WorldWideScience

Sample records for nutritional ignorance related

  1. Neurophysiological Signals of Ignoring and Attending Are Separable and Related to Performance during Sustained Intersensory Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenartowicz, Agatha; Simpson, Gregory V.; Haber, Catherine M.; Cohen, Mark S.

    2017-01-01

    The ability to attend to an input selectively while ignoring distracting sensations is thought to depend on the coordination of two processes: enhancement of target signals and attenuation of distractor signals. This implies that attending and ignoring may be dissociable neural processes and that they make separable contributions to behavioral outcomes of attention. In this study, we tested these hypotheses in the context of sustained attention by measuring neurophysiological responses to attended and ignored stimuli in a noncued, continuous, audiovisual selective attention task. We compared these against responses during a passive control to quantify effects of attending and ignoring separately. In both sensory modalities, responses to ignored stimuli were attenuated relative to a passive control, whereas responses to attended stimuli were enhanced. The scalp topographies and brain activations of these modulatory effects were consistent with the sensory regions that process each modality. They also included parietal and prefrontal activations that suggest these effects arise from interactions between top–down and sensory cortices. Most importantly, we found that both attending and ignoring processes contributed to task accuracy and that these effects were not correlated—suggesting unique neural trajectories. This conclusion was supported by the novel observation that attending and ignoring differed in timing and in active cortical regions. The data provide direct evidence for the separable contributions of attending and ignoring to behavioral outcomes of attention control during sustained intersensory attention. PMID:24666167

  2. Neurophysiological signals of ignoring and attending are separable and related to performance during sustained intersensory attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenartowicz, Agatha; Simpson, Gregory V; Haber, Catherine M; Cohen, Mark S

    2014-09-01

    The ability to attend to an input selectively while ignoring distracting sensations is thought to depend on the coordination of two processes: enhancement of target signals and attenuation of distractor signals. This implies that attending and ignoring may be dissociable neural processes and that they make separable contributions to behavioral outcomes of attention. In this study, we tested these hypotheses in the context of sustained attention by measuring neurophysiological responses to attended and ignored stimuli in a noncued, continuous, audiovisual selective attention task. We compared these against responses during a passive control to quantify effects of attending and ignoring separately. In both sensory modalities, responses to ignored stimuli were attenuated relative to a passive control, whereas responses to attended stimuli were enhanced. The scalp topographies and brain activations of these modulatory effects were consistent with the sensory regions that process each modality. They also included parietal and prefrontal activations that suggest these effects arise from interactions between top-down and sensory cortices. Most importantly, we found that both attending and ignoring processes contributed to task accuracy and that these effects were not correlated--suggesting unique neural trajectories. This conclusion was supported by the novel observation that attending and ignoring differed in timing and in active cortical regions. The data provide direct evidence for the separable contributions of attending and ignoring to behavioral outcomes of attention control during sustained intersensory attention.

  3. Organizational Ignorance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Ann-Christina

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides an analysis of strategic uses of ignorance or not-knowing in one of the most secretive industries within the financial sector. The focus of the paper is on the relation between imitation and ignorance within the organizational structure of high-frequency trading (HFT) firms...... and investigate the kinds of imitations that might be produced from structures of not-knowing (i.e. structures intended to divide, obscure and protect knowledge). This point is illustrated through ethnographic studies and interviews within five HFT firms. The data show how a black-box structure of ignorance...... is replicated within the organizational setting of these firms and re-enacted by the traders. Towards the end of the paper the politics of the relationship between imitation and ignorance is discussed....

  4. Nutrition and Cancer: An Historical Perspective-The Past, Present, and Future of Nutrition and Cancer. Part 2. Misunderstanding and Ignoring Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, T Colin

    2017-07-25

    The role that nutrition plays in cancer development and treatment has received considerable attention in recent decades, but it still engenders considerable controversy. Within the cancer research and especially the clinical community, for example, nutritional factors are considered to play, at best, a secondary role. The role of nutrition in cancer development was noted by authorities as far back as the early 1800s, generally under the theory that cancer is "constitutional" in its origin, implying a complex, multifactorial, multistage etiology. Opponents of this idea insisted, rather vigorously, that cancer is a local unifactorial disease, best treated through surgery, with little attention paid to the etiology and possible prevention of cancer. This "local" theory, developed during the late 1700s and early 1800s, gradually included, in the late 1800s and early 1900s, chemotherapy and radiotherapy as treatment modalities, which now remain, along with surgery, as the basis of present-day cancer treatment. This highly reductionist paradigm left in its wake unfortunate consequences for the present day, which is the subject of this perspective.

  5. Ignorance Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John ISRAILIDIS

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper identifies an alternative perspective on Knowledge Management (KM in multinational organisations by definition of the concept of Ignorance Management.Furthermore, this paper discusses the dificulties employees face in understanding and comprehending what they need to know to do their jobs, and what implications this can have within global technology intensive environments. The focus is given in particular on multinational organisations where innovation and new knowledge is essential to both shortterm opportunistic value capture and long-term business sustainability. Hence, this paper discusses why managing ignorance is essential for maintaining a strategic knowledge sharing culture within multinational organisations. Furthermore, it develops a novel theory on the nature of knowledge and ignorance while making the distinction between knowns and unknowns as well as between consciousness and ignorance. The theoretical findings have been applied to technology intensive and innovative environments. A case study is explored within the paper, based on findings from one of the largest military contractors in the world, which employs over 100,000 people across the globe. The paper adopts an interpretative philosophy, using the primary strategy of qualitative research. In addition, due to the complexity of the topic, a mixed methods approach has been used for the data collection process. Moreover, participatory action research is undertaken to study individuals’ actions in a particular context and improve organisational strategies and KM practices. The study shows that managing ignorance and adaptiveness in multinational organisations is becoming increasingly important. Thus, the critical question is not just managing what is known but also trying to find ways to manage the unknown. This viewpoint of acknowledging ignorance, if successfully incorporated within a company’s KM strategy, will not only facilitate and enhance knowledge storage

  6. Nutritional aspects related to endometriosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Halpern

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY This literature review analyzed the evidence on nutritional aspects related to the pathogenesis and progression of endometriosis. Diets deficient in nutrients result in changes in lipid metabolism, oxidative stress and promote epigenetic abnormalities, that may be involved in the genesis and progression of the disease. Foods rich in omega 3 with anti-inflammatory effects, supplementation with Nacetylcysteine, vitamin D and resveratrol, in addition to the increased consumption of fruits, vegetables (preferably organic and whole grains exert a protective effect, reducing the risk of development and possible regression of disease. Dietary re-education seems to be a promising tool in the prevention and treatment of endometriosis.

  7. [History of ignorance of methylmercury toxicity and intoxication in Japan in relation to Minamata disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, Nobuo

    2014-01-01

    The first reports of methylmercury intoxication appeared in 1865 and 1866. These reports had sensational effects in European countries, and were introduced not only in journals but also in newspapers. These two reports were referable in Japan at the latest in 1927. The formation of organic mercury in the production of acetoaldehyde was also referable in 1906 in Japan. In 1931 (one year before the start of acetoaldehyde production in Minamata) these important reports cited above were referable in Kumamoto University, and there were warnings about the toxicity of organic mercury and environmental pollution prior to the start of acetoaldehyde production. However, not only the plant, authorities (Ministry of Welfare), and Kumamoto Prefectural Office, but also the scientists completely ignored these reports. Waste was dumped into the environment without any treatment. Serious pollution of the environment by organic mercury started, which resulted in the outbreak of Minamata disease (=methylmercury intoxication).

  8. The Varieties of Ignorance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nottelmann, Nikolaj

    2016-01-01

    This chapter discusses varieties of ignorance divided according to kind (what the subject is ignorant of), degree, and order (e.g. ignorance of ignorance equals second-order ignorance). It provides analyses of notions such as factual ignorance, erotetic ignorance (ignorance of answers to question...

  9. Clash of Ignorance

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    Mahmoud Eid

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The clash of ignorance thesis presents a critique of the clash of civilizations theory. It challenges the assumptions that civilizations are monolithic entities that do not interact and that the Self and the Other are always opposed to each other. Despite some significantly different values and clashes between Western and Muslim civilizations, they overlap with each other in many ways and have historically demonstrated the capacity for fruitful engagement. The clash of ignorance thesis makes a significant contribution to the understanding of intercultural and international communication as well as to the study of inter-group relations in various other areas of scholarship. It does this by bringing forward for examination the key impediments to mutually beneficial interaction between groups. The thesis directly addresses the particular problem of ignorance that other epistemological approaches have not raised in a substantial manner. Whereas the critique of Orientalism deals with the hegemonic construction of knowledge, the clash of ignorance paradigm broadens the inquiry to include various actors whose respective distortions of knowledge symbiotically promote conflict with each other. It also augments the power-knowledge model to provide conceptual and analytical tools for understanding the exploitation of ignorance for the purposes of enhancing particular groups’ or individuals’ power. Whereas academics, policymakers, think tanks, and religious leaders have referred to the clash of ignorance concept, this essay contributes to its development as a theory that is able to provide a valid basis to explain the empirical evidence drawn from relevant cases.

  10. The Sin of Science: Ignorance of Ignorance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravetz, Jerome R.

    1993-01-01

    Considers the idea of ignorance of ignorance in the scientific culture. Topics discussed include a historical background of ignorance in science, including the ideas of Socrates, Galileo, Descartes, and Bacon; teaching and practice; and philosophical reconstruction and the relationship between knowledge and ignorance. (Contains six references.)…

  11. The paradox of nutrition-related diseases in the Arab countries: the need for action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musaiger, Abdulrahman O; Hassan, Abdelmonem S; Obeid, Omar

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this review was to highlight the current situation of nutrition-related diseases in the Arab countries, and factors associated with prevalence of these diseases. PubMed and Google Scholar were searched for data relating to such nutrition-related diseases published between January 1990 and May 2011. The picture of nutritional status in the Arab countries has changed drastically over the past 30 years as a result of changes in the social and economic situation. Two contrasting nutrition-related diseases exist, those associated with inadequate intake of nutrients and unhealthy dietary habits such as growth retardation among young children and micronutrient deficiencies; and those associated with changes in lifestyle such as cardiovascular disease, cancer, osteoporosis, diabetes and obesity (diet-related non-communicable diseases). Factors contributing to nutritional problems vary from country to country, depending on socio-economic status. In general, unsound dietary habits, poor sanitation, poverty, ignorance and lack of access to safe water and health services are mainly responsible for under-nutrition. Changes in lifestyle and dietary habits as well as inactivity are associated with the occurrence of diet-related non-communicable diseases. Programs to prevent and control nutrition-related diseases are insufficient and ineffective, due mainly to a focus on curative care at the expense of preventive health care services, lack of epidemiological studies, lack of nutritional surveillance, inadequate nutrition information and lack of assessment of the cost-effectiveness of nutrition intervention programs.

  12. Ignorance Radicalized

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    Gergo Somodi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is twofold. I criticize Michael Devitt's linguistic---as opposed to Chomsky's psychological---conception of linguistics on the one hand, and I modify his related view on linguistic intuitions on the other. I argue that Devitt's argument for the linguistic conception is in conflict with one of the main theses of that very conception, according to which linguistics should be about physical sentence tokens of a given language rather than about the psychologically real competence of native speakers. The basis of this conflict is that Devitt's view on language, as I will show, inherits too much from the criticized Chomskian view. This is also the basis of Devitt's strange claim that it is the linguist, and not the ordinary speaker, whose linguistic intuition should have an evidential role in linguistics. I will argue for the opposite by sketching a view on language that is more appropriate to the linguistic conception. That is, in criticizing Devitt, I am not defending the Chomskian approach. My aim is to radicalize Devitt's claims.

  13. Epistemologies of Ignorance in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malewski, Erik; Jaramillo, Nathalia

    2011-01-01

    Epistemologies of Ignorance provide educators a distinct epistemological view on questions of marginalization, oppression, relations of power and dominance, difference, philosophy, and even death among our youth. The authors of this edited collection challenge the ambivalence--ignorance--found in the construction of curriculum, teaching practices,…

  14. Ignorability for categorical data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaeger, Manfred

    2005-01-01

    We study the problem of ignorability in likelihood-based inference from incomplete categorical data. Two versions of the coarsened at random assumption (car) are distinguished, their compatibility with the parameter distinctness assumption is investigated and several conditions for ignorability...

  15. The Paradox of Nutrition-Related Diseases in the Arab Countries: The Need for Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Obeid

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review was to highlight the current situation of nutrition-related diseases in the Arab countries, and factors associated with prevalence of these diseases. PubMed and Google Scholar were searched for data relating to such nutrition-related diseases published between January 1990 and May 2011. The picture of nutritional status in the Arab countries has changed drastically over the past 30 years as a result of changes in the social and economic situation. Two contrasting nutrition-related diseases exist, those associated with inadequate intake of nutrients and unhealthy dietary habits such as growth retardation among young children and micronutrient deficiencies; and those associated with changes in lifestyle such as cardiovascular disease, cancer, osteoporosis, diabetes and obesity (diet-related non-communicable diseases. Factors contributing to nutritional problems vary from country to country, depending on socio-economic status. In general, unsound dietary habits, poor sanitation, poverty, ignorance and lack of access to safe water and health services are mainly responsible for under-nutrition. Changes in lifestyle and dietary habits as well as inactivity are associated with the occurrence of diet-related non-communicable diseases. Programs to prevent and control nutrition-related diseases are insufficient and ineffective, due mainly to a focus on curative care at the expense of preventive health care services, lack of epidemiological studies, lack of nutritional surveillance, inadequate nutrition information and lack of assessment of the cost-effectiveness of nutrition intervention programs.

  16. Nutrition and cancer: issues related to treatment and survivorship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witham, Gary

    2013-10-01

    This paper reviews nutritional issues related to cancer treatment and further explores nutritional needs pertinent to cancer survivorship. It examines the major problems with nutrition when patients undergo the main cancer treatment modalities of chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgery. Particular attention is paid to long-term dietary advice in acknowledgement of the improved effectiveness of cancer treatment and the chronic nature of the condition.

  17. Strategic Self-Ignorance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thunström, Linda; Nordström, Leif Jonas; Shogren, Jason F.

    We examine strategic self-ignorance—the use of ignorance as an excuse to overindulge in pleasurable activities that may be harmful to one’s future self. Our model shows that guilt aversion provides a behavioral rationale for present-biased agents to avoid information about negative future impacts...... of such activities. We then confront our model with data from an experiment using prepared, restaurant-style meals — a good that is transparent in immediate pleasure (taste) but non-transparent in future harm (calories). Our results support the notion that strategic self-ignorance matters: nearly three of five...... subjects (58 percent) chose to ignore free information on calorie content, leading at-risk subjects to consume significantly more calories. We also find evidence consistent with our model on the determinants of strategic self-ignorance....

  18. Strategic self-ignorance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thunström, Linda; Nordström, Leif Jonas; Shogren, Jason F.

    2016-01-01

    We examine strategic self-ignorance—the use of ignorance as an excuse to over-indulge in pleasurable activities that may be harmful to one’s future self. Our model shows that guilt aversion provides a behavioral rationale for present-biased agents to avoid information about negative future impacts...... of such activities. We then confront our model with data from an experiment using prepared, restaurant-style meals—a good that is transparent in immediate pleasure (taste) but non-transparent in future harm (calories). Our results support the notion that strategic self-ignorance matters: nearly three of five...... subjects (58%) chose to ignore free information on calorie content, leading at-risk subjects to consume significantly more calories. We also find evidence consistent with our model on the determinants of strategic self-ignorance....

  19. "Relative Ignorance": "Lingua" and "Linguaggio" in Gramsci's Concept of a Formative "Aesthetic" as a Concern for Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldacchino, John

    2011-01-01

    This essay looks at the relationship between formative aesthetics, language and the historical anticipation that begins with Antonio Gramsci's discussion of Kant's idea of "noumenon". In Gramsci both education (as "formazione") and aesthetics stem from a concern for power in terms of the hegemonic relations that are inherent to history as a…

  20. The challenges of ignorance

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Barnard, E

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available as ignorance models, and point out the need for a framework that allows for prior probabilities to be constructed in a more principled fashion. Such a framework is proposed for the task of supervised learning, based on the trend of the Bayes error as a function...

  1. In Praise of Ignorance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formica, Piero

    2014-01-01

    In this article Piero Formica examines the difference between incremental and revolutionary innovation, distinguishing between the constrained "path finders" and the unconstrained "path creators". He argues that an acceptance of "ignorance" and a willingness to venture into the unknown are critical elements in…

  2. Designing a New Program in Family Relations and Applied Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Sharon Mayne; Daly, Kerry; Lero, Donna; MacMartin, Clare

    2007-01-01

    Family Relations and Applied Nutrition, which is offered at the University of Guelph, is an interdisciplinary department that previously offered three undergraduate majors: child, youth, and family; applied human nutrition; and gerontology; as well as graduate programs at the master's and doctoral levels. Several factors have precipitated a review…

  3. Weight-Related Attitudes and Experiences of Nutrition Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learners will describe the attitudes and experiences of nutrition professionals regarding professional responsibility to model an appropriate weight status and the role of personal weight-related issues in nutrition counseling interactions. The purpose of this study was to describe the attitudes an...

  4. Nutritional influences on epigenetics and age-related disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutritional epigenetics has emerged as a novel mechanism underlying gene–diet interactions, further elucidating the modulatory role of nutrition in aging and age-related disease development. Epigenetics is defined as a heritable modification to the DNA that regulates chromosome architecture and modu...

  5. Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durnin, J V

    1976-07-01

    Nutrition appeared somewhat late on the scene in the I.B.P. projects in the U.K., but eventually it occupied an integral part of many of the H.A. (human adaptability) investigations. The nutritional data obtained in the studies of isolated and nearisolated communities in Tristan da Cunha and in New Guinea provided information of wide nutritional significance. There were also detailed and extensive studies in Israel which, similarly to those in New Guinea, attempted to relate nutritional factors to enviroment, working conditions, and physical fitness. Some extraordinarily low energy intakes found in Ethiopians have induced much speculation on the extent which man can adequately adapt to restricted food supplies. Interesting nutritional observations, of general importance, have also arisen from results obtained on such disparate groups as Glasgow adolescents, Tanzanian and Sudanese students, children in Malawi and vegans in the U.K.

  6. Comment on "The phase relation between atmospheric carbon dioxide and global temperature" Humlum et al. [Glob. Planet. Change 100: 51-69.]: Isotopes ignored

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Zoltán; Leuenberger, Markus

    2013-10-01

    A recent study relying purely on statistical analysis of relatively short time series suggested substantial re-thinking of the traditional view about causality explaining the detected rising trend of atmospheric CO2 (atmCO2) concentrations. If these results are well-justified then they should surely compel a fundamental scientific shift in paradigms regarding both atmospheric greenhouse warming mechanism and global carbon cycle. However, the presented work suffers from serious logical deficiencies such as, 1) what could be the sink for fossil fuel CO2 emissions, if neither the atmosphere nor the ocean - as suggested by the authors - plays a role? 2) What is the alternative explanation for ocean acidification if the ocean is a net source of CO2 to the atmosphere? Probably the most provocative point of the commented study is that anthropogenic emissions have little influence on atmCO2 concentrations. The authors have obviously ignored the reconstructed and directly measured carbon isotopic trends of atmCO2 (both δ13C, and radiocarbon dilution) and the declining O2/N2 ratio, although these parameters provide solid evidence that fossil fuel combustion is the major source of atmCO2 increase throughout the Industrial Era.

  7. Publishing nutrition research: validity, reliability, and diagnostic test assessment in nutrition-related research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, Philip M; Harris, Jeffrey; Sheean, Patricia M; Boushey, Carol J; Bruemmer, Barbara

    2010-03-01

    This is the sixth in a series of monographs on research design and analysis. The purpose of this article is to describe and discuss several concepts related to the measurement of nutrition-related characteristics and outcomes, including validity, reliability, and diagnostic tests. The article reviews the methodologic issues related to capturing the various aspects of a given nutrition measure's reliability, including test-retest, inter-item, and interobserver or inter-rater reliability. Similarly, it covers content validity, indicators of absolute vs relative validity, and internal vs external validity. With respect to diagnostic assessment, the article summarizes the concepts of sensitivity and specificity. The hope is that dietetics practitioners will be able to both use high-quality measures of nutrition concepts in their research and recognize these measures in research completed by others.

  8. Is dengue severity related to nutritional status?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalayanarooj, Siripen; Nimmannitya, Suchitra

    2005-03-01

    A retrospective review of dengue patients admitted to Queen Sirikit National Institute of Child Health (previously known as Children's Hospital) from 1995 to 1999 revealed 4,532 confirmed cases of dengue infection; 80.9% were dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and 19.1% were dengue fever cases (DF). Among the DHF patients; 30.6% had shock. The majority of them, 66.6%, had a normal nutritional status, while 9.3% were malnourished and 24.2% had obesity as classified by weight for age. Compared with control patients with other diagnoses (excluding HIV/AIDS patients), malnourished children had a lower risk of contracting dengue infection (odds ratio = 0.48, 95% Cl = 0.39-0.60, p = 0.000) while obese children had a greater risk of infection with dengue viruses (odds ratio = 1.96, 95% Cl = 1.55-2.5, p = 0.000). The clinical signs, symptoms and laboratory findings of dengue were almost the same among the 3 groups of malnourished, normal, and obese patients. The minor differences observed were that in obese children liver enlargement was found less often; maculopapular/convalescence rash and elevations of alanine aminotransferase were found more often. Malnourished patients had a higher risk of developing shock (37.8%) than normal (29.9%) and obese patients (30.2%) (p = 0.000). Obese patients had more unusual presentations: encephalopathy (1.3%) and associated infections (4.8%), than normal (0.5% and 2.7%) and malnourished patients (1.2% and 3.1%). Complications of fluid overload were found more in obese patients (6.5%) compared to normal (3.2%) and malnourished patients (2.1%) (p = 0.000). The case-fatality rates (CFR) in malnourished patients and obese patients were 0.5% and 0.4%, respectively, while in normal patients the CFR was 0.07%. Under and over nutrition DHF patients had either a greater risk of shock or unusual presentations and complications, which can lead to severe disease or complications and probably a higher CFR.

  9. Ignorance and Science: Dilemmas, Perspectives, and Prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithson, Michael

    1993-01-01

    Discusses scientific ignorance and uncertainty. Highlights include approaching knowledgeable ignorance, including a taxonomy of ignorance and uncertainty frameworks and measures; social constructivism, subjectivity, and scientific realism; strategies for working with scientific ignorance; and frameworks for ignorance representation. (Contains 43…

  10. [Quality of life questionnaire related to nutritional status].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanden-Berghe, C; Martín-Rodero, H; Guardiola-Wanden-Berghe, R; Sanz-Valero, J; Galindo-Villardón, P

    2012-01-01

    To build and validate an instrument to measure the perceived quality of life in the nutritional status. By focal groups and interviews with nutrition experts, the dimensions with greater affectation were identified. After the judge test, the CaVEN questionnaire was defined. For its valuation a multicentric study was performed, participating 7 Spanish hospitals. The internal structure of the questionnaire was evaluated by explanatory factorial analysis. Reliability was tested using the Cronbach α coefficient and the validity of the criteria with the nutritional Gold Standards. A questionnaire of 26 items with 6 health dimensions was built. It was applied to 68 patients that were valued in the Nutrition Units. The test KMO was 0.756, showing a good accuracy in the Factorial Analysis. The existence of principal dimension of inertia was found (Bartlett p CaVEN (p CaVEN. The CaVEN questionnaire has proved a useful tool for assessing the quality of life related to nutritional status, even in groups with little nutritional alterations.

  11. Nutrition therapy for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and related nutritional complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Amanda Carla; Bezerra, Olívia Maria de Paula Alves

    2006-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is characterized by progressive and partially reversible airway obstruction. The innumerable complications that occur during the progression of the disease can affect the nutritional state of patients suffering from this illness. The objective of this study was to present a brief review of the literature regarding the nutrition therapy used in the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. To that end, we performed a bibliographic search for related articles published within the last 18 years and indexed for the Literatura Latinoamericana y del Caribe en Ciencias de la Salud (LILACS, Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature) and Medline databases. Malnutrition is associated with a poor prognosis for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, since it predisposes such patients to infections, as well as reducing respiratory muscle force, exercise tolerance and quality of life. Despite the fact that such malnutrition is extremely common in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients, it should be recognized as an independent risk factor, since it can be modified through appropriate and efficacious diet therapy and monitoring. For patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, nutrition therapy is initiated after the evaluation of the nutritional state of the patient, which identifies nutritional risk, thereby allowing the proper level of treatment to be established. In this evaluation, anthropometric and biochemical markers, as well as indicators of dietary consumption and body composition, should be used. The prescribed diet should contain appropriate proportions of macronutrients, micronutrients and immunonutrients in order to regain or maintain the proper nutritional state and to avoid complications. The physical characteristics of the diet should be tailored to the individual needs and tolerances of each patient. In the treatment of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

  12. Vitamin D status in infants: relation to nutrition and season

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergard, M.; Arnberg, K.; Michaelsen, K. F.;

    2011-01-01

    In a cross-sectional study, the primary objective was to assess the plasma concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH) D) in healthy 9-month-old infants (n = 255). The secondary objective was to evaluate nutritional variables and season in relation to 25(OH) D. The concentration of 25(OH) D was 77...

  13. The Cost of Ignorance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Karl Gunnar; Sharp, Paul Richard

    a substantial mark-up relative to an equally good producer from a new denomination. Since ambitious producers in new denominations suffer from price ‘discrimination' it can be expected that they will produce vineyard branded but denomination neutral wines, provided they can overcome the large fixed costs...

  14. Nutritional decline in cystic fibrosis related diabetes: the effect of intensive nutritional intervention.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    White, H

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Reports indicate that nutritional and respiratory decline occur up to four years prior to diagnosis of cystic fibrosis related diabetes (CFRD). Our aim was to establish whether intensive nutritional intervention prevents pre-diabetic nutritional decline in an adult population with CFRD. METHODS: 48 adult patients with CFRD were matched to 48 controls with CF, for age, gender and lung pathogen status. Nutritional and other clinical indices were recorded at annual intervals from six years before until two years after diagnosis. Data were also analysed to examine the impact of early and late acquisition of CFRD. RESULTS: No important differences in weight, height, body mass index (BMI), lung function or intravenous treatment were found between groups in the six years prior to diagnosis, nor any significant deviation over time. In those who developed diabetes, use of overnight enteral tube feeding (ETF) was four times as likely at the time of diagnosis, compared to controls [ETF 43.8% (CFRD) v 18.8% (CF Controls), OR 4.0, CI 1.3 to 16.4, p=0.01]. Age at onset of CFRD played a significant role in determining the pre-diabetic clinical course. Younger diabetics with continued growth at study onset (n=17) had a lower BMI from 2 years prior to diagnosis compared to controls [BMI 18.9 kg\\/m(2) (CFRD) v 20.8 kg\\/m(2) (CF Controls), diff=1.9, CI -0.1 to 3.7 p=0.04]. The BMI of older diabetics (completed growth at study onset) was equal to that of controls throughout. CONCLUSION: Pre-diabetic nutritional decline is not inevitable in adults with CFRD, but is influenced by age of onset. In the group overall, those with CFRD are more likely to require ETF from 2 years prior to diagnosis. Despite intensive nutritional intervention, patients who continue to grow throughout the pre-diabetic years, show a level of nutritional decline absent in older adults.

  15. Parameter Estimation Through Ignorance

    CERN Document Server

    Du, Hailiang

    2015-01-01

    Dynamical modelling lies at the heart of our understanding of physical systems. Its role in science is deeper than mere operational forecasting, in that it allows us to evaluate the adequacy of the mathematical structure of our models. Despite the importance of model parameters, there is no general method of parameter estimation outside linear systems. A new relatively simple method of parameter estimation for nonlinear systems is presented, based on variations in the accuracy of probability forecasts. It is illustrated on the Logistic Map, the Henon Map and the 12-D Lorenz96 flow, and its ability to outperform linear least squares in these systems is explored at various noise levels and sampling rates. As expected, it is more effective when the forecast error distributions are non-Gaussian. The new method selects parameter values by minimizing a proper, local skill score for continuous probability forecasts as a function of the parameter values. This new approach is easier to implement in practice than alter...

  16. Nutrition-Related Characteristics of High School Teachers and Student Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Jean D.; Woodburn, Margy J.

    1983-01-01

    Examined relationship between nutrition-related teacher (N=62) characteristics and effective nutrition education for their teenage students (N=1,073). Instruments used assessed such teacher characteristics as nutrition knowledge, dietary practices, and self-confidence as nutrition educators as well as students' knowledge and dietary practices…

  17. Ignorance as an under-identified social problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungar, Sheldon

    2008-06-01

    This paper examines the persistence and intensification of ignorance in the ostensible knowledge society. Given the ubiquity of ignorance, it focuses on research and observations dealing with functional knowledge deficits that challenge the ideal of the well-informed citizen. These developments are traced back to the contradictory dynamics of the knowledge society, specifically information explosions in the knowledge economy and the resultant knowledge-ignorance paradox. The theoretical unfolding of this paradox in terms of entry and speech barriers suggests that pockets of observed public knowledge - rather than ignorance - are exceptional and require specific explanation. While ignorance among individuals, as well as experts and organizations, is a serious social problem with potentially deadly consequences, ignorance remains relatively unrecognized since it has major liabilities as a marketable issue. The conclusion points to the importance of future research on the cultural and institutional production of ignorance.

  18. How is maternal nutrition related to preterm birth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, Frank H

    2011-08-21

    The incidence of preterm birth in developed countries is increasing, and in some countries, including the United States, it is almost as high as in developing countries. Demographic changes in women becoming pregnant can account for only a relatively small proportion of the increase. A significant proportion of spontaneous preterm birth continues to be of unknown cause. Experimental data from animal studies suggesting that maternal undernutrition may play a role in spontaneous, noninfectious, preterm birth are supported by observational data in human populations, which support a role for maternal prepregnancy nutritional status in determining gestation length. In addition, intakes or lack of specific nutrients during pregnancy may influence gestation length and thus the risk of preterm birth. As yet, the role of paternal nutrition in contributing to gestation length is unexplored.

  19. Assessment of nutrition knowledge and related aspects among first-year Kuwait University students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sabban, Farouk; Badr, Hanan E

    2011-01-01

    Assessing nutrition knowledge of populations assists in drawing strategies for education programs. Nutrition-related problems are common in Kuwait, thus data on nutrition knowledge are needed. This study involved administration of a questionnaire to 1,037 first-year Kuwait University students. The overall nutrition knowledge score was rated as fair, with deficiency in specific areas of knowledge. Students' dietary habits, attitudes, and interest in nutrition information were assessed as fair. Our findings will aid in building a nutrition knowledge database in Kuwait. A simplified course on aspects of healthy nutrition and lifestyle to all Kuwait University students is highly recommended.

  20. Newly Identified Mechanisms of Total Parenteral Nutrition Related Liver Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Kumar Jain

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Total parenteral nutrition (TPN, a lifesaving therapy, involves providing nutrition by bypassing the gut. Unfortunately it is associated with significant complications including gut atrophy and parenteral nutrition associated liver disease (PNALD. PNALD includes steatosis, cholestasis, disrupted glucose metabolism, disrupted lipid metabolism, cirrhosis, and liver failure. The etiopathogenesis remains poorly defined; however, an altered enterohepatic circulation, disrupting nuclear receptor signaling, is emerging as a promising mechanism. Rodent models and our piglet TPN model have shown that, during regular feeding, bile acids activate farnesoid X receptor (FXR in the gut and enhance fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19 level. FGF19 regulates bile acid, lipid, and glucose metabolism. We noted reduced FGF19 with TPN use and substantial improvement in FGF19, bilirubin, and metabolic profiles with the FXR agonist chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA. Additionally, CDCA caused gut growth and enhanced expression of glucagon like peptides (GLPs. GLPs regulate gut trophic effects, insulin, glucose homeostasis, and hepatic steatosis. GLP secretion is regulated by the CDCA activated receptor TGR5. This leads to an important conclusion that, in addition to a disrupted FXR-FGF19 axis, a disrupted TGR5-GLP axis may contribute to TPN related pathologies. Thus modulators of FXR-FGF19 and the TGR5-GLP axis could help bring forward novel treatment strategies.

  1. Interactive relations among maternal depressive symptomatology, nutrition, and parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubuchon-Endsley, Nicki L; Thomas, David G; Kennedy, Tay S; Grant, Stephanie L; Valtr, Tabitha

    2012-01-01

    Theoretical models linking maternal nutrition, depressive symptomatology, and parenting are underdeveloped. However, existing literature suggests that iron status and depressive symptomatology interact in relation to problematic parenting styles (authoritarian, permissive). Therefore, in the current study the authors investigate these interactive relations in a sample of breastfeeding mothers (n = 105) interviewed at three months postpartum. Participants completed questionnaires (from December 2008 to January 2011) regarding their depressive symptomatology and parenting styles. Iron status (i.e., hemoglobin, soluble transferrin receptors, and serum ferritin concentrations) was assessed from blood samples. Significant interactions were found between iron status and depressive symptomatology in relation to authoritarian parenting style (low warmth, high punishment and directiveness). For those women with hemoglobin below 14.00 g/dL, depressive symptomatology was positively related to authoritarian parenting style (p parenting. Dietary interventions may help to eliminate relations between depressive symptoms and problematic parenting.

  2. Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for staff development or offered staff development on nutrition and dietary behavior to those who teach health education increased ... for staff development or offered staff development on nutrition and dietary behavior to those who teach health education increased ...

  3. Theories of Knowledge and Ignorance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thijsse, E.; van der Hoek, W.; Jaspars, J.; Rahman, S.; Gabbay, G.; Symons, J.; Bendegem, J.P.

    2004-01-01

    What does it mean to say that an agent only knows a particular fact,i.e., knowing that fact and not more than that? The problem of describing so-called minimal knowledge has been discussed in the literature since 1985, when Halpern and Moses published a paper on Knowledge and Ignorance.The present c

  4. Popular Nutrition-Related Mobile Apps: A Feature Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallaize, Rosalind; Lovegrove, Julie A; Hwang, Faustina

    2016-01-01

    Background A key challenge in human nutrition is the assessment of usual food intake. This is of particular interest given recent proposals of eHealth personalized interventions. The adoption of mobile phones has created an opportunity for assessing and improving nutrient intake as they can be used for digitalizing dietary assessments and providing feedback. In the last few years, hundreds of nutrition-related mobile apps have been launched and installed by millions of users. Objective This study aims to analyze the main features of the most popular nutrition apps and to compare their strategies and technologies for dietary assessment and user feedback. Methods Apps were selected from the two largest online stores of the most popular mobile operating systems—the Google Play Store for Android and the iTunes App Store for iOS—based on popularity as measured by the number of installs and reviews. The keywords used in the search were as follows: calorie(s), diet, diet tracker, dietician, dietitian, eating, fit, fitness, food, food diary, food tracker, health, lose weight, nutrition, nutritionist, weight, weight loss, weight management, weight watcher, and ww calculator. The inclusion criteria were as follows: English language, minimum number of installs (1 million for Google Play Store) or reviews (7500 for iTunes App Store), relation to nutrition (ie, diet monitoring or recommendation), and independence from any device (eg, wearable) or subscription. Results A total of 13 apps were classified as popular for inclusion in the analysis. Nine apps offered prospective recording of food intake using a food diary feature. Food selection was available via text search or barcode scanner technologies. Portion size selection was only textual (ie, without images or icons). All nine of these apps were also capable of collecting physical activity (PA) information using self-report, the global positioning system (GPS), or wearable integrations. Their outputs focused

  5. Nutrition in Relation to Diseases and Heat stress in Poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Das

    Full Text Available Different diseases conditions and stress factors are responsible for high morbidity and mortality of present day poultry. Nutritional strategy and proper feed formulation with specific dietary regimen can combat this up to a certain extent. The incidence of various infectious diseases, nervous disorders and metabolic disorders can be minimized through proper feed regimen. There is a stiff competition and restrictions in the global market of poultry products which can be addressed with proper management of emerging and important diseases with economic productions and quality poultry products free of elements detrimental to human health. Researchers have made efforts to prevent such damage to poultry and poultry product through dietary manipulations. Heat stress can lead to a reduction in the defense mechanisms of birds or to a relative state of immunosuppression. The health status of the poultry is facing new challenges today which can be suitably addressed by the right scientific and advanced nutritional manoeuvres and make the poultry farming more profitable and presentable in the global market. [Vet. World 2011; 4(9.000: 429-432

  6. Mineral absorption in relation to nutritional ecology of reindeer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Staaland

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the way which absorption of minerals relate to nutritional ecology and mineral conservation processes. A latin square designed experiment was used to assess the effects of diet on mineral (Ca, Mg, K, Na absorption processes in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus L.. Three male calves were fed 3 different diets: concentrate with 25% grass meal (RF-71, lichens, and a mixed diet of lichens and RF-71. Two other male calves were fed the lichen or mixed diet, supplemented with 4 g Ca/day. Ca supplementation significantly increased fecal Ca excretion, reduced the excretion of K and Mg, but had no significant effect on Na excretion. Rates of intake and fecal exretion of Ca, Mg and K were highly correlated (P<0.001, while no correlations were found for Na. Negative digestibilities of Ca, Mg and K, and a positive Na digestibility were noted for the lichen diet. For the other diets, all minerals were in positive digestibility, and Ca supplements increased the digestibility of all minerals. Digesta from different sections of the alimentary tract were collected after termination of the experiment. Alimentary pools of Ca and K were equal for animals fed lichen or RF-71, whereas the Na pool was largest on the lichen diet and the Mg pool largest on the RF-71 diet. Rumen turnover time (rumen mineral pool size/daily mineral intake was consistently less than 3 days for Ca and Mg, but was 22 and 82 days for Na on the RF-71 and lichen diets respectively. Estimates of mineral exchange in various parts of the tract showed that the intestines play and important role in scavanging endogenously secreted minerals. Results are discussed with respect to mineral binding by lichens and the possible role of natural mineral supplements in the nutritional ecology of reindeer.

  7. Iron deficiency and overload in relation to nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spanjersberg MQI; Jansen EHJM; LEO

    2000-01-01

    Nutritional iron intake in the Netherlands has been reviewed with respect to both iron deficiency and iron overload. In general, iron intake and iron status in the Netherlands are adequate and therefore no change in nutrition policy is required. The following aspects and developments, however, need

  8. Nutritional supplements use in high-performance athletes is related with lower nutritional inadequacy from food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Sousa

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: Athletes using NS reported a higher nutritional intake from food, and a lower PMI for several nutrients. Perhaps, those who were taking NS were probably the ones who would least benefit from it.

  9. A survey on cancer-related nutritional information in Iranian popular magazines

    OpenAIRE

    Hovsepyan, Ourfa; Zare-Farashbandi, Firoozeh; Askari, Gholamreza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Due to the wide influence of public media, they become important communication channels for changing health beliefs and behaviors. One of the areas that have gained increased attention in public media is nutritional information. Cancer is one among the diseases related to nutrition. The goal of this study is to do a content analysis of the popular magazines in Iran for nutritional information related to cancer in year 2012–2013. Materials and Methods: This is an applied survey per...

  10. A survey on cancer-related nutritional information in Iranian popular magazines

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Background: Due to the wide influence of public media, they become important communication channels for changing health beliefs and behaviors. One of the areas that have gained increased attention in public media is nutritional information. Cancer is one among the diseases related to nutrition. The goal of this study is to do a content analysis of the popular magazines in Iran for nutritional information related to cancer in year 2012–2013. Materials and Methods: This is an applied survey per...

  11. Related Factors with Nutritional Habits and Nutrition Knowledge of University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serhat Vancelik

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to find the level of the nutrition knowledge and nutritional habits of the students of Ataturk University and to determine the influential factors. The study was carried out during May-June 2005 and the universe of the study consisted of seventeen thousands students attending their formal education in Ataturk University Campus. The sampling was done via simple randomization method and the sample size was 1120 students. A single class from all grades of each faculty was included in the sample and all of the students in each class were invited to participate to the study. Mean age and body mass index of the students were 21.6 ± 1.9 year and 21.9 ± 2.7 kg/m2, respectively. Sixty six percent of the students were male and 96.6% of them were single. It was determined that smoking, regular alcohol drinking and performing regular sport were found to effect nutritional habit score, significantly. It was found out that 87.4% of the students passed one meal a day, and the breakfast was the most often passed meal. Mean score of nutritional habit and nutrition knowledge was significantly high in males and females, respectively. Mean nutrition knowledge scores of student who were living in cities were higher, significantly. It was found that marital status, type of family, the residential place didn’t significantly affect nutrition knowledge score. There was a significant and positive correlation between body mass index, nutritional habit scores and monthly personal income. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(4: 242-248

  12. Related Factors with Nutritional Habits and Nutrition Knowledge of University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serhat Vancelik

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to find the level of the nutrition knowledge and nutritional habits of the students of Ataturk University and to determine the influential factors. The study was carried out during May-June 2005 and the universe of the study consisted of seventeen thousands students attending their formal education in Ataturk University Campus. The sampling was done via simple randomization method and the sample size was 1120 students. A single class from all grades of each faculty was included in the sample and all of the students in each class were invited to participate to the study. Mean age and body mass index of the students were 21.6 ± 1.9 year and 21.9 ± 2.7 kg/m2, respectively. Sixty six percent of the students were male and 96.6% of them were single. It was determined that smoking, regular alcohol drinking and performing regular sport were found to effect nutritional habit score, significantly. It was found out that 87.4% of the students passed one meal a day, and the breakfast was the most often passed meal. Mean score of nutritional habit and nutrition knowledge was significantly high in males and females, respectively. Mean nutrition knowledge scores of student who were living in cities were higher, significantly. It was found that marital status, type of family, the residential place didn’t significantly affect nutrition knowledge score. There was a significant and positive correlation between body mass index, nutritional habit scores and monthly personal income. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(4.000: 242-248

  13. Knowledge, responsibility, decision making and ignorance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huniche, Lotte

    2001-01-01

    a closer look at genetic knowledge, responsibility and decision making, because these seem to be important issues in my field of study. I have added ignorance to the list in order to discuss a further aspect of dealing with hereditary disease. Interestingly, ignorance (understood both as being ignorant...

  14. Nutritional status and its health-related factors among older adults in rural and urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Su-Hui; Cheng, Hsin-Yi; Chuang, Yeu-Hui; Shao, Jung-Hua

    2015-01-01

    To compare health-related characteristics, nutrition-related factors and nutritional status of older adults living in rural and urban counties of Taiwan. The older adult population of Taiwan is increasing. Furthermore, older people living in rural areas have shorter life expectancy and more chronic diseases than their urban counterparts. However, little is known about the health-related characteristics, nutrition-related factors and nutritional status of older adults living in rural and urban areas of Taiwan, limiting nurses' ability to identify and care for older adults at risk of poor nutritional health. Cross-sectional, comparative. Older adults were randomly selected from names of residents of an adjacent rural and urban area of northern Taiwan and having completing the 2009 health evaluation. From March-July 2010, older adult participants (N = 366) provided data on demographic and health-related information, nutritional self-efficacy, health locus of control and nutritional status. Data were analysed by descriptive statistics and compared using chi-square and t-test. Older rural participants had significantly lower educational level, less adequate income, higher medication use, lower scores on self-rated health status and researcher-rated health status and lower self-rated healthy eating status than their urban counterparts. Moreover, rural participants had significantly lower nutritional self-efficacy, higher chance health locus of control and poorer nutritional status than their urban counterparts. Our results suggest that nurses should assess older adults living in rural areas for nutritional health and nutrition knowledge. Based on this assessment, nurses should develop easy, practical and accessible nutritional programmes for this population. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Values at stake: autonomy, responsibility, and trustworthiness in relation to genetic testing and personalized nutrition advice

    OpenAIRE

    Nordström, Karin; Juth, Niklas; Kjellström, Sofia; Meijboom, Franck L. B.; Görman, Ulf

    2013-01-01

    Personalized nutrition has the potential to enhance individual health control. It could be seen as a means to strengthen people’s autonomy as they learn more about their personal health risks, and receive dietary advice accordingly. We examine in what sense personalized nutrition strengthens or weakens individual autonomy. The impact of personalized nutrition on autonomy is analyzed in relation to responsibility and trustworthiness. On a societal level, individualization of health promotion m...

  16. Prevalence and risk factors associated with nutrition-related noncommunicable diseases in the Eastern Mediterranean region

    OpenAIRE

    Musaiger AO; Al-Hazzaa HM

    2012-01-01

    Abdulrahman O Musaiger1, Hazzaa M Al-Hazzaa21Nutrition and Health Studies Unit, Deanship of Scientific Research, University of Bahrain, Bahrain, and Arab Center for Nutrition, Bahrain; 2Exercise Physiology Laboratory, Department of Physical Education and Movement Science, College of Education, and Scientific Board, Obesity Research Chair, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaAbstract: This paper reviews the current situation concerning nutrition-related noncommunicable diseases (N-NCDs) ...

  17. Dangerous nutrition? Calcium, vitamin D, and shark cartilage nutritional supplements and cancer-related hypercalcemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagman, Ruth; Walsh, Declan

    2003-04-01

    The use of nutritional supplements in the general population and in cancer patients has become very popular. These supplements are not perceived as medications and are presumed to be safe by cancer patients, who may however be at risk for hypercalcemia. We note that many of our patients who have developed symptomatic hypercalcemia were taking vitamin D, calcium, or shark cartilage supplements. We report eight cases of hypercalcemia in cancer patients seen at the Cleveland Clinic Foundation in whom these nutritional supplements may have contributed to the prevalence or severity of hypercalcemia.

  18. Nutritional supplements use in high-performance athletes is related with lower nutritional inadequacy from food

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mónica Sousa; Maria J. Fernandes; Pedro Carvalho; José Soares; Pedro Moreira; Vitor Hugo Teixeira

    2016-01-01

    Background: The use of nutritional supplements (NS) among athletes is widespread. However, little is known about the relationship between nutritional adequacy and NS usage. The aims of this study were to evaluate the NS usage and to compare the nutritional intake from food and prevalence of micronutrient inadequacy (PMI) between NS users and non-users. Methods: Portuguese athletes from 13 sports completed an NS usage questionnaire and a semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire assessing information over the previous 12 months. The estimated average requirement cut-point method was used to calculate PMI. General linear models were used to compare nutritional intake and NS usage. Chi-squared tests and logistic regression were performed to study, respectively, relationships and associations between PMI and NS usage. Results: From the 244 athletes (66%males, 13–37 years), 64%reported NS usage. After adjustment, NS users showed a higher intake from food (p<0.05), for at least 1 gender, for energy, and for 7 of the 17 studied nutrients. The highest PMI were seen for vitamins D and E, calcium, folate, and magnesium. After adjustment, NS users, irrespective of gender, reported lower PMI for calcium (OR=0.28, 95%CI:0.12–0.65), and female users for magnesium (OR=0.06, 95%CI:0.00–0.98). Conclusion: Athletes using NS reported a higher nutritional intake from food, and a lower PMI for several nutrients. Perhaps, those who were taking NS were probably the ones who would least benefit from it.

  19. THE ROLE OF EDUCATION IN THE NUTRITION TRANSITION AND ITS RELATION TO QUALITY OF LIFE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Dueñas Romero

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Education is a powerful tool to improve individuals quality of life; its role is evident by providing the necessary knowledge so that through autonomy, responsibility and a critical attitude, appropriate food choices are taken in order to provide welfare and health. In this paper, some factors affecting human nutrition will be discussed, the nutrition situation in Colombia, the importance of nutrition education and its relation to quality of life. It supports the idea that Colombia is currently experiencing a nutrition transition process and the problems it generates can be solved through education, affecting individuals quality of life.

  20. Nutrition and aging : a consensus statement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bates, C.J.; Benton, D.; Biesalski, H.K.; Staehelin, H.B.; Staveren, van W.; Stehle, P.; Suter, P.M.; Wolfram, G.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To consider the relationship between nutrition and aging. To summarize existing knowledge and identify areas of ignorance. DESIGN: Experts from a range of relevant disciplines received and considered a series of questions related to aspects of the topic. SETTING: University of Hohenheim,

  1. Nutritional status and related factors of patients with advanced gastrointestinal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liyan; Lu, Yuhan; Fang, Yu

    2014-04-14

    The scored Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment (PG-SGA) is considered to be the most appropriate tool for detecting malnutrition in cancer patients. In particular, malignant tumours derived from the gastrointestinal tract may impair nutrient intake and absorption and cause malnutrition. We carried out a cross-sectional study to assess the nutritional status and related factors of patients with gastrointestinal cancer. Nutritional status was determined using the scored PG-SGA in patients (n 498) with advanced gastrointestinal cancer admitted to the Gastrointestinal Medical Oncology Unit at Beijing Cancer Hospital between 1 August 2012 and 28 February 2013. The possible related factors including age, sex, hospitalisation frequency and pathology were explored. We found that 98% of the patients required nutrition intervention and 54% of the patients required improved nutrition-related symptom management and/or urgent nutritional support (PG-SGA score ≥9). Factors related to malnutrition were age (r 0.103, Pcancer had a lower risk of malnutrition than patients with other types of gastrointestinal cancer (F=35.895, Pnutritional status of gastrointestinal patients, especially those at a higher risk of malnutrition, such as elderly patients, those hospitalised for the first time, male patients and those with other types of gastrointestinal cancer except rectal cancer. The nutritional status of these patients should be evaluated and they should be given proper nutrition education and nutritional support in a timely manner.

  2. Complications relating to enteral and parenteral nutrition in trauma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-11-01

    Nov 1, 2014 ... referred to as nutritional therapy.4,5 Critically ill trauma patients endure a catabolic ... patients.13 At least 50-65% of the patient's caloric goal has to be ... The patients were placed on a standardised intravenous insulin infusion ...

  3. Nutritional Considerations for Healthy Aging and Reduction in Age-Related Chronic Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shlisky, Julie; Bloom, David E; Beaudreault, Amy R; Tucker, Katherine L; Keller, Heather H; Freund-Levi, Yvonne; Fielding, Roger A; Cheng, Feon W; Jensen, Gordon L; Wu, Dayong; Meydani, Simin N

    2017-01-01

    A projected doubling in the global population of people aged ≥60 y by the year 2050 has major health and economic implications, especially in developing regions. Burdens of unhealthy aging associated with chronic noncommunicable and other age-related diseases may be largely preventable with lifestyle modification, including diet. However, as adults age they become at risk of "nutritional frailty," which can compromise their ability to meet nutritional requirements at a time when specific nutrient needs may be high. This review highlights the role of nutrition science in promoting healthy aging and in improving the prognosis in cases of age-related diseases. It serves to identify key knowledge gaps and implementation challenges to support adequate nutrition for healthy aging, including applicability of metrics used in body-composition and diet adequacy for older adults and mechanisms to reduce nutritional frailty and to promote diet resilience. This review also discusses management recommendations for several leading chronic conditions common in aging populations, including cognitive decline and dementia, sarcopenia, and compromised immunity to infectious disease. The role of health systems in incorporating nutrition care routinely for those aged ≥60 y and living independently and current actions to address nutritional status before hospitalization and the development of disease are discussed. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  4. Relation between oral health and nutritional condition in the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Lauro Rodrigues Junior

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Oral health is a prerequisite for a good chewing function, which may have an impact on food choices and nutritional well-being. OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to evaluate the relationship between oral health status and nutritional status in the elderly. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 33 elderly people from the Group for the Elderly Interdisciplinary Geriatrics and Gerontology Program, at Fluminense Federal University, Niteroi, RJ, Brazil, completed a questionnaire to collect information on socioeconomic status, eating habits, physical activity and health habits, undertook a clinical oral examination, blood test, and anthropometric measurements, and were allocated into groups according to age. The oral health status was assessed using the index for decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT. The nutritional status was assessed using hemoglobin, hematocrit and albumin concentrations in blood, anthropometric values and the body mass index. RESULTS: Tooth loss was the biggest nuisance to the elderly subjects (57.6%, followed by the use of dentures (30.3% and ill-fitting dentures (33.3%. 66.6% of patients had difficulty in chewing, and 54.5% reported this to be due to prostheses and 13.6% to the absence of teeth. A significant correlation was found between DMFT and the value of suprailiac skinfold thickness (rho=0.380, p=0.029. CONCLUSION: The results support the temporal association between tooth loss and detrimental changes in anthropometry, which could contribute to increased risk of developing chronic diseases.

  5. Relation between oral health and nutritional condition in the elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    RODRIGUES JUNIOR, Humberto Lauro; SCELZA, Miriam F. Zaccaro; BOAVENTURA, Gilson Teles; CUSTÓDIO, Silvia Maria; MOREIRA, Emília Addison Machado; OLIVEIRA, Diane de Lima

    2012-01-01

    Oral health is a prerequisite for a good chewing function, which may have an impact on food choices and nutritional well-being. Objective This study was designed to evaluate the relationship between oral health status and nutritional status in the elderly. Material and Methods In this cross-sectional study, 33 elderly people from the Group for the Elderly Interdisciplinary Geriatrics and Gerontology Program, at Fluminense Federal University, Niteroi, RJ, Brazil, completed a questionnaire to collect information on socioeconomic status, eating habits, physical activity and health habits, undertook a clinical oral examination, blood test, and anthropometric measurements, and were allocated into groups according to age. The oral health status was assessed using the index for decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT). The nutritional status was assessed using hemoglobin, hematocrit and albumin concentrations in blood, anthropometric values and the body mass index. Results Tooth loss was the biggest nuisance to the elderly subjects (57.6%), followed by the use of dentures (30.3%) and ill-fitting dentures (33.3%). 66.6% of patients had difficulty in chewing, and 54.5% reported this to be due to prostheses and 13.6% to the absence of teeth. A significant correlation was found between DMFT and the value of suprailiac skinfold thickness (rho=0.380, p=0.029). Conclusion The results support the temporal association between tooth loss and detrimental changes in anthropometry, which could contribute to increased risk of developing chronic diseases. PMID:22437676

  6. Ignorability in Statistical and Probabilistic Inference

    CERN Document Server

    Jaeger, M

    2011-01-01

    When dealing with incomplete data in statistical learning, or incomplete observations in probabilistic inference, one needs to distinguish the fact that a certain event is observed from the fact that the observed event has happened. Since the modeling and computational complexities entailed by maintaining this proper distinction are often prohibitive, one asks for conditions under which it can be safely ignored. Such conditions are given by the missing at random (mar) and coarsened at random (car) assumptions. In this paper we provide an in-depth analysis of several questions relating to mar/car assumptions. Main purpose of our study is to provide criteria by which one may evaluate whether a car assumption is reasonable for a particular data collecting or observational process. This question is complicated by the fact that several distinct versions of mar/car assumptions exist. We therefore first provide an overview over these different versions, in which we highlight the distinction between distributional an...

  7. 中心静脉置管易被忽略的感染因素分析与对策%Easily ignored factors of central venous catheter-related infection and countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张黎明; 王黎梅; 步惠琴; 张美琪

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the easily ignored factors for central venous catheter-related infection (CVC-RI)and to seek certain strategy.METHODS The easily ignored factors of CVC-RI of 63 cases in ICU and geriatric wards of the two hospitals were analyzed with retrospective analysis method and prospective intervention method.Certain solutions were proposed.RESULTS The CVC-RI incidence of 279 cases who got central venous catheter from Jan to Jul in 2009 was 10.39 %, and the CVC-RI incidence of 264 cases who got central venous catheter from Jan to Jul in 2008 was 23.86 %, the difference of CVC-RI incidence in the two groups was statistically significant.CONCLUSION Paying close attention and strengthening the catheter puncture operation and daily care for puncture site can significantly reduce the incidence of CVC-RI.%目的 分析中心静脉置管相关性感染(CVC-RI)易被忽略的危险因素及进行环节上的改进.方法 采用回顾性调查分析和前瞻性干预的方法,对2所医院ICU、老年病区2008年63例CVC-RI患者进行原因分析,查找易被忽略的危险因素,提出对策,并与2009年1月起加强了环节管理后的CVC-RI结果进行统计分析.结果 2009年1-7月实施中心静脉穿刺279例患者发生CVC-RI29例,发生率10.39%,2008年同期置管的264例患者发生CVC-RI63例,发生率23.86%,两组感染率比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 关注并加强置管操作和穿刺部位日常护理中的环节管理,能有效降低CVC-RI的发生率.

  8. Personal and professional nutrition-related practices of US female physicians

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Frank, Erica; Wright, Elsa H; Serdula, Mary K; Elon, Lisa K; Baldwin, Grant

    2002-01-01

    .... We aimed to identify US female physicians' personal and professional nutrition- and weight-related habits and to identify which, if any, of their personal habits predicted their clinical practices...

  9. Children's perceptions of weight, obesity, nutrition, physical activity and related health and socio-behavioural factors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Economos, Christina D; Bakun, Peter J; Herzog, Julia Bloom; Dolan, Peter R; Lynskey, Vanessa M; Markow, Dana; Sharma, Shanti; Nelson, Miriam E

    .... An online survey was conducted with children to capture their perceptions of weight, overweight, nutrition, physical activity and related socio-behavioural factors. Within the USA. US children (n 1224) aged 8-18 years...

  10. Angular cheilitis, part 2: nutritional, systemic, and drug-related causes and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kelly K; Brodell, Robert T; Helms, Stephen E

    2011-07-01

    Angular cheilitis (AC) is associated with a variety of nutritional, systemic, and drug-related factors that may act exclusively or in combination with local factors. Establishing the underlying etiology of AC is required to appropriately focus treatment efforts.

  11. The Paradox of Nutrition-Related Diseases in the Arab Countries: The Need for Action

    OpenAIRE

    Omar Obeid; Musaiger, Abdulrahman O.; Hassan, Abdelmonem S.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this review was to highlight the current situation of nutrition-related diseases in the Arab countries, and factors associated with prevalence of these diseases. PubMed and Google Scholar were searched for data relating to such nutrition-related diseases published between January 1990 and May 2011. The picture of nutritional status in the Arab countries has changed drastically over the past 30 years as a result of changes in the social and economic situation. Two contrasting nutrit...

  12. Values at stake: autonomy, responsibility, and trustworthiness in relation to genetic testing and personalized nutrition advice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordström, Karin; Juth, Niklas; Kjellström, Sofia; Meijboom, Franck L B; Görman, Ulf

    2013-07-01

    Personalized nutrition has the potential to enhance individual health control. It could be seen as a means to strengthen people's autonomy as they learn more about their personal health risks, and receive dietary advice accordingly. We examine in what sense personalized nutrition strengthens or weakens individual autonomy. The impact of personalized nutrition on autonomy is analyzed in relation to responsibility and trustworthiness. On a societal level, individualization of health promotion may be accompanied by the attribution of extended individual responsibility for one's health. This constitutes a dilemma of individualization, caused by a conflict between the right to individual freedom and societal interests. The extent to which personalized nutrition strengthens autonomy is consequently influenced by how responsibility for health is allocated to individuals. Ethically adequate allocation of responsibility should focus on prospective responsibility and be differentiated with regard to individual differences concerning the capacity of adults to take responsibility. The impact of personalized nutrition on autonomy also depends on its methodological design. Owing to the complexity of information received, personalized nutrition through genetic testing (PNTGT) is open to misinterpretation and may not facilitate informed choices and autonomy. As new technologies, personalized nutrition and PNTGT are subject to issues of trust. To strengthen autonomy, trust should be approached in terms of trustworthiness. Trustworthiness implies that an organization that develops or introduces personalized nutrition can show that it is competent to deal with both the technical and moral dimensions at stake and that its decisions are motivated by the interests and expectations of the truster.

  13. From dissecting ignorance to solving algebraic problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayyub, Bilal M

    2004-09-01

    Engineers and scientists are increasingly required to design, test, and validate new complex systems in simulation environments and/or with limited experimental results due to international and/or budgetary restrictions. Dealing with complex systems requires assessing knowledge and information by critically evaluating them in terms relevance, completeness, non-distortion, coherence, and other key measures. Using the concepts and definitions from evolutionary knowledge and epistemology, ignorance is examined and classified in the paper. Two ignorance states for a knowledge agent are identified: (1) non-reflective (or blind) state, i.e. the person does not know of self-ignorance, a case of ignorance of ignorance; and (2) reflective state, i.e. the person knows and recognizes self-ignorance. Ignorance can be viewed to have a hierarchal classification based on its sources and nature as provided in the paper. The paper also explores limits on knowledge construction, closed and open world assumptions, and fundamentals of evidential reasoning using belief revision and diagnostics within the framework of ignorance analysis for knowledge construction. The paper also examines an algebraic problem set as identified by Sandia National Laboratories to be a basic building block for uncertainty propagation in computational mechanics. Solution algorithms are provided for the problem set for various assumptions about the state of knowledge about its parameters.

  14. Disagreement behind the veil of ignorance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muldoon, Ryan; Lisciandra, Chiara; Colyvan, Mark; Martini, Carlo; Sillari, Giacomo; Sprenger, Jan

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we argue that there is a kind of moral disagreement that survives the Rawlsian veil of ignorance. While a veil of ignorance eliminates sources of disagreement stemming from self-interest, it does not do anything to eliminate deeper sources of disagreement. These disagreements not only

  15. On the Rationality of Pluralistic Ignorance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerring, Jens Christian Krarup; Hansen, Jens Ulrik; Pedersen, Nikolaj Jang Lee Linding

    2014-01-01

    Pluralistic ignorance is a socio-psychological phenomenon that involves a systematic discrepancy between people’s private beliefs and public behavior in cer- tain social contexts. Recently, pluralistic ignorance has gained increased attention in formal and social epistemology. But to get clear...... on what precisely a formal and social epistemological account of pluralistic ignorance should look like, we need answers to at least the following two questions: What exactly is the phenomenon of pluralistic ignorance? And can the phenomenon arise among perfectly rational agents? In this paper, we propose...... and social interactive aspects of the phenomenon. Second, given our characterization of pluralistic ignorance, we argue that the phenomenon can indeed arise in groups of perfectly rational agents. This, in turn, ensures that the tools of formal epistemology can be fully utilized to reason about pluralistic...

  16. Nutritional Status and Related Factors in Elderly Nursing Home Residents

    OpenAIRE

    Zahra Bostani Khalesi; Mahshid Bokaie

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: A challenge for health care providers is that there will be a distinct rise globally in the number of elderly people aged 80 years and over. Malnutrition is a well-known problem among elderly people. The aim of this study was to determine nutritional status and its associated risk factors in elderly nursing home residents in Tehran, Iran. Methods: The cross-sectional study was carried out among 385 elderly people aged 60 years or elder in 2014. All subjects who were attending to...

  17. Nutrition and related claims used on packaged Australian foods--implications for regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Peter; Yeatman, Heather; Zakrzewski, Sally; Aboozaid, Brooke; Henshaw, Simon; Ingram, Kendall; Rankine, Alex; Walcott, Sara; Ghani, Fatima

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the use of nutrition and related claims on packaged food for sale in Australia and measure the compliance of such claims with regulations governing their use. A survey was conducted of the labelling of 6662 products in 40 different food categories on sale in New South Wales in 2001. Levels of compliance were assessed by comparing the claims on the label and data in the nutrition information panel with requirements of the Foods Standards Code and the Code of Practice on Nutrient Claims. Half of the products (51.3%) carried some type of nutrition related claim and 36.2% made at least one nutrient claim, with an average of 1.2 nutrition related claims on every food product. The foods with the highest use of nutrient claims were sports drinks, breakfast cereals, meat substitutes, pretzels and rice cakes, muesli bars and yoghurt. The most common nutrient claims were for fat, cholesterol, vitamins, minerals, and sugar. More than 20% of products carried claims related to additives. Many nutrient claims (12.9%) did not comply with current regulations, especially those in the voluntary Code of Practice. Adoption of mandatory requirements for all claims within the Food Standards Code may improve the levels of compliance. Implications for the regulation of nutrition and related claims are discussed. The impact of nutrition claims on consumer purchasing and consumption behaviour deserves further study.

  18. Nutrition of preterm infants in relation to bronchopulmonary dysplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tschirch Edda

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Background The pathogenesis of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD is multifactorial. In addition to prenatal inflammation, postnatal malnutrition also affects lung development. Methods A retrospective study was performed to analyse during the first two weeks of life the total, enteral and parenteral nutrition of premature infants ( Results Ninety-five premature infants were analysed: 26 with BPD (27 ± 1 weeks and 69 without BPD (28 ± 1 weeks. There was no statistical significant difference in the total intake of fluids, calories, glucose or protein and weight gain per day in both groups. The risk of developing BPD was slightly increased in infants with cumulative caloric intake below the minimal requirement of 1230 kcal/kg and a cumulative protein intake below 43.5 g/kg. Furthermore, the risk of developing BPD was significantly higher when infants had a cumulative fluid intake above the recommended 1840 ml/kg. In infants who developed BPD, the enteral nutrition was significantly lower than in non-BPD infants [456 ml/kg (IQR 744, 235 vs. 685 (IQR 987, 511]. Infants who did not develop BPD reached 50% of total enteral feeding significantly faster [9.6 days vs. 11.5]. Conclusions Preterm infants developing BPD received less enteral feeding, even though it was well compensated by the parenteral nutrient supply. Data suggest that a critical minimal amount of enteral feeding is required to prevent development of BPD; however, a large prospective clinical study is needed to prove this assumption.

  19. Tongue thickness relates to nutritional status in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Fumiyo; Kikutani, Takeshi; Tohara, Takashi; Yoshida, Mitsuyoshi; Yaegaki, Ken

    2012-12-01

    Many elderly people under long-term care suffer from malnutrition caused by dysphagia, frequently leading to sarcopenia. Our hypothesis is that sarcopenia may compromise oral function, resulting in dysphagia. The objectives of this study were to evaluate sarcopenia of the lingual muscles by measuring the tongue thickness, and elucidate its relationship with nutritional status. We examined 104 elderly subjects (mean age = 80.3 ± 7.9 years). Anthropometric data, such as triceps skinfold thickness and midarm muscle area (AMA), were obtained. The tongue thickness of the central part was determined using ultrasonography. Measurement was performed twice and the mean value was obtained. The relationship between tongue thickness and nutritional status was analyzed by Pearson's correlation coefficient and Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. AMA and age were identified by multiple-regression analysis as factors influencing tongue thickness. The results of this study suggest that malnutrition may induce sarcopenia not only in the skeletal muscles but also in the tongue.

  20. Constructing and Reconstructing Scientific Ignorance: Ignorance Claims in Science and Journalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocking, S. Holly; Holstein, Lisa W.

    1993-01-01

    Describes distinctions between ignorance and knowledge and examines scientists' use of ignorance claims in the construction of science and in science for public policy based on an interdisciplinary approach. Ignorance claims in journalism are also examined, including journalists' coverage of the claims of formal scientific discourse and of public…

  1. Systematic review: The relation between nutrition and nosocomial pneumonia: randomized trials in critically ill patients

    OpenAIRE

    Cook, Deborah; De Jonghe, Bernard; Heyland, Daren

    1997-01-01

    Objective To review the effect of enteral nutrition on nosocomial pneumonia in critically ill patients as summarized in randomized clinical trials. Study identification and selection Studies were identified through MEDLINE, SCISEARCH, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, bibliographies of primary and review articles, and personal files. Through duplicate independent review, we selected randomized trials evaluating approaches to nutrition and their relation to nosocomial pneumonia. Data abstraction I...

  2. Nutritional and Lifestyle Interventions for Age-Related Macular Degeneration: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Carneiro, Ângela; Andrade, José Paulo

    2017-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness in the developed world. In this narrative review, we will summarize the nutritional interventions evaluated in numerous observational studies and a few randomized clinical trials. The AREDS and AREDS2 studies demonstrated that supplements including vitamins C and E, beta-carotene, and zinc may reduce the progression to advanced AMD, in some patients, by 25% in five years. This is one of the few nutritional supplements kn...

  3. Aspiring to Spectral Ignorance in Earth Observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, S. A.

    2016-12-01

    Enabling robust, defensible and integrated decision making in the Era of Big Earth Data requires the fusion of data from multiple and diverse sensor platforms and networks. While the application of standardised global grid systems provides a common spatial analytics framework that facilitates the computationally efficient and statistically valid integration and analysis of these various data sources across multiple scales, there remains the challenge of sensor equivalency; particularly when combining data from different earth observation satellite sensors (e.g. combining Landsat and Sentinel-2 observations). To realise the vision of a sensor ignorant analytics platform for earth observation we require automation of spectral matching across the available sensors. Ultimately, the aim is to remove the requirement for the user to possess any sensor knowledge in order to undertake analysis. This paper introduces the concept of spectral equivalence and proposes a methodology through which equivalent bands may be sourced from a set of potential target sensors through application of equivalence metrics and thresholds. A number of parameters can be used to determine whether a pair of spectra are equivalent for the purposes of analysis. A baseline set of thresholds for these parameters and how to apply them systematically to enable relation of spectral bands amongst numerous different sensors is proposed. The base unit for comparison in this work is the relative spectral response. From this input, determination of a what may constitute equivalence can be related by a user, based on their own conceptualisation of equivalence.

  4. A Holistic School-Based Nutrition Program Fails to Improve Teachers' Nutrition-Related Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviour in Rural China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dongxu; Stewart, Donald; Chang, Chun

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the effectiveness of a holistic school-based nutrition programme using the health-promoting school (HPS) approach, on teachers' knowledge, attitudes and behaviour in relation to nutrition in rural China. Design/methodology/approach: A cluster-randomised intervention trial design was employed. Two…

  5. Is total lymphocyte count related to nutritional markers in hospitalized older adults?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vânia Aparecida LEANDRO-MERHI

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT BACKGROUND Older patients are commonly malnourished during hospital stay, and a high prevalence of malnutrition is found in hospitalized patients aged more than 65 years. OBJECTIVE To investigate whether total lymphocyte count is related to other nutritional markers in hospitalized older adults. METHODS Hospitalized older adults (N=131 were recruited for a cross-sectional study. Their nutritional status was assessed by the Nutritional Risk Screening (NRS, anthropometry, and total lymphocyte count. The statistical analyses included the chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, and Mann-Whitney test. Spearman's linear correlation coefficient determined whether total lymphocyte count was correlated with the nutritional markers. Multiple linear regression determined the parameters associated with lymphocyte count. The significance level was set at 5%. RESULTS According to the NRS, 41.2% of the patients were at nutritional risk, and 36% had mild or moderate depletion according to total lymphocyte count. Total lymphocyte count was weakly correlated with mid-upper arm circumference (r=0.20507; triceps skinfold thickness (r=0.29036, and length of hospital stay (r= -0.21518. Total lymphocyte count in different NRS categories differed significantly: older adults who were not at nutritional risk had higher mean and median total lymphocyte count ( P =0.0245. Multiple regression analysis showed that higher lymphocyte counts were associated with higher triceps skinfold thicknesses and no nutritional risk according to the NRS. CONCLUSION Total lymphocyte count was correlated with mid-upper arm circumference, triceps skinfold thickness, and nutritional risk according to the NRS. In multiple regression the combined factors that remained associated with lymphocyte count were NRS and triceps skinfold thickness. Therefore, total lymphocyte count may be considered a nutritional marker. Other studies should confirm these findings.

  6. Many College Women Ignore Indoor Tanning's Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip navigation U.S. National Library of Medicine Menu ... Ignore Indoor Tanning's Risks 7 out of 10 surveyed overlook connection to skin cancer To use the sharing features on this page, please enable ...

  7. Does Employee Ignorance Undermine Shared Capitalism?

    OpenAIRE

    John W. Budd

    2008-01-01

    The potential of shared capitalism to improve individual and organizational performance through financial incentives depends on employees knowing about and participating in compensation plans that link rewards to performance. This paper therefore analyzes a survey of employees from multiple companies to assess the extent to which employees are ignorant about company, group, and individual-based incentive pay plans and ESOPs. The findings reveal significant amounts of employee ignorance in bot...

  8. Hypoxic radiosensitization: adored and ignored.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overgaard, Jens

    2007-09-10

    Since observations from the beginning of the last century, it has become well established that solid tumors may contain oxygen-deficient hypoxic areas and that cells in such areas may cause tumors to become radioresistant. Identifying hypoxic cells in human tumors has improved by the help of new imaging and physiologic techniques, and a substantial amount of data indicates the presence of hypoxia in many types of human tumors, although with a considerable heterogeneity among individual tumors. Controlled clinical trials during the last 40 years have indicated that this source of radiation resistance can be eliminated or modified by normobaric or hyperbaric oxygen or by the use of nitroimidazoles as hypoxic radiation sensitizers. More recently, attention has been given to hypoxic cytotoxins, a group of drugs that selectively or preferably destroys cells in a hypoxic environment. An updated systematic review identified 10,108 patients in 86 randomized trials designed to modify tumor hypoxia in patients treated with curative attempted primary radiation therapy alone. Overall modification of tumor hypoxia significantly improved the effect of radiotherapy, with an odds ratio of 0.77 (95% CI, 0.71 to 0.86) for the outcome of locoregional control and with an associated significant overall survival benefit (odds ratio = 0.87; 95% CI, 0.80 to 0.95). No significant influence was found on the incidence of distant metastases or on the risk of radiation-related complications. Ample data exist to support a high level of evidence for the benefit of hypoxic modification. However, hypoxic modification still has no impact on general clinical practice.

  9. Is Ignorance of Climate Change Culpable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robichaud, Philip

    2016-11-28

    Sometimes ignorance is an excuse. If an agent did not know and could not have known that her action would realize some bad outcome, then it is plausible to maintain that she is not to blame for realizing that outcome, even when the act that leads to this outcome is wrong. This general thought can be brought to bear in the context of climate change insofar as we think (a) that the actions of individual agents play some role in realizing climate harms and (b) that these actions are apt targets for being considered right or wrong. Are agents who are ignorant about climate change and the way their actions contribute to it excused because of their ignorance, or is their ignorance culpable? In this paper I examine these questions from the perspective of recent developments in the theories of responsibility for ignorant action and characterize their verdicts. After developing some objections to existing attempts to explore these questions, I characterize two influential theories of moral responsibility and discuss their implications for three different types of ignorance about climate change. I conclude with some recommendations for how we should react to the face of the theories' conflicting verdicts. The answer to the question posed in the title, then, is: "Well, it's complicated."

  10. NUTRITION-RELATED PREDICTORS OF SLEEP DURATION IN HEMODIALYSIS PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerrilynn Burrowes

    2012-06-01

    At baseline, mean SD was 7.8±2.4 hrs; 33%, 43% and 24% of subjects were in the short, medium and long sleep groups, respectively. In univariate analysis, dietary protein intake, serum albumin, appetite, and QOL measures (mental component score [MCS] and physical component score [PCS] were significant predictors of SD. In multivariate analysis, age (P=0.008, race (White vs. Black (P=0.001, appetite on dialysis days (DD (P=0.0001, MCS and PCS (P<0.0001, respectively were also significant predictors of SD. Younger patients and those with good appetite on DD were more likely to sleep less, whereas Blacks and those with higher MCS and PCS were more likely to sleep more. Of the nutrition variables, higher protein intake and better appetite were associated with long vs. short SD in univariate analysis. In multivariate analysis, appetite on DD was the only variable predictive of SD. The odds ratio (95% CI of having a good appetite for those in the short SD group compared to the medium and long SD groups was 0.81 (0.72, 0.92 and 0.86 (0.78, 0.95, respectively. Further research on SD and appetite and the potential effects of short sleep on inflammation needs to be done in MHD patients.

  11. Nutrition-related information seeking behaviours before and throughout the course of pregnancy: consequences for nutrition communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szwajcer, E.M.; Hiddink, G.J.; Koelen, M.A.; Woerkum, van C.M.J.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Research has shown that especially pregnant women, and also women with a wish for a child, have increased nutrition awareness. Seeking nutrition information seemed to be an important determinant for nutrition awareness. However, little research has been carried out about

  12. The relative nutritive value of lucerne leaf protein concentrate (LPC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    measure of response to dietary protein and lactalbumin was .... fed ad libitum from 28 to 49 days of age whereafter the rats ... protein was related to protein intake according to the same .... composition of young obese and lean Zucker rats.

  13. Knowledge, responsibility, decision making and ignorance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huniche, Lotte

    2001-01-01

    This article is concerned with the question of how to argue about morality and ethics in relationto a severe and deadly hereditary disease. It is inspired by the uneasiness I have felt on a number of ocations when "right and wrong" is being discussed by persons at risk, professionals and in parti......This article is concerned with the question of how to argue about morality and ethics in relationto a severe and deadly hereditary disease. It is inspired by the uneasiness I have felt on a number of ocations when "right and wrong" is being discussed by persons at risk, professionals...... a closer look at genetic knowledge, responsibility and decision making, because these seem to be important issues in my field of study. I have added ignorance to the list in order to discuss a further aspect of dealing with hereditary disease. Interestingly, ignorance (understood both as being ignorant...

  14. Pharmacogenetics and nutritional supplementation in age-related macular degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hampton BM

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Blake M Hampton, Jaclyn L Kovach, Stephen G Schwartz Department of Ophthalmology, Bascom Palmer Eye Institute, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USA Abstract: The Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS recommended treatment with antioxidants plus zinc in patients with intermediate or advanced age-related macular degeneration in order to reduce progression risks. Recent pharmacogenetic studies have reported differences in treatment outcomes with respect to variants in genes for CFH and ARMS2, although the treatment recommendations based on these differences are controversial. Different retrospective analyses of subsets of patients from the same AREDS trial have drawn different conclusions. The practicing clinician, who is not an expert on genetics, clinical trial design, or statistical analysis, may be uncertain how to interpret these results. Based on the balance of the available literature, we suggest not changing established practice recommendations until additional evidence from clinical trials becomes available. Keywords: Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS, age-related macular degeneration, age-related maculopathy susceptibility 2 (ARMS2, complement factor H (CFH, pharmacogenetics, randomized clinical trial (RCT

  15. Work- related Stress, over-nutrition and cognitive disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ippoliti, F; Corbosiero, P; Canitano, N; Massoni, F; Ricciardi, M R; Ricci, L; Archer, T; Ricci, S

    2017-01-01

    Work-related stress may exert a negative impact on a variety of physical and psychological attributes relating to the health of employees and work organizations. Several studies conducted in Italy have shown that workers and employees who express less satisfaction show increased symptoms of obesity and cognitive disability. The latest evidence underlines the pathogenic relationship between stress and neurological disease through inflammatory neuro- immune activation. The aim of this review was to describe the relationship between workplace stress and adverse changes in lifestyle that develop into obesity, neuroinflammation and cognitive dysfunction. The molecular mechanisms involved and guidelines for the prevention of these trends are discussed briefly.

  16. Food taboos and nutrition-related pregnancy concerns among Ethiopian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilevski, Vidanka; Carolan-Olah, Mary

    2016-10-01

    To discuss Ethiopian food taboos during pregnancy and their relation to maternal nutritional status and pregnancy outcomes. Recent waves of migration have seen large groups of Ethiopian refugees moving to countries around the globe. This is of concern as Ethiopian women are at risk of a number of medical and pregnancy complications. Health is further compromised by poor diet and adherence to cultural food beliefs and taboos. In refugee women, many of these factors correspond with significantly higher rates of pregnancy complications and poor birth outcomes. This is a discussion paper informed by a literature review. A search of the Scopus, PubMed, Web of Science and Academic Search Premier databases for the keywords Ethiopian, pregnancy, food and taboos was conducted in the research literature published from 1998-2015. This time is contingent with Ethiopian migration trends. Ethiopian migrant women are at risk of inadequate nutrition during pregnancy. Risks include cultural factors associated with food taboos as well as issues associated with low socioeconomic status. Consequently, Ethiopian women are more likely to have nutritional deficiencies such as anaemia which have been associated with a range of pregnancy complications. There are many serious consequences of poor diet during pregnancy; however, most of these can be avoided by greater awareness about the role of nutrition during pregnancy and by adopting a balanced diet. There is an urgent unmet need for nutrition education among Ethiopian women. Research indicates that Ethiopian women are receptive to nutritional advice during pregnancy and also that pregnant women are generally motivated to act in the baby's interest. These factors suggest that this high-risk group would be amenable to culturally appropriate nutrition education, which would provide much-needed meaningful support in pregnancy. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Nutrition-Related Cancer Prevention Cognitions and Behavioral Intentions: Testing the Risk Perception Attitude Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Helen W.; Beckjord, Ellen Burke; Finney Rutten, Lila J.; Hesse, Bradford W.

    2008-01-01

    This study tested whether the risk perception attitude framework predicted nutrition-related cancer prevention cognitions and behavioral intentions. Data from the 2003 Health Information National Trends Survey were analyzed to assess respondents' reported likelihood of developing cancer (risk) and perceptions of whether they could lower their…

  18. Potentially Deceptive Health Nutrition-Related Advertising Claims: The Role of Inoculation in Conferring Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Alicia M.; Miller, Claude H.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study sought to examine the efficacy of inoculation message treatments to facilitate resistance to health nutrition-related (HNR) commercial food advertising claims. Design: Data were collected across three phases extending across a 5-week period conducted over two semesters at a Midwest US university. A 2 × 3 between-subjects…

  19. Potentially Deceptive Health Nutrition-Related Advertising Claims: The Role of Inoculation in Conferring Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Alicia M.; Miller, Claude H.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study sought to examine the efficacy of inoculation message treatments to facilitate resistance to health nutrition-related (HNR) commercial food advertising claims. Design: Data were collected across three phases extending across a 5-week period conducted over two semesters at a Midwest US university. A 2 × 3 between-subjects…

  20. Nutrition-Related Cancer Prevention Cognitions and Behavioral Intentions: Testing the Risk Perception Attitude Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Helen W.; Beckjord, Ellen Burke; Finney Rutten, Lila J.; Hesse, Bradford W.

    2008-01-01

    This study tested whether the risk perception attitude framework predicted nutrition-related cancer prevention cognitions and behavioral intentions. Data from the 2003 Health Information National Trends Survey were analyzed to assess respondents' reported likelihood of developing cancer (risk) and perceptions of whether they could lower their…

  1. Nutritional Modulation of Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Weikel, Karen A; Taylor, Allen

    2012-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness in the elderly worldwide. It affects 30–50 million individuals and clinical hallmarks of AMD are observed in at least one third of persons over the age of 75 in industrialized countries (Gehrs et al., 2006). Costs associated with AMD are in excess of $340 billion US (American-Health-Assistance-Foundation, 2012). The majority of AMD patients in the United States are not eligible for clinical treatments (Biarnes et al., 20...

  2. Mexico, A Neighbor not to be Ignored.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-04-01

    election fraud in Puebla , Mexico’s fourth largest city, resulted in an editor being fired. (5:27) A similar case in Mazatlan was totally ignored and a...president, Lazaro Cardenas (1934- 1940 ), and an experienced, well respected PAN candidate, Senor Clouthier, could prove to be important. The elder Cardenas

  3. Nutritional modulation of age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weikel, Karen A; Chiu, Chung-Jung; Taylor, Allen

    2012-08-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness in the elderly worldwide. It affects 30-50 million individuals and clinical hallmarks of AMD are observed in at least one third of persons over the age of 75 in industrialized countries (Gehrs et al., 2006). Costs associated with AMD are in excess of $340 billion US (American-Health-Assistance-Foundation, 2012). The majority of AMD patients in the United States are not eligible for clinical treatments (Biarnes et al., 2011; Klein et al., 2011). Preventive interventions through dietary modulation are attractive strategies because many studies suggest a benefit of micro- and macronutrients with respect to AMD, as well as other age-related debilities, and with few, if any, adverse effects (Chiu, 2011). Preservation of vision would enhance quality of life for millions of elderly people, and alleviate the personal and public health financial burden of AMD (Frick et al., 2007; Wood et al., 2011). Observational studies indicate that maintaining adequate levels of omega-3 fatty acids (i.e. with 2 servings/week of fish) or a low glycemic index diet may be particularly beneficial for early AMD and that higher levels of carotenoids may be protective, most probably, against neovascular AMD. Intervention trials are needed to better understand the full effect of these nutrients and/or combinations of nutrients on retinal health. Analyses that describe effects of a nutrient on onset and/or progress of AMD are valuable because they indicate the value of a nutrient to arrest AMD at the early stages. This comprehensive summary provides essential information about the value of nutrients with regard to diminishing risk for onset or progress of AMD and can serve as a guide until data from ongoing intervention trials are available.

  4. Nutrition-related practices and attitudes of Kansas skipped-generation(s) caregivers and their grandchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Mary Meck; Murray, Bethany J

    2010-12-01

    Despite growing numbers, the nutrition practices and attitudes of skipped-generation(s) kinship caregivers regarding feeding the dependent children in their care have not been examined. In this qualitative study, transcriptions of semi-structured interviews with 19 female and four male skipped-generation(s) Kansas caregivers (ages 47 to 80, 92% non-Hispanic whites, 83% female, 78% grandparents and 22% great-aunt or great-grandparent caregivers; caring for a range of one to four children, ages three to 18, for an average of nine years) were content analyzed for how their nutrition-related practices and attitudes had changed since parenting the first time. Sub-themes regarding practices included: being more nutrition and food safety conscious now, and shifting their child feeding style. The children seemed to be adversely affected by an on-the-go lifestyle and the use of more electronics. Caregivers described their sources for child feeding advice as being based mostly on information from their mothers, physicians, and their past parenting experiences. Sub-themes for attitudes included opinions that nutrition and safe food handling are important and that nutritious food is expensive. They preferred printed or video nutrition education materials and wanted to receive information through organizations they trusted. This population could benefit from education on: infant, child, adolescent, and sports nutrition; feeding "picky eaters"; healthful recipes, "fast foods" and packaged foods; quick, inexpensive meals and snacks low in fat, sugar, and salt; limiting sedentary time; family meals; using food thermometers; and intergenerational gardening and cooking.

  5. Prevalence and risk factors associated with nutrition-related noncommunicable diseases in the Eastern Mediterranean region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musaiger AO

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abdulrahman O Musaiger1, Hazzaa M Al-Hazzaa21Nutrition and Health Studies Unit, Deanship of Scientific Research, University of Bahrain, Bahrain, and Arab Center for Nutrition, Bahrain; 2Exercise Physiology Laboratory, Department of Physical Education and Movement Science, College of Education, and Scientific Board, Obesity Research Chair, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaAbstract: This paper reviews the current situation concerning nutrition-related noncommunicable diseases (N-NCDs and the risk factors associated with these diseases in the Eastern Mediterranean region (EMR. A systematic literature review of studies and reports published between January 1, 1990 and September 15, 2011 was conducted using the PubMed and Google Scholar databases. Cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, obesity, cancer, and osteoporosis have become the main causes of morbidity and mortality, especially with progressive aging of the population. The estimated mortality rate due to cardiovascular disease and diabetes ranged from 179.8 to 765.2 per 100,000 population, with the highest rates in poor countries. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was very high, ranging from 19% to 45%. The prevalence of overweight and obesity (body mass index ≥25 kg/m2 has reached an alarming level in most countries of the region, ranging from 25% to 82%, with a higher prevalence among women. The estimated mortality rate for cancer ranged from 61.9 to 151 per 100,000 population. Osteoporosis has become a critical problem, particularly among women. Several risk factors may be contributing to the high prevalence of N-NCDs in EMR, including nutrition transition, low intake of fruit and vegetables, demographic transition, urbanization, physical inactivity, hypertension, tobacco smoking, stunting of growth of preschool children, and lack of nutrition and health awareness. Intervention programs to prevent and control N-NCDs are urgently needed, with special focus

  6. Nutrition-Related Practices and Attitudes of Kansas Skipped-Generation(s Caregivers and Their Grandchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Meck Higgins

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite growing numbers, the nutrition practices and attitudes of skipped‑generation(s kinship caregivers regarding feeding the dependent children in their care have not been examined. In this qualitative study, transcriptions of semi-structured interviews with 19 female and four male skipped-generation(s Kansas caregivers (ages 47 to 80, 92% non-Hispanic whites, 83% female, 78% grandparents and 22% great-aunt or great‑grandparent caregivers; caring for a range of one to four children, ages three to 18, for an average of nine years were content analyzed for how their nutrition-related practices and attitudes had changed since parenting the first time. Sub-themes regarding practices included: being more nutrition and food safety conscious now, and shifting their child feeding style. The children seemed to be adversely affected by an on-the-go lifestyle and the use of more electronics. Caregivers described their sources for child feeding advice as being based mostly on information from their mothers, physicians, and their past parenting experiences. Sub-themes for attitudes included opinions that nutrition and safe food handling are important and that nutritious food is expensive. They preferred printed or video nutrition education materials and wanted to receive information through organizations they trusted. This population could benefit from education on: infant, child, adolescent, and sports nutrition; feeding “picky eaters”; healthful recipes, “fast foods” and packaged foods; quick, inexpensive meals and snacks low in fat, sugar, and salt; limiting sedentary time; family meals; using food thermometers; and intergenerational gardening and cooking.

  7. Effects of Physical Exercise Combined with Nutritional Supplements on Aging Brain Related Structures and Functions: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schättin, Alexandra; Baur, Kilian; Stutz, Jan; Wolf, Peter; de Bruin, Eling D

    2016-01-01

    Age-related decline in gray and white brain matter goes together with cognitive depletion. To influence cognitive functioning in elderly, several types of physical exercise and nutritional intervention have been performed. This paper systematically reviews the potential additive and complementary effects of nutrition/nutritional supplements and physical exercise on cognition. The search strategy was developed for EMBASE, Medline, PubMed, Cochrane, CINAHL, and PsycInfo databases and focused on the research question: "Is the combination of physical exercise with nutrition/nutritional supplementation more effective than nutrition/nutritional supplementation or physical exercise alone in effecting on brain structure, metabolism, and/or function?" Both mammalian and human studies were included. In humans, randomized controlled trials that evaluated the effects of nutrition/nutritional supplements and physical exercise on cognitive functioning and associated parameters in healthy elderly (>65 years) were included. The systematic search included English and German language literature without any limitation of publication date. The search strategy yielded a total of 3129 references of which 67 studies met the inclusion criteria; 43 human and 24 mammalian, mainly rodent, studies. Three out of 43 human studies investigated a nutrition/physical exercise combination and reported no additive effects. In rodent studies, additive effects were found for docosahexaenoic acid supplementation when combined with physical exercise. Although feasible combinations of physical exercise/nutritional supplements are available for influencing the brain, only a few studies evaluated which possible combinations of nutrition/nutritional supplementation and physical exercise might have an effect on brain structure, metabolism and/or function. The reason for no clear effects of combinatory approaches in humans might be explained by the misfit between the combinations of nutritional methods with

  8. Word-identification priming for ignored and attended words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, M.; Ladd, S. L.; Vaidya, C. J.; Gabrieli, J. D.

    1998-01-01

    Three experiments examined contributions of study phase awareness of word identity to subsequent word-identification priming by manipulating visual attention to words at study. In Experiment 1, word-identification priming was reduced for ignored relative to attended words, even though ignored words were identified sufficiently to produce negative priming in the study phase. Word-identification priming was also reduced after color naming relative to emotional valence rating (Experiment 2) or word reading (Experiment 3), even though an effect of emotional valence upon color naming (Experiment 2) indicated that words were identified at study. Thus, word-identification priming was reduced even when word identification occurred at study. Word-identification priming may depend on awareness of word identity at the time of study.

  9. Mismatch negativity during attend and ignore conditions in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazmerski, V A; Friedman, D; Ritter, W

    1997-09-01

    Mismatch negativities (MMNs) of the event-related potential to deviant tones and environmental sounds were recorded during active and ignore oddball sequences in young and elderly controls and patients with probable Alzheimer's disease (PAD). MMNs were smaller in the PAD waveforms compared to those of the controls, suggesting a degraded sensory memory trace in these subjects; however, under ignore conditions, environmental sounds elicited robust MMNs in the PAD group along with N2b and novelty P3 components in similar fashion to controls. As N2b and P3 are usually elicited by attended stimuli, these data suggest that in the PAD subjects, the highly deviant events involuntarily captured attention, perhaps reflecting the activation of an attentional switching mechanism. Because this passive switching is thought to reflect activation of a mechanism located in the frontal lobes, the data suggest that this putative frontal lobe mechanism is relatively intact in the early stages of the disease.

  10. Word-identification priming for ignored and attended words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, M.; Ladd, S. L.; Vaidya, C. J.; Gabrieli, J. D.

    1998-01-01

    Three experiments examined contributions of study phase awareness of word identity to subsequent word-identification priming by manipulating visual attention to words at study. In Experiment 1, word-identification priming was reduced for ignored relative to attended words, even though ignored words were identified sufficiently to produce negative priming in the study phase. Word-identification priming was also reduced after color naming relative to emotional valence rating (Experiment 2) or word reading (Experiment 3), even though an effect of emotional valence upon color naming (Experiment 2) indicated that words were identified at study. Thus, word-identification priming was reduced even when word identification occurred at study. Word-identification priming may depend on awareness of word identity at the time of study.

  11. Older Age and Worse Nutritional State Were Related with Impaired Inflammatory Response in Elderly Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. Tuty Kuswardhani

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ageing process is related with multisystem disorders. One of them is immune response impairment. It is imperative to evaluate the association between age and related nutritional status with inflammatory response in elderly patient. Methods: A cross sectional study to evaluate inflammatory response among elderly patients (≥60 years at Geriatric Out-patient Clinic, Sanglah Hospital was conducted. Seventy-two patients were enrolled in the study. Age, nutritional states (body mass index and mini nutritional assessment, and inflammatory markers (interleukin-2 [IL-2] and C-reactive protein [CRP] and other anthropometric as well as laboratory parameters were measured in the study. Results: In the study it was revealed that age has a moderately negative correlation with both of plasma IL-2 and serum CRP levels (R= -0.305, p=0.009; and R= -0.413, p=0.005, respectively. Plasma IL-2 levels were positively correlated with several variables like body mass index (R=0.282, p=0.016, mini nutritional assessment (R=0.237, p=0.045, biceps skin fold (R=0.291, p=0.013, and triceps skin fold (R=0.258, p=0.028. While serum CRP levels has positive correlation with lying diastolic blood pressure (R=0.345, p=0.020 and negative correlation with calf circumference (R=-0.312, p=0.037. No significant associations were found between diabetes and hypertension with inflammatory markers. Conclusion: This study concluded that older age and worse nutritional state were related to worse inflammatory response in the elderly patients.

  12. Marketing nutrition & health-related benefits of food & beverage products: enforcement, litigation & liability issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roller, Sarah; Pippins, Raqiyyah

    2010-01-01

    Over the past decade, the liability risks associated with food and beverage product marketing have increased significantly, particularly with respect to nutrition and health-related product benefit claims. FDA and FTC enforcement priorities appear to have contributed to the increasing liability trends that are associated with these nutrition and health-related claims. This article examines key enforcement and litigation developments involving conventional food and beverage product marketing claims during the first 18 months of President Obama's administration: Part I considers FDA enforcement priorities and recent warning letters; Part II considers FTC enforcement priorities, warning letters, and consent orders; and Part III considers the relationship between FDA and FTC enforcement priorities and recent false advertising cases brought by private parties challenging nutrition and health-related marketing claims for food and beverage products. The article makes recommendations concerning ways in which food and beverage companies can help minimize liability risks associated with health-related marketing claims. In addition, the article suggests that federal policy reforms may be required to counter the perverse chilling effects current food liability trends appear to be having on health-related marketing claims for food and beverage products, and proposes a number of specific reforms that would help encourage the responsible use of well-substantiated marketing claims that can help foster healthy dietary practices. In view of the obesity prevention and other diet-related public health priorities of the Obama administration, the article suggests that this is an opportune time to address the apparent chilling effects increasing food liability risks are having on nutrition and health-related marketing claims for healthy food and beverage products, and potential adverse consequences for public health.

  13. Nutrition-related risk indexes and long-term mortality in noncritically ill inpatients who receive total parenteral nutrition (prospective multicenter study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia, María José; Ocón, Julia; Cabrejas-Gómez, Carmen; Ballesteros-Pomar, María D; Vidal-Casariego, Alfonso; Arraiza-Irigoyen, Carmen; Olivares, Josefina; Conde-García, Ma Carmen; García-Manzanares, Álvaro; Botella-Romero, Francisco; Quílez-Toboso, Rosa P; Cabrerizo, Lucio; Rubio, Miguel A; Chicharro, Luisa; Burgos, Rosa; Pujante, Pedro; Ferrer, Mercedes; Zugasti, Ana; Petrina, Estrella; Manjón, Laura; Diéguez, Marta; Carrera, Ma José; Vila-Bundo, Anna; Urgelés, Juan Ramón; Aragón-Valera, Carmen; Sánchez-Vilar, Olga; Bretón, Irene; García-Peris, Pilar; Muñoz-Garach, Araceli; Márquez, Efren; del Olmo, Dolores; Pereira, José Luis; Tous, María C; Olveira, Gabriel

    2015-10-01

    Malnutrition in hospitalized patients is associated with an increased risk of death, in both the short and the long term. The purpose of this study was to determine which nutrition-related risk index predicts long-term mortality better (three years) in patients who receive total parenteral nutrition (TPN). This prospective, multicenter study involved noncritically ill patients who were prescribed TPN during hospitalization. Data were collected on Subjective Global Assessment (SGA), Nutritional Risk Index (NRI), Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index (GNRI), body mass index, albumin and prealbumin, as well as long-term mortality. Over the 1- and 3-year follow-up periods, 174 and 244 study subjects (28.8% and 40.3%) respectively, died. Based on the Cox proportional hazards survival model, the nutrition-related risk indexes most strongly associated with mortality were SGA and albumin (<2.5 g/dL) (after adjustment for age, gender, C-reactive protein levels, prior comorbidity, mean capillary blood glucose during TPN infusion, diabetes status prior to TPN, diagnosis, and infectious complications during hospitalization). The SGA and very low albumin levels are simple tools that predict the risk of long-term mortality better than other tools in noncritically ill patients who receive TPN during hospitalization. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  14. Genetic ignorance, moral obligations and social duties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takala, T; Häyry, M

    2000-02-01

    In a contribution to The Journal of Medicine and Philosophy, Professor Rosamond Rhodes argues that individuals sometimes have an obligation to know about their genetic disorders, because this is required by their status as autonomous persons. Her analysis, which is based on Kant's concept of autonomy and Aristotle's notion of friendship, is extended here to consequentialist concerns. These are of paramount importance if, as we believe and Professor Rhodes herself implies, the Kantian and Aristotelian doctrines can be helpful only in the sphere of private morality, not in the public realm. Better tools for assessing the right to genetic ignorance as an issue of public policy can, we contend, be found in Mill's ideas concerning liberty and the prevention of harm. Our own conclusion, based on the Millian way of thinking, is that individuals probably do have the right to remain in ignorance in the cases Professor Rhodes presents as examples of a duty to know.

  15. Nutritional supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Gry Bjerg; Andersen, Jens Rikardt

    2015-01-01

    Background: Several studies have indicated that cancer patients have significantly altered taste sensitivity without specifying the preferences. One of the related problems is low compliance to nutritional therapy with oral nutritional supplements (ONS) in patients suffering severe weight loss...

  16. The veil of ignorance can favour biological cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queller, David C; Strassmann, Joan E

    2013-01-01

    Lack of information is a constraint but ignorance can sometimes assist the evolution of cooperation by constraining selfishness. We discuss examples involving both ignorance of role or pay-off and ignorance of relatedness. Ignorance can favour cooperative traits like grouping and warning coloration and reduce conflicts from meiotic drive, imprinting, greenbeards and various forms of nepotism.

  17. Evaluation of Online and In-Person Nutrition Education Related to Salt Knowledge and Behaviors among Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children Participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Lauren E; Whaley, Shannon E; Gurzo, Klara; Meza, Martha; Rosen, Nila J; Ritchie, Lorrene D

    2017-09-01

    The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) differs from other federal nutrition programs in that nutrition education is a required component. WIC programs traditionally provide in-person education, but recently some WIC sites have started offering online education. Education focused on reducing salt intake is an important topic for WIC participants because a high-sodium diet has been associated with high blood pressure, and low-income populations are at increased risk. Our aim was to examine the impacts of traditional in-person and online nutrition education on changes in knowledge, self-efficacy, and behaviors related to reducing salt intake in low-income women enrolled in WIC. Although a comparison of groups was not the primary focus, a randomized trial examining the impact of online and in-person nutrition education on participant knowledge, self-efficacy, and behaviors related to salt intake was conducted. Five hundred fourteen WIC participants from three Los Angeles, CA, WIC clinics received either in-person (n=257) or online (n=257) education. Questionnaires assessing salt-related knowledge, self-efficacy, and behaviors were administered at baseline and 2 to 4 months and 9 months later from November 2014 through October 2015. Positive changes in knowledge and self-efficacy were retained 2 to 4 months and 9 months later for both groups (Peducation resulted in improvements during a 9-month period in knowledge, self-efficacy, and reported behaviors associated with reducing salt intake in a low-income population. Offering an online education option for WIC participants could broaden the reach of nutrition education and lead to long-term positive dietary changes. Copyright © 2017 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Changes in nutrition-related behaviors in alcohol-dependent patients after outpatient detoxification

    OpenAIRE

    Rohdemann, Maren E. H.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have reported changes in nutrition-related behaviors in alcohol-dependent patients after alcohol detoxification, but prospective studies assessing the effects of these changes on maintaining abstinence are lacking. Aim: To assess changes in craving and consumption of coffee, cigarettes, chocolate and other sweets over time up to six months after outpatient alcohol detoxification treatment and to detect differences in abstinent versus non-abstinent patients. ...

  19. Review of the nutritional benefits and risks related to intense sweeteners

    OpenAIRE

    Bruyère, Olivier; Ahmed, Serge H.; Atlan, Catherine; Belegaud, Jacques; Bortolotti, Murielle; Canivenc-Lavier, Marie-Chantal; Charrière, Sybil; Girardet, Jean-Philippe; Houdart, Sabine; Kalonji, Esther; Nadaud, Perrine; Rajas, Fabienne; Slama, Gérard; Margaritis, Irène

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Background : The intense sweeteners currently authorised in Europe comprise ten compounds of various chemical natures. Their overall use has sharply risen in the last 20 years. These compounds are mainly used to formulate reduced-calorie products while maintaining sweetness.Methods : This extensive analysis of the literature reviews the data currently available on the potential nutritional benefits and risks related to the consumption of products containing intense swe...

  20. Feeding tube-related complications and problems in patients receiving long-term home enteral nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasileios Alivizatos

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term complications and problems related to gastrostomy and jejunostomy feeding tubes used for home enteral nutrition support and the effect these have on health care use. Materials and Methods: The medical records of 31 patients having gastrostomy (27 patients and jejunostomy (4 feeding tubes inserted in our Department were retrospectively studied. All were discharged on long-term (>3 months enteral nutrition and followed up at regular intervals by a dedicated nurse. Any problem or complication associated with tube feeding as well as the intervention, if any, that occurred, was recorded. Data were collected and analyzed. Results: All the patients were followed up for a mean of 17.5 months (4-78. The most frequent tube-related complications included inadvertent removal of the tube (broken tube, plugged tube; 45.1%, tube leakage (6.4%, dermatitis of the stoma (6.4%, and diarrhea (6.4%. There were 92 unscheduled health care contacts, with an average rate of such 2.9 contacts over the mean follow-up time of 17.5 months. Conclusion: In patients receiving long-term home enteral nutrition, feeding tube-related complications and problems are frequent and result in significant health care use. Further studies are needed to address their optimal prevention modalities and management.

  1. Determinants of adherence to nutrition-related cancer prevention guidelines among African American breast cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Lindsey A; Chung, Yunmi; Wonsuk, Yoo; Fontenot, Brittney; Ansa, Benjamin E; Whitehead, Mary S; Smith, Selina A

    2016-01-01

    Mortality rate for breast cancer is higher among African American (AA) women than for women of other racial/ethnic groups. Obesity, also higher among AA women, may increase the risk of breast cancer development and recurrence. Lifestyle factors such as healthy nutrition can reduce the rate of obesity and breast cancer. This study examined the determinants of adherence to nutrition-related cancer prevention guidelines among AA breast cancer survivors. AA breast cancer survivors (n=240) were recruited from a breast cancer support group to complete a lifestyle assessment tool for this cross-sectional study. Chi-square test and ordinal logistic regression analysis were used to examine the relationship between adherence to nutrition-related cancer prevention guidelines and potential predictors of adherence. Majority of the survivors met the guideline for red and processed meat (n=191, 83.4%), but did not meet the guideline for fruits and vegetables (n=189, 80.4%). For survivors with annual household incomes $50,000 (OR= 0.25, 95% CI: 0.08, 0.80). Poor physical functioning (OR= 38.48, 95% CI: 2.26, 656.58), sleep disturbances (OR= 60.84, 95% CI: 1.61, 2296.02), and income > $50,000 (OR= 51.02, 95% CI: 1.13, 2311.70) were associated with meeting the guideline for red and processed meat. Many AA breast cancer survivors are not meeting the nutrition-related cancer prevention guidelines. For this population, more interventions that enhance access to and consumption of healthy diets are needed.

  2. The view of European experts regarding health economics for medical nutrition in disease-related malnutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freijer, K; Lenoir-Wijnkoop, I; Russell, C A; Koopmanschap, M A; Kruizenga, H M; Lhachimi, S K; Norman, K; Nuijten, M J C; Schols, J M G A

    2015-05-01

    Health-care systems are currently facing tremendous budget constraints resulting in growing pressure on decision makers and health-care providers to obtain the maximum possible health benefits of the resources available. Choices have to be made, and health economics can help in allocating limited health-care resources among unlimited wants and needs. Attempts to achieve cost reductions often focus on severe pathologies and chronic diseases as they commonly represent high health-care expenditures. In this context, awareness of the considerable financial burden caused by disease-related malnutrition (DRM) is lacking. Possibilities of reducing costs by optimising the management of DRM through medical nutrition will mostly not even be taken into account. During a European expert meeting, the total evaluation of medical nutrition was viewed and discussed. The aim of this meeting was to gain an experts' outline of the key issues relating to the health economic assessment of the use of medical nutrition. This article provides a summary of the observations per discussed item and describes the next steps suggested.

  3. [Association between stages of behavior change related to physical activity and nutritional status in university students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madureira, Alberto Saturno; Corseuil, Herton Xavier; Pelegrini, Andreia; Petroski, Edio Luiz

    2009-10-01

    This study aimed to verify the association between stages of behavior change related to physical activity and nutritional status among 862 university students. Body mass index cut-off values were used to classify nutritional status. Stages of behavior change were analyzed individually and classified into active (action, maintenance) and inactive (pre-contemplation, contemplation, preparation). The most prevalent stages of behavior change were contemplation (32%) and preparation (29.5%). Among the entire sample of students, 68.4% were inactive. Prevalence rates for underweight, overweight, and obesity were 9.5%, 12.4%, and 1.7%, respectively. Students classified in the pre-contemplation stage were 5.99 times (CI95%: 2.29-15.68) and 7.98 times (CI95%: 1.41-45.32) more likely to be underweight and overweight, respectively. The university plays a fundamental role in adopting plans and actions targeting the academic community, promoting lifestyle changes through physical activity programs.

  4. Importance of taste, nutrition, cost and convenience in relation to diet quality: Evidence of nutrition resilience among US adults using National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Anju; Rehm, Colin D; Monsivais, Pablo; Drewnowski, Adam

    2016-09-01

    Concerns with taste, nutrition, cost, and convenience are said to be key influences on food choices. This study examined the importance of food-related attitudes in relation to diet quality using US national level data. Interactions by socioeconomic status (SES), gender and race/ethnicity were tested. Analyses of 8957 adults from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2007-2010) were conducted in 2014-15. Perceived importance of taste, nutrition, cost, and convenience in dietary choices were assessed using 4-point Likert scales. Education and family income-to-poverty ratio (FIPR) were SES indicators. Healthy Eating Index (HEI-2010), a measure of adherence to 2010 dietary guidelines, was the diet quality measure. Survey-weighted regressions examined associations between attitudes and HEI, and tested for interactions. Taste was rated as "very important" by 77.0% of the US adults, followed by nutrition (59.9%), cost (39.9%), and convenience (29.8%). However, it was the perceived importance of nutrition that most strongly predicted HEI (β: +8.0 HEI scores among "very important" vs. "not at all important"). By contrast, greater importance for taste and convenience had a weak inverse relation with HEI (β: -5.1 and -1.5 respectively), adjusting for SES. Significant interactions were observed by race/ethnicity, but not SES and gender. Those who prioritized nutrition during food shopping had higher-quality diets regardless of gender, education and income in the US. Certain racial/ethnic groups managed to eat healthy despite attaching importance to cost and convenience. This is the first evidence of nutrition resilience among US adults using national data, which has huge implications for nutrition interventions. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Moderation of the Relation of County-Level Cost of Living to Nutrition by the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimer, Christopher; Seligman, Hilary

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To examine the association of county-level cost of living with nutrition among low-income Americans. Methods. We used the National Household Food Acquisition and Purchase Survey (2012–2013; n = 14 313; including 5414 persons in households participating in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program [SNAP]) to examine associations between county-level cost-of-living metrics and both food acquisitions and the Healthy Eating Index, with control for individual-, household-, and county-level covariates and accounting for unmeasured confounders influencing both area of living and food acquisition. Results. Living in a higher-cost county—particularly one with high rent costs—was associated with significantly lower volume of acquired vegetables, fruits, and whole grains; greater volume of acquired refined grains, fats and oils, and added sugars; and an 11% lower Healthy Eating Index score. Participation in SNAP was associated with nutritional improvements among persons living in higher-cost counties. Conclusions. Living in a higher-cost county (particularly with high rent costs) is associated with poorer nutrition among low-income Americans, and SNAP may mitigate the negative nutritional impact of high cost of living. PMID:27631742

  6. Ignored Aspects of Islamic Banking and Finance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Hadi Arabi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In the past several decades of Islamic banking and fi nance (IBF activity in many countries, notable literature on this topic has been produced all over the world. By analyzing this IBF literature, this study investigates and highlights some ignored aspects of IBF activities. Methodology: Academic IBF literature includes defending the plausibility of IBF as a part of Islamic economics; theoretical analysis regarding some advantages of IBF compared with conventional systems, suggesting some methods for performing IBF; and concentration on introducing fi nancial instruments and innovations in Islamic financial markets. After reviewing them, they are classifi ed as high ranking journal papers and graduate dissertations that were written on Islamic economics in I.R. Iran during the past three decades. Then they are analyzed via analytical methods and descriptive statistics to investigate the ignored aspects of IBF. Findings: Through this systemic study of Islamic banking, real and not skeletal adaptation of Islamic contracts, Islamic goals of Islamic economy, Islamic and ethical values, and justice and poverty reduction are some of the more important neglected aspects in IBF activities. Research Implications: Focusing on these areas in future research could improve the performance of IBF as part of the Islamic economic system and guide IBF activities to the real nature of Islam (Islamicity. Originality: Besides reviewing and classifying the academic literature on IBF, the study is unique in focusing on the neglected aspects of IBF because it is very important and infl uential to distinguish IBF from non-IBF activities.

  7. The concept of ignorance in a risk assessment and risk management context

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aven, T., E-mail: terje.aven@uis.n [University of Stavanger (Norway); Steen, R. [University of Stavanger (Norway)

    2010-11-15

    There are many definitions of ignorance in the context of risk assessment and risk management. Most refer to situations in which there are lack of knowledge, poor basis for probability assignments and possible outcomes not (fully) known. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the ignorance concept in this setting. Based on a set of risk and uncertainty features, we establish conceptual structures characterising the level of ignorance. These features include the definition of chances (relative frequency-interpreted probabilities) and the existence of scientific uncertainties. Based on these structures, we suggest a definition of ignorance linked to scientific uncertainties, i.e. the lack of understanding of how consequences of the activity are influenced by the underlying factors. In this way, ignorance can be viewed as a condition for applying the precautionary principle. The discussion is also linked to the use and boundaries of risk assessments in the case of large uncertainties, and the methods for classifying risk and uncertainty problems.

  8. The energy intake through regular nontherapeutic meals provision in long-term care: impact on nutritional status and related Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturtzel, Baerbel; Elmadfa, Ibrahim; Ohrenberger, Gerald

    2016-01-01

    To investigate how the energy intake of institutionalized long-term-care patients through the regular nontherapeutic meals provision is associated with the nutritional status and the Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index (GNRI). A 9 month longitudinal, observational study. Long-term-care Hospital. 66 long-term-care patients with multiple medical conditions and solely oral food-intake. 47 (71 %) patients, predominantly women (n = 39/47), with a mean age of 83.04 (±9.58) years completed study time and 19 (29 %) deceased. At week 1 and week 36 of observation time energy intake was measured by means of three-days-weighing-records. Body composition was assessed with bioelectrical impedance analysis. Serum albumin, body weight and body height were taken from the medical report. Albumin content, body weight and height were used to calculate the Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index: GNRI = [1.489 × albumin (g/L)] + [41.7 × (weight/ideal body weight)]. Energy intake was significantly below 24 kcal/kg body weight per day. The GNRI of the deceased patients was significantly (p = 0.002) lower than the GNRI of the completers. During observation time energy-intake p nutritional status and likewise the GNRI. The malnourishment and the nutrition related clinical risk of the geriatric patients aggrevated during observation time.

  9. Measured adiposity in relation to head and neck cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ward, Heather A; Wark, Petra A; Muller, David C

    2017-01-01

    Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study (EPIC) with measured anthropometry, there were 837 incident cases of HNC. HNC risk was examined in relation to body mass index (BMI) [lean: 30 kg/m2], waist circumference...

  10. [Relation between food habits and nutritional status of preschool children in a rural community].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coello, M P; Pérez-Gil, S E; Batrouni Kerkebe, L

    1986-12-01

    Food habits in regard to the nutritional status of preschool children and their socioeconomic situation were analyzed in this research. The study was carried out in Cuetzalan, State of Puebla; all families were studied and, besides the presence of a preschool child in the home, both father and mother should also be living in the same house. Forty children considered as well nourished and 40 malnourished in the opposite case, were selected, taking the limits of the Gómez classification. In order to define socioeconomic differences between the two groups, the sample population was divided into different levels, with the following results. The socioeconomic level of the well-nourished children did correlate with a good living standard of their families; in the other case, families with a low socioeconomic status, presented more nutritional problems. A questionnaire was applied to every mother selected. This included two items: a) In the first case, we tried to assess the mother's attitude towards food habits and children's illnesses. b) In the second case, the mother's knowledge concerning pregnancy, breast feeding, feeding of the child during the first year of life, taboos, beliefs and other aspects which could be related to nutrition. On the whole, the main objective of this study was attained, because significant differences were found between these two groups. Firstly, a good relationship between food habits and good nutritional status of the children was found. Secondly, mother with well-nourished children had better food habits and better socioeconomic status than mothers having children with poor health status, and therefore, of a lower socioeconomic status.

  11. The relative influence of maternal nutritional status before and during pregnancy on birth outcomes in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Melissa F; Nguyen, Phuong Hong; Addo, O Yaw; Hao, Wei; Nguyen, Hieu; Pham, Hoa; Martorell, Reynaldo; Ramakrishnan, Usha

    2015-11-01

    This study aimed to: (1) examine the role of multiple measures of prepregnancy nutritional status (weight, height, body composition) on birth outcomes (low birth weight (LBW), small for gestational age (SGA), preterm, birth weight, birth length, infant head circumference and mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC)); (2) assess relative influence of maternal nutritional status before and during (gestational weight gain) pregnancy on birth outcomes. We used prospective data on maternal body size and composition collected from women who participated in a randomized controlled trial evaluating the impact of preconceptional micronutrient supplements (PRECONCEPT) on birth outcomes in Thai Nguyen province, Vietnam (n=1436). Anthropometric measurements were obtained before conception through delivery by trained health workers. The relationship between prepregnancy nutritional status indicators, gestational weight gain (GWG) and birth outcomes were examined using generalized linear models, adjusting for potential confounding factors. Maternal prepregnancy weight (PPW) was the strongest anthropometric indicator predicting infant birth size. A 1 standard deviation (SD) increase in PPW (5.4kg) was associated with a 283g (95%CI: 279-286) increase in birthweight. A similar and independent association was observed with birthweight for an increase of 1 SD in gestational weight gain (4kg) (250g; 95% CI: 245-255). Women with a PPW pregnancy were more likely to give birth to a SGA (OR 2.9: 95%CI 1.9-4.5, OR 3.3: 95%CI 2.2-5.1) or LBW infant (OR 3.1: 95%CI 1.5-6.2, OR 3.4: 95%CI 1.6-7.2), respectively. These findings indicate that clinical care and programs aimed at improving birth outcomes will have the greatest impact if they address maternal nutrition both before and during pregnancy. Women with a PPW pregnancy along with routine obstetric care on gestational weight gain is critical to improve birth outcomes. NCT01665378 (https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT01665378). Copyright © 2015

  12. Why epidemiologists cannot afford to ignore poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, Nancy

    2007-11-01

    Epidemiologists cannot afford to ignore poverty. To do so would, first, wrongly obscure the devastating impact of poverty on population health, and, second, undercut our commitment to scientific rigor. At issue is doing correct science, not "politically correct" science. Blot poverty and inequity from view, and not only will we contribute to making suffering invisible but our understanding of disease etiology and distribution will be marred. To make this case, I address current debates about the causal relationships between poverty and health, and provide examples of how failing to consider the impact of socioeconomic position has biased epidemiologic knowledge and harmed the public's health. By definition, the people we study are simultaneously social beings and biologic organisms-and we cannot study the latter without taking into account the former. It is the responsibility of all epidemiologists, and not only social epidemiologists, to keep in mind the connections between poverty and health.

  13. A survey on cancer-related nutritional information in Iranian popular magazines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovsepyan, Ourfa; Zare-Farashbandi, Firoozeh; Askari, Gholamreza

    2015-01-01

    Due to the wide influence of public media, they become important communication channels for changing health beliefs and behaviors. One of the areas that have gained increased attention in public media is nutritional information. Cancer is one among the diseases related to nutrition. The goal of this study is to do a content analysis of the popular magazines in Iran for nutritional information related to cancer in year 2012-2013. This is an applied survey performed using content analysis method. The data gathering tool is a checklist designed by the researcher. The statistical population consisted of all of the messages printed in 173 volumes of eight most popular magazines which were selected based on their characteristics by searching the Iranian publication database using certain inclusion and exclusion criteria. The sample size calculated using non-probability - purposive sampling was 295 messages from 96 magazine volumes. Findings showed that prevention trends had the highest (86.8%) and treatment had the lowest (4.7%) frequency in the messages. Pomegranate was the most commonly mentioned preventive food, while mayonnaises were the most commonly mentioned carcinogen and tangerine was the most commonly mentioned food used for cancer treatment. Among the different types of cancer, more than half of the messages (51.2%) mentioned "cancer" as a general term. After that, breast cancer (13.2%) and prostate cancer (10.51%) were the most commonly motioned cancers and messages regarding pancreatic cancer and hormone-related cancers were the least frequent (0.3%). The findings of this study show that the main goal of these messages was to increase the information provided to the readers, although some doubts regarding the scientific credibility of the claims made in these messages still remain.

  14. Lifestyle modification, nutritional and vitamins supplements for age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sin, Helena P Y; Liu, David T L; Lam, Dennis S C

    2013-02-01

    To provide a systematic review of the published studies pertaining to the lifestyle modification, dietary, nutritional and vitamins supplements for preventing occurrence or halting deterioration of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The literature searches from 1990 to December 2010 with following keywords, 'age related macular degeneration', 'nutrition', 'antioxidant', 'diet' and 'vitamins supplements' using search engines Pubmed, Google Scholar, Medline and the Cochrane Library. Meta-analyses, population-based cohort studies and case-controlled trials were reviewed, whereas small cases series, case reports, commentaries, abstracts in proceedings or personal observations were excluded. Smoking and obesity are identified risk factors for AMD. High dietary intakes of omega-3 fatty acids, and macular xanthophylls lutein and zeaxanthin have been associated with a lower risk of prevalence and incidence in AMD. Vitamin B and extracts from wolfberry, Gingko biloba and berry anthocyanins were also subjects of intense research interests, but there has been no concluding scientific evidence yet. The Age-Related Eye Disease study (AREDS) is the only large-scale randomized controlled clinical trial to show beneficial effect of AREDS formulation of vitamins C, E, beta-carotene and zinc with copper in reducing the risk progression to advanced AMD in patients with intermediate AMD or with advanced AMD in one eye. Quit smoking is an important advice to patients to prevent or slow the progress of AMD. There is no recommendation for routine nutritional or vitamins supplementation for primary prevention. However, patients with documented intermediate risk of AMD or advanced AMD in one eye are recommended to take AREDS-type vitamin supplements. © 2012 The Authors. Acta Ophthalmologica © 2012 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation.

  15. A survey on cancer-related nutritional information in Iranian popular magazines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovsepyan, Ourfa; Zare-Farashbandi, Firoozeh; Askari, Gholamreza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Due to the wide influence of public media, they become important communication channels for changing health beliefs and behaviors. One of the areas that have gained increased attention in public media is nutritional information. Cancer is one among the diseases related to nutrition. The goal of this study is to do a content analysis of the popular magazines in Iran for nutritional information related to cancer in year 2012–2013. Materials and Methods: This is an applied survey performed using content analysis method. The data gathering tool is a checklist designed by the researcher. The statistical population consisted of all of the messages printed in 173 volumes of eight most popular magazines which were selected based on their characteristics by searching the Iranian publication database using certain inclusion and exclusion criteria. The sample size calculated using non-probability – purposive sampling was 295 messages from 96 magazine volumes. Results: Findings showed that prevention trends had the highest (86.8%) and treatment had the lowest (4.7%) frequency in the messages. Pomegranate was the most commonly mentioned preventive food, while mayonnaises were the most commonly mentioned carcinogen and tangerine was the most commonly mentioned food used for cancer treatment. Among the different types of cancer, more than half of the messages (51.2%) mentioned “cancer” as a general term. After that, breast cancer (13.2%) and prostate cancer (10.51%) were the most commonly motioned cancers and messages regarding pancreatic cancer and hormone-related cancers were the least frequent (0.3%). Conclusions: The findings of this study show that the main goal of these messages was to increase the information provided to the readers, although some doubts regarding the scientific credibility of the claims made in these messages still remain. PMID:27462644

  16. Public opinion on nutrition-related policies to combat child obesity, Los Angeles County, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Paul A; Chiang, Choiyuk; Lightstone, Amy S; Shih, Margaret

    2014-06-05

    We assessed public opinion on nutrition-related policies to address child obesity: a soda tax, restrictions on advertising unhealthy foods and beverages to children, and restrictions on siting fast food restaurants and convenience stores near schools. We analyzed data from 998 adults (aged ≥18 years) in the 2011 Los Angeles County Health Survey. Support was highest for advertising restrictions (74%), intermediate for a soda tax (60%), and lowest for siting restrictions on fast food restaurants and convenience stores (44% and 37%, respectively). Support for food and beverage advertising restrictions and soda taxation is promising for future policy efforts to address child obesity.

  17. On strategic ignorance of environmental harm and social norms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thunström, Linda; van 't Veld, Klaas; Shogren, Jason

    Are people strategically ignorant of the negative externalities their activities cause the environment? Herein we examine if people avoid costless information on those externalities and use ignorance as an excuse to reduce pro-environmental behavior. We develop a theoretical framework in which pe...... norm, namely the share of air travelers who buy carbon offsets. We find evidence that some people use ignorance as an excuse to reduce pro-environmental behavior—ignorance significantly decreases the probability of buying carbon offsets....

  18. Nutritional modulation of IGF-1 in relation to growth and body condition in Sceloporus lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Christine A; Jetzt, Amanda E; Cohick, Wendie S; John-Alder, Henry B

    2015-05-15

    Nutrition and energy balance are important regulators of growth and the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor (GH/IGF) axis. However, our understanding of these functions does not extend uniformly to all classes of vertebrates and is mainly limited to controlled laboratory conditions. Lizards can be useful models to improve our understanding of the nutritional regulation of the GH/IGF-1 axis because many species are relatively easy to observe and manipulate both in the laboratory and in the field. In the present study, the effects of variation in food intake on growth, body condition, and hepatic IGF-1 mRNA levels were measured in (1) juveniles of Sceloporus jarrovii maintained on a full or 1/3 ration and (2) hatchlings of Sceloporus undulatus subjected to full or zero ration with or without re-feeding. These parameters plus plasma IGF-1 were measured in a third experiment using adults of S. undulatus subjected to full or zero ration with or without re-feeding. In all experiments, plasma corticosterone was measured as an anticipated indicator of nutritional stress. In S. jarrovii, growth and body condition were reduced but lizards remained in positive energy balance on 1/3 ration, and hepatic IGF-1 mRNA and plasma corticosterone were not affected in comparison to full ration. In S. undulatus, growth, body condition, hepatic IGF-1 mRNA, and plasma IGF-1 were all reduced by zero ration and restored by refeeding. Plasma corticosterone was increased in response to zero ration and restored by full ration in hatchlings but not adults of S. undulatus. These data indicate that lizards conform to the broader vertebrate model in which severe food deprivation and negative energy balance is required to attenuate systemic IGF-1 expression. However, when animals remain in positive energy balance, reduced food intake does not appear to affect systemic IGF-1. Consistent with other studies on lizards, the corticosterone response to reduced food intake is an unreliable indicator

  19. Nutritional status of the potted chrysanthemum relative to electrical conductivity and salt leaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márkilla Zunete Beckmann-Cavalcante

    Full Text Available The quality of ornamental plants grown in pots is highly dependent on fertilization and substrate management. To this effect, we carried out an experiment in a protected environment to evaluate the nutritional status of the chrysanthemum cv. Miramar grown in pots, relative to the electrical conductivity of the nutrient solution and the leaching of salts. The experimental design was of randomized blocks with four replications and the treatments arranged in a 5 x 2 factorial, relating to the levels of electrical conductivity of the nutrient solution (ECs = 2.1; 2.8; 3.5; 4.2 and 4.9 dS m-1 in substrates without (SNL and with (SWL washing for the leaching of salts. The nutritional status of the plants was evaluated by leaf analysis of macronutrients (N, P, K, Ca, Mg and S and micronutrients (Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn. The increase in ECs inhibited the accumulation of micronutrients and of nitrogen, but stimulated the levels of P, K, Ca, Mg and S in the leaf dry mass of the chrysanthemum. The leaching of salts increased the concentration Cu, Fe and Mn in the plant leaves. Among the macronutrients, with the except of calcium and sulphur, no significant difference was observed for N, P, K and Mg relative to the leaching of salts.

  20. Relation between physical capacity, nutritional status and systemic inflammation in COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallin, Runa; Janson, Christer; Arnardottir, Ragnheiður Harpa; Olsson, Roger; Emtner, Margareta; Branth, Stefan; Boman, Gunnar; Slinde, Frode

    2011-07-01

    Decreased physical capacity, weight loss, fat-free mass depletion and systemic inflammation are frequently observed in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Our aim was to examine relations between physical capacity, nutritional status, systemic inflammation and disease severity in COPD. Forty nine patients with moderate to severe COPD were included in the study. Spirometry was preformed. Physical capacity was determined by a progressive symptom limited cycle ergo meter test, incremental shuttle walking test, 12-minute walk distance and hand grip strength test. Nutritional status was investigated by anthropometric measurements, (weight, height, arm and leg circumferences and skinfold thickness) and bioelectrical impedance assessment was performed. Blood samples were analyzed for C-reactive protein (CRP) and fibrinogen. Working capacity was positively related to forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV(1) ) (p chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is related to lung function, body composition and systemic inflammation. A depiction of all three aspects of the disease might be important when targeting interventions in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. [Nutritional status in university students: its relation to the number of daily intakes and macronutrients consumption].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pi, Romina Antonella; Vidal, Paula Daniela; Brassesco, Bárbara Romina; Viola, Lorena; Aballay, Laura Rosana

    2015-04-01

    There is increasing scientific evidence that nutrition influence positive and negative on health along life. Many studies have reported that the student population is a particularly vulnerable group from the nutritional point of view, due to it is characterized by meal skipping frequently and nibble between eating occasions. to establish the relationship between the number of daily dietary intakes and nutritional status in male students aged 23 to 33 years of the National Technological University, in the city of Córdoba, in 2013. in order to achieve this aim, a prospective, cross-sectional and descriptive correlational design was used. Descriptive and inferential analysis were applied by using multiple logistic regression models. Almost 50% of the sample analyzed presented overweight (OW) and 40% high body fat (BF). In relation to the intakes numbers, the students that take less than 4 and more than 6 had 2 times more chance of presenting overweight and high body fat. It was found that as age increases it also does the Body Fat Storage, whereas diminished physical activity increases the chance of having high Body Mass Index and Body Fat. Moreover, high ingestion of carbohydrates increases the chance of high Body Fat and Overweight, and a high intake of protein and lipids increases the risk of high Body Fat. it is recognized that high or low number of daily intakes than recommended, low level of physical activity, high consumption of carbohydrates and having more than 29 years is related to high overweight and body fat. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  2. Vitamin supplementation and related nutritional status in Thai children, aged 1-5 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratanachu-ek, Suntaree

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of vitamin supplementation in Thai children aged 1-5 years at Queen Sirikit National Institute of Child Health (QSNICH), parental knowledge of vitamins, practices, and related factors such as nutritional status in vitamin supplementation. A cross-sectional study was performed at the Well Child Clinic, QSNICH, from 1-31 May 2005. Five hundred parents of young children, aged 1-5 years were interviewed by using the questionnaire to obtain information regarding knowledge and practices of vitamin supplementation. Weight and length/height were measured and nutritional status was assessed using the Thai growth reference. The relationships among vitamin supplement, nutritional status, and other related factors were analyzed using Chi-square test. The p-value vitamin supplementation was 76%, including vitamin C 62%, multi-vitamin (MTV) 35%, and cod-liver oil 20%. Regarding parental knowledge of vitamins, 57% of them knew the health benefits but 74% did not know the toxic effects of vitamins. The reasons for vitamin supplementation were poor feeding 63%, under-weight 23% and unhealthy status 14%. Vitamins were obtained from over-the-counter 59%, health services 40%, and friends 1%. Vitamin supplementation was significantly higher in children over 2 years of age, whose parents knew the benefits of vitamins, and in those children with malnutrition. The prevalence of vitamin supplementation was high in malnourished children, over 2 years of age whose parents had knowledge about benefits of vitamins. Parents should be warned about the dangers of high dose of vitamin consumption.

  3. Poor nutrition and alcohol consumption are related to high serum homocysteine level at post-stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seung-Hye; Choi-Kwon, Smi; Kim, Min-Sun; Kim, Jong-Sung

    2015-10-01

    Increased serum homocysteine (Hcy) levels have been reported to be related to the occurrence of cardio- and cerebrovascular diseases. High serum Hcy levels are also related to the development of secondary stroke and all-cause mortality. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of high serum homocysteine level and relating factors, and the change over the 10 month period post-stroke. Consecutive stroke patients who were admitted to the Asan Medical Center were enrolled. Ten months after the onset of stroke, an interview with a structured questionnaire was performed and blood samples were obtained for the biochemical parameters. Nutritional status was determined using the mini nutritional assessment (MNA) score and dietary nutrient intakes were also obtained using a 24 hour recall method. Out of 203 patients, 84% were malnourished or at risk of malnutrition, and 26% had high homocysteine levels at 10 months post-stroke. Using logistic regression, the factors related with high homocysteine levels at 10 months post-stroke included heavy alcohol consumption (P = 0.020), low MNA scores (P = 0.026), low serum vitamin B12 (P = 0.021) and low serum folate levels (P = 0.003). Of the 156 patients who had normal homocysteine levels at admission, 36 patients developed hyperhomocysteinemia 10 months post-stroke, which was related to heavy alcohol consumption (P = 0.013). Persistent hyperhomocysteinemia, observed in 22 patients (11%), was related to male sex (P = 0.031), old age (P = 0.042), low vitamin B6 intake (P = 0.029), and heavy alcohol consumption (P = 0.013). Hyperhomocysteinemia is common in post-stroke, and is related to malnutrition, heavy alcohol drinking and low serum level of folate and vitamin B12. Strategies to prevent or manage high homocysteine levels should consider these factors.

  4. Green Brand Development in Sports Nutrition Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Ren

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study is to research the current situation and the effect which is brought by the nutrition food of the green band development in sports nutrition food. Sports nutrition is the study and practice of nutrition and diet as it relates to athletic performance. It is concerned with the type and quantity of fluid and food taken by an athlete and deals with nutrients such as vitamins, minerals, supplements and organic substances such as carbohydrates, proteins and fats. Although an important part of many sports training regimens, it is most commonly considered in strength sports and endurance sports. From the view of meeting the demand for health of athletes, this study discussed the green brand development in sports nutrition food. Taking sustainable development theory as principle, we analyzed the advantages and disadvantages of green brand in sports nutrition food. In the fierce competitive environment, some companies blindly pursue the number of products, but ignore the quality of products. However, with the environmental protection consciousness and self-protection awareness, pure natural food, high-quality green food and healthy food have become people's preference. As for athletes, they also choose the green sports nutrition food. Therefore, developing the green brand for sports nutrition food will be a sustainable road for all food companies. In past 2 years, the developments of sports nutritive products, the formulation of trade standard, spread of sports nutrition knowledge, international and domestic scientific exchanges and training of sports dietitian had been done. These excellent situations predicted a good future of green brand development in sports nutrition food.

  5. Assessment of Food and Nutrition Related Descriptors in Agricultural and Biomedical Thesauri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartol, Tomaz

    Food- and human nutrition-related subject headings or descriptors of the following thesauri-databases are assessed: NAL Thesaurus/Agricola, Agrovoc/Agris, CAB Thesaurus, FSTA Thesaurus, MeSH/Medline. Food concepts can be represented by thousands of different terms but subject scope of a particular term is sometimes vague. There exist important differences among thesauri regarding same or similar concept. A term that represents narrower or broader concept in one thesaurus can in another stand for a related concept or be non-existent. Sometimes there is no clear implication of differences between scientific (Latin) and common (English) names. Too many related terms can confuse end-users. Thesauri were initially employed mostly by information professionals but can now be used directly by users who may be unaware of differences. Thesauri are assuming new roles in classification of information as metadata. Further development towards ontologies must pay constant attention to taxonomic problems of representation of knowledge.

  6. Relationships between nutritional condition of adult females and relative carrying capacity for rocky mountain Elk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piasecke, J.R.; Bender, L.C.

    2009-01-01

    Lactation can have significant costs to individual and population-level productivity because of the high energetic demands it places on dams. Because the difference in condition between lactating and dry Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) cows tends to disappear as nutritional quality rises, the magnitude of that difference could be used to relate condition to habitat quality or the capability of habitats to support elk. We therefore compared nutritional condition of ???2.5-yr-old lactating and dry cows from six free-ranging RockyMountain elk populations throughout the United States.Our goal was to quantify differential accrual of body fat (BF) reserves to determine whether the condition of dry and lactating cows could be used to define relevant management thresholds of habitat quality (i.e., relative carrying capacity) and consequently potential performance of elk populations. Levels of BF that lactating cows were able to accrue in autumn and the proportional difference in BF between dry and lactating cows in autumn were related (F 1-2,10???16.2, Pnutritionally stressed condition, which may be limiting population performance. Using the logistic model to predict relative proximity to ecological carrying capacity (ECC), our population-years ranged from3-97%ofECCand proportion of the population lactating (an index of calf survival) was negatively related to proportion of ECC. Results indicate that the proportional difference in accrual of BF between lactating and dry cows can provide a sensitive index to where elk populations reside relative to the quality of their range.

  7. A computational study of intervertebral disc degeneration in relation to changes in regional tissue composition and disc nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Up to 85% of the world population suffers from low back pain, a clinical condition often related to the intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration (DD). Altered disc cell nutrition affects cell viability and can generate catabolic cascades that degrade the extracellular matrix (ECM). Also, a major degenerative biochemical change in the disc is the proteoglycan (PG) loss, which affects the osmotic pressure and hydration that is critical for cell nutrition. However, the relationship between biochem...

  8. Bias and ignorance in demographic perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landy, D; Guay, B; Marghetis, T

    2017-08-31

    When it comes to knowledge of demographic facts, misinformation appears to be the norm. Americans massively overestimate the proportions of their fellow citizens who are immigrants, Muslim, LGBTQ, and Latino, but underestimate those who are White or Christian. Previous explanations of these estimation errors have invoked topic-specific mechanisms such as xenophobia or media bias. We reconsidered this pattern of errors in the light of more than 30 years of research on the psychological processes involved in proportion estimation and decision-making under uncertainty. In two publicly available datasets featuring demographic estimates from 14 countries, we found that proportion estimates of national demographics correspond closely to what is found in laboratory studies of quantitative estimates more generally. Biases in demographic estimation, therefore, are part of a very general pattern of human psychology-independent of the particular topic or demographic under consideration-that explains most of the error in estimates of the size of politically salient populations. By situating demographic estimates within a broader understanding of general quantity estimation, these results demand reevaluation of both topic-specific misinformation about demographic facts and topic-specific explanations of demographic ignorance, such as media bias and xenophobia.

  9. Beyond risk and ambiguity: deciding under ignorance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pushkarskaya, Helen; Liu, Xun; Smithson, Michael; Joseph, Jane E

    2010-09-01

    In this study, we examined the neural basis of decision making under different types of uncertainty that involve missing information: ambiguity (vague probabilities) and sample space ignorance (SSI; unknown outcomes). fMRI revealed that these two different types of uncertainty recruit distinct neural substrates: Ambiguity recruits the left insula, whereas SSI recruits the anterior cingulate cortex, bilateral inferior parietal cortex, and the lateral orbitofrontal cortex. The finding of unique activations for different types of uncertainty may not necessarily be predicted within the reductive approach of modern theories of decision making under uncertainty, because these theories purport that humans reduce more complicated uncertain environments to subjectively formed less complicated ones (i.e., SSI to ambiguity). The predictions of the reductive view held only for ambiguity-averse individuals and not for ambiguity-tolerant individuals. Consequently, theories of decision making under uncertainty should include individual tolerance for missing information and how these individual differences modulate the neural systems engaged during decision making. Supplemental materials for this article may be downloaded from http://cabn.psychonomic-journals.org/content/supplemental.

  10. Nutritional Status and Related Factors in Children, Bandar Turkmen District, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrooz Ebrahimzadehkor

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prevalence of protein-energy malnutrition (PEM is one of the important problems of third-world countries including Iran. This study assessed nutritional status and some related factors among children aged 0-5 years in Bandar Turkmen district. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 616 children aged less than 5 years were selected with stratified random sampling. Malnutrition was defined as +2 SD NCHS reference. Data were collected by interview with mothers and were analyzed with SPSS-11.5 software. Results: In this study, prevalence of underweight, wasting and stunting and obesity were 3.7, 3.9, 7 and 6% respectively. Exclusively breastfeeding, mother’s BMI, mother’s weight and parental educational and economic status had significant correlation with children’s PEM (p4000 g (p=0.031, breast feeding duration 30 years (p=0.043 and formula or cow’s milk plus breast feeding up to 6 months old (p=0.018 had significant correlation with children’s obesity. In multivariate analysis on logistic regression, mother’s nutritional knowledge (OR=11.22, p=0.001 was most important risk factor for PEM. Exclusively breast feeding up to 6 months of age rather than formula or cow’s milk plus breast feeding, reduced 2.45 times obesity risk (p=0.019. Conclusion: We conclude that breast feeding at first 6 months of age, longer breast feeding duration and pregnancy in lower than 30 years of age reduce risk of child nutritional status.

  11. Rhizosphere microbial community structure in relation to root location and plant iron nutritional status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, C H; Crowley, D E

    2000-01-01

    Root exudate composition and quantity vary in relation to plant nutritional status, but the impact of the differences on rhizosphere microbial communities is not known. To examine this question, we performed an experiment with barley (Hordeum vulgare) plants under iron-limiting and iron-sufficient growth conditions. Plants were grown in an iron-limiting soil in root box microcosms. One-half of the plants were treated with foliar iron every day to inhibit phytosiderophore production and to alter root exudate composition. After 30 days, the bacterial communities associated with different root zones, including the primary root tips, nonelongating secondary root tips, sites of lateral root emergence, and older roots distal from the tip, were characterized by using 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) fingerprints generated by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Our results showed that the microbial communities associated with the different root locations produced many common 16S rDNA bands but that the communities could be distinguished by using correspondence analysis. Approximately 40% of the variation between communities could be attributed to plant iron nutritional status. A sequence analysis of clones generated from a single 16S rDNA band obtained at all of the root locations revealed that there were taxonomically different species in the same band, suggesting that the resolving power of DGGE for characterization of community structure at the species level is limited. Our results suggest that the bacterial communities in the rhizosphere are substantially different in different root zones and that a rhizosphere community may be altered by changes in root exudate composition caused by changes in plant iron nutritional status.

  12. Teacher Attitudes, Perceived Influences, and Self-Reported Classroom Behaviors Related to School Nutrition Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Beverly Lawler

    2010-01-01

    This study determined attitudes of kindergarten through fifth grade teachers about school nutrition environments, their perceived influence on school nutrition environments, and self-reported classroom behaviors. Specific objectives were to: (a) identify perceived factors that influence the school nutrition environment, according to teachers…

  13. Nutritional Education Needs in Relation to Ramadan Fasting and Its Complications in Tehran, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadman, Zhaleh; Akhoundan, Mahdieh; Poorsoltan, Nooshin; Khoshniat Nikoo, Mohsen; Larijani, Bagher; Akhgar Zhand, Camelia; Soleymanzadeh, Mozhdeh; Alsadat Seyed Rohani, Zahra; Jamshidi, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Background Ramadan fasting is associated with some lifestyle changes. A lack of nutritional needs knowledge or the improper performance of fasting, particularly in relation to time, type and amount of food intake, can cause disorders such as indigestion, bloating, constipation, headaches and other clinical problems. Objectives To investigate the general knowledge regarding dietary factors associated with Ramadan fasting and its related complications. Patients and Methods This prospective, non-interventional, observational study was conducted from April to July, 2012 to coincide with the month before and the month of Ramadan. The initial participants were 600 fasting and 588 non-fasting people (aged 18 - 65 years, BMI 18.5 - 40 kg/m2) chosen by random cluster sampling in Tehran, Iran. A questionnaire of Ramadan fasting nutritional knowledge was developed and validated in a pilot study. The Likert scale was used two weeks before Ramadan and during the third and fourth weeks of Ramadan to estimate Ramadan-related complications. Seven-day, 24 - hour food recalls were used to assess food intakes. Results The lowest level of general knowledge was identified in the context of foods associated with hunger (22.1%) and hypoglycemia (24.8%) and the highest level of general knowledge was identified in reference to unsuitable foods for Sahar (91.4%). During Ramadan, all attributed complications increased in fasting subjects (P diet were associated with some gastrointestinal and sleep complications (P diet to prevent Ramadan-related complications, practical training in regard to the amounts of nutrients associated with Ramadan-related complications is both necessary and recommended.

  14. Children's perceptions of weight, obesity, nutrition, physical activity and related health and socio-behavioural factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Economos, Christina D; Bakun, Peter J; Herzog, Julia Bloom; Dolan, Peter R; Lynskey, Vanessa M; Markow, Dana; Sharma, Shanti; Nelson, Miriam E

    2014-01-01

    Approximately one-third of children in the USA are either overweight or obese. Understanding the perceptions of children is an important factor in reversing this trend. An online survey was conducted with children to capture their perceptions of weight, overweight, nutrition, physical activity and related socio-behavioural factors. Within the USA. US children (n 1224) aged 8-18 years. Twenty-seven per cent of children reported being overweight; 47·1% of children overestimated the rate of overweight/obesity among US children. A higher percentage of self-classified overweight children (81·9%) worried about weight than did self-classified under/normal weight children (31·1%). Most children (91·1%) felt that it was important to not be overweight, for both health-related and social-related reasons. The majority of children believed that if someone their age is overweight they will likely be overweight in adulthood (93·1%); get an illness such as diabetes or heart disease in adulthood (90·2%); not be able to play sports well (84·5%); and be teased or made fun of in school (87·8%). Children focused more on food/drink than physical activity as reasons for overweight at their age. Self-classified overweight children were more likely to have spoken with someone about their weight over the last year than self-classified under/normal weight children. Children demonstrated good understanding of issues regarding weight, overweight, nutrition, physical activity and related socio-behavioural factors. Their perceptions are important and can be helpful in crafting solutions that will resonate with children.

  15. Maternal Eating and Physical Activity Strategies and their Relation with Children's Nutritional Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Flores-Peña

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: to describe the maternal eating and physical activity strategies (monitoring, discipline, control, limits and reinforcement [MEES]; to determine the relation between MEES and the child's nutritional status [body mass index (BMI and body fat percentage (BFP]; to verify whether the MEES differ according to the child's nutritional status.METHOD: participants were 558 mothers and children (3 to 11 years of age who studied at public schools. The Parental Strategies for Eating and Activity Scale (PEAS was applied and the child's weight, height and BFP were measured. For analysis purposes, descriptive statistics were obtained, using multiple linear regression and the Kruskal-Wallis test.RESULTS: the highest mean score was found for reinforcement (62.72 and the lowest for control (50.07. Discipline, control and limits explained 12% of the BMI, while discipline and control explained 6% of the BFP. Greater control is found for obese children (χ2=38.36, p=0.001 and greater reinforcement for underweight children (χ2=7.19, p<0.05.CONCLUSIONS: the mothers exert greater control (pressure to eat over obese children and greater recognition (congratulating due to healthy eating in underweight children. Modifications in parental strategies are recommended with a view to strengthening healthy eating and physical activity habits.

  16. Influence of Physical Activity and Nutrition on Obesity-Related Immune Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Jung Huang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Research examining immune function during obesity suggests that excessive adiposity is linked to impaired immune responses leading to pathology. The deleterious effects of obesity on immunity have been associated with the systemic proinflammatory profile generated by the secretory molecules derived from adipose cells. These include inflammatory peptides, such as TNF-α, CRP, and IL-6. Consequently, obesity is now characterized as a state of chronic low-grade systemic inflammation, a condition considerably linked to the development of comorbidity. Given the critical role of adipose tissue in the inflammatory process, especially in obese individuals, it becomes an important clinical objective to identify lifestyle factors that may affect the obesity-immune system relationship. For instance, stress, physical activity, and nutrition have each shown to be a significant lifestyle factor influencing the inflammatory profile associated with the state of obesity. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to comprehensively evaluate the impact of lifestyle factors, in particular psychological stress, physical activity, and nutrition, on obesity-related immune function with specific focus on inflammation.

  17. Nutritional and Lifestyle Interventions for Age-Related Macular Degeneration: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, Ângela

    2017-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness in the developed world. In this narrative review, we will summarize the nutritional interventions evaluated in numerous observational studies and a few randomized clinical trials. The AREDS and AREDS2 studies demonstrated that supplements including vitamins C and E, beta-carotene, and zinc may reduce the progression to advanced AMD, in some patients, by 25% in five years. This is one of the few nutritional supplements known to have beneficial effects in any eye disease. Lutein/zeaxanthin supplementation may have beneficial effects in some individuals whereas omega-3 fatty acids supplementation needs to be further investigated and supported by more evidence. Genetic factors may explain the different patterns of response and explain differences found among individuals. More importantly, a combination of lifestyle behaviors such as the avoidance of smoking, physical activity, and the adoption of a healthy dietary pattern like the Mediterranean diet was associated with a lower prevalence of AMD. The adoption of these lifestyles may reduce the prevalence of the early stages of AMD and decrease the number of individuals who develop advanced AMD and consequently the onerous and climbing costs associated with the treatment of this disease.

  18. Selected biomarkers of age-related diseases in older subjects with different nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajcovicova-Kudlackova, M; Babinska, K; Blazicek, P; Valachovicova, M; Spustova, V; Mislanova, C; Paukova, V

    2011-01-01

    The nutritionists introduce on the base of epidemiological and clinical studies that appropriately planned vegetarian diets are healthful, and may provide health benefits in the prevention and treatment of certain diseases. Aging belongs to the main risks of cardiovascular disease. Markers of age-related diseases (cardiovascular, metabolic syndrome, diabetes) were assessed in two nutritional groups of older apparently healthy non-obese non-smoking women aged 60-70 years, 45 vegetarians (lacto-ovo-vegetarians and semi-vegetarians) and 38 non-vegetarians (control group on a traditional mixed diet, general population). Vegetarian values of total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, triacylglycerols, C-reactive protein, glucose, insulin and insulin resistance are significantly reduced. Non-vegetarian average values of total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and C-reactive protein are risk. Vegetarians have a better antioxidative status (significantly increased vitamin C, lipid-standardized vitamine E and beta-carotene plasma concentrations). Favourable values of cardiovascular risk markers in older vegetarian women document a beneficial effect of vegetarian nutrition in prevention of this disease as well as the vegetarian diet can be an additional factor in therapy. Vegetarians suffer from mild hyperhomocysteinemia; it is due to the lower vitamin B12 concentration. Vitamin B12 supplements are inevitable for the hyperhomocysteinemia prevention (Tab. 2, Ref. 26).

  19. Nutritional and Lifestyle Interventions for Age-Related Macular Degeneration: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângela Carneiro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Age-related macular degeneration (AMD is the leading cause of blindness in the developed world. In this narrative review, we will summarize the nutritional interventions evaluated in numerous observational studies and a few randomized clinical trials. The AREDS and AREDS2 studies demonstrated that supplements including vitamins C and E, beta-carotene, and zinc may reduce the progression to advanced AMD, in some patients, by 25% in five years. This is one of the few nutritional supplements known to have beneficial effects in any eye disease. Lutein/zeaxanthin supplementation may have beneficial effects in some individuals whereas omega-3 fatty acids supplementation needs to be further investigated and supported by more evidence. Genetic factors may explain the different patterns of response and explain differences found among individuals. More importantly, a combination of lifestyle behaviors such as the avoidance of smoking, physical activity, and the adoption of a healthy dietary pattern like the Mediterranean diet was associated with a lower prevalence of AMD. The adoption of these lifestyles may reduce the prevalence of the early stages of AMD and decrease the number of individuals who develop advanced AMD and consequently the onerous and climbing costs associated with the treatment of this disease.

  20. Nutritional and Lifestyle Interventions for Age-Related Macular Degeneration: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, Ângela; Andrade, José Paulo

    2017-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness in the developed world. In this narrative review, we will summarize the nutritional interventions evaluated in numerous observational studies and a few randomized clinical trials. The AREDS and AREDS2 studies demonstrated that supplements including vitamins C and E, beta-carotene, and zinc may reduce the progression to advanced AMD, in some patients, by 25% in five years. This is one of the few nutritional supplements known to have beneficial effects in any eye disease. Lutein/zeaxanthin supplementation may have beneficial effects in some individuals whereas omega-3 fatty acids supplementation needs to be further investigated and supported by more evidence. Genetic factors may explain the different patterns of response and explain differences found among individuals. More importantly, a combination of lifestyle behaviors such as the avoidance of smoking, physical activity, and the adoption of a healthy dietary pattern like the Mediterranean diet was associated with a lower prevalence of AMD. The adoption of these lifestyles may reduce the prevalence of the early stages of AMD and decrease the number of individuals who develop advanced AMD and consequently the onerous and climbing costs associated with the treatment of this disease.

  1. Nutritional approaches and health-related properties of plant foods processed by high pressure and pulsed electric fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Moreno, Concepción; de Ancos, Begoña; Plaza, Lucía; Elez-Martínez, Pedro; Cano, M Pilar

    2009-06-01

    Consumers are more and more concerned about the nutritional and health-related characteristics of fruits and vegetables, as well as the safety of the food they eat. The processing of foods is becoming more sophisticated and diverse in response to the growing demand for quality foods. Consumers today expect food products to provide fresh-like appearance, convenience, variety, appropriate shelf-life and caloric content, reasonable cost, environmental soundness, high nutritional and functional quality. Nonthermal processing of fruit and vegetable has been revealed as a useful tool to extend their shelf-life and quality as well as to preserve their nutritional and functional characteristics. In the last ten years, there has been an increasing interest in nonthermal technologies as high pressure processing (HPP) and pulsed electric fields (PEF) to preserve fruit and vegetable products without the quality and nutritional damage caused by heat treatments. This review will contribute to inform many of the studies conducted to obtain a better understanding on the effects of some of these nonthermal processing technologies (high hydrostatic pressure and pulsed electric fields) applied to vegetable foods on their nutritional value and bioactive compounds related to health, including the results on micronutrient bioavailability studies and oxidative stress and inflammation biomarkers. These studies could contribute to select the most appropriate processing parameters to obtain safe, high-quality, nutritional, and functional vegetable food.

  2. Forgotten biliary stents: ignorance is not bliss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Saket; Chandra, Abhijit; Kulkarni, Rugved; Maurya, Ajeet Pratap; Gupta, Vishal

    2017-06-22

    Endoscopic biliary stenting is a common procedure in routine gastroenterology practice. Plastic stents are the most common type of stents used and are indicated mainly for short-term biliary drainage. Prolonged indwelling plastic stents can result in disastrous complications. We conducted a retrospective analysis of patients who presented with complications of forgotten biliary stents in a tertiary care hospital during January 2010 to October 2016. All patients were managed either by endoscopic or surgical means. Details of these patients were obtained from departmental patient database, endoscopy records, and surgical register. A total of 21 cases of retained biliary stents were managed in the study period and their outcome was analyzed. The median age was 47 years (range 17-70 years) and 17 (80.9%) patients were female. Primary indication of biliary stenting was stone disease in 76.2% (n = 16), while benign biliary stricture accounted for 19% of cases (n = 4). Mean duration at presentation to hospital after ERCP stenting was 3.53 years (range 1-14 years), with cholangitis being the most common presentation (66.67%). Definitive endoscopic treatment for forgotten stent and its associated complication was possible only in five patients (23.8%); in remaining 16 (76.2%) cases, surgical exploration was required. Despite life-threatening complications and major surgical interventions, no mortality was recorded. Instances of forgotten biliary stents presenting with serious complications are not uncommon in Indian setup. Patients either ignore advice for timely stent removal or are unaware of the presence of endoprosthesis or need for removal. Adequate patient counseling, information, and proper documentation are essential to avoid this condition.

  3. The Marley hypothesis: denial of racism reflects ignorance of history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jessica C; Adams, Glenn; Salter, Phia S

    2013-02-01

    This study used a signal detection paradigm to explore the Marley hypothesis--that group differences in perception of racism reflect dominant-group denial of and ignorance about the extent of past racism. White American students from a midwestern university and Black American students from two historically Black universities completed surveys about their historical knowledge and perception of racism. Relative to Black participants, White participants perceived less racism in both isolated incidents and systemic manifestations of racism. They also performed worse on a measure of historical knowledge (i.e., they did not discriminate historical fact from fiction), and this group difference in historical knowledge mediated the differences in perception of racism. Racial identity relevance moderated group differences in perception of systemic manifestations of racism (but not isolated incidents), such that group differences were stronger among participants who scored higher on a measure of racial identity relevance. The results help illuminate the importance of epistemologies of ignorance: cultural-psychological tools that afford denial of and inaction about injustice.

  4. Nutritional screening of patients at a memory clinic--association between patients' and their relatives' self-reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyngroth, Anne Liv; Hernes, Susanne Miriam Sørensen; Madsen, Bengt-Ove; Söderhamn, Ulrika; Grov, Ellen Karine

    2016-03-01

    To compare individual reports by patients and relatives (proxy) of the Nutritional Form For the Elderly and relate the Nutritional Form For the Elderly scores to Mini Mental Status Examination scores, weight loss, Body Mass Index, five-point Clock Drawing Test and background variables. Undernutrition or risk of undernutrition is a significant problem among people with dementia. A poor nutritional state increases the risk of infections, delayed convalescence after acute illness and reduced quality of life. A cross-sectional study. Application of the Nutritional Form For the Elderly in addition to clinical nutrition parameters and cognitive tests in a memory clinic among 213 persons referred for assessment due to possible cognitive impairment or dementia. Patients' and proxy Nutritional Form For the Elderly scores yielded comparative results. Nutritional Form For the Elderly scores ≥6 (medium to high risk of undernutrition) were found in 32% of the patients vs. 43% of proxy. Mean Mini Mental Status Examination score was 23·2 (SD 4·5) and 50% failed the Clock Drawing Test. Involuntary weight loss was reported by 42% of the patients, and in 26% of the patients, Body Mass Index values were below 22 kg/m(2) , indicating undernutrition. By regression analysis, Clock Drawing Test (p = 0·019) and Mini Mental Status Examination (p = 0·04) might predict the risk of reduced nutritional status. The study demonstrates that a significant proportion of patients at our memory clinic were at nutritional risk. Corresponding results exist between patients' and proxy Nutritional Form For the Elderly scores; however, the patients assessed themselves more well-nourished as compared to proxy assessment. The discrepancies seem to increase with more severe cognitive impairment. Females and single-dwelling individuals were at higher risk of undernutrition compared to males and cohabitants. Self-reporting and proxy-rating seem both applicable for nutritional screening among moderate

  5. Early Childhood Nutritional Status in CARICOM Countries: An Overview with respect to Five Nutrition Related Millennium Development Goals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela S. Gaskin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous reviews of nutritional status in children under 5 years describe the Caribbean grouped with Latin America. This paper focuses specifically on the Caribbean and the goals and targets of the Millennium Declaration that have bearing on childhood development. The results indicate that CARICOM countries have made progress in terms of child health as assessed by gross health indicators. Yet, the millennium generation experiences coexistence of undernutrition and overweight in early childhood. The associations of GNI with markers such as poverty indices are somewhat inconsistent with traditional findings and highlight a need to reassess the causes of infant mortality and low birth weight. However, a lack of systematic local data has hampered progress on an individual country basis. Interventions that deal more pointedly with country specific needs are required including those targeting obesity if the MDGs are to be attained by all member states.

  6. Early childhood nutritional status in CARICOM countries: an overview with respect to five nutrition related millennium development goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskin, Pamela S; Nielsen, Anders L; Willie, Douladel; Durant, Tara C

    2014-01-01

    Previous reviews of nutritional status in children under 5 years describe the Caribbean grouped with Latin America. This paper focuses specifically on the Caribbean and the goals and targets of the Millennium Declaration that have bearing on childhood development. The results indicate that CARICOM countries have made progress in terms of child health as assessed by gross health indicators. Yet, the millennium generation experiences coexistence of undernutrition and overweight in early childhood. The associations of GNI with markers such as poverty indices are somewhat inconsistent with traditional findings and highlight a need to reassess the causes of infant mortality and low birth weight. However, a lack of systematic local data has hampered progress on an individual country basis. Interventions that deal more pointedly with country specific needs are required including those targeting obesity if the MDGs are to be attained by all member states.

  7. Psychosocial complaints are associated with venous access-device related complications in patients on home parenteral nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman-de Waal, G.J.; Versleijen, M.W.J.; Achterberg, T. van; Jansen, J.B.M.J.; Sauerwein, H.P.; Schoonhoven, L.; Wanten, G.J.A.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Complications related to venous access devices (VADs) remain the major drawback of home parenteral nutrition (HPN) support. In addition to technical issues, patients also experience psychosocial problems. The aim of this study is to present an overview of VAD-related complications in pat

  8. Aspectos nutricionais relacionados ao ciclo menstrual Nutritional aspects related to menstrual cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Alves de Carvalho SAMPAIO

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo da presente revisão é apresentar os principais tópicos discutidos na literatura quanto à associação da nutrição com o ciclo menstrual, contribuindo para a implementação do atendimento nutricional de mulheres. São revisados aspectos referentes à fisiologia da menstruação, alterações metabólicas durante o ciclo menstrual e comportamentos alimentares associados a ele. Considerando-se o ciclo menstrual dividido em duas fases, a folicular e a lútea, é nesta última que são descritas mais alterações, como retenção de água, elevação de peso, aumento de demanda energética, modificações no perfil lipídico e no metabolismo de vitamina D, cálcio, magnésio e ferro, hipersensibilidade emocional, dores generalizadas e mudança do comportamento alimentar. Em relação a este último item, podem ocorrer maior ingestão energética e o desenvolvimento de compulsões alimentares, principalmente por chocolate, doces e alimentos muito salgados. É fundamental que todos os aspectos citados sejam investigados durante a consulta nutricional, a fim de serem adotadas condutas mais específicas.The aim of the present review is to show the most important topics discussed in literature about the association between nutrition and menstrual cycle, contributing to improve the nutritional care for women. Aspects related to physiology of the menstruation, metabolic changes and feeding behavior during the menstrual cycle are reviewed. Considering the menstrual cycle divided in two phases, follicular and luteal, it is in this last one that more alterations are described, like fluid retention, weight gain, increase in caloric needs, modifications in the lipid profile and in the metabolism of vitamin D, calcium, magnesium and iron, emotional hypersensitivity, aches and changes in feeding behavior. In relation to this last item, it can occur a higher caloric intake and the development of food cravings, mainly for chocolate, candies and

  9. Nutrition transition and its relationship to the development of obesity and related chronic diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Arne; Dyerberg, Jørn; Selleck, Matthew

    2008-01-01

    of industrially produced trans fatty acids that have powerful biological effects, and contribute to type 2 diabetes and coronary artery disease. New evidence also suggests that a high intake of trans fat may produce abdominal obesity, an important factor in the metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes...... and cardiovascular disease. The optimal diet for the prevention of weight gain, obesity, metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes is fat-reduced, without any industrially produced trans fatty acids, fibre-rich, high in low energy density carbohydrates (fruit, vegetables and whole grain products) and with a restricted......The prevalence of overweight and obesity has also increased substantially in the nutritional transition countries, and the health burden of obesity-related complications is growing. The introduction of fast-food chains and Westernized dietary habits providing meals with fast-food characteristics...

  10. Scale Dependence of Female Ungulate Reproductive Success in Relation to Nutritional Condition, Resource Selection and Multi-Predator Avoidance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared F Duquette

    Full Text Available Female ungulate reproductive success is dependent on the survival of their young, and affected by maternal resource selection, predator avoidance, and nutritional condition. However, potential hierarchical effects of these factors on reproductive success are largely unknown, especially in multi-predator landscapes. We expanded on previous research of neonatal white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus daily survival within home ranges to assess if resource use, integrated risk of 4 mammalian predators, maternal nutrition, winter severity, hiding cover, or interactions among these variables best explained landscape scale variation in daily or seasonal survival during the post-partum period. We hypothesized that reproductive success would be limited greater by predation risk at coarser spatiotemporal scales, but habitat use at finer scales. An additive model of daily non-ideal resource use and maternal nutrition explained the most (69% variation in survival; though 65% of this variation was related to maternal nutrition. Strong support of maternal nutrition across spatiotemporal scales did not fully support our hypothesis, but suggested reproductive success was related to dam behaviors directed at increasing nutritional condition. These behaviors were especially important following severe winters, when dams produced smaller fawns with less probability of survival. To increase nutritional condition and decrease wolf (Canis lupus predation risk, dams appeared to place fawns in isolated deciduous forest patches near roads. However, this resource selection represented non-ideal resources for fawns, which had greater predation risk that led to additive mortalities beyond those related to resources alone. Although the reproductive strategy of dams resulted in greater predation of fawns from alternative predators, it likely improved the life-long reproductive success of dams, as many were late-aged (>10 years old and could have produced multiple litters

  11. Development of tuberous roots and sugar accumulation as related to invertase activity and mineral nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricardo, C P; Sovia, D

    1974-03-01

    Sucrose storage in tuberous roots was not observed when the tissues had very high activities of acid invertase. High activities of the enzyme were always present in the roots at early stages of their development. In species where the activity of the enzyme decreased during root development, sucrose was stored. Thus, acid invertase was undetectable in mature roots of carrots (Daucus carota L.) where sucrose formed almost 80% of the dry matter. Conversely, radish (Raphanus sativus L.) and turnip (Brassica rapa L.) roots, in which the activity of the enzyme remained high until maturity, did not store appreciable amounts of sucrose (2% and 9%, respectively, of the dry matter in the mature roots), reducing sugars being the main reserve (more than 80% of the dry matter in mature turnips). The correlation between sucrose content and acid invertase activity was furthermore evident in both sucrose- and hexose-storing roots when the activity of this enzyme was affected by changes in the mineral nutrition. Deficiencies of nitrogen and sulphur reduced the activity of acid and alkaline invertases and led to increase in sucrose content and decrease in reducing sugars. However, the decline of alkaline invertase activity in tissues low in acid invertase had no clear effect on sugar content. Sodium chloride (10(-1)M) affected acid invertase and sugars in a manner similar to that of the two deficiencies, but had practically no effect on alkaline invertase. The changes in sugar content produced by the variations in mineral nutrition were small in hexose-storing roots in relation to those of sucrose-storing roots. It is possible that this result is related to the different levels of acid invertase in the two types of roots.

  12. On strategic ignorance of environmental harm and social norms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thunström, Linda; van’t Veld, Klaas; Shogren, Jason. F.

    2014-01-01

    Are people strategically ignorant of the negative externalities their activities cause the environment? Herein we examine if people avoid costless information on those externalities and use ignorance as an excuse to reduce pro-environmental behavior. We develop a theoretical framework in which...... on their harm to the environment, and that they use ignorance as an excuse to engage in less pro-environmental behavior. It also predicts that the cost of ignorance increases if people can learn about the social norm from the information. We test the model predictions empirically using an experiment combined...

  13. On strategic ignorance of environmental harm and social norms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thunström, Linda; van 't Veld, Klaas; Shogren, Jason

    and an option to buy offsets for the flight’s carbon footprint. More than half (53 percent) of the subjects choose to ignore information on the carbon footprint alone before deciding their offset purchase, but ignorance significantly decreases (to 29 percent) when the information additionally reveals the social...... norm, namely the share of air travelers who buy carbon offsets. We find evidence that some people use ignorance as an excuse to reduce pro-environmental behavior—ignorance significantly decreases the probability of buying carbon offsets....

  14. The relationship between relative deprivation and adult nutritional status in rural Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Steven M

    2012-01-01

    To explore statistically the relationship between adult short-run nutritional status [body mass index (BMI)] and a measure of relative deprivation [subjective socioeconomic status (SES)] using panel data collected in a developing country where there is a high degree of poverty and a very uneven distribution of income. Study participants included men and women from a random sample of households located in a rural setting in Zambia. The data were collected during two waves of survey interviews in 2009. A multilevel model was used to estimate the relationship between subjective SES and adult BMI and controlled for individual absolute income as well as other correlates of adult health. The sample size included 254 observations. A positive relationship was established between individual absolute income and adult BMI at the 1% level. A negative and statistically significant association was found at the 1% level between lower subjective SES and adult BMI. Lower perception of place within the socioeconomic hierarchy was on average associated with a 0.44 decrease in adult BMI. This study found that, independent of individual absolute income, lower subjective SES was negatively related with adult BMI in rural Zambia. The result provides evidence that lower perception of place within the local socioeconomic hierarchy matters to health. Future studies should continue exploring the relationship between subjective and objective measures of relative deprivation and health in developing countries, where the bulk of the research focuses on material not relative deprivation as a key determinant of individual health. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Health Scenario of Major Tribals of Northern Orissa in Relation to Human Growth, Development and Nutrition and the Role of Genetic Factors in Smell and Tasting Abilities in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balgir RS

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The nature of physical growth and development of children depends primarily upon the genetic endowments, nutritional status, psychosocial attitude and surrounding physical environmental conditions. School going children are the most important segment of the society who are affected by under- and mal-nutrition. Good nutrition is an indispensable component of healthy life. Tribal children studying in Ashram schools can be taken as representatives of the predominant tribes of the area. This study was aimed at evaluating the health profile in relation to growth, development and nutrition of a randomly selected cross section of 1038 Ashram school children aged six through 15 years in the state of Orissa. Following the standard methodology, it was noticed that nutritional complications are compounded due to ignorance, bad food habits, food fads, and poverty. About 71% of the Ashram school children showed mild to moderate anemia. According to different grades of malnutrition, the frequency of grade III malnutrition was very low in Ashram-school boys (1.4% and girls (3.5%, with an average of 2.3%. The grade I as well as grade II malnutrition was also higher in girls (grade II =24.3%; grade I= 37.6% as compared to boys (grade II=16.7%; grade I=31.5% with an average of 19.9% and 34.1%, respectively for grade II and grade I malnutrition. There was a consistent pattern of increase in height and weight in the year six through fifteen of age, showing that height and weight of the Ashram school children increases with the corresponding advancement of age in both boys and girls. In general, the girls were shorter and lighter in weight than the boys. This pattern is consistent in the present study of Ashram school children in Orissa. It has been observed that apart from the genetic potential, the intra-uterine environment, mother’s nutritional status before, during and post pregnancy, and neonatal nutrition and associated traditional behavior drastically

  16. Poor knowledge and practices related to iodine nutrition during pregnancy and lactation in Australian women: pre- and post-iodine fortification

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Charlton, Karen; Yeatman, Heather; Lucas, Catherine; Axford, Samantha; Gemming, Luke; Houweling, Fiona; Goodfellow, Alison; Ma, Gary

    2012-01-01

    A before-after review was undertaken to assess whether knowledge and practices related to iodine nutrition, supplementation and fortification has improved in Australian women since the introduction...

  17. Serum leptin levels in community acquired pneumonia (CAP) are related to nutritional status and not to acute phase reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díez, María-Luisa; Santolaria, Francisco; Tejera, Alicia; Alemán, María-Remedios; González-Reimers, Emilio; Milena, Antonio; de la Vega, María-José; Martínez-Riera, Antonio

    2008-05-01

    To determine whether leptin in patients with CAP acts as a nutritional or as an inflammatory marker and whether leptin plays any role regarding survival, we included 222 patients diagnosed of CAP, 142 men and 80 women, median age 74 years. We did not find significant differences in serum leptin levels between CAP patients and healthy controls, even after adjusting by BMI. Serum leptin levels were directly related with BMI, body fat and muscle mass and inversely related with inflammatory markers, including pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Patients with positive blood cultures showed lower serum leptin and raised inflammatory markers. Although patients who died showed lower values of serum leptin, multivariate analysis showed that the prognostic value of low serum leptin levels depends on impaired nutritional status. In conclusion, we suggest that in CAP patients, leptin does not act as an inflammatory reactant but as a nutritional marker.

  18. Association of nutritional status-related indices and chemotherapy-induced adverse events in gastric cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Seung Hee; Kim, Sung-Eun; Kang, Yoon-Koo; Ryoo, Baek-Yeol; Ryu, Min-Hee; Jeong, Jae Ho; Kang, Shin Sook; Yang, Mihi; Lee, Jung Eun; Sung, Mi-Kyung

    2016-11-18

    Malnutrition in gastrectomized patients receiving chemotherapy is associated with the susceptibility to chemotherapy-related adverse events. This study evaluated pre-operative nutritional status-related indices associated with adverse events in post-operation gastric cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. Medical records of 234 gastrectomized patients under adjuvant tegafur/gimeracil/oteracil chemotherapy with extended lymph node dissection were analyzed. Nutritional status assessment included Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment (PG-SGA), body weight, body mass index, serum albumin concentration, and Nutrition Risk Index (NRI). Chemotherapy-originated adverse events were determined using Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events. PG-SGA indicated 59% of the patients were malnourished, and 27.8% of the patients revealed serious malnutrition with PG-SGA score of ≥9. Fifteen % of patients lost ≥10% of the initial body weight, 14.5% of the patients had hypoalbuminemia (cancer patients.

  19. Nutritional status and health-related quality of life of breast cancer patients on chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lua, P L; Salihah, N Z; Mazlan, N

    2012-08-01

    Nutritional decline is typically accepted as a consequent of the course of treatment for cancer. This study aimed to (1) assess body weight status and dietary intake of breast cancer patients on chemotherapy and (2) to correlate Body Mass Index (BMI), energy and protein intake with health-related quality of life (HRQoL) profile. A cross-sectional study was conducted in two government hospitals in the East coast of Peninsular Malaysia using convenience sampling. Women aged > or =18 years, who were diagnosed with breast cancer and receiving chemotherapy were invited to participate. The following aspects were evaluated: body weight status, usual dietary intake (diet history) and HRQoL (EORTC QLQ-C30). Descriptive statistics and non-parametric tests were employed (SPSS 16). Of the respondents, 41 were 49 +/- 9.6 years of age; 92.7% were Malay; 97.6% (response rate = 91%) were on moderately emetogenic chemotherapy. Over half of the patients were overweight or obese (mean BMI = 25.3 +/- 1.1 kg/m2). The majority self-reported weight reduction (46.3%) but positive energy balance was detected with the current energy and protein intakes recorded at 1792.6 +/- 304.9 kcal/day (range= 1200-2500) and 74.5 g/day (IqR= 37.7) respectively. Dietary intakes were, however, not correlated with HRQoL, but greater BMI was associated with better emotional and cognitive functioning and less fatigue. Although most patients declared losing weight, obesity and excess dietary intake were noted. Additionally, body weight status has been shown to be important in HRQoL profile, underlining the necessity for effective nutritional assessments and support to the cancer population.

  20. Giant ameloblastoma mortality; a consequence of ignorance, poverty and fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etetafia, Mabel Okiemute; Arisi, Andrew Arotuah; Omoregie, Osawe F

    2014-05-22

    Ameloblastoma is a benign tumour of odontogenic origin. Although locally invasive, delay in treatment can lead to severe disfiguring of the facial region. In this report, we present two cases, a man and a woman, of a large ameloblastoma that presented with the typical radiographic features of variably sized radiolucent loculations. Patients presented initially with relatively small tumours but due to fear of surgery, ignorance and possibly poverty, tumour growth became enormous. The female patient died while awaiting consent for surgery and the male patient died at home due to complications closely associated with fear and growth of tumour. Literatures on mortality of ameloblastoma are reviewed. The need for more public enlightenment on the nature and treatment of facial tumours is highlighted. 2014 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  1. Relating nutritional and physiological characteristics to growth of Pinus radiata clones planted on a range of sites in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Barbara J; Xue, Jianming; Bown, Horacio E; Clinton, Peter W

    2010-09-01

    Six clones of radiata pine with known differences in growth rate were examined for clonal nutritional characteristics and for physiological determinants of clonal growth rate. We compared growth, foliar characteristics and nutrient, ¹³C and ¹⁵N concentration data for the six clones in 4- to 6-year-old field trials planted over a range of nutritionally contrasting sites. These data were also compared with growth, nutrient uptake and remobilization, foliar characteristic and gas exchange data from intensive physiological glasshouse experiments using 1- and 2-year-old plants of the same clones. Significant genotype x environment interactions in our field experiments conducted over strong nutritional gradients allowed us to identify radiata pine clones with consistent, superior growth and nutritional characteristics and clones that may be suited to particular site conditions. Our results suggest that the opportunity exists to exploit clone x site variation for site-specific clonal deployment and planting of fast-growing clones could be accompanied by planting of clones able to take relative advantage of site nutritional characteristics. Faster tree growth was not strongly related to any physiological characteristic, and the factors influencing growth rate differed among clones. The fastest-growing clone had consistent, high uptake of all nutrients, high fascicle weights and high water-use efficiency.

  2. Extension Professionals' Strengths and Needs Related to Nutrition and Health Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña-Purcell, Ninfa; Bowen, Elaine; Zoumenou, Virginie; Schuster, Ellen R.; Boggess, May; Manore, Melinda M.; Gerrior, Shirley A.

    2012-01-01

    We report results of a Web-based nationwide survey of nutrition and health Extension specialists representing 42 states. Survey items (n = 36) assessed five areas: curriculum review, nutrition and physical activity, professional training, communication, and evaluation. An internal curriculum review was common, but few states shared their criteria…

  3. Relations between nutritional condition and survival of North American elk Cervus elaphus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, L.C.; Cook, J.G.; Cook, R.C.; Hall, P.B.

    2008-01-01

    We related annual and seasonal survival of four populations of elk Cervus elaphus in the Pacific Northwest, USA, to measures and indices of individual nutritional condition. Among populations, for all mortality (human and non-human causes) sources inclusive, annual survival of adult females was correlated with a rump body condition score (rs = 0.627, P = 0.071), and survival over spring-summer-autumn (SSA) was correlated with mean ingesta-free body fat (IFBF; rs = 0.567, P = 0.088) and rump body condition score (rBCS; rs = 0.615, P = 0.050). For non-human mortality sources only, survival through SSA was correlated with IFBF (rs = 0.567, P = 0.088) and rBCS (rs = 0.615, P = 0.050), and survival over winter was correlated with withers body condition score (rs = 0.677, P = 0.045). For human-caused mortality sources only, survival over SSA was correlated with rBCS (rs = 0.696, P = 0.036) and IFBF (rs = 0.696, P = 0.036). For individuals, logistic analysis found that individual likelihood of dying from all mortality sources inclusive was best predicted (??2 = 8.3, P = 0.004, ?? = -1.24) by longissimus dorsi (loin) muscle thickness, a measure of protein catabolism. For only non-human mortality sources, a model (??2 = 16.1, P = 0.0003) containing both loin muscle thickness (??2 = 5.7, P = 0.017, ??= -1.02) and percent ingesta-free body fat (??2 = 4.9, P = 0.027, ?? = -0.35) best predicted individual susceptibility to mortality. Odds ratios indicated that odds of dying increased approximately 3X for each centimeter of loin muscle catabolized and 1.4X for each percent less body fat. No condition indices at the individual level were related to survival from human-caused mortality sources. Our study populations were characterized by low-marginal condition (i.e. mean ingesta-free body fat levels of 5.9-12.3% for lactating cows in late autumn); this likely increased the prominence of measures of muscle catabolism relative to fat accretion in influencing individual elk survival

  4. On strategic ignorance of environmental harm and social norms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thunström, Linda; van’t Veld, Klaas; Shogren, Jason. F.

    2014-01-01

    decreases (to 29 percent) when the information additionally reveals the share of air travelers who buy carbon offsets. We find evidence that some people use ignorance as an excuse to reduce pro-environmental behavior—ignorance significantly decreases the probability of buying carbon offsets....

  5. Hearing or Ignoring Audience: the Dilemma of the Freshman Writer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenner, Barbara

    Students work most productively when they feel free to move back and forth from ignoring audience to addressing it. Students should consider audience as they begin a writing task. Then they should get away from it all and simply write. If they find an audience inhibiting, they should feel free to ignore the idea of audience altogether or alter…

  6. Controlling Your "App"etite: How Diet and Nutrition-Related Mobile Apps Lead to Behavior Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Joshua H; Belvedere, Lindsay M; Andreasen, Rebecca; Frandsen, Christine; Hall, P Cougar; Crookston, Benjamin T

    2017-07-10

    In recent years, obesity has become a serious public health crisis in the United States. Although the problem of obesity is being addressed through a variety of strategies, the use of mobile apps is a relatively new development that could prove useful in helping people to develop healthy dietary habits. Though such apps might lead to health behavior change, especially when relevant behavior change theory constructs are integrated into them, the mechanisms by which these apps facilitate behavior change are largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to identify which behavior change mechanisms are associated with the use of diet- and nutrition-related health apps and whether the use of diet- and nutrition-related apps is associated with health behavior change. A cross-sectional survey was administered to a total of 217 participants. Participants responded to questions on demographics, use of diet and nutrition apps in the past 6 months, engagement and likability of apps, and changes in the participant's dietary behaviors. Regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with reported changes in theory and separately for reported changes in actual behavior, after controlling for potential confounding variables. The majority of study participants agreed or strongly agreed with statements regarding app use increasing their motivation to eat a healthy diet, improving their self-efficacy, and increasing their desire to set and achieve health diet goals. Additionally, majority of participants strongly agreed that using diet/nutrition apps led to changes in their behavior, namely increases in actual goal setting to eat a healthy diet (58.5%, 127/217), increases in their frequency of eating healthy foods (57.6%, 125/217), and increases in their consistency of eating healthy foods (54.4%, 118/217). Participants also responded favorably to questions related to engagement and likability of diet/nutrition apps. A number of predictors were also positively

  7. Ignorance, Environmental Education Research and Design Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, Deirdre; Jackson, Simon; Anderson, Lyndon

    2005-01-01

    In the relatively new discipline of design education we have the opportunity to frame the way that design education is formulated. The relative lack of theorists in the field of design education studies leaves unquestioned the relevance of conventional practices of design education that are premised on only tangentially relevant Art, Science and…

  8. The process of setting micronutrient recommendations: a cross-European comparison of nutrition-related scientific advisory bodies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timotijevic, L.; Barnett, J.; Brown, K.; Shepherd, R.; Fernandez-Celemin, L.; Domolki, L.; Ruprich, J.; Dhonukshe-Rutten, R.A.M.; Sonne, A.M.; Hermoso, M.; Koletzko, B.; Frost-Andersen, L.; Timmer, A.; Raats, M.M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective - To examine the workings of the nutrition-related scientific advisory bodies in Europe, paying particular attention to the internal and external contexts within which they operate. Design - Desk research based on two data collection strategies: a questionnaire completed by key informants

  9. The process of setting micronutrient recommendations: a cross-European comparison of nutrition-related scientific advisory bodies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timotijevic, L.; Barnett, J.; Brown, K.; Shepherd, R.; Fernandez-Celemin, L.; Domolki, L.; Ruprich, J.; Dhonukshe-Rutten, R.A.M.; Sonne, A.M.; Hermoso, M.; Koletzko, B.; Frost-Andersen, L.; Timmer, A.; Raats, M.M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective - To examine the workings of the nutrition-related scientific advisory bodies in Europe, paying particular attention to the internal and external contexts within which they operate. Design - Desk research based on two data collection strategies: a questionnaire completed by key informants

  10. Food Safety Programs Based on HACCP Principles in School Nutrition Programs: Implementation Status and Factors Related to Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinson, Wendy Bounds; Carr, Deborah; Nettles, Mary Frances; Johnson, James T.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The objectives of this study were to assess the extent to which school nutrition (SN) programs have implemented food safety programs based on Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) principles, as well as factors, barriers, and practices related to implementation of these programs. Methods: An online survey was…

  11. Food Safety Programs Based on HACCP Principles in School Nutrition Programs: Implementation Status and Factors Related to Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinson, Wendy Bounds; Carr, Deborah; Nettles, Mary Frances; Johnson, James T.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The objectives of this study were to assess the extent to which school nutrition (SN) programs have implemented food safety programs based on Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) principles, as well as factors, barriers, and practices related to implementation of these programs. Methods: An online survey was…

  12. [Nutritional status and related factors of Tujia and Miao minority primary school students in Xiangxi Autonomous Prefecture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fulan; Zhang, Tiancheng; Zhang, Tianwei

    2014-01-01

    To understand the nutritional status and related factors of Tujia and Miao minority primary school students in Xiangxi Autonomous Prefecture and to provide refrence for the improvement of minority students' nutritional status. By the method of layered and random sampling, physique test and questionnaire survey were taken to 682 Tujia students and 420 Miao students, the nutritional level of students were estimated by the method of height with standard weight. Logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the risk factors of nutritional status. The moderate malnutrition rate was 4.54% and the obesity rate was 11.43%. Logistic regression analysis showed that monthly income per capita (OR = 1.368, 95% CI 1.135-1.648) and culture level of fathers (OR = 1.332, 95% CI 1.108-1.602) were independent risk factors of malnutrition, children with family obesity history (OR =7.688, 95% C15. 134-11.513), monthly income per capita (OR = 1.516, 95% CI 1.204-1.910) and culture level of fathers (OR = 1.466, 95% CI 1.164-1.846 ) were independent risk factors of overnutrition. Malnutrition and overnutrition exist in Tujia and Miao students at the same time, family obesity history, monthly income per capita and culture level of fathers are factors of malnutrition and overnutrition. Nutritional education should be taken universal to students and their guardians.

  13. Prevalence of self-reported hypercholesterolaemia and its relation to dietary habits, in Greek adults; a national nutrition & health survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milias, George A; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B; Pitsavos, Christos; Xenaki, Dimitra; Panagopoulos, George; Stefanadis, Christodoulos

    2006-01-01

    Background The strong causal role of hypercholesterolaemia on the progression of atherosclerosis and subsequently on the development of cardiovascular disease is well described. Main aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of self-reported hypercholesterolaemia and its relation to nutritional habits, in a representative nationwide sample of adult Greek population. Methods Cross sectional survey. Based on a multistage sampling, 5003 adults (18 – 74 yr) were enrolled (men: 48.8%, women: 51.2%). All participants were interviewed by trained personnel who used a standard questionnaire. The questionnaire included demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, medical history, lifestyle habits and nutritional assessment. Results The prevalence of self-reported hypercholesterolaemia was 16.4% in men and 21.8% in women (P Hypercholesterolaemia seems to affect a large part of Greek population. It is hopeful that hypercholesterolaemics may have started adopting some more healthy nutritional behaviour compared to normocholesterolaemic ones. PMID:16529663

  14. Prevalence of self-reported hypercholesterolaemia and its relation to dietary habits, in Greek adults; a national nutrition & health survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagopoulos George

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The strong causal role of hypercholesterolaemia on the progression of atherosclerosis and subsequently on the development of cardiovascular disease is well described. Main aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of self-reported hypercholesterolaemia and its relation to nutritional habits, in a representative nationwide sample of adult Greek population. Methods Cross sectional survey. Based on a multistage sampling, 5003 adults (18 – 74 yr were enrolled (men: 48.8%, women: 51.2%. All participants were interviewed by trained personnel who used a standard questionnaire. The questionnaire included demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, medical history, lifestyle habits and nutritional assessment. Results The prevalence of self-reported hypercholesterolaemia was 16.4% in men and 21.8% in women (P Conclusion Hypercholesterolaemia seems to affect a large part of Greek population. It is hopeful that hypercholesterolaemics may have started adopting some more healthy nutritional behaviour compared to normocholesterolaemic ones.

  15. An exploration of nutrition and eating disabilities in relation to quality of life at 6 months post-stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Lin; McLaren, Susan

    2004-07-01

    Quality of life (QoL) is increasingly recognised as an important healthcare outcome, especially for those living with enduring disability. Stroke is a major source of long-term disablement and many aspects of life after stroke have been explored. Little attention has been paid to nutritional issues despite the cultural and hedonistic importance of food and eating, and the deleterious effects of malnutrition. The present study employed an epidemiological survey to investigate the contribution of dietary and nutritional factors in relation to QoL after stroke. The participants were 206 survivors of a cohort of acute stroke patients consecutively admitted to a National Health Service trust hospital in South London, UK, between March 1998 and April 1999. They were interviewed in their homes at 6 months post-stroke. Cognitively or communication-impaired patients were precluded from interview except where a live-in carer participated as a proxy (n = 10). The participation rate for those who were eligible and could be contacted was 206 out of 218 (94%). Participants were assessed using standardised, validated tools for functional abilities in activities of daily living and eating, cognition and mood state, social support and economic indices, nutritional status, dietary intake, and QoL. Overall group scores demonstrated relatively minor degrees of physical disablement; exclusion of those with limited cognition and communication precluded assessment of a small subgroup with greater disablement at hospital discharge. Nonetheless, the overall assessment results were not dissimilar to other reported groups. Indices of poor nutritional status and substantial dietary inadequacy were revealed, linked with reduced appetite and depression. Multiple regression analyses revealed the dominant impact of mood state in relation to QoL scores; additional significant effects were identified for social support, eating-related disabilities and age. The effects of mood and social support are

  16. Interactions Between Nutrition and Infections With Haemonchus contortus and Related Gastrointestinal Nematodes in Small Ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoste, H; Torres-Acosta, J F J; Quijada, J; Chan-Perez, I; Dakheel, M M; Kommuru, D S; Mueller-Harvey, I; Terrill, T H

    2016-01-01

    Interactions between host nutrition and feeding behaviour are central to understanding the pathophysiological consequences of infections of the digestive tract with parasitic nematodes. The manipulation of host nutrition provides useful options to control gastrointestinal nematodes as a component of an integrated strategy. Focussed mainly on the Haemonchus contortus infection model in small ruminants, this chapter (1) illustrates the relationship between quantitative (macro- and micro-nutrients) and qualitative (plant secondary metabolites) aspects of host nutrition and nematode infection, and (2) shows how basic studies aimed at addressing some generic questions can help to provide solutions, despite the considerable diversity of epidemiological situations and breeding systems.

  17. Disentangling the relative effects of bushmeat availability on human nutrition in central Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fa, John E.; Olivero, Jesús; Real, Raimundo; Farfán, Miguel A.; Márquez, Ana L.; Vargas, J. Mario; Ziegler, Stefan; Wegmann, Martin; Brown, David; Margetts, Barrie; Nasi, Robert

    2015-02-01

    We studied links between human malnutrition and wild meat availability within the Rainforest Biotic Zone in central Africa. We distinguished two distinct hunted mammalian diversity distributions, one in the rainforest areas (Deep Rainforest Diversity, DRD) containing taxa of lower hunting sustainability, the other in the northern rainforest-savanna mosaic, with species of greater hunting potential (Marginal Rainforest Diversity, MRD). Wild meat availability, assessed by standing crop mammalian biomass, was greater in MRD than in DRD areas. Predicted bushmeat extraction was also higher in MRD areas. Despite this, stunting of children, a measure of human malnutrition, was greater in MRD areas. Structural equation modeling identified that, in MRD areas, mammal diversity fell away from urban areas, but proximity to these positively influenced higher stunting incidence. In DRD areas, remoteness and distance from dense human settlements and infrastructures explained lower stunting levels. Moreover, stunting was higher away from protected areas. Our results suggest that in MRD areas, forest wildlife rational use for better human nutrition is possible. By contrast, the relatively low human populations in DRD areas currently offer abundant opportunities for the continued protection of more vulnerable mammals and allow dietary needs of local populations to be met.

  18. Food selection in relation to nutritional chemistry of Cao Vit gibbons in Jingxi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Changyong; Liao, Jiancun; Fan, Pengfei

    2017-01-01

    The Cao Vit gibbon (Nomascus nasutus) has only one population with about 110 individuals living in a degraded karst forest along the China-Vietnam border. Investigation of food choice in relation to chemical nutrition will offer important insights into its conservation. We studied the food choice of two groups of Cao Vit gibbons using instantaneous scan sampling in Bangliang National Nature Reserve, Guangxi, China, over 4 years, and analyzed the chemical components (total nitrogen, TN; water-soluble sugar, WSS; crude fat, CF; neutral detergent fiber, NDF; acid detergent fiber, ADF; acid detergent lignin, ADL; condensed tannin, CT; and ash) of 48 food plant parts and 22 non-food plant parts. Fruits and figs that are rich in sugar are important food resources for gibbons. For other food types, flowers are a good source of total nitrogen and carbohydrates, and leaves and buds provide sources of protein and minerals. Cao Vit gibbons selected fruits that contain less total nitrogen, less acid detergent fiber and more water-soluble sugar than non-food fruits. Several food species that were heavily consumed by Cao Vit gibbons are suggested as potential tree species for ongoing habitat restoration.

  19. Nutritional status in university students: its relation to the number of daily intakes and macronutrients consumption

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pi, Romina Antonella; Vidal, Paula Daniela; Brassesco, Bárbara Romina; Viola, Lorena; Aballay, Laura Rosana

    2015-01-01

    .... to establish the relationship between the number of daily dietary intakes and nutritional status in male students aged 23 to 33 years of the National Technological University, in the city of Córdoba, in 2013...

  20. Nutritive value of maize silage in relation to dairy cow performance and milk quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Nazir A; Yu, Peiqiang; Ali, Mubarak; Cone, John W; Hendriks, Wouter H

    2015-01-01

    Maize silage has become the major forage component in the ration of dairy cows over the last few decades. This review provides information on the mean content and variability in chemical composition, fatty acid (FA) profile and ensiling quality of maize silages, and discusses the major factors which cause these variations. In addition, the effect of the broad range in chemical composition of maize silages on the total tract digestibility of dietary nutrients, milk production and milk composition of dairy cows is quantified and discussed. Finally, the optimum inclusion level of maize silage in the ration of dairy cows for milk production and composition is reviewed. The data showed that the nutritive value of maize silages is highly variable and that most of this variation is caused by large differences in maturity at harvest. Maize silages ensiled at a very early stage (dry matter (DM) maize silages ensiled at DM contents of 300-350 g kg(-1), and then declined slightly at further maturity beyond 350 g kg(-1). The increases in milk (R(2) = 0.599) and protein (R(2) = 0.605) yields with maturity of maize silages were positively related to the increase in starch/NDF ratio of the maize silages. On average, the inclusion of maize silage in grass silage-based diets improved the forage DMI by 2 kg d(-1), milk yield by 1.9 kg d(-1) and milk protein content by 1.2 g kg(-1). Further comparisons showed that, in terms of milk and milk constituent yields, the optimum grass/maize silage ratio depends on the quality of both the grass and maize silages. Replacement of grass silage with maize silage in the ration, as well as an increasing maturity of the maize silages, altered the milk FA profile of the dairy cows, notably, the concentration of the cis-unsaturated FAs, C18:3n-3 and n-3/n-6 ratio decreased in milk fat. Despite variation in nutritive value, maize silage is rich in metabolizable energy and supports higher DMI and milk yield. Harvesting maize silages at a DM content

  1. Cognitive function in relation with bone mass and nutrition: cross-sectional association in postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brownbill Rhonda A

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been suggested that bone loss and cognitive decline are co-occurring conditions, possibly due to their relationship with estrogen. Cognitive decline has been associated with various nutritional deficiencies as well. The purpose of this study was to determine if cognitive function is related to bone mineral density of various skeletal sites as well as to various dietary components. Methods Cross-sectional study with 97 healthy, Caucasian, postmenopausal women (59.4–85.0 years enrolled in a larger longitudinal study, investigating the effects of sodium on bone mass. The subjects were divided into two groups based on cognition scores. Group 1 represented lower and Group 2 higher scores on cognitive function. Bone mineral density from the whole body, lumbar spine, femur and forearm were measured with the Lunar DPX-MD instrument. Anthropometry was measured by standard methods. Cognition was assessed using the Mini Mental State Examination. Cumulative (over 2 years dietary intake from 3-day records was analyzed by Food Processor® (ESHA Research, Salem, OR and cumulative physical activity was assessed using Allied Dunbar National Fitness Survey for older adults. Results Subjects' cognition scores ranged from 22–30 (normal, 27–30, indicating all subjects had either mild or no cognitive impairment. Multiple Analysis of Covariance adjusted for age, height, weight, physical activity, alcohol, calcium, sodium and energy intake, showed a statistically significant association between cognition and bone mineral density of all measurable sites (η2 = 0.21, P 2 = 0.07, P = 0.050. Group 2 did have a significantly higher potassium intake (P = 0.023. In multiple regression, saturated fat had a significant negative relationship with cognitive function. Conclusions It appears mild degree of cognitive impairment may be a marker for lower bone mineral density as well as for a diet lower in carbohydrate and potassium intake, and higher

  2. Improved nutritional status is related to improved quality of life in Parkinson’s disease

    OpenAIRE

    Sheard, Jamie M.; Ash, Susan; Mellick, George D.; Silburn, Peter A.; Kerr, Graham K.

    2014-01-01

    Background Quality of life is poorer in Parkinson’s disease than in other conditions and in the general population without Parkinson’s disease. Malnutrition also results in poorer quality of life. This study aimed at determining the relationship between quality of life and nutritional status. Methods Community-dwelling people with Parkinson’s disease >18 years old were recruited. The Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment (PG-SGA) assessed nutritional status. The Parkinson’s Disease Q...

  3. [Community Nutrition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranceta, Javier

    2004-06-01

    In the last 20 years, Public Health Nutrition focused mainly on the qualitative aspects which may influence the onset of chronic diseases, quality of life, physical and mental performance and life expectancy. This applied knowledge organised as part of preventive and health promotion programs led to the development of Community Nutrition. The aim of Community Nutrition actions is to adequate lifestyles related to food consumption patterns in order to improve the quality of life and contribute to health promotion of the population in the community where programs and services are delivered. Key functions to develop in a Community Nutrition Unit consist in the identification and assessment of nutrition problems in the community as well as the design, implementation and evaluation of intervention programs by means of appropriate strategies. These should aim at different populations groups and settings, such as work places, schools, high risk groups or the general public. Nowadays, Community Nutrition work efforts should focus on three main aspects: nutrition education in schools and in the community; food safety and food security and the development and reinforcement of food preparation skills across all age groups. Social catering services, either in schools, the work place or at the community level, need to ensure adequate nutritional supply, provide foods contributing to healthy eating practices as well as to enhance culinary traditions and social learning. Food safety and food security have become a top priority in Public Health. The concepts referes to the availability of food safe and adequate as well as in sufficient amount in order to satisfy nutrition requirements of all individuals in the community. Social changes along new scientific developments will introduce new demands in Community Nutrition work and individual dietary counselling will become a key strategy. In order to face new challenges, community nutrition pactitioners require a high quality

  4. FDA Consumer Nutrition Knowledge Survey. Report II, 1975. A Nationwide Study of Food Shopper's Knowledge, Beliefs, Attitudes and Reported Behavior Regarding Food and Nutrition. Factors Related to Nutrition Labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abelson, Herbert; And Others

    During 1973, a nationwide study for the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) was conducted which provided information on nutrition knowledge, beliefs about nutrition, and first reactions to nutrition labeling among food shoppers. This initial research provided a baseline measurement of nutrition knowledge and attitudes among consumers, and in 1975…

  5. The impact of chemotherapy-related nausea on patients' nutritional status, psychological distress and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Carole; Brearley, Sarah G; Pilling, Mark; Molassiotis, Alex

    2013-01-01

    Nausea is a troublesome and distressing symptom for patients receiving chemotherapy. While vomiting is well controlled with current antiemetics, nausea is a more difficult symptom to manage. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of nausea on nutritional status, quality of life and psychological distress. This was a prospective observational study over two cycles of chemotherapy. Patients completed the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer Antiemesis Tool, a measure of nutritional status (Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment), the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General (FACT-G) quality of life scale and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale at the end of each chemotherapy cycle (around day 10 post-chemotherapy). The sample consisted of 104 patients, primarily female, receiving anthracycline-based chemotherapy. While vomiting was minimal (5.2-14.6 % of the patients), high levels of nausea were observed (55.2-72.9 %), and severe nausea (>6 on a 0-10 scale) was reported by 20.5-29.2 % of the participants. Severe nausea had a borderline significant impact in relation to physical functioning (p = 0.025) and a significant impact on nutritional status (severe acute nausea, p = 0.003; severe delayed nausea, p = 0.017). Clinically meaningful changes were observed in relation to the FACT-G total score. Chemotherapy-induced nausea does have an impact on nutritional status and physical functioning and can impair anxiety and quality of life. As a key symptom associated with other symptoms, it is imperative that greater attention is given to managing treatment-related nausea through innovative non-pharmacological and nutritional interventions.

  6. Rethinking the "Diseases of Affluence" Paradigm: Global Patterns of Nutritional Risks in Relation to Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezzati Majid

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Cardiovascular diseases and their nutritional risk factors-including overweight and obesity, elevated blood pressure, and cholesterol-are among the leading causes of global mortality and morbidity, and have been predicted to rise with economic development. Methods and Findings We examined age-standardized mean population levels of body mass index (BMI, systolic blood pressure, and total cholesterol in relation to national income, food share of household expenditure, and urbanization in a cross-country analysis. Data were from a total of over 100 countries and were obtained from systematic reviews of published literature, and from national and international health agencies. BMI and cholesterol increased rapidly in relation to national income, then flattened, and eventually declined. BMI increased most rapidly until an income of about I$5,000 (international dollars and peaked at about I$12,500 for females and I$17,000 for males. Cholesterol's point of inflection and peak were at higher income levels than those of BMI (about I$8,000 and I$18,000, respectively. There was an inverse relationship between BMI/cholesterol and the food share of household expenditure, and a positive relationship with proportion of population in urban areas. Mean population blood pressure was not correlated or only weakly correlated with the economic factors considered, or with cholesterol and BMI. Conclusions When considered together with evidence on shifts in income-risk relationships within developed countries, the results indicate that cardiovascular disease risks are expected to systematically shift to low-income and middle-income countries and, together with the persistent burden of infectious diseases, further increase global health inequalities. Preventing obesity should be a priority from early stages of economic development, accompanied by population-level and personal interventions for blood pressure and cholesterol.

  7. Relative validation of a food frequency questionnaire for national health and nutrition monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haftenberger Marjolein

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Validation of a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ is important as incorrect information may lead to biased associations. Therefore the relative validity of an FFQ developed for use in the German Health Examination Survey for Adults 2008-2011 (DEGS was examined. Methods Cross-sectional comparisons of food consumption data from the FFQ and from two 24-hour recalls were made in a sample of 161 participants (aged 18 to 80 years of an ongoing nationwide survey, the German National Nutrition Monitoring (NEMONIT. The data collection took place from November 2008 to April 2009. Results Spearman rank correlations between the FFQ and the 24-hour dietary recalls ranged from 0.15 for pizza to 0.80 for tea, with two third of the correlation coefficients exceeding 0.30. All correlation coefficients were statistically significant except those for pizza and cooked vegetables. The proportion of participants classified into the same or adjacent quartile of intake assessed by both methods varied between 68% for cooked vegetables and 94% for coffee. There were no statistically significant differences in food consumption estimates between both methods for 38% of the food groups. For the other food groups, the estimates of food consumption by the FFQ were not generally higher or lower than estimates from the 24-hour dietary recalls. Conclusions The FFQ appears to be reasonably valid in the assessment of food consumption of German adults. For some food groups, such as raw and cooked vegetables, relative risks estimates should be interpreted with caution because of the poor ranking agreement.

  8. Assessing the nutritional stress hypothesis: Relative influence of diet quantity and quality on seabird productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jodice, P.G.R.; Roby, D.D.; Turco, K.R.; Suryan, R.M.; Irons, D.B.; Piatt, J.F.; Shultz, M.T.; Roseneau, D.G.; Kettle, A.B.; Anthony, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    Food availability comprises a complex interaction of factors that integrates abundance, taxonomic composition, accessibility, and quality of the prey base. The relationship between food availability and reproductive performance can be assessed via the nutritional stress (NSH) and junkfood (JFH) hypotheses. With respect to reproductive success, NSH posits that a deficiency in any of the aforementioned metrics can have a deleterious effect on a population via poor reproductive success. JFH, a component of NSH, posits specifically that it is a decline in the quality of food (i.e. energy density and lipid content) that leads to poor reproductive success. We assessed each in relation to reproductive success in a piscivorous seabird, the black-legged kittiwake Rissa tridactyla. We measured productivity, taxonomic composition, frequency, size, and quality of meals delivered to nestlings from 1996 to 1999 at 6 colonies in Alaska, USA, 3 each in Prince William Sound and Lower Cook Inlet. Productivity varied widely among colony-years. Pacific herring Clupea pallasi, sand lance Ammodytes hexapterus, and capelin Mallotus villosus comprised ca. 80% of the diet among colony-years, and each was characterized by relatively high energy density. Diet quality for kittiwakes in this region therefore remained uniformly high during this study. Meal delivery rate and meal size were quite variable among colony-years, however, and best explained the variability in productivity. Parent kittiwakes appeared to select prey that were energy dense and that maximized the biomass provisioned to broods. While these results fail to support JFH, they do provide substantial support for NSH. ?? Inter-Research 2006.

  9. [Evaluation of dietary habits of a population of university students in relation with their nutritional knowledge].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero Bravo, A; Ubeda Martín, N; García González, A

    2006-01-01

    Food behaviour is acquired in childhood and is very defficult to be changed latterly in adulthood. The aim of this study was to evaluate if food behaviour and other health habits were in accordance with the nutrition knowledge of a sample of University students from different Health Sciences Careers. We studied 105 students (aged 21 +/- 2 years) from San Pablo-CEU University (Madrid); 21 where studying Nursing (N), 32 Pharmacy (Ph); 34 Nutrition and dietetics (ND) and 18 were students of Podology (P), all of them had been studying Nutrition as subject during 2003-2004 academic year. All the students filled a questionnaire about health habits and some body image perceptions, diet was evaluated by a 3 day diet record and nutrition knowledge by a 20 questions test. Height and weight were measured using standard procedures. ND students believed they had a medium-high level of nutrition knowledge while Pharmacy and nursing students believed they had a medium-low level and the podology ones had the perception to have a low level of knowledge in the subject. Results of test were in accordance with those perceptions as highest records were obtained by the Nutrition students. Nevertheless very few differences were found in the diet of the four populations. Mean energy intake was similar in the four groups, deficiencies (alcohol and physical activity) in the four populations. Even if N students believed and showed to have a better nutrition knowledge, no changes in food behaviour or other health habits were found. Improving knowledge does not necessary imply change in food habits.

  10. DMPD: TLR ignores methylated RNA? [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 16111629 TLR ignores methylated RNA? Ishii KJ, Akira S. Immunity. 2005 Aug;23(2):111-3. (.png) (.svg) (.html... SVG File (.svg) HTML File (.html) CSML File (.csml) Open .csml file with CIOPlay

  11. Malassezia-Can it be ignored?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambujavalli Balakrishnan Thayikkannu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Genus Malassezia comprises of 14 species of "yeast like fungi," 13 of which are lipophilic and 1 is nonlipophilic. They are known commensals and in predisposed individuals they commonly cause a spectrum of chronic recurrent infections. They rarely also cause serious illnesses like catheter-related blood stream infections, CAPD associated peritonitis etc., Though these fungi have been known to man for over 150 years, their fastidious nature and cumbersome culture and speciation techniques have restricted research. Since the last taxonomic revision, seven new species have been added to this genus. Their ability to evade the host immune system and virulence has increased the spectrum of the diseases caused by them. These agents have been implicated as causal agents in common diseases like atopic dermatitis recently. Though culture-based research is difficult, the new molecular analysis techniques and facilities have increased research in this field such that we can devote more attention to this genus to study in detail, their characteristics and their growing implications implications in the clinical scenario.

  12. Malassezia—Can it be Ignored?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thayikkannu, Ambujavalli Balakrishnan; Kindo, Anupma Jyoti; Veeraraghavan, Mahalakshmi

    2015-01-01

    Genus Malassezia comprises of 14 species of “yeast like fungi,” 13 of which are lipophilic and 1 is nonlipophilic. They are known commensals and in predisposed individuals they commonly cause a spectrum of chronic recurrent infections. They rarely also cause serious illnesses like catheter-related blood stream infections, CAPD associated peritonitis etc., Though these fungi have been known to man for over 150 years, their fastidious nature and cumbersome culture and speciation techniques have restricted research. Since the last taxonomic revision, seven new species have been added to this genus. Their ability to evade the host immune system and virulence has increased the spectrum of the diseases caused by them. These agents have been implicated as causal agents in common diseases like atopic dermatitis recently. Though culture-based research is difficult, the new molecular analysis techniques and facilities have increased research in this field such that we can devote more attention to this genus to study in detail, their characteristics and their growing implications implications in the clinical scenario. PMID:26288399

  13. Elemental concentrations in scalp hair, nutritional status and health-related quality of life in hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochi, Akinobu; Ishimura, Eiji; Tsujimoto, Yoshihiro; Kakiya, Ryusuke; Tabata, Tsutomu; Mori, Katsuhito; Tahara, Hideki; Shoji, Tetsuo; Yasuda, Hiroshi; Nishizawa, Yoshiki; Inaba, Masaaki

    2012-04-01

    Elemental concentrations in hair from hemodialysis (HD) patients have not been well investigated. We examined the relationships between the elemental concentrations in scalp hair and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and nutritional status in HD patients. Twenty six elemental concentrations were measured in scalp hair samples from 60 male HD patients using inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry. To evaluate HRQOL, the Short Form 36 item health survey (SF36) was used. As indices of nutritional status, body mass index, serum parameters, and geriatric nutritional risk index (GNRI) were used. Phosphorus correlated positively with serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), GNRI and the physical domains of the SF36. Zinc correlated positively with serum creatinine, BUN and the physical domains of the SF36. Mercury and arsenic correlated positively with BUN. Cadmium correlated negatively with serum albumin, BUN and GNRI. Copper correlated positively with the physical domains of the SF36. Iodine correlated negatively with the physical domains of the SF36. Selenium correlated negatively with the mental domains of the SF36. In conclusion, phosphorus and zinc concentrations in scalp hair can be additional biomarkers of HRQOL and/or nutritional status in HD patients. Cadmium accumulation correlated with malnutrition. Iodine and selenium accumulation may adversely affect HRQOL. Further investigation is necessary to determine precisely how these elements affect these measures.

  14. Diet, nutritional status and food related traditions of Oraon tribes of New Mal (West Bengal), India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Poonam C; Srivastava, Sapna

    2006-01-01

    According to the 2001 census conducted by the Government of India, India has more than 84 million tribals who constitute 8.2% of India's population. The Oraons are an agricultural tribe found mainly in Orissa, Bihar, Jharkhand and West Bengal. The present study was undertaken on a group of Oraon tribals working in a tea gardens of New Mal in Jalpaiguri district of West Bengal. The children attended the local primary school. The Oraons are covered by the Integrated Child Development Scheme (ICDS) of the Government of India, which is concerned with the health, nutrition and development of children and their mothers. To evaluate the effect of ICDS, the practices of adults towards hygiene, medication, addictive substances and diet were also recorded. 500 Oraon tribals, including 200 men and 150 women aged 20-45 years, and 150 children aged 6-12 years, were surveyed for their dietary intake by 24-hour recall and semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire methodology and anthropometry, and a description of food-related traditions. The diet of all Oraon groups was deficient in all food groups. Cereal intake was least deficient, while the intake of milk and fruit was almost negligible. Their diet was supplemented by a locally grown green leafy vegetable dheki saag, and fermented leftover rice. The energy available from the diet for all age groups was only 52-53% of the recommended dietary allowances of the Indian Council of Medical Research. Children were enrolled in a midday meal program at the local primary school; however, their energy intake was severely deficient, and of the same order as their parents. The mean basal mass index (BMI) of adult Oraons was not low, but children were severely undernourished. Men were less undernourished than were women. Some potentially useful traditions practiced included wiping washed utensils with leaves of a local plant mirchaiya, preparing herbal tablets called ranoodava to make an alcoholic and a medicinal drink called hadiya

  15. Empirical likelihood method for non-ignorable missing data problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Zhong; Qin, Jing

    2017-01-01

    Missing response problem is ubiquitous in survey sampling, medical, social science and epidemiology studies. It is well known that non-ignorable missing is the most difficult missing data problem where the missing of a response depends on its own value. In statistical literature, unlike the ignorable missing data problem, not many papers on non-ignorable missing data are available except for the full parametric model based approach. In this paper we study a semiparametric model for non-ignorable missing data in which the missing probability is known up to some parameters, but the underlying distributions are not specified. By employing Owen (1988)'s empirical likelihood method we can obtain the constrained maximum empirical likelihood estimators of the parameters in the missing probability and the mean response which are shown to be asymptotically normal. Moreover the likelihood ratio statistic can be used to test whether the missing of the responses is non-ignorable or completely at random. The theoretical results are confirmed by a simulation study. As an illustration, the analysis of a real AIDS trial data shows that the missing of CD4 counts around two years are non-ignorable and the sample mean based on observed data only is biased.

  16. Associations between maternal employment and time spent in nutrition-related behaviours among German children and mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möser, Anke; Chen, Susan E; Jilcott, Stephanie B; Nayga, Rodolfo M

    2012-07-01

    To examine associations between maternal employment and time spent engaging in nutrition-related behaviours among mothers and children using a nationally representative sample of households in West and East Germany. A cross-sectional analysis was performed using time-use data for a sample of mother-child dyads. Associations between maternal employment and time spent in nutrition-related activities such as eating at home, eating away from home and food preparation were estimated using a double-hurdle model. German Time Budget Survey 2001/02. The overall sample included 1071 households with a child between 10 and 17 years of age. The time-use data were collected for a 3 d period of observation (two weekdays and one weekend day). Maternal employment was associated with the time children spent on nutrition-related behaviours. In households with employed mothers, children spent more time eating alone at home and less time eating meals with their mothers. Moreover, employed mothers spent less time on meal preparation compared with non-employed mothers. There were regional differences in time spent on nutrition-related behaviours, such that East German children were more likely to eat at home alone than West German children. Maternal employment was associated with less time spent eating with children and preparing food, which may be related to the increasing childhood obesity rates in Germany. Future national surveys that collect both time-use data and health outcomes could yield further insight into mechanisms by which maternal time use might be associated with health outcomes among children.

  17. 6-Gingerol Protects against Nutritional Steatohepatitis by Regulating Key Genes Related to Inflammation and Lipid Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thing-Fong Tzeng

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, including non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH, appears to be increasingly common worldwide. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of 6-gingerol ((S-5-hydroxy-1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl-3-decanone, a bioactive ingredient of plants belonging to the Zingiberaceae family, on experimental models of NASH. In HepG2 cells, 6-gingerol (100 μmol/L treatment inhibited free fatty acids mixture (0.33 mmol/L palmitate and 0.66 mmol/L oleate-induced triglyceride and inflammatory marker accumulations. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed with a methionine and choline-deficient (MCD diet to induce steatohepatitis. After four weeks of MCD diet feeding, the mice were dosed orally with 6-gingerol (25, 50 or 100 mg/kg/day once daily for another four weeks. 6-Gingerol (100 mg/kg/day attenuated liver steatosis and necro-inflammation in MCD diet-fed mice. The expressions of inflammatory cytokine genes, including those for monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-6, and nuclear transcription factor (NF-κB, which were increased in the livers of MCD diet-fed mice, were attenuated by 6-gingerol. 6-Gingerol possesses a repressive property on hepatic steatosis, which is associated with induction of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α. Our study demonstrated the protective role of 6-gingerol in ameliorating nutritional steatohepatitis. The effect was mediated through regulating key genes related to lipid metabolism and inflammation.

  18. The process of setting micronutrient recommendations: a cross-European comparison of nutrition-related scientific advisory bodies

    OpenAIRE

    Timotijevic, L.; Barnett, J; Brown, K.; Shepherd, R.; Fernandez-Celemin, L.; Domolki, L.; Ruprich, J.; Dhonukshe-Rutten, R. A. M.; Sonne, A.M.; M. Hermoso; Koletzko, B.; Frost-Andersen, L.; Timmer, A; Raats, M.M.

    2011-01-01

    Copyright @ The Authors 2010 Objective: To examine the workings of the nutrition-related scientific advisory bodies in Europe, paying particular attention to the internal and external contexts within which they operate. Design: Desk research based on two data collection strategies: a questionnaire completed by key informants in the field of micronutrient recommendations and a case study that focused on mandatory folic acid (FA) fortification. Setting: Questionnaire-based data were collecte...

  19. Association of sarcopenia with swallowing problems, related to nutrition and activities of daily living of elderly individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Shiozu, Hiroyasu; Higashijima, Misako; Koga, Tomoshige

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the current study was to clarify problems associated with swallowing, related to nutrition and activities of daily living (ADL), in elderly individuals with sarcopenia. [Subjects and Methods] Seventy-seven subjects were assigned to a sarcopenia or a non-sarcopenia group according to a definition used by the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People. Analyses were conducted including and excluding subjects with a central nervous system disorders in order to ...

  20. Meal skipping relates to food choice, understanding of nutrition labeling, and prevalence of obesity in Korean fifth grade children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye-Young; Lee, Na-Rae; Lee, Jung-Sug; Choi, Young-Sun; Kwak, Tong-Kyung; Chung, Hae Rang; Kwon, Sehyug; Choi, Youn-Ju; Lee, Soon-Kyu; Kang, Myung-Hee

    2012-08-01

    This study was performed to investigate the differences in food choice, nutrition labeling perceptions, and prevalence of obesity due to meal skipping in Korean elementary school children. A national survey was performed in 2010 to collect data on food intake frequency, understanding of nutrition labeling, and body mass index from 2,335 fifth grade students in 118 elementary schools selected from 16 metropolitan local governments by stratified cluster sampling. The data were analyzed using the SAS 9.1 and SUDAAN 10.0 packages. Students who consumed three meals for 6-7 days during the past week were classified into the regular meal eating (RM) group (n = 1,476) and those who did not were placed into the meal skipping (MS) group (n = 859). The daily intake frequency of fruits, vegetables, kimchi, and milk was significantly lower in the MS group compared to that in the RM group (P instant noodles (ramyeon) was significantly higher in the MS group than that in the RM group (P < 0.05). The MS group demonstrated a significantly lower degree of understanding with regard to nutrition labeling and high calorie foods containing low nutritional value than that in the RM group. The distribution of obesity based on the percentile criteria using the Korean growth chart was different between the MS and RM groups. The MS group (8.97%) had a higher percentage of obese subjects than that in the RM group (5.38%). In conclusion, meal skipping was related to poor food choice, low perception of nutrition labeling, and a high prevalence of obesity in Korean fifth grade children.

  1. Changes in Nutrition-Related Behaviors in Alcohol-Dependent Patients After Outpatient Detoxification: The Role of Chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickel, Anna; Rohdemann, Maren; Landes, Tom; Engel, Katharina; Banas, Roman; Heinz, Andreas; Müller, Christian A

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have reported changes in nutrition-related behaviors in alcohol-dependent patients after alcohol detoxification, but prospective studies assessing the effects of these changes on maintaining abstinence are lacking. To assess changes in craving and consumption of chocolate and other sweets over time up to six months after outpatient alcohol detoxification treatment and to detect differences in abstinent versus nonabstinent patients. One hundred and fifty alcohol-dependent patients were included in this prospective observational study. Participants completed self-report questionnaires on nutrition-related behaviors and craving before detoxification treatment (baseline, t1), one week (t2), one month (t3), and six months later (t4). Significant changes in craving for and consumption of chocolate as well as in craving for other sweets were observed over time. Increases were most prominent within the first month. Patients who remained abstinent until t3 consumed three times more chocolate than nonabstainers. One quarter of the patients switched from being rare (t1) to frequent (t3) chocolate eaters, and 84% of these remained abstinent until t3. No significant correlations were found between craving for alcohol and craving for or consumption of chocolate or other sweets. In the first month after outpatient alcohol detoxification treatment, significant changes in nutrition-related behaviors were observed. These changes were not associated with alcohol craving. For a subgroup, increasing the frequency of chocolate consumption might be a temporary protective factor with respect to alcohol relapse.

  2. Dietary intake and nutritional status of micronutrients in adults with cystic fibrosis in relation to current recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Somerset, Shawn

    2016-08-01

    An increased prevalence of cystic fibrosis (CF) related complications such as impaired bone health and diabetes has accompanied increased survival of patients with CF. This review was conducted to determine the extent to which adults with CF are meeting current nutrition recommendations for micronutrients in association with CF-related complications management. Although dietary intake and nutritional status in CF has improved significantly in recent decades, micronutrient status seems to have diverged. While vitamin A and E intakes appear adequate, frequent vitamin D and K deficiency/insufficiency and compromised bone health in CF, occurs despite supplementation. Although deficiency of water-soluble vitamins and minerals is uncommon, ongoing surveillance will enhance overall health outcomes, particularly in cases of CF-related liver disease and deteriorated lung function and bone health. Salt and fluid status in CF may also need attention due to diminished thirst sensation and voluntary rehydration. Further investigation in micronutrient status optimisation in CF will inform the development of more effective and targeted nutrition therapies to enable integration of more refined recommendations for micronutrient intakes in CF based on individual needs and disease progression.

  3. Relation of Root Growth of Rice Seedling with Nutrition and Water Use Efficiency Under Different Water Supply Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Bing-song; JIANG De-an; WU Ping; WENG Xiao-yan; LU Qing; WANG Ni-yan

    2006-01-01

    Water deficiency is one of the primary yield-limiting factors in rice. In plants, the nutrition and water use efficiency depend on root growth efficiency under different water supply conditions (WSC). Three rice genotypes, Azucena (an upland japonica),IR1552 (a lowland indica) and Jia 9522 (a lowland japonica), were grown under different WSC with 0 cm (submerged), 40 cm and 80cm groundwater levels below the soil surface to investigate the root parameters, water use efficiency, nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium contents, net photosynthetic rate and transpiration rate of the rice plant. The relative parameters were defined as the ratio of the parameters under submerged conditions (0 cm groundwater level below soil surface) to these under upland conditions (40 cm and 80 cm groundwater levels below soil surface). The results indicated that different genotypes showed different relative root parameters and relative nutrition content and water use efficiency under different WSC. The length and number of adventitious root are more important than seminal root length in water and nutrition uptake, and maintaining the grain yield and increasing dry matter,but the adventitious root number could not be served as an index for screening drought-resistant genotypes. Furthermore, different drought-resistant genotypes have been also found, and Azucena was resistant to drought, IR1552 sensitive to drought and Jia 9522neither sensitive nor resistant to drought.

  4. The ignoring paradox: cueing distractor features leads first to selection, then to inhibition of to-be-ignored items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moher, Jeff; Egeth, Howard E

    2012-11-01

    Observers find a target item more quickly when they have foreknowledge of target-defining attributes, such as identity, color, or location. However, it is less clear whether foreknowledge of nontarget attributes can also speed search. Munneke, Van der Stigchel, and Theeuwes Acta Psychologica 129:101-107, (2008) found that observers found the target more quickly when they were cued to ignore a region of space where a target would not appear. Using a similar paradigm, we explored the effects of cueing nontarget features on search. We found that when we cued observers to ignore nontarget features, search was slowed. The results from a probe-dot detection task revealed that this slowing occurred because, paradoxically, observers initially selected an item appearing in the to-be-ignored color. Finally, we found that cueing nontarget features sped search when placeholders matching the location of the to-be-ignored color preceded presentation of the search display by at least 800 ms; thus, it appears that some limited inhibition of to-be-ignored items occurs following selection. Taken together, these results suggest that observers are unable to explicitly avoid selection of items matching known nontarget features. Instead, when nontarget features are cued, observers select the to-be-ignored feature or the locations of objects matching that feature early in search, and only inhibit them after this selection process.

  5. Bee Abundance and Nutritional Status in Relation to Grassland Management Practices in an Agricultural Landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Griffin W; Debinski, Diane M; Scavo, Nicole A; Lange, Corey J; Delaney, John T; Moranz, Raymond A; Miller, James R; Engle, David M; Toth, Amy L

    2016-04-01

    Grasslands provide important resources for pollinators in agricultural landscapes. Managing grasslands with fire and grazing has the potential to benefit plant and pollinator communities, though there is uncertainty about the ideal approach. We examined the relationships among burning and grazing regimes, plant communities, and Bombus species and Apis mellifera L. abundance and nutritional indicators at the Grand River Grasslands in southern Iowa and northern Missouri. Treatment regimes included burn-only, grazed-and-burned, and patch-burn graze (pastures subdivided into three temporally distinct fire patches with free access by cattle). The premise of the experimental design was that patch-burn grazing would increase habitat heterogeneity, thereby providing more diverse and abundant floral resources for pollinators. We predicted that both bee abundance and individual bee nutritional indicators (bee size and lipid content) would be positively correlated with floral resource abundance. There were no significant differences among treatments with respect to bee abundance. However, some of the specific characteristics of the plant community showed significant relationships with bee response variables. Pastures with greater abundance of floral resources had greater bee abundance but lower bee nutritional indicators. Bee nutritional variables were positively correlated with vegetation height, but, in some cases, negatively correlated with stocking rate. These results suggest grassland site characteristics such as floral resource abundance and stocking rate are of potential importance to bee pollinators and suggest avenues for further research to untangle the complex interactions between grassland management, plant responses, and bee health.

  6. Nutritional Habits of Female University Students in Relation to Self-Perception of Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suliga, Edyta; Wronka, Iwona; Pawlinska-Chmara, Romana

    2012-01-01

    Study aim: To determine whether the self-assessment of body mass has an impact on the nutritional behaviour of young women. Material and methods: The material was gathered in cross-sectional research of 1129 female university students. The measurements of body height, body mass, and waist and hip circumference were taken. Each person completed a…

  7. Growth and nutrition of Douglas fir, Scots pine and pedunculate oak in relation to soil acidification.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, de P.H.B.

    1994-01-01

    In a Douglas fir ( Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) and in a Scots pine ( Pinus sylvestris L.) stand on sandy soil in the Netherlands, inputs of water, nutrients and acid loads were changed for four years. Effects of soil changes on growth and nutrition were compared with similar foreign experi

  8. 78 FR 13443 - Child Nutrition Programs: Nondiscretionary Amendments Related to the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-28

    ...), Public Law 111- 296, makes important improvements to the Child Nutrition Programs that serve the nation's...)-1, and be exempt from taxation under section 501(a) of that Code, 26 U.S.C. 1.501(a)-1. Section 441...) principles for safe food handling be applied to any facility, or part of a facility in which food for any...

  9. [Evaluation of the cost of home enteral nutrition in relation to different access routes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo Rabaneda, R M; Gómez Candela, C; de Cos Blanco, A I; González Fernández, B; Iglesias Rosado, C

    1998-01-01

    When home enteral nutrition is needed, there is still, despite the undisputed increase in the quality of life that can be achieved with a Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy (PEG), a reservation in its use because this technique and its maintenance is considered to be very costly. We aim to assess the true cost of home enteral nutrition using the oral route, a nasogastric tube, and PEG. The data of 65 patients who required home enteral nutrition during 1996, were analyzed retrospectively. The access route was a nasogastric tube in 20 cases, 18 patients had PEG, and 27 candidates used an oral route. The average age was 56 years. 50% were men and 50% were women. The most common diagnoses that led to the indication were oropharyngeal-maxillofacial neoplasms and neurological disorders. In all cases the material and formula used was assessed, as were the associated complications and the cost of the at home enteral nutrition. The average duration of the treatment was 175 +/- 128 days, and this was similar in all three groups. The average formula/day cost was slightly higher in the patients using the oral access route. The average total day cost and the average material/day cost was slightly higher in patients with a PEG. Patients with a PEG presented fewer complications than those with a nasogastric tube. The cost derived from possible complications must be higher in the nasogastric tube group, especially considering the repeated tube changes due to obstruction or loss. The cost of home enteral nutrition is slightly lower if one uses a nasogastric tube. The greater incidence of complications that were mild but required a tube change, in this case a nasogastric tube, suggests higher indirect costs. The oral route is associated with the need for special formulae that are more expensive.

  10. Neural tracking of attended versus ignored speech is differentially affected by hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Eline Borch; Wöstmann, Malte; Obleser, Jonas; Lunner, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Hearing loss manifests as a reduced ability to understand speech, particularly in multitalker situations. In these situations, younger normal-hearing listeners' brains are known to track attended speech through phase-locking of neural activity to the slow-varying envelope of the speech. This study investigates how hearing loss, compensated by hearing aids, affects the neural tracking of the speech-onset envelope in elderly participants with varying degree of hearing loss (n = 27, 62-86 yr; hearing thresholds 11-73 dB hearing level). In an active listening task, a to-be-attended audiobook (signal) was presented either in quiet or against a competing to-be-ignored audiobook (noise) presented at three individualized signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs). The neural tracking of the to-be-attended and to-be-ignored speech was quantified through the cross-correlation of the electroencephalogram (EEG) and the temporal envelope of speech. We primarily investigated the effects of hearing loss and SNR on the neural envelope tracking. First, we found that elderly hearing-impaired listeners' neural responses reliably track the envelope of to-be-attended speech more than to-be-ignored speech. Second, hearing loss relates to the neural tracking of to-be-ignored speech, resulting in a weaker differential neural tracking of to-be-attended vs. to-be-ignored speech in listeners with worse hearing. Third, neural tracking of to-be-attended speech increased with decreasing background noise. Critically, the beneficial effect of reduced noise on neural speech tracking decreased with stronger hearing loss. In sum, our results show that a common sensorineural processing deficit, i.e., hearing loss, interacts with central attention mechanisms and reduces the differential tracking of attended and ignored speech.

  11. Sugar maple growth in relation to nutrition and stress in the northeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Robert P; Horsley, Stephen B; Hallett, Richard A; Bailey, Scott W

    2009-09-01

    Sugar maple, Acer saccharum, decline disease is incited by multiple disturbance factors when imbalanced calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), and manganese (Mn) act as predisposing stressors. Our objective in this study was to determine whether factors affecting sugar maple health also affect growth as estimated by basal area increment (BAI). We used 76 northern hardwood stands in northern Pennsylvania, New York, Vermont, and New Hampshire, USA, and found that sugar maple growth was positively related to foliar concentrations of Ca and Mg and stand level estimates of sugar maple crown health during a high stress period from 1987 to 1996. Foliar nutrient threshold values for Ca, Mg, and Mn were used to analyze long-term BAI trends from 1937 to 1996. Significant (P maples sampled in the 1990s had decreased growth in the 1970s, 10-20 years in advance of the 1980s and 1990s decline episode in Pennsylvania. Even apparently healthy stands that had no defoliation, but had below-threshold amounts of Ca or Mg and above-threshold Mn (from foliage samples taken in the mid 1990s), had decreasing growth by the 1970s. Co-occurring black cherry, Prunus serotina, in a subset of the Pennsylvania and New York stands, showed opposite growth responses with greater growth in stands with below-threshold Ca and Mg compared with above-threshold stands. Sugar maple growing on sites with the highest concentrations of foliar Ca and Mg show a general increase in growth from 1937 to 1996 while other stands with lower Ca and Mg concentrations show a stable or decreasing growth trend. We conclude that acid deposition induced changes in soil nutrient status that crossed a threshold necessary to sustain sugar maple growth during the 1970s on some sites. While nutrition of these elements has not been considered in forest management decisions, our research shows species specific responses to Ca and Mg that may reduce health and growth of sugar maple or change species composition, if not addressed.

  12. Rules, praise, and ignoring: elements of elementary classroom control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, C H; Becker, W C; Thomas, D R

    1968-01-01

    An attempt was made to vary systematically the behavior of two elementary school teachers to determine the effects on classroom behavior of Rules, Ignoring Inappropriate Behaviors, and showing Approval for Appropriate Behavior. Behaviors of two children in one class and one child in the other class were recorded by observers, as were samples of the teachers' behavior. Following baseline recordings, Rules, Ignoring, and Approval conditions were introduced one at a time. In one class a reversal of conditions was carried out. The main conclusions were that: (a) Rules alone exerted little effect on classroom behavior, (b) Ignoring Inappropriate Behavior and showing Approval for Appropriate Behavior (in combination) were very effective in achieving better classroom behavior, and (c) showing Approval for Appropriate Behaviors is probably the key to effective classroom management.

  13. The veil of ignorance and health resource allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Carlos

    2012-08-01

    Some authors view the veil of ignorance as a preferred method for allocating resources because it imposes impartiality by stripping deliberators of knowledge of their personal identity. Using some prominent examples of such reasoning in the health care sector, I will argue for the following claims. First, choice behind a veil of ignorance often fails to provide clear guidance regarding resource allocation. Second, regardless of whether definite results could be derived from the veil, these results do not in themselves have important moral standing. This is partly because the veil does not determine which features are morally relevant for a given distributive problem. Third, even when we have settled the question of what features to count, choice behind a veil of ignorance arguably fails to take persons seriously. Ultimately, we do not need the veil to solve distributive problems, and we have good reason to appeal to some other distributive model.

  14. A qualitative study of beliefs about food relating to child nutrition in the Lower Jimi Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeble, Jessica; Keeble, Richard

    2006-01-01

    A previous study that we carried out confirmed that malnutrition is a problem amongst the young child population in the Lower Jimi Valley. This study begins to explore the cultural and traditional food beliefs in order to target the interventions of health services in reducing childhood malnutrition. The study was undertaken during maternal and child health clinics conducted on a foot patrol from Koinambe Health Centre in the villages of Kompiai, Komengwai, Kupeng, Injim and Kwiama. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with small groups of women to uncover beliefs regarding nutrition and feeding during pregnancy, infancy and childhood. This study has highlighted practices that nutritionally disadvantage young children. The four most significant are late weaning, restriction of foods, infrequency of feeding and the low priority given to children during meal times. It is suggested that it is the use, control and distribution of food, rather than its shortage, that contribute most significantly to the problem of childhood malnutrition in this area.

  15. Use of nutritional supplements in sports: risks, knowledge, and behavioural-related factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinero, O; Márquez, S

    2009-01-01

    A large number of recreational and elite athletes use nutritional supplements in hopes of improving performance. These aids can be costly and potentially harmful, and the advertised ergogenic gains are often based on little or no scientific evidence. Due to the lack of regulation of the dietary supplement industry, an abundance of supplement products of dubious value, content, and quality are now available around the world. Many supplement products contain substances that are prohibited in sport or that have been associated with significant morbidity and mortality. For athletes, lack of knowledge or misinformation has been established despite numerous sources of information being available, and the reasons for, and implications of, unsupervised and unrestricted supplement use require further attention. In addition to the necessity of an appropriate regulation of dietary supplements, nutritional education and scientifically sound guidance for athletes is required. Intervention and prevention efforts should be particularly targeted to adolescents.

  16. Management issues related to effectively implementing a nutrition education program using peer educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, T; Serrano, E; Anderson, J

    2001-01-01

    To explore the influence of administrative aspects of a nutrition education program with peer educators delivering the program. Telephone interviews with peer educators trained to deliver La Cocina Saludable, a nutrition education program for Hispanics. Open- and closed-ended questions. Abuelas (grandmothers) recruited and trained as peer educators for the program. The sample included peer educators no longer teaching (22%), currently teaching (30%), and who never taught after training. Motives and incentives for becoming peer educators, challenges for peer educators, and reasons peer educators withdrew from the program. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze quantitative data from the closed-ended questions. Qualitative analysis was applied to data from open-ended questions. Working with community and learning about nutrition were prime motivators. Recruiting participants and coordination of classes appeared to be major challenges. Personal issues and traveling in a large geographic area were cited as the main reasons for quitting. The effectiveness of using peer educators for La Cocina Saludable may be improved through empowerment, additional training, a structured and equitable reimbursement system, and assistance to carry out administrative tasks.

  17. [The relation between maternal breast feeding and non-nutritive sucking habits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moimaz, Suzely Adas Saliba; Rocha, Najara Barbosa; Garbin, Artênio José Isper; Saliba, Orlando

    2011-05-01

    This study sought to identify the type and duration of breastfeeding received by children and establish the association with non-nutritive suction habits. A retrospective, transversal study was conducted using a questionnaire given to 330 mothers or persons responsible for 3 to 6-year-old children registered in kindergartens in Araçatuba, State of São Paulo, after obtaining their free and informed consent. It was revealed that 86.4% of mothers breastfed their children. With respect to duration, only 33.4% of these mothers breastfed exclusively after 6 months. The average time of exclusive breastfeeding received by children was 3.84 months and complementary breastfeeding was 11.68 months. Of this total, 53.3% reported that their infants manifested non-nutritive suction habits and of these children, 70.45% were not exclusively breastfed for the first 6 months, there being a significant association between both (phabit (44.4%), showing a statistically significant association with breastfeeding time (pbreastfeeding was practiced, albeit for a lesser duration than considered indispensable for the baby's development, there being an association between duration and type of breastfeeding and non-nutritive suction habits.

  18. Nutritional Supplementation Inhibits the Increase in Serum Malondialdehyde in Patients with Wet Age-Related Macular Degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Toshiyuki; Takayama, Kei; Kaneko, Hiroki; Ye, Fuxiang; Fukukita, Hiroshi; Tsunekawa, Taichi; Kataoka, Keiko; Hwang, Shiang-Jyi; Nagasaka, Yosuke; Ito, Yasuki; Terasaki, Hiroko

    2017-01-01

    Purpose. To compare serum levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) in patients with wet age-related macular degeneration (wAMD), patients with dry AMD (dAMD), and patients without AMD and to evaluate the efficacy of nutritional supplementation for treating elevated serum MDA in patients with wAMD. Methods. MDA levels were measured in sera from 20 patients with wAMD, 20 with dAMD, and 24 without AMD. Patients with wAMD were randomized to receive or not receive nutritional supplementation (10 patients in each group), and MDA levels were measured after 3 months of treatment. Results. MDA levels in patients with wAMD were significantly greater compared with patients without AMD. In eyes with wAMD, there was a significant correlation between MDA levels and choroidal neovascularization lesion area. Serum MDA levels decreased in most patients that received supplementation and significantly increased in those who did not. Conclusion. Baseline serum MDA levels were elevated in patients with wAMD, and MDA levels were directly correlated with choroidal neovascularization lesion area. In addition, nutritional supplementation appeared to exert a protective effect against oxidative stress in patients with wAMD.

  19. Nutritional Supplementation Inhibits the Increase in Serum Malondialdehyde in Patients with Wet Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiyuki Matsuura

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To compare serum levels of malondialdehyde (MDA in patients with wet age-related macular degeneration (wAMD, patients with dry AMD (dAMD, and patients without AMD and to evaluate the efficacy of nutritional supplementation for treating elevated serum MDA in patients with wAMD. Methods. MDA levels were measured in sera from 20 patients with wAMD, 20 with dAMD, and 24 without AMD. Patients with wAMD were randomized to receive or not receive nutritional supplementation (10 patients in each group, and MDA levels were measured after 3 months of treatment. Results. MDA levels in patients with wAMD were significantly greater compared with patients without AMD. In eyes with wAMD, there was a significant correlation between MDA levels and choroidal neovascularization lesion area. Serum MDA levels decreased in most patients that received supplementation and significantly increased in those who did not. Conclusion. Baseline serum MDA levels were elevated in patients with wAMD, and MDA levels were directly correlated with choroidal neovascularization lesion area. In addition, nutritional supplementation appeared to exert a protective effect against oxidative stress in patients with wAMD.

  20. Nutritional Supplementation Inhibits the Increase in Serum Malondialdehyde in Patients with Wet Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukukita, Hiroshi; Tsunekawa, Taichi; Kataoka, Keiko; Hwang, Shiang-Jyi; Nagasaka, Yosuke; Ito, Yasuki; Terasaki, Hiroko

    2017-01-01

    Purpose. To compare serum levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) in patients with wet age-related macular degeneration (wAMD), patients with dry AMD (dAMD), and patients without AMD and to evaluate the efficacy of nutritional supplementation for treating elevated serum MDA in patients with wAMD. Methods. MDA levels were measured in sera from 20 patients with wAMD, 20 with dAMD, and 24 without AMD. Patients with wAMD were randomized to receive or not receive nutritional supplementation (10 patients in each group), and MDA levels were measured after 3 months of treatment. Results. MDA levels in patients with wAMD were significantly greater compared with patients without AMD. In eyes with wAMD, there was a significant correlation between MDA levels and choroidal neovascularization lesion area. Serum MDA levels decreased in most patients that received supplementation and significantly increased in those who did not. Conclusion. Baseline serum MDA levels were elevated in patients with wAMD, and MDA levels were directly correlated with choroidal neovascularization lesion area. In addition, nutritional supplementation appeared to exert a protective effect against oxidative stress in patients with wAMD. PMID:28243361

  1. Nutritional status of iron in children from 6 to 59 months of age and its relation to vitamin A deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Cristina Sales

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the iron nutritional status of children from 6 to 59 months of age and its relation to vitamin A deficiency. Method: Cross-sectional study involving 100 children, living in nine cities in the state of Paraiba, which were selected for convenience to form two study groups: children with vitamin A deficiency (serum retinol 0.70 μmol/L; n = 50. The iron nutritional status was evaluated by biochemical, hematological and hematimetric indices. The cases of subclinical infection (C-Reactive Protein > 6 mg/L were excluded. Results: Children with vitamin A deficiency had serum iron values statistically lower than the corresponding values in children without deficiency. The other iron nutritional status indices showed no statistical difference according to presence/absence of vitamin A deficiency. Conclusion: The interaction between iron and vitamin A deficiencies was evidenced in the case of circulating iron deficiency (serum iron, suggesting failure in the transport mechanisms of the mineral in children with vitamin A deficiency.

  2. RELATION BETWEEN NUTRITION AND HEALTH IN DAIRY HERDS RELACIÓN ENTRE NUTRICIÓN Y SALUD EN HATOS LECHEROS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carulla Juan

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Incidence of health and production problems related to feeding, nutrition and/or metabolism have being growing in dairy herds. Early diagnosis allows their reduction and consequently reduces economic losses. Monitoring nutritional status periodically allows to identify possible causes of nutritional unbalances and/or mistakes in feeding practices and establish corrective measurements.La incidencia de problemas alimenticios, nutricionales y metabólicos es cada vez mayor en hatos lecheros, así como la aparición de problemas sanitarios, productivos y reproductivos asociados a los mismos. La detección oportuna y correcta de éstos permite reducir su incidencia y, por tanto, las pérdidas económicas de los hatos. El monitoreo nutricional periódico hace posible establecer el estado nutricional de una población animal, e identificar las posibles causas de desbalances nutricionales y errores en la alimentación, así como orientar en la toma de decisiones acerca de los correctivos que se deben establecer cuando se detectan problemas. El análisis de las posibles relaciones existentes entre la información aportada por cada uno de los aspectos evaluados en el monitoreo nutricional permite una evaluación más adecuada que su análisis independiente y aislado.

  3. Prevalence of self-reported hypertension and its relation to dietary habits, in adults; a nutrition & health survey in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xenaki Dimitra

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hypertension leads to many degenerative diseases, the most common being cardiovascular in origin. This study has been designed to estimate the prevalence of self-reported hypertension in a random nationwide sample of adult Greek population, while focus was set to the assessment of participants' nutritional habits in relation to their hypertension status. Methods A random-digit dialed telephone survey. Based on a multistage, stratified sampling, 5003 adults (18 – 74 yr participated (men: 48.8%, women: 51.2%. All participants were interviewed via telephone by trained personnel who used a standard questionnaire. The questionnaire included demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, medical history, lifestyle habits and nutritional assessment. Results The prevalence of self-reported hypertension was 13.3% in men and 17.7% in women (P Conclusion Hypertension seems to be a serious public health problem in Greece. It is encouraging that hypertensives may have started adopting some more healthy nutritional behaviour compared to normotensive ones. However, they can gain significant benefits regarding to blood pressure control, if they increase the level of compliance with dietary recommendations.

  4. Height, weight and BMI percentiles and nutritional status relative to the international growth references among Pakistani school-aged children

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    Mushtaq Muhammad Umair

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Child growth is internationally recognized as an important indicator of nutritional status and health in populations. This study was aimed to compare age- and gender-specific height, weight and BMI percentiles and nutritional status relative to the international growth references among Pakistani school-aged children. Methods A population-based study was conducted with a multistage cluster sample of 1860 children aged five to twelve years in Lahore, Pakistan. Smoothed height, weight and BMI percentile curves were obtained and comparison was made with the World Health Organization 2007 (WHO and United States' Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2000 (USCDC references. Over- and under-nutrition were defined according to the WHO and USCDC references, and the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF cut-offs. Simple descriptive statistics were used and statistical significance was considered at P Results Height, weight and BMI percentiles increased with age among both boys and girls, and both had approximately the same height and a lower weight and BMI as compared to the WHO and USCDC references. Mean differences from zero for height-, weight- and BMI-for-age z score values relative to the WHO and USCDC references were significant (P Conclusion Pakistani school-aged children significantly differed from the WHO and USCDC references. However, z score means relative to the WHO reference were closer to zero and the present study as compared to the USCDC reference. Overweight and obesity were significantly higher while underweight and thinness/wasting were significantly lower relative to the WHO reference as compared to the USCDC reference and the IOTF cut-offs. New growth charts for Pakistani children based on a nationally representative sample should be developed. Nevertheless, shifting to use of the 2007 WHO child growth reference might have important implications for child health programs and primary care pediatric clinics.

  5. Association of oral health-related quality of life and nutritional status among elderly population of Satara district, Western Maharashtra, India

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    Parth Patel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The major proportion of the population suffering from nutritional deficiency and continues to grow worldwide, especially in developing countries like India, and it is the most common cause of morbidity and mortality. Aim: To evaluate the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQOL and nutrition status and association between nutritional status, and OHRQOL in the elderly. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among the elderly of Karad city. The elderly were subjected to type 3 oral examination. Data regarding the nutritional status and OHRQOL were obtained using Geriatric Oral Health Assessment Index (GOHAI and mini nutritional assessment (MNA index. Descriptive statistics was used to analyze data using SPSS version 21. Results: The sample included 200 elderly, of which 59% consisted of males, and 41% are females. The majority of study subjects (46% were between age group 61 and 70 years. Among the assessed subjects, nearly 95% of them had total scores of GOHAI between 12 and 57 which require "needed dental care." As per MNA, 3.5% had adequate nutrition, 60% were at risk of malnutrition, and remaining 36.5% of subjects were malnourished. There was a significant correlation between GOHAI and MNA scores. Conclusion: Nutritional status was associated with the poor OHRQOL among the elderly. A strong association was found between mean GOHAI and MNA scores and nutrition status and OHRQOL.

  6. Nutritional and herbal supplements for anxiety and anxiety-related disorders: systematic review

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    Vieira Karen F

    2010-10-01

    scale, had adverse premenstrual symptoms or were peri-menopausal, reported anxiety and insomnia, or had one month or more of elevated generalized anxiety. Heterogeneity and the small number of studies for each supplement or combination therapy prevented a formal meta-analysis. Of the randomized controlled trials reviewed, 71% (15 out of 21 showed a positive direction of evidence. Any reported side effects were mild to moderate. Conclusions Based on the available evidence, it appears that nutritional and herbal supplementation is an effective method for treating anxiety and anxiety-related conditions without the risk of serious side effects. There is the possibility that any positive effects seen could be due to a placebo effect, which may have a significant psychological impact on participants with mental disorders. However, based on this systematic review, strong evidence exists for the use of herbal supplements containing extracts of passionflower or kava and combinations of L-lysine and L-arginine as treatments for anxiety symptoms and disorders. Magnesium-containing supplements and other herbal combinations may hold promise, but more research is needed before these products can be recommended to patients. St. John's wort monotherapy has insufficient evidence for use as an effective anxiolytic treatment.

  7. Variational symmetries as the existence of ignorable coordinates

    CERN Document Server

    del Castillo, G F Torres

    2016-01-01

    It is shown that given a Lagrangian for a system with a finite number of degrees of freedom, the existence of a variational symmetry is equivalent to the existence of coordinates in the extended configuration space such that one of the coordinates is ignorable.

  8. Gamma-tocopherol as a possible marker for nutrition-related risk: results from four National Diet and Nutrition Surveys in Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, C J; Mishra, G D; Prentice, A

    2004-07-01

    Relationships between vitamin E status (alpha and gamma-tocopherol and their ratio in plasma), anthropometric and biochemical indices, and food and nutrient intakes, were studied in four British National Diet and Nutrition Surveys: children aged 1.5-4.5 years, young people aged 4.0-18.0 years, adults 19.0-64.0 years and adults aged > or = 65.0 years. gamma-Tocopherol:alpha-tocopherol ratio declined with age. In older women gamma-tocopherol and gamma-tocopherol:alpha-tocopherol ratios were directly related to indices of obesity. In young men alpha- and gamma-tocopherols were directly correlated with obesity, but gamma-tocopherol:alpha-tocopherol ratio was not. For young people and toddlers, fewer obesity indices were available and relationships were weaker. Other fat- and water-soluble vitamin indices correlated directly with alpha-tocopherol and inversely with gamma-tocopherol and gamma-tocopherol:alpha-tocopherol ratio. Whereas alpha-tocopherol correlated directly with 'healthy' nutrient choices (such as intrinsic sugars, dietary fibre, vitamins and potassium) and inversely with 'unhealthy' choices (extrinsic sugars and monounsaturated fats, i.e. avoidance of polyunsaturated fat), gamma-tocopherol and the gamma-tocopherol:alpha-tocopherol ratio related inversely with 'healthy' choices. Food groups had analogous relationships; thus, alpha-tocopherol related directly to use of polyunsaturated fats, fresh fruits and fruit juices, and inversely to non-polyunsaturated fats and extrinsic sugar. The reverse was true for gamma-tocopherol and gamma-tocopherol:alpha-tocopherol ratio. Although the mechanisms underlying these relationships are obscure, the gamma-tocopherol:alpha-tocopherol ratio may reveal poor dietary choices, status predictors and a propensity for obesity in later life, especially in women.

  9. Investigating age-related changes in taste and affects on sensory perceptions of oral nutritional supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Orla; Law, Clara; Methven, Lisa; Mottram, Donald; Gosney, Margot

    2010-11-01

    sip feeds are oral nutritional supplements (ONSs) that are commonly prescribed to malnourished patients to improve their nutritional and clinical status. However, ONSs are poorly consumed and frequently wasted, with sweetness being identified as one of the factors leading to patients' dislike of ONSs. to investigate if age affects sweetness thresholds and if this impacts upon perceived sweetness intensity, hedonic (sweetness and overall) and ranked preference of ONS products. prospective, observational. thirty-six young adults (18-33 years) and 48 healthy older adults (63-85 years). Department of Food and Nutritional Sciences and the Clinical Health Sciences at the University of Reading. detection and recognition threshold levels, basic taste identification and 'just about right' level of sweetness were examined. Three ONSs (chocolate, vanilla, strawberry) and sucrose solutions were evaluated for hedonic sweetness, overall hedonic liking, sweetness intensity and rank preference. significant differences were found in both sweetness detection and recognition thresholds (P = 0.0001) between young and older adults, with older adults more likely to incorrectly identify the taste (P = 0.0001). Despite the deterioration in sweetness sensitivity among the older adults, there were no significant differences found in sweetness intensity perceived for the ONS products presented (P > 0.05) when compared with the young adults. However, across both groups sweetness intensity was found to be correlated with overall product dislike across all flavour variants tested (R = 0.398, P = 0.0001). sweetness appears to be one of many factors contributing to the dislike of ONSs. Manufacturers are encouraged to reconsider the formulations of these products so that beneficial effects of ONSs can be delivered in a more palatable and acceptable form and wastage reduced.

  10. Socio-economic divergence in public opinions about preventive obesity regulations: Is the purpose to 'make some things cheaper, more affordable' or to 'help them get over their own ignorance'?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Lucy C; Warin, Megan J; Moore, Vivienne M; Street, Jackie M

    2016-04-01

    The potential for regulatory measures to address escalating rates of obesity is widely acknowledged in public health circles. Many advocates support regulations for their potential to reduce health inequalities, in light of the well-documented social gradient in obesity. This paper examines how different social groups understand the role of regulations and other public health interventions in addressing obesity. Drawing upon focus group data from a metropolitan city in southern Australia, we argue that implementing obesity regulations without attention to the ways in which disadvantaged communities problematise obesity may lead to further stigmatisation of this key target population. Tuana's work on the politics of ignorance, and broader literature on classed asymmetries of power, provides a theoretical framework to demonstrate how middle class understandings of obesity align with dominant 'obesity epidemic' discourses. These position obese people as lacking knowledge; underpinning support for food labelling and mandatory nutrition education for welfare recipients as well as food taxes. In contrast, disadvantaged groups emphasised the potential for a different set of interventions to improve material circumstances that constrain their ability to act upon existing health promotion messages, while also describing priorities of everyday living that are not oriented to improving health status. Findings demonstrate how ignorance is produced as an explanation for obesity, widely replicated in political settings and mainstream public health agendas. This politics of ignorance and its logical reparation serve to reproduce power relations in which particular groups are constructed as lacking capacity to act on knowledge, whilst maintaining others in privileged positions of knowing.

  11. Relation between body composition and bone mineral density in young undregraduate students with different nutritional status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues Filho, Edil de Albuquerque; Santos, Marcos André Moura Dos; Silva, Amanda Tabosa Pereira da; Farah, Breno Quintella; Costa, Manoel da Cunha; Campos, Florisbela de Arruda Camara E Siqueira; Falcão, Ana Patrícia Siqueira Tavares

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between total and segmental body fat, bone mineral density and bone mineral content in undergraduate students stratified according to nutritional status. The study included 45 male undergraduate students aged between 20 and 30 years. Total and segmental body composition, bone mineral density and bone mineral content assessments were performed using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Subjects were allocated into three groups (eutrophic, overweight and obese). With the exception of upper limb bone mineral content, significantly higher (pstudents, particularly in overweight individuals.

  12. Interactions between C-Reactive Protein Genotypes with Markers of Nutritional Status in Relation to Inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nienaber-Rousseau, Cornelie; Swanepoel, Bianca; Dolman, Robin C.; Pieters, Marlien; Conradie, Karin R.; Towers, G. Wayne

    2014-01-01

    Inflammation, as indicated by C-reactive protein concentrations (CRP), is a risk factor for chronic diseases. Both genetic and environmental factors affect susceptibility to inflammation. As dietary interventions can influence inflammatory status, we hypothesized that dietary effects could be influenced by interactions with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the CRP gene. We determined 12 CRP SNPs, as well as various nutrition status markers in 2010 black South Africans and analyzed their effect on CRP. Interactions were observed for several genotypes with obesity in determining CRP. Lipid intake modulated the pro-inflammatory effects of some SNPs, i.e., an increase in both saturated fatty acid and monounsaturated fatty acid intake in those homozygous for the polymorphic allele at rs2808630 was associated with a larger increase in CRP. Those harboring the minor alleles at rs3093058 and rs3093062 presented with significantly higher CRP in the presence of increased triglyceride or cholesterol intake. When harboring the minor allele of these SNPs, a high omega-6 to -3 ratio was, however, found to be anti-inflammatory. Carbohydrate intake also modulated CRP SNPs, as HbA1C and fasting glucose levels interacted with some SNPs to influence the CRP. This investigation highlights the impact that nutritional status can have on reducing the inherent genetic susceptibility to a heightened systemic inflammatory state. PMID:25393688

  13. Health-related behaviors and nutritional status of adolescents who study asboarders and day-students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küçük, Emine Ela; Günay, Osman

    2016-06-23

    Boarders and day-students study together in regional boarding schools. This study was carried out to compare the health and nutritional status of boarders and day-students who study at regional boarding schools in Turkey. A total 634 boarders and 492 day-students in the 4th-8th years of nine boarding schools in Giresun Province of Turkey were included. A questionnaire including 49 questions about sociodemographic characteristics and health and nutritional status was completed by the students. Height and weight measurements of the students were also taken. The chi-square test was used for statistical analyses. The boarders evaluated their health status as worse than the day-students. The proportion of the students having three meals a day was higher among the boarders than the day-students. According to BMI values, 11% of the boarders were evaluated as underweight, 77% as normal, 9.5% as overweight, and 2.5% as obese. These proportions were respectively 15.5%, 67.3%, 12.8%. and 4.5% for the day-students. The boarders have more regular diets and the proportion of normal-weighed boarders was higher than that of the day-students. However, they perceived their health as worse than the day-tudents.

  14. Interactions between C-reactive protein genotypes with markers of nutritional status in relation to inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nienaber-Rousseau, Cornelie; Swanepoel, Bianca; Dolman, Robin C; Pieters, Marlien; Conradie, Karin R; Towers, G Wayne

    2014-11-11

    Inflammation, as indicated by C-reactive protein concentrations (CRP), is a risk factor for chronic diseases. Both genetic and environmental factors affect susceptibility to inflammation. As dietary interventions can influence inflammatory status, we hypothesized that dietary effects could be influenced by interactions with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the CRP gene. We determined 12 CRP SNPs, as well as various nutrition status markers in 2010 black South Africans and analyzed their effect on CRP. Interactions were observed for several genotypes with obesity in determining CRP. Lipid intake modulated the pro-inflammatory effects of some SNPs, i.e., an increase in both saturated fatty acid and monounsaturated fatty acid intake in those homozygous for the polymorphic allele at rs2808630 was associated with a larger increase in CRP. Those harboring the minor alleles at rs3093058 and rs3093062 presented with significantly higher CRP in the presence of increased triglyceride or cholesterol intake. When harboring the minor allele of these SNPs, a high omega-6 to -3 ratio was, however, found to be anti-inflammatory. Carbohydrate intake also modulated CRP SNPs, as HbA1C and fasting glucose levels interacted with some SNPs to influence the CRP. This investigation highlights the impact that nutritional status can have on reducing the inherent genetic susceptibility to a heightened systemic inflammatory state.

  15. Adolescent Weight Status and Related Behavioural Factors: Web Survey of Physical Activity and Nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate E. Storey

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To identify whether non-overweight students were different from their overweight or obese peers with respect to diet, suboptimal meal behaviours, and physical activity using a self-administered web-based survey. Methods. 4097 adolescents living in Alberta, Canada completed Web-SPAN (Web Survey of Physical Activity and Nutrition. Students were classified as overweight or obese, and differences were described in terms of nutrient intakes, physical activity, and meal behaviours. Results. Non-overweight students consumed significantly more carbohydrate and fibre, and significantly less fat and high calorie beverages, and had a higher frequency of consuming breakfast and snacks compared to overweight or obese students. Both non-overweight and overweight students were significantly more active than obese students. Conclusions. This research supports the need to target suboptimal behaviours such as high calorie beverage consumption, fat intake, breakfast skipping, and physical inactivity. School nutrition policies and mandatory physical education for all students may help to improve weight status in adolescents.

  16. TOTAL COST OF HOSPITALIZATION OF PATIENTS UNDERGOING ELECTIVE LAPAROSCOPIC CHOLECYSTECTOMY RELATED TO NUTRITIONAL STATUS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Francisco Julimar Correia de; Menezes, Lara Gadelha Luna de; Silva, Guilherme Pinheiro Ferreira da; Melo-Filho, Antônio Aldo; Melo, Daniel Hardy; Silva, Carlos Antonio Bruno da

    2016-01-01

    In the Western world, the population developed an overweight profile. The morbidly obese generate higher cost to the health system. However, there is a gap in this approach with regard to individuals above the eutrofic pattern, who are not considered as morbidly obese. To correlate nutritional status according to BMI with the costs of laparoscopic cholecystectomy in a public hospital. Data were collected from medical records about: nutritional risk assessment, nutricional state and hospital cost in patients undergoing elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Were enrolled 814 procedures. Average age was 39.15 (±12.16) years; 47 subjects (78.3%) were women. The cost was on average R$ 6,167.32 (±1830.85) to 4.06 (±2.76) days of hospitalization; 41 (68.4%) presented some degree of overweight; mean BMI was 28.07 (±5.41) kg/m²; six (10%) individuals presented nutritional risk ≥3. There was a weak correlation (r=0.2) and not significant (p sobrepeso; o IMC médio foi 28,07 (±5,41) kg/m²; seis (10%) indivíduos apresentavam risco nutricional ≥3. Houve correlação fraca (r=0,2) e não significativa (pSobrepeso não demonstrou correlação entre custo e tempo de internação. Entretanto, os indivíduos com sobrepeso apresentaram custo maior de internação em relação aos que não tiveram intercorrência, mas sem correlação com o estado nutricional. Em relação aos com IMC normal, houve correlação forte e estatisticamente significante com o custo para tempo de internação, reforçando que há provável distribuição normal envolvendo estado nutricional adequado e sucesso do procedimento cirúrgico com consequente impacto no custo de internação.

  17. Dietary education for university students : Effect of putting the poster related to diet or nutrition in the sign stand on university cafeteria dining tables

    OpenAIRE

    冨永, 美穂子; 濱端, 倫子

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effectiveness of a university cafeteria as a place of dietary education by putting 10 kinds of poster related to diet or nutrition in the sign stand on the dining tables at a university cafeteria over a period of 10 weeks (1 week for each poster). We conducted a questionnaire survey among students using the cafeteria with respect to such items as requests to the cafeteria, awareness of nutritional balance, frequency of eating breakfast, and utility of the posters i...

  18. A worksite vegan nutrition program is well-accepted and improves health-related quality of life and work productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katcher, Heather I; Ferdowsian, Hope R; Hoover, Valerie J; Cohen, Joshua L; Barnard, Neal D

    2010-01-01

    Vegetarian and vegan diets are effective in preventing and treating several chronic diseases. However, their acceptability outside a clinical trial setting has not been extensively studied. The aim of this study was to determine the acceptability of a worksite vegan nutrition program and its effects on health-related quality of life and work productivity. Employees of a major insurance corporation with a body mass index > or =25 kg/m(2) and/or a previous diagnosis of type 2 diabetes received either weekly group instruction on a low-fat vegan diet (n = 68) or received no diet instruction (n = 45) for 22 weeks. The vegan group reported improvements in general health (p = 0.002), physical functioning (p = 0.001), mental health (p = 0.03), vitality (p = 0.004), and overall diet satisfaction (p vegan group also reported a decrease in food costs (p = 0.003), and increased difficulty finding foods when eating out (p = 0.04) compared with the control group. The vegan group reported a 40-46% decrease in health-related productivity impairments at work (p = 0.03) and in regular daily activities (p = 0.004). A worksite vegan nutrition program is well-accepted and can be implemented by employers to improve the health, quality of life, and work productivity of employees.

  19. Enteral Nutrition Related Complications Relevant to Alteration of Formulas in Two Critically Ill Pediatric Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akuzawa, Nobuhiro; Takeuchi, Aya Murata; Tsukagoshi, Jun; Kaneko, Ryoko; Naito, Hiroshi; Mizuno, Takahisa; Sunaga, Yasuo; Tashiro, Masahiko

    2013-01-01

    The early institution of enteral nutrition is associated with beneficial outcomes and intestinal growth in pediatric patients. However, the number, frequency, and types of unfavorable events occurring with particular formulas are undefined. We experienced unexpected complications in two cases following a change in formula. One case diagnosed with myotubular myopathy experienced highly-increased gastric residuals and watery diarrhea leading to decreased calorie intake and weight loss. The second case with campomelic dysplasia suffered liver dysfunction and fever. In both cases, symptoms developed soon after of the change in formula and improved after resumption of the previous formula. Both cases had undergone tracheostomy and artificial ventilation, and had a history of feeding the same formula for an extended period of time. In chronic care patients such as ours, a change in formula may cause unexpected adverse events; therefore, caution is warranted.

  20. Traditional vs anchored instruction for diabetes-related nutritional knowledge, skills, and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichert, J W; Smeltzer, C; Snyder, G M; Gregory, R P; Smeltzer, R; Kinzer, C K

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes a nutrition education experiment in which traditional direct instruction was compared with a problem-solving method called anchored instruction (AI). Participants were 69 children ages 9 to 15 years, with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM), who attended a diabetes camp. Following pretesting, campers were assigned to AI or direct instruction control classes. Posttests involved evaluating diabetes knowledge, personal meal plan knowledge, ability to choose an appropriate meal from a buffet line, and ability to pack appropriate meals for an overnight campout. AI and direct instruction both produced significant knowledge gains in this study. However, because the scores for the two groups did not differ, this study was unsuccessful in replicating results of other studies or extending the findings to selected measures of actual behavior.

  1. Aging and Nutrition Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzarre, Terry L.

    1978-01-01

    Reviews nutrition education programs in relation to aging. A summary of nutritional information that constitutes different components of nutrition education programs for the elderly is discussed. A brief review of physiological changes affecting nutrient utilization and food selection and changes in dietary intake and requirements are presented.…

  2. On uncertainty in information and ignorance in knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayyub, Bilal M.

    2010-05-01

    This paper provides an overview of working definitions of knowledge, ignorance, information and uncertainty and summarises formalised philosophical and mathematical framework for their analyses. It provides a comparative examination of the generalised information theory and the generalised theory of uncertainty. It summarises foundational bases for assessing the reliability of knowledge constructed as a collective set of justified true beliefs. It discusses system complexity for ancestor simulation potentials. It offers value-driven communication means of knowledge and contrarian knowledge using memes and memetics.

  3. What Do Schools Want? Assessing Elementary School Administrator and Teacher Preferences Related to Nutrition Education Program Scheduling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, Janice; Parker, Stephany; Phelps, Josh; Brown, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Extension is positioned to provide school-based nutrition education programs as required by the 2004 Child Nutrition and WIC Reauthorization Act. To enhance program acceptance and sustainability, it is important to consider school administrators' and teachers' interests and preferences regarding nutrition education programming. The project…

  4. Non-institutionalized nonagenarians health-related quality of life and nutritional status: is there a link between them?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Jiménez-Redondo

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nonagenarian population, clearly increasing, shows different characteristics from the rest of elderly people. Health-related quality of life is a way to study population health in physical, psychological and social dimensions. Objectives: To examine the relationship between nutritional status and health-related quality of life in a group of free-living nonagenarians. Differences with octogenarians were also studied. Methods: Within Villanueva Older Health Study, 20 non-institutionalised people (92.5±3.5 years; 80% women make the nonagenarian subsample. Nutritional risk was assessed by Mininutritional Assessment questionnaire, dietary intake by a 24-hour dietary recall and health-related quality of life by EuroQoL-5D questionnaire. SPSS was used for statistical analysis. Results: 40% nonagenarians were at risk of malnutrition. Dietary assessment showed magnesium, zinc, potassium, folic acid, vitamin D and vitamin E deficiencies. Problems in mobility were more frequently reported (80%. EQ-5Dindex was associated with MNA (p<0.05. Self-care dimension was associated with calcium and niacin (p<0.05, retinol and cholesterol (p<0.01 intake. Usual activities dimension was associated with niacin (p<0.01 and cholesterol(p<0.05 intake. Pain/discomfort dimension was associated with protein (p<0.01, energy, selenium and niacin (p<0.05 intake. Anxiety/depression was associated with protein(p<0.01 and selenium (p<0.05 intake. Conclusions: Risk of malnutrition is a factor associated to health-related quality of life. Results suggest that energy and some nutrient intakes could be possibly associated to health-related quality of life but further research on this influence is required.

  5. Acculturation, education, nutrition education, and household composition are related to dietary practices among Cambodian refugee women in Lowell, MA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterman, Jerusha Nelson; Silka, Linda; Bermudez, Odilia I; Wilde, Parke E; Rogers, Beatrice Lorge

    2011-09-01

    Refugees in the United States have higher rates of some chronic diseases than US-born residents or other first-generation immigrants. This may be partially a result of dietary practices in the United States. There is limited information about which factors are related to dietary practices in refugee populations, particularly those who have been in the United States for 10 to 20 years. Research with Cambodian communities may be useful for examining the relationship between refugee characteristics and dietary practices. Two focus groups (n=11) and a survey (n=150) of Cambodian refugee women were conducted in Lowell, MA, from 2007 to 2008. χ(2) analyses, t tests, and analysis of variance tests were used to describe differences in dietary practices (24-hour recall and a targeted qualitative food assessment) by group characteristics. Higher acculturation was related to higher likelihood of eating brown rice/whole grains, and to lower likelihood of eating high-sodium Asian sauces. Higher education was related to higher likelihood of eating vegetables and fruits and to eating white rice fewer times. Nutrition education and receiving dietary advice from a health care provider were related to higher likelihood of eating whole grains/brown rice. Having a child at home was related to a higher likelihood of eating fast food. Among Cambodian refugees who have been in the United States for 10 to 20 years, dietary practices appear to have a relationship with acculturation (positive association), the interrupted education common to refugees (negative association), nutrition education from either programs or health care providers (positive association), and having a child at home (negative association).

  6. Information Pluralism and Some Informative Modes of Ignorance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erkki Patokorpi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper information concepts will be roughly divided into two categories: The cybernetic and the semiotic-pragmatic. They are further divided into three and four subcategories, respectively. The cybernetic conception of information, which comprises both the mathematical-statistic and the logical-semantic approaches, misses some aspects of information and knowing, that are important in economics and technology studies, among others. The semiotic-pragmatic approach presumes the existence of several modes of being of information, as well as connects certainty and ambiguity to information in a different way from how the cybernetic approach does. These two general approaches to information and knowing are strikingly different, especially in their analysis of ignorance or incomplete knowledge. None of the cybernetic conceptions, and only some conceptions within the semiotic-pragmatic approach, can vindicate the elusive intuition of the potential positive role of ignorance. This comparative, philosophical discussion of the modes of ignorance may be taken as a challenge for cybernetics and computational philosophy to make better sense of incomplete knowledge.

  7. Ramipril/amlodipine single pill - effectiveness, tolerance and patient satisfaction with antihypertensive therapy in relation to nutritional status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszanecka-Glinianowicz, Magdalena; Smertka, Mike; Almgren-Rachtan, Agnieszka; Chudek, Jerzy

    2014-12-01

    Overweight and obesity decrease the effectiveness of antihypertensive therapy despite the more frequent use of polytherapy. One method for improving therapy effectiveness is by decreasing non-compliance with the use of fixed-dose combinations (FDC). The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness, tolerance, and satisfaction with ramipril/amlodipine FDC antihypertensive therapy in relation to nutritional status. The survey enrolled 24,240 hypertensive patients recently switched to ramipril/amlodipine FDC (EGIRAMLON) at the same doses as previously prescribed separate pills. The effectiveness of antihypertensive therapy increased during follow-up from 32.9% to 76.5%. Overweight and obesity were associated with the increased risk of not attaining the recommended BP values [adjusted for age OR=0.74 (95% CI 0.67-0.83) and 0.70 (0.61-0.81) for overweight; 0.54 (0.47-0.60) and 0.49 (0.42-0.57) for obese, at the first and the second examination, respectively]. "Very good" or "good" the FDP tolerance was reported by 98.8%, 97.6% and 96.4%, respectively. Adverse events (AE) were reported in 0.35% of patients regardless of nutritional status. High levels of satisfaction with the FDC were reported by 57.0% of patients with normal weight, 54.5% of overweight, and 50.6% with obesity. Effectiveness and convenience were the most important for patients. The effectiveness of therapy with ramipril/amlodipine FDC in the study population was high, but slightly lower in overweigh and obese. This FDC was well tolerated and a significant number of patients satisfied with the therapy regardless of nutritional status. Although the perceived tolerance and satisfaction with treatment were lower in obese and overweight than in normal weight patients; the incidence of AE and perceived benefit from the use of a single-pill, compared to multiple tablets, were comparable irrespective of nutritional status. Copyright © 2014 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by

  8. Impact of group nutrition education and surplus value of Prochaska-based stage-matched information on health-related cognitions and on Mediterranean nutrition behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siero, F.W.; Broer, J.; Bemelmans, W.J.E.; Meyboom-de Jong, B.

    2000-01-01

    This study compares the effect of two interventions focussed on the promotion of Mediterranean nutrition behavior, The target groups are persons with three risk factors for development of cardiovascular disease, The study region is a socio-economically deprived area in the Netherlands, The first int

  9. "Healthy," "diet," or "hedonic". How nutrition claims affect food-related perceptions and intake?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravel, Karine; Doucet, Éric; Herman, C Peter; Pomerleau, Sonia; Bourlaud, Anne-Sophie; Provencher, Véronique

    2012-12-01

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of nutrition claims on food perceptions and intake among adult men and women, during ad libitum snacks. In a three (healthy vs. diet vs. hedonic) by two (normal-weight vs. overweight/obese) by two (unrestrained vs. restrained eaters) factorial design, 164 men and 188 women were invited to taste and rate oatmeal-raisin cookies. Despite the fact that the cookies were the same in all conditions, they were perceived as being healthier in the "healthy" condition than in the "diet" and "hedonic" conditions. The caloric content was estimated as higher by participants in the "hedonic" than in the "healthy" condition, by women than by men, and by restrained than by unrestrained eaters. Although measured ad libitum cookie intake did not differ as a function of experimental condition, overweight restrained men ate more than did women from each BMI and restraint category. Conversely, overweight restrained women ate less than did men from each BMI and restraint category. In conclusion, our manipulations of healthiness and "fatteningness" of food were effective in changing perceptions, but were not in changing behavior. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. [The Spanish Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (SENPE) and its relation with healthcare authorities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García de Lorenzo, A; Alvarez, J; Celaya, S; García Cofrades, M; García Luna, P P; García Peris, P; León-Sanz, M; Jiménez, C P; Olveira, G; Smeets, M

    2011-01-01

    It has been well documented in medical literature that hyponutrition is a common issue at all healthcare levels, from primary to specialized health care, as well as geriatric healthcare facilities. This problem is not limited to countries with scarce economic resources or limited social development; it is also a universal issue in Europe. Hyponutrition increases the rates of morbidity, mortality, hospital admissions, and hospital stay. These higher figures also represent a higher use of healthcare resources. In spite of this, hyponutrition may often go undetected and the patient may not receive the necessary treatment. This problem requires the cooperation of multiple agents such as the Governments, the healthcare professionals, and the citizens themselves. The VIII Discussion Forum concludes on the need to establish a clear-cut plant for action (similar to the European Alliance for Health Nutrition) and the creation of a platform (coalition) encompassing the voices of healthcare professionals associations, institutions, professional colleges, patients associations, the pharmaceutical companies, and insurance companies. The goals of this platform will be to inform about the extent of this issue, to identity and promote leaders that will convey the aims of this initiative to regional and national healthcare authorities, to present solutions and to collaborate in their implementation, and finally to assess/control the actions taken.

  11. Nutrition and its relation to mealtime preparation, eating, fatigue and mood among stroke survivors after discharge from hospital - a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westergren, Albert

    2008-01-01

    Eating difficulties and nutritional deficits are common among persons with acute stroke and during rehabilitation. Little is known about such problems after discharge from hospital. In addition the relationship between fatigue and nutritional status among stroke survivors living in the community remains to be explored. The aim of this pilot study was to describe mealtime preparation, eating, fatigue, mood and nutritional status among persons with stroke six months after discharge from hospital and to explore associations between these factors. Patients were interviewed six months poststroke. Standardised questions and methods were used. The mean age of the 89 respondents was 77.2 (SD 6.6) years, 44 were women and 45 men. Difficulties with swallowing, ingestion and energy to eat occurred among 27%, 20% and 7% respectively. Difficulties with cooking and buying food occurred among 57% and 56% respectively and 41% were at nutritional risk. Feeling full of energy less than some of the time was experienced by 61% while 15% had felt gloomy and sad at least some of the time during the previous four weeks. Considering activities of daily living (ADL), having a less favourable nutritional status was significantly predicted by difficulties with buying food, difficulties with ingestion and being a woman. Considering psychological state (mood and energy), having a less favourable nutritional status was significantly predicted by a lack of energy and high age. This study supports the occurrence of a nutritionally related fatigue by means of "lack of energy". The associations between poor nutritional status and fatigue can work in both directions. Thus persons with fatigue are more prone to have poor nutritional status and those with poor nutritional status are at greater risk of fatigue. Besides fatigue also difficulties with buying food and ingestion are associated with nutritional risk. As nutritional deficits occur a long time after stroke onset it is important to assess

  12. Prevalence of Nutrition and Health-Related Claims on Pre-Packaged Foods: A Five-Country Study in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hieke, Sophie; Kuljanic, Nera; Pravst, Igor; Miklavec, Krista; Kaur, Asha; Brown, Kerry A.; Egan, Bernadette M.; Pfeifer, Katja; Gracia, Azucena; Rayner, Mike

    2016-01-01

    This study is part of the research undertaken in the EU funded project CLYMBOL (“Role of health-related CLaims and sYMBOLs in consumer behaviour”). The first phase of this project consisted of mapping the prevalence of symbolic and non-symbolic nutrition and health-related claims (NHC) on foods and non-alcoholic beverages in five European countries. Pre-packaged foods and drinks were sampled based on a standardized sampling protocol, using store lists or a store floor plan. Data collection took place across five countries, in three types of stores. A total of 2034 foods and drinks were sampled and packaging information was analyzed. At least one claim was identified for 26% (95% CI (24.0%–27.9%)) of all foods and drinks sampled. Six percent of these claims were symbolic. The majority of the claims were nutrition claims (64%), followed by health claims (29%) and health-related ingredient claims (6%). The most common health claims were nutrient and other function claims (47% of all claims), followed by disease risk reduction claims (5%). Eight percent of the health claims were children’s development and health claims but these were only observed on less than 1% (0.4%–1.1%) of the foods. The category of foods for specific dietary use had the highest proportion of NHC (70% of foods carried a claim). The prevalence of symbolic and non-symbolic NHC varies across European countries and between different food categories. This study provides baseline data for policy makers and the food industry to monitor and evaluate the use of claims on food packaging. PMID:26950149

  13. Prevalence of Nutrition and Health-Related Claims on Pre-Packaged Foods: A Five-Country Study in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hieke, Sophie; Kuljanic, Nera; Pravst, Igor; Miklavec, Krista; Kaur, Asha; Brown, Kerry A; Egan, Bernadette M; Pfeifer, Katja; Gracia, Azucena; Rayner, Mike

    2016-03-03

    This study is part of the research undertaken in the EU funded project CLYMBOL ("Role of health-related CLaims and sYMBOLs in consumer behaviour"). The first phase of this project consisted of mapping the prevalence of symbolic and non-symbolic nutrition and health-related claims (NHC) on foods and non-alcoholic beverages in five European countries. Pre-packaged foods and drinks were sampled based on a standardized sampling protocol, using store lists or a store floor plan. Data collection took place across five countries, in three types of stores. A total of 2034 foods and drinks were sampled and packaging information was analyzed. At least one claim was identified for 26% (95% CI (24.0%-27.9%)) of all foods and drinks sampled. Six percent of these claims were symbolic. The majority of the claims were nutrition claims (64%), followed by health claims (29%) and health-related ingredient claims (6%). The most common health claims were nutrient and other function claims (47% of all claims), followed by disease risk reduction claims (5%). Eight percent of the health claims were children's development and health claims but these were only observed on less than 1% (0.4%-1.1%) of the foods. The category of foods for specific dietary use had the highest proportion of NHC (70% of foods carried a claim). The prevalence of symbolic and non-symbolic NHC varies across European countries and between different food categories. This study provides baseline data for policy makers and the food industry to monitor and evaluate the use of claims on food packaging.

  14. Prevalence of Nutrition and Health-Related Claims on Pre-Packaged Foods: A Five-Country Study in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Hieke

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study is part of the research undertaken in the EU funded project CLYMBOL (“Role of health-related CLaims and sYMBOLs in consumer behaviour”. The first phase of this project consisted of mapping the prevalence of symbolic and non-symbolic nutrition and health-related claims (NHC on foods and non-alcoholic beverages in five European countries. Pre-packaged foods and drinks were sampled based on a standardized sampling protocol, using store lists or a store floor plan. Data collection took place across five countries, in three types of stores. A total of 2034 foods and drinks were sampled and packaging information was analyzed. At least one claim was identified for 26% (95% CI (24.0%–27.9% of all foods and drinks sampled. Six percent of these claims were symbolic. The majority of the claims were nutrition claims (64%, followed by health claims (29% and health-related ingredient claims (6%. The most common health claims were nutrient and other function claims (47% of all claims, followed by disease risk reduction claims (5%. Eight percent of the health claims were children’s development and health claims but these were only observed on less than 1% (0.4%–1.1% of the foods. The category of foods for specific dietary use had the highest proportion of NHC (70% of foods carried a claim. The prevalence of symbolic and non-symbolic NHC varies across European countries and between different food categories. This study provides baseline data for policy makers and the food industry to monitor and evaluate the use of claims on food packaging.

  15. Nutrition function, health and related claims on packaged Australian food products--prevalence and compliance with regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Peter; Yeatman, Heather; Ridges, Leisa; Houston, Annalie; Rafferty, Jillianan; Ridges, Anna; Roesler, Leisa; Sobierajski, Megan; Spratt, Bronwyn

    2006-01-01

    Australia and New Zealand are currently reviewing the regulations governing nutrition function, health and related claims on foods. Health claims currently are not permitted on food labels, with one exception. The aim of this study was to describe the use of such claims on packaged food for sale in Australia (excluding nutrient content claims) prior to any changes to the regulations, and measure compliance with existing regulations. A survey was conducted of the labelling of 7850 products (including multiple pack sizes of individual foods) in 47 different food categories on sale in New South Wales in 2003. A total of 2098 nutrition function, health or related claims and 12 therapeutic claims were recorded. Fourteen percent of products carried some sort of claim. If nutrient function and general health maintenance claims are excluded, 8.1% of products carried a health or related claim. Using the claims categorisation proposed by Food Standards Australia New Zealand for a new standard on claims, general-level claims were found on 9.8% of products and high-level and therapeutic claims (illegal at the time) on 1.2%. The food categories with the highest proportion of products carrying claims were sports drinks (92%), energy drinks (84%), sports bars (57%) and breakfast cereals (54%). 118 high-level and therapeutic claims did not conform to current food standards and there were many general-level claims for ingredient benefits that were unlikely to be able to be scientifically substantiated. The results of this survey suggest that more than 5% of claims were not complying with the current regulations and that the standards were not being fully enforced. To be effective, the new standard will need to be accompanied by clear guidelines for manufacturers on requirements for substantiating claims. Comprehensive education and enforcement frameworks also will be needed, to reduce the number of illegal or apparently unsubstantiated claims.

  16. Assessment of nutritional status and meal-related situations among patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Primary health care - obese patients; a challenge for the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odencrants, Sigrid; Theander, Kersti

    2013-04-01

    To describe nutritional status, meal related situations, food habits and food preferences of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in a Primary health care (PHC) setting. To date, guidelines have mainly focused on underweight patients with COPD, as a low body mass index (BMI) is a risk factor for mortality. However, in recent years there has been an increase in the number of overweight patients with COPD, and therefore nutritional management must be developed to cover problems related to both under and overweight. Descriptive. One hundred and three patients from PHC centres representing COPD stages 2 and 3 were included. The Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) was used to collect nutritional status data while semi-structured interviews provided information on food and meal related situations. Mean age was 69 (± 5)years and 45% were women. Among all patients mean BMI was 27 and 14% had a BMI ≤ 21 kg/m(2) . More women (31%) than men (26%) had a BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2) . According to the MNA screening score, 86% of the patients were assessed as normal or not at risk of malnutrition. The total MNA assessment score revealed that 10 patients were at risk of malnutrition or malnourishment. Problems with meal related situations were mostly associated with eating, and only a small number reported difficulties with shopping or preparing food. In PHC, more patients with COPD were obese than malnourished and their self-reported nutritional status was not always accurate. It is challenging to identify the patient's nutritional status, individualize nutritional care and educate obese patients with COPD at PHC centres. It is necessary to develop screening instruments to assess the risk of both obesity and malnutrition. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Nutritional outcomes related to household food insecurity among mothers in rural Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihabi, A N; Rohana, A J; Wan Manan, W M; Wan Suriati, W N; Zalilah, M S; Rusli, A Mohamed

    2013-12-01

    During the past two decades, the rates of food insecurity and obesity have risen. Although a relationship between these two seemingly-paradoxical states has not been repeatedly seen in men, research suggests that a correlation between them exists in women. This study examines nutritional outcomes of household food insecurity among mothers in rural Malaysia. A cross-sectional survey of low-income households was conducted, and 223 households with mothers aged 18-55 years, who were non-lactating, non-pregnant, and had at least one child aged 2-12 years, were purposively selected. A questionnaire was administered that included the Radimer/Cornell Scale, items about sociodemographic characteristics, and anthropometric measurements. Of the households, 16.1% were food-secure whereas 83.9% experienced some kind of food insecurity: 29.6% of households were food-insecure, 19.3% contained individuals who were food-insecure, and 35.0% fell into the 'child hunger' category. The result reported that household-size, total monthly income, income per capita, and food expenditure were significant risk factors of household food insecurity. Although there was a high prevalence of overweight and obese mothers (52%) and 47.1% had at-risk waist-circumference (> or = 80 cm), no significant association was found between food insecurity, body mass index, and waist-circumference. In conclusion, the rates of household food insecurity and overweight and obesity were high in the study population, although they are looking paradoxical. Longitudinal studies with larger sample-sizes are recommended to further examine the relationship between food insecurity and obesity.

  18. Nutritional aspects of metabolic inflammation in relation to health-insights from transcriptomic biomarkers in PBMC of fatty acids and polyphenols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Afman, L.A.; Milenkovic, D.; Roche, H.

    2014-01-01

    Recent research has highlighted potential important interaction between metabolism and inflammation, within the context of metabolic health and nutrition, with a view to preventing diet-related disease. In addition to this, there is a paucity of evidence in relation to accurate biomarkers that are c

  19. Determining health care rights from behind a veil of ignorance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korobkin, R

    1998-01-01

    Should our society establish positive rights to health care that each citizen could claim, as many health policy analysts believe? Or should it provide only background rules of contract and property law and leave the provision of health care to the free market, as Richard Epstein advocates in Mortal Peril? In this article, Professor Korobkin argues that this question should be addressed from the Rawlsian "veil of ignorance" perspective. That is, the question should be answered by asking what kind of society would individuals agree to form if they had no knowledge of their individual skills or endowments; if they did not know whether they were rich or poor, healthy or sick, weak or strong. Professor Korobkin contends that individuals behind such a veil of ignorance would balance their inherent risk aversion (which favors a safety net of "rights") against the inefficient incentives created by rights regimes that would reduce net social wealth (which favors a free market). Whether they would choose to establish rights to health care or not is ultimately an empirical question that turns on how inefficient any particular right would be. The question thus requires a case-by-case analysis of proposed rights. The article then considers the policy issues of (1) community rating of private health insurance and (2) the mandated provision of emergency medical care. It concludes that in these cases the inefficient incentives created by establishing rights are probably smaller and/or controllable enough to lead individuals behind the veil of ignorance to favor a regime of positive rights.

  20. Magnetic Fields are not ignorable in the dynamics of disks

    CERN Document Server

    Battaner, E; Guijarro, A

    2000-01-01

    Magnetic fields are considered to be dominant when $\\epsilon_{B}\\geq\\epsilon_{K}$, being $\\epsilon_{B}=B^{2}/8\\pi$ the magnetic energy density and $\\epsilon_{K}=1/2 \\rho\\theta^{2}$ the rotation energy density, for a conventional moderate B= 1 $\\mu$G. They are considered to be negligible when $\\epsilon_{B}<\\epsilon_{K}$ for $B\\sim 10 \\mu$G. With no assumption and no theoretical calculation, we show that magnetic fields cannot be ignored in the outer parts of a galaxy like the Milky Way and in the whole disk of a dwarf galaxy.

  1. The ACA from behind the "Veil of Ignorance".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dentzer, Susan

    2017-01-01

    John Rawls posited that we could determine the nature of justice if we imagined ourselves observing conditions in society from behind a hypothetical "veil of ignorance." Not knowing how or where we would end up-rich, poor, empowered, disabled-we would choose governing principles that did not leave one disadvantaged because of his or her circumstances. Rawls's concepts are implicitly embedded in the Affordable Care Act, which guarantees that vastly more Americans can obtain health insurance. The law effectively closed down the de facto lottery that awarded coverage to most but left out millions of others. © 2017 The Hastings Center.

  2. Preferences for equity in health behind a veil of ignorance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, F; Lyttkens, C H

    1999-08-01

    Individual attitudes to distributions of life years between two groups in a society are explored by means of an experiment. Subjects are asked to place themselves behind a veil of ignorance which is specified in terms of risk (known probabilities) for some subjects and in terms of uncertainty (unknown probabilities) for some subjects. The latter is argued to be the appropriate interpretation of Rawls' notion. It is found that subjects exhibit convex preferences over life years for the two groups, and that preferences do not differ between the risk and the uncertainty specifications.

  3. The retroverted uterus: ignored to date but core to prolapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haylen, Bernard T

    2006-11-01

    The retroverted uterus has been largely ignored in urogynaecological research to date. The prevalence of the retroverted uterus is 79% more common in the urogynaecological patient population (34%) than in the general gynaecological population (19%). Its diagnosis requires the use of (a) transvaginal ultrasound with (b) an empty bladder. Recent data demonstrate that the prevalence of grade 2-4 uterine prolapse for a retroverted uterus is 4.5 times that for an anteverted uterus. Alternatively, 69% grade 2-4 uterine prolapse involves the retroverted uterus. The retroverted uterus, when diagnosed by transvaginal ultrasound (bladder empty), is far more common in urogynecology patients due to their higher incidence of prolapse.

  4. Ignorància i saber en Nicolau de Cusa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Mansilla Navarro

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Después de un acercamiento al pensamiento de Nicolás de Cusa, este artículo profundiza en su obra Idiota de sapientia (1450. A partir de su estudio, el autor plantea la paradoja que se establece en torno a la noción de verdad ya que, de acuerdo con la tradición socrática, la ignorancia a la que se refiere Nicolás de Cusa no consiste en la obscuridad del no-saber sino en una ignorancia sapiencial que constituye un punto de partida para el estudio de cualquier realidad aceptando la humildad como actitud intelectual. ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Après une approche de la pensée de Nicolas de Cusa, cet article approfondit l’étude de son oeuvre Idiota de sapientia (1450. À partir de son étude, l’auteur propose le paradoxe qui est posé autour de la notion de vérité. En effet, conformément à la tradition socratique, l’ignorance à laquelle se réfère Nicolas de Cusa ne consiste pas en l’obscurité du nonsavoir sinon en une ignorance sage, qui constitue un point de départ pour l’étude de n’importe quelle réalité en acceptant l’humilité comme attitude intellectuelle.Following a review of the thinking of Nicholas of Cusa, this article undertakes a detailed study of his work, Idiota de Sapientia (1450. From this study, the author discusses the paradox that has grown up around the notion of truth since, in accordance with the Socratic tradition, the ignorance to which Nicholas of Cusa refers does not consist of the darkness of not knowing but rather of a learned ignorance that constitutes a starting point for the study of any reality accepting humility as an intellectual attitude.Después de un acercamiento al pensamiento de Nicolás de Cusa, este artículo profundiza en su obra Idiota de sapientia (1450. A partir de su estudio, el autor plantea la paradoja que se establece en torno a la noci

  5. Efficient Workload Classification based on Ignored Auditory Probes: A Proof of Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Raphaëlle N.; Bonnet, Stéphane; Charbonnier, Sylvie; Campagne, Aurélie

    2016-01-01

    Mental workload is a mental state that is currently one of the main research focuses in neuroergonomics. It can notably be estimated using measurements in electroencephalography (EEG), a method that allows for direct mental state assessment. Auditory probes can be used to elicit event-related potentials (ERPs) that are modulated by workload. Although, some papers do report ERP modulations due to workload using attended or ignored probes, to our knowledge there is no literature regarding effective workload classification based on ignored auditory probes. In this paper, in order to efficiently estimate workload, we advocate for the use of such ignored auditory probes in a single-stimulus paradigm and a signal processing chain that includes a spatial filtering step. The effectiveness of this approach is demonstrated on data acquired from participants that performed the Multi-Attribute Task Battery – II. They carried out this task during two 10-min blocks. Each block corresponded to a workload condition that was pseudorandomly assigned. The easy condition consisted of two monitoring tasks performed in parallel, and the difficult one consisted of those two tasks with an additional plane driving task. Infrequent auditory probes were presented during the tasks and the participants were asked to ignore them. The EEG data were denoised and the probes’ ERPs were extracted and spatially filtered using a canonical correlation analysis. Next, binary classification was performed using a Fisher LDA and a fivefold cross-validation procedure. Our method allowed for a very high estimation performance with a classification accuracy above 80% for every participant, and minimal intrusiveness thanks to the use of a single-stimulus paradigm. Therefore, this study paves the way to the efficient use of ERPs for mental state monitoring in close to real-life settings and contributes toward the development of adaptive user interfaces. PMID:27790109

  6. Early humans' egalitarian politics: runaway synergistic competition under an adapted veil of ignorance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Marc

    2014-09-01

    this now-ill-adapted veil of ignorance, thus uncovering the tight functional relations between egalitarian team solidarity and the evolution of human uniqueness.

  7. Efficient workload classification based on ignored auditory probes: A proof of concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphaëlle N. Roy

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Mental workload is a mental state that is currently one of the main research focuses in neuroergonomics. It can notably be estimated using measurements in electroencephalography (EEG, a method that allows for direct mental state assessment. Auditory probes can be used to elicit event-related potentials (ERPs that are modulated by workload. Although some papers do report ERP modulations due to workload using attended or ignored probes, to our knowledge there is no literature regarding effective workload classification based on ignored auditory probes. In this paper, in order to efficiently estimate workload, we advocate for the use of such ignored auditory probes in a single-stimulus paradigm and a signal processing chain that includes a spatial filtering step. The effectiveness of this approach is demonstrated on data acquired from participants that performed the Multi-Attribute Task Battery – II. They carried out this task during two ten-minute blocks. Each block corresponded to a workload condition that was pseudorandomly assigned. The easy condition consisted of two monitoring tasks performed in parallel, and the difficult one consisted of those two tasks with an additional plane driving task. Infrequent auditory probes were presented during the tasks and the participants were asked to ignore them. The EEG data were denoised and the probes’ ERPs were extracted and spatially filtered using a Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA. Next, binary classification was performed using a Fisher LDA and a 5-fold cross-validation procedure. Our method allowed for a very high estimation performance with a classification accuracy above 80% for every participant, and minimal intrusiveness thanks to the use of a single-stimulus paradigm. Therefore, this study paves the way to the efficient use of ERPs for mental state monitoring in close to real-life settings and contributes towards the development of adaptive user interfaces.

  8. Reach of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program–Education (SNAP–Ed) Interventions and Nutrition and Physical Activity-Related Outcomes, California, 2011–2012

    OpenAIRE

    Molitor, Fred; Sugerman, Sharon; Yu, Hongjian; Biehl, Michael; Aydin, May; Levy, Melanie; Ponce, Ninez A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction This study combined information on the interventions of the US Department of Agriculture’s Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program–Education with 5,927 interview responses from the California Health Interview Survey to investigate associations between levels of intervention reach in low-income census tracts in California and self-reported physical activity and consumption of fruits and vegetables, fast food, and sugar-sweetened beverages. Methods We determined 4 levels of inter...

  9. Public health nutrition and food policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caraher, Martin; Coveney, John

    2004-08-01

    Food in its many manifestations allows us to explore the global control of health and to examine the ways in which food choice is moulded by many interests. The global food market is controlled by a small number of companies who operate a system that delivers 'cheap' food to the countries of the developed world. This 'cheap' food comes at a price, which externalises costs to the nation state in terms of health consequences (diabetes, coronary heart disease and other food-related diseases) and to the environment in terms of pollution and the associated clean-up strategies. Food policy has not to any great extent dealt with these issues, opting instead for an approach based on nutrition, food choice and biomedical health. Ignoring wider elements of the food system including issues of ecology and sustainability constrains a broader understanding within public health nutrition. Here we argue that public health nutrition, through the medium of health promotion, needs to address these wider issues of who controls the food supply, and thus the influences on the food chain and the food choices of the individual and communities. Such an upstream approach to food policy (one that has been learned from work on tobacco) is necessary if we are seriously to influence food choice.

  10. Meat and haem iron intake in relation to glioma in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Heather A; Gayle, Alicia; Jakszyn, Paula; Merritt, Melissa; Melin, Beatrice; Freisling, Heinz; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Tjonneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Dahm, Christina C; Overvad, Kim; Katzke, Verena; Kühn, Tilman; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Kyrozis, Andreas; Palli, Domenico; Krogh, Vittorio; Tumino, Rosario; Ricceri, Fulvio; Mattiello, Amalia; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas; Peeters, Petra H; Quirós, José Ramón; Agudo, Antonio; Rodriguez-Barranco, Miguel; Larrañaga, Nerea; Huerta, José M; Barricarte, Aurelio; Sonestedt, Emily; Drake, Isabel; Sandström, Maria; Travis, Ruth C; Ferrari, Pietro; Riboli, Elio; Cross, Amanda J

    2016-11-11

    Diets high in red or processed meat have been associated positively with some cancers, and several possible underlying mechanisms have been proposed, including iron-related pathways. However, the role of meat intake in adult glioma risk has yielded conflicting findings because of small sample sizes and heterogeneous tumour classifications. The aim of this study was to examine red meat, processed meat and iron intake in relation to glioma risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study. In this prospective cohort study, 408 751 individuals from nine European countries completed demographic and dietary questionnaires at recruitment. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine intake of red meat, processed meat, total dietary iron and haem iron in relation to incident glioma. During an average follow-up of 14.1 years, 688 incident glioma cases were diagnosed. There was no evidence that any of the meat variables (red, processed meat or subtypes of meat) or iron (total or haem) were associated with glioma; results were unchanged when the first 2 years of follow-up were excluded. This study suggests that there is no association between meat or iron intake and adult glioma. This is the largest prospective analysis of meat and iron in relation to glioma and as such provides a substantial contribution to a limited and inconsistent literature.

  11. The end of ignorance multiplying our human potential

    CERN Document Server

    Mighton, John

    2008-01-01

    A revolutionary call for a new understanding of how people learn. The End of Ignorance conceives of a world in which no child is left behind – a world based on the assumption that each child has the potential to be successful in every subject. John Mighton argues that by recognizing the barriers that we have experienced in our own educational development, by identifying the moment that we became disenchanted with a certain subject and forever closed ourselves off to it, we will be able to eliminate these same barriers from standing in the way of our children. A passionate examination of our present education system, The End of Ignorance shows how we all can work together to reinvent the way that we are taught. John Mighton, the author of The Myth of Ability, is the founder of JUMP Math, a system of learning based on the fostering of emergent intelligence. The program has proved so successful an entire class of Grade 3 students, including so-called slow learners, scored over 90% on a Grade 6 math test. A ...

  12. Access to Difficult-to-reach Population Subgroups: A Family Midwife Based Home Visiting Service for Implementing Nutrition-related Preventive Activities - A Mixed Methods Explorative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Walz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Health and social inequality are tightly linked and still pose an important public health problem. However, vulnerable and disadvantaged populations are difficult to reach for health-related interventions. Given the long-lasting effects of an adverse, particular nutrition-related, intrauterine and neonatal environment on health development (perinatal programming, an early and easy access is essential for sustainable interventions. The goal of this explorative study was therefore to elucidate whether an existing access of family midwives (FMs to families in need of support could be an option to implement effective public health and nutrition interventions. To that end three research objectives were formulated: (1 to determine whether a discernible impact of home visits by FMs can be described; (2 to identify subgroups among these families in need of more specific interventions; (3 to determine how relevant nutrition-related topics are for both FMs and the supported families. For addressing these objectives a mixed methods design was used: Routine documentation data from 295 families visited by a family midwife (FM were analyzed (secondary analysis, and structured expert interviews with FMs were conducted and analyzed. Study reporting followed the STROBE (STrengthening the Reporting of OBservational studies in Epidemiology statement. Based on the FMs reports, a significant improvement (p < 0.001 regarding psycho-social variables could be determined after the home visits. Single mothers, however, seemed to benefit less from the FMs service compared to their counterparts (p = 0.015. Nutritional counseling was demanded by 89% of the families during the home visits. In addition, nutrition-related topics were reported in the interviews to be of high interest to both families and the FMs. Based on the obtained results it is concluded that FMs home visits offer a promising access to vulnerable and disadvantaged families for implementing nutrition-related

  13. A Historical Review of Changes in Nutrition Standards of USDA Child Meal Programs Relative to Research Findings on the Nutritional Adequacy of Program Meals and the Diet and Nutritional Health of Participants: Implications for Future Research and the Summer Food Service Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Laura C; Gunther, Carolyn

    2015-12-04

    The USDA child meal programs (CMPs) (National School Lunch Program (NSLP), School Breakfast Program (SBP), and Summer Food Service Program (SFSP) were established in 1946 (NSLP) and 1975 (SBP and SFSP) to improve the diet and nutritional health of US children. There is concern that participation in these programs may in fact be a contributor to the current childhood obesity epidemic. The purpose of this study was to determine if the CMPs are meeting their intended goal by reviewing the historical changes to nutrition standards of the CMPs in correspondence with the literature that examines the nutritional adequacy of meals served as part of these programs, as well as the dietary intakes and nutritional status of participants. Public Law and the Federal Register were reviewed and websites and online databases were systematically searched. NSLP and SBP first underwent updates to the nutrition standards in 1994 and subsequently 2010, whereas SFSP last underwent modifications in 2000. The majority of data, all collected prior to 2010, demonstrate that meals served as part of the NSLP and SBP are not meeting nutrition standards. In addition, the dietary intakes of NSLP and SBP participants are high in calories, fat, saturated fat, and sodium, and low in fiber. Studies examining the weight status and other nutrition-related health outcomes of NSLP and SBP participants have produced mixed results. In contrast, no studies published in the peer-reviewed literature have been conducted examining the nutritional adequacy of SFSP meals or the dietary intakes or nutritional health of SFSP participants. There are public reports available on the nutritionally adequacy of SFSP meals, however, they are severely outdated (1988 and 2003). Due to this dearth of information, a case study on a sample SFSP menu from summer 2015 was conducted; results showed that the meals are high in carbohydrate and protein content and insufficient in vegetable servings. There is critical need for policy

  14. A Historical Review of Changes in Nutrition Standards of USDA Child Meal Programs Relative to Research Findings on the Nutritional Adequacy of Program Meals and the Diet and Nutritional Health of Participants: Implications for Future Research and the Summer Food Service Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura C. Hopkins

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The USDA child meal programs (CMPs (National School Lunch Program (NSLP, School Breakfast Program (SBP, and Summer Food Service Program (SFSP were established in 1946 (NSLP and 1975 (SBP and SFSP to improve the diet and nutritional health of US children. There is concern that participation in these programs may in fact be a contributor to the current childhood obesity epidemic. Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine if the CMPs are meeting their intended goal by reviewing the historical changes to nutrition standards of the CMPs in correspondence with the literature that examines the nutritional adequacy of meals served as part of these programs, as well as the dietary intakes and nutritional status of participants. Methods: Public Law and the Federal Register were reviewed and websites and online databases were systematically searched. Results: NSLP and SBP first underwent updates to the nutrition standards in 1994 and subsequently 2010, whereas SFSP last underwent modifications in 2000. The majority of data, all collected prior to 2010, demonstrate that meals served as part of the NSLP and SBP are not meeting nutrition standards. In addition, the dietary intakes of NSLP and SBP participants are high in calories, fat, saturated fat, and sodium, and low in fiber. Studies examining the weight status and other nutrition-related health outcomes of NSLP and SBP participants have produced mixed results. In contrast, no studies published in the peer-reviewed literature have been conducted examining the nutritional adequacy of SFSP meals or the dietary intakes or nutritional health of SFSP participants. There are public reports available on the nutritionally adequacy of SFSP meals, however, they are severely outdated (1988 and 2003. Due to this dearth of information, a case study on a sample SFSP menu from summer 2015 was conducted; results showed that the meals are high in carbohydrate and protein content and insufficient in

  15. [Catheter-related infection in home-based parenteral nutrition: outcomes from the NADYA group and presentation of a new protocol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuerda, Compés C; Bretón, Lesmes I; Bonada Sanjaume, A; Planas Vila, M

    2006-01-01

    Hom parenteral nutrition (HPN) is a nutritional support modality that allows for the supply of parenteral nutrition bags to the patient's home. Since its first use in the late 60s, this therapy has allowed maintaining patients with intestinal failure alive that previously were doomed to death. In our country, this therapy is used by 2.15 patients pmp. According to the NADYA data, catheter-related infections account for 50% of all HPN-related complications. In larger series, infection rates are 0.5-2 infections/1000 days or 0.3-0.5 infections/patient/year. Most of them are produced by gram-positive organisms that migrate from the skin or from catheter connections to the tip. These infections are diagnosed by means of clinical data and with different microbiological cultures. When treating these infections, it is important to keep the catheter in place, and administering antibiotics through it, conventionally or with the antibioticolade technique.

  16. Relations between anthropometric and motor variables of seven-year-old girls with the differentiated level of nutritional status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanović Miroljub

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to examine the frequency of nutritional status and the relations between anthropometric characteristics and motor skills of the first-grade elementary schools girls from Valjevo. A battery of 16 anthropometric measurements and 9 motor tests was conducted on the pertinent sample (N = 332 of seven-year-old girls. Data were analyzed using common measures of central tendency, measures of variability and canonical correlation analysis. Based on the measured body mass index, 75% of participants have normal body mass, 21% has increased body mass, and 4% is overweight. The results showed that in the group of participants with normal body mass there is no significant connection between two systems of variables (morphological characteristics and motor skills. Data from the group of overweight participants show that the two statistically relevant correlations were extracted in the morpho-motoric space and were interpreted as canonical functions: (1 circular dimensionality of the skeleton and body mass, and explosive strength and (2 subcutaneous fatty tissue and segmented run and running speed. Canonical factors indicate that the greater the size of chest, thigh, shin and body mass, the lower are the results of the composite motor tests (plyometric jump, forward lean-backward lean-throw, long jump and standing jump, that is the girls who had higher values of back skinfold, stomach skinfold, thigh skinfold and shin skinfold, had worse result realization of motor tasks (hand-tapping, foot-tapping and running 5 x 10 m. Empirical data of the research on the isolated canonical structure are relevant from the theoretical point of view, but they also have relevant implications for identifying increased level of nutritional status and the advancement of physical education in elementary school education.

  17. Nutritional and Health-Related Effects of a Diet Containing Apple Seed Meal in Rats: The Case of Amygdalin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opyd, Paulina M; Jurgoński, Adam; Juśkiewicz, Jerzy; Milala, Joanna; Zduńczyk, Zenon; Król, Bogusław

    2017-10-02

    Apple pomace includes seeds that are rich in protein, fiber, and oil, which can be extracted from them. However, they can also contain a significant amount of toxigenic amygdalin. We hypothesized that amygdalin is a compound that significantly reduces the nutritional and health quality of defatted apple seeds. An experiment was conducted on rats that were distributed into three groups and fed with high-fructose diets. In the control (C) and amygdalin (AMG) groups, cellulose and casein were the source of dietary fiber and protein, respectively; in the apple seed meal (ASM) group, dietary fiber and protein originated from the endosperm of apple seeds, which were previously defatted and ground. A diet fed to the ASM group also contained 0.24% of amygdalin from the meal, whereas the AMG diet was supplemented with the same amount of synthetic amygdalin. After 14 days of experimental feeding, the body weight of rats was decreased in the ASM group. When compared to the C group, apparent protein digestibility and nitrogen retention were increased in the AMG group, while both were decreased in the ASM group. In the small intestine, mucosal maltase activity was decreased in the AMG and ASM groups, whereas lactase activity was only decreased by dietary amygdalin. The caecal SCFA pool and butyrate concentration were significantly increased in the ASM group compared to the other groups. Moreover, the ASM diet increased plasma concentration of high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and plasma antioxidant capacity of water-soluble substances (ACW). It also decreased the liver content of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS). In contrast, dietary amygdalin did not affect these indices. Dietary supplementation with apple seed meal can exert beneficial effects on the intestinal tract, blood lipid profile and antioxidant status of rats. In most cases, these effects are not limited by the presence of amygdalin. However, the nutritional value of protein from apple seed

  18. Nutritional and Health-Related Effects of a Diet Containing Apple Seed Meal in Rats: The Case of Amygdalin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina M. Opyd

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Apple pomace includes seeds that are rich in protein, fiber, and oil, which can be extracted from them. However, they can also contain a significant amount of toxigenic amygdalin. We hypothesized that amygdalin is a compound that significantly reduces the nutritional and health quality of defatted apple seeds. An experiment was conducted on rats that were distributed into three groups and fed with high-fructose diets. In the control (C and amygdalin (AMG groups, cellulose and casein were the source of dietary fiber and protein, respectively; in the apple seed meal (ASM group, dietary fiber and protein originated from the endosperm of apple seeds, which were previously defatted and ground. A diet fed to the ASM group also contained 0.24% of amygdalin from the meal, whereas the AMG diet was supplemented with the same amount of synthetic amygdalin. After 14 days of experimental feeding, the body weight of rats was decreased in the ASM group. When compared to the C group, apparent protein digestibility and nitrogen retention were increased in the AMG group, while both were decreased in the ASM group. In the small intestine, mucosal maltase activity was decreased in the AMG and ASM groups, whereas lactase activity was only decreased by dietary amygdalin. The caecal SCFA pool and butyrate concentration were significantly increased in the ASM group compared to the other groups. Moreover, the ASM diet increased plasma concentration of high density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol and plasma antioxidant capacity of water-soluble substances (ACW. It also decreased the liver content of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS. In contrast, dietary amygdalin did not affect these indices. Dietary supplementation with apple seed meal can exert beneficial effects on the intestinal tract, blood lipid profile and antioxidant status of rats. In most cases, these effects are not limited by the presence of amygdalin. However, the nutritional value of protein from

  19. Nutritional status in relation to lifestyle in patients with compensated viral cirrhosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fumikazu Hayashi; Chika Momoki; Miho Yuikawa; Yuko Simotani; Etsushi Kawamura; Atsushi Hagihara; Hideki Fujii

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To assess the nourishment status and lifestyle of non-hospitalized patients with compensated cirrhosis by using noninvasive methods.METHODS:The subjects for this study consisted of 27 healthy volunteers,59 patients with chronic viral hepatitis,and 74 patients with viral cirrhosis,from urban areas.We assessed the biochemical blood tests,anthropometric parameters,diet,lifestyle and physical activity of the patients.A homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) value of ≥2.5 was considered to indicate insulin resistance.We measured height,weight,waist circumference,arm circumference,triceps skin-fold thickness,and handgrip strength,and calculated body mass index,arm muscle circumference (AMC),and arm muscle area (AMA).We interviewed the subjects about their dietary habits and lifestyle using health assessment computer software.We surveyed daily physical activity using a pedometer.Univariate and multivariate logistic regression modeling were used to identify the relevant factors for insulin resistance.RESULTS:The rate of patients with HOMA-IR ≥ 2.5 (which was considered to indicate insulin resistance)was 14 (35.9%) in the chronic hepatitis and 17 (37.8%)in the cirrhotic patients.AMC (%) (control vs chronic hepatitis,111.9% ± 10.5% vs 104.9% ± 10.7%,P =0.021; control vs cirrhosis,111.9% ± 10.5% vs 102.7% ± 10.8%,P =0.001) and AMA (%) (control vs chronic hepatitis,128.2% ± 25.1% vs 112.2% ±22.9%,P =0.013; control vs cirrhosis,128.2% ±25.1% vs 107.5% ± 22.5%,P =0.001) in patients with chronic hepatitis and liver cirrhosis were significantly lower than in the control subjects.Handgrip strength (%) in the cirrhosis group was significantly lower than in the controls (control vs cirrhosis,92.1%± 16.2% vs 66.9% ± 17.6%,P < 0.001).The results might reflect a decrease in muscle mass.The total nutrition intake and amounts of carbohydrates,protein and fat were not significantly different amongst

  20. Cultivating nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Levin, Carol E; Long, Jennifer; Simler, Kenneth R.; Johnson-Welch, Charlotte

    2003-01-01

    "Over the past decade, donor-funded policies and programs designed to address undernutrition in the Global South have shifted away from agriculture-based strategies toward nutrient supplementation and food fortification programs. Given the potential benefits resulting from agriculture-based nutrition interventions, this study uses Q methodology to explore the views of a range of stakeholders from both developed and developing countries on the value of—and constraints related to—gender-sensiti...

  1. A review of the nutritional value of legumes and their effects on obesity and its related co-morbidities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebello, C J; Greenway, F L; Finley, J W

    2014-05-01

    Since the 1970s, the proportion of overweight and obese people in the United States has grown at an alarming rate. An awareness of the consequences of obesity on the health and well-being of individuals is evident in the plethora of strategic plans at the local and national levels, most of which have largely fallen short of their goals. If interventions continue to be unsuccessful, it is estimated that approximately three of four Americans will be overweight or obese by 2020. Prevention of excess weight gain can be accomplished with relatively small changes in lifestyle behaviours to control body weight. Small sustainable changes are perhaps better than efforts to achieve larger changes that cannot be sustained. Legumes can be a valuable food by which the needs of the undernourished or under-served populations could be met. They can be incorporated into meat products, such as sausages and burgers, to lower the energy density of these foods while providing important nutrients. Replacing energy-dense foods with legumes has been shown to have beneficial effects on the prevention and management of obesity and related disorders, such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes and the metabolic syndrome. This review explores the nutritional value and obesity-related health benefits of legume consumption while focusing on pulses.

  2. Diet & Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Nutrition Share this page Facebook Twitter Email Diet & Nutrition Eating healthy to take charge of your health. Shelly Diagnosed in 2006 Diet & Nutrition Take Control of Your Weight Portion Control Low ...

  3. Effect of personalized nutrition on health-related behavior change: evidence from the Food4Me randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background - Optimal nutritional choices are linked with better health but most current interventions to improve diet have limited effect. We tested the hypothesis that providing personalized nutrition (PN) advice based on collected information on individual diet and lifestyle, phenotype or genotype...

  4. Enteral bile acid treatment improves parenteral nutrition-related liver disease and intestinal mucosal atrophy in neonatal pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jain, Ajay Kumar; Stoll, Barbara; Burrin, Douglas G

    2012-01-01

    Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is essential for patients with impaired gut function but leads to parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease (PNALD). TPN disrupts the normal enterohepatic circulation of bile acids, and we hypothesized that it would decrease intestinal expression of the newly...

  5. Enteral bile acid treatment improves parenteral nutrition-related liver disease and intestinal mucosal atrophy in neonatal pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is essential for patients with impaired gut function but leads to parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease (PNALD). TPN disrupts the normal enterohepatic circulation of bile acids, and we hypothesized that it would decrease intestinal expression of the newly des...

  6. The health benefits of selective taxation as an economic instrument in relation to IHD and nutrition-related cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Astrid L; Laursen, Mai-Britt; Koch, Birgit Maria

    2013-01-01

    of disease, measured by disability-adjusted life years, from health outcomes affected by the changes in food intake. The change in burden of a disease was calculated as the change in incidence of the disease due to a modified exposure level, using the potential impact fraction. Estimates of relative risk...... of selective taxation were modelled for the adult Danish population. RESULTS: Halving the rate of value-added tax on fruit and vegetables and increasing the tax on fats would result in moderate reductions in the burden of disease from IHD, ischaemic stroke, and colorectal, lung and breast cancer (0...

  7. Pediatric Nutrition Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green Corkins, Kelly; Teague, Erin E

    2017-02-01

    Pediatric patients with chronic illnesses or diseases or who require long-term nutrition support are most vulnerable to nutrition-related issues. Malnutrition in a pediatric patient may negatively affect long-term growth and development. Children also become malnourished much more quickly than adults. A comprehensive nutrition assessment that includes food and nutrition-related history, anthropometric measurements, biochemical data, medical tests and procedures, nutrition-focused physical findings, and patient history should be completed on these patients as no one parameter is a comprehensive indicator of nutrition status. Anthropometric measurements provide important information on the growth and nutrition status of a child, yet many times it is difficult to get accurate and valid measurements due to physical limitations of the child or improper technique. Inaccurate measurements may result in a missed diagnosis of malnutrition or may lead to an incorrect diagnosis of a healthy child. Knowledge of appropriate anthropometric measurements and alternatives is crucial when assessing growth in all children and essential for those who are physically handicapped or critically ill. The purpose of this review is to present key components of a pediatric nutrition assessment so proper nutrition-related diagnosis, including malnutrition, can be accomplished, a nutrition care plan established, and expected outcomes documented.

  8. Growth status related to brain responses, nutrition, home environment, and behavior in infants and toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    To investigate whether growth status in infants and toddlers affects processes involved in speech perception and discrimination, cortical event-related potentials (ERPs) to consonant-vowel syllables were recorded from 48 healthy babies: 26 low in growth status (LGS, <25th percentile in growth measur...

  9. Exploit and ignore the consequences: A mother of planetary issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustafa, K.

    2016-07-01

    Many environmental and planetary issues are due to an exploitation strategy based on exploit, consume and ignore the consequences. As many natural and environmental resources are limited in time and space, such exploitation approach causes important damages on earth, in the sea and maybe soon in the space. To sustain conditions under which humans and other living species can coexist in productive and dynamic harmony with their environments, terrestrial and space exploration programs may need to be based on 'scrutinize the consequences, prepare adequate solutions and then, only then, exploit'. Otherwise, the exploitation of planetary resources may put the environmental stability and sustainability at a higher risk than it is currently predicted. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. An ignored variable: solution preparation temperature in protein crystallization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rui-Qing; Lu, Qin-Qin; Cheng, Qing-Di; Ao, Liang-Bo; Zhang, Chen-Yan; Hou, Hai; Liu, Yong-Ming; Li, Da-Wei; Yin, Da-Chuan

    2015-01-19

    Protein crystallization is affected by many parameters, among which certain parameters have not been well controlled. The temperature at which the protein and precipitant solutions are mixed (i.e., the ambient temperature during mixing) is such a parameter that is typically not well controlled and is often ignored. In this paper, we show that this temperature can influence protein crystallization. The experimental results showed that both higher and lower mixing temperatures can enhance the success of crystallization, which follows a parabolic curve with an increasing ambient temperature. This work illustrates that the crystallization solution preparation temperature is also an important parameter for protein crystallization. Uncontrolled or poorly controlled room temperature may yield poor reproducibility in protein crystallization.

  11. Period After The Role of Ignorant Companions Poetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Nedim Yektar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available  Companions changed the bad aspects in the poetry of ignorance era.  Therefore, they are not totally opposed to the poetry. Poems were evaluated in accordance with the meaning of the words in them. They didn’t read the poems in which bad words were found and didn’t let them to be read. Companions who had engaged with poetry before being Muslims, used that for jihad or for different charities in Islam. During the allegiance to the Prophet in front of him, during the war, during the request for assistance and in sadness, did they read poems without saying any words which mean ‘sin’.

  12. Diminishing risk for age-related macular degeneration with nutrition: a current view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleicher, Molly; Weikel, Karen; Garber, Caren; Taylor, Allen

    2013-07-02

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness in the elderly. Clinical hallmarks of AMD are observed in one third of the elderly in industrialized countries. Preventative interventions through dietary modification are attractive strategies, because they are more affordable than clinical therapies, do not require specialists for administration and many studies suggest a benefit of micro- and macro-nutrients with respect to AMD with few, if any, adverse effects. The goal of this review is to provide information from recent literature on the value of various nutrients, particularly omega-3 fatty acids, lower glycemic index diets and, perhaps, some carotenoids, with regard to diminishing risk for onset or progression of AMD. Results from the upcoming Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) II intervention trial should be particularly informative.

  13. Diminishing Risk for Age-Related Macular Degeneration with Nutrition: A Current View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen Taylor

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Age-related macular degeneration (AMD is the leading cause of blindness in the elderly. Clinical hallmarks of AMD are observed in one third of the elderly in industrialized countries. Preventative interventions through dietary modification are attractive strategies, because they are more affordable than clinical therapies, do not require specialists for administration and many studies suggest a benefit of micro- and macro-nutrients with respect to AMD with few, if any, adverse effects. The goal of this review is to provide information from recent literature on the value of various nutrients, particularly omega-3 fatty acids, lower glycemic index diets and, perhaps, some carotenoids, with regard to diminishing risk for onset or progression of AMD. Results from the upcoming Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS II intervention trial should be particularly informative.

  14. Taurolidine lock is highly effective in preventing catheter-related bloodstream infections in patients on home parenteral nutrition: a heparin-controlled prospective trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bisseling, T.M.; Willems, M.C.M.; Versleijen, M.W.J.; Hendriks, J.C.M.; Vissers, R.K.; Wanten, G.J.A.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Catheter-related bloodstream infections remain the major threat for Home Parenteral Nutrition programs. Taurolidine, a potent antimicrobial agent, holds promise as an effective catheter lock to prevent such infections. Aim of the present study was to compare taurolidine with hepar

  15. Absence of microbial adaptation to taurolidine in patients on home parenteral nutrition who develop catheter related bloodstream infections and use taurolidine locks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olthof, E.D.; Rentenaar, R.J.; Rijs, A.J.M.M.; Wanten, G.J.A.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Some home parenteral nutrition (HPN) patients develop catheter related bloodstream infections (CRBSI) despite using an anti-microbial catheter lock solution taurolidine. The aim of this study was to assess whether long-term use of taurolidine leads to selective growth of microorga

  16. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allerg ies (NDA) ; Guidance on the scientific requirements for health claims related to appetite ratings, weight management, and blood glucose concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) asked the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) to draft guidance on scientific requirements for health claims related to appetite ratings, weight management, and blood glucose concentrations. This guidance has been drawn from scientific...

  17. Nutrition-related information-seeking behaviours of women trying to conceive and pregnant women: evidence for the life course perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szwajcer, E.M.; Hiddink, G.J.; Maas, L.C.; Koelen, M.A.; Woerkum, van C.M.J.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives. To examine whether preconception and pregnancy could be an occasion triggering women's interest, search and need for both general and pregnancy-specific nutrition-related information, in order to: (i) provide a greater understanding of the life course perspective (in this case on

  18. Socioeconomic factors are associated with folate and vitamin B12 intakes and related biomarkers concentrations in European adolescents: the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iglesia, I.; Mouratidou, Th.; González, M.; Novakovic, R.N.; Breidenassel, C.; Jiménez-Pavón, D.; Huybrechts, I.; Geelen, A.; Veer, van 't P.; Cavelaars, A.J.E.M.

    2014-01-01

    Because socioeconomic factors (SEFs) may influence dietary quality and vitamin intakes, this study aimed to examine associations between socioeconomic factors and folate and vitamin B12 intakes as well as their related biomarkers in the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence study.

  19. Meta-Analysis of the Related Nutritional Supplements Dimethyl Sulfoxide and Methylsulfonylmethane in the Treatment of Osteoarthritis of the Knee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Brien

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dimethyl sulphoxide and methylsulfonylmethane are two related nutritional supplements used for symptomatic relief of osteoarthritis (OA. We conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate their efficacy in reducing pain associated with OA. Randomized or quasi-randomized controlled trials (RCTs, identified by systematic electronic searches, citation tracking and searches of clinical trial registries, assessing these supplements in osteoarthritis of any joint were considered for inclusion. Meta-analysis, based on difference in mean pain related outcomes between treatment and comparator groups, was carried out based on a random effect model. Seven potential trials were identified of which three RCTs, two DMSO and one MSM (total N=326 patients were eligible for inclusion. All three trials were considered high methodological quality. A significant degree of heterogeneity (χ2=6.28, P=.043 was revealed. Two studies demonstrated statistically significant (but not clinically relevant reduction in pain compared with controls; with one showing no group difference. The meta-analysis confirmed a non significant reduction of pain on visual analogue scale of 6.34 mm (SE = 3.49, 95% CI, −0.49, 13.17. The overall effect size of 1.82 was neither statistically nor clinically significant. Current evidence suggests DMSO and MSM are not clinically effective in the reduction of pain in the treatment of OA. No definitive conclusions can currently be drawn from the data due to the mixed findings and the use of inadequate dosing periods.

  20. [Nutritional status in acute stage ischemic stroke and its relation to disease severity and prognosis of patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Qing; Zhang, Li-San; Chen, Yin; He, Xu-Dong; Hu, Xing-Yue

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the nutritional status in acute stage ischemic stroke and its relation to disease severity and prognosis of patients. Fifty patients with ischemic stroke were admitted in hospital within 48 h after onset. National Institute of Health stroke scale (NIHSS) was used to assess the severity of stroke. Physical index and laboratory index were measured on d1, d7 and d14 after admission. Physical index included body weight, body mass index, triceps skin folds, upper arm circumference and arm muscle circumference. Laboratory index included prealbumin, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), complement C3 and cortisol. The severity of metabolic disturbance was expressed as the difference of biochemical indexes between the d7 and d1. All cases were followed up for 6 months. The prognosis of stroke was evaluated with modified Rankin (mRankin) scores. No significant changes of physical indexes were found between d7 and d1. The levels of prealbumin and complement C3 on d7 after admission were significantly decreased compared to d1 (198.8 mg/L±20.3 mg/L vs 286.7 mg/L±23.8 mg/L and 0.6 g/L±0.1 g/L vs 1.0 g/L±0.1 g/L, respectively, both Pnutrition metabolism disturbances (PNutrition metabolism disturbances in patients with acute ischemic stroke are related to the disease duration, the severity and prognosis of stroke.

  1. NUTRITIONAL STATUS IS ASSOCIATED WITH HEALTH-RELATED QUALITY OF LIFE IN CHILDREN WITH CYSTIC FIBROSIS AGED 9–19 YEARS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoff, Suzanne M.; Tluczek, Audrey; Laxova, Anita; Farrell, Philip M.; Lai, HuiChuan J.

    2013-01-01

    Background The impact of improved nutritional status on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is unknown for children with cystic fibrosis (CF). Methods Associations between nutritional status and HRQOL were examined over 2 years in 95 children, aged 9–19 years, who were followed in the Wisconsin Newborn Screening Project. HRQOL was assessed using the Cystic Fibrosis Questionnaire (CFQ). Associations between height z-score (HtZ), BMI z-score (BMIZ) and seven CFQ dimensions were evaluated. Results Mean values of at least 80 were observed for all CFQ dimensions except respiratory symptoms and treatment burden. Treatment burden was significantly worse in patients with meconium ileus (57) compared to pancreatic insufficient (65) and sufficient (78) subjects, pnutritional status was associated with increased HRQOL scores. Early diagnosis through newborn screening and improved nutrition provides an opportunity to enhance quality of life and body image perception. PMID:23410621

  2. Nutritional status is associated with health-related quality of life in children with cystic fibrosis aged 9-19 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoff, Suzanne M; Tluczek, Audrey; Laxova, Anita; Farrell, Philip M; Lai, HuiChuan J

    2013-12-01

    The impact of improved nutritional status on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is unknown for children with cystic fibrosis (CF). Associations between nutritional status and HRQOL were examined over 2 years in 95 children, aged 9-19 years, who were followed in the Wisconsin Newborn Screening Project. HRQOL was assessed using the Cystic Fibrosis Questionnaire (CFQ). Associations between height z-score (HtZ), BMI z-score (BMIZ) and seven CFQ dimensions were evaluated. Mean values of at least 80 were observed for all CFQ dimensions except respiratory symptoms and treatment burden. Treatment burden was significantly worse in patients with meconium ileus (57) compared to pancreatic insufficient (65) and sufficient (78) subjects, pnutritional status was associated with increased HRQOL scores. Early diagnosis through newborn screening and improved nutrition provides an opportunity to enhance quality of life and body image perception. Copyright © 2013 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Sex-related effects of nutritional supplementation of Escherichia coli: relevance to eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennoune, Naouel; Legrand, Romain; Ouelaa, Wassila; Breton, Jonathan; Lucas, Nicolas; Bole-Feysot, Christine; do Rego, Jean-Claude; Déchelotte, Pierre; Fetissov, Sergueï O

    2015-03-01

    The biological background of sex-related differences in the development of eating disorders (EDs) is unknown. Recent data showed that gut bacteria Escherichia coli induce autoantibodies against anorexigenic α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) associated with psychopathology in ED. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of E. coli on feeding and autoantibodies against α-MSH and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), between female and male rats. Commensal E. coli K12 were given in a culture medium daily to adult Wistar rats by intragastric gavage over a 3-wk period; control rats received culture medium only. Before gavage, E. coli K12 DNA was detected in feces of female but not male rats. E. coli provision was accompanied by an increase in body weight gain in females, but a decrease in body weight gain and food intake in males. Independent of E. coli treatment, plasma levels of anti-α-MSH and ACTH immunoglobulin (Ig)G were higher in female than male rats. Females responded to E. coli by increasing α-MSH IgG levels and affinity, but males by increasing α-MSH IgM levels. Affinity of IgG for ACTH was increased in both E. coli-treated females and males, although with different kinetics. IgG from females stimulated more efficiently α-MSH-induced cyclic adenosine monophosphate production by melanocortin 4 receptor-expressing cells compared with IgG from males. Sex-related response to how E. coli affects feeding and anti-melanocortin hormone antibody production may depend on the presence of these bacteria in the gut before E. coli supplementation. These data suggest that sex-related presence of certain gut bacteria may represent a risk factor for ED development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Nutritional supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Gry Bjerg; Andersen, Jens Rikardt

    2015-01-01

    , metal, gritty, consistence and ability to drink 150 ml (one glass), and the patients arranged the drinks in order of preference. Results: The sensory qualities differed significantly concerning sweet (p...Background: Several studies have indicated that cancer patients have significantly altered taste sensitivity without specifying the preferences. One of the related problems is low compliance to nutritional therapy with oral nutritional supplements (ONS) in patients suffering severe weight loss....... Objective: We wanted to investigate taste preferences and sensoric characteristics among three usually used ONS in patients with malignant haematological disease during cytotoxic treatment. Design: Tested drinks were: Protin® (protein-enriched-milk, ARLA), Nutridrink® (NUTRICIA) and hospital-produced drink...

  5. Nutritional status and dietary intake among pregnant women in relation to pre-pregnancy body mass index in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uno, Kaoru; Takemi, Yukari; Hayashi, Fumi; Hosokawa, Momo

    2016-01-01

    Objective The present study examined nutritional status and dietary intake of pregnant women in Japan in relation to pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI).Methods Participants included 141 Japanese women with singleton pregnancies, from the outpatient department of the S hospital, Gunma prefecture, Japan. Two-day food records, dietary assessment questionnaires, and clinical records were obtained at 20 weeks gestation. Nine patients were excluded from the study due to morning sickness. The remaining 132 participants were divided into 3 groups according to pre-pregnancy BMI: underweight, normal weight, and overweight. Nutritional status and dietary intake were analyzed in relation to BMI using the chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, Kruskal-Wallis test, one-way analysis of variance, and analysis of covariance with adjustment for age, employment status, and total energy intake.Results Women who were underweight before pregnancy were more frequently working full-time than normal weight and overweight women. Underweight women were also more frequently anemic (P=0.038, underweight 39.3%, normal weight 24.7%, overweight 0%) and had lower mean hemoglobin (Hb) (P=0.021, underweight 11.3 g/dL, normal weight 11.6 g/dL, overweight 12.1 g/dL) and hematocrit (Hct) levels (P=0.025, underweight 33.7%, normal weight 34.3%, overweight 36.0%). Their dietary intake of protein, iron, magnesium, and folic acid was lower than that of normal weight and overweight women. Their meals tended to include fewer meat, fish, egg, and soybean dishes (underweight, mean of 4.7 servings per day; normal weight, 6.1 servings; overweight, 6.1 servings).Conclusion Pregnant women who were underweight before pregnancy had increased risk of anemia as well as reduced Hb and Hct levels. They had lower dietary intake of protein, iron and folic acid compared to women in the other BMI categories. Anemia and these nutrient deficiencies are known risk factors for low birth weight. Our findings suggest

  6. Effect of Exericse and Nutrition upon Lifestyle-Related Disease and Cognitive Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritani, Toshio; Akamatsu, Yasunori

    2015-01-01

    Bray has proposed the "MONA LISA" hypothesis, an acronym for Most Obesities kNown Are Low In Sympathetic Activity indicating that obesity is associated with a relative or absolute reduction in the activity of the thermogenic component of the sympathetic nervous system. Our series of studies have suggested a potential reversibility in ANS activity regulating fat metabolism and appetite control by regular exercise training in middle aged individuals and obese children with depressed ANS activity. In other words habitual exercise plays a vital role in enhancing not only fat and glucose metabolism, but also ANS activities in the prevention of obesity and appetite control. There are growing expectations that too much sitting is a real and substantial risk to health. One of the intriguing findings from these accelerometer measurement studies is that breaks in sedentary time were shown to have beneficial associations with metabolic biomarkers, due possibly to challenging and enhancing autonomic nervous system that regulates body weight and appetite. Recent findings of brain-derived neurotrophic factors (BDNF) seem to have shed some light upon age-related neurodegenerative diseases and appear to influence energy metabolism, appetite and aspects of neuro-cognitive function. These data strongly suggest that a lack of exercise as characterized by a sedentary lifestyle and an unhealthy diet may lead to accelerated ageing, diseases of the body and brain, and an overall decline in the quality of life.

  7. The role of inflammation, iron, and nutritional status in cancer-related anemia: results of a large, prospective, observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macciò, Antonio; Madeddu, Clelia; Gramignano, Giulia; Mulas, Carlo; Tanca, Luciana; Cherchi, Maria Cristina; Floris, Carlo; Omoto, Itaru; Barracca, Antonio; Ganz, Tomas

    2015-01-01

    Anemia in oncology patients is often considered a side effect of cancer therapy; however, it may occur before any antineoplastic treatment (cancer-related anemia). This study was aimed to evaluate the prevalence of cancer-related anemia in a large cohort of oncology patients and whether inflammation and malnutrition were predictive of its development and severity. The present study included 888 patients with cancer at different sites between May 2011 and January 2014. Patients were assessed at diagnosis before any cancer treatment. The prevalence of anemia according to the main clinical factors (tumor site, stage and performance status) was analyzed. In each patient markers of inflammation, iron metabolism, malnutrition and oxidative stress as well as the modified Glasgow prognostic score, a combined index of malnutrition and inflammation, were assessed and their role in predicting hemoglobin level was evaluated. The percentage of anemic patients was 63% with the lowest hemoglobin levels being found in the patients with most advanced cancer and compromised performance status. Hemoglobin concentration differed by tumor site and was lowest in patients with ovarian cancer. Hemoglobin concentration was inversely correlated with inflammatory markers, hepcidin, ferritin, erythropoietin and reactive oxygen species, and positively correlated with leptin, albumin, cholesterol and antioxidant enzymes. In multivariate analysis, stage, interleukin-6 and leptin were independent predictors of hemoglobin concentration. Furthermore, hemoglobin was inversely dependent on modified Glasgow Prognostic Score. In conclusion, cancer-related anemia is a multifactorial problem with immune, nutritional and metabolic components that affect its severity. Only a detailed assessment of the pathogenesis of cancer-related anemia may enable clinicians to provide safe and effective individualized treatment.

  8. Physiological and health-related adaptations to low-volume interval training: influences of nutrition and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibala, Martin J; Gillen, Jenna B; Percival, Michael E

    2014-11-01

    Interval training refers to the basic concept of alternating periods of relatively intense exercise with periods of lower-intensity effort or complete rest for recovery. Low-volume interval training refers to sessions that involve a relatively small total amount of exercise (i.e. ≤10 min of intense exercise), compared with traditional moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) protocols that are generally reflected in public health guidelines. In an effort to standardize terminology, a classification scheme was recently proposed in which the term 'high-intensity interval training' (HIIT) be used to describe protocols in which the training stimulus is 'near maximal' or the target intensity is between 80 and 100 % of maximal heart rate, and 'sprint interval training' (SIT) be used for protocols that involve 'all out' or 'supramaximal' efforts, in which target intensities correspond to workloads greater than what is required to elicit 100 % of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max). Both low-volume SIT and HIIT constitute relatively time-efficient training strategies to rapidly enhance the capacity for aerobic energy metabolism and elicit physiological remodeling that resembles changes normally associated with high-volume MICT. Short-term SIT and HIIT protocols have also been shown to improve health-related indices, including cardiorespiratory fitness and markers of glycemic control in both healthy individuals and those at risk for, or afflicted by, cardiometabolic diseases. Recent evidence from a limited number of studies has highlighted potential sex-based differences in the adaptive response to SIT in particular. It has also been suggested that specific nutritional interventions, in particular those that can augment muscle buffering capacity, such as sodium bicarbonate, may enhance the adaptive response to low-volume interval training.

  9. Whole Blood RNA as a Source of Transcript-Based Nutrition- and Metabolic Health-Related Biomarkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Petar D.; Bonet, M. Luisa; Reynés, Bárbara; Oliver, Paula; Palou, Andreu; Ribot, Joan

    2016-01-01

    Blood cells are receiving an increasing attention as an easily accessible source of transcript-based biomarkers. We studied the feasibility of using mouse whole blood RNA in this context. Several paradigms were studied: (i) metabolism-related transcripts known to be affected in rat tissues and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) by fasting and upon the development of high fat diet (HFD)-induced overweight were assessed in whole blood RNA of fasted rats and mice and of HFD-fed mice; (ii) retinoic acid (RA)-responsive genes in tissues were assessed in whole blood RNA of control and RA-treated mice; (iii) lipid metabolism-related transcripts previously identified in PBMC as potential biomarkers of metabolic health in a rat model were assessed in whole blood in an independent model, namely retinoblastoma haploinsufficient (Rb+/-) mice. Blood was collected and stored in RNAlater® at -80°C until analysis of selected transcripts by real-time RT-PCR. Comparable changes with fasting were detected in the expression of lipid metabolism-related genes when RNA from either PBMC or whole blood of rats or mice was used. HFD-induced excess body weight and fat mass associated with expected changes in the expression of metabolism-related genes in whole blood of mice. Changes in gene expression in whole blood of RA-treated mice reproduced known transcriptional actions of RA in hepatocytes and adipocytes. Reduced expression of Fasn, Lrp1, Rxrb and Sorl1 could be validated as early biomarkers of metabolic health in young Rb+/- mice using whole blood RNA. Altogether, these results support the use of whole blood RNA in studies aimed at identifying blood transcript-based biomarkers of nutritional/metabolic status or metabolic health. Results also support reduced expression of Fasn, Lrp1, Rxrb and Sorl1 in blood cells at young age as potential biomarkers of metabolic robustness. PMID:27163124

  10. Etude des relations entre photosynthese respiration, transpiration et nutrition minerale chez le ble

    Science.gov (United States)

    André, M.; Ducloux, H.; Richaud, C.; Massimino, D.; Daguenet, A.; Massimino, J.; Gerbaud, A.

    La croissance du Blé Triticum aestivum a été étudiée en environnement contrôlé et fermé pendant une période de 70 jours. Les échanges gazeux (Photosynthèse, Respiration) hydriques (Transpiration) et la consommation en éléments minéraux (Azote, Phosphore, Potassium) ont été mesurés en continu. On présentera les relations dynamiques observées entre les différentes fonctions physiologiques, d'une part sous l'influence de la croissance et d'autre part en réponse à des modifications de l'environnement. L'influence de la teneur en CO2 pendant la croissance (teneur normale ou doublée) sera mise en évidence.

  11. Nutritional and nutraceutical quality of strawberries in relation to harvest time and crop conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhatou, Ikram; Fernández-Recamales, Angeles

    2014-06-25

    Three strawberry varieties cultivated in soilless systems were studied for their content of primary and secondary metabolites in relation to harvest time and crop conditions. The three varieties were chosen based on their sensitivity level to environmental stress: Palomar (very sensitive), Festival (sensitive), and Camarosa (resistant). Throughout the campaign, three samplings were performed: December (extra-early production), January, and March (early production). Differences among cultivars and harvest times were observed based on the contents of sugars, organic acids, phenolic compounds, and antioxidant capacity. The higher levels for total anthocyanins and flavan-3-ols were found in Camarosa and Festival strawberries, both in the January harvest. The Palomar variety showed higher total sugar/total organic acids ratio in the March harvest. The influence of cultivation practices and environmental conditions was assessed by nested ANOVA and PLS-DA. Differences in the sugar and phenolic content were observed depending upon variety and coverage type. TEAC was most influenced by the substrate type.

  12. Handling Uncertainty and Ignorance in Databases: A Rule to Combine Dependent Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Choenni, R.S.; Blok, H.E.; Leertouwer, Erik; Lee, Mong Li; Tan, Kian-Lee; Wuwongse, Vilas

    In many applications, uncertainty and ignorance go hand in hand. Therefore, to deliver database support for effective decision making, an integrated view of uncertainty and ignorance should be taken. So far, most of the efforts attempted to capture uncertainty and ignorance with probability theory.

  13. What Is Hospitality in the Academy? Epistemic Ignorance and the (Im)possible Gift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuokkanen, Rauna

    2008-01-01

    The academy is considered by many as the major Western institution of knowledge. This article, however, argues that the academy is characterized by prevalent "epistemic ignorance"--a concept informed by Spivak's discussion of "sanctioned ignorance." Epistemic ignorance refers to academic practices and discourses that enable the continued exclusion…

  14. Experiences of Being Ignored by Peers during Late Adolescence: Linkages to Psychological Maladjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowker, Julie C.; Adams, Ryan E.; Fredstrom, Bridget K.; Gilman, Rich

    2014-01-01

    In this study on being ignored by peers, 934 twelfth-grade students reported on their experiences of being ignored, victimized, and socially withdrawn, and completed measures of friendship and psychological adjustment (depression, self-esteem, and global satisfaction). Peer nominations of being ignored, victimized, and accepted by peers were also…

  15. What Is Hospitality in the Academy? Epistemic Ignorance and the (Im)possible Gift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuokkanen, Rauna

    2008-01-01

    The academy is considered by many as the major Western institution of knowledge. This article, however, argues that the academy is characterized by prevalent "epistemic ignorance"--a concept informed by Spivak's discussion of "sanctioned ignorance." Epistemic ignorance refers to academic practices and discourses that enable the continued exclusion…

  16. The effect of nutrition pattern alteration on Chlorella pyrenoidosa growth, lipid biosynthesis-related gene transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jianhua; Cui, Yanbin; Zhou, Yang; Wan, Minxi; Wang, Weiliang; Xie, Jingli; Li, Yuanguang

    2014-07-01

    Heterotrophy to photoautotrophy transition leads to the accumulation of lipids in Chlorella, which has potential to produce both healthy food and biofuels. Therefore, it is of key interest to study the metabolism shift and gene expression changes that influenced by the transition. Both total and neutral lipids contents were increased rapidly within 48 h after the switch to light environment, from 24.5% and 18.0% to 35.3% and 27.4%, respectively, along with the sharp decline of starch from 42.3% to 10.4% during 24h photoinduction phase. By analyzing the correlation between lipid content and gene expression, results revealed several genes viz. me g3137, me g6562, pepc g6833, dgat g3280 and dgat g7566, which encode corresponding enzymes in the de novo lipid biosynthesis pathway, are highly related to lipid accumulation and might be exploited as target genes for genetic modification. These results represented the feasibility of lipid production through trophic converting cultivation.

  17. Maternal Activity in Relation to Birth Size in Rural India The Pune Maternal Nutrition Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Shobha; Kanade, Asawari; Margetts, Barrie M; Yajnik, Chittaranjan S; Lubree, Himangi; Rege, Sonali; Desai, Bhavana; Jackson, Alan; Fall, Caroline HD

    2017-01-01

    Objective To describe the relationship of the mother's physical activity to the birth size of her baby in a rural Indian population. Design Prospective observational study. Setting Six villages near Pune, Maharashtra, India. Subjects 797 women were studied after excluding abortions and termination of pregnancies (112), fetal anomalies (8), multiple pregnancies (3), incomplete pre-pregnancy anthropometry (14) and pregnancies detected later than 21 weeks of gestation (168). Method An activity questionnaire was developed after focus group discussions and incorporated community-specific activities. It was validated against an observer-maintained diary. Activity scores were derived using published data on energy costs to weight the contributions of various activities. It was then administered to assess physical activity at 18 (± 2) and 28 (±2) weeks of gestation. Outcome measures Birth outcome, maternal weight gain and neonatal anthropometry. Results The activity questionnaire was used to classify women into light, moderate and heavy activity categories. Maternal activity did not influence the incidence of prematurity or stillbirth, or the duration of gestation. It was inversely related to maternal weight gain up to 28 weeks of gestation (p=0.002). Higher maternal activity in early, as well as mid gestation, was associated with lower mean birth weight (p=0.05 and 0.02 respectively), and smaller neonatal head circumference (p=0.005 and 0.009) and mid-arm circumference (p=0.03 and 0.01) after adjusting for the effect of major confounding factors. Conclusions The findings suggest that excessive maternal activity during pregnancy is associated with smaller fetal size in rural India. The approach described for developing an activity questionnaire has potential for adoption in other settings. Sponsorship Wellcome Trust, London, UK, and the Medical Research Council, UK. PMID:12700614

  18. Intestinal parasite infections in immigrant children in the city of Rome, related risk factors and possible impact on nutritional status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manganelli Laura

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parasitic diseases can represent a social and economic problem among disadvantaged people - even in developed countries. Due to the limited data available concerning Europe, the aims of the present study were to evaluate the presence of parasites in immigrant children and the risk factors favouring the spread of parasites. Subsequently, the possible correlation between nutritional status and parasitic infections was also investigated. Findings A convenience sample of two hundred and forty seven immigrant children (aged 0–15 attending the Poliambulatorio della Medicina Solidale in Rome was examined. Data were collected using structured questionnaires, and parasitological and anthropometric tests were applied. Chi-squared test and binary logistic multiple-regression models were used for statistical analysis. Thirty-seven children (15% tested positive to parasites of the following species: Blastocystis hominis, Entamoeba coli, Giardia duodenalis, Enterobius vermicularis, Ascaris lumbricoides and Strongyloides stercoralis. A monospecific infection was detected in 30 (81% out of 37 parasitized children, while the others (19% presented a polyparasitism. The major risk factors were housing, i.e. living in shacks, and cohabitation with other families (p Conclusions This study shows that parasite infection in children is still quite common, even in a developed country and that children’s growth and parasitism may be related. Extensive improvements in the living, social and economic conditions of immigrants are urgently needed in order to overcome these problems.

  19. Profile of non-nutritive sucking habits in relation to nursing behavior in pre-school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadiakas, G; Oulis, C; Berdouses, E

    1998-01-01

    Although a number of investigators have studied the prevalence and etiology of non-nutritive sucking habits in children, no consensus exists among dental and medical experts in respect to the contributing factors and preventing behaviors. Furthermore, changes in the rearing practices of children make management of such habits even more complicated. The purpose of the present study was to investigate finger and pacifier sucking habits among pre-school children, and its possible relationship to nursing behavior. Parental attitudes towards sucking habits were also registered. Questionnaires were sent to parents of 600 children, three to five years old, following an oral examination in a private office. Children attended kindergartens that were randomly selected from the area of Athens, Greece. Questions regarding the nursing patterns-breast or bottle feeding-characteristics of finger and pacifier sucking habits, parental attitudes towards sucking habits, as well as recommendations of the pediatricians were included. Three hundred and sixteen questionnaires were returned by parents. Results indicated that pre-school children discontinued a pacifier sucking habit earlier compared to a finger habit. Pacifiers showed a preventive effect against finger sucking, since only 2% of the sample examined practiced both habits. Breast feeding was not clearly associated with sucking habits; however, long bottle feeding periods were related with decreased finger sucking and high figures of pacifier sucking. The majority of pediatricians were not in favor of an intervention in breaking a finger sucking habit of the child.

  20. Diet and Nutrition With Lupus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on Twitter Facebook Pinterest Email Print Diet and nutrition with lupus Lupus Foundation of America March 16, ... Recipes Get email updates Related Resources ABCs of nutrition U.S. English español Medically reviewed on May 28, ...

  1. Population, nutrition and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-06-01

    The World Health Organization defines health as not only the absence of disease but as a more positive state of physical, mental, and social well-being. 1 of the most important influences on health is nutrition. Millions of people throughout the world either do not get enough to eat or do not get enough of the right kinds of food. Malnutrition is the biggest single contributor to child mortality in developing countries; malnourished children have an impaired ability to fight infection and disease. Children suffering protein-energy or protein-calorie malnutrition may develop nutritional deficiency diseases such as marasmus or kwashiorkor. Some estimates indicate that 2/3 of children in developing countries suffer from protein-calorie malnutrition. Some deficiency diseases caused by a lack of 1 or more nutrients are very widespread, such as anemia, endemic goiter, and xerophthalmia. Contributing factors for malnutrition may include low purchasing power of poor families, poor harvests due to crop failure, bad weather, food spoilage, pests, or a poor distribution system, or cultural practices that prevent the full utilization of available food resources. The decline in the incidence of breastfeeding in recent decades is a major factor in the malnutrition and ill health of children. The quality of nutrition affects the development of human beings in many ways that are sometimes overlooked, such as physical growth and intellectual development. In the long run, only economic development will eliminate malnutrition by eliminating its basic causes of food availability, poverty, ignorance, and overpopulation. Breastfeeding is an important nutritional source for infants and has a contraceptive value for mothers. Improved nutrition should have beneficial effects on the costs of providing education, health services, and housing. Improving the nutritional status of small children may increase their ability to withstand disease, resulting in the survival of greater numbers of

  2. Early auditory change detection implicitly facilitated by ignored concurrent visual change during a Braille reading task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyama, Atsushi; Haruyama, Tomohiro; Kuriki, Shinya

    2013-09-01

    Unconscious monitoring of multimodal stimulus changes enables humans to effectively sense the external environment. Such automatic change detection is thought to be reflected in auditory and visual mismatch negativity (MMN) and mismatch negativity fields (MMFs). These are event-related potentials and magnetic fields, respectively, evoked by deviant stimuli within a sequence of standard stimuli, and both are typically studied during irrelevant visual tasks that cause the stimuli to be ignored. Due to the sensitivity of MMN/MMF to potential effects of explicit attention to vision, however, it is unclear whether multisensory co-occurring changes can purely facilitate early sensory change detection reciprocally across modalities. We adopted a tactile task involving the reading of Braille patterns as a neutral ignore condition, while measuring magnetoencephalographic responses to concurrent audiovisual stimuli that were infrequently deviated either in auditory, visual, or audiovisual dimensions; 1000-Hz standard tones were switched to 1050-Hz deviant tones and/or two-by-two standard check patterns displayed on both sides of visual fields were switched to deviant reversed patterns. The check patterns were set to be faint enough so that the reversals could be easily ignored even during Braille reading. While visual MMFs were virtually undetectable even for visual and audiovisual deviants, significant auditory MMFs were observed for auditory and audiovisual deviants, originating from bilateral supratemporal auditory areas. Notably, auditory MMFs were significantly enhanced for audiovisual deviants from about 100 ms post-stimulus, as compared with the summation responses for auditory and visual deviants or for each of the unisensory deviants recorded in separate sessions. Evidenced by high tactile task performance with unawareness of visual changes, we conclude that Braille reading can successfully suppress explicit attention and that simultaneous multisensory changes can

  3. Methotrexate Hepatotoxicity; the Danger Not to Be Ignored

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Baghbanian

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Methotrexate is used increasingly for treatment of some diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis and Crohn. Bone marrow suppression, mucocutaneous lesions, pneumonitis, and hepatotoxicity are major side effects of this drug. Since methotrexate toxicity is dose dependent and is usually administered with low dose via a weekly regimen, its side effects are not commonly seen. But due to long term prescription of this drug over the recent years especially for rheumatoid arthritis, growing cases of methotrexate hepatotoxicity are referred to Gastroenterologist. High dose of drug, high age, alcohol consumption, renal failure and preexisting liver disease are main risk factors for this toxicity. In this study, in addition to presenting two cases with cirrhosis and two cases with hepatitis linked to methotrexate, the clinical aspects on this field are discussed. Conclusions: Methotrexate hepatotoxicity is not a theoretical issue that can be ignored because it can lead to cirrhosis and liver failure. We can prevent the onset of this growing side effect with appropriate patient selection and investigating the patients’ liver function before and during Methotrexate therapy. Periodic testing the liver enzymes is used for monitoring the liver condition, but because interpretation of these tests is sometimes difficult, liver biopsy is needed in particular cases.

  4. Jets launched at magnetar birth cannot be ignored

    CERN Document Server

    Soker, Noam

    2016-01-01

    I question models for powering super energetic supernovae (SESNe) with a magnetar central engine that do not include jets that are expected to be launched by the magnetar progenitor. I show that under reasonable assumptions the outflow that is expected during the formation of a magnetar can carry an amount of energy that does not fall much below, and even surpasses, the energy that is stored in the newly born spinning neutron star (NS). The rapidly spinning NS and the strong magnetic fields attributed to magnetars require that the accreted mass onto the newly born NS possesses high specific angular momentum and strong magnetic fields. These ingredients are expected, as in many other astrophysical objects, to form collimated oputflows/jets. I argue that the bipolar outflow in the pre-magnetar phase transfers a substantial amount of energy to the supernova (SN) ejecta, and it cannot be ignored in models that attribute SESNe to magnetars. I conclude that jets launched by accretion disks and accretion belts are m...

  5. Should we ignore U-235 series contribution to dose?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaugelin-Seiller, Karine; Goulet, Richard; Mihok, Steve; Beresford, Nicholas A

    2016-01-01

    Environmental Risk Assessment (ERA) methodology for radioactive substances is an important regulatory tool for assessing the safety of licensed nuclear facilities for wildlife, and the environment as a whole. ERAs are therefore expected to be both fit for purpose and conservative. When uranium isotopes are assessed, there are many radioactive decay products which could be considered. However, risk assessors usually assume (235)U and its daughters contribute negligibly to radiological dose. The validity of this assumption has not been tested: what might the (235)U family contribution be and how does the estimate depend on the assumptions applied? In this paper we address this question by considering aquatic wildlife in Canadian lakes exposed to historic uranium mining practices. A full theoretical approach was used, in parallel to a more realistic assessment based on measurements of several elements of the U decay chains. The (235)U family contribution varied between about 4% and 75% of the total dose rate depending on the assumptions of the equilibrium state of the decay chains. Hence, ignoring the (235)U series will not result in conservative dose assessments for wildlife. These arguments provide a strong case for more in situ measurements of the important members of the (235)U chain and for its consideration in dose assessments.

  6. Jets launched at magnetar birth cannot be ignored

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soker, Noam

    2016-08-01

    I question models for powering super energetic supernovae (SESNe) with a magnetar central engine that do not include jets that are expected to be launched by the magnetar progenitor. I show that under reasonable assumptions the outflow that is expected during the formation of a magnetar can carry an amount of energy that does not fall much below, and even surpasses, the energy that is stored in the newly born spinning neutron star (NS). The rapidly spinning NS and the strong magnetic fields attributed to magnetars require that the accreted mass onto the newly born NS possesses high specific angular momentum and strong magnetic fields. These ingredients are expected, as in many other astrophysical objects, to form collimated outflows/jets. I argue that the bipolar outflow in the pre-magnetar phase transfers a substantial amount of energy to the supernova (SN) ejecta, and it cannot be ignored in models that attribute SESNe to magnetars. I conclude that jets launched by accretion disks and accretion belts are more likely to power SESNe than magnetars are. This conclusion is compatible with the notion that jets might power all core collapse SNe (CCSNe).

  7. Measuring the health of populations: the veil of ignorance approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto-Prades, José-Luis; Abellán-Perpiñán, José-María

    2005-01-01

    We report the results from two surveys designed to explore whether an application of Harsanyi's principle of choice form behind a veil of ignorance (VEI) can be used in order to measure the health of populations. This approach was tentatively recommended by Murray et al. (Bull. World Health Organ 2000; 78: 981-994; Summary Measures of population health: Concepts, Ethics, Measurement and Applications, WHO, 2002.) as an appropriate way of constructing summary measures of population health (SMPH) for comparative purposes. The operationalization of the VEI approach used in this paper was suggested by Nord (Summary Measures of Population Health: Concepts, Ethics, Measurement and Applications, WHO, 2002.). We test if VEI and person trade-off (PTO) methods generate similar quality-of-life weights. In addition, we compare VEI and PTO weights with individual utilities estimated by means of the conventional standard gamble (SG) and a variation of it we call double gamble. Finally, psychometric properties like feasibility, reliability, and consistency are examined. Our main findings are next: (1) VEI and PTO approaches generate very different weights; (2) it seems that differences between PTO and VEI are not due to the 'rule of rescue'; (3) the VEI resembled more a DG than a classical SG; (4) PTO, VEI, and DG exhibited good feasibility, reliability and consistency.

  8. Deficit irrigation and rootstock: their effects on water relations, vegetative development, yield, fruit quality and mineral nutrition of Clemenules mandarin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, P; Navarro, J M; Pérez-Pérez, J; García-Sánchez, F; Gómez-Gómez, A; Porras, I; Martinez, V; Botía, P

    2006-12-01

    Differences between rootstocks, 'Cleopatra' mandarin and 'Carrizo' citrange, in soil-plant water relations and the influence of these factors on vigor, crop yield, fruit quality and mineral nutrition were evaluated in field-grown Clemenules mandarin trees irrigated at 100% of potential seasonal evaporation (ET(c)) (control treatment), or irrigated at 100% ET(c), except during Phases I and III of fruit growth and post-harvest when no irrigation was applied (deficit irrigation (DI) treatment), for 3 years. Differences between rootstocks in plant-soil water relations were the primary cause of differences among trees in vegetative development and fruit yield. After 3 years of DI treatment, trees on 'Cleopatra' showed more efficient soil water extraction than trees on 'Carrizo', and maintained a higher plant water status, a higher gas exchange rate during periods of water stress and achieved faster recovery in gas exchange following irrigation after water stress. The DI treatment reduced vegetative development more in trees on 'Carrizo' than in trees on 'Cleopatra'. Cumulative fruit yield decreased more in DI trees on 'Carrizo' (40%) than on 'Cleopatra' (27%). The yield component most affected by DI in 'Cleopatra' was the number of fruit, whereas in 'Carrizo' it depended on the severity of water stress reached in each phase (severe water stress in Phase I affected mainly the number of fruit, whereas it affected fruit size the most in Phase III). In the third year of DI treatment, water-use efficiency decreased sharply in trees on 'Carrizo' (70%) compared to trees on 'Cleopatra' (30%). Thus, trees on 'Cleopatra' were able to tolerate moderate water stress, whereas trees on 'Carrizo' were more sensitive to changes in soil water content.

  9. Cuestionario de calidad de vida relacionado con el estado nutricional (CaVEN Quality of life questionnaire related to nutritional status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Wanden-Berghe

    2012-12-01

    dimensions showed an accumulative variance of 77.670. It was observed a direct relationship in the Subjective Global Valuation and CaVEN (p < 0.01 and with the "Mini Nutritional Assessment Short" (p = 0.02, which was interpreted as the greater affectation of the nutritional status, the lower the quality of life detected by the CaVEN. Conclusions: The CaVEN questionnaire has proved a useful tool for assessing the quality of life related to nutritional status, even in groups with little nutritional alterations.

  10. [Nutrition and oropharyngeal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampman, E.

    2008-01-01

    The conclusion of a recent systematic review of the literature on the relation between nutrition, physical activity and cancer is that more than 30% of all cases of cancer can be prevented by improving nutrition and increasing physical activity. In The Netherlands, 1 out of 100 men and 1 out of 160

  11. Pregnancy nutrition surveillance system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    The Pregnancy Nutrition Surveillance System is a useful tool in monitoring Healthy People 2010 objectives and is intended to provide a framework for analyzing data on the nutritional status and behavioral risk factors of pregnant women and the association to birth outcome. The data are useful to health professionals in providing prenatal care and developing programs to reduce pregnancy-related health risks.

  12. Mendelian Randomization: How It Can—and Cannot—Help Confirm Causal Relations between Nutrition and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatzkin, Arthur; Abnet, Christian C.; Cross, Amanda J.; Gunter, Marc; Pfeiffer, Ruth; Gail, Mitchell; Lim, Unhee; Davey-Smith, George

    2011-01-01

    Observational epidemiologic studies of nutrition and cancer have faced formidable methodologic obstacles, including dietary measurement error and confounding. We consider whether Mendelian randomization can help surmount these obstacles. The Mendelian randomization strategy, building on both the accuracy of genotyping and the random assortment of alleles at meiosis, involves searching for an association between a nutritional exposure-mimicking gene variant (a type of “instrumental variable”) and cancer outcome. Necessary assumptions are that the gene is independent of cancer, given the exposure, and also independent of potential confounders. An allelic variant can serve as a proxy for diet and other nutritional factors through its effects on either metabolic processes or consumption behavior. Such a genetic proxy is measured with little error and usually is not confounded by nongenetic characteristics. Examples of potentially informative genes include LCT (lactase), ALDH2 (aldehyde dehydrogenase), and HFE (hemochromatosis), proxies, respectively, for dairy product intake, alcoholic beverage drinking, and serum iron levels. We show that use of these and other genes in Mendelian randomization studies of nutrition and cancer may be more complicated than previously recognized and discuss factors that can invalidate the instrumental variable assumptions or cloud the interpretation of these studies. Sample size requirements for Mendelian randomization studies of nutrition and cancer are shown to be potentially daunting; strong genetic proxies for exposure are necessary to make such studies feasible. We conclude that Mendelian randomization is not universally applicable, but, under the right conditions, can complement evidence for causal associations from conventional epidemiologic studies. PMID:19174578

  13. A cross sectional study of nutritional status among a group of school children in relation with gingivitis and dental caries severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harun Achmad

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available To determine nutritional status among a school children of Barru Regency, South Sulawesi, Indonesia, in relation with gingivitis and dental caries severity. Cross-sectional study. A total of 127 school children in the age range of 9-12 years from Barru Regency were included in this study as a sample of simple random sampling. Nutritional status of children (BMI index, degree of gingival inflammation (using chi-square test statistic, and missing teeth (DMF-T index were recorded. Additional information was collected using a questionnaire survey regarding knowledge about dental health, dietary habits, and oral health behaviors. The data were processed using the program Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS. A group of who severe underweight (102 children, had higher odds for mild gingivitis (GI 79.4% than others group of who has an ideal weight (16 children, had mild gingivitis (GI 62.5%. Children, who severe underweight, had higher odds for moderate caries (38.2% than others group of who has an ideal weight, had moderate caries (18.8%. Based on chi-square test, there are correlation of nutritional status and dental caries severity (p=0.000nutritional status with gingivitis and dental caries severity among a school children.

  14. High Nutritional-Related Risk on Admission Predicts Less Improvement of Functional Independence Measure in Geriatric Stroke Patients: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokura, Yoji; Maeda, Keisuke; Wakabayashi, Hidetaka; Nishioka, Shinta; Higashi, Sotaro

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to establish whether high nutritional-related risk on admission predicts less improvement of Functional Independence Measure (FIM) in geriatric stroke patients. We performed a retrospective cohort study of patients admitted for stroke at 5 major hospitals in the Noto district of Japan from July 2009 to June 2013. Patients were divided into 2 groups according to Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index (GNRI) at admission. Patient characteristics were compared between the low GNRI (nutritional status using GNRI and activities of daily living using the FIM. A total of 540 participants (mean age, 80 years; interquartile range, 75-85 years) were included in the present study. Patients were admitted because of cerebral infarction (394 patients), intracerebral hemorrhage (123 patients), and subarachnoid hemorrhage (23 patients). Univariate analysis of FIM gain demonstrated significant differences between groups. Multivariate analysis of FIM gain adjusting for confounding factors demonstrated age (β = -.139; 95% confidence interval [CI] = -.629 to -.140), cerebral infarction (β = -.264; 95% CI = -12.956 to -6.729), National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (β = -.180; 95% CI = -.688 to -.248), and GNRI score (β = .089; 95% CI = .010-.347) as independent factors associated with FIM gain (P nutritional status is a predictor of lower FIM improvement in geriatric stroke patients. Copyright © 2016 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Double jeopardy and the veil of ignorance--a reply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, J

    1995-06-01

    This paper discusses the attempt in this issue of the journal by Peter Singer, John McKie, Helga Kuhse and Jeff Richardson, to defend QALYs against the argument from double jeopardy which I first outlined in 1987. In showing how the QALY and other similar measures which combine life expectancy and quality of life and use these to justify particular allocations of health care resource, remain vulnerable to the charge of double jeopardy I am able to clarify some of the central issues concerning the value of life. In particular, the idea that the value of a life varies with its life expectancy and with its quality, understood in terms of its richness, variety, success etc, is subjected to special examination. It is shown how defenders of QALYs are committed to the view that so far from all lives being of equal value, all lives are necessarily of subtly different value. The paper then analyses the use to which the notorious 'veil of ignorance' has been put both by Singer et al and by others and shows how this device of John Rawls's cannot do the work so often assigned to it. The paper then considers the issue of hypothetical consent and the role that it can play in justifying disposing of the lives of people who have not in fact consented to their lives being disposed of in particular ways. Finally, the paper makes some points about the comprehensive nature of the data collection and storage which would be required by QALY advocates and points out the independent problems attaching to licensing such comprehensive collection and use of personal data.

  16. Nutritional aspects of metabolic inflammation in relation to health--insights from transcriptomic biomarkers in PBMC of fatty acids and polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afman, Lydia; Milenkovic, Dragan; Roche, Helen M

    2014-08-01

    Recent research has highlighted potential important interaction between metabolism and inflammation, within the context of metabolic health and nutrition, with a view to preventing diet-related disease. In addition to this, there is a paucity of evidence in relation to accurate biomarkers that are capable of reflecting this important biological interplay or relationship between metabolism and inflammation, particularly in relation to diet and health. Therefore the objective of this review is to highlight the potential role of transcriptomic approaches as a tool to capture the mechanistic basis of metabolic inflammation. Within this context, this review has focused on the potential of peripheral blood mononuclear cells transcriptomic biomarkers, because they are an accessible tissue that may reflect metabolism and subacute chronic inflammation. Also these pathways are often dysregulated in the common diet-related diseases obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease, thus may be used as markers of systemic health. The review focuses on fatty acids and polyphenols, two classes of nutrients/nonnutrient food components that modulate metabolism/inflammation, which we have used as an example of a proof-of-concept with a view to understanding the extent to which transcriptomic biomarkers are related to nutritional status and/or sensitive to dietary interventions. We show that both nutritional components modulate inflammatory markers at the transcriptomic level with the capability of profiling pro- and anti-inflammatory mechanisms in a bidirectional fashion; to this end transcriptomic biomarkers may have potential within the context of metabolic inflammation. This transcriptomic biomarker approach may be a sensitive indicator of nutritional status and metabolic health.

  17. Allocating health care: cost-utility analysis, informed democratic decision making, or the veil of ignorance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goold, S D

    1996-01-01

    Assuming that rationing health care is unavoidable, and that it requires moral reasoning, how should we allocate limited health care resources? This question is difficult because our pluralistic, liberal society has no consensus on a conception of distributive justice. In this article I focus on an alternative: Who shall decide how to ration health care, and how shall this be done to respect autonomy, pluralism, liberalism, and fairness? I explore three processes for making rationing decisions: cost-utility analysis, informed democratic decision making, and applications of the veil of ignorance. I evaluate these processes as examples of procedural justice, assuming that there is no outcome considered the most just. I use consent as a criterion to judge competing processes so that rationing decisions are, to some extent, self-imposed. I also examine the processes' feasibility in our current health care system. Cost-utility analysis does not meet criteria for actual or presumed consent, even if costs and health-related utility could be measured perfectly. Existing structures of government cannot creditably assimilate the information required for sound rationing decisions, and grassroots efforts are not representative. Applications of the veil of ignorance are more useful for identifying principles relevant to health care rationing than for making concrete rationing decisions. I outline a process of decision making, specifically for health care, that relies on substantive, selected representation, respects pluralism, liberalism, and deliberative democracy, and could be implemented at the community or organizational level.

  18. Ignoring the matching variables in cohort studies - when is it valid and why?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjölander, Arvid; Greenland, Sander

    2013-11-30

    In observational studies of the effect of an exposure on an outcome, the exposure-outcome association is usually confounded by other causes of the outcome (potential confounders). One common method to increase efficiency is to match the study on potential confounders. Matched case-control studies are relatively common and well covered by the literature. Matched cohort studies are less common but do sometimes occur. It is often argued that it is valid to ignore the matching variables, in the analysis of matched cohort data. In this paper, we provide analyses delineating the scope and limits of this argument. We discuss why the argument does not carry over to effect estimation in matched case-control studies, although it does carry over to null-hypothesis testing. We also show how the argument does not extend to matched cohort studies when one adjusts for additional confounders in the analysis. Ignoring the matching variables can sometimes reduce variance, even though this is not guaranteed. We investigate the trade-off between bias and variance in deciding whether adjustment for matching factors is advisable. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Relation of nutritional status to physiological outcomes after cardiac surgery in elderly patients with diabetes mellitus: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izawa, Kazuhiro P; Watanabe, Satoshi

    2016-12-01

    To determine differences in physiological outcome (PO) based on the Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index (GNRI) and cut-off values for PO according to the GNRI in elderly post-cardiac surgery patients complicated by diabetes mellitus (DM). Thirty-five patients (72.9 years) were enrolled and divided by GNRI. Patient characteristics and PO of handgrip strength (HG), knee extensor muscle strength (KEMS), maximum gait speed (GS), and one-leg standing time (OLST) were compared between the groups, and cut-off values for PO were determined. These POs were significantly lower in the low-GNRI group (Nutritional status might influence PO following cardiac surgery. The cut-off values of PO reported here might be indicative of the need to improve patient nutritional status.

  20. Reference values of lead in blood and related factors among Korean adolescents: the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010-2013

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Min-Gyu; Park, Mi-Jung; Kim, Shin-Hye

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to assess the reference values and factors influencing blood lead levels among Korean adolescents. Methods The study population consisted of 1,585 adolescents (801 males, 784 females; aged 10-19 years) who participated in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010-2013. We analyzed blood lead concentrations in relation to demographic/lifestyle characteristics for all participants. "Reference values" of blood lead levels were calculated as the uppe...

  1. Pre-school manager training: a cost-effective tool to promote nutrition- and health-related practice improvements in the Irish full-day-care pre-school setting.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Johnston Molloy, Charlotte

    2013-10-18

    To evaluate the impact on nutrition- and health-related practice of two methods of delivery of a nutrition and health intervention in Irish full-day-care pre-schools: training of pre-school managers only or training of managers and their staff.

  2. The cost of ignoring gender in conflict and post-conflict situations: A feminist perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Puechguirbal

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available

    This article focuses on the cost of ignoring gender when analyzing conflict and post-conflict environments. It explains how a feminist perspective allows us to uncover hidden gender power relations and deconstruct the so-called gender-neutral approach in international relations. By highlighting the differential impact of war on women and men as regards security issues, we understand why the cessation of hostility is not always synonymous with peace for women. We also understand how patriarchy resurfaces after a war and marginalizes women who are mainly seen as powerless victims and sidelined in peace talks that promote a conservative return to the status quo ante bellum.

  3. Nutritional Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutritional support is therapy for people who cannot get enough nourishment by eating or drinking. You may ... absorb nutrients through your digestive system You receive nutritional support through a needle or catheter placed in ...

  4. A Survey of the Nutritional Status of School Children : Relation Between Nutrient Intake and Socio-Economic Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Judith; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Survey focused on school children 8-11 and 13-15 years in Kent (England) between September 1968 and March 1970. Sex, age, and weight were found independently associated with highly significant differences in nutritional intake. Social class, number of siblings, and mother's work status were not generally associated with significant differences in…

  5. Breastfeeding and non-nutritive sucking patterns related to the prevalence of anterior open bite in primary dentition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Campos Romero

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Nutritional, immunological and psychological benefts of exclusive breastfeeding for the frst 6 months of life are unequivocally recognized. However, mothers should also be aware of the importance of breastfeeding for promoting adequate oral development. This study evaluated the association between breastfeeding and non-nutritive sucking patterns and the prevalence of anterior open bite in primary dentition. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Infant feeding and non-nutritive sucking were investigated in a 3-6 year-old sample of 1,377 children, from São Paulo city, Brazil. Children were grouped according to breastfeeding duration: G1 - non-breastfed, G2 - shorter than 6 months, G3 - interruption between 6 and 12 months, and G4 - longer than 12 months. Three calibrated dentists performed clinical examinations and classifed overbite into 3 categories: normal, anterior open bite and deep bite. Chi-square tests (p<0.05 with odds ratio (OR calculation were used for intergroup comparisons. The impact of breastfeeding and non-nutritive sucking on the prevalence of anterior open bite was analyzed using binary logistic regression. RESULTS: The prevalence estimates of anterior open bite were: 31.9% (G1, 26.1% (G2, 22.1% (G3, and 6.2% (G4. G1 would have signifcantly more chances of having anterior open bite compared with G4; in the total sample (OR=7.1 and in the subgroup without history of non-nutritive sucking (OR=9.3. Prolonging breastfeeding for 12 months was associated with a 3.7 times lower chance of having anterior open bite. In each year of persistence with non-nutritive sucking habits, the chance of developing this malocclusion increased in 2.38 times. CONCLUSIONS: Breastfeeding and non-nutritive sucking durations demonstrated opposite effects on the prediction of anterior open bite. Non-breastfed children presented signifcantly greater chances of having anterior open bite compared with those who were breastfed for periods longer than 12 months

  6. Advantages of enteral nutrition over parenteral nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Seres, David S.; Valcarcel, Monika; Guillaume, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    It is a strong and commonly held belief among nutrition clinicians that enteral nutrition is preferable to parenteral nutrition. We provide a narrative review of more recent studies and technical reviews comparing enteral nutrition with parenteral nutrition. Despite significant weaknesses in the existing data, current literature continues to support the use of enteral nutrition in patients requiring nutrition support, over parenteral nutrition.

  7. Depression, anxiety and obsessive-compulsive symptoms in relation to nutritional status and outcome in severe anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattar, Lama; Thiébaud, Marie-Raphaele; Huas, Caroline; Cebula, Christelle; Godart, Nathalie

    2012-12-30

    Depression, anxiety and obsessive-compulsive disorder are frequently reported to co-occur with anorexia nervosa (AN). There is clinical consensus that depressive symptoms and anxiety may in part be sequelae of malnutrition in AN. However, evidence-based data are still very rare. The present study among severe AN patients investigates links between these psychological variants and nutritional status at admission and subsequent to nutritional rehabilitation. Twenty-four women with AN diagnosed according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual IV (DSM-IV) were included prospectively and consecutively at hospitalisation. Nutritional status was assessed by body mass index (BMI). Several psychological aspects were assessed using various scales for depression, anxiety, social phobia, obsessive and eating behaviour symptoms. Follow-up weights and heights at 4-12 years after hospital discharge were measured in 18 patients. BMI and all the scores except the Yale-Brown obsessive-compulsive scale (Y-BOCS) showed significant improvement between admission and discharge. This study highlights the fact that some of the depressive and anxiety symptoms at least partially decrease with nutrition rehabilitation. The improvement in the scores on the psychometric scales between admission and discharge was not correlated with BMI improvement. Psychometric scores at admission and at discharge were not correlated with BMI at follow-up. BMI at follow-up was correlated with minimum lifetime BMI (r=0.486, P=0.04). Future studies should use a better indicator for nutritional status than BMI alone, and should also consider the initial degree of weight loss and the rate at which weight was lost. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Taurolidine locks significantly reduce the incidence of catheter-related blood stream infections in high-risk patients on home parenteral nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, J; Naghibi, M; Leach, Z; Parsons, C; King, A; Smith, T; Stroud, M

    2015-02-01

    Emerging evidence suggests taurolidine reduces the risk of repeated episodes of catheter related blood stream infections (CRBSI) in a subgroup of patients receiving home parenteral nutrition (HPN). We defined 3 indications where taurolidine could be considered and retrospectively analysed data from patients who were treated over a 10 year period to examine the validity of these criteria. Twenty-two patients were identified from a total HPN population of 81, representing 33.2 years of experience. The overall CRBSI rate pre- and post-taurolidine usage was reduced from 5.71 to 0.99 infections per 1000 patient parenteral nutrition days (P-value taurolidine is used as secondary prophylaxis and providing initial data suggesting the benefit of its use as primary prophylaxis.

  9. Report of an EU-US symposium on understanding nutrition-related consumer behavior: strategies to promote a lifetime of healthy food choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedl, Karl E; Rowe, Sylvia; Bellows, Laura L; Johnson, Susan L; Hetherington, Marion M; de Froidmont-Görtz, Isabelle; Lammens, Veerle; Hubbard, Van S

    2014-01-01

    This report summarizes an EU-US Task Force on Biotechnology Research symposium on healthy food choices and nutrition-related purchasing behaviors. This meeting was unique in its transdisciplinary approach to obesity and in bringing together scientists from academia, government, and industry. Discussion relevant to funders and researchers centered on (1) increased use of public-private partnerships, (2) the complexity of food behaviors and obesity risk and multilevel aspects that must be considered, and (3) the importance of transatlantic cooperation and collaboration that could accelerate advances in this field. A call to action stressed these points along with a commitment to enhanced communication strategies. Copyright © 2014 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of nutritional level of concentrate-based diets on meat quality and expression levels of genes related to meat quality in Hainan black goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dingfa; Zhou, Luli; Zhou, Hanlin; Hou, Guanyu; Shi, Liguang; Li, Mao; Huang, Xianzhou; Guan, Song

    2015-02-01

    The present study investigated the effects of the nutritional levels of diets on meat quality and related gene expression in Hainan black goat. Twenty-four goats were divided into six dietary treatments and were fed a concentrate-based diet with two levels of crude protein (CP) (15% or 17%) and three levels of digestive energy (DE) (11.72, 12.55 or 13.39 MJ/kg DM) for 90 days. Goats fed the concentrate-based diet with 17% CP had significantly (P nutritional levels of diets affect meat quality and expression levels of genes associated with meat quality in Hainan black goats. © 2014 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  11. Hypocarnitinemic hypoglycemia and heart failure in an infant with a constant parenteral elementary nutrition during measles vaccination-related febrile illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okanari, K; Takahashi, M; Maeda, T; Sato, K; Suenobu, S; Izumi, T

    2007-12-01

    A 1-year and 11-month-old female infant with bilateral lesions of the thalamus, basal ganglia, cerebellar and brainstem disease died from heart failure 9 days after being administered a measles vaccination. She had a high fever, hypocarnitinemic and non-ketotic hypoglycemia, serum levels of total carnitine 7.4 micromol/L, free carnitine 5.6 micromol/L, acylcarnitine 1.8 micromol/L and glucose 13 mg/dL. Due to feeding difficulty, the patient, however, had been administered parenteral elementary nutrition through a feeding tube since early infancy. The commercially available parenteral nutrition solutions do not contain carnitine. A secondary carnitine deficiency followed by non-ketotic hypoglycemia-related heart failure may readily develop even in a patient without valproic acid, during high fever.

  12. Cystic fibrosis - nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in recipes. Add marshmallows to fruit or hot chocolate. Add raisins, dates, or chopped nuts and brown ... AP, Quinton H. Evidence-based practice recommendations for nutrition-related management of children and adults with cystic ...

  13. Personalized nutrition and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Lu

    2014-08-01

    The past few decades have witnessed a rapid rise in nutrition-related disorders such as obesity in the United States and over the world. Traditional nutrition research has associated various foods and nutrients with obesity. Recent advances in genomics have led to identification of the genetic variants determining body weight and related dietary factors such as intakes of energy and macronutrients. In addition, compelling evidence has lent support to interactions between genetic variations and dietary factors in relation to obesity and weight change. Moreover, recently emerging data from other 'omics' studies such as epigenomics and metabolomics suggest that more complex interplays between the global features of human body and dietary factors may exist at multiple tiers in affecting individuals' susceptibility to obesity; and a concept of 'personalized nutrition' has been proposed to integrate this novel knowledge with traditional nutrition research, with the hope ultimately to endorse person-centric diet intervention to mitigate obesity and related disorders.

  14. Good maternal nutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breda, Joao; Robertson, Aileen

    This publication has three parts: •a summary of the results of a systematic review of the most recent evidence on maternal nutrition, the prevention of obesity and noncommunicable diseases; •a review of existing recommendations for nutrition, physical activity and weight gain during pregnancy...... in European countries; and •lists of possible opportunities for action in European countries. The overview and exploration of the national recommendations for nutrition, physical activity and weight gain during pregnancy are based on the results of a survey in which 51 of the 53 Member States in the WHO....... These are opportunities to promote nutrition and health throughout the life-course, ensure optimal diet-related fetal development and reduce the impact of morbidity and risk factors for noncommunicable diseases by improving maternal nutrition....

  15. Good maternal nutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breda, Joao; Robertson, Aileen

    This publication has three parts: •a summary of the results of a systematic review of the most recent evidence on maternal nutrition, the prevention of obesity and noncommunicable diseases; •a review of existing recommendations for nutrition, physical activity and weight gain during pregnancy...... in European countries; and •lists of possible opportunities for action in European countries. The overview and exploration of the national recommendations for nutrition, physical activity and weight gain during pregnancy are based on the results of a survey in which 51 of the 53 Member States in the WHO....... These are opportunities to promote nutrition and health throughout the life-course, ensure optimal diet-related fetal development and reduce the impact of morbidity and risk factors for noncommunicable diseases by improving maternal nutrition....

  16. Nutrition Labeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G

    2013-01-01

    because consumers will avoid products that the label shows to be nutritionally deficient, but also because food producers will try to avoid marketing products that appear, according to the label, as nutritionally problematic, for example, because of a high content of saturated fat or salt. Nutrition......Nutrition labeling refers to the provision of information on a food product’s nutritional content on the package label. It can serve both public health and commercial purposes. From a public health perspective, the aim of nutrition labeling is to provide information that can enable consumers...... to make healthier choices when choosing food products. Nutrition labeling is thus closely linked to the notion of the informed consumer, that chooses products according to their aims, on the basis of the information at their disposal. Because many consumers are assumed to be interested in making healthy...

  17. Nutrition Labeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G

    2013-01-01

    because consumers will avoid products that the label shows to be nutritionally deficient, but also because food producers will try to avoid marketing products that appear, according to the label, as nutritionally problematic, for example, because of a high content of saturated fat or salt. Nutrition......Nutrition labeling refers to the provision of information on a food product’s nutritional content on the package label. It can serve both public health and commercial purposes. From a public health perspective, the aim of nutrition labeling is to provide information that can enable consumers...... to make healthier choices when choosing food products. Nutrition labeling is thus closely linked to the notion of the informed consumer, that chooses products according to their aims, on the basis of the information at their disposal. Because many consumers are assumed to be interested in making healthy...

  18. Nutritional deficiencies in German middle-class male alcohol consumers: relation to dietary intake and severity of liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergheim, I.; Parlesak, Alexandr; Dierks, C.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the present study was to compare the nutrient intake and the nutritional status between German middle-class alcohol consumers and non-drinkers. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study using patients with different stages of alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and healthy volunteers....... SETTING: Southern Germany. SUBJECTS: Seventy-six hospitalized German middle-class alcohol consumers with different stages of alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and 22 healthy control subjects. METHODS: Subjects and controls were nutritionally assessed and mineral and vitamin content was measured in blood...... than those of non-drinkers. CONCLUSION: From the results of this study it is concluded that in German middle-class male alcohol consumers the status of several micronutrients is disturbed, although dietary intake hardly differs from that in non-alcoholic controls....

  19. Nutritional deficiencies in German middle-class male alcohol consumers: relation to dietary intake and severity of liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergheim, I.; Parlesak, Alexandr; Dierks, C.;

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the present study was to compare the nutrient intake and the nutritional status between German middle-class alcohol consumers and non-drinkers. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study using patients with different stages of alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and healthy volunteers....... SETTING: Southern Germany. SUBJECTS: Seventy-six hospitalized German middle-class alcohol consumers with different stages of alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and 22 healthy control subjects. METHODS: Subjects and controls were nutritionally assessed and mineral and vitamin content was measured in blood...... and urine. RESULTS: When compared with controls, alcohol consumers had significantly higher intakes of total calories, but intake of non-alcoholic calories did not differ between groups (P

  20. Nutrition support in hospitalised adults at nutritional risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feinberg, Joshua; Nielsen, Emil Eik; Korang, Steven Kwasi

    2017-01-01

    for one-third of all included participants. The included participants were heterogenous with regard to disease (20 different medical specialties). The experimental interventions were parenteral nutrition (86 trials); enteral nutrition (tube-feeding) (80 trials); oral nutrition support (55 trials); mixed...... with different diseases. We could find no beneficial effect of oral nutrition support or parenteral nutrition support on all-cause mortality and serious adverse events in any subgroup.Only 16 trials assessed health-related quality of life. We performed a meta-analysis of two trials reporting EuroQoL utility......BACKGROUND: The prevalence of disease-related malnutrition in Western European hospitals is estimated to be about 30%. There is no consensus whether poor nutritional status causes poorer clinical outcome or if it is merely associated with it. The intention with all forms of nutrition support...

  1. Stages of changes for fruit and vegetable intake and their relation to the nutritional status of undergraduate students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Lígia Cardoso dos; Correia, Ingrid Chaves; Mizutani, Edna Shibuya

    2014-01-01

    To assess the nutritional and dietetic profile of freshman Nutrition undergraduate students, and its association with stages of changes (Transtheoretical Model) for fruit and vegetable intake. Demographic (age and gender), anthropometric (body mass index and waist circumference) and nutritional (pattern of fruit and vegetable intake) data were obtained. The Transtheoretical Model was used to identify the stages of change for fruit and vegetable intake. Food consumption was assessed with a questionnaire developed by the Ministry of Health. The significance level considered for all statistical tests was 0.05 (pstudents, anthropometric measurements were taken from 219 (50.6%), and 299 (69%) underwent food intake evaluation. The sample included undergraduate students with a low frequency of adequate fruit and vegetables intake (29.8%), being the majority (64.9%) of them classified as at the preparation stage to increase the intake of these food groups. Prevalence of adequate fruit and vegetables intake was higher among students at the action/maintenance stages (83.3%) compared to those at the precontemplation/contemplation (18.3%) and at the preparation stages (32.0%). Students at the preparation stage presented the highest medians for body mass index (p=0.004) and waist circumference (p=0.039) compared to those at the precontemplation/contemplation stages. There was no association between fruit and vegetables intake and the presence of overweight or abdominal obesity (p=0.373). This instrument is effective to predict the food intake and, even among aware individuals and ready to change their food behavior, the prevalence of nutritional risk is high.

  2. [Features of serum lipid spectrum in female newcomers of Far Northern city, relation of nutritional characteristics to that spectrum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionova, I E; Buganov, A A; Agbalian, E V

    2003-01-01

    Nutrition of non-natives in the Far North is of European character but also has the features of native population national cuisine. Because of these factors, there are some peculiarities in formation of blood lipid spectrum in non-natives. In particular, in population of non-native women of Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug, the fat component of 24-hour diet influenced most, carbohydrate component had less importance.

  3. THE RELATION BETWEEN THE DIETARY HABITS AND CHOICES, THE NUTRITIONAL STATUS AND THE PHYSICAL ACTIVITY REGIME IN ROMANIAN ADOLESCENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iconaru Elena Ioana

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Although adolescents are more active from a physical point of view than adults (the physical activitybeing considered a characteristic of this age stage, the reduction of their fitness level (especially in the conditionsof an inadequate diet represents a reduction of the protection against metabolic and cardio-vascular diseases offuture adults. The aim of this study was to determine the correlations between the alimentation type, the nutritionalstatus and the physical activity regime in Romanian adolescents. We realized a transversal correlational study byusing questionnaires for the physical activity regime (Physical Activity Index, PAI and the attitude towardsnutrition (Eating Attitude Test, EAT-26. We also evaluated anthropometrical data: weight, height and body massindex on 200 Romanian adolescents (average age 16.1 years, sex ratio 1/1. We ascertained that gender inducesmodifications at the nutritional status level in the context of a certain type of attitude towards alimentation andphysical activity regime (p≤0.05. The differences induced by gender among Romanian adolescents are basedespecially on the physical activity regime and less on the alimentation type and on the nutritional status. Wedetermined reduced correlations between the nutritional status, the attitude towards alimentation and the physicalactivity regime for both sexes.

  4. Distinctive modulation of inflammatory and metabolic parameters in relation to zinc nutritional status in adult overweight/obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costarelli, Laura; Muti, Elisa; Malavolta, Marco; Cipriano, Catia; Giacconi, Robertina; Tesei, Silvia; Piacenza, Francesco; Pierpaoli, Sara; Gasparini, Nazzarena; Faloia, Emanuela; Tirabassi, Giacomo; Boscaro, Marco; Polito, Angela; Mauro, Beatrice; Maiani, Francesca; Raguzzini, Anna; Marcellini, Fiorella; Giuli, Cinzia; Papa, Roberta; Emanuelli, Monica; Lattanzio, Fabrizia; Mocchegiani, Eugenio

    2010-05-01

    Overweight and obesity are associated with low grade of inflammation and chronic inflammatory response characterized by abnormal production and activation of some pro-inflammatory signalling pathways. Taking into account that obesity is the direct result of an imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure, the nutritional factors in the diet, with particular focus on zinc, may play a pivotal role in the development of obesity-associated comorbidities. Considering the potential interactions among zinc nutritional status, inflammation, overweight/obesity and insulin secretion, the aim of the present work was to clarify the influence of zinc dietary intake on some metabolic, inflammatory and zinc status parameters in adult overweight/obese subjects. We found a close interrelationship between nutritional zinc and obesity. In particular, subjects with a lower zinc dietary intake display a deeper inflammatory status, general impairment of the zinc status, an altered lipid profile and increased insulin production with respect to obese subjects with normal zinc dietary intake. Moreover, in the presence of low dietary zinc intake, the obese subjects are less capable to respond to oxidative stress and to inflammation leading to the development of obesity or to a worsening of already preexisting obesity status. In conclusion, a possible zinc supplementation in obese subjects with a deeper inflammatory status and more altered zinc profile may be suggested in order to limit or reduce the inflammation, taking also into account that zinc supplementation normalizes "inflammaging" as well as zinc profile leading to a correct intra- and extracellular zinc homeostasis.

  5. Can the world afford to ignore biotechnology solutions that address food insecurity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Judit; Zhu, Changfu; Pérez-Massot, Eduard; Arjó, Gemma; Zorrilla-López, Uxue; Masip, Gemma; Banakar, Raviraj; Sanahuja, Georgina; Farré, Gemma; Miralpeix, Bruna; Bai, Chao; Vamvaka, Evangelia; Sabalza, Maite; Twyman, Richard M; Bassié, Ludovic; Capell, Teresa; Christou, Paul

    2013-09-01

    Genetically engineered (GE) crops can be used as part of a combined strategy to address food insecurity, which is defined as a lack of sustainable access to safe and nutritious food. In this article, we discuss the causes and consequences of food insecurity in the developing world, and the indirect economic impact on industrialized countries. We dissect the healthcare costs and lost productivity caused by food insecurity, and evaluate the relative merits of different intervention programs including supplementation, fortification and the deployment of GE crops with higher yields and enhanced nutritional properties. We provide clear evidence for the numerous potential benefits of GE crops, particularly for small-scale and subsistence farmers. GE crops with enhanced yields and nutritional properties constitute a vital component of any comprehensive strategy to tackle poverty, hunger and malnutrition in developing countries and thus reduce the global negative economic effects of food insecurity.

  6. Gynecologic and obstetric findings related to nutritional status and adherence to a gluten-free diet in Brazilian patients with celiac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotze, L M S

    2004-08-01

    This study shows a broad analysis of gynaecological and obstetrical disturbances in patients with celiac disease in relation to their nutritional status and adherence to a gluten-free diet. Seventy-six adult celiac patients were analyzed according to nutritional status and 18 children/adolescents to gluten-free diet adherence. As controls, 84 adults and 22 adolescents with irritable bowel syndrome were used The significant findings were observed as follow: adult celiac patients, irrespective of the nutritional status, were younger than controls, presented delayed menarche, secondary amenorrhea, a higher percentage of spontaneous abortions, anemia and hypoalbuminemia. No differences were observed regarding the number of pregnancies, age at menopause and duration of the reproductive period. After treatment, patients presented with normal pregnancies and one patient presented spontaneous abortion. The adolescents who were not adherent to gluten-free diet presented delayed menarche and secondary amenorrhea. In conclusion, gluten per se could explain the disturbances and malnutrition would worsen the disease in a consequent vicious cycle. Therefore, celiac disease should be included in the screening of reproductive disorders.

  7. Can the sustainable development goals reduce the burden of nutrition-related non-communicable diseases without truly addressing major food system reforms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkes, Corinna; Popkin, Barry M

    2015-06-16

    While the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs; 2000-2015) focused primarily on poverty reduction, hunger and infectious diseases, the proposed Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and targets pay more attention to nutrition and non-communicable diseases (NCDs). One of the 169 proposed targets of the SDGs is to reduce premature deaths from NCDs by one third; another is to end malnutrition in all its forms. Nutrition-related NCDs (NR-NCDs) stand at the intersection between malnutrition and NCDs. Driven in large part by remarkable transformations of food systems, they are rapidly increasing in most low and middle income countries (LMICs). The transformation to modern food systems began in the period following World War II with policies designed to meet a very different set of nutritional and food needs, and continued with globalization in the 1990s onwards. Another type of food systems transformation will be needed to shift towards a healthier and more sustainable diet--as will meeting many of the other SDGs. The process will be complex but is necessary. Communities concerned with NCDs and with malnutrition need to work more closely together to demand food systems change.

  8. The Consequences of Ignoring Multilevel Data Structures in Nonhierarchical Covariance Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julian, Marc W.

    2001-01-01

    Examined the effects of ignoring multilevel data structures in nonhierarchical covariance modeling using a Monte Carlo simulation. Results suggest that when the magnitudes of intraclass correlations are less than 0.05 and the group size is small, the consequences of ignoring the data dependence within the multilevel data structures seem to be…

  9. Modelling non-ignorable missing-data mechanisms with item response theory models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holman, Rebecca; Glas, Cees A.W.

    2005-01-01

    A model-based procedure for assessing the extent to which missing data can be ignored and handling non-ignorable missing data is presented. The procedure is based on item response theory modelling. As an example, the approach is worked out in detail in conjunction with item response data modelled us

  10. The Mathematical Miseducation of America's Youth: Ignoring Research and Scientific Study in Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battista, Michael T.

    1999-01-01

    Because traditional instruction ignores students' personal construction of mathematical meaning, mathematical thought development is not properly nurtured. Several issues must be addressed, including adults' ignorance of math- and student-learning processes, identification of math-education research specialists, the myth of coverage, testing…

  11. Nutrition: ethical issues and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rucker, Robert B; Rucker, Michael R

    2016-11-01

    For nutrition and its associated disciplines, ethical considerations related to research are often complicated by factors that range from the use of experimental research designs that are overly holistic to inextricable links between nutrition research and marketing. As a consequence, there is the need for constant vigilance to assess and deal with apparent conflicts of interest. Also, there are few scientific disciplines that are defined by cultural, religious, or political codifications as is nutrition. Accordingly, examples of historical, cultural, and political events are described that have influenced ethical approaches related to nutrition research. Furthermore, nutrition research questions are often multifaceted and require dealing with complex variables. In this regard, ethical principles and perspectives that have relevance to data acquisition, the publication and translation of nutrition research, and the marketing of nutritional products and concepts are highlighted.

  12. Nutrition support in surgical oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huhmann, Maureen B; August, David A

    2009-01-01

    This review article, the second in a series of articles to examine the American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (A.S.P.E.N.) Guidelines for the Use of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition in Adult and Pediatric Patients, evaluates the evidence related to the use of nutrition support in surgical oncology patients. Cancer patients develop complex nutrition issues. Nutrition support may be indicated in malnourished cancer patients undergoing surgery, depending on individual patient characteristics. As with the first article in this series, this article provides background concerning nutrition issues in cancer patients, as well as discusses the role of nutrition support in the care of surgical cancer patients. The goal of this review is to enrich the discussion contained in the clinical guidelines as they relate to recommendations made for surgical patients, cite the primary literature more completely, and suggest updates to the guideline statements in light of subsequently published studies.

  13. Nutritional Metabolomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gürdeniz, Gözde

    and alignment algorithms, such that each has pros and cons. Thus, the use of more than one software tool and/or the use of several parameter settings during data preprocessing are likely to decrease the risk of failing to detect features (potential marker candidates) in untargeted metabolomics. On the other...... handling, this thesis also deals with biological interpretation of postprandial metabolism and trans fatty acid (TFA) intake. Two nutritional issues were objects of investigation: 1) metabolic states as a function of time since the last meal and 2) markers related to intakes of cis- and trans-fat. Plasma...... to TFA intake (16 weeks) and its depletion (12 weeks) were examined in order to identify metabolic patterns affected by this potentially toxic fat using a parallel intervention study. In addition, the impact of cis- vs. trans-fat intake on a glucose challenge was investigated (PAPER II). The postprandial...

  14. State of nutrition support teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLegge, Mark Henry; Kelly, Andrea True; Kelley, Andrea True

    2013-12-01

    The incidence of malnutrition in hospitalized patients is relatively high (up to 55%) despite breakthroughs in nutrition support therapies. These patients have increased morbidity and mortality, extended hospital stays, and care that is associated with higher costs. These patients are often poorly managed due to inadequate nutrition assessment and poor medical knowledge and practice in the field of nutrition. Nutrition support teams (NSTs) are interdisciplinary support teams with specialty training in nutrition that are often comprised of physicians, dietitians, nurses, and pharmacists. Their role includes nutrition assessment, determination of nutrition needs, recommendations for appropriate nutrition therapy, and management of nutrition support therapy. Studies have demonstrated significant improvements in patient nutrition status and improved clinical outcomes as well as reductions in costs when patients were appropriately managed by a multispecialty NST vs individual caregivers. Despite this, there has been steady decline in the number of formal NST in recent years (65% of hospitals in 1995 to 42% in 2008) as hospitals and other healthcare organizations look for ways to cut costs. Given the importance of nutrition status on clinical outcomes and overall healthcare costs, a number of institutions have introduced and sustained strong nutrition training and support programs and teams, demonstrating both clinical and economic benefit. The benefits of NST, training and implementation strategies, and tips for justifying these clinically and economically beneficial groups to healthcare organizations and governing bodies are discussed in this review.

  15. Iatrogenic nutritional deficiencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, R C; Blass, J P

    1982-01-01

    This article catalogs the nutritional deficiencies inadvertently introduced by certain treatment regimens. Specifically, the iatrogenic effects on nutrition of surgery, hemodialysis, irradiation, and drugs are reviewed. Nutritional problems are particularly frequent consequences of surgery on the gastrointestinal tract. Gastric surgery can lead to deficiencies of vitamin B12, folate, iron, and thiamine, as well as to metabolic bone disease. The benefits of small bowel bypass are limited by the potentially severe nutritional consequences of this procedure. Following bypass surgery, patients should be monitored for signs of possible nutritional probems such as weight loss, neuropathy, cardiac arrhythmias, loss of stamina, or changes in mental status. Minimal laboratory tests should include hematologic evaluation, B12, folate, iron, albumin, calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, transaminases, sodium, potassium, chloride, and carbon dioxide levels. Roentgenologic examination of the bone should also be obtained. Loss of bone substance is a major consequence of many forms of treatment, and dietary supplementation with calcium is warranted. Patients undergoing hemodialysis have shown carnitine and choline deficiencies, potassium depletion, and hypovitaminosis, as well as osteomalacia. Chronic drug use may alter intake, synthesis, absorption, transport, storage, metabolism, or excretion of nutrients. Patients vary markedly in the metabolic effects of drugs, and recommendations for nutrition must be related to age, sex, reproductive status, and genetic endowment. Moreover, the illness being treated can itself alter nutritional requirements and the effect of the treatment on nutrient status. The changes in nutritional levels induced by use of estrogen-containing oral contraceptives (OCs) are obscure; however, the effects on folate matabolism appear to be of less clinical import than previously suggested. Reduction in pyridoxine and serum vitamin B12 levels has been

  16. What is Nutrition & Metabolism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinman, Richard D; Hussain, M Mahmood

    2004-08-17

    A new Open Access journal, Nutrition & Metabolism (N&M) will publish articles that integrate nutrition with biochemistry and molecular biology. The open access process is chosen to provide rapid and accessible dissemination of new results and perspectives in a field that is of great current interest. Manuscripts in all areas of nutritional biochemistry will be considered but three areas of particular interest are lipoprotein metabolism, amino acids as metabolic signals, and the effect of macronutrient composition of diet on health. The need for the journal is identified in the epidemic of obesity, diabetes, dyslipidemias and related diseases, and a sudden increase in popular diets, as well as renewed interest in intermediary metabolism.

  17. Associations between diet-related diseases and impaired physiological mechanisms: a holistic approach based on meta-analyses to identify targets for preventive nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fardet, Anthony; Boirie, Yves

    2013-10-01

    In nutrition research, analyzing the relationship between a diet-related chronic disease and impaired metabolism is a common reductionist approach. Meta-analyses have enabled quantification of these relationships. There is, however, a need for more holistic approaches to determine the sequence of connections between diseases and associated physiological mechanisms. The objective of this exhaustive review was to collect scientific evidence – with priority given to quantitative reviews – published between 1950 and 2011 to assess the relationships between major diet-related chronic diseases and deregulated mechanisms. The results revealed that diabetes and obesity are the key diseases that lead to all other diet-related chronic diseases, while cancer, cardiovascular disease, skeletal disease, and sarcopenia are endpoint diseases. Liver disease, kidney disease, digestive disease, and mental illness are consequences as well as causes of other diet-related chronic diseases. All diseases have multifactorial causes, and most result from decreased antioxidant status, acid-base imbalance, increased inflammatory status, impaired carbohydrate/lipid/one-carbon metabolism, impaired functioning of neurons and DNA transcription, hypertension, and/or modified digestive microflora. Nutritional strategies that focus on the prevention of obesity and diabetes should be prioritized in order to reduce the prevalence of other major chronic diseases.

  18. Total lymphocyte count and subpopulation lymphocyte counts in relation to dietary intake and nutritional status of peritoneal dialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzegorzewska, Alicja E; Leander, Magdalena

    2005-01-01

    Dietary deficiency causes abnormalities in circulating lymphocyte counts. For the present paper, we evaluated correlations between total and subpopulation lymphocyte counts (TLC, SLCs) and parameters of nutrition in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. Studies were carried out in 55 patients treated with PD for 22.2 +/- 11.4 months. Parameters of nutritional status included total body mass, lean body mass (LBM), body mass index (BMI), and laboratory indices [total protein, albumin, iron, ferritin, and total iron binding capacity (TIBC)]. The SLCs were evaluated using flow cytometry. Positive correlations were seen between TLC and dietary intake of niacin; TLC and CD8 and CD16+56 counts and energy delivered from protein; CD4 count and beta-carotene and monounsaturated fatty acids 17:1 intake; and CD19 count and potassium, copper, vitamin A, and beta-carotene intake. Anorexia negatively influenced CD19 count. Serum albumin showed correlations with CD4 and CD19 counts, and LBM with CD19 count. A higher CD19 count was connected with a higher red blood cell count, hemoglobin, and hematocrit. Correlations were observed between TIBC and TLC and CD3 and CD8 counts, and between serum Fe and TLC and CD3 and CD4 counts. Patients with a higher CD19 count showed a better clinical-laboratory score, especially less weakness. Patients with a higher CD4 count had less expressed insomnia. Quantities of ingested vitamins and minerals influence lymphocyte counts in the peripheral blood of PD patients. Evaluation of TLC and SLCs is helpful in monitoring the effectiveness of nutrition in these patients.

  19. Benefits of migration in relation to nutritional condition and predation risk in a partially migratory moose population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Kevin S; Barten, Neil L; Crouse, Stacy; Crouse, John

    2014-01-01

    The costs and benefits of alternative migratory strategies are often framed in the context of top-down and bottom-up effects on individual fitness. This occurs because migration is considered a costly behavioral strategy that presumably confers explicit benefits to migrants in the form of either decreased predation risk (predation risk avoidance hypothesis) or increased nutrition (forage maturation hypothesis). To test these hypotheses, we studied a partially migratory moose (Alces alces) population and contrasted explicit measures of predation risk (i.e., offspring survival) and nutrition (i.e., accumulation of endogenous energy reserves) between resident and migratory subpopulations. We relied on data collected from migratory and nonmigratory radio-marked moose (n = 67) that inhabited a novel study system located in coastal Alaska between 2004 and 2010. In this area, 30% of the population resides year-round on a coastal foreland area, while 48% migrate to either a small island archipelago or a subalpine ridge system (the remainder exhibited one of six different low-occurrence strategies). Overall, we determined that accumulation of body fat during the growing season did not differ between migratory or resident modalities. However, calf survival was 2.6-2.9 times higher for individuals that migrated (survival, islands = 0.49 +/- 0.16 [mean +/- SE], n = 35; ridge = 0.52 +/- 0.16, n = 33) than those that did not (survival, resident = 0.19 +/- 0.08, n = 57). Our results support the predation risk avoidance hypotheses, and suggest that migration is a behavioral strategy that principally operates to reduce the risk of calf predation and does not confer explicit nutritional benefits. We did not directly detect trade-offs between predation risk and nutrition for migratory individuals. Yet we identify an indirect life history mechanism that may mildly dampen the apparent fitness benefits of migration. The proximate factors accounting for differences in migration

  20. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) ; Guidance on the scientific requirements for health claims related to physical performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    The Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) to draft guidance on scientific requirements for health claims related to physical performance. This guidance has been drawn from scientific opinions of the NDA Panel on such health...... claims. Thus, this guidance document represents the views of the NDA Panel based on the experience gained to date with the evaluation of health claims in this area. It is not intended that the document should include an exhaustive list of beneficial effects and studies/outcome measures which...

  1. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) ; Guidance on the scientific requirements for health claims related to bone, joints, skin and oral health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    The Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) has been asked by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) to draft guidance on the scientific requirements for health claims related to bone, joints, skin, and oral health. This guidance has been drawn from scientific opinions...... of the NDA Panel on such health claims. Thus, this guidance document represents the views of the NDA Panel based on the experience gained to date with the evaluation of health claims in these areas. It is not intended that the document should include an exhaustive list of beneficial effects and studies...

  2. Nutritional Ecology and Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raubenheimer, David; Simpson, Stephen J

    2016-07-17

    In contrast to the spectacular advances in the first half of the twentieth century with micronutrient-related diseases, human nutrition science has failed to stem the more recent rise of obesity and associated cardiometabolic disease (OACD). This failure has triggered debate on the problems and limitations of the field and what change is needed to address these. We briefly review the two broad historical phases of human nutrition science and then provide an overview of the main problems that have been implicated in the poor progress of the field with solving OACD. We next introduce the field of nutritional ecology and show how its ecological-evolutionary foundations can enrich human nutrition science by providing the theory to help address its limitations. We end by introducing a modeling approach from nutritional ecology, termed nutritional geometry, and demonstrate how it can help to implement ecological and evolutionary theory in human nutrition to provide new direction and to better understand and manage OACD.

  3. Sports Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missouri State Dept. of Health, Jefferson City.

    This guide deals with various aspects of sports and nutrition. Twelve chapters are included: (1) "Sports and Nutrition"; (2) "Eat to Compete"; (3) "Fit Folks Need Fit Food"; (4) "The Food Guide Pyramid"; (5) "Fat Finder's Guide"; (6) "Pre- and Post-Event Meals"; (7) "Tips for the…

  4. Nutritional epigenetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter is intended to provide a timely overview of the current state of research at the intersection of nutrition and epigenetics. I begin by describing epigenetics and molecular mechanisms of eigenetic regulation, then highlight four classes of nutritional exposures currently being investiga...

  5. Terapia nutricional na doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica e suas complicações nutricionais Nutrition therapy for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and related nutritional complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Carla Fernandes

    2006-10-01

    that occur during the progression of the disease can affect the nutritional state of patients suffering from this illness. The objective of this study was to present a brief review of the literature regarding the nutrition therapy used in the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. To that end, we performed a bibliographic search for related articles published within the last 18 years and indexed for the Literatura Latinoamericana y del Caribe en Ciencias de la Salud (LILACS, Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature and Medline databases. Malnutrition is associated with a poor prognosis for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, since it predisposes such patients to infections, as well as reducing respiratory muscle force, exercise tolerance and quality of life. Despite the fact that such malnutrition is extremely common in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients, it should be recognized as an independent risk factor, since it can be modified through appropriate and efficacious diet therapy and monitoring. For patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, nutrition therapy is initiated after the evaluation of the nutritional state of the patient, which identifies nutritional risk, thereby allowing the proper level of treatment to be established. In this evaluation, anthropometric and biochemical markers, as well as indicators of dietary consumption and body composition, should be used. The prescribed diet should contain appropriate proportions of macronutrients, micronutrients and immunonutrients in order to regain or maintain the proper nutritional state and to avoid complications. The physical characteristics of the diet should be tailored to the individual needs and tolerances of each patient. In the treatment of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, individualized nutrition therapy is extremely important and has been shown to be fundamental to improving quality of life.

  6. The more you ignore me the closer I get: An ERP study of evaluative priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Henning; Bachmann, Olga; Stahl, Jutta

    2014-12-01

    We used event-related brain potentials (ERPs) to investigate the various mental processes contributing to evaluative priming-that is, more positive judgments for targets preceded by affectively positive, as opposed to negative, prime stimuli. To ensure ecological validity, we employed a priori meaningful landscape pictures as targets and emotional adjectives as visual primes and presented both primes and targets for relatively long durations (>1 s). Prime-related lateralized readiness potentials (LRPs) revealed response priming as one source of the significant evaluative priming effect. On the other hand, greater right-frontal positive slow wave in the ERP for pictures following negative, as compared with positive, primes indicated altered impression formation, thus supporting automatic spreading activation and/or affect misattribution accounts. Moreover, target LRPs suggested conscious counter-control to reduce the evaluative priming net effect. Finally, when comparing prime ERPs for two groups of participants showing strong versus weak evaluative priming, we found strong evidence for the role of depth of prime processing: In the weak-effect group, prime words evoked an increased visual P1/N1 complex, a larger posterior P2 component, and a greater left-parietal processing negativity presumably reflecting semantic processing. By contrast, a larger medial-frontal P2/N2 complex in the strong-effect group suggested top-down inhibition of the prime's emotional content. Thus, trying to ignore the primes can actually increase, rather than decrease, the evaluative priming effect.

  7. The effectiveness of an educational intervention in changing nursing practice and preventing catheter-related infection for patients receiving total parenteral nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinç, L; Erdil, F

    2000-10-01

    Catheter-related infections are one of the most serious complications of TPN therapy. Nurses have important responsibilities in the care of patients who are receiving TPN. This quasi-experimental study was conducted for the purpose of investigating the effectiveness of an educational intervention on changing nursing practice and preventing catheter-related infections in patients receiving total parenteral nutrition. The nurses' practice and the colonisation rate of control and comparative group patients in the surgical clinics of Hacettepe University Hospital (Turkey), and related variables were examined before and after an educational intervention. The findings of the study indicate that the intervention was successful in improving appropriate nursing practice, mean scores of nurses' practices were 45.7 before and 66.5 after the intervention (p<0.05). The rate of microorganism colonisation was also decreased but statistical analysis demonstrated no association between nursing practices and microorganism colonisation of catheter cultures.

  8. Sports nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomanić Milena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to higher energy consumption, physically active people have higher nutritional requirements. In addition to other important factors for sports, such as good health and physical predisposition, adequate nutrition is a fundamental component. Sports nutrition must be well planned and individually adapted based on physical characteristics, tendencies towards gaining or losing weight, frequency, duration and intensity of training sessions. Studies have shown that a well-balanced ratio of macro and micronutrients, with the support of supplements and adequate hydration, can significantly improve athletic performance and plays a key role in achieving better results. An optimally designed nutritional program, with realistic and achievable goals, which complements a well-planned training program, is the basis for success in sports. Only when nutritional requirements are met, deficits can be prevented and performance in sport pushed to the limit.

  9. Physical functions, health-related outcomes, nutritional status, and blood markers in community-dwelling cancer survivors aged 75 years and older.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihira, Hikaru; Mizumoto, Atsushi; Makino, Keitarou; Yasuda, Keisuke; Yoko, Yoko; Saitoh, Shigeyuki; Ohnishi, Hirofumi; Furuna, Taketo

    2014-01-01

    A cancer survivor is defined as anyone who has been diagnosed with cancer, from the time of diagnosis through the rest of their life. The purpose of this study was to examine whether physical functions, health-related outcomes, nutritional status and blood markers in community-dwelling cancer survivors aged 75 years and older are different from those who do not have cancer Two hundred seventy-five participants were asked by physicians, nurses, and physical therapists, questions regarding cancer history in a face-to-face interview. Data were collected for demographic information, physical functions, such as handgrip strength, knee extension power, abdominal muscle strength, static standing balance, walking speed and the timed-up-and-go test, health-related outcomes, nutritional status, and blood markers. The measured parameters of survivor diagnosed with cancer were compared with those without a history of cancer. Thirty-seven older adults were previously diagnosed with cancer. Female cancer survivors had lower knee extension power (paged 75 years and older differs from that in women with no history of cancer.

  10. Serum folate levels among healthy infants aged 6–8 months: relation to infants’ nutritional status indicators and maternal knowledge-attitude-practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tutik Ernawati

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vitamin B12 and folate deficiency can cause anemia which may lead growth and development impairments. This study was aimed to determine serum folate levels among infants aged 6–8 months and the relation to infants’ nutritional indicators and maternal knowledge-attitude-practice about infant feeding.Methods: A cross–sectional design was implemented in infants aged 6–8 months and their mothers as respondents who met the study criteria. Data collected among the infants included sex, age, length, weight, intake of energy, protein and folate (based on a one–month semi–quantitative FFQ and a 24–hour food recall, serum folate and hemoglobin levels. Data collected among the mothers included age, education level, income based on average minimum monthly wage, knowledge, attitude and behavior concerning infant’s feeding, i.e. breast milk and complementary feeding practices.Results: This study found that the median of serum folate levels was 43.05 nmol/L with values ranging from 19.92 nmol/L to 104.24 nmol/L. Serum folate level had a strong positive correlation with its related factors, protein and folate intake.Conclusions: Protein-folate–rich complementay food should be provided to infants aged 6 months and over to maintain serum folate level. (Med J Indones 2011; 20:138-42Keywords: Folate, infants, nutrient intake, nutritional status

  11. [Dental age in the relation with nutrition model of school children from swimming classes of championship school].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyras, Marta; Lyszczarz, Justyna; Wójtowicz, Barbara; Jankowska, Katarzyna

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this work was the comparison of calendar age with dental age in the aspect of basic nutritional ingredients intake with precise taking into consideration microelements, macroelements and vitamins. 79 schoolchildren from swimming classes of championship school in Cracow aged 10-13 were included in the examination. Among this group of pupils 24-hour recall and complex dental examination including the estimation of dental status, the hygienic status of oral cavity were conducted and the presence of dental and occlusion defects were estimated. 24-hour recall including 3 following days contained the number of products in every meal, the number of meals and the time of their consumption. The schoolchildren were divided into 3 groups on the ground of the difference between dental and calendar age. Dentition on time (no more than 5 months difference between dental and calendar age) was stated by 25 pupils--group I. Accelerated dentition of fixed teeth was observed by 36 pupils--group II and delayed dentition by 18 persons--group III. In all groups lower than safe calcium intake (80% of pupils from these groups) and iron intake (55%) was noticed. In the range of left micro- and macroelements the disturbances in nutritional status were mainly stated bypersons with delayed dentition. The shortages in Magnesium intake concerned 67% of school children and in Zinc intake--72%. In the group of schoolchildren with accelerated dentition these shortages were about 40%. In the range of vitamins intake low niacin intake (39% of schoolchildren) and riboflavin intake (25%) were stated. The differences among these groups were observed only in thiamine intake (33% from group II and 19% from group III). In the group III more often low energetic value of daily nutrient intake was stated.

  12. A nutrition strategy to reduce the burden of diet related disease: Access to dietician services must complement population health approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonie eSegal

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Poor diet quality is implicated in almost every disease and health issue. And yet, in most advanced market economies diet quality is poor, with a minority meeting guidelines for healthy eating. Poor diet is thus responsible for substantial disease burden.Societies have at their disposal a range of strategies to influence diet behaviors. These can be classified into; i population level socio-educational approaches to enhance diet knowledge; ii pricing incentives (subsidies on healthy foods, punitive taxes on unhealthy foods; iii regulations to modify the food environment, and iv the provision of clinical dietetic services. There is little evidence that societies are active in implementing the available strategies. Advertising of ‘junk foods’ is largely unchecked, contrasting with strict controls on advertising tobacco products, which also attract punitive taxes. Access to dieticians is restricted in most countries, even in the context of universal health care. In Australia in 2011 there were just 2,969 practicing dieticians/nutritionists or 1.3 clinicians per 10,000 persons, compared with 5.8 physiotherapists per 10,000 persons, 14.8 general practitioners (family physicians per 10,000 persons or 75 nurses per 10,000 persons.Given the major role of diet in health it is time to implement comprehensive national nutrition strategies capable of effecting change. Such strategies need to be multi-component, incorporating both public health approaches and expanded publicly funded dietetic services. Access to individualized dietetic services is needed by those at risk, or with current chronic conditions, given the complexity of the diet message, the need for professional support for behavior change and to reflect individual circumstances. The adoption of a comprehensive nutrition strategy offers the promise of substantial improvement in diet quality, better health and wellbeing and lower health care costs.

  13. Dietary and anthropometric indicators of nutritional status in relation to Helicobacter pylori infection in a paediatric population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janjetic, Mariana A; Mantero, Paula; Cueto Rua, Eduardo; Balcarce, Norma; Zerbetto de Palma, Gerardo; Catalano, Mariana; Zubillaga, Marcela B; Boccio, José R; Goldman, Cinthia G

    2015-04-14

    It has been postulated that Helicobacter pylori infection could affect growth and appetite, consequently influencing body weight. Therefore, the association between H. pylori infection and the dietary and anthropometric indicators of nutritional status of a paediatric population were investigated. A total of 525 children (aged 4-16 years) who were referred to the gastroenterology unit of the Sor Maria Ludovica Children's Hospital from Buenos Aires, Argentina, were enrolled and completed an epidemiological questionnaire. H. pylori infection was diagnosed using the ¹³C-urea breath test (¹³C-UBT). Height and weight were assessed for calculation of anthropometric indicators. Energy and macronutrient intakes were estimated by 24 h dietary recall. Data analysis was performed using a χ² test, a Student's t test, a Mann-Whitney U test and linear and logistic regressions. The prevalence of H. pylori infection was 25·1 % (with a mean age of 10·1 (SD 3·1) years). A tendency towards lower energy, carbohydrate, protein and fat intakes was observed in infected patients; however, it was not associated with H. pylori infection in any of the evaluated age groups (4-8, 9-13 and 14-16 years). Underweight, stunting, overweight and obesity were also not associated with the infection. Although height-for-age and BMI-for-age Z scores tended to be lower in infected patients, the differences between H. pylori-positive and H. pylori-negative children were not statistically significant. In conclusion, H. pylori infection was not associated with dietary intake or with anthropometric indicators in the present population of children with gastrointestinal symptoms; however, an increased sample size would be needed to confirm the observed tendency towards lower dietary intake and lower anthropometric indicators of nutritional status in H. pylori-infected children.

  14. Role of School Meal Service in Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Hiromi

    2015-01-01

    School meal service programs are essential for children's long-term nutrition and health promotion. The programs vary in content, depending on the economic condition, health condition and the food supply situation in each country. Children are encouraged to improve their nutrition, and choose healthy foods and learn good dietary habits through school meals and nutrition education. In Japan, the school lunch program started in 1889. The percentage of elementary schools serving school lunches had reached 99.2% in 2014, and the Nutrition Teacher system started in 2004. Nutrition teachers are to play the roles of teachers on food and nutrition education in addition to managers of foodservice operations in schools. Nutrition teachers are expected to have effects on school nutrition programs by providing meal service together with nutrition education. And so, significant effort is needed from both academia and the field to raise the related nutritional issues.

  15. Nutrition and Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Thai HbH:Vietnamese Relevant links Living with Thalassemia NUTRITIONNutrition and Diet ▶ Diet for the Non-transfused ... Nutrition with Connie Schroepfer, MS, RD: Dec 2016 Nutrition and Diet Nutritional deficiencies are common in thalassemia, ...

  16. Effects of aging on the novelty P3 during attend and ignore oddball tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, D; Kazmerski, V A; Cycowicz, Y M

    1998-09-01

    The effects of attention were assessed on novelty P3 amplitude and scalp distribution elicited by environmental sounds in young and elderly volunteers who participated in either actively attended or ignored oddball conditions. For the young, novelty P3 amplitude decreased with time on task during both attend and ignore sequences. Amplitude decrements were greatest at frontal sites during the attend condition, but at all sites during the ignore condition. A reliable amplitude decrement was not observed for the elderly in either the attend or ignore oddball series. The data suggest that attention differentially activates multiple generators that contribute to scalp-recorded novelty P3 activity. The lack of novelty P3 habituation seen in the elderly is consistent with changes in frontal lobe function as age increases.

  17. Characterisation and expression of calpain family members in relation to nutritional status, diet composition and flesh texture in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Salmerón

    Full Text Available Calpains are non-lysosomal calcium-activated neutral proteases involved in a wide range of cellular processes including muscle proteolysis linked to post-mortem flesh softening. The aims of this study were (a to characterise several members of the calpain system in gilthead sea bream and (b to examine their expression in relation to nutritional status and muscle tenderisation. We identified the complete open reading frame of gilthead sea bream calpains1-3, sacapn1, sacapn2, sacapn3, and two paralogs of the calpain small subunit1, sacapns1a and sacapns1b. Proteins showed 63-90% sequence identity compared with sequences from mammals and other teleost fishes, and the characteristic domain structure of vertebrate calpains. Transcripts of sacapn1, sacapn2, sacapns1a and sacapns1b had a wide tissue distribution, whereas sacapn3 was almost exclusively detected in skeletal muscle. Next, we assessed transcript expression in skeletal muscle following alteration of nutritional status by (a fasting and re-feeding or (b feeding four experimental diets with different carbohydrate-to-protein ratios. Fasting significantly reduced plasma glucose and increased free fatty acids and triglycerides, together with a significant increase in sacapns1b expression. Following 7 days of re-feeding, plasma parameters returned to fed values and sacapn1, sacapn2, sacapns1a and sacapns1b expression was significantly reduced. Furthermore, an increase in dietary carbohydrate content (11 to 39% diminished growth but increased muscle texture, which showed a significant correlation with decreased sacapn1 and sacapns1a expression, whilst the other calpains remained unaffected. This study has demonstrated that calpain expression is modulated by nutritional status and diet composition in gilthead sea bream, and that the expression of several calpain members is correlated with muscle texture, indicating their potential use as molecular markers for flesh quality in aquaculture production.

  18. Neuroinlfammation and comorbidities are frequently ignored factors in CNS pathology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Raluca Elena Sandu; Ana Maria Buga; Adriana Uzoni; Eugen Bogdan Petcu; Aurel Popa-Wagner

    2015-01-01

    Virtually all drug interventions that have been successful pre-clinically in experimental stroke have failed to prove their efifcacy in a clinical setting. This could be partly explained by the complexity and heterogeneity of human diseases as well as the associated co-morbidities which may render neuroprotective drugs less efifcacious in clinical practice. One aspect of crucial importance in the physiopathology of stroke which is not completely understood is neuroinlfammation. At the pres-ent time, it is becoming evident that subtle, but continuous neuroinlfammation can provide the ground for disorders such as cerebral small vessel disease. Moreover, advanced aging and a number of highly prevalent risk factors such as obesity, hypertension, diabetes and atherosclerosis could act as “silent contributors” promoting a chronic proinlfammatory state. This could aggravate the out-come of various pathological entities and can contribute to a number of subsequent post-stroke complications such as dementia, depression and neurodegeneration creating a pathological vicious cycle. Moreover, recent data suggests that the inlfammatory process might be closely linked with multiple neurodegenerative pathways related to depression. In addition, pro-inlfammatory cyto-kines could play a central role in the pathophysiology of both depression and dementia.

  19. IgM nephropathy; can we still ignore it.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanikar, Aruna

    2013-04-01

    IgM nephropathy (IgMN) is a relatively less recognized clinico-immunopathological entity in the domain of glomerulonephritis , often thought to be a bridge between minimal change disease and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ), Google Scholar, Pubmed (NLM), LISTA (EBSCO) and Web of Science has been searched. IgM nephropathy can present as nephritic syndrome or less commonly with subnephrotic proteinuria or rarely hematuria. About 30% patients respond to steroids whereas others are steroid dependent / resistant. They should be given a trial of Rituximab or stem cell therapy. IgM nephropathy (IgMN) is an important and rather neglected pathology responsible for renal morbidity in children and adults in developing countries as compared to developed nations with incidence of 2-18.5% of native biopsies. Abnormal T-cell function with hyperfunctioning suppressor T-cells are believed to be responsible for this disease entity. Approximately one third of the patients are steroid responders where as the remaining two thirds are steroid resistant or dependent. Therapeutic trials including cell therapies targeting suppressor T-cells are required.

  20. Virtual Doppelgangers: Psychological Effects of Avatars Who Ignore Their Owners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailenson, Jeremy N.; Segovia, Kathryn Y.

    For a decade, the Virtual Human Interaction Lab has been creating doppelgangers, virtual versions of the self, for research purposes. This chapter considers how humans may be affected by confrontation with virtual versions of themselves, on the basis of well-established psychological theories, including social cognitive theory (social learning theory), media richness theory (information richness theory), and self-perception theory. Experiments carried out in the Lab, and informed by these theories, have explored such notable topics as health communication, marketing, and false memories. The findings of one series of studies suggest that doppelgangerscan show the rewards of exercise and proper eating habits, changing people's health-related behavior as a result. Other studies showed that doppelgangers are powerful marketing agents and can be used in advertisements to create favorable brand impressions among consumers. Other research documented that children have difficulty in distinguishing between an actual memory elicited by a physical world event and a false memory elicited by mental image or doppelganger.

  1. Tobacco Usage in Uttarakhand: A Dangerous Combination of High Prevalence, Widespread Ignorance, and Resistance to Quitting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan John Grills

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Nearly one-third of adults in India use tobacco, resulting in 1.2 million deaths. However, little is known about knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP related to smoking in the impoverished state of Uttarakhand. Methods. A cross-sectional epidemiological prevalence survey was undertaken. Multistage cluster sampling selected 20 villages and 50 households to survey from which 1853 people were interviewed. Tobacco prevalence and KAP were analyzed by income level, occupation, age, and sex. 95% confidence intervals were calculated using standard formulas and incorporating assumptions in relation to the clustering effect. Results. The overall prevalence of tobacco usage, defined using WHO criteria, was 38.9%. 93% of smokers and 86% of tobacco chewers were male. Prevalence of tobacco use, controlling for other factors, was associated with lower education, older age, and male sex. 97.6% of users and 98.1% of nonusers wanted less tobacco. Except for lung cancer (89% awareness, awareness of diseases caused by tobacco usage was low (cardiac: 67%; infertility: 32.5%; stroke: 40.5%. Conclusion. A dangerous combination of high tobacco usage prevalence, ignorance about its dangers, and few quit attempts being made suggests the need to develop effective and evidence based interventions to prevent a health and development disaster in Uttarakhand.

  2. Determinants of nutritional status of children in farming households ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determinants of nutritional status of children in farming households in Oyo State, Nigeria. ... African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ... of socio-economic, household and child-related factors on the nutritional status of ...

  3. How to use health and nutrition-related claims correctly on food advertising: comparison of benefit-seeking, risk-avoidance, and taste appeals on different food categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hojoon; Springston, Jeffrey K

    2014-09-01

    This study applies the concepts of health halos and unhealthy = tasty intuition to examine how the different health and nutrition-related (HNR) appeal types interact with different food product types compared with taste claims. The experiment investigated the impact of benefit-seeking and risk-avoidance HNR appeals compared with that of taste appeals on different food types. The authors found that although respondents evaluated food ads with the two HNR appeals as less risky/more beneficial and healthier than food ads with a taste claim, the respondents showed better ad-related evaluations on the HNR appeals for perceivably healthy food and on taste appeal for perceivably unhealthy food. The findings provide several theoretical and practical implications for health food marketing and public health policy.

  4. Nutritional form for the elderly is a reliable and valid instrument for the determination of undernutrition risk, and it is associated with health-related quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gombos, Tímea; Kertész, Krisztina; Csíkos, Agnes; Söderhamn, Ulrika; Söderhamn, Olle; Prohászka, Zoltán

    2008-02-01

    Undernutrition is a common problem associated with clinical complications such as impaired immune response, reduced muscle strength, impaired wound healing, and susceptibility to infections; therefore, it is an important treatment target to reduce morbidity and mortality associated with chronic diseases and aging. The aim of the present study was to apply a reliable and valid instrument for the determination of undernutrition risk in an in-hospital patient population and to describe possible associations between risk of undernutrition and some aspects of health-related quality of life in patients with chronic diseases. Fifty-six adult patients with different chronic diseases were interviewed with NUFFE questionnaire and the EQ-5D. Anthropometric measurements were performed. Reliability and validity of the NUFFE instrument was tested, and its correlation with EQ-5D was calculated. Euro-Qol scores correlated significantly with the total NUFFE scores and with the items constructing the most important factor of the instrument, explaining 53.74% of its variance. Nutritional form for the elderly was shown to be a reliable instrument in the study group because its internal consistency measured by Cronbach alpha was 0.62, and the item-total score correlations were significant for the half of the items. Criterion-related validity, concurrent validity, and construct validity of NUFFE were established. We have shown that impaired level of health-related quality of life is an important determinant of risk for undernutrition. Nutritional form for the elderly is an appropriate instrument to estimate undernutrition risk in a general, in-hospital patient population with various chronic diseases and to identify "at risk" patients who may benefit from professional dietary interventions to reduce undernutrition-related complications.

  5. Cell Damage, Antioxidant Status, and Cortisol Levels Related to Nutrition in Ski Mountaineering During a Two-Day Race

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Elena; Ruiz, Fatima; Hoyos, Itziar; Zubero, Jaime; Gravina, Leyre; Gil, Javier; Irazusta, Jon; Gil, Susana Maria

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the effect of nutrition on cell damage, antioxidant enzymes, and cortisol during a two-day ski mountaineering competition. Twenty-one male skiers participated in the study. Creatine kinase (CK), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase (AP), cortisol and C-reactive protein (CRP), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and reductase activities (GR) and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels, total antioxidant status, and cortisol levels were measured in serum the day before and immediately after the race. Their diet was also analysed during the competition. Enzymes and cortisol levels significantly increased after the competition. CK and LDH and cortisol levels were negatively correlated to total energy, protein, and fat intake. Intake of vitamin A, B1, B2, B6 and niacin was negatively correlated to LDH and AP. A negative correlation was also found between CK activity and Na, Fe, and Zn intake. Cortisol levels were negatively correlated to the intake of vitamins C, B1 and B2, and niacin. A positive correlation was found between serum GPx and intake of energy, carbohydrates, proteins, A and B vitamins, and folic acid. Skiers with the lowest nutrient intake during the competition were the ones who showed greater cell damage and lower antioxidant enzyme activity and cortisol levels, which may impair performance and also cause injuries and accidents. Particularly, skiers should have high intakes of total energy, macronutrients, vitamins A and B, Na, Zn, and Fe in order to decrease the deleterious effect of strenuous exercise. Key points A two-day ski mountaineering race produced muscle cell damage and oxidative stress and an increase in cortisol levels. There was a marked insufficient intake of carbohydrates which has been shown to affect performance Those skiers with lowest nutrient intake showed greater cell damage, lower antioxidant

  6. 老年卧床患者营养状况及相关因素分析%Nutritional Status of Elderly Bedridden Patients and Its Related Factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓玲; 钟文逸; 陈茜; 周蕾

    2013-01-01

    Objective To understand the nutritional status of elderly bedridden patients and its related factors,in order to provide suggestions for clinical treatment and health education.Methods MNA-SF simplified scale was used to survey hospitalized bedridden elderly patients' nutritional status from November 2010 to March 2012,and at the same time,we used self-designed questionnaire to investigate its related factors.Results The malnourishment rate of elderly bedridden patients was 82.4%,and different cultural degree,age,gender and disease played significant roles in the nutritional status of elderly bedridden patients,and their differences were statistically significant (P < 0.05).Multivariate analysis identified that age,illness,bedridden grading,and depression were the main factors affecting the nutritional status of elderly bedridden patients.Patients with severe illness,old age,high depression scores and bedridden grading had poor nutrtion status.Conclusions The elderly bedridden patients' nutritional status is affected by many factors.We should improve their nutrtion-related knowledge and their health status based on different situations of the patients.%目的 了解老年卧床患者营养状况及其相关因素,为临床治疗及健康宣教提供依据.方法 采用简易营养评价精法(MNA-SF)简化量表调查2010年11月-2012年3月成都市住院老年卧床患者的营养状况,同时采用自行设计的问卷调查其相关因素.结果 老年卧床患者82.4%营养不良,而且不同文化程度、年龄、性别及病情的患者营养状况不同,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),多因素分析发现,年龄、病情、卧床分级、抑郁是影响老年卧床患者营养的主要因素,病情重,年龄大、抑郁得分高、卧床分级高的老年卧床患者营养状况越差.结论 老年卧床患者营养状况受多种因素影响,应根据患者不同情况进行营养相关知识宣教,改善患者的健康状况.

  7. Dietary intake of vitamin K in relation to bone mineral density in Korea adults: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2010-2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi-Sung; Kim, Eun-Soo; Sohn, Cheong-Min

    2015-11-01

    Low vitamin K nutritional status has been associated with increased risk of fracture, however inconsistent results exist to support the role of vitamin K on bone mineral density depending on ethnic difference and gender. Our objective was to determine vitamin K intake in Korean adults, examine correlation between vitamin K intake and bone mineral density. This study analyzed raw data from the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for adults (2,785 men, 4,307 women) aged over 19 years. Cross-sectional analyses showed only positive association between vitamin K intake and femur bone mineral density in men after adjusting bone-related factors. However, women in high tertiles of vitamin K intake had a significantly higher bone mineral density both in femur and lumber as compared to women in lowest tertiles (pvitamin K intake increased in women, but this effect was not persisted after adjusting factors. The findings of this study indicate that low dietary vitamin K intake was associated with low bone mineral density in subjects. From these results we may suggest an increase in dietary vitamin K intakes for maintaining bone mineral density. (2010-02CON-21-C, 2011-02CON-06-C).

  8. Prevalence of non-nutritive sucking habits and its relation with anterior open bite in children seen in the Odontopediatric Clinic of the University of Pernambuco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiza do Nascimento Cezar Magalhães

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this work was to establish the prevalence of non-nutritive sucking habits (pacifier and/or digit sucking and to assess its relation with anterior open bite. METHODS: The sample consisted of 980 records of children of both genders, with ages between 3 and 12 years, who were treated at the Pediatrics Clinic of the University of Pernambuco (FOP/UPE, from February 2000 trough December 2005, both sexes. Pearson's Chi-square test at 5% level of significance was used for statistical assessment. RESULTS: It was observed that 17,7% of the sample had some habit at the moment of the anamnesis (9,6% of digit sucking habit, 8,8% of pacifier sucking habit and 0,7% of both habits and that the prevalence of open bite was 20,3%. The prevalence of sucking habits in girls was much higher than in boys (22,6% and 12,9%, respectively and this difference was statistically significant (p = 0,000. A correlation between habits and open bite was proved statistically (p = 0,000: Children with sucking habits had 8 times more chances of developing anterior open bite. CONCLUSIONS: Anterior open bite was associated to the presence of non nutritive sucking habits; sucking habits were more prevalent in girls and in children between three and six years of age.

  9. Relative chlorophyll contents in the evaluation of the nutritional status of nitrogen from xaraes palisade grass and determination of critical nitrogen sufficiency index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joao Paulo Ramos Costa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The nutritional status of xaraes palisade grass with SPAD chlorophyll meter and the critical nitrogen sufficiency index (cNSI in the dry and rainy seasons were assessed. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design with four treatments (50, 100, 200 and 400 kg N ha-1, three replicates and two seasons: dry and rainy. All variables had a high nonlinear relationship with their predictors (p < 0.001. Total nitrogen (TN reached a plateau at doses 262.0 and 514.8 kg of N ha-1 and the concentration of TN in the plant was 1.88 and 1.93% respectively during the rainy and dry season. Relative chlorophyll content (RCC reached a plateau at 46.05 and 53.65 SPAD units in the rainy and dry seasons, respectively. The production of dry matter (DM showed maximum response to nitrogen fertilization at 209.5 and 229.1 kg N ha-1 during the rainy and dry season respectively. The nitrogen sufficiency index (NSI reached the plateau at 0.85 and 0.99 in the rainy and dry season respectively. All variables showed high linear correlation (r = 0.71 to 0.99. The xaraés palisade grass’s cNSI is 0.85 and the chlorophyll meter may be used as a nutritional N management tool for the grass.

  10. Test-retest reliability of a short form of the children's social desirability scale for nutrition and health-related research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Patricia H; Baxter, Suzanne D; Hitchcock, David B; Royer, Julie A; Smith, Albert F; Guinn, Caroline H

    2014-01-01

    To examine test-retest reliability and internal consistency of the Children's Social Desirability Short (CSD-S) scale, consisting of 14 items from the Children's Social Desirability scale. The previously validated CSD-S scale was classroom administered to 97 fourth-grade children (80% African American; 76% low socioeconomic status) in 2 sessions a month apart. Each classroom administration lasted approximately 5 minutes. The CSD-S scale showed acceptable levels of test-retest reliability (0.70) and internal consistency (.82 and .85 for the first and second administrations, respectively). Reliability was adequate within subgroups of gender, socioeconomic status, academic achievement, and body mass index percentile. Levels of social desirability did not differ across subgroups. Social desirability bias is a potential source of systematic response error in children's self-report assessments of nutrition and health-related behaviors. The CSD-S scale may be used with diverse groups of children to reliably and efficiently assess social desirability bias. Copyright © 2014 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Nutrition of burned patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudaviciene, Daiva; Rimdeika, Rytis; Adamonis, Kestutis

    2004-01-01

    Burns form 5-12% of all traumas. About 2,200 of patients are annually hospitalized in Lithuania. In most cases people of the employable age get burned. The treatment is often long-lasting, and afterwards recovered patients often have invalidity from burn sequels. The mortality of hospitalized burned patients is about 10%. The most common causes of death are pulmonary edema, pneumonia, sepsis and multiorgan failure. All these complications are related with insufficient nutrition. These complications are extremely frequent and dangerous for patients with more than 20% of body burned. The nutritional support of burned patient gives a possibility to increase the survival probability, to decrease complication rate and hospitalization time. Currently in Lithuania there are no standards for burned patient nutrition. More attention is given to strategy of surgical strategy and techniques, as well as antibiotic therapy. This article is the review of the different aspects of artificial nutrition of burned patient: indications, modes of nutrition, mixtures and terms of nutritional support.

  12. Diet & Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Giving d Employer Matching Gifts d Gifts of Stock or Securities d Giving Circles Golden Circle Circle ... health. Shelly Diagnosed in 2006 Diet & Nutrition Take Control of Your Weight Portion Control Low Carb Omega- ...

  13. Parenteral nutrition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Inayet, N; Neild, P

    2015-01-01

    Over the last 50 years, parenteral nutrition has been recognised as an invaluable and potentially lifesaving tool in the physician's arsenal in the management of patients with intestinal failure or inaccessibility...

  14. A transition model for quality-of-life data with non-ignorable non-monotone missing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Kaijun; Freres, Derek R; Troxel, Andrea B

    2012-12-10

    In this paper, we consider a full likelihood method to analyze continuous longitudinal responses with non-ignorable non-monotone missing data. We consider a transition probability model for the missingness mechanism. A first-order Markov dependence structure is assumed for both the missingness mechanism and observed data. This process fits the natural data structure in the longitudinal framework. Our main interest is in estimating the parameters of the marginal model and evaluating the missing-at-random assumption in the Effects of Public Information Study, a cancer-related study recently conducted at the University of Pennsylvania. We also present a simulation study to assess the performance of the model.

  15. Nutritional anemias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oski, F A

    1979-10-01

    The role of the metals, iron and copper, and the vitamins E, folic acid, and B12 in the genesis of nutritional anemias in infancy have been reviewed. All are preventable. The precise requirements for each of these trace elements and vitamins in the small premature infant remain to be defined. The nonhematologic consequences of these nutritional deficiencies require further study. Anemia may prove to be the least important manifestation of the deficiency states.

  16. Phonological processing of ignored distractor pictures, an fMRI investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bles Mart

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neuroimaging studies of attention often focus on interactions between stimulus representations and top-down selection mechanisms in visual cortex. Less is known about the neural representation of distractor stimuli beyond visual areas, and the interactions between stimuli in linguistic processing areas. In the present study, participants viewed simultaneously presented line drawings at peripheral locations, while in the MRI scanner. The names of the objects depicted in these pictures were either phonologically related (i.e. shared the same consonant-vowel onset construction, or unrelated. Attention was directed either at the linguistic properties of one of these pictures, or at the fixation point (i.e. away from the pictures. Results Phonological representations of unattended pictures could be detected in the posterior superior temporal gyrus, the inferior frontal gyrus, and the insula. Conclusion Under some circumstances, the name of ignored distractor pictures is retrieved by linguistic areas. This implies that selective attention to a specific location does not completely filter out the representations of distractor stimuli at early perceptual stages.

  17. Space Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.

    2009-01-01

    Optimal nutrition will be critical for crew members who embark on space exploration missions. Nutritional assessment provides an opportunity to ensure that crewmembers begin their missions in optimal nutritional status, to document changes during a mission and, if necessary, to provide intervention to maintain that status throughout the mission, and to assesses changes after landing in order to facilitate the return to their normal status as soon as possible after landing. We report here the findings from our nutritional assessment of astronauts who participated in the International Space Station (ISS) missions, along with flight and ground-based research findings. We also present ongoing and planned nutrition research activities. These studies provide evidence that bone loss, compromised vitamin status, and oxidative damage are the critical nutritional concerns for space travelers. Other nutrient issues exist, including concerns about the stability of nutrients in the food system, which are exposed to longterm storage and radiation during flight. Defining nutrient requirements, and being able to provide and maintain those nutrients on exploration missions, will be critical for maintaining crew member health.

  18. Passionate ignorance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldgaard, Kirsten

    2006-01-01

    , it is what makes education not work or at least what comes as a fundamental surprise, what makes plans, methods, ideas about ‘best practice', ideas about ‘what works' powerless.  This also implies a correspondence between distinguishing analysis and therapy on the one hand and distinguishing pedagogy...... be a science, rather, a question of and for philosophy; any scientific theory excludes the possibility of thinking the question of what is a subject. However, the question of the subject is not the exclusive province of philosophy. Being a theory of the subject, and as a clinical practice its purpose is to let...... the subject speak, psychoanalysis allows us to identify the essential distinction between pedagogy on the one hand and educational, didactical theory on the other hand. Psychoanalysis and pedagogical philosophy may contribute to the analysis of why educational practice is and always will be haunted...

  19. Passionate ignorance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldgaard, Kirsten

    2006-01-01

    the subject speak, psychoanalysis allows us to identify the essential distinction between pedagogy on the one hand and educational, didactical theory on the other hand. Psychoanalysis and pedagogical philosophy may contribute to the analysis of why educational practice is and always will be haunted...

  20. Overcoming ignorance and stigma relating to intellectual disability in healthcare: a potential solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    While, Alison E; Clark, Louise L

    2010-03-01

    To propose a strategy for overcoming stigma and discrimination against people with intellectual disabilities within healthcare. Evidence of poor healthcare for those with intellectual disabilities resulted in an independent inquiry. The subsequent report has charged healthcare organizations to address current organizational failings. The origins of discriminatory practices in health services and the evidence of persisting poor care and stigmatization of this patient group despite UK Government policy are set out. The stigmatization and resulting discrimination of people with intellectual disabilities persists. In addition to investment in core training, organizational change is needed to bring about change and a reduction in health inequality. The development of a new framework for nursing is recommended with leadership at all levels of healthcare so that people with intellectual disabilities and their families can expect to receive high quality care in all healthcare settings.

  1. Blood pressure in relation to environmental lead exposure in the national health and nutrition examination survey 2003 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Azusa; Thijs, Lutgarde; Asayama, Kei; Gu, Yu-Mei; Jacobs, Lotte; Zhang, Zhen-Yu; Liu, Yan-Ping; Nawrot, Tim S; Staessen, Jan A

    2015-01-01

    In view of the declining environmental lead exposure in the United States, we analyzed the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2003-2010) for association of blood pressure and hypertension with blood lead. The 12 725 participants included 21.1% blacks, 20.5% Hispanics, 58.4% whites, and 48.7% women. Blacks compared with non-Blacks had higher systolic and diastolic pressures (126.5 versus 123.9 and 71.9 versus 69.6 mm Hg) and higher hypertension prevalence (44.7 versus 36.8%). Blood lead was lower in whites than in non-whites (1.46 versus 1.57 μg/dL) and in women than in men (1.25 versus 1.80 μg/dL). In multivariable analyses of all participants, blood lead doubling was associated with higher (P≤0.0007) systolic and diastolic pressure (+0.76 mm Hg; 95% confidence interval, 0.38-1.13 and +0.43 mm Hg; 0.18-0.68), but not with the odds of hypertension (0.95; 0.90-1.01; P=0.11). Associations with blood lead were nonsignificant (P≥0.09) for systolic pressure in women and for diastolic pressure in non-whites. Among men, systolic pressure increased with blood lead (P≤0.060) with effect sizes associated with blood lead doubling ranging from +0.65 mm Hg in whites to +1.61 mm Hg in blacks. For systolic pressure, interactions of ethnicity and sex with blood lead were all significant (P≤0.019). In conclusion, small and inconsistent effect sizes in the associations of blood pressure with blood lead likely exclude current environmental lead exposure as a major hypertension cause in the United States. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  2. CELL DAMAGE, ANTIOXIDANT STATUS, AND CORTISOL LEVELS RELATED TO NUTRITION IN SKI MOUNTAINEERING DURING A TWO-DAY RACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Diaz

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to measure the effect of nutrition on cell damage, antioxidant enzymes, and cortisol during a two-day ski mountaineering competition. Twenty-one male skiers participated in the study. Creatine kinase (CK, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, ?-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, alkaline phosphatase (AP, cortisol and C-reactive protein (CRP, glutathione peroxidase (GPx and reductase activities (GR and C-reactive protein (CRP levels, total antioxidant status, and cortisol levels were measured in serum the day before and immediately after the race. Their diet was also analysed during the competition. Enzymes and cortisol levels significantly increased after the competition. CK and LDH and cortisol levels were negatively correlated to total energy, protein, and fat intake. Intake of vitamin A, B1, B2, B6 and niacin was negatively correlated to LDH and AP. A negative correlation was also found between CK activity and Na, Fe, and Zn intake. Cortisol levels were negatively correlated to the intake of vitamins C, B1 and B2, and niacin. A positive correlation was found between serum GPx and intake of energy, carbohydrates, proteins, A and B vitamins, and folic acid. Skiers with the lowest nutrient intake during the competition were the ones who showed greater cell damage and lower antioxidant enzyme activity and cortisol levels, which may impair performance and also cause injuries and accidents. Particularly, skiers should have high intakes of total energy, macronutrients, vitamins A and B, Na, Zn, and Fe in order to decrease the deleterious effect of strenuous exercise

  3. An Emerging Method for Rapid Characterization of Feed Structures and Feed Component Matrix at a Cellular Level and Relation to Feed Quality and Nutritive Value

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu,P.

    2006-01-01

    Feed quality, feed characteristics, nutrient utilization and digestive behavior are closely related to: (i) total feed composition, (ii) feed intrinsic structures, and (iii) biological component matrix (such as protein to starch matrix, protein to carbohydrate matrix). Conventional 'wet' chemical analysis can determine total chemical composition, but fails to detect the feed intrinsic structures and biological component matrix due to destruction of feed samples during the processing for chemical analysis and the 'wet' chemical analysis cannot link structural information to chemical information within intact feed tissue. Recently, advanced synchrotron-based Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microspectroscopy has been developed as a non-destructive and non-invasive structural-chemical analytical technique. This technique can link chemical information to structural information of biological samples within intact tissue within cellular dimensions. It can provide four kinds of information simultaneously: tissue composition, tissue structure, tissue chemistry and tissue environment. However, this novel technique has been found mainly for medical science research, extremely rare for feed science and nutrition research. The objective of this review article was to illustrate synchrotron-based FTIR microspectroscopy as a novel research tool for rapid characterization of feed structures at a cellular level and for detection of chemical features and molecular chemical make-up of feed biological component matrix and nutrient interaction. The emphasis of this article was to show that feed structural-chemical features at a cellular level are closely related to feed characteristics, feed quality and nutritive value in animals. The synchrotron-based technology will provide us with a greater understanding of the plant-animal interface.

  4. Mid-adolescent neurocognitive development of ignoring and attending emotional stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, Nora C; Pilhatsch, Maximilian; Weigelt, Sarah; Ripke, Stephan; Smolka, Michael N

    2015-08-01

    Appropriate reactions toward emotional stimuli depend on the distribution of prefrontal attentional resources. In mid-adolescence, prefrontal top-down control systems are less engaged, while subcortical bottom-up emotional systems are more engaged. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to follow the neural development of attentional distribution, i.e. attending versus ignoring emotional stimuli, in adolescence. 144 healthy adolescents were studied longitudinally at age 14 and 16 while performing a perceptual discrimination task. Participants viewed two pairs of stimuli--one emotional, one abstract--and reported on one pair whether the items were the same or different, while ignoring the other pair. Hence, two experimental conditions were created: "attending emotion/ignoring abstract" and "ignoring emotion/attending abstract". Emotional valence varied between negative, positive, and neutral. Across conditions, reaction times and error rates decreased and activation in the anterior cingulate and inferior frontal gyrus increased from age 14 to 16. In contrast, subcortical regions showed no developmental effect. Activation of the anterior insula increased across ages for attending positive and ignoring negative emotions. Results suggest an ongoing development of prefrontal top-down resources elicited by emotional attention from age 14 to 16 while activity of subcortical regions representing bottom-up processing remains stable.

  5. Mid-adolescent neurocognitive development of ignoring and attending emotional stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora C. Vetter

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Appropriate reactions toward emotional stimuli depend on the distribution of prefrontal attentional resources. In mid-adolescence, prefrontal top-down control systems are less engaged, while subcortical bottom-up emotional systems are more engaged. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to follow the neural development of attentional distribution, i.e. attending versus ignoring emotional stimuli, in adolescence. 144 healthy adolescents were studied longitudinally at age 14 and 16 while performing a perceptual discrimination task. Participants viewed two pairs of stimuli – one emotional, one abstract – and reported on one pair whether the items were the same or different, while ignoring the other pair. Hence, two experimental conditions were created: “attending emotion/ignoring abstract” and “ignoring emotion/attending abstract”. Emotional valence varied between negative, positive, and neutral. Across conditions, reaction times and error rates decreased and activation in the anterior cingulate and inferior frontal gyrus increased from age 14 to 16. In contrast, subcortical regions showed no developmental effect. Activation of the anterior insula increased across ages for attending positive and ignoring negative emotions. Results suggest an ongoing development of prefrontal top-down resources elicited by emotional attention from age 14 to 16 while activity of subcortical regions representing bottom-up processing remains stable.

  6. Nutritional knowledge,attitude,behavior and related factors of gestational diabetes mellitus women in perinatal nutrition clinic in Beijing%北京市妊娠期糖尿病孕妇营养认知行为调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶旻枫; 游川; 于敬龙; 姜莹; 李东阳; 丁辉

    2017-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the knowledge,attitude and practice of diabetes mellitus in pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM)in perinatal nutrition clinic in Beijing.Methods:From January to August in 2016,according to the representative method of stratified random sampling,extraction,comprehensive urban and suburban hospitals of maternal and child health hospitals,a total of 8 perinatal nutrition clinics were entrolled.Women of 242 cases,24-28 weeks of pregnancy and diagnosed as GDM were in GDM group,other 228 cases of pregnant women with normal glucose tolerance were in control group.Two groups of pregnant women were questionnaired and the answers were compared and analyzed.Results:Pregnancy nutrition KAP score of GDM group(31.16±2.21)was lower than that of the control group(36.72±2.4,P<0.05).The nutrition knowledge score,nutrition professional knowledge score and nutrition behavior score of GDM group were significantly lower than those of the control group (all P<0.05).Significant differences were also seen in both groups about access to nutrition knowledge and their willingness.They want to obtain nutrition knowledge from hospital,WeChat and pregnant women school nutrition clinic lectures etc.Conclusion:GDM pregnant women in perinatal nutrition clinic in Beijing generally pay attention to nutrition during pregnancy,but their professional knowledge of nutrition and nutritional behavior need to be improved.Perinatal nutrition clinics need to provide a variety of forms and precise health education guidance for GDM pregnant women.%目的:了解北京市围产营养门诊妊娠期糖尿病(GDM)孕妇对糖尿病相关知识的态度和行为.方法:2016年1月~8月按照地区代表性分层随机抽样方法,抽取城区、郊区妇幼保健院、综合医院共8家围产营养门诊中孕24~28周,首次诊断GDM孕妇和糖耐量正常孕妇,进行间卷调查.结果:收回问卷共470份,GDM组242例、糖耐量正常孕妇(对照组)228

  7. Meat Science and Muscle Biology Symposium: in utero nutrition related to fetal development, postnatal performance, and meat quality of pork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oksbjerg, N; Nissen, P M; Therkildsen, M; Møller, H S; Larsen, L B; Andersen, M; Young, J F

    2013-03-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) occurs naturally in pigs and leads to low birth weight of piglets due to undernutrition caused by placental insufficiency. For 2 main reasons, low birth weight causes economic loss. First, low birth weight pigs have a greater mortality and increasing the litter size causes more low birth weight piglets within litters. Second, surviving low birth weight piglets have reduced performance (i.e., ADG, feed conversion rate, and percentage meat). To develop dietary strategies for preventing IUGR, knowledge of the biological basis of IUGR is required. Muscle fiber number, formed during myogenesis, is correlated positively with performance traits and has been shown in several studies to be reduced in low birth weight pigs. Postnatal muscle hypertrophy is due to satellite cell number per fiber at birth and their rate of proliferation as well as protein deposition (i.e., protein synthesis and degradation). Previous studies and some recent ones indicate that low birth weight littermates in mice are born with fewer satellite cells and studies on pigs show that the rate of satellite cell proliferation may vary within litters. Proteomics studies show that protein synthesis and degradation is downregulated in IUGR pigs and low birth weight pigs also produce meat with less tenderness. Alternative maternal feeding strategies to prevent IUGR have been examined. Increasing maternal global nutrition had no beneficial effect on performance and muscle growth traits in several studies. Feeding excess maternal dietary protein also did not influence muscle growth traits whereas moderately decreased maternal dietary protein may decrease muscle fiber number and performance. On the other hand, addition of L-carnitine to the maternal gestation or lactation diet may increase birth and weaning weights or the muscle fiber number, respectively, in low birth weight pig offspring. Finally, promising data have been obtained on reproductive traits in pigs after

  8. Role of nuclear factor κB-mediated inflammatory pathways in cancer-related symptoms and their regulation by nutritional agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Subash C; Kim, Ji Hye; Kannappan, Ramaswamy; Reuter, Simone; Dougherty, Patrick M; Aggarwal, Bharat B

    2011-06-01

    Cancer is a disease characterized by dysregulation of multiple genes and is associated with symptoms such as cachexia, anorexia, fatigue, depression, neuropathic pain, anxiety, cognitive impairment, sleep disorders and delirium (acute confusion state) in medically ill patients. These symptoms are caused by either the cancer itself or the cancer treatment. During the past decade, increasing evidence has shown that the dysregulation of inflammatory pathways contributes to the expression of these symptoms. Cancer patients have been found to have higher levels of proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-6. The nuclear factor (NF)-κB is a major mediator of inflammatory pathways. Therefore, anti-inflammatory agents that can modulate the NF-κB activation and inflammatory pathways may have potential in improving cancer-related symptoms in patients. Because of their multitargeting properties, low cost, low toxicity and immediate availability, natural agents have gained considerable attention for prevention and treatment of cancer-related symptoms. How NF-κB and inflammatory pathways contribute to cancer-related symptoms is the focus of this review. We will also discuss how nutritional agents such as curcumin, genistein, resveratrol, epigallocatechin gallate and lycopene can modulate inflammatory pathways and thereby reduce cancer-related symptoms in patients.

  9. Ignorance Is Bliss, But for Whom? The Persistent Effect of Good Will on Cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Farjam

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Who benefits from the ignorance of others? We address this question from the point of view of a policy maker who can induce some ignorance into a system of agents competing for resources. Evolutionary game theory shows that when unconditional cooperators or ignorant agents compete with defectors in two-strategy settings, unconditional cooperators get exploited and are rendered extinct. In contrast, conditional cooperators, by utilizing some kind of reciprocity, are able to survive and sustain cooperation when competing with defectors. We study how cooperation thrives in a three-strategy setting where there are unconditional cooperators, conditional cooperators and defectors. By means of simulation on various kinds of graphs, we show that conditional cooperators benefit from the existence of unconditional cooperators in the majority of cases. However, in worlds that make cooperation hard to evolve, defectors benefit.

  10. Tensions in agnotology: Normativity in the studies of commercially driven ignorance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Manuela Fernandez

    2015-04-01

    As scientific research moves increasingly to the private sector, the social organization of science undergoes important transformations. Focusing on the production of ignorance, agnotology has been a fruitful approach to understanding the social and epistemic consequences of the recent commercialization of scientific research. Despite their important contributions, scholars working on agnotology seem to hold implicit normative commitments that are in tension with their descriptive accounts of ignorance-constructive practices. The main aim of this article is to uncover these commitments and to expose the emerging tensions. Thus, this article begins an exploration into normative aspects of the studies of ignorance. In particular, it shows that agnotology still needs the support of a well-articulated normative approach capable of identifying and evaluating the epistemic and social concerns raised by the private funding and performance of science.

  11. Dietary analysis and patterns of nutritional supplement use in normal and age-related macular disease affected subjects: a prospective cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eperjesi Frank

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Poor diet is thought to be a risk factor for many diseases, including age-related macular disease (ARMD, which is the leading cause of blind registration in those aged over 60 years in the developed world. The aims of this study were 1 to evaluate the dietary food intake of three subject groups: participants under the age of 50 years without ARMD (U50, participants over the age of 50 years without ARMD (O50, and participants with ARMD (AMD, and 2 to obtain information on nutritional supplement usage. Methods A prospective cross-sectional study designed in a clinical practice setting. Seventy-four participants were divided into three groups: U50; 20 participants aged 50 years, from 52 to 77 (62.7 ± 6.8 years, and ARMD; 27 participants aged > 50 years with ARMD, from 55 to 79 (66.0 ± 5.8 years. Participants were issued with a three-day food diary, and were also asked to provide details of any daily nutritional supplements. The diaries were analysed using FoodBase 2000 software. Data were input by one investigator and statistically analysed using Microsoft Excel for Microsoft Windows XP software, employing unpaired t-tests. Results Group O50 consumed significantly more vitamin C (t = 3.049, p = 0.005 and significantly more fibre (t = 2.107, p = 0.041 than group U50. Group ARMD consumed significantly more protein (t = 3.487, p = 0.001 and zinc (t = 2.252, p = 0.029 than group O50. The ARMD group consumed the highest percentage of specific ocular health supplements and the U50 group consumed the most multivitamins. Conclusions We did not detect a deficiency of any specific nutrient in the diets of those with ARMD compared with age- and gender-matched controls. ARMD patients may be aware of research into use of nutritional supplementation to prevent progression of their condition.

  12. The effect of ignoring individual heterogeneity in Weibull log-normal sire frailty models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Lars Holm; Korsgaard, Inge Riis; Simonsen, J;

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was, by means of simulation, to quantify the effect of ignoring individual heterogeneity in Weibull sire frailty models on parameter estimates and to address the consequences for genetic inferences. Three simulation studies were evaluated, which included 3 levels...... the software Survival Kit for the incomplete sire model. For the incomplete sire model, the Monte Carlo and Survival Kit parameter estimates were similar. This study established that when unobserved individual heterogeneity was ignored, the parameter estimates that included sire effects were biased toward zero...

  13. A Correlated Binary Model for Ignorable Missing Data: Application to Rheumatoid Arthritis Clinical Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erebholo, Francis; Apprey, Victor; Bezandry, Paul; Kwagyan, John

    2016-04-01

    Incomplete data are common phenomenon in research that adopts the longitudinal design approach. If incomplete observations are present in the longitudinal data structure, ignoring it could lead to bias in statistical inference and interpretation. We adopt the disposition model and extend it to the analysis of longitudinal binary outcomes in the presence of monotone incomplete data. The response variable is modeled using a conditional logistic regression model. The nonresponse mechanism is assumed ignorable and developed as a combination of Markov's transition and logistic regression model. MLE method is used for parameter estimation. Application of our approach to rheumatoid arthritis clinical trials is presented.

  14. Clinical Practice Guidelines for Critical Patients’ Nutrition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Patricia Casanova González

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Clinical Practice Guidelines for Critical Patients’ Nutrition. This document includes a review and update of aspects related with nutritional assessment of patients in critical condition; indications, contraindications and procedures for enteral and parenteral nutrition and its follow up. It includes assessment guidelines focused on the most important aspects to be accomplished.

  15. 7 CFR 246.11 - Nutrition education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... and physical activity habits, and in the prevention of nutrition-related problems through optimal use... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nutrition education. 246.11 Section 246.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  16. 45 CFR 1304.23 - Child nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Child nutrition. 1304.23 Section 1304.23 Public... AGENCIES Early Childhood Development and Health Services § 1304.23 Child nutrition. (a) Identification of... into account staff and family discussions concerning: (1) Any relevant nutrition-related...

  17. Survey on eating disorder-related thoughts, behaviors, and their relationship with food intake and nutritional status in female high school students in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu-Jhen; Lin, Wei; Wong, Yueching

    2011-02-01

    Eating disorders are now a global health problem for adolescents and young female adults. The level of eating disorders among young female adults is growing in Asian countries. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate body image, weight concerns, eating attitudes, dietary intake, and nutritional status related to eating disorders of female high school students in Taiwan. A total of 1605 female high school students participated in this study. The written questionnaire included respondents' demographics and weight concerns, the Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26), and 24-hour dietary recall. Blood chemistry data were also collected. The data were analyzed using a Student t test, χ(2) analysis, and logistic regression. Disturbed eating attitudes and behaviors were found in 17.11% of participants (measured by an EAT-26 score ≥20). Logistic regression analyses showed that disturbed eating attitudes/behaviors were significantly associated with overestimation of body weight, unrealistic body weight goal, dissatisfaction with body weight, and weight loss experiences. The reported intakes of energy, protein, carbohydrate, zinc, and vitamins B6 and B12 were significantly lower in participants with disturbed eating patterns than in participants without disturbance issues. Conversely, participants with disturbed eating patterns had higher dietary and crude fiber intake than participants without disturbed eating issues. The percentage of participants with abnormal values of total iron-binding capacity and serum iron was significantly higher in those with disturbed eating patterns than in those without disturbed eating patterns. Disturbed eating attitudes/behaviors exist among female adolescents in Taiwan, and these behaviors jeopardize their nutritional status. The possibility of using the EAT-26 as a reference to predict the quality and quantity of food intake among female adolescents is worthy of further study.

  18. A STUDY OF DERMATOLOGICAL DISORDERS IN RELATION TO PERSONAL HYGIENE AND NUTRITIONAL INDICATORS AMONG GOVT. HIGH SCHOOL CHILDREN OF AGE GROUP 11 - 16 YRS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran Mai

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Skin disorders affect 20 - 30% of the general population at any one time. Personal hygiene, nutrition and Socio demographic factors play pivotal roles in determining the pattern of skin disease. Very few studies provide information on the prevalence and det erminants of skin disease among children of school going age group in India There are hardly any studies focusing on children of Hyderabad. Hence, the following study was carried out to determine the prevalence of dermatological disorders among school chil dren of age group 11 - 16 yrs . AIMS AND OBJECTIVES : To assess the prevalence of dermatological disorders among Govt. high school children in relation with personal hygiene, nutritional status and socio demographic indicators. MATERIALS AND METHODS : A cross - sectional study was conducted and the study subjects included students of Govt. high school located at Musheerabad, belonging to class VI to IX. A total of 100 students have been studied and the study period was from 19 th Nov to 25 th Nov 2011.the sample size was calculated from prevalence shown in various studies (50% skin disorders, with an allowable error of 20% of P. Data collection included personal hygiene questionnaire, clinical examination, magnifying lens, measuring tape and a weighing machine. Prevalence of common skin diseases was calculated and statistical analysis was done. RESULTS : The proportion of skin disorders is seen to be 77% of the total study. The proportion of skin disorders is higher in females (p<0.05, mid ado lescent age (p<0.05, fathers being heavy workers and working mothers, hostel residence (p<0.05 and infrequent head bath. The proportion of skin disorders is not seen to be influenced by BMI - for - age and bathing frequency. Common dermatological disorders e licited were Pytiriasis simplex capillitii (27%, Acne vulgaris (22%, Pediculosis capitis (18%, Pytiriasis alba (14% and Scabies (11%. CONCLUSION : Skin disease constitutes a public

  19. Physiological and Health-Related Adaptations to Low-Volume Interval Training: Influences of Nutrition and Sex

    OpenAIRE

    Gibala, Martin J.; Gillen, Jenna B.; Michael E Percival

    2014-01-01

    Interval training refers to the basic concept of alternating periods of relatively intense exercise with periods of lower-intensity effort or complete rest for recovery. Low-volume interval training refers to sessions that involve a relatively small total amount of exercise (i.e. ≤10 min of intense exercise), compared with traditional moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) protocols that are generally reflected in public health guidelines. In an effort to standardize terminology, a cla...

  20. Nutritional Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Julie

    2016-03-01

    This article provides the reader with steps needed to accurately assess patient nutrition behaviors that contribute to weight gain, inability to lose weight, or inability to sustain weight loss. Evidence-based approaches in nutrition therapy that can create the daily energy deficit needed to produce 1/2 to 2 pounds of weight loss per week, and the strategies to create the energy deficit, are presented. To optimize health, long-term weight loss maintenance is needed. The benefits of using a multidisciplinary team approach in treating obesity are highlighted.

  1. Medical Issues: Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... support & care > living with sma > medical issues > nutrition Nutrition Good nutrition is essential to health and growth. ... must make decisions based on their own needs. Nutrition Considerations Since we are still waiting for clinical ...

  2. Myeloperoxidase-Related Chlorination Activity Is Positively Associated with Circulating Ceruloplasmin in Chronic Heart Failure Patients: Relationship with Neurohormonal, Inflammatory, and Nutritional Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabassi, Aderville; Binno, Simone Maurizio; Tedeschi, Stefano; Graiani, Gallia; Galizia, Cinzia; Bianconcini, Michele; Coghi, Pietro; Fellini, Federica; Ruffini, Livia; Govoni, Paolo; Piepoli, Massimo; Perlini, Stefano; Regolisti, Giuseppe; Fiaccadori, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    Rationale. Heart failure (HF) is accompanied by the development of an imbalance between oxygen- and nitric oxide-derived free radical production leading to protein nitration. Both chlorinating and peroxidase cycle of Myeloperoxidase (MPO) contribute to oxidative and nitrosative stress and are involved in tyrosine nitration of protein. Ceruloplasmin (Cp) has antioxidant function through its ferroxidase I (FeOxI) activity and has recently been proposed as a physiological defense mechanism against MPO inappropriate actions. Objective. We investigated the relationship between plasma MPO-related chlorinating activity, Cp and FeOxI, and nitrosative stress, inflammatory, neurohormonal, and nutritional biomarkers in HF patients. Methods and Results. In chronic HF patients (n = 81, 76 ± 9 years, NYHA Class II (26); Class III (29); Class IV (26)) and age-matched controls (n = 17, 75 ± 11 years, CTR), plasma MPO chlorinating activity, Cp, FeOxI, nitrated protein, free Malondialdehyde, BNP, norepinephrine, hsCRP, albumin, and prealbumin were measured. Plasma MPO chlorinating activity, Cp, BNP, norepinephrine, and hsCRP were increased in HF versus CTR. FeOxI, albumin, and prealbumin were decreased in HF. MPO-related chlorinating activity was positively related to Cp (r = 0.363, P < 0.001), nitrated protein, hsCRP, and BNP and inversely to albumin. Conclusions. Plasma MPO chlorinated activity is increased in elderly chronic HF patients and positively associated with Cp, inflammatory, neurohormonal, and nitrosative parameters suggesting a role in HF progression. PMID:26539521

  3. Myeloperoxidase-Related Chlorination Activity Is Positively Associated with Circulating Ceruloplasmin in Chronic Heart Failure Patients: Relationship with Neurohormonal, Inflammatory, and Nutritional Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aderville Cabassi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rationale. Heart failure (HF is accompanied by the development of an imbalance between oxygen- and nitric oxide-derived free radical production leading to protein nitration. Both chlorinating and peroxidase cycle of Myeloperoxidase (MPO contribute to oxidative and nitrosative stress and are involved in tyrosine nitration of protein. Ceruloplasmin (Cp has antioxidant function through its ferroxidase I (FeOxI activity and has recently been proposed as a physiological defense mechanism against MPO inappropriate actions. Objective. We investigated the relationship between plasma MPO-related chlorinating activity, Cp and FeOxI, and nitrosative stress, inflammatory, neurohormonal, and nutritional biomarkers in HF patients. Methods and Results. In chronic HF patients (n=81, 76 ± 9 years, NYHA Class II (26; Class III (29; Class IV (26 and age-matched controls (n=17, 75 ± 11 years, CTR, plasma MPO chlorinating activity, Cp, FeOxI, nitrated protein, free Malondialdehyde, BNP, norepinephrine, hsCRP, albumin, and prealbumin were measured. Plasma MPO chlorinating activity, Cp, BNP, norepinephrine, and hsCRP were increased in HF versus CTR. FeOxI, albumin, and prealbumin were decreased in HF. MPO-related chlorinating activity was positively related to Cp (r= 0.363, P<0.001, nitrated protein, hsCRP, and BNP and inversely to albumin. Conclusions. Plasma MPO chlorinated activity is increased in elderly chronic HF patients and positively associated with Cp, inflammatory, neurohormonal, and nitrosative parameters suggesting a role in HF progression.

  4. Green Brand Development in Sports Nutrition Food

    OpenAIRE

    Zhe Ren

    2015-01-01

    This study is to research the current situation and the effect which is brought by the nutrition food of the green band development in sports nutrition food. Sports nutrition is the study and practice of nutrition and diet as it relates to athletic performance. It is concerned with the type and quantity of fluid and food taken by an athlete and deals with nutrients such as vitamins, minerals, supplements and organic substances such as carbohydrates, proteins and fats. Although an important pa...

  5. Strategies for promoting nutrition and dietitians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henneman, A; Vickstrom, J

    1980-10-01

    To promote nutrition and dietitians, the Nebraska Dietetic Association approached various other associations in the state about featuring articles on nutrition in their newsletters. This public relations strategy permitted greater dissemination of nutritional information to specific target groups through existing channels of communication. Dietitians were presented to other professional groups as nutrition experts. In addition, this activity opened the door to further professional exchanges between dietitians and the various associations.

  6. What is Nutrition & Metabolism?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feinman Richard D

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A new Open Access journal, Nutrition & Metabolism (N&M will publish articles that integrate nutrition with biochemistry and molecular biology. The open access process is chosen to provide rapid and accessible dissemination of new results and perspectives in a field that is of great current interest. Manuscripts in all areas of nutritional biochemistry will be considered but three areas of particular interest are lipoprotein metabolism, amino acids as metabolic signals, and the effect of macronutrient composition of diet on health. The need for the journal is identified in the epidemic of obesity, diabetes, dyslipidemias and related diseases, and a sudden increase in popular diets, as well as renewed interest in intermediary metabolism.

  7. Catheter-related thrombosis in children with intestinal failure and long-term parenteral nutrition: How to treat and to prevent?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.H. van Ommen; M.M. Tabbers

    2010-01-01

    Survival of children with chronic intestinal failure has increased as result of administration of home parenteral nutrition. Crucial for the successful management of home parenteral nutrition is the availability of an adequate central venous access. Venous access can be fraught by episodes of cathet

  8. Ignoring imperfect detection in biological surveys is dangerous: a response to 'fitting and interpreting occupancy models'.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurutzeta Guillera-Arroita

    Full Text Available In a recent paper, Welsh, Lindenmayer and Donnelly (WLD question the usefulness of models that estimate species occupancy while accounting for detectability. WLD claim that these models are difficult to fit and argue that disregarding detectability can be better than trying to adjust for it. We think that this conclusion and subsequent recommendations are not well founded and may negatively impact the quality of statistical inference in ecology and related management decisions. Here we respond to WLD's claims, evaluating in detail their arguments, using simulations and/or theory to support our points. In particular, WLD argue that both disregarding and accounting for imperfect detection lead to the same estimator performance regardless of sample size when detectability is a function of abundance. We show that this, the key result of their paper, only holds for cases of extreme heterogeneity like the single scenario they considered. Our results illustrate the dangers of disregarding imperfect detection. When ignored, occupancy and detection are confounded: the same naïve occupancy estimates can be obtained for very different true levels of occupancy so the size of the bias is unknowable. Hierarchical occupancy models separate occupancy and detection, and imprecise estimates simply indicate that more data are required for robust inference about the system in question. As for any statistical method, when underlying assumptions of simple hierarchical models are violated, their reliability is reduced. Resorting in those instances where hierarchical occupancy models do no perform well to the naïve occupancy estimator does not provide a satisfactory solution. The aim should instead be to achieve better estimation, by minimizing the effect of these issues during design, data collection and analysis, ensuring that the right amount of data is collected and model assumptions are met, considering model extensions where appropriate.

  9. An intervention effect evaluation on nutrition related knowledge, attitude and behavior among prison police%狱警营养干预效果评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐卉; 朱益民; 沈志强; 汪红慧

    2016-01-01

    目的:了解监狱人民警察(狱警)的营养知识、态度、行为(KAP)水平及干预效果,为开展狱警营养干预提供依据。方法采用分层整群随机抽样的方法对浙江省狱警开展营养KAP问卷调查,分析狱警营养知识、态度水平和饮食行为,并实施营养教育和调整食堂膳食等干预措施,6个月后评价干预前后狱警营养KAP水平变化。结果干预前狱警营养KAP总分为70.27±10.90,其中营养知识、态度、行为得分分别为27.38±6.97、18.07±3.24、24.82±3.96。干预后,狱警的营养KAP总分上升至91.19±4.11,其中营养知识、态度、行为得分分别为37.03±2.97、19.71±0.71、34.45±2.74,较干预前均有明显提高(P<0.01)。结论浙江省狱警普遍缺乏营养知识,存在饮食不均衡等诸多不良饮食习惯;以食堂膳食调整为重点并结合系列营养健康教育,是提高狱警营养知识水平和改善其不良饮食行为的有效方法。%Objective To evaluate the intervention effect of nutrition related knowledge,attitude and behavior among the prison police in Zhejiang Province . Methods Stratified cluster sampling method was used and investigation on knowledge,attitude and behavior was conducted.Nutrition education was carried out targeted to the problem found in the investigation for 6 months.Intervention effect was evaluated by comparison the scores of KAP before and after the intervention.Results The average score of KAP before the intervention was 70. 27 ±1 0. 90,including the average score for knowledge,attitude and behavior was 27. 38 ±6. 97,1 8. 07 ±3. 24 and 24. 82 ±3. 96,respectively.After the intervention, the average score of KAP was 91 . 1 9 ±4. 1 1 ,including the average score for knowledge,attitude and behavior was 37. 03 ±2. 97,1 9. 71 ±0. 71 and 34. 45 ±2. 74,respectively,higher than that before the intervention (P<0. 01 ).Conclusion Nutrition education could improve the

  10. Expectativas de adolescentes em relação a mudanças do perfil nutricional Expectations of adolescents in relation to the changes of nutritional profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Déa Braga

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo apresenta resultados de uma pesquisa de natureza quanti-qualitativa sobre nutrição em adolescentes, atendidos no Centro Salesiano do Menor, localizado em Vitória (ES. Objetivou-se identificar o perfil nutricional e as expectativas dos adolescentes em relação a mudanças no perfil nutricional. Foram realizadas entrevistas com perguntas abertas e fechadas com 43 adolescentes na faixa etária de 14 a 17 anos e coletados dados antropométricos para avaliação do estado nutricional, segundo o Índice de Massa Corporal (IMC. Fragmentos dos discursos foram selecionados e transcritos no texto como forma de elucidação das respostas abertas. A maioria (86% dos adolescentes foi classificada como eutrófica e revelou descontentamento com o corpo e grande preocupação com a beleza. Resultados evidenciaram a importância dada à estética, como principal motivo para desejarem mudanças. Foram relatadas dificuldades no que diz respeito ao controle alimentar e à realização de atividade física. Sentimento de discriminação da sociedade aos que não correspondem ao padrão de beleza apareceu nas respostas dos adolescentes. Conclui-se que os adolescentes estudados apresentam percepção de seu peso não condizente com os resultados encontrados na avaliação nutricional e baixa auto-estima, desejando mudanças.This article presents results of a research of nature quanti-qualitative on nutrition and adolescents of Centro Salesiano do Menor, located in Vitória (ES. The aim of this study was to know the nutritional profile and expectations of the adolescents in relation the changes in the nutritional profile. Structured interview with subjective and objective questions was realized with 43 adolescents 14 to 17 years old and collected anthropometric date to valuation of the state nutritional according to the body mass index (BMI. Fragments of the speeches were selected and transcripts in the text as form of briefing of the open answers. The

  11. Meat and haem iron intake in relation to glioma in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ward, Heather A; Gayle, Alicia; Jakszyn, Paula;

    2016-01-01

    Diets high in red or processed meat have been associated positively with some cancers, and several possible underlying mechanisms have been proposed, including iron-related pathways. However, the role of meat intake in adult glioma risk has yielded conflicting findings because of small sample siz...

  12. Relating protein intake to nutritional status in haemodialysis patients : How to normalize the protein equivalent of total nitrogen appearance (PNA)?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloppenburg, Wybe; Stegeman, CA; de Jong, PE; Huisman, RM

    1999-01-01

    Background. The protein equivalent of total nitrogen appearance (PNA) is assumed to be a reliable estimate of dietary protein intake in haemodialysis patients. Protein requirements are related to body size. In order to standardize PNA to individual differences in body size, PNA is normalized to vari

  13. Relating protein intake to nutritional status in haemodialysis patients : How to normalize the protein equivalent of total nitrogen appearance (PNA)?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloppenburg, Wybe; Stegeman, CA; de Jong, PE; Huisman, RM

    1999-01-01

    Background. The protein equivalent of total nitrogen appearance (PNA) is assumed to be a reliable estimate of dietary protein intake in haemodialysis patients. Protein requirements are related to body size. In order to standardize PNA to individual differences in body size, PNA is normalized to vari

  14. Vitamin D deficiency as a risk factor for cystic fibrosis-related diabetes in the Scandinavian Cystic Fibrosis Nutritional Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pincikova, T; Nilsson, Kristine Kahr; Moen, I E;

    2011-01-01

    Many cystic fibrosis patients are vitamin D-insufficient. Cystic fibrosis-related diabetes is a major complication of cystic fibrosis. The literature suggests that vitamin D might possess certain glucose-lowering properties. We aimed to assess the relationship between vitamin D and cystic fibrosis...

  15. Monitoring your friends, not your foes: strategic ignorance and the delegation of real authority

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dominguez-Martinez, S.; Sloof, R.; von Siemens, F.

    2010-01-01

    In this laboratory experiment we study the use of strategic ignorance to delegate real authority within a firm. A worker can gather information on investment projects, while a manager makes the implementation decision. The manager can monitor the worker. This allows her to better exploit the

  16. Monitored by your friends, not your foes: Strategic ignorance and the delegation of real authority

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dominguez-Martinez, S.; Sloof, R.; von Siemens, F.

    2012-01-01

    In this laboratory experiment we study the use of strategic ignorance to delegate real authority within a firm. A worker can gather information on investment projects, while a manager makes the implementation decision. The manager can monitor the worker. This allows her to exploit any information

  17. Monitored by your friends, not your foes: strategic ignorance and the delegation of real authority

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dominguez Martinez, S.; Sloof, R.; von Siemens, F.A.

    2014-01-01

    In this laboratory experiment we study the use of strategic ignorance to delegate real authority within a firm. A worker can gather information on investment projects, while a manager makes the implementation decision. The manager can monitor the worker. This allows her to exploit any information

  18. The Ignorant Facilitator: Education, Politics and Theatre in Co-Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lev-Aladgem, Shulamith

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the book "The Ignorant Schoolmaster: Five Lessons in Intellectual Emancipation" by the French philosopher, Jacques Rancière. Its intention is to study the potential contribution of this text to the discourse of applied theatre (theatre in co-communities) in general, and the role of the facilitator in particular. It…

  19. For Example? A Philosophical Case Study of Some Problems When Abstract Educational Theory Ignores Concrete Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golding, Clinton

    2017-01-01

    In Philosophy of Education we frequently argue for or against different educational theories. Yet, as I illustrate in this analysis of two articles, in order to maintain the abstract theoretical distinctions, we are liable to ignore the concrete details of practice, caricature the theories we reject and make false distinctions. The two articles…

  20. Crucial ignored parameters on nanotoxicology: the importance of toxicity assay modifications and "cell vision".

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Laurent

    Full Text Available Until now, the results of nanotoxicology research have shown that the interactions between nanoparticles (NPs and cells are remarkably complex. In order to get a deep understanding of the NP-cell interactions, scientists have focused on the physicochemical effects. However, there are still considerable debates about the regulation of nanomaterials and the reported results are usually in contradictions. Here, we are going to introduce the potential key reasons for these conflicts. In this case, modification of conventional in vitro toxicity assays, is one of the crucial ignored matter in nanotoxicological sciences. More specifically, the conventional methods neglect important factors such as the sedimentation of NPs and absorption of proteins and other essential biomolecules onto the surface of NPs. Another ignored matter in nanotoxicological sciences is the effect of cell "vision" (i.e., cell type. In order to show the effects of these ignored subjects, we probed the effect of superparamagnetic iron oxide NPs (SPIONs, with various surface chemistries, on various cell lines. We found thatthe modification of conventional toxicity assays and the consideration of the "cell vision" concept are crucial matters to obtain reliable, and reproducible nanotoxicology data. These new concepts offer a suitable way to obtain a deep understanding on the cell-NP interactions. In addition, by consideration of these ignored factors, the conflict of future toxicological reports would be significantly decreased.

  1. Ignoring Individual Differences in Times of Assessment in Growth Curve Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulombe, Patrick; Selig, James P.; Delaney, Harold D.

    2016-01-01

    Researchers often collect longitudinal data to model change over time in a phenomenon of interest. Inevitably, there will be some variation across individuals in specific time intervals between assessments. In this simulation study of growth curve modeling, we investigate how ignoring individual differences in time points when modeling change over…

  2. Colleague Supervision--"Ignored and Undervalued"? The Views of Students and Supervisors in a New University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Colleague supervision is increasingly used in UK modern (post-92) universities to support the progress of academic staff to doctoral qualifications. Denicolo (2004) argues that it is a "role relationship that has been largely ignored or undervalued by administration" (p. 693) and colleague students and supervisors "felt more…

  3. Creating In-Depth Learning Experiences by Using Rawls' "Veil of Ignorance"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanger, Michael; Rossiter, Carol F.

    2011-01-01

    Combining a variation of John Rawls' "veil of ignorance" mind experiment with role-playing and case studies allows instructors to create assignments that engage students in the full range of learning processes, encourage them to consider a wide range of viewpoints, provide them with opportunities to apply the cognitive and the affective components…

  4. Are plant diseases too much ignored in the climate change debate?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonekamp, P.M.

    2012-01-01

    Ignoring plant diseases misinforms the climate change and food security debate. Diseases are expected not only to cause more severe crop loss in many areas in the world and threaten food security, but also to decrease the climate change mitigation capacity of forests, of other natural ecosystems and

  5. Creating In-Depth Learning Experiences by Using Rawls' "Veil of Ignorance"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanger, Michael; Rossiter, Carol F.

    2011-01-01

    Combining a variation of John Rawls' "veil of ignorance" mind experiment with role-playing and case studies allows instructors to create assignments that engage students in the full range of learning processes, encourage them to consider a wide range of viewpoints, provide them with opportunities to apply the cognitive and the affective components…

  6. The trust game behind the veil of ignorance: A note on gender differences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Vyrastekova; S. Onderstal

    2008-01-01

    We analyze gender differences in the trust game in a "behind the veil of ignorance" design. This method yields strategies that are consistent with actions observed in the classical trust game experiments. We observe that, on average, men and women do not differ in "trust", and that women are slightl

  7. The Trust Game Behind the Veil of Ignorance : A Note on Gender Differences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vyrastekova, J.; Onderstal, A.M.

    2005-01-01

    We analyse gender differences in the trust game in a "behind the veil of ignorance" design.This method yields strategies that are consistent with actions observed in the classical trust game experiments.We observe that, on averge, men and women do not differ in "trust", and that women are slightly m

  8. Uncertain Climate Forecasts From Multimodel Ensembles: When to Use Them and When to Ignore Them

    CERN Document Server

    Jewson, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Uncertainty around multimodel ensemble forecasts of changes in future climate reduces the accuracy of those forecasts. For very uncertain forecasts this effect may mean that the forecasts should not be used. We investigate the use of the well-known Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC) to make the decision as to whether a forecast should be used or ignored.

  9. Analysis of Structural Equation Model with Ignorable Missing Continuous and Polytomous Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xin-Yuan; Lee, Sik-Yum

    2002-01-01

    Developed a Bayesian approach for structural equation models with ignorable missing continuous and polytomous data that obtains joint Bayesian estimates of thresholds, structural parameters, and latent factor scores simultaneously. Illustrated the approach through analysis of a real data set of 20 patterns of condom use in the Philippines. (SLD)

  10. The Texas Projection Measure: Ignoring Complex Ecologies in a Changing World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roane, Warren

    2010-01-01

    The Texas Projection Measure (TPM) has grown out of the state's need to meet the requirements of No Child Left Behind (NCLB). An examination of the state's method of predicting 8th grade mathematics scores reveals that several factors have been ignored in the process of developing the model, including assumptions in its underlying statistical…

  11. Mathematical Practice as Sculpture of Utopia: Models, Ignorance, and the Emancipated Spectator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelbaum, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This article uses Ranciere's notion of the ignorant schoolmaster and McElheny's differentiation of artist's models from those of the architect and scientist to propose the reconceptualization of mathematics education as the support of emancipated spectators and sculptors of utopia.

  12. FSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Guidance on the scientific requirements for health claims related to functions of the ne rvous system, including psycholog ical functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) asked the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies to draft guidance on scientific requirements for health claims related to functions of the nervous system, including psychological functions. This guidance has been drawn from scientific opinions...

  13. Interactive effects of salinity and phosphorus availability on growth, water relations, nutritional status and photosynthetic activity of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbi Zribi, O; Abdelly, C; Debez, A

    2011-11-01

    The interactive effects of salinity and phosphorus availability on growth, water relations, nutritional status and photosynthetic activity were investigated in barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Manel). Seedlings were grown hydroponically under low or sufficient phosphorus (P) supply (5 or 180 μmol KH(2) PO(4) plant(-1) week(-1) , respectively), with or without 100 mm NaCl. Phosphorus deficiency or salinity significantly decreased whole plant growth, leaf water content, leaf osmotic potential and gas exchange parameters, with a more marked impact of P stress. The effect of both stresses was not additive since the response of plants to combined salinity and P deficiency was similar to that of plants grown under P deficiency alone. In addition, salt-treated plants exposed to P deficiency showed higher salt tolerance compared to plants grown with sufficient P supply. This was related to plant ability to significantly increase root:shoot DW ratio, root length, K(+)/Na(+) ratio, leaf proline and soluble sugar concentrations and total non-enzymatic antioxidant capacity, together with restricting Na(+) accumulation in the upper leaves. As a whole, our results indicate that under concomitant exposure to both salt and P deficiency, the impact of the latter constraint is pre-dominant.

  14. Significant effects of birth-related biological factors on pre-adolescent nutritional status among rural Sundanese in West Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekiyama, Makiko; Ohtsuka, Ryutaro

    2005-07-01

    The Sundanese inhabiting West Java, the second largest ethnic group in Indonesia, are characterized by a high prevalence of child malnutrition, together with high fertility. Based on an anthropometric measurement and interview survey of 310 children aged 5-12 years in a rural Sundanese village, this study examined the relative significance of the effects of eight biological, eight socioeconomic status (SES) and four health behavioural factors on their Z scores for height-for-age (HAZ) and weight-for-age (WAZ) in particular. Three biological factors, i.e. birth interval, birth weight and mother's body weight, and one SES factor, i.e. mother's occupation, were selected as the predictors of the two Z scores by regression analysis, indicating more significant effects of the biological factors than the other factors. This pattern is judged to occur in less-developed and high-fertility populations. Since these two Z scores were worse in the subject children than in the under-5-year-old children from the same village, more attention should be paid to the long-lasting effects of birth-related biological factors up to pre-adolescent ages, as an insufficient nutritional status tends to damage growth and health in adolescence and adulthood.

  15. The Relationship between Visual Impairment and Health-Related Quality of Life in Korean Adults: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2008–2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yuli; Shin, Jeong Ah; Yang, Suk Woo; Yim, Hyeon Woo; Kim, Hyun Seung; Park, Young-Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Introduction To evaluate health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in Korean adults with visual impairment(VI) using various measures based on a nationally distributed sample. Methods Using the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES, 2008–2012) data, we compared EuroQol five-dimensional questionnaire (EQ-5D) and EQ-visual analogue scale (VAS) scores after adjusting for socio-demographic and psychosocial factors as well as for comorbidities with VI. Logistic regressions were used to elucidate determinants for the lowest quintile HRQoL scales according to VI severity. Uncorrected visual acuity (VA) which implies vision of ordinary life was measured using an international standard vision chart based on Snellen scale. Results 28,825 participants (sum of weights; 37,562,376) were included in the analysis. The mean EQ-5D and EQ-VAS scores were significantly lower in the VI groups than in the normal vision (defined as VA 20/20-20/25) group based on the better or worse seeing eye (Pimpaired HRQoL compared with the normal vision population. The analyses presented here elicited even mild VI could potentially deteriorate the health-related quality of life (or subjective perception of health quality) and therefore, therapeutic approaches should also focus on the subjective perception and better management of health condition. PMID:26192763

  16. Demographic and socio-economic factors related to food intake and adherence to nutritional recommendations in a cohort of pre-school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Lise; Farmer, Anna; Girard, Manon; Burnier, Daniel; Porcherie, Marion

    2011-06-01

    To examine: (i) children's food intake and adherence to both Canada's Food Guide for Healthy Eating and Dietary Reference Intakes; and (ii) the social and demographic factors related to children's food intake. A cross-sectional study. Data were obtained through the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development 1998-2010, a representative sample (n 2103) of children born in 1998 in the province of Quebec, Canada. Information on energy, macronutrient and food consumption was derived from responses to a 24 h dietary recall interview addressed to children's mothers and day-care staff when the children were 4 years old. A total of 1549 children aged 4 years who participated in a nutritional sub-study. The mean daily total energy intake was 6360 kJ (1520 kcal) for girls and 6916 kJ (1653 kcal) for boys. For boys and girls alike, energy intake was comprised of approximately 54 % carbohydrates, 31 % fats and 15 % proteins. The mean number of servings consumed from each of the four essential food groups closely approached the dietary recommendations made by Canada's Food Guide for Healthy Eating; however, socio-economic and demographic factors, most notably mother's level of education, mother's immigrant status and sex of the child. Diet-related disparities associated with socio-economic and demographic factors exist from as early as 4 years of age.

  17. The nutritive value of veld as indicated by faecal phosphorous and nitrogen and its relation to the condition and movement of prominent ruminants during the 1992-1993 drought in the Kruger National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.C. Grant

    1995-09-01

    Full Text Available Faecal N and P were used as primary indicators of nutritive quality of the veld in relation to migratory movements of major grazers, browsers and selective feeders. Faecal concentrations of these nutrients were shown to be different between species, land- scapes, grass, browse and grass plus browse, between seasons and between soil types, i.e. granite vs. basalt. Faecal N concentrations w/ere well correlated with the condition of the animals, and because nutritive quality of the southern Combretum veld on granite was apparently better than other areas in 1992-1993, also with influx of buffalo, blue wildebeest and kudu into these areas.

  18. Nutrition economics - characterising the economic and health impact of nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenoir-Wijnkoop, I; Dapoigny, M; Dubois, D; van Ganse, E; Gutiérrez-Ibarluzea, I; Hutton, J; Jones, P; Mittendorf, T; Poley, M J; Salminen, S; Nuijten, M J C

    2011-01-01

    There is a new merging of health economics and nutrition disciplines to assess the impact of diet on health and disease prevention and to characterise the health and economic aspects of specific changes in nutritional behaviour and nutrition recommendations. A rationale exists for developing the field of nutrition economics which could offer a better understanding of both nutrition, in the context of having a significant influence on health outcomes, and economics, in order to estimate the absolute and relative monetary impact of health measures. For this purpose, an expert meeting assessed questions aimed at clarifying the scope and identifying the key issues that should be taken into consideration in developing nutrition economics as a discipline that could potentially address important questions. We propose a first multidisciplinary outline for understanding the principles and particular characteristics of this emerging field. We summarise here the concepts and the observations of workshop participants and propose a basic setting for nutrition economics and health outcomes research as a novel discipline to support nutrition, health economics and health policy development in an evidence and health-benefit-based manner.

  19. Factors associated with the health and nutritional status of children under 5 years of age in Afghanistan: family behaviour related to women and past experience of war-related hardships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashal, Taufiq; Takano, Takehito; Nakamura, Keiko; Kizuki, Masashi; Hemat, Shafiqullah; Watanabe, Masafumi; Seino, Kaoruko

    2008-08-29

    The present study was performed to assess, beyond socio-economic factors, independent associations between the health and nutritional status of children under 5 years old and (1) family behavioural factors related to women with regard to child care and (2) war-related experience by the household of hardships in Afghanistan. The subjects were all children born during the previous 5 years from 1400 households in Kabul Province, Afghanistan and were selected by multistage sampling in March 2006. Height and weight measurements of the children and culturally sensitive interviews with their mothers were conducted by household visits. Child mortality, morbidity and nutritional status were evaluated. Four areas were assessed as variables for family behavioural factors related to women: education of mothers, child marriage of the mothers, maternal autonomy in obtaining healthcare for children and preference for a female physician. Hardships experienced by the family were examined by determining their satisfaction of basic material needs and by any experience of being forced to leave a preferred residence. A total of 2474 children from 1327 households completed the examinations and interviews; among them, 101 children were deceased by the time of the interview visits. Diarrhoea (32.5%) and acute respiratory infection (41.0%) were common child health problems and both emaciation (12.4%) and linear growth retardation (39.9%) were prevalent. Regardless of the influence of economic, demographic, family behavioural or hardships experience factors, a lack of maternal autonomy (79.1%) was associated with the occurrence of acute respiratory infection (odds-ratio = 1.72; 95% confidence interval = 1.23, 2.40), and linear growth retardation of children (odds-ratio = 1.38; 95% confidence interval = 1.01, 1.90); a lack of education of the mother (71.7%) and child marriage of the mothers (18.3%) were associated with diarrhoea (odds-ratio = 1.84; 95% confidence interval = 1.40, 2.41; odds

  20. Factors associated with the health and nutritional status of children under 5 years of age in Afghanistan: family behaviour related to women and past experience of war-related hardships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemat Shafiqullah

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present study was performed to assess, beyond socio-economic factors, independent associations between the health and nutritional status of children under 5 years old and (1 family behavioural factors related to women with regard to child care and (2 war-related experience by the household of hardships in Afghanistan. Methods The subjects were all children born during the previous 5 years from 1400 households in Kabul Province, Afghanistan and were selected by multistage sampling in March 2006. Height and weight measurements of the children and culturally sensitive interviews with their mothers were conducted by household visits. Child mortality, morbidity and nutritional status were evaluated. Four areas were assessed as variables for family behavioural factors related to women: education of mothers, child marriage of the mothers, maternal autonomy in obtaining healthcare for children and preference for a female physician. Hardships experienced by the family were examined by determining their satisfaction of basic material needs and by any experience of being forced to leave a preferred residence. Results A total of 2474 children from 1327 households completed the examinations and interviews; among them, 101 children were deceased by the time of the interview visits. Diarrhoea (32.5% and acute respiratory infection (41.0% were common child health problems and both emaciation (12.4% and linear growth retardation (39.9% were prevalent. Regardless of the influence of economic, demographic, family behavioural or hardships experience factors, a lack of maternal autonomy (79.1% was associated with the occurrence of acute respiratory infection (odds-ratio = 1.72; 95% confidence interval = 1.23, 2.40, and linear growth retardation of children (odds-ratio = 1.38; 95% confidence interval = 1.01, 1.90; a lack of education of the mother (71.7% and child marriage of the mothers (18.3% were associated with diarrhoea (odds-ratio = 1