Socio-economic determinants of nutritional status of women beneficiaries of UNICEF-assisted nutrition enhancement programme in Abia State, Nigeria. ... educated, and as a way of sustaining the women's nutritional status for reproduction and food security at the household level and development in its entirety at large.
food. They maintained that women's health and nutritional status is important for both the quality of their lives and the survival and healthy development of their children, for women's health and their nutrition. However, any direct action to improve women's health and nutrition complement the struggle to achieve the long-term ...
Effect of some Socio-economic Factors on the Nutritional Status of Pregnant and Lactating Women in Rural Communities of Owo Local Government Area of Ondo State. RA Mustapha, T Ademulegun, GA Ogundahunsi ...
Chowdhury, Sutanu Dutta; Ghosh, Tusharkanti
Cognitive development of children depends on nutritional and socioeconomic factors. The objectives of the present study were to assess the cognitive development and to investigate the relationship of nutritional and socioeconomic status (SES) to cognitive development in 5-12 year old Santal children of Purulia district of West Bengal, India. The nutritional status of each child was assessed by z-score of height-for-age, weight-for-height and weight-for-age parameters. SES was measured using the updated Kuppusswami scale. Cognitive development was measured by Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices (RCPM). The growth curve of RCPM scores of Santal children remained around the 5(th) percentile values of British children. The RCPM scores of the adequately nourished children and upper-lower SES were significantly higher (p nutritional status. About 42.96% and 27.69% of Santal children were found to be in the intellectually deficient and below average groups, respectively. RCPM scores of Santal children were significantly correlated with nutritional status and socioeconomic factors (p cognitive functions. The vulnerable nutritional and socioeconomic statuses of Santal children are the major causes for their poor cognitive development.
Babar, N.F.; Khan, M.A.
Child malnutrition is a major public health and development concern in most of the poor communities leading to high morbidity and mortality. Various studies have highlighted the factors involved. The present study focuses on socioeconomic inequality resulting in malnutrition. Objectives of the Study were to find the Impact of socio-economic factors on nutritional status in primary school children. Methods: It was a cross sectional survey conducted at Lahore from February to August 2005 among primary schools from public and private sectors to assess the nutritional status of primary school going children age 5-11 years belonging to different socio economic classes of the society. Systematic random sampling technique was applied to collect the sample. Body Mass Index in relation to NHANES reference population was used for assessing nutritional status. Results: The nutritional status of children from lower socio economic class was poor as compared to their counter parts in upper socio economic class. Children with BMI <5 percentile were 41% in lower class while in upper class it was 19.28%. Prevalence of malnutrition was 42.3% among children of illiterate mothers as compare to 20% in those of literate mothers. Conclusion: Poverty, low literacy rate, large families, food insecurity, food safety, women's education appears to be the important underlying factors responsible for poor health status of children from low socioeconomic class. It requires economic, political and social changes as well as changes for personal advancement mainly through educational opportunities to improve the nutritional status of the children. (author)
There is a lack of data on trends in body composition among developing countries and the distribution of malnutrition among adults is poorly understood. Thus, the objective was to establish nutritional status, demographic make-up, dietary habits, and to determine if socioeconomic variables or dietary habits are associated ...
Food is any substance of plant or animal origin, consumed to provide nutritional support for the body thus keeping consumers .... countries of Africa, Asia and Southern America) had inadequate or marginal literacy and knowledgeable skill no longer .... Food Insecurity: when people must live with hunger and fear starvation.
Babar, Nabeela Fazal; Muzaffar, Rizwana; Khan, Muhammad Athar; Imdad, Seema
Child malnutrition is a major public health and development concern in most of the poor communities leading to high morbidity and mortality. Various studies have highlighted the factors involved. The present study focuses on socioeconomic inequality resulting in malnutrition. Objectives of the Study were to find the Impact of socio-economic factors on nutritional status in primary school children. It was a cross sectional survey conducted at Lahore from February to August 2005 among primary schools from public and private sectors to assess the nutritional status of primary school going children age 5-11 years belonging to different socio economic classes of the society. Systematic random sampling technique was applied to collect the sample. Body Mass Index in relation to NHANES reference population was used for assessing nutritional status. The nutritional status of children from lower socio economic class was poor as compared to their counter parts in upper socio economic class. Children with BMI political and social changes as well as changes for personal advancement mainly through educational opportunities to improve the nutritional status of the children.
Shamah-Levy, Teresa; Mundo-Rosas, Verónica; Rivera-Dommarco, Juan A
To describe the distribution of food insecurity (FI) in Mexico, from the perspective of food access and consumption, and its relationship with diverse socioeconomic factors and nutritional status. Information from the National Health and Nutrition Survey 2012 (Ensanut 2012), National Income - Expense in Households Survey 2008 (ENIGH 2008), and from the National Council for Poverty Evaluation (Coneval) was gathered for this study. Food insecurity (FI) measurement was conducted by applying the Latin American and Caribbean Food Security Scale (ELCSA) and its relation with socioeconomic, dietetic, and nutritional variables. In Mexico one out of three households suffers food insecurity in moderate or severe degree. FI not only increases the malnutrition risk in children but also contributes to the great incidence of diabetes, overweight and obesity in adults, principally in women. To improve structural agents and factors that impact in FI in Mexico is imperative, due to the consequences that it has in the country's development.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Undernutrition is a leading cause of child mortality in developing countries, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. We examine the household and community level socioeconomic and environmental factors associated with child nutritional status in Cameroon, and changes in the effects of these factors during the 1990s economic crisis. We further consider age-specific effects of household economic status on child nutrition. Methods Child nutritional status was measured by weight-for-age (WAZ and height-for-age (HAZ z-scores. Data were from Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in 1991 and 1998. We used analysis of variance to assess the bivariate association between the explanatory factors and nutritional status. Multivariate, multilevel analyses were undertaken to estimate the net effects of both household and community factors. Results Average WAZ and HAZ declined respectively from -0.70 standard deviations (SD, i.e. 0.70 SD below the reference median, to -0.83 SD (p = 0.006 and from -1.03 SD to -1.14 SD (p = 0.026 between 1991 and 1998. These declines occurred mostly among boys, children over 12 months of age, and those of low socioeconomic status. Maternal education and maternal health seeking behavior were associated with better child nutrition. Household economic status had an overall positive effect that increased during the crisis, but it had little effect in children under 6 months of age. Improved household (water, sanitation and cooking fuel and community environment had positive effects. Children living in the driest regions of the country were consistently worst off, and those in the largest cities were best off. Conclusion Both household and community factors have significant impact on child health in Cameroon. Understanding these relationships can facilitate design of age- and community-specific intervention programs.
Groeneveld, Iris F.; Solomons, Noel W.; Doak, Colleen M.
The prevalence of overweight and obesity is growing in children in many developing countries, increasing chronic disease risk. Our objective was to assess the prevalence of stunting, underweight, overweight, and obesity in schoolchildren 8 to 10 years old who were of high or low socioeconomic status
José Wesley dos Santos Alves
Full Text Available Objective: Characterize the nutritional status, lifestyle, socioeconomic profile and food consumption of commercial workers customers of a social restaurant in Fortaleza-CE, Brazil. Methods: The convenience sample consisted of 156 individuals, 71 (45.5% men and 85 (54.5% women, aged between 19 and 59 years. The variables analyzed were: weight, height, body mass index, waist circumference, history of chronic diseases, alcoholism, smoking and physical activity, family income, education and food intake of a subsample. Theadequacy of consumption was assessed by observing the recommendations of the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI and nutritional requirements of the Workers’ Food Program.Results: We observed high prevalence of overweight 49 (31.4% and obesity 18 (11.5%, high rate of physical inactivity 109 (69.9%. Alcohol is often consumed weekly by 27(17.4%. 111 (71.2% of individuals studied until high school; and 104 (66.7% belonged to socioeconomic class C. 136 (87,2% showed no personal history of chronic diseases, or practice of smoking. Dietary intake adequacy revealed adequacy for macronutrients, fiber, saturated fats and micronutrients, with excessive sodium intake. Conclusion: Nutritional status was characterized as high prevalence of overweight and obesity, associated with a high abdominal adiposity, sedentary lifestyle, alcohol consumption and socioeconomicprofile predominantly C1 and C2. Although the present study shows an adequate intake of micronutrients and macronutrients, there are excessive caloric intake, based on profile of physical inactivity and overweight.
Crockett, Rachel A; Jebb, Susan A; Hankins, Matthew; Marteau, Theresa M
There is some evidence for paradoxical effects of nutritional labelling on energy intake particularly amongst restrained eaters and those with a higher body mass index (BMI) resulting in greater consumption of energy from foods with a positive health message (e.g. "low-fat") compared with the same foods, unlabelled. This study aimed to investigate, in a UK general population sample, the likelihood of paradoxical effects of nutritional labelling on energy intake. Participants (n = 287) attended a London cinema and were offered a large tub of salted or toffee popcorn. Participants were randomised to receive their selected flavour with one of three labels: a green low-fat label, a red high-fat label or no label. Participants watched two film clips while completing measures of demographic characteristics, emotional state and taste of the popcorn. Following the experiment, popcorn consumption was measured. There were no main effects of nutritional labelling on consumption. Contrary to predictions neither BMI nor weight concern moderated the effect of label on consumption. There was a three-way interaction between low-fat label, weight concern and socioeconomic status (SES) such that weight-concerned participants of higher SES who saw a low-fat label consumed more than weight unconcerned participants of similar SES (t = -2.7, P = .04). By contrast, weight-concerned participants of lower SES seeing either type of label, consumed less than those seeing no label (t = -2.04, P = .04). Nutritional labelling may have different effects in different socioeconomic groups. Further studies are required to understand fully the possible contribution of food labelling to health inequalities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bion, F Martins; Chagas, M H de Castro; Muniz, G de Santana; de Sousa, L G Oliveira
The physical activity and adequate food plays a key role in improving health and the control of diseases. This paper aims at determining the nutritional state through anthropometric measures, socioeconomic level, the most common illnesses and type of physical activity, beyond food consumption and the place where meals are taken, of under-graduate students of the Nutrition course in UFPE. The sample is constituted of 68 female students, of different periods and at ages between 18 and 27 years old. The process of selection of the sample was for convenience. The students voluntarily participated and answered three questionnaires, respectively, on their socioeconomic level (income of the family) and possible illnesses they had, measures of the cutaneous folds and type of practiced physical activity; register of consumed foods and local where the meals were carried. Statistical analysis was performed by absolute frequency, percentage, average and standard deviation. The margin of error used in the testing employees was 5%. In relation to the incomes, they had predominated above three minimum wages (86%), the parents have a predominant role in the expenditure of their study (46%), followed by the father (24%), mother (9%), husband (4%), other responsible ones (10%); 7% did not give information. The most common illnesses were: allergic rhinitis, tonsillitis, sleeplessness and intestinal constipation. The weight, the height, the index of body mass and the relation waist hip of the students were within normal standards. The abdominal circumference varied only in 2.57 cm between the studied age range. In relation to the practice of physical activities, 67% were sedentary, 20% practiced light activity and 13% moderate. In relation to where the meals are had, breakfast, in its majority (76%), was carried at home, followed by supper (56%), while lunch (41%) and snack 1 (34%), at University. Among the pupils who did not inform the place where they had their meals there was a
Full Text Available Introduction: The prevalence of Low Birth Weight (LBW is higher in Asia than elsewhere predominantly because of undernutrition and poor socioeconomic status of mothers. Nearly half of the pregnant women still suffer from varying degrees of anaemia with the highest prevalence in India. Optimal weight gain during pregnancy and a desirable foetal outcome in terms of normal birth weight of the baby may be a result of synergistic effect of literacy, knowledge, improved food intake, and higher level of socioeconomic status of the pregnant women and their family. Aim: To observe the influence of maternal nutritional, socioeconomic status and literacy level on birth weight of babies. Materials and Methods: Total 250 mothers who delivered babies and admitted to the post natal ward of B.S.T. Rural Hospital, Talegaon Dabhade, District Pune, Maharashtra, India, were randomly selected and the relevant information was recorded in self prepared and pre validated questionnaire. Dietary history was collected by 24 hours recall method. Results: A total of 250 mothers and their babies were included. The average birth weight of babies was 2.65 Kg with the lowest birth weight of 1.2 Kg while the highest birth weight of 4 Kg. The prevalence of LBW babies was 27.6%. Most of the women (77.2% had caloric intake less than 1800 Kcal, 80% of mothers had protein intake of less than 45 gm. Nearly, 31.60% of women who were taking daily intake of calories less than 1800 Kcal delivered LBW babies. About 30.50% of the women with protein intake less than 45 gm/ day delivered LBW babies. In all 34.86% of the women with hemoglobin level below 11 gm% delivered LBW babies. These findings were statistically significant. Conclusion: Maternal caloric and protein deficiencies including anaemia during pregnancy had direct effect on the birth weight of newborns, as less nourished mothers were found to deliver higher percentage of LBW babies as compared to the mothers who were better
This study compared the impact of the Texas Public School Nutrition Policy on lunch consumption of low- and middle-income students in sixth through eighth grades. Students in one middle socioeconomic status (SES), and one low SES school completed lunch food records before (2001/2002), and after (200...
Cullen, Karen Weber; Watson, Kathleen B.; Fithian, Ashley R.
Background: This study compares the impact of the Texas Public School Nutrition Policy on lunch consumption of low- and middle-income students in sixth through eighth grades. Methods: Students in 1 middle socioeconomic status (SES) and 1 low SES school completed lunch food records before (2001/2002) and after (2005/2006) implementation of the…
Dapi, Léonie N; Janlert, Urban; Nouedoui, Christophe; Stenlund, Hans; Håglin, Lena
The aim of this study was to assess adolescents' nutritional status according to socioeconomic status (SES) and sex using anthropometry in urban Cameroon, Africa. Adolescent boys (n = 248) and girls (n = 333) 12 to 16 years old were recruited from randomly selected schools in a cross sectional study in Yaoundé city and grouped according to SES. Weight, height, skinfold thickness, and circumferences were measured, and body mass index, waist/hip ratio, arm muscle, and arm fat areas were calculated. Stunting, underweight, and overweight were determined using international cutoff points. Adolescents with medium and high SES were less likely to be stunted than adolescents with low SES (odds ratio [OR], 0.40; P underweight (3%, 4%, and 1%) were higher among the adolescents with low and medium SES than those with high SES. Overweight prevalence was high among the adolescents with low (8%), medium (11%), and high (9%) SES. The OR for overweight was higher among girls than boys (OR, 4.13; P underweight than boys (OR, 0.29 [P underweight (5% and 2%) were higher among boys than girls. Pubescent adolescents were less likely to be stunted than nonpubescent (OR, 0.53; P underweight and stunted than adolescents with high SES. Girls were more overweight, less stunted, and underweight than boys.
Aounallah-Skhiri, Hajer; Romdhane, Habiba Ben; Traissac, Pierre; Eymard-Duvernay, Sabrina; Delpeuch, Francis; Achour, Noureddine; Maire, Bernard
To assess the nutritional status of Tunisian adolescents and associated factors. A cross-sectional study based on a national stratified random cluster sample. In all, 1,295 boys and 1,577 girls aged 15-19 years, of whom 28.4 % had already left school. Socio-economic characteristics of the parents, anthropometric measurements, food behaviours and physical activity of the adolescents were recorded during home visits. Prevalence of underweight, overweight and obesity (WHO/National Center for Health Statistics reference) were, respectively, 8.1 %, 17.4 % and 4.1 % among boys and 1.3 %, 20.7 % and 4.4 % among girls; abdominal obesity was highly prevalent among both sexes. Prevalence of overweight differed by region (from 11.5 % to 22.2 %) and was higher in urban v. rural areas for males (21.7 % v. 10.4 %) but not for females (21.7 % v. 19.2 %). These differences were partially mediated by socio-economic and lifestyle factors for males. For females, influence of cultural factors is hypothesised. In rural areas, overweight was more prevalent among boys of higher economic level households, having a working mother or a sedentary lifestyle; for girls, prevalence increased with the level of education of the mother. In urban areas, prevalence of overweight was related to eating habits: it was higher for boys with irregular snacking habits and for girls skipping daily meals. Urban girls having left school were also more overweight. Overweight and abdominal obesity in late adolescence have become a true public health problem in Tunisia with the combined effects of cultural tradition for girls in rural areas, and of rapid economic development for boys and girls in cities.
Petrauskienė, Aušra; Žaltauskė, Vilma; Albavičiūtė, Edita
Nutritional habits are a useful way to characterize whole diets and they are also known to be influenced by a wide range of social and economic factors. The above factors in each country may have different effect on children's eating habits. In Lithuania the data of children nutrition in association with socio-economic status of family is poor. There are few studies done, where links between nutrition habits of children and socio-economic status of family was evaluated. The aim of this paper is to evaluate association among nutrition habits of first-formers and family socio-economic status in Lithuania. Data were obtained participating in the international study, which was performed in all ten districts of Lithuania. A cross-sectional study was carried out in 2010, using the protocol and methodology prepared by the experts from the WHO and countries participating in the Initiative. The data were collected by means of COSI standardized questionnaire, which was filled out by parents of selected first-formers'. In this paper a part of questions regarding children nutrition habits and parents' socio-economic status is presented. Statistical analysis was performed by using SPSS 20.0 software for Windows. Correlation among variables was evaluated by χ (2). Links among nutrition habits of first-formers and family socioeconomic status were determined using binary logistic regression to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). For all tests p eat breakfast every day or 4-6 times a week. Significant differences were found between breakfast consumption and gender - girls eat breakfast less frequently than boys. Odds ratio of children daily breakfast consumption were 1.3 times higher in families where fathers' were older than 30 years comparing with younger fathers. Meanwhile mothers' age had significant influence just on children daily soft drinks with sugar consumption. Results from the national survey of primary school age children of Lithuania reveals
Nabhani-Zeidan, Maya; Naja, Farah; Nasreddine, Lara
Socioeconomic status (SES) is postulated to be a major predictor of dietary intake and nutrition-related knowledge in adults. To date, very few studies have addressed this effect among adolescents. To explore differences in nutrient intake and nutrition-related knowledge among adolescents of contrasting SES in Lebanon. In a cross-sectional survey, 209 males and females, aged 17 to 19 years, were recruited from a private university with high tuition and a free public university in Beirut. The participants completed a multicomponent, self-administered questionnaire that inquired about demographic characteristics and nutrition-related knowledge. Three nonconsecutive 24-hour dietary recalls were obtained through interviews. Energy-adjusted means of dietary intake and age-adjusted nutrition-related knowledge were compared between groups using a general linear model. Adolescents in the high-SES group consumed more vegetables, meats, and fats and oils (p < .05). Energy and nutrient intake analysis showed that adolescents in the high-SES group consumed significantly higher amounts of calories, protein, fat, vitamin A, vitamin C, and iron (p < .001) and significantly lower amounts of carbohydrates (p < .05). Nutritional knowledge, although high among all participants, was higher in the high-SES group (p < .05). Although both groups showed good nutrition-related knowledge, SES significantly affected dietary intake in a sample of Lebanese adolescents. This warrants consideration of other factors, such as cost and environment, that may modulate eating behavior among adolescents from different socioeconomic strata.
Full Text Available Introduction: The field of anthropometry encompasses a variety of human body measurements, such as weight, height and size; including skin fold thickness, circumference, lengths, and breadths. Anthropometry is a key component of nutritional status assessment in children and adults. Anthropometric data for children reflect general health status, dietary adequacy and growth and development over time. The main objective of the study was to diagnose and analyze the magnitude and causes of nutritional and health problems of the village. Method: Anthropometric reference data of 100 children between 7-14 years of age from a small village situated 30 km from Pune. Using this data BMI i.e. Body Mass Index was calculated which helps in determining whether an individual is overweight or underweight. Result: The overall study helped us to find out the socioeconomic condition, hygienic condition as well as nutritional status of children. All the anthropometric measurements of the girls and boys in 7-14 years age group was found to be significantly normal. Conclusion: The hygienic condition of the village was good enough and in turn BMI data shows that the socioeconomic condition of the village was also good.
Islam, Ashraful; Islam, Nurul; Bharati, Premananda; Aik, Saw; Hossain, Golam
Early childbearing influences women's health. This study aims to examine the effects of socio-demographic factors on nutritional status of early childbearing mothers in Bangladesh based on Body Mass Index (BMI) as the indicator. Data was extracted from Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS)-2011. The survey was performed on 17,842 married women aged 15-49. We focused on early childbearing mothers (age ≤ 24, and who had delivered their first child ≤ 20). Mothers who were underweight (BMI ≤ 18.5 kg/m(2)) would be further classified into various grades of chronic energy deficiency (CED): mild (17.0 ≤ BMI effect of socio-demographic factors on nutritional status. Mean age of the mothers was 20.49 ± 2.37 years (ranged 15-24 years). The prevalence of underweight among early childbearing mothers was 32.1 % (urban 25 % and rural 35.1 %). Most of the underweight mothers had mild (62.2 %) CED, while the remaining had either moderate (25.9 %) or severe (11.9 %) CED. Multiple logistic regression analysis demonstrated that young mothers from rural areas, poor families, and those who were illiterate or with low level of education, working, and married to unemployed husband were at higher risk for being underweight. Young mothers who had non-caesarean delivered, delivered at home, or married at early age and had more than two children were also at higher risk for being underweight. The prevalence of underweight among early childbearing mothers in Bangladesh is very high (32.1 %), associated with the still common practice of teenage marriage. Education level, wealth index, occupation, place of residence, age at first marriage and parity were important predictors for their nutritional status. The government and non-government organizations should take initiatives to reduce the prevalence of underweight mothers in Bangladesh.
Olivares C, Sonia; Bustos Z, Nelly; Lera M, Lydia; Zelada, María Eugenia
A high prevalence of obesity is the main public health problem in Chilean school children. To compare the nutritional status, consumption of selected foods and extracurricular physical activity (PA) habits in school children of different socioeconomic levels as a baseline for developing effective educational interventions. Cross-sectional study that determined the body mass index, food consumption and physical activity with previously validated instruments in 202 and 358 girls from 3rd to 8th grade in schools of medium-high and low socioeconomic level (SEL) from Santiago, Chile, respectively. Compared to their counterparts of low socioeconomic level (SEL), the prevalence of obesity was significantly lower in 8-9 year-old girls of medium high SEL (19% and 9%, respectively, p =0.012) and 12-13 year-old (12% and 2.5% respectively, p =0.008). Also median daily intake of dairy products was higher in girls of medium high SEL (250 and 470 ml/day, respectively). The intake of fruits and vegetables was similar (200 g/d); and the intake of bread was lower (230 and 70 g/day, respectively, p Consumption of energy-dense foods was lower in 10-13 year-old girls of medium high SEL (80 and 50 g/day, respectively, p food and PA habits and to promote an environment that enhances healthy behaviors.
Lee, Hyo; Kim, Byung-Hoon
Physical activity plays an important role in preventing further progression of metabolic syndrome conditions to cardiovascular disease and type-2 diabetes. This study investigated physical activity disparities by socioeconomic status among metabolic syndrome patients. The fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2010-2012) data were analyzed (n=19,831). A revised definition of the US National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III was used for screening metabolic syndrome patients. Using International Physical Activity Questionnaire, physical activity adherence was defined as participating in 150+ minutes of moderate-intensity physical activity, 75+ minutes of vigorous-intensity physical activity, or an equivalent combination of moderate-to vigorous-intensity physical activity per week. Socioeconomic status was measured by level of education and house-hold income. Among metabolic syndrome patients, physical activity adherence rate of first (lowest), second, third, and fourth quartile house-hold income group were 28.31% (95% confidence interval [CI], 26.14-30.28%), 34.68% (95% CI, 32.71-36.70), 37.44% (95% CI, 35.66-39.25), and 43.79% (95% CI, 41.85-45.75). Physical activity adherence rate of groups with elementary or lower, middle-school, high-school, and college or higher education degree were 25.17% (95% CI, 22.95-27.54), 38.2% (95% CI, 35.13-41.00), 39.60% (95% CI, 38.24-41.77), and 36.89% (95% CI, 35.77-38.03), respectively. This study found that physical activity adherence rate was lower in socioeconomically disadvantaged metabolic syndrome patients, which may aggravate health inequity status of Korean society.
Meisel, Jose D; Sarmiento, Olga L; Olaya, Camilo; Lemoine, Pablo D; Valdivia, Juan A; Zarama, Roberto
Low-and middle-income countries (LMICs) are experiencing a nutritional transition in which the burden of obesity tends to shift towards the lower-socioeconomic status (SES) group. We propose a system dynamics (SD) model for assessing the nutritional stage dynamics of the Colombian urban population by age and SES projected to 2030. This SD model captures the ageing population according to body mass index (BMI) categories and SES. In this model, the transference rates (TRs) between BMI categories by age and SES are estimated using a heuristic based on data obtained from national surveys. The simulation results show that the Colombian population, particularly those aged 20 to 39 years with a lower SES, is moving towards the overweight and obese categories. The TRs for overweight and obese categories in the lower SES group (the mean TR from not overweight to overweight = 0.0215 (per year) and mean TR from overweight to obese = 0.0098 (per year)) are increasing more rapidly than the those in the middle (the mean TR from not overweight to overweight = 0.0162 (per year) and mean TR from overweight to obese = 0.0065 (per year)) and higher SES groups (the mean TR from not overweight to overweight = 0.0166 and mean TR from overweight to obese = 0.0054 (per year)). Additionally, from 2005 to 2010, individuals aged 20 to 39 years had the highest TRs towards the overweight and obese categories (from 0.026 to 0.036 per year and from 0.0064 to 0.012 per year, respectively). The TRs also indicated that children aged 0 to 14 years are moving from the obese to overweight and from the overweight to not overweight categories. These TRs show that the Colombian population is experiencing an SES-related nutritional transition that is affecting the lower SES population. The proposed model could be implemented to assess the nutritional transitions experienced in other LMICs.
Abdi, Nasrin; Sadeghi, Roya; Zamani-Alavijeh, Fereshteh; Taghdisi, Mohammad Hossein; Shojaeezadeh, Davoud
Health and behavior are closely related subjects because disease is typically rooted in individuals' unhealthy behaviors and habits. This study aims to identify women's nutritional habits and behaviors in order to design interventions to promote nutritional literacy. This qualitative research is part of a mixed method (quantitative-qualitative) study, conducted based on content analysis. Data were collected using semistructured interviews, group discussions, and in-depth interviews with married women, aged 18-50 years, who were referred to four health care centers in Sanandaj in 2013-2014. Nutritional habits and behaviors of participants were classified into two categories: representation of nutritional behavior based on consumption pattern and representation of nutritional behavior based on consumption method. For the former, eight consumption pattern subcategories were formed: meat, dairy, fast food, local foods, fruits and vegetables, soft drinks, and oils. The latter (representation of nutritional behavior based on consumption method), included two subcategories: consumption method in line with health and consumption method inconsistent with health. Results of this qualitative study provide a solid foundation for development and designing interventions to nutritional literacy promotion based on needs. The designed intervention to healthy nutritional behavior should be based on empowering women and providing facilitator factors of a healthy diet. While designing this study, with a holistic perspective, individual and social aspects of a healthy diet should be taken into account.
O'Dea, Jennifer A.; Mugridge, Anna C.
Health-related behaviors [physical activity (PA), nutritional quality of breakfast and sleep]; personal variables (self-esteem, attitudes to PA and gender) and socioeconomic status (SES) (school SES and parental education), were examined in relation to literacy and numeracy scores of 824 grade 3-7 children. Participants completed a questionnaire,…
Mohsena, Masuda; Goto, Rie; Mascie-Taylor, C G Nicholas
The nutritional status of under-five-year-old children is a sensitive indicator of a country's health status as well as economic condition. The objectives of this study were to analyse trends in the nutritional status in Bangladeshi children over the period 1996-2007 and to examine the associations between nutritional and socioeconomic status variables. Bangladesh Demographic Health Surveys (BDHS) were the source of data, and a total of 16,278 children were examined. The Z-scores of the children were analysed as continuous as well as categorical variables (stunted, underweight and wasted). The socioeconomic status variables used were region, urban-rural residence, education and occupation of the parents, house type and household possession score. A series of General Linear Model and Sequential Linear and Binary Logistic Regression analyses were done to assess the relationship between demographic and socioeconomic variables and nutritional status. The trends of Z-scores were analysed by survey, as well as by child birth cohort. Region, house type, educational level of parents and household possession score showed significant associations with all three Z-scores of children after removing the effects of age, period of DHS and other explanatory variables in the model. No significant sex difference was observed between any of the Z-scores. There were improvements in mean WAZ and HAZ between 1996 and 2007 but deterioration in mean WHZ over this period. The obesity rate was below 2% in 2007, although the absolute numbers of obese children had nearly doubled in this 12-year period. Children from poorer households showed greater improvement than their better-off counterparts. The study reveals that over the years there has been substantial improvement in nutritional status of under-five children in Bangladesh and the main gains have been amongst the lower socioeconomic groups; it is also evident that malnutrition in Bangladesh is a multidimensional problem, like poverty
Kim, Mi-Hyun; Lee, Jung Sun; Johnson, Mary Ann
As the population ages, osteoporosis is a growing global public health problem. This study examined potential risk factors associated with osteoporosis in a nationally representative sample of Korean postmenopausal women. This study used data from a nationally representative sample of Korean menopausal women participating in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey KNHANES 2009 (n = 1467; mean age ± SE = 65.2 ± 0.3 years). Bone mineral density of total femur, femoral neck, and spine was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Osteoporosis was determined as t-score of -2.5 or below in at least 1 of the 3 sites. Menopausal status was confirmed by self-reports. About 41% of the study sample met the criteria for osteoporosis. Poor socioeconomic status, lower BMI, and shorter estrogen exposure duration were significantly associated with osteoporosis in the study sample. Poor dietary intake was also related to osteoporosis. In the age- and energy-adjusted logistic regression models, participants consuming less protein, vitamin B2, or vitamin C than the estimated average requirement (EAR) showed higher odds of having osteoporosis than their counterparts. Participants consuming no milk or milk products had 45% increased odds of having osteoporosis than those consuming milk or milk products. The findings of this study suggest several risk factors associated with osteoporosis, which can be addressed in the development and implementation of tailored nutritional interventions to promote the bone health of Korean postmenopausal women.
Socioeconomic characteristics, anthropometric measurements, dietary patterns and school attendance were determined. Children were interviewed to assess their nutritional status using a validated questionnaire. Descriptive statistics such as means, standard deviations (SDs) and ranges were used for socioeconomic ...
Cullen, Karen Weber; Watson, Kathleen B; Fithian, Ashley R
This study compares the impact of the Texas Public School Nutrition Policy on lunch consumption of low- and middle-income students in sixth through eighth grades. Students in 1 middle socioeconomic status (SES) and 1 low SES school completed lunch food records before (2001/2002) and after (2005/2006) implementation of the Texas policy. Students recorded amount and source of foods/beverages consumed. Two-way analyses of variance with year and school SES as factors were performed to compare consumption by school SES before and after implementation of the Texas policy. Regardless of year, the low SES group consumed less fat, sweetened beverages, and candy and more vitamin C and calcium than the middle SES group. There were more significant improvements in dietary patterns for the middle SES school students post-policy, particularly from the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) meal. The middle SES school students reported significantly higher percentages of less healthy items from home post-policy. Overall, low SES school students consumed more healthy lunches at school compared with middle SES school students, and the Texas policy improved middle SES school student dietary intakes. Whether the dietary behaviors in school influence dietary intake for the entire day is unknown.
Galgamuwa, Lahiru Sandaruwan; Iddawela, Devika; Dharmaratne, Samath D; Galgamuwa, G L S
Child malnutrition is a major public health concern worldwide, leading to higher morbidity and mortality. It is mostly preventable through public health and economic development. The aim of the present study was to determine socio-economic factors associated with nutritional status among children in plantation communities, Sri Lanka. A cross-sectional study was performed among preschool and school going children in three rural communities of Sri Lanka from January to August 2014. Demographic and household characteristics were documented and anthropometric measurements were collected to calculate weight-for-age (WAZ), height-for-age (HAZ) and BMI-for-age (BAZ). Anthroplus, epiinfo and SPSS versions were used for the analysis of data. A total of 547 children (aged 1-15 years, mean 7.0 ± 3.6 years, 53% female) participated in the study. 35.6%, 26.9% and 32.9% of children were underweight, stunting and wasting respectively. Undernutrition was more common in primary school children. Maternal employment, high number of siblings, high birth orders and female children were significantly associated with undernutrition among preschool children. Living in small houses, large number of family members, low monthly income and maternal employment were significantly associated with undernutrition among school children. Child undernutrition is a major public health concern in the plantation sector, Sri Lanka. Health education programs among the study population could be effective for solving the problem.
Larsen, Morten H
Despite a general consensus and recognition of the importance of the "social gradient" on nutritional standards and ultimately people's health, (Budrys, 2003; Marmot & Wilkinson, 1999; Marmot et al., 1991; Ross & Wu, 1995), the body of literature identifying and describing the actual underlying social mechanisms which could explain this association is small, fragmented and not contained within one single discipline of thought - the effects of this conundrum seem easier to describe than to explain. The aim of this article is therefore to explore and identify social mechanisms, which could help explain why people with low socio-economic status consume a disproportionate amount of unhealthy foods and therefore also observe poorer diets. It is therefore in many ways an exploration into the nature of (relative) poverty. The point of departure for this exploration and identification is historical descriptions (in the form of excerpts) from George Orwell's (1937) book "The Road to Wigan Pier" on the living conditions of the British working classes. These descriptions will be aligned with results from contemporary research into nutritional behaviour. Strong similarities are identified between George Orwell's historical descriptions of the working-class's unhealthy diet and the findings from contemporary research into nutritional behaviour of people with a low socio-economic status. Certain social mechanisms influencing nutritional choices are readily identifiable across disciplines, and even partly reproduced in different historical, social and spatial contexts, with stronger negative (nutritional) consequences for people with low socio-economic status. The disregard of social mechanisms, and therefore implicitly issues of class, could indicate a general "de-socialization" of nutritional advice also in its dispersal through various health-promotion initiatives and campaigns, which raises serious questions about the usefulness of much nutritional advice, already
Mohsena, Masuda; Goto, Rie; Mascie-Taylor, Cg Nicholas
To analyse trends in maternal nutritional status in Bangladesh over a 12-year period and to examine the associations between nutritional status and socio-economic variables. Maternal nutritional status indicators were height, weight and BMI. Socio-economic variables used were region, residency, education and occupation of the mothers and their husbands, house type, and possession score in the household. Bangladesh Demographic and Health Surveys (1996, 2000, 2004 and 2007) were the source of data. A total of 16 278 mothers were included. All of the socio-economic variables showed significant associations with maternal nutritional status indicators. Regional variation was found to be present; all three indicators were found to be lowest in the Sylhet division. Upward trends in maternal height, weight and BMI were evident from no possessions to four possessions in households, and for no education to higher education of women and their husbands. Bangladeshi mothers measured in 2007 were found to be on average 0·34 cm taller and 3·36 kg heavier than mothers measured in 1996. Between 1996 and 2007 maternal underweight fell from nearly 50 % to just over 30 % while overweight and obesity increased from about 3 % to over 9 % (WHO cut-offs) or from 7 % to nearly 18 % (Asian cut-offs). The study reveals that over the 12-year period in Bangladesh there has been a substantial reduction in maternal underweight accompanied by a considerable increase in obesity. It is also evident that malnutrition in Bangladesh is a multidimensional problem that warrants a proper policy mix and programme intervention.
Lee, Young Bok; Kim, Su Young; Park, Yong Gyu; Han, Kyung Do; Kim, Jin-Wou; Chae, Hiun Suk; Lee, Young Chun
Pterygium is a common conjunctival disorder. The socioeconomic risk factors of pterygium have not been systematically evaluated in Korea. The study investigated risk factors of pterygium considering socioeconomic status.Participants were 9839 adults aged 19 to 74 years, who underwent ophthalmic slit-lamp examinations as part of the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010 to 2011. Pterygium was diagnosed as a growth of fibrovascular tissue over the cornea. The socioeconomic risk factors were analyzed in association with the presence of pterygium. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the odds ratios for differences in socioeconomic status.The presence of pterygium was associated with diabetes mellitus, hypertension, metabolic syndrome, and sun exposure time (>5 h/d). The blood level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D was higher in the pterygium group than in the control group, but both groups were deficient in 25-hydroxyvitamin D compared with the normal reference level. Pterygium was almost 3 times as frequent among persons who worked outdoors, such as skilled agricultural, forestry, and fishery workers, than among those who worked indoors (odds ratio 3.061, 95% confidence interval 1.946-4.813). Low educational status and longer working hours were also significantly associated with pterygium.This study used a nationwide population-based survey conducted by the Korean Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to reveal that pterygium is associated with low socioeconomic status. Efforts should be made to reduce the risk of pterygium by changing modifiable risk factors, especially among people with low socioeconomic status.
Park, Jun-Beom; Han, Kyungdo; Park, Yong-Gyu; Ko, Youngkyung
Socioeconomic status (SES) has been reported to be associated with oral health behavior. Therefore, the present study was conducted to assess the relationship between SES and oral health behaviors in a large sample of the Korean population. Data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, which was conducted between 2008 and 2010 by the Division of Chronic Disease Surveillance under the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Korean Ministry of Health and Welfare, were used in the present study. Daily tooth brushing frequency and the use of secondary oral products according to demographic variables and anthropometric characteristics of the participants were assessed. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to analyze the associations between daily tooth brushing frequency and the use of secondary oral products, and SES, urban/rural residence, body mass index (BMI), alcohol intake and smoking. An association between SES and tooth brushing frequency and the use of secondary oral products was detected after adjustment. Following adjustment for age, gender, BMI, smoking, drinking, exercise, energy intake, fat intake, periodontal treatment needs and education or income, the adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of tooth brushing ≥3 per day in the highest income group were 1.264 (95% CI, 1.094-1.460) and 2.686 (95% CI, 2.286-3.155) for highest education level group. The adjusted odds ratios for the use of secondary oral products in the highest income and highest education groups were 1.835 (95% CI, 1.559-2.161) and 5.736 (95% CI, 4.734-6.951), respectively, after adjustment for age, gender, smoking, BMI, exercise, calorie intake, periodontal treatment requirements or income. The present study demonstrated an association between SES and oral health behaviors in a large sample of the Korean population. Within the limits of the present study, income and education were suggested as potential risk indicators
Gotthelf, Susana J; Tempestti, Claudia P
Socioeconomic context and family dynamics are determining factors when considering eating habits and nutritional status among students. It has been demonstrated that skipping breakfast or having a light breakfast has an unfavorable impact on nutritional status. To establish a relationship among breakfast, sociodemographic outcome measures, and nutritional status among students attending public schools in the urban and peri-urban areas of the City of Salta. Descriptive, crosssectional study. Purposive, non-probability sampling of students attending urban and periurban primary schools (aged 9-13, boys and girls). Outcome measures: breakfast at home (habit, "enKid" breakfast quality, frequency, duration), nutritional status (body mass index, Z-score, World Health Organization), and sociodemographic outcome measures (family type, level of education, employment, parents' breakfast habit, commensality). Analysis of frequency, associations, logistic regression, odds ratio, confidence interval, p < 0.05, WHO AnthroPlus and SPSS v18 software. Two hundred and eighty-three students were assessed; 49.8% attended urban schools. Overweight or obesity was observed in 46.0%. Also, 55.1% skipped breakfast at home on the day of the assessment; among those who did have breakfast, 79.5% had a poor or very-poor quality meal. Among those who skipped breakfast, 40.7% of the girls and 54.7% of the boys were overweight or obese. A greater socioeconomic vulnerability and a higher percentage of students who attended school without having breakfast were observed in peri-urban schools. Eventually, the probability of skipping breakfast was associated with having a large family, absence of parental breakfast habit, a low level of maternal education, having breakfast alone, and being obese. Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría
Vernay, M; Salanave, B; de Peretti, C; Druet, C; Malon, A; Deschamps, V; Hercberg, S; Castetbon, K
The main objective was to estimate, in France, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and to investigate the association between socioeconomic position and MetS. The French National Nutrition and Health Survey (ENNS) cross-sectional national multistage sampling was carried out in 2006-2007. Data collection included waist circumference and blood pressure measurements, blood sample and sociodemographic and medication information. The prevalence of MetS was assessed using several definitions, including Joint Interim Statement (JIS). Association with sociodemographic covariates was assessed using logistic regression models. Among the 1,856 participants 18-74 years of age, MetS prevalence was found to vary from 14.6 % (National Cholesterol Education Program definition) to 21.1 % (JIS), with no difference between genders. After adjustment, risk of MetS increased with age in both men and women. In women, MetS risk was inversely associated with education level. Risk of MetS was higher in men born outside France than in French-born males. MetS prevalence appeared to be lower in France than in most industrialised countries. The promoting of public health measures to reduce MetS, for example, lifestyle changes, is of utmost importance, particularly among less favourable socioeconomic categories and among migrants.
Dribe, Martin; Breschi, Marco; Gagnon, Alain
America to analyse the relationship between socio-economic status and fertility during the fertility transition. Using comparable analytical models and class schemes for each population, we examined the changing socio-economic differences in marital fertility and related these to common theories...
Di Cesare, Mariachiara; Bhatti, Zaid; Soofi, Sajid B; Fortunato, Lea; Ezzati, Majid; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A
Pakistan has one of the highest levels of child and maternal undernutrition worldwide, but little information about geographical and socioeconomic inequalities is available. We aimed to analyse anthropometric indicators for childhood and maternal nutrition at a district level in Pakistan and assess the association of nutritional status with food security and maternal and household socioeconomic factors. We used data from the 2011 Pakistan National Nutrition Survey, which included anthropometric measurements for 33 638 children younger than 5 years and 24 826 women of childbearing age. We estimated the prevalences of stunting, wasting, and underweight among children and of underweight, overweight, and obesity in women for all 143 districts of Pakistan using a Bayesian spatial technique. We used a mixed-effect linear model to analyse the association of nutritional status with individual and household sociodemographic factors and food security. Stunting prevalence in Pakistan's districts ranged between 22% (95% credible interval 19-26) and 76% (69-83); the lowest figures for wasting and underweight were both less than 2·5% and the highest were 42% (34-50) for wasting and 54% (49-59) for underweight. In 106 districts, more women were overweight than were underweight; in 49 of these districts more women were obese than were underweight. Children were better nourished if their mothers were taller or had higher weight, if they lived in wealthier households, and if their mothers had 10 or more years of education. Severe food insecurity was associated with worse nutritional outcomes for both children and women. We noted large social and geographical inequalities in child and maternal nutrition in Pakistan, masked by national and provincial averages. Pakistan is also beginning to face the concurrent challenge of high burden of childhood undernutrition and overweight and obesity among women of reproductive age. Planning, implementation, and evaluation of programmes for
Full Text Available Abstract Objectives The aim of the current study was to examine the influence of socioeconomic status (SES on physiological (lipid profile, obesity indices and behavioral (dietary habits, physical activity cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors among primary schoolchildren in Istanbul. Design Cross sectional study. Setting One private school and two public schools from different SES districts in Istanbul. Participants 510 randomly selected children aged 12 and 13 years old (257 boys, 253 girls. Results The prevalence of overweight (15.2% and the energy intake (p Conclusion The findings of the current study revealed a coexistence of both overweight and higher energy intake in middle/ high SES children, as well as a coexistence of underweight and lower physical activity levels in low SES children. These observations should guide the public health policy in developing appropriate intervention strategies to efficiently tackle these health and social issues early in life.
O'Dea, Jennifer A; Mugridge, Anna C
Health-related behaviors [physical activity (PA), nutritional quality of breakfast and sleep]; personal variables (self-esteem, attitudes to PA and gender) and socioeconomic status (SES) (school SES and parental education), were examined in relation to literacy and numeracy scores of 824 grade 3-7 children. Participants completed a questionnaire, and their national literacy and numeracy test scores were retrieved. Mothers (N = 755) completed a telephone interview. Students of highest school SES, maternal education, nutritional quality of breakfast, more sedentary time and female gender had higher literacy scores. SES, maternal education, male gender and total minutes of daily PA were predictors of numeracy with an interaction between greater total PA in boys and greater numeracy. Even though the socioeconomic factors that have predicted children's academic achievement for many decades are still clearly set in place, there are also other modifiable health influences that affect literacy and numeracy and are independent of SES. The current findings provide evidence for health educators and school administrators who may garner support for both breakfast programs and daily school PA for the dual purposes of health promotion as well as for the improvement of literacy and numeracy in settings in which social class may be acting against the educational interests of disadvantaged children.
Vaz, M; Diffey, B; Jacob, A J; Vaz, M
Because of the large numbers of leprosy patients with disability and the limited resources available, it is important that socio-economic rehabilitation (SER) is targeted towards those who are most in need. Towards this purpose, current assessments of leprosy patients prior to initiating SER include the evaluation of income, assets and household possessions. Conspicuously absent is the nutritional assessment of the patient. In the absence of weight loss associated with illness, population studies indicate that undernutrition reflects poor socio-economic conditions. In this study of 151 cured leprosy patients with disability, 57% of the patients were found to be undernourished using body mass index (kg/m2) derived from body weight and height, and 10% of the patients were severely undernourished (grade III). Undernutrition in the patients was poorly though significantly correlated with personal income (r = 0.18, P nutritional status evaluation by anthropometry as part of the initial screening of leprosy patients prior to instituting SER. We believe that this simple and objective evaluation can add to the assessment of 'threat' of economic deprivation or actual economic 'dislocation', and thus help in the prioritization of leprosy patients for SER.
Fayyaz, Faiqa; Wang, Flora; Jacobs, René L; O'Connor, Deborah L; Bell, Rhonda C; Field, Catherine J
Folic acid supplementation and food fortification policies have improved folate status in North American women of child bearing age. Recent studies have reported the possible inadequacy of vitamin B12 and B6 in the etiology of neural tube defects in folate-fortified populations. The aims of this study were to describe folate status and its relationship to supplementation and to assess vitamin B12 and B6 status in a cohort of pregnant women. Supplement intake data were collected in each trimester from the first cohort (n = 599) of the Alberta Pregnancy Outcomes and Nutrition (APrON) study. Red blood cell folate (RBCF) and plasma folate, holotranscobalamin, and pyridoxal 5-phosphate were measured. Overt folate deficiency was rare (3%) but 24% of women in their first trimester had suboptimal RBCF concentration (1360 nmol·L(-1)) was observed in approximately half of the women during each pregnancy trimester. Vitamin B12 and B6 deficiencies were rare (supplements above the upper level had significantly higher RBCF and plasma folate concentrations. In conclusion, the prevalence of vitamin B12 and B6 deficiency was very low. A quarter of the women had suboptimal folate status in the first trimester of pregnancy and over half the women had abnormally high RBCF, suggesting that supplementation during pregnancy is not appropriate in a cohort of women considered to be healthy and a low risk for nutritional deficiencies.
King, Kristi McClary; Ling, Jiying
Improving children's nutrition and physical activity have become priorities in the United States. This quasi-experimental study evaluated the longitudinal effects of a 3-year, school-based, health promotion intervention (i.e. nutrition and physical education, classroom physical activity, professional development and health promotion for teachers…
Mladenova, Silviya; Andreenko, Emiliya
to study of impact of some socio-economic and demographic factors, feeding and physical activity on the prevalence of overweight, obesity and underweight among Bulgarian children and adolescents. the sample of this research included 881 children and adolescents from both sexes, aged from 8 to 15 years, that were measured transversally in the period 2012- 2014 in eight government school in Smolyan region, Bulgaria. Of each child the height and weight were measured and body mass index (BMI) were calculated. The evaluation of nutritional status was made using the IOTF cut-off points of BMI for children and adolescents. By the questionnaire the information about educational level of parents, number of children in the family, place of residence, nutrition and feeding habits and physical activity of children and adolescents were collected. The data were analyzed by software Statistica 10.0. there is a significant positive relation between the factor ''overeating" and the BMI values for both sexes and a negative relation between the factor ''meals frequency" and BMI for boys (p. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.
Campos, Renata de Oliveira; Reboucas, Sara Cristina Lima; Beck, Rebeca; de Jesus, Lorena Rejane Maia; Ramos, Yanne Rocha; Barreto, Iasmin Dos Santos; Marques, Tamires Xavier; Cerqueira, Taise Lima Oliveira; Santos, William Alves; Oliveira, Clotilde Assis; Teixeira, Leonardo Sena Gomes; Souza, Vanessa Cristina de Oliveira; Barbosa, Fernando; Ramos, Helton Estrela
National programs of salt iodization were implemented in Brazil to combat iodine deficiency (ID) in children of school age. Currently, there are limited data in Brazil on those still vulnerable to this deficiency and the state of nutritional iodine status in the northeast region of Brazil, where children are vulnerable to malnutrition. The aim of this study was to analyze the iodine nutritional status, household food insecurity, socioeconomic and demographic characteristics among schoolchildren from the public school system living in state the state of Bahia, Brazil. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 1419 schoolchildren in Bahia between the ages of 6 and 14 years old. Anthropometric parameters, urinary iodine concentrations (UIC), and thyrotropin (TSH) measurements were evaluated from blood spots on filter paper. The mean UIC was 206.4 ± 80.5 μg/L, with a median of 221.6 μg/L, indicating sufficient iodine intake in the region. Low urinary iodide concentration (300 μg/L, indicating the coexistence of excessive iodine intake (EII). The mean TSH was 1.0 ± 0.6 mIU/L. The body mass index category "overweight/obesity" was a protective factor against EII (odds ratio [OR] = 0.64 [confidence interval (CI) 0.4-1.0]; p = 0.07). Urban areas (73%) had a mean UIC of 213.1 ± 80 μg/L compared with 176.8 ± 76.1 μg/L in rural areas. The risk for EII increased in children living in a house with more than six people (OR = 1.62 [CI 0.9-2.6]; p consumption from shallow wells (OR = 1.70 [CI 0.9-3.1]; p = 0.09). The risk of ID was increased by 70% in schoolchildren who had moderate or severe food insecurity (OR = 1.70 [CI 0.9-3.0]; p > 0.05). A significant proportion of schoolchildren still have ID or EII in the northeast region of Brazil, emphasizing the importance of committed public policies to address this problem. Socioeconomic factors and the lack of education about nutritional importance of iodine were
Conclusions: Based on our findings, an unhealthier dietary intake may exist among the households belonging to lower socio-economic level in Iran. This calls for appropriate policy making and intervention(s. Keywords: Socio-economic status, Food and nutrient intakes, Factor analysis, Household
Robertson, Aileen; Sarki, Mahesh; Lobstein, Tim
-conceptual nutrition of parents-to-be will have follow-on benefits for the child, and for their children in turn. Such policies can help EU Member States to decrease the risk of childhood obesity, improve maternal health, and reduce health disparities in the most disadvantaged groups. This life-course approach...
Zhang, Michael; Gale, Shawn D; Erickson, Lance D; Brown, Bruce L; Woody, Parker; Hedges, Dawson W
Cognitive function may be influenced by education, socioeconomic status, sex, and health status. Furthermore, aging interacts with these factors to influence cognition and dementia risk in late life. Factors that may increase or decrease successful cognitive aging are of critical importance, particularly if they are modifiable. The purpose of this study was to determine if economic status in late life is associated with cognition independent of socioeconomic status in early life. Cross-sectional demographic, socioeconomic, and cognitive function data were obtained in 2592 older adults (average age 71.6 years) from the Center for Disease Control's National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and analyzed with linear regression modeling. Cognitive function, as measured with a test of processing speed, was significantly associated with poverty index scores after adjusting for educational attainment as an estimate of childhood socioeconomic status, ethnic background, age, health status, and sex (P status is independently associated with cognitive function in adults over age 60 years.
Kim, Yang-Hyun; Ahn, Kyung-Sik; Cho, Kyung-Hwan; Kang, Chang Ho; Cho, Sung Bum; Han, Kyungdo; Rho, Yong-Kyun; Park, Yong-Gyu
This study aimed to examine average height loss and the relationship between height loss and socioeconomic status (SES) among the elderly in South Korea.Data were obtained from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2010. A total of 5265 subjects (2818 men and 2447 women) were included. Height loss was calculated as the difference between the subject's self-reported maximum adult height and their measured current height. The height loss values were divided into quartiles (Q1-Q4) for men and women. SES was determined using a self-reported questionnaire for education level, family income, and occupation.Height loss was associated with SES in all age groups, and mean height loss increased with age. In the relationship between education level and maximum height loss (Q4), men with ≤6, 7-9, or 10-12 years of education had higher odds ratios for the prevalence of height loss (Q4) than men with the highest education level (≥13 years). With regard to the relationship between the income level and height loss (Q4), the subjects with the lowest income had an increased prevalence of maximum height loss (Q4) than the subjects with the highest income (odds ratios = 2.03 in men and 1.94 in women). Maximum height loss (Q4) was more prevalent in men and women with a low SES and less prevalent in men with a high SES than in men with a middle SES.Height loss (Q4) was associated with education level in men and with income level (especially low income) in men and women. Height loss was also associated with a low SES in men and women.
Machado, Jacqueline; Caram, Carmen Lucia Barreto; Frank, Andrea Abdala; Soares, Eliane de Abreu; Laks, Jerson
To describe the nutritional status of elderly subjects with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease. Subjects of both genders (n=40) diagnosed with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease according to NINCDS-ADRDA criteria, participated in the study. Socioeconomic status, activities of daily life, anthropometric, clinical and dietary profiles were surveyed. Of the total, 65% were female. More than 70% were capable of accomplishing daily activities by themselves. Subjects were eutrophic with a statistically significant difference of the arm circumference between the mild and moderate groups. As for illnesses secondary to Alzheimer's, 52% of the elderly presented hypertension, followed by arthrosis type alterations (17%). The mean consumption of energy and macronutrients in the elderly classified as mild dementia was of 1645 kcal, distributed in 53.7% of carbohydrate, 17.5% of proteins or 0.9 g/kg and 28.8% of lipids. For those classified as moderate dementia it was of 1482 kcal, distributed in 59.3% of carbohydrate, 16.1% of proteins and 24.6% of lipids. In this descriptive study of elderly outpatients with mild and moderate Alzheimer's disease, most presented a nutritional status of eutrophy, with adequate dietary intake of carbohydrates, proteins, lipids and vitamin C, but with low dietary intake of vitamin E.
Infant Nutritional Status, Feeding Practices, Enteropathogen Exposure, Socioeconomic Status, and Illness Are Associated with Gut Barrier Function As Assessed by the Lactulose Mannitol Test in the MAL-ED Birth Cohort.
Lee, Gwenyth O; McCormick, Benjamin J J; Seidman, Jessica C; Kosek, Margaret N; Haque, Rashidul; Olortegui, Maribel Paredes; Lima, Aldo A M; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Kang, Gagandeep; Samie, Amidou; Amour, Caroline; Mason, Carl J; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Yori, Pablo Peñataro; Oliveira, Domingos B; Alam, Didar; Babji, Sudhir; Bessong, Pascal; Mduma, Estomih; Shrestha, Sanjaya K; Ambikapathi, Ramya; Lang, Dennis R; Gottlieb, Michael; Guerrant, Richard L; Caulfield, Laura E; For The Mal-Ed Network Investigators
The lactulose mannitol (LM) dual sugar permeability test is the most commonly used test of environmental enteropathy in developing countries. However, there is a large but conflicting literature on its association with enteric infection and host nutritional status. We conducted a longitudinal cohort using a single field protocol and comparable laboratory procedures to examine intestinal permeability in multiple, geographically diverse pediatric populations. Using a previously published systematic review to guide the selection of factors potentially associated with LM test results, we examined the relationships between these factors and mucosal breach, represented by percent lactulose excretion; absorptive area, represented by percent mannitol excretion; and gut barrier function, represented by the L/M ratio. A total of 6,602 LM tests were conducted in 1,980 children at 3, 6, 9, and 15 months old; percent lactulose excretion, percent mannitol excretion, and the L/M ratio were expressed as age- and sex-specific normalized values using the Brazil cohort as the reference population. Among the factors considered, recent severe diarrhea, lower socioeconomic status, and recent asymptomatic enteropathogen infections were associated with decreased percent mannitol excretion and higher L/M ratios. Poorer concurrent weight-for-age, infection, and recent breastfeeding were associated with increased percent lactulose excretion and increased L/M ratios. Our results support previously reported associations between the L/M ratio and factors related to child nutritional status and enteropathogen exposure. These results were remarkably consistent across sites and support the hypothesis that the frequency of these exposures in communities living in poverty leads to alterations in gut barrier function.
Pedersen, Line Merete Blak; Jacobsen, Søren; Klarlund, Mette
To examine whether markers of socioeconomic status (SES) are associated with risk of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and if so, whether selected lifestyle-related factors could explain this association.......To examine whether markers of socioeconomic status (SES) are associated with risk of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and if so, whether selected lifestyle-related factors could explain this association....
Kyle, Janet; Fox, Helen C; Whalley, Lawrence J
There is interest in age-related cognitive decline and environmental risk factors for Alzheimer's disease (AD). This interest is focused on individual differences in exposure to agents that may harm or protect cognitive function. Caffeine is used as a short acting mental stimulant and may possess longer-term properties that protect against age-related decline and, possibly, AD. The current study aimed to: 1) examine current cognitive function in a narrow age range sample (n=351) without dementia (MMSE>25) who are, by reason of age, entering the period of increased risk of AD; and 2) link cognitive function to self-reported intake of caffeine and socioeconomic status (SES). Possible confounding by gender, childhood intelligence, education, and symptoms of anxiety and depression was introduced into the statistical model. There were significant differences between SES groups in caffeine intake (pcaffeine intake were associated with slower digit symbol speed (F =3.38, pcaffeine during cognitive testing and strong links between SES and cognitive performance. No evidence in support of cognitive enhancing effects of caffeine was found.
Ghosh, Satabdi; Ghosh, Tusharkanti; Dutta Chowdhury, Sutanu; Wrotniak, Brian H; Chandra, Ananga Mohan
Development of coordinated movements is determined among others by individual growth and environmental factors, but the dynamic relationship between motor proficiency and potential contributing factors such as chronic nutritional status and socio-economic status (SES) is not known in school children of Kolkata. To characterize the motor proficiency in school children of Kolkata and to investigate association of chronic nutritional and SES on motor proficiency. Motor proficiency in 843 school children of Kolkata aged 5-12 years was assessed by the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor-Proficiency-Second Edition-Short Form (BOT-2 SF). Chronic nutritional status was determined from height-for-age Z-scores (HAZ) using WHO reference and SES was measured using the updated Kuppuswamy's scale. Children's motor proficiency was poor compared with the reference values. Children classified as severely undernourished and children of lower SES were found to be "below average" and "well-below average" in motor proficiency categories compared with normal nourished groups and children of upper SES. Children's BOT-2 SF standardized scores decreased incrementally with the severity of chronic undernutrition and lower grades of SES. Chronic undernutrition and lower SES are associated with poorer motor proficiency in children. Understanding the complex interrelationships that shape childen's motor skills can help inform the development of health promotion programs and tailored interventions to help children reach their full potential. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dev Psychobiol 58:734-744, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Ford, Nicole D; Martorell, Reynaldo; Mehta, Neil K; Ramirez-Zea, Manuel; Stein, Aryeh D
Latin America has experienced increases in obesity. Little is known about the role of early life factors on body mass index (BMI) gain over the life course. The objective of this research was to examine the role of early life factors [specifically, nutrition supplementation during the first 1000 d (from conception to 2 y of age) and childhood household socioeconomic status (SES)] on the pattern of BMI gain from birth or early childhood through midadulthood by using latent class growth analysis. Study participants (711 women, 742 men) who were born in 4 villages in Guatemala (1962-1977) were followed prospectively since participating in a randomized nutrition supplementation trial as children. Sex-specific BMI latent class trajectories were derived from 22 possible measures of height and weight from 1969 to 2004. To characterize early life determinants of BMI latent class membership, we used logistic regression modeling and estimated the difference-in-difference (DD) effect of nutrition supplementation during the first 1000 d. We identified 2 BMI latent classes in women [low (57%) and high (43%)] and 3 classes in men [low (38%), medium (47%), and high (15%)]. Nutrition supplementation during the first 1000 d after conception was not associated with BMI latent class membership (DD test: P > 0.15 for men and women), whereas higher SES was associated with increased odds of high BMI latent class membership in both men (OR: 1.98; 95% CI: 1.09, 3.61) and women (OR: 1.62; 95% CI: 1.07, 2.45) for the highest relative to the lowest tertile. In a cohort of Guatemalan men and women, nutrition supplementation provided during the first 1000 d was not significantly associated with higher BMI trajectory. Higher childhood household SES was associated with increased odds of high BMI latent class membership relative to the poorest households. The pathways through which this operates still need to be explored. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.
Anderson, N E; Gorman, D F; Lines, D R
The nutritional status of children (and hence the community) was assessed in the five major races in Auckland by height, weight, and head circumference measurements. Under the age of two years Samoan children were significnatly taller and heavier than Europeans and Maori children. No significant racial differences occurred in children between ages two and 13 years. No racial variation in head circumference between races was noted at any age. More children of lower socio-economic class had weights about the 97th percentile especially in Samoan, Cook Island and Niuean children's groups, suggesting they are particularly vulnerable to obesity. Heal circumference of children of low socio-economic status was smaller than that of other children. Similarly non-breast fed children had smaller heads than breast fed children. This suggests these children may have impaired brain growth.
Caracterização do consumo alimentar, ambiente socioeconômico e estado nutricional de pré-escolares de creches municipais Characteristics of dietary intake, socioeconomic environment and nutritional status of preschoolers at public kindergartens
Teresa Gontijo de Castro
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar o consumo alimentar, o ambiente socioeconômico, a freqüência de anemia ferropriva e o estado nutricional de pré-escolares. MÉTODOS: A população estudada constituiu-se de 89 crianças de 24 a 72 meses de idade, assistidas em creches municipais de Viçosa, MG. Foram avaliados: nível de hemoglobina, peso, estatura, presença de parasitose, consumo alimentar dos pré-escolares e o perfil biossocioeconômico de suas famílias. RESULTADOS: O estado nutricional do grupo foi considerado satisfatório, e a prevalência de anemia relativamente baixa (11,2%. Condições adequadas de saneamento, nível razoável de escolaridade dos pais, baixo número de filhos e ausência de parasitas envolvidos com a gênese da anemia podem justificar o perfil observado. Não foi observada associação da anemia ferropriva nem com desnutrição nem com parasitose. CONCLUSÃO: Apesar de alguns fatores biossocioeconômicos apresentarem-se favoráveis ao estado nutricional e à baixa prevalência de anemia, observa-se, entretanto, que a insuficiente renda per capita e a dieta deficiente poderão levar esse grupo de pré-escolares, no futuro, a um pior estado de saúde.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the dietary intake, the socioeconomic environment, the frequency of iron deficiency anemia, and the preschoolers' nutritional status. METHODS: The evaluated population consisted of 89 children aged 24 to 72 months, who were assisted at the public nursery schools in Viçosa, MG, Brazil. Evaluation was performed for hemoglobin level, body weight, stature, parasites' presence and dietary intake of the children, as well as for their families' biological and socioeconomic profiles. RESULTS: The group's nutritional status was considered satisfactory, and anemia prevalence was relatively low (11.2%. This profile may be justified by the adequate conditions of sanitation, reasonable level of parents' schooling, low numbers of children per family, and absence of parasites
Nobles, Jenna; Ritterman Weintraub, Miranda; Adler, Nancy
Subjective status, an individual’s perception of her socioeconomic standing, is a robust predictor of physical health in many societies. To date, competing interpretations of this correlation remain unresolved. Using longitudinal data on 8,430 older adults from the 2000 and 2007 waves of the Indonesia Family Life Survey, we test these oft-cited links. As in other settings, perceived status is a robust predictor of self-rated health, and also of physical functioning and nurse-assessed general health. These relationships persist in the presence of controls for unobserved traits, such as difficult-to-measure aspects of family background and persistent aspects of personality. However, we find evidence that these links likely represent bi-directional effects. Declines in health that accompany aging are robust predictors of declines in perceived socioeconomic status, net of observed changes to the economic profile of respondents. The results thus underscore the social value afforded good health status. PMID:23453318
Merli, Manuela; Giusto, Michela; Giannelli, Valerio; Lucidi, Cristina; Riggio, Oliviero
Chronic liver disease has a profound effect on nutritional status and undernourishment is almost universally present in patients with end-stage liver disease undergoing liver transplantation. In the last decades, due to epidemiological changes, a trend showing an increase in patients with end-stage liver disease and associated obesity has also been reported in developed countries. Nutrition abnormalities may influence the outcome after transplantation therefore, the importance to carefully assess the nutritional status in the work-up of patients candidates for liver transplantation is widely accepted. More attention has been given to malnourished patients as they represent the greater number. The subjective global nutritional assessment and anthropometric measurements are recognized in current guidelines to be adequate in identifying those patients at risk of malnutrition. Cirrhotic patients with a depletion in lean body mass and fat deposits have an increased surgical risk and malnutrition may impact on morbidity, mortality and costs in the post-transplantation setting. For this reason an adequate calorie and protein intake should always be ensured to malnourished cirrhotic patient either through the diet, or using oral nutritional supplements or by enteral or parenteral nutrition although studies supporting the efficacy of nutritional supplementation in improving the clinical outcomes after transplantation are still scarce. When liver function is restored, an amelioration in the nutritional status is expected. After liver transplantation in fact dietary intake rapidly normalizes and fat mass is progressively regained while the recovery of muscle mass can be slower. In some patients unregulated weight gain may lead to over-nutrition and may favor metabolic disorders (hypertension, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia). This condition, defined as 'metabolic syndrome', may play a negative role on the overall survival of liver transplant patients. In this report we review
Russell, Mary Krystofiak
Functional status assessment has been recommended as a part of a complete nutrition assessment for decades, but the specific components of this assessment have eluded a consensus definition. The recent Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics/American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition consensus criteria for identification of malnutrition include functional assessment determined by handgrip dynamometry, with the understanding that this technique is not practical for use in some patient populations. Other techniques for functional assessment include physical performance measures such as timed gait and chair stands, as well as activities of daily living tools such as the Katz Index, Lawton Scale, and Karnofsky Scale Index. Manual muscle testing and computed tomography scan assessment of lean tissue are other tools that show promise in correlating functional and nutrition assessments. Functional assessment parameters may be least well correlated with nutrition status in older individuals. Despite a number of scientific studies of a variety of tools for functional assessment, there is to date no definitive tool for use in all individuals in all settings. Nutrition scientists and clinicians must continue to collaborate with colleagues in physical and occupational therapy, geriatrics, and nursing to refine current functional assessment tools to more effectively correlate with nutrition and malnutrition assessment parameters. © 2015 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.
Development of the Oxford Hills Healthy Moms Project using a social marketing process: a community-based physical activity and nutrition intervention for low-socioeconomic-status mothers in a rural area in Maine.
Dharod, Jigna M; Drewette-Card, Rebecca; Crawford, David
A physical activity and nutrition community intervention called the Oxford Hills Healthy Moms (OHHM) Project was developed using a multifaceted social marketing process, including review of state surveillance results, key informant interviews, and a survey and focus group discussions with low-socioeconomic-status (low-SES) mothers. This formative work was used to make key decisions on the selection of the intervention region, segmentation of the audience, and design of intervention strategies addressing multiple levels of the socioecological model. The OHHM Project aims to increase fruit and vegetable consumption and physical activity levels among low-SES mothers in the Oxford Hills region of Maine. The OHHM Project includes five components: (a) physical activity buddy program, (b) cooking club with education, (c) fruit and vegetable discount buying club with education, (d) increased access to produce vendors, and (e) increased access to places for physical activity.
S V Subramanian
Full Text Available Systematic evidence on the patterns of health deprivation among indigenous peoples remains scant in developing countries. We investigate the inequalities in mortality and substance use between indigenous and non-indigenous, and within indigenous, groups in India, with an aim to establishing the relative contribution of socioeconomic status in generating health inequalities.Cross-sectional population-based data were obtained from the 1998-1999 Indian National Family Health Survey. Mortality, smoking, chewing tobacco use, and alcohol use were four separate binary outcomes in our analysis. Indigenous status in the context of India was operationalized through the Indian government category of scheduled tribes, or Adivasis, which refers to people living in tribal communities characterized by distinctive social, cultural, historical, and geographical circumstances.Indigenous groups experience excess mortality compared to non-indigenous groups, even after adjusting for economic standard of living (odds ratio 1.22; 95% confidence interval 1.13-1.30. They are also more likely to smoke and (especially drink alcohol, but the prevalence of chewing tobacco is not substantially different between indigenous and non-indigenous groups. There are substantial health variations within indigenous groups, such that indigenous peoples in the bottom quintile of the indigenous-peoples-specific standard of living index have an odds ratio for mortality of 1.61 (95% confidence interval 1.33-1.95 compared to indigenous peoples in the top fifth of the wealth distribution. Smoking, drinking alcohol, and chewing tobacco also show graded associations with socioeconomic status within indigenous groups.Socioeconomic status differentials substantially account for the health inequalities between indigenous and non-indigenous groups in India. However, a strong socioeconomic gradient in health is also evident within indigenous populations, reiterating the overall importance of
Subramanian, S V; Davey Smith, George; Subramanyam, Malavika
Systematic evidence on the patterns of health deprivation among indigenous peoples remains scant in developing countries. We investigate the inequalities in mortality and substance use between indigenous and non-indigenous, and within indigenous, groups in India, with an aim to establishing the relative contribution of socioeconomic status in generating health inequalities. Cross-sectional population-based data were obtained from the 1998-1999 Indian National Family Health Survey. Mortality, smoking, chewing tobacco use, and alcohol use were four separate binary outcomes in our analysis. Indigenous status in the context of India was operationalized through the Indian government category of scheduled tribes, or Adivasis, which refers to people living in tribal communities characterized by distinctive social, cultural, historical, and geographical circumstances.Indigenous groups experience excess mortality compared to non-indigenous groups, even after adjusting for economic standard of living (odds ratio 1.22; 95% confidence interval 1.13-1.30). They are also more likely to smoke and (especially) drink alcohol, but the prevalence of chewing tobacco is not substantially different between indigenous and non-indigenous groups. There are substantial health variations within indigenous groups, such that indigenous peoples in the bottom quintile of the indigenous-peoples-specific standard of living index have an odds ratio for mortality of 1.61 (95% confidence interval 1.33-1.95) compared to indigenous peoples in the top fifth of the wealth distribution. Smoking, drinking alcohol, and chewing tobacco also show graded associations with socioeconomic status within indigenous groups. Socioeconomic status differentials substantially account for the health inequalities between indigenous and non-indigenous groups in India. However, a strong socioeconomic gradient in health is also evident within indigenous populations, reiterating the overall importance of socioeconomic status
Ferrer, R; Palmer, R
Objectives: To analyse the variability in health status within as well as between socioeconomic groups. What is the range of individual variability in the health effects of socioeconomic status? Is the adverse effect of lower socioeconomic status uniform across the entire distribution of health status?
Brown-Iannuzzi, Jazmin L; Lundberg, Kristjen B; McKee, Stephanie
Socioeconomic status is hypothesized to be one factor informing political attitudes and actions. Presumably, this relationship is rooted in economic self-interest, with individuals preferring policies that would benefit them financially. In addition, these economic policy preferences are assumed to translate into political action. However, the relationships between socioeconomic status and political attitudes and behavior, as well as the psychological mechanisms associated with those relationships, are not straightforward. Here, we briefly review the current state of knowledge on the relationships between socioeconomic status and political attitudes and behavior. Overall, the research suggests that while socioeconomic status informs political attitudes toward economic policies, these attitudes may not correlate with complementary political behavior. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Carlson, M J; Blustein, J; Fiorentino, N; Prestianni, F
Member satisfaction is commonly used as an indicator of the quality of care delivered by health plans. Yet few contemporary studies have explored the extent to which individual patient characteristics influence dissatisfaction in HMOs. We sought to determine whether socioeconomic status is associated with enrollee dissatisfaction. Data are from a cross-sectional, telephone survey of a probability sample of adults enrolled in New Jersey HMOs in 1998 (n = 7,983). Health plan ratings were elicited as part of the Consumer Assessment of Health Plans Study (CAHPS) survey, along with income, education, and race/ethnicity. Other factors known to influence satisfaction (age, gender, health status, extent of plan choice, and payment for plan) were also ascertained. Socioeconomically advantaged enrollees were more likely to give low ratings to their health plans. In a multivariate logistic regression model, those with incomes exceeding $100,000 had 1.65 times the odds of being dissatisfied compared with those with family incomes less than $25,000 (P or =5 years, those in the lowest income group were significantly more dissatisfied than higher-income enrollees. Among New Jersey HMO enrollees, higher socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with greater dissatisfaction. Although based on cross-sectional data and thus preliminary, the evidence presented here also suggests that the SES-dissatisfaction relationship varies as a function of duration of enrollment. Further research using longitudinal data could shed additional light on the SES-dissatisfaction link.
African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ... Child malnutrition remains a serious public health problem in Kwale District of Kenya. ... The relative importance of demographic and socioeconomic factors, as well as prevailing child health and nutrition practices on the growth and survival of children in the ...
nutrition. Studies done in Honduras showed that the academic performance and mental ability of learners with good nutritional status were significantly higher than those of learners with poor nutritional status, irrespective of the level of family income, school quality and teacher ability. School feeding alleviates short-term.
Full Text Available The older population is increasing worldwide and in many countries older people will outnumber younger people in the near future. This projected growth in the older population has the potential to place significant burdens on healthcare and support services. Meeting the diet and nutrition needs of older people is therefore crucial for the maintenance of health, functional independence and quality of life. While many older adults remain healthy and eat well those in poorer health may experience difficulties in meeting their nutritional needs. Malnutrition, encompassing both under and over nutrition increases health risks in the older population. More recently the increase in obesity, and in turn the incidence of chronic disease in older adults, now justifies weight management interventions in obese older adults. This growing population group is becoming increasingly diverse in their nutritional requirements. Micro-nutrient status may fluctuate and shortfalls in vitamin D, iron and a number of other nutrients are relatively common and can impact on well-being and quality of life. Aging presents a number of challenges for the maintenance of good nutritional health in older adults.
Engr E. Egbochukwu
Socio-economic status and preferences in marriage partner selection among university undergraduates in south-south of Nigeria. Maliki, A. E. 40 addition, a higher socio-economic status meant greater prestige in the local community and access to better socio-economic networks, which in turn could influence opportunities ...
Siddique, Saadia; Ayub, Muhammad; Shore, Najla; Tariq, Usman; Zaman, Shakila
In Abbottabad district, with the vast poverty stricken rural majority and 80% literacy rate, primary-level education faces great influx of students. This study was carried out to see the nutritional status of children 5-10 years of age attending primary schools of Abbottabad. This was a descriptive, cross-sectional study carried out in June 2009 on 400 schoolchildren of 5-10 years of age from three randomly selected primary schools of Abbottabad. After informed consent by the parents/ teachers, a semi-structured Performa/questionnaire was filled for each child. Anthropometric measurements were recorded. Correlation of age of the child with height, and weight was calculated. The nutritional status of the study children was particularly optimum; 90% children were in optimal nutritional status and had sound skeletal growth irrespective of their socioeconomic background. There was a significant correlation of nutritional status and skeletal growth of children with parents socioeconomic status. There was a direct correlation between height and weight of children, and their age. Anthropometric measurements indicate a high majority of children in healthy status despite the overall poor setup.
Gallardo-Hernández, Georgina; Ortiz-Hernández, Luis; Compeán-Dardón, Sandra; Verde-Flota, Elizabeth; Delgado-Sáncnchez, Guadalupe; Tamez-González, Silivia
Analyze the relationship between gender identity and socioeconomic level associated with career choice among undergraduate students selecting the area of health sciences. Our sample was comprised of first year medical nutrition, dentistry and nursing students (n=637) admitted to the Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana - Xochimilco. A self administered questionnaire was used. The dependent variable was career choice. Independent variables included socioeconomic status, gender norms in student's homes, and gender stereotype internalization. More female nursing students came from low socioeconomic strata, while medical students had a higher socioeconomic status. Among males, more nursing and medical students belonged to a higher socioeconomicstrata. Nutrition and dentistry students belonged to a medium strata. In comparison with males from high socioeconomic strata more male participants reported that household chores were divided among men and women. For women, as the socioeconomic level increased, the participation of men and women also increased. In the indicators of internalization of gender stereotypes, nursing students had the highest rates in the submission scale, but the lowest for masculinity and machismo. As the socioeconomic strata increased, the characteristics of masculinity and machismo also increased. The present results seem to indicate that among women of low socioeconomic strata more traditional gender stereotypes prevail which lead them to seek career choices considered femenine. Among men, there is a clear relationship between career choice, socioeconomic level and internalization of gender stereotypes.
Socio-economic status of Ghanians of Subsaharan Africa assessed by subjective perception as against objective criteria: methodological considerations. The Mamprobi (Ghana) Cardiovascular Helath Programme 1975-1980.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Socioeconomic Data and Application Center (SEDAC) Treaty Status Dataset contains comprehensive treaty information for multilateral environmental agreements,...
This study investigated the nutritional status of school children in deprived areas of Mauritius and determined whether specific socio-economic factors were associated with poor nutritional status among children. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 240 primary school children aged 8-12 years old. Out of 27 ...
Galvin, Kathleen A; Beeton, Tyler A; Boone, Randall B; BurnSilver, Shauna B
This study assesses the nutritional status of Maasai pastoralists living in a period of great social, economic and ecological changes in Kajiado County, southern Kenya. Data on weight, height, skinfolds, and circumferences were collected from 534 individuals in the year 2000. The data were used to describe mean differences in human nutrition between ages, sexes, and within and among three Group Ranches. Nutritional data and diet recall data were compared with past studies of Maasai nutrition from 1930 to 2000. Results indicate that nutritional status is poor and has remained so despite numerous changes to the social-ecological system including livelihood diversification, sedentarization, human population growth and decreased access to vegetation heterogeneity. Imbirikani Group Ranch had better access to infrastructure and markets and some measures of nutritional status were better than for individuals in other group ranches. However, nutritional status remains poor despite transitioning to greater market integration.
economic status. A composite women empowerment index was constructed to gauge women empowerment in different spheres, and F-test was used to compare the relationship between women's socio-economic status and their empowerment.
Gokcek, D; Tran, J-D; Gonzalez-Aguilar, A; Alentorn, A; Liou, A; Delattre, J-Y; Idbaih, A
Nutritional status is a major clinical parameter in multiple cancers. Indeed, nutritional status is a prognostic factor and a predictor of response and toxicity to treatments in breast and lung cancers for instance. To our knowledge, in patients suffering from malignant primary brain tumors, nutritional status has been poorly investigated. Nutritional status of 26 glioblastoma patients relapsing after a first line of treatment was studied. The body mass index (BMI), the prognostic inflammatory and nutritional index (PINI) and the instant nutritional score (INS) were assessed. The BMI was abnormal in 12 patients, two were malnourished while 10 were overweight. The BMI was not correlated to age of patients. Overweight status did not impact patient survival but it was associated with reduced performance status. The PINI was abnormal in three patients. Finally, the INS was abnormal in 24 patients, noted 2 (n=22) or 4 (n=4). Our results were not in favor of systematic nutritional support in patients with recurrent glioblastoma after a first line of treatment. Being overweight does not influence prognosis but may influence performance status. Steroid therapy and chemotherapy (inducing sodium and water retention and lymphopenia) weaken the relevance of BMI and INS for nutritional assessment in patients with recurrent glioblastoma. Further studies using additional nutritional tests in larger, independent and prospective cohorts of patients are warranted to obtain more details. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
van de Mheen, H.; Stronks, K.; Looman, C. W.; Mackenbach, J. P.
The purpose of this study is to assess to what extent the effect of childhood socioeconomic status on adult health could be explained by a higher prevalence of unhealthy behaviour among those with lower childhood socioeconomic status. Data were obtained from the baseline of a prospective cohort
Crichton, Dusten D.
The purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore and to tell the stories of low socioeconomic status (SES) men in college who persisted beyond the halfway point of college at a Midwestern metropolitan university. Prior research suggested men from low socioeconomic status backgrounds matriculated and persisted in college at the lowest…
Omland, Lars Haukali; Osler, Merete; Jepsen, Peter
It is unknown whether socioeconomic status (SES) is a risk factor for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection or a prognostic factor following infection.......It is unknown whether socioeconomic status (SES) is a risk factor for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection or a prognostic factor following infection....
H. van de Mheen (Dike); K. Stronks (Karien); C.W.N. Looman (Caspar); J.P. Mackenbach (Johan)
textabstractBACKGROUND: The purpose of this study is to assess to what extent the effect of childhood socioeconomic status on adult health could be explained by a higher prevalence of unhealthy behaviour among those with lower childhood socioeconomic status. METHODS:
Mar 17, 2013 ... Abstract Background: Birth weight is one of the most impor- tant determinants of perinatal well. -being and survival. It may be influenced by socioeconomic status among other factors. Objective: To evaluate the influ- ence of parental socioeconomic status on birth weight distribution of term infants. Patients ...
The aim of this thesis was to evaluate micronutrient intake and status of socioeconomic disadvantaged populations, such as from Central and Eastern European (CEE) as compared to other European populations, and low socioeconomic status (SES) groups as compared to high SES groups within European
BACKGROUND: Emerging data suggest that essential or primary hypertension occurs in the young. Parental socioeconomic status may play a role but the exact mechanisms still remain unclear. OBJECTIVE: This study was aimed at determining the relationship between parental socioeconomic status and casual blood ...
The study sought to determine the contribution of asset ownership to household socio-economic or wealth status. The study adopted a quantitative research approach to investigate the socioeconomic status of households. A sample of 443 households was selected using a simple random sampling technique, and ...
Background. Globally, the prevalence of chronic and acute malnutrition and micronutrient deficiency is high in young children, especially in developing countries. Nutrition education is an important intervention to address these challenges. Objective. To determine the nutritional (anthropometric and micronutrient) status of ...
Mullie, P; Guelinckx, I; Clarys, P; Degrave, E; Hulens, M; Vansant, G
The aim of our research was to describe cultural, socioeconomic and nutritional determinants associated with functional food consumption. Cross-sectional design in 5000 military men. Using mailed questionnaires, the functional food consumption frequency was recorded. Margarines fortified with phytosterols or phytostanols were used on a daily basis by 26.3% of the responders. Only 4.7% took a daily portion of probiotics, whereas 14.0% consumed one or more portions of nuts a week. One man out of three consumed one cup of tea daily, whereas 10.2% consumed one glass of red wine daily. Three or more portions of fruit a day were consumed by 19.1%, and two or more portions of vegetables a day by 26.6%. Only 12.3% consumed a portion of fatty fish weekly. After adjustment for age, body mass index, physical activity, use of vitamin supplements, smoking, marital status, cultural background, educational and income level, the daily consumption of fortified margarines increased with age. The consumption of fermented dairy products increased with physical activity and with the use of vitamin supplements. The consumption of fortified margarines, nuts, tea and fatty fish was strongly influenced by cultural background, with higher consumptions for Flemish-speaking men compared with French-speaking persons. Daily consumption of red wine was higher in French-speaking men and in higher educated men. Finally, functional food consumption was associated with a healthy dietary pattern. Age, physical activity, level of education, use of vitamin supplements and cultural background are predictors of functional food consumption patterns.
Joost, H.G.; Gibney, M.J.; Cashman, K.D.; Gorman, U.; Hesketh, J.E.; Mueller, M.A.; Ommen, van B.; Williams, C.M.; Mathers, J.C.
Personalised, genotype-based nutrition is a concept that links genotyping with specific nutritional advice in order to improve the prevention of nutrition-associated, chronic diseases. This review describes the current scientific basis of the concept and discusses its problems. There is convincing
Numerous public meetings and hearings have been held in Texas, Mississippi, Louisiana and Utah on the issue of siting a nuclear waste repository in salt. Citizens in these potential site areas have raised many questions about how this facility will affect their quality of life. Questions about population and economic changes have been of particular concern. In developing a socioeconomic program, these issues and others have been an integral part of Battelle's socioeconomic studies. The three elements of Battelle's socioeconomic program are comprised of three elements: impact assessment, impact mitigation and community development, and impact monitoring. In addition, our approach to assessing socioeconomic impacts for the environmental assessment (EA) required by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 are described. Since the EA analysis will address many of the issues raised in the site areas, these concerns will be elaborated on. Finally, various techniques for managing socioeconomic impacts will be presented. 6 references, 1 figure
Rook, G A W; Raison, C L; Lowry, C A
The immune system evolved to require input from at least three sources that we collectively term the 'old friends': (i) the commensal microbiotas transmitted by mothers and other family members; (ii) organisms from the natural environment that modulate and diversify the commensal microbiotas; and (iii) the 'old' infections that could persist in small isolated hunter-gatherer groups as relatively harmless subclinical infections or carrier states. These categories of organism had to be tolerated and co-evolved roles in the development and regulation of the immune system. By contrast, the 'crowd infections' (such as childhood virus infections) evolved later, when urbanization led to large communities. They did not evolve immunoregulatory roles because they either killed the host or induced solid immunity, and could not persist in hunter-gatherer groups. Because the western lifestyle and medical practice deplete the 'old' infections (for example helminths), immunoregulatory disorders have increased, and the immune system has become more dependent upon microbiotas and the natural environment. However, urbanization maintains exposure to the crowd infections that lack immunoregulatory roles, while accelerating loss of exposure to the natural environment. This effect is most pronounced in individuals of low socioeconomic status (SES) who lack rural second homes and rural holidays. Interestingly, large epidemiological studies indicate that the health benefits of living close to green spaces are most pronounced for individuals of low SES. Here we discuss the immunoregulatory role of the natural environment, and how this may interact with, and modulate, the proinflammatory effects of psychosocial stressors in low SES individuals. © 2014 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Immunology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Society. for Immunology.
Thomas, Michael S C; Forrester, Neil A; Ronald, Angelica
Socioeconomic status (SES) is an important environmental predictor of language and cognitive development, but the causal pathways by which it operates are unclear. We used a computational model of development to explore the adequacy of manipulations of environmental information to simulate SES effects in English past-tense acquisition, in a data set provided by Bishop (2005). To our knowledge, this is the first application of computational models of development to SES. The simulations addressed 3 new challenges: (a) to combine models of development and individual differences in a single framework, (b) to expand modeling to the population level, and (c) to implement both environmental and genetic/intrinsic sources of individual differences. The model succeeded in capturing the qualitative patterns of regularity effects in both population performance and the predictive power of SES that were observed in the empirical data. The model suggested that the empirical data are best captured by relatively wider variation in learning abilities and relatively narrow variation in (and good quality of) environmental information. There were shortcomings in the model's quantitative fit, which are discussed. The model made several novel predictions, with respect to the influence of SES on delay versus giftedness, the change of SES effects over development, and the influence of SES on children of different ability levels (gene-environment interactions). The first of these predictions was that SES should reliably predict gifted performance in children but not delayed performance, and the prediction was supported by the Bishop data set. Finally, the model demonstrated limits on the inferences that can be drawn about developmental mechanisms on the basis of data from individual differences. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.
The modern techniques used in making reliable nutritional surveys and in assessing the nutritional status of alcoholic individuals have greatly improved our possibilities to determine the nutrient intake and to detect nutritional deficiencies in alcoholics from different social groups. In earlier studies, the rather high incidence of malnutrition in alcoholics can be related to the patients consisting of indigent, skid row alcoholics or patients with severe somatic complications. Later studies have revealed that nutritional deficiencies are rare among middle-class alcoholics without significant somatic complications. However, selective nutritional deficiencies may be found among lower-income and homeless alcoholic populations.
Vengiau, Gwendalyn; Umezaki, Masahiro; Phuanukoonnon, Suparat; Siba, Peter; Watanabe, Chiho
Urban migrants in Papua New Guinea have undergone a nutritional transition. The present study investigated associations of socioeconomic status with dietary and physical activity patterns among migrant Bougainvilleans from Nassioi territory in the capital city of Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea. All adults Naasioi migrants residing in Port Moresby were identified (N = 185) and 70 were included. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire was used to evaluate physical activity, and dietary patterns were assessed by per-week consumption frequency of food items. Principal component analysis was applied to produce a composite score for socioeconomic status. Least square regression analysis indicated that socioeconomic status was positively correlated with consumption of a traditional diet (p = .03) and negatively with walking-related physical activity (p = .02), but it was not correlated with MET-minutes of moderate/vigorous activity. Different patterns of nutritional transition occur among migrants in urban Papua New Guinea, depending on socioeconomic status.
Smith, Scott M.; Heer, M. A.; Zwart, S. R.
The Nutritional Status Assessment Supplemental Medical Objective was an experiment initiated to expand nominal pre- and postflight clinical nutrition testing, and to gain a better understanding of the time course of changes during flight. The primary activity of this effort was collecting blood and urine samples 5 times during flight for analysis after return to Earth. Samples were subjected to a battery of tests, including nutritional, physiological, general chemistry, and endocrinology indices. These data provide a comprehensive survey of how nutritional status and related systems are affected by 4-6 months of space flight. Analyzing the data will help us to define nutritional requirements for long-duration missions, and better understand human adaptation to microgravity. This expanded set of measurements will also aid in the identification of nutritional countermeasures to counteract, for example, the deleterious effects of microgravity on bone and muscle and the effects of space radiation.
Socio-Economic Status and Malaria Prevalence among Infants: The Case of Uganda. ... African Journal of Economic Review ... In conclusion, it was observed that malaria prevalence is not a case of household socioeconomic conditions but rather it's a communal disease as exemplified by the significance of region and ...
The impact of different socio-economic levels, height, weight and sum of four skinfolds on the menarcheal age of 302 Black, South African school girls ranging in age from 8 to 17 years was researched. Socioeconomic status was obtained by means of a questionnaire that focused on the education, income, and occupations ...
) socio-economic status are significantly stronger than the moderate (4.56) in deciding to purchase the HPV vaccination. Socio-economic factor has a slightly negative impact (B= -0.08), and attitude (0.68), subjective norms (0.16), and behavior ...
Madsen, Esben Elholm; Morville, Anne-Le; Larsen, Anette Enemark
Abstract Abstract: Background In Denmark patients are entitled to rehabilitation regardless of socio-economic status (SES). During this process therapists have to balance cost effectiveness with providing equal treatment. Aim To investigate whether occupational therapists and physiotherapists were...
Journal of Agriculture and Food Sciences ... The valid psychological constructs were adoption behaviour, leadership abilities, cosmopoliteness, education level, and attitude to innovation. There was a significant ... Key words: Socio-economic Status, Adoption, Leadership, Cosmopolitness, Education, Attitude, Innovation.
Karin Sarkis Sedó
Full Text Available Objective: To assess the nutritional knowledge of women with breast cancer on the dietdisease interface and its association with nutritional status. Methods: Observational, crosssectional and analytical study, conducted between June and September 2011, with 59 women diagnosed with breast cancer, undergoing chemotherapy or radiotherapy treatment, older than 19, who did not receive prior nutritional counseling. Vegetarian women or those whose treatment had been completed more than two years prior to the study were not included. The patients were treated at a cancer care reference center, in Fortaleza-CE. Clinical and socioeconomic data was collected through direct interview and searching in medical records. The assessment of nutritional knowledge (NK was performed with the Nutrition Knowledge Scale, developed by the National Health Interview Survey Cancer Epidemiology, validated for Brazil, applied by a trained interviewer. Nutritional status was assessed through body mass index (BMI and waist circumference. Data was analyzed statistically by SPSS 16.0. Results: Among 59 patients evaluated, 18 (30.5% women had a limited knowledge of the diet-disease association. The mean BMI was 29 kg/m2 (± 4.4 and 47 (79.7% women presented excessive weight (overweight or obesity. There was no correlation between nutritional knowledge and BMI (p = 0.64. Nutrition knowledge scores were similar among patients with overweight and normal weight (p = 0.89. Conclusion: Women in this study had a limited knowledge of the interface between diet and disease, were overweight, but there was no correlation between their nutritional knowledge and nutritional status.
Karin Sarkis Sedó
Full Text Available Objective: To assess the nutritional knowledge of women with breast cancer on the dietdisease interface and its association with nutritional status. Methods: Observational, crosssectional and analytical study, conducted between June and September 2011, with 59 women diagnosed with breast cancer, undergoing chemotherapy or radiotherapy treatment, older than 19, who did not receive prior nutritional counseling. Vegetarian women or those whose treatment had been completed more than two years prior to the study were not included. The patients were treated at a cancer care reference center, in Fortaleza-CE. Clinical and socioeconomic data was collected through direct interview and searching in medical records. The assessment of nutritional knowledge (NK was performed with the Nutrition Knowledge Scale, developed by the National Health Interview Survey Cancer Epidemiology, validated for Brazil, applied by a trained interviewer. Nutritional status was assessed through body mass index (BMI and waist circumference. Data was analyzed statistically by SPSS 16.0. Results: Among 59 patients evaluated, 18 (30.5% women had a limited knowledge of the diet-disease association. The mean BMI was 29 kg/m2 (± 4.4 and 47 (79.7% women presented excessive weight (overweight or obesity. There was no correlation between nutritional knowledge and BMI (p = 0.64. Nutrition knowledge scores were similar among patients with overweight and normal weight (p = 0.89. Conclusion: Women in this study had a limited knowledge of the interface between diet and disease, were overweight, but there was no correlation between their nutritional knowledge and nutritional status.
Escortell Sánchez, Raquel; Reig García-Galbis, Manuel
to identify what effect causes enteral nutrition on nutritional status of cancer. a search was performed using the keywords "Cancer" AND "Enteral Nutrition" AND "Supplementation" in four document databases: Pubmed, EBSCO, ProQuest, and Web of Science. age of the sample, major than 18 years; submitted to surgery for cancer; that the intervention program was including diet and employment or not of nutritional Supplementation; clinical trials published between January 2004 and December 2014, in scientific journals indexed. we analyzed 660 articles, of which only 2% has been included. 58% of intervention programs are applied outside Spain; 84% of the interventions was carried out in a hospitable ambient; 58% of the sample is formed by adults older than 54 years; 33% of the interventions were multidisciplinary and its duration ranges between 1 and 4 years. we found just a few national interventions in cancer participants and there two types of interventions: by exclusive polymeric enteral formula or mixed with immunonutrition. enteral nutrition shows against the parenteral and its introduction at an early stage, it helps to improve nutritional status of the patient; polymeric formulas next immunonutrition, it helps to reduce the time of hospitalization; the analytical parameters are shown as a measurement pattern when assessing the improvement in nutritional status in cancer. It is recommended to increase the research in this field, especially in children. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.
Jing Han; Xiaoyuan Chu; Huicun Song; Yuan Li
This study internalized social capital on the basis of traditional study of the influence of economic factors on self-efficacy, and studied the relationship among the family socio-economic status, social capital and self-efficacy. Based on the theoretical analysis, with first-hand data collection and using multiple regression models, the paper studied the intermediate effect of social capital in the relationship between the socioeconomic status and self-efficacy. We draw on the following conc...
Marioni, Riccardo E; Davies, Gail; Hayward, Caroline; Liewald, Dave; Kerr, Shona M; Campbell, Archie; Luciano, Michelle; Smith, Blair H; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Hocking, Lynne J; Hastie, Nicholas D; Wright, Alan F; Porteous, David J; Visscher, Peter M; Deary, Ian J
Education, socioeconomic status, and intelligence are commonly used as predictors of health outcomes, social environment, and mortality. Education and socioeconomic status are typically viewed as environmental variables although both correlate with intelligence, which has a substantial genetic basis. Using data from 6815 unrelated subjects from the Generation Scotland study, we examined the genetic contributions to these variables and their genetic correlations. Subjects underwent genome-wide testing for common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). DNA-derived heritability estimates and genetic correlations were calculated using the 'Genome-wide Complex Trait Analyses' (GCTA) procedures. 21% of the variation in education, 18% of the variation in socioeconomic status, and 29% of the variation in general cognitive ability was explained by variation in common SNPs (SEs ~ 5%). The SNP-based genetic correlations of education and socioeconomic status with general intelligence were 0.95 (SE 0.13) and 0.26 (0.16), respectively. There are genetic contributions to intelligence and education with near-complete overlap between common additive SNP effects on these traits (genetic correlation ~ 1). Genetic influences on socioeconomic status are also associated with the genetic foundations of intelligence. The results are also compatible with substantial environmental contributions to socioeconomic status.
Abd Aziz NAS
Full Text Available Nur Adilah Shuhada Abd Aziz, Nur Islami Mohd Fahmi Teng, Mohd Ramadan Abdul Hamid, Nazrul Hadi Ismail Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Puncak Alam, Malaysia Purpose: The increasing number of elderly people worldwide throughout the years is concerning due to the health problems often faced by this population. This review aims to summarize the nutritional status among hospitalized elderly and the role of the nutritional assessment tools in this issue.Methods: A literature search was performed on six databases using the terms “malnutrition”, “hospitalised elderly”, “nutritional assessment”, “Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA”, “Geriatric Nutrition Risk Index (GNRI”, and “Subjective Global Assessment (SGA”.Results: According to the previous studies, the prevalence of malnutrition among hospitalized elderly shows an increasing trend not only locally but also across the world. Under-recognition of malnutrition causes the number of malnourished hospitalized elderly to remain high throughout the years. Thus, the development of nutritional screening and assessment tools has been widely studied, and these tools are readily available nowadays. SGA, MNA, and GNRI are the nutritional assessment tools developed specifically for the elderly and are well validated in most countries. However, to date, there is no single tool that can be considered as the universal gold standard for the diagnosis of nutritional status in hospitalized patients.Conclusion: It is important to identify which nutritional assessment tool is suitable to be used in this group to ensure that a structured assessment and documentation of nutritional status can be established. An early and accurate identification of the appropriate treatment of malnutrition can be done as soon as possible, and thus, the malnutrition rate among this group can be minimized in the future. Keywords: malnutrition in elderly
González, Silvia; Lozano, Óscar; Ramírez, Andrea; Grijalba, Carlos
Worldwide studies show inequalities in physical activity levels related to socio-demographic characteristics. In Colombia, among the countries in Latin America with the highest inequality, the evidence related to inequalities in physical activity is limited. It is imperative to identify disparities in physical activity in the country, to guide the design of public policies aimed at promoting physical activity. 1) To estimate the prevalence and associated factors of meeting physical activity recommendations; 2) to assess inequalities by gender and socioeconomic status in meeting physical activity recommendations, and 3) to assess the trends in physical activity prevalence within a five-year period. A secondary analysis of data from the 2010 National Nutrition Survey was conducted. The sample included 27,243 adults. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire was used to measure leisure time and transport domains. Socioeconomic status was measured by the Sisben level. Compared to men, women were less likely to meet physical activity recommendations in all domains. Compared to adults from high socioeconomic-status households, low socioeconomic-status adults had a lower prevalence of meeting physical activity recommendations during leisure time and the highest prevalence of using a bicycle for transport. The factors associated with meeting physical activity recommendations differed by gender and physical activity domain. Household and individual variables explained 13.6% of the inequalities observed by gender, and 23.2% of the inequalities by socioeconomic status. In a five-year period, the prevalence of physical activity in leisure time decreased, while the physical activity of walking for transport increased and biking for transport did not change. Future interventions to increase physical activity levels in Colombia must consider inequalities by gender and socioeconomic status. Of special concern is the low prevalence of meeting physical activity
Van Saun, Robert J
It has been nearly 30 years since the first imported llamas and alpacas have been commercially raised in the United States. Nutritional requirements for these animals have not been well understood and most feeding practices were based on extrapolated and experiential information. Only recently has a National Research Council committee reviewed the available published information relative to nutrient requirements of llamas and alpacas. This article summarizes current nutrient requirement recommendations and provides some practical feeding recommendations and methods to assess nutritional status.
Borre, Mette; Dam, Gitte Aarøe; Knudsen, Anne Wilkens
level of function in 43% of the patients. About 38% were at nutritional risk, more frequent in patients with residual disease (45% versus 29%, p level of function and being at nutritional risk were associated with the NIS: Nausea, vomiting, stomach ache and dry mouth (p...... (NIS). We aimed to assess nutritional status (NS) and risk, level of function and associations with NIS in NET patients. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study of NET patients, we measured body mass index (BMI) and handgrip strength (HGS) as markers of NS and muscle function assessed by HGS...... level of function (p
Luo, Liqun; Ding, Rui; Gao, Xiali; Sun, Jingjing; Zhao, Wei
According to the logic of the Trivers-Willard hypothesis, in a human population, if socioeconomic status is transmitted across generations to some extent, and if sons of high-status parents tend to have higher reproductive success than daughters, while daughters of low-status parents tend to have higher reproductive success than sons, then we should expect that offspring sex ratio is positively associated with socioeconomic status. This study examines whether the assumptions and prediction of this hypothesis apply to a rural population in northern China. Results show that (1) current family socioeconomic status is positively related to family head's father's socioeconomic status in around 1950, (2) low-status family heads have more grandchildren through their daughters than their sons, whereas high- or middle-status family heads have more grandchildren through sons, and (3) as family heads' status increases, they tend to produce a higher offspring sex ratio. Therefore, the assumptions and prediction of the hypothesis are met in the study population. These results are discussed in reference to past studies on sex ratio manipulation among humans.
Full Text Available According to the logic of the Trivers–Willard hypothesis, in a human population, if socioeconomic status is transmitted across generations to some extent, and if sons of high-status parents tend to have higher reproductive success than daughters, while daughters of low-status parents tend to have higher reproductive success than sons, then we should expect that offspring sex ratio is positively associated with socioeconomic status. This study examines whether the assumptions and prediction of this hypothesis apply to a rural population in northern China. Results show that (1 current family socioeconomic status is positively related to family head’s father’s socioeconomic status in around 1950, (2 low-status family heads have more grandchildren through their daughters than their sons, whereas high- or middle-status family heads have more grandchildren through sons, and (3 as family heads’ status increases, they tend to produce a higher offspring sex ratio. Therefore, the assumptions and prediction of the hypothesis are met in the study population. These results are discussed in reference to past studies on sex ratio manipulation among humans.
Miao, Jia; Wu, Xiaogang
While urbanization is associated with a wide range of human welfare outcomes, its impacts on population health are much less obvious. This article aims to investigate how rapid urbanization in contemporary China affects health, and how it shapes health disparities between groups of different socioeconomic status (SES). Using data from eight waves of the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) spanning a period of 20 years from 1991 to 2011, we examine the confounding effects of urbanization on health and the income-health relationship and explore the underlying mechanism. Results from multilevel analysis show that living in more urbanized areas increases the risk of acquiring chronic diseases, and the health penalty of urbanization is more severe among those with a higher income. Lifestyle is the pathway through which urbanization affects health, and a high-fat diet and decreased physical activity diminish the health benefit brought by high income and accelerate health decline in more urbanized areas. These results suggest an urgent need to design and implement health promotion programs to encourage healthy lifestyles in China under rapid urbanization. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Seo, Won Hee; Kwon, Jung Hyun; Eun, So-Hee; Kim, Gunha; Han, Kyungdo; Choi, Byung Min
Sufficient sleep is an important factor in physical and mental health. Sleep duration can be affected by socio-economic status (SES). This study aimed to examine the association between sleep duration and SES in Korean adolescents. This study was conducted with 1608 adolescents aged 12-18 years, based on data from the 2010 to 2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). Sleep duration was self-reported in hours and three SES indicators were used: household income, basic livelihood security programmes and type of health insurance. Confounding factors in this study were age, mental health and physical activity. Participants' average age was 15.6 ± 0.05 years and average sleep duration was 7.04 ± 0.05 h. There was a strong association between sleep duration and household income (P sleep duration was significantly associated with age, body mass index (P sleep and long sleep (>9 h/night). We found similar results in both genders, that is, that the highest income group had shorter sleep duration than the lowest income group. This study shows that the SES, particularly household income, is an important factor in short sleep duration in Korean adolescents. Our findings suggest that, in future investigations of the adolescent's sleep problem, attention should be paid to household income. © 2017 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).
De Agostini, Paola
This paper investigates the relationship between nutrition and socio-economic status among British youths. It describes the dynamics of consumption over age and time using data from the British National Food Survey (NFS) covering the period 1975- 2000. Daily calories-age relationships for men and women are estimated by solving a non-linear least square model with a roughness penalty function approach. Focusing on young age groups, trends of consumption over the 25-year period of study and the...
Full Text Available Objective: In oncology practice, nutrition and also metabolic activity are essential to support the nutritional status and prevent malignant cachexia. It is important to evaluate the patients and plan the maneuvers at the start of the therapy. The primary objective of the study is to define the nutritional status of hospitalized patients and the factors affecting it in order to define the most susceptible patients and maneuvers for better nutritional support. Methods: Patients hospitalized in oncology clinic for therapy were evaluated for food intake and nutritional status through structured interviews. The clinical properties, medical therapies, elements of nutritional support were noted and predictors of inadequate nutritional status (INS were analyzed. Results: Four hundred twenty three patients, between 16-82 years old (median: 52 were evaluated. Nearly half of the patients (185, 43% reported a better appetite at home than in hospital and declared that hospitalization is an important cause of loss of appetite (140/185, 75.6%. Presence of nausea/vomiting (N/V, depression, age less than 65 and use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs were associated with increased risk of INS in hospitalized cancer patients. On the contrary, steroid medication showed a positive impact on nutritional status of cancer patients. Conclusion: N/V, younger age, presence of depression and NSAIDs medication were associated with INS in hospitalized cancer patients. Clinicians should pay more attention to this group of patients. In addition, unnecessary hospitalizations and medications that may disturb oral intake must be avoided. Corticosteroids are important tools for managing anorexia and INS.
Abd Aziz, Nur Adilah Shuhada; Teng, Nur Islami Mohd Fahmi; Abdul Hamid, Mohd Ramadan; Ismail, Nazrul Hadi
Purpose The increasing number of elderly people worldwide throughout the years is concerning due to the health problems often faced by this population. This review aims to summarize the nutritional status among hospitalized elderly and the role of the nutritional assessment tools in this issue. Methods A literature search was performed on six databases using the terms “malnutrition”, “hospitalised elderly”, “nutritional assessment”, “Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA)”, “Geriatric Nutrition Risk Index (GNRI)”, and “Subjective Global Assessment (SGA)”. Results According to the previous studies, the prevalence of malnutrition among hospitalized elderly shows an increasing trend not only locally but also across the world. Under-recognition of malnutrition causes the number of malnourished hospitalized elderly to remain high throughout the years. Thus, the development of nutritional screening and assessment tools has been widely studied, and these tools are readily available nowadays. SGA, MNA, and GNRI are the nutritional assessment tools developed specifically for the elderly and are well validated in most countries. However, to date, there is no single tool that can be considered as the universal gold standard for the diagnosis of nutritional status in hospitalized patients. Conclusion It is important to identify which nutritional assessment tool is suitable to be used in this group to ensure that a structured assessment and documentation of nutritional status can be established. An early and accurate identification of the appropriate treatment of malnutrition can be done as soon as possible, and thus, the malnutrition rate among this group can be minimized in the future. PMID:29042762
Érico Pereira Gomes Felden
Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the sleep characteristics in adolescents from different socioeconomic levels. Data source: Original studies found in the MEDLINE/PubMed and SciELO databases without language and period restrictions that analyzed associations between sleep variables and socioeconomic indicators. The initial search resulted in 99 articles. After reading the titles and abstracts and following inclusion and exclusion criteria, 12 articles with outcomes that included associations between sleep variables (disorders, duration, quality and socioeconomic status (ethnicity, family income, and social status were analyzed. Data synthesis: The studies associating sleep with socioeconomic variables are recent, published mainly after the year 2000. Half of the selected studies were performed with young Americans, and only one with Brazilian adolescents. Regarding ethnic differences, the studies do not have uniform conclusions. The main associations found were between sleep variables and family income or parental educational level, showing a trend among poor, low social status adolescents to manifest low duration, poor quality of sleeping patterns. Conclusions: The study found an association between socioeconomic indicators and quality of sleep in adolescents. Low socioeconomic status reflects a worse subjective perception of sleep quality, shorter duration, and greater daytime sleepiness. Considering the influence of sleep on physical and cognitive development and on the learning capacity of young individuals, the literature on the subject is scarce. There is a need for further research on sleep in different realities of the Brazilian population.
Khan, M Mahmud; Ahmed, Shakil; Protik, Ali Ehsan; Dhar, Badal Chandra; Roy, S K
The Government of Bangladesh implemented a comprehensive nutrition intervention in 1997 to reduce the rates of malnutrition among women and children. The pilot program, the Bangladesh Integrated Nutrition Program (BINP), adopted a multisectoral approach targeting women and children through food supplementation, home gardening, and health and nutrition education. This paper estimates the effectiveness of BINP's food supplementation and nutrition education on the nutritional status of pregnant women. Methods. Three effectiveness measures were considered: target efficiency, improvements in the nutritional status of beneficiaries, and the persistence of nutritional effects. To isolate the effects of the intervention, the nutritional status of participants and nonparticipants was compared after controlling for various demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. Data were collected in 2000 from a random sample of 3262 households in a BINP intervention area. Thirty-nine percent of pregnant women were correctly targeted by the program's food supplementation activities. The nutrition program reduced the prevalence of thinness among participant pregnant women by about 3 percentage points per month of enrollment. The prevalence of thinness among program graduates was 62%, which was much higher than that of the matched (nonparticipant) group (35%). This finding is perplexing but it may simply imply that those who enrolled at the initial phase of the project were severely underweight and they fell back to their original status within a short period of time. The nutrition program was intended to improve the nutritional status of women in the longer run through the provision of nutrition education during the food supplementation phase. The prevalence of thinness or severe underweight in women who exited the program after completion of the enrollment period was found to be much higher than in women of similar age and socioeconomic status in the community. This apparent lack of
Liberona, Yessica; Castillo, Oscar; Engler, Valerie; Villarroel, Luis; Rozowski, Jaime
To assess the nutritional status, food intake and physical activity patterns in schoolchildren attending 5th and 6th grade in basic schools from different socio-economic levels in the metropolitan region of Santiago. Cross-sectional study in children 5th and 6th grade of eighteen basic schools in the metropolitan region of Santiago. Boys and girls aged 9-12 years from basic schools were evaluated in terms of physical capacity. An anthropometric evaluation was also performed which included weight, height and triceps and subscapular skinfold thicknesses. Food intake was evaluated by a 24 h recall, socio-economic level by the ESOMAR method and physical activity by a questionnaire. Boys and girls aged 9-12 years (n 1732). The average prevalence of overweight and obesity was 40 %, with the highest prevalence in males and those from lower socio-economic level. A majority (64 %) of the children had a low level of physical activity. A higher intake of fat and protein and a higher intake of carbohydrate were found in the higher and lower socio-economic levels, respectively. Both males and females showed adequacy greater than 75 % in macronutrient intake except for fibre, with both groups showing a deficit in the consumption of fruits, vegetables, legumes, fish and milk products according to Chilean recommendations. A high prevalence of malnutrition by excess was observed in both sexes and a better eating and physical activity pattern was seen in children from higher socio-economic level.
Pedersen, Malene Roland Vils; Bartlett, Emily C; Rafaelsen, Søren Rafael
BACKGROUND: There are limited studies about testicular microlithiasis (TML) and background information such as health, lifestyle, and socioeconomic status. PURPOSE: To assess the prevalence of TML in relation to socioeconomic status and ethnicity. MATERIAL AND METHODS: From a database of scrotal...... on the examination report and a representative image obtained and stored. A total of 1105 cases with TML were reviewed and random sample of 1105 controls from the same database was also reviewed. Demographics were recorded including ethnicity (white, black, and others) and socioeconomic groups (IMD Quintile...... group of 1105 men without TML, 560 (50.7%) were white, 171 (15.5%) black, 111 (10.0%) had other specified ethnicities, and 263 (23.8%) had no ethnicity recorded. Men from the most deprived socioeconomic groups had higher prevalence of TML than men in the most affluent groups, with a trend in OR from...
Full Text Available Rural population ageing and decline is a serious problem throughout Europe resulting in a deterioration of the socioeconomic situation in rural areas. This leads to land abandonment, and consequently the loss of valuable cultural landscapes. Protected areas are no exception and inhabitants also face restrictions arising from the protection status. The aim of this study is to identify the existence, extent and nature of the socioeconomic impacts derived from the protection status on the local population. Population and socioeconomic indicators were compared with the results of in-depth interviews with local stakeholders within 2 Estonian national parks and contextualised with recent social change. It was concluded that protected areas have a considerable socioeconomic impact and in order to preserve cultural landscapes, achieve conservation objectives and contribute to balanced regional development, measures must be taken.
Aliaa Al-Mutawa; Alfred Kojo Anderson; Salman Alsabah; Mohammad Al-Mutawa
Obesity is a global epidemic affecting populations globally. Bariatric surgery is an effective treatment for morbid obesity, and has increased dramatically. Bariatric surgery candidates frequently have pre-existing nutritional deficiencies that might exacerbate post-surgery. To provide better health care management pre- and post-bariatric surgery, it is imperative to establish the nutritional status of prospective patients before surgery. The aim of this study was to assess and provide baseli...
Koefoed, Mette Juul; Kromann, Charles Boy; Juliussen, Sophie Ryberg
Background and Aims Maintenance dialysis patients are at increased risk of abnormal nutritional status due to numerous causative factors, both nutritional and non-nutritional. The present study assessed the current prevalence of protein-energy wasting, low lean bodymass index and obesity in maint......Background and Aims Maintenance dialysis patients are at increased risk of abnormal nutritional status due to numerous causative factors, both nutritional and non-nutritional. The present study assessed the current prevalence of protein-energy wasting, low lean bodymass index and obesity...... in maintenance dialysis patients, and compared different methods of nutritional assessment. Methods In a cross-sectional study conducted in 2014 at Roskilde Hospital, Denmark, we performed anthropometry (body weight, skinfolds, mid-arm, waist, and hip circumferences), and determined plasma albumin and normalized...... protein catabolic rate in order to assess the prevalence of protein-energy wasting, low lean body mass index and obesity in these patients. Results Seventy-nine eligible maintenance dialysis patients participated. The prevalence of proteinenergy wasted patients was 4%(95%CI: 2-12) as assessed...
Full Text Available Actuality of the study is to extend knowledge on the key issues facing older people. The purpose of the research is to establish the socio-economic position of the elderly, level of respect of their rights in various areas and their vulnerability. The study methodology includes a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods. First, by using the method of social survey based on questionnaire on two target-groups samples (one for people aged 60 and over (1096 respondents and another for employable people aged 20-55 (500 respondents. Second, by conducting individual 10 in-depth interviews with experts and three focus group with elderly (aged 60 and over that live in their own household/housing (38 elderly. The study allowed identifying the main problems faced by older people in various social areas, to identify cases of discrimination, as well as to develop a series of recommendations to improve the situation.
Bradley, Gia M; Blackman, Scott M; Watson, Christopher P; Doshi, Vishal K; Cutting, Garry R
Background: Improved nutrition early in life is associated with better pulmonary function for patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). However, nutritional status is poorly correlated with the CFTR genotype.
Ismail, F.W.; Khan, R.A.; Kamani, L.; Shah, H.A.; Jafri, W.
To assess the nutritional status via the SGA (subjective global assessment) screening tool of patients at all stages of hepatitis C virus (HCV) liver disease. Study Design: Descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: Out-patient Clinics of the Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, conducted from October 2009 to January 2011. Methodology: Patients with hepatitis C virus infection and their HCV-negative attendants were enrolled from the outpatient clinics, and categorized into 4 groups of 100 patients each: healthy controls (HC), those with chronic hepatitis C infection (CHC), compensated cirrhotics (CC) and decompensated cirrhotics (DC). The validated subjective global assessment (SGA) tool was used to assess nutritional status. Results: A total of 400 patients were enrolled. Most of the patients in the HC group were class 'A' (best nutritional status). In contrast, the majority (64%) in the DC group were in the class 'C' (worst status). The compensated cirrhosis (CC) group showed that 90% of patients were malnourished, while 98% of all patients were malnourished in the DC group, predominantly class 'C'. Most importantly, 14% of patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) also scored a 'B' on the SGA; which when compared to HC was statistically significant (p=0.005). As the groups progressed in their disease from CHC to DC, the transition in nutritional status from 'A' to 'C' between groups was statistically significant. Conclusion: Malnutrition occurs early in the course of HCV, and progresses relentlessly throughout the spectrum of HCV disease. (author)
Mejía-Lancheros, Cília; Estruch, Ramón; Martínez-González, Miguel A; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Corella, Dolores; Gómez-Gracia, Enrique; Fiol, Miquel; Lapetra, José; Covas, Maria I; Arós, Fernando; Serra-Majem, Lluís; Pintó, Xavier; Basora, Josep; Sorlí, José V; Muñoz, Miguel A
Although it is known that social factors may introduce inequalities in cardiovascular health, data on the role of socioeconomic differences in the prescription of preventive treatment are scarce. We aimed to assess the relationship between the socioeconomic status of an elderly population at high cardiovascular risk and inequalities in receiving primary cardiovascular treatment, within the context of a universal health care system. Cross-sectional study of 7447 individuals with high cardiovascular risk (57.5% women, mean age 67 years) who participated in the PREDIMED study, a clinical trial of nutritional interventions for cardiovascular prevention. Educational attainment was used as the indicator of socioeconomic status to evaluate differences in pharmacological treatment received for hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia. Participants with the lowest socioeconomic status were more frequently women, older, overweight, sedentary, and less adherent to the Mediterranean dietary pattern. They were, however, less likely to smoke and drink alcohol. This socioeconomic subgroup had a higher proportion of coexisting cardiovascular risk factors. Multivariate analysis of the whole population found no differences between participants with middle and low levels of education in the drug treatment prescribed for 3 major cardiovascular risk factors (odds ratio [95% confidence interval]): hypertension (0.75 [0.56-1.00] vs 0.85 [0.65-1.10]); diabetic participants (0.86 [0.61-1.22] vs 0.90 [0.67-1.22]); and dyslipidemia (0.93 [0.75-1.15] vs 0.99 [0.82-1.19], respectively). In our analysis, socioeconomic differences did not affect the treatment prescribed for primary cardiovascular prevention in elderly patients in Spain. Free, universal health care based on a primary care model can be effective in reducing health inequalities related to socioeconomic status. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Ferro-Luzzi A, Saccini C, Taffesse S. Seasonal Energy deficiency in Ethiopian. Rural women. Eur. J.Clin.Nutr. 1990; 44. Supp. 1;7-18.' Taddess Zerihun et al.. Anthropometric status of Oromo women-in rural South- western Ethiopia. Ethiopian journal of health development. 1998;12(1);l -7. Demissie T. Dietary. craving and ...
Zalcman, Ioná; Guarita, Heloisa Vidigal; Juzwiak, Claudia Ridel; Crispim, Cibele Aparecida; Antunes, Hanna Karen Moreira; Edwards, Ben; Tufik, Sérgio; de Mello, Marco Túlio
We describe the usual food intake, body composition, and biochemical profile of adventure racers during their training season and evaluate their energy and nutrient intake in relation to current recommendations for ultraendurance athletes. Twenty-four adventure race athletes (18 men and 6 women), 24 to 42 y of age, participated in the study. Food intake was determined with a 3-d food record and body composition by plethysmography. Blood samples were obtained from all subjects for biochemical analyses. All assessments were made during the usual training phase. Female athletes had a higher body fat percentage than did male athletes (20.2 +/- 5.7% versus 12.5 +/- 3.5%). For men and women, food intake was high in protein (1.9 +/- 0.5 g/kg in men, 2.0 +/- 0.4 g/kg in women) and fat (1.6 +/- 0.3 g/kg in men, 1.5 +/- 1.3 g/kg in women). Carbohydrate intake of male athletes was at the lower limit of that recommended (5.9 +/- 1.8 g/kg). For most vitamins and minerals, athletes' intake was adequate, with the exception of magnesium, zinc, and potassium in men and women and vitamin E and calcium in women, which presented a high probability of being inadequate compared with reference values. High blood levels of total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were found in female athletes (201.0 +/- 44.7 and 104.1 +/- 43.1 mg/dL, respectively) and all other biochemical analyses were within normal reference values. The adventure racers presented an inadequate nutritional profile when compared with recommendations for endurance exercise. These athletes need to be educated about consuming an adequate diet to meet the nutritional needs of their activity.
Bisballe, S; Buus, S; Lund, B
Food intake and nutritional status was studied in 67 patients, who had had a gastrectomy 2-30 years earlier, and in a randomly selected, matched group of healthy persons. The gastrectomized patients weighed less than the control persons (women 56.4 +/- 9.5 vs 61.4 +/- 6.9 kg; P less than 0.05; men...
delayed (> 15 yrs) or when gynaecological age (duration between age at menarche and age at first conception) was less than 2 yrs. Thus delayed adolescent growth resulting in slow but significant stature growth at later ages coupled with poor nutritional status of rural girls and early marriage was responsible for significant ...
Rao, P S S; John, A S
Across-sectional epidemiological study was carried out at a Leprosy Referral Hospital in Delhi to assess the nutritional status of multibacillary leprosy patients in comparison to the general population using BMI. 150 people affected with multibacillary leprosy were included in the study, of whom 108 (72%) had WHO Grade 2 disability. 100 non leprosy patients were also included as a control group. Socio-demographic and clinical details as well as their height and weight were measured and the BMI computed. The findings clearly showed that under-nutrition (BMI disability made the incidence of under-nutrition more likely. The duration of disease, number of lesions or bacterial index had no impact on the level of nutrition. There may be multiple factors working together to lead to this under-nutrition and these are discussed briefly. If, we aim to provide high quality services with a holistic approach, a mandatory BMI should be calculated for every patient and if under nourished, a qualitative diet summary should be done and suitable nutritional advice given. Further, studies are needed for a better understanding of the occurrence and progression of under-nutrition in leprosy to find efficient ways to combat this problem.
Background: Dental caries is a lifetime disease and its sequelae have been found to constitute health problems of immense proportion in children. Environmental factors such as culture, socioeconomic status, lifestyle and dietary pattern can have a great impact on cariesresistance or caries-development in a child.
Xu, Zhiye; Yu, Dan; Yin, Xueyao; Zheng, Fenping; Li, Hong
The incidence of diabetes is increasing globally. We investigated the relationship between diabetes prevalence and patient socioeconomic status across multiple countries. We searched PubMed to identify population-based surveys reporting diabetes prevalence between 1990 and May 2016. Search results were filtered, and Human Development Index (HDI) values from the United Nations Development Programme were used to assess socioeconomic status for a given nation. Our analysis included 45 national surveys from 32 countries. Diabetes prevalence was positively correlated with national HDI (r = 0.421 P = 0.041) in developing countries, and negatively correlated with HDI (r = -0.442 P = 0.045) in developed countries. Diabetes prevalence trends were the same in women and men, although men were associated with increased diabetes risk in developed countries (r = 0.459 P = 0.048). Thus, diabetes prevalence rises with increasing HDI in developing countries, and this is reversed in developed countries. Ours is the first study to investigate the relationship between diabetes and socioeconomic status at global level using HDI values. These results will aid in evaluating global diabetes prevalence and risk with respect to patient socioeconomic status, and will be useful in the development of policies that help reduce disease incidence.
The study investigated socio-economic status as predictor of deviant behaviours among Nigeria secondary school students. The subject were sixty five students with an age range of 10 – 19 years drawn from Senior secondary school (SSS) 1 – III in four secondary schools in Oyo State. The subjects were selected from those ...
The study investigated the prevalence of malaria and socioeconomic status of subjects in part of Port Harcourt metropolis. Following ethical clearance which was obtained from the University of Port Harcourt and the parents of the subjects who gave their written consents, blood samples were collected and analysed ...
Dickinson, Emily R.; Adelson, Jill L.
This study uses a nationally representative student dataset to explore the limitations of commonly used measures of socioeconomic status (SES). Among the identified limitations are patterns of missing data that conflate the traditional conceptualization of SES with differences in family structure that have emerged in recent years and a lack of…
There is a long tradition of observational studies from developed societies linking overweight and obesity to low socioeconomic status (SES). The aim of this study is to assess the relationship between SES and obesity and determine whether variations in the body mass index (BMI) of adult Nigerians is influenced by their ...
The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between vocational interest, counselling, socio-economic status and age on re-entry of girls into school in Edo State. One research hypothesis was formulated to guide the study. The design was correlational. Five research instruments were used: they are the Modified ...
Idorn, L W; Wulf, H C
Socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM), also in Northern Europe despite equal access to health care. SES per se is not responsible for this association which must be ascribed to important risk factors for CMM such as intermittent UVR exposure, and screening...
Hawley, Lisa D.; Leibert, Todd W.; Lane, Joel A.
In this study, we examined the relationship between various indices of socioeconomic status (SES) and counseling outcomes among clients at a university counseling center. We also explored links between SES and three factors that are generally regarded as facilitative of client change in counseling: motivation, treatment expectancy and social…
Jensen, Nikoline; Pedersen, Henrik Søndergaard; Vestergaard, Mogens
OBJECTIVE: Multimorbidity (MM) is more prevalent among people of lower socioeconomic status (SES), and both MM and SES are associated with higher mortality rates. However, little is known about the relationship between SES, MM, and mortality. This study investigates the association between...
Background: Asthma is a chronic disease which places considerable economic, social and public health burdens on the society. Education, occupation and income are the most widely used indicators of socioeconomic status (SES). Studies have shown increased asthma hospital admissions for those who are materially ...
Ridge, Katherine E.; Weisberg, Deena Skolnick; Ilgaz, Hande; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathryn A.; Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick
Children from low-socioeconomic status (SES) families often fall behind their middle-class peers in early language development. But interventions designed to support their language skills are often costly and labor-intensive. This study implements an inexpensive and subtle language intervention aimed at sparking parent-child interaction in a place…
The study investigated the relationship between counselling, vocational interest and socio-economic status on re-entry of girls into schools in Edo State. The research design adopted was co-relational because it sought to establish the relationship between the independent variables and the dependent variable.
Although the relationship between socioeconomic wellbeing and health status is well-established in Western industrialized countries, but, few studies have examined this association in developing countries particularly among older persons in Lagos State, Nigeria. National and International Organizations have expressed ...
Boles, David B.
Socioeconomic status (SES), a variable combining income, education, and occupation, is correlated with a variety of social health outcomes including school dropout rates, early parenthood, delinquency, and mental illness. Several studies conducted in the 1970s and 1980s largely failed to report a relationship between SES and hemispheric asymmetry…
Multiple regression procedure and t-test statistics were utilized to analyse data. Results indicated that the regression equation of career maturity using the three predictor variables was significant; the scores on socio-economic status were the best predictor of career maturity. On the basis of this finding, suggestions were ...
Lange, Peter; Marott, Jacob Louis; Vestbo, Jørgen
exacerbations (hazards ratio 1.65, 95% CI 1.15-2.37) and higher risk of all-cause mortality (hazards ratio 1.96, 95% CI 1.28-2.99). We conclude that even in an economically well-developed country with a health care system (which is largely free of charge), low socioeconomic status, assessed as the length...
This study aimed to describe the barriers to accessibility and the coping strategies employed to overcome these barriers among users of free ART services overall and by socioeconomic status (SES). Data were collected from 240 people receiving ART at one urban and one peri-urban health facility in Enugu State, ...
Information on the age, gender, ethnicity, nature of pre-hospital interventions and parental socioeconomic status were obtained and analyzed. Results: A total of 167 children were recruited. One hundred and one (60.5 %) applied home intervention such as pouring of water on the child in 61 (60.4%), insertion of spoon in ...
... risk factors, including obesity and poorer lipid profile. Primary prevention and health screening strategies are needed to target cardiometabolic risk factors in urban areas, to reduce the burden of cardiovascular disease in Tanzania. Keywords: Socioeconomic status, urbanization, cardiometabolic risk factors, diet, Tanzania ...
Data was collected using a semi-structured researcher administered questionnaire. Knowledge, awareness and attitudes were addressed using questions on balanced diet, healthy eating, healthy body weight, obesity, diabetes, hypertension and diabetes and hypertension causes. Socio-economic status was addressed by ...
Jul 21, 1990 ... status, risk factors disease. Socio-economic and coronary heart. The CORIS baseline study. J. E. ROSSOUW, P. L. JOOSTE, H. J. STEENKAMP, M. L. THOMPSON, ... and coronary risk factors (RFs) with coronary heart disease .... definition, was decided upon after exploration of their strength of association ...
Steptoe, A.; Willemsen, G.; Kunz-Ebrecht, S.R.; Owen, N.
We assessed the changes in cardiac index and total peripheral resistance underlying blood pressure reactions and recovery from acute mental stress, in relation to socioeconomic status. A sample of 200 men and women aged 47-59 years was divided on the basis of occupation into higher, intermediate,
agent (at P=0.01) while contact with extension and age of farmer and social participation and access to radio (at P=0.05). And, results of stepwise regression showed that age, level of education and farm size of farmers were significantly related to adoption (at P=0.05). Keywords: Improved maize, socio-economic status, rural ...
The aim of this study was to determine the body image (BI) and its relationship with socio-economic status (SES) among adolescents. The 15-year-old adolescents (N=287), consisting of 111 boys and 176 girls, were grouped according to SES. They completed the Body-Image Ideals Questionnaire (BIQ) to assess any ...
Dotterer, Aryn M.; Iruka, Iheoma U.; Pungello, Elizabeth
This study examined the link between socioeconomic status (SES) and school readiness, testing whether parenting (maternal sensitivity and negative behavior/intrusiveness) and financial stress mediated this association and if race moderated these paths. Participants included 164 mother-child dyads from African American and European American…
Background: Childhood obesity is a complex condition resulting from an interplay of genetic predisposition, environmental factors and socio-economic status. ... Authors` contribution: The first author is the lead researcher and is a staff of Federal Teaching Hospital Gombe while the second author, a staff of University of ...
The relationship of socio-economic status (SES) indicators and coronary risk factors (RFs) with coronary heart disease (CHD) prevalence was examined in 5620 subjects aged 20 ... The SES indicators had Iitlle or no independent effect on CHD prevalence in multivariate logistic analyses after, inclusion of the standard RFs.
This study evaluated the demographic variables and socio-economic status on the prevalence of health hazards amongst residents of Akure North Local Government, Ondo State, Nigeria. The study was a descriptive research design of the survey type. The population for this study was estimated to be 131,587 residents.
Moreno-Maldonado, Concepción; Ramos, Pilar; Moreno, Carmen; Rivera, Francisco
Psychologists in schools can play an important role in developing policies and programs to promote healthy eating habits. This study analyses the contributions of family socioeconomic status, peer influence (schoolmates' food consumption), and school-based nutrition interventions to explain adolescent eating behaviors. Data were obtained from the…
Full Text Available Introduction: Children are one of the most vulnerable groups to sub-optimal nutritional intake in most societies. We have investigated some of the potential determinants of malnutrition in children of 2-5 years of age. Methods and Materials: A cross sectional study was conducted to determine the relationship between nutritional status (weight for age, height for age and weight for height and dietary and socioeconomic factors in 671 children (24-59 months of age from selected health centers in Mashhad city, Iran. Children were assessed for weight and height and the care givers were interviewed and a questionnaire was completed by the interviewers. The data were analyzed using SPSS13 software and the Z-scores were calculated using the WHO anthropometric software package. Results: The study showed that 24.4% of children were mildly underweight, 4.3% were underweight, 13% were mildly stunted, 23.6% of children were mildly wasted and 3.1% were stunted. Educational attainment, whether the children had been breast feed, average daily consumption of milk, feeding practices and type of first food were found to be the main factors determining nutritional status in our study. Conclusion: A higher daily consumption of milk, lower age at which first solid food was started; lower age for consumption of meat and good feeding practices may resolve malnutrition in this population. These findings support the need for a family-based prevention program that focus on guiding parents to foster appropriate feeding practices as well as to promote healthy food intake in the children. Future research should determine the cost-effectiveness of both short- and long-term interventions for child malnutrition. Keywords:Malnutrition Prevention, Nutritional Intake, Nutritional Status, Preschool Children.
Information on nutritional status of children under five years is an indicator of the nutritional situation in society. Identification of core factors influencing nutrition of this population supports plans to alleviate child malnutrition and its consequences. This study sought to determine the nutritional status of children under five ...
Hui, A.; Vinod, S.K.; Jalaludin, B.; Yuile, P.; Delaney, G.P.; Barton, M.
This retrospective study aims to explore any associations between socioeconomic factors and lung cancer management and outcome in the Australian setting. The study population consisted of patients newly diagnosed with lung cancer in 1996 who were living in the Northern Sydney Area Health Service (NSAHS) or South Western Sydney Area Health Service (SWSAHS). These two Area Health Services differ in socioeconomic profiles based on socioeconomic indexes for areas (SEIFA), median income, education level and unemployment rate. Data on patient demographics, tumour characteristics, management details, recurrence and survival were collected, and the patterns of care were analysed. Socioeconomic status indicators of the two Area Health Services were imputed from the Australian Bureau of Statistics data. There were 270 and 256 new cases of lung cancer identified in NSAHS and SWSAHS respectively. Patients in NSAHS were slightly older (median age 73 versus 68 years) and there was less male predominance. The stage distributions and performance status of the two cohorts were similar. There were no significant differences in the utilisation rates of different treatment modalities between the two areas: radiotherapy (54% in NSAHS and 55% in SWSAHS), chemotherapy (34% and 25%), surgery (26% and 21%) and no treatment (22% and 25%). The 5-year overall survival was slightly in favour of NSAHS (10.5% and 7.4%), but did not reach statistical significance. Despite differences in socioeconomic profiles between the two area health services, patients with lung cancer had similar patterns of care and survival
Feasel-Aklilu, Sarah; Marcus, Andrea; Parrott, J Scott; Peters, Emily; Byham-Gray, Laura
The study purpose was to explore the relationship between nutritional status, as measured by Subjective Global Assessment (SGA), and Health Related Quality of Life measured using the Nutrition Specific Quality of Life (NS-QoL), tool among participants on maintenance hemodialysis (MHD). The study aim was to determine if NS-QoL may be an adjuvant tool for detecting changes in nutritional status among patients on MHD. This is a cross-sectional, secondary analysis of data from a multi-center study. Participants were adult (>18) men and women on MHD (n = 145) recruited from 3 institutions in the Northeastern United States. Statistical tests were conducted to determine the relationship between key demographic characteristics (age, sex, dialysis vintage, gender, and ethnicity) and SGA and NS-QoL. Spearman's correlation examined the relationship between the independent variable, SGA and the dependent variable, NS-QoL. A univariate general linear model was conducted to adjust for confounding variables. The relationship between overall SGA score and composite NS-QoL score. The sample consisted of 85 men (58.6%), with a mean age of 55.3 ± 11.9 years, who were largely African-American (84.1%) and non-Hispanic (77.2%). Mean SGA score was 5.5 ± 1.0, and the mean NS-QoL composite score was 9.51 ± 3.77. No key demographic characteristics had a statistically significant relationship with SGA, whereas sex (P nutritional status. Copyright © 2018 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Müller, F S; Meyer, O W; Chocano-Bedoya, P; Schietzel, S; Gagesch, M; Freystaetter, G; Neuhaus, V; Simmen, H-P; Langhans, W; Bischoff-Ferrari, H A
Malnutrition is an established risk factor for adverse clinical outcomes. Our aim was to assess nutritional status among geriatric trauma patients. We enrolled 169 consecutive patients (⩾70 years) admitted to the Geriatric Traumatology Centre (University Hospital Zurich, Switzerland). On admission to acute care, nutritional status was assessed with the mini nutritional assessment (score23.5=normal). At the same examination, we assessed mental (Geriatric Depression Scale; GDS) and cognitive function (Mini-Mental State Examination; MMSE), frailty status (Fried Scale), and number of comorbidities and medications. Further, discharge destination was documented. All analyses were adjusted for age and gender. A total of 7.1% of patients were malnourished and 49.1% were ARM. Patients with reduced mental health (GDS⩾5: 30.5 vs 11.5%; P=0.004), impaired cognitive function (MMSE⩽26: 23.6±0.5 vs 26.0±0.6; P=0.004), prevalent frailty (32.5 vs 8%; Pnutritional status (M+ARM). Further, M+ARM patients were twice as likely to be discharged to destinations different to home (odds ratio=2.08; confidence interval 1.07-4.05). In this consecutive sample of geriatric trauma patients, 56.2% had an M+ARM upon admission to acute care, which was associated with indicators of worse physical, mental and cognitive health and predicted a more than twofold greater odds of being discharged to a destination other than home.
Full Text Available Data regarding the socioeconomic status in Iranian kidney transplant (KT recipients is lacking. In this cross sectional descriptive study we evaluated the socio-economic status of 100 KT recipients in Shiraz organ transplantation center. In a cross-sectional design, we randomly selected and interviewed 100 RT recipients (50 males and 50 females. Data regarding age, gender, martial status, occupation, level of education, number of children, type of insurance, monthly household income, place of residence, ownership of a personal transportation device, duration and frequency of pre-transplant dialysis, family history of CRF (Chronic renal failure, and etiology of renal disease were obtained. There were 50 (50% patients aged between 16 and 35 years, 55 had a family history of CRF, 60 had been on dialysis for more than a year, 61 were married, 47 did not have any children, 41 had more than 3 children, and 65 were unemployed due to physical and emotional impairment as a result of their disease. The majority (73% did not have a high school diploma, 15% were illiterate, 85% were below the poverty line, 52% were from rural areas, and 98% were covered by insurance. We conclude that patients with CKD in our study had acquired this condition possibly due to negligence and lack of basic health care in the lower socioeconomic class. In addition, KT is an available therapeutic modality to lower socio-economic level in Iran.
Malnutrition Indication Score was obtained and the nutritional status was graded as Normal nutritional status, at risk of malnutrition and malnourished. SPSS version 20.0 was used for data entry, cleaning and analysis. Nutritional status and dietary patterns were summarized using frequencies and percentages while mean ...
Medina González, Paul
To evaluate the linear variability of comfortable gait according to socioeconomic status in community-dwelling elderly. For this cross-sectional observational study 63 self- functioning elderly were categorized according to the socioeconomic level on medium-low (n= 33, age 69.0 ± 5.0 years) and medium-high (n= 30, age 71.0 ± 6.0 years). Each participant was asked to perform comfortable gait speed for 3 min on an 40 meters elliptical circuit, recording in video five strides which were transformed into frames, determining the minimum foot clearance, maximum foot clearance and stride length. The intra-group linear variability was calculated by the coefficient of variation in percent. The trajectory parameters variability is not different according to socioeconomic status with a 30% (range= 15-55%) for the minimum foot clearance and 6% (range= 3-8%) in maximum foot clearance. Meanwhile, the stride length consistently was more variable in the medium-low socioeconomic status for the overall sample (p= 0.004), female (p= 0.041) and male gender (p= 0.007), with values near 4% (range = 2.5-5.0%) in the medium-low and 2% (range = 1.5-3.5%) in the medium-high. The intra-group linear variability is consistently higher and within reference parameters for stride length during comfortable gait for elderly belonging to medium-low socioeconomic status. This might be indicative of greater complexity and consequent motor adaptability.
All infections no matter how mild decrease nutrient intakes and increase nutrient losses even when subclinical. The losses include decreased intestinal absorption, direct loss of nutrient in the gut, internal diversion for metabolic responses to infection and increased BMR when fever is present. Infection influences in this way not only protein and energy status but also that of most other nutrients. The clinical importance of these consequences of infection depends on the prior state of the individual, the nature and duration of the infection and the diet of the individual during the infection, particularly dietary intake during the convalescent period and whether full recovery takes place before another infection occurs. In industrialized countries particular attention must be paid to the nutrition of hospitalized patients since they are frequently debilitated by their primary disease, morbidity, and their nutritional status. Morbidity and mortality are increased by nosocomial infections to which the poorly nourished individual is more susceptible. (author). Refs, 9 figs, 4 tabs
Giusto, Michela; Lattanzi, Barbara; Di Gregorio, Vincenza; Giannelli, Valerio; Lucidi, Cristina; Merli, Manuela
Chronic liver disease has an important effect on nutritional status, and malnourishment is almost universally present in patients with end-stage liver disease who undergo liver transplantation. During recent decades, a trend has been reported that shows an increase in number of patients with end-stage liver disease and obesity in developed countries. The importance of carefully assessing the nutritional status during the work-up of patients who are candidates for liver replacement is widely recognised. Cirrhotic patients with depleted lean body mass (sarcopenia) and fat deposits have an increased surgical risk; malnutrition may further impact morbidity, mortality and costs in the post-transplantation setting. After transplantation and liver function is restored, many metabolic alterations are corrected, dietary intake is progressively normalised, and lifestyle changes may improve physical activity. Few studies have examined the modifications in body composition that occur in liver recipients. During the first 12 mo, the fat mass progressively increases in those patients who had previously depleted body mass, and the muscle mass recovery is subtle and non-significant by the end of the first year. In some patients, unregulated weight gain may lead to obesity and may promote metabolic disorders in the long term. Careful monitoring of nutritional changes will help identify the patients who are at risk for malnutrition or over-weight after liver transplantation. Physical and nutritional interventions must be investigated to evaluate their potential beneficial effect on body composition and muscle function after liver transplantation.
Juliana Lammel Ricardi; Aline Marcadenti; Simone Perocchin de Souza; Anelise Siviero Ribeiro
Introduction: Malnutrition is very common in hospitals and inpatients with prescription of oral nutritional supplementation have improvement of the nutritional status. Objectives: To detect the total acceptance rate and a possible association between oral nutritional supplements intake and nutritional status. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out among 398 inpatients. Fifteen types of supplements were analyzed and nutritional status was detected by Subjective Global Assessment (SGA...
Joana Pedro Lopes; Paula Manuela de Castro Cardoso Pereira; Ana Filipa dos Reis Baltazar Vicente; Alexandra Bernardo; María Fernanda de Mesquita
The present study intended to evaluate the nutritional status of Portuguese colorectal patients and associated it with surgery type as well as quality of life outcomes. Malnutrition can affect up to 85% of cancer patients and specifically 30-60% in colorectal cancer and can significantly influence health outcomes. A sample of 50 colorectal cancer patients was evaluated in what refers to several anthropometric measures, food intake, clinical history, complications rate before and after surgery...
Al-Mutawa, Aliaa; Anderson, Alfred Kojo; Alsabah, Salman; Al-Mutawa, Mohammad
Obesity is a global epidemic affecting populations globally. Bariatric surgery is an effective treatment for morbid obesity, and has increased dramatically. Bariatric surgery candidates frequently have pre-existing nutritional deficiencies that might exacerbate post-surgery. To provide better health care management pre- and post-bariatric surgery, it is imperative to establish the nutritional status of prospective patients before surgery. The aim of this study was to assess and provide baseline data on the nutritional status of bariatric candidates. A retrospective study was conducted on obese patients who underwent bariatric surgery from 2008 to 2015. The medical records of 1538 patients were reviewed for this study. Pre-operatively, the most commonly observed vitamin deficiencies were Vitamin D (76%) and Vitamin B12 (16%). Anemia and iron status parameters were low in a considerable number of patients before surgery, as follows: hemoglobin 20%, mean corpuscular volume (MCV) 48%, ferritin 28%, serum iron 51%, and transferrin saturation 60%. Albumin and transferrin were found to be low in 10% and 9% of the patients, respectively, prior to surgery. In addition to deficiencies, a great number of patients had hypervitaminosis pre-operatively. Excess levels of Vitamin B6 (24%) was the most remarkable. The findings in this study advocate a close monitoring and tailored supplementation pre- and post-bariatric surgery. PMID:29324643
Al-Mutawa, Aliaa; Anderson, Alfred Kojo; Alsabah, Salman; Al-Mutawa, Mohammad
Obesity is a global epidemic affecting populations globally. Bariatric surgery is an effective treatment for morbid obesity, and has increased dramatically. Bariatric surgery candidates frequently have pre-existing nutritional deficiencies that might exacerbate post-surgery. To provide better health care management pre- and post-bariatric surgery, it is imperative to establish the nutritional status of prospective patients before surgery. The aim of this study was to assess and provide baseline data on the nutritional status of bariatric candidates. A retrospective study was conducted on obese patients who underwent bariatric surgery from 2008 to 2015. The medical records of 1538 patients were reviewed for this study. Pre-operatively, the most commonly observed vitamin deficiencies were Vitamin D (76%) and Vitamin B 12 (16%). Anemia and iron status parameters were low in a considerable number of patients before surgery, as follows: hemoglobin 20%, mean corpuscular volume (MCV) 48%, ferritin 28%, serum iron 51%, and transferrin saturation 60%. Albumin and transferrin were found to be low in 10% and 9% of the patients, respectively, prior to surgery. In addition to deficiencies, a great number of patients had hypervitaminosis pre-operatively. Excess levels of Vitamin B₆ (24%) was the most remarkable. The findings in this study advocate a close monitoring and tailored supplementation pre- and post-bariatric surgery.
Full Text Available Obesity is a global epidemic affecting populations globally. Bariatric surgery is an effective treatment for morbid obesity, and has increased dramatically. Bariatric surgery candidates frequently have pre-existing nutritional deficiencies that might exacerbate post-surgery. To provide better health care management pre- and post-bariatric surgery, it is imperative to establish the nutritional status of prospective patients before surgery. The aim of this study was to assess and provide baseline data on the nutritional status of bariatric candidates. A retrospective study was conducted on obese patients who underwent bariatric surgery from 2008 to 2015. The medical records of 1538 patients were reviewed for this study. Pre-operatively, the most commonly observed vitamin deficiencies were Vitamin D (76% and Vitamin B12 (16%. Anemia and iron status parameters were low in a considerable number of patients before surgery, as follows: hemoglobin 20%, mean corpuscular volume (MCV 48%, ferritin 28%, serum iron 51%, and transferrin saturation 60%. Albumin and transferrin were found to be low in 10% and 9% of the patients, respectively, prior to surgery. In addition to deficiencies, a great number of patients had hypervitaminosis pre-operatively. Excess levels of Vitamin B6 (24% was the most remarkable. The findings in this study advocate a close monitoring and tailored supplementation pre- and post-bariatric surgery.
Hawlader, Mohammad Delwer Hossain; Noguchi, Emiko; El Arifeen, Shams; Persson, Lars Åke; Moore, Sophie E; Raqib, Rubhana; Wagatsuma, Yukiko
To investigate the association between current childhood nutritional status and current wheezing among pre-school children in rural Bangladesh. Cross-sectional study. Matlab region, rural Bangladesh. Children (n 912) aged 4·5 years. Anthropometric measurements of the mothers and their children were taken during a 1-year period from December 2007 to November 2008. Current wheezing was identified using the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaire. Serum total IgE was measured by human IgE quantitative ELISA. IgE specific antibody to dust mites (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus) was measured by the CAP-FEIA system (Phadia AB, Uppsala, Sweden). Wheezing at 4·5 years old was significantly associated with stunting (OR = 1·58; 95 % CI 1·13, 2·22) and underweight (OR = 1·39; 95 % CI 1·00, 1·94). The association with stunting remained significant after adjustment for sex, birth weight, birth length, gestational age at birth, mother's parity, maternal BMI, family history of asthma, socio-economic status, season of birth and intervention trial arm (OR = 1·74; 95 % CI 1·19, 2·56). Stunting was a significant risk factor for wheezing among rural Bangladeshi children. Further studies will be required to confirm the relationship between nutritional status and allergic illnesses in developing countries.
Pisinger, Charlotta; Aadahl, Mette; Toft, Ulla
To investigate motives, strategies and experiences to quit smoking and reasons to relapse as a function of socioeconomic status.......To investigate motives, strategies and experiences to quit smoking and reasons to relapse as a function of socioeconomic status....
Räisänen, Sari; Randell, Kaisa; Nielsen, Henriette Svarre
Does maternal socioeconomic status (SES) confound or modify the association between IVF and perinatal outcome among singleton births?......Does maternal socioeconomic status (SES) confound or modify the association between IVF and perinatal outcome among singleton births?...
Sarlio-Lähteenkorva, Sirpa; Silventoinen, Karri; Lahelma, Eero
Objectives. We examined the association of relative weight with individual income at different levels of socioeconomic status among gainfully employed Finnish women and men. Methods. We used a population-based survey including 2068 women and 2314 men with linked income data from a taxation register. Regression analysis was used to calculate mean income levels within educational and occupational groups. Results. Compared with their normal-weight counterparts, obese women with higher education or in upper white-collar positions had significantly lower income; a smaller income disadvantage was seen in overweight women with secondary education and in manual workers. Excess body weight was not associated with income disadvantages in men. Conclusions. Obesity is associated with a clear income disadvantage, particularly among women with higher socioeconomic status. PMID:14998816
Full Text Available Background. School feeding programmes are intended to alleviate short-term hunger, improve nutrition and cognition of children, andprovide incomes to families.Objectives. To assess the nutritional status of children receiving meals provided by the National School Nutrition Programme (NSNP inCapricorn Municipality, Limpopo Province, South Africa.Methods. The setting was 18 randomly selected schools on the NSNP in Capricorn District. The total sample comprised 602 randomlyselected schoolchildren from grades 4 to 7, aged 10 (26.6%, 11 (35.4% and 12 (35.4%. Socioeconomic characteristics, anthropometricmeasurements, dietary patterns and school attendance were determined. Children were interviewed to assess their nutritional status using avalidated questionnaire. Descriptive statistics such as means, standard deviations (SDs and ranges were used for socioeconomic parametersand dietary patterns, and z-scores for anthropometric data.Results. The results showed that boys (9.5% and girls (7.8% were underweight. The prevalence of stunting in the sample was 11.3% forboys and 7.4% for girls, whereas boys (3.6% and girls (4.2%were wasted, with az-score of –2 SD. School attendance was good.Conclusion. The nutritional status of most subjects in the study was within the acceptable range as indicated by the assessment of growthusing anthropometric measurements.
Nutritional status can be divided into four components: access to clean water, reliable and safe food sources, basic health care needs met, and nutritional literacy. Drawing from the beginnings of an original study and previous published studies, the problems related to each component were analyzed searching for possible policy actions that may improve the health outcomes of homeless people. The results suggest that declines in nutritional status parallel health status. Nutritional inputs are...
Meko, Lucia N M; Slabber-Stretch, Marthinette; Walsh, Corinna M; Kruger, Salome H; Nel, Mariette
The continued existence of undernutrition, associated with a steady increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents, necessitates identification of factors contributing to this double burden of disease, in order for effective treatment and prevention programmes to be planned. To determine the nutritional status of 13-15-year-old children in Bloemfontein and its association with socioeconomic factors. Bloemfontein, Free State Province, South Africa (2006). This was a cross-sectional analytical study. Randomly selected children (n = 415) completed structured questionnaires on socioeconomic status. The children's weight and height were measured and body mass index-for-age and height-for-age z-scores were computed according to World Health Organization growth standards in order to determine the prevalence of underweight, overweight, obesity and stunting. Waist circumference was measured to classify the children as having a high or very high risk for metabolic disease. Of the 415 children who consented to participate in the study, 14.9% were wasted and 3.4% were severely wasted. Only 6% of the children were overweight/obese. Significantly more boys (23.0%) were wasted than girls (10%) and severe stunting was also significantly higher in boys than in girls (10.3% and 4.2%, respectively). Children whose parents had graduate occupations were significantly more overweight/obese than those with parents working in skilled occupations. Stunting was significantly higher in low (31.4%) and medium (30.4%) socioeconomic groups compared to the high socioeconomic group (18.1%). A coexistence of underweight and overweight was found and gender and parental occupation were identified as being predictors of nutritional status.
Mishra, P; Hansen, E H; Sabroe, S
--living conditions, literacy and difficulty in financing treatment--were not found to be significantly associated with non-adherence when adjusted for other risk factors in the multivariate regression model. CONCLUSION: Low socio-economic status and particularly lack of money are important risk factors for non...... analysis showed that the risk of non-adherence to TB treatment was significantly associated with unemployment (odds ratio [OR] 9.2), low status occupation (OR 4.4), low annual income (OR 5.4), and cost of travel to the TB treatment facility (OR 3.0). Factors significant in the bivariate analyses...
Smith, S. M.; Heer, M. A.; Zwart, S. R.
The Nutritional Status Assessment Supplemental Medical Objective was initiated to expand nominal clinical nutrition testing of ISS astronauts, and to gain a better understanding of the time course of changes in nutritional status during flight. The primary activity of this effort was collecting blood and urine samples during flight for analysis after return to Earth. Samples were subjected to a battery of tests. The resulting data provide a comprehensive survey of how nutritional status and related systems are affected by 4-6 months of space flight. Analysis of these data has yielded many findings to date, including: Vision. Documented evidence that biochemical markers involved in one-carbon metabolism were altered in crewmembers who experienced vision-related issues during and after flight (1). Iron, Oxidative Stress, and Bone. In-flight data document a clear association of increased iron stores, markers of oxidative damage to DNA, and bone loss (2). Exercise. Documented that well-nourished crewmembers performing heavy resistance exercise returned from ISS with bone mineral densities unchanged from preflight (3). Furthermore, the response of bone to space flight and exercise countermeasures was the same in men and women (4). Body Mass. Crewmembers lose 2-5% of their body mass in the first month of flight, and maintain the lower body mass during flight (5). Additionally, the two devices to measure body mass on orbit, the SLAMMD and BMMD, provide similar results (5). Cytokines. Findings indicated that a pattern of persistent physiological adaptations occurs during space flight that includes shifts in immune and hormonal regulation (6). Fish/Bone. Documented a relationship between fish intake and bone loss in astronauts (that is, those who ate more fish lost less bone) (7). Vitamin K. Documented that in generally well-fed and otherwise healthy individuals, vitamin K status and bone vitamin K-dependent proteins are unaffected by space flight (and bed rest) (8
Pedersen, Malene R; Bartlett, Emily C; Rafaelsen, Søren R; Osther, Palle J; Vedsted, Peter; Sellars, Maria E; Sidhu, Paul S; Møller, Henrik
There are limited studies about testicular microlithiasis (TML) and background information such as health, lifestyle, and socioeconomic status. To assess the prevalence of TML in relation to socioeconomic status and ethnicity. From a database of scrotal ultrasound examinations in a single institution, all men who underwent routine ultrasound examinations for a variety of symptoms from 1998 to 2015 were included. Skilled observers performed all examinations, and presence of any form of intra-testicular calcification, including TML, was recorded on the examination report and a representative image obtained and stored. A total of 1105 cases with TML were reviewed and random sample of 1105 controls from the same database was also reviewed. Demographics were recorded including ethnicity (white, black, and others) and socioeconomic groups (IMD Quintile). Black men had increased prevalence of TML (odds ratio [OR] = 2.17, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.72-2.75) compared with white men. Among the 1105 TML cases, 423 (38.3%) were white, 273 (24.7%) black, 152 (13.8%) had other ethnicities, and 257 (23.2%) had no ethnicity recorded. In the control group of 1105 men without TML, 560 (50.7%) were white, 171 (15.5%) black, 111 (10.0%) had other specified ethnicities, and 263 (23.8%) had no ethnicity recorded. Men from the most deprived socioeconomic groups had higher prevalence of TML than men in the most affluent groups, with a trend in OR from the least deprived to the most deprived group. Pathogenesis and clinical relevance of TML is unknown but our results point towards possible ethnic and socioeconomic variation in the underlying causes of TML.
Riestra Fernández, María; Menéndez Torre, Edelmiro; Díaz Cadórniga, Francisco; Fernández Fernández, Juan Carlos; Delgado Álvarez, Elías
Iodine deficiency is a public health problem, and iodine nutritional status should therefore be regularly measured. To ascertain iodine nutritional status in Asturias and its relation to use of iodized salt and to other sociodemographic and nutritional parameters. A descriptive, observational study was conducted in a random sample of schoolchildren aged 5 to 14 years, in whom urinary iodine levels were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. Families completed a survey on use of iodized salt, consumption of dairy products and fish, and sociodemographic data. The study sample consisted of 705 schoolchildren (51.1% females) with a mean age of 9.9 years (SD 2.6). In a total of 620 valid measurements, mean urinary iodine level was 204.1 μg/L (SD 120.6), while the median value was 180.7 μg/L (P 25 -P 75 : 124-252.3 μg/L, interquartile range 128.3 μg/L). Urinary iodine levels were y SED. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Potocka, Adrianna; Jacukowicz, Aleksandra
It is generally accepted that maternal factors are important in maintaining the adequate nutritional status of young children. This study was aimed at verifying whether mother's socio-demographic (age and relationship status) and socio-economic features (education and professional status) differentiate the child's nutritional status. A cross-sectional study was conducted between April and October 2013. Five hundred thirty mothers of preschool children from 5 different regions of Poland were interviewed. Mothers were interviewed on their socio-demographic and socio-economic status. To assess the child's nutritional status, body mass index (BMI) z-score and the diet indicators were calculated, such as the percentage of the estimated average requirement for energy (%EAR), the percentage of energy coming from carbohydrates (%EC), fat (%ET) and proteins (%EP). Percentage of the estimated average requirement for energy, %EC, %ET and %EP was obtained from 24-h dietary recalls conducted with the mothers. The results showed that mother's education and professional status did not differentiate any of the indices of the child's nutritional status. However, maternal age and her relationship status occurred significant (ANOVA; p < 0.05). Children of younger mothers had higher BMI z-score and higher %EC as compared to children of older mothers. Moreover, %EAR was higher among children of single mothers and it was closer to the recommended nutrition standards as compared to children of mothers with a partner. When a child is diagnosed with any type of malnutrition, it is worth assessing various factors that might influence the nutritional status, such as child's social background (e.g., maternal factors). Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2017;30(5):811-821. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.
Poor nutrition and health can affect children's education. The nutritional status of school children (9-15 years) was assessed in Kumi district, Eastern Uganda in 2006-2007. Selection of schools was done using modified cluster sampling involving 34 schools (n= 645). Assessments for nutritional status were done ...
Although a lot of research has been conducted on the role of good nutrition in mitigating the effects of HIV/AIDS, little is known about the health and nutritional status of HIV/AIDS orphaned children who mostly live with their elderly grand parents. The major objective of this study was therefore to assess the nutritional status of ...
Feb 26, 2011 ... Original Research: Nutritional status of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patients at a Johannesburg hospital. 2011;24(3) ... Keywords: nutritional status, peritoneal dialysis patients, Johannesburg, Africa. The nutritional .... the portion sizes using visual food aids and a photo manual developed.
Bisballe, S; Buus, S; Lund, B
Food intake and nutritional status was studied in 67 patients, who had had a gastrectomy 2-30 years earlier, and in a randomly selected, matched group of healthy persons. The gastrectomized patients weighed less than the control persons (women 56.4 +/- 9.5 vs 61.4 +/- 6.9 kg; P less than 0.05; men.......01). The serum concentration of alkaline phosphatase was raised and the concentration of calcium, phosphorus and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol reduced in the gastrectomized group. None of these results could be explained from the nutritional study as both the intake of energy and protein and the intake of calcium...... normal serum values. As the serum level of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol is correlated to the degree of osteomalacia, all gastrectomized patients should have at least 10 micrograms vitamin D as a supplement once a day....
Gagné, Thierry; Ghenadenik, Adrian E
The Scandinavian Journal of Public Health recently reiterated the importance of addressing social justice and health inequalities in its new editorial policy announcement. One of the related challenges highlighted in that issue was the limited use of sociological theories able to inform the complexity linking the resources and mechanisms captured by the concept of socioeconomic status. This debate article argues that part of the problem lies in the often unchallenged reliance on a generic conceptualization and operationalization of socioeconomic status. These practices hinder researchers' capacity to examine in finer detail how resources and circumstances promote the unequal distribution of health through distinct yet intertwined pathways. As a potential way forward, this commentary explores how research practices can be challenged through concrete publication policies and guidelines. To this end, we propose a set of recommendations as a tool to strengthen the study of socioeconomic status and, ultimately, the quality of health inequality research. Authors, reviewers, and editors can become champions of change toward the implementation of sociological theory by holding higher standards regarding the conceptualization, operationalization, analysis, and interpretation of results in health inequality research.
Horta, Bernardo L; Santos, Ricardo Ventura; Welch, James R; Cardoso, Andrey M; dos Santos, Janaína Vieira; Assis, Ana Marlúcia Oliveira; Lira, Pedro C I; Coimbra, Carlos E A
The prevalence of undernutrition, which is closely associated with socioeconomic and sanitation conditions, is often higher among indigenous than non-indigenous children in many countries. In Brazil, in spite of overall reductions in the prevalence of undernutrition in recent decades, the nutritional situation of indigenous children remains worrying. The First National Survey of Indigenous People's Health and Nutrition in Brazil, conducted in 2008-2009, was the first study to evaluate a nationwide representative sample of indigenous peoples. This paper presents findings from this study on the nutritional status of indigenous children nutritional status of children underweight, and wasting were 25.7%, 5.9%, and 1.3%, respectively. Even after controlling for confounding, the prevalence rates of underweight and stunting were higher among children in the North region, in low socioeconomic status households, in households with poorer sanitary conditions, with anemic mothers, with low birthweight, and who were hospitalized during the prior 6 months. A protective effect of breastfeeding for underweight was observed for children under 12 months. The elevated rate of stunting observed in indigenous children approximates that of non-indigenous Brazilians four decades ago, before major health reforms greatly reduced its occurrence nationwide. Prevalence rates of undernutrition were associated with socioeconomic variables including income, household goods, schooling, and access to sanitation services, among other variables. Providing important baseline data for future comparison, these findings further suggest the relevance of social, economic, and environmental factors at different scales (local, regional, and national) for the nutritional status of indigenous peoples.
We examined whether socioeconomic status (SES) could be used to identify which schools or children are at greatest risk of bullying, which can adversely affect children’s health and life. We conducted a review of published literature on school bullying and SES. We identified 28 studies that reported an association between roles in school bullying (victim, bully, and bully-victim) and measures of SES. Random effects models showed SES was weakly related to bullying roles. Adjusting for publication bias, victims (odds ratio [OR] = 1.40; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.24, 1.58) and bully-victims (OR = 1.54; 95% CI = 1.36, 1.74) were more likely to come from low socioeconomic households. Bullies (OR = 0.98; 95% CI = 0.97, 0.99) and victims (OR = 0.95; 95% CI = 0.94, 0.97) were slightly less likely to come from high socioeconomic backgrounds. SES provides little guidance for targeted intervention, and all schools and children, not just those with more socioeconomic deprivation, should be targeted to reduce the adverse effects of bullying. PMID:24825231
Fang, Xiangming; Jing, Ruiwei; Zeng, Guang; Linnan, Huan Wan; Zhu, Xu; Linnan, Michael
Injuries are the major cause of morbidity among children and one of the leading causes of death for children ages 1-17 years in developing countries. Of particular importance is whether child injuries are equally distributed across all socioeconomic groups and the implications of this question for child injury prevention, but there is a lack of research on the relationship between socioeconomic status and risk of child injuries in developing countries, including China. This study used a provincially-representative, population-based sample of 98,385 Chinese children under age 18 to investigate the relationships between socioeconomic status (SES) and child injuries. Despite the lack of a SES gradient in the overall incidence of nonhospitalized injuries, evidence of SES disparity was found for the overall incidence of H/PD injuries (injuries resulting in hospitalization or permanent disability) and fatal injuries. The odds of getting injured in the poorest wealth quintile were about 1.3 and 3.5 times greater than the odds found in the richest wealth quintile for H/PD and fatal injuries respectively. Further analyses showed that the associations between SES and injuries varied by type and severity of injury, and across different life stages. The findings have important implications for identifying at-risk populations and the optimal times for interventions to reduce different types and severity levels of child injuries. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Won Kim Cook
Full Text Available Asian American children and adolescents are an under-investigated subpopulation in obesity research. This study aimed to identify specific profiles of Asian subgroups at high risk of adolescent overweight with special attention to Asian ethnicity, socioeconomic status (SES, and their interaction. Multiple logistic regression models were fitted using a sample of 1533 Asian American adolescents ages 12–17 from the 2007–2012 California Health Interview Survey (CHIS. In addition to Asian ethnicity and socioeconomic status (assessed by family income and parental education level, age, gender, nativity, and two lifestyle variables, fast food consumption and physical activity, were also controlled for in these models. Key predictors of overweight in Asian American adolescents included certain Asian ethnicities (Southeast Asian, Filipino, and mixed ethnicities, low family income (<300% of the Federal Poverty Level, and being male. Multiplicative interaction terms between low family income and two ethnicities, Southeast Asian and Vietnamese that had the lowest SES among Asian ethnic groups, were significantly associated with greatly elevated odds of being overweight (ORs = 12.90 and 6.67, respectively. These findings suggest that high risk of overweight in Asian American adolescents associated with low family incomes may be further elevated for those in low-income ethnic groups. Future research might investigate ethnic-group SES as a meaningful indicator of community-level socioeconomic disparities that influence the health of Asian Americans.
Asthma is associated with poorer behavioral and psychological outcomes in children, yet little is known about whether and how the social stratification process affects the impacts of asthma on children's outcomes. Using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort, this study considered the role of socioeconomic status in shaping the developmental consequences of children's asthma. Results showed that asthma was negatively associated with attention and social competence and positively associated with externalizing problem behaviors for children with low-educated mothers and children who lived in poor households. However, the adverse consequences of asthma disappeared for children with high-educated mothers and children who did not experience poverty. Additionally, the socioeconomic disparities were not fully explained by healthcare resources, family process, and exposure to environment risks and the disparities were found for both mild and severe cases. These findings suggest that, to fully understand the developmental consequences of illness in children, it is important to place socioeconomic status at the center of investigation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Milcent, Carine; Zbiri, Saad
Cesarean deliveries are widely used in many high- and middle-income countries. This overuse both increases costs and lowers quality of care and is thus a major concern in the healthcare industry. The study first examines the impact of prenatal care utilization on cesarean delivery rates. It then determines whether socioeconomic status affects the use of prenatal care and thereby influences the cesarean delivery decision. Using exclusive French delivery data over the 2008-2014 period, with multilevel logit models, and controlling for relevant patient and hospital characteristics, we show that women who do not participate in prenatal education have an increased probability of a cesarean delivery compared to those who do. The study further indicates that attendance at prenatal education varies according to socioeconomic status. Low socioeconomic women are more likely to have cesarean deliveries and less likely to participate in prenatal education. This result emphasizes the importance of focusing on pregnancy health education, particularly for low-income women, as a potential way to limit unnecessary cesarean deliveries. Future studies would ideally investigate the effect of interventions promoting such as care participation on cesarean delivery rates.
Bober, Joanna; Mazur, Olech; Gołembiewska, Edyta; Bogacka, Anna; Sznabel, Karina; Stańkowska-Walczak, Dobrosława; Kabat-Koperska, Joanna; Stachowska, Ewa
The main causes of death in patients undergoing dialysis are cardiovascular diseases. Their presence is related to the nutritional status of patients treated with peritoneal dialysis, and has a predicted value in this kind of patient. Long-term therapy entails unfavourable changes, from which a clinically significant complication is protein-energy malnutrition and intensification of inflammatory processes. The aim of the study was to assess the nutritional status of patients with chronic kidney disease treated with peritoneal dialysis based on anthropometric, biochemical parameters analysis, a survey, as well as the determination of changes in measured parameters occurring over time. The study involved 40 people undergoing peritoneal dialysis (PD) and 30 healthy people. For dialyzed patients testing material was collected twice, every 6 months. Proteins, albumins, prealbumins, C-reactive protein and glucose levels were measured. Anthropometric measurements included body height, body weight, triceps skinfold and subscapular skinfold thickness. Body mass index (BMI) value and exponent of tissue protein source were calculated. The examined patients completed the questionnaire, which included, among other factors, the daily intake of nutrients, and lifestyle information. During the 6 month observation of the PD group a stastically significant increase in the energy value of intake food and amount of calories intake from carbohydrates was found. Analysis of nutritional status dependent on the BMI showed that overweight and obese patients are characterized by higher concentrations of the C-reactive protein and glucose, as well as lower concentrations of prealbumin compared to patients with normal body weight. At the same time, the energy value of food and the amount of protein in the group with BMI > 25 were smaller than in the other groups. During the 6 month observation a decrease the concentration of prealbumin and an increase in C-reactive protein in BMI > 25 group
Ursache, Alexandra; Noble, Kimberly G
A growing body of evidence links socioeconomic status (SES) to children's brain structure. Few studies, however, have specifically investigated relations of SES to white matter structure. Further, although several studies have demonstrated that family SES is related to development of brain areas that support executive functions (EF), less is known about the role that white matter structure plays in the relation of SES to EF. One possibility is that white matter differences may partially explain SES disparities in EF (i.e., a mediating relationship). Alternatively, SES may differentially shape brain-behavior relations such that the relation of white matter structure to EF may differ as a function of SES (i.e., a moderating relationship). In a diverse sample of 1082 children and adolescents aged 3-21 years, we examined socioeconomic disparities in white matter macrostructure and microstructure. We further investigated relations between family SES, children's white matter volume and integrity in tracts supporting EF, and performance on EF tasks. Socioeconomic status was associated with fractional anisotropy (FA) and volume in multiple white matter tracts. Additionally, family income moderated the relation between white matter structure and cognitive flexibility. Specifically, across multiple tracts of interest, lower FA or lower volume was associated with reduced cognitive flexibility among children from lower income families. In contrast, children from higher income families showed preserved cognitive flexibility in the face of low white matter FA or volume. SES factors did not mediate or moderate links between white matter and either working memory or inhibitory control. This work adds to a growing body of literature suggesting that the socioeconomic contexts in which children develop not only shape cognitive functioning and its underlying neurobiology, but may also shape the relations between brain and behavior.
Oskoui, Maryam; Messerlian, Carmen; Blair, Alexandra; Gamache, Philippe; Shevell, Michael
Socio-economic differences in maternal and child health are well recognized, but the role of individual-level and area-level determinants in cerebral palsy (CP) phenotypes is debated. We set out to examine (1) the association between area-level and individual-level measures of socio-economic deprivation and CP phenotype among children, including subtype, severity, and comorbidities; and (2) the direct effect of area-level deprivation not mediated through individual-level deprivation. Regional data from a provincial CP register were analyzed. The outcome of interest was CP phenotype. The area-level exposure was measured using the Pampalon Deprivation Index. Individual-level socio-economic status (SES) was determined using maternal education. We conducted multiple regression models, stratified by preterm birth, controlling for key covariates, and a mediation analysis of area-level deprivation on the association between individual SES and CP phenotype. A socio-economic gradient in mobility was seen in our cohort, above and beyond differences in maternal and perinatal factors. The added direct effect of area-level deprivation was seen only in children whose mothers were educated to a higher level, suggesting no additional contribution of area-level deprivation in children of mothers with a lower level of education. Contextual socio-economic factors can impact the severity of CP. These findings indicate important areas for potential community-level or area-level public health intervention (i.e. neighborhood reinvestment, preventive measures), and suggest that neighborhood-level research in maternal and perinatal health should continue to be pursued. © 2015 Mac Keith Press.
Seok, Hongdeok; Yoon, Jin-Ha; Roh, Jaehoon; Kim, Jihyun; Kim, Yeong-Kwang; Lee, Wanhyung; Rhie, Jeongbae; Won, Jong-Uk
We aimed to investigate the health inequity of victims of occupational accidents through the association between socioeconomic status and unmet healthcare need. Data from the first and second Panel Study of Workers' Compensation Insurance were used, which included 1,803 participants. The odds ratio and 95% confidence intervals for the unmet healthcare needs of participants with a lower socioeconomic status and other socioeconomic statuses were investigated using multivariate regression analysis. Among all participants, 103 had unmet healthcare needs, whereas 1,700 did not. After adjusting for sex, age, smoking, alcohol, chronic disease, recuperation duration, accident type, disability, and economic participation, the odds ratio of unmet healthcare needs in participants with a lower socioeconomic status was 2.04 (95% confidence interval 1.32-3.15) compared to participants with other socioeconomic statuses. The victims of occupational accidents who have a lower socioeconomic status are more likely to have unmet healthcare needs in comparison to those with other socioeconomic statuses.
Wilkens Knudsen, Anne; Jensen, Jens-Erik Beck; Nordgaard-Lassen, Inge
Malnutrition increases the risk of developing alcohol-related complications. The aim of this study was to describe nutrient intake, nutritional status and nutrition-related complications in a Danish population of outpatients with alcohol dependency.......Malnutrition increases the risk of developing alcohol-related complications. The aim of this study was to describe nutrient intake, nutritional status and nutrition-related complications in a Danish population of outpatients with alcohol dependency....
Pillai, Rajath; Mathur, Vijay Prakash; Jain, Veena
clinic were recruited in the study. Mini-nutritional assessment (MNA), geriatric oral health assessment (GOHAI) indices, prosthesis need according to WHO criteria, and prosthesis want was recorded along with age, gender, socioeconomic status and posterior occluding pair. RESULTS: Significant associations......To determine the effect of prosthesis need on nutritional status and oral health-related quality of life (OHrQoL) in elderly and to check the disparity between prosthesis need and prosthesis want in the Indian elderly. METHODS: A total of 946 geriatric participants reporting to a geriatric medicine...
Ghosh-Dastidar, Bonnie; Margolis, Karen L.; Slaughter, Mary E.; Jewell, Adria; Bird, Chloe E.; Eibner, Christine; Denburg, Natalie L.; Ockene, Judith; Messina, Catherine R.; Espeland, Mark A.
Objectives. We examined whether neighborhood socioeconomic status (NSES) is associated with cognitive functioning in older US women and whether this relationship is explained by associations between NSES and vascular, health behavior, and psychosocial factors. Methods. We assessed women aged 65 to 81 years (n = 7479) who were free of dementia and took part in the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study. Linear mixed models examined the cross-sectional association between an NSES index and cognitive functioning scores. A base model adjusted for age, race/ethnicity, education, income, marital status, and hysterectomy. Three groups of potential confounders were examined in separate models: vascular, health behavior, and psychosocial factors. Results. Living in a neighborhood with a 1-unit higher NSES value was associated with a level of cognitive functioning that was 0.022 standard deviations higher (P = .02). The association was attenuated but still marginally significant (P < .1) after adjustment for confounders and, according to interaction tests, stronger among younger and non-White women. Conclusions. The socioeconomic status of a woman's neighborhood may influence her cognitive functioning. This relationship is only partially explained by vascular, health behavior, or psychosocial factors. Future research is needed on the longitudinal relationships between NSES, cognitive impairment, and cognitive decline. PMID:21778482
Fujiwara, Takeo; Ito, Jun; Kawachi, Ichiro
The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of income inequality and parental socioeconomic status on several birth outcomes in Japan. Data were collected on birth outcomes and parental socioeconomic status by questionnaire from Japanese parents nationwide (n = 41,499) and then linked to Gini coefficients at the prefectural level in 2001. In multilevel analysis, z scores of birth weight for gestational age decreased by 0.018 (95% confidence interval (CI): -0.029, -0.006) per 1-standard-deviation (0.018-unit) increase in the Gini coefficient, while gestational age at delivery was not associated with the Gini coefficient. For dichotomous outcomes, mothers living in prefectures with middle and high Gini coefficients were 1.24 (95% CI: 1.05, 1.47) and 1.23 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.48) times more likely, respectively, to deliver a small-for-gestational-age infant than mothers living in more egalitarian prefectures (low Gini coefficients), although preterm births were not significantly associated with income distribution. Parental educational level, but not household income, was significantly associated with the z score of birth weight for gestational age and small-for-gestational-age status. Higher income inequality at the prefectural level and parental educational level, rather than household income, were associated with intrauterine growth but not with shorter gestational age at delivery.
Lee, Soo-Kyung; Nam, So-Young; Hoffman, Daniel
As many nations experience the nutrition transition, changes in the nutritional status of children moving from food insecure to food affluent societies has become an important, but infrequently studied, public health issue. To determine changes in the nutritional status of North Korean children after relocating to food-affluent South Korea (SK) from food-deficient North Korea (NK) and relationships of current nutritional status with food environment at birth and exposure to food affluent environments. Socioeconomic status, relocation history and anthropometric information were obtained from 70 NK children (6-15 years) living in SK, through questionnaires, interviews and direct measurements. Following the first 2 years in SK, the height and weight of NK children significantly (p = 0.000) improved, yet they were still shorter (p = 0.000) than SK peers, while the prevalence of obesity was similar to those of SK children. The likelihood of remaining stunted was significantly associated with older age and shorter residency in SK (p < 0.05), but there was no significant association with food security situation at birth. Even a short exposure to food affluent environments improved the nutritional status among children, but linear growth deficits are slow to recover as overall nutritional status remains poor compared to peers without exposures to food insecurity.
Full Text Available The liver is the major organ for the metabolism of three major nutrients: protein, fat, and carbohydrate. Chronic hepatitis C virus infection is the major cause of chronic liver disease. Liver cirrhosis (LC results from different mechanisms of liver injury that lead to necroinflammation and fibrosis. LC has been seen to be not a single disease entity but one that can be graded into distinct clinical stages related to clinical outcome. Several noninvasive methods have been developed for assessing liver fibrosis and these methods have been used for predicting prognosis in patients with LC. On the other hand, subjects with LC often have protein-energy malnutrition (PEM and poor physical activity. These conditions often result in sarcopenia, which is the loss of skeletal muscle volume and increased muscle weakness. Recent studies have demonstrated that PEM and sarcopenia are predictive factors for poorer survival in patients with LC. Based on these backgrounds, several methods for evaluating nutritional status in patients with chronic liver disease have been developed and they have been preferably used in the clinical field practice. In this review, we will summarize the current knowledge in the field of LC from the viewpoints of diagnostic method, nutritional status, and clinical outcomes.
Wu, Tai-Te; Chang, Chieh-Ying; Hsu, Wei-Min; Wang, I-Kwan; Hsu, Chih-Hao; Cheng, Shu-Hwa; Liang, Chih-Chia; Chang, Chiz-Tzung; Huang, Chiu-Ching
Vegetarian diets have long been thought of as beneficial to health. However, vegetarian diets are often low in protein, which is contradictory to the high protein diet guideline for uraemia patients. The purpose of the study was to investigate the impact of a vegetarian diet on the nutritional status of haemodialysis (HD) patients. Patients on chronic HD for over 6 months were included in the study. The normalized protein catabolic rate (nPCR) was used to reflect daily protein intake. Biochemical markers of nutrition, anthropometric parameters, subjective global assessment (SGA) and functional activity of daily living were assessed to evaluate the nutritional status of vegetarians on chronic HD. Nineteen out of 318 HD patients were vegetarians. The nPCR was lower in the vegetarian group (1.20 ± 0.24 vs 1.10 ± 0.29 g/kg per day, non-Veg vs Veg, P vegetarian and non-vegetarian HD patients. The body mass index (BMI) and mid-arm muscular circumference (MAMC) were lower in vegetarian patients (P vegetarians can be maintained at a level similar to that of non-vegetarian patients but erythropoietin doses needed were higher in vegetarian patients (P vegetarians and non-vegetarians. The present study revealed that HD patients on vegetarian diets might have a smaller BMI, but SGA and function of daily activities were similar to those of the non-vegetarians. The haematocrit of vegetarians can be maintained with a higher erythropoietin dose. © 2011 The Authors. Nephrology © 2011 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.
Washington, J A; Craig, H K
This investigation compares dialect use by African American children differing in socioeconomic status (SES) and gender. Subjects were 5- and 6-year-old boys (n = 30) and girls (n = 36), who were kindergartners attending schools in the Metropolitan Detroit area. Comparisons of the amount of dialect in the children's spontaneous discourse revealed systematic differences relative to SES and gender in the frequencies but not the forms of dialect in use. Children from lower-income homes, and boys, were more marked dialect users than their middle-class peers or girls. The sociolinguistic implications of the findings are discussed.
de Oliveira, Claudia Maria Costa; Vidal, Caroline Lustosa da Costa; Cristino, Eurinice Fontenele; Pinheiro, Francisco Marto Leal; Kubrusly, Marcos
Metabolic acidosis is a common problem in dialysis patients and plays an important role in the pathogenesis of protein-energy malnutrition in these patients. To assess the prevalence of metabolic acidosis in hemodialysis and search their association with nutritional status. A cross-sectional study was performed in hemodialysis patients at a single center. Nutritional status was assessed by anthropometric, biochemical and multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis. Metabolic acidosis was defined as serum bicarbonate (BIC) nutritional status, inflammation and bone disease.
María Victorina Aguilar Vilas
Full Text Available Gender dysphoria is a condition that involves a failure to adapt and a body dissatisfaction that makes these individuals especially susceptible to eating disorders. The aim of this paper was to ascertain the nutritional status, dietary behaviour and lifestyle and their effect on overweight/obesity prevalence of the people with gender dysphoria.Methods: A longitudinal study on 157 individuals from the Gender Disorder Unit at the Ramón y Cajal Hospital (Madrid who are undergoing hormonal treatment has been carried out. Usual dietary intake, physical activity habits and socioeconomic parameters were evaluated. The anthropometric parameters determined were weight, height, body-mass index (BMI, waist and hip circumference and body fat content. Results: The mean of the population eats a large number of servings of food, which leads to high levels of energy intake: 3,614.32 ± 1,314 kcal/day. These intakes are related to the physical activity performed. The average diet among this population is unbalanced, with a high consumption of fats, especially saturated fats and cholesterol. The breakfast is skipped by 16% of the population. Together with cross-hormone treatment, this dietary habitsand lifestylelead to an increase in body fat, especially in the female to male group whose overweight andobesity prevalence increase (22.72% vs 34.85%. Conclusion: This population suffers a change of their nutritional status due to a variation in their eating behaviour and lifestyle. This increase in the obesity prevalencemake it susceptible to chronic diseases and cardiovascular disorders. It is therefore necessary to include nutrition education courses in the comprehensive treatment programme (anatomical, psychological, etc. for these individuals.
Full Text Available Introduction: Children are one of the most vulnerable groups to sub-optimal nutritional intake in most societies. We have investigated some of the potential determinants of malnutrition in children of 2-5 years of age. Methods and Materials: A cross sectional study was conducted to determine the relationship between nutritional status (weight for age, height for age and weight for height and dietary and socioeconomic factors in 671 children (24-59 months of age from selected health centers in Mashhad city, Iran. Children were assessed for weight and height and the care givers were interviewed and a questionnaire was completed by the interviewers. The data were analyzed using SPSS13 software and the Z-scores were calculated using the WHO anthropometric software package. Results: The study showed that 24.4% of children were mildly underweight, 4.3% were underweight, 13% were mildly stunted, 23.6% of children were mildly wasted and 3.1% were stunted. Educational attainment, whether the children had been breast feed, average daily consumption of milk, feeding practices and type of first food were found to be the main factors determining nutritional status in our study. Conclusion: A higher daily consumption of milk, lower age at which first solid food was started; lower age for consumption of meat and good feeding practices may resolve malnutrition in this population. These findings support the need for a family-based prevention program that focus on guiding parents to foster appropriate feeding practices as well as to promote healthy food intake in the children. Future research should determine the cost-effectiveness of both short- and long-term interventions for child malnutrition.
Vilas, María Victorina Aguilar; Rubalcava, Gabriela; Becerra, Antonio; Para, María Carmen Martínez
Gender dysphoria is a condition that involves a failure to adapt and a body dissatisfaction that makes these individuals especially susceptible to eating disorders. The aim of this paper was to ascertain the nutritional status, dietary behaviour and lifestyle and their effect on overweight/obesity prevalence of the people with gender dysphoria. Methods A longitudinal study on 157 individuals from the Gender Disorder Unit at the Ramón y Cajal Hospital (Madrid) who are undergoing hormonal treatment has been carried out. Usual dietary intake, physical activity habits and socioeconomic parameters were evaluated. The anthropometric parameters determined were weight, height, body-mass index (BMI), waist and hip circumference and body fat content. Results The mean of the population eats a large number of servings of food, which leads to high levels of energy intake: 3,614.32 ± 1,314 kcal/day. These intakes are related to the physical activity performed. The average diet among this population is unbalanced, with a high consumption of fats, especially saturated fats and cholesterol. The breakfast is skipped by 16% of the population. Together with cross-hormone treatment, this dietary habitsand lifestylelead to an increase in body fat, especially in the female to male group whose overweight andobesity prevalence increase (22.72% vs 34.85%). Conclusion This population suffers a change of their nutritional status due to a variation in their eating behaviour and lifestyle. This increase in the obesity prevalencemake it susceptible to chronic diseases and cardiovascular disorders. It is therefore necessary to include nutrition education courses in the comprehensive treatment programme (anatomical, psychological, etc.) for these individuals. PMID:29546082
Full Text Available The problem of diagnosing nutritional status disorders in septic patients remains unresolved. This is associated with the necessity of the introduction of newer and newer methods of assessing nutritional status, often requiring precise and expensive equipment as well as employment of professionals in this field in hospital wards, primarily including intensive care units (ICU. Methods that have been applied thus far for assessing nutritional status, also used in severely ill septic patients, have little impact on improving treatment results. This is due to the high dynamics of changes in nutritional status in these patients, healing process variability in individual patients, and the “mismatch” of methods for assessing nutritional status in relation to the patient’s clinical status. The diagnostic value of the traditional methods of assessing nutritional status, i.e. anthropometric analysis and selected laboratory tests, as markers of nutritional status disorders in septic patients, is still debatable. There is still no precise method that could become the “gold standard” allowing for early identification of malnutrition in these group of patients. Phase angle, bioelectrical impedance vector analysis (BIVA, and the “illness marker”, obtained directly from the resistance, reactance, and impedance, can be used as prognostic or nutritional indices in severely ill septic patients, but the intensity of research on this subject needs to be increased. Detailed assessment of nutritional status should include tests of selected inflammation markers (including TLC, HMGB1, IL-6, IL-10, IL-1ra, sTNFRI.
Full Text Available Community and hospital based studies require assessment of socio-economic status of an individual/family. Socioeconomic status (SES is an important determinant of the health, nutritional status, mortality, and morbidity of an individual. SES also influences the accessibility, affordability, acceptability, and actual utilization of available health facilities. (1There are many different scales to measure the SES of a family: Rahudkar scale 1960, Udai Parikh scale 1964, Jalota Scale 1970, Kulshrestha scale 1972, Kuppuswamy scale 1976, Shrivastava scale 1978, Bharadwaj scale 2001. (2,3,4,5,6,7,8 However, social transition and fast growing economy have reduced these scales effectiveness in measuring the SES over the years.Kuppuswamy’s socio-economic status scale is an important tool to measure socioeconomic status of families in urban areas. It was first proposed by Kuppuswamy in the in the year 1976. (6 (Table-1 This scale takes into account education, occupation of the head of the family and total income of the family per month from all the sources to categorise families into 5 groups; namely upper, upper middle, lower middle, upper lower and lower socioeconomic status. It is used by students and researchers in India for hospital and community based research. Mishra D and Singh HP (9 in their article on revision of Kuppuswamy’s Socio-economic status scale have pointed that an income scale usually has relevance only for the period under study. They further clarified that due to the steady inflation and consequent fall in the value of the rupee, the income criteria in the scale lose their relevance. There is an unprecedented demand from researchers for the updated version of this because changes in inflation rate change the monetary values of the monthly income range scores. Attempts to revise the original scale to bring the income subscale up to date are done by various authors.The year wise reference indices are shown in Table -2. It tell us
Reddy, Kommuri Sahithi; Doshi, Dolar; Kulkarni, Suhas; Reddy, Bandari Srikanth; Reddy, Madupu Padma
The sense of coherence (SOC) has been suggested to be highly applicable concept in the public health area because a strong SOC is stated to decrease the likelihood of perceiving the social environment as stressful. This reduces the susceptibility to the health-damaging effect of chronic stress by lowering the likelihood of repeated negative emotions to stress perception. The demographic data and general information of subjects' oral health behaviors such as frequency of cleaning teeth, aids used to clean teeth, and dental attendance were recorded in the self-administered questionnaire. The SOC-related data were obtained using the short version of Antonovsky's SOC scale. The periodontal status was recorded based on the modified World Health Organization 1997 pro forma. The total of 780 respondents comprising 269 (34.5%) males and 511 (65.5%) females participated in the study. A significant difference was noted among the subjects for socioeconomic status based on gender ( P = 0.000). The healthy periodontal status (community periodontal index [CPI] code 0) was observed for 67 (24.9%) males and 118 (23.1%) females. The overall SOC showed statistically negative correlation with socioeconomic status scale ( r = -0.287). The CPI and loss of attachment (periodontal status) were significantly and negatively correlated with SOC. The present study concluded that a high level of SOC was associated with good oral health behaviors, periodontal status, and socioeconomic status.
Kommuri Sahithi Reddy
Full Text Available Introduction: The sense of coherence (SOC has been suggested to be highly applicable concept in the public health area because a strong SOC is stated to decrease the likelihood of perceiving the social environment as stressful. This reduces the susceptibility to the health-damaging effect of chronic stress by lowering the likelihood of repeated negative emotions to stress perception. Materials and Methods: The demographic data and general information of subjects' oral health behaviors such as frequency of cleaning teeth, aids used to clean teeth, and dental attendance were recorded in the self-administered questionnaire. The SOC-related data were obtained using the short version of Antonovsky's SOC scale. The periodontal status was recorded based on the modified World Health Organization 1997 pro forma. Results: The total of 780 respondents comprising 269 (34.5% males and 511 (65.5% females participated in the study. A significant difference was noted among the subjects for socioeconomic status based on gender (P = 0.000. The healthy periodontal status (community periodontal index [CPI] code 0 was observed for 67 (24.9% males and 118 (23.1% females. The overall SOC showed statistically negative correlation with socioeconomic status scale (r = −0.287. The CPI and loss of attachment (periodontal status were significantly and negatively correlated with SOC. Conclusion: The present study concluded that a high level of SOC was associated with good oral health behaviors, periodontal status, and socioeconomic status.
Matthews, Karen A.; Gallo, Linda C.
Low socioeconomic status (SES) is a reliable correlate of poor physical health. Rather than treat SES as a covariate, health psychology has increasingly focused on the psychobiological pathways that inform understanding why SES is related to physical health. This review assesses the status of research that has examined stress and its associated distress, and social and personal resources as pathways. It highlights work on biomarkers and biological pathways related to SES that can serve as intermediate outcomes in future studies. Recent emphasis on the accumulation of psychobiological risks across the life course is summarized and represents an important direction for future research. Studies that test pathways from SES to candidate psychosocial pathways to health outcomes are few in number but promising. Future research should test integrated models rather than taking piecemeal approaches to evidence. Much work remains to be done, but the questions are of great health significance. PMID:20636127
Andreoli, A; De Lorenzo, A; Cadeddu, F; Iacopino, L; Grande, M
Nutritional status assessment and support should be considered a valuable measure within the overall oncology strategy. Despite extensive research in the field of clinical nutrition, definite guidelines to base rational nutritional assessment and support in cancer patients are still debated. This review examines different approaches to nutritional status in cancer patients. The assessment of nutritional status is usually based on anthropometric measures, biochemical or laboratory tests, clinical indicators and dietary assessment. At present, body composition (BC) is rarely measured in the clinical setting because it is thought to be too unmanageable and time-consuming. However, using new technologies, the estimation of fat, lean and body fluids, that is significant in the management of nutrition therapies in oncology, has become easy. The present study evaluates the different methods of nutrition assessment today available, especially body composition (BC) measurements. Furthermore, nutrition assessment, relevance of nutritional support and choice of nutritional strategy, in surgical patients, are discussed. Given the clinical relevance of nutritional intervention in patients' quality of life, the nutritional status assessment has a key role in oncological and surgical practice and should include BC assessment in order to tailor nutritional treatment to patients' individual requirements. Furthermore, administration of the supplemented diet before and after surgery seemed to be the best strategy to reduce complications and length of hospital stay.
Adam, M.; Rebholz, C. E.; Egger, M.; Zwahlen, M.; Kuehni, C. E.
The objectives of this systematic review are to summarise the current literature on socioeconomic status (SES) and the risk of childhood leukaemia, to highlight methodological problems and formulate recommendations for future research. Starting from the systematic review of Poole et al. (Socioeconomic status and childhood leukaemia: a review. Int. J. Epidemiol. 2006;35(2):370-384.), an electronic literature search was performed covering August 2002-April 2008. It showed that (1) the results are heterogeneous, with no clear evidence to support a relation between SES and childhood leukaemia; (2) a number of factors, most importantly selection bias, might explain inconsistencies between studies; (3) there is some support for an association between SES at birth (rather than later in childhood) and childhood leukaemia and (4) if there are any associations, these are weak, limited to the most extreme SES groups (the 10-20% most or least deprived). This makes it unlikely that they would act as strong confounders in research addressing associations between other exposures and childhood leukaemia. Future research should minimise case and control selection bias, distinguish between different SES measures and leukaemia subtypes and consider timing of exposures and cancer outcomes. (authors)
Pereira Carlos AB
Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of fibromyalgia, as well as to assess the major symptoms of this syndrome in an adult, low socioeconomic status population assisted by the primary health care system in a city in Brazil. Methods We cross-sectionally sampled individuals assisted by the public primary health care system (n = 768, 35–60 years old. Participants were interviewed by phone and screened about pain. They were then invited to be clinically assessed (304 accepted. Pain was estimated using a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS. Fibromyalgia was assessed using the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ, as well as screening for tender points using dolorimetry. Statistical analyses included Bayesian Statistics and the Kruskal-Wallis Anova test (significance level = 5%. Results From the phone-interview screening, we divided participants (n = 768 in three groups: No Pain (NP (n = 185; Regional Pain (RP (n = 388 and Widespread Pain (WP (n = 106. Among those participating in the clinical assessments, (304 subjects, the prevalence of fibromyalgia was 4.4% (95% confidence interval [2.6%; 6.3%]. Symptoms of pain (VAS and FIQ, feeling well, job ability, fatigue, morning tiredness, stiffness, anxiety and depression were statically different among the groups. In multivariate analyses we found that individuals with FM and WP had significantly higher impairment than those with RP and NP. FM and WP were similarly disabling. Similarly, RP was no significantly different than NP. Conclusion Fibromyalgia is prevalent in the low socioeconomic status population assisted by the public primary health care system. Prevalence was similar to other studies (4.4% in a more diverse socioeconomic population. Individuals with FM and WP have significant impact in their well being.
Zivkovic, Angela M; German, J Bruce
The current rise in diet-related diseases continues to be one of the most significant health problems facing both the developed and the developing world. The use of metabolomics - the accurate and comprehensive measurement of a significant fraction of important metabolites in accessible biological fluids - for the assessment of nutritional status is a promising way forward. The basic toolset, targets and knowledge are all being developed in the emerging field of metabolomics, yet important knowledge and technology gaps will need to be addressed in order to bring such assessment to practice. Dysregulation within the principal metabolic organs (e.g. intestine, adipose, skeletal muscle and liver) are at the center of a diet-disease paradigm that includes metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes and obesity. The assessment of both essential nutrient status and the more comprehensive systemic metabolic response to dietary, lifestyle and environmental influences (e.g. metabolic phenotype) are necessary for the evaluation of status in individuals that can identify the multiple targets of intervention needed to address metabolic disease. The first proofs of principle building the knowledge to bring actionable metabolic diagnostics to practice through metabolomics are now appearing.
Seid, Abdu Kedir
In Ethiopia, despite some recent improvements, the health and nutritional status of children is very poor. A better understanding of the main socioeconomic determinants of child health and nutrition is essential to address the problem and make appropriate interventions. In the present study, an attempt is made to explore the effect of maternal characteristics on the health and nutritional status of under-five children using the 2005 Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey. The health and nutritional status of children are measured using the two widely used anthropometric indicators height-for-age (HAZ) and weight-for-height (WHZ). In the ordinary least squares (OLS) estimation, it is observed that maternal characteristics have a significant impact on child health and nutritional status. The magnitudes of the coefficients, however, are found to slightly increase when maternal education is instrumented in the 2SLS estimation. Moreover, in the quantile regression (QR) estimation, the impacts of maternal characteristics are observed to vary between long-term and current child health and nutritional status.
Full Text Available The nutritional status on commercial currant fields was elucidated by advisory analytical data of 357 pairs of soil and leaf samples from commercial black, red and white currant fields in Southern and Middle Finland. The purpose was to investigate how nutrient concentrations in soil and leaves fitted in the recommended ranges, correlated with each other and to evaluate their usefulness in diagnosis of nutritional status. Soil pH(H 2 O and extractable nutrients (NO 3 -N, P, K, Ca, Mg, B, Cu, Mn and leaf nutrients (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, B were analysed. The mean soil pH, P, K and Mn were in the recommended ranges. Over 50% of soil P and 60% of Mg results and the greatest part of Ca results passed below the lower recommended limits, but soil B and Cu were frequently over the upper recommended limits. The mean leaf N, P and K on all currants, Mg on black and red currants and Ca and B on black currant were within the recommended limits. The lower recommended limit of Mg was passed below in 74% of white currant leaf samples. Positive correlations were found between soil and leaf nutrient concentrations for P, Ca and Mg. The recommended lower soil analysis limits might possibly be too high for coarse soils, because low values of soil P, Mg and Ca were common. The nutrients also might not be evenly distributed in the sampled soil layer but might be accumulated in a thin surface soil layer because of repeated surface broadcasting of fertilizers.
Context: Breastfeeding patterns, ethnic variation and nutrition have been shown to influence the return of menstruation after childbirth, but the role played by nutritional status requires further elucidation, particularly in a place like Nigeria where undernutrition is common. Objectives: To determine the effects of nutrition and ...
Coaches have an important responsibility in the lives of athletes since athletes often use them as a source of advice for various performance-related issues, such as the nutritional regime. This descriptive study set out to identify the nutritional knowledge and nutritional status of coaches from various sport codes, as well as ...
Costa, Larissa da Cunha Feio; de Vasconcelos, Francisco de Assis Guedes
This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of dissatisfaction with body image and associated socio-economic, behavioral and dietary factors in female university students from a public university in Florianopolis, SC. Body image was assessed by the Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ-34) in a sample of 220 students. Nutritional status was investigated by body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and body fat percentage (%BF). Socio-economic characteristics (age, monthly household income, and parental schooling) as well as energy intake and going on restrictive diets were also investigated. Factors associated with dissatisfaction with body image were analyzed by multivariate Poisson regression analysis. The prevalence of dissatisfaction with body image was 47.3% (95% CI 40.7; 53.9). Nutritional status by BMI and going on a diet to lose weight were the variables associated with body dissatisfaction. Results showed a high prevalence of indicators of rejection of their physical fitness among university students, which signals toward the need for nutritional education actions at universities in order to clarify and prevent abnormal eating attitudes among students.
Park, Ju Ok; Shin, Sang Do; Kim, Jaiyong; Song, Kyoung Jun; Peck, Michael D
It has been previously established that the incidence of burn is higher in lower socioeconomic (SES) groups. What is not clear, however, is whether or not the severity of burn is also higher in lower SES groups. The purpose of this study is to establish a relationship between household-level socioeconomic status (SES) and severity-based incidence of burn. A burn injury database was generated from the National Injury Database (2001-2003) with a 1-year follow-up period containing information about the date and time of burn injury, the International Classification of Disease 10th Edition-based (ICD-10) diagnostic codes, gender, age, residence, and type of insurance. In addition, we calculated the severity of each burn using the Excess Mortality Ratio-adjusted Injury Severity Score (EMR-ISS), which is similar to the New Injury Severity Score. Socioeconomic status was measured on the basis of quintiles of premiums for National Health Insurance, which was decided on a household-level either by monthly salary (Employee Insurance, EI) or by owned property (Self-Employed Insurance, SEI). Medical Aid (MA) population was regarded as a reference. After calculation of 5 year-gender specific standardized incidence rates (SIRs) of burn by SES groups, the association of SES and severity of burn was evaluated using a multivariate logistic regression model and the Cox-proportional hazard regression analysis. A total of 870,411 burn cases were examined. The standardized incident rates (SIRs) of mild(1burn injury were 4951, 951, 124, 20, and 6046 per 1,000,000 person-years, respectively. Meaningful changes of relative risk by severity were found: it was greater in higher SES groups (0.67 in the highest SEI, 0.58 in the highest EI) compared to the Medical Aid (MA) population. For injuries classified to be greater than severe (25burn was significantly affected by household-level SES in a nationwide cohort study, with more severe injuries noted in the lower socioeconomic groups.
Sorokun, I V; Korchina, T Ia
The analysis of the students nutritional status in Surgut State Pedagogical University with the help of the special program "ASPON--nutrition", showed that most of the student' population consumes insufficient quantity of albumens, carbohydrates and vitamins A, E, C and calories. Recommendations for correction of macro- and micronutrients status for the students of the North higher educational institution were developed.
Objectives: To assess the nutritional status of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients in our hospital using different assessment tools, and to assess the correlation between nutritional status and other parameters such as solute clearance. Method: A cross-sectional study was performed on end-stage ...
Accurate determination of nutritional and health status of animals is invaluable in modern animal agriculture. Body weights and body condition scoring are the commonly used methods of assessing nutritional status of animals. This paper discusses drawbacks these methods have and highlights the benefits for using blood ...
May 3, 2012 ... NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF CHILDREN AGED 6 T0 59 MONTHS IN. COMMUNITY BASED EDUCATION AND ... nutritional status of the children was determined using the WHO recommended Z- score values as well as the Kenya ..... Cross cutting symposium of the 6 th. Annual Moi University. Conference ...
altered amino acids, hormones (e.g., leptin and ghrelin), and neuropeptides (e.g., neuropeptide Y [NPY], peptide ..... on appetite regulation and nutritional status, the present study had assessed whether the nutritional status and ..... stimulates food intake and growth hormone secretion. Endocrinology 2000;141:4325‑8. 11.
Ji, Gyu Yeul; Oh, Chang Hyun; Jung, Nak-Yong; An, Seong Dae; Choi, Won-Seok; Kim, Jung Hoon
Retrospective study. The objective of the study is to evaluate the relationship between the detection rate of lumbar disc herniation and socioeconomic status. Income is one important determinant of public health. Yet, there are no reports about the relationship between socioeconomic status and the detective rate of disc herniation. In this study, 443 cases were checked for lumbar computed tomography for lumbar disc herniation, and they reviewed questionnaires about their socioeconomic status, the presence of back pain or radiating pain and the presence of a medical certificate (to check the medical or surgical treatment for the pain) during the Korean conscription. Without the consideration for the presence of a medical certificate, there was no difference in spinal physical grade according to socioeconomic status (p=0.290). But, with the consideration of the presence of a medical certificate, the significant statistical differences were observed according to socioeconomic status in 249 cases in the presence of a medical certificate (p=0.028). There was a lower detection rate in low economic status individuals than those in the high economic class. The common reason for not submitting a medical certificate is that it is neither necessary for the people of lower socioeconomic status nor is it financially affordable. The prevalence of lumbar disc herniation is not different according to socioeconomic status, but the detective rate was affected by socioeconomic status. Socioeconomic status is an important factor for detecting lumbar disc herniation.
Husaini, M.A.; Husaini, Y.K.; Suwardi, S.; Salimar; Widodo, Y.; Kurpad, A.; Miranda-Da-Cruz, B.
A crossectional study of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection was carried out in 275 children (Age range = 6-36 months) belonging to the low socio-economic strata (SES) in the rural and suburban areas of Bogor (West Java Indonesia). H. Pylori infection was diagnosed by using C-13 urea breath test and nutritional status was analyzed by z- 2 scores. The study revealed a strong (χ 2 = 30.9; df=4; p 2 =7.2; df=3; p<0.05) association was observed between the educational status of mothers and prevalence of H. pylori infection. Although there was a trend, the results did not yield any significant association between diarrhoea and H. pylori infection. A similar trend was also seen between anemia status and H. pylori infection. Of particular interest was the higher rate of H.pylori infection in children who were on breast-feeding as compared to those who had already been weaned (p<0.05). Stunting, a deficit of length-for-age was the only parameter among the three indicators of malnutrition (underweight, wasting, stunting), which was observed to be significantly (P<0.05) associated with H. pylori infection in our study. Although the other two parameters, underweight and wasting, were also manifested, the associations were not statistically significant. The results of this study have demonstrated that H. Pylori infection has an effect on malabsorption leading to a negative impact on the ability of children to thrive. (author)
Hawkins, Nathaniel M; Jhund, Pardeep S; McMurray, John J V; Capewell, Simon
Socioeconomic status (SES) is a powerful predictor of incident coronary disease and adverse cardiovascular outcomes. Understanding the impact of SES on heart failure (HF) development and subsequent outcomes may help to develop effective and equitable prevention, detection, and treatment strategies A systematic literature review of electronic databases including PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Library, restricted to human subjects, was carried out. The principal outcomes were incidence, prevalence, hospitalizations, mortality, and treatment of HF. Socioeconomic measures included education, occupation, employment relations, social class, income, housing characteristics, and composite and area level indicators. Additional studies were identified from bibliographies of relevant articles and reviews. Twenty-eight studies were identified. Lower SES was associated with increased incidence of HF, either in the community or presenting to hospital. The adjusted risk of developing HF was increased by ∼30-50% in most reports. Readmission rates following hospitalization were likewise greater in more deprived patients. Although fewer studies examined mortality, lower SES was associated with poorer survival. Evidence defining the equity of medical treatment of patients with HF was scarce and conflicting. Socioeconomic deprivation is a powerful independent predictor of HF development and adverse outcomes. However, the precise mechanisms accounting for this risk remain elusive. Heart failure represents the endpoint of numerous different pathophysiological processes and 'chains of events', each modifiable throughout the disease trajectories. The interaction between SES and HF is accordingly complex. Disentangling the many and varied life course processes is challenging. A better understanding of these issues may help attenuate the health inequalities so clearly evident among patients with HF.
Coelho, Lorene Gonçalves; Cândido, Ana Paula Carlos; Coelho, George Luiz Lins Machado; Freitas, Silvia Nascimento de
Objective: To analyze the relation between nutritional status, food habits and physical activity level in schoolchildren. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out with 661 schoolchildren, from 6 to 14 years old, enrolled in public and private schools located in the urban area of Ouro Preto, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. A semistructured questionnaire was applied to collect data on demographic, socio-economic, anthropometric and level of physical activity variables. Sch...
Farah, Martha J
Human beings differ in their socioeconomic status (SES), with accompanying differences in physical and mental health as well as cognitive ability. Although SES has long been used as a covariate in human brain research, in recognition of its potential to account for behavioral and neural differences among people, only recently have neuroscientists made SES a topic of research in its own right. How does SES manifest in the brain, and how do its neural correlates relate to the causes and consequences of SES? This review summarizes the current state of knowledge regarding these questions. Particular challenges of research on the neuroscience of SES are discussed, and the relevance of this topic to neuroscience more generally is considered. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Jailane de Souza Aquino
Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of food insecurity among schoolchildren living in urban and rural areas of Picos, Piauí associated with the socioeconomic profile of families and their food intake and nutritional status. Methods: Study participants were families with children aged 7-10 years enrolled in municipal schools, totaling 342 families/schoolchildren. The study was conducted at school facilities through interviews with mothers - or guardians - using a questionnaire based on the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale and socioeconomic variables and food frequency questionnaire. The nutritional status of children was assessed using the following indexes: weight/age, height/age and body mass index/age. Results: The prevalence of food insecurity was high and similar for rural and urban areas, 84.3% and 83.3%, respectively. In general, lower income and consumption of untreated water was associated with greater frequency of food insecurity (p≤0.01. In urban areas, higher percentage of food insecurity was associated to lower educational levels (p≤0.05. Dietary intake and nutritional status of schoolchildren were not associated with food insecurity condition of families. Conclusion: The percentage of families at food insecurity, as well as the food consumption and nutritional status of schoolchildren were similar between urban and rural areas, characterized as a homogeneous population in terms of socioeconomic conditions.
Full Text Available Malnutrition is a common problem among hemodialysis patients. This factor leads to increased morbidity and mortality. This study evaluates the nutritional status of patients on dialysis and analyses the various parameters used for assessing malnutrition. It is a cross-sectional study of 35 patients aged 18 years and up who have undergone dialysis three days a week for more than a year. The following were analysed: overall subjective assessment technique, Body Mass Index, anthropometric data and biological parameters (serum albumin, serum cholesterol, rate of alkaline reserves and C-reactive protein levels with a dietary three-day survey. Analysis of food survey data was performed using the software Bilnut. The patients’ average age was 46.7 years with a sex ratio of 1.18. Average waist size was 92.7±16.68 cm. Average arm circumference was 27.2±5.6 cm and average calf circumference was 32.03±5.87 cm. Malnutrition was found in 48% of cases according to SGA. Average BMI was 24.4 kg/m2. It was less than 23 Kg/m2 in 48% of cases. Average serum albumin concentration was 33.6 g/l and average CRP level was 6.16 mg/l. The average energy intake (Kcal/Kg/day was 30.87±11.92 the day of dialysis, 27.98±9.31 on a resting day and 29.93±9.42 on another day and the average protein intake (g/kg/day was 1.02±0.44 the day of dialysis, 0.94±0.36 a resting day and 1.04±0.36 on the other day. Malnutrition was frequent among our patients. The assessment of nutritional status in patients on dialysis requires simultaneous combination of several clinical, biologic and dietetic markers. Dietary management is mainly based on food survey regularly established.
Barut, Mert Ulas; Agacayak, Elif; Bozkurt, Murat; Aksu, Tarık; Gul, Talip
BACKGROUND The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential association between socioeconomic status and ovarian reserve, anti-Mullerian hormone level, antral follicle count, and follicle stimulating hormone level in women of reproductive age. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 101 married women between 20-35 years of age who presented to the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Health Research System In Vitro Fertilization (HRS IVF) Center between October 2014 and November 2015 and met the inclusion criteria were included in this study. The participants were divided into three socioeconomic groups using Kuppuswamy's socioeconomic status scale. Thirty-one participants were assigned to the low socioeconomic status group, 37 to the middle socioeconomic status group, and 33 to the high socioeconomic status group. On days 3-6 of the menstrual cycle, 10 mL of blood was collected from the participants for follicle stimulating hormone and anti-Mullerian hormone measurements. Transvaginal ultrasonography was performed for both ovaries for the purpose of counting antral follicles measuring 2-10 mm in diameter. RESULTS Both ovarian reserve parameters, namely anti-Mullerian hormone level and antral follicle count, exhibited a significant association with socioeconomic status (p=0.000 and p=0.000, respectively). The association between follicle stimulating hormone level and socioeconomic status was also significant (p=0.000). CONCLUSIONS A low socioeconomic status aggravated by sources of stress such as undernutrition and financial hardships affects ovarian reserve, which should be remembered in approaching infertile patients.
Patrícia Pinheiro de Freitas
Full Text Available Abstract Background: Unhealthy lifestyles occur more often in low-socioeconomic status (SES groups. The assessment of isolated factors reduces the understanding of the problem instead of clarifying the dynamic interaction of these factors in influencing the health. Objective: To study the relationship between nutrition habits and health, and the coexistence of dietary risk factors, according to the occupational status of public municipal employees. Materials and Methods: An electronic epidemiological survey was conducted from September to December 2009. In total, 5,646 public municipal employees (temporary and permanent of the municipality (14.7% answered the questionnaire. Sociodemographic information, health, physical activity, nutritional profile, and working conditions related to eating were investigated. Occupational status was defined by the International Socio-Economic Index. The coexistence of dietary risk factors (low consumption of fruits and vegetables, high consumption of chicken skin and meat fat, and insufficient time to eat at work were evaluated using Venn diagrams. Results: Arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus and overweight were more frequently reported in the low occupational status, and positive self-reported health was directly related to the occupational status of participants. Conclusion: Differences in health conditions and in the dietary habits of individuals according to occupational status indicate its relevance in the development of public and institutional policies that aim to promote health and reduce inequalities and the need for greater focus on those with lower occupational status.
Fanello, S; Foucault, S; Delbos, V; Jousset, N
The health status of older people strongly depends on their nutritional status. Hospitalisation is a factor that aggravates protein-energy malnutrition among older people. A descriptive study was completed among 71 subjects over 65 years old and hospitalised in a gerontological internal medicine service. The study used a nutritional evaluation scale called the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA). The study showed that 21% of subjects had an acceptable nutritional status, 49% were considered to be "at risk of undernourishment", and 31% were malnourished. A relationship was observed between the MNA score, the degree of autonomy (AGGIR grid), cognitive functions (Mini Mental State: MMS) and the existence of an anxious-depressive state. These elements should be taken into consideration to avoid the aggravation of the nutritional status of older people in the hospital, or to improve it. In addition, certain simple biological exams (albumin, pre-albumin, reactive protein) are necessary to assess the endogenous or exogenous aspect of undernourishment.
Srinivasan, Balaji; Lee, Seoho; Erickson, David; Mehta, Saurabh
Precision nutrition encompasses prevention and treatment strategies for optimizing health that consider individual variability in diet, lifestyle, environment and genes by accurately determining an individual's nutritional status. This is particularly important as malnutrition now affects a third of the global population, with most of those affected or their care providers having limited means of determining their nutritional status. Similarly, program implementers often have no way of determining the impact or success of their interventions, thus hindering their scale-up. Exciting new developments in the area of point-of-care diagnostics promise to provide improved access to nutritional status assessment, as a first step towards enabling precision nutrition and tailored interventions at both the individual and community levels. In this review, we focus on the current advances in developing portable diagnostics for assessment of nutritional status at point-of-care, along with the numerous design challenges in this process and potential solutions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Adeladza K Amegah
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The epidemiological evidence linking socioeconomic deprivation with adverse pregnancy outcomes has been conflicting mainly due to poor measurement of socioeconomic status (SES. Studies have also failed to evaluate the plausible pathways through which socioeconomic disadvantage impacts on pregnancy outcomes. We investigated the importance of maternal SES as determinant of birth weight and gestational duration in an urban area and evaluated main causal pathways for the influence of SES. METHODS: A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 559 mothers accessing postnatal services at the four main health facilities in Cape Coast, Ghana in 2011. Information on socioeconomic characteristics of the mothers was collected in a structured questionnaire. RESULTS: In multivariate linear regression adjusting for maternal age, parity and gender of newborn, low SES resulted in 292 g (95% CI: 440-145 reduction in birth weight. Important SES-related determinants were neighborhood poverty (221 g; 95% CI: 355-87, low education (187 g; 95% CI: 355-20, studentship during pregnancy (291 g; 95% CI: 506-76 and low income (147 g; 95% CI: 277-17. In causal pathway analysis, malaria infection (6-20%, poor nutrition (2-51% and indoor air pollution (10-62% mediated substantial proportions of the observed effects of socioeconomic deprivation on birth weight. Generalized linear models adjusting for confounders indicated a 218% (RR: 3.18; 95% CI: 1.41-7.21 risk increase of LBW and 83% (RR: 1.83; 95% CI: 1.31-2.56 of PTB among low income mothers. Low and middle SES was associated with 357% (RR: 4.57; 95% CI: 1.67-12.49 and 278% (RR: 3.78; 95% CI: 1.39-10.27 increased risk of LBW respectively. Malaria infection, poor nutrition and indoor air pollution respectively mediated 10-21%, 16-44% and 31-52% of the observed effects of socioeconomic disadvantage on LBW risk. CONCLUSION: We provide evidence of the effects of socioeconomic deprivation
Zimmer, Zachary; Hanson, Heidi A; Smith, Ken R
Considering a network approach to health determinants, we test the hypothesis that benefits of high socioeconomic status (SES) may be transmitted up the generational ladder from offspring to parents. Studies that examine own SES and own health outcomes, or SES of parents and outcomes of young or adolescent children, are common. Those that investigate SES of offspring and their association with parental health are rare. Employing data from a historical population of individuals extracted from a comprehensive population database that links demographic and vital records across generations, this study tests the hypothesis that higher offspring SES associates with lower parental mortality after controlling for parental SES. The sample includes 29,972 individuals born between 1864 and 1883 whose offspring were born between 1886 and 1920. SES is operationalized using Nam-Powers occupational status scores divided into quartiles and a category for farmers. Models assess mortality risk after age 40. Included is a test for whether effects are proportional across parents who died younger and older. Estimated life expectancies across categories of offspring SES conditioned on parental SES are calculated to illustrate specifically how differences in SES relate to differences in years lived. Results indicate a longevity penalty for those whose offspring have low SES and a longevity dividend for those with high-SES offspring. The influence of offspring attributes on well-being of parents points to fluid and myriad linkages between generations.
Damuleviciene, Gyte; Lesauskaite, Vita; Macijauskiene, Jūrate
The aim of this study was to assess nutritional status of aged surgical patients, to determine the prevalence of malnutrition and factors associated with it. A total of 156 patients aged 45 years and more, treated at the Departments of Surgery and Urology of Kaunas 2nd Clinical Hospital, were enrolled in the study. Elderly group (aged 65 years and more) consisted of 99 patients, and middle-aged group (45 to 64 years old) of 57 patients. The following anthropometric measurements were performed: weight, height, mid-arm circumference; hemoglobin, serum albumin level, and total lymphocyte count were determined. Standard assessment scales included Instrumental Activities of Daily Living, Geriatric Depression Scale, and Mini Mental State Exam. Statistical analysis was performed with the help of SPSS 12.0. Malnutrition was diagnosed in 53.5% of older patients and in 15.8% of middle-aged patients (Pcognitive functions than among those without impaired cognitive functions (in 100% of patients with medium impaired cognitive function, in 59.3% of patients with mild impaired cognitive function, and in 44.4% of patients with unimpaired cognitive function, Pfunctional level than the remaining (IADL score of 3.97 and 4.75 for men, 5.38 and 6.89 for women, respectively; P0.05). Malnutrition was diagnosed more frequently in elderly surgical patients than in middle-aged patients. Obesity was more common in women than in men. The prevalence of obesity was not associated with age. Malnutrition in elderly surgical patients was associated with poor functional status, impaired cognitive function, and urgent operation.
Kimani-Murage, Elizabeth W; Norris, Shane A; Pettifor, John M; Tollman, Stephen M; Klipstein-Grobusch, Kerstin; Gómez-Olivé, Xavier F; Dunger, David B; Kahn, Kathleen
Achieving the Millennium Development Goals that aim to reduce malnutrition and child mortality depends in part on the ability of governments/policymakers to address nutritional status of children in general and those infected or affected by HIV/AIDS in particular. This study describes HIV prevalence in children, patterns of malnutrition by HIV status and determinants of nutritional status. The study involved 671 children aged 12-59 months living in the Agincourt sub-district, rural South Africa in 2007. Anthropometric measurements were taken and HIV testing with disclosure was done using two rapid tests. Z-scores were generated using WHO 2006 standards as indicators of nutritional status. Linear and logistic regression analyses were conducted to establish the determinants of child nutritional status. Prevalence of malnutrition, particularly stunting (18%), was high in the overall sample of children. HIV prevalence in this age group was 4.4% (95% CI: 2.79 to 5.97). HIV positive children had significantly poorer nutritional outcomes than their HIV negative counterparts. Besides HIV status, other significant determinants of nutritional outcomes included age of the child, birth weight, maternal age, age of household head, and area of residence. This study documents poor nutritional status among children aged 12-59 months in rural South Africa. HIV is an independent modifiable risk factor for poor nutritional outcomes and makes a significant contribution to nutritional outcomes at the individual level. Early paediatric HIV testing of exposed or at risk children, followed by appropriate health care for infected children, may improve their nutritional status and survival.
Permatasari, Dian; Azizah, Isnaini Nur; Hadiat, Hanifah Latifah; Abadi, Agus Maman
Nutrition is a major health problem and concern for parents when it is relating with their toddler. The nutritional status is an expression of the state caused by the status of the balance between the number of intake of nutrients and the amount needed by the body for a variety of biological functions. The indicators that often used to determine the nutritional status is the combination of Weight (W) and Height (H) symbolized by W/H, because it describe a sensitive and specific nutritional status. This study aims to apply the Fuzzy Inference System Mamdani method to classify the nutritional status of toddler. The inputs are weight and height of the toddler. There are nine rules that used and the output is nutritional status classification consisting of four criteria: stunting, wasting, normal, and overweight. Fuzzy Inference System that be used is Mamdani method and the defuzzification use Centroid Method. The result of this study is compared with Assessment Anthropometric Standard of Toddler Nutritional Status by Ministry of Health. The accuracy level of this fuzzy model is about 84%.
Bernheim, Susannah M; Parzynski, Craig S; Horwitz, Leora; Lin, Zhenqiu; Araas, Michael J; Ross, Joseph S; Drye, Elizabeth E; Suter, Lisa G; Normand, Sharon-Lise T; Krumholz, Harlan M
There is an active public debate about whether patients' socioeconomic status should be included in the readmission measures used to determine penalties in Medicare's Hospital Readmissions Reduction Program (HRRP). Using the current Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services methodology, we compared risk-standardized readmission rates for hospitals caring for high and low proportions of patients of low socioeconomic status (as defined by their Medicaid status or neighborhood income). We then calculated risk-standardized readmission rates after additionally adjusting for patients' socioeconomic status. Our results demonstrate that hospitals caring for large proportions of patients of low socioeconomic status have readmission rates similar to those of other hospitals. Moreover, readmission rates calculated with and without adjustment for patients' socioeconomic status are highly correlated. Readmission rates of hospitals caring for patients of low socioeconomic status changed by approximately 0.1 percent with adjustment for patients' socioeconomic status, and only 3-4 percent fewer such hospitals reached the threshold for payment penalty in Medicare's HRRP. Overall, adjustment for socioeconomic status does not change hospital results in meaningful ways. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.
Martinez, Sydney A; Beebe, Laura A; Thompson, David M; Wagener, Theodore L; Terrell, Deirdra R; Campbell, Janis E
The inverse association between socioeconomic status and smoking is well established, yet the mechanisms that drive this relationship are unclear. We developed and tested four theoretical models of the pathways that link socioeconomic status to current smoking prevalence using a structural equation modeling (SEM) approach. Using data from the 2013 National Health Interview Survey, we selected four indicator variables (poverty ratio, personal earnings, educational attainment, and employment status) that we hypothesize underlie a latent variable, socioeconomic status. We measured direct, indirect, and total effects of socioeconomic status on smoking on four pathways through four latent variables representing social cohesion, financial strain, sleep disturbance, and psychological distress. Results of the model indicated that the probability of being a smoker decreased by 26% of a standard deviation for every one standard deviation increase in socioeconomic status. The direct effects of socioeconomic status on smoking accounted for the majority of the total effects, but the overall model also included significant indirect effects. Of the four mediators, sleep disturbance and psychological distress had the largest total effects on current smoking. We explored the use of structural equation modeling in epidemiology to quantify effects of socioeconomic status on smoking through four social and psychological factors to identify potential targets for interventions. A better understanding of the complex relationship between socioeconomic status and smoking is critical as we continue to reduce the burden of tobacco and eliminate health disparities related to smoking.
Sydney A Martinez
Full Text Available The inverse association between socioeconomic status and smoking is well established, yet the mechanisms that drive this relationship are unclear. We developed and tested four theoretical models of the pathways that link socioeconomic status to current smoking prevalence using a structural equation modeling (SEM approach. Using data from the 2013 National Health Interview Survey, we selected four indicator variables (poverty ratio, personal earnings, educational attainment, and employment status that we hypothesize underlie a latent variable, socioeconomic status. We measured direct, indirect, and total effects of socioeconomic status on smoking on four pathways through four latent variables representing social cohesion, financial strain, sleep disturbance, and psychological distress. Results of the model indicated that the probability of being a smoker decreased by 26% of a standard deviation for every one standard deviation increase in socioeconomic status. The direct effects of socioeconomic status on smoking accounted for the majority of the total effects, but the overall model also included significant indirect effects. Of the four mediators, sleep disturbance and psychological distress had the largest total effects on current smoking. We explored the use of structural equation modeling in epidemiology to quantify effects of socioeconomic status on smoking through four social and psychological factors to identify potential targets for interventions. A better understanding of the complex relationship between socioeconomic status and smoking is critical as we continue to reduce the burden of tobacco and eliminate health disparities related to smoking.
Hackman, Daniel A; Gallop, Robert; Evans, Gary W; Farah, Martha J
Childhood socioeconomic status (SES) predicts executive function (EF), but fundamental aspects of this relation remain unknown: the developmental course of the SES disparity, its continued sensitivity to SES changes during that course, and the features of childhood experience responsible for the SES-EF relation. Regarding course, early disparities would be expected to grow during development if caused by accumulating stressors at a given constant level of SES. Alternatively, they would narrow if schooling partly compensates for the effects of earlier deprivation, allowing lower-SES children to 'catch up'. The potential for later childhood SES change to affect EF is also unknown. Regarding mediating factors, previous analyses produced mixed answers, possibly due to correlation amongst candidate mediators. We address these issues with measures of SES, working memory and planning, along with multiple candidate mediators, from the NICHD Study of Early Childcare (n = 1009). Early family income-to-needs and maternal education predicted planning by first grade, and income-to-needs predicted working memory performance at 54 months. Effects of early SES remained consistent through middle childhood, indicating that the relation between early indicators of SES and EF emerges in childhood and persists without narrowing or widening across early and middle childhood. Changes in family income-to-needs were associated with significant changes in planning and trend-level changes in working memory. Mediation analyses supported the role of early childhood home characteristics in explaining the association between SES and EF, while early childhood maternal sensitivity was specifically implicated in the association between maternal education and planning. Early emerging and persistent SES-related differences in EF, partially explained by characteristics of the home and family environment, are thus a potential source of socioeconomic disparities in achievement and health across
Larson, Kandyce; Russ, Shirley A; Nelson, Bergen B; Olson, Lynn M; Halfon, Neal
To examine how gradients in socioeconomic status (SES) impact US children's reading and math ability at kindergarten entry and determine the contributions of family background, health, home learning, parenting, and early education factors to those gradients. Analysis of 6600 children with cognitive assessments at kindergarten entry from the US Early Childhood Longitudinal Birth Cohort Study. A composite SES measure based on parent's occupation, education, and income was divided into quintiles. Wald F tests assessed bivariate associations between SES and child's cognitive ability and candidate explanatory variables. A decomposition methodology examined mediators of early cognitive gradients. Average reading percentile rankings increased from 34 to 67 across SES quintiles and math from 33 to 70. Children in lower SES quintiles had younger mothers, less frequent parent reading, less home computer use (27%-84%), and fewer books at home (26-114). Parent's supportive interactions, expectations for their child to earn a college degree (57%-96%), and child's preschool attendance (64%-89%) increased across quintiles. Candidate explanatory factors explained just over half the gradients, with family background factors explaining 8% to 13%, health factors 4% to 6%, home learning environment 18%, parenting style/beliefs 14% to 15%, and early education 6% to 7% of the gaps between the lowest versus highest quintiles in reading and math. Steep social gradients in cognitive outcomes at kindergarten are due to many factors. Findings suggest policies targeting levels of socioeconomic inequality and a range of early childhood interventions are needed to address these disparities. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Lee, Sun Young; Do, Young Kyung; Shin, Sang Do; Park, Yong Joo; Ro, Young Sun; Lee, Eui Jung; Lee, Kyoung Won; Lee, Yu Jin
Although current guidelines recommend that distribution of public-access defibrillators (PADs) should take into account area-level risk of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA), community socioeconomic status (SES) can unduly influence policy implementation in positioning PADs. Using recent, complete data from Seoul Metropolitan City, Korea, this study aims to examine whether community SES is associated with distribution of PADs, in terms of per capita count and risk-grid coverage. A cross-sectional, observational study was conducted using three sources of administrative data: (1) PAD registry data (2007-2015), (2) OHCA database (2010-2014), and (3) community socioeconomic characteristics of two sub-city levels (neighborhoods nested in districts). We examined the relationship between neighborhood per capita tax, an SES proxy, with each of the two outcome variables. After examining per capita number of PADs and risk-grid coverage by neighborhood tax quartile, multilevel linear regression analysis was conducted to account for the nested nature of data and also to control for OHCA risk in the model. A total of 6609 PADs in 405 neighborhoods were included in the analysis. The average number of positioned PADs per 10,000 persons was 7.45, showing a gradient by neighborhood SES (4.92 in the lowest SES quartile vs 12.66 in the highest). Risk-grid coverage was around 10% across all neighborhood SES quartiles. These findings remained valid in the multilevel analysis: per capita number of PADs was still positively associated with neighborhood SES, while risk-grid coverage of PADs was not. More affluent neighborhoods in Seoul exhibit higher per capita PADs, even accounting for OHCA risk, while risk-grid coverage is generally low regardless of community SES. Seoul's ongoing program aimed to increase PAD coverage should also pay attention to improving community-level inequality as well as distributional efficiency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Oliveira, Fabiana de Cássia Carvalho; Cotta, Rosângela Minardi Mitre; Sant'Ana, Luciana Ferreira da Rocha; Priore, Silvia Eloíza; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo Castro
The main nutritional deficiencies during childhood, namely anemia and malnutrition, are predominantly related to socio-economic factors. Thus, as the Bolsa Família Program (BFP) is the main policy to combat poverty, it is expected that it will have an impact on child nutrition. The aim was to analyze the differences in the nutritional situation of children registered with the BFP of a municipality located in Zona da Mata of Minas Gerais state. 446 children aged between 6 and 84 months were evaluated, of which 262 were non-beneficiaries and 184 were beneficiaries. Nutritional evaluation included analysis of weight and height parameters through weight/age, weight/height, height/age and Body Mass Index/age indexes and hemoglobin levels, using the Hemocue. The prevalence of anemia, short stature and obesity were 22.6, 6.3 and 5.2%, respectively, and there were no statistical differences between beneficiaries and non-beneficiaries. The beneficiary group initially had worse socio-economic conditions, but with the BFP it managed to financially match the non-beneficiary group. It is possible that the similarity between the two groups, also in the nutritional status, can be attributed to the program benefits, due to the financial funding as well as to the nutritional monitoring required as a condition of the program.
Conclusion: Maternal level of schooling was associated with short stature in children and maternal employment with overweight, indicating the need to take into account the socioeconomic factors when proposing programs and strategies aimed at health and nutrition improvement of children, considering inter‐sectoral interventions.
Coconut cultivation and information on the nutritional status of soils and fertilizers recommendations for its cultivation are limited in Nigeria. Since a high yield of coconut is related to the fertility status of the soil, a study was conducted to evaluate the status of soils supporting coconut cultivation. The evaluation of the surface ...
Feb 5, 2007 ... Coconut cultivation and information on the nutritional status of soils and fertilizers recommendations for its cultivation are limited in Nigeria. Since a high yield of coconut is related to the fertility status of the soil, a study was conducted to evaluate the status of soils supporting coconut cultivation. The.
Associação entre o estado nutricional antropométrico e a situação sócio-econômica de adolescentes em Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Association between anthropometric nutritional status and socioeconomic conditions among adolescents in Niterói, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil
Fabio da Silva Gomes
Full Text Available Investigou-se a relação entre o estado nutricional e a situação sócio-econômica familiar de adolescentes moradores de Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Os dados de 523 adolescentes, pertencentes a uma amostra probabilística de 1.734 domicílios, foram coletados entre janeiro e dezembro de 2003 e representam os 71.922 jovens residentes em Niterói. As análises incluíram a estimação de intervalos de confiança de razões de prevalência e testes de distribuições proporcionais e de independência entre classes de estado nutricional e classes de renda familiar per capita e as faixas de número de moradores do domicílio. Foi encontrada uma associação positiva significativa entre baixo peso/magreza e o número de moradores do domicílio (sexo masculino: p This study focused on the relationship between nutritional and socioeconomic status among adolescents in Niterói, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Data from 523 adolescents living in 1,734 households were collected from January to December 2003, from a total of 71,922 adolescents living in Niterói. Subjects were selected through a probabilistic household sample. The analyses included the estimation of confidence intervals for prevalence ratios and proportional distributions and independence tests between categories of nutritional status and per capita family income and number of residents per household. There was a significant positive association between underweight/thinness and number of residents in the same household (male: p < 0.05; female: p < 0.001. Number of residents in the same household was positively associated with prevalence of underweight/thinness in adolescents. Overweight/obesity was positively associated with per capita family income.
Wolff, S.P.; Stern, G.
Previous studies showing a geographical association between radon and various cancers, particularly the leukaemias and lymphomas, appear to be confounded by the role of radon levels as a surrogate for socioeconomic status. Higher socioeconomic status (at least at the UK county level) is correlated with higher levels of domestic radon. Controlling for the relationship between socioeconomic status and radon removes the correlation between radon exposure and lymphoproliferative disease. Reported associations between radon and lymphoproliferative disease (and possibly other cancers) may be secondary to socioeconomic variables. (author)
Full Text Available BACKGROUND Tribals are one of the most vulnerable groups in India. Under-nutrition and various morbidities go hand in hand, particularly in children. Nutritional status is a sensitive indicator of community health and nutrition. The present study is an attempt to assess the nutritional status of pre-school children of Kozhikode district in Kerala. The objectives of this study were 1. To study the prevalence of malnutrition among the preschool tribal children 2. To study the associated risk factors. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study was a community-based, cross- sectional. Study was carried out in randomly selected 10 panchayaths in Kozhikode. Cluster sampling method was used. Anthropometric measurements were taken. Various indices of nutritional status were expressed in standard deviation units (z scores from the reference median. RESULTS More than half of the children say 57.6% (152/246 had deficits in at least one of the two anthropometric indicators. The prevalence of underweight and stunting was 47.3% and .38.6% respectively. The analysis showed significant associations between under-nutrition and educational status of mother, tribe to which the child belonged, large family size, high birth order and low preschool attendance. CONCLUSION The findings of the present study revealed the widespread prevalence of under-nutrition among pre-school tribal children and highlight a need for an integrated approach towards improving the child health as well as nutritional status in this area.
The aim of the study was to investigate the correlation between motor proficiency and body mass index and to assess the socioeconomic status differences in motor proficiency and body mass index of preschool children. Sixty preschool children in the different socioeconomic status areas of central Denizli in Turkey participated in the study. The…
Martinez-Perez, Frances A.
Educational inequalities that exist due to socioeconomic status impact the academic achievement of students and contribute to the achievement gap. This study attempted to examine how the predictors of grade level and socioeconomic status impact the passing of state standardized reading and mathematics exams. The 2012-2013 State of Texas Academic…
Steptoe, A.; Kunz-Ebrecht, S.R.; Owen, N.; Feldman, P.J.; Willemsen, G.; Kirschbaum, C.; Marmot, M.
Objectives: The influence of low socioeconomic status on cardiovascular disease may be mediated in part by sustained activation of stress-related autonomic and neuroendocrine processes. We hypothesized that low socio-economic status would be associated with heightened ambulatory blood pressure and
The need to establish the Socioeconomic status of refugees in Kyangwali Refugee Settlement under the new and stringent condition of self-reliance necessitated this study. Using expenditure levels as a proxy to determine income in socioeconomic status categorisation, three classifications were derived: thriving for the high ...
Tucker-Drob, Elliot M.; Harden, K. Paige
There is accumulating evidence that genetic influences on achievement are more pronounced among children living in higher socioeconomic status homes, and that these gene-by-environment interactions occur prior to children's entry into formal schooling. We hypothesized that one pathway through which socioeconomic status promotes genetic influences…
Cedeño, Luis F.; Martínez-Arias, Rosario; Bueno, José A.
Studies suggest that socioeconomic status is a strong predictor of academic achievement. This theoretical paper proposes that despite the fact that low-socioeconomic status represents a risk factor that seems to undermine attentional skills and thus academic achievement, emerging evidence suggests the potential of new approaches, interventions and…
Odencrants, Sigrid; Bjuström, Tomas; Wiklund, Nils; Blomberg, Karin
To describe and compare nutritional status, pulmonary function, gender and marital status in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is a chronic illness that can lead to poor nutritional status due to an increased energy requirements related to laboured breathing. Inadequate nutritional intake has often been described in this patient group. Nutritional support for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease who suffer from nutritional problems is essential, both for their sense of well-being and for their survival with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The study design was descriptive and comparative. Quantitative data collection was carried out among 81 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (47 women and 34 men) with an average age of 65 years (SD 3·5). The Mini Nutritional Assessment was used to assess nutritional status. Participants who lived alone had worse nutritional status than those who did not live alone, and female participants had worse nutritional status than their male counterparts. No significant correlation was found between pulmonary function and nutritional status. This study contributes knowledge of a potential correlation between nutritional status, gender and marital status in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Women with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease may be at an increased risk of malnutrition. Despite the previous results showing malnutrition and underweight to be common, the present study found that many of the participants were overweight, which may reflect a global health trend regardless of disease. Early identification of patients at risk of malnutrition is important. Registered nurses should be aware that patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease who are female or who live alone may be at an increased risk of nutritional problems. Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease must be offered information and support
Brynningsen, P K; Damsgaard, Else Marie; Husted, Steen
INTRODUCTION: Nutritional status among stroke patients has received limited attention despite the fact, that it may have an influence on clinical outcome. Previous studies have estimated that 15-20 % of patients suffer from malnutrition in the acute phase of stroke, but so far no studies have...... focused on the late rehabilitation phase after stroke in the patients own home, where the attention on nutrition may be reduced. AIMS: To determine the prevalence of malnutrition during 6 months of stroke rehabilitation, and to investigate the association between nutritional status, functional recovery...... and 6 months. Nutritional status was evaluated by body weight, body mass index (BMI), mid upper arm circumference (MAC), triceps skinfold thickness (TSF) and serum concentrations of albumin and transferrin. Malnutrition was defined if the patients had 2 or more abnormal nutritional variables. RESULTS...
Restrepo, Alejandro Estrada; Rueda, Juan Diego Gomez; Aguirre, Cristina Carreño; López, Lorena Patricia Mancilla
Objective: to observe the relationship between socioeconomic status, height and nutritional problems related to obesity, overweight and risk of metabolic complications in men and women of Medellin (Colombia). Methods: cross-sectional study with a sample of 5556 adults between 18 and 69 years of age. We assessed weight, height and waist circumference. Socioeconomic variables were evaluated by family income, socioeconomic stratum and academic level achieved. Results: we found that in men and women the height reached in adulthood is associated with socioeconomic conditions as measured by the socioeconomic strata and family income. In women, height, age, and socioeconomic strata are associated with obesity, overweight and risk of obesity, and risk of metabolic complications. Conclusion: These results are not only from individual unhealthy habits, such as eating patterns based on high density foods combined with low energy expenditure, but also from the cumulative effect of food deprivation throughout life. Therefore, policies intended to prevent them should take a preventive approach that begins before birth and continues during childhood and adulthood. PMID:24892612
The goal was to analyze the physical fitness, self-concept, attitudes toward physical education, and academic achievement of Turkish elementary school children by socioeconomic status. 198 (101 boys, 97 girls) students from Grades 7 and 8 completed the Children's Attitude Inventory towards Physical Education, the Piers-Harris Children's Self-concept Scale, and Eurofit Physical Fitness Test Battery. Significant differences were found between the groups of Low and High socioeconomic status (SES) in terms of physical fitness and academic achievement. While the Low SES group had higher mean scores on physical fitness, mean academic achievements of the High SES group were higher. Mean differences in height, self-concept, and children's attitudes toward physical education by socioeconomic status were not statistically significant. Particular attention should be paid to physical fitness in children of high socioeconomic status and the academic achievement of children with low socioeconomic status.
Alberici Pastore, Carla; Paiva Orlandi, Silvana; González, María Cristina
Cachexia is a multifatorial syndrome characterized by loss of body weight, fat and muscle, increasing morbidity and mortality. The use of an index accounting for both serum albumin and C Reactive Protein levels could make early identification of cachexia easier. To evaluate the variation of an inflammatory nutritional index related to nutritional status in cancer patients. Cross sectional study including patients with gastrointestinal and lung cancer of a public chemotherapy service in Brazil. Serum albumin and C Reactive Protein were measured and the nutritional status was defined by Subjective Global Assessment. Statistical analyses were performed using Stata 9.2(TM). A total of 74 patients were evaluated, 58.1% of them were male, mean age 63.4 ± 11.9 years old. Gastrointestinal cancer was the most prevalent type (71.6%). Only 13.7% of the patients were well nourished and 21.9% were severely malnourished. C Reactive Protein significantly increased according to nutritional status decline (p=0.03). When the albumin from patients with systemic inflammation was evaluated, there was no significant variation in relation to nutritional status (p=0.06). The Inflammatory Nutritional Index significantly varied in relation to nutritional status independent of the systemic inflammation (p=0.02). Inflammatory Nutritional Index can be an adjuvant way for biochemical nutritional assessment and follow up in cancer patients with systemic inflammation. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.
Lammel Ricardi, Juliana; Marcadenti, Aline; Perocchin de Souza, Simone; Siviero Ribeiro, Anelise
Malnutrition is very common in hospitals and inpatients with prescription of oral nutritional supplementation have improvement of the nutritional status. To detect the total acceptance rate and a possible association between oral nutritional supplements intake and nutritional status. A cross-sectional study was carried out among 398 inpatients. Fifteen types of supplements were analyzed and nutritional status was detected by Subjective Global Assessment (SGA). Rest-ingestion index (RI) was obtained and Modified Poisson's regression was used to detect associations between nutritional status and intake of nutritional supplements. The prevalence of malnutrition was 43.7% and overall acceptance of supplements was around 75%. Industrialized supplements have better acceptance among well-nourished inpatients and patients who ate less than 80% of the supplement offered (industrialized or homemade) had higher risk for malnutrition (48%). There was an association between oral nutritional supplements intake and nutritional status, despite the good acceptance rate. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.
Calderon de la Barca, A.M.; Casanueva, E.; Bolanos, A.V.; Caire Juvera, G.; Valencia, M.E.; Roman Perez, R.
The Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI) has been introduced in Mexico in order to increase breast feeding. The Mexican health care system may be contributing negatively to the nutritional status of adolescent mothers and their infants due to the reduction of baby formulas which were previously supplied as a benefit. The aim of this study is to evaluate breast-milk production, the quantity and quality of protein and changes in body composition in adolescent and adult mothers in order to design the right ways to help mother and infants fulfill their requirements or obtain support to apply to the BFHI program. We propose to measure breast-milk intake and total body water by deuterium kinetics using infrared spectroscopy. Protein concentration and composition will be measured by electrophoresis. Adolescent and adult mothers who are breast-feeding exclusively and living in two different urban regions, northwest and central Mexico, will be dosed with deuterium oxide; saliva and breast milk samples will be taken. Currently, both of the working groups are standardized. A sublimation system for separation of water and D 2 O of the saliva samples under reduced pressure was designed and it has a 100% of D 2 O recovery. The setting up of conditions for D 2 O determination using infrared spectroscopy was achieved and calibration curves of absorbance of sequentially diluted D 2 O were obtained with an r=0.9948. Total body water was measured in 12 women after 1, 3, 6, 9 and 14 days of the D 2 O dose. Zero-time values obtained by extrapolation were similar to those directly obtained after 4 h equilibrium. In addition, 50 women (under inclusion criteria) have signed consent letters to participate and part of the study is currently underway. For 1998, we intend to have 40 women and their infants with both dosing periods analyzed, as well as the analysis of breast milk composition. (author)
Faxén Irving, Gerd
Longevity, frailty and chronic disease are often associated with protein energy-malnutrition (PEM). Subjects with dementia are at particular risk for PEM. The overall aims of this thesis were to evaluate relationships between nutrition, cognition and functional capacity and to assess interventional means of developing the nutritional care of elderly. In study I and 11, the nutritional status and the cognitive function were examined in 28 and 80 service flat (SF) residents. F...
Krishnasamy, Karthikayini; Li Yoong, Tang; Mei Chan, Chong; Peng Choong, Lau; Chinna, Karuthan
Malnutrition is common among patients with cancer, but little attention is given to its risks and consequences. The aim of this study is to assess the nutritional status and identify the factors associated with malnutrition among newly diagnosed patients with cancer. Patients admitted with newly diagnosed cancer at a teaching hospital in Malaysia were recruited from January to April 2015. Nutritional status was assessed before treatment initiation, and patients were classified into three categories. A total of 132 pretreatment patients were recruited into the study. About half were severely malnourished. Patients with stage III cancer had the highest prevalence of severe malnourishment. Clinical parameters and disease characteristics were significantly associated with nutritional status. Demographic variables were also statistically significantly associated with severe nutritional status.
Anthropometric characteristics and nutritional status of older adults in the Lake Victoria Basin of East Africa: Region, sex, and age differences. MJ Cheserek, PJ Tuitoek, JN Waudo, JM Msuya, JK Kikafunda ...
Dik, V K; Aarts, M J; Van Grevenstein, W M U; Koopman, M; Van Oijen, M G H; Lemmens, V E; Siersema, P D
High socioeconomic status is associated with better survival in colorectal cancer (CRC). This study investigated whether socioeconomic status is associated with differences in surgical treatment and mortality in patients with CRC. Patients diagnosed with stage I-III CRC between 2005 and 2010 in the Eindhoven Cancer Registry area in the Netherlands were included. Socioeconomic status was determined at a neighbourhood level by combining the mean household income and the mean value of the housing. Some 4422 patients with colonic cancer and 2314 with rectal cancer were included. Patients with colonic cancer and high socioeconomic status were operated on with laparotomy (70·7 versus 77·6 per cent; P = 0·017), had laparoscopy converted to laparotomy (15·7 versus 29·5 per cent; P = 0·008) and developed anastomotic leakage or abscess (9·6 versus 12·6 per cent; P = 0·049) less frequently than patients with low socioeconomic status. These differences remained significant after adjustment for patient and tumour characteristics. In rectal cancer, patients with high socioeconomic status were more likely to undergo resection (96·3 versus 93·7 per cent; P = 0·083), but this was not significant in multivariable analysis (odds ratio (OR) 1·44, 95 per cent confidence interval 0·84 to 2·46). The difference in 30-day postoperative mortality in patients with colonic cancer and high and low socioeconomic status (3·6 versus 6·8 per cent; P socioeconomic status have more favourable surgical treatment characteristics than patients with low socioeconomic status. The lower 30-day postoperative mortality found in patients with colonic cancer and high socioeconomic status is largely explained by patient and surgical factors. © 2014 BJS Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available Child health as one of the main indicators of economic development has been included directly in the millennium development goals. Due to the increased rate of mothers' employment and education along with children malnutrition, the effect of mothers’ socioeconomic status on children’s health was examined in this study. In case study, data on children at birth were gathered from health care records in 10 health centers of Tehran. The sample size of 400 was determined using the Cochran formula with an error margin of 5%. The cases were selected through random cluster sampling. The probit, probit with endogenous variable, and ordered probit models were employed. The mean mother's education was at the level of 3.76, representing higher than diploma and lower than associate degrees. The mean mothers' age, whose children were normal, stunting, and severe stunting, was 32.25, 32.92, and 34.20, respectively. The mothers' employment and education level increased the likelihood of stunting by 93 and 37 percent, respectively. Therefore, mother's employment had a negative effect on child health; i.e. mother's employment increases the possibility of stunting probably because of child malnutrition. In addition, rising education level among unemployed mothers increased the probability of children’s health. The parents’ education affected positively the health of children, and officeholder father, family size, and being twin had negative effects on children's health.
Duncan, Greg J; Magnuson, Katherine
A growing body of cognitive research uses sophisticated behavioral and neuroimaging measurements to demonstrate associations between family socioeconomic status (SES) and specific cognitive functions. We argue for the value in these kinds of studies of increased sophistication in the measurement and modeling of SES. With regard to measurement, SES combines several components, each of which represents distinct resources that might benefit children's cognitive development in different ways. Policy implications of studies using omnibus SES composites are problematic because there are no 'treatments' for enhancing overall SES, although policies abound for enhancing specific components of SES such as family income. Past literature offers guidance regarding how best to measure each of the SES components. With regard to modeling, we point out that the manipulability of economic, educational, and occupational components of SES varies, which provides opportunities for generating experimental or quasi-experimental variation in some components but not others. Evidence on the causal connections between SES components and child outcomes is summarized. Both experimental and quasi-experimental studies involving manipulation of family income have demonstrated consistent associations with a number of cognitive measures. Quasi-experimental increases in maternal education have also shown associations with child achievement. We end with a discussion of useful directions in SES-related cognitive research. WIREs Cogn Sci 2012, 3:377-386. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1176 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Dhalla, Shayesta; Poole, Gary
Educational level, employment, and income are key components of socioeconomic status (SES). This article is a systematic review of SES variables in North American countries, and their relationship to willingness to participate (WTP) and retention in a hypothetical preventive phase 3 HIV vaccine trial and in actual HIV vaccine trials. Men who have sex with men (MSM) tended to have higher educational levels, be more employed, and had higher income levels than injection drug users (IDU) and women at heterosexual risk (WAHR). In large part, there was no relationship between educational level and WTP, as well as between educational level and retention. Similarly, there was no relationship between employment and WTP. In WAHR who were African-American, those employed were less likely than others to complete the study at 18 months. The exact occupations of participants analyzed have not been specified, and specification of these occupations may help determine whether enhanced retention (ER) strategies are required. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
von dem Knesebeck, Olaf; Mnich, Eva; Daubmann, Anne; Wegscheider, Karl; Angermeyer, Matthias C; Lambert, Martin; Karow, Anne; Härter, Martin; Kofahl, Christopher
The association between socioeconomic status (SES) and knowledge/belief about depression, schizophrenia and eating disorders will be analysed. Data stem from a telephone survey in two large German cities (Hamburg and Munich, n = 2,014, response rate 51 %). Written vignettes with typical signs and symptoms suggestive of a depression, schizophrenia and eating disorders were presented to the respondents. Respondents were then asked about knowledge/belief about causes, symptoms, prevalence and treatment using a standardised questionnaire. Education, occupational position and income were used as SES indicators. Results of mixed hierarchal logistic regression analyses show that individuals with a low SES know less about symptoms and prevalences of depression, schizophrenia and eating disorders. Moreover, people with a high SES are more likely to consider medication as effective in case of depression and schizophrenia, but are less likely to believe that activities such as sports or relaxation are an effective measure to treat the three mental disorders under study. Respondents with a high SES are less likely to believe that a weak will is a possible cause of depression, schizophrenia and eating disorders. We found large similarities in the associations between SES and beliefs across the three mental disorders. Finally, associations of beliefs about mental disorders with education are stronger and more consistent than with income and occupational position. Results indicate an inequality in mental health literacy and underline that information campaigns on causes, symptoms, prevalence and treatment of mental disorders should consider information needs of people with a low SES.
Without adequate nutrition, children cannot develop to their full physical and mental potentials. The nutritional status and the cognitive performance of 500 school children aged 5-12 years from urban and rural areas of Enugu State, Nigeria were evaluated. Anthropometric measurements of heights and weights were ...
Malnutrition in children can co-exist as under- and over-nutrition in the same population with varying attendant medical risks. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the nutritional status of primary school children in Enugu North LGA, using anthropometry. Methodology: This was a cross sectional descriptive study ...
Objectives: Inappropriate complementary feeding practices among children aged 6-23 months is major cause of under nutrition. There is scarce information on the relationship between complementary feeding practices and nutritional status. This study aimed to determine the factors contributing to the complementary ...
The nutritional status of the children under study was slightly lower than the national average. In conclusion, malnutrition in Simanjiro district is prevalent, and therefore, appropriate multidisciplinary approach on nutrition education, environmental sanitation and hygienic practices at family and community level need to be ...
Birth Weight of Newborns in Relation to Nutritional Status of Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Clinic at the Nkawie Government Hospital in Atwima ... Journal of the Ghana Science Association ... pregnancy. Intensification of health education efforts to improve maternal nutrition at ANC (Ante natal clinic) is recommended.
Of the population assessed, 46.4% had normal nutritional status while 40.9% were overweight, and 12.7% underweight, with more females (48.0%) than males (25.9%) being overweight. Conclusion: Under nutrition and obesity are problems facing this population group aged 45 years and above in Nairobi. There is need for ...
The significance of improving nutrition knowledge in order to have a positive influence on food choices and health should not be underestimated. This study assessed the nutritional status and knowledge of school children attending selected secondary schools in Sokoto metropolis. The study population was purposively ...
Feb 15, 2012 ... Keywords: nutritional status, food intake data, children, adolescents, residential care facilities. Nutritional ... Anthropometric measurements included weight and height and were analysed using the World Health Organization's AnthroPlus® version 1.0.2 statistical ...... Effects of fast-food consumption on.
Malnourished children may grow up to become adults with reduced physical and cognitive capacity. Knowledge of trends of children's nutritional status over time is important to raise awareness, guide resource allocation as well as develop nutrition-related interventions for communities. A retrospective study was conducted ...
Background: Under-nutrition remains high while overweight/obesity are on the rise in developing countries. Little is known about the differences in the prevalence of malnutrition among public and private primary school children in urban areas of Lagos, Nigeria. This study determined and compared the nutritional status of ...
Background: Addressing the nutritional needs of adolescents could be an important step towards breaking the vicious cycle of intergenerational malnutrition. Objective: Assess nutritional status of rural adolescent girls. Design: Cross-sectional. Methods: Anthropometric and socio-demographic information from 211 ...
High prevalence of low birth weight, high morbidity and mortality in children and poor maternal nutrition of the ... In particular, maternal nutrition and fetal growth relationship, long term effects of early life .... Multiple regression analysis of the relationship of the frequency of maternal intakes of green leafy vegetables, fruits.
In addition, the Indian population is passing through a nutritional transition and is expected to witness higher prevalences of adult non-communicable diseases such as diabetes, hypertension and coronary heart disease ... Biometry and Nutrition Group, Agharkar Research Institute, G G Agarkar Road, Pune 411 004, India ...
Mitri, Rosy; Boulos, Christa; Adib, Salim M
To assess the nutritional status, and its association with sociodemographic factors, health and functional status of community-dwelling older adults living in the Greater Beirut area. This was a cross-sectional study involving 905 randomly selected community dwelling older adults aged ≥65 years living in Greater Beirut (Beirut and surrounding suburbs). Participants completed a standardized questionnaire on sociodemographic factors, health characteristics, and functional and nutritional status, based on the Mini Nutritional Assessment. Among the older adults who participated in the study, 2.8% (95% CI 0.01-0.03) were malnourished, and 45.5% (95% CI 0.42-0.48) were at risk of malnutrition. Sociodemographic variables were not associated with the nutritional status. Variables significantly associated with poorer nutritional status were: poor perception of general health (OR 1.58, 95%CI 1.28-1.97), more chronic diseases (OR 2.05, 95% CI1.26-3.33), poor perception of oral health (OR 1.36, 95% CI 1.14-1.61), depressive disorders (OR 1.76, 95% CI 1.30-2.40), higher body mass index (OR 1.98, 95% CI1.67-2.34) and disability (OR 5.80, 95% CI 1.96-17.11). The present study showed an unacceptable risk of malnutrition among Lebanese older adults, independent of age, sex and socioeconomic status. The presence of comorbidities, treated or not, affecting general and oral health emerged as major determinants of poor nutrition. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 424-432. © 2016 Japan Geriatrics Society.
Lambe, Cécile; Mallet, Pascale; Bailly, Céline; Sermet-Gaudelus, Isabelle
Prognosis of cystic fibrosis has been largely modified over the past 30 years. Optimization of nutrition is one of the most important contributing factors of this improvement. Nutritional defect result from the conjunction of loss of calories, maldigestion, hypercatabolism and insufficient intake. Pancreatic opotherapy and ADEK vitamin administration is mandatory in pancreatic insufficient patients. Nutritional status must be evaluated at each clinics to detect nutritional defect as early as possible. Nutritional intake must be hypercaloric, normalipidic and adapted to the tastes of the patient. The clinician must be aware of at risk nutritional period: first year of life, puberty, infectious exacerbation, respiratory worsening and diabetes, In neonatal screened babies, recovery of birth weight percentile must be targeted at 6 months, and for the height must be in accordance to genetic height at 2 years. In all cases it is mandatory to treat denutrition by oral supplementation and if necessay enteral nutrition.
Durán, Pablo; Mangialavori, Guadalupe; Biglieri, Ana; Kogan, Laura; Abeyá Gilardon, Enrique
Data availability on nutrition status from vulnerable population groups is essential for the design and evaluation of interventions. The Ministry of Health from Argentina developed in 2004-2005 the National Survey of Nutrition and Health. Our objective is to describe the nutrition status of infants and preschool children (6-72 months), globally and by region and socioeconomic level. A probabilistic, multistage sample was selected, representative at the national, regional and provincial levels. Anthropometric indices weight/age, height/age and weight/height, were estimated, according to WHO reference. Nutrient intake was estimated by a 24-hours recall, and hemoglobin, serum ferritin, retinol and vitamin D concentration were measured. Prevalence of stunting, wasting and obesity were 8.0%, 1.3%, and 10.4%, respectively. Prevalence of anemia was 16.5% in children children aged 6-23 months. Prevalence of subclinical vitamin A deficiency in children of 2-5 years was 14.3%, and prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in Patagonia was 2.8% in children aged 6-23 months. Different nutrient intake inadequacies were observed. Infants and children at the lower socioeconomic level showed higher prevalence of nutrition inadequacies. The coexistence of different nutrition deficiencies and overweight and obesity constitute the main characteristic of Argentinean infants and preschool children. Relevant differences exist according to socio-economic and geographic conditions.
Karlson, E W; Daltroy, L H; Lew, R A; Wright, E A; Partridge, A J; Fossel, A H; Roberts, W N; Stern, S H; Straaton, K V; Wacholtz, M C; Kavanaugh, A F; Grosflam, J M; Liang, M H
To study the relationship of race, socioeconomic status (SES), clinical factors, and psychosocial factors to outcomes in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). A retrospective cohort was assembled, comprising 200 patients with SLE from 5 centers. This cohort was balanced in terms of race and SES. Patients provided information on socioeconomic factors, access to health care, nutrition, self-efficacy for disease management, health locus of control, social support, compliance, knowledge about SLE, and satisfaction with medical care. Outcome measures included disease activity (measured by the Systemic Lupus Activity Measure), damage (measured by the SLICC/ACR damage index), and health status (measured by the SF-36). In multivariate models that were controlled for race, SES, center, psychosocial factors, and clinical factors, lower self-efficacy for disease management (P nutrition (P < 0.002), and higher disease activity at diagnosis (P < 0.007) were associated with more damage. Lower self-efficacy for disease management was associated with worse physical function (P < or = 0.0001) and worse mental health status (P < or = 0.0001). Disease activity and health status were most strongly associated with potentially modifiable psychosocial factors such as self-efficacy for disease management. Cumulative organ damage was most highly associated with clinical factors such as age and duration of disease. None of the outcomes measured were associated with race. These results suggest that education and counseling, coordinated with medical care, might improve outcomes in patients with SLE.
Starkey, Leighann; Revenson, Tracey A
Many studies link childhood socioeconomic status (SES) to body mass index (BMI), but few account for the impact of socioeconomic mobility throughout the lifespan. This study aims to investigate the impact of socioeconomic mobility on changes in BMI in childhood. Analyses tested whether  socioeconomic status influences BMI,  changes in socioeconomic status impact changes in BMI, and  timing of socioeconomic status mobility impacts BMI. Secondary data spanning birth to age 9 were analyzed. SES and BMI were investigated with gender, birth weight, maternal race/ethnicity, and maternal nativity as covariates. Autoregressive structural equation modeling and latent growth modeling were used. Socioeconomic status in the first year of life predicted body mass index. Child covariates were consistently associated with body mass index. Rate of change in socioeconomic status did not predict change in body mass index. The findings suggest that early socioeconomic status may most influence body mass in later childhood.
Faxén-Irving, G; Andrén-Olsson, B; Geijerstam, A; Basun, H; Cederholm, T
We investigated the nutritional, cognitive and functional status in residents of two service-flat (SF) complexes and the effects of a nutrition education programme for care staff. Controlled nonrandomised study. Two SF complexes, that is community-assisted accommodation. Of 115 eligible SF residents, 80 subjects participated (age 83+/-7 y, 70% women). The nutritional status was assessed using body mass index (BMI, kg/m(2)), subjective global assessment (SGA), serum concentrations of albumin, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and vitamin B(12). Cognitive and functional status were evaluated using the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE, 0-30 points, education programme was given to the staff at one of the SF complexes. At baseline, the means of BMI and the biochemical nutritional indices were normal, whereas one-third had BMI or =10% of previous weight. According to SGA, 30% demonstrated possible or serious malnutrition. The median MMSE was 23 points (19.5-26.5, 25-75th percentile). Nearly 70% were ADL-independent. At the 5-month follow-up there were no differences in the nutritional and cognitive status of the residents. The nutritional knowledge of the staff improved slightly (Pnutritional risk. Five months after a 12-h staff nutrition education programme, no objective changes were seen in the nutritional status of the SF residents.
Bail, Jennifer; Meneses, Karen; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy
To discuss the relationship between weight management and diet and cancer prevention, current nutritional guidelines, and evidence-based strategies to reduce cancer risk. Current nutritional guidelines, journal articles published between 2012 and 2015, and internet resources. Evidence indicates that attaining and/or maintaining a healthy weight and adopting a diet that is primarily plant-based, low in red and processed meats, simple sugars, and refined carbohydrates, limits alcohol, and relies on food for nutrients can aid in preventing cancer. Nurses can take the lead to educate patients and families about weight management and diet and to promote adherence to nutritional guidelines. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background: The paper advances literature on earlier-life socioeconomic status (SES and later-life health in a number of ways, including conceptualizing later-life health as a developmental process and relying on objective rather than retrospective reports of childhood and adult SES and health. Methods: Data are from the Utah Population Database (N=75,019, which contains variables from Medicare claims, birth and death certificates, and genealogical records. The morbidity measure uses the Charlson Comorbidity Index. SES is based on converting occupation to Nam-Powers scores and then dividing these scores into quartiles plus farmers. Analyses are conducted in two steps. Group-based trajectory modeling estimates patterns of morbidity and survival and divides the sample into sex-specific groups ordered from least to most healthy. Multilevel ordered logistic regression incorporating Heckman selection predicts group trajectory membership by SES in adulthood conditioned upon childhood SES. Results: Higher SES in childhood is associated with membership in groups that have more favorable morbidity trajectories and survival probabilities. SES in adulthood has additive impact, especially for females. For example, if a female is characterized as being in the lowest SES quartile during childhood, her probability of having the most favorable health trajectory improves from 0.12 to 0.17 as her adult SES increases from the lowest to highest quartile. Conclusions: Results suggest both childhood and adult SES independently impact upon old-age health trajectories.
Khan, D; Kumar, A; Samadder, S R
The solid waste generation rate was expected to vary in different socioeconomic groups due to many environmental and social factors. This paper reports the assessment of solid waste generation based on different socioeconomic parameters like education, occupation, income of the family, number of family members etc. A questionnaire survey was conducted in the study area to identify the different socioeconomic groups that may affect the solid waste generation rate and composition. The average waste generated in the municipality is 0.41 kg/capita/day in which the maximum waste was found to be generated by lower middle socioeconomic group (LMSEG) with average waste generation of 0.46 kg/capita/day. Waste characterization indicated that there was no much difference in the composition of wastes among different socioeconomic groups except ash residue and plastic. Ash residue is found to increase as we move lower down the socioeconomic groups with maximum (31%) in lower socioeconomic group (LSEG). The study area is a coal based city hence application of coal and wood as fuel for cooking in the lower socioeconomic group is the reason for high amount of ash content. Plastic waste is maximum (15%) in higher socioeconomic group (HSEG) and minimum (1%) in LSEG. Food waste is a major component of generated waste in almost every socioeconomic group with maximum (38%) in case of HSEG and minimum (28%) in LSEG. This study provides new insights on the role of various socioeconomic parameters on generation of household wastes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Drywień Małgorzata E.
Full Text Available The relationship between energy value and nutrients intake and the body shape and size parameters (weight, height, waist and hip circumferences has become an interesting research area for nutritionists and dieticians. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the body shape and size parameters (weight, height, waist and hip circumferences, somatotype (according to the Rohrer (RI index and energy value and nutrients intake of women. The study was conducted in 2014 and 2016 on 148 female volunteers aged 57-88 from the Mazovian and Lublin province (Poland. Sample selection was targeted at elderly people with different body types. The exclusion criteria were: multi-organ failure, cancer and disability. Then among the subjects, a survey was conducted, that included demographic data, lifestyle, health status and vitamins and minerals supplements use. Food intake has been assessed using a 3-day dietary food records. The somatotype was determined using the RI with the Curtis key, classifying the subjects as ectomorphic (n=30, mesomorphic (n=31 and endomorphic (n=87. The somatotype was significantly related to place of residence, physical activity, waist and hip circumference, WHR and BMI index, total protein intake, animal protein intake, vitamin E intake (p≤0.05 and to fat, phosphorus and thiamine intake (p≤0.1. The obtained results showed that the place of residence, physical activity, chronic diseases, the use of specialized diet, body weight fluctuations, BMI and WHR were different depending on the somatotype in the examined group of women. Endomorphic subjects had significantly greater waist and hip circumference and diastolic blood pressure compared to the other somatotypes. The somatotype had only a significant effect on total protein, animal protein and vitamin E intake, and ectomorphic elderly women may be particularly susceptible to nutrient deficiencies. Due to the risk of macronutrient, vitamin and mineral
Full Text Available Background: Nutritional status is a final outcome from a balance between food intake and body’s needs of the nutrients. Elderly is people whose age more than 60 years old. In Indonesia, elderly population has increased. Its phenomena is also known as population aging. Population aging is related to malnutrition in elderly. Malnutrition is defined as the insufficient, excessive or imbalanced consumption of nutrients.The objective of this study was to describe the nutritional status among elderly outpatients in geriatrics clinic of Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital Bandung. Methods: This study was a descriptive cross-sectional study that used primary data in geriatrics clinic Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital Bandung from September 2013 to October 2013. The sampling method was convenience sampling. This study was done with 43 elderly ( women, n=27 and men, n=16 outpatients.The nutritional status was classified by the questionnaire of Mini Nutritional Assessment into malnourished, risk of malnutrition and without malnutrition (adequate. After collecting the data, it was analyzed by Microsoft Excel in presenting the proportion of the elderly nutritional status. Results: Among all the respondents, 27 (63% respondents had adequate nutrition and 16 (37% respondents had risk of malnutrition. There was no respondent who had malnutrition (undernutrition. Conclusions: Majority of elderly outpatients in geriatrics clinic Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital had adequate nutrition. DOI: 10.15850/amj.v4n2.1087
Zamroziewicz, Marta K; Talukdar, M Tanveer; Zwilling, Chris E; Barbey, Aron K
The high energy demands of the brain underscore the importance of nutrition in maintaining brain health and further indicate that aspects of nutrition may optimize brain health, in turn enhancing cognitive performance. General intelligence represents a critical cognitive ability that has been well characterized by cognitive neuroscientists and psychologists alike, but the extent to which a driver of brain health, namely nutritional status, impacts the neural mechanisms that underlie general intelligence is not understood. This study therefore examined the relationship between the intrinsic connectivity networks supporting general intelligence and nutritional status, focusing on nutrients known to impact the metabolic processes that drive brain function. We measured general intelligence, favorable connective architecture of seven intrinsic connectivity networks, and seventeen plasma phospholipid monounsaturated and saturated fatty acids in a sample of 99 healthy, older adults. A mediation analysis was implemented to investigate the relationship between empirically derived patterns of fatty acids, general intelligence, and underlying intrinsic connectivity networks. The mediation analysis revealed that small world propensity within one intrinsic connectivity network supporting general intelligence, the dorsal attention network, was promoted by a pattern of monounsaturated fatty acids. These results suggest that the efficiency of functional organization within a core network underlying general intelligence is influenced by nutritional status. This report provides a novel connection between nutritional status and functional network efficiency, and further supports the promise and utility of functional connectivity metrics in studying the impact of nutrition on cognitive and brain health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Yang, Fei; Johansson, Anna L V; Pedersen, Nancy L; Fang, Fang; Gatz, Margaret; Wirdefeldt, Karin
Little is known about the role of socioeconomic status in relation to Parkinson's disease (PD) risk, and no study has investigated whether the impact of socioeconomic status on all-cause mortality differs between individuals with and without PD.In this population-based prospective study, over 4.6 million Swedish inhabitants who participated in the Swedish census in 1980 were followed from 1981 to 2010. The incidence rate of PD and incidence rate ratio were estimated for the association between socioeconomic status and PD risk. Age-standardized mortality rate and hazard ratio (HR) were estimated for the association between socioeconomic status and all-cause mortality for individuals with and without PD.During follow-up, 66,332 incident PD cases at a mean age of 76.0 years were recorded. Compared to individuals with the highest socioeconomic status (high nonmanual workers), all other socioeconomic groups (manual or nonmanual and self-employed workers) had a lower PD risk. All-cause mortality rates were higher in individuals with lower socioeconomic status compared with high nonmanual workers, but relative risks for all-cause mortality were lower in PD patients than in non-PD individuals (e.g., for low manual workers, HR: 1.12, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.09-1.15 for PD patients; HR: 1.36, 95% CI: 1.35-1.36 for non-PD individuals).Individuals with lower socioeconomic status had a lower PD incidence compared to the highest socioeconomic group. Lower socioeconomic status was associated with higher all-cause mortality among individuals with and without PD, but such impact was weaker among PD patients.
Miller, Gregory E; Engen, Phillip A; Gillevet, Patrick M; Shaikh, Maliha; Sikaroodi, Masoumeh; Forsyth, Christopher B; Mutlu, Ece; Keshavarzian, Ali
In the United States, there are persistent and widening socioeconomic gaps in morbidity and mortality from chronic diseases. Although most disparities research focuses on person-level socioeconomic-status, mounting evidence suggest that chronic diseases also pattern by the demographic characteristics of neighborhoods. Yet the biological mechanisms underlying these associations are poorly understood. There is increasing recognition that chronic diseases share common pathogenic features, some of which involve alterations in the composition, diversity, and functioning of the gut microbiota. This study examined whether socioeconomic-status was associated with alpha-diversity of the colonic microbiota. Forty-four healthy adults underwent un-prepped sigmoidoscopy, during which mucosal biopsies and fecal samples were collected. Subjects' zip codes were geocoded, and census data was used to form a composite indicator of neighborhood socioeconomic-status, reflecting household income, educational attainment, employment status, and home value. In unadjusted analyses, neighborhood socioeconomic-status explained 12-18 percent of the variability in alpha-diversity of colonic microbiota. The direction of these associations was positive, meaning that as neighborhood socioeconomic-status increased, so did alpha-diversity of both the colonic sigmoid mucosa and fecal microbiota. The strength of these associations persisted when models were expanded to include covariates reflecting potential demographic (age, gender, race/ethnicity) and lifestyle (adiposity, alcohol use, smoking) confounds. In these models neighborhood socioeconomic-status continued to explain 11-22 percent of the variability in diversity indicators. Further analyses suggested these patterns reflected socioeconomic variations in evenness, but not richness, of microbial communities residing in the sigmoid. We also found indications that residence in neighborhoods of higher socioeconomic-status was associated with a
Indicadores sócio-econômicos, demográficos e estado nutricional de crianças e adolescentes residentes em um assentamento rural do Rio de Janeiro Socioeconomic and demographic indicators and nutritional status of children in a rural land settlement in Rio de Janeiro
Gloria Valeria da Veiga
Full Text Available Avaliou-se indicadores sócio-econômicos e perfil nutricional de 201 crianças e adolescentes do assentamento rural de São José da Boa Morte, Rio de Janeiro. Considerou-se déficit nutricional valores abaixo de -2 escore z da mediana da referência National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS para os índices peso para idade (P/I e estatura para idade (E/I para os menores de 5 anos e peso para estatura (P/E e E/I entre 5,0 a 9,9 anos. Para os adolescentes utilizou-se os cortes inferiores ao percentil 5 (magreza e superiores ao percentil 85 (sobrepeso da distribuição de índice de massa corporal (IMC da população brasileira. Encontrou-se: 53,8% dos domicílios com 4 a 6 moradores, 34,5% com fossa rudimentar, 31,2% sem água canalizada, 11,0% sem banheiro, 58,2% queimavam ou enterravam o lixo e 13,6% das mães eram analfabetas. A faixa de 0 a 4,9 anos não apresentou nenhum tipo de déficit nutricional e entre 5 a 9,9 anos apenas um apresentou baixo peso e três sobrepeso. Concluiu-se que a baixa prevalência de déficits nutricionais no grupo estudado, apesar da exposição a fatores de risco, pode relacionar-se com a presença de fatores de proteção como o acesso a serviços de saúde e que o sobrepeso em adolescentes (13,3% foi relevante.This study evaluated socioeconomic indicators and nutritional status in 201 children and adolescents in a rural land settlement in São José da Boa Morte, Rio de Janeiro. Nutritional deficit was defined as a value below -2 z score for the reference median from the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS for weight-for-age (W/A and stature-for-age (S/A for children under five years of age and weight-for-stature (W/S and S/A for children from 5.0 to 9.9 years. For adolescents, the study used cut-off points at the 5th percentile (thin and 85th percentile (overweight from the distribution of body mass index (BMI in the Brazilian population. According to the study, 53.8% of the households had 4 to 6
Orsini, Mattea; Trétarre, Brigitte; Daurès, Jean-Pierre; Bessaoud, Faiza
Health inequalities have increased over the last 30 years. Our goal was to investigate the relationship between low individual socioeconomic status and poor breast cancer prognosis. Our hypothesis was: low socioeconomic status patients have a higher risk of being diagnosed with late stage breast cancer than high socioeconomic status ones due to delayed diagnosis. We conducted a matched case-control study on 619 women with breast cancer, living in the Hérault, a French administrative area. Both Cases and Controls were recruited among invasive cases diagnosed in 2011 and 2012 and treated in Hérault care centers. Cases were defined as patients with advanced stages. Controls were composed of early stage patients. Individual socioeconomic status was assessed using a validated individual score adapted to the French population and health care system. We observed that low socioeconomic status patients have a 2-fold risk of having late stage breast cancer regardless of cancer characteristics and detection mode (screening vs. clinical signs). One reason explaining those results could be that low socioeconomic status patients have less regular follow-up which can lead to later and poorer diagnosis. Follow-up is improved for women with a better awareness of breast cancer. Health policy makers could reduce health inequalities by reducing the delay in breast cancer diagnosis for low socioeconomic status women. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.
Ball, Stephen J.; Jacoby, Peter; Zubrick, Stephen R.
Fetal growth is an important risk factor for infant morbidity and mortality. In turn, socioeconomic status is a key predictor of fetal growth; however, other sociodemographic factors and environmental effects may also be important. This study modelled geographic variation in poor fetal growth after accounting for socioeconomic status, with a fixed effect for socioeconomic status and a combination of spatially-correlated and spatially-uncorrelated random effects. The dataset comprised 88,246 liveborn singletons, aggregated within suburbs in Perth, Western Australia. Low socioeconomic status was strongly associated with an increased risk of poor fetal growth. An increase in geographic variation of poor fetal growth from 1999–2001 (interquartile odds ratio among suburbs = 1.20) to 2004–2006 (interquartile odds ratio = 1.40) indicated a widening risk disparity by socioeconomic status. Low levels of residual spatial patterns strengthen the case for targeting policies and practices in areas of low socioeconomic status for improved outcomes. This study indicates an alarming increase in geographic inequalities in poor fetal growth in Perth which warrants further research into the specific aspects of socioeconomic status that act as risk factors. PMID:23799513
Gray, Simone C; Edwards, Sharon E; Miranda, Marie Lynn
Although studies suggest that exposure to pollutants is associated with race/ethnicity and socio-economic status (SES), many studies are limited to the geographic regions where monitoring stations are located. This study uses modeled predictive surfaces to examine the relationship between air pollution exposure, race/ethnicity, and measures of SES across the entire State of North Carolina. The daily predictions of particulate matter ozone (O3) were determined using a spatial model that fused data from two sources: point air monitoring data and gridded numerical output. These daily predicted pollution levels for 2002 were linked with Census data. We examine the relationship between the census-tract level predicted concentration measures, SES, and racial composition. SES and race/ethnicity were related to predicted concentrations of both PM2.5 and O3 for census tracts in North Carolina. Lower SES and higher proportion minority population were associated with higher levels of PM2.5. An interquartile range (IQR) increase of median household income reduced the predicted average PM2.5 level by 0.10 µg/m3. The opposite relationship was true for O3. An IQR increase of median household income increased the predicted average O3 measure by 0.11 ppb. The analyses demonstrate that SES and race/ethnicity are related to predicted estimates of PM2.5 and O3 for census tracts in North Carolina. These findings offer a baseline for future exposure modeling work involving SES and air pollution for the entire state and not just among the populations residing near monitoring networks. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Cooper, Gregory S; Kou, Tzuyung Doug; Dor, Avi; Koroukian, Siran M; Schluchter, Mark D
Out-of-pocket expenditures are thought to be an important barrier to the receipt of cancer preventive services, especially for those of a lower socioeconomic status (SES). The Affordable Care Act (ACA) eliminated out-of-pocket expenditures for recommended services, including mammography and colonoscopy. The objective of this study was to determine changes in the uptake of mammography and colonoscopy among fee-for-service Medicare beneficiaries before and after ACA implementation. Using Medicare claims data, this study identified women who were 70 years old or older and had not undergone mammography in the previous 2 years and men and women who were 70 years old or older, were at increased risk for colorectal cancer, and had not undergone colonoscopy in the past 5 years. The receipt of procedures in the 2-year period before the ACA's implementation (2009-2010) and after its implementation (2011 to September 2012) was also identified. Multivariate generalized estimating equation models were used to determine the independent association and county-level quartile of median income and education with the receipt of testing. For mammography, a lower SES quartile was associated with less uptake, but the post-ACA disparities were smaller than those in the pre-ACA period. In addition, mammography rates increased from the pre-ACA period to the post-ACA period in all SES quartiles. For colonoscopy, in both the pre- and post-ACA periods, there was an association between uptake and educational level and, to some extent, income. However, there were no appreciable changes in colonoscopy and SES after implementation of the ACA. The removal of out-of-pocket expenditures may overcome a barrier to the receipt of recommended preventive services, but for colonoscopy, other procedural factors may remain as deterrents. Cancer 2017;123:1585-1589. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.
Full Text Available Abstract:Background: Despite the well-established literature on the protective effects of socioeconomic status (SES against mortality, these effects may vary based on contextual factors such as race and place. Using 25-year follow up data of a nationally representative sample of adults in the U.S., this study had two aims: 1 to explore separate, additive, and multiplicative effects of race and place (urbanity on mortality, and 2 to test the effects of education and income against all-cause mortality based on race and place.Methods: The Americans’ Changing Lives (ACL Study followed Whites and Blacks 25 years and older adults from 1986 until 2011. The focal predictors were baseline SES (education and income collected in 1986. The main outcome was time to death due to all causes from 1986 until 2011. Age, gender, and behaviors (smoking and exercise and health (chronic medical conditions, self-rated health and depressive symptoms were potential confounders. A series of survey Cox proportional hazard models were used to test protective effects of education and income on mortality based on race and urbanity. Results: While race and place had separate effects on mortality, the additive and multiplicative effects of race and place were not significant. Higher education and income were protective against all-cause mortality in the pooled sample. While the protective effects of education was explained by baseline health, the effect of income remained significant beyond health. Race and urbanity significantly interacted with baseline education but not income on all-cause mortality, suggesting that protective effects of education but not income depend on race and place. Conclusion: The survival gain associated with education in the United States depends on race and place. These findings suggest that populations differently benefit from SES resources, particularly education. Differential effect of education on employment and health care may explain
Abubakar, Amina; Van de Vijver, Fons; Van Baar, Anneloes; Mbonani, Leonard; Kalu, Raphael; Newton, Charles; Holding, Penny
Sub-optimal physical growth has been suggested as a key pathway between the effect of environmental risk and developmental outcome. To determine if anthropometric status mediates the relation between socioeconomic status and psychomotor development of young children in resource-limited settings. A cross-sectional study design was used. A total of 204 (105 girls) children from two resource-limited communities in the Coast Province, Kenya. The mean age of these children was 29 months (SD = 3.43; range: 24-35 months). Psychomotor functioning was assessed using a locally developed and validated measure, the Kilifi Developmental Inventory. A significant association was found between anthropometric status (as measured by weight-for-age, height-for-age, mid-upper arm circumference, and head circumference) and psychomotor functioning and also between socioeconomic status and anthropometric status; no direct effects were found between socioeconomic status and developmental outcome. The models showed that weight, height and to a lesser extent mid-upper arm circumference mediate the relation between socioeconomic status and developmental outcome, while head circumference did not show the same effect. Among children under 3 years living in poverty, anthropometric status shows a clear association with psychomotor development while socioeconomic status may only have an indirect association.
Shamah Levy, T; Cuevas Nasu, L; Morales Ruan, M C; Mundo Rosas, V; Méndez Gómez-Humarán, I; Villalpando Hernández, S
The health and nutritional conditions of older adults in Mexico are heterogeneous. The prevalence of chronic noncommunicable diseases is elevated with disparities in functionality and socioeconomic inequities. To obtain updated information of the health and nutritional profile of older adults in Mexico in a national representative sample. Information was obtained from 6,687 60 years and older adults from the 2012 National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT 2012). An index defining the status of «healthy adult» was constructed taking into account the variables of independence in performing activities of daily living (ADL), based on the development by Katz, instrumental ADL, no chronic diseases, nonsmoker and no active use of alcohol. Tables of frequencies and proportions were constructed and expanded to describe the general characteristics and nutritional status of the adult Mexican population. A logistic regression model was used to study changes in the probability of being classified as a healthy adult with respect to different variables of interest. Probabilities using the delta method were estimated to establish 95% confidence intervals. In this study 12.2% of the older adults, were classified as healthy. The logistic regression model adjusted for the variables included in the study shows that the interaction of age and gender is significant (P = 0.068), where the probability of healthy adult status decreases in women with ageing and remains stable for men. Also, living in the southern region of the country significantly decreases the probability of healthy adult status (P = 0.001). Gender of the older adult was not significant. In Mexico, the health conditions of older adults are deficient. Public policies need to be generated that are directed at this population group and will translate into self-care actions in the early stages of life so as to guarantee a healthy future.
In the absence of variables used for measuring household expenditure proxy variables are used. The proxy variables (type of dwelling, household size, water source, and toilet location) for economic status of households seem to influence nutritional status more directly while the person related variables seem to indirectly ...
Background: In the present days, increasing trend of eating disorders are noticed among college students (both male and female) which can disturb their overall physiological and health status. It is more prevalent in metropolitan cities, like Kolkata. But, the existing literature about the physiological and nutritional status of ...
Toktas, Nese; Erman, K. Alparslan; Mert, Zekai
Sixty one female and eighty one male volunteers participated in the study that aims to assess the nutrition habits according to human chronotype and nutritional status of morningness and eveningness. Chronotype was assessed by Turkish version of the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire and the other questionnaire prepared to assess of nutritional…
Burch, Lisa S; Smith, Colette J; Phillips, Andrew N; Johnson, Margaret A; Lampe, Fiona C
It has been shown that socioeconomic factors are associated with the prognosis of several chronic diseases; however, there is no recent systematic review of their effect on HIV treatment outcomes. We aimed to review the evidence regarding the existence of an association of socioeconomic status with virological and immunological response to antiretroviral therapy (ART). We systematically searched the current literature using the database PubMed. We identified and summarized original research studies in high-income countries that assessed the association between socioeconomic factors (education, employment, income/financial status, housing, health insurance, and neighbourhood-level socioeconomic factors) and virological response, immunological response, and ART nonadherence among people with HIV-prescribed ART. A total of 48 studies met the inclusion criteria (26 from the United States, six Canadian, 13 European, and one Australian), of which 14, six, and 35 analysed virological, immunological, and ART nonadherence outcomes, respectively. Ten (71%), four (67%), and 23 (66%) of these studies found a significant association between lower socioeconomic status and poorer response, and none found a significant association with improved response. Several studies showed that adjustment for nonadherence attenuated the association between socioeconomic status and ART response. Our review provides strong support that socioeconomic disadvantage is associated with poorer response to ART. However, most studies have been conducted in settings such as the United States without universal free healthcare access. Further study in settings with free access to ART could help assess the impact of socioeconomic status on ART outcomes and the mechanisms by which it operates.
Marasinghe, Eshani; Chackrewarthy, Sureka; Abeysena, Chrishantha; Rajindrajith, Shaman
To assess the micronutrient status and its relationship with nutritional status in preschool children. In a cross sectional study, anthropometric data and fasting blood samples were obtained from 340 children attending preschool in urban Sri Lanka. Serum concentrations of vitamin D, parathyroid hormone, vitamin A, zinc and haemoglobin were measured. Z-scores of anthropometric indices of height-for-age, weight-for-age and weight-for-height were computed to evaluate the nutritional status. Prevalence of stunting, underweight, wasting and anaemia among children were 7.1%, 16.9%, 21.2% and 7.4%, respectively. Deficiencies of zinc and vitamin A occurred among 67% and 38% of children, respectively. Vitamin D deficiency (Nutritional status was significantly correlated (pnutritional status of the children was related to vitamin D status and with haemoglobin status. Zinc and vitamin A levels were low in children with severe stunting. Vitamins A, D and zinc levels were associated with haemoglobin status.
Full Text Available This study examines the associations of socioeconomic status (SES with intensity of different types of physical activity (PA in Chinese adults, aimed at outlining and projecting socioeconomic disparities in PA among the population undergoing a rapid nutrition transition.A community-based survey was conducted among 3,567 residents aged 30-65 years old in Jiaxing, China, in 2010. SES and PA were assessed by a structured questionnaire. SES was assessed as socioeconomic index (SEI score based on self-reported educational attainment, household income and occupation. Metabolic equivalents (METs were calculated for each subject to quantify the total amount of PA from occupation, exercise, transportation and housework.Intensity of overall PA in this population was 165 MET-hours/week, in which energy expenditure in occupational PA accounted for 82%. Both types and intensity of PA were significantly different by SES: middle SES groups had higher intensity of occupational activities; lower SES subjects engaged in more household work; whereas higher SES subjects were more likely to exercise, more active during commuting and had longer sedentary time. All the three components of SES, education attainment, income and occupation, contributed to socioeconomic disparities in PA in this population.Our results suggest an overall insufficiency and socioeconomic inequalities in PA among Chinese adults in Jiaxing, a typical city experiencing a rapid urbanization in China. There is an urgent need to promote leisure-time activities in this population.
Neter, J E; Dijkstra, S C; Dekkers, A L M; Ocké, M C; Visser, M; Brouwer, I A
Food-assistance program users are a specific group of nutritional concern, as they are often food insufficient and have poorer diet quality compared to non-food-assistance program users. The aim of our study was to assess dietary intake of Dutch food bank recipients (n = 167) and to compare this with dietary intake of a representative sample of the general population (Dutch National Food Consumption Survey (DNFCS-all): n = 1933), including a low-socioeconomic status (SES) sample (DNFCS-low SE...
Mohsena, Masuda; Mascie-Taylor, C G Nicholas; Goto, Rie
To determine how much of the variation in nutritional status of Bangladeshi children under 5 years old can be attributed to the socio-economic status of the family. Nutritional status used reference Z-scores of weight-for-age (WAZ), height-for-age (HAZ) and weight-for-height (WHZ). A 'possession score' was generated based on ownership of a radio, television, bicycle, motorcycle and telephone, and the availability of electricity, with categories of 0 to 4+ possessions. A five-point (quintile) 'poverty index' was created using principal component analysis. The Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey 2004 was the source of data. A sample of 4891 children aged sex. Children of mothers with no education or no possessions were, on average, about 1 sd more underweight and stunted than those with higher educated mothers or with 4+ possessions. The possession score provided much greater discrimination of undernutrition than the poverty index. Nearly 50 % of children from households with no possessions were stunted, wasted or underweight (only 27 % in the poorest quintile), compared with only 3-6 % of children from households with 4+ possessions (over 13 % in the richest quintile). Maternal education and possession score were the main predictors of a child's nutritional status. Possession score was a much better indicator of undernutrition than the poverty index.
Tada, Yuko; Keiwkarnka, Boonyong; Pancharuniti, Nonglak; Chamroonsawasdi, Kanittha
A cross-sectional study was conducted to examine the nutritional status of children (aged 1-5 years) who lived in the Klong Toey slum, Bangkok; the factors related to nutritional status were also determined. Anthropometric measurements were made for 232 children; socioeconomic background information was obtained by interviewing their mothers using a structured questionnaire. The prevalence of malnutrition among the study sample was 25.4% by weight-forage, 18.1% by height-for-age, and 6.9% by weight-for-height; the prevalence among pre-school children in Thailand and in the Bangkok metropolitan area by weight-for-age was reported to be 8.73% and 5.25% respectively. Potential related factors were examined: family characteristics, (mother's age, marital status, educational background, family size, family income, and mothers' occupation); children's characteristics (age, gender, birth order, immunization status, and history of illness); mothers' knowledge and perception of nutrition and mothers' food practice. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to identify the association with the nutritional status of children by height-for-age. The results showed that family income (adjusted OR=0.9998; 95% CI: 0.9997-1.0000), maternal housewifery or unemployment (adjusted OR=6.5; 95% CI: 1.74-24.3), food practice (adjusted OR=0.7123; 95% CI: 0.5390-0.9414), and a maternal educational level lower than primary school (adjusted OR=10.1; 95% CI: 1.13-91.9) were associated with the nutritional status of children. This finding implies that although malnutrition is no longer considered to be a major health problem in Thailand, it remains a threat to the health of the urban poor in Bangkok. This finding should not be overlooked and countermeasures are indicated.
Rondó, Patricia Helen C; Souza, Márcia Regina; Moraes, Flávio; Nogueira, Fábio
This study compared the nutritional and psychological status of 855 pregnant adolescents and non-adolescents and assessed their relationships at three interviews (gestational age stress scale (PSS). More adolescents were thinner, had higher scores of the trait anxiety inventory (TAI), wished to abort their children, and were worried about changes in their bodies than non-adolescents. Multiple linear regression analyses (controlling for toxic exposure, socioeconomic, demographic and obstetric factors) detected negative associations between weight gain in the first interview and distress (GHQ) for both the groups of women and weight gain in the second interview and the variable "worry about body's change" for the non-adolescent group. The negative associations between body mass index and chronic anxiety (TAI) were present in the three interviews for non-adolescents. This study detected a relationship between the nutritional and the psychological status of pregnant women, although there were more associations for non-adolescents.
Minaei, Mina; Zarei, Maryam
Full text: Nutrition counseling is one of the nutritional activities for improving child nutrition. It is the best way for decreasing malnutrition in children. Goal: To improve nutritional status of children under 6 through nutrition counseling in rural area with high prevalence of malnutrition. Methods: An international study with a total of 660 children with their mothers and with duration of seven months started in Lali district (in Khozestan province of Iran). Data gathered with using a demographic questionnaire and anthropometric measurements in children. Afterwards, malnourished children determined and referred to nutrition counseling centers. After training mothers, planning a diet and monitoring nutritional status were determined. Results: The prevalence of stunting, wasting and underweight in studied children at the beginning of the study were 9.6%, 6.2% and 4.8% respectively, which reached 8.7%, 3.3% and 2.4% by the end of the project (P<0.05). The intervention was most efficient in children suffering growth retardation, with a cure rate of 91%; only 48.6% of malnourished children referred to the center health were cured. Conclusion: Results obtained from this study showed that over 90% of children suffering growth retardation were cured. This means establishing nutrition counseling centers to encourage proper nutrition behaviors, evaluate current issues and find possible solutions, persuade mothers to improve child nutrition status making use of practical and specific methods appropriate with the tradition of the region has had an important role in improving the nutrition status of the children in the region. (author)
Mahdavi, Aida Malek; Ostadrahimi, Alireza; Safaiyan, Abdolrasool
This study was aimed to compare the subjective and objective nutritional assessments and to analyse the performance of subjective global assessment (SGA) of nutritional status in diagnosing undernutrition in paediatric patients. One hundred and forty children (aged 2-12 years) hospitalized consecutively in Tabriz Paediatric Hospital from June 2008 to August 2008 underwent subjective assessment using the SGA questionnaire and objective assessment, including anthropometric and biochemical measurements. Agreement between two assessment methods was analysed by the kappa (κ) statistic. Statistical indicators including (sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, error rates, accuracy, powers, likelihood ratios and odds ratio) between SGA and objective assessment method were determined. The overall prevalence of undernutrition according to the SGA (70.7%) was higher than that by objective assessment of nutritional status (48.5%). Agreement between the two evaluation methods was only fair to moderate (κ = 0.336, P nutritional status of children, there is not a good level of agreement between SGA and objective nutritional assessment. In addition, SGA is a highly sensitive tool for assessing nutritional status and could identify children at risk of developing undernutrition. © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Prescott, E; Lange, P; Vestbo, J
. Association between socioeconomic factors and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) at study entry was analysed by linear regression. The relation between socioeconomic factors and risk of admission to hospital for COPD from study entry until 1993 was assessed...... and duration of smoking and inhalation, the difference was 220+/-31 mL and 363+/-39 mL in females and males, respectively. Results for FVC were of the same magnitude. Using a socioeconomic index which combined information on education and household income the association with lung function did not differ...... by age. A total of 219 females and 265 males were admitted to hospital for COPD during follow-up. Education and income were significantly associated with admission to hospital. After detailed adjustment for smoking the relative risks (95% confidence intervals) for medium and high versus low socioeconomic...
This study aimed at assessing the anthropometry, dietary intake and micronutrient status of hypertensive patients attending specialist hospitals in Ondo State, Nigeria. A descriptive case control study was conducted among subjects attending two specialist hospitals located in Akure and Ondo towns. A total of 452 subjects ...
benefits of traditional practices that are eroding because of factors such as urbanisation and modernisation. .... communal tap water was not available every day of the week. Anthropometric status of children. Table 1 indicates that ~20% ... main source of drinking water in the rural districts of KwaZuluNatal and Eastern Cape.
Jiao, Kaishan; Xu, Mengjia; Liu, Meng
China is experiencing environmental issues and related health effects due to its industrialization and urbanization. The health effects associated with air pollution are not just a matter of epidemiology and environmental science research, but also an important social science issue. Literature about the relationship of socioeconomic factors with the environment and health factors is inadequate. The relationship between air pollution exposure and health effects in China was investigated with consideration of the socioeconomic factors. Based on nationwide survey data of China in 2014, we applied the multilevel mixed-effects model to evaluate how socioeconomic status (represented by education and income) contributed to the relationship between self-rated air pollution and self-rated health status at community level and individual level. The findings indicated that there was a non-linear relationship between the community socioeconomic status and community air pollution in urban China, with the highest level of air pollution presented in the communities with moderate socioeconomic status. In addition, health effects associated air pollution in different socioeconomic status groups were not equal. Self-rated air pollution had the greatest impact on self-rated health of the lower socioeconomic groups. With the increase of socioeconomic status, the effect of self-rated air pollution on self-rated health decreased. This study verified the different levels of exposure to air pollution and inequality in health effects among different socioeconomic groups in China. It is imperative for the government to urgently formulate public policies to enhance the ability of the lower socioeconomic groups to circumvent air pollution and reduce the health damage caused by air pollution.
Iseyemi, Abigail; Zhao, Qiuhong; McNicholas, Colleen; Peipert, Jeffrey F
To evaluate the association of low socioeconomic status as an independent risk factor for unintended pregnancy. We performed a secondary analysis of data from the Contraceptive CHOICE project. Between 2007 and 2011, 9,256 participants were recruited and followed for up to 3 years. The primary outcome of interest was unintended pregnancy; the primary exposure variable was low socioeconomic status, defined as self-report of either receiving public assistance or having difficulty paying for basic necessities. Four contraceptive groups were evaluated: 1) long-acting reversible contraceptive method (hormonal or copper intrauterine device or subdermal implant); 2) depot medroxyprogesterone acetate injection; 3) oral contraceptive pills, a transdermal patch, or a vaginal ring; or 4) other or no method. Confounders were adjusted for in the multivariable Cox proportional hazard model to estimate the effect of socioeconomic status on risk of unintended pregnancy. Participants with low socioeconomic status experienced 515 unintended pregnancies during 14,001 women-years of follow-up (3.68/100 women-years; 95% CI 3.37-4.01) compared with 200 unintended pregnancies during 10,296 women-years (1.94/100 women-years; 95% CI 1.68-2.23) among participants without low socioeconomic status. Women with low socioeconomic status were more likely to have an unintended pregnancy (unadjusted hazard ratio [HR] 1.8, 95% CI 1.5-2.2). After adjusting for age, education level, insurance status, and history of unintended pregnancy, low socioeconomic status was associated with an increased risk of unintended pregnancy (adjusted HR 1.4, 95% CI 1.1-1.7). Despite the removal of cost barriers, low socioeconomic status is associated with a higher incidence of unintended pregnancy.
Schmidt, Börge; Dragano, Nico; Scherag, André; Pechlivanis, Sonali; Hoffmann, Per; Nöthen, Markus M; Erbel, Raimund; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Moebus, Susanne
The relevance of disease-related genetic variants for the explanation of social inequalities in complex diseases is unclear and empirical analyses are largely missing. The aim of our study was to examine whether genetic variants predisposing to diabetes mellitus are associated with socioeconomic status in a population-based cohort. We genotyped 11 selected diabetes-related single nucleotide polymorphisms in 4655 participants (age 45-75 years) of the Heinz Nixdorf Recall study. Diabetes status was self-reported or defined by blood glucose levels. Education, income and paternal occupation were assessed as indicators of socioeconomic status. Multiple regression analyses were used to examine the association of socioeconomic status and diabetes by estimating sex-specific and age-adjusted prevalence ratios and their corresponding 95%-confidence intervals. To explore the relationship between individual single nucleotide polymorphisms and socioeconomic status sex- and age-adjusted odds ratios were computed. We adjusted the alpha-level for multiple testing of 11 single nucleotide polymorphisms using Bonferroni's method (α(BF) ~ 0.005). In addition, we explored the association of a genetic risk score with socioeconomic status. Social inequalities in diabetes were observed for all indicators of socioeconomic status. However, there were no significant associations between individual diabetes-related risk alleles and socioeconomic status with odds ratios ranging from 0.87 to 1.23. Similarly, the genetic risk score analysis revealed no evidence for an association. Our data provide no evidence for an association between 11 diabetes-related risk alleles and different indicators of socioeconomic status in a population-based cohort, suggesting that the explored genetic variants do not contribute to health inequalities in diabetes.
Borkotoky, Kakoli; Unisa, Sayeed; Gupta, Ashish Kumar
This study aimed to identify the determinants of nutritional status of children in India with a special focus on dietary diversity at the state level. Household-level consumption data from three rounds of the Consumer Expenditure Survey of the National Sample Survey Organization (1993-2012) were used. Information on the nutritional status of children was taken from the National Family Health Survey (2005-06). Dietary diversity indices were constructed at the state level to examine diversity in quantity of food consumed and food expenditure. Multilevel regression analysis was applied to examine the association of state-level dietary diversity and other socioeconomic factors with the nutritional status of children. It was observed that significant variation in childhood stunting, wasting and underweight could be explained by community- and state-level factors. The results indicate that dietary diversity has increased in India over time, and that dietary diversity at the state level is significantly associated with the nutritional status of children. Moreover, percentage of households with a regular salaried income in a state, percentage of educated mothers and mothers receiving antenatal care in a community are important factors for improving the nutritional status of children. Diversity in complementary child feeding is another significant determinant of nutritional status of children. The study thus concludes that increasing dietary diversity at the state level is an effective measure to reduce childhood malnutrition in India.
Chung, Woojin; Kim, Jaeyeun; Lim, Seung-Ji; Lee, Sunmi
No study of obesity risk for people in developed countries has conducted a multi-dimensional analysis of the association of socioeconomic status with obesity. In this paper, we investigated if education functions as either a confounder or an effect modifier in the association of another socioeconomic status indicator with obesity. This cross-sectional study analyzed data of an adult population sample (10,905 men and 14,580 women) from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2010-2014). The study performed multivariate logistic regression analyses for three education levels and four indicators of socioeconomic status (i.e., marital status, residential area, occupation, and income). The overall prevalence of obesity was 38.1% in men and 29.1% in women (p status and obesity (p for interaction = 0.006), it functioned as both a confounder (p socioeconomic indicator groups in men; for example, in a rural resident group, a higher level of education increased the probability of being obese by 19.7%. The present study suggests the need to examine sex-specific studies regarding the role of education on the association between other socioeconomic status indicators and obesity. This should be considered in planning education policies to reduce the risk of obesity.
Kolonko, A; Chudek, J; Kujawa-Szewieczek, A; Wiȩcek, A
Obesity predicts vascular stiffness, which is prevalent among kidney transplant patients. However, the influence of obesity has not been established on parameters of renal vascular resistance variation. The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of nutritional status on intrarenal resistive parameters as measured in the early period after successful kidney transplantation by Doppler ultrasound. Both pulsatility index (PI) and resistance index (RI) in the kidney graft were measured by Doppler sonography twice: at 2 to 4 days and before hospital discharge (mean 22 days; 95% confidence interval 21-23) after transplantation. Nutritional status was scored according to World Health Organization criteria. Among 513 patients, 29 were underweight; 280, normal; 166, overweight; and 38, obese. Both PI and RI values were significantly increased consistent with recipient nutritional status (analysis of variance: P underweight or normal weight groups. Multivariate analysis revealed an influence of body mass index on PI and RI measurements before hospital discharge to be independent of other variables, including recipient age, prior delayed graft function and cold ischemia time. Excessive nutritional status was associated with increased renal vascular resistance among kidney transplant patients. Nutritional status should be considered for the proper interpretation of intrarenal Doppler measurements. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Feb 3, 2012 ... patterns in children aged 6-23 months in returnee villages in northern Uganda, and then to identify feasible strategies to promote nutrition. Perceived understanding of the presentation and ... Weight. Weight was measured using a digital Seca scale according to World. Health Organization (WHO) standards.
Madjdian, Donya; Bras, H.A.J.
During the last decades, the focus of food and nutrition security research has shifted from issues of macro-level availability to problems of unequal access, and distribution within the household. Little systematic attention has however been paid to the role of family systems in household food
The caregivers of the ten children in the control group received nutrition education ... are essential for the physical, mental and emotional development of children as well as the quality of life for adults . ..... The author of this paper wishes to acknowledge Regional Universities Forum for capacity building in agriculture ...
Megwalu, Uchechukwu C
Objective To evaluate the impact of county-level socioeconomic status on survival in patients with oropharyngeal cancer in the United States. Study Design Retrospective cohort study via a large population-based cancer database. Methods Data were extracted from the SEER 18 database (Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results) of the National Cancer Institute. The study cohort included 18,791 patients diagnosed with oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma between 2004 and 2012. Results Patients residing in counties with a low socioeconomic status index had worse overall survival (56.5% vs 63.0%, P socioeconomic status index. On multivariable analysis, residing in a county with a low socioeconomic status index was associated with worse overall survival (hazard ratio, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.14-1.29; P status, year of diagnosis, site, American Joint Committee on Cancer stage group, presence of distant metastasis, presence of unresectable tumor, histologic grade, surgical resection of primary site, treatment with neck dissection, and radiation therapy. Conclusion Residing in a county with a low socioeconomic status index is associated with worse survival. Further research is needed to elucidate the mechanism by which socioeconomic status affects survival in oropharyngeal cancer.
Quinn, David M.; Cooc, North; McIntyre, Joe; Gomez, Celia J.
Early studies examining seasonal variation in academic achievement inequality generally concluded that socioeconomic test score gaps grew more over the summer than the school year, suggesting schools served as "equalizers." In this study, we analyze seasonal trends in socioeconomic status (SES) and racial/ethnic test score gaps using…
Tomalski, Przemyslaw; Moore, Derek G.; Ribeiro, Helena; Axelsson, Emma L.; Murphy, Elizabeth; Karmiloff-Smith, Annette; Johnson, Mark H.; Kushnerenko, Elena
Socioeconomic status (SES) impacts on both structural and functional brain development in childhood, but how early its effects can be demonstrated is unknown. In this study we measured resting baseline EEG activity in the gamma frequency range in awake 6-9-month-olds from areas of East London with high socioeconomic deprivation. Between-subject…
Fernald, L C H; Adler, N E
In the developed world, there is a well-established inverse association between socioeconomic status (SES) and blood pressure. In the developing world, however, these relationships are not as clear, particularly in middle-income countries undergoing epidemiological and nutritional transition. A house-to-house cross-sectional survey was conducted in low-income regions of rural Mexico in 2003. A sample of women (n = 9362) aged 18-65 years (mean 35.2, SD 10.4) was assessed. Measurements of systolic blood pressure (SBP) and body mass index (BMI) were obtained using standardised techniques and equipment. Interviews were conducted to collect information about SES, both objective (education, income, housing and assets, occupation) and subjective (perceived social status). Household income, housing and assets were positively and strongly associated with age-adjusted SBP; the associations were attenuated somewhat with the inclusion of BMI. SBP was also positively associated with perceived social status within one's community. In contrast, age and BMI-adjusted SBP was negatively associated with educational achievement. There was a significant education by BMI interaction; at equivalent values for BMI, women who had received at least some secondary education had lower SBP than those who had received less education. In contrast to traditional assumptions about the associations between SES and health, women in low-income rural populations who are at the upper end of the income spectrum within their community were found to be more likely to have higher SBP, as were those who perceived that they had higher status in the community. These results challenge standard assumptions about the association of SES and health.
Ratner, Rinat G; Hernández, Paulina J; Martel, Jorge A; Atalah, Eduardo S
The Chilean population has inadequate lifestyles and high prevalence of chronic diseases. To analyze eating behaviors, nutritional status and history of previous diseases, in students of higher education. Cross-sectional study in students of 54 higher education centers across the country. They answered a survey about dietary habits, physical activity, smoking, previous diseases and opinion of their nutritional condition. Weight and height were measured under standardized conditions and nutritional status classified according to body mass index. We studied 6,823 students aged 17 to 29 years. Forty seven percent did not have breakfast and 35% did not have lunch every day. A low proportion had a daily consumption of vegetables (51.2%), fruits (39.4%) and dairy products (57.5%). There was a high frequency of soft drinks, chips, cakes and sweets consumption. Seventy six percent were sedentary, 40.3% smokers and 27.4% overweight or obese. The latter had a significantly higher frequency of diabetes, hypertension and hypercholesterolemia. There was a poor agreement between actual nutritional status and self-perception, especially in males (Kappa index 0.38). Recipients of a food scholarship provided by the Ministry of Education ate lunch usually with a higher frequency (p food scholarship has some positive effects, although differences in socioeconomic levels limited comparisons.
Restrepo-Mesa, Sandra Lucia; Zapata López, Natalia; Parra Sosa, Beatriz Elena; Escudero Vásquez, Luz Estela; Betancur Arrovaye, Laura
in developing countries, including Colombia, teen pregnancy is a public health problem. It brings social, health and nutritional consequences for the mother/son binomial. to assess demographic, socioeconomic, food security, health and nutritional status characteristics in a group of pregnant teenagers and their newborns. a cross sectional analytical study was performed in 294 pregnant teenagers in their third trimester of pregnancy enrolled in the prenatal care programs of the public network of hospitals in Medellin-Colombia between 2011 and 2012. Association between the mother's body mass index, iron nutritional status and newborn's weight at birth using explicative variables was assessed. monthly incomes under a minimum salary were associated with low mother's weight and newborns small for gestational age. Low gestational weight was higher in pregnant women under 15 years of age and with a gynecological age under five years. The prevalence of anemia was low in the first trimester and increased at the end of pregnancy; 5.6% had adequate iron reserves. Low weight at birth was associated with infections and mother's low weight in the third trimester of pregnancy. teenage pregnancy is a complex problem associated with negative effects in the nutritional, health and social status of the girl and their newborn. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.
Hercílio Paulino ANDRÉ
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate factors associated with the iron nutritional status of Brazilian children aged 4 to 7 years in the city of Viçosa, Minas Gerais state, Brazil. Methods This is a cross-sectional study of 357 children aged 4-7 years who had been followed-up up for during their first six months of life by the Breastfeeding Support Program. Socioeconomic and demographic characteristics, feeding practices, nutritional status (height-for-age and body mass index-for-age, and serum ferritin and hemoglobin concentrations were evaluated. Multiple linear regression analysis was carried out to evaluate factors independently associated with iron nutritional status (hemoglobin and ferritin, considering α=0.05 as the significance level. Results The prevalence of anemia and iron deficiency was (34 9.52% and (11 11.00%, respectively. The factors independently associated with anemia were younger child age, low maternal education, low height-for-age Z-scores, and children of single and separated mothers or widows. Iron deficiency was associated with child younger age and consumption of chocolates and chocolate flavored milk. Conclusion The results obtained allow us to conclude that anemia among children 4-7 years of age is a public health problem in the city of Viçosa, Minas Gerais. Therefore, there is a need for intervention measures targeting children in this age group. These measures can be implemented through food and nutritional education by encouraging the consumption of iron-rich foods.
Rao, Kodavanti Mallikharjuna; Balakrishna, Nagalla; Laxmaiah, Avula; Venkaiah, Kodali; Brahmam, G N V
Tribal population constitutes about 8% of the total population in India. They are particularly vulnerable to undernutrition, because of their geographical isolation, socio-economic disadvantage and inadequate health facilities. Recognizing the problem, Government of India launched different programmes for their welfare. Adolescence is a significant period of growth and maturation. The nutritional status of adolescent girls, the future mothers, contributes significantly to the nutritional status of the community. Therefore an attempt was made to assess the diet and nutritional status of adolescent population from the different tribal areas of India. The available database collected by National Nutrition Monitoring Bureau (1998-99) was utilized for this purpose. Data on a total of 12,789 adolescents (10-17 yrs) was included for the analysis. Four percent of the adolescent girls were married and less than 1% were either pregnant (0.4%) or lactating (0.7%) at the time of the survey. The mean intake of all the foodstuffs, especially the income elastic foods such as Pulses, Milk & Milk products, Oils & fats and Sugar & Jaggery were lower than the recommended levels of ICMR. The intake of all the foodstuffs except green leafy vegetables was lower than that of their rural counterparts. The intake of all the nutrients were below the recommended level, while that of micronutrients such as iron, vitamin A and riboflavin were grossly inadequate in all the age and sex groups. About 63% of adolescent boys and 42% of girls were undernourished (population with special focus on adolescents.
Chas, S.J.; Kale, M.; Konwert, S.; Meißler, L.; Limaye, D.
Malnutrition, nutritional deficiency, or undernutrition is an imbalanced nutritional status resulting from insufficient intake of nutrients to meet normal physiologic requirements. Malnutrition in childhood has both short-term consequences and long-term consequences on mental and physical health as well as the overall health development of children. Of all regions in the world, the Asia and the Pacific region has achieved the fastest rate of economic growth. There is no evidence that this rap...
Syed M. A. Hanifi
Full Text Available Background: Bangladesh has achieved remarkable gains in health indicators during the last four decades despite low levels of economic development. However, the persistence of inequities remains disturbing. This success was also accompanied by health and demographic transitions, which in turn brings new challenges for a nation that has yet to come to terms with pre-transition health challenges. It is therefore important to understand the causes of death and their relationship with socioeconomic status (SES. Objective: The paper aims to assess the causes of death by SES based on surveillance data from a rural area of Bangladesh, in order to understand the situation and inform policy makers and programme leaders. Design: We analysed population-based mortality data collected from the Chakaria Health and Demographic Surveillance System in Bangladesh. The causes of death were determined by using a Bayesian-based programme for interpreting verbal autopsy findings (InterVA-4. The data included 1,391 deaths in 217,167 person-years of observation between 2010 and 2012. The wealth index constructed using household assets was used to assess the SES, and disease burdens were compared among the wealth quintiles. Results: Analysing cause of death (CoD revealed that non-communicable diseases (NCDs were the leading causes of deaths (37%, followed by communicable diseases (CDs (22%, perinatal and neonatal conditions (11%, and injury and accidents (6%; the cause of remaining 24% of deaths could not be determined. Age-specific mortality showed premature birth, respiratory infections, and drowning were the dominant causes of death for childhood mortality (0–14 years, which was inversely associated with SES (p<0.04. For adult and the elderly (15 years and older, NCDs were the leading cause of death (51%, followed by CDs (23%. For adult and the elderly, NCDs concentrated among the population from higher SES groups (p<0.005, and CDs among the lower SES groups (p<0
Mitchell, Michael J; Stubbs, Benjamin A; Eisenberg, Mickey S
Although socioeconomic status (SES) has been linked to multiple health outcomes, there have been few studies of the effect of SES on the provision of bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) during cardiac arrest events and no studies that we know of on the effect of SES on the provision of dispatcher-assisted bystander CPR. This study sought to define the relationship between SES and the provision of bystander CPR in an emergency medical system that includes dispatcher-provided CPR instructions. This study was a retrospective, cohort analysis of cardiac arrests due to cardiac causes occurring in private residences in King County, Washington, from January 1, 1999, to December 31, 2005. We used the tax-assessed value of the location of the cardiac arrest as an estimate of the SES of potential bystanders as well as multiple measures from 2000 Census data (education, employment, median household income, and race/ethnicity). We also examined the effect of patient and system characteristics that may affect the provision of bystander CPR. Logistic regression models were used to analyze the association of these factors with two outcomes: the provision of bystander CPR with and without dispatcher assistance. Forty-four percent (1,151/2,618) of cardiac arrest victims received bystander CPR. Four hundred fifty-seven people (17.5% of the entire study population, 39.7% of those who received any bystander CPR) received CPR without telephone instructions. A total of 694 people received dispatcher-assisted bystander CPR (25.6% of the entire population, 60.4% of those receiving any bystander CPR). After adjusting for demographic and care factors, we found a strong association between the tax-assessed value of the cardiac arrest location and increased odds of the provision of bystander CPR without dispatcher instructions and bystander CPR with dispatcher assistance compared with no bystander CPR. This study suggests that higher bystander SES is associated with increased rates
Sparks, P. Johnelle; Sparks, Corey S.
This paper assesses individual and social environment determinants of obesity in the adult Mexican population based on socioeconomic position, rural residence, and areal deprivation. Using a nationally representative health and nutrition survey, this analysis considers individual and structural determinants of obesity from a socioeconomic position and health disparities conceptual framework using multilevel logistic regression models. We find that more than thirty percent of Mexican adults we...
Full Text Available Abstract Background The aims of this study were to evaluate whether a diversity of healthy foods in a household would decrease the availability of unhealthy foods and to evaluate the association between a healthy dietary diversity score (DDS and nutritional status among adults. Methods Data from the 2002-2003 Brazilian Household Budget Survey were used. This nationwide survey used a two-stage sampling technique: households were selected after selection of primary sample units (PSUs. Analyses were based on 3,393 PSUs, evaluating 659,816 records of food items purchased by 35,237 households. The DDS was based on the healthy food groups according to Brazilian food guidelines. Per capita acquisition of sugar, sweets, sugar-sweetened beverages and crackers, cookies and cakes (unhealthy food groups in PSUs was also calculated. Individual weight and height were measured at household. Multivariate linear regression models estimated the association of underweight and overweight and obesity (excess weight with the PSUs' DDS. Results Greater acquisition of unhealthy food groups was associated with higher DDS. A high PSU's DDS was negatively associated with underweight (β = -0.38; p-value = 0.04 and positively associated with excess weight (β = 0.98; p-value = 0.05 after adjustment for availability of unhealthy food groups and socioeconomic variables. Conclusions Our data indicate that there was no replacement of unhealthy food groups by healthy food groups, therefore a healthy diet message for obesity prevention should be combined with a message focused on eating less.
The purpose or this study was to examine socioeconomic status (SES) of recruits in the Army and Marine Corps and to analyze the relationship between a recruit's SES background and his or her performance in the military over time...
Jo, In-Young; Kim, Woo Jeong; Park, Hyeong Cheon; Choi, Hoon Young; Lee, Jung Eun; Lee, Song Mi
This study set out to evaluate the impact of personalized nutritional counseling (PNC) on the nutritional status of hemodialysis (HD) patients. This was an intervention study for 10 months at 2 hospitals. Anthropometric, biochemical, dietary, and body composition parameters were measured at baseline and after 3 and 6 months of PNC. A total of 42 patients (23 men and 19 women) were included. Intake of dietary protein, serum albumin, and cholesterol levels had increased significantly from baseline to month 6 (p nutritional status of the subjects using the malnutrition inflammation score (MIS), and divided them into an adequately nourished (AN) and a malnourished (MN) group at baseline. In the subgroup analysis, serum levels of albumin and cholesterol had increased significantly, particularly from baseline to month 6 in the MN group (p nutritional status, particularly in malnourished patients receiving HD treatment.
Kort, D; van Rein, N; van der Meer, F J M; Vermaas, H W; Wiersma, N; Cannegieter, S C; Lijfering, W M
Essentials Literature on socioeconomic status (SES) and incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) is scarce. We assessed neighborhood SES with VTE risk in a population of over 1.4 million inhabitants. Higher neighborhood SES was associated with lower incidence of VTE. These findings are helpful to inform policy and resource allocation in health systems. Background The association between socioeconomic status and arterial cardiovascular disease is well established. However, despite its high burden of disability-adjusted life years, little research has been carried out to determine whether socioeconomic status is associated with venous thromboembolism. Objective To determine if neighborhood socioeconomic status is associated with venous thromboembolism in a population-based study from the Netherlands. Methods We identified all patients aged 15 years and older with a first event of venous thromboembolism from inhabitants who lived in the urban districts of The Hague, Leiden and Utrecht in the Netherlands in 2008-2012. Neighborhood socioeconomic status was based on the status score, which combines educational level, income and unemployment on a four-digit postal code level. Incidence rate ratios of venous thromboembolism were calculated for different levels of neighborhood socioeconomic status, with adjustments for age and sex. Results A total of 7373 patients with a first venous thromboembolism (median age 61 years; 50% deep vein thrombosis) were identified among more than 1.4 million inhabitants. Higher neighborhood SES was associated with lower incidence of VTE. In the two highest status score groups (i.e. the 95-99th and > 99th percentile), the adjusted incidence rate ratios were 0.91 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.84-1.00) and 0.80 (95% CI, 0.69-0.93), respectively, compared with the reference status score group (i.e. 30-70th percentile). Conclusions High neighborhood socioeconomic status is associated with a lower risk of first venous thromboembolism. © 2017
Luder, E; Boey, E; Buchalter, B; Martinez-Weber, C
Homeless people eat foods at municipal and charity run shelters, fast-food restaurants, delicatessens, and from garbage bins. Data on the adequacy of the diets and the nutritional status of homeless persons are sparse. Therefore, nutritional indicators of 55 urban homeless subjects were assessed, and a high prevalence of risk factors was identified. Although 93 percent of subjects reported that they obtained enough to eat, a low dietary adequacy score of 10.1 (norm = 16) indicated that the qu...
Mohaghegh, Pegah; Yavari, Parvin; Akbari, Mohammad Esmaeil; Abadi, Alireza; Ahmadi, Farzaneh; Shormeij, Zeinab
Not only the expand development of knowledge for reducing risk factors, but also the improvement in early diagnosis and treatment of cancer, and socioeconomic inequalities could affect cancer incidence, diagnosis stage, and mortality. The aim of this study was investigation the relationships between family levels of socioeconomic status and distribution of breast cancer risk factors. This descriptive cross-sectional study has conducted on 526 patients who were suffering from breast cancer, and have registered in Cancer Research Center of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences from March 2008 to December 2013. A reliable and valid questionnaire about family levels of socioeconomic status has filled by interviewing the patients via phone. For analyzing the data, Multinomial logistic regression, Kendal tau-b correlation coefficient and Contingency Coefficient tests have executed by SPSS19. The mean age of the patients was 48.30 (SD=11.41). According to the results of this study, there was a significant relationship between family socioeconomic status and patient's age at diagnosis of breast cancer (p valuesocioeconomic status and number of pregnancies, and duration of breast feeding were significant (p value> 0.001). In the multiple logistic regressions, the relationship between excellent socioeconomic status and number of abortions was significant (p value> 0.007). Furthermore, the relationships between moderate and good socioeconomic statuses and smoking were significant (p value=0.05 and p value=0.02, respectively). The results have indicated that among those patients having better socioeconomic status, age at cancer diagnosis, number of pregnancies and duration of breast feeding was lower, and then number of abortions was more than the others. According to the results of this study, it was really important to focus on family socioeconomic status as a critical and effective variable on breast cancer risk factors among the Iranian women.
Wagner, Katia Jakovljevic Pudla; Bastos, João Luiz Dornelles; Navarro, Albert; Gonzalez-Chica, David Alejandro; Boing, Antonio Fernando
OBJECTIVE To test whether there is an association between socioeconomic status in childhood and measures of body mass index, waist circumference and the presence of overall and abdominal obesity in adult life. METHODS A cross-sectional analysis of a population-based cohort study, including a sample of adults (22-63 years old) living in Florianópolis, Southern Brazil. The socioeconomic status in childhood was analyzed through the education level of the participant's parents. Height, weight and waist circumference were measured by previously trained interviewers. Linear and logistic regressions with adjustment for confounding factors and stratification of data according to gender were used. RESULTS Of the 1,222 adults evaluated, 20.4% (95%CI 18.1-22.8) presented overall obesity and 24.8% (95%CI 22.4-27.4), abdominal obesity. The body mass index and waist circumference averages among women were, respectively, 1.2 kg/m2 (95%CI -2.3- -0.04) and 2.8 cm (95%CI -5.3- -0.2) lower among those with higher socioeconomic status in childhood. Among men, waist circumference was 3.9 cm (95%CI 1.0-6.8) higher in individuals with higher socioeconomic status in childhood. Regarding obesity, women of higher socioeconomic status in childhood had lower odds of abdominal obesity (OR = 0.56, 95%CI 0.34-0.90), and no such association was observed among men. CONCLUSIONS The socioeconomic status in childhood influences body mass index, waist circumference and obesity in adults, with a difference in the direction of association according to gender. The higher socioeconomic status among men and the lower socioeconomic status among women were associated with higher adiposity indicators.
Jakobsen, Lars; Niemann, Troels; Thorsgaard, Niels
The association between low socioeconomic status (SES) and high mortality from coronary heart disease is well-known. However, the role of SES in relation to the clinical outcome after primary percutaneous coronary intervention remains poorly understood.......The association between low socioeconomic status (SES) and high mortality from coronary heart disease is well-known. However, the role of SES in relation to the clinical outcome after primary percutaneous coronary intervention remains poorly understood....
Pereira, Ingrid Freitas da Silva; Spyrides, Maria Helena Constantino; Andrade, Lára de Melo Barbosa
The objectives of this study were to diagnose the nutritional status of the elderly Brazilian population and to identify associated factors. The study used data from the Brazilian Household Budget Survey (2008/2009) for 20,114 elderly, whose nutritional status was assessed by body mass index (BMI). Associated factors were tested with the Pearson chi-square test and multilevel linear models. The hierarchical analysis showed a significant effect of state of Brazil on BMI variance (p-value = 0.001). The individual level showed a negative association (p-value Underweight was more prevalent among elderly in rural areas (26.3%) and in the Northeast (23.7%) and Central regions (20.9%), and obesity was more prevalent in the South (45.1%) and Southeast (38.3%) and in cities (39%). The study suggests the importance of further in-depth research on nutritional status of elderly based on contextual variables.
José António Ribeiro Maia
Full Text Available In all developing countries, particularly in Africa, prevalence rates of undernutrition are high, notwithstanding the lower values in adolescents when compared to children. It is believed that precarious socio-economic conditions, environmental pressure, hygienic and sanitary circumstances as well as other factors induce unique nutritional constraints. This summary paper aims at the presentation of the state of the art of research in Sub-Saharan African countries concerning the evaluation of the nutritional status with different population strata that varies in age, ethnic grouping, geographical area, and socio-economic status, emphasizing the prevalence of nutritional defi cits. A research was made in PubMed database as well as in other on-line journals, and the same occurred for book chapters considering the following criteria of inclusion for references: descriptive and comparative research, studies concerning nutritional status and its relation with infectious diseases, and studies on nutritional habits and socio-economic status. In general, reviewed studies showed the high prevalence of stunting and wasting expressing differences between villages and towns; this trend is a function of age, sex and socio-economic status. On the other hand, results showed that socio-economic status, level of maternal scholarship and children’s biological characteristics (age and sex are major determinants of nutritional status. ABSTRACT De um modo geral, em todos os países em desenvolvimento e, no continente africano em particular, as taxas de prevalência de desnutrição são elevadas, embora aquelas observadas em adolescente sejam relativamente menores das observadas em crianças e jovens. Acredita-se que as precárias condições sócio-econômicas, a pressão ambiental, as condições higiênico-sanitárias, entre outros fatores, encontrem neste continente uma expressão particular e resultem num quadro de constrangimento nutricional próprio. O
Full Text Available Background: As breast milk micronutrients content are essential for health and growth of the infants, this study was conducted to determine the breast milk zinc, copper and iron concen-trations and their possible correlations with maternal nutritional status, dietary intakes as well as socioeconomic status.Methods: Breast milk samples and information on maternal anthropometric characteristics and dietary intake were collected from 90 Iranian lactating women with 3 different socioeco-nomic status who exclusively breastfed their infants. Concentrations of trace elements were analyzed using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Nutritionist III program, Multiple Re-gression and ANOVA test were used for data analyses.Results: The mean milk zinc, copper, and iron concentrations were 1.93 ± 0.71, 0.58 ± 0.32, and 0.81 ± 0.2 mg/l, respectively. In all three SES groups only zinc mean level was lower than the recommended range. A significant difference was observed in breast milk zinc, copper and iron concentration between high and low SES groups (Zn (P<0.001, Cu (P<0.001 and Fe (P<0.044 and also moderate and low SES groups (Zn (P<0.03, Cu (P<0.001 and Fe (P<0.049. After adjusting for maternal body mass index (BMI, socioeconomic status, mean dietary energy, zinc, copper, and iron intakes, there was a negative and significant association between maternal age and breast milk zinc (β=-0.28, P<0.034, copper (β=-0.18, P<0.048, and iron (β=-0.22, P<0.04 concentrations.Conclusion: In low socioeconomic group with lower mean age, breast milk mineral levels were higher than others and there was no significant correlation between mineral levels and dietary intake. Hence it is supposed that maternal age may be better predictor of breast milk mineral levels.
Ikizler, T Alp
Protein energy wasting is common in patients with CKD and ESRD and is associated with adverse clinical outcomes, such as increased rates of hospitalization and death, in these patients. A multitude of factors can affect the nutritional and metabolic status of patients with CKD, including decreased dietary nutrient intake, catabolic effects of renal replacement therapy, systemic inflammation, metabolic and hormonal derangements, and comorbid conditions (such as diabetes and depression). Unique aspects of CKD also confound reliable assessment of nutritional status, further complicating management of this comorbid condition. In patients in whom preventive measures and oral dietary intake from regular meals cannot help them maintain adequate nutritional status, nutritional supplementation, administered orally, enterally, or parenterally, is effective in replenishing protein and energy stores. The advantages of oral nutritional supplements include proven efficacy, safety, and compliance. Anabolic steroids and exercise, with nutritional supplementation or alone, improve protein stores and represent potential additional approaches for the treatment of PEW. There are several emerging novel therapies, such as appetite stimulants, anti-inflammatory interventions, and anabolic agents.
Summary Protein energy wasting is common in patients with CKD and ESRD and is associated with adverse clinical outcomes, such as increased rates of hospitalization and death, in these patients. A multitude of factors can affect the nutritional and metabolic status of patients with CKD, including decreased dietary nutrient intake, catabolic effects of renal replacement therapy, systemic inflammation, metabolic and hormonal derangements, and comorbid conditions (such as diabetes and depression). Unique aspects of CKD also confound reliable assessment of nutritional status, further complicating management of this comorbid condition. In patients in whom preventive measures and oral dietary intake from regular meals cannot help them maintain adequate nutritional status, nutritional supplementation, administered orally, enterally, or parenterally, is effective in replenishing protein and energy stores. The advantages of oral nutritional supplements include proven efficacy, safety, and compliance. Anabolic steroids and exercise, with nutritional supplementation or alone, improve protein stores and represent potential additional approaches for the treatment of PEW. There are several emerging novel therapies, such as appetite stimulants, anti-inflammatory interventions, and anabolic agents. PMID:23970134
Kivimäki, Mika; Virtanen, Marianna; Kawachi, Ichiro
BACKGROUND: Working long hours might have adverse health effects, but whether this is true for all socioeconomic status groups is unclear. In this meta-analysis stratified by socioeconomic status, we investigated the role of long working hours as a risk factor for type 2 diabetes. METHODS: We......·0016). In an analysis stratified by socioeconomic status, the association between long working hours and diabetes was evident in the low socioeconomic status group (risk ratio 1·29, 95% CI 1·06-1·57, difference in incidence 13 per 10 000 person-years, I2=0%, p=0·4662), but was null in the high socioeconomic status...... group (1·00, 95% CI 0·80-1·25, incidence difference zero per 10 000 person-years, I(2)=15%, p=0·2464). The association in the low socioeconomic status group was robust to adjustment for age, sex, obesity, and physical activity, and remained after exclusion of shift workers. INTERPRETATION: In this meta...
Njelekela, M A; Liu, E; Mpembeni, R; Muhihi, A; Mligiliche, N; Spiegelman, D; Finkelstein, J L; Fawzi, W W; Willett, W C; Mtabaji, J
This study was conducted to examine the associations between socioeconomic status, urbanization, and cardio-metabolic risk factors in Tanzania. Participants were 209 adults (45-66 years) in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. A structured questionnaire was used to evaluate socioeconomic status and behavioral characteristics, including income, education, occupation, residence (urban, rural, mixed), dietary factors, and smoking. Blood samples were collected and analyzed to measure lipid profiles and fasting glucose levels. Cardiometabolic risk factors were defined using World Health Organization criteria. Urban residence and higher socioeconomic status were associated with decreased intake of traditional staple food (ugali), and increased consumption of meat products and beverages. Higher socioeconomic status was associated with a significant 3.5-kg/m2 higher BMI (p = 0.0001) and 8 cm higher waist circumference (p Urban residence was associated with poorer lipid profile, including significantly higher total cholesterol, increased LDL cholesterol, but lower triglycerides, compared to rural residence. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was high (38%), and was associated with increased socioeconomic status. Urban residence and higher socioeconomic status were important correlates of cardiometabolic risk factors, including obesity and poorer lipid profile. Primary prevention and health screening strategies are needed to target cardiometabolic risk factors in urban areas, to reduce the burden of cardiovascular disease in Tanzania.
Kendzor, Darla E; Businelle, Michael S; Mazas, Carlos A; Cofta-Woerpel, Ludmila M; Reitzel, Lorraine R; Vidrine, Jennifer Irvin; Li, Yisheng; Costello, Tracy J; Cinciripini, Paul M; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S; Wetter, David W
Although socioeconomic status is a major contributing factor to health disparities, the mechanisms through which socioeconomic status influences health remain unclear. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate an a priori conceptual model of the pathways between socioeconomic status and modifiable health risk factors in a sample of 399 African Americans seeking smoking cessation treatment. A latent variable modeling approach was utilized to characterize the interrelationships among socioeconomic status, neighborhood disadvantage, social support, negative affect/perceived stress, and three specific modifiable risk factors (i.e., overweight/obesity, insufficient physical activity, at-risk drinking). Findings indicated that neighborhood disadvantage, social support, and negative affect/perceived stress function as pathways linking socioeconomic status and modifiable risk factors among African American smokers, and negative affect/perceived stress appears to play a key mediating role. Policy, community, and individual-level interventions may attenuate the impact of socioeconomic status on health by targeting intermediate psychosocial, environmental, and behavioral pathways. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009
Garcia, Denise Máximo; Mekitarian Filho, Eduardo; Gilio, Alfredo Elias; Lotufo, João Paulo Becker; Lo, Denise Swei
To associate the nutritional status and the self-perception of nutritional status with the use of licit drugs among adolescents. Cross-sectional study in which 210 adolescents answered a questionnaire on alcohol and tobacco experimentation and self-perceptions about their nutritional status. The correspondence between the adolescents' perception of their own nutritional status and actual nutritional status was analyzed, as well as associations between nutritional status, self-perception of nutritional status, gender, age, and presence of smokers at home with alcohol and tobacco use. The variables were analyzed separately in a bivariate analysis and, subsequently, a multivariate analysis determined the factors associated with drug use. The study included 210 adolescents with a median age of 148 months; 56.6% were females. Of the total sample, 6.6% have tried cigarettes, and 20% have tried alcohol; 32.3% had BMI Z-Score≥1, 12.85% had BMI Z-Score≥2, and 50.7% had a correct perception of his/her weight. After a multivariate analysis, only the self-perception about weight statistically influenced experimentation of tobacco, and patients who identified themselves as having very high weight were more likely to experiment tobacco (odds ratio (OR) 13.57; confidence interval (95% CI) 2.05-89.8; p=0.007); regarding alcohol use, adolescents who identified themselves as having high weight were 2.4 times more likely to experiment with alcohol than adolescents that identified themselves as having normal weight (95% CI 1.08-5.32, p=0.031). Adolescents with self-perception of excess weight may constitute a risk group for alcohol and tobacco use. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Prescott, E; Lange, P; Vestbo, J
This study analysed the effect of education and income on development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) assessing lung function and hospital admission. The study population consisted of 14,223 subjects, aged 20-90 yrs, randomly sampled from the population of Copenhagen in 1976...... index in females were 0.74 (0.55-1.02) and 0.27 (0.10-0.73), respectively. Corresponding relative risks in males were 0.47 (0.36-0.63) and 0.35 (0.17-0.70). The results indicate that socioeconomic factors operating from early in life affect the adult risk of developing chronic obstructive pulmonary....... Association between socioeconomic factors and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) at study entry was analysed by linear regression. The relation between socioeconomic factors and risk of admission to hospital for COPD from study entry until 1993 was assessed...
Kalinowski, Alison; Krause, Kylene; Berdejo, Carla; Harrell, Kristina; Rosenblum, Katherine; Lumeng, Julie C
To examine beliefs about the role of parenting in feeding and childhood obesity among mothers of lower socioeconomic status. Individual semistructured, audiotaped interview with 91 mothers of preschool-aged children (49% of mothers obese, 21% of children obese) in the midwestern United States. Participant comments were transcribed and common themes were identified using the constant comparative method and NVivo software. Mothers often described their parents' feeding style as authoritarian or neglectful, and their own current style as comparatively indulgent and better. Mothers described parents of overweight children as inept or neglectful, but they never described their own parenting as such. Encouraging mothers to reflect on how they were fed as children, how it may influence their current parenting, and how the relationship between mothering and child obesity is complex are important nutrition education opportunities. Copyright © 2012 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bering, Tatiana; Maurício, Sílvia Fernandes; Silva, Jacqueline Braga da; Correia, Maria Isabel Toulson Davisson
The nutritional and metabolic status have been related to cancer risk factors as well as to cancer treatment morbimortality. Thus, its assessment is important for developing strategies for the promotion, maintenance and / or recovery of nutritional status and cancer outcome. Several different methods for nutritional assessment in breast cancer patients undergoing adjuvant therapy were used, including subjective global assessment (SGA), body mass index (BMI), triceps skinfold (TSF), mid-arm circumference (MAC), adductor pollicis muscle thickness (APMT), hand grip strength (HGS) and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). The presence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) was also evaluated. The occurrence of complications during cancer treatment versus the nutritional status was assessed. We followed 78 women with a mean age of 53.2 } 11.6 years. Most patients were considered well nourished (80.8%). Excessive body fat mass by BIA and MetS were found in 80,8 % and 41.9% of the patients respectively. There were significant differences in BMI, TSF, WC (waist circumference) and % fat mass between patients with and without MetS. Most patients experienced complications during cancer treatment, but there was no association with nutritional or metabolic status. In breast cancer women undergoing adjuvant therapy, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome was high and, on the contrary, undernutrition was low. There were no short-term effects of metabolic syndrome or undernutrition on clinical outcomes. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.
Laudisio, Alice; Vetrano, Davide L; Meloni, Eleonora; Ricciardi, Diego; Franceschi, Francesco; Bentivoglio, Anna Rita; Bernabei, Roberto; Zuccalà, Giuseppe
Malnutrition has been found in up to 24% of patients with Parkinson's disease; dopaminergic drugs might impair nutritional status. We evaluated the association of nutritional status with the use of dopaminergic agents. We analyzed data from 75 elderly patients with Parkinson's disease attending a geriatric day hospital. Nutritional status was assessed by the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA). Dopaminergic drugs were normalized for weight. In linear regression, total levodopa (l-dopa) equivalent daily dose (LEDD) was associated with worse MNA (B = -0.14, 95% CI = -0.26--0.02; P = 0.019). This association remained significant only for l-dopa (B = -0.19, 95% CI = -0.32--0.52; P = 0.007), but not dopaminergic agent dosages. Increasing l-dopa dosages were associated with increasing probability of risk of malnutrition (P for trend = 0.049). In our population, LEDD was associated with worse nutritional status and risk of malnutrition; this association was limited to use of l-dopa. © 2014 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.
Banerjee, S R; Chakrabarty, S; Vasulu, T S; Bharati, S; Sinha, D; Banerjee, P; Bharati, P
Assessment of the growth and nutritional status among healthy Bengali adolescent schoolgirls at peri-urban area. In this cross sectional study, sample consists of 527 school going adolescent girls, aged 10 to 18 years. The sample of the present study was collected from a peri-urban area (Duttapukur) of north 24 parganas district of West Bengal, India. Standard anthropometric measurements including linear, curvilinear and skinfold thickness were collected from each subject. Percentile curves and nutritional indices were used to determine the growth and nutritional status respectively. The nature of distance curves and percentile curves of the body measurements showed a high rate of increase in 10-11 years of age group corresponding to an earlier adolescent growth spurt than average Indian girls. The adolescent girls in the current study were found to be significantly (purban Bengali girls but slightly shorter than urban Bengali girls. They are significantly (pgrowth period. Both the indices of Waterlow's classification show least percentage of least malnutrition among the girls. The growth pattern and nutritional status observed among adolescent girls in peri-urban situation show heterogeneity with respect to some anthropometric traits and in conformity with the growth pattern and nutritional status of urban girls.
Depression and diminished health status are common in adults with diabetes, but few studies have investigated associations with socio-economic environment. The objective of this manuscript was to evaluate the relationship between neighborhood-level SES and health status and depression. Individual-le...
McMurray, R G; Harrell, J S; Deng, S; Bradley, C B; Cox, L M; Bangdiwala, S I
This study examined the effects of physical activity, television viewing, video game play, socioeconomic status (SES), and ethnicity on body mass index (BMI). The sample was 2389 adolescents, 10 to 16 years of age (12.7 +/- 1.0 years); 1240 (52%) females and 1149 (48%) males; 77% white and 23% African American; from rural (77%) and urban (23%) settings. BMI and skinfolds were directly assessed. All other data were obtained from questionnaires. Watching television on non-school days was related to being overweight (p effects of television viewing on BMI (p > 0.061). Increased hours of video game play enhanced the risk of being overweight for both genders when analyses were adjusted for ethnicity and SES (p effect of television or videos. Because weight status of male adolescents appears to be more related to exercise habits than to television or video game habits, increased participation in high-intensity exercise appears to be important. For females, neither videos nor exercise habits appear to be related to risk of being overweight. However, ethnicity and SES may be important factors that can influence body weight status, while television viewing may be of some importance. Thus, programs to reduce obesity in female adolescent should focus their efforts in lower SES communities.
Studies assume that socioeconomic status determines individuals' states of health, but how does health determine socioeconomic status? And how does this association vary depending on contextual differences? To answer this question, our study uses an additive Bayesian Networks model to explain the interrelationships between health and socioeconomic determinants using complex and messy data. This model has been used to find the most probable structure in a network to describe the interdependence of these factors in five European welfare state regimes. The advantage of this study is that it offers a specific picture to describe the complex interrelationship between socioeconomic determinants and health, producing a network that is controlled by socio-demographic factors such as gender and age. The present work provides a general framework to describe and understand the complex association between socioeconomic determinants and health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Darmon, Nicole; Lacroix, Anne; Muller, Laurent; Ruffieux, Bernard
Prices are an important determinant of food choices. Consequently, food price policies (subsidies and/or taxes) are proposed to improve the nutritional quality of diets. The aim of the present study was to explore the impact of food price policies on the expenditures and nutritional quality of the food baskets chosen by low- and medium-income households. Experimental economics was used to examine two price manipulations: i) a fruit and vegetable price subsidy named "fruit and vegetables condition"; ii) a healthy-product subsidy coupled with an unhealthy-product tax named "nutrient profile condition". The nutrient profiling system called SAIN,LIM was used. This system classifies each individual food according to its overall nutritional quality which then allows for a food item to be taxed or subsidized. Women from low- (n = 95) and medium-incomes (n = 33) selected a daily food basket, first, at current prices and then at manipulated prices. The redistributive effects of experimental conditions were assessed by comparing the extent of savings induced by subsidies and of costs generated by the tax on the two income groups. Energy density (kcal/100 g), free sugars (% energy) and the mean adequacy ratio (MAR) were used as nutritional quality indicators. At baseline (before price manipulations), low-income women selected less expensive and less healthy baskets than medium-income ones. After price manipulations expenditures for both income group decreased significantly, whereas, the nutritional quality improved (energy density decreased, the MAR increased). Additionally, the redistributive effects were less favourable for low-income women and their nutritional quality improvements from baseline were significantly lower. Low-income women derived fewer financial and nutritional benefits from implemented food subsidies and taxes than medium-income women. This outcome suggests that food price policies may improve diet quality while increasing socio-economic
Grantham-McGregor, Sally M; Fernald, Lia C H; Kagawa, Rose M C; Walker, Susan
We conducted a systematic review of studies that examined the effect of interventions combining a child development component with a nutrition one; in some cases the nutrition interventions also included health-promotion components. Only papers with both child development and nutrition outcomes and rated as moderate-to-good quality were included. Eleven efficacy and two nonrandomized trials, and eight program evaluations were identified. Only six trials examined interventions separately and combined. The trials showed nutritional interventions usually benefited nutritional status and sometimes benefited child development. Stimulation consistently benefited child development. There was no significant loss of any effect when interventions were combined, but there was little evidence of synergistic interaction between nutrition and stimulation on child development. Only three trials followed up the children after intervention. All at-scale program evaluations were combined interventions. Five benefited child development, but one did not, and two showed deficits. There was generally little benefit of at-scale programs to nutritional status. We found no rigorous evaluations of adding stimulation to health and nutrition services at scale and there is an urgent need for them. There is also a need to establish quality-control mechanisms for existing scaled-up programs and to determine their long-term effects. There is also a need to determine if there are any sustained benefits for the children after programs finish. © 2013 New York Academy of Sciences.
Pérez Llamas, F; Moregó, A; Tóbaruela, M; García, Ma D; Santo, E; Zamora, S
Nutritional supplementation might be an effective strategy for improving the nutritional status and the quality of life of institutionalized fragile elderly. The prevalence of malnutrition and its relation with disease, and the influence of dietary supplementation by means of oral formulas on the nutritional status of elderly nursing home residents were assessed. Two studies were carried out, one a cross-sectional survey in 31 subjects and the other a longitudinal-sectional survey in 19 subjects, both groups living in a public nursing home in the city of Murcia (SE Spain). Body mass index (BMI), serum albumin concentration (ALB) and geriatric nutritional risk index (GNRI) were assessed as markers of potential malnutrition. Illnesses were ascertained from medical records. The prevalence of malnutrition of the total collective was high (39%), and especially in the fragile subjects (50%). The administration of oral nutritional supplements in the usual diet for 12 months significantly increased ALB and GNRI, and had no effect on body weigh and BMI. Jointly, these effects decreased the in the number of subjects at high nutritional risk and increased the number of subjects with a low or zero risk of malnutrition. The administration of oral nutritional supplements in the usual diet of this elderly collective is an effective clinical strategy in nutritional therapy.
Daraei, Mina; Mohajery, Artmiz
The stratification system in India has resulted in the socioeconomic inequality in society and defines women domestic workers as one of the lowest segments of society. This qualitative and quantitative study aims at describing the problems of female domestic workers, the relationship of their employers with them, and exploring the impact of…
determine whether variations in the body mass index (BMI) of adult Nigerians is influenced by their SES. ... A pictorial self-rating. SES ladder of nine rungs was employed to assess the participants' SES and to test the validity of the questionnaire. A high correlation ® = 0.951, ..... impacts of socioeconomics and body image.
Background. Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are a challenge to populations and health systems worldwide. It is projected that by 2020 about a third of all deaths globally will be caused by CVDs, and that they will become the single leading cause of death by 2030. Empirical evidence suggests that there is socioeconomic ...
health profession. There is practically no geographic area in the world whose inhabitants do not exhibit some evidence of dental caries. It affects both gender, .... dental caries12,13. Dental caries has been found to be a good proxy to measure socioeconomic development14. In developed countries, higher prevalence of ...
Artisan women, who belong to social class known as ogeyyii, meaning expert, play a vital role in socio-economic life of community of West Wallaga. They are producers of implements/utensils which the broad base of the society is putting to use in its day –to-day indoor and outdoor chores. Equally, their role in sustainable ...
Background: Sickle cell anemia (SCA) has multisystemic manifestations and is associated with severe morbidity and high mortality. It commonly ... Key words: Hemoglobin level, sickle cell anemia, socioeconomic class. Date of Acceptance: ..... prominent in the presence of a chronic disease such as SCA. The study revealed ...
Donaldson, S.S.; Lenon, R.A.
The nutritional status of a cancer patient may be affected by the tumor, the chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy directed against the tumor, and by complications associated with that therapy. Chemotherpay-radiotherapy is not confined exclusively to malignant cell populations; thus, normal tissues may also be affected by the therapy and may contribute to specific nutritional problems. Impaired nutrition due to anorexia, mucositis, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea may be dependent upon the specific chemotherapeutic agent, dose, or schedule utilized. Similar side effects from radiation therapy depend upon the dose, fractionation, and volume irradiated. When combined modality treatment is given the nutritional consequences may be magnified. Prospective, randomized clinical trials are underway to investigate the efficacy of nutritional support during chemotherapy-radiotherapy on tolerance to treatment, complications from treatment, and response rates to treatment. Preliminary results demonstrate that the administration of total parenteral nutrition is successful in maintaining weight during radiation therapy and chemotherapy, but that weight loss occurs after discontinuation of nutritional support. Thus, longterm evaluation is mandatory to learn the impact of nutritional support on survival, diease-free survival, and complication rates, as well as on the possible prevention of morbidity associated with aggressive chemotherapy-radiation therapy
Huo, Y R; Suriyaarachchi, P; Gomez, F; Curcio, C L; Boersma, D; Gunawardene, P; Demontiero, O; Duque, G
In older persons, the combination of osteoporosis and sarcopenia has been proposed as a subset of frailer individuals at higher risk of falls and fractures. However, the particular nutritional status of the sarco-osteoporotic (SOP) patients remains unknown. The goal of this study was to obtain a comprehensive picture of nutritional status in SOP patients. Cross-sectional study. Falls and Fractures Clinic, Nepean Hospital (Penrith, Australia). 680 subjects (mean age=79, 65% female) assessed between 2008-2013. Assessment included medical history, mini-nutritional assessment, physical examination, bone densitometry and body composition by DXA, and blood tests for nutritional status (albumin, creatinine, hemoglobin, vitamin D, vitamin B-12, calcium, phosphate and folate). Patients were divided in 4 groups: 1) osteopenia/osteoporosis (BMDnutritional parameters. Sarcopenia was present in 47.4% of those with osteopenia (167/352) and 62.7% in those with osteoporosis (91/145). Mean age of the SOP was 80.4±7 years. SOP patients showed significantly higher prevalence of falls and fractures. Univariate analyses showed that SOP were more likely than normal to have a BMI6 remained independently associated with SOP after adjustment for all variables including inflammatory conditions. Hypoalbuminemia (vitamin D, glomerular filtration rate, albumin, corrected calcium, phosphate, red blood cells folate or vitamin B12 levels were found between the subgroups. In approaching SOP patients, early prevention protocols directed to optimize their nutritional status would be a key strategy to prevent poor outcomes such as falls and fractures in this high risk population. Therefore, nutritional assessment and early nutritional supplementation should be essential domains in this strategy.
Erdei, Gergő; Kovács, Viktória Anna; Bakacs, Márta; Martos, Éva
The Hungarian Diet and Nutritional Status Survey examines the obesity prevalence, dietary habits and, since 2014, physical activity in Hungarian adults in every 5 years. The survey provides national data representative by age and gender, based on anthropometric measurements and international standards. In 2014, nearly two-thirds of adults were overweight or obese. 28.2% of men and 31.5% of women were obese. Prevalence of morbid obesity were 2.6% and 3.3% in men and women, respectively. Abdominal obesity was more prevalent among women than men (55% vs. 38%), and the rate was increasing with age in both genders. In elderly, 55% of men and almost 80% of women were abdominally obese. In conclusion, the prevalence of overweight, obesity, and abdominal obesity is high in Hungarian adults. In order to tackle obesity, we need to obtain representative and measured data, which form the basis of targeted interventions and the assessment of their impact. Orv. Hetil., 2017, 158(14), 533-540.
Full Text Available Research question: What is the prevalence of protein energy malnutrition (PEM in 1 – 5 yrs of age and factors associated with it. Objective: 1. To assess prevalence of protein energy malnutrition in children 1 – 5 yrs of age. 2. To identify the socio-economic and cultural factor associated with protein energy malnutrition Setting: Rural Health Training Centre, Jawan, Department of Community Medicine, J N Medical College, Aligarh. Study design: Cross-sectional study Study variable: Nutritional status, sex, family size, caste, social class, literacy status of parents. Statistical analysis: Chi-square (÷² test of significance Result: Overall prevalence of PEM was 56.4% in study population, with higher prevalence in female (58.6% as compared to males (54.2%. Significant relationship was seen between PEM and sex, social class, caste, literacy status of parents and mother.
Nazzal, Carolina; Alonso, Faustino; Cerecera, Francisco; Ojeda, José Miguel
A low socioeconomic status is associated with higher overall mortality rates. To assess the effect of socioeconomic inequalities on survival of patients hospitalized with a first myocardial infarction. Analysis of hospital discharge and mortality databases of the Ministry of Health. Patients aged over 15 years discharged between 2002 and 2011 with a first myocardial infarction (code I-21, ICD-10) were identified. Their survival was verified with the mortality registry. Survival from 0 to 28 and from 29 to 365 days was analyzed. Socioeconomic status was determined using the type of health insurance, stratified as public insurance (low and medium status) and private insurance (high status). Prais-Winsten trend (P-W) and Cox survival analyses were done. We analyzed 59,557 patients (69% males). Sixty three percent were of low socioeconomic status, 19% medium and 18% high. Between 2002 and 2011 the increase in survival was higher among patients of low socioeconomic status, mainly in women (P-W coefficients 0.58:0.31-0.86 in men and 1.12:0.84-1.41 in women for 0-28 days survival and 0.24:0.09-0.39 in men and 0.48:0.37-0.60 in women for 29-365 days survival, respectively). However, age and year of hospitalization adjusted analysis showed a higher mortality risk among patients of low socioeconomic status at 0-28 days (HR 1.67:1.53-1.83 for men and 1.49:1.34-1.66 for women) and at 29-365 days (HR 2.30:1.75-2.71 for men and 1.90:1.56-1.85 for women). Survival after a myocardial infarction improved in the last decade especially in patients of low socioeconomic status. However, subjects of this stratum continue to have a higher mortality.
Khayri, Hiba O; Muneer, Siddig E; Ahmed, Saifeldeen B; Osman, Magdi A; Babiker, Elfadil E
The study was conducted in Saudi Arabia to assess the nutritional status of primary school Sudanese pupils and explore its' correlates. Anthropometric measurements of 400 (200 males and 200 females) students of age 6-12 were taken. Their daily food intake was assessed using food frequency and 24 h recall method. Data about the socio-economic characteristics of the students' families was collected through personal interview using a questionnaire. The study revealed that 31 and 8.75 % of the respondents suffer from underweight and overweight, respectively. The respondents' average daily intake of calories and fiber was significantly lower than that of the DRI, while their intake of protein, carbohydrates, unsaturated fat, some vitamins and iron was significantly higher than that of the DRI (unbalanced meals). Apart from the family monthly income none of the hypothesized predictors of the respondents' nutritional status were found to be significantly correlated with the students' nutritional status indicators.
Roberts, Andrea L; Johnson, Norman J; Chen, Jarvis T; Cudkowicz, Merit E; Weisskopf, Marc G
To determine whether race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status are associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) mortality in the United States. The National Longitudinal Mortality Study (NLMS), a United States-representative, multistage sample, collected race/ethnicity and socioeconomic data prospectively. Mortality information was obtained by matching NLMS records to the National Death Index (1979-2011). More than 2 million persons (n = 1,145,368 women, n = 1,011,172 men) were included, with 33,024,881 person-years of follow-up (1,299 ALS deaths , response rate 96%). Race/ethnicity was by self-report in 4 categories. Hazard ratios (HRs) for ALS mortality were calculated for race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status separately and in mutually adjusted models. Minority vs white race/ethnicity predicted lower ALS mortality in models adjusted for socioeconomic status, type of health insurance, and birthplace (non-Hispanic black, HR 0.61, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.48-0.78; Hispanic, HR 0.64, 95% CI 0.46-0.88; other races, non-Hispanic, HR 0.52, 95% CI 0.31-0.86). Higher educational attainment compared with socioeconomic status, birthplace, or type of health insurance. Higher rate of ALS among whites likely reflects actual higher risk of ALS rather than ascertainment bias or effects of socioeconomic status on ALS risk. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.
Quinto-Sánchez, Mirsha; Cintas, Celia; Silva de Cerqueira, Caio Cesar; Ramallo, Virginia; Acuña-Alonzo, Victor; Adhikari, Kaustubh; Castillo, Lucía; Gomez-Valdés, Jorge; Everardo, Paola; De Avila, Francisco; Hünemeier, Tábita; Jaramillo, Claudia; Arias, Williams; Fuentes, Macarena; Gallo, Carla; Poletti, Giovani; Schuler-Faccini, Lavinia; Bortolini, Maria Cátira; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel; Rothhammer, Francisco; Bedoya, Gabriel; Rosique, Javier; Ruiz-Linares, Andrés; González-José, Rolando
The expression of facial asymmetries has been recurrently related with poverty and/or disadvantaged socioeconomic status. Departing from the developmental instability theory, previous approaches attempted to test the statistical relationship between the stress experienced by individuals grown in poor conditions and an increase in facial and corporal asymmetry. Here we aim to further evaluate such hypothesis on a large sample of admixed Latin Americans individuals by exploring if low socioeconomic status individuals tend to exhibit greater facial fluctuating asymmetry values. To do so, we implement Procrustes analysis of variance and Hierarchical Linear Modelling (HLM) to estimate potential associations between facial fluctuating asymmetry values and socioeconomic status. We report significant relationships between facial fluctuating asymmetry values and age, sex, and genetic ancestry, while socioeconomic status failed to exhibit any strong statistical relationship with facial asymmetry. These results are persistent after the effect of heterozygosity (a proxy for genetic ancestry) is controlled in the model. Our results indicate that, at least on the studied sample, there is no relationship between socioeconomic stress (as intended as low socioeconomic status) and facial asymmetries.
Acharya, Shashidhar; Pentapati, Kalyana Chakravarthy; Singh, Sweta
The objectives of this study were to assess the relationship between Locus of Control (LoC) and oral health among a group of rural adolescent school children and to examine the influence of socioeconomic status (SES) on the association between health, LoC and oral health status. A total of 318 children 15 years of age from a public and private school formed the study population. The children were administered following the Indian translation of the 18-item Multidimensional Health Locus of Control scale, and subsequently examined for caries and oral hygiene. T tests and correlation analyses showed a significant relationship between higher 'Internal' Locus of Control and dental caries. A hierarchical multiple regression analysis was performed to assess the effect of socioeconomic status on LoC and oral health using three interaction models which showed a statistically significant interaction between 'Internal' LoC and socioeconomic status on caries. Socioeconomic stratum-specific estimates of the relationship between the LoC and caries revealed a positive association between Internal LoC and caries in the middle socioeconomic group. The results demonstrated the relationship between Locus of Control and oral health, and the role of socioeconomic status having a strong bearing on this relationship.
Vives-Cases, Carmen; Gil-González, Diana; Carrasco-Portiño, Mercedes; Alvarez-Dardet, Carlos
Despite the visibility of intimate partner violence against women in low socioeconomic groups, the association of low socioeconomic status and violent behavior is unclear. We performed a systematic review of the empirical evidence on the causal role of batterers' socioeconomic status in this phenomenon. We performed a systematic review, using the following databases: Eric (1966-2004), Sociological Abstracts (1963-2005), Science Citation Index (1945-2005), Social Science Citation Index (1956-2005), Medline through Pubmed (1966-2005), Social Service Abstracts (1980-2005), Lilacs (1982-2005) and Psycinfo (1972-2005). We included empirical papers with aims or hypothesis related to the causal relation between low socioeconomic status (employment, education, income) in men and IPV. A total of 251 studies were identified, but only 10 met the inclusion criteria. There was one cohort study, one case-control study, one ecological study and one study based on a series of cases. Two studies calculated odds ratio in the analyses. One of these studies reported an odds ratio of 1.4 (95% CI, 1.1-1.9) with unemployment and the other study showed no significant positive associations with this factor or with low income or education. More information and better quality data are required to establish conclusive results on the causal role of the socioeconomic status of men who batter their intimate partners. The empirical evidence on the relationship between violent male behavior against their partners and low socioeconomic status is still insufficient.
Dahlstrom, Kristina R; Bell, Diana; Hanby, Duncan; Li, Guojun; Wang, Li-E; Wei, Qingyi; Williams, Michelle D; Sturgis, Erich M
Patients with oropharyngeal cancer (OPC) have distinct risk factor profiles reflected in the human papillomavirus (HPV) status of their tumor, and these profiles may also be influenced by factors related to socioeconomic status (SES). The goal of this study was to describe the socioeconomic characteristics of a large cohort of patients with OPC according to HPV status, smoking status, and sexual behavior. Patients with OPC prospectively provided information about their smoking and alcohol use, socioeconomic characteristics, and sexual behaviors. HPV status was determined by a composite of immunohistochemistry for p16 expression, HPV in situ hybridization, and PCR assay in 356 patients. Standard descriptive statistics and logistic regression were used to compare socioeconomic characteristics between patient subgroups. Patients with HPV-positive OPC had higher levels of education, income, and overall SES. Among patients with HPV-positive OPC, never/light smokers had more than 5 times the odds of having at least a bachelor's degree and being in the highest level of SES compared with smokers. Patients with HPV-positive OPC and those with higher levels of education and SES had higher numbers of lifetime any and oral sex partners, although not all of these differences were significant. Socioeconomic differences among subgroups of OPC patients have implications for OPC prevention efforts, including tobacco cessation, behavior modification, and vaccination programs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The vitamin D status depends on the production of vitamin D3 in the skin under the influence of ultraviolet radiation and vitamin D intake through the diet or vitamin D supplements. The serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration is the parameter of choice for the assessment of vitamin D
Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To estimate the association between maternal socioeconomic factors and the occurrence of nutritional outcomes in children under five years of age in a representative sample of the Brazilian population. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study that evaluated data from the latest National Survey of Children and Women's Demographics and Health, carried out in Brazil in 2006-2007. Maternal employment and maternal level of schooling were the main exposures. The following nutritional outcomes in children were considered: height/age 2SD for overweight. Generalized estimating equations (GEE were utilized as the regression method. Results: After adjustments, it was observed that children whose mothers had low level of schooling had a higher chance of having short stature (OR = 3.97, 95% CI, 1.23-12.80 and children whose mothers worked outside the home were more likely to have excess weight (OR = 1.57, 95% CI, 1.02-2.42. Maternal employment was not associated with short stature in children (OR = 1.09, 95% CI, 0.67-1.77. Conclusion: Maternal level of schooling was associated with short stature in children and maternal employment with overweight, indicating the need to take into account the socioeconomic factors when proposing programs and strategies aimed at health and nutrition improvement of children, considering inter-sectoral interventions.
Ferreira, C; Lavinhas, C; Fernandes, L; Camilo, Ma; Ravasco, P
The prevalence of undernutrition among surgical patients is thought to be high, and negatively influencing outcomes. However, recent evidence shows the increase of overweight/obesity in hospitalised patients. A pilot cross-sectional study was conducted in 50 patients of a Surgical Department of the University Hospital of Santa Maria (CHLN) that aimed: 1) to assess nutritional risk and status through validated methods; 2) to explore the presence of overweight/obesity; 3) to evaluate the prevalence of metabolic risk associated with obesity. Nutritional risk was assessed by Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST), nutritional status by Body Mass Index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), & Subjective Global Assessment (SGA). Statistical significance was set for p nutrition discipline in the medical curricula, limits the multiprofessional management and a better understanding of the more adequate approaches to these patients. Further, the change in the clinical scenario argues for more studies to clarify the prevalence and consequences of sarcopenic obesity in surgical patients.
van Steijn, J; van Harten, B; Flapper, E; Droogsma, E; van Walderveen, P; Blaauw, M; van Asselt, D
To assess the prevalence of (risk of) undernutrition in Dutch elder Parkinson's disease patients as well as it's risk factors. Observational cross-sectional study. An outpatient clinic at the department Neurology of Medical Centre Leeuwarden, a large teaching hospital. 102 outpatients with Parkinson's disease aged 65 years and older were recruited. Data regarding various aspects of undernutrition including socio-demographic aspect, disease characterisitics, nutritional status, appetite and overall-physical and psychological functioning were collected. Undernutrition was diagnosed in 2.0% and 20.5% of the patients were categorized as being at risk of undernutrition. Care dependency and appetite were the two risk factors with the highest predictive value for an unfavorable nutritional status. Of Dutch elderly patients with Parkinson's Disease 22.5% had an unfavourable nutritional status. Dependency and appetite were the two risk factors with the highest predictive value fort his outcome. Because undernutrition can be regarded as a geriatric syndrome a comprehensive nutritional assessment should be done followed by nutritional interventions next to interventions focused on the risk factors. Further studies are needed to evaluate these interventions.
The population of patients with chronic kidney disease is aging, and approximately 50% of those starting renal replacement therapy are older than 65 years. Aging poses challenges to maintaining the nutritional status of these patients. As patients get older, purchasing and preparing food may become difficult if the patient is not supported by relatives or social workers. In addition, appetite may decrease as a result of depression. Furthermore, intercurrent illnesses may become more frequent, leading to changes in nutrient requirements. Mobility and cognitive function often decline in elderly patients and the combination of these factors may result in malnutrition. Since malnutrition has been demonstrated to impact on survival in dialysis patients of all ages, appropriate attention to nutritional status and its management is essential in the elderly patient, both in the predialysis phase and on dialysis. This article reviews the issues associated with the maintenance of good nutrition in elderly patients and describes the potential causes of malnutrition. It also reviews the nutrient requirements of older dialysis patients (which differ somewhat from those of younger patients) as well as the assessment of their nutritional status. Finally, recommendations for the management of nutrition in the elderly patient are discussed.
Fernanda Maria de B. Leite
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the dietary intake and the nutritional status of children from Alagoas maroon communities. METHODS: Cross-sectional study involving 724 children (12-60 months from 39 Alagoas maroon communities. The nutritional status was investigated by anthropometric, biochemical (hemoglobin and food consumption indicators. RESULTS: The prevalence of anemia, stunting and obesity were, respectively, 48.0, 9.7 and 6.0%. The children had a monotonous eating pattern and a considerable prevalence of inadequate intake of zinc (17.0%, folate (18.1%, iron (20.2% and vitamins A (29.7% and C (34.3%. Compared to the other socioeconomic classes, the E class children had lower average consumption (p<0.05 for energy, carbohydrate, vitamins A and C, folate, iron, zinc and phosphorus. CONCLUSIONS: Anemia is a serious Public Health problem. The prevalence of chronic malnutrition and obesity were similar to those observed for the children in the State as a whole, where a nutritional transition process is occuring. There was a high prevalence of inadequate food intake risk for zinc, folate, iron and vitamins A and C, suggesting the need for nutritional education actions.
Chermiti Ben Abdallah, Fatma; Ben Saïd, Hanène; Chamkhi, Najiba; Ferchichi, Marwa; Chtourou, Amel; Taktak, Sofia; Ben Kheder, Ali
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Malnutrition is a common problem among patients with cancer, affecting up to 85% of patients with certain cancers and represents a risk factor for poor prognosis. aim: evaluate nutritional status in patients with lung cancer before and during treatment using nutritional risk index. it's a prospective study conducted in pneumology IV department in Abderahman Mami hospital, from January to May 2011. 30 male patients with a lung cancer were included. Nutritional status was assessed before and during treatment based on anthropometric measures, biological markers and nutritional risk index (NRI). Mean age of patients was 58 ± 12 years, ranging from 19 to 82 years. 29 patients had non small cell lung cancer and one patient had small cell cancer. Malnutrition was noted in 14 patients (47%) before treatment according to the NRI. It was noted in 23 patients (77%) after three cycles of chemotherapy with severe malnutrition in 8 patients. Relationship between body mass index (BMI) and the NRI was linear, but NRI tends to evaluate more objectively risk of malnutrition in patients with lung cancer. Nutritional assessment in patient with lung cancer should be performed systematically, early and repeatedly. Several markers can be used such as BMI and NRI. Nutritional support will reduce morbidity and improve quality of life in patients with lung cancer.
Jeremiah, Z A; Uko, E K
Our study in Port Harcourt children with asymptomatic malaria aimed at assessing the baseline anthropometric indices of nutritional status, and whether their nutritional status (especially under nutrition) offers any advantage for living in malaria endemic areas. Cross-sectional study was used. Rumueme Community in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Apparently healthy children aged 1-8 years of both sexes (Boys = 117, Girls = 123; Ratio 1:1.05), 240 children from randomly selected households within the study community participated in the study. Of the 240 children, 66 (27.5%) were infected with malaria (P falciparum). Children below 5 years had a higher parasitaemic rate (36.36%) than those in 5-8 years group (21.27%). Our baseline data showed that 17.5% were underweight (WFA Z nutrition was more prominent in the children below 5 years than the older children (RR = 3.625, chi2 = 10.36, p nutrition places children (especially below 5 years of age) at higher risk of malaria related morbidity. Children in malaria endemic areas need adequate nutrition to withstand the negative impact of malaria.
Zagorsky, Jay L; Smith, Patricia K
Health follows a socioeconomic status (SES) gradient in developed countries, with disease prevalence falling as SES rises. This pattern is partially attributed to differences in nutritional intake, with the poor eating the least healthy diets. This paper examines whether there is an SES gradient in one specific aspect of nutrition: fast-food consumption. Fast food is generally high in calories and low in nutrients. We use data from the 2008, 2010, and 2012 waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79) to test whether adult fast-food consumption in the United States falls as monetary resources rise (n=8136). This research uses more recent data than previous fast-food studies and includes a comprehensive measure of wealth in addition to income to measure SES. We find little evidence of a gradient in adult fast-food consumption with respect to wealth. While adults in the highest quintile are 54.5% less likely to report fast-food consumption than those in the lowest quintile, adults in the second and third quintiles are no less likely to report fast food-food intake than the poorest. Contrary to popular belief, fast-food consumption rises as income rises from the lowest to middle quintiles. The variation in adult fast-food consumption across income and wealth groups is, however, small. Those in the wealthiest quintile ate about one less fast-food meal on average than those in the lowest quintile. Other factors play a bigger role in explaining fast-food consumption: reading ingredient labels is negatively associated while soda consumption and hours of work are positively associated with fast-food consumption. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
The vitamin D status depends on the production of vitamin D3 in the skin under the influence of ultraviolet radiation and vitamin D intake through the diet or vitamin D supplements. The serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration is the parameter of choice for the assessment of vitamin D status. Low serum levels of calcium and phosphate and an elevated level of alkaline phosphatase can also point to vitamin D deficiency. Usually, between 50% and 90% of vitamin D in the body is coming from the production in the skin and the remainder is from the diet. The production of vitamin D3 in the skin depends on sunshine exposure, latitude, skin-covering clothes, the use of sun block and skin pigmentation. In general, serum 25(OH)D is lower with higher latitudes and with darker skin types, but there are exceptions. Vitamin D deficiency (serum 25(OH)DAmerica where vitamin D deficiency is uncommon but vitamin D insufficiency (serum 25(OH)D between 25 and 50 nmol/l) is still common. In the United States and Canada milk is usually supplemented with vitamin D and the use of vitamin supplements is relatively common. Vitamin D status in Latin America usually is reasonable but there are exceptions and vitamin D insufficiency still occurs quite often. In Australia and New Zealand a poor vitamin D status was seen in the elderly who were often vitamin D deficient and also in immigrants from Asia. Vitamin D deficiency also occurred in children when the mother was vitamin D deficient. Within Europe, vitamin D status usually is better in the Nordic countries than around the Mediterranean. This may be due to a lighter skin and sun seeking behaviour and a high consumption of cod liver oil in the Northern countries while in Southern Europe people stay out of the sunshine and have a somewhat darker skin. A very poor vitamin D status was observed in non-western immigrants, especially in pregnant women. In conclusion, vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency are globally still very common
Maruapula, Segametsi D; Jackson, Jose C; Holsten, Joanna; Shaibu, Sheila; Malete, Leapetswe; Wrotniak, Brian; Ratcliffe, Sarah J; Mokone, George G; Stettler, Nicolas; Compher, Charlene
To describe patterns of food consumption associated with overweight/obesity (OW/OB) and their links to socio-economic status (SES) and urbanization. A nationwide cross-sectional survey. Secondary schools in cities, towns and villages in Botswana, Africa. A total of 746 adolescent schoolchildren. OW/OB is associated with greater SES, city residence and a snack-food diet pattern. Students belonging to higher SES compared with those from a lower SES background reported significantly (P snack foods (1·55 v. 0·76) and fewer servings of traditional diet foods (0·99 v. 1·68) and also reported that they ate meals outside the home more often (90% v. 72%). Students in cities ate significantly (P snacks (1·69 v. 1·05 v. 0·51) and fewer servings of traditional foods (0·67 v. 1·52 v. 1·61) compared with those in urban and rural villages. The odds of OW/OB were increased 1·16-fold with a snack-food diet, a result that was diminished when controlled for SES. These data suggest that nutritional transition occurs at different rates across urbanization and SES levels in Botswana. In cities, increasing the availability of fruit while reducing access to or portion sizes of snack items is important. Emphasis on continued intake of traditional foods may also be helpful as rural areas undergo economic and infrastructural development.
Bharati, Susmita; Pal, Manoranjan; Bharati, Premananda
The aim of this paper is to assess the spatial distribution of nutritional status of children of less than three years through Z-scores of weight-for-age, height-for-age and weight-for-height using data collected by the National Family Health Survey (NFHS-2, 1998-99), India. The nutritional status of pre-school children was regressed on different socio-demographic factors after eliminating the effect of age. The data show that there are gender differences and spatial variations in the nutritional status of children in India. Gender difference is not very pronounced and almost disappears when the effects of age and socio-demographic variables are removed. The spatial difference, especially the rural-urban difference, was found to be very large and decreased substantially when the effects of age and socioeconomic variables were removed. However, the differences were not close to zero. All the variables were found to affect significantly the nutritional status of children. However, the literacy of mothers did not affect height-for-age significantly. The weight-for-age and height-for-age scores showed a dismal picture of the health condition of children in almost all states in India. The worst affected states are Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa and Uttar Pradesh. Assam and Rajasthans are also lagging behind. Weight-for-height scores do not give a clear picture of state-wise variation. Goa, Kerala and Punjab are the three most developed states in India and also have the lowest percentages of underweight children according to the Z-scores. Along with these three states come the north-eastern states where women are well educated. Thus overall development, enhancement of level of education and low gender inequality are the key factors for improvement in the health status of Indian children.
López, Pilar Montero; Anzid, Karim; Cherkaoui, Mohamed; Baali, Abdellatif; Lopez, Santiago Rodriguez
In Morocco, the beginning of the nutritional transition is closely linked to social and economic transformations and changes in behaviour and traditional lifestyles. The objective of this study is to describe the current pattern of food consumption and the nutritional status of adolescents in the province of Ouarzazate and its association with parents' educational level. The sample comprises 327 high school students from Ouarzazate: 135 (41.3%) boys and 192 (58.7%) girls (age range 15-20 years). For both boys and girls, the results show lower height and BMI z-scores than the WHO reference values. Adolescents whose parents have a low educational level have lower height/age and BMI/age z-scores than those whose fathers have a high educational level. No differences are observed in total daily energy intake depending on fathers' educational level, but the energy provided by lipids is higher in adolescents whose fathers have a high educational background. The quality of fats consumed (MUFA+PUFA/SFA) is better among those boys whose fathers have low education, but no differences are observed for girls. The process of nutritional transition is not uniform in the sample, but depends on the socioeconomic characteristics of population groups, which include, among others, accessibility of certain food, differences in habits and lifestyles related to energy expenditure, and higher prevalence of overweight and obesity in more favoured groups.
Brynningsen, Peter Krogh; Husted, Steen; Damsgaard, Else Marie Skjøde
, length of stay in hospital and infectious complications. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: 89 patients with ischemic stroke consecutively admitted to a geriatric stroke rehabilitation unit had their nutritional status evaluated in the hospital at 1 week and 5 weeks after stroke, and in their own home at 3 months...... variables was 31 (35 %) at 1 week and was reduced to 20 (22 %) at 6 months. CONCLUSION: 35 % of elderly patients with ischemic stroke admitted to a geriatric rehabilitation unit were malnourished 1 week after stroke. Particularly serum proteins and body fat were affected. Follow-up of nutritional variables......INTRODUCTION: Nutritional status among stroke patients has received limited attention despite the fact, that it may have an influence on clinical outcome. Previous studies have estimated that 15-20 % of patients suffer from malnutrition in the acute phase of stroke, but so far no studies have...
School feeding Programmes (SFP), which have been initiated in many countries including Kenya, have been shown to improve academic performance and nutritional status in developing and industrialized countries. However, the effects of School Lunch programmes (SLP) in Vihiga District have not been evaluated.
Jul 8, 2011 ... indicator for both brain development and nutritional status from ... several neurodevelopmental problems such as mental retardation, cerebral palsy, epilepsy and intellectual disabilities.[2-5] By the time of onset, microcephaly can be ..... Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology and the Practice.
Teixeira, Clarissa Stefani; Pereira, Erico Felden
Although there is a trend toward the decrease in levels of physical fitness, the intensity of this decrease due to the aging process and the nutritional status in adult male individuals is not well-known, especially in the Brazilian population. To analyze the levels of physical fitness according to age and the nutritional status in adult male individuals. Aerobic and muscular endurance tests as well as flexibility tests and nutritional status assessment were carried out in 1,011 male individuals. Analyses of correlation, covariance and prevalence ratio were performed through Poisson regression. The individuals presented a moderate performance at the physical fitness tests. A decrease in the levels of physical performance according to the aging process was verified, considering all age ranges analyzed. The analysis of covariance corrected by age showed differences (pdecrease in the physical fitness from 18 to 54 years. Individuals aged 41 to 54 years presented prevalences of low VO(2max) index that were 3.22-fold higher when compared to those aged 18 to 20 and 1.40-fold higher when compared to individuals aged 21 to 25 years. There was a decrease in the VO(2max) scores in the 18 to 20 age range, when compared to the 41 to 54 age range, of 11.45% in the normal group and 20.91% in the group with overweight and obesity. Age and the nutritional status have a strong influence on the decreased physical performance scores, mainly after 30 years of age.
Inappropriate eating habits and sedentary lifestyle predispose to hypertension. This study assessed dietary pattern, lifestyle and nutritional status of hypertensive outpatients attending Cardiology Clinic of University College Hospital, Ibadan. This research was descriptive and cross-sectional, including 92 hypertensive ...
Sinurat, R. S.; Sembiring, T.; Azlin, E.; Faranita, T.; Pratita, W.
Malnutrition is considered a problem that limits learning ability (cognitive function), which is related to poor academic achievement results. This study aimed to determine the relationship of nutritional status with academic achievement in adolescents. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 126 junior high school students ranging from 12 to 15 years in Batubara, North Sumatra in January 2015. Nutritional status is determined by weight for height. Academic achievement was recorded from the final results of their school exams. The value of intelligence quotient (IQ) was assessed by using the Aptitude Test. Data were then analyzed by using Spearman correlation and Chi-Square test. In conclusion, there was no significant difference between nutritional status with IQ score (p=0,540) but showed a significant relationship (p=0.003) between normal nutritional status with the total value of the report card with positive weak correlation strength (r=0.342). There was also a significant difference (p=0.020) and moderate positive correlation (r=0.541) between overweight with academic achievement based on mathematics.
Objective: To report on the nutritional status of newly diagnosed patients with pulmonary tuberculosis in comparison to contacts who are tuberculosis free. Design: This was a community-based case-control study. Setting and subjects: The study was conducted in Delft, a periurban community in the Western Cape. Forty-three ...
economic, household and child-related factors on the nutritional status of children (0-5yrs) in farming households of Oyo State, Nigeria. The study was conducted using a multistage sampling technique to select 201 mother-child pairs from 18 farming ...
A study was conducted in Simanjiro district in northern Tanzania to determine the nutritional status of underfive children in a pastoral community. Weight and height measurements were carried out on 250 children and that of mean upper arm circumference (MUAC) on 226 children. The z-scores of weight-for-age, ...
Objective: To determine the pattern of head growth and the early postnatal nutritional status of microcephalic infants in a low-income country. Materials and Methods: A cohort study in Lagos, Nigeria in which the head growth of full-term singletons within the first postnatal check-up at 6-8weeks was evaluated using the latest ...
Objective: This study was carried out to determine the packed cell volume nutritional status and parasitic infection among preschool children living in rural villages. Subjects and Methods: A total of 116 preschool children in nine villages formed the population for this study. The preschool children were studied using ...
Food pattern showed generous consumption of starchy foods, moderate consumption of plant and animal protein and poor consumption of fruits and vegetables. Conclusion: There is double burden of malnutrition and poor consumption of fruits and vegetables among the studied population. Keywords: Nutritional status ...
... subjects have normal BMI, 6.0% of them fall in the category of underweight, 39.0% were overweight and 22.0% were obese. It is suggested that future intervention programs should focus on preventing obesity problems related to chronic diseases. Keywords: nutritional status; single mother; health profile; Kelantan; obesity ...
malnutrition including vitamin and mineral malnutrition. This paper constitutes a review of the micronutrient malnutrition status of the Zimbabwean population, focusing on the period from 1980 to 2006, using data from nutrition surveys, the demographic health surveys, sentinel surveillance and monitoring programmes. Data
Background: Malnutrition and inflammation are associated with morbidity and mortality in patients on maintenance hemodialysis (MHD). Ghrelin, an orexigenic peptide hormone, is speculated to be associated with nutritional and inflammatory status in MHD. Aim: To assess the serum total ghrelin levels and its possible ...
Objective: To determine nutritional status, food habits and functional abilities of the institutionalised and non-institutionalised elderly. Design: A cross-sectional population survey. Setting: Free living and institutionalised elderly of Morogoro municipality, Tanzania. Subjects: A total of 100 elderly people, fifty institutionalised ...
This cross sectional study assesses the nutritional status of children -as indicated by selected anthropometric parameters, in a rural community in Edo Central Senatorial Zone, South-South, Nigeria. The survey was conducted amongst 900 primary school pupils in Esan West Local Government Area of Edo State, Nigeria.
The study aimed at investigating the causes of poor nutritional and health status of students in higher institutions in Nigeria and the measures for improvement for sustainable national development. The population comprised nurses, medical doctors, nutritionists, Home Economics lecturers, post graduate students; ...
The elderly should be encouraged by the nutritionists and dieticians to take fruits and vegetable regularly, while policy makers in Nigeria should render adequate welfare support to improve the standard of living and the quality of life of the elderly. Key words: Social support, Environmental condition, Nutritional status, elderly ...
Summary: Several factors, including nutritional status and dietary pattern are paramount to optimum performance among athletes. Notwithstanding, risky ... About 72% of the athletes skipped meals, 77% drank water or sports drinks during sporting activities, about 11% spent less than #40.00 for each meal. About 49% ate ...
African Health Sciences Vol 13 Issue 1 March 2013. 39. Nutrition status and associated factors among ... Breakfast contributed 10.2% of the daily energy intake. Few children consumed foods from more than four food groups ... also be a long term deficit in mental and physical development that leaves children unable to take.
Objective. To determine breastfeeding, complementary feeding and nutritional status of 6 - 12-month-old rural infants. Study design. A cross-sectional survey was done. Breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices were determined by questionnaire; an unquantified food frequency questionnaire was used to ...
Objectives: The aim of this pilot study was to compare the nutritional status and food consumption patterns of children under five years. Design: Quantitative, exploratory, cross sectional study. Setting: Kabarole district, western Uganda. Kabarole district is a rural district with subsistence farming as the main income. Subjects: ...
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of overweight and obesity among children is increasing worldwide with significant health and social consequences. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the current nutritional status and its changes between 1983 and 2006 among school children and adolescents in a South ...
Prevalence of poor health parameters were also higher in unwanted than wanted babies. Pregnancy intentions affect the physical and nutritional status of unborn babies. There is need to educate the woman especially adolescents by the various health authorities on the right of a child to live and survive through adequate ...
Aug 27, 2009 ... 4Department of Community Medicine, College of Medicine and Allied Health Sciences, University of Sierra. Leone. ABSTRACT. Weight is a sensitive index for the evaluation of nutritional status of preschool children, particularly where their precise ages are known. Regrettably in Sierra Leone there are no ...
Nutrition Status and Associated Morbidity Risk Factors among Orphanage and Non-Orphanage Children in Selected Public Primary Schools within Dagoretti, Nairobi, Kenya. ... Results: The orphanage children had a significantly higher rate of stunting and underweight (p< 0.05) than the non-orphanage children.
Apr 2, 2012 ... results of a study on the nutritional status of children in food insecure households. MATERIALS AND METHODS. A cross-sectional survey with descriptive and analytical components was carried out in two districts of North Showa zone to estimate malnutrition rate of children in food insecure households.
leafy vegetables, soymilk, fish and fruits to enhance their nutritional status. ... FMOH and WHO (1999) advised that a baby should be fed with cup/plate and spoon. Feeding bottles and pacifiers should not be used. Infants in Nigeria are faced with a lot of ..... weaning until their infants can eat weaning foods conveniently.
Dec 31, 2012 ... Finally, the impact of mother care groups and village health teams, as well as changes in child nutrition status and feeding, were .... management of acute malnutrition.9,10 Since the programme planned to use MUAC instead ..... community and that their work was generally well supported as they educated ...
Exclusive breastfeeding is a globally recommended way of feeding and caring for young infants (0-6 months). Its benefits to both infants and mothers have been established. However, its impact on the maternal nutritional status is still a subject of contention. This study was therefore designed to evaluate the effect of ...
Conclusion: Mother support groups may have a beneficial effect on the nutritional status of children under 2 years of age. Cases of severe acute malnutrition seemed to be less prevalent in children whose mothers attend mother support groups. Keywords: Malnutrition, mother support groups, breastfeeding, Kenya.
... children in rural communities is affected by low family income. To improve nutritional status of children the full implementation of the poverty alleviation programmes should be considered and appropriate measures need to be taken to support needy families with children. The Ethiopian Journal of Health Development Vol.
Background: Malnutrition is a very important risk factor leading illness and death in children worldwide. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the nutritional status and relevant haematological and biochemical parameters in school children. Materials and Methods: Cross sectional study, was conducted in 120 (70 ...
The objective of the study was to determine the dietary intake and nutritional status of adolescent girls (n=156) and young women students (n=367) in Durban, KwaZulu Natal (KZN), South Africa. No national prevalence rates for stunting, wasting and underweight could be found for adolescent girls in South Africa and the ...
Agerbo, Esben; Qin, Ping; Mortensen, Preben Bo
of these factors. DESIGN: Nested case-control study. Information on causes of death, psychiatric admission, marital status, children, and socioeconomic factors was obtained from routine registers. SETTING: Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: 985 suicide cases, 1104 sex-age (+/-3 years) matched siblings, and 16 619 controls......STUDY OBJECTIVE: Suicides cluster in both families and persons with psychiatric disorders and socioeconomic disadvantages. This study compares these factors between suicide cases, their siblings, and population based controls in an attempt to evaluate both the familial and the individual element...... and controls in exposure to hospitalised psychiatric disorders and socioeconomic disadvantages, although these factors contribute to the familial aggregation of suicides....
Agerbo, Esben; Qin, Ping; Mortensen, Preben Bo
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Suicides cluster in both families and persons with psychiatric disorders and socioeconomic disadvantages. This study compares these factors between suicide cases, their siblings, and population based controls in an attempt to evaluate both the familial and the individual element...... of these factors. DESIGN: Nested case-control study. Information on causes of death, psychiatric admission, marital status, children, and socioeconomic factors was obtained from routine registers. SETTING: Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: 985 suicide cases, 1104 sex-age (+/-3 years) matched siblings, and 16 619 controls...... and controls in exposure to hospitalised psychiatric disorders and socioeconomic disadvantages, although these factors contribute to the familial aggregation of suicides....
Ghanbari, Behrooz; Khaleghparast, Shiva; Ghadrdoost, Behshid; Bakhshandeh, Hooman
Nutrition is among the most important factors influencing coronary artery disease. Here we aimed to study the nutritional status of patients with and without coronary artery disease (CAD). We performed a cross-sectional study on 600 patients referred to a cardiology clinic with the signs of ACS. The patients were then classified in to two groups (CAD group and the normal group) based on angiographic findings. The amount of nutritional profile was questioned from all participants. Men were more often diagnosed with CAD compared to women (198/362 vs. 102/238; P nutritional factors predicting CAD. White mean and type of tea were the most important predictors of CAD. Dietary prevention strategies from childhood could prevent early CAD.
Lorenzini, Riccardo; Betancur-Ancona, David A; Chel-Guerrero, Luis A; Segura-Campos, Maira R; Castellanos-Ruelas, Arturo F
the change in lifestyle and nutrition has led to growing obesity; in Mexico there has been significant increase in its prevalence. The problem was thought limited to adult population, but it also affects children, adolescents and young adults. Obesity at an early stage of life, subsequently leads to obesity in adult life. Apparently few attempts with College students have being reported. relate the effect of anthropometry and physical condition with dietary habits, physical activity and smoking addiction in students of a public university of Mexico, in order to establish a diagnosis of their nutritional status. one hundred and seventy eight students, were measured obtaining: body weight, height, waist and hip circumference, body composition and blood pressure. A questionnaire to determine their physical activity was applied, a dietary assessment was also collected and socioeconomic status was established. Data were analyzed statistically by the method of least squares. individuals classified as over-weighted, with obesity class 1 and class 2, accounted for 48.87% of the total population; more overweight and obesity was found in men compared with women, affecting negatively the value of blood pressure. This deteriorating health was attributable to poor eating habits: skipping breakfast and consumption of fast food. Smoking was revealed as a major risk factor since it adversely affected nutritional status. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.
Durán Agüero, Samuel; Vásquez Leiva, Alejandra; Morales Illanes, Gladys; Schifferli Castro, Ingrid; Sanhueza Espinoza, Claudia; Encina Vega, Claudia; Vivanco Cuevas, Karla; Mena Bolvaran, Rodrigo
stevia consumption has increased worlwide among the different age groups; however, studies regarding the association between stevia intake and nutritional status in adults are scarce. to evaluate stevia intake in first year university students from five chilean cities (Santiago, Temuco, Viña del Mar, Concepción and Antofagasta) controlling by nutritional status, socioeconomic level, gender and whether their undergraduate program belongs to the health sciences. 486 first year university students belonging to 4 Chilean universities were evaluated. Each student completed a weekly food frequency questionnaire including food and beverages containing stevia. Selfreport of weight and height was requested. 69.8% of the students consumed stevia every week, the liquid form being the main contributor to the dietary stevia intake (81.2%). Only 1.4% of the students went over the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI). Normal weight women show a higher stevia intake compared to those obese or overweight (p stevia consumption appears to be positively associated to normal weight in the first model (adjusted) (OR = 0.219; IC 95%: 0.13-0.35; p stevia consumption was positively associated with normal nutritional status in Chilean university students. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.
Ursache, Alexandra; Noble, Kimberly G; Blair, Clancy
Several studies have investigated associations between socioeconomic status (SES) and indicators of children's physiological and cognitive self-regulation. Although objective measures of family SES may be good proxies for families' experiences of disadvantage, less is known about subjective aspects of families' experiences. We hypothesize that subjective social status (SSS) and perceived stress may be important independent predictors of children's stress physiology and executive functioning (EF). Eighty-two children from diverse SES backgrounds were administered EF measures and provided saliva samples for cortisol assay. Caregivers reported on objective SES, SSS, and perceived stress. Results suggest that SES and SSS are both independently and positively related to EF. In models predicting stress physiology, higher perceived stress was associated with lower baseline cortisol. Moreover, SES and age interacted to predict cortisol levels such that among younger children, lower SES was associated with higher cortisol, whereas among older children, lower SES was associated with lower cortisol. Results highlight the importance of considering both objective and subjective indicators of families' SES and stressful experiences in relation to multiple aspects of children's self-regulation.
Ramos Chaves, Mariana; Boléo-Tomé, Carolina; Monteiro-Grillo, Isabel; Camilo, Maria; Ravasco, Paula
Nutritional status in cancer has been mostly biased toward undernutrition, an issue now in dispute. We aimed to characterize nutrition status, to analyze associations between nutritional and clinical/cancer-related variables, and to quantify the relative weights of nutritional and cancer-related features. The cross-sectional study included 450 nonselected cancer patients (ages 18-95 years) at referral for radiotherapy. Nutritional status assessment included recent weight changes, body mass index (BMI) categorized by World Health Organization's age/sex criteria, and Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment (PG-SGA; validated/specific for oncology). BMI identified 63% as >or=25 kg/m(2) (43% overweight, 20% obese) and 4% as undernourished. PG-SGA identified 29% as undernourished and 71% as well nourished. Crossing both methods, among the 319 (71%) well-nourished patients according to PG-SGA, 75% were overweight/obese and only 25% were well nourished according to BMI. Concordance between BMI and PG-SGA was evaluated and consistency was confirmed. More aggressive/advanced stage cancers were more prevalent in deficient and excessive nutritional status: in 83% (n = 235/282) of overweight/obese patients by BMI and in 85% (n = 111/131) of undernourished patients by PG-SGA. Results required adjustment for diagnoses: greater histological aggressiveness was found in overweight/obese prostate and breast cancer; undernutrition was associated with aggressive lung, colorectal, head-neck, stomach, and esophageal cancers (p breast (10%), and prostate (9%) cancers, whereas undernutrition was associated with more aggressive lung (6%), colorectal (6%), and head-neck (6%) cancers; in both instances, age and longer disease duration were of significance. Undernutrition and overweight/obesity have distinct implications and bear a negative prognosis in cancer. This study provides novel data on the prevalence of overweight/obesity and undernutrition in cancer patients and their
Molina-López, Jorge; Molina, José Manuel; Chirosa, Luis Javier; Florea, Daniela; Sáez, Laura; Jiménez, Jorge; Planells, Paloma; Pérez de la Cruz, Antonio; Planells, Elena
To evaluate nutritional status and dietary habits after implementation of a nutritional education program in professional handball players. Longitudinal study of 14 handball players evaluated with 72-h recall, a questionnaire on food consumption and anthropometric measures during 4 months. The intervention consisted of a nutrition education program. Energy intake was consistently below the recommended allowances. Macronutrient intakes as a percentage of total energy intake were below the recommended allowances for carbohydrates, and above recommended allowances for fats. Nutritional education was followed by a significant increase (p Nutritional education with continuous follow-up to monitor athletes' dietary habits may lead them to adopt appropriate nutritional habits to optimize dietary intakes. The lack of specific recommendations for micronutrient intakes in athletes leads to confusion regarding appropriate intakes; biochemical tests that yield normal values (albeit approaching cut-off values for deficiency) may disguise deficient status for some nutrients when strenuous exercise is involved. In-depth studies with nutrition education programs that include long-term follow-up are advisable to avoid deficiencies that can lead to irreversible damage in competitive athletes. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.
House ownership, frequency of illness, fathers' education: the most significant socio-demographic determinants of poor nutritional status in adolescent girls from low income households of Lahore, Pakistan.
Hassan, Fatima; Asim, Muhammad; Salim, Shafya; Humayun, Ayesha
Socio demographic factors besides dietary factors play important role in determining the health status of an individual. Health and nutritional Intervention programs stand a greater chance of success if planned, keeping the socio demographic characteristics of a certain population in focus. The present study was conducted to identify those socio demographic determinants which have a significant association with poor nutritional status in adolescent girls belonging to economically deprived households of Lahore. A cross-sectional analytical study of 140 adolescent girls living in the peri urban communities of Lahore was conducted. Socioeconomic and demographic data of the participants was recorded through a pretested questionnaire. Body mass index (BMI), a commonly used anthropometric measurement was taken as an indicator of nutritional status. Below normal (nutritional status with socio-demographic predictors. Stepwise backward logistic regression analysis was then run to identify the most significant determinants associated with poor nutritional status in the adolescents. P nutritional status. Interestingly, the participants who lived in joint families (AOR = 0.411; 95% CI = 0.145 to 1.168) and were more frequently food insecure (AOR = 0.431; 95% CI = 0.164 to 1.133) had lesser odds of having poor nutritional status than those who lived in nuclear families and were food secure. Frequency of illness, house ownership and fathers' education are the determinants positively associated with poor nutritional status of adolescent girls. Food insecurity and joint family structure were negatively associated with poor nutritional status. The study will help in planning interventions for improving nutritional status of adolescent girls by targeting the significant socio demographic determinants of poor nutritional status among this group.
McKinnon, Loretta; Giskes, Katrina; Turrell, Gavin
To assess socio-economic differences in three components of nutrition knowledge, i.e. knowledge of (i) the relationship between diet and disease, (ii) the nutrient content of foods and (iii) dietary guideline recommendations; furthermore, to determine if socio-economic differences in nutrition knowledge contribute to inequalities in food purchasing choices. The cross-sectional study considered household food purchasing, nutrition knowledge, socio-economic and demographic information. Household food purchasing choices were summarised by three indices, based on self-reported purchasing of sixteen groceries, nineteen fruits and twenty-one vegetables. Socio-economic position (SEP) was measured by household income and education. Associations between SEP, nutrition knowledge and food purchasing were examined using general linear models adjusted for age, gender, household type and household size. Brisbane, Australia in 2000. Main household food shoppers (n 1003, response rate 66·4 %), located in fifty small areas (Census Collectors Districts). Shoppers in households of low SEP made food purchasing choices that were less consistent with dietary guideline recommendations: they were more likely to purchase grocery foods comparatively higher in salt, sugar and fat, and lower in fibre, and they purchased a narrower range of fruits and vegetables. Those of higher SEP had greater nutrition knowledge and this factor attenuated most associations between SEP and food purchasing choices. Among nutrition knowledge factors, knowledge of the relationship between diet and disease made the greatest and most consistent contribution to explaining socio-economic differences in food purchasing. Addressing inequalities in nutrition knowledge is likely to reduce socio-economic differences in compliance with dietary guidelines. Improving knowledge of the relationship between diet and disease appears to be a particularly relevant focus for health promotion aimed to reduce socio-economic
Spíndola Garcêz, Laís; de Sousa Paz Lima, Geania; de Azevedo Paiva, Adriana; Maria Rebêlo Sampaio da Paz, Suzana; Lázaro Gomes, Erica Ivana; Nunes, Valéria Sutti; Cotta de Faria, Eliana; de Barros-Mazon, Sílvia
Globally, vitamin A deficiency (VAD) affects about 19.1 million pregnant women. Its occurrence is classically associated with inadequate food intake and may also be associated with socioeconomic factors and the presence of infection. The aim of this study was to determine the factors related to serum retinol levels among pregnant teenagers. The sample consisted of 89 pregnant adolescents, from whom socioeconomic, obstetric, anthropometric, and food consumption data were collected. Serum concentrations of retinol and the supposed presence of infection were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography and C-reactive protein quantification, respectively. The serum retinol concentrations were classified according to the criteria of the World Health Organization. We adopted a 5% significance level for all statistical tests. Serum retinol levels were significantly and positively associated with sanitation ( p = 0.008) and pre-gestational nutritional status ( p = 0.002), and negatively with the trimester ( p = 0.001). The appropriate sanitation conditions and pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) were shown to have a protective effect against VAD. Conversely, serum retinol levels were reduced with trimester progression, favoring VAD occurrence.
Mielgo-Ayuso, Juan; Maroto-Sánchez, Beatriz; Luzardo-Socorro, Raquel; Palacios, Gonzalo; Palacios Gil-Antuñano, Nieves; González-Gross, Marcela
Continuous physical exercise leads the athlete to maintain an unstable balance between dietary intake, energy expenditure and the additional demands of a high amount of physical activity. Thus, an accurate assessment of nutritional status is essential to optimize the performance, since it affects health, body composition, and the recovery of the athlete. Specific aspects like the type of sport, specialty or playing position, training schedule and competition calendar, category, specific objectives, which differ from the general population, must be considered. A biochemical assessment can give us a general idea of the nutritional status, lipid profile, liver or kidney function, if diet is too high in proteins or fats, as well as possible nutritional deficiencies and the need for supplementation. Sport kinanthropometry has great utility that enables the assessment of body mass, height, length, diameter, perimeter and skinfolds, where information is processed by applying different equations, obtaining information on somatotype, body composition, and the proportionality of different parts of the body. To give proper nutritional counselling, energy needs of the athlete must be known. If objective measurement is not possible, there are tables including theoretically established energy requirements of different sports. Dietary assessment should include information about food consumption and nutrient intake to establish the relationship between diet, health status and athlete's performance. On the other hand, an adequate hydration status in athletes is essential to maintain adequate performance. Hence, the knowledge of fluid intake by the athlete is a matter of the utmost importance. Dehydration can cause harmful effects on athletes' health. As there is no gold standard, urine gravidity and urine colour are the most extended methods for analyzing hydration status. There is consensus that due to complexity, the combination of different methods assures an effective data
Joyce Phua Pau Fung
Full Text Available Background: Pediatric flatfoot has been reported as the highest clinical complains for foot problems in pediatric department. Nutritional status has showed great influence on the occurrence of flat foot. There are many debates regarding whether underweight or overweight children are more prone to flatfoot. The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between nutritional status and flatfoot in children. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted from July to October 2015 in 3 primary schools in Kecamatan Jatinangor. There were 259 children of grade 4 to 5 included in this study. Flatfoot screening was based on measurement of footprint and calculation using Chippaux-smirak index (CSI. The height and weight of children were measured to obtain their Body Mass Index (BMI. Nutritional status was classified based on CDC BMI-for-age growth charts. Analysis was done using chi-square test. Results: There was significant association between nutritional status and flatfoot with p value<0.001.The prevalence of flatfoot in children grade 4to5is40%. When compared to the normal weight children, the overweight children showed prevalence ratio of 1.97(95% CI:1.47 to 2.64 while the underweight children showed prevalence ratio of 1.34 (95% CI:1.78 to 2.25.This stated that the risk of developing flat foot was higher in overweight children. Conclusions: There is significant association between nutritional status with children grade4 to 5. Overweight children are more prone to flat foot.
Páez Valery, M C; Barón, M A; Solano, L; Nadaff, G; Boccio, J; Barrado, A
Helicobacter pylori infection (Hp) is widely spread around the world, and it is considered one of the main causes of chronic gastritis, peptic and duodenal ulcers, and gastric cancer. Recent research has shown that it can be associated with nutritional disorders, mainly with iron and other micronutrient deficiencies. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of Hp infection, and infection pattern according to age, sex, nutritional status, and socioeconomic conditions in children who attended the Unidad Educativa "Valentin Espinal" in the city of Valencia. 170 children, between 3 and 14 years of age were studied to assess Hpylori infection (13C-urea breath test), age, nutritional status according to BMI and Height for age, hemoglobin (cianometahemoglobin), serum ferritin (ELISA), socioeconomic status (Graffar-Méndez-Castellano), housing conditions, number of families and of people cohabitating in the same household, and quality of services. 78.8% of the children were infected with Hp, witch was significantly correlated with age but not gender. 25.9% of the sample had undernutrition, and 46.5% were stunted. 98.1% of the families lived in poverty, and 98% of the households showed sanitary deficiencies. A mean of 6.0 +/- 2.4 persons lived in each household (range: 2-15), and an average of 3.2 person shared bedrooms. The odds of being infected were higher in those children who were stunted. Also, socioeconomic status, mother's education level, and poor hosing conditions were significantly associated to being infected. Hpylori is highly prevalent among socially and economically deprived children, and age, overcrowding, and a low education level of the mother increases the risk of being infected.
Kim, Kirang; Park, Sun Min; Oh, Kyung Won
The objectives of this study were to examine the trend in unhealthy food intake by socioeconomic position (SEP) and to determine whether the government's nutritional policies affect socioeconomic disparity in the food intake among adolescents. Data were from the six independent cross-sectional survey data (2006-2011) of Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey and included 445,287 subjects aged 12-18 years. The unhealthy food intake was assessed by food frequency intake and SEP was evaluated with the family affluence scale. We observed that unhealthy food intakes decreased through the years, showing the apparent decline when nutritional policies focusing on the restriction of unhealthy foods were implemented, and the trend was all same in the different SEP groups. The pattern of unhealthy food intakes by SEP has changed before and after implementation of the policies. The intakes of carbonated beverages, fast food, and confectioneries were higher in the higher SEP group before implementation of the policies but the difference was not shown after implementation of the policies. The intake of instant noodles was consistently higher in the lower SEP group. The risk of frequent consumption of unhealthy foods was generally more decreased through the years in the higher SEP group than the lower SEP group. In conclusion, this study found the positive effect of nutritional policy on unhealthy food intake among adolescents and the high SEP group appeared to undergo greater desirable changes in dietary behaviors after implementation of nutritional policies than the low SEP group. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mansur, D I; Haque, M K; Sharma, K; Mehta, D K; Shakya, R
Background Childhood is a time of active growth in terms of physical size, mental, emotional and psychological development. Normal growth is dependent on adequate nutrition and encompasses major transformations from birth to adulthood. Nutrition is a focal point for health and well being; and has special significance in countries with disadvantages in socioeconomic and hygienic standards. Objective The objective of the present study was to assess the nutritional status in terms of prevalence of underweight, stunting and thinness among rural school going children. Method The present study was cross-sectional study, conducted on 438 rural school going children (169 male and 259 female) with the age group 4-16 years, during the period from April 2014 to July 2014. Age was recorded in year; height and weight were measured in centimeter and kilogram respectively. BMI was calculated by using standard equation. Result The present study concluded that the nutritional status in terms of prevalence of underweight, stunting and thinness were found to be 30.85%, 24.54% and 10.05% respectively among rural school going children of Kavre district. It was revealed that 37.87% was underweight, 29.59% was stunted and 11.25% was thinness among male children whereas in female children, 26.27% was underweight, 21.24% was stunted and 9.27% was thinness. Hence, high prevalence of underweight, stunting and thinness were observed in male than in female children. Conclusion The present study has successfully documented the nutritional status in terms of prevalence of underweight, stunting and thinness among the rural school going children of Kavre district. The results of the present study will be useful for policy makers in their endeavor to formulate various developmental and health care programs.
Underweight incidence in adolescents from less urbanized regions of Poland depended on socio-economic status. An adolescent with average socio-economic status was 3 times less likely to be underweight than an adolescent with low socio-economic status. The correlation between socio-economic status and overweight and obesity was not significant.
Garth, A K; Newsome, C M; Simmance, N; Crowe, T C
Malnutrition and its associated complications are a considerable issue for surgical patients with upper gastrointestinal and colorectal cancer. The present study aimed to determine whether specific perioperative nutritional practices and protocols are associated with improved patient outcomes in this group. Patients admitted for elective upper gastrointestinal or colorectal cancer surgery (n = 95) over a 19-month period underwent a medical history audit assessing weight changes, nutritional intake, biochemistry, post-operative complications and length of stay. A subset of patients (n = 25) underwent nutritional assessment by subjective global assessment prior to surgery in addition to assessment of post-operative medical outcomes, nutritional intake and timing of dietetic intervention. Mean (SD) length of stay for patients was 14.0 (12.2) days, with complication rates at 35%. Length of stay was significantly longer in patients who experienced significant preoperative weight loss compared to those who did not [17.0 (15.8) days versus 10.0 (6.8) days, respectively; P nutritional assessment, 32% were classified as mild-moderately malnourished and 16% severely malnourished. Malnourished patients were hospitalised twice as long as well-nourished patients [15.8 (12.8) days versus 7.6 (3.5) days; P nutrition post surgery was a factor in post-operative outcomes, with a positive correlation with length of stay (r = 0.493; P cancer. Poor nutritional status coupled with delayed and inadequate post-operative nutrition practices are associated with worse clinical outcomes.
Martínez-Reig, M; Gómez-Arnedo, L; Alfonso-Silguero, S A; Juncos-Martínez, G; Romero, L; Abizanda, P
To analyze if body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) as measures of nutritional status, and the Mini Nutritional Assessment Short Form (MNA-SF) as a nutritional risk measure are associated with increased risk of incident disability in basic activities of daily living (BADL) in a population based cohort of Spanish older adults. Concurrent cohort study. Albacete City, Spain. 678 subjects over age 70 from the FRADEA Study (Frailty and Dependence in Albacete). BMI, WC and MNA-SF were recorded at the basal visit of the FRADEA Study. Incident disability in BADL was defined as loss of the ability to perform bathing, grooming, dressing, toilet use, or feeding from basal to follow-up visit, using the Barthel index. The association between nutritional status and nutritional risk with incident BADL disability was determined by Kaplan-Meier analysis and logistic regression adjusted for age, sex, basal function, comorbidity, cognitive decline, depression risk and frailty status. Each point less of MNA-SF (OR 1.17, 95%CI 1.04-1.31) and MNA-SFdisability in BADL. Neither BMI (OR 1.02, 95%CI 0.97-1.06) nor WC (OR 1.01, 95%CI 0.99-1.03) were associated. Weight loss (OR 1.75, 95%CI 1.08-2.83) and mobility impairment (OR 3.35, 95%CI 1.67-6.73) remained as adjusted predictors of incident BADL disability, while anorexia almost reached the significance (OR 1.65, 95%CI 0.94-2.87). Nutritional risk measured with the MNA-SF is associated with incident disability in BADL in older adults, while nutritional status measured with BMI or WC is not.
Little, C.C.; Adcock, L.D.; Hohmann, G.L.
The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) has been ''authorized as a defense activity of the Department of Energy...for the express purpose of providing a research and development facility to demonstrate the safe disposal of radioactive wastes resulting from the defense activities and programs of the United States...'' (PL 96-164). As reported in previous conferences, WIPP continues ahead of schedule and below budget with full facility construction well underway. To date, based on recent review, the socioeconomic impacts have been negligible and steps have been taken to ensure that they remain that way throughout operations
Full Text Available Why do citizens vary in their perceptions about the frequency of corruption? We hypothesize that those most harmed by corruption—the socioeconomically disadvantaged—should perceive corruption to be more frequent. Using multiple cross-national surveys, we find that the poor and the uneducated tend to perceive higher levels of corruption than the wealthy and the well educated. However, this relationship only holds in countries at high levels of economic development. In poorer countries, the statistical relationship is much weaker and sometimes runs in the opposite direction.
Mazur, Robert E; Marquis, Grace S; Jensen, Helen H
Low socioeconomic status is associated with poor diet, food insufficiency, and poor child health. Hispanic households have disproportionately low incomes. Acculturation-related changes may augment the effects of poverty on children's diet and health. The goal was to determine the associations that acculturation, measured by parents' language use, and income have with dietary intakes and food insufficiency among Hispanic youths. Data on 2985 Hispanic youths aged 4-16 y were from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988-1994). Nutrient intake data were from one 24-h dietary recall. The analysis was controlled for demographic, socioeconomic, and program variables. Parents' exclusive use of Spanish was associated in bivariate analyses with differences in intakes of energy, protein, sodium, and folate and in percentages of energy from fat and saturated fat. When other factors were controlled for, less acculturation was associated with differences in intakes of energy and sodium and in percentages of energy from fat and saturated fat. Individuals in poorer households had higher intakes of energy, protein, sodium, and some micronutrients. Although not significant for all indicators of food insufficiency, consistent patterns showed that household food insufficiency decreased with less acculturation (odds ratio: 0.4; 95% CI: 0.2, 0.7 for adult meal size reduced) and increased with low income [odds ratio: 5.9 (3.0, 11.7) for not enough food and 5.4 (2.2, 13.4) for child meal size reduced]. Both acculturation and poverty have roles in children's diets and in household food insufficiency. Culturally specific public health and nutrition education should complement efforts to improve the financial security of low-income households.
Hulshof, K F; Löwik, M R; Kok, F J; Wedel, M; Brants, H A; Hermus, R J; ten Hoor, F
Insight into the occurrence of and the association between certain socio-economic variables and life-style characteristics is necessary for preventive nutrition and health policy. The prevalence of and the interdependencies among these variables were examined in 1930 men and 2204 women aged 19 to 85 who participated in the Dutch National Food Consumption Survey 1987-1988. Dietary data were based on a two-day record. The associations among discrete variables were analysed using log-linear models. Analysis of covariance was used to explore the effects of the aggregate socio-economic status (SES) on dietary intake and anthropometry, whereas differences in food intake and SES were assessed by the non-parametric test of Kruskal and Wallis. In comparison to subjects with a high SES in people with a low SES a higher proportion of smokers (48 vs 32 per cent) was observed, a higher prevalence of obesity (39 vs 28 per cent), a higher percentage of heavy coffee drinkers (greater than six cups per day, 23 vs 17 per cent), and more subjects who skipped breakfast (19 vs 11 per cent). In the highest SES class more subjects used nutritional supplements (18 vs 11 per cent), more subjects followed a dietary rule (five vs two per cent), such as a vegetarian diet, and a higher proportion used more than three alcoholic drinks per day (19 vs 15 per cent). A higher SES was associated with a lower fat intake, but the differences (expressed as per cent of energy intake) were rather small and even absent among women when the contribution of alcohol to energy was not taken into account. In general, dietary intake among subjects in higher SES groups tended to be closer to dietary recommendations. The results indicate that a lower SES is accompanied by a higher prevalence of several indicators of an unhealthy life-style.
Malnutrition is not a simple disease, which occurs in the condition when the body does not get the right amount of nutrients to maintain healthy tissues and organ functions. Malnutrition generally refers both to undernutrition and overnutrition, but usually it is used to refer solely to a deficiency of nutrition. Infants and young children are the most vulnerable because of their high nutritional requirements for growth and development. Growth is an important indicator of health and nutritional status of a child. Generally, underweight, studding and wasting are used as the indicators of malnutrition. In fact, a gain in height is a better indicator of the adequacy of a diet than a gain in weight. Rates of weight gain needs to accompany accelerated height gain to maintain normal body proportions (weight-for-height). Now therefore WHO recommends using weight-for-height as the indicator of malnutrition of epidemic intensity in communities and of nutritional condition evaluation, including treatment assessment. The assessment of nutritional status is commonly summarized by the mnemonic "ABCD," which stands for anthropometric measurement (A), biochemical or laboratory tests (B), clinical indicators (C) and dietary assessment (D). Children with malnutrition are required to ingest more than 30 essential nutrients including both functional, protective nutrients (type I) and growth nutrients (type II), in order to have a catch-up growth in weight and height.
Shim, Hongjin; Cheong, Jae Ho; Lee, Kang Young; Lee, Hosun; Lee, Jae Gil; Noh, Sung Hoon
The presence of gastrointestinal (GI) cancer and its treatment might aggravate patient nutritional status. Malnutrition is one of the major factors affecting the postoperative course. We evaluated changes in perioperative nutritional status and risk factors of postoperative severe malnutrition in the GI cancer patients. Nutritional status was prospectively evaluated using patient-generated subjective global assessment (PG-SGA) perioperatively between May and September 2011. A total of 435 patients were enrolled. Among them, 279 patients had been diagnosed with gastric cancer and 156 with colorectal cancer. Minimal invasive surgery was performed in 225 patients. PG-SGA score increased from 4.5 preoperatively to 10.6 postoperatively (pcancer patients, postoperative severe malnourishment increased significantly (p60, pcancer (pcancer, and open surgery remained significant as risk factors of severe malnutrition. The prevalence of severe malnutrition among GI cancer patients in this study increased from 2.3% preoperatively to 26.3% after an operation. Old age, preoperative weight loss, gastric cancer, and open surgery were shown to be risk factors of postoperative severe malnutrition. In patients at high risk of postoperative severe malnutrition, adequate nutritional support should be considered.
Tüzün, Emine Handan; Güven, Duygu Korkem; Eker, Levent; Elbasan, Bülent; Bülbül, Selda Fatma
The aim of this study was to assess the nutritional status, and provide information regarding anthropometric measurements of cerebral-palsied children living in the city of Ankara, Turkey. A total of 447 children with cerebral palsy (CP) were participated in this cross-sectional study. Participants were assessed for functional motor impairment by the gross motor function classification system (GMFCS). Assesment of nutritional status was based on the triceps skinfold thickness (TSF), arm fat area (AFA) estimates derived from TSF and mid-upper arm circumference measurements. TSF and AFA Z-scores were computed using reference data. Cerebral-palsied children had lower TSF and AFA Z-scores compared to reference data from healthy children. The prevalence of underweight and overweight among boys was 8.3 and 9.5%, respectively, whereas it was 19.0 and 0.5% for girls. Underweight was more prevalent in the low functioning children than in moderate functioning children. The findings of this study indicate that cerebral-palsied children face nutritional challenges. Underweight is more prevalent than overweight among cerebral-palsied children. To optimize the outcomes of rehabilitation and prevention efforts, an understanding of the heterogeneity of nutritional status among children with CP is required.
Full Text Available Little is known about iodine nutritional status in island countries in the Pacific Ocean. The primary objective of this study was to report for the first time the iodine nutritional status of people in Nauru. In addition, sources of iodine nutrition (i.e., water and salt were investigated. A school-based cross-sectional survey of children aged 6–12 years was conducted in three primary schools of Nauru. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC was determined by spot urine samples. Available water and salt samples in Nauru were collected for the measurement of iodine content. A food frequency questionnaire was conducted. The median UIC was 142 μg/L, and 25.2% and 7.4% of the population had median UIC below 100 μg/L and 50 μg/L, respectively. Natural iodine-containing foods such as seaweeds and agar were rare. Iodine was undetectable in Nauruan tank water, filtered tap water, and raindrops. Of the analyzed salt products, five kinds were non-iodized, and three were iodized (iodine content: 15 ppm, 65 ppm, and 68 ppm, respectively. The results indicate that the iodine status in Nauruan school children is adequate. Iodized salt may serve as an important source of iodine nutrition in Nauru.
Marcelli, Daniele; Wabel, Peter; Wieskotten, Sebastian; Ciotola, Annalisa; Grassmann, Aileen; Di Benedetto, Attilio; Canaud, Bernard
This article aims to provide an overview of the different nutritional markers and the available methodologies for the physical assessment of nutrition status in hemodialysis patients, with special emphasis on early detection of protein energy wasting (PEW). Nutrition status assessment is made on the basis of anamnesis, physical examination, evaluation of nutrient intake, and on a selection of various screening/diagnostic methodologies. These methodologies can be subjective, e.g. the Subjective Global Assessment score (SGA), or objective in nature (e.g. bioimpedance analysis). In addition, certain biochemical tests may be employed (e.g. albumin, pre-albumin). The various subjective-based and objective methodologies provide different insights for the assessment of PEW, particularly regarding their propensity to differentiate between the important body composition compartments-fluid overload, fat mass and muscle mass. This review of currently available methods showed that no single approach and no single marker is able to detect alterations in nutrition status in a timely fashion and to follow such changes over time. The most clinically relevant approach presently appears to be the combination of the SGA method with the bioimpedance spectroscopy technique with physiological model and, additionally, laboratory tests for the detection of micro-nutrient deficiency.
Kaim, Irena; Sochacka-Tatara, Elzbieta; Pac, Agnieszka; Basta, Antoni; Jedrychowski, Wiesław
The aim of the study was to determine whether nutritional status of pregnant women influences the birth outcome. A prospective study, conducted in Krakow, in 382 non-smoking, no obese pregnant women between the ages of 18 - 35. The course of pregnancy was uncomplicated, finished with natural labor, in biological time limits. The impact of mother's nutritional status before pregnancy and weight gain on newborns weight, length and head circumference was estimated by multivariate linear regression. The infant birth weight depended on mothers nutritional status before pregnancy and was lower in the group of underweight subjects (3381.6 g vs. 3479.9 g, p = 0.022). Women with low increase in body mass during pregnancy delivered newborns with lower anthropometrics parameters. The increase in body weight of one category resulted in statistically significant increase of birth weight by 140.9 g, increase of length by 0.51 cm and in head circumference by 0.27 cm. Increase in body mass during pregnancy is particularly important in the group of women underweight before pregnancy. Change of nutritional habits before and in the course of pregnancy may have beneficial effects for intrauterine fetal development.
Huang, Chun-Jui; Tseng, Chi-Lung; Chen, Harn-Shen; Garabwan, Chanda; Korovo, Samuela; Tang, Kam-Tsun; Won, Justin Ging-Shing; Hsieh, Chang-Hsun; Wang, Fan-Fen
Little is known about iodine nutritional status in island countries in the Pacific Ocean. The primary objective of this study was to report for the first time the iodine nutritional status of people in Nauru. In addition, sources of iodine nutrition (i.e., water and salt) were investigated. A school-based cross-sectional survey of children aged 6-12 years was conducted in three primary schools of Nauru. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC) was determined by spot urine samples. Available water and salt samples in Nauru were collected for the measurement of iodine content. A food frequency questionnaire was conducted. The median UIC was 142 μg/L, and 25.2% and 7.4% of the population had median UIC below 100 μg/L and 50 μg/L, respectively. Natural iodine-containing foods such as seaweeds and agar were rare. Iodine was undetectable in Nauruan tank water, filtered tap water, and raindrops. Of the analyzed salt products, five kinds were non-iodized, and three were iodized (iodine content: 15 ppm, 65 ppm, and 68 ppm, respectively). The results indicate that the iodine status in Nauruan school children is adequate. Iodized salt may serve as an important source of iodine nutrition in Nauru.
Lee, Sang Ah; Park, Eun-Cheol; Ju, Yeong Jun; Lee, Tae Hoon; Han, Euna; Kim, Tae Hyun
Skipping breakfast can be potentially harmful because breakfast consumption is considered one of the important health-related behaviors that benefit physical and mental health. As the rate of depression has increased recently, we investigated the association between the frequency of eating breakfast and depression in adults. We obtained the data from the 2013 Korean Community Health Survey; a total of 207,710 survey participants aged 20 years or over were studied. Participants were categorized into three groups by the frequency of breakfast consumption as follows: "seldom," "sometimes," and "always." We performed a multiple logistic regression to investigate the association between breakfast consumption and depressive mood. Subgroup analyses were conducted by stratifying socioeconomic variables controlling for variables known to be associated with depressive symptoms. Participants who had breakfast seldom or sometimes had higher depressive symptoms than those who always ate breakfast ("seldom": OR = 1.43, 95% CI 1.36-1.52; "sometimes": OR = 1.32, 95% CI 1.23-1.40). Subgroup analyses showed that this association was more marked in those who were 80 years or older, those who had low household income, or those with elementary school education level or less. The result of this study suggests that lack of breakfast consumption is associated with depression among adults with different socioeconomic factors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Præstegaard, Camilla; Kjær, Susanne Krüger; Nielsen, Thor Schütt Svane
PURPOSE: Socioeconomic status (SES) is a known predictor of survival for several cancers and it has been suggested that SES differences affecting tumour stage at diagnosis may be the most important explanatory factor for this. However, only a limited number of studies have investigated SES....... The observed socioeconomic difference in stage at diagnosis of ovarian cancer calls for further studies on how to reduce this diagnostic delay....
Davidsen, Jesper Rømhild; Søndergaard, Jens; Hallas, Jesper
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this population-based longitudinal study was to examine the associations between socioeconomic status (SES) and anti-asthmatic treatment with inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) among young Danish adult asthmatics, and to investigate whether these associations were consistent over...... use in young adult asthmatics. To encourage ICS use, special attention should be paid to asthmatics with low educational level and low income. Further studies are needed to elucidate underlying mechanisms for this socioeconomic inequality....
Ana CarolinaReiff e Vieira
Full Text Available Os estudos nacionais indicam comportamento epidêmico da obesidade, e ênfase tem sido dada sobre os determinantes sociais do excesso de peso. O status socioeconômico tem sido avaliado por ocupação, educação e renda. Vários fatores relacionados à obesidade, como atividade física, consumo alimentar e hábitos familiares sofrem também influência do status socioeconômico. Realizou-se revisão da literatura sobre a associação do status socioeconômico com obesidade e também foram apresentados dados de uma pesquisa de base populacional sobre obesidade em mulheres do município do Rio de Janeiro. A ocorrência da obesidade entre os diferentes níveis de status socioeconômico é influenciada pelo sexo e idade, e são discutidos fatores ambientais que determinam a possibilidade de acesso aos alimentos saudáveis e a oportunidade de prática de atividade física. Por fim, é discutido como os hábitos familiares influenciam nas escolhas dos alimentos e como o status socioeconômico pode modificar esse efeito, bem como a disponibilidade de alimentos e o preço destes, levando a um maior consumo de alimentos de alta densidade energética, fator de risco dietético para obesidade.An epidemic of obesity has been revealed by Brazilian nationwide surveys, and emphasis is being given to socioeconomic status as one of the main determinants of weight gain. Other factors also associated to obesity are influenced by socioeconomic status, such as physical activity, food consumption, and family habits. Socioeconomic status has been evaluated based on occupation, education, and income. A review of the literature on the association between socioeconomic status and obesity has been conducted, and data from a population-based survey regarding obesity among women in the city of Rio de Janeiro were also included. The occurrence of obesity among different levels of socioeconomic status as influenced by sex and age, and environmental factors that determine the
Suryanto, Agus; Paramita, Octavianti; Pribadi, Feddy Setio
The calculation of BMI (Body Mass Index) is one of the methods to calculate the nutritional status of a person. The BMI calculation has not yet widely understood and known by the public. In addition, people should know the importance of progress in the development of child nutrition each month. Therefore, an application to determine the nutritional status of children based on Android was developed in this study. This study restricted the calculation for children with the age of 0-60 months. The application can run on a smartphone or tablet PC with android operating system due to the rapid development of a smartphone or tablet PC with android operating system and many people own and use it. The aim of this study was to produce a android app to calculate of nutritional status of children. This study was Research and Development (R & D), with a design approach using experimental studies. The steps in this study included analyzing the formula of the Body Mass Index (BMI) and developing the initial application with the help of a computer that includes the design and manufacture of display using Eclipse software. This study resulted in android application that can be used to calculate the nutritional status of children with the age 0-60 months. The results of MES or the error calculation analysis using body mass index formula was 0. In addition, the results of MAPE percentage was 0%. It shows that there is no error in the calculation of the application based on the BMI formula. The smaller value of MSE and MAPE leads to higher level of accuracy.
Swetha, G Krishna; Hemalatha, R; Prasad, U V; Murali, Vasudev; Damayanti, K; Bhaskar, V
Information on nutritional status of HIV infected children from India is lacking and is required before taking up nutritional supplementation trials. Thus, the aim of the present study was to assess the growth and morbidity status of HIV infected children over a period of one year in a city in southern India. This was an observational study carried out between July 2009 and February 2011, at two orphanages in Hyderabad, India. Seventy seven HIV-positive children aged between 1 and half and 15 years, both on and not on antiretroviral therapy (ART) were included. Nutritional status was assessed longitudinally for one year by weight gain, linear growth and body composition. Serum samples were analyzed for haemoglobin, micronutrients, CD4 and CD8 counts. Dietary intakes were assessed by institutional diet survey and morbidity data were recorded every day for 12 months. Mean energy intakes were less than recommended dietary allowance (RDA) in all age groups. Iron and folate intakes were less than 50 per cent of RDA; 46 (59.7%) children were stunted, 36 (46.8%) were underweight and 15 (19.5%) had low BMI for age. Anaemia was observed in 35 (45.5%) children. Micronutrient deficiencies such as vitamin D (40/77; 51.9%), vitamin A (11/77; 14.3%), folate (37/77; 48.1%), iron (38/77; 49.3%) were widely prevalent. HIV viral load was higher in children not on ART and those with morbidity. Respiratory (36.6%) and dermatological illnesses (18.8%) were the commonest presentations. Acute, chronic malnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies were common in HIV infected children, especially in those not on ART and having morbidity. With severe malnutrition being an alarming consequence of HIV, prophylactic nutritive care should be considered for integration into HIV care strategies besides initiation of ART to improve the nutritional status and quality of life of these children.
Marino, Larissa Vieira; Ramos, Liliana Figueiredo Andrade de Oliveira; Chiarello, Paula Garcia
To assess the nutritional status of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients with no other associated dementia, according to disease stage. Cross-sectional observational study. Neurobehavioral Diseases Outpatient Clinic, Clinical Hospital, Ribeirao Preto Medical School (University of São Paulo). The sample consisted of 36 individuals of both genders with AD diagnosis, and no other associated type of dementia, in various stages of the disease, according to the Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR 0.5-3). Nutritional status was evaluated using the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) and anthropometric measurements such as weight, body mass index (BMI) and arm, waist, abdomen and hip circumferences. In addition, body composition was assessed by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). The mean age of the group was 74.2 ± 10.1 years, 72.2 % of them were women. The MNA showed that most of these individuals were at risk for malnutrition (55.5 %) and many of them (43.7 %) were underweight according to BMI. Data from BIA analysis revealed that 41.7 % of these individuals had a quantity of body fat classified as malnutrition and 11.1 % had a phase angle (PA) below recommended values for age group. There was a negative and significant correlation of lean mass and PA with age, and of global MNA evaluation with CDR, as well as a positive correlation of MNA total score with fat mass and BMI. Worse classifications of nutritional status obtained by MNA scores were also observed in the more severe stages of the disease, according to the CDR. Patients with AD are mostly elderly with changes in body composition that are typical of aging, with signs of peripheral malnutrition and preservation of abdominal fat. However, greater impairment of general nutritional status was observed in the more advanced stages of AD, creating a situation of greater vulnerability for these patients.
Lynch, Katherine E; Lynch, Rebecca; Curhan, Gary C; Brunelli, Steven M
The objective of this study was to examine the association between altered taste perception and nutritional status among hemodialysis patients. We performed a post hoc analysis of data from the Hemodialysis study (n = 1,745). Taste perception was assessed at baseline and then updated annually using an item from a quality of life survey that asked "During the past 4 weeks, to what extent were you bothered by loss of taste?" Responses were categorized as normal taste perception if subjects answered "not at all" or altered taste perception if they reported any degree of bother. Time-updated logistic regression models were used to evaluate predictors of altered taste perception. Time-updated linear regression models were used to examine the association between altered taste perception and indices of nutritional status. Multivariable proportional hazards and Poisson models were used to assess association between altered taste perception and mortality and hospitalization, respectively. At baseline, 34.6% reported altered taste perception, which was associated with poorer baseline nutritional status. On time-updated analysis, altered taste perception was associated with a persistently higher proportion of subjects requiring enteral nutritional supplements and lower serum albumin, serum creatinine, normalized protein catabolic rate, protein intake, sodium intake, and mid-arm muscle circumference. Altered taste perception at baseline was independently associated with increased all-cause mortality: adjusted hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) of 1.17 (1.01-1.37), although not with increased rate of hospitalization. Altered taste perception was common among prevalent hemodialysis patients and was independently associated with poorer indices of nutritional status and increased all-cause mortality. Copyright © 2013 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ilić Begović, Tanja; Radić, Josipa; Radić, Mislav; Kovačić, Vedran; Šain, Milenka; Ljutić, Dragan
Nutritional status of hemodialysis (HD) patients is influenced by a multitude of factors and it strongly correlates with morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of seasonal changes on nutritional status in maintenance HD patients. A selected population of 84 adult (40 females and 44 males, aged 68.98 ± 13.45 years) HD (5.94 ± 6.44 years) patients were investigated. Clinical, biochemical and nutritional parameters (BMI, creatinine, urea, serum albumin, total cholesterol and Dialysis Malnutrition Score (DMS) were measured in cold (January and December) and mild (June and September) months, altogether in 336 HD sessions. Statistically significant differences between cold and mild months were found in BMI (P = 0.046), creatinine before HD (P = 0.011), urea before HD (P ≤ 0.001), urea after HD (P ≤ 0.001) and glucose (P = 0.001). Differences between male and female patients in DMS, serum albumin and creatinine level in cold and mild months were found; where females altogether had higher DMS score and lower serum albumin and creatinine levels. These results suggest that seasonal variations of clinical and laboratory variables that reflect nutritional status occur commonly among maintenance HD patients and might lead to biases in the interpretation of results in clinical studies in which measurement schedules vary during the year. Also, results suggested that female HD patients may constitute an especially vulnerable population for seasonal oscillations of nutritional status. The reasons for most of these variations are not apparent and require further investigation. © 2016 International Society for Apheresis, Japanese Society for Apheresis, and Japanese Society for Dialysis Therapy.
Ahn, Jeong-Ah; Park, JeeWon; Kim, Chun-Ja
The effects of an individualised nutritional education and support programme on dietary habits, nutritional knowledge and nutritional status of 71 older adults living alone were examined. Although a regular dietary meal plan is recommended for improving nutritional status of older adults living alone, little research is done in this field in Korea. A pre- and post-test controlled quasi-experimental design was used at public health centres. The intervention group participated in an intensive nutritional education and support programme once a week for 8 weeks with dietary menus provided by home visiting nurses/dieticians; control group received usual care. Dietary habits and nutritional knowledge were assessed using structured questionnaires; nutritional intake status was analysed using Computer Aided Nutritional Analysis Program 5.0. The mean age of participants was 77.6 years, and 81.7% of the participants were women. At 8 weeks, there were significant interactions of group by time for dietary habits, nutritional knowledge and selected nutritional status of protein, iron and vitamins of B 2 and C. Changes over time in the mean score of dietary habits and nutritional knowledge were significantly improved in the intervention group compared to the control group. The percentages of normal nutrition intake of protein, iron and vitamins A and C in the intervention group were significantly higher than the control group at 8 weeks. Nutritional education and support programme positively impacted dietary habits, nutritional knowledge and selected nutritional status in older adults living alone, and we highlight the need for community-based nutritional education and counselling programmes. Older adults living alone in a community have relatively poor nutritional status and thus require tailored nutritional intervention according to objective nutritional analysis. It is necessary to link visiting nurses with dieticians in the community to manage effective nutritional
Gürlek Gökçebay, Dilek; Emir, Suna; Bayhan, Turan; Demir, Hacı Ahmet; Gunduz, Mehmet; Tunc, Bahattin
Malnutrition is a common consequence of cancer in children, but the most effective methods of nutrition intervention are under debate. We aimed to evaluate the nutritional status of children diagnosed with cancer, and to investigate the effect of oral nutritional supplements on anthropometric measurements, biochemical parameters, and outcome. A randomized clinical study of 45 newly diagnosed cancer patients was performed. Anthropometric and biochemical data and related factors were assessed at 0, 3, and 6 months after diagnosis. On initial anthropometric assessment, prevalence of malnutrition by weight or height was found to be lower as compared with body mass index (BMI), or weight for height (WFH), or arm anthropometry. Twenty-six of the patients (55%) received oral nutritional supplement. During the second 3 months after diagnosis, there was a statistically significant decrease in number of the patients with WFH Nutritional intervention is necessary to promote normal development and increase functional status as a child receives intensive treatment. Protein- and energy-dense oral nutritional supplements are effective for preventing weight loss in malnourished children.
Morley, David; Till, Kevin; Ogilvie, Paul; Turner, Graham
As the development of movement skills are so crucial to a child's involvement in lifelong physical activity and sport, the purpose of this study was to assess the motor proficiency of children aged 4-7 years (range=4.3-7.2 years), whilst considering gender and socioeconomic status. 369 children (176 females, 193 males, aged=5.96 ± 0.57 years) were assessed for fine motor precision, fine motor integration, manual dexterity, bilateral co-ordination, balance, speed and agility, upper-limb co-ordination and strength. The average standard score for all participants was 44.4 ± 8.9, classifying the participants towards the lower end of the average score. Multivariate analysis of covariance identified significant effects for gender (psocioeconomic status (psocioeconomic status significantly outperformed middle and/or low socioeconomic status for total, fine and gross motor proficiency. Current motor proficiency of primary children aged 4-7 years in the UK is just below average with differences evident between gender and socioeconomic status. Teachers and sport coaches working with primary aged children should concentrate on the development of movement skills, whilst considering differences between genders and socioeconomic status. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Belstrøm, Daniel; Holmstrup, Palle; Nielsen, Claus H
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The bacterial profile of saliva is composed of bacteria from different oral surfaces. The objective of this study was to determine whether different diet intake, lifestyle, or socioeconomic status is associated with characteristic bacterial saliva profiles. DESIGN...... presence and levels (mean HOMIM-value) of bacterial probes as endpoints, the influence of diet intake, lifestyle, and socioeconomic status on the bacterial saliva profile was analyzed by Mann-Whitney tests with Benjamini-Hochberg's correction for multiple comparisons and principal component analysis.......01). Stratification of the group based on extreme ends of the parameters age, gender, alcohol consumption, body mass index (BMI), and diet intake had no statistical influence on the composition of the bacterial profile of saliva. Conversely, differences in socioeconomic status were reflected by the bacterial profiles...
Denisse L. Manrique Millones
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyze the relation between two dimensions of parenting (Positive Parenting and Negative Behavioral Control and child psychosocial functioning, such as self-worth and problem behavior. We investigated (a whether socioeconomic status moderates the relationship between parenting and child psychosocial outcomes, (b whether parenting mediates the relation between socioeconomic status and psychosocial functioning in a Peruvian context and finally, (c whether there are interaction effects between positive parenting and negative behavioral control. Information was gathered on 591 Peruvian children and their families from the normal population in urban zones of Metropolitan Lima. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted to investigate direct and indirect effects (mediation and moderation. Results revealed a significant mediation effect of positive parenting and negative behavioral control in the relationship between socioeconomic status and self-worth. Implications about the role played by context are discussed.
The study aims to estimate the relationship between the individual/local socioeconomic status and the health of internal elderly migrants in China. A multilevel logistic model was used to estimate this association. The estimations were undertaken for 11,111 migrants aged over 60 years, using nationally representative data: the 2015 Migrant Dynamics Monitoring Survey (MDMS), which was carried out in China. Odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were reported. Both the household income per capita and the area-level average wage were positively associated with migrants' self-reported health; however, public service supply was not significantly related to their health. In addition, given the household income, migrants living in communities with a higher average wage were more likely to report poor health. Migrants' health benefited from individual socioeconomic status, but not from the local socioeconomic status, which the migrants cannot enjoy. This study highlights the importance of multilevel and non-discriminatory policies between migrants and local residents.
KOWALKOWSKA, Joanna; WADOLOWSKA, Lidia; WERONIKA WUENSTEL, Justyna; SŁOWIŃSKA, Małgorzata Anna; NIEDŹWIEDZKA, Ewa
Abstract Background The aim of this study was to analyze the association between overweight prevalence and socioeconomic status (SES) measured by complex SES index and single SES factors in Polish adolescents in respect to age and sex. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2010-2011. A total of 1,176 adolescents aged 13.0-18.9 years were included. The respondents were students of junior-high and high schools from northern, eastern and central Poland. Quota sampling by sex and age was used. The SES was determined by: place of residence, self-declared economic situation, and parental education level. Respondents with low, average or high SES index (SESI) were identified. The level of overweight was assessed using Polish and international standards. Results The odds ratio (OR) for overweight prevalence in the oldest girls (aged 17.0-18.9 years) with high SESI was 0.34 (95%CI:0.13-0.92; P socioeconomic status and prevalence of overweight was related to sex and age. The high socioeconomic status strongly lowered the risk of overweight prevalence in the oldest girls, but not in boys, irrespective of age. Maternal education level lowered risk of overweight prevalence in girls. PMID:25909059
Muurinen, Seija M; Soini, Helena H; Suominen, Merja H; Saarela, Riitta K T; Savikko, Niina M; Pitkälä, Kaisu H
Vision impairment is common among older persons. It is a risk factor for disability, and it may be associated with nutritional status via decline in functional status. However, only few studies have examined the relationship between vision impairment and nutritional status, which was investigated in this cross-sectional study. The study included all residents living in the assisted living facilities in Helsinki and Espoo in 2007. Residents in temporary respite care were excluded (5%). Of permanent residents (N=2214), 70% (N=1475) consented. Trained nurses performed a personal interview and assessment of each resident including the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA), functional and health status. Patient records were used to confirm demographic data and medical history. Mortality in 2010 was retrieved from central registers. Of the residents, 17.5% (N=245) had vision impairment and they were not able to read regular print. Those with vision impairment were older, more often females, and malnourished according to MNA. They had lower BMI, and suffered more often from dementia and chewing problems than those without vision impairment. In logistic regression analysis controlling for age, gender, chewing problems and dementia, vision impairment was independently associated with resident's malnutrition (OR 2.51, 95% CI 1.80-3.51). According to our results older residents in assisted living with vision impairment are at high risk for malnutrition. Therefore it is important to assess nutritional status of persons with vision impairment. It would be beneficial to repeat this kind of a study also in elderly community population. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.