have not been fully incorporated in the existing decision-making premises in managing the uses concerned. These conclusions do not support the overhauling of the existing management systems on the federal level, but demonstrate a need for establishing an interdisciplinary and intersectoral mechanism to monitor the level of multiple use consequences, and a need for further marine policy integration on the regional basis.

  6. Global Agriculture Yields and Conflict under Future Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rising, J.; Cane, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    Aspects of climate have been shown to correlate significantly with conflict. We investigate a possible pathway for these effects through changes in agriculture yields, as predicted by field crop models (FAO's AquaCrop and DSSAT). Using satellite and station weather data, and surveyed data for soil and management, we simulate major crop yields across all countries between 1961 and 2008, and compare these to FAO and USDA reported yields. Correlations vary by country and by crop, from approximately .8 to -.5. Some of this range in crop model performance is explained by crop varieties, data quality, and other natural, economic, and political features. We also quantify the ability of AquaCrop and DSSAT to simulate yields under past cycles of ENSO as a proxy for their performance under changes in climate. We then describe two statistical models which relate crop yields to conflict events from the UCDP/PRIO Armed Conflict dataset. The first relates several preceding years of predicted yields of the major grain in each country to any conflict involving that country. The second uses the GREG ethnic group maps to identify differences in predicted yields between neighboring regions. By using variation in predicted yields to explain conflict, rather than actual yields, we can identify the exogenous effects of weather on conflict. Finally, we apply precipitation and temperature time-series under IPCC's A1B scenario to the statistical models. This allows us to estimate the scale of the impact of future yields on future conflict. Centroids of the major growing regions for each country's primary crop, based on USDA FAS consumption. Correlations between simulated yields and reported yields, for AquaCrop and DSSAT, under the assumption that no irrigation, fertilization, or pest control is used. Reported yields are the average of FAO yields and USDA FAS yields, where both are available.

  7. Unveiling the Hidden Curriculum in Conflict Resolution and Peace Education: Future Directions toward a Critical Conflict Education and "Conflict" Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, R. Michael

    2000-01-01

    This report offers a brief summary of a master thesis that had the purpose to study the way conflict management educators write and think about "conflict." Using a critical discourse analysis (a la Foucault) of 22 conflict resolution manuals for adults and children (U.S., Canadian, Australian), and using a selected sample of those most available…

  8. Conflicts at work--the relationship with workplace factors, work characteristics and self-rated health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxenstierna, Gabriel; Magnusson Hanson, Linda L; Widmark, Maria; Finnholm, Kristina; Stenfors, Cecilia; Elofsson, Stig; Theorell, Töres

    2011-01-01

    Few studies have considered the work environment in relation to workplace conflicts and those who have been published have included relatively few psychosocial work environment factors. Little research has been published on the consequences of workplace conflicts in terms of employee health. In this study, the statistical relationships between work and workplace characteristics on one hand and conflicts on the other hand are examined. In addition, the relationship between conflicts at work and self-rated health are described. The study population was derived from the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH) 2006; n=5,141. Among employees at workplaces with more than 20 employees (n=3,341), 1,126 (33.7%) responded that they had been involved in some type of conflict during the two years preceding the survey. Among the work and workplace characteristics studied, the following factors were independently associated with increased likelihood of ongoing conflicts: Conflicting demands, emotional demands, risk of transfer or dismissal, poor promotion prospects, high level of employee influence and good freedom of expression. Factors that decreased the likelihood of ongoing conflicts were: Good resources, good relations with management, good confidence in management, good procedural justice (fairness of decisions) and good social support. After adjustment for socioeconomic conditions the odds ratio for low self-rated health associated with ongoing conflict at work was 2.09 (1.60-2.74). The results provide a good starting point for intervention and prevention work.

  9. Conflict management style, supportive work environments and the experience of work stress in emergency nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Mary L; Cadmus, Edna

    2016-03-01

    To examine the conflict management style that emergency department (ED) nurses use to resolve conflict and to determine whether their style of managing conflict and a supportive work environment affects their experience of work stress. Conflict is a common stressor that is encountered as nurses strive to achieve patient satisfaction goals while delivering quality care. How a nurse perceives support may impact work stress levels and how they deal with conflict. A correlational design examined the relationship between supportive work environment, and conflict management style and work stress in a sample of 222 ED nurses using the expanded nurse work stress scale; the survey of perceived organisational support; and the Rahim organisational conflict inventory-II. Twenty seven percent of nurses reported elevated levels of work stress. A supportive work environment and avoidant conflict management style were significant predictors of work stress. Findings suggest that ED nurses' perception of a supportive work environment and their approach to resolving conflict may be related to their experience of work stress. Providing opportunities for ED nurses in skills training in constructive conflict resolution may help to reduce work stress and to improve the quality of patient care. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Environmental conflicts: Key issues and management implications

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    growth and movement, international markets, insecure property rights and legislation .... Twyman (2005:115) identify the implications of climate change for equity and ..... Environmental conflicts and/or threats of conflicts are emerging as critical.

  11. Conflict interaction management as a cultural phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Е L Ryabova

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The article provides the definition for the concept of conflict interaction culture, reveals its functions as well as the structure of its elements and components. Conflict interactions are also examined in the paper.

  12. Resolving conflicts of duty in fiduciary relationships

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Laby, Arthur B

    2004-01-01

    While duties of loyalty generally do not conflict with other duties of loyalty, and while conflicting duties of care typically only raise issues of competing resources, the fiduciary's duty of loyalty...

  13. Cause No Conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kris Borer

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available If property is defined as something over which an individual should have exclusive control, then the traditional notion of property must be abandoned. Specifically, the idea that a physical object is someone’s property fails to meet the definition given. This paper examines why an individual should not always have exclusive control over physical things, and, if not objects, what exactly an individual should have exclusive control over.The proposed solution is that property be delineated not by physical boundaries, but by human action. This does not include all action, for scarcity makes certain actions mutually exclusive. Therefore, property is conceived of as proper action, i.e., action consistent with the non-aggression principle. Those physical objects traditionally considered property are then simply means of proper action.The benefits of this change in perspective are then examined with regard to production, exchange, aggression and other related topics.

  14. Governing the Conflicted Commons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sareen, Siddharth

    government action currently constrains democratisation in a recently-formed state of India, and suggests ways in which future state-building can enable equity and inclusion in authorising resource access. It approaches the puzzle by asking: What (i) nurtures or (ii) prevents inclusive and equitable local...... household. The regulation of kendu leaf trade favours privileged private actors or local elite traders over the primary collectors of kendu leaves, who are poor villagers. Despite in-built accountability and transparency mechanisms in the minimum-wage work scheme, privileged private actors are able to co......-opt much of its benefits at the cost of most village households. The study shows how both examples of government services allow different local elites to use structural and relational mechanisms to access inequitably large benefit shares. These mechanisms moreover enable the elites to locally regulate...

  15. [Ethical conflicts in the authorship of scientific papers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Oetinger, Astrid; Sadarangani, Kabir P; Salas, Sofía P

    2016-11-01

    The frequency of conflicts about authorship of publications has increased along with the increase in the number of people involved in scientific work. Some of the factors that strongly influence the generation of conflicts and malpractices in authorship definition of scientific publications are the pressure of academia, economic incentives from the pharmaceutical industry in the field of biomedicine and authors’ wishes and expectations of recognition, among other factors. The article analyzes this problem, increasingly common in the field of medicine and related areas. Special attention is devoted to the prevailing laws in our country and international guidelines related to intellectual property and authorship of scientific publications, respectively. However, the ethical commitment, intellectual honesty and truthfulness of each of the authors about what is reported seems to be the decisive factor for the solution to these authorship conflicts.

  16. Self-Employment and Conflict in Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Bozzoli, Carlos; Brück, Tilman; Wald, Nina

    2011-01-01

    Many Colombians are confronted with the ongoing conflict which influences their decision making in everyday life, including their behaviour on labour markets. This study focuses on the impact of violent conflict on self-employment, enlarging the usual determinants by a set of conflict variables. In order to estimate the effect of conflict on selfemployment, we employ fixed effects estimation. Three datasets are combined for estimation: the Familias en Acción dataset delivers information about...

  17. Grizzly bear-human conflicts in the Yellowstone Ecosystem, 1992-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunther, K.A.; Haroldson, M.A.; Cain, S.L.; Copeland, J.; Frey, K.; Schwartz, C.C.

    2004-01-01

    For many years, the primary strategy for managing grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) that came into conflict with humans in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE) was to capture and translocate the offending bears away from conflict sites. Translocation usually only temporarily alleviated the problems and most often did not result in long-term solutions. Wildlife managers needed to be able to predict the causes, types, locations, and trends of conflicts to more efficiently allocate resources for pro-active rather than reactive management actions. To address this need, we recorded all grizzly bear-human conflicts reported in the GYE during 1992-2000. We analyzed trends in conflicts over time (increasing or decreasing), geographic location on macro- (inside or outside of the designated Yellowstone Grizzly Bear Recovery Zone [YGBRZ]) and micro- (geographic location) scales, land ownership (public or private), and relationship to the seasonal availability of bear foods. We recorded 995 grizzly bear-human conflicts in the GYE. Fifty-three percent of the conflicts occurred outside and 47% inside the YGBRZ boundary. Fifty-nine percent of the conflicts occurred on public and 41% on private land. Incidents of bears damaging property and obtaining anthropogenic foods were inversely correlated to the abundance of naturally occurring bear foods. Livestock depredations occurred independent of the availability of bear foods. To further aid in prioritizing management strategies to reduce conflicts, we also analyzed conflicts in relation to subsequent human-caused grizzly bear mortality. There were 74 human-caused grizzly bear mortalities during the study, primarily from killing bears in defense of life and property (43%) and management removal of bears involved in bear-human conflicts (28%). Other sources of human-caused mortality included illegal kills, electrocution by downed power-lines, mistaken identification by American black bear (Ursus americanus) hunters, and vehicle strikes

  18. Analysis of Conflict Centers in Projects Procured with Traditional and Integrated Methods in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin O. Dada

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Conflicts in any organization can either be functional or dysfunctional and can contribute to or detract from the achievement of organizational or project objectives. This study investigated the frequency and intensity of conflicts, using five conflict centers, on projects executed with either the integrated or traditional method in Nigeria. Questionnaires were administered through purposive and snowballing techniques on 274 projects located in twelve states of Nigeria and Abuja. 94 usable responses were obtained. The collected data were subjected to both descriptive and inferential statistical analysis. In projects procured with traditional methods, conflicts relating to resources for project execution had the greatest frequency, while conflicts around project/client goals had the least frequency. For projects executed with integrated methods, conflicts due to administrative procedures were ranked highest while conflicts due to project/client goals were ranked least. Regarding seriousness of conflict, conflicts due to administrative procedures and resources for project execution were ranked highest respectively for projects procured with traditional and integrated methods. Additionally, in terms of seriousness, personality issues and project/client goals were the least sources of conflict in projects executed with traditional and integrated methods. There were no significant differences in the incidence of conflicts, using the selected conflict centers, between the traditional and integrated procurement methods. There was however significant difference in the intensity or seriousness of conflicts between projects executed with the traditional method and those executed with integrated methods in the following areas: technical issues, administrative matters and personality issues. The study recommends that conscious efforts should be made at teambuilding on projects executed with integrated methods.

  19. Cervical disc arthroplasty: do conflicts of interest influence the outcome of clinical studies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narain, Ankur S; Hijji, Fady Y; Yom, Kelly H; Kudaravalli, Krishna T; Singh, Kern

    2017-07-01

    Cervical disc arthroplasty (CDA) is an emerging technique for the treatment of cervical degenerative disease. Multiple studies have investigated the outcomes of CDA, particularly in comparison with cervical arthrodesis techniques such as anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF). As many entities have financial interests in CDA implants, it is imperative to consider the influence of conflicts of interest on the results of studies investigating the efficacy of CDA. This study aimed to determine if there is an association between the presence of conflicts of interest among study authors and the reported outcome of studies involving CDA. This is a systematic review of clinical CDA publications until October 2016. The outcome measures are presence of conflicts of interest, level of evidence, and outcome for all included studies. PubMed and MEDLINE databases were searched for articles presenting clinical, radiographic, and cost outcomes of CDA. Data extracted from each article included title, authors, publication year, level of evidence, prosthesis type, number of operative levels, presence of conflicts of interest, and outcome. Conflicts of interest were determined by the presence of any conflicts for any author within manuscript disclosure sections or through Open Payments reporting. Outcomes of each study were graded as either favorable, unfavorable, or equivocal. The presence of conflicts of interest was tested for an association with the level of evidence and study outcome using Pearson chi-square analysis, Fisher exact test, or logistic regression for categorical variables. The authors report no conflicts of interest directly related to this work, and have not received any funds in support of this work. A total of 98 articles were included in this analysis. In total, 44.9% (44) of articles had the presence of a conflict of interest, whereas 55.1% (54) of articles did not. Conflicted studies were more likely to present level I evidence and less likely to

  20. Conflict Management: Difficult Conversations with Difficult People

    OpenAIRE

    Overton, Amy R.; Lowry, Ann C.

    2013-01-01

    Conflict occurs frequently in any workplace; health care is not an exception. The negative consequences include dysfunctional team work, decreased patient satisfaction, and increased employee turnover. Research demonstrates that training in conflict resolution skills can result in improved teamwork, productivity, and patient and employee satisfaction. Strategies to address a disruptive physician, a particularly difficult conflict situation in healthcare, are addressed.

  1. Conflict Between Economic Growth and Environmental Protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czech, Bryan

    2012-01-09

    The conflict between economic growth and environmental protection may not be reconciled via technological progress. The fundamentality of the conflict ultimately boils down to laws of thermodynamics. Physicists and other scholars from the physical sciences are urgently needed for helping the public and policy makers grasp the conflict between growth and environmental protection.

  2. Conflict management: difficult conversations with difficult people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overton, Amy R; Lowry, Ann C

    2013-12-01

    Conflict occurs frequently in any workplace; health care is not an exception. The negative consequences include dysfunctional team work, decreased patient satisfaction, and increased employee turnover. Research demonstrates that training in conflict resolution skills can result in improved teamwork, productivity, and patient and employee satisfaction. Strategies to address a disruptive physician, a particularly difficult conflict situation in healthcare, are addressed.

  3. Sibling Conflict Resolution Skills: Assessment and Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Brett W.; Roberts, Mark W.

    2009-01-01

    Sibling conflict can rise to the level of a clinical problem. In Phase 1 a lengthy behavioral role-play analog sampling child reactions to normal sibling conflicts was successfully shortened. In Phase 2 normal children who lacked sibling conflict resolution skills were randomly assigned to a Training or Measurement Only condition. Training…

  4. Observed Infant Reactions during Live Interparental Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du Rocher Schudlich, Tina D.; White, Clare R.; Fleischhauer, Emily A.; Fitzgerald, Kelly A.

    2011-01-01

    Associations between interparental conflict and infant reactions were examined. Infants' history of exposure to interparental conflict and infant reactive temperament were examined as moderators. A community sample of 74 infants, aged 6-14 months, participated with their parents. Behavioral observations were made of parents' marital conflict and…

  5. Marital Conflict in Stepfamilies: Effects on Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Marilyn; Ganong, Lawrence

    1987-01-01

    Clinical research shows that children have emotional investments in stepfamilies and are negatively affected by marital conflict, which can actually be greater than between couples without stepchildren. Stepchildren's perceptions of conflict heightens their need for affection. Views of parents and children about conflict do not necessarily…

  6. Conflict in medical teams: opportunity or danger?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.L. Greer; O. Saygi; H. Aaldering; C.K.W. de Dreu

    2012-01-01

    Objectives  Intragroup conflicts often occur when people are called upon to collaborate in the accomplishment of a task. For example, when surgeons and nurses work together during an operation, conflicts may emerge because of differences in functional understanding. Whether these conflicts are benef

  7. Conflict Resolution Practices of Arctic Aboriginal Peoples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Gendron; C. Hille

    2013-01-01

    This article presents an overview of the conflict resolution practices of indigenous populations in the Arctic. Among the aboriginal groups discussed are the Inuit, the Aleut, and the Saami. Having presented the conflict resolution methods, the authors discuss the types of conflicts that are current

  8. Conflict Management Styles of Turkish Managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkalp, Enver; Sungur, Zerrin; Ozdemir, Aytul Ayse

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to determine Turkish managers conflict styles in different sectors, namely durable consumer goods, aviation, automotive and banking. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 130 managers conflict management styles were assessed by applying the Rahim's 1983 Organizational Conflict Inventory-II. Findings: First,…

  9. Marital Conflict in Stepfamilies: Effects on Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Marilyn; Ganong, Lawrence

    1987-01-01

    Clinical research shows that children have emotional investments in stepfamilies and are negatively affected by marital conflict, which can actually be greater than between couples without stepchildren. Stepchildren's perceptions of conflict heightens their need for affection. Views of parents and children about conflict do not necessarily…

  10. Parent-Adolescent Conflict: An Empirical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, James A.

    1987-01-01

    Compares psychoanalytic, systems, and social learning theories to determine the empirical support for each theoretical orientation in treating problematic conflict between parents and adolescents. Discusses parent-adolescent conflict, including developmental stage theory, parenting styles, peer pressures, communication skills, marital conflict,…

  11. Pupil dilation in the Simon task as a marker of conflict processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Steenbergen, Henk; Band, Guido P H

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive demands in response conflict paradigms trigger negative affect and avoidance behavior. However, not all response conflict studies show increases in physiological indices of emotional arousal, such as pupil diameter. In contrast to earlier null-results, this study shows for the first time that small (about 0.02 mm) conflict-related pupil dilation can be observed in a Simon task when stimuli do not introduce a light reflex. Results show that response-conflict in Simon trials induces both pupil dilation and reaction-time costs. Moreover, sequential analyses reveal that pupil dilation mirrors the conflict-adaptation pattern observed in reaction time (RT). Although single-trial regression analyses indicated that pupil dilation is likely to reflect more than one process at the same time, in general our findings imply that pupil dilation can be used as an indirect marker of conflict processing.

  12. Pupil Dilation in the Simon Task as a Marker of Conflict Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henk eVan Steenbergen

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive demands in response conflict paradigms trigger negative affect and avoidance behavior. However, not all response conflict studies show increases in physiological indices of emotional arousal, such as pupil diameter. In contrast to earlier null-results, this study shows for the first time that small (about 0.02 mm conflict-related pupil dilation can be observed in a Simon task when stimuli do not introduce a light reflex. Results show that response-conflict in Simon trials induces both pupil dilation and reaction-time costs. Moreover, sequential analyses reveal that pupil dilation mirrors the conflict-adaptation pattern observed in reaction time. Although single-trial regression analyses indicated that pupil dilation is likely to reflect more than one process at the same time, in general our findings imply that pupil dilation can be used as an indirect marker of conflict processing.

  13. Case II: Conflict recognition--the case of the misdirected faculty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoelscher, Diane C; Comer, Robert W

    2002-04-01

    Early recognition is fundamental to managing conflict. Successful leaders rely upon their ability to recognize conflict before it escalates into crisis. This article reviews the signs and sources of conflict along with related management theories. Conflict management includes understanding the sources and types of conflict as well as the impact potential; in the case presented, the leaders were unaware of conflict. Dr. Forester, the faculty member "in the middle," was in a precarious position. Her performance evaluation reflected unacceptable accomplishments. However, her self-assessment, based on the hiring agreement, was successful. Her requests for guidance and clarification were unproductive. What does she do now? The management theories that apply to the case of "the misdirected faculty" include analysis and discussion of communication, feedback, and expectancy theory. Action alternatives are presented to explore some of the options available to stimulate discussion and to provide readers with an eclectic approach to applying a case analysis.

  14. Transforming Negative Emotions: A Case Study of Intergroup Conflict among Conflict Resolution Practitioners of Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Millicent

    2003-01-01

    Examined how conflict affected internalized oppression and conflict-handling methods utilized during a facilitated meeting that attempted to resolve or manage intergroup conflict. Data on diverse conflict-resolution practitioners and mentors at a training session on how to overcome the effects of oppression in the writing process illuminated how…

  15. Interpersonal Conflicts and Styles of Managing Conflicts among Students at Bahir Dar University, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazezew, Arega; Neka, Mulugeta

    2017-01-01

    Interpersonal conflict happens everywhere and at any time and is inherent in all societies. However, the methods of managing such conflict are quite different from one organisation to the other. The general objective of the study was to assess interpersonal conflicts and styles of managing conflicts among students at Bahir Dar University.…

  16. Sustainability Frames in the Context of the Energy Wood Conflict in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dörte Marie Peters

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Interpretations of the concept of sustainability vary substantially in relation to forests and their management, and they are usually present in conflicts about forest use. In this article, we consider underlying interests relating to conflicts of forest use as a given. Our aim is therefore not to reveal those interests, but rather to explore understandings of sustainability hiding behind them—sustainability frames. To this end, we use frame theory to investigate the following research question: How are different sustainability frames of interest groups reflected in a forest use conflict situation in Germany? The energy wood conflict serves as the example for our research, as it is currently the most prominent forest management conflict in Germany. Using 12 stakeholder interviews within three interest groups as the empirical data basis, it becomes clear that sustainability understandings reflect particular positionings in conflicts, or vice versa. In the energy wood conflict, the classic dichotomy between forestry and conservation groups becomes a trichotomy in which the forestry group splits into an interest group that profits from energy wood production and one that competes with it. We suggest that sustainability understandings do not represent worldviews that guide how actors understand conflicts, but rather that they are shaped according to actors’ particular interests in conflicts.

  17. Local Water Conflict and Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, Roberto Rivas; Hooper, Catherine; Munk Ravnborg, Helle

    2011-01-01

    In 2007 the Danish Institute for International Studies (DIIS) launched the research programme “Competing for Water: Understanding conflict and cooperation in local water governance”. Along with partners in five developing countries (Bolivia, Mali, Nicaragua, Vietnam and Zambia), the programme aims...... to contribute to “sustainable local water governance in support of the rural poor and otherwise disadvantaged groups in developing countries by improving the knowledge among researchers and practitioners of the nature, extent and intensity of local water conflict and cooperation and their social, economic...... and political impacts, and how this may change with increased competition for water” (DIIS 2007). The country research teams developed an overview of the national water governance frameworks at an early stage of the Competing for Water programme period (Bustamante and Cossio, 2007; Djiré et al., 2007; Gómez et...

  18. Local Water Conflict and Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, Roberto Rivas; Hooper, Catherine; Munk Ravnborg, Helle

    2011-01-01

    to contribute to “sustainable local water governance in support of the rural poor and otherwise disadvantaged groups in developing countries by improving the knowledge among researchers and practitioners of the nature, extent and intensity of local water conflict and cooperation and their social, economic......In 2007 the Danish Institute for International Studies (DIIS) launched the research programme “Competing for Water: Understanding conflict and cooperation in local water governance”. Along with partners in five developing countries (Bolivia, Mali, Nicaragua, Vietnam and Zambia), the programme aims...... and political impacts, and how this may change with increased competition for water” (DIIS 2007). The country research teams developed an overview of the national water governance frameworks at an early stage of the Competing for Water programme period (Bustamante and Cossio, 2007; Djiré et al., 2007; Gómez et...

  19. Poverty - A Source of Conflict,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-08-25

    contend that poor coun- tries are likely to attack richer ones for the spoils of war, but rather that poverty is a breeding ground for instability. He...Studies Institute v POVERTY - A SOURCE OF CONFLICT The rich get richer; the poor get poorer. As this rule has applied to individuals, it has apparently...problems. These problems resulting from poverty create a dangerous threat to the stability of the world. This does not mean that poor countries will

  20. Railway Station Role in Composing Urban Conflicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Conticelli

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite railway infrastructure was the structural framework on which modern European States were developed, contributing to unify territories and to the establishment of Nations, right from the beginning, the relationship between railway and city has been characterized by physical, functional and social conflicts, mainly because of a lack of integration between infrastructural and urban policies, which have been produced strong conflicts during decades. These critical situations have concentrated on the railway stations surrounding areas, which have started symbolizing the main conflicts that are taking place inside the cities.Similarly to what happened in the XIX century, today railway is a strategic infrastructure for the European territory development, thanks to the introduction of high speed transport systems and the promotion of rail transport as a more sustainable transportation system, which can quickly connect metropolitan central areas, more and more impenetrable by private vehicles, and key functions centres for the contemporary urban systems.In this framework, railway stations are becoming public places representing a complex society which is more and more dedicated to motion; thus they offer an unmissable chance not only to carry out urban development and spatial cohesion policies, but also to compose old tensions caused by the sharing of physical space, which is more and more scarce and valuable, and by ghettoization phenomena which have been produced at local scale, between rail infrastructure and the surrounding urban context. Today, such conflicts are growing and they are involving many actors who express a lot of different interests, needs and expectations, relating to the station areas’ destiny.Starting from the analysis of some conflicting situations between rail stations and the surrounding areas which have took place until today, this paper investigates some recent renewal interventions on Italian and European main railway