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Sample records for nutritional copper signaling

  1. Refractory cytopenias secondary to copper deficiency in children receiving exclusive jejunal nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Amanda E; Kahwash, Samir B; Chawla, Anjulika

    2017-11-01

    Copper deficiency is a known cause of anemia and neutropenia that is easily remedied with copper supplementation. Copper is primarily absorbed in the stomach and proximal duodenum, so patients receiving enteral nutrition via methods that bypass this critical region may be at increased risk for copper deficiency. In pediatrics, postpyloric enteral feeding is increasingly utilized to overcome problems related to aspiration, severe reflux, poor gastric motility, and gastric outlet obstruction. However, little is known about the prevalence of copper deficiency in this population. We describe three pediatric patients receiving exclusive jejunal feeds who developed cytopenias secondary to copper deficiency. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Copper uptake and retention in liver parenchymal cells isolated from nutritionally copper-deficient rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den G.J.; de Goeij, J.J.M.; Bock, I.; Gijbels, M.J.J.; Brouwer, A.; Lei, K.Y.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    1991-01-01

    Copper uptake and retention were studied in primary cultures of liver parenchymal cells isolated from copper-deficient rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a copper-deficient diet (<1 mg Cu/kg) for 10 wk. Copper-deficient rats were characterized by low copper concentrations in plasma and liver,

  3. Copper uptake and retention in liver parenchymal cells isolated from nutritionally copper-deficient rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, G.J. van den; Goeij, J.J.M. de; Bock, I.; Gijbels, M.J.J.; Brouwer, A.; Lei, K.Y.; Hendruiks, H.F.J.

    1991-01-01

    Copper uptake and retention were studied in primary cultures of liver parenchymal cells isolated from copper-deficient rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a copper-deficient diet (< 1 mg Cu/kg) for 10 wk. Copper-deficient rats were characterized by low copper concentrations in plasma and liver,

  4. Autophagy and the nutritional signaling pathway

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    Long HE,Shabnam ESLAMFAM,Xi MA,Defa LI

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available During their growth and development, animals adapt to tremendous changes in order to survive. These include responses to both environmental and physiological changes and autophagy is one of most important adaptive and regulatory mechanisms. Autophagy is defined as an autolytic process to clear damaged cellular organelles and recycle the nutrients via lysosomic degradation. The process of autophagy responds to special conditions such as nutrient withdrawal. Once autophagy is induced, phagophores form and then elongate and curve to form autophagosomes. Autophagosomes then engulf cargo, fuse with endosomes, and finally fuse with lysosomes for maturation. During the initiation process, the ATG1/ULK1 (unc-51-like kinase 1 and VPS34 (which encodes a class III phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns 3-kinase complexes are critical in recruitment and assembly of other complexes required for autophagy. The process of autophagy is regulated by autophagy related genes (ATGs. Amino acid and energy starvation mediate autophagy by activating mTORC1 (mammalian target of rapamycin and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK. AMPK is the energy status sensor, the core nutrient signaling component and the metabolic kinase of cells. This review mainly focuses on the mechanism of autophagy regulated by nutrient signaling especially for the two important complexes, ULK1 and VPS34.

  5. Iron, zinc, copper and magnesium nutritional status in Mexican children aged 1 to 11 years.

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    Morales-Ruán, Ma del Carmen; Villalpando, Salvador; García-Guerra, Armando; Shamah-Levy, Teresa; Robledo-Pérez, Ricardo; Avila-Arcos, Marco Antonio; Rivera, Juan A

    2012-01-01

    To describe the micronutrient nutritional status of a national sample of 1-11 year old Mexican children surveyed in 2006 in National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT 2006) and their association with dietary and sociodemographic factors. Serum samples were used (n=5 060) to measure the concentrations of ferritin, transferrin receptor, zinc, copper and magnesium. Prevalence of deficiencies in 1-4 and 5-11y old children were for iron (using low ferritin) 26.0 and 13.0%; zinc, 28.1 and 25.8%, respectively; and copper, ≈30% in both age groups. Magnesium low serum concentrations (MLSC), were found in 12.0% and 28.4% of the children, respectively. Being beneficiary of Liconsa (OR=0.32; C.I.95%, 0.17-0.61) or belonging to higher socioeconomic status (OR=0.63; C.I.95%, 0.41-0.97) were protective against iron deficiency. Increasing age (OR=0.59; C.I.95%, 1.19-1.32) and living in the Central Region (OR=0.59; C.I.95%, 0.36-0.97) were protective against MLSC. Deficiencies of iron and zinc are serious public health problems in Mexican children.

  6. Copper and selenium supplementation in the diet of Brangus steers on the nutritional characteristics of meat

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    Arlindo Saran Netto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-eight Brangus cattle were used to determine the effect of copper and selenium supplementation on the carcass characteristics, fatty acid composition of the longissimus dorsi muscle and on the copper and selenium concentrations in the liver. The treatments were: no supplementation of copper or selenium; 2 mg Se/kg DM as sodium selenite; 40 mg Cu/kg DM as copper sulfate; and 2 mg Se/kg DM as sodium selenite and 40 mg Cu/kg DM as copper sulfate. The fat thickness, rib eye area and fatty acid composition of the longissimus dorsi muscle were not affected by treatments. There was no effect on carcass yield and cooling loss with the supplementation of copper, selenium or selenium × copper in the levels studied. For the ether extract concentration in the longissimus dorsi muscle, no differences were found according to the treatments with selenium, copper or selenium × copper. The treatments with selenium and selenium × copper showed higher selenium concentrations in the liver than the control and copper treatments. For the copper concentration in the liver, the copper and selenium × copper treatments showed higher values than the control and selenium treatments. Despite the little effect on the meat composition, the results of this experiment demonstrate no interaction between selenium and copper in the levels studied.

  7. Nutritional managment of inherited copper-associated hepatitis in the Labrador retriever.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fieten, Hille; Biourge, Vincent; Watson, AL; Leegwater, Peter; van den Ingh, T.S.G.A.M.; Rothuizen, J

    Canine hereditary copper-associated hepatitis is characterized by gradual hepatic copper accumulation eventually leading to liver cirrhosis. Therapy is aimed at creating a negative copper balance with metal chelators, of which d-penicillamine is the most commonly used. d-penicillamine often causes

  8. Combining -Omics to Unravel the Impact of Copper Nutrition on Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) Stem Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Printz, Bruno; Guerriero, Gea; Sergeant, Kjell; Audinot, Jean-Nicolas; Guignard, Cédric; Renaut, Jenny; Lutts, Stanley; Hausman, Jean-Francois

    2016-02-01

    Copper can be found in the environment at concentrations ranging from a shortage up to the threshold of toxicity for plants, with optimal growth conditions situated in between. The plant stem plays a central role in transferring and distributing minerals, water and other solutes throughout the plant. In this study, alfalfa is exposed to different levels of copper availability, from deficiency to slight excess, and the impact on the metabolism of the stem is assessed by a non-targeted proteomics study and by the expression analysis of key genes controlling plant stem development. Under copper deficiency, the plant stem accumulates specific copper chaperones, the expression of genes involved in stem development is decreased and the concentrations of zinc and molybdenum are increased in comparison with the optimum copper level. At the optimal copper level, the expression of cell wall-related genes increases and proteins playing a role in cell wall deposition and in methionine metabolism accumulate, whereas copper excess imposes a reduction in the concentration of iron in the stem and a reduced abundance of ferritins. Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) analysis suggests a role for the apoplasm as a copper storage site in the case of copper toxicity. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists.

  9. Dietary copper in excess of nutritional requirement reduces plasma and breast muscle cholesterol of chickens.

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    Bakalli, R I; Pesti, G M; Ragland, W L; Konjufca, V

    1995-02-01

    Male commercial broiler strain chickens were fed from hatching to 42 d of age either a control diet (based on corn and soybean meal) or the control diet supplemented with 250 mg copper/kg diet from cupric sulfate pentahydrate (for 35 or 42 d). Hypocholesterolemia (11.8% reduction) and decreased breast muscle cholesterol (20.4% reduction) were observed in copper-supplemented birds. There was a slight increase (P > .05) in breast muscle copper (14.5%), and all levels were very low (copper for 42 vs 35 d resulted in lower levels of cholesterol in the plasma (12.9 vs 10.8% reduction) and breast muscle (24.6 vs 16.2% reduction). Very similar results were found in two additional experiments in which hypocholesterolemia and reduced breast muscle cholesterol were associated with reduced plasma triglycerides and blood reduced glutathione. It is well known that hypercholesterolemia is a symptom of dietary copper deficiency. The data presented here indicate that blood and breast muscle cholesterol are inversely related to dietary copper in excess of the dietary requirement for maximal growth. The cholesterol content of the edible muscle tissue of broiler chickens can be reduced by approximately 25% after feeding a supranormal level of copper for 42 d without altering the growth of the chickens or substantially increasing the copper content of the edible meat.

  10. Nutritional and reproductive signaling revealed by comparative gene expression analysis in Chrysopa pallens (Rambur at different nutritional statuses.

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    Benfeng Han

    Full Text Available The green lacewing, Chrysopa pallens Rambur, is one of the most important natural predators because of its extensive spectrum of prey and wide distribution. However, what we know about the nutritional and reproductive physiology of this species is very scarce.By cDNA amplification and Illumina short-read sequencing, we analyzed transcriptomes of C. pallens female adult under starved and fed conditions. In total, 71236 unigenes were obtained with an average length of 833 bp. Four vitellogenins, three insulin-like peptides and two insulin receptors were annotated. Comparison of gene expression profiles suggested that totally 1501 genes were differentially expressed between the two nutritional statuses. KEGG orthology classification showed that these differentially expression genes (DEGs were mapped to 241 pathways. In turn, the top 4 are ribosome, protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum, biosynthesis of amino acids and carbon metabolism, indicating a distinct difference in nutritional and reproductive signaling between the two feeding conditions.Our study yielded large-scale molecular information relevant to C. pallens nutritional and reproductive signaling, which will contribute to mass rearing and commercial use of this predaceous insect species.

  11. Nutritional and reproductive signaling revealed by comparative gene expression analysis in Chrysopa pallens (Rambur) at different nutritional statuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Benfeng; Zhang, Shen; Zeng, Fanrong; Mao, Jianjun

    2017-01-01

    The green lacewing, Chrysopa pallens Rambur, is one of the most important natural predators because of its extensive spectrum of prey and wide distribution. However, what we know about the nutritional and reproductive physiology of this species is very scarce. By cDNA amplification and Illumina short-read sequencing, we analyzed transcriptomes of C. pallens female adult under starved and fed conditions. In total, 71236 unigenes were obtained with an average length of 833 bp. Four vitellogenins, three insulin-like peptides and two insulin receptors were annotated. Comparison of gene expression profiles suggested that totally 1501 genes were differentially expressed between the two nutritional statuses. KEGG orthology classification showed that these differentially expression genes (DEGs) were mapped to 241 pathways. In turn, the top 4 are ribosome, protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum, biosynthesis of amino acids and carbon metabolism, indicating a distinct difference in nutritional and reproductive signaling between the two feeding conditions. Our study yielded large-scale molecular information relevant to C. pallens nutritional and reproductive signaling, which will contribute to mass rearing and commercial use of this predaceous insect species.

  12. Anemia and iron, zinc, copper and magnesium deficiency in Mexican adolescents: National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De la Cruz-Góngora, Vanessa; Gaona, Berenice; Villalpando, Salvador; Shamah-Levy, Teresa; Robledo, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    To describe the frequency of anemia and iron, zinc, copper and magnesium deficiencies among Mexican adolescents in the probabilistic survey ENSANUT 2006. The sample included 2447 adolescents aged 12 to 19 y. Capillary hemoglobin and venous blood samples were collected to measure the concentrations of ferritin, sTFR, CRP, zinc, iron, copper and magnesium. Logistic regression models were constructed to assess the risk for mineral deficiencies. The overall prevalence of anemia was 11.8 and 4.6%, body iron deficiency 18.2 and 7.9% for females and males, respectively. Overall prevalence of tissue iron deficiency was 6.9%, low serum copper were 14.4 and 12.25%; zinc 28.4 and 24.5%, magnesium 40 and 35.3%; for females and males, respectively. There is a high prevalence of mineral deficiency in Mexican adolescents; females were more prone to have more mineral deficiencies. Nutritional interventions are necessaries in order to reduce and control them.

  13. Electrochemical detection of C-reactive protein using Copper nanoparticles and hybridization chain reaction amplifying signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junjun; Zhang, Wenjuan; Guo, Jinjin; Wang, Junchun; Zhang, Yuzhong

    2017-12-15

    In this study, a sandwich-type electrochemical immunosensor for the detection of C-reactive protein (CRP) is described. In design, Copper nanoparticles (Cu NPs) were used for signal tag and hybridization chain reaction (HCR)amplified output signal. The immunosensor fabrication involved three steps: (i) primary antibodies (Ab 1 ) were immobilized on the surface of gold nanoparticles (Au NPs); (ii) the sandwich-type structure formation contained "primary antibodies-antigen-secondary antibodies conjugated with primer (Ab 2 -S 0 )"; and (iii) long DNA concatemers intercalating amounts of Cu NPs was linked to the sandwich-type structure via hybridization reaction. Differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) was used to record the response signal of the immunosensor in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). Under optimal conditions, the anodic peak currents of Cu NPs at the peak potential of about 0.08V(VS.SCE) were linear with the logarithm of CRP concentration in the range of 1.0 fg mL -1 to 100 ng mL -1 with a detection limit of 0.33 fg mL -1 (at signal/noise [S/N] = 3). In addition, the practical application of immunosensor was evaluated by analyzing CRP in real human serum samples, the recoveries obtained were within 95.3%-103.8%, indicating the immunosensor possessed potential application ability for practical disease diagnosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Copper excess in liver HepG2 cells interferes with apoptosis and lipid metabolic signaling at the protein level.

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    Liu, Yu; Yang, Huarong; Song, Zhi; Gu, Shaojuan

    2014-12-01

    Copper is an essential trace element that serves as an important catalytic cofactor for cuproenzymes, carrying out major biological functions in growth and development. Although Wilson's disease (WD) is unquestionably caused by mutations in the ATP7B gene and subsequent copper overload, the precise role of copper in inducing pathological changes remains poorly understood. Our study aimed to explore, in HepG2 cells exposed to copper, the cell viability and apoptotic cells was tested by MTT and Hoechst 33342 stainning respectively, and the signaling pathways involved in oxidative stress response, apoptosis and lipid metabolism were determined by real time RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. The results demonstrate dose- and time-dependent cell viability and apoptosis in HepG2 cells following treatment with 10 μM, 200 μM and 500 μM of copper sulfate for 8 and 24 h. Copper overload significantly induced the expression of HSPA1A (heat shock 70 kDa protein 1A), an oxidative stress-responsive signal gene, and BAG3 (BCL2 associated athanogene3), an anti-apoptotic gene, while expression of HMGCR (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase), a lipid biosynthesis and lipid metabolism gene, was inhibited. These findings provide new insights into possible mechanisms accounting for the development of liver apoptosis and steatosis in the early stages of Wilson's disease.

  15. Copper and Zinc Deficiency in a Patient Receiving Long-Term Parenteral Nutrition During a Shortage of Parenteral Trace Element Products.

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    Palm, Eric; Dotson, Bryan

    2015-11-01

    Drug shortages in the United States, including parenteral nutrition (PN) components, have been common in recent years and can adversely affect patient care. Here we report a case of copper and zinc deficiency in a patient receiving PN during a shortage of parenteral trace element products. The management of the patient's deficiencies, including the use of an imported parenteral multi-trace element product, is described. © 2014 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  16. Serial changes in selected serum constituents in low birth weight infants on peripheral parenteral nutrition with different zinc and copper supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockitch, G; Pendray, M R; Godolphin, W J; Quigley, G

    1985-07-01

    One hundred and five infants of birth weight 2000 g or less who received peripherally administered parenteral nutrition for periods of three or more weeks, were randomly assigned to groups receiving different amounts of zinc and copper supplement. The blood concentrations of zinc, copper, retinol-binding protein, prealbumin, alkaline phosphatase and aspartate transaminase were followed weekly. Mean serum zinc, retinol-binding protein and prealbumin declined significantly over time while alkaline phosphatase rose. Only the group receiving the highest zinc supplement maintained a mean serum zinc concentration within the normal range at seven weeks. No difference in the protein or enzyme concentrations was found between the different zinc supplement groups. No difference was seen in serum copper or ceruloplasmin between copper dose groups although one intravenous supplement was double that of the other.

  17. Nutritional status-dependent endocannabinoid signalling regulates the integration of rat visceral information.

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    Khlaifia, Abdessattar; Matias, Isabelle; Cota, Daniela; Tell, Fabien

    2017-06-01

    Vagal sensory inputs transmit information from the viscera to brainstem neurones located in the nucleus tractus solitarii to set physiological parameters. These excitatory synapses exhibit a CB1 endocannabinoid-induced long-term depression (LTD) triggered by vagal fibre stimulation. We investigated the impact of nutritional status on long-term changes in this long-term synaptic plasticity. Food deprivation prevents LTD induction by disrupting CB1 receptor signalling. Short-term refeeding restores the capacity of vagal synapses to express LTD. Ghrelin and cholecystokinin, respectively released during fasting and refeeding, play a key role in the control of LTD via the activation of energy sensing pathways such as AMPK and the mTOR and ERK pathways. Communication form the viscera to the brain is essential to set physiological homoeostatic parameters but also to drive more complex behaviours such as mood, memory and emotional states. Here we investigated the impact of the nutritional status on long-term changes in excitatory synaptic transmission in the nucleus tractus solitarii, a neural hub integrating visceral signals. These excitatory synapses exhibit a CB1 endocannabinoid (eCB)-induced long-term depression (LTD) triggered by vagal fibre stimulation. Since eCB signalling is known to be an important component of homoeostatic regulation of the body and is regulated during various stressful conditions, we tested the hypothesis that food deprivation alters eCB signalling in central visceral afferent fibres. Food deprivation prevents eCB-LTD induction due to the absence of eCB signalling. This loss was reversed by blockade of ghrelin receptors. Activation of the cellular fuel sensor AMP-activated protein kinase or inhibition of the mechanistic target of rapamycin pathway abolished eCB-LTD in free-fed rats. Signals associated with energy surfeit, such as short-term refeeding, restore eCB-LTD induction, which in turn requires activation of cholecystokinin receptors and

  18. Consequences of radiotherapy on nutritional status, dietary intake, serum zinc and copper levels in patients with gastrointestinal tract and head and neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahadavi, R.; Faramarzi, E.; Mohamed-Zadeh, M.; Ghaemmaghami, J.; Jabbari, Morteza V.

    2007-01-01

    Malnutrition occurs frequently in cancer patients and is multifactorial and can lead to negative outcomes. So we studied the effect of radiotherapy on nutritional status, weight changes, dietary intake, serum zinc and copper levels. During the period of October to March 2005, 45 cancer patients who referred to the Radiotherapy Center, Imam Khomeini Hospital, Iran were recruited. We assessed the nutritional status of patients using Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment (PG-SGA) questionnaire. Patients on the basis of location of radiotherapy classified to mediastinum, head and neck pelvic groups. Changes in dietary intake (using 24 hour recall method) and body weight were evaluated prior to and during radiotherapy. At the onset and the end of radiotherapy, serum levels of Zinc, copper and albumin were determined. After treatment malnutrition increased significantly in all patients (p=0.01) and in head and neck (p=0.007) and pelvic groups (p=0.04). The decreased bodyweight of patients was significant in head and neck (p=0.02) and pelvic groups (p=0.05). The mean daily energy and protein intake of head and neck and pelvic groups decreased during radiotherapy while energy intake increased significantly in mediastinum group (p=0.01). After treatment, significant decreases also observed in mean serum zinc, copper and albumin levels (p<0.05). Because of negative effect of radiotherapy on oral feeding, nutritional assessment and intervention should be an integral part of treatment. Also, it would be worthwhile studying the effect of zinc supplementation on dietary intake and nutritional status of patients. (author)

  19. Trace Element Status (Zinc, Copper, Selenium, Iron, Manganese) in Patients with Long-Term Home Parenteral Nutrition.

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    Dastych, Milan; Šenkyřík, Michal; Dastych, Milan; Novák, František; Wohl, Petr; Maňák, Jan; Kohout, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine concentrations of zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), selenium (Se) in blood plasma and manganese (Mn) in the whole blood in patients with long-term home parenteral nutrition (HPN) in comparison to the control group. We examined 68 patients (16 men and 52 women) aged from 28 to 68 years on a long-term HPN lasting from 4 to 96 months. The short bowel syndrome was an indication for HPN. The daily doses of Zn, Cu, Fe, Se and Mn in the last 3 months were determined. No significant differences in blood plasma were found for Zn, Cu and Fe in patients with HPN and in the control group (p > 0.05). The concentration of Mn in whole blood was significantly increased in HPN patients (p < 0.0001), while Se concentration in these patients was significantly decreased (p < 0.005). The concentration of Mn in the whole blood of 16 patients with cholestasis was significantly increased compared to the patients without cholestasis (p < 0.001). The Cu concentration was increased with no statistical significance. In long-term HPN, the status of trace elements in the patients has to be continually monitored and the daily substitution doses of these elements have to be flexibly adjusted. Dosing schedule needs to be adjusted especially in cases of cholestatic hepatopathy. A discussion about the optimal daily dose of Mn in patients on HPN is appropriate. For clinical practice, the availability of a substitution mixture of trace elements lacking Mn would be advantageous. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of States, Districts, and Schools That Required Teaching Nutrition and Dietary Behavior, by School Level 100 80 60 40 20 0 72. ... no comparable variable existed in both survey years. Nutrition Services • 68.6% of schools offered breakfast to students and 63.0% participated ...

  1. A climate signal in exhumation patterns revealed by porphyry copper deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanites, Brian J.; Kesler, Stephen E.

    2015-06-01

    The processes that build and shape mountain landscapes expose important mineral resources. Mountain landscapes are widely thought to result from the interaction between tectonic uplift and exhumation by erosion. Both climate and tectonics affect rates of exhumation, but estimates of their relative importance vary. Porphyry copper deposits are emplaced at a depth of about 2 km in convergent tectonic settings; their exposure at the surface therefore can be used to track landscape exhumation. Here we analyse the distribution, ages and spatial density of exposed Cenozoic porphyry copper deposits using a global data set to quantify exhumation. We find that the deposits exhibit young ages and are sparsely distributed--both consistent with rapid exhumation--in regions with high precipitation, and deposits are older and more abundant in dry regions. This suggests that climate is driving erosion and mineral exposure in deposit-bearing mountain landscapes. Our findings show that the emplacement ages of porphyry copper deposits provide a means to estimate long-term exhumation rates in active orogens, and we conclude that climate-driven exhumation influences the age and abundance of exposed porphyry copper deposits around the world.

  2. Similar stress responses are elicited by copper and ultraviolet radiation in the aquatic plant Lemna gibba: Implication of reactive oxygen species as common signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babu, T.S.; Akhtar, T.A.; Lampi, M.A.; Tripuranthakam, S.; Dixon, D.G.; Greenberg, B.M.

    2003-01-01

    Metals and ultraviolet (UV) radiation are two environmental stressors that can cause damage to plants. These two types of stressors often impact simultaneously on plants and both are known to promote reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. However, little information is available on the potential parallel stress responses elicited by metals and UV radiation. Using the aquatic plant Lemna gibba, we found that copper and simulated solar radiation (SSR, a light source containing photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and UV radiation) induced similar responses in the plants. Both copper and SSR caused ROS formation. The ROS levels were higher when copper was combined with SSR than when applied with PAR. Higher concentrations of copper plus PAR caused toxicity as monitored by diminished growth and chlorophyll content. This toxicity was more pronounced when copper was combined with SSR. Because the generation of ROS was also higher when copper was combined with SSR, we attributed this enhanced toxicity to elevated levels of ROS. In comparison to PAR-grown plants, SSR treated plants exhibited elevated levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione reductase (GR). These enzyme levels were further elevated under both PAR and SSR when copper was added at concentrations that generated ROS. Interestingly, copper treatment in the absence of SSR (i.e. copper plus PAR) induced synthesis of the same flavonoids as those observed in SSR without copper. Finally, addition of either dimethyl thiourea or GSH (two common ROS scavengers) lowered in vivo ROS production, alleviated toxicity and diminished induction of GR as well as accumulation of UV absorbing compounds. Thus, the potential of ROS being a common signal for acclimation to stress by both copper and UV can be considered. (author)

  3. Nutritive, Post-ingestive Signals Are the Primary Regulators of AgRP Neuron Activity

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    Zhenwei Su

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Summary: The brain regulates food intake by processing sensory cues and peripheral physiological signals, but the neural basis of this integration remains unclear. Hypothalamic, agouti-related protein (AgRP-expressing neurons are critical regulators of food intake. AgRP neuron activity is high during hunger and is rapidly reduced by the sight and smell of food. Here, we reveal two distinct components of AgRP neuron activity regulation: a rapid but transient sensory-driven signal and a slower, sustained calorie-dependent signal. We discovered that nutrients are necessary and sufficient for sustained reductions in AgRP neuron activity and that activity reductions are proportional to the calories obtained. This change in activity is recapitulated by exogenous administration of gut-derived satiation signals. Furthermore, we showed that the nutritive value of food trains sensory systems—in a single trial—to drive rapid, anticipatory AgRP neuron activity inhibition. Together, these data demonstrate that nutrients are the primary regulators of AgRP neuron activity. : Su et al. demonstrate that nutrient content in the GI tract is rapidly signaled to hypothalamic neurons activated by hunger. This rapid effect is mediated by three satiation signals that synergistically reduce the activity of AgRP neurons. These findings uncover how hunger circuits in the brain are regulated and raise the possibility that hunger can be pharmacologically controlled. Keywords: calcium imaging, AgRP neurons, calories, satiation signals, sensory regulation, single trial learning, cholecystokinin, CCK, peptide tyrosine tyrosine, PYY, amylin, homeostasis

  4. Review: Mitogen-Activated Protein kinases in nutritional signaling in Arabidopsis

    KAUST Repository

    Chardin, Camille

    2017-04-14

    Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) cascades are functional modules widespread among eukaryotic organisms. In plants, these modules are encoded by large multigenic families and are involved in many biological processes ranging from stress responses to cellular differentiation and organ development. Furthermore, MAPK pathways are involved in the perception of environmental and physiological modifications. Interestingly, some MAPKs play a role in several signaling networks and could have an integrative function for the response of plants to their environment. In this review, we describe the classification of MAPKs and highlight some of their biochemical actions. We performed an in silico analysis of MAPK gene expression in response to nutrients supporting their involvement in nutritional signaling. While several MAPKs have been identified as players in sugar, nitrogen, phosphate, iron and potassium-related signaling pathways, their biochemical functions are yet mainly unknown. The integration of these regulatory cascades in the current understanding of nutrient signaling is discussed and potential new avenues for approaches toward plants with higher nutrient use efficiencies are evoked.

  5. Review: Mitogen-Activated Protein kinases in nutritional signaling in Arabidopsis

    KAUST Repository

    Chardin, Camille; Schenk, Sebastian T.; Hirt, Heribert; Colcombet, Jean; Krapp, Anne

    2017-01-01

    Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) cascades are functional modules widespread among eukaryotic organisms. In plants, these modules are encoded by large multigenic families and are involved in many biological processes ranging from stress responses to cellular differentiation and organ development. Furthermore, MAPK pathways are involved in the perception of environmental and physiological modifications. Interestingly, some MAPKs play a role in several signaling networks and could have an integrative function for the response of plants to their environment. In this review, we describe the classification of MAPKs and highlight some of their biochemical actions. We performed an in silico analysis of MAPK gene expression in response to nutrients supporting their involvement in nutritional signaling. While several MAPKs have been identified as players in sugar, nitrogen, phosphate, iron and potassium-related signaling pathways, their biochemical functions are yet mainly unknown. The integration of these regulatory cascades in the current understanding of nutrient signaling is discussed and potential new avenues for approaches toward plants with higher nutrient use efficiencies are evoked.

  6. Cardiac Development and Transcription Factors: Insulin Signalling, Insulin Resistance, and Intrauterine Nutritional Programming of Cardiovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindsamy, Annelene; Naidoo, Strinivasen

    2018-01-01

    Programming with an insult or stimulus during critical developmental life stages shapes metabolic disease through divergent mechanisms. Cardiovascular disease increasingly contributes to global morbidity and mortality, and the heart as an insulin-sensitive organ may become insulin resistant, which manifests as micro- and/or macrovascular complications due to diabetic complications. Cardiogenesis is a sequential process during which the heart develops into a mature organ and is regulated by several cardiac-specific transcription factors. Disrupted cardiac insulin signalling contributes to cardiac insulin resistance. Intrauterine under- or overnutrition alters offspring cardiac structure and function, notably cardiac hypertrophy, systolic and diastolic dysfunction, and hypertension that precede the onset of cardiovascular disease. Optimal intrauterine nutrition and oxygen saturation are required for normal cardiac development in offspring and the maintenance of their cardiovascular physiology. PMID:29484207

  7. Nutritional and reproductive signaling revealed by comparative gene expression analysis in Chrysopa pallens (Rambur) at different nutritional statuses

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Benfeng; Zhang, Shen; Zeng, Fanrong; Mao, Jianjun

    2017-01-01

    Background The green lacewing, Chrysopa pallens Rambur, is one of the most important natural predators because of its extensive spectrum of prey and wide distribution. However, what we know about the nutritional and reproductive physiology of this species is very scarce. Results By cDNA amplification and Illumina short-read sequencing, we analyzed transcriptomes of C. pallens female adult under starved and fed conditions. In total, 71236 unigenes were obtained with an average length of 833 bp...

  8. Temporal aspects of copper homeostasis and its crosstalk with hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lola ePeñarrubia

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available To cope with the dual nature of copper as being essential and toxic for cells, plants temporarily adapt the expression of copper homeostasis components to assure its delivery to cuproproteins while avoiding the interference of potential oxidative damage derived from both copper uptake and photosynthetic reactions during light hours. The circadian clock participates in the temporal organization of coordination of plant nutrition adapting metabolic responses to the daily oscillations. This timely control improves plant fitness and reproduction and holds biotechnological potential to drive increased crop yields. Hormonal pathways, including those of abscisic acid, gibberellins, ethylene, auxins, and jasmonates are also under direct clock and light control, both in mono and dicotyledons. In this review, we focus on copper transport in Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa and the presumable role of hormones in metal homeostasis matching nutrient availability to growth requirements and preventing metal toxicity. The presence of putative hormone-dependent regulatory elements in the promoters of copper transporters genes suggests hormonal regulation to match special copper requirements during plant development. Spatial and temporal processes that can be affected by hormones include the regulation of copper uptake into roots, intracellular trafficking and compartmentalisation, and long-distance transport to developing vegetative and reproductive tissues. In turn, hormone biosynthesis and signalling are also influenced by copper availability, which suggests reciprocal regulation subjected to temporal control by the central oscillator of the circadian clock. This transcriptional regulatory network, coordinates environmental and hormonal signalling with developmental pathways to allow enhanced micronutrient acquisition efficiency.

  9. Incorporation of Tin on copper clad laminate to increase the interface adhesion for signal loss reduction of high-frequency PCB lamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chong; Wen, Na; Zhou, Guoyun; Wang, Shouxu; He, Wei; Su, Xinhong; Hu, Yongsuan

    2017-11-01

    A novel method of improving the adhesion between copper and prepreg in high frequency PCB was proposed and studied in this work. This process which aimed to decrease the IEP (isoelectric point) of the copper to obtain higher adhesion, was achieved by depositing a thin tin layer with lower IEP on copper. It was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), 3D microscope, peel strength test, X-Ray thickness test, grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GXRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Agilent vector network analyzer (VNA), which confirmed its excellent adhesion performance and outstanding electrical properties in high-frequency signal transmission compared with traditional brown oxide method. Moreover, the mechanism of achieving high adhesion for this method was also investigated.

  10. Arabidopsis copper transport protein COPT2 participates in the cross talk between iron deficiency responses and low-phosphate signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perea-García, Ana; Garcia-Molina, Antoni; Andrés-Colás, Nuria; Vera-Sirera, Francisco; Pérez-Amador, Miguel A; Puig, Sergi; Peñarrubia, Lola

    2013-05-01

    Copper and iron are essential micronutrients for most living organisms because they participate as cofactors in biological processes, including respiration, photosynthesis, and oxidative stress protection. In many eukaryotic organisms, including yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and mammals, copper and iron homeostases are highly interconnected; yet, such interdependence is not well established in higher plants. Here, we propose that COPT2, a high-affinity copper transport protein, functions under copper and iron deficiencies in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). COPT2 is a plasma membrane protein that functions in copper acquisition and distribution. Characterization of the COPT2 expression pattern indicates a synergic response to copper and iron limitation in roots. We characterized a knockout of COPT2, copt2-1, that leads to increased resistance to simultaneous copper and iron deficiencies, measured as reduced leaf chlorosis and improved maintenance of the photosynthetic apparatus. We propose that COPT2 could play a dual role under iron deficiency. First, COPT2 participates in the attenuation of copper deficiency responses driven by iron limitation, possibly to minimize further iron consumption. Second, global expression analyses of copt2-1 versus wild-type Arabidopsis plants indicate that low-phosphate responses increase in the mutant. These results open up new biotechnological approaches to fight iron deficiency in crops.

  11. Distinctive EPR signals provide an understanding of the affinity of bis-(3-hydroxy-4-pyridinonato) copper(II) complexes for hydrophobic environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangel, Maria; Leite, Andreia; Silva, André M N; Moniz, Tânia; Nunes, Ana; Amorim, M João; Queirós, Carla; Cunha-Silva, Luís; Gameiro, Paula; Burgess, John

    2014-07-07

    In this work we report the synthesis and characterization of a set of 3-hydroxy-4-pyridinone copper(ii) complexes with variable lipophilicity. EPR spectroscopy was used to characterize the structure of copper(ii) complexes in solution, and as a tool to gain insight into solvent interactions. EPR spectra of solutions of the [CuL2] complexes recorded in different solvents reveal the presence of two copper species whose ratio depends on the nature of the solvent. Investigation of EPR spectra in the pure solvents methanol, dimethylsulfoxide, dichloromethane and their 50% (v/v) mixtures with toluene allowed the characterization of two types of copper signals (gzz = 2.30 and gzz = 2.26) whose spin-Hamiltonian parameters are consistent with solvated and non-solvated square-planar copper(ii) complexes. Regarding the potential biological application of ligands and complexes and to get insight into the partition properties in water-membrane interfaces, EPR spectra were also obtained in water-saturated octanol, an aqueous solution buffered at pH = 7.4 and liposome suspensions, for three compounds representative of different hydro-lipophilic balances. Analysis of the EPR spectra obtained in liposomes allowed establishment of the location of the complexes in the water and lipid phases. In view of the results of this work we put forward the use of EPR spectroscopy to assess the affinity of copper(ii) complexes for a hydrophobic environment and also to obtain indirect information about the lipophilicity of the ligands and similar EPR silent complexes.

  12. Physiological and nutritional status of black oat (Avena strigosa Schreb.) grown in soil with interaction of high doses of copper and zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiecher, Tadeu L; Tiecher, Tales; Ceretta, Carlos A; Ferreira, Paulo A A; Nicoloso, Fernando T; Soriani, Hilda H; Tassinari, Adriele; Paranhos, Juçara Terezinha; De Conti, Lessandro; Brunetto, Gustavo

    2016-09-01

    Vineyard sandy acid soils from South Brazil have experienced heavy metal contamination due to replacement of copper (Cu)-based by zinc (Zn)-based products to control foliar diseases. Thus, we evaluate physiological and nutritional status of black oat (Avena strigosa Schreb.), a common interrow crop in vineyards from this region. Soil was collected in a natural field from Santana do Livramento, in Rio Grande do Sul, the southernmost state of Brazil. Black oat was cultivated for 30 days in a greenhouse with application of 0, 30, and 60 mg Cu kg(-1) combined with 0, 15, 30, 60, 120, and 180 mg Zn kg(-1). After the trial period, dry matter accumulation of roots and shoots, Cu and Zn contents in roots and shoots, chlorophyll a fluorescence, photosynthetic pigments and catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6) and peroxidase (POD, EC 1.11.1.7) activity were determined. Cu and Zn toxicity was evidenced by the decrease in plant growth of black oat as well as by the decrease of photochemical efficiency associated with the decrease in photosynthetic pigment content, especially with the highest doses of Cu and Zn. Furthermore, the activity of antioxidant enzymes (CAT and POD) was increased in intermediate doses of Zn, indicating the activation of the antioxidant system, but the stress condition in treatments with high levels of Cu and Zn was not reversed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Study on characteristics of EMR signals induced from fracture of rock samples and their application in rockburst prediction in copper mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaofei; Wang, Enyuan

    2018-06-01

    A rockburst is a dynamic disaster that occurs during underground excavation or mining which has been a serious threat to safety. Rockburst prediction and control are as important as any other underground engineering in deep mines. For this paper, we tested electromagnetic radiation (EMR) signals generated during the deformation and fracture of rock samples from a copper mine under uniaxial compression, tension, and cycle-loading experiments, analyzed the changes in the EMR intensity, pulse number, and frequency corresponding to the loading, and a high correlation between these EMR parameters and the applied loading was observed. EMR apparently reflects the deformation and fracture status to the loaded rock. Based on this experimental work, we invented the KBD5-type EMR monitor and used it to test EMR signals generated in the rock surrounding the Hongtoushan copper mine. From the test results, it is determined the responding characteristics of EMR signals generated by changes in mine-generated stresses and stress concentrations and it is proposed that this EMR monitoring method can be used to provide early warning for rockbursts.

  14. Target of Rapamycin (TOR) Regulates Growth in Response to Nutritional Signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisman, Ronit

    2016-10-01

    All organisms can respond to the availability of nutrients by regulating their metabolism, growth, and cell division. Central to the regulation of growth in response to nutrient availability is the target of rapamycin (TOR) signaling that is composed of two structurally distinct complexes: TOR complex 1 (TORC1) and TOR complex 2 (TORC2). The TOR genes were first identified in yeast as target of rapamycin, a natural product of a soil bacterium, which proved beneficial as an immunosuppressive and anticancer drug and is currently being tested for a handful of other pathological conditions including diabetes, neurodegeneration, and age-related diseases. Studies of the TOR pathway unraveled a complex growth-regulating network. TOR regulates nutrient uptake, transcription, protein synthesis and degradation, as well as metabolic pathways, in a coordinated manner that ensures that cells grow or cease growth in response to nutrient availability. The identification of specific signals and mechanisms that stimulate TOR signaling is an active and exciting field of research that has already identified nitrogen and amino acids as key regulators of TORC1 activity. The signals, as well as the cellular functions of TORC2, are far less well understood. Additional open questions in the field concern the relationships between TORC1 and TORC2, as well as the links with other nutrient-responsive pathways. Here I review the main features of TORC1 and TORC2, with a particular focus on yeasts as model organisms.

  15. Paradoxical Regulation of Human FGF21 by Both Fasting and Feeding Signals: Is FGF21 a Nutritional Adaptation Factor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uebanso, Takashi; Taketani, Yutaka; Yamamoto, Hironori; Amo, Kikuko; Ominami, Hirokazu; Arai, Hidekazu; Takei, Yuichiro; Masuda, Masashi; Tanimura, Ayako; Harada, Nagakatsu; Yamanaka-Okumura, Hisami; Takeda, Eiji

    2011-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) has recently emerged as a metabolic hormone involved in regulating glucose and lipid metabolism in mouse, but the regulatory mechanisms and actions of FGF21 in humans remain unclear. Here we have investigated the regulatory mechanisms of the human FGF21 gene at the transcriptional level. A deletion study of the human FGF21 promoter (−1672 to +230 bp) revealed two fasting signals, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) and glucagon signals, that independently induced human FGF21 gene transcription in mouse primary hepatocytes. In addition, two feeding signals, glucose and xylitol, also dose-dependently induced human FGF21 gene transcription and mRNA expression in both human HepG2 cells and mouse primary hepatocytes. FGF21 protein expression and secretion were also induced by high glucose stimulation. The human FGF21 promoter (−1672 to +230 bp) was found to have a carbohydrate-responsive element at −380 to −366 bp, which is distinct from the PPAR response element (PPRE). Knock-down of the carbohydrate response element binding protein by RNAi diminished glucose-induced human FGF21 transcription. Moreover, we found that a region from −555 to −443 bp of the human FGF21 promoter region exerts an important role in the activation of basic transcription. In conclusion, human FGF21 gene expression is paradoxically and independently regulated by both fasting and feeding signals. These regulatory mechanisms suggest that human FGF21 is increased with nutritional crisis, including starvation and overfeeding. PMID:21829679

  16. High signal in the adenohypophysis on T1-weighted images presumably due to manganese deposits in patients on long-term parenteral nutrition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietemann, J.L.; Diniz, R.L.F.C.; Reis, M. Jr.; Neugroschl, C.; Soehsten, S. von [Department of Radiology 2, University Hospital of Strasbourg (France); Reimund, J.M.; Baumann, R. [Department of Hepatogastroenterology, University Hospital of Strasbourg (France); Warter, J.M. [Department of Neurology, University Hospital of Strasbourg (France)

    1998-12-01

    Hypermanganesaemia is reported in patients on long-term parenteral nutrition. Deposition of manganese, giving high signal on T1-weighted images, may involve the basal ganglia. MRI in nine patients (mean age 51 years, range 31-75 years) on long-term parenteral nutrition (mean duration 30 months, range 6-126 months), demonstrated high signal in the anterior pituitary gland on T1-weighted sagittal and coronal images. The gland appeared normal on T2-weighted images. Signal intensity in the basal ganglia on T1-weighted images was increased in all patients. Endocrine assessment showed no significant abnormality. Neurological examination showed a mild parkinsonian movement disorder in one patient. Hypermanganaesemia was present in all nine (1.3-2.8 {mu}mol/l, mean 1.87 {mu}mol/l). The high signal in the anterior pituitary gland was probably related to deposition of paramagnetic substances, especially manganese. (orig.) With 2 figs., 1 tab., 17 refs.

  17. High signal in the adenohypophysis on T1-weighted images presumably due to manganese deposits in patients on long-term parenteral nutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietemann, J.L.; Diniz, R.L.F.C.; Reis, M. Jr.; Neugroschl, C.; Soehsten, S. von; Reimund, J.M.; Baumann, R.; Warter, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    Hypermanganesaemia is reported in patients on long-term parenteral nutrition. Deposition of manganese, giving high signal on T1-weighted images, may involve the basal ganglia. MRI in nine patients (mean age 51 years, range 31-75 years) on long-term parenteral nutrition (mean duration 30 months, range 6-126 months), demonstrated high signal in the anterior pituitary gland on T1-weighted sagittal and coronal images. The gland appeared normal on T2-weighted images. Signal intensity in the basal ganglia on T1-weighted images was increased in all patients. Endocrine assessment showed no significant abnormality. Neurological examination showed a mild parkinsonian movement disorder in one patient. Hypermanganaesemia was present in all nine (1.3-2.8 μmol/l, mean 1.87 μmol/l). The high signal in the anterior pituitary gland was probably related to deposition of paramagnetic substances, especially manganese. (orig.)

  18. Catabolic signaling pathways, atrogenes, and ubiquitinated proteins are regulated by the nutritional status in the muscle of the fine flounder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo N Fuentes

    Full Text Available A description of the intracellular mechanisms that modulate skeletal muscle atrophy in early vertebrates is still lacking. In this context, we used the fine flounder, a unique and intriguing fish model, which exhibits remarkably slow growth due to low production of muscle-derived IGF-I, a key growth factor that has been widely acknowledged to prevent and revert muscle atrophy. Key components of the atrophy system were examined in this species using a detailed time-course of sampling points, including two contrasting nutritional periods. Under basal conditions high amounts of the atrogenes MuRF-1 and Atrogin-1 were observed. During fasting, the activation of the P38/MAPK and Akt/FoxO signaling pathways decreased; whereas, the activation of the IκBα/NFκB pathway increased. These changes in signal transduction activation were concomitant with a strong increase in MuRF-1, Atrogin-1, and protein ubiquitination. During short-term refeeding, the P38/MAPK and Akt/FoxO signaling pathways were strongly activated, whereas the activation of the IκBα/NFκB pathway decreased significantly. The expression of both atrogenes, as well as the ubiquitination of proteins, dropped significantly during the first hour of refeeding, indicating a strong anti-atrophic condition during the onset of refeeding. During long-term refeeding, Akt remained activated at higher than basal levels until the end of refeeding, and Atrogin-1 expression remained significantly lower during this period. This study shows that the components of the atrophy system in skeletal muscle appeared early in the evolution of vertebrates and some mechanisms have been conserved, whereas others have not. These results represent an important achievement for the area of fish muscle physiology, showing an integrative view of the atrophy system in a non-mammalian species and contributing to novel insights on the molecular basis of muscle growth regulation in earlier vertebrates.

  19. Simulation and Measurement of Through-the-Earth, Extremely Low-Frequency Signals Using Copper-Clad Steel Ground Rods

    OpenAIRE

    Damiano, Nicholas William; Yan, Lincan; Whisner, Bruce; Zhou, Chenming

    2017-01-01

    The underground mining environment can greatly affect radio signal propagation. Understanding how the earth affects signal propagation is a key to evaluating communications systems used during a mine emergency. One type of communication system is through-the-earth, which can utilize extremely low frequencies (ELF). This paper presents the simulation and measurement results of recent National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) research aimed at investigating current injection...

  20. Interdependency of EGF and GLP-2 Signaling in Attenuating Mucosal Atrophy in a Mouse Model of Parenteral Nutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Yongjia; Demehri, Farok R; Xiao, Weidong

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Total parenteral nutrition (TPN), a crucial treatment for patients who cannot receive enteral nutrition, is associated with mucosal atrophy, barrier dysfunction, and infectious complications. Glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) improve intestinal...... deprived of enteral nutrition. METHODS: Adult C57BL/6J, IEC-Egfr(knock out (KO)) and IEC-pik3r1(KO) mice receiving TPN or enteral nutrition were treated with EGF or GLP-2 alone or in combination with reciprocal receptor inhibitors, GLP-2(3-33) or gefitinib. Jejunum was collected and mucosal atrophy and IEC...

  1. Simulation and Measurement of Through-the-Earth, Extremely Low-Frequency Signals Using Copper-Clad Steel Ground Rods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiano, Nicholas William; Yan, Lincan; Whisner, Bruce; Zhou, Chenming

    2017-01-01

    The underground mining environment can greatly affect radio signal propagation. Understanding how the earth affects signal propagation is a key to evaluating communications systems used during a mine emergency. One type of communication system is through-the-earth, which can utilize extremely low frequencies (ELF). This paper presents the simulation and measurement results of recent National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) research aimed at investigating current injection at ELF, and in particular, ground contact impedance. Measurements were taken at an outside surface testing location. The results obtained from modeling and measurement are characterized by electrode impedance, and the voltage received between two distant electrodes. This paper concludes with a discussion of design considerations found to affect low-frequency communication systems utilizing ground rods to inject a current into the earth.

  2. Copper hypersensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fage, Simon W; Faurschou, Annesofie; Thyssen, Jacob P

    2014-01-01

    hypersensitivity, a database search of PubMed was performed with the following terms: copper, dermatitis, allergic contact dermatitis, contact hypersensitivity, contact sensitization, contact allergy, patch test, dental, IUD, epidemiology, clinical, and experimental. Human exposure to copper is relatively common...

  3. Copper tolerance and virulence in bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladomersky, Erik; Petris, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Copper (Cu) is an essential trace element for all aerobic organisms. It functions as a cofactor in enzymes that catalyze a wide variety of redox reactions due to its ability to cycle between two oxidation states, Cu(I) and Cu(II). This same redox property of copper has the potential to cause toxicity if copper homeostasis is not maintained. Studies suggest that the toxic properties of copper are harnessed by the innate immune system of the host to kill bacteria. To counter such defenses, bacteria rely on copper tolerance genes for virulence within the host. These discoveries suggest bacterial copper intoxication is a component of host nutritional immunity, thus expanding our knowledge of the roles of copper in biology. This review summarizes our current understanding of copper tolerance in bacteria, and the extent to which these pathways contribute to bacterial virulence within the host. PMID:25652326

  4. The two-component signal transduction system CopRS of Corynebacterium glutamicum is required for adaptation to copper-excess stress

    OpenAIRE

    Schelder, S.; Zaade, D.; Litsanov, B.; Bott, M.; Brocker, M.

    2011-01-01

    Copper is an essential cofactor for many enzymes but at high concentrations it is toxic for the cell. Copper ion concentrations ≥50 µM inhibited growth of Corynebacterium glutamicum. The transcriptional response to 20 µM Cu(2+) was studied using DNA microarrays and revealed 20 genes that showed a ≥ 3-fold increased mRNA level, including cg3281-cg3289. Several genes in this genomic region code for proteins presumably involved in the adaption to copper-induced stress, e. g. a multicopper oxidas...

  5. Signal-on electrochemical assay for label-free detection of TdT and BamHI activity based on grown DNA nanowire-templated copper nanoclusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yufang; Zhang, Qingqing; Xu, Lihua; Wang, Jiao; Rao, Jiajia; Guo, Zhiyong; Wang, Sui

    2017-11-01

    Electrochemical methods allow fast and inexpensive analysis of enzymatic activity. Here, a simple and yet efficient "signal-on" electrochemical assay for sensitive, label-free detection of DNA-related enzyme activity was established on the basis of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated extension strategy. TdT, which is a template-independent DNA polymerase, can catalyze the sequential addition of deoxythymidine triphosphate (dTTP) at the 3'-OH terminus of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA); then, the TdT-yield T-rich DNA nanowires can be employed as the synthetic template of copper nanoclusters (CuNCs). Grown DNA nanowires-templated CuNCs (noted as DNA-CuNCs) were attached onto graphene oxide (GO) surface and exhibited unique electrocatalytic activity to H 2 O 2 reduction. Under optimal conditions, the proposed biosensor was utilized for quantitatively monitoring TdT activity, with the observed LOD of 0.1 U/mL. It also displayed high selectivity to TdT with excellent stability, and offered a facile, convenient electrochemical method for TdT-relevant inhibitors screening. Moreover, the proposed sensor was successfully used for BamHI activity detection, in which a new 3'-OH terminal was exposed by the digestion of a phosphate group. Ultimately, it has good prospects in DNA-related enzyme-based biochemical studies, disease diagnosis, and drug discovery. Graphical Abstract Extraordinary TdT-generated DNA-CuNCs are synthesized and act as a novel electrochemical sensing platform for sensitive detection of TdT and BamHI activity in biological environments.

  6. Aptamer-based electrochemical assay of 17β-estradiol using a glassy carbon electrode modified with copper sulfide nanosheets and gold nanoparticles, and applying enzyme-based signal amplification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Ke-Jing; Liu, Yu-Jie; Zhang, Ji-Zong

    2015-01-01

    We have developed an electrochemical method for the determination of 17β-estradiol. A glassy carbon electrode was modified with a composite made from copper sulfide nanosheets, gold nanoparticles, and glucose oxidase. The copper sulfide nanosheet was prepared by a single-step hydrothermal process, and its properties were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Finally, an estradiol-specific aptamer was assembled on the electrode. The copper sulfide nanosheet on the electrode surface acts as a relatively good electrical conductor. Glucose oxidase acts as an indicator, and the dual modification of glucose oxidase and gold nanoparticles for signal amplification. The determination of 17β-estradiol was performed by differential pulse voltammetry of glucose oxidase because the signal measured at typically −0.43 V depends on the concentration of 17β-estradiol because addition of 17β-estradiol at electrode hinders electron transfer. A linear relationship exists between the peak current and the logarithm of concentration of 17β-estradiol in the 0.5 pM to 5 nM range, with a 60 f. detection limit (at 3σ/S). The method displays good selectivity over bisphenol A, 1-aminoanthraquinone and naphthalene even if present in 100-fold concentrations. (author)

  7. Anemia and iron, zinc, copper and magnesium deficiency in Mexican adolescents: National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006 Anemia y deficiencia de hierro, zinc, cobre y magnesio en adolescentes mexicanos: resultados de la ENSANUT 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa De la Cruz-Góngora

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVE: To describe the frequency of anemia and iron, zinc, copper and magnesium deficiencies among Mexican adolescents in the probabilistic survey ENSANUT 2006. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The sample included 2447 adolescents aged 12 to 19 y. Capillary hemoglobin and venous blood samples were collected to measure the concentrations of ferritin, sTFR, CRP, zinc, iron, copper and magnesium. Logistic regression models were constructed to assess the risk for mineral deficiencies. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of anemia was 11.8 and 4.6%, body iron deficiency 18.2 and 7.9% for females and males, respectively. Overall prevalence of tissue iron deficiency was 6.9%, low serum copper were14.4 and 12.25%; zinc 28.4 and 24.5%, magnesium 40 and 35.3%; for females and males, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: There is a high prevalence of mineral deficiency in Mexican adolescents; females were more prone to have more mineral deficiencies. Nutritional interventions are necessaries in order to reduce and control them.OBJETIVO: Describir la prevalencia de anemia y deficiencia de hierro, zinc, cobre y magnesio en adolescentes mexicanos en la encuesta probabilística ENSANUT 2006. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: La muestra incluyó 2447 adolescentes de 12 a 19 años de edad. Se tomó hemoglobina capilar y muestras de sangre venosa para medir las concentraciones séricas de ferritina, sTFR, CRP, zinc, hierro, cobre y magnesio. Se construyeron modelos de regresión logística para evaluar el riesgo de deficiencia de minerales. RESULTADOS: La prevalencia de anemia fue de 11.8% en mujeres y 4.6% en hombres. Las deficiencias de hierro fueron de 18.2 y 7.9% La deficiencia tisular de hierro fue 6.9%; la baja concentración de cobre fue de 14.4 y 12.25% la de zinc de 28.4 y 24.5%, la de magnesio fue 40 y 35.3% en mujeres y hombres, respectivamente. CONCLUSIONES: Existe una alta prevalencia de deficiencia de minerales en los adolescentes; las mujeres tuvieron mayor riesgo. Son necesarias

  8. Nutritional disorders in chrysanthemums

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roorda van Eysinga, J.P.N.L.; Smilde, K.W.

    1980-01-01

    This book is a guide to diagnosing nutritional disorders in chrysanthemums. Deficiencies and toxicities are included, fifteen in all. Colour plates and descriptions are given for nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, calcium, sulphur, boron, copper, manganese, iron and zinc deficiency and for

  9. Improvement the nutritional status of pre-school children following intervention with a supplement containing iron, zinc, copper, vitamin A, vitamin C and prebiotic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiza Carla Vidigal Castro

    Full Text Available Abstract This study investigated the effects of a vitamin and mineral fortified powder product supplemented with inulin, on the iron and vitamin A status of 110 pre-schools childrens in Viçosa, MG, Brazil. The 2 to 5-year-old children were submitted to anthropometric (weight and height, biochemical (erythrocytes, hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume – MCV, mean corpuscular hemoglobin - MCH, serum iron, ferritin and serum retinol and dietary (direct food weighing, 24 h recall, and food intake record evaluations, at the beginning and at the end of a 45-day intervention. The supplement (30 g was provided daily as part of the afternoon snack, diluted in 100 mL of water, 5 times/week and it supplied 30% of the recommended daily doses of iron, zinc, copper and vitamins A and C. Dietary and biochemical data was compared by the Wilcoxon test, and anthropometric data by the paired t-test. Values of z-scores for weight and height, erythrocytes, hemoglobin, MCV, MCH and ferritin were significantly higher after intervention; no change was observed in serum retinol. The prebiotic-containing supplement significantly increased the intake of energy, macro and micronutrients, and was effective in improving the iron and anthropometric status.

  10. Copper Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in the arm and/or a 24-hour urine sample is collected. Sometimes a health practitioner performs a liver ... disease , a rare inherited disorder that can lead to excess storage of copper in the liver, brain, and other ...

  11. Signal transduction in artichoke [Cynara cardunculus L. subsp. scolymus (L.) Hayek] callus and cell suspension cultures under nutritional stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattanzio, Vincenzo; Caretto, Sofia; Linsalata, Vito; Colella, Giovanni; Mita, Giovanni

    2018-06-01

    Stimulated production of secondary phenolic metabolites and proline was studied by using cell cultures of artichoke [Cynara cardunculus L. subsp. scolymus (L.) Hayek] submitted to nutritional stress. Artichoke cell cultures accumulated phenolic secondary metabolites in a pattern similar to that seen in artichoke leaves and heads (capitula). This paper shows that both callus and cell suspension cultures under nutritional stress accumulated phenolic compounds and proline, at the same time their biomass production was negatively affected by nutrient deficiency. The results obtained strongly suggest that plant tissues respond to nutrient deprivation by a defensive costly mechanism, which determines the establishment of a mechanism of trade-off between growth and adaptive response. Furthermore, the results of this research suggest that perception of abiotic stress and increased phenolic metabolites are linked by a sequence of biochemical processes that also involves the intracellular free proline and the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway. The main conclusion of this paper is that, once calli and cell suspension cultures respond to nutrient deficiency, in acclimated cells the establishment of a negative correlation between primary metabolism (growth) and secondary metabolism (defence compounds) is observed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Genetic Dissection of Nutrition-Induced Plasticity in Insulin/Insulin-Like Growth Factor Signaling and Median Life Span in a Drosophila Multiparent Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Patrick D; Ng'oma, Enoch; O'Day, Siri; King, Elizabeth G

    2017-06-01

    The nutritional environments that organisms experience are inherently variable, requiring tight coordination of how resources are allocated to different functions relative to the total amount of resources available. A growing body of evidence supports the hypothesis that key endocrine pathways play a fundamental role in this coordination. In particular, the insulin/insulin-like growth factor signaling (IIS) and target of rapamycin (TOR) pathways have been implicated in nutrition-dependent changes in metabolism and nutrient allocation. However, little is known about the genetic basis of standing variation in IIS/TOR or how diet-dependent changes in expression in this pathway influence phenotypes related to resource allocation. To characterize natural genetic variation in the IIS/TOR pathway, we used >250 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from a multiparental mapping population, the Drosophila Synthetic Population Resource, to map transcript-level QTL of genes encoding 52 core IIS/TOR components in three different nutritional environments [dietary restriction (DR), control (C), and high sugar (HS)]. Nearly all genes, 87%, were significantly differentially expressed between diets, though not always in ways predicted by loss-of-function mutants. We identified cis ( i.e. , local) expression QTL (eQTL) for six genes, all of which are significant in multiple nutrient environments. Further, we identified trans ( i.e. , distant) eQTL for two genes, specific to a single nutrient environment. Our results are consistent with many small changes in the IIS/TOR pathways. A discriminant function analysis for the C and DR treatments identified a pattern of gene expression associated with the diet treatment. Mapping the composite discriminant function scores revealed a significant global eQTL within the DR diet. A correlation between the discriminant function scores and the median life span ( r = 0.46) provides evidence that gene expression changes in response to diet are

  13. Iron, zinc, copper and magnesium nutritional status in Mexican children aged 1 to 11 years Estado nutricio de hierro, zinc, cobre y magnesio en niños mexicanos de 1 a 11 años de edad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma. del Carmen Morales-Ruán

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the micronutrient nutritional status of a national sample of 1-11 year old Mexican children surveyed in 2006 in National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT 2006 and their association with dietary and sociodemographic factors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Serum samples were used (n=5 060 to measure the concentrations of ferritin, transferrin receptor, zinc, copper and magnesium. RESULTS: Prevalence of deficiencies in 1-4 and 5-11y old children were for iron (using low ferritin 26.0 and 13.0%; zinc, 28.1 and 25.8%, respectively; and copper, ≈30% in both age groups. Magnesium low serum concentrations (MLSC, were found in 12.0% and 28.4% of the children, respectively. Being beneficiary of Liconsa (OR=0.32; C.I.95%, 0.17-0.61 or belonging to higher socioeconomic status (OR=0.63; C.I.95%, 0.41-0.97 were protective against iron deficiency. Increasing age (OR=0.59; C.I.95%, 1.19-1.32 and living in the Central Region (OR=0.59; C.I.95%, 0.36-0.97 were protective against MLSC. CONCLUSIONS: Deficiencies of iron and zinc are serious public health problems in Mexican children.OBJETIVO: Describir el estado nutricio de micronutrimentos en niños de 1-11 años de edad de la Encuesta Nacional de Salud y Nutrición 2006 y su asociación con factores dietéticos y sociodemográficos. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se usaron muestras séricas (n=5060 para medir las concentraciones de ferritina, receptor de transferrina, zinc, cobre y magnesio. RESULTADOS: La prevalencias de deficiencias en niños de 1-4 y de 5 a 11 años fueron para ferritina, 26.0 y 13%; zinc, 28.1 y 25.8% respectivamente y cobre ≈30% en ambos grupos. Las concentraciones bajas de magnesio (CBM fueron 12.0 y 28.4%, respectivamente. Ser beneficiario de Liconsa (RM=0.32; IC 95%: 0.17-0.61 y pertenecer al nivel socioeconómico alto (RM=0.63; IC, 95%: 0.41-0.97 fueron protectores para deficiencia de hierro. La edad (RM=1.26; IC, 95%: 1.19-1.32 y vivir en la región Centro (RM=0.59; IC, 95

  14. Efeito do cobre na atividade da enzima pirogalol peroxidase em plantas de Myriophyllum aquaticum cultivadas em solução nutritiva Effect of copper on the activity of pirogalol peroxidase in Myriophyllum aquaticum plants cultivated in nutritives solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.D. Domingos

    2005-06-01

    . The objective of the present work was to verify the effect of copper on the activity of pirogalol peroxidase in M. aquaticum plants submitted to nutritive solution containing copper concentrations of 1.2; 11.2; 21.2; 31.2 and 41.2 µg L-1. The experiment was carried out in a randomized complete design with 4 replicates and 5 treatments for 21 days Eighty-one days later, the leaves were collected starting from the apex of the plant to the end of the branch, which was not in contact with the solution. This fresh material was involved by transparent plastic and aluminum foil, frozen in liquid nitrogen, stored in freezer to -20 °C until determination of the enzyme activity. Enzyme activity increased with the increase of the copper doses. The plants cultivated with 40 µg L-1 of Cu2+ showed a reduced development, after three weeks, based on visual examination..

  15. Estado nutricional, ferro, cobre e zinco em escolares de favelas da cidade de São Paulo Nutritional status, iron, copper, and zinc in school children of shantytowns of Sao Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabete B. Santos

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a antropometria, a composição corporal e o estado nutricional em ferro, cobre e zinco segundo o gênero, de crianças e adolescentes institucionalizados, moradores de duas favelas da cidade de São Paulo. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal utilizando medidas de peso, estatura, circunferência braquial, dobras cutâneas, bioimpedância elétrica, os escores Z da relação estatura para idade, índice de massa corporal, área do braço, área muscular do braço e área de gordura do braço. Os percentuais de gordura corporal e massa magra foram analisados segundo fórmulas de Siri e Slaughter. Foram determinados hemoglobina, hematócrito, ferro, ferritina, cobre e zinco séricos. RESULTADOS: Foram maiores o peso corporal, circunferência do braço, dobras cutâneas do tríceps e subescapular, resistência elétrica, escores Z da área do braço, área muscular do braço e percentual de gordura corporal no sexo feminino em relação ao masculino. Baixa estatura foi encontrada em 8% das meninas e 5,6% dos meninos, sem diferença quanto ao gênero. Houve menor prevalência de desnutrição (2% das meninas e 5,6% nos meninos, do que de sobrepeso e obesidade (30% e 11,2%, respectivamente. Observou-se anemia em 24,4% e ferropenia em 10,5% dos escolares com ou sem anemia. Apresentaram valores abaixo do limite inferior do padrão de referência para cobre e zinco séricos, respectivamente três e sete indivíduos. CONCLUSÃO: Na população estudada, de baixo nível econômico e institucionalizada, ocorre o processo de transição nutricional e alta prevalência de anemia que não resulta da interação ferro, cobre e zinco.OBJECTIVE: To assess the anthropometry, body composition and iron, copper and zinc nutritional status, according to gender, of institutionalized children and adolescents living in two shantytowns in the city of Sao Paulo. METHODS: A cross sectional study using weight, height, arm circumference, skinfolds, electrical

  16. Scientific Opinion on dietary reference values for copper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjödin, Anders Mikael

    2015-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) derived Dietary Reference Values (DRVs) for copper. Owing to the absence of appropriate biomarkers of copper status and the limitations of available balance studies, the Panel...

  17. Concentration of copper in muscles, liver, hair and feaces of growing rabbits fed diet supplemented with copper sulphate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Marounek, Milan; Skřivanová, V.; Volek, Z.; Březina, P.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 4 (2002), s. 167-170 ISSN 1257-5011 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK5020115 Grant - others:GA NATO(XX) MO2-99-04 Keywords : copper retention * mineral metabolism * copper supplementation Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition

  18. Copper exposure induces toxicity to the antioxidant system via the destruction of Nrf2/ARE signaling and caspase-3-regulated DNA damage in fish muscle: Amelioration by myo-inositol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Wei-Dan; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Jun; Wu, Pei; Feng, Lin; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Cu stress decreased fish muscle CuZnSOD, GPx1a, GPx1b and PKCδ mRNA levels. • Cu stress caused fish muscle lower nuclear Nrf2 levels and poor ARE binding ability. • Cu stress induced caspase-3 signaling-modulated DNA fragmentation in fish muscle. • Pre-treatment with MI prevented fish muscle from Cu-induced oxidative damages. - Abstract: The muscle is the main portion of fish that is consumed by humans. Copper (Cu) can induce oxidative damage in fish muscle. However, the effects of Cu exposure on the muscle antioxidant system and molecular patterns and preventive measures against these effects remain unclear. In this study, ROS production, enzymatic and mRNA levels of antioxidant enzymes and NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) signaling-related molecules, antioxidant response element (ARE) binding ability, DNA fragmentation and caspase-3 activities were analyzed in fish muscle following Cu exposure or myo-inositol (MI) pre-administration. The results indicated that contamination due to copper exposure caused an approximately three-fold increase in ROS production, induced lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation, and resulted in depletion of the glutathione (GSH) content of fish muscle. Moreover, Cu exposure caused decreases in the activities of total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD), CuZnSOD, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) that were accompanied by decreases in CuZnSOD, GPx1a, GPx1b and signaling factor protein kinase C delta mRNA levels. The decreases in the antioxidant enzyme gene mRNA levels were confirmed to be partly due to the reduced nuclear Nrf2 protein levels, poor ARE binding ability and increased caspase-3 signaling-modulated DNA fragmentation in the fish muscle. Interestingly, MI pre-treatment prevented fish muscle from Cu-induced oxidative damages mainly through increasing the GSH content, and increasing the CuZnSOD and GPx activities and corresponding mRNA levels and ARE binding ability. Taken together, our results show for the first

  19. Copper exposure induces toxicity to the antioxidant system via the destruction of Nrf2/ARE signaling and caspase-3-regulated DNA damage in fish muscle: Amelioration by myo-inositol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Wei-Dan; Liu, Yang [Animal Nutrition Institute, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China); Fish Nutrition and Safety Production University Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China); Key Laboratory for Animal Disease-Resistance Nutrition of China Ministry of Education, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China); Jiang, Jun [Animal Nutrition Institute, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China); Wu, Pei [Animal Nutrition Institute, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China); Fish Nutrition and Safety Production University Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China); Key Laboratory for Animal Disease-Resistance Nutrition of China Ministry of Education, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China); Feng, Lin, E-mail: fenglin@sicau.edu.cn [Animal Nutrition Institute, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China); Fish Nutrition and Safety Production University Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China); Key Laboratory for Animal Disease-Resistance Nutrition of China Ministry of Education, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China); Zhou, Xiao-Qiu, E-mail: zhouxq@sicau.edu.cn [Animal Nutrition Institute, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China); Fish Nutrition and Safety Production University Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China); Key Laboratory for Animal Disease-Resistance Nutrition of China Ministry of Education, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Cu stress decreased fish muscle CuZnSOD, GPx1a, GPx1b and PKCδ mRNA levels. • Cu stress caused fish muscle lower nuclear Nrf2 levels and poor ARE binding ability. • Cu stress induced caspase-3 signaling-modulated DNA fragmentation in fish muscle. • Pre-treatment with MI prevented fish muscle from Cu-induced oxidative damages. - Abstract: The muscle is the main portion of fish that is consumed by humans. Copper (Cu) can induce oxidative damage in fish muscle. However, the effects of Cu exposure on the muscle antioxidant system and molecular patterns and preventive measures against these effects remain unclear. In this study, ROS production, enzymatic and mRNA levels of antioxidant enzymes and NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) signaling-related molecules, antioxidant response element (ARE) binding ability, DNA fragmentation and caspase-3 activities were analyzed in fish muscle following Cu exposure or myo-inositol (MI) pre-administration. The results indicated that contamination due to copper exposure caused an approximately three-fold increase in ROS production, induced lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation, and resulted in depletion of the glutathione (GSH) content of fish muscle. Moreover, Cu exposure caused decreases in the activities of total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD), CuZnSOD, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) that were accompanied by decreases in CuZnSOD, GPx1a, GPx1b and signaling factor protein kinase C delta mRNA levels. The decreases in the antioxidant enzyme gene mRNA levels were confirmed to be partly due to the reduced nuclear Nrf2 protein levels, poor ARE binding ability and increased caspase-3 signaling-modulated DNA fragmentation in the fish muscle. Interestingly, MI pre-treatment prevented fish muscle from Cu-induced oxidative damages mainly through increasing the GSH content, and increasing the CuZnSOD and GPx activities and corresponding mRNA levels and ARE binding ability. Taken together, our results show for the first

  20. Accumulation and hyperaccumulation of copper in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, V.; Trnkova, L.; Huska, D.; Babula, P.; Kizek, R.

    2009-04-01

    have adapted on such stress. The aim of this study is to investigate the behaviour of copper in plants and to assess its potential effect on the surrounding environment. To detect copper in biological samples electrochemical methods were employed particularly differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). Copper gave signals at 0.02 V measured by DPV. The obtained calibration dependence was linear (R2 = 0.995). Further, this method was utilized for determination of copper in real soil samples obtained from previously mentioned heavy-metal-polluted mining area. The content varied within range from tens to hundreds of mg of copper per kg of the soil. Moreover, we focused on investigation of copper influence on seedlings of Norway spruce. The seedlings were treated with copper (0, 0.1, 10 and 100 mM) for four weeks. We observed anatomical-morphological changes and other biochemical parameters in plants. We determined that seedlings synthesized more than 48 % protective thiols (glutathione and phytochelatins) compared to control ones. We investigated copper distribution in plant tissues by diphenylcarbazide staining. We found out that copper is highly accumulated in parenchymal stalk cells. In needles, change in auto-fluorescence of parenchymal cells of mesoderm similarly to endodermis cells. Besides, we analyzed samples of plants from the polluted area (spruce, pin, birch). The data obtained well correlated with previously mentioned. Acknowledgement The work on this experiment was supported by grant: INCHEMBIOL MSM0021622412.

  1. Diet & Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Nutrition Share this page Facebook Twitter Email Diet & Nutrition Eating healthy to take charge of your health. Shelly Diagnosed in 2006 Diet & Nutrition Take Control of Your Weight Portion Control Low ...

  2. Antwerp Copper Plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wadum, Jørgen

    1999-01-01

    In addition to presenting a short history of copper paintings, topics detail artists’ materials and techniques, as well as aspects of the copper industry, including mining, preparation and trade routes.......In addition to presenting a short history of copper paintings, topics detail artists’ materials and techniques, as well as aspects of the copper industry, including mining, preparation and trade routes....

  3. Copper and Copper Proteins in Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Mancia, Susana; Diaz-Ruiz, Araceli; Tristan-Lopez, Luis; Rios, Camilo

    2014-01-01

    Copper is a transition metal that has been linked to pathological and beneficial effects in neurodegenerative diseases. In Parkinson's disease, free copper is related to increased oxidative stress, alpha-synuclein oligomerization, and Lewy body formation. Decreased copper along with increased iron has been found in substantia nigra and caudate nucleus of Parkinson's disease patients. Copper influences iron content in the brain through ferroxidase ceruloplasmin activity; therefore decreased protein-bound copper in brain may enhance iron accumulation and the associated oxidative stress. The function of other copper-binding proteins such as Cu/Zn-SOD and metallothioneins is also beneficial to prevent neurodegeneration. Copper may regulate neurotransmission since it is released after neuronal stimulus and the metal is able to modulate the function of NMDA and GABA A receptors. Some of the proteins involved in copper transport are the transporters CTR1, ATP7A, and ATP7B and the chaperone ATOX1. There is limited information about the role of those biomolecules in the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease; for instance, it is known that CTR1 is decreased in substantia nigra pars compacta in Parkinson's disease and that a mutation in ATP7B could be associated with Parkinson's disease. Regarding copper-related therapies, copper supplementation can represent a plausible alternative, while copper chelation may even aggravate the pathology. PMID:24672633

  4. Separation of copper-64 from copper phthalocyanine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battaglin, R.I.M.

    1979-01-01

    The separation of copper-64 from irradiated copper phthalocyanine by Szilard-Chalmers effect is studied. Two methods of separation are used: one of them is based on the dissolution of the irradiated dry compound in concentrated sulfuric acid following its precipitation in water. In the other one the compound is irradiated with water in paste form following treatment with water and hydrochloric acid. The influence of the crystal form of the copper phthalocyanine on the separation yield of copper-64 is shown. Preliminary tests using the ionic exchange technique for purification and changing of copper-64 sulfate to chloride form are carried out. The specific activity using the spectrophotometric technique, after the determination of the copper concentration in solution of copper-64, is calculated. (Author) [pt

  5. Níveis nutricionais de cobre para frangos de corte machos e fêmeas na fase inicial Copper nutritional levels for male and female broilers in the initial phases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene Schmidt

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de determinar a exigência de cobre (Cu para frangos de corte na fase inicial (8 - 21 dias, foram utilizadas 384 aves, metade machos e metade fêmeas. Foi elaborada uma dieta basal atendendo às exigências nutricionais das aves, com exceção do Cu, que ficou deficiente, com nível de 1,47 ppm. Os tratamentos consistiram dos níveis de suplementação de Cu provenientes do sulfato de Cu, resultando em um total de 1,47; 4,97; 8,47; 11,97; 15,47 e 18,97 ppm de Cu na dieta. Foram avaliados o ganho de peso, o consumo de ração, a conversão alimentar e a concentração de Cu no osso, no fígado e no soro. Os níveis de Cu estudados influenciaram o consumo de ração, mas não influenciaram o ganho de peso e a conversão alimentar. Não houve efeito dos níveis de Cu sobre a concentração deste mineral no osso. Observou-se efeito dos níveis de Cu da dieta sobre suas concentrações no fígado e no soro, respectivamente. No entanto, optou-se pelo valor de exigência estimado pela variável Cu no soro, por representar melhor o status nutricional de Cu no organismo animal. Concluiu-se, portanto, que a exigência de Cu para frangos de corte, machos e fêmeas, de 8 a 21 dias de idade é de 9,48 ppm, ressaltando-se que dietas práticas de frangos de corte à base de milho e farelo de soja contêm normalmente de 8,5 a 11 ppm de Cu e que a biodisponibilidade do Cu no farelo de soja é de 38%.Three hundred and eighty-four birds, half males and half females, were used to determine the copper (Cu requirement for broilers in the initial phase (from 8 to 21 days. A basal diet was formulated to meet the bird nutritional requirements, except for Cu, that was deficient at 1.47 ppm level. The treatments consisted of Cu supplementation levels, from Cu sulfate, in a total of 1.47, 4.97, 8.47, 11.97, 15.47 and 18.97 ppm Cu in the diet. Weight gain, feed intake, feed:gain ratio and Cu concentration in the bone, liver and serum were evaluated. The

  6. In long-term bedridden elderly patients with dietary copper deficiency, biochemical markers of bone resorption are increased with copper supplementation during 12 weeks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawada, Etsuo; Moridaira, Kazuaki; Itoh, Katsuhiko; Hoshino, Ayami; Tamura, Jun'ichi; Morita, Toyoho

    2006-01-01

    Although the effect of copper on bone has been tested in animals and healthy subjects, no studies concerning the effect of copper supplementation on bone metabolism in patients with copper deficiency have been reported because of the rarity of these patients. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of copper supplementation on bone metabolism in copper-deficient patients. This study included 10 patients (83.7 +/- 8.3 years) with dietary copper deficiency under long-term bed rest for more than 12 months. They had their diets supplemented with copper sulfate (3 mg/day) over 12 weeks in addition to their diet of only one kind of enteral food with a low concentration of copper. Serum copper and ceruloplasmin, urinary deoxypyridinoline (DPD) and collagen-type 1 N-telopeptide (NTX) (biomarkers of bone resorption), serum osteocalcin (OC) and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (Bone ALP) (biomarkers of bone formation) were analyzed at baseline, 4 and 12 weeks after copper supplementation. DPD and NTX excretion were significantly increased 4 weeks after copper supplementation (p = 0.009 and p = 0.013, respectively). Serum bone ALP and OC were not significantly changed 12 weeks after copper supplementation (p = 0.051 and p = 0.594). In patients with nutritional copper deficiency, bone resorption markers are increased with copper supplementation. Copyright (c) 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Ratiometric, visual, dual-signal fluorescent sensing and imaging of pH/copper ions in real samples based on carbon dots-fluorescein isothiocyanate composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xinxin; Jin, Hui; Gao, Cuili; Gui, Rijun; Wang, Zonghua

    2017-01-01

    In this article, a facile aqueous synthesis of carbon dots (CDs) was developed by using natural kelp as a new carbon source. Through hydrothermal carbonization of kelp juice, fluorescent CDs were prepared and the CDs' surface was modified with polyethylenimine (PEI). The PEI-modified CDs were conjugated with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) to fabricate CDs-FITC composites. To exploit broad applications, the CDs-FITC composites were developed as fluorescent sensing or imaging platforms of pH and Cu 2+ . Analytical performances of the composites-based fluorescence (FL) sensors were evaluated, including visual FL imaging of pH in glass bottle, ratiometric FL sensing of pH in yogurt samples, visual FL latent fingerprint and leaf imaging detection of [Cu 2+ ], dual-signal FL sensing of [Cu 2+ ] in yogurt and human serum samples. Experimental results from ratiometric, visual, dual-signal FL sensing and imaging applications confirmed the high feasibility, accuracy, stabilization and simplicity of CDs-FITC composites-based FL sensors for the detection of pH and Cu 2+ ions in real samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Copper-induced tight junction mRNA expression changes, apoptosis and antioxidant responses via NF-κB, TOR and Nrf2 signaling molecules in the gills of fish: Preventive role of arginine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Biao; Feng, Lin; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Wu, Pei; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Jiang, Jun; Tang, Ling; Tang, Wu-Neng; Zhang, Yong-An; Liu, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Cu exposure induced oxidative stress via disruption of antioxidant system. • Cu exposure disrupted TJ mRNA expression through regulation of cytokines in fish. • Cu induced gill apoptosis partly via intrinsic pathway but not extrinsic pathway. • Cu exposure can regulate Nrf2, NF-κB and TOR signaling molecules in fish. • Arginine can effectively prevent Cu-induced fish gill damage. - Abstract: This study explored the possible preventive effects of dietary arginine on copper (Cu)-induced tight junction mRNA expression changes, apoptosis and antioxidant responses in the gills of young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). The results indicated that exposure to 0.7 mg/L (11.01 μmol/L) Cu for 96 h induced the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), thereby increasing protein oxidation, lipid peroxidation and DNA damage in the gills of fish. However, these oxidative effects were prevented by arginine supplementation. Arginine also prevented the toxic effects of Cu on the activities of copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR) and the glutathione (GSH) content (P < 0.05). However, Cu induced an adaptive increase in the activity of catalase (CAT), and arginine supplementation further increased CAT activity (P < 0.05). Moreover, Cu induced increases in the relative mRNA expressions of SOD1, CAT, GPx, GST, caspase-3, caspase-9, NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), Kelch-like-ECH-associated protein 1a (Keap1a), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-8 (IL-8), transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) and nuclear transcription factor-κB p65 (NF-κB p65) in the gills of grass carp (P < 0.05). In contrast, the relative mRNA expression levels of occludin, zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), claudin b, claudin 3, claudin 12, target of rapamycin (TOR) and inhibitor factor κBα (IκBα) in the gills were decreased by Cu (P < 0.05). However, pre

  9. Copper-induced tight junction mRNA expression changes, apoptosis and antioxidant responses via NF-κB, TOR and Nrf2 signaling molecules in the gills of fish: Preventive role of arginine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Biao [Animal Nutrition Institute, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China); Feng, Lin; Jiang, Wei-Dan [Animal Nutrition Institute, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China); Fish Nutrition and Safety Production University Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China); Key Laboratory for Animal Disease-Resistance Nutrition of China Ministry of Education, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China); Wu, Pei [Animal Nutrition Institute, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China); Kuang, Sheng-Yao [Animal Nutrition Institute, Sichuan Academy of Animal Science, Chengdu, 610066, Sichuan (China); Jiang, Jun [Animal Nutrition Institute, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China); Fish Nutrition and Safety Production University Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China); Key Laboratory for Animal Disease-Resistance Nutrition of China Ministry of Education, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China); Tang, Ling; Tang, Wu-Neng [Animal Nutrition Institute, Sichuan Academy of Animal Science, Chengdu, 610066, Sichuan (China); Zhang, Yong-An [Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430072 (China); Liu, Yang, E-mail: kyckgk@hotmail.com [Animal Nutrition Institute, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China); Fish Nutrition and Safety Production University Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China); Key Laboratory for Animal Disease-Resistance Nutrition of China Ministry of Education, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China); and others

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Cu exposure induced oxidative stress via disruption of antioxidant system. • Cu exposure disrupted TJ mRNA expression through regulation of cytokines in fish. • Cu induced gill apoptosis partly via intrinsic pathway but not extrinsic pathway. • Cu exposure can regulate Nrf2, NF-κB and TOR signaling molecules in fish. • Arginine can effectively prevent Cu-induced fish gill damage. - Abstract: This study explored the possible preventive effects of dietary arginine on copper (Cu)-induced tight junction mRNA expression changes, apoptosis and antioxidant responses in the gills of young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). The results indicated that exposure to 0.7 mg/L (11.01 μmol/L) Cu for 96 h induced the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), thereby increasing protein oxidation, lipid peroxidation and DNA damage in the gills of fish. However, these oxidative effects were prevented by arginine supplementation. Arginine also prevented the toxic effects of Cu on the activities of copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR) and the glutathione (GSH) content (P < 0.05). However, Cu induced an adaptive increase in the activity of catalase (CAT), and arginine supplementation further increased CAT activity (P < 0.05). Moreover, Cu induced increases in the relative mRNA expressions of SOD1, CAT, GPx, GST, caspase-3, caspase-9, NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), Kelch-like-ECH-associated protein 1a (Keap1a), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-8 (IL-8), transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) and nuclear transcription factor-κB p65 (NF-κB p65) in the gills of grass carp (P < 0.05). In contrast, the relative mRNA expression levels of occludin, zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), claudin b, claudin 3, claudin 12, target of rapamycin (TOR) and inhibitor factor κBα (IκBα) in the gills were decreased by Cu (P < 0.05). However, pre

  10. Aquatic Life Criteria - Copper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Documents pertain to Aquatic Life Ambient Water Quality criteria for Copper (2007 Freshwater, 2016 Estuarine/marine). These documents contain the safe levels of Copper in water that should protect to the majority of species.

  11. Copper Bioleaching in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Carlos Gentina; Fernando Acevedo

    2016-01-01

    Chile has a great tradition of producing and exporting copper. Over the last several decades, it has become the first producer on an international level. Its copper reserves are also the most important on the planet. However, after years of mineral exploitation, the ease of extracting copper oxides and ore copper content has diminished. To keep the production level high, the introduction of new technologies has become necessary. One that has been successful is bioleaching. Chile had the first...

  12. Demystifying Controlling Copper Corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    The LCR systematically misses the highest health and corrosion risk sites for copper. Additionally, there are growing concerns for WWTP copper in sludges and discharge levels. There are many corrosion control differences between copper and lead. This talk explains the sometimes c...

  13. Nutrition Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Shareables Autoimmune Diseases Breastfeeding Cancer Fitness and Nutrition Heart Disease and Stroke HIV and AIDS Mental ... health topic Autoimmune Diseases Breastfeeding Cancer Fitness and Nutrition Heart Disease and Stroke HIV and AIDS Mental ...

  14. Nutritional Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutritional support is therapy for people who cannot get enough nourishment by eating or drinking. You may need ... absorb nutrients through your digestive system You receive nutritional support through a needle or catheter placed in your ...

  15. Nutritional supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Gry Bjerg; Andersen, Jens Rikardt

    2015-01-01

    Background: Several studies have indicated that cancer patients have significantly altered taste sensitivity without specifying the preferences. One of the related problems is low compliance to nutritional therapy with oral nutritional supplements (ONS) in patients suffering severe weight loss...

  16. Effect of dietary molybdenum and sulphur on the copper status of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in all groups receiving supplementary Mo. A dietary supplement of 70 mg Mo for a restricted period is ... Keywords: Sheep nutrition, copper toxicity, molybdenum toxicity, sulphur. ..... observation supports the suggestion by Dick, et af. (1975).

  17. Serum zinc, copper, retinol-binding protein, prealbumin, and ceruloplasmin concentrations in infants receiving intravenous zinc and copper supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockitch, G; Godolphin, W; Pendray, M R; Riddell, D; Quigley, G

    1983-02-01

    One hundred twenty-seven newborn infants requiring parenteral nutrition were randomly assigned to receive differing amounts of zinc (40 to 400 micrograms/kg/day) and copper (20 or 40 micrograms/kg/day) supplementation within five birth weight groups (600 to 2,500 gm). The serum zinc concentration remained relatively constant in the group receiving the most zinc supplementation after two weeks of therapy, but declined sharply in the groups receiving less supplementation. No effect of increased copper intake was noted on ceruloplasmin values, but a difference in serum copper concentrations was noted at two weeks. No correlation was noted between serum zinc and copper values or among those for serum zinc, retinol-binding protein, and prealbumin. Reference ranges were defined for serum zinc, copper, retinol-binding protein, prealbumin, and ceruloplasmin in the preterm infant.

  18. Nutrição do feijoeiro e intensidade da antracnose em função da aplicação de silício e cobre = Nutrition in bean plants and anthracnose intensity in function of silicon and copper application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia Raquel Gomes Moraes

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do silicato de cálcio e do sulfato de cobre na intensidade da antracnose e no teor nutricional do feijoeiro. O experimento foi conduzido em blocos casualizados em arranjo fatorial 4 x 4 (quatro doses de silicato decálcio, com quatro doses de sulfato de cobre e dois tratamentos adicionais (plantas nãoinoculadas e plantas pulverizadas com Benomyl. Foram feitas quatro avaliações da incidência e da severidade da doença, além de se mensurar a área foliar total. Ao término das avaliações, os dados de incidência e de severidade foram integrados ao longo do tempo, obtendo-se a área abaixo da curva de progresso da incidência (AACPI e da severidade (AACPS. Os teores de N, P, K, Ca, Mg, B, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn, Si e lignina foram avaliados naparte aérea. Observou-se decréscimo linear da AACPI com o aumento das doses de silicato de cálcio. Com o aumento das doses de cobre, houve redução de 35% na AACPS. O suprimento de silicato e de cobre alterou o teor de K, Mg, S, Zn, Ca e Si da parte aérea do feijoeiro.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of calcium silicate and copper sulfate on anthracnose intensity and nutrition of bean plants. The experiment was conducted using an experimental design in randomized blocks following a 4 x 4 factorial arrangement, (four levels of calcium silicate and four levels of copper sulfate and two additional treatments (plants without inoculation and plantssprinkled with Benomyl. Four evaluations of the incidence and severity of anthracnose were done, in addition to measuring total leaf area. At the end of the evaluations, incidence and severity data were integrated over time, obtaining the area under disease progress curve (AUDPC. Contents of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, B, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn, Si and lignin were determined in the aerial part. A linear decrease of the intensity AUDPC was observed with the increase of the doses of calcium silicate. The severity AUDPC

  19. Advantages of enteral nutrition over parenteral nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Seres, David S.; Valcarcel, Monika; Guillaume, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    It is a strong and commonly held belief among nutrition clinicians that enteral nutrition is preferable to parenteral nutrition. We provide a narrative review of more recent studies and technical reviews comparing enteral nutrition with parenteral nutrition. Despite significant weaknesses in the existing data, current literature continues to support the use of enteral nutrition in patients requiring nutrition support, over parenteral nutrition.

  20. Jiangxi Copper Made Strategic Investment in Hami with Rich Nonferrous Metal Resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    On October 11,Hami region and Jiangxi Copper Group Corporation held a contractsigning ceremony for strategic cooperation,signaling that Hami region has become a key strategic investment base of Jiangxi Copper Group Corporation,a company with the biggest manufacture base of copper products in China.Hami region boasts rich nonferrous metal

  1. Nutrition Labeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G

    2013-01-01

    because consumers will avoid products that the label shows to be nutritionally deficient, but also because food producers will try to avoid marketing products that appear, according to the label, as nutritionally problematic, for example, because of a high content of saturated fat or salt. Nutrition......Nutrition labeling refers to the provision of information on a food product’s nutritional content on the package label. It can serve both public health and commercial purposes. From a public health perspective, the aim of nutrition labeling is to provide information that can enable consumers...... to make healthier choices when choosing food products. Nutrition labeling is thus closely linked to the notion of the informed consumer, that chooses products according to their aims, on the basis of the information at their disposal. Because many consumers are assumed to be interested in making healthy...

  2. Wavefront reversal in a copper vapor active medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunkin, F.V.; Savranskii, V.V.; Shafeev, G.A.

    1981-09-01

    Wavefront reversal in the resonator of a copper vapor laser was observed. The frequencies of the signal and reversed waves were the same. The dependence of the reversed signal power on the input signal power had a threshold. Photographs were obtained of the reconstructed image of an object when a distorting phase plate was inserted in the resonator.

  3. Copper exposure induces oxidative injury, disturbs the antioxidant system and changes the Nrf2/ARE (CuZnSOD) signaling in the fish brain: Protective effects of myo-inositol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Wei-Dan; Liu, Yang; Hu, Kai; Jiang, Jun; Li, Shu-Hong; Feng, Lin; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Cu exposure increased ROS production, lipid and protein oxidation of fish brain. • Cu exposure caused depletion of some antioxidants in the brain of fish. • Cu exposure up-regulated mRNA levels of brain CuZnSOD, GPx1a and GR genes in fish. • Cu exposure induced Nrf2 nuclear translocation and binding to ARE in fish brain. • Myo-inositol can inhibit Cu-induced toxic effects in the brain of fish. - Abstract: The brain is the center of the nervous system in all vertebrates, and homeostasis of the brain is crucial for fish survival. Copper (Cu) is essential for normal cellular processes in most eukaryotic organisms but is toxic in excess. Although Cu is indicated as a potent neurotoxicant, information regarding its threat to fish brain and underlying mechanisms is still scarce. In accordance, the objective of this study was to assess the effects and the potential mechanism of Cu toxicity by evaluating brain oxidative status, the enzymatic and mRNA levels of antioxidant genes, as well as the Nrf2/ARE signaling in the brain of fish after Cu exposure. The protective effects of myo-inositol (MI) against subsequent Cu exposure were also investigated. The results indicate that induction of oxidative stress by Cu is shown by increases in brain ROS production, lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation, which are accompanied by depletions of antioxidants, including total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD), CuZnSOD, glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities and glutathione (GSH) content. Cu exposure increased the catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities. Further molecular results showed that Cu exposure up-regulated CuZnSOD, GPx1a and GR mRNA levels, suggesting an adaptive mechanism against stress. Moreover, Cu exposure increased fish brain Nrf2 nuclear accumulation and increased its ability of binding to ARE (CuZnSOD), which supported the increased CuZnSOD mRNA levels. In addition, Cu exposure caused increases of

  4. Copper exposure induces oxidative injury, disturbs the antioxidant system and changes the Nrf2/ARE (CuZnSOD) signaling in the fish brain: Protective effects of myo-inositol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Wei-Dan; Liu, Yang [Animal Nutrition Institute, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China); Fish Nutrition and Safety Production University Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China); Key Laboratory for Animal Disease-Resistance Nutrition of China Ministry of Education, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China); Hu, Kai [Animal Nutrition Institute, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China); Jiang, Jun [Animal Nutrition Institute, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China); Fish Nutrition and Safety Production University Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China); Key Laboratory for Animal Disease-Resistance Nutrition of China Ministry of Education, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China); Li, Shu-Hong [Animal Nutrition Institute, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China); Feng, Lin, E-mail: fenglin@sicau.edu.cn [Animal Nutrition Institute, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China); Fish Nutrition and Safety Production University Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China); Key Laboratory for Animal Disease-Resistance Nutrition of China Ministry of Education, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China); Zhou, Xiao-Qiu, E-mail: xqzhouqq@tom.com [Animal Nutrition Institute, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China); Fish Nutrition and Safety Production University Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China); Key Laboratory for Animal Disease-Resistance Nutrition of China Ministry of Education, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Cu exposure increased ROS production, lipid and protein oxidation of fish brain. • Cu exposure caused depletion of some antioxidants in the brain of fish. • Cu exposure up-regulated mRNA levels of brain CuZnSOD, GPx1a and GR genes in fish. • Cu exposure induced Nrf2 nuclear translocation and binding to ARE in fish brain. • Myo-inositol can inhibit Cu-induced toxic effects in the brain of fish. - Abstract: The brain is the center of the nervous system in all vertebrates, and homeostasis of the brain is crucial for fish survival. Copper (Cu) is essential for normal cellular processes in most eukaryotic organisms but is toxic in excess. Although Cu is indicated as a potent neurotoxicant, information regarding its threat to fish brain and underlying mechanisms is still scarce. In accordance, the objective of this study was to assess the effects and the potential mechanism of Cu toxicity by evaluating brain oxidative status, the enzymatic and mRNA levels of antioxidant genes, as well as the Nrf2/ARE signaling in the brain of fish after Cu exposure. The protective effects of myo-inositol (MI) against subsequent Cu exposure were also investigated. The results indicate that induction of oxidative stress by Cu is shown by increases in brain ROS production, lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation, which are accompanied by depletions of antioxidants, including total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD), CuZnSOD, glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities and glutathione (GSH) content. Cu exposure increased the catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities. Further molecular results showed that Cu exposure up-regulated CuZnSOD, GPx1a and GR mRNA levels, suggesting an adaptive mechanism against stress. Moreover, Cu exposure increased fish brain Nrf2 nuclear accumulation and increased its ability of binding to ARE (CuZnSOD), which supported the increased CuZnSOD mRNA levels. In addition, Cu exposure caused increases of

  5. Avaliação do uso de ervas medicinais como suplemento nutricional de ferro, cobre e zinco Evaluation of the use of medicinal grass as nutritional supplement of iron, copper and zinc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Édira Castello Branco de Andrade

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available O cobre, ferro e zinco, considerados elementos essenciais ao corpo humano, apresentam biodisponibilidade variável em função da forma química que se encontram em um alimento. As ervas medicinais, amplamente utilizadas, podem apresentar novas indicações quanto a suplementação destes metais. Este trabalho tem por objetivo avaliar os teores de cobre, ferro e zinco em ervas medicinais, pós e ervas secas, e promover a extração seqüencial visando a biodisponibilidade. Os teores de cobre, ferro e zinco foram determinados através da espectroscopia de absorção atômica. A extração seqüencial foi aplicada com os extratores cloreto de cálcio 1,0M; ácido acético 0,1M com acetato de amônio 5% (pH=5,0; ácido acético 0,5M e HCl 0,5M. Os resultados apresentaram teores altos de cobre, ferro e zinco, quando comparados com outras fontes alimentícias destes metais, além de indicar que os mesmos se apresentam sob, no mínimo, 4 espécies químicas distintas nas ervas analisadas. O extrator I foi o de melhor eficiência para os três metais. Considerando que o consumo destas ervas é feito com visão farmacológica, acredita-se que uso das mesmas em preparos de alimentos pode favorecer a suplementação dos metais cobre, ferro e zinco.Copper, iron and zinc, considered essential elements in the human body, present changeable biodisponibility in chemical form more than if found in a food. Medicinal plants, widely used, can present new indications as to how much the suplementation of these metals, aiming at such an objective, can be shown to evaluate the amounts of copper, iron, and zinc in medicinal plants, powder and dry grass, and to promote the extraction sequencial aiming at the biodisponibility. The copper amount, iron and zinc had been determined through the spectroscopy of atomic absorption. The extraction sequencial was applied with the extractors calcium chloride 1,0M; acetic acid 0,1M with ammonium acetate 5% ( pH=5,0 ; acetic acid 0

  6. [Community Nutrition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranceta, Javier

    2004-06-01

    In the last 20 years, Public Health Nutrition focused mainly on the qualitative aspects which may influence the onset of chronic diseases, quality of life, physical and mental performance and life expectancy. This applied knowledge organised as part of preventive and health promotion programs led to the development of Community Nutrition. The aim of Community Nutrition actions is to adequate lifestyles related to food consumption patterns in order to improve the quality of life and contribute to health promotion of the population in the community where programs and services are delivered. Key functions to develop in a Community Nutrition Unit consist in the identification and assessment of nutrition problems in the community as well as the design, implementation and evaluation of intervention programs by means of appropriate strategies. These should aim at different populations groups and settings, such as work places, schools, high risk groups or the general public. Nowadays, Community Nutrition work efforts should focus on three main aspects: nutrition education in schools and in the community; food safety and food security and the development and reinforcement of food preparation skills across all age groups. Social catering services, either in schools, the work place or at the community level, need to ensure adequate nutritional supply, provide foods contributing to healthy eating practices as well as to enhance culinary traditions and social learning. Food safety and food security have become a top priority in Public Health. The concepts referes to the availability of food safe and adequate as well as in sufficient amount in order to satisfy nutrition requirements of all individuals in the community. Social changes along new scientific developments will introduce new demands in Community Nutrition work and individual dietary counselling will become a key strategy. In order to face new challenges, community nutrition pactitioners require a high quality

  7. Sensor kinase KinB and its pathway-associated key factors sense the signal of nutrition starvation in sporulation of Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weipeng; He, Zeying; Gao, Feng; Yan, Jinyuan; Huang, Xiaowei

    2018-01-03

    Bacillus subtilis responds to environmental stress cues and develops endospores for survival. In the process of endospore formation, sporulation initiation is a vital stage and this stage is governed by autophosphorylation of the sensor histidine kinases. The second major sensor kinase KinB perceives the intracellular changes of GTP and ATP during sporulation. However, determination of the environmental signals as well as its related signaling pathway of KinB requires further elucidation. Our current study found that, contrary to the sporulation failure induced by ΔkinA in the nutrient-rich 2× SG medium, the sensor kinase KinB sensed the environmental cues in the nutrient-poor MM medium. Two other membrane proteins, KapB and KbaA, also responded similarly to the same external signal as KinB. Both KapB and KbaA acted upstream of KinB, but they exerted their regulation upon KinB independently. Furthermore, we demonstrated that both the SH3 domain and the α-helix structure in KapB are required for sensing or transducing the signal of sporulation initiation. Collectively, our work here supplied the direct evidences that KinB and its pathway sense the external signal of nutrient starvation in MM medium, and further analyzes the interrelationship among KinB, KbaA, and KapB. © 2018 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. What is Nutrition & Metabolism?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feinman Richard D

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A new Open Access journal, Nutrition & Metabolism (N&M will publish articles that integrate nutrition with biochemistry and molecular biology. The open access process is chosen to provide rapid and accessible dissemination of new results and perspectives in a field that is of great current interest. Manuscripts in all areas of nutritional biochemistry will be considered but three areas of particular interest are lipoprotein metabolism, amino acids as metabolic signals, and the effect of macronutrient composition of diet on health. The need for the journal is identified in the epidemic of obesity, diabetes, dyslipidemias and related diseases, and a sudden increase in popular diets, as well as renewed interest in intermediary metabolism.

  9. Sports Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missouri State Dept. of Health, Jefferson City.

    This guide deals with various aspects of sports and nutrition. Twelve chapters are included: (1) "Sports and Nutrition"; (2) "Eat to Compete"; (3) "Fit Folks Need Fit Food"; (4) "The Food Guide Pyramid"; (5) "Fat Finder's Guide"; (6) "Pre- and Post-Event Meals"; (7) "Tips for the…

  10. Nutritional epigenetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter is intended to provide a timely overview of the current state of research at the intersection of nutrition and epigenetics. I begin by describing epigenetics and molecular mechanisms of eigenetic regulation, then highlight four classes of nutritional exposures currently being investiga...

  11. Sports nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomanić Milena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to higher energy consumption, physically active people have higher nutritional requirements. In addition to other important factors for sports, such as good health and physical predisposition, adequate nutrition is a fundamental component. Sports nutrition must be well planned and individually adapted based on physical characteristics, tendencies towards gaining or losing weight, frequency, duration and intensity of training sessions. Studies have shown that a well-balanced ratio of macro and micronutrients, with the support of supplements and adequate hydration, can significantly improve athletic performance and plays a key role in achieving better results. An optimally designed nutritional program, with realistic and achievable goals, which complements a well-planned training program, is the basis for success in sports. Only when nutritional requirements are met, deficits can be prevented and performance in sport pushed to the limit.

  12. Copper is an endogenous modulator of neural circuit spontaneous activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodani, Sheel C; Firl, Alana; Chan, Jefferson; Nam, Christine I; Aron, Allegra T; Onak, Carl S; Ramos-Torres, Karla M; Paek, Jaeho; Webster, Corey M; Feller, Marla B; Chang, Christopher J

    2014-11-18

    For reasons that remain insufficiently understood, the brain requires among the highest levels of metals in the body for normal function. The traditional paradigm for this organ and others is that fluxes of alkali and alkaline earth metals are required for signaling, but transition metals are maintained in static, tightly bound reservoirs for metabolism and protection against oxidative stress. Here we show that copper is an endogenous modulator of spontaneous activity, a property of functional neural circuitry. Using Copper Fluor-3 (CF3), a new fluorescent Cu(+) sensor for one- and two-photon imaging, we show that neurons and neural tissue maintain basal stores of loosely bound copper that can be attenuated by chelation, which define a labile copper pool. Targeted disruption of these labile copper stores by acute chelation or genetic knockdown of the CTR1 (copper transporter 1) copper channel alters the spatiotemporal properties of spontaneous activity in developing hippocampal and retinal circuits. The data identify an essential role for copper neuronal function and suggest broader contributions of this transition metal to cell signaling.

  13. Very Low-Protein Diet (VLPD) Reduces Metabolic Acidosis in Subjects with Chronic Kidney Disease: The "Nutritional Light Signal" of the Renal Acid Load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Iorio, Biagio Raffaele; Di Micco, Lucia; Marzocco, Stefania; De Simone, Emanuele; De Blasio, Antonietta; Sirico, Maria Luisa; Nardone, Luca

    2017-01-17

    Metabolic acidosis is a common complication of chronic kidney disease; current guidelines recommend treatment with alkali if bicarbonate levels are lower than 22 mMol/L. In fact, recent studies have shown that an early administration of alkali reduces progression of CKD. The aim of the study is to evaluate the effect of fruit and vegetables to reduce the acid load in CKD. We conducted a case-control study in 146 patients who received sodium bicarbonate. Of these, 54 patients assumed very low-protein diet (VLPD) and 92 were controls (ratio 1:2). We calculated every three months the potential renal acid load (PRAL) and the net endogenous acid production (NEAP), inversely correlated with serum bicarbonate levels and representing the non-volatile acid load derived from nutrition. Un-paired T -test and Chi-square test were used to assess differences between study groups at baseline and study completion. Two-tailed probability values ≤0.05 were considered statistically significant. At baseline, there were no statistical differences between the two groups regarding systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), protein and phosphate intake, urinary sodium, potassium, phosphate and urea nitrogen, NEAP, and PRAL. VLPD patients showed at 6 and 12 months a significant reduction of SBP ( p protein intake ( p intake ( p intake of acids; nutritional therapy of CKD, that has always taken into consideration a lower protein, salt, and phosphate intake, should be adopted to correct metabolic acidosis, an important target in the treatment of CKD patients. We provide useful indications regarding acid load of food and drinks-the "acid load dietary traffic light".

  14. Copper and silver halates

    CERN Document Server

    Woolley, EM; Salomon, M

    2013-01-01

    Copper and Silver Halates is the third in a series of four volumes on inorganic metal halates. This volume presents critical evaluations and compilations for halate solubilities of the Group II metals. The solubility data included in this volume are those for the five compounds, copper chlorate and iodate, and silver chlorate, bromate and iodate.

  15. Copper carrier protein in copper toxic sheep liver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, A L; Dean, P D.G.

    1973-01-01

    The livers of copper-toxic sheep have been analyzed by gel electrophoresis followed by staining the gels for copper with diethyldithiocarbamate and for protein with amido schwartz. These gels were compared with similar gels obtained from the livers of normal and copper-deficient animals. The copper-toxic livers contained an extra protein band which possessed relatively weakly bound copper. Possible origins of this protein are discussed. 8 references, 1 figure, 2 tables.

  16. COPPER CABLE RECYCLING TECHNOLOGY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chelsea Hubbard

    2001-01-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) continually seeks safer and more cost-effective technologies for use in deactivation and decommissioning (D and D) of nuclear facilities. The Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area (DDFA) of the DOE's Office of Science and Technology (OST) sponsors large-scale demonstration and deployment projects (LSDDPs). At these LSDDPs, developers and vendors of improved or innovative technologies showcase products that are potentially beneficial to the DOE's projects and to others in the D and D community. Benefits sought include decreased health and safety risks to personnel and the environment, increased productivity, and decreased costs of operation. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) generated a list of statements defining specific needs and problems where improved technology could be incorporated into ongoing D and D tasks. One such need is to reduce the volume of waste copper wire and cable generated by D and D. Deactivation and decommissioning activities of nuclear facilities generates hundreds of tons of contaminated copper cable, which are sent to radioactive waste disposal sites. The Copper Cable Recycling Technology separates the clean copper from contaminated insulation and dust materials in these cables. The recovered copper can then be reclaimed and, more importantly, landfill disposal volumes can be reduced. The existing baseline technology for disposing radioactively contaminated cables is to package the cables in wooden storage boxes and dispose of the cables in radioactive waste disposal sites. The Copper Cable Recycling Technology is applicable to facility decommissioning projects at many Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities and commercial nuclear power plants undergoing decommissioning activities. The INEEL Copper Cable Recycling Technology Demonstration investigated the effectiveness and efficiency to recycle 13.5 tons of copper cable. To determine the effectiveness

  17. Canine Copper-Associated Hepatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirksen, Karen; Fieten, Hille

    2017-01-01

    Copper-associated hepatitis is recognized with increasing frequency in dogs. The disease is characterized by centrolobular hepatic copper accumulation, leading to hepatitis and eventually cirrhosis. The only way to establish the diagnosis is by histologic assessment of copper distribution and copper

  18. Posttranslational regulation of copper transporters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berghe, P.V.E.

    2009-01-01

    The transition metal copper is an essential cofactor for many redox-active enzymes, but excessive copper can generate toxic reactive oxygen species. Copper homeostasis is maintained by highly conserved proteins, to balance copper uptake, distribution and export on the systemic and cellular level.

  19. Space Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.

    2009-01-01

    Optimal nutrition will be critical for crew members who embark on space exploration missions. Nutritional assessment provides an opportunity to ensure that crewmembers begin their missions in optimal nutritional status, to document changes during a mission and, if necessary, to provide intervention to maintain that status throughout the mission, and to assesses changes after landing in order to facilitate the return to their normal status as soon as possible after landing. We report here the findings from our nutritional assessment of astronauts who participated in the International Space Station (ISS) missions, along with flight and ground-based research findings. We also present ongoing and planned nutrition research activities. These studies provide evidence that bone loss, compromised vitamin status, and oxidative damage are the critical nutritional concerns for space travelers. Other nutrient issues exist, including concerns about the stability of nutrients in the food system, which are exposed to longterm storage and radiation during flight. Defining nutrient requirements, and being able to provide and maintain those nutrients on exploration missions, will be critical for maintaining crew member health.

  20. Fabricating Copper Nanotubes by Electrodeposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, E. H.; Ramsey, Christopher; Bae, Youngsam; Choi, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Copper tubes having diameters between about 100 and about 200 nm have been fabricated by electrodeposition of copper into the pores of alumina nanopore membranes. Copper nanotubes are under consideration as alternatives to copper nanorods and nanowires for applications involving thermal and/or electrical contacts, wherein the greater specific areas of nanotubes could afford lower effective thermal and/or electrical resistivities. Heretofore, copper nanorods and nanowires have been fabricated by a combination of electrodeposition and a conventional expensive lithographic process. The present electrodeposition-based process for fabricating copper nanotubes costs less and enables production of copper nanotubes at greater rate.

  1. Nutritional surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, J B; Mitchell, J T

    1983-01-01

    The concept of nutritional surveillance is derived from disease surveillance, and means "to watch over nutrition, in order to make decisions that lead to improvements in nutrition in populations". Three distinct objectives have been defined for surveillance systems, primarily in relation to problems of malnutrition in developing countries: to aid long-term planning in health and development; to provide input for programme management and evaluation; and to give timely warning of the need for intervention to prevent critical deteriorations in food consumption. Decisions affecting nutrition are made at various administrative levels, and the uses of different types of nutritional surveillance information can be related to national policies, development programmes, public health and nutrition programmes, and timely warning and intervention programmes. The information should answer specific questions, for example concerning the nutritional status and trends of particular population groups.Defining the uses and users of the information is the first essential step in designing a system; this is illustrated with reference to agricultural and rural development planning, the health sector, and nutrition and social welfare programmes. The most usual data outputs are nutritional outcome indicators (e.g., prevalence of malnutrition among preschool children), disaggregated by descriptive or classifying variables, of which the commonest is simply administrative area. Often, additional "status" indicators, such as quality of housing or water supply, are presented at the same time. On the other hand, timely warning requires earlier indicators of the possibility of nutritional deterioration, and agricultural indicators are often the most appropriate.DATA COME FROM TWO MAIN TYPES OF SOURCE: administrative (e.g., clinics and schools) and household sample surveys. Each source has its own advantages and disadvantages: for example, administrative data often already exist, and can be

  2. Micromachining with copper lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Martyn R. H.; Bell, Andy; Foster-Turner, Gideon; Rutterford, Graham; Chudzicki, J.; Kearsley, Andrew J.

    1997-04-01

    In recent years the copper laser has undergone extensive development and has emerged as a leading and unique laser for micromachining. The copper laser is a high average power (10 - 250 W), high pulse repetition rate (2 - 32 kHz), visible laser (511 nm and 578 nm) that produces high peak power (typically 200 kW), short pulses (30 ns) and very good beam quality (diffraction limited). This unique set of laser parameters results in exceptional micro-machining in a wide variety of materials. Typical examples of the capabilities of the copper laser include the drilling of small holes (10 - 200 micrometer diameter) in materials as diverse as steel, ceramic, diamond and polyimide with micron precision and low taper (less than 1 degree) cutting and profiling of diamond. Application of the copper laser covers the electronic, aerospace, automotive, nuclear, medical and precision engineering industries.

  3. Homogeneous weldings of copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campurri, C.; Lopez, M.; Fernandez, R.; Osorio, V.

    1995-01-01

    This research explored the metallurgical and mechanical properties of arc welding of copper related with influence of Argon, Helium and mixtures of them. Copper plates of 6 mm thickness were welded with different mixtures of the mentioned gases. The radiography of welded specimens with 100% He and 100% Ar does not show show any porosity. On the other hand, the copper plates welded different gas mixtures presented uniform porosity in the welded zone. The metallographies show recrystallized grain in the heat affected zone, while the welding zone showed a dendritic structure. The results of the tensile strength vary between a maximum of 227 MPa for 100% He and a minimum of 174 MOa for the mixture of 60% He and 40% Ar. For the elongation after fracture the best values, about 36%, were obtained for pure gases. As a main conclusion, we can say that arc welding of copper is possible without loosing the mechanical and metallurgical properties of base metal. 6 refs

  4. copper(II)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    bis(2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-3,5-heptadionato)copper(II) ... Abstract. Equilibrium concentrations of various condensed and gaseous phases have been thermodyna- ... phere, over a wide range of substrate temperatures and total reactor pressures.

  5. Bacterial Killing by Dry Metallic Copper Surfaces▿

    OpenAIRE

    Santo, Christophe Espírito; Lam, Ee Wen; Elowsky, Christian G.; Quaranta, Davide; Domaille, Dylan W.; Chang, Christopher J.; Grass, Gregor

    2010-01-01

    Metallic copper surfaces rapidly and efficiently kill bacteria. Cells exposed to copper surfaces accumulated large amounts of copper ions, and this copper uptake was faster from dry copper than from moist copper. Cells suffered extensive membrane damage within minutes of exposure to dry copper. Further, cells removed from copper showed loss of cell integrity. Acute contact with metallic copper surfaces did not result in increased mutation rates or DNA lesions. These findings are important fir...

  6. LEP copper accelerating cavities

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    1999-01-01

    These copper cavities were used to generate the radio frequency electric field that was used to accelerate electrons and positrons around the 27-km Large Electron-Positron (LEP) collider at CERN, which ran from 1989 to 2000. The copper cavities were gradually replaced from 1996 with new superconducting cavities allowing the collision energy to rise from 90 GeV to 200 GeV by mid-1999.

  7. Copper intoxication in sheep

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gazaryan, V.S.; Sogoyan, I.S.; Agabalov, G.A.; Mesropyan, V.V.

    1966-01-01

    Of 950 sheep fed hay from a vineyard sprayed regularly with copper sulfate, 143 developed clinical copper poisoning and 103 died. The Cu content of the hay was 10.23 mg%, of the liver of dead sheep 17-52 mg%, and of the blood serum of affected sheep 0.86 mg%. The symptoms and the histological findings in kidneys and liver are described.

  8. Copper wire bonding

    CERN Document Server

    Chauhan, Preeti S; Zhong, ZhaoWei; Pecht, Michael G

    2014-01-01

    This critical volume provides an in-depth presentation of copper wire bonding technologies, processes and equipment, along with the economic benefits and risks.  Due to the increasing cost of materials used to make electronic components, the electronics industry has been rapidly moving from high cost gold to significantly lower cost copper as a wire bonding material.  However, copper wire bonding has several process and reliability concerns due to its material properties.  Copper Wire Bonding book lays out the challenges involved in replacing gold with copper as a wire bond material, and includes the bonding process changes—bond force, electric flame off, current and ultrasonic energy optimization, and bonding tools and equipment changes for first and second bond formation.  In addition, the bond–pad metallurgies and the use of bare and palladium-coated copper wires on aluminum are presented, and gold, nickel and palladium surface finishes are discussed.  The book also discusses best practices and re...

  9. Parenteral nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inayet, N; Neild, P

    2015-03-01

    Over the last 50 years, parenteral nutrition has been recognised as an invaluable and potentially lifesaving tool in the physician's arsenal in the management of patients with intestinal failure or inaccessibility; however, it may also be associated with a number of potentially life-threatening complications. A recent NCEPOD report (2010) identified a number of inadequacies in the overall provision and management of parenteral nutrition and recommendations were made with the aim of improving clinical practice in the future. This paper focuses on the practical aspects relating to parenteral nutrition for adults, including important concepts, such as patient selection, as well as general management. We also explore the various pitfalls and potential complications and how these may be minimised.

  10. Copper Regulates Maturation and Expression of an MITF:Tryptase Axis in Mast Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu Frisk, Jun Mei; Kjellén, Lena; Kaler, Stephen G; Pejler, Gunnar; Öhrvik, Helena

    2017-12-15

    Copper has previously been implicated in the regulation of immune responses, but the impact of this metal on mast cells is poorly understood. In this article, we address this issue and show that copper starvation of mast cells causes increased granule maturation, as indicated by higher proteoglycan content, stronger metachromatic staining, and altered ultrastructure in comparison with nontreated cells, whereas copper overload has the opposite effects. In contrast, copper status did not impact storage of histamine in mast cells, nor did alterations in copper levels affect the ability of mast cells to degranulate in response to IgER cross-linking. A striking finding was decreased tryptase content in mast cells with copper overload, whereas copper starvation increased tryptase content. These effects were associated with corresponding shifts in tryptase mRNA levels, suggesting that copper affects tryptase gene regulation. Mechanistically, we found that alterations in copper status affected the expression of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor, a transcription factor critical for driving tryptase expression. We also found evidence supporting the concept that the effects on microphthalmia-associated transcription factor are dependent on copper-mediated modulation of MAPK signaling. Finally, we show that, in MEDNIK syndrome, a condition associated with low copper levels and a hyperallergenic skin phenotype, including pruritis and dermatitis, the number of tryptase-positive mast cells is increased. Taken together, our findings reveal a hitherto unrecognized role for copper in the regulation of mast cell gene expression and maturation. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  11. Oro-gustatory perception of dietary lipids and calcium signaling in taste bud cells are altered in nutritionally obesity-prone Psammomys obesus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdoul-Azize, Souleymane; Atek-Mebarki, Feriel; Bitam, Arezki; Sadou, Hassimi; Koceïr, Elhadj Ahmed; Khan, Naim Akhtar

    2013-01-01

    Since the increasing prevalence of obesity is one of the major health problems of the modern era, understanding the mechanisms of oro-gustatory detection of dietary fat is critical for the prevention and treatment of obesity. We have conducted the present study on Psammomys obesus, the rodent desert gerbil which is a unique polygenic natural animal model of obesity. Our results show that obese animals exhibit a strong preference for lipid solutions in a two-bottle test. Interestingly, the expression of CD36, a lipido-receptor, in taste buds cells (TBC), isolated from circumvallate papillae, was decreased at mRNA level, but remained unaltered at protein level, in obese animals. We further studied the effects of linoleic acid (LA), a long-chain fatty acid, on the increases in free intracellular calcium (Ca(2+)) concentrations, [Ca(2+)]i, in the TBC of P. obesus. LA induced increases in [Ca(2+)]i, largely via CD36, from intracellular pool, followed by the opening of store-operated Ca(2+) (SOC) channels in the TBC of these animals. The action of this fatty acid on the increases in [Ca(2+)]i was higher in obese animals than that in controls. However, the release of Ca(2+) from intracellular stores, studied also by employing thapsigargin, was lower in TBC of obese animals than control rodents. In this study, we show, for the first time, that increased lipid intake and altered Ca(2+) signaling in TBC are associated with obesity in Psammomys obesus.

  12. Oro-gustatory perception of dietary lipids and calcium signaling in taste bud cells are altered in nutritionally obesity-prone Psammomys obesus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souleymane Abdoul-Azize

    Full Text Available Since the increasing prevalence of obesity is one of the major health problems of the modern era, understanding the mechanisms of oro-gustatory detection of dietary fat is critical for the prevention and treatment of obesity. We have conducted the present study on Psammomys obesus, the rodent desert gerbil which is a unique polygenic natural animal model of obesity. Our results show that obese animals exhibit a strong preference for lipid solutions in a two-bottle test. Interestingly, the expression of CD36, a lipido-receptor, in taste buds cells (TBC, isolated from circumvallate papillae, was decreased at mRNA level, but remained unaltered at protein level, in obese animals. We further studied the effects of linoleic acid (LA, a long-chain fatty acid, on the increases in free intracellular calcium (Ca(2+ concentrations, [Ca(2+]i, in the TBC of P. obesus. LA induced increases in [Ca(2+]i, largely via CD36, from intracellular pool, followed by the opening of store-operated Ca(2+ (SOC channels in the TBC of these animals. The action of this fatty acid on the increases in [Ca(2+]i was higher in obese animals than that in controls. However, the release of Ca(2+ from intracellular stores, studied also by employing thapsigargin, was lower in TBC of obese animals than control rodents. In this study, we show, for the first time, that increased lipid intake and altered Ca(2+ signaling in TBC are associated with obesity in Psammomys obesus.

  13. Nutrition and Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Thai HbH:Vietnamese Relevant links Living with Thalassemia NUTRITION AND EXERCISE ▶ Nutrition and Diet ▶ Diet for the ... Thalassemia (for providers) Exercise for Patients with Thalassemia Nutrition and Diet Nutritional deficiencies are common in thalassemia, ...

  14. Medical Issues: Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... support & care > living with sma > medical issues > nutrition Nutrition Good nutrition is essential to health and growth. ... must make decisions based on their own needs. Nutrition Considerations Since we are still waiting for clinical ...

  15. Copper : recession and recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warwick-Ching, T.

    2002-01-01

    In 2002, the world output for copper will fall for the first time in nearly a decade because of financial pressure and voluntary constraints. Cutbacks at copper mines amount to 760,000 tonnes per year. These cutbacks have occurred mostly in the United States which holds the largest share of high cost mines. This paper discussed recent developments in both copper supply and demand. The United States is unique as both a large consumer and producer of copper. At 1.35 million tonnes, US mine output in 2001 was at its lowest since 1987. The cutbacks in mining in general were described in this paper with particular reference to the huge loss of mining and metallurgical activity in the United States during a prolonged period of low prices in the mid 1980s. The author noted that this period was followed by an exceptional decade when much of the industry rebounded. Only 8 mines closed outright in the United States and a handful in Canada since the recession of the 1980s, but that is partly because mines got bigger and there are fewer small mines in North America. There are only 4 electrolytic refineries and 3 smelters still active in the entire United States, of which 2 are operating at a fraction of capacity. It was noted that only the buoyancy of China prevented a much bigger decline in copper demand on a global scale

  16. Copper and copper-nickel alloys as zebra mussel antifoulants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dormon, J.M.; Cottrell, C.M.; Allen, D.G.; Ackerman, J.D.; Spelt, J.K. [Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    1996-04-01

    Copper has been used in the marine environment for decades as cladding on ships and pipes to prevent biofouling by marine mussels (Mytilus edulis L.). This motivated the present investigation into the possibility of using copper to prevent biofouling in freshwater by both zebra mussels and quagga mussels (Dreissena polymorpha and D. bugensis collectively referred to as zebra mussels). Copper and copper alloy sheet proved to be highly effective in preventing biofouling by zebra mussels over a three-year period. Further studies were conducted with copper and copper-nickel mesh (lattice of expanded metal) and screen (woven wire with a smaller hole size), which reduced the amount of copper used. Copper screen was also found to be strongly biofouling-resistant with respect to zebra mussels, while copper mesh reduced zebra mussel biofouling in comparison to controls, but did not prevent it entirely. Preliminary investigations into the mechanism of copper antifouling, using galvanic couples, indicated that the release of copper ions from the surface of the exposed metal into the surrounding water is directly or indirectly responsible for the biofouling resistance of copper.

  17. Electrical conduction in composites containing copper core-copper

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Composites of nanometre-sized copper core-copper oxide shell with diameters in the range 6.1 to 7.3 nm dispersed in a silica gel were synthesised by a technique comprising reduction followed by oxidation of a suitably chosen precursor gel. The hot pressed gel powders mixed with nanometre-sized copper particles ...

  18. Effect of oral contraceptive progestins on serum copper concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Gabriele; Kohlmeier, L; Brenner, H

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Recent epidemiologic studies have shown an increased mortality from cardiovascular diseases in people with higher serum copper levels. Even though higher serum copper concentration in women using oral contraceptives is well known, there is still uncertainty about the influence of newer...... progestin compounds in oral contraceptives on serum copper concentration. This issue is of particular interest in the light of recent findings of an increased risk of venous thromboembolism in users of oral contraceptives containing newer progestins like desogestrel compared to users of other oral...... contraceptives. DESIGN: Cross-sectional epidemiologic study. Examinations included a detailed questionnaire on medical history and lifestyle factors, a seven day food record, and blood samples. SETTING: National health and nutrition survey among healthy people living in private homes in West Germany in 1987...

  19. Study of copper fluorination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillardeau, J.

    1967-02-01

    This report deals with the action of fluorine on copper. Comprehensive descriptions are given of the particular technological methods and of the preparation of the reactants. This fluorination reaction has been studied at medium and low fluorine pressures. A nucleation and growth phenomenon is described. The influence of a pollution of the gas phase on the fluorination process is described. The solid-state reaction between cupric fluoride and cooper has also been studied. A special study has been made of the growth of copper deposits by thermal decomposition of gaseous fluorides. (author) [fr

  20. Brazing copper to dispersion-strengthened copper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryding, David G.; Allen, Douglas; Lee, Richard H.

    1996-11-01

    The advanced photon source is a state-of-the-art synchrotron light source that will produce intense x-ray beams, which will allow the study of smaller samples and faster reactions and processes at a greater level of detail than has ben possible to date. The beam is produced by using third- generation insertion devices in a 7-GeV electron/positron storage ring that is 1,104 meters in circumference. The heat load from these intense high-power devices is very high, and certain components must sustain total heat loads of 3 to 15 kW and heat fluxes of 30 W/mm$_2). Because the beams will cycle on and off many times, thermal shock and fatigue will be a problem. High heat flux impinging on a small area causes a large thermal gradient that results in high stress. GlidCop, a dispersion-strengthened copper, is the desired design material because of its high thermal conductivity and superior mechanical properties as compared to copper and its alloys. GlidCop is not amenable to joining by fusion welding, and brazing requires diligence because of high diffusivity. Brazing procedures were developed using optical and scanning electron microscopy.

  1. Nutritional Metabolomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gürdeniz, Gözde

    strategy influences the patterns identified as important for the nutritional question under study. Therefore, in depth understanding of the study design and the specific effects of the analytical technology on the produced data is extremely important to achieve high quality data handling. Besides data......Metabolomics provides a holistic approach to investigate the perturbations in human metabolism with respect to a specific exposure. In nutritional metabolomics, the research question is generally related to the effect of a specific food intake on metabolic profiles commonly of plasma or urine....... Application of multiple analytical strategies may provide comprehensive information to reach a valid answer to these research questions. In this thesis, I investigated several analytical technologies and data handling strategies in order to evaluate their effects on the biological answer. In metabolomics, one...

  2. Nutritional Biochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews some of the effects that space flight has on humans nutritional biochemistry. Particular attention is devoted to the study of protein breakdown, inflammation, hypercatabolism, omega 3 fatty acids, vitamin D, calcium, urine, folate and nutrient stability of certain vitamins, the fluid shift and renal stone risk, acidosis, iron/hematology, and the effects on bone of dietary protein, potassium. inflammation, and omega-3 fatty acids

  3. Copper and Copper Proteins in Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Montes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Copper is a transition metal that has been linked to pathological and beneficial effects in neurodegenerative diseases. In Parkinson’s disease, free copper is related to increased oxidative stress, alpha-synuclein oligomerization, and Lewy body formation. Decreased copper along with increased iron has been found in substantia nigra and caudate nucleus of Parkinson’s disease patients. Copper influences iron content in the brain through ferroxidase ceruloplasmin activity; therefore decreased protein-bound copper in brain may enhance iron accumulation and the associated oxidative stress. The function of other copper-binding proteins such as Cu/Zn-SOD and metallothioneins is also beneficial to prevent neurodegeneration. Copper may regulate neurotransmission since it is released after neuronal stimulus and the metal is able to modulate the function of NMDA and GABA A receptors. Some of the proteins involved in copper transport are the transporters CTR1, ATP7A, and ATP7B and the chaperone ATOX1. There is limited information about the role of those biomolecules in the pathophysiology of Parkinson’s disease; for instance, it is known that CTR1 is decreased in substantia nigra pars compacta in Parkinson’s disease and that a mutation in ATP7B could be associated with Parkinson’s disease. Regarding copper-related therapies, copper supplementation can represent a plausible alternative, while copper chelation may even aggravate the pathology.

  4. Creative Copper Crests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knab, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses how to create an art activity that would link the computer-created business cards of fourth-grade students with an upcoming school-wide medieval event. Creating family crests from copper foil would be a great connection, since they, like business cards, are an individual's way to identify themselves to others.…

  5. and copper(II)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    (II) and copper(II)–zinc(II) complexes. SUBODH KUMAR1, R N PATEL1*, P V KHADIKAR1 and. K B PANDEYA2. 1 Department of Chemistry, APS University, Rewa 486 003, India. 2 CSJM University, Kanpur 208 016, India e-mail: (R N Patel) ...

  6. Reagent conditions of the flotation of copper, copper - molybdenum and copper -zinc ores in foreing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nevaeva, L.M.

    1983-01-01

    Reagents-collectors and frothers, used abroad in reagent regimes of flotation of copper, copper-molybdenum and copper zinc ores, have been considered. Xanthogenates, aerofloats, xanthogenformiates, thionocarbamates are mainly used as reagents-collectors. Methylizobutylcarbinol and Daufros are used as reagents-frothers

  7. Hypoxia targeting copper complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dearling, J.L.

    1998-11-01

    The importance and incidence of tumour hypoxia, its measurement and current treatments available, including pharmacological and radiopharmacological methods of targeting hypoxia, are discussed. A variety of in vitro and in vivo methods for imposing hypoxia have been developed and are reviewed. Copper, its chemistry, biochemistry and radiochemistry, the potential for use of copper radionuclides and its use to date in this field is considered with particular reference to the thiosemicarbazones. Their biological activity, metal chelation, in vitro and in vivo studies of their radiocopper complexes and the potential for their use as hypoxia targeting radiopharmaceuticals is described. The reduction of the copper(II) complex to copper(l), its pivotal importance in their biological behaviour, and the potential for manipulation of this to effect hypoxia selectivity are described. An in vitro method for assessing the hypoxia selectivity of radiopharmaceuticals is reported. The rapid deoxygenation and high viability of a mammalian cell culture in this system is discussed and factors which may affect the cellular uptake of a radiopharmaceutical are described. The design, synthesis and complexation with copper and radiocopper of a range of bis(thiosemicarbazones) is reported. Synthesis of these compounds is simple giving high yields of pure products. The characteristics of the radiocopper complexes ( 64 Cu) including lipophilicity and redox activity are reported (reduction potentials in the range -0.314 - -0.590 V). High cellular uptakes of the radiocopper complexes of the ligands, in hypoxic and normoxic EMT6 and CHO320 cells, were observed. Extremes of selectivity are shown ranging from the hypoxia selective 64 Cu(II)ATSM to normoxic cell selective 64 Cu(II)GTS. The selectivities observed are compared with the physico chemical characteristics of the complexes. A good correlation exists between selectivity of the complex and its Cu(II)/Cu(I) reduction potential, with hypoxia

  8. Precursors for formation of copper selenide, indium selenide, copper indium diselenide, and/or copper indium gallium diselenide films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Calvin J; Miedaner, Alexander; Van Hest, Maikel; Ginley, David S

    2014-11-04

    Liquid-based precursors for formation of Copper Selenide, Indium Selenide, Copper Indium Diselenide, and/or copper Indium Galium Diselenide include copper-organoselenides, particulate copper selenide suspensions, copper selenide ethylene diamine in liquid solvent, nanoparticulate indium selenide suspensions, and indium selenide ethylene diamine coordination compounds in solvent. These liquid-based precursors can be deposited in liquid form onto substrates and treated by rapid thermal processing to form crystalline copper selenide and indium selenide films.

  9. Potential for acid emissions affecting trace element nutrition of livestock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smart, M.E.

    1992-01-01

    The role of sour gas emissions in trace element nutrition of livestock is discussed. Trace mineral nutrition and the evaluation of factors affecting it is very complex. Some trace minerals are antagonistic to each other, for example a dietary sulfur content of greater than 0.4% will suppress the availability of copper to ruminants. Dietary plants, age, pregnancy, and disease can all alter trace element concentrations. Species and breed of animal play a significant role in copper metabolism. Clinical signs associated with copper and zinc deficiency are discussed. These symptoms include lameness, lack of hair pigmentation, infertility, and scouring. Some of these symptoms may be caused by excess molybdenum. Clinical features associated with zinc deficiency include parakeratosis and inflammation of the skin. 4 figs., 1 tab

  10. The role of insufficient copper in lipid synthesis and fatty-liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrell, Austin; Tallino, Savannah; Yu, Lei; Burkhead, Jason L

    2017-04-01

    The essential transition metal copper is important in lipid metabolism, redox balance, iron mobilization, and many other critical processes in eukaryotic organisms. Genetic diseases where copper homeostasis is disrupted, including Menkes disease and Wilson disease, indicate the importance of copper balance to human health. The severe consequences of insufficient copper supply are illustrated by Menkes disease, caused by mutation in the X-linked ATP7A gene encoding a protein that transports copper from intestinal epithelia into the bloodstream and across the blood-brain barrier. Inadequate copper supply to the body due to poor diet quality or malabsorption can disrupt several molecular level pathways and processes. Though much of the copper distribution machinery has been described and consequences of disrupted copper handling have been characterized in human disease as well as animal models, physiological consequences of sub-optimal copper due to poor nutrition or malabsorption have not been extensively studied. Recent work indicates that insufficient copper may be important in a number of common diseases including obesity, ischemic heart disease, and metabolic syndrome. Specifically, marginal copper deficiency (CuD) has been reported as a potential etiologic factor in diseases characterized by disrupted lipid metabolism such as non-alcoholic fatty-liver disease (NAFLD). In this review, we discuss the available data suggesting that a significant portion of the North American population may consume insufficient copper, the potential mechanisms by which CuD may promote lipid biosynthesis, and the interaction between CuD and dietary fructose in the etiology of NAFLD. © 2016 IUBMB Life, 69(4):263-270, 2017. © 2017 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  11. Estimation of Meats Food Value in Nutrition Counseling and Nutritional Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    戸ヶ崎, 多巳江; 鈴木, 亜夕帆; 樋口, 恵; 山下, 光雄; 村松, 芳多子; 渡邊, 智子; Tamie, TOGASAKI; Ayuho, SUZUKI; Megumi, HIGUCHI; Teruo, YAMASHITA; Kanako, MURAMATSU; Tomoko, WATANABE; 千葉県立衛生短期大学; 千葉県立衛生短期大学; 千葉県立衛生短期大学

    2004-01-01

    For the nutrition counseling and menu plan, the nutritive component of meat was compared. 1) As a result of classifying meats into four on the basis of the weight per 100 kcal, there were significant differences between each classification about water, protein, lipid, ash, sodium(Na), potassium(K), calcium(Ca), Magnesium(Mg), phosphorus(P), iron(Fe), zinc(Zn), copper(Cu), vitamine K(V.K), vitamine B_1(V.B_1), vitamine B_2(V.B_2), Niacin, vitamine B_6(V.B_6), vitamine B_12(V.B_12), folate, pan...

  12. Diet and Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... foods highest in copper content: organ meats, shellfish, chocolate, nuts, and mushrooms. Once copper levels have stabilized ... it can be added. Send Email About WDA History of WDA Board of Directors Medical Advisory Committee ...

  13. Effects of chronic copper exposure during early life in rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araya, Magdalena; Kelleher, Shannon L; Arredondo, Miguel A; Sierralta, Walter; Vial, María Teresa; Uauy, Ricardo; Lönnerdal, Bo

    2005-05-01

    Whether infants regulate copper absorption and the potential effects of excess copper in early life remain poorly defined. The objective of the study was to assess copper retention, liver copper content, and liver function in infant rhesus monkeys fed infant formula containing 6.6 mg Cu/L. From birth to 5 mo of age, infant rhesus monkeys were fed formula that was supplemented with copper (0.6 mg Cu/L; n = 5) or not supplemented (n = 4). In all animals, weight and crown-rump length (by anthropometry), hemoglobin, hematocrit, plasma ceruloplasmin activity, and zinc and copper concentrations were measured monthly (birth to 6 mo) and at 8 and 12 mo. When the animals were 1, 5, and 8 mo old, liver copper and metallothionein concentrations, liver histology (by light and electron microscopy), and the number of Kupffer cells were assessed, and 67Cu retention was measured. Liver function was assessed by measurement of plasma alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyl transferase, and alkaline phosphatase activities and protein, albumin, bilirubin, and blood urea nitrogen concentrations. 67Cu retention was 19.2% and 10.9% after 1 and 5 mo of copper treatment, respectively, compared with approximately 75% in controls at age 2 mo. At age 8 mo, 67Cu retention was 22.9% in copper-treated animals and 31.5% in controls. Liver histology remained normal by light microscopy, with mild ultrastructural signs of cell damage at 5 mo. Liver copper concentration was 4711, 1139, and 498 microg/g dry tissue at 1, 5, and 8 mo, respectively, in copper-treated animals and 250 microg/g at 2 mo in controls. Measurements could not be completed in all animals. No clinical evidence of copper toxicity was observed. Copper absorption was down-regulated; increases in liver copper content at ages 1 and 5 mo did not result in histologic damage. Ultrastructural changes at age 5 mo could signal early cellular damage.

  14. Optimal copper supply is required for normal plant iron deficiency responses

    OpenAIRE

    Waters, Brian M; Armbrust, Laura C

    2013-01-01

    Iron (Fe) and copper (Cu) homeostasis are tightly linked across biology. Understanding crosstalk between Fe and Cu nutrition could lead to strategies for improved growth on soils with low or excess metals, with implications for agriculture and phytoremediation. Here, we show that Cu and Fe nutrition interact to increase or decrease Fe and/or Cu accumulation in leaves and Fe uptake processes. Leaf Cu concentration increased under low Fe supply, while high Cu lowered leaf Fe concentration. Ferr...

  15. Wave-front reversal in a copper-vapor active medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunkin, F.V.; Savranskii, V.V.; Shafeev, G.A.

    1981-09-01

    The implementation of wave-front reversal in a copper-vapor laser resonator is reported. The frequencies of the signal wave and the reversed wave are the same, and the dependence of reversed-signal power on input-signal power has a threshold character. Photographs of the reconstructed object image upon insertion of a distorting phase plate into the resonator are presented.

  16. The Effect of Copper

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    environment, where fishes are found, stuns them ... of earthen ponds are springing up near cocoa ... farm, which posses toxicological risk to farmed ... Veg. oil. 1.0. 1.0. 1.0. 1.0. 1.0. Copper sulphate 0. 1.0. 2.5. 5.0. 7.5. Total ..... Cellulase Production by Wild Strains of Aspergillus Niger, ... Mangrove Area of Lagos, Nigeria.

  17. Copper Pyrimidine based MOFs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Synthesized hydrothermally in a 23-mL Teflon lined stainless steel bomb by heating copper(II) 2-pyrazinecarboxylate (31 mg, 0.1 mmol) and tin(II) iodide (75 mg, 0.2 mmol) in 4 mL water at 150±C for 24 h. The reaction vessel was subsequently cooled to 70±C at 1±C/min and held at that temperature for 6 h before returning ...

  18. Supersonic copper clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powers, D.E.; Hansen, S.G.; Geusic, M.E.; Michalopoulos, D.L.; Smalley, R.E.

    1983-01-01

    Copper clusters ranging in size from 1 to 29 atoms have been prepared in a supersonic beam by laser vaporization of a rotating copper target rod within the throat of a pulsed supersonic nozzle using helium for the carrier gas. The clusters were cooled extensively in the supersonic expansion [T(translational) 1 to 4 K, T(rotational) = 4 K, T(vibrational) = 20 to 70 K]. These clusters were detected in the supersonic beam by laser photoionization with time-of-flight mass analysis. Using a number of fixed frequency outputs of an exciplex laser, the threshold behavior of the photoionization cross section was monitored as a function of cluster size.nce two-photon ionization (R2PI) with mass selective detection allowed the detection of five new electronic band systems in the region between 2690 and 3200 A, for each of the three naturally occurring isotopic forms of Cu 2 . In the process of scanning the R2PI spectrum of these new electronic states, the ionization potential of the copper dimer was determined to be 7.894 +- 0.015 eV

  19. Nutrition for Young Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Healthy Aging Nutrition for Young Men Print Email Nutrition for Young Men Reviewed by Taylor Wolfram, MS, ... 2017 XiXinXing/iStock/Thinkstock For many young men, nutrition isn't always a focus. There are many ...

  20. Nutrition Advice and Recipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sign-Up Home Patient Information Nutrition Advice & Recipes Nutrition Advice & Recipes This is a very important section ... information on all aspects of daily life, including nutrition, medical treatments, pain management, and practical tips. For ...

  1. Nutrition Following Pancreatic Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... BACK Contact Us DONATE NOW GENERAL DONATION PURPLESTRIDE Nutrition Following Pancreatic Surgery Home Facing Pancreatic Cancer Living with Pancreatic Cancer Diet and Nutrition Nutrition Following Pancreatic Surgery Ver esta página en ...

  2. Artificial Hydration and Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Crisis Situations Pets and Animals myhealthfinder Food and Nutrition Healthy Food Choices Weight Loss and Diet Plans ... Your Health Resources Healthcare Management Artificial Hydration and Nutrition Artificial Hydration and Nutrition Share Print Patients who ...

  3. Native copper as a natural analogue for copper canisters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcos, N.

    1989-12-01

    This paper discusses the occurrence of native copper as found in geological formations as a stability analogue of copper canisters that are planned to be used for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel in the Finnish bedrock. A summary of several publications on native copper occurrences is presented. The present geochemical and geohydrological conditions in which copper is met with in its metallic state show that metallic copper is stable in a wide range of temperatures. At low temperatures native copper is found to be stable where groundwater has moderate pH (about 7), low Eh (< +100 mV), and low total dissolved solids, especially chloride. Microscopical and microanalytical studies were carried out on a dozen of rock samples containing native copper. The results reveal that the metal shows no significant alteration. Only the surface of copper grains is locally coated. In the oldest samples there exist small corrosion cracks; the age of the oldest samples is over 1,000 million years. A review of several Finnish groundwater studies suggests that there are places in Finland where the geohydrological conditions are favourable for native copper stability. (orig.)

  4. Nutrition during lactation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Committee on Nutritional Status During Pregnancy and Lactation, Institute of Medicine

    On the basis of a comprehensive literature review and analysis, Nutrition During Lactation points out specific directions for needed research in understanding the relationship between the nutrition...

  5. LIGNOCELLULOSE NANOCOMPOSITE CONTAINING COPPER SULFIDE

    OpenAIRE

    Sanchi Nenkova; Peter Velev; Mirela Dragnevska; Diyana Nikolova; Kiril Dimitrov

    2011-01-01

    Copper sulfide-containing lignocellulose nanocomposites with improved electroconductivity were obtained. Two methods for preparing the copper sulfide lignocellulose nanocomposites were developed. An optimization of the parameters for obtaining of the nanocomposites with respect to obtaining improved electroconductivity, economy, and lower quantities and concentration of copper and sulfur ions in waste waters was conducted. The mechanisms and schemes of delaying and subsequent connection of co...

  6. Copper tolerance in Becium homblei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reilly, C; Stone, J

    1971-04-09

    Analyses show that Becium homblei has apparently no mechanism for limiting copper uptake. As growth proceeds, the concentration of metal increases in leaves and stems. Much of the copper is bound to structural material of the cells. There is a significant difference between the amount of extractable material in root and leaf tissues. These differences, in conjunction with the extrinsic factor of regular bush fires, were important factors in the evolution of this copper-resistant species of Becium. 9 references.

  7. Copper toxicity in housed lambs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamson, A H; Valks, D A; Appleton, M A; Shaw, W B

    1969-09-27

    Copper toxicity among 170 lambs artificially reared indoors at High Mowthorpe NAAS Experimental Husbandry Farm is reported. Although only three lambs were lost it is not unreasonable to suggest that the liver copper levels of the lambs which were slaughtered would have been high and losses could have been much heavier had there been any further copper supplementation. Even a copper level of 20 ppm in lamb concentrates given to lambs reared artificially indoors is dangerous, and intakes of much less than 38 mg per lamb per day can be fatal if given of a prolonged period. 5 references, 1 table.

  8. Copper and copper-nickel-alloys - An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klassert, Anton; Tikana, Ladji [Deutsches Kupferinstitut e.V. Am Bonneshof 5, 40474 Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    With the increasing level of industrialization the demand for and the number of copper alloys rose in an uninterrupted way. Today, the copper alloys take an important position amongst metallic materials due to the large variety of their technological properties and applications. Nowadays there exist over 3.000 standardized alloys. Copper takes the third place of all metals with a worldwide consumption of over 15 millions tons per year, following only to steel and aluminum. In a modern industrial society we meet copper in all ranges of the life (electro-technology, building and construction industry, mechanical engineering, automotive, chemistry, offshore, marine engineering, medical applications and others.). Copper is the first metal customized by humanity. Its name is attributed to the island Cyprus, which supplied in the antiquity copper to Greece, Rome and the other Mediterranean countries. The Romans called it 'ore from Cyprus' (aes cyprium), later cuprum. Copper deposited occasionally also dapper and could be processed in the recent stone age simply by hammering. Already in early historical time copper alloys with 20 to 50 percent tin was used for the production of mirrors because of their high reflecting power. Although the elementary nickel is an element discovered only recently from a historical perspective, its application in alloys - without any knowledge of the alloy composition - occurred at least throughout the last 2.000 years. The oldest copper-nickel coin originates from the time around 235 B.C.. Only around 1800 AD nickel was isolated as a metallic element. In particular in the sea and offshore technology copper nickel alloys found a broad field of applications in piping systems and for valves and armatures. The excellent combination of characteristics like corrosion resistance, erosion stability and bio-fouling resistance with excellent mechanical strength are at the basis of this success. An experience of many decades supports the use

  9. Copper Deficiency Leads to Anemia, Duodenal Hypoxia, Upregulation of HIF-2α and Altered Expression of Iron Absorption Genes in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matak, Pavle; Zumerle, Sara; Mastrogiannaki, Maria; El Balkhi, Souleiman; Delga, Stephanie; Mathieu, Jacques R. R.; Canonne-Hergaux, François; Poupon, Joel; Sharp, Paul A.; Vaulont, Sophie; Peyssonnaux, Carole

    2013-01-01

    Iron and copper are essential trace metals, actively absorbed from the proximal gut in a regulated fashion. Depletion of either metal can lead to anemia. In the gut, copper deficiency can affect iron absorption through modulating the activity of hephaestin - a multi-copper oxidase required for optimal iron export from enterocytes. How systemic copper status regulates iron absorption is unknown. Mice were subjected to a nutritional copper deficiency-induced anemia regime from birth and injected with copper sulphate intraperitoneally to correct the anemia. Copper deficiency resulted in anemia, increased duodenal hypoxia and Hypoxia inducible factor 2α (HIF-2α) levels, a regulator of iron absorption. HIF-2α upregulation in copper deficiency appeared to be independent of duodenal iron or copper levels and correlated with the expression of iron transporters (Ferroportin - Fpn, Divalent Metal transporter – Dmt1) and ferric reductase – Dcytb. Alleviation of copper-dependent anemia with intraperitoneal copper injection resulted in down regulation of HIF-2α-regulated iron absorption genes in the gut. Our work identifies HIF-2α as an important regulator of iron transport machinery in copper deficiency. PMID:23555700

  10. Copper stabilization in beneficial use of waterworks sludge and copper-laden electroplating sludge for ceramic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yuanyuan; Chan, Siu-Wai; Shih, Kaimin

    2014-06-01

    A promising strategy for effectively incorporating metal-containing waste materials into a variety of ceramic products was devised in this study. Elemental analysis confirmed that copper was the predominant metal component in the collected electroplating sludge, and aluminum was the predominant constituent of waterworks sludge collected in Hong Kong. The use of waterworks sludge as an aluminum-rich precursor material to facilitate copper stabilization under thermal conditions provides a promising waste-to-resource strategy. When sintering the mixture of copper sludge and the 900 °C calcined waterworks sludge, the CuAl2O4 spinel phase was first detected at 650 °C and became the predominant product phase at temperatures higher than 850 °C. Quantification of the XRD pattern using the Rietveld refinement method revealed that the weight of the CuAl2O4 spinel phase reached over 50% at 850 °C. The strong signals of the CuAl2O4 phase continued until the temperature reached 1150 °C, and further sintering initiated the generation of the other copper-hosting phases (CuAlO2, Cu2O, and CuO). The copper stabilization effect was evaluated by the copper leachability of the CuAl2O4 and CuO via the prolonged leaching experiments at a pH value of 4.9. The leaching results showed that the CuAl2O4 phase was superior to the CuAlO2 and CuO phases for immobilizing hazardous copper over longer leaching periods. The findings clearly indicate that spinel formation is the most crucial metal stabilization mechanism when sintering multiphase copper sludge with aluminum-rich waterworks sludge, and suggest a promising and reliable technique for reusing both types of sludge waste for ceramic materials. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Spectrographic determination of impurities in copper and copper oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabato, S.F.; Lordello, A.R.

    1990-11-01

    An emission spectrographic method for the determination of Al, Bi, Ca, Cd, Cr, Fe, Ge, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Si, Sn and Zn in copper and copper oxide is described. Two mixtures (Graphite and ZnO: graphite and GeO sub(2)) were used as buffers. The standard deviation lies around 10%. (author)

  12. Nickel, copper and cobalt coalescence in copper cliff converter slag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolf A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this investigation is to assess the effect of various additives on coalescence of nickel, copper and cobalt from slags generated during nickel extraction. The analyzed fluxes were silica and lime while examined reductants were pig iron, ferrosilicon and copper-silicon compound. Slag was settled at the different holding temperatures for various times in conditions that simulated the industrial environment. The newly formed matte and slag were characterized by their chemical composition and morphology. Silica flux generated higher partition coefficients for nickel and copper than the addition of lime. Additives used as reducing agents had higher valuable metal recovery rates and corresponding partition coefficients than fluxes. Microstructural studies showed that slag formed after adding reductants consisted of primarily fayalite, with some minute traces of magnetite as the secondary phase. Addition of 5 wt% of pig iron, ferrosilicon and copper-silicon alloys favored the formation of a metallized matte which increased Cu, Ni and Co recoveries. Addition of copper-silicon alloys with low silicon content was efficient in copper recovery but coalescence of the other metals was low. Slag treated with the ferrosilicon facilitated the highest cobalt recovery while copper-silicon alloys with silicon content above 10 wt% resulted in high coalescence of nickel and copper, 87 % and 72 % respectively.

  13. On the lability and functional significance of the type 1 copper pool in ceruloplasmin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musci, G; Fraterrigo, T Z; Calabrese, L; McMillin, D R

    1999-08-01

    The possibility that ceruloplasmin (CP) functions as a copper transferase has fueled a continuing interest in studies of the copper release process. The principal goal of the current investigation has been to identify the most labile copper centers in sheep protein. In fact, subjecting the enzyme to a slow flux of cyanide at pH 5.2 under nitrogen in the presence of ascorbate and a phenanthroline ligand produces partially demetalated forms of the protein. By standard chromatographic techniques it is possible to isolate protein with a Cu/CP ratio of approximately 4 or approximately 5 as opposed to the native protein which has Cu/CP = 5.8. In contrast to other blue oxidases, analysis suggests that CP preferentially loses its type 1 coppers under these conditions. Thus, the spectroscopic signals from the type 1 centers exhibit a loss of intensity while the EPR signal of the type 2 copper becomes stronger. Furthermore, the Cu/CP approximately 4 and Cu/ CP approximately 5 components retain about 50% of the activity of the native protein, consistent with an intact type 2/type 3 cluster. All three type 1 copper sites appear to suffer copper loss. Reconstitution with a copper(I) reagent restores the spectroscopic properties of the native protein and 90% of the original activity. The results suggest a possible functional significance for the presence of three type 1 coppers in CP. By employing a pool of redox-active but relatively labile type 1 copper centers, the enzyme can serve as a copper donor, if necessary, without completely sacrificing its oxidase activity.

  14. Relationship between Maternal Serum Copper Level and Birth Weight Neonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirzarahimi M

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Low birth weight (LBW is a major public health problem. LBW is associated with increased neonatal morbidity and mortality. There is no consensus in the literature as to whether maternal copper nutrition is associated with pregnancy outcome or fetal growth. Methods: This case-control study was carried out at Alavi Hospital in Ardabil between August 2008 and August 2009. 56 women who had delivered low-birth- weight infants (<2500gr were taken as the case group, and from the mothers who had delivered normal birth weight infants (≥2500gr, 56 were selected at random as the control group. Venous blood samples were obtained from the mothers. Serum zinc level was determined by the Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer method.Results: Mean of birth weight in infants, maternal age, body mass index in mothers and socioeconomic or demographic factors did not differ between cases and control groups. Maternal copper concentration (μg/dl differed between Cases and Controls; 231.75±38.12μg/dl vs. 204.42±31.30μg/dl respectively. There is a significant difference (p<0.001 in the serum copper concentration between the two groups.Conclusion: There is a negative relation between low infant birth weight and maternal copper concentration.

  15. Effect of inorganic and organic copper fertilizers on copper nutrition in Spinacia oleracea and on labile copper in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obrador, Ana; Gonzalez, Demetrio; Alvarez, Jose M

    2013-05-22

    To ensure an optimal concentration of Cu in food crops, the effectiveness of eight liquid Cu fertilizers was studied in a spinach ( Spinacia oleracea L.) crop grown on Cu-deficient soil under greenhouse conditions. Plant dry matter yields, Cu concentrations in spinach plants (total and morpholino acid (MES)- and ethylenediaminedisuccinic acid (EDDS)-extractable), and Cu uptakes were studied. The behavior of Cu in soil was evaluated by both single and sequential extraction procedures. The highest quantities of Cu in labile forms in the soil, total uptakes, and Cu concentrations in the plants were associated with the application of the two sources that contained Cu chelated by EDTA and/or DTPA. The fertilizers containing these Cu chelates represent a promising approach to achieve high levels of agronomic biofortification. The stronger correlations obtained between low-molecular-weight organic acid-extractable Cu in soil and the Cu concentrations and Cu uptakes by the plants show the suitability of this soil extraction method for predicting Cu available to spinach plants.

  16. Copper: From neurotransmission to neuroproteostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos M Opazo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Copper is critical for the Central Nervous System (CNS development and function. In particular, different studies have shown the effect of copper at brain synapses, where it inhibits Long Term Potentation (LTP and receptor pharmacology. Paradoxically, according to recent studies copper is required for a normal LTP response. Copper is released at the synaptic cleft, where it blocks glutamate receptors, which explain its blocking effects on excitatory neurotransmission. Our results indicate that copper also enhances neurotransmission through the accumulation of PSD95 protein, which increase the levels of AMPA receptors located at the plasma membrane of the post-synaptic density. Thus, our findings represent a novel mechanism for the action of copper, which may have implications for the neurophysiology and neuropathology of the CNS. These data indicate that synaptic configuration is sensitive to transient changes in transition metal homeostasis. Our results suggest that copper increases GluA1 subunit levels of the AMPA receptor through the anchorage of AMPA receptors to the plasma membrane as a result of PSD-95 accumulation. Here, we will review the role of copper on neurotransmission of CNS neurons. In addition, we will discuss the potential mechanisms by which copper could modulate neuronal proteostasis (neuroproteostasis in the CNS with focus in the Ubiquitin Proteasome System, which is particularly relevant to neurological disorders such Alzheimer’s disease (AD where copper and protein dyshomeostasis may contribute to neurodegeneration. An understanding of these mechanisms may ultimately lead to the development of novel therapeutic approaches to control metal and synaptic alterations observed in AD patients.

  17. Advanced Copper Composites Against Copper-Tolerant Xanthomonas perforans and Tomato Bacterial Spot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strayer-Scherer, A; Liao, Y Y; Young, M; Ritchie, L; Vallad, G E; Santra, S; Freeman, J H; Clark, D; Jones, J B; Paret, M L

    2018-02-01

    Bacterial spot, caused by Xanthomonas spp., is a widespread and damaging bacterial disease of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). For disease management, growers rely on copper bactericides, which are often ineffective due to the presence of copper-tolerant Xanthomonas strains. This study evaluated the antibacterial activity of the new copper composites core-shell copper (CS-Cu), multivalent copper (MV-Cu), and fixed quaternary ammonium copper (FQ-Cu) as potential alternatives to commercially available micron-sized copper bactericides for controlling copper-tolerant Xanthomonas perforans. In vitro, metallic copper from CS-Cu and FQ-Cu at 100 μg/ml killed the copper-tolerant X. perforans strain within 1 h of exposure. In contrast, none of the micron-sized copper rates (100 to 1,000 μg/ml) from Kocide 3000 significantly reduced copper-tolerant X. perforans populations after 48 h of exposure compared with the water control (P copper-based treatments killed the copper-sensitive X. perforans strain within 1 h. Greenhouse studies demonstrated that all copper composites significantly reduced bacterial spot disease severity when compared with copper-mancozeb and water controls (P copper composites significantly reduced disease severity when compared with water controls, using 80% less metallic copper in comparison with copper-mancozeb in field studies (P copper composites have the potential to manage copper-tolerant X. perforans and tomato bacterial spot.

  18. Optics vs copper: from the perspective of "Thunderbolt" interconnect technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hengju; Krause, Christine; Ko, Jamyuen; Gao, Miaobin; Liu, Guobin; Wu, Huichin; Qi, Mike; Lam, Chun-Chit

    2013-02-01

    Interconnect technology has been progressed at a very fast pace for the past decade. The signaling rates have steadily increased from 100:Mb/s to 25Gb/s. In every generation of interconnect technology evolution, optics always seems to take over at first, however, at the end, the cost advantage of copper wins over. Because of this, optical interconnects are limited to longer distance links where the attenuation in copper cable is too large for the integrated circuits to compensate. Optical interconnect has long been viewed as the premier solution in compared with copper interconnect. With the release of Thunderbolt technology, we are entering a new era in consumer electronics that runs at 10Gb/s line rate (20Gb/s throughput per connector interface). Thunderbolt interconnect technology includes both active copper cables and active optical cables as the transmission media which have very different physical characteristics. In order for optics to succeed in consumer electronics, several technology hurdles need to be cleared. For example, the optical cable needs to handle the consumer abuses such as pinch and bend. Also, the optical engine used in the active optical cable needs to be physically very small so that we don't change the looks and feels of the cable/connector. Most importantly, the cost of optics needs to come down significantly to effectively compete with the copper solution. Two interconnect technologies are compared and discussed on the relative cost, power consumption, form factor, density, and future scalability.

  19. Copper Powder and Chemicals: edited proceedings of a seminar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-12-01

    Various papers are presented covering the following topics: Status of Copper Chemical Industry in India, Copper Powder from Industrial Wastes, Manufacture of Copper Hydroxide and High Grade Cement Copper from Low Grade Copper Ore, Manufacture of Copper Sulphate as a By-Product, Hydrometallurgical Treatments of Copper Converter and Smelter Slage for Recovering Copper and other Non-Ferrous Metals, Recovery of Copper from Dilute Solutions, Use of Copper Compounds as Fungicides in India, Copper in Animal Husbandry, and Use of Copper Powder and Chemicals for Marine Applications. The keynote paper given at the Seminar was on Conservation of Copper for Better Use.

  20. Examination of Critical Length Effect in Copper Interconnects With Oxide and Low-k Dielectrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thrasher, Stacye; Gall, Martin; Justison, Patrick; Hernandez, Richard; Kawasaki, Hisao; Capasso, Cristiano; Nguyen, Timothy

    2004-01-01

    As technology moves toward faster microelectronic devices with smaller feature sizes, copper is replacing aluminum-copper alloy and low-k dielectric is replacing oxide as the materials of choice for advanced interconnect integrations. Copper not only brings to the table the advantage of lower resistivity, but also exhibits better electromigration performance when compared to Al(Cu). Low-k dielectric materials are advantageous because they reduce power consumption and improve signal delay. Due to these advantages, the industry trend is moving towards integrating copper and low-k dielectric for high performance interconnects. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the critical length effect in single-inlaid copper interconnects and determine the critical product (jl)c, for a variety of integrations, examining the effect of ILD (oxide vs. low-k), geometry, and stress temperature

  1. 21 CFR 73.1647 - Copper powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Copper powder. 73.1647 Section 73.1647 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1647 Copper powder. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive copper powder is a very fine free-flowing metallic powder prepared from virgin electrolytic copper. It...

  2. NID Copper Sample Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kouzes, Richard T.; Zhu, Zihua

    2011-09-12

    The current focal point of the nuclear physics program at PNNL is the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR, and the follow-on Tonne-Scale experiment, a large array of ultra-low background high-purity germanium detectors, enriched in 76Ge, designed to search for zero-neutrino double-beta decay (0νββ). This experiment requires the use of germanium isotopically enriched in 76Ge. The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR is a DOE and NSF funded project with a major science impact. The DEMONSTRATOR will utilize 76Ge from Russia, but for the Tonne-Scale experiment it is hoped that an alternate technology, possibly one under development at Nonlinear Ion Dynamics (NID), will be a viable, US-based, lower-cost source of separated material. Samples of separated material from NID require analysis to determine the isotopic distribution and impurities. DOE is funding NID through an SBIR grant for development of their separation technology for application to the Tonne-Scale experiment. The Environmental Molecular Sciences facility (EMSL), a DOE user facility at PNNL, has the required mass spectroscopy instruments for making isotopic measurements that are essential to the quality assurance for the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR and for the development of the future separation technology required for the Tonne-Scale experiment. A sample of isotopically separated copper was provided by NID to PNNL in January 2011 for isotopic analysis as a test of the NID technology. The results of that analysis are reported here. A second sample of isotopically separated copper was provided by NID to PNNL in August 2011 for isotopic analysis as a test of the NID technology. The results of that analysis are also reported here.

  3. Gallium and copper radiopharmaceutical chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, M.A.

    1991-01-01

    Gallium and copper radionuclides have a long history of use in nuclear medicine. Table 1 presents the nuclear properties of several gallium and copper isotopes that either are used in the routine practice of clinical nuclear medicine or exhibit particular characteristics that might make them useful in diagnostic or therapeutic medicine. This paper will provide some historic perspective along with an overview of some current research directions in gallium and copper radiopharmaceutical chemistry. A more extensive review of gallium radiopharmaceutical chemistry has recently appeared and can be consulted for a more in-depth treatment of this topic

  4. Copper complexes as 'radiation recovery' agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorenson, J.R.J.

    1989-01-01

    Copper and its compounds have been used for their remedial effects since the beginning of recorded history. As early as 3000 BC the Egyptians used copper as an antiseptic for healing wounds and to sterilise drinking water; and later, ca 1550 BC, the Ebers Papyrus reports the use of copper acetate, copper sulphate and pulverised metallic copper for the treatment of eye infections. These historical uses of copper and its compounds are particularly interesting in the light of modern evidence concerning the use of certain copper complexes for the treatment of radiation sickness and more recently as an adjunct to radiotherapy for cancer patients. (author)

  5. Mineral Elements in Relation to Protein-Calorie Malnutrition and the Nutritional Anaemias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandstead, H. H. [Division of Nutrition, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN (United States)

    1970-07-01

    Protein-calorie malnutrition (PCM) and the nutritional anaemias are problems of major importance the world over. The metabolism of the major elements in PCM has been clarified during the last decade. However, relatively little is known about the trace elements. Of the trace elements, evidence has recently been reported which suggests that deficiencies of copper, zinc, selenium and chromium may occur in PCM. The pathological effects of potassium and magnesium deficiency in PCM have come under increased scrutiny. The mineral elements of importance in haematopoiesis include iron, copper, cobalt and possibly selenium. Studies of the effect of copper and selenium are in the formative stage. (author)

  6. Neutron-activation analysis of copper in food-stuffs and biomedium of organism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasulov, S.K.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Our investigation has been carried out in the area with different ecologic characteristics of Samarkand region in Zarafshon valley (Urgut, Samarkand, Djambay and Nurabad). Tests for food-stuffs and hairs of children were carried out by neutron-activation analysis as per method worked out in the Nuclear Physics institute of academy of Sciences Republic of Uzbekistan. We have studied 37 varieties of food-stuffs, mainly of vegetable and animal origin. 245 healthy school children were investigated for copper deficiency, aged 7-14. The results of the study showed high concentration of copper in the bread of coarse grist, black raisin, dried apricots, sumalak (national Uzbek food), pea, broth from vinery stalk (100, 51, 24, 36, 21, 33 mg/kg respectively). As for animal products high concentration of copper was in white of egg and beef (480 and 25 mg/kg respectively). Copper concentration was insignificant in many other investigated products of vegetable origin, but in 15 of them Neutron-activation analysis showed the absence of copper at all. Concentration of microelements in hairs is an important index of micro element status assessment. Copper concentration in hairs of practically healthy school children of Zarafshon valley made up 9,24 ± 0,84 mkg/g. Our data of copper in hairs of healthy school children in Zarafshon valley was lower compared the data stated by other investigators (A.A. Kist, 1987) and concerning other regions too. Lore copper content in hairs, probably depends on the structure of nutritional products consumed and peculiarities of natural condition of biogeochemical area. Os per sexual characters copper content in hairs was lore - 7,97±1,38 mkg/g in girls under investigation (n=33), compared myth boys (n=131) -9,67±0,71 mkg/g; as per place of residence, copper concentration indices in hairs was nearly the some as in urban (n=66) and rural (n=98) children (7,62 ± 0,96 and 8,38 ± 0,77 mg/kg, respectively). Thus, determination of

  7. Copper and ectopic expression of the Arabidopsis transport protein COPT1 alter iron homeostasis in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrés-Bordería, Amparo; Andrés, Fernando; Garcia-Molina, Antoni; Perea-García, Ana; Domingo, Concha; Puig, Sergi; Peñarrubia, Lola

    2017-09-01

    Copper deficiency and excess differentially affect iron homeostasis in rice and overexpression of the Arabidopsis high-affinity copper transporter COPT1 slightly increases endogenous iron concentration in rice grains. Higher plants have developed sophisticated mechanisms to efficiently acquire and use micronutrients such as copper and iron. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the interaction between both metals remain poorly understood. In the present work, we study the effects produced on iron homeostasis by a wide range of copper concentrations in the growth media and by altered copper transport in Oryza sativa plants. Gene expression profiles in rice seedlings grown under copper excess show an altered expression of genes involved in iron homeostasis compared to standard control conditions. Thus, ferritin OsFER2 and ferredoxin OsFd1 mRNAs are down-regulated whereas the transcriptional iron regulator OsIRO2 and the nicotianamine synthase OsNAS2 mRNAs rise under copper excess. As expected, the expression of OsCOPT1, which encodes a high-affinity copper transport protein, as well as other copper-deficiency markers are down-regulated by copper. Furthermore, we show that Arabidopsis COPT1 overexpression (C1 OE ) in rice causes root shortening in high copper conditions and under iron deficiency. C1 OE rice plants modify the expression of the putative iron-sensing factors OsHRZ1 and OsHRZ2 and enhance the expression of OsIRO2 under copper excess, which suggests a role of copper transport in iron signaling. Importantly, the C1 OE rice plants grown on soil contain higher endogenous iron concentration than wild-type plants in both brown and white grains. Collectively, these results highlight the effects of rice copper status on iron homeostasis, which should be considered to obtain crops with optimized nutrient concentrations in edible parts.

  8. TOR signalling in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rexin, Daniel; Meyer, Christian; Robaglia, Christophe; Veit, Bruce

    2015-08-15

    Although the eukaryotic TOR (target of rapamycin) kinase signalling pathway has emerged as a key player for integrating nutrient-, energy- and stress-related cues with growth and metabolic outputs, relatively little is known of how this ancient regulatory mechanism has been adapted in higher plants. Drawing comparisons with the substantial knowledge base around TOR kinase signalling in fungal and animal systems, functional aspects of this pathway in plants are reviewed. Both conserved and divergent elements are discussed in relation to unique aspects associated with an autotrophic mode of nutrition and adaptive strategies for multicellular development exhibited by plants. © 2015 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  9. Nutrition knowledge and nutritional status of primary school children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-01-04

    Jan 4, 2010 ... b Research Fellow, CSL, Vaal University of Technology, South Africa ... Keywords: primary school children; nutrition knowledge; nutritional status. Nutrition ... research on basic nutrition education focusing on adolescents has.

  10. Copper tailings in stucco mortars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo Pavez

    Full Text Available Abstract This investigation addressed the evaluation of the use of copper tailings in the construction industry in order to reduce the impact on the environment. The evaluation was performed by a technical comparison between stucco mortars prepared with crushed conventional sand and with copper tailings sand. The best results were achieved with the stucco mortars containing tailings. The tailings presented a fine particles size distribution curve different from that suggested by the standard. The values of compressive strength, retentivity, and adherence in the stucco mortars prepared with copper tailings were much higher than those obtained with crushed sand. According to the results from this study, it can be concluded that the preparation of stucco mortars using copper tailings replacing conventional sand is a technically feasible alternative for the construction industry, presenting the benefit of mitigating the impact of disposal to the environment.

  11. Nutrition and athletic performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exercise - nutrition; Exercise - fluids; Exercise - hydration ... Bird R. Nutrition. In: Miller MD, Thompson SR, eds. DeLee and Drez's Orthopaedic Sports Medicine . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; ...

  12. Nutrition and OI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutrition and OI Introduction To promote bone development and optimal health, children and adults with osteogenesis imperfecta ( ... no foods or supplements that will cure OI. Nutrition Related Problems Difficulties eating solid food have been ...

  13. Nutrition.gov

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Gov Sites FAQ Contact Us En Español Search Nutrition.Gov Search all USDA Advanced Search Browse by ... FAQs USDA Research, Education, and Economics Resources Welcome Nutrition.gov is a USDA-sponsored website that offers ...

  14. Total parenteral nutrition - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007239.htm Total parenteral nutrition - infants To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is a method of feeding that bypasses ...

  15. Total parenteral nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000177.htm Total parenteral nutrition To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is a method of feeding that bypasses ...

  16. Living with COPD: Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diseases > Lung Disease Lookup > COPD > Living With COPD Nutrition and COPD Most people are surprised to learn ... asking your doctor or visiting the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics at EatRight.org . Be sure to ...

  17. Cooking utensils and nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002461.htm Cooking utensils and nutrition To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Cooking utensils can have an effect on your nutrition. ...

  18. Nutrition and Myasthenia Gravis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good nutrition is important for everyone. This is especially true when you have a chronic disorder like myasthenia gravis ( ... difficulty with chewing and swallowing may interfere with nutrition and create safety issues. Diet modifications may be ...

  19. A new hardware and software developed for copper alloy analyser type XRFA-5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakatos, T.; Kovacs, P.; Szadai, J.; Szekely, G.

    1991-01-01

    In the production of copper alloys a large amount of waste of unknown origin and composition is melted, and rapid analysis of the melt is important. A copper alloy analyzer based on the energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence was developed in ATOMKI earlier for copper smelting plants in Hungary. The equipment has recently been upgraded by its connection to IBM PC/AT computer. A digital signal processor and analyzer module, a new software tool for the automatic determination of eight elements, and a stand-alone analyzer program DISIP was developed. The upgraded analyzer type XRFA-5.01 is presented briefly. (R.P.) 3 refs

  20. The copper deposits of Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, B.S.; Burbank, W.S.

    1929-01-01

    The copper district of Keweenaw Point, in the northern peninsula of Michigan, is the second largest producer of copper in the world.  The output of the district since 1845 has been more than 7,500,000,000 pounds and showed a rather steady and consistent increase from the beginning of production to the end of the World War in 1918, since which there has been a marked decrease.

  1. Copper atomic-scale transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Fangqing; Kavalenka, Maryna N; Röger, Moritz; Albrecht, Daniel; Hölscher, Hendrik; Leuthold, Jürgen; Schimmel, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    We investigated copper as a working material for metallic atomic-scale transistors and confirmed that copper atomic-scale transistors can be fabricated and operated electrochemically in a copper electrolyte (CuSO 4 + H 2 SO 4 ) in bi-distilled water under ambient conditions with three microelectrodes (source, drain and gate). The electrochemical switching-on potential of the atomic-scale transistor is below 350 mV, and the switching-off potential is between 0 and -170 mV. The switching-on current is above 1 μA, which is compatible with semiconductor transistor devices. Both sign and amplitude of the voltage applied across the source and drain electrodes ( U bias ) influence the switching rate of the transistor and the copper deposition on the electrodes, and correspondingly shift the electrochemical operation potential. The copper atomic-scale transistors can be switched using a function generator without a computer-controlled feedback switching mechanism. The copper atomic-scale transistors, with only one or two atoms at the narrowest constriction, were realized to switch between 0 and 1 G 0 ( G 0 = 2e 2 /h; with e being the electron charge, and h being Planck's constant) or 2 G 0 by the function generator. The switching rate can reach up to 10 Hz. The copper atomic-scale transistor demonstrates volatile/non-volatile dual functionalities. Such an optimal merging of the logic with memory may open a perspective for processor-in-memory and logic-in-memory architectures, using copper as an alternative working material besides silver for fully metallic atomic-scale transistors.

  2. Atmospheric corrosion effects on copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franey, J.P.

    1985-01-01

    Studies have been performed on the naturally formed patina on various copper samples. Samples have been obtained from structures at AT and T Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, NJ (40,2,1 and <1 yr) and the Statue of Liberty (100 yr). The samples show a distinct layering effect, that is, the copper base material shows separate oxide and basic sulfate layers on all samples, indicating that patina is not a homogeneous mixture of oxides and basic sulfates

  3. Chronic copper poisoning in lambs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, D B

    1964-08-08

    This communication presented evidence of the elevation of plasma GOT (glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase or aspartate transaminase) concentration during the development of copper toxicity in some experimental lambs, and also demonstrated that plasma GOT concentration can be used to assess the course of the disease during treatment. A group of Kerry Hill lambs were fed 1 1/2 lb per day of a proprietary concentrate containing 40 parts of copper per million on a dry-matter basis in addition to hay and water ad lib. Data was included for the plasma GOT concentrations of the lambs, bled weekly after weaning from pasture to this diet. There was some variation between the individual lambs, and in one there was no increase in plasma GOT by the 20th week when all the surviving lambs were slaughtered. The concentrations of copper found in the caudate lobe of the liver and in the kidney cortex post mortem were given. The overall findings showed that the liver gave a reliable indication of the copper status of an animal whereas the kidney cortex copper concentration was a better criterion for the diagnosis of copper poisoning and was in agreement with the results of Eden, Todd, and Grocey and Thompson. Observations demonstrated the benefits resulting from the early diagnosis of chronic copper poisoning in lambs, when treatment of affected animals may be commenced before the haemolytic crisis develops. Treatment included reducing the copper intake and dosing with ammonium molybdate and sodium sulfate, and the plasma GOT concentration may be used to assess the rate of recovery. 4 references, 3 tables.

  4. Stroke Prevention & Treatment: Diet & Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevention & Treatment: Diet & Nutrition Stroke Prevention & Treatment: Diet & Nutrition A healthy diet can reduce your risk for ... Treatment How does a stroke affect eating and nutrition? Stroke can devastate a person's nutritional health because ...

  5. Nutrition support in hospitals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kondrup, Jens

    2005-01-01

    Nutrition support in hospitals is becoming an area of focus because of the evidence showing improved clinical outcome with nutrition support, its status as a human rights issue and its integration into quality assurance.......Nutrition support in hospitals is becoming an area of focus because of the evidence showing improved clinical outcome with nutrition support, its status as a human rights issue and its integration into quality assurance....

  6. Copper sulphate poisoning in horses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, M

    1975-01-01

    In the archives of the Clinic for Internal Diseases of Domestic Animals at the Veterinary Faculty of Zagreb University some thirty cases of horse disease diagnosed as copper sulphate poisoning were noted. The data correspond in many respects to the clinical findings of copper sulphate poisoning in other domestic animals. A series of experimental horse poisonings were undertaken in order to determine the toxicity of copper sulphate. The research results are as follows: Horses are sensitive to copper sulphate. Even a single application of 0.125 g/kg body weight in 1% concentration by means of incubation into the stomach causes stomach and gut disturbances and other poisoning symptoms. Poisoning occurs in two types: acute and chronic. The former appears after one to three applications of copper sulphate solution and is characterized by gastroenteritis, haemolysis, jaundice and haemoglobinuria with signs of consecutive damage of kidney, liver and other organs. The disease, from the first application to death lasts for two weeks. Chronic poisoning is caused by ingestion of dry copper sulphate in food (1% solution dried on hay or clover) for two or more months. There are chronic disturbances of stomach and gut and loss of weight, and consecutive (three to four) haemolytic crises similar to those of acute poisoning. From the beginning of poisoning to death six or more months can elapse.

  7. Genome Sequences of Two Copper-Resistant Escherichia coli Strains Isolated from Copper-Fed Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lüthje, Freja L.; Hasman, Henrik; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2014-01-01

    The draft genome sequences of two copper-resistant Escherichia coli strains were determined. These had been isolated from copper-fed pigs and contained additional putative operons conferring copper and other metal and metalloid resistances.......The draft genome sequences of two copper-resistant Escherichia coli strains were determined. These had been isolated from copper-fed pigs and contained additional putative operons conferring copper and other metal and metalloid resistances....

  8. Diet and Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stories Español Eye Health / Tips & Prevention Food and Nutrition Sections Diet and Nutrition Can Fish Oil Help ... Cataract Prevention in the Produce Aisle Diet and Nutrition Leer en Español: Dieta y nutrición May. 24, ...

  9. Nutrition Guide for Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Nutrition Guide for Toddlers KidsHealth / For Parents / Nutrition Guide ... español Guía de nutrición para sus hijos pequeños Nutrition Through Variety Growth slows somewhat during the toddler ...

  10. Public Health Nutrition Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torheim, Liv Elin; Birgisdottir, Bryndis Eva; Robertson, Aileen

    2016-01-01

    , Oslo, Norway, 2Unit for Nutrition Research, Landspitali University Hospital , 3Department of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland, 4Global Nutrition and Health, Metropolitan University College, Copenhagen, Denmark, 5School of Hospitality, culinary arts and meal science...

  11. Nutrition for Sport Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutrition Foundation, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This guidebook presents basic facts about nutrition, focusing upon the nutritional needs of athletes. Information is given on: (1) the importance of water, salt and other electrolytes, and treating and preventing heat disorders; (2) nutrition for training and performance, the best diet, caloric and energy requirements for various and specific…

  12. Formation of copper-indium-selenide and/or copper-indium-gallium-selenide films from indium selenide and copper selenide precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Calvin J [Lakewood, CO; Miedaner, Alexander [Boulder, CO; Van Hest, Maikel [Lakewood, CO; Ginley, David S [Evergreen, CO; Nekuda, Jennifer A [Lakewood, CO

    2011-11-15

    Liquid-based indium selenide and copper selenide precursors, including copper-organoselenides, particulate copper selenide suspensions, copper selenide ethylene diamine in liquid solvent, nanoparticulate indium selenide suspensions, and indium selenide ethylene diamine coordination compounds in solvent, are used to form crystalline copper-indium-selenide, and/or copper indium gallium selenide films (66) on substrates (52).

  13. Use of copper radioisotopes in investigating disorders of copper metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camakaris, J.; Voskoboinik, I.; Brooks, H.; Greenough, M.; Smith, S.; Mercer, J.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Copper is an essential trace element for life as a number of vital enzymes require it. Copper deficiency can lead to neurological disorders, osteoporosis and weakening of arteries. However Cu is also highly toxic and homeostatic mechanisms have evolved to maintain Cu at levels which satisfy requirements but do not cause toxicity. Toxicity is mediated by the oxidative capacity of Cu and its ability to generate toxic free radicals. There are several acquired and inherited diseases due to either Cu toxicity or Cu deficiency. The study of these diseases facilitates identification of genes and proteins involved in copper homeostasis, and this in turn will provide rational therapeutic approaches. Our studies have focused on Menkes disease in humans which is an inherited and usually lethal copper deficiency. Using copper radioisotopes 64 Cu (t 1/2 = 12.8 hr) and 67 Cu (t 1/2 = 61 hr) we have studied the protein which is mutated in Menkes disease. This is a transmembrane copper pump which is responsible for absorption of copper into the body and also functions to pump out excess Cu from cells when Cu is elevated. It is therefore a vital component of normal Cu homeostasis. We have provided the first biochemical evidence that the Menkes protein functions as a P-type ATPase Cu pump (Voskoboinik et al., FEBS Letters, in press) and these data will be discussed. The assay involved pumping of radiocopper into purified membrane vesicles. Furthermore we have transfected normal and mutant Menkes genes into cells and are carrying out structure-function studies. We are also studying the role of amyloid precursor protein (APP) as a Cu transport protein in order to determine how Cu regulates this protein and its cleavage products. These studies will provide vital information on the relationship between Cu and APP and processes which lead to Alzheimers disease

  14. NID Copper Sample Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kouzes, Richard T.; Zhu, Zihua

    2011-02-01

    The current focal point of the nuclear physics program at PNNL is the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR, and the follow-on Tonne-Scale experiment, a large array of ultra-low background high-purity germanium detectors, enriched in 76Ge, designed to search for zero-neutrino double-beta decay (0νββ). This experiment requires the use of germanium isotopically enriched in 76Ge. The DEMONSTRATOR will utilize 76Ge from Russia, but for the Tonne-Scale experiment it is hoped that an alternate technology under development at Nonlinear Ion Dynamics (NID) will be a viable, US-based, lower-cost source of separated material. Samples of separated material from NID require analysis to determine the isotopic distribution and impurities. The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR is a DOE and NSF funded project with a major science impact. DOE is funding NID through an SBIR grant for development of their separation technology for application to the Tonne-Scale experiment. The Environmental Molecular Sciences facility (EMSL), a DOE user facility at PNNL, has the required mass spectroscopy instruments for making these isotopic measurements that are essential to the quality assurance for the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR and for the development of the future separation technology required for the Tonne-Scale experiment. A sample of isotopically separated copper was provided by NID to PNNL for isotopic analysis as a test of the NID technology. The results of that analysis are reported here.

  15. NID Copper Sample Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouzes, Richard T.; Zhu, Zihua

    2011-01-01

    The current focal point of the nuclear physics program at PNNL is the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR, and the follow-on Tonne-Scale experiment, a large array of ultra-low background high-purity germanium detectors, enriched in 76 Ge, designed to search for zero-neutrino double-beta decay (0νββ). This experiment requires the use of germanium isotopically enriched in 76 Ge. The DEMONSTRATOR will utilize 76 Ge from Russia, but for the Tonne-Scale experiment it is hoped that an alternate technology under development at Nonlinear Ion Dynamics (NID) will be a viable, US-based, lower-cost source of separated material. Samples of separated material from NID require analysis to determine the isotopic distribution and impurities. The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR is a DOE and NSF funded project with a major science impact. DOE is funding NID through an SBIR grant for development of their separation technology for application to the Tonne-Scale experiment. The Environmental Molecular Sciences facility (EMSL), a DOE user facility at PNNL, has the required mass spectroscopy instruments for making these isotopic measurements that are essential to the quality assurance for the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR and for the development of the future separation technology required for the Tonne-Scale experiment. A sample of isotopically separated copper was provided by NID to PNNL for isotopic analysis as a test of the NID technology. The results of that analysis are reported here.

  16. Metabolic oxidative stress elicited by the copper(II) complex [Cu(isaepy)2] triggers apoptosis in SH-SY5Y cells through the induction of the AMP-activated protein kinase/p38MAPK/p53 signalling axis: evidence for a combined use with 3-bromopyruvate in neuroblastoma treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filomeni, Giuseppe; Cardaci, Simone; Da Costa Ferreira, Ana Maria; Rotilio, Giuseppe; Ciriolo, Maria Rosa

    2011-08-01

    We have demonstrated previously that the complex bis[(2-oxindol-3-ylimino)-2-(2-aminoethyl)pyridine-N,N']copper(II), named [Cu(isaepy)(2)], induces AMPK (AMP-activated protein kinase)-dependent/p53-mediated apoptosis in tumour cells by targeting mitochondria. In the present study, we found that p38(MAPK) (p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase) is the molecular link in the phosphorylation cascade connecting AMPK to p53. Transfection of SH-SY5Y cells with a dominant-negative mutant of AMPK resulted in a decrease in apoptosis and a significant reduction in phospho-active p38(MAPK) and p53. Similarly, reverse genetics of p38(MAPK) yielded a reduction in p53 and a decrease in the extent of apoptosis, confirming an exclusive hierarchy of activation that proceeds via AMPK/p38(MAPK)/p53. Fuel supplies counteracted [Cu(isaepy)(2)]-induced apoptosis and AMPK/p38(MAPK)/p53 activation, with glucose being the most effective, suggesting a role for energetic imbalance in [Cu(isaepy)(2)] toxicity. Co-administration of 3BrPA (3-bromopyruvate), a well-known inhibitor of glycolysis, and succinate dehydrogenase, enhanced apoptosis and AMPK/p38(MAPK)/p53 signalling pathway activation. Under these conditions, no toxic effect was observed in SOD (superoxide dismutase)-overexpressing SH-SY5Y cells or in PCNs (primary cortical neurons), which are, conversely, sensitized to the combined treatment with [Cu(isaepy)(2)] and 3BrPA only if grown in low-glucose medium or incubated with the glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase inhibitor dehydroepiandrosterone. Overall, the results suggest that NADPH deriving from the pentose phosphate pathway contributes to PCN resistance to [Cu(isaepy)(2)] toxicity and propose its employment in combination with 3BrPA as possible tool for cancer treatment. © The Authors Journal compilation © 2011 Biochemical Society

  17. Improving Beneficiation of Copper and Iron from Copper Slag by Modifying the Molten Copper Slag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengqi Guo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, a new technology was developed to improve the beneficiation of copper and iron components from copper slag, by modifying the molten slag to promote the mineralization of valuable minerals and to induce the growth of mineral grains. Various parameters, including binary basicity, dosage of compound additive, modification temperature, cooling rate and the end point temperature of slow cooling were investigated. Meanwhile, optical microscope, scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive spectrometer (SEM-EDS was employed to determine the mineralogy of the modified and unmodified slag, as well as to reveal the mechanisms of enhancing beneficiation. The results show that under the proper conditions, the copper grade of rougher copper concentrate was increased from 6.43% to 11.04%, iron recovery of magnetic separation was increased significantly from 32.40% to 63.26%, and other evaluation indexes were changed slightly, in comparison with unmodified copper slag. Moreover, matte and magnetite grains in the modified slag aggregated together and grew obviously to the mean size of over 50 μm, resulting in an improvement of beneficiation of copper and iron.

  18. Enteral nutrition in surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sucha, R.; Lichvarova, I.; Duchon, R.; Dolnik, J.; Pindak, D.

    2011-01-01

    Enteral feeding provides physiologic, metabolic, safety, and cost benefits over parenteral nutrition. There are various ways enteral nutritional is administered and scheduled. The method of administration must be individualized to each patient's specific needs. Enteral nutrition is not only the supply of exogenous substrates and to prevent depletion of endogenous sources. Today the enteral nutrition becomes part of a therapeutic strategy to influence the severity of the disease to affect the function of GIT, and to modulate immune responses of the gut and the whole organism. Early enteral nutrition in the postoperative period reduces the risk of infectious complications. (author)

  19. Renal cortex copper concentration in acute copper poisoning in calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis E. Fazzio

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to estimate the diagnostic value of renal cortex copper (Cu concentration in clinical cases of acute copper poisoning (ACP. A total of 97 calves that died due to subcutaneous copper administration were compiled in eleven farms. At least, one necropsy was conducted on each farm and samples for complementary analysis were taken. The degree of autolysis in each necropsy was evaluated. The cases appeared on extensive grazing calf breeding and intensive feedlot farms, in calves of 60 to 200 kg body weight. Mortality varied from 0.86 to 6.96 %, on the farms studied. The first succumbed calf was found on the farms between 6 and 72 hours after the susbcutaneous Cu administration. As discrepancies regarding the reference value arose, the local value (19.9 parts per million was used, confirming the diagnosis of acute copper poisoning in 93% of the analyzed kidney samples. These results confirm the value of analysis of the cortical kidney Cu concentration for the diagnosis of acute copper poisoning.

  20. Copper metallurgy at the crossroads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habashi F.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Copper technology changed from the vertical to the horizontal furnace and from the roast reaction to converting towards the end of the last century. However, the horizontal furnace proved to be an inefficient and polluting reactor. As a result many attempts were made to replace it. In the past 50 years new successful melting processes were introduced on an industrial scale that were more energy efficient and less polluting. In addition, smelting and converting were conducted in a single reactor in which the concentrate was fed and the raw copper was produced. The standing problem in many countries, however, is marketing 3 tonnes of sulfuric acid per tonne of copper produced as well as emitting large amounts of excess SO2 in the atmosphere. Pressure hydrometallurgy offers the possibility of liberating the copper industry from SO2 problem. Heap leaching technology has become a gigantic operation. Combined with solvent extraction and electrowinning it contributes today to about 20% of copper production and is expected to grow. Pressure leaching offers the possibility of liberating the copper industry from SO2 problem. The technology is over hundred years old. It is applied for leaching a variety of ores and concentrates. Hydrothermal oxidation of sulfide concentrates has the enormous advantage of producing elemental sulfur, hence solving the SO2 and sulfuric acid problems found in smelters. Precipitation of metals such as nickel and cobalt under hydrothermal conditions has been used for over 50 years. It has the advantage of a compact plant but the disadvantage of producing ammonium sulfate as a co-product. In case of copper, however, precipitation takes place without the need of neutralizing the acid, which is a great advantage and could be an excellent substitute for electrowinning which is energy intensive and occupies extensive space. Recent advances in the engineering aspects of pressure equipment design open the door widely for increased

  1. Effect of copper sulphate supplementation on performance of broiler chickens, cholesterol content and fatty acid profile of meat

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Skřivan, M.; Ševčíková, S.; Tůmová, E.; Skřivanová, V.; Marounek, Milan

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 7 (2002), s. 275-280 ISSN 1212-1819 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK5020115 Grant - others:GA NATO(XX) MO2-99-04 Keywords : broiler * copper sulphate * quality of meat Subject RIV: GH - Livestock Nutrition Impact factor: 0.187, year: 2002

  2. Investigation of copper nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delfini, M.G.

    1983-01-01

    An extensive study has been performed on copper isotopes in the mass region A=63-66. The results of a precise measurement are presented on the properties of levels of 64 Cu and 66 Cu. They were obtained by bombarding the 63 Cu and 65 Cu nuclei with neutrons. The gamma spectra collected after capture of thermal, 2-keV, 24-keV neutrons have been analysed and combined to give a rather extensive set of precise level energies and gamma transition strengths. From the angular distribution of the gamma rays it is possible to obtain information concerning the angular momentum J of several low-lying states. The level schemes derived from such measurements have been used as a test for calculations in the framework of the shell model. The spectral distributions of eigenstates in 64 Cu for different configuration spaces are presented and discussed. In this study the relative importance of configurations with n holes in the 1f7/2 shell with n up to 16, are investigated. It is found that the results strongly depend on the values of the single-particle energies. The results of the spectral-distribution method were utilized for shell-model calculations. From the information obtained from the spectral analysis it was decided to adopt a configuration space which includes up to one hole in the 1f7/2 shell and up to two particles in the 1g9/2 shell. Further, restrictions on seniority and on the coupling of the two particles in the 1g9/2 orbit have been applied and their effects have been studied. It is found that the calculated excitation energies reproduce the measured values in a satisfactory way, but that some of the electromagnetic properties are less well in agreement with experimental data. (Auth.)

  3. LIGNOCELLULOSE NANOCOMPOSITE CONTAINING COPPER SULFIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanchi Nenkova

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Copper sulfide-containing lignocellulose nanocomposites with improved electroconductivity were obtained. Two methods for preparing the copper sulfide lignocellulose nanocomposites were developed. An optimization of the parameters for obtaining of the nanocomposites with respect to obtaining improved electroconductivity, economy, and lower quantities and concentration of copper and sulfur ions in waste waters was conducted. The mechanisms and schemes of delaying and subsequent connection of copper sulfides in the lignocellulosic matrix were investigated. The modification with a system of 2 components: cupric sulfate pentahydrate (CuSO4. 5H2O and sodium thiosulfate pentahydrate (Na2S2O3.5H2O for wood fibers is preferred. Optimal parameters were established for the process: 40 % of the reduction system; hydromodule M=1:6; and ratio of cupric sulfate pentahydrate:sodium thiosulfate pentahydrate = 1:2. The coordinative connection of copper ions with oxygen atoms of cellulose OH groups and aromatic nucleus in lignin macromolecule was observed.

  4. Current trends in copper theft prevention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mastrofrancesco, A. [Electrical Safety Authority, ON (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Copper is used in electrical wiring, water and gas piping, currency, and in household items. An increase in the price and demand for copper has made copper theft a profitable venture for some thieves. Copper consumed in North America is typically supplied by recycling. Scrap dealers may pay near-market prices for pure copper wires. However, copper theft poses a serious threat to the safety of utility workers and the public. Power outages caused by copper theft are now affecting grid reliability. This paper examined technologies and techniques used to prevent copper theft as part of a security strategy for utilities. Attempts to steal copper can leave utility substations unsecured and accessible to children. The theft of neutral grounds will cause the local distribution company (LDC) to malfunction and may cause power surges in homes as well as appliance fires. Utilities are now looking at using a hybrid steel and copper alternative to prevent copper theft. Asset identification techniques are also being used to identify the original owners of the copper and more easily prosecute thieves. Automated monitoring techniques are also being used to increase substation security. Utilities are also partnering with law enforcement agencies and pressuring governments to require scrap dealers to record who they buy from. It was concluded that strategies to prevent copper theft should be considered as part of an overall security strategy for utilities. tabs., figs.

  5. Signal Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    SIGNAL WORDS TOPIC FACT SHEET NPIC fact sheets are designed to answer questions that are commonly asked by the ... making decisions about pesticide use. What are Signal Words? Signal words are found on pesticide product labels, ...

  6. Optimal copper supply is required for normal plant iron deficiency responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Brian M; Armbrust, Laura C

    2013-01-01

    Iron (Fe) and copper (Cu) homeostasis are tightly linked across biology. Understanding crosstalk between Fe and Cu nutrition could lead to strategies for improved growth on soils with low or excess metals, with implications for agriculture and phytoremediation. Here, we show that Cu and Fe nutrition interact to increase or decrease Fe and/or Cu accumulation in leaves and Fe uptake processes. Leaf Cu concentration increased under low Fe supply, while high Cu lowered leaf Fe concentration. Ferric reductase activity, an indicator of Fe demand, was inhibited at insufficient or high Cu supply. Surprisingly, plants grown without Fe were more susceptible to Cu toxicity.

  7. Mechanochemical reduction of copper sulfide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balaz, P.; Takacs, L.; Jiang, Jianzhong

    2002-01-01

    The mechanochemical reduction of copper sulfide with iron was induced in a Fritsch P-6 planetary mill, using WC vial filled with argon and WC balls. Samples milled for specific intervals were analyzed by XRD and Mossbauer spectroscopy. Most of the reaction takes place during the first 10 min...... of milling and only FeS and Cu are found after 60 min. The main chemical process is accompanied by phase transformations of the sulfide phases as a result of milling. Djurleite partially transformed to chalcocite and a tetragonal copper sulfide phase before reduction. The cubic modification of FeS was formed...... first, transforming to hexagonal during the later stages of the process. The formation of off-stoichiometric phases and the release of some elemental sulfur by copper sulfide are also probable....

  8. Laser sintering of copper nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zenou, Michael; Saar, Amir; Ermak, Oleg; Kotler, Zvi

    2014-01-01

    Copper nanoparticle (NP) inks serve as an attractive potential replacement to silver NP inks in functional printing applications. However their tendency to rapidly oxidize has so far limited their wider use. In this work we have studied the conditions for laser sintering of Cu-NP inks in ambient conditions while avoiding oxidation. We have determined the regime for stable, low-resistivity copper (< ×3 bulk resistivity value) generation in terms of laser irradiance and exposure duration and have indicated the limits on fast processing. The role of pre-drying conditions on sintering outcome has also been studied. A method, based on spectral reflectivity measurements, was used for non-contact monitoring of the sintering process evolution. It also indicates preferred spectral regions for sintering. Finally, we illustrated how selective laser sintering can generate high-quality, fine line (<5 µm wide) and dense copper circuits. (paper)

  9. Copper tolerance of Trichoderma species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovičić-Petrović Jelena

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Some Trichoderma strains can persist in ecosystems with high concentrations of heavy metals. The aim of this research was to examine the variability of Trichoderma strains isolated from different ecosystems, based on their morphological properties and restriction analysis of ITS fragments. The fungal growth was tested on potato dextrose agar, amended with Cu(II concentrations ranging from 0.25 to 10 mmol/l, in order to identify copper-resistant strains. The results indicate that some isolated strains of Trichoderma sp. show tolerance to higher copper concentrations. Further research to examine the ability of copper bioaccumulation by tolerant Trichoderma strains is needed. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31080 i br. III 43010

  10. Biliary copper excretion by hepatocyte lysosomes in the rat. Major excretory pathway in experimental copper overload

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, J.B. Jr.; Myers, B.M.; Kost, L.J.; Kuntz, S.M.; LaRusso, N.F.

    1989-01-01

    We investigated the hypothesis that lysosomes are the main source of biliary copper in conditions of hepatic copper overload. We used a rat model of oral copper loading and studied the relationship between the biliary output of copper and lysosomal hydrolases. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were given tap water with or without 0.125% copper acetate for up to 36 wk. Copper loading produced a 23-fold increase in the hepatic copper concentration and a 30-65% increase in hepatic lysosomal enzyme activity. Acid phosphatase histochemistry showed that copper-loaded livers contained an increased number of hepatocyte lysosomes; increased copper concentration of these organelles was confirmed directly by both x ray microanalysis and tissue fractionation. The copper-loaded rats showed a 16-fold increase in biliary copper output and a 50-300% increase in biliary lysosomal enzyme output. In the basal state, excretory profiles over time were similar for biliary outputs of lysosomal enzymes and copper in the copper-loaded animals but not in controls. After pharmacologic stimulation of lysosomal exocytosis, biliary outputs of copper and lysosomal hydrolases in the copper-loaded animals remained coupled: injection of colchicine or vinblastine produced an acute rise in the biliary output of both lysosomal enzymes and copper to 150-250% of baseline rates. After these same drugs, control animals showed only the expected increase in lysosomal enzyme output without a corresponding increase in copper output. We conclude that the hepatocyte responds to an increased copper load by sequestering excess copper in an increased number of lysosomes that then empty their contents directly into bile. The results provide direct evidence that exocytosis of lysosomal contents into biliary canaliculi is the major mechanism for biliary copper excretion in hepatic copper overload

  11. Figurines in Pietrele: Copper Age ideology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svend Hansen

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Major trends in figurine production of the copper age settlement of Pietrele (Romania are discussed. The bone figurines are seen as an ideological innovation of the Early Copper Age system in the Eastern Balkans.

  12. Human copper transporter 2 is localized in late endosomes and lysosomes and facilitates cellular copper uptake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berghe, van den P.V.E; Folmer, D.E.; Malingré, H.E.M.; Beurden, van E.; Klomp, A.E.M.; Sluis, van de B.; Merkx, M.; Berger, R.J.; Klomp, L.W.J.

    2007-01-01

    High-affinity cellular copper uptake is mediated by the CTR (copper transporter) 1 family of proteins. The highly homologous hCTR (human CTR) 2 protein has been identified, but its function in copper uptake is currently unknown. To characterize the role of hCTR2 in copper homoeostasis,

  13. Copper nitrate redispersion to arrive at highly active silica-supported copper catalysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munnik, P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/328228524; Wolters, M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304829560; Gabrielsson, A.; Pollington, S.D.; Headdock, G.; Bitter, J.H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/160581435; de Jongh, P.E.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/186125372; de Jong, K.P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/06885580X

    2011-01-01

    In order to obtain copper catalysts with high dispersions at high copper loadings, the gas flow rate and gas composition was varied during calcination of silica gel impregnated with copper nitrate to a loading of 18 wt % of copper. Analysis by X-ray diffraction (XRD), N2O chemisorption, and

  14. Copper and Anesthesia: Clinical Relevance and Management of Copper Related Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Langley, Adrian; Dameron, Charles T.

    2013-01-01

    Recent research has implicated abnormal copper homeostasis in the underlying pathophysiology of several clinically important disorders, some of which may be encountered by the anesthetist in daily clinical practice. The purpose of this narrative review is to summarize the physiology and pharmacology of copper, the clinical implications of abnormal copper metabolism, and the subsequent influence of altered copper homeostasis on anesthetic management.

  15. 21 CFR 73.1125 - Potassium sodium copper chloropyhllin (chlorophyllin-copper complex).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium sodium copper chloropyhllin (chlorophyllin-copper complex). 73.1125 Section 73.1125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT....1125 Potassium sodium copper chloropyhllin (chlorophyllin-copper complex). (a) Identity. (1) The color...

  16. 21 CFR 73.2125 - Potassium sodium copper chlorophyllin (chlorophyllin-copper complex).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium sodium copper chlorophyllin (chlorophyllin-copper complex). 73.2125 Section 73.2125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... § 73.2125 Potassium sodium copper chlorophyllin (chlorophyllin-copper complex). (a) Identity and...

  17. Refining processes in the copper casting technology

    OpenAIRE

    Rzadkosz, S.; Kranc, M.; Garbacz-Klempka, A.; Kozana, J.; Piękoś, M.

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents the analysis of technology of copper and alloyed copper destined for power engineering casts. The casts quality was assessed based on microstructure, chemical content analysis and strength properties tests. Characteristic deoxidising (Logas, Cup) and modifying (ODM2, Kupmod2) formulas were used for the copper where high electrical conductivity was required. Chosen examples of alloyed copper with varied Cr and Zr content were studied, and the optimal heat treatment parameter...

  18. 21 CFR 184.1261 - Copper sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Copper sulfate. 184.1261 Section 184.1261 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1261 Copper sulfate. (a) Copper sulfate (cupric sulfate, CuSO4·5H2O, CAS... the reaction of sulfuric acid with cupric oxide or with copper metal. (b) The ingredient must be of a...

  19. The Bauschinger Effect in Copper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ole Bøcker; Brown, L .M.; Stobbs, W. M.

    1981-01-01

    A study of the Bauschinger effect in pure copper shows that by comparison with dispersion hardened copper the effect is very small and independent of temperature. This suggests that the obstacles to flow are deformable. A simple composite model based on this principle accounts for the data semi......-quantitatively and also accounts for the stored energy of cold-work. An interesting feature of the model is that it shows very clearly that, although dislocation pile-ups may exist, the flow stress of the composite is entirely due to the resistance to dislocation motion in the tangles of forest dislocations....

  20. Cupriferous peat: embryonic copper ore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraser, D C

    1961-07-01

    A Canadian peat was found to contain up to 10% (dry weight) Cu, and a mechanism for Cu accumulation in peat was discussed. Wet chemical techniques and x-ray diffraction were utilized to identify Cu compounds. Copper was organically bound in peat as a chelate complex and did not occur as an oxide, sulfide, or as elemental Cu. Because of the low S content of peat the Cu was assumed to be bound to nitrogen or oxygen-containing components. Copper, having a greater affinity for N, tended to form the more stable Cu-N chelate. The element was concentrated as circulating cupriferous ground waters filtered through the peat.

  1. Tunable synthesis of copper nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaniukov, E; Yakimchuk, D; Kozlovsky, A; Shlimas, D; Zdorovets, M; Kadyrzhanov, K

    2016-01-01

    Simple method of tunable synthesis of copper nanotubes based on template synthesis was developed. A comprehensive study of the structural, morphological and electrical characteristics of the obtained nanostructures was carried out. Characterization of structural features was made by methods of scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy and X-ray diffractometry analysis. Evaluation of wall thickness is made by methods of gas permeability. Electrical conductivity of nanotubes was define in the study of their current-voltage characteristics. The possibility to control of copper nanotubes physical properties by variation of the deposition parameters was shown. (paper)

  2. Optimizing patient nutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geiker, Nina Rica Wium

    (Paper I). The present study is, to my knowledge, the only study investigating the validity of performed nutritional risk screenings by comparing them with medical records. Eight per cent of patients were correctly screened for nutritional risk. A total of 24% of 2393 patients were nutritionally screened......Malnutrition, under-nutrition and/or obesity, may develop due to disease but may also cause disease. The prevalence of under-nutrition among hospitalized patients is high: 40-60% are either already under-nourished on admittance or at-risk of becoming malnourished. As in the general population...... of prescription medication, and take longer to recover. Acknowledging the adverse effects of malnutrition on health, since 2006 it has been mandatory to screen all patients for nutritional risk within 24 hours of admittance at all hospitals in the Capital Region, Denmark. The compliance to and the validity...

  3. Evaluation of iron, zinc, copper, manganese and selenium in oral hospital diets.

    OpenAIRE

    Moreira, Daniele Caroline Faria; Sá, Júlia Sommerlatte Manzoli de; Cerqueira, Isabel B.; Oliveira, Ana P. F. de; Morgano, Marcelo Antonio; Quintaes, Késia Diego

    2013-01-01

    Background & aims: Many trace elements are nutrients essential to humans, acting in the metabolism as constituents or as enzymatic co-factors. The iron, zinc, copper, manganese and selenium contents of hospital diets (regular, blend and soft) and of oral food complement (OFC) were determined, evaluating the adequacy of each element in relation to the nutritional recommendations (DRIs) and the percent contribution alone and with OFC. Methods: Duplicate samples were taken of six daily meals ...

  4. Electrical conduction in composites containing copper core–copper ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    of Mott's small polaron hopping conduction model. ... sample exhibited a metallic conduction confirming the formation of a percolative chain of ..... value of εp. Also the oxide layer formation on the initially unoxidized copper particles will increase the resistivity level of the nanocomposite. This is borne out by results shown in ...

  5. 21 CFR 73.2647 - Copper powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Copper powder. 73.2647 Section 73.2647 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2647 Copper powder. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive copper powder shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 73...

  6. Nutritional assessment of athletes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Driskell, Judy A; Wolinsky, Ira

    2011-01-01

    "Evaluating dietary intake, determining energy metabolism, and conducting other nutritional assessments are essential in understanding the relationships between diet, exercise, health, and physical...

  7. Introduction to clinical nutrition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sardesai, Vishwanath M

    2012-01-01

    .... Introduction to Clinical Nutrition, Third edition discusses the physiologic and metabolic interrelationships of all nutrients and their roles in health maintenance and the prevention of various...

  8. What Is Enteral Nutrition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Solution Center NOVEL Project Parenteral Nutrition Resources Intravenous Lipid Emulsions (ILE) Video Series SmartPN Practice and Research Toolkits Publications & ASPEN Journals Journal of Parenteral and ...

  9. European consumers and nutrition labelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wills, Josephine M.; Grunert, Klaus G.; Celemín, Laura Fernández

    2009-01-01

    Nutrition labelling of food in Europe is not compulsory, unless a nutrition or health claim is made for the product. The European Commission is proposing mandatory nutrition labelling, even front of pack labelling with nutrition information. Yet, how widespread is nutrition labelling in the EU...

  10. The Copper Metabolism MURR1 Domain protein 1 (COMMD1) modulates the aggregation of misfolded protein species in a client-specific manner

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.I.M. Vonk (Willianne I.); V. Kakkar (Vaishali); P. Bartuzi (Paulina); D. Jaarsma (Dick); R. Berger (Ruud); M.A. Hofker (Marten); L.W.J. Klomp (Leo W.); C. Wijmenga (Cisca); H. Kampinga (Harm); B. van de Sluis (Bart)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractThe Copper Metabolism MURR1 domain protein 1 (COMMD1) is a protein involved in multiple cellular pathways, including copper homeostasis, NF-κB and hypoxia signalling. Acting as a scaffold protein, COMMD1 mediates the levels, stability and proteolysis of its substrates (e.g. the

  11. Food & Nutrition: Nourish Your Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food & Nutrition: Nourish Your Body; food & nutrition; food and nutrition; food and nutrition articles; information about nutrition; health & nutrition; health and nutrition; health and nutrition articles; health and nutrition facts; health nutrition; nutrition and health; nutrition health; nutrition health articles; healthy; a healthy diet; diet healthy; eating healthy; healthy diet; healthy diets; nutrition diet; diet and nutrition; diet and nutrition articles; diet and nutrition article; diet nutrition; nutrition and diet; article on nutrition; article about nutrition; articles on nutrition; facts about nutrition; good nutrition; nutrition article; nutrition articles; healthy tips; eat healthy tips; eating healthy tips; healthy diet tips; healthy eating tip; healthy eating tips; healthy food tips; should eat; reasons why you should eat healthy; why people should eat healthy; why should I eat healthy; why should people eat healthy; why should we eat healthy; why should you eat healthy; why we should eat healthy; why you should eat healthy; healthy diet; a healthy diet; diets healthy eating; eat a healthy diet; eat healthy diet; eating a healthy diet; eating healthy diet; eating healthy diets; healthy diet; way to eat; best way to eat healthy; easy way to eat healthy; easy ways to eat healthy; healthy way of eating; healthy way to eat; healthy ways of eating; healthy ways to eat; ways to eat healthy; benefits; benefits eating healthy; benefits for eating healthy; benefits from eating healthy; benefits of eating healthy; benefits of healthy eating; benefits on eating healthy; benefits to eating healthy; eating healthy benefits; health benefits of eating healthy; eat healthier; eat healthier; eating healthier; healthier eating; healthier ways to eat; how can I eat healthier; how do I eat healthier; how to eat healthier; how to start eating healthier; tips to eat healthier; ways to start eating healthier

  12. Immediate preoperative enteral nutrition (preoperative enteral nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lađević Nebojša

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nutritional support of surgical patients is a necessary part of the treatment. It alone cannot cure the disease but it significantly affects the recovery of patients and supports surgical interventions. Patients in malnutrition have shown to have significantly more postoperative infectious and non-infectious complications. This significantly prolongs treatment time and increases costs. However, there is one fact that cannot be expressed in money, which is the patient's impression of the surgical intervention. Adequate preoperative patient support, based on the intake of liquid nutritive solutions, reduces preoperative stress and deflects the metabolic response. Now, it is recommended for adults and children older than one year to drink clear liquid up to 2 hours before induction in anesthesia. Appropriate enteral nutrition has a significant place in the postoperative recovery of patients. Enteral nutrition is reducing complications, mainly infectious complications because the function of the digestive system as one large immune system is preserved. Perioperative enteral nutrition is a necessary part of the modern treatment of surgical patients. In addition to the significant effect on the occurrence of postoperative complications, it is also important that this type of diet improves the psychological status of patients.

  13. Clinical relevance of trace element measurement in patients on initiation of parenteral nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salota, Rashim; Omar, Sohail; Sherwood, Roy A; Raja, Kishor; Vincent, Royce P

    2016-11-01

    Background and Aims Serum zinc, copper and selenium are measured in patients prior to commencing on parenteral nutrition; however, their interpretation can be difficult due to acute phase reactions. We assessed (i) the relationship of raised C-reactive protein with trace elements and albumin (ii) benefits of measuring trace elements when C-reactive protein is raised in patients requiring short-term parenteral nutrition. Methods Samples were collected for zinc, copper, selenium and albumin at baseline and then every two weeks and correlated with C-reactive protein results in patients on parenteral nutrition. Results were categorized into four groups based on the C-reactive protein concentrations: (i)  0.05), whereas selenium and albumin were lower in the group with C-reactive protein > 40 mg/L ( P parenteral nutrition, measurement of C-reactive protein is essential when interpreting zinc and selenium but not copper results. Routine measurement of trace elements prior to commencing parenteral nutrition has to be considered on an individual basis in patients with inflammation.

  14. Copper nanoparticles in zeolite Y

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seidel, A.; Loos, J.; Boddenberg, B.

    1999-01-01

    CuCl has been dispersed in the supercages of a Y-type zeolite by heating a mechanical salt/host mixture in vacuo. The occluded salt was subsequently reduced to copper metal in a hydrogen atmosphere. Virtually complete reduction of the salt is achieved at 460°C. Under the same conditions,

  15. Effects of copper on mitosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostal, L

    1971-01-01

    The author deals with the effects of copper on mitosis. He found that a Cu concentration of 1 mg per liter is very toxic and strongly inhibits the course of mitosis in Vicia fabia. The effects of 0.5 mg and 0.25 mg Cu concentrations per liter were similar but a much weaker character.

  16. Copper complexes as chemical nucleases

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    anticancer drug famotidine has been shown as a better catalyst than CuCl2 for sulfite ... Effect of addition of bis-chelate copper(II) complexes (dpq, •; phen, ; ..... Reproduction, Development & Genetics for their help in the DNA cleavage studies ...

  17. Copper, lead and zinc production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayers, J.; Ternan, S.

    2001-01-01

    This chapter provides information on the by-products and residues generated during the production of copper, lead and zinc. The purpose of this chapter is to describe by-products and residues which are generated, how these may be avoided or minimised, and available options for the utilization and management of residues. (author)

  18. on THICKNESS OF COPPER (|) OXIDE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-12-20

    Dec 20, 2006 ... known materials to be used as semiconductor devices. The oxide is. Observed to be an attractive starting material for the production of solar cells for low cost terrestrial conversion of solar energy to electricity. Copper (I) oxide is one Of the earliest known photovoltaic materials and the first in which the ...

  19. Lab Tracker and Copper Calculator

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have to do with factors of asymmetric neurologic development, such as being right or left-handed. The copper is often seen most prominently in the basal ganglia, the area deep within the brain that coordinates movements. The face of the giant ...

  20. Crystallization of copper metaphosphate glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Byeong-Soo; Weinberg, Michael C.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of the valence state of copper in copper metaphosphate glass on the crystallization behavior and glass transition temperature has been investigated. The crystallization of copper metaphosphate is initiated from the surface and its main crystalline phase is copper metaphosphate (Cu(PO)3),independent of the (Cu sup 2+)/(Cu(total)). However, the crystal morphology, the relative crystallization rates, and their temperature dependences are affected by the (Cu sup 2+)/(Cu (total)) ratio in the glass. On the other hand, the totally oxidized glass crystallizes from all over the surface. The relative crystallization rate of the reduced glass to the totally oxidized glass is large at low temperature, but small at high temperature. The glass transition temperature of the glass increases as the (Cu sup 2+)/(Cu(total)) ratio is raised. It is also found that the atmosphere used during heat treatment does not influence the crystallization of the reduced glass, except for the formation of a very thin CuO surface layer when heated in air.

  1. COPPER CORROSION AND SOLUBILITY RESEARCH

    Science.gov (United States)

    This poster provides a very cursory summary of TTEB in-house copper research experimental systems, and extramural research projects. The field studies summarized are the Indian Hill (OH) study of the use of orthophosphate for reducing cuprosolvency in a high alkalinity water, an...

  2. Spectroscopic studies of copper enzymes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dooley, D.M.; Moog, R.; Zumft, W.; Koenig, S.H.; Scott, R.A.; Cote, C.E.; McGuirl, M.

    1986-01-01

    Several spectroscopic methods, including absorption, circular dichroism (CD), magnetic CD (MCD), X-ray absorption, resonance Raman, EPR, NMR, and quasi-elastic light-scattering spectroscopy, have been used to probe the structures of copper-containing amine oxidases, nitrite reductase, and nitrous oxide reductase. The basic goals are to determine the copper site structure, electronic properties, and to generate structure-reactivity correlations. Collectively, the results on the amine oxidases permit a detailed model for the Cu(II) sites in these enzymes to be constructed that, in turn, rationalizes the ligand-binding chemistry. Resonance Raman spectra of the phenylhydrazine and 2,4-dinitrophenyl-hydrazine derivatives of bovine plasma amine oxidase and models for its organic cofactor, e.g. pyridoxal, methoxatin, are most consistent with methoxatin being the intrinsic cofactor. The structure of the Cu(I) forms of the amine oxidases have been investigated by X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS); the copper coordination geometry is significantly different in the oxidized and reduced forms. Some anomalous properties of the amine oxidases in solution are explicable in terms of their reversible aggregation, which the authors have characterized via light scattering. Nitrite and nitrous oxide reductases display several novel spectral properties. The data suggest that new types of copper sites are present

  3. A Study of Protection of Copper Alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, E. A.; Kim, S. H.; Kim, C. R.

    1974-01-01

    Volatile treatment of high capacity boiler water with hydrazine and ammonia is studied. Ammonia comes from the decomposition of excess hydrazine injected to treat dissolved oxygen. Ammonia is also injected for the control of pH. To find an effect of such ammonia on the copper alloy, the relations between pH and iron, and ammonia and copper are studied. Since the dependence of corrosion of iron on pH differs from that of copper, a range of pH was selected experimentally to minimize the corrosion rates of both copper and iron. Corrosion rates of various copper alloys are also compared

  4. Electrochemical remediation of copper contaminated clay soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korolev, V.A.; Babakina, O.A.; Mitojan, R.A. [Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation)

    2001-07-01

    The study objective focused on electrochemical remediation copper polluted soils in the presence of adjuvant substances and conditions that are more effective for the treatment. Some of these substances were studied in different researches. Moreover, authors obtained a result of extraction copper rate higher than 90%. In this connection the following problems were set: - Influence organic and inorganic substances on copper mobility in soil under the DC current. - Moisture effect on copper migration in clay. - Electrochemical remediation soils different mineralogical composition. - A washing conditions contribution to electrochemical remediation of soil from copper. - Accuracy rating experimental dates. (orig.)

  5. Tribological properties of copper-based composites with copper coated NbSe2 and CNT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Beibei; Yang, Jin; Zhang, Qing; Huang, Hong; Li, Hongping; Tang, Hua; Li, Changsheng

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Morphology of copper coated NbSe 2 and CNT; friction coefficient and wear rate of copper-based composites. - Highlights: • NbSe 2 and CNT were coated with copper layers by the means of electroless plating. • The mechanical and tribological properties of copper composites were studied. • The enhancement mechanisms of copper coated NbSe 2 and CNT were proposed. • Copper–copper coated (12 wt.%NbSe 2 –3 wt.%CNT) composite had the best wear resistance. - Abstract: Copper-based composites with copper coated NbSe 2 and/or CNT were fabricated by the powder metallurgy technique. The morphology and phase composition of copper coated NbSe 2 and carbon nanotube (CNT) were observed using high solution transmission electronic microscope (HRTEM), scanning electronic microscope (SEM equipped with EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The density, hardness, and bending strength of as-prepared copper-based composites were measured, and their tribological properties were investigated using UMT-2 tester. Results indicated that all copper-based composites showed decreased density and bending strength, but increased hardness in comparison with copper matrix. Besides, the incorporation of copper coated NbSe 2 improved the friction-reducing and anti-wear properties of copper matrix. Addition of copper coated CNT greatly enhanced the mechanical and tribological properties. In particular, when the content of copper coated CNT was 3 wt.%, the corresponding composite exhibited the best tribological properties. This was because NbSe 2 was distributed chaotically in matrix, which greatly improved the friction-reducing property of copper, while CNT with superior mechanical strength enhanced the wear resistance by increasing the load-carrying capacity. More importantly, copper layers coated on NbSe 2 and CNT favored the good interfacial combination between fillers and copper matrix showing beneficial effect for the stresses transferring from matrix to fillers

  6. [Chrono-nutrition and chrono-exercise].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Shigenobu; Sasaki, Hiroyuki; Ikeda, Yuko

    2013-12-01

    The circadian rhythm controls many physiological functions, such as feeding, motor activity, endocrine secretion and autonomic nerve. Regular feeding pattern can entrain the peripheral circadian clock, whereas peripheral clock systems can control the absorption distribution, metabolism and excretion of nutrients, suggesting mutual interactions between circadian clocks and nutrition/food. The interactions were so-called by "chrono-nutrition", and bigger meals for breakfast were good for entrainment of peripheral clock and protection of obesity. Similar to chrono-nutrition the timing of exercise ("chrono-exercise") is important for both entrainment signals and energy expenditure. Evening exercise and/or feeding then exercise was good timing exercise for protection of obesity. Taken all, it is suggested that timing of feeding and exercise is now one of key factors for metabolic syndrome.

  7. Diet and Nutrition (Parkinson's Disease)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Living With Parkinson's › Managing Parkinson's › Diet & Nutrition Diet & Nutrition 1. Maintain Health 2. Ease PD Symptoms 3. ... your team Seek reliable information about diet and nutrition from your medical team and local resources. Please ...

  8. Systems biology of personalized nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ommen, B. van; Broek, T. van den; Hoogh, I. de; Erk, M. van; Someren, E. van; Rouhani-Rankouhi, T.; Anthony, J.C.; Hogenelst, K.; Pasman, W.; Boorsma, A.; Wopereis, S.

    2017-01-01

    Personalized nutrition is fast becoming a reality due to a number of technological, scientific, and societal developments that complement and extend current public health nutrition recommendations. Personalized nutrition tailors dietary recommendations to specific biological requirements on the

  9. Development of flow injection method for indirect copper determination with amperometric detection in drinking water samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić-Mandić Snežana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A gas-diffusion flow injection method with amperometric detection for indirect copper determination on a silver electrode is developed. The flow through system is equipped with two injection valves and a gas-diffusion unit. In the first step, a signal of cyanide solution was recorded. In the following step a signal of cyanide in the presence of copper was measured. Interferences (Cd(II, Co(II, Ag(I, Ni(II, Fe(III, Hg(II and Zn(II were investigated and successfully removed. The calibration graph is linear in the range 1-90 μmol dm-3 of copper, correlation coefficient is 0.993, the regression equation is I = (0.0455±0.0015c + (0.4611±0.0671, I is relative signal decrease in μA and c is concentration in μmol dm-3. Relative standard deviation for six consecutive injections of 30 μmol dm-3 copper(II was 1.47 % and for 1 μmol dm-3 copper(II was 3.40 %. The detection limit, calculated as 3 s/m (where s is a standard deviation of nine measurement of a reagent blank and m is the slope of the calibration curve, was 0.32 μmol dm-3, which corresponds to 2.44 ng of copper(II (loop volume was 0.12 cm3. The method enables 60 analyses per hour and it was successfully applied on determination of copper in drinking water samples. [Acknowledgements. The authors acknowledge the grant from the Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Serbia, Project number 172051

  10. [Nutrition and oropharyngeal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampman, E.

    2008-01-01

    The conclusion of a recent systematic review of the literature on the relation between nutrition, physical activity and cancer is that more than 30% of all cases of cancer can be prevented by improving nutrition and increasing physical activity. In The Netherlands, 1 out of 100 men and 1 out of 160

  11. Nutrition and allergic diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neerven, van R.J.J.; Savelkoul, Huub

    2017-01-01

    The development of IgE-mediated allergic diseases is influenced by many factors, including genetic and environmental factors such as pollution and farming, but also by nutrition. In the last decade, substantial progress has been made in our understanding of the impact that nutrition can have on

  12. Geological impacts on nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter reviews the nutritional roles of mineral elements, as part of a volume on health implications of geology. The chapter addresses the absorption and post-absorptive utilization of the nutritionally essential minerals, including their physiological functions and quantitative requirements....

  13. Insects and human nutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roos, Nanna

    2018-01-01

    Despite high diversity in species as well as metamorphological life-­stages, edible insects are essentially an animal-source food contributing high quality protein and fat when viewed in the context of human nutrition. The nutritional contribution of insects to diets in populations where insects ...

  14. You Score With Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dow, Ruth McNabb

    1976-01-01

    The leader's guide and student activity booklet contain learning activities, ideas, information, games, and resources for nutrition instruction designed to appeal to the interests of teens and pre-teens and to improve their knowledge of nutrition and their eating habits. (MS)

  15. Reactivity test between beryllium and copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, H.; Kato, M.

    1995-01-01

    Beryllium has been expected for using as plasma facing material on ITER. And, copper alloy has been proposed as heat sink material behind plasma facing components. Therefore, both materials must be joined. However, the elementary process of reaction between beryllium and copper alloy does not clear in detail. For example, other authors reported that beryllium reacted with copper at high temperature, but it was not obvious about the generation of reaction products and increasing of the reaction layer. In the present work, from this point, for clarifying the elementary process of reaction between beryllium and copper, the out-of-pile compatibility tests were conducted with diffusion couples of beryllium and copper which were inserted in the capsule filled with high purity helium gas (6N). Annealing temperatures were 300, 400, 500, 600 and 700 degrees C, and annealing periods were 100, 300 and 1000h. Beryllium specimens were hot pressed beryllium, and copper specimens were OFC (Oxygen Free Copper)

  16. Nutrition in adolescent pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenders, C M; McElrath, T F; Scholl, T O

    2000-06-01

    Prevention of unintended adolescent pregnancy is a primary goal of the American Academy of Pediatrics and of many health providers. Nevertheless, many adolescents become pregnant every year in America. Pediatricians therefore should be aware of nutritional recommendations for pregnant adolescents to provide optimal care. The importance of nutrition during pregnancy is here reviewed from a pediatric perspective. Pregnancy, particularly during adolescence, is a time of extreme nutritional risk. The adolescents most likely to become pregnant are often those with inadequate nutritional status and unfavorable socio-economic background. There is increasing evidence of competition for nutrients between the growing pregnant adolescent and her fetus. Also, the prenatal environment has been implicated in the development of obesity, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes in both the mother and her offspring. Many adolescents have poor diet quality and poor knowledge of appropriate nutrition; these habits may not change during pregnancy. Current knowledge and recommendations regarding the intake of energy, calcium, and folate are discussed in detail.

  17. Good maternal nutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breda, Joao; Robertson, Aileen

    This publication has three parts: •a summary of the results of a systematic review of the most recent evidence on maternal nutrition, the prevention of obesity and noncommunicable diseases; •a review of existing recommendations for nutrition, physical activity and weight gain during pregnancy...... in European countries; and •lists of possible opportunities for action in European countries. The overview and exploration of the national recommendations for nutrition, physical activity and weight gain during pregnancy are based on the results of a survey in which 51 of the 53 Member States in the WHO....... These are opportunities to promote nutrition and health throughout the life-course, ensure optimal diet-related fetal development and reduce the impact of morbidity and risk factors for noncommunicable diseases by improving maternal nutrition....

  18. Copper absorption from foods labelled intrinsically and extrinsically with Cu-65 stable isotope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, L J; Dainty, J R; Beattie, J H; Majsak-Newman, G; Wharf, S G; Reid, M D; Fairweather-Tait, S J

    2005-03-01

    To determine copper absorption from copper containing foods labelled either intrinsically or extrinsically with a highly enriched Cu-65 stable isotope label. A longitudinal cross-over study. The study was conducted at the Institute of Food Research, Human Nutrition Unit, Norwich, UK. Subjects were recruited locally via advertisements placed around the Norwich Research Park. A total of 10 volunteers (nine female, one male) took part in the study, but not all volunteers completed each of the test meals. A highly enriched Cu-65 stable isotope label was administered to volunteers in the form of a reference dose or in breakfast test meals consisting of red wine, soya beans, mushrooms or sunflower seeds. Faecal monitoring and mass spectrometry techniques were used to estimate the relative quantities of copper absorbed from the different test meals. True copper absorption from the reference dose (54%) was similar to extrinsically labelled red wine (49%) and intrinsically labelled sunflower seeds (52%), but significantly higher than extrinsically labelled mushrooms (35%), intrinsically (29%) and extrinsically (15%) labelled soya beans and extrinsically labelled sunflower seed (32%) test meals. The use of Cu-65 extrinsic labels in copper absorption studies requires validation according to the food being examined; intrinsic and extrinsic labelling produced significantly different results for sunflower seeds.

  19. Physicochemical, antioxidant, DNA cleaving properties and antimicrobial activity of fisetin-copper chelates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łodyga-Chruscińska, Elżbieta; Pilo, Maria; Zucca, Antonio; Garribba, Eugenio; Klewicka, Elżbieta; Rowińska-Żyrek, Magdalena; Symonowicz, Marzena; Chrusciński, Longin; Cheshchevik, Vitalij T

    2018-03-01

    Fisetin (3,3',4',7-tetrahydroxyflavone) metal chelates are of interest as this plant polyphenol has revealed broad prospects for its use as natural medicine in the treatment of various diseases. Metal interactions may change or enhance fisetin biological properties so understanding fisetin metal chelation is important for its application not only in medicine but also as a food additive in nutritional supplements. This work was aimed to determine and characterize copper complexes formed in different pH range at applying various metal/ligand ratios. Fisetin and Cu(II)-fisetin complexes were characterized by potentiometric titrations, UV-Vis (Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy), EPR, ESI-MS, FTIR and cyclic voltammetry. Their effects on DNA were investigated by using circular dichroism, spectrofluorimetry and gel electrophoresis methods. The copper complex with the ratio of Cu(II)/fisetin 1/2 exhibited significant DNA cleavage activity, followed by complete degradation of DNA. The influence of copper(II) ions on antioxidant activity of fisetin in vitro has been studied using DPPH, ABTS and mitochondrial assays. The results have pointed out that fisetin or copper complexes can behave both as antioxidants or pro-oxidants. Antimicrobial activity of the compounds has been investigated towards several bacteria and fungi. The copper complex of Cu(II)/fisetin 1/2 ratio showed higher antagonistic activity against bacteria comparing to the ligand and it revealed a promising antifungal activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Copper economy in Chlamydomonas: Prioritized allocation and reallocation of copper to respiration vs. photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kropat, Janette; Gallaher, Sean D.; Urzica, Eugen I.; Nakamoto, Stacie S.; Strenkert, Daniela; Tottey, Stephen; Mason, Andrew Z.; Merchant, Sabeeha S.

    2015-01-01

    Inorganic elements, although required only in trace amounts, permit life and primary productivity because of their functions in catalysis. Every organism has a minimal requirement of each metal based on the intracellular abundance of proteins that use inorganic cofactors, but elemental sparing mechanisms can reduce this quota. A well-studied copper-sparing mechanism that operates in microalgae faced with copper deficiency is the replacement of the abundant copper protein plastocyanin with a heme-containing substitute, cytochrome (Cyt) c6. This switch, which is dependent on a copper-sensing transcription factor, copper response regulator 1 (CRR1), dramatically reduces the copper quota. We show here that in a situation of marginal copper availability, copper is preferentially allocated from plastocyanin, whose function is dispensable, to other more critical copper-dependent enzymes like Cyt oxidase and a ferroxidase. In the absence of an extracellular source, copper allocation to Cyt oxidase includes CRR1-dependent proteolysis of plastocyanin and quantitative recycling of the copper cofactor from plastocyanin to Cyt oxidase. Transcriptome profiling identifies a gene encoding a Zn-metalloprotease, as a candidate effecting copper recycling. One reason for the retention of genes encoding both plastocyanin and Cyt c6 in algal and cyanobacterial genomes might be because plastocyanin provides a competitive advantage in copper-depleted environments as a ready source of copper. PMID:25646490

  1. What is the Potential for More Copper Fabrication in Zambia?

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2011-01-01

    The copper fabrication industry lies between: (1) the industry that produces copper (as a commodity metal from mined ores as well as from recycling), and (2) the users of copper in finished products such as electronic goods. Copper fabrication involves the manufacture of products such as copper wire, wire rod, low-voltage cable, and other copper based semi-manufactures. Copper is clearly a...

  2. Uptake and internalisation of copper by three marine microalgae: comparison of copper-sensitive and copper-tolerant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Jacqueline L; Angel, Brad M; Stauber, Jennifer L; Poon, Wing L; Simpson, Stuart L; Cheng, Shuk Han; Jolley, Dianne F

    2008-08-29

    Although it has been well established that different species of marine algae have different sensitivities to metals, our understanding of the physiological and biochemical basis for these differences is limited. This study investigated copper adsorption and internalisation in three algal species with differing sensitivities to copper. The diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum was particularly sensitive to copper, with a 72-h IC50 (concentration of copper to inhibit growth rate by 50%) of 8.0 microg Cu L(-1), compared to the green algae Tetraselmis sp. (72-h IC50 47 microg Cu L(-1)) and Dunaliella tertiolecta (72-h IC50 530 microg Cu L(-1)). At these IC50 concentrations, Tetraselmis sp. had much higher intracellular copper (1.97+/-0.01 x 10(-13)g Cu cell(-1)) than P. tricornutum (0.23+/-0.19 x 10(-13)g Cu cell(-1)) and D. tertiolecta (0.59+/-0.05 x 10(-13)g Cu cell(-1)), suggesting that Tetraselmis sp. effectively detoxifies copper within the cell. By contrast, at the same external copper concentration (50 microg L(-1)), D. tertiolecta appears to better exclude copper than Tetraselmis sp. by having a slower copper internalisation rate and lower internal copper concentrations at equivalent extracellular concentrations. The results suggest that the use of internal copper concentrations and net uptake rates alone cannot explain differences in species-sensitivity for different algal species. Model prediction of copper toxicity to marine biota and understanding fundamental differences in species-sensitivity will require, not just an understanding of water quality parameters and copper-cell binding, but also further knowledge of cellular detoxification mechanisms.

  3. NUTRITIONAL AND HEALTH BENEFITS OF BUCKWHEAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Danihelová

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Buckwheat represents a raw material interesting in term of its nutritional and health beneficial suitability. Buckwheat grain is a source of valuable proteins, starch with low glycemic index or high amount of unsaturated fatty acids. It contains compounds with prophylactic value, too. Buckwheat is one of the richest sources of flavonoids. The highest content of dietary fibre is in bran fraction, where it counts for 40 %. Present phytosterols are usefull in lowering blood cholesterol. Buckwheat is better source of magnesium, potassium, phosphorus, zinc, manganese and copper than other cereals. Among vitamins the most abundant is pyridoxin. Buckwheat is effective in management of many diseases, mainly cardiovascular and digestion disorders, cancer, diabetes and obesity. In the last decades buckwheat is an interesting material not only for development of new functional foods, but for the preparation of concentrates with healing buckwheat components, too.doi:10.5219/206

  4. Nanoscale Copper and Copper Compounds for Advanced Device Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lih-Juann

    2016-12-01

    Copper has been in use for at least 10,000 years. Copper alloys, such as bronze and brass, have played important roles in advancing civilization in human history. Bronze artifacts date at least 6500 years. On the other hand, discovery of intriguing properties and new applications in contemporary technology for copper and its compounds, particularly on nanoscale, have continued. In this paper, examples for the applications of Cu and Cu alloys for advanced device applications will be given on Cu metallization in microelectronics devices, Cu nanobats as field emitters, Cu2S nanowire array as high-rate capability and high-capacity cathodes for lithium-ion batteries, Cu-Te nanostructures for field-effect transistor, Cu3Si nanowires as high-performance field emitters and efficient anti-reflective layers, single-crystal Cu(In,Ga)Se2 nanotip arrays for high-efficiency solar cell, multilevel Cu2S resistive memory, superlattice Cu2S-Ag2S heterojunction diodes, and facet-dependent Cu2O diode.

  5. ATP signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novak, Ivana

    2016-01-01

    The Department of Biology at the University of Copenhagen explains the function of ATP signalling in the pancreas......The Department of Biology at the University of Copenhagen explains the function of ATP signalling in the pancreas...

  6. Electrochemical in-situ impregnation of wood using a copper nail as source for copper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Block, Thomas; Nymark, Morten

    2011-01-01

    A new method for copper impregnation of wood in structures was suggested and tested in laboratory scale with specimen of new pine sapwood. A copper nail and a steel screw were placed in the wood, and an electric direct current field was applied, so the copper nail was anode and the screw...... was cathode. At the anode, copper ions were generated. The copper ions were transported into the wood by electromigration (movement of ions in an applied electric field) towards the cathode, and a volume between the two electrodes was thereby impregnated. Copper also moved to a lesser degree in the opposite...

  7. MRI in children receiving total parenteral nutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quaghebeur, G.; Taylor, W.J.; Kingsley, D.P.E.; Fell, J.M.E.; Reynolds, A.P.; Milla, P.J.

    1996-01-01

    Cranial MRI was obtained in 13 of a group of 57 children receiving long-term parenteral nutrition, who were being investigated for hypermanganasaemia. Increased signal intensity on T1-weighted images has been reported in adult patients on long-term parenteral nutrition and with encephalopathy following chronic manganese exposure in arc welding. It has been postulated that these changes are due to deposition of the paramagnetic trace element manganese. In excess manganese is hepato- and neurotoxic and we present the correlation of whole blood manganese levels with imaging findings. The age range of our patients was 6 months to 10 years, and the duration of therapy 3 months to 10 years. In 7 children we found characteristic increased signal intensity on T1-weighted images, with no abnormality on T2-weighted images. All patients had elevated whole blood manganese levels, suggesting that the basis for this abnormality is indeed deposition of manganese within the tissues. (orig.). With 3 figs

  8. Copper Leaching from Copper-ethanolamine Treated Wood: Comparison of Field Test Studies and Laboratory Standard Procedures

    OpenAIRE

    Nejc Thaler; Miha Humar

    2014-01-01

    Copper-based compounds are some of the most important biocides for the protection of wood in heavy duty applications. In the past, copper was combined with chromium compounds to reduce copper leaching, but a recent generation of copper-based preservatives uses ethanolamine as a fixative. To elucidate the leaching of copper biocides from wood, Norway spruce (Picea abies) wood was treated with a commercial copper-ethanolamine solution with two different copper concentrations (cCu = 0.125% and 0...

  9. XPS and GDOES Characterization of Porous Coating Enriched with Copper and Calcium Obtained on Tantalum via Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Rokosz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available XPS and GDOES characterizations of porous coatings on tantalum after Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation (PEO at 450 V for 3 minutes in electrolyte containing concentrated (85% phosphoric acid with calcium nitrate and copper (II nitrate are described. Based on the obtained data, it may be concluded that the PEO coating consists of tantalum (Ta5+, calcium (Ca2+, copper (Cu2+  and Cu+, and phosphates (PO43-. It has to be pointed out that copper and calcium are distributed throughout the volume. The authors also propose a new model of PEO, based on the derivative of GDOES signals with sputtering time.

  10. Evaluation of the Genetic and Nutritional Control of Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes in a Novel Mouse Model on Chromosome 7: An Insight into Insulin Signaling and Glucose Homeostasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, S.; Dhar, M.

    2003-01-01

    Obesity is the main cause of type 2 diabetes, accounting for 90-95% of all diabetes cases in the US. Human obesity is a complex trait and can be studied using appropriate mouse models. A novel polygenic mouse model for studying the genetic and environmental contributions to and the physiological ramifications of obesity and related phenotypes is found in specific lines of mice bred and maintained at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Heterozygous mice with a maternally inherited copy of two radiation-induced deletions in the p region of mouse chromosome 7, p23DFioD and p30PUb, have significantly greater body fat and show hyperinsulinemia compared to the wild-type. A single gene, Atp10c, maps to this critical region and codes for a putative aminophospholipid translocase. Biochemical and molecular studies were initiated to gain insight into obesity and glucose homeostasis in these animals and to study the biological role of Atp10c in creating these phenotypes. Glucose and insulin tolerance tests were standardized for the heterozygous p23DFioD and control mice on a custom-made diet containing 20% protein, 70% carbohydrate, and 10% fat (kcal). Atp10c expression profiles were also generated using Reverse-Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR). Heterozygous p23DFioD animals showed insulin resistance after receiving a dose of either 0.375 or 0.75 U/kg Illetin R insulin. RT-PCR data also shows differences in Atp10c expression in the mutants versus control mice. Using these standardized biochemical assays, future studies will further the understanding of genetic and nutritional controls of glucose homeostasis and obesity in animal models and subsequently in human populations.

  11. Synthesis of cytochrome c oxidase 1 (SCO1) inhibits insulin sensitivity by decreasing copper levels in adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiang-Bo; Guo, Liang; Liu, Yang; Zhou, Shui-Rong; Liu, Yuan; Dou, Xin; Du, Shao-Yue; Ding, Meng; Peng, Wan-Qiu; Qian, Shu-Wen; Huang, Hai-Yan; Tang, Qi-Qun

    2017-09-23

    Dysregulation of insulin signaling leads to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and other metabolic disorders. Obesity is an important contributor to insulin resistance, and although the understanding of this relationship has improved in recent years, the mechanism of obesity-induced insulin resistance is not completely understood. Disorders of copper metabolism tend to accompany the development of obesity, which increases the risk of insulin resistance. Synthesis of cytochrome c oxidase 1 (SCO1) functions in the assembly of cytochrome c oxidase (COX) and cellular copper homeostasis. However, the role of SCO1 in the regulation of metabolism remains unknown. Here, we found that obese mice had higher expression of SCO1 and lower levels of copper in white adipose tissue (WAT) than did the control mice. Overexpression of SCO1 in adipocytes was associated with copper deficiency. Copper increased insulin sensitivity by decreasing the level of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) protein. Ectopic expression of SCO1 led to insulin resistance and was accompanied by a decrease in intracellular copper level, and addition of copper abolished the inhibitory effect of SCO1 on insulin sensitivity. Our results demonstrated a novel role of SCO1 in modulating insulin sensitivity via the regulation of copper concentration in WAT and suggested a potential therapeutic target for T2DM. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Thermal conductivity of glass copper-composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinoshita, Makoto; Terai, Ryohei; Haidai, Haruki

    1980-01-01

    Glass-metal composites are to be one of the answers for promoting thermal conduction in the glassy solids containing high-level radioactive wastes. In order to investigate the effect of metal addition on thermal conductivity of glasses, glass-copper composites were selected, and the conductivities of the composites were measured and discussed in regards to copper content and microstructure. Fully densified composites were successfully prepared by pressure sintering of the powder mixtures of glass and copper at temperatures above the yield points of the constituent glasses if the copper content was not so much. The conductivity was measured by means of a comparative method, in which the thermal gradient of the specimen was compared with that of quartz glass as standard under thermally steady state. Measurements were carried out at around 50 0 C. The thermal conductivity increased with increasing content of copper depending on the kind of copper powder used. The conductivities of the composites of the same copper content differed considerably each another. Fine copper powder was effective on increasing conductivity, and the conductivity became about threefold of that of glass by mixing the fine copper powder about 10 vol%. For the composites containing the fine copper powder less than 5 vol%, the conductivity obeyed so-called logarithmic rule, one of the mixture rules of conductivity, whereas for composites containing more than 5 vol%, the conductivity remarkably increased apart from the rule. This fact suggests that copper becomes continuous in the composite when the copper content increased beyond 5 vol%. For the composites containing coarse copper powder, the conductivity was increased not significantly, and obeyed an equation derived from the model in which conductive material dispersed in less conductive one. (author)

  13. Copper disinfection ban causes storm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Alan

    2013-05-01

    Since 1 February this year, under the EU's Biocidal Products Directive, it has been illegal to sell or use water treatment systems that use elemental copper, a practice employed historically by a significant number of UK healthcare facilities to combat Legionella. Alan Lester, managing director of specialist supplier of 'environmentally-friendly' water treatment systems, Advanced Hydro, says the ban has caused 'a storm of giant proportion,' with advocates of copper ion-based treatment systems arguing that this disinfection method dates back 3,000 years to Egyptian times, making it an 'undoubtedly proven' technology. Here he explains why the ban came into force, considers why the UK's Health and Safety Executive (HSE) is seeking a derogation, looks at the ban's likely impact, and gives a personal viewpoint on the 'pros and cons' of some of the alternative treatment technologies, including a titanium dioxide-based system marketed by Advanced Hydro itself in the UK.

  14. Multilevel Dual Damascene copper interconnections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshminarayanan, S.

    Copper has been acknowledged as the interconnect material for future generations of ICs to overcome the bottlenecks on speed and reliability present with the current Al based wiring. A new set of challenges brought to the forefront when copper replaces aluminum, have to be met and resolved to make it a viable option. Unit step processes related to copper technology have been under development for the last few years. In this work, the application of copper as the interconnect material in multilevel structures with SiO2 as the interlevel dielectric has been explored, with emphasis on integration issues and complete process realization. Interconnect definition was achieved by the Dual Damascene approach using chemical mechanical polishing of oxide and copper. The choice of materials used as adhesion promoter/diffusion barrier included Ti, Ta and CVD TiN. Two different polish chemistries (NH4OH or HNO3 based) were used to form the interconnects. The diffusion barrier was removed during polishing (in the case of TiN) or by a post CMP etch (as with Ti or Ta). Copper surface passivation was performed using boron implantation and PECVD nitride encapsulation. The interlevel dielectric way composed of a multilayer stack of PECVD SiO2 and SixNy. A baseline process sequence which ensured the mechanical and thermal compatibility of the different unit steps was first created. A comprehensive test vehicle was designed and test structures were fabricated using the process flow developed. Suitable modifications were subsequently introduced in the sequence as and when processing problems were encountered. Electrical characterization was performed on the fabricated devices, interconnects, contacts and vias. The structures were subjected to thermal stressing to assess their stability and performance. The measurement of interconnect sheet resistances revealed lower copper loss due to dishing on samples polished using HNO3 based slurry. Interconnect resistances remained stable upto 400o

  15. Influence of pulse ratio on codeposition of copper species with calcium phosphate coatings on titanium by means of electrochemically assisted deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf-Brandstetter, Cornelia; Oswald, Steffen; Bierbaum, Susanne; Wiesmann, Hans-Peter; Scharnweber, Dieter

    2014-01-01

    Aim of this study was to combine the well-known biocompatibility and ostoeconductivity of thin calcium phosphate coatings on titanium with proangiogenic signals from codeposited copper species. Copper species could be integrated in mineral layers based on hydroxyapatite by means of electrochemically assisted deposition from electrolytes containing calcium, phosphate, and copper ions. Different combinations of duration and intensity of galvanostatic pulses result in different amounts of deposited calcium phosphate and of copper species even for the same applied total charge. Absolute amounts of copper varied between 2.1 and 6.9 μg/cm², and the copper was distributed homogeneously as shown by EDX mapping. The presence of copper did not change the crystalline phase of deposited calcium phosphate (hydroxyapatite) but provoked a significant decrease in deposited amounts by factor 3 to 4. The copper was deposited mainly as Cu(I) species with a minor fraction of basic copper phosphates. Reduction of copper occurred not only at the surface of titanium but also within the hydroxyapatite coating due to the reaction with hydrogen produced by the electrolysis of water during the cathodic polarization of the substrate. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. A cytosolic copper storage protein provides a second level of copper tolerance in Streptomyces lividans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straw, Megan L; Chaplin, Amanda K; Hough, Michael A; Paps, Jordi; Bavro, Vassiliy N; Wilson, Michael T; Vijgenboom, Erik; Worrall, Jonathan A R

    2018-01-24

    Streptomyces lividans has a distinct dependence on the bioavailability of copper for its morphological development. A cytosolic copper resistance system is operative in S. lividans that serves to preclude deleterious copper levels. This system comprises of several CopZ-like copper chaperones and P 1 -type ATPases, predominantly under the transcriptional control of a metalloregulator from the copper sensitive operon repressor (CsoR) family. In the present study, we discover a new layer of cytosolic copper resistance in S. lividans that involves a protein belonging to the newly discovered family of copper storage proteins, which we have named Ccsp (cytosolic copper storage protein). From an evolutionary perspective, we find Ccsp homologues to be widespread in Bacteria and extend through into Archaea and Eukaryota. Under copper stress Ccsp is upregulated and consists of a homotetramer assembly capable of binding up to 80 cuprous ions (20 per protomer). X-ray crystallography reveals 18 cysteines, 3 histidines and 1 aspartate are involved in cuprous ion coordination. Loading of cuprous ions to Ccsp is a cooperative process with a Hill coefficient of 1.9 and a CopZ-like copper chaperone can transfer copper to Ccsp. A Δccsp mutant strain indicates that Ccsp is not required under initial copper stress in S. lividans, but as the CsoR/CopZ/ATPase efflux system becomes saturated, Ccsp facilitates a second level of copper tolerance.

  17. Nutrition and Imagenology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Allende, Miguel Angel

    2003-01-01

    In this article we present the close, although little explored, relationship between Nutrition and Imagenology, relying mainly on an important number of images which will allow us to explain all the ways an Imagenology can influence upon the nutritional support of a patient.We primarily emphasize the diagnostic aspects of non-operated patients, as well as of those who have undergone surgical treatment, by showing both normality and the resulting surgical complications. We finally describe several interventionist Imagenology techniques used to achieve an adequate enteral nutrition

  18. LEP Radio Frequency Copper Cavity

    CERN Multimedia

    The pulse of a particle accelerator. 128 of these radio frequency cavities were positioned around CERN's 27-kilometre LEP ring to accelerate electrons and positrons. The acceleration was produced by microwave electric oscillations at 352 MHz. The electrons and positrons were grouped into bunches, like beads on a string, and the copper sphere at the top stored the microwave energy between the passage of individual bunches. This made for valuable energy savings as it reduced the heat generated in the cavity.

  19. Copper as a target for prostate cancer therapeutics: copper-ionophore pharmacology and altering systemic copper distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denoyer, Delphine; Pearson, Helen B.; Clatworthy, Sharnel A.S.; Smith, Zoe M.; Francis, Paul S.; Llanos, Roxana M.; Volitakis, Irene; Phillips, Wayne A.; Meggyesy, Peter M.; Masaldan, Shashank; Cater, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    Copper-ionophores that elevate intracellular bioavailable copper display significant therapeutic utility against prostate cancer cells in vitro and in TRAMP (Transgenic Adenocarcinoma of Mouse Prostate) mice. However, the pharmacological basis for their anticancer activity remains unclear, despite impending clinical trails. Herein we show that intracellular copper levels in prostate cancer, evaluated in vitro and across disease progression in TRAMP mice, were not correlative with copper-ionophore activity and mirrored the normal levels observed in patient prostatectomy tissues (Gleason Score 7 & 9). TRAMP adenocarcinoma cells harbored markedly elevated oxidative stress and diminished glutathione (GSH)-mediated antioxidant capacity, which together conferred selective sensitivity to prooxidant ionophoric copper. Copper-ionophore treatments [CuII(gtsm), disulfiram & clioquinol] generated toxic levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in TRAMP adenocarcinoma cells, but not in normal mouse prostate epithelial cells (PrECs). Our results provide a basis for the pharmacological activity of copper-ionophores and suggest they are amendable for treatment of patients with prostate cancer. Additionally, recent in vitro and mouse xenograft studies have suggested an increased copper requirement by prostate cancer cells. We demonstrated that prostate adenocarcinoma development in TRAMP mice requires a functional supply of copper and is significantly impeded by altered systemic copper distribution. The presence of a mutant copper-transporting Atp7b protein (tx mutation: A4066G/Met1356Val) in TRAMP mice changed copper-integration into serum and caused a remarkable reduction in prostate cancer burden (64% reduction) and disease severity (grade), abrogating adenocarcinoma development. Implications for current clinical trials are discussed. PMID:27175597

  20. Gallium and copper radiopharmaceutical chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, M.A.; John, E.K.; Barnhart, A.J.

    1990-01-01

    Several isotopes of gallium and copper exhibit nuclear properties that make them attractive for applications in nuclear medicine, most notably Ga-67, Ga-68, Cu-67 and Cu-62. Of these, gamma-emitting Ga-67 has historically found the greatest clinical use, based on the observation that tracer gallium(III) citrate rapidly produces Ga-67 transferrin upon intravenous injection and then slowly affords selective Ga-67 localization in sites of abscess and certain tumors. Copper-67 has received attention as a potential label for tissue-selective monoclonal antibodies, since its associated γ-photons can be used for external imaging and its β - -emissions could be used for radiation therapy. Positron-emitting gallium-68 and copper-62, being available from parent/daughter generator systems, have attracted interest as potential labels for radiopharmaceuticals used in positron emission tomography (PET) because they could reduce the dependence of this imaging technology on hospital-based cyclotrons. The 10 min. half-life of Cu-62 is particularly well-suited to the time frame of PET studies of tissue perfusion, an application for which Cu(II)-bis(thiosemicarbazone) derivatives appear promising. The 68 min. half-life of Ga-68 makes it appropriate for PET studies over longer imaging time spans

  1. Research of oxygen free copper of Upcast {sup registered} technology for electric and electronic uses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knych, Tadeusz; Smyrak, Beata; Walkowicz, Monika [AGH-Univ. of Science and Technology, Cracow (Poland)

    2011-01-15

    Rapid development of electronics and electrical engineering imposes a necessity to search for new materials enabling fast and lossless transmission of electrical signals. Increasingly common application of electronic systems and elements of electrical engineering contributed to the development of a new group of products representing highly advanced properties. Modern solutions concerning the materials to be used for manufacturing of the above specified products concentrate mainly on high purity copper. As a standard Oxygen Free Copper (OFC) or high purity Oxygen Free High Conductivity Copper (OFHC) are used for production of this kind of wires. OFHC copper purity class of 4N (99.99 %) contains approximately 1 to 3 ppm of oxygen and the total amount of impurities on the level not exceeding 22 ppm. This type of copper is additionally characterized by excellent deformation capabilities as well as corrosion and hydrogen embrittlement resistance. This article presents the analysis of the results of the complex research program on identification of the properties pertaining to wire rods produced oxygen free copper from Upcast line and ETP wire rod produced on Contirod {sup registered} line - in both cases the same type of cathode was used. Additionally, a subsequent analysis of the annealing susceptibility of wires obtained from Cu-OF rod (Upcast {sup registered}) and Cu-ETP wire rod (Contirod {sup registered}) was carried out. The comparative research on the recrystallization temperature proved to be the most interesting point. (orig.)

  2. [Diet, nutrition and bone health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miggiano, G A D; Gagliardi, L

    2005-01-01

    Nutrition is an important "modifiable" factor in the development and maintenance of bone mass and in the prevention of osteoporosis. The improvement of calcium intake in prepuberal age translates to gain in bone mass and, with genetic factor, to achievement of Peak Bone Mass (PBM), the higher level of bone mass reached at the completion of physiological growth. Individuals with higher PBM achieved in early adulthood will be at lower risk for developing osteoporosis later in life. Achieved the PBM, it is important maintain the bone mass gained and reduce the loss. This is possible adopting a correct behaviour eating associated to regular physical activity and correct life style. The diet is nutritionally balanced with caloric intake adequate to requirement of individual. This is moderate in protein (1 g/kg/die), normal in fat and the carbohydrates provide 55-60% of the caloric intake. A moderate intake of proteins is associated with normal calcium metabolism and presumably does'nt alter bone turnover. An adequate intake of alkali-rich foods may help promote a favorable effect of dietary protein on the skeleton. Lactose intolerance may determinate calcium malabsorption or may decrease calcium intake by elimination of milk and dairy products. Omega3 fatty acids may "down-regulate" pro-inflammatory cytokines and protect against bone loss by decreasing osteoclast activation and bone reabsorption. The diet is characterized by food containing high amount of calcium, potassium, magnesium and low amount of sodium. If it is impossible to reach the requirement with only diet, it is need the supplement of calcium and vitamin D. Other vitamins (Vit. A, C, E, K) and mineral (phosphorus, fluoride, iron, zinc, copper and boron) are required for normal bone metabolism, thus it is need adequate intake of these dietary components. It is advisable reduce ethanol, caffeine, fibers, phytic and ossalic acid intake. The efficacy of phytoestrogens is actually under investigation. Some

  3. Microphone detected ionacoustic signal from metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dioszeghy, T.; Szoekefalvi-Nagy, Z.; Biro, T.

    1986-12-01

    An experimental system for studying the radiation-induced acoustic signal generated by a modulated 2 MeV He + ion beam in metals is described. For detection, a closed cell on the rear side of the copper or aluminium sample, a half-inch condenser microphone, and a lock-in amplifier were employed. The signal was found to be proportional to beam current and particle energy, and inversely proportional to cell length. A decrease of the signal magnitude and an increase of the phase delay with increasing modulation frequency and sample thickness were also observed. (author)

  4. Speciation and leachability of copper in mine tailings from porphyry copper mining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik K.; Yianatos, Juan B; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2005-01-01

    Mine tailing from the El Teniente-Codelco copper mine situated in VI Region of Chile was analysed in order to evaluate the mobility and speciation of copper in the solid material. Mine tailing was sampled after the rougher flotation circuits, and the copper content was measured to 1150mgkg^-^1 dry...... matter. This tailing was segmented into fractions of different size intervals: 0-38, 38-45, 45-53, 53-75, 75-106, 106-150, 150-212, and >212@mm, respectively. Copper content determination, sequential chemical extraction, and desorption experiments were carried out for each size interval in order...... to evaluate the speciation of copper. It was found that the particles of smallest size contained 50-60% weak acid leachable copper, whereas only 32% of the copper found in largest particles could be leached in weak acid. Copper oxides and carbonates were the dominating species in the smaller particles...

  5. Preparation of copper and silicon/copper powders by a gas ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    aCentre for Materials Research, Department of Imaging and Applied Physics, ... Copper powder; Si/Cu composite particle; gas evaporation–condensation method; characteriza- tion. .... from the liquid metal surface, the mixed vapour of copper.

  6. [Modular enteral nutrition in pediatrics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo Sanchís, S; Prenafeta Ferré, M T; Sempere Luque, M D

    1991-01-01

    Modular Enteral Nutrition may be a substitute for Parenteral Nutrition in children with different pathologies. Study of 4 children with different pathologies selected from a group of 40 admitted to the Maternal-Childrens Hospital "Valle de Hebrón" in Barcelona, who received modular enteral nutrition. They were monitored on a daily basis by the Dietician Service. Modular enteral nutrition consists of modules of proteins, peptides, lipids, glucids and mineral salts-vitamins. 1.--Craneo-encephalic traumatisms with loss of consciousness, Feeding with a combination of parenteral nutrition and modular enteral nutrition for 7 days. In view of the tolerance and good results of the modular enteral nutrition, the parenteral nutrition was suspended and modular enteral nutrition alone used up to a total of 43 days. 2.--55% burns with 36 days of hyperproteic modular enteral nutrition together with normal feeding. A more rapid recovery was achieved with an increase in total proteins and albumin. 3.--Persistent diarrhoea with 31 days of modular enteral nutrition, 5 days on parenteral nutrition alone and 8 days on combined parenteral nutrition and modular enteral nutrition. In view of the tolerance and good results of the modular enteral nutrition, the parenteral nutrition was suspended. 4.--Mucoviscidosis with a total of 19 days on modular enteral nutrition, 12 of which were exclusively on modular enteral nutrition and 7 as a night supplement to normal feeding. We administered proteic intakes of up to 20% of the total calorific intake and in concentrations of up to 1.2 calories/ml of the final preparation, always with a good tolerance. Modular enteral nutrition can and should be used as a substitute for parenteral nutrition in children with different pathologies, thus preventing the complications inherent in parenteral nutrition.

  7. Nutrition screening: science behind simplicity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutrition screening triggers entry into the nutrition care process.1 Screening has informally been described as simple, quick or low-intensity proxy for more complex procedures. More formal definitions for the nutrition setting have been proposed, describing nutrition screening as a process of identifying patients, clients, or ...

  8. Food and Nutrition Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Perdue Pledges Support on the Long Road to Recovery 4/5 USDA Continues Disaster Assistance in Puerto Rico USDA is continuing its efforts to address the nutrition needs of Puerto Rican residents affected by Hurricanes ...

  9. Nutrition in children posttransplantation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    status and to detect, prevent and treat late-onset complications such as obesity ... potential, prevent further liver injury, promote liver regeneration, minimise risk of infection and .... Campos ACL, Matias JEF and Coelho JCU. Nutritional Aspects ...

  10. Dairy goat nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Ronchi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Good goat nutrition is fundamental to the success and sustainability of dairy goat farming in terms of economics, goat health, high quality products, and minimizing environmental impact.

  11. Liver Transplant: Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Liver Transplant: Nutrition Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For Veterans and the Public Veterans and the Public Home Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Hepatitis C Home Getting ...

  12. High performance maleated lignocellulose epicarp fibers for copper ion removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Vieira

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Natural lignocellulosic fiber epicarp extracted from the babassu coconut (Orbignya speciosa was chemically modified through reaction with molten maleic anhydride without solvent, with incorporation of 189.34 mg g-1 of carboxylic acid groups into the biopolymer structure. The success of this reaction was also confirmed by the presence of carboxylic acid bands at 1741 and 1164 cm-1 in the infrared spectrum. Identically, the same group is observed through 13C NMR CP/MAS in the solid state, via high field signals in the 167 pm region. Both the precursor and the immobilized maleated biopolymers presented nearly the same thermal stability and similar crystallinity to cellulose. However, the pendant carboxylic groups have the ability to remove copper with maximum sorption through a batchwise process at pH 6.0, as expected from the point of zero charge, determined to be 6.45. The sorption kinetic data were fitted to pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order, Elovich-chemisorption and intra-particle diffusion models and the equilibrium data were fitted to the Langmuir, the Freundlich and Tenkim isotherm models. Taking into account a statistical error function and determination coefficients, the data were fit to the pseudo-first and pseudo-second order kinetic and Langmuir isotherm models, with a maximum sorption capacity of copper ions of 55.09 mg g-1. This value suggests the application of this biopolymer with incorporated carboxylate groups as a favorable agent for copper removal from appropriate systems.

  13. Youth Education - Health / Nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    Deborah L. Angell: The Bug Stops Here! Cheryl L. Barber: Successful Snacks - Food, Fitness and Food Safety Learning Activities. Darcy Batura: At-Risk Youth and Household Hazardous Waste Education. Katherine L. Cason: Nutrition Mission – A Multimedia Educational Tool for Youth . Patsy A. Ezell: An Interactive Food and Nutrition Education Program for Youth. Rhea Lanting: Got Calcium? Sandy McCurdy: Reaching Teens through a Food Safety Education Partnership. Patricia Mulkeen: Choosing 4-H Fitnes...

  14. Nutrition for Sarcopenia

    OpenAIRE

    Yanai, Hidekatsu

    2015-01-01

    Aging-related sarcopenia means that muscle mass, strength, and physical performance tend to decline with age, and malnutrition is associated with sarcopenia. Therefore, nutritional interventions may make an important contribution to prevent the development of sarcopenia. Here I reviewed published articles about the effects of nutritional factors on sarcopenia in elderly people. A growing body of evidence suggests that metabolic factors associated with obesity and diabetes induce the progressi...

  15. Copper Bioleaching in China: Review and Prospect

    OpenAIRE

    Shenghua Yin; Leiming Wang; Eugie Kabwe; Xun Chen; Rongfu Yan; Kai An; Lei Zhang; Aixiang Wu

    2018-01-01

    The commercial application of copper bioleaching, an environmentally-friendly approach for low-grade and secondary mineral resources recycling, has increased worldwide since the 2000s. As the world’s second-largest economic entity and the largest developing country, China has the largest demand for metal resources, significantly advancing the theory and industrial technology of copper bioleaching. This paper reviews the exploration and application of copper bioleaching in China. Two typical b...

  16. World Copper Market Outlook: 2003-2014

    OpenAIRE

    Florela Stoian

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents synthetically the copper market outlook (demand, supply, and prices) during 2003-2014, highlighting the impact of economic crisis of 2008-2009 on the world copper market. During the crisis, the decline in demand caused increases in excess supply of metal, as the supply has followed an upward trend, contributing to the imbalances of the copper market and putting pressure on stock prices at LME London Metal Exchange.

  17. Electrochemical synthesis of highly crystalline copper nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaur, Amandeep; Gupta, Tanish; Kumar, Akshay; Kumar, Sanjeev; Singh, Karamjeet; Thakur, Anup

    2015-01-01

    Copper nanowires were fabricated within the pores of anodic alumina template (AAT) by template synthesis method at pH = 2.9. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) were used to investigate the structure, morphology and composition of fabricated nanowires. These characterizations revealed that the deposited copper nanowires were highly crystalline in nature, dense and uniform. The crystalline copper nanowires are promising in application of future nanoelectronic devices and circuits

  18. Functional understanding of the versatile protein copper metabolism MURR1 domain 1 (COMMD1) in copper homeostasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fedoseienko, Alina; Bartuzi, Paulina; van de Sluis, Bart

    2014-01-01

    Copper is an important cofactor in numerous biological processes in all living organisms. However, excessive copper can be extremely toxic, so it is vital that the copper level within a cell is tightly regulated. The damaging effect of copper is seen in several hereditary forms of copper toxicity in

  19. Serum Copper and Plasma Protein Status in Normal Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nushrat Noor, Nasim Jahan, Nayma Sultana

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground: Gradual alteration of serum copper and some plasma protein levels may occur with advancement of pregnancy, which is associated with increased maternal and infant morbidity and mortality.Objective: To observe serum copper and plasma protein levels in normal pregnant women of different trimesters in order to find out their nutritional status.Methods: This cross sectional study was carried out in the Department of Physiology, Sir Salimullah Medical College (SSMC, Dhaka, between 1st January 2010 and December 2010. Ninety normal pregnant women of different trimesters with age 20-30 years were included in the study group. They were selected from Out Patient Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, SSMC. Age matched 30 non-pregnant women were taken as control. Serum copper level was measured by Spectrophotometric method, serum total protein and albumin levels were estimated by standard method. Statistical analysis was done by one way ANOVA, Bonferroni and Pearson’s correlation coefficient test as applicable.Results: Serum Cu levels were significantly higher in all trimesters of pregnant women compared to control. Again, this value was significantly higher in 3rd trimester than that of in 1st and 2nd trimester and also in 2nd trimester than that of in 1st trimester. In addition, mean serum total protein level was significantly lower in 3rd trimester than control but no statistically significant difference was observed among different trimesters. Again, mean serum albumin level was significantly lower in 2nd and 3rd trimester than 1st trimester and control. In addition, serum Cu concentration showed significant positive correlation with different trimesters of gestation.Conclusion: This study reveals that hypercupremia along with hypoproteinemia occur in pregnant women from 1st to 3rd trimester of gestation. This gradual alteration of micro and macronutrients become more profound with advancement of pregnancy.

  20. Nutrition and fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, G; Tagliabue, A

    2007-12-01

    The first studies about fertility and nutrition date back to the 70ies and already showed a strict relation among female fertility, weight and body composition. However, the mechanisms of this connection started to be explained only after leptin's discovery. According to some authors' opinion, leptin could interact with reproductive axis at multiple sites with stimulatory effects at the hypothalamus and pituitary and stimulatory or inhibitory actions at the gonads. Leptin could play a role in other physiologic processes such as menstruation and pregnancy, and could initiate the complex process of puberty. It has been showed that conditions in which nutritional status is suboptimal, such as eating disorders, exercise induced amenhorrea, functional hypothalamic amenhorrea and polycystic ovarian syndrome, are associated with abnormal leptin levels. These conditions, are characterized by severe changes in body composition and dietary habits. Since leptin is regulated by body composition and dietary factors, (such as energy intake and macronutrient composition), a strict connection between nutritional intake and fertility regulated by leptin is confirmed. This review focuses on the current knowledge about nutritional factors that influence leptin levels. Since clinical and subclinical nutritional imbalance can determine the development and the maintenance of neuroendocrine and metabolic aberrations, studies on fertility need a deeper attention about dietary habits and nutritional status.

  1. Thermal conductivity of tungsten–copper composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Hyun; Kwon, Su Yong; Ham, Hye Jeong

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We present the temperature dependence of the thermophysical properties for tungsten–copper composite from room temperature to 400 °C. The powders of tungsten–copper were produced by the spray conversion method and the W–Cu alloys were fabricated by the metal injection molding. Thermal conductivity and thermal expansion of tungsten–copper composite was controllable by volume fraction copper. - Abstract: As the speed and degree of integration of semiconductor devices increases, more heat is generated, and the performance and lifetime of semiconductor devices depend on the dissipation of the generated heat. Tungsten–copper alloys have high electrical and thermal conductivities, low contact resistances, and low coefficients of thermal expansion, thus allowing them to be used as a shielding material for microwave packages, and heat sinks for high power integrated circuits (ICs). In this study, the thermal conductivity and thermal expansion of several types of tungsten–copper (W–Cu) composites are investigated, using compositions of 5–30 wt.% copper balanced with tungsten. The tungsten–copper powders were produced using the spray conversion method, and the W–Cu alloys were fabricated via the metal injection molding. The tungsten–copper composite particles were nanosized, and the thermal conductivity of the W–Cu alloys gradually decreases with temperature increases. The thermal conductivity of the W–30 wt.% Cu composite was 238 W/(m K) at room temperature.

  2. Unraveling the Amycolatopsis tucumanensis copper-resistome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dávila Costa, José Sebastián; Kothe, Erika; Abate, Carlos Mauricio; Amoroso, María Julia

    2012-10-01

    Heavy metal pollution is widespread causing serious ecological problems in many parts of the world; especially in developing countries where a budget for remediation technology is not affordable. Therefore, screening for microbes with high accumulation capacities and studying their stable resistance characteristics is advisable to define cost-effective any remediation strategies. Herein, the copper-resistome of the novel copper-resistant strain Amycolatopsis tucumanensis was studied using several approaches. Two dimensional gel electrophoresis revealed that proteins of the central metabolism, energy production, transcriptional regulators, two-component system, antioxidants and protective metabolites increased their abundance upon copper-stress conditions. Transcriptome analysis revealed that in presence of copper, superoxide dismutase, alkyl hydroperoxide reductase and mycothiol reductase genes were markedly induced in expression. The oxidative damage of protein and lipid from A. tucumanensis was negligible compared with that observed in the copper-sensitive strain Amycolatopsis eurytherma. Thus, we provide evidence that A. tucumamensis shows a high adaptation towards copper, the sum of which is proposed as the copper-resistome. This adaptation allows the strain to accumulate copper and survive this stress; besides, it constitutes the first report in which the copper-resistome of a strain of the genus Amycolatopsis with bioremediation potential has been evaluated.

  3. Electroforming copper targets for RTNS-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelley, W.K.; Dini, J.W.; Logan, C.M.

    1981-01-01

    Copper targets used in RTNS II, which is the world's most intense 14-MeV neutron source, contain water cooling channels for temperature control. There are two methods for fabricating these targets: (1) diffusion bonding a copper panel containing photoetched channels to another copper panel, and (2) an electroforming technique which involves filling the photoetched channels with wax, plating thick copper to seal over the channels and then removing the wax. Development of this latter process and results obtained with it are described

  4. Effect of feeding supplemental copper on performance, fatty acid profile and on cholesterol contents and oxidative stability of meat of rabbits

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Skřivanová, V.; Skřivan, M.; Marounek, Milan; Baran, M.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 54, - (2001), s. 329-339 ISSN 0003-942X R&D Projects: GA MZe QD0211; GA AV ČR KSK5020115 Keywords : rabbit * copper * fatty acids Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 0.640, year: 2001

  5. Nearly 60% Copper Rod & Wire Companies Neutral about Future Copper Price

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>How about the trend of copper price recently? According to the survey result of Shanghai Metals Market, amongst 21 domestic copper rod & wire companies, 57% of the companies are neutral about the future copper price, while 14% and 19% of the companies consider that

  6. The copper-transporting ATPase pump and its potential role in copper-tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katie Ohno; C.A. Clausen; Frederick Green; G. Stanosz

    2016-01-01

    Copper-tolerant brown-rot decay fungi exploit intricate mechanisms to neutralize the efficacy of copper-containing preservative formulations. The production and accumulation oxalate is the most widely recognized theory regarding the mechanism of copper-tolerance in these fungi. The role of oxalate, however, may be only one part of a series of necessary components...

  7. Effect of Copper Treatment on the Composition and Function of the Bacterial Community in the Sponge Haliclona cymaeformis

    KAUST Repository

    Tian, R.-M.

    2014-11-04

    Marine sponges are the most primitive metazoan and host symbiotic microorganisms. They are crucial components of the marine ecological system and play an essential role in pelagic processes. Copper pollution is currently a widespread problem and poses a threat to marine organisms. Here, we examined the effects of copper treatment on the composition of the sponge-associated bacterial community and the genetic features that facilitate the survival of enriched bacteria under copper stress. The 16S rRNA gene sequencing results showed that the sponge Haliclona cymaeformis harbored symbiotic sulfur-oxidizing Ectothiorhodospiraceae and photosynthetic Cyanobacteria as dominant species. However, these autotrophic bacteria decreased substantially after treatment with a high copper concentration, which enriched for a heterotrophic-bacterium-dominated community. Metagenomic comparison revealed a varied profile of functional genes and enriched functions, including bacterial motility and chemotaxis, extracellular polysaccharide and capsule synthesis, virulence-associated genes, and genes involved in cell signaling and regulation, suggesting short-period mechanisms of the enriched bacterial community for surviving copper stress in the microenvironment of the sponge. Microscopic observation and comparison revealed dynamic bacterial aggregation within the matrix and lysis of sponge cells. The bacteriophage community was also enriched, and the complete genome of a dominant phage was determined, implying that a lytic phage cycle was stimulated by the high copper concentration. This study demonstrated a copper-induced shift in the composition of functional genes of the sponge-associated bacterial community, revealing the selective effect of copper treatment on the functions of the bacterial community in the microenvironment of the sponge. IMPORTANCE This study determined the bacterial community structure of the common sponge Haliclona cymaeformis and examined the effect of copper

  8. Signaling aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Staaden, Moira J; Searcy, William A; Hanlon, Roger T

    2011-01-01

    From psychological and sociological standpoints, aggression is regarded as intentional behavior aimed at inflicting pain and manifested by hostility and attacking behaviors. In contrast, biologists define aggression as behavior associated with attack or escalation toward attack, omitting any stipulation about intentions and goals. Certain animal signals are strongly associated with escalation toward attack and have the same function as physical attack in intimidating opponents and winning contests, and ethologists therefore consider them an integral part of aggressive behavior. Aggressive signals have been molded by evolution to make them ever more effective in mediating interactions between the contestants. Early theoretical analyses of aggressive signaling suggested that signals could never be honest about fighting ability or aggressive intentions because weak individuals would exaggerate such signals whenever they were effective in influencing the behavior of opponents. More recent game theory models, however, demonstrate that given the right costs and constraints, aggressive signals are both reliable about strength and intentions and effective in influencing contest outcomes. Here, we review the role of signaling in lieu of physical violence, considering threat displays from an ethological perspective as an adaptive outcome of evolutionary selection pressures. Fighting prowess is conveyed by performance signals whose production is constrained by physical ability and thus limited to just some individuals, whereas aggressive intent is encoded in strategic signals that all signalers are able to produce. We illustrate recent advances in the study of aggressive signaling with case studies of charismatic taxa that employ a range of sensory modalities, viz. visual and chemical signaling in cephalopod behavior, and indicators of aggressive intent in the territorial calls of songbirds. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Strategies for nutritional improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, K S

    1991-01-01

    India has achieved self-sufficiency in the production of food grains, yet the production of milk, legumes, vegetables, oils and fats, eggs, and meat is far short of the needs of the population. The Indian diet predominantly comprises cereals, and the diets of expectant and nursing mothers as well as children are grossly deficient in protective foods. Serious nutritional inadequacies have resulted in low birth weight, retarded growth, and nutritional deficiencies (protein energy malnutrition in preschool children, vitamin A deficiency, iron deficiency in women of reproductive age, and iodine deficiency disorders among neonates and schoolchildren). General malnutrition is prevalent in 25% of the rural and 20% of the urban population. Deficiency symptoms of vitamin B complex and vitamin C are also not uncommon. 37% of the population of India lives below the poverty limit, the literacy rate is only 52.1% (39.4% for women), safe drinking water is scarce, nutritional ignorance is rampant, there is a lack of personal hygiene, and poor sanitation all account for malnutrition. A number of government and nongovernmental organizations' programs have attempted to raise the level of nutrition and the standard of living of the people. Some of them include the integrated child development services, special nutritional program, national vitamin A deficiency prophylaxis program, national anemia prophylaxis program, national goiter control program, midday meal program, special class feeding programs, universal immunization program, nutritional and health education through the mass media as well as the observance of world food day and world health day. The national health policy gives high priority to the promotion of family planning, the provision of primary health care, and the acceleration of welfare programs for women and children. As a result of policies and programs of health and nutrition, the infant, child, and maternal mortality rates have declined and life expectancy at

  10. Copper oxide--copper sulfate water-splitting cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foh, S. E.; Schreiber, J. D.; Dafler, J. R.

    1978-08-01

    A hybrid copper oxide--copper sulfate thermochemical water-splitting cycle, IGT's H-5, has been demonstrated in the laboratory with recycled materials. The optimum configuration and operating conditions for the electrolytic hydrogen-producing step have not yet been defined. With cooperative funding (A.G.A./G.R.I./DOE) a conceptual flowsheet was developed for this cycle and a load-line efficiency of about 37% calculated. This figure is the result of a single iteration on the original base case flow sheet and compares well with the values calculated for other processes at this stage of development. An iterative optimization of process conditions would improve efficiency. The data required to perform an economic analysis are not yet available and the electrolysis step must be more fully defined. An attractive process efficiency, relatively few corrosive materials, and few gas-phase separations are attributes of Cycle H-5 that lead us to believe hydrogen costs (to be developed during future analyses) would be improved significantly over similar processes analyzed to date.

  11. Annual Copper Mountain Conferences on Multigrid and Iterative Methods, Copper Mountain, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCormick, Stephen F.

    2016-01-01

    This project supported the Copper Mountain Conference on Multigrid and Iterative Methods, held from 2007 to 2015, at Copper Mountain, Colorado. The subject of the Copper Mountain Conference Series alternated between Multigrid Methods in odd-numbered years and Iterative Methods in even-numbered years. Begun in 1983, the Series represents an important forum for the exchange of ideas in these two closely related fields. This report describes the Copper Mountain Conference on Multigrid and Iterative Methods, 2007-2015. Information on the conference series is available at http://grandmaster.colorado.edu/~copper/

  12. Annual Copper Mountain Conferences on Multigrid and Iterative Methods, Copper Mountain, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCormick, Stephen F. [Front Range Scientific, Inc., Lake City, CO (United States)

    2016-03-25

    This project supported the Copper Mountain Conference on Multigrid and Iterative Methods, held from 2007 to 2015, at Copper Mountain, Colorado. The subject of the Copper Mountain Conference Series alternated between Multigrid Methods in odd-numbered years and Iterative Methods in even-numbered years. Begun in 1983, the Series represents an important forum for the exchange of ideas in these two closely related fields. This report describes the Copper Mountain Conference on Multigrid and Iterative Methods, 2007-2015. Information on the conference series is available at http://grandmaster.colorado.edu/~copper/.

  13. Hereditary iron and copper deposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaseth, Jan; Flaten, Trond Peder; Andersen, Ole

    2007-01-01

    Hereditary deposition of iron (primary haemochromatosis) or copper (Wilson's disease) are autosomal recessive metabolic disease characterized by progressive liver pathology and subsequent involvement of various other organs. The prevalence of primary haemochromatosis is approximately 0.5%, about......, they may be inadequate in patients diagnosed so late that extensive body deposits of metal have been developed. The main research needs in this field are to further clarify molecular mechanisms of disease progression and to develop new chelators that are more effective and less toxic than those presently...

  14. Synthesis of Commercial Products from Copper Wire-Drawing Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, J.; Fernández, B.

    2014-06-01

    Copper powder and copper sulfate pentahydrate were obtained from copper wire-drawing scale. The hydrometallurgical recycling process proposed in this article yields a high-purity copper powder and analytical grade copper sulfate pentahydrate. In the first stage of this process, the copper is dissolved in sulfuric acid media via dismutation of the scale. In the second stage, copper sulfate pentahydrate is precipitated using ethanol. Effects such as pH, reaction times, stirring speed, initial copper concentration, and ethanol/solution volume ratio were studied during the precipitation from solution reaction. The proposed method is technically straightforward and provides efficient recovery of Cu from wire-drawing scale.

  15. Signal detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tholomier, M.

    1985-01-01

    In a scanning electron microscope, whatever is the measured signal, the same set is found: incident beam, sample, signal detection, signal amplification. The resulting signal is used to control the spot luminosity with the observer cathodoscope. This is synchronized with the beam scanning on the sample; on the cathodoscope, the image in secondary electrons, backscattered electrons,... of the sample surface is reconstituted. The best compromise must be found between a register time low enough to remove eventual variations (under the incident beam) of the nature of the observed phenomenon, and a good spatial resolution of the image and a signal-to-noise ratio high enough. The noise is one of the basic limitations of the scanning electron microscope performance. The whose measurement line must be optimized to reduce it [fr

  16. Combined enteral and parenteral nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernerman, Jan

    2012-03-01

    To review and discuss the evidence and arguments to combine enteral nutrition and parenteral nutrition in the ICU, in particular with reference to the Early Parenteral Nutrition Completing Enteral Nutrition in Adult Critically Ill Patients (EPaNIC) study. The EPaNIC study shows an advantage in terms of discharges alive from the ICU when parenteral nutrition is delayed to day 8 as compared with combining enteral nutrition and parenteral nutrition from day 3 of ICU stay. The difference between the guidelines from the European Society of Enteral and Parenteral Nutrition in Europe and American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition/Society of Critical Care Medicine in North America concerning the combination of enteral nutrition and parenteral nutrition during the initial week of ICU stay was reviewed. The EPaNIC study clearly demonstrates that early parenteral nutrition in the ICU is not in the best interests of most patients. Exactly at what time point the combination of enteral nutrition and parenteral nutrition should be considered is still an open question.

  17. Nutrition and udder health in dairy cows: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Rourke D

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Mastitis is still one of the three main diseases that affects the profitability of dairy farmers. Despite the implementation of the five-point mastitis control programme in the early 1970 s, the incidence in the UK has not reduced dramatically over the past 10 years. A review of the scientific literature indicates that there is a link between nutrition and mastitis in the dairy cow. The major impact of nutrition on udder health is via suppression of the immune system. Cows in negative energy balance are at a higher risk of ketosis and clinical ketosis is associated with a two-fold increase in the risk of clinical mastitis. Trace minerals and vitamins that can affect udder health are selenium and vitamin E, copper, zinc, and vitamin A and β-carotene.

  18. Nutrition and pubertal development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Soliman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nutrition is one of the most important factors affecting pubertal development. Puberty entails a progressive nonlinear process starting from prepubescent to full sexual maturity through the interaction and cooperation of biological, physical, and psychological changes. Consuming an adequate and balanced healthy diet during all phases of growth (infancy, childhood and puberty appears necessary both for proper growth and normal pubertal development. Girls begin puberty at an earlier age compared to past decades. Excessive eating of many processed, high-fat foods, may be the cause of this phenomenon. Overweight or obese children are more likely to enter puberty early. Some evidence suggests that obesity can accelerate the onset of puberty in girls and may delay the onset of puberty in boys. Moreover, the progression of puberty is affected by nutrition. On the other hand, puberty triggers a growth spurt, which increases nutritional needs including macro and micronutrients. Increased caloric, protein, iron, calcium, zinc and folate needs have to be provided during this critical period of rapid growth. Severe primary or secondary malnutrition also can delay the onset and progression of puberty. The higher incidence of anorexia nervosa and bulimia in adolescents imposes a nutritional risk on pubertal development. Moreover, many environmental endocrine disruptors (EDs have been identified that can significantly impair the normal course of puberty. This mini-review sums up some important findings in this important complex that link nutrition and pubertal development.

  19. Nutritional Considerations for Bouldering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Edward J; Storey, Ryan; Ranchordas, Mayur K

    2017-08-01

    Bouldering competitions are held up to International level and governed by the International Federation of Sport Climbing. Bouldering has been selected to feature at the 2020 Olympic Games in Tokyo, however, physiological qualities and nutritional requirements to optimize performance remain inadequately defined due to large gaps in the literature. The primary goals of training include optimizing the capacity of the anaerobic energy systems and developing sport-specific strength, with emphasis on the isometric function of the forearm flexors responsible for grip. Bouldering athletes typically possess a lean physique, similar to the characteristics of sport climbers with reported body fat values of 6-12%. Athletes strive for a low body weight to improve power to weight ratio and limit the load on the extremities. Specialized nutritional support is uncommon and poor nutritional practices such as chronic carbohydrate restriction are prevalent, compromising the health of the athletes. The high intensity nature of bouldering demands a focus on adequate carbohydrate availability. Protein intake and timing should be structured to maximize muscle protein synthesis and recovery, with the literature suggesting 0.25-0.3 g/kg in 3-4 hr intervals. Supplementing with creatine and b-alanine may provide some benefit by augmenting the capacity of the anaerobic systems. Boulderers are encouraged to seek advice from nutrition experts to enhance performance, particularly important when weight loss is the desired outcome. Further research is warranted across all nutritional aspects of bouldering which is summarized in this review.

  20. COPPER AND COPPER-CONTAINING PESTICIDES: METABOLISM, TOXICITY AND OXIDATIVE STRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Husak

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to provide a brief review of the current knowledge regarding metabolism and toxicity of copper and copper-based pesticides in living organisms. Copper is an essential trace element in all living organisms (bacteria, fungi, plants, and animals, because it participates in different metabolic processes and maintain functions of organisms. The transport and metabolism of copper in living organisms is currently the subject of many studies. Copper is absorbed, transported, distributed, stored, and excreted in the body via the complex of homeostatic processes, which provide organisms with a needed constant level of this micronutrient and avoid excessive amounts. Many aspects of copper homeostasis were studied at the molecular level. Copper based-pesticides, in particularly fungicides, bacteriocides and herbicides, are widely used in agricultural practice throughout the world. Copper is an integral part of antioxidant enzymes, particularly copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu,Zn-SOD, and plays prominent roles in iron homeostasis. On the other hand, excess of copper in organism has deleterious effect, because it stimulates free radical production in the cell, induces lipid peroxidation, and disturbs the total antioxidant capacity of the body. The mechanisms of copper toxicity are discussed in this review also.

  1. In Vitro Bioavailability of Calcium, Magnesium, Iron, Zinc, and Copper from Gluten-Free Breads Supplemented with Natural Additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regula, J; Cerba, A; Suliburska, J; Tinkov, A A

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the content of calcium, magnesium, iron, zinc, and copper and determine the bioavailability of these ingredients in gluten-free breads fortified with milk and selected seeds. Due to the increasing prevalence of celiac disease and mineral deficiencies, it has become necessary to produce food with higher nutritional values which maintains the appropriate product characteristics. This study was designed for gluten-free breads fortified with milk and seeds such as flax, poppy, sunflower seeds, pumpkin seeds or nuts, and flour with amaranth. Subsequently, digestion was performed in vitro and the potential bioavailability of the minerals was measured. In the case of calcium, magnesium, iron, and copper, higher bioavailability was observed in rice bread, and, in the case of copper and zinc, in buckwheat bread. This demonstrated a clear increase in bioavailability of all the minerals when the bread were enriched. However, satisfactory results are obtained only for the individual micronutrients.

  2. The freeze-thaw stress response of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is growth phase specific and is controlled by nutritional state via the RAS-cyclic AMP signal transduction pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J I; Grant, C M; Attfield, P V; Dawes, I W

    1997-10-01

    The ability of cells to survive freezing and thawing is expected to depend on the physiological conditions experienced prior to freezing. We examined factors affecting yeast cell survival during freeze-thaw stress, including those associated with growth phase, requirement for mitochondrial functions, and prior stress treatment(s), and the role played by relevant signal transduction pathways. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was frozen at -20 degrees C for 2 h (cooling rate, less than 4 degrees C min-1) and thawed on ice for 40 min. Supercooling occurred without reducing cell survival and was followed by freezing. Loss of viability was proportional to the freezing duration, indicating that freezing is the main determinant of freeze-thaw damage. Regardless of the carbon source used, the wild-type strain and an isogenic petite mutant ([rho 0]) showed the same pattern of freeze-thaw tolerance throughout growth, i.e., high resistance during lag phase and low resistance during log phase, indicating that the response to freeze-thaw stress is growth phase specific and not controlled by glucose repression. In addition, respiratory ability and functional mitochondria are necessary to confer full resistance to freeze-thaw stress. Both nitrogen and carbon source starvation led to freeze-thaw tolerance. The use of strains affected in the RAS-cyclic AMP (RAS-cAMP) pathway or supplementation of an rca1 mutant (defective in the cAMP phosphodiesterase gene) with cAMP showed that the freeze-thaw response of yeast is under the control of the RAS-cAMP pathway. Yeast did not adapt to freeze-thaw stress following repeated freeze-thaw treatment with or without a recovery period between freeze-thaw cycles, nor could it adapt following pretreatment by cold shock. However, freeze-thaw tolerance of yeast cells was induced during fermentative and respiratory growth by pretreatment with H2O2, cycloheximide, mild heat shock, or NaCl, indicating that cross protection between freeze-thaw stress

  3. Mesophilic leaching of copper sulphide sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VLADIMIR B. CVETKOVSKI

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Copper was precipitated using a sodium sulphide solution as the precipitation agent from an acid solution containing 17 g/l copper and 350 g/l sulphuric acid. The particle size of nearly 1 µm in the sulphide sludge sample was detected by optical microscopy. Based on chemical and X-ray diffraction analyses, covellite was detected as the major sulphide mineral. The batch bioleach amenability test was performed at 32 °C on the Tk31 mine mesophilic mixed culture using a residence time of 28 days. The dissolution of copper sulphide by direct catalytic leaching of the sulphides with bacteria attached to the particles was found to be worthy, although a small quantity of ferrous ions had to be added to raise the activity of the bacteria and the redox potential of the culture medium. Throughout the 22-day period of the bioleach test, copper recovery based on residue analysis indicated a copper extraction of 95 %, with copper concentration in the bioleach solution of 15 g/l. The slope of the straight line tangential to the exponential part of the extraction curve gave a copper solubilisation rate of 1.1 g/l per day. This suggests that a copper extraction of 95 % for the period of bioleach test of 13.6 days may be attained in a three-stage bioreactor system.

  4. Chemistry of the copper silicon interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, M.J.; Sashin, V.A.; Nixon, K.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Copper and silicon readily interdiffuse, even at room temperature, to form an interface which can be several nanometers thick. Over the years considerable effort has gone into investigating the diffusion process and chemical nature of the interface formed. Photoemission measurements give evidence for the formation of a stable suicide with a definite stoichiometry, Cu 3 Si. This is evidenced by splitting of the Si LVV Auger line and slight shifts and change in shape of the copper valence band density of states as measured by ultra-violet photoemission. In this paper we present calculations of the electronic structure of copper suicide, bulk copper and silicon, and preliminary measurements of the interface by electron momentum spectroscopy. Densities of states for copper and copper suicide are dominated by the copper 3d bands, and difference between the two compounds are relatively small. By contrast, the full band structures are quite distinct. Hence, experimental measurements of the full band structure of the copper on silicon interface, for example by EMS, have the potential to reveal the chemistry of the interface in a detailed way

  5. The copper metallome in prokaryotic cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rensing, Christopher Günther T; Alwathnani, Hend A.; McDevitt, Sylvia F.

    2016-01-01

    and protozoans also utilize heavy metals such as copper and zinc in the killing of phagocytized bacteria. It seems, therefore, not surprising that many bacteria including pathogens harbor additional copper resistance determinants. However, the occurrence of these resistance determinants is more widespread than...

  6. Copper laser diagnostics and kinetics support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-12-01

    In the effort MSNW participated with the LINL copper-Vapor Laser Program by providing a useful plasma diagnostic for interpretation of Copper-vapor laser kinetics. MSNW developed and delivered a pulsed interferometric diagnostic package to LLNL. Moreover MSNW provided personal services at the request and direction of LLL in the implementation of the diagnostic and interpretation of the data

  7. Photocleavage of DNA by copper (II) complexes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The chemistry of ternary and binary copper(II) complexes showing efficient visible lightinduced DNA cleavage activity is summarized in this article. The role of the metal in photo-induced DNA cleavage reactions is explored by designing complex molecules having a variety of ligands. Ternary copper(II) complexes with amino ...

  8. Electrochemical behaviour of alkaline copper complexes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. A search for non-cyanide plating baths for copper resulted in the development of alkaline copper complex baths containing trisodium citrate [TSC] and triethanolamine [TEA]. Voltammetric studies were carried out on platinum to understand the electrochemical behaviour of these complexes. In TSC solutions, the.

  9. Molybdenum extraction from copper-molybdenum ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nevaeva, L.M.

    1982-01-01

    Molybdenum extraction from copper-molybdenum ores as practised in different countries is reviewed. In world practice the production process including depression of copper and iron sulfides and flotation of molybdenite is widely spread. At two USA factories the process of a selective flotation with molybdenite depression by dextrin is used

  10. Electrodialytic remediation of copper mine tailings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik K.; Rojo, A.; Ottpsen, Lisbeth M.

    2005-01-01

    electrodialytic remediation experiments on copper mine tailings. The results show that electric current could remove copper from watery tailing if the potential gradient was higher than 2V/cm during 21 days. With addition of sulphuric acid, the process was enhanced because the pH decreased to around 4...

  11. Extra-Hepatic Storage of Copper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, Kaj; Damsgaard, Else; Horn, N.

    1975-01-01

    The distribution of copper among the organs of an aborted, male foetus, expected to develop Menkes' syndrome, was entirely different from the distribution in 4 normal foetuses. Copper concentrations determined by neutron activation analysis showed a considerably reduced content in the liver...

  12. Clinical Aspects of Trace Elements: Zinc in Human Nutrition – Zinc Deficiency and Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle M Pluhator

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Available evidence suggests that trace elements, such as zinc, once thought to have no nutritional relevance, are possibly deficient in large sections of the human population. Conditioned deficiencies have been reported to result from malabsorption syndromes, acrodermatitis enteropathica, alcoholism, gastrointestinal disease, thermal injury, chronic diseases (eg, diabetes, sickle cell anemia, and in total parenteral nutrition therapy. Awareness that patients with these problems are at risk has led health professionals to focus increasingly on the importance of zinc therapy in the prevention and treatment of deficiency. More recently zinc toxicity and its role in human nutrition and well-being have come under investigation. Reports have focused on the role of zinc toxicity in causes of copper deficiency, changes in the immune system and alterations in blood lipids. As the numerous challenges presented by the study of zinc in human nutrition are met, more appropriate recommendations for dietary and therapeutic zinc intake are being made.

  13. [Nutritional management in geriatric traumatology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singler, K; Goisser, S; Volkert, D

    2016-08-01

    The prevalence of malnutrition or the risk of malnourishment is high among orthogeriatric patients and a poor nutritional status is associated with a negative outcome. A comprehensive management of preoperative and postoperative nutritional and fluid intake in these patients can help to improve the situation. The management includes identification of patients affected, a thorough assessment of the nutritional status, work-up of possible underlying causes, documentation of nutritional and fluid intake and, most importantly, procedures to improve the preoperative and postoperative nutritional situation. This article gives an overview of the recently updated recommendations on nutritional management in orthogeriatric patients as published by the orthogeriatric working group of the German Geriatric Society.

  14. Activation of ADAM 12 protease by copper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loechel, F; Wewer, Ulla M.

    2001-01-01

    Conversion of latent proteases to the active form occurs by various mechanisms characteristic for different protease families. Here we report that the disintegrin metalloprotease ADAM 12-S is activated by Cu(II). Copper activation is distinct from the cysteine switch component of latency: elimina......Conversion of latent proteases to the active form occurs by various mechanisms characteristic for different protease families. Here we report that the disintegrin metalloprotease ADAM 12-S is activated by Cu(II). Copper activation is distinct from the cysteine switch component of latency......: elimination of the ADAM 12 cysteine switch by a point mutation in the propeptide had no effect on copper activation, whereas mutation of an unpaired cysteine residue in the catalytic domain resulted in a mutant form of ADAM 12-S that was insensitive to copper. This suggests a multi-step activation mechanism...... for ADAM 12 involving both furin cleavage and copper binding....

  15. Microbial leaching of low grade copper ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauf, A.; Ashfaq, M.

    1991-01-01

    Biotechnology is regarded as one of the most promising and revolutionary solution to various problems which are generally faced in the extraction of metals from their ores such as high energy, capital costs and environmental pollution. The paper deals with the study of low grade copper ores for their beneficiation and extraction of copper. The ores used were chalcopyrite and oxidized copper ores. Microorganisms play a vital role in the solubilization of valuable contents from ores such as copper and other metals. Studies have been conducted on the indigenous copper ores by using thiobacillus ferro oxidans and thiobacillus thio oxidans. For comparison purpose some experiments have also been conducted by chemical leaching. The results of bacterial leaching are encouraging. (author)

  16. Modification of polycrystalline copper by proton irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia S, F.; Cabral P, A.; Saniger B, J.M.; Banuelos, J.G.; Barragan V, A.

    1997-01-01

    Polished copper samples were irradiated with proton beams of 300 and 700 keV at room temperature and at -150 Centigrade. In this work the obtained results are reported when such copper irradiated samples are analysed with Sem, Tem, AFM. The Sem micrographs showed evident changes in surface of these copper samples, therefore an EDAX microanalysis was done for its characterization. additionally, the Tem micrographs showed heaps formation until 200 nm. Its electron diffraction spectra indicated that these heaps consist of a copper compound. Finally with AFM were observed changes in coloration of the irradiated sample surface, as well as changes in texture and rugosity of them. These results show in general that irradiation process with protons which is known as an innocuo process produces changes in the copper properties. (Author)

  17. Engineering kinetic barriers in copper metallization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Hanchen; Wei, H.L.; Woo, C.H.; Zhang, X.X.

    2002-01-01

    In metallization processes of integrated circuits, it is desirable to deposit the metal lines (aluminum or copper) fast and at low temperatures. However, the lines (films) usually consist of undesirable columns and voids, because of the absence of sufficient diffusion--a direct result of large kinetic barriers. Following the proposal and realization of the three-dimensional Ehrlich-Schwoebel (3D ES) barrier, we present here a method to engineer this kinetic barrier so as to improve quality of deposited copper films. We deposit copper films by magnetron sputtering, characterize the film structure and texture by using the scanning electron microscope and the x-ray diffraction, respectively. Taking indium as surfactant during copper deposition, we have achieved much better density and bottom coverage of copper filled trenches. The characterizations show that the improvement is the result of the 3D ES barrier reduction caused by indium addition. Engineering the 3D ES barrier therefore leads to improved film quality

  18. Uranium accompanying recovery from copper ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golynko, Z.Sh.; Laskorin, B.N.

    1981-01-01

    In the search for new raw material sources for nuclear power engineering a review of the technique of uranium accompaning recovery from copper ores reprocessing products in some countries is presented. In the USA a sorption method of uranium extraction by means of strongly basic ion exchange resins from solutions upon copper case- hardening with subsequent extraction from eluates by solutions of tertiary amines is realized. Elution is realized with sulphuric acid. In South Africa an extraction reprocessing of gravitational concentrate extracted from copper sulphide flotation tailings is organized. In India the uranium extraction from copper ores flotation enrichment tailings is organized on a commerical scale. Presented are data on the scale of uranium recovery, various conditions of its recovery as well as block diagrams of the processes. It is shown that copper ores become an additional source of uranium recovery [ru

  19. Activation determination of copper in food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiranek, V.; Bludovsky, R.

    1982-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis was used for determining copper content in food. Analyzed were dried milk, flour, coffee, tea, husked rice, and liver. Bowen's kale powder with a guaranteed copper content of 3.6 to 6.5 ppm was used as a reference biological material. The instruments, chemicals and solutions used are reported. The method is described of copper separation with α-benzoinoxime and pyridine as is the procedure for the destructive activation analysis of samples. The copper concentrations in the foods under analysis were found to range within usual limits. The copper concentration determined in the reference material agreed with the measured value. The analysis confirms that the method yields reliable results. (J.B.)

  20. Supplementation with zinc in rats enhances memory and reverses an age-dependent increase in plasma copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandusky-Beltran, Leslie A; Manchester, Bryce L; McNay, Ewan C

    2017-08-30

    Zinc and copper are essential trace elements. Dyshomeostasis in these two metals has been observed in Alzheimer's disease, which causes profound cognitive impairment. Insulin therapy has been shown to enhance cognitive performance; however, recent data suggest that this effect may be at least in part due to the inclusion of zinc in the insulin formulation used. Zinc plays a key role in regulation of neuronal glutamate signaling, suggesting a possible link between zinc and memory processes. Consistent with this, zinc deficiency causes cognitive impairments in children. The effect of zinc supplementation on short- and long-term recognition memory, and on spatial working memory, was explored in young and adult male Sprague Dawley rats. After behavioral testing, hippocampal and plasma zinc and copper were measured. Age increased hippocampal zinc and copper, as well as plasma copper, and decreased plasma zinc. An interaction between age and treatment affecting plasma copper was also found, with zinc supplementation reversing elevated plasma copper concentration in adult rats. Zinc supplementation enhanced cognitive performance across tasks. These data support zinc as a plausible therapeutic intervention to ameliorate cognitive impairment in disorders characterized by alterations in zinc and copper, such as Alzheimer's disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Nutritional rickets in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck-Nielsen, Signe; Jensen, Tina Kold; Gram, Jeppe

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: This study describes clinical and biochemical characteristics of nutritional rickets and risk factors at diagnosis among children living in Denmark. All medical records from patients with rickets referred to or discharged from hospitals in Southern Denmark from 1985 to 2005 were...... identified by register search. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients included were younger than 15 years of age and fulfilled the diagnostic criteria of primary, nutritional rickets. A total of 112 patients with nutritional rickets were included: 29 were of ethnic Danish origin, and 83 were immigrants. RESULTS......: Patients diagnosed before the age of 4 (median 1.4) years displayed the classic clinical signs of rickets, whereas patients diagnosed after the age of 4 (median 12.5) years had few clinical signs and unspecific symptoms. Ethnic Danish patients were only diagnosed before age 24 months, and they accounted...

  2. Nutrition and the eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congdon, N G; West, K P

    1999-12-01

    The topic "nutrition and the eye" cannot adequately be covered in a single review article; indeed, dozens of books and hundreds of articles have been written on the subject. This review concentrates on three areas in which specific nutrients are known or theorized to have a major impact on vision and the visual system: vitamin A deficiency; antioxidants and their proposed role in the prevention of age-related cataract and macular degeneration; and nutritional optic neuropathies, including those of the recent Cuban epidemic. In addition, this article touches on nutritional treatments that have been suggested for several less common eye diseases and, finally, considers several less prevalent conditions in which deficiency of or excess exposure to a particular nutrient has been associated with ocular pathology.

  3. Nutrition and skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Apostolos; Liakou, Aikaterini; Zouboulis, Christos C

    2016-09-01

    Nutrition has long been associated with skin health, including all of its possible aspects from beauty to its integrity and even the aging process. Multiple pathways within skin biology are associated with the onset and clinical course of various common skin diseases, such as acne, atopic dermatitis, aging, or even photoprotection. These conditions have been shown to be critically affected by nutritional patterns and dietary interventions where well-documented studies have demonstrated beneficial effects of essential nutrients on impaired skin structural and functional integrity and have restored skin appearance and health. Although the subject could be vast, the intention of this review is to provide the most relevant and the most well-documented information on the role of nutrition in common skin conditions and its impact on skin biology.

  4. Nutrition in sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Nutrition is one of the fundamental factors that influence the effectiveness of physical activity, increase efficiency and replenishment of muscle mass, balances the ratio of energy consumed and restored. The diet of an athlete can and should be built on common foods available and prepared in accordance with generally accepted principles of healthy eating. The need for major macronutrients and micronutrients is determined by the need for energy, the intensity of sweating and the goals for building muscle mass. Depending on the intensity of the proposed load including competition, there are individual nutritional needs and, if necessary, various food supplements may be used. The basic principles of sport nutrition are described in this article

  5. Nutrition in Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdy, Osama; Barakatun-Nisak, Mohd-Yusof

    2016-12-01

    Medical nutrition therapy (MNT) is a key component of diabetes management. The importance of balancing macronutrients, reducing carbohydrate load, lowering glycemic index, and implementing an overall healthy dietary pattern are emerging as better approaches for MNT in diabetes. Recent research points to improved glycemic control, reduction in body weight, and improvement in many cardiovascular risk factors when these approaches are provided by registered dietitians or health care providers. This review article discusses the current evidence about the role of sensible nutrition in diabetes management. Specific eating plans for weight reduction and for patients with type 1 diabetes are also discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Nutrition and HIV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Henrik; Olsen, Mette Frahm; Filteau, Suzanne

    2017-01-01

    , which is mainly synergistic and operating at different levels. HIV infection increases energy and nutrient requirements, yet it reduces food security. The result is nutritional deficiencies, which increase progression of HIV infection. Both undernutrition and food insecurity may also lead to increased...... risk of transmission. Nutritional intake and status may affect metabolism of antiretroviral drugs, some of which may affect body composition, and increase risk of the metabolic syndrome. In addition, HIV is transmitted through breastfeeding, causing a serious infant feeding dilemma for which...

  7. Clinical avian nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orosz, Susan E

    2014-09-01

    Psittacine birds eat plant-based foods. Birds in the wild seem to be able to balance their energy needs, amino acids, and calcium. Companion birds in captivity do not do as well when self-selecting, and balanced diets are needed to improve their general health. A nutritional history is important to determine whether the avian patient is in balance nutritionally. Understanding the various sources of the fat-soluble vitamins, calcium, and protein will help guide clients to provide nutritious foods for their birds. Owners need to learn to use foraging as a major source of their bird's diet and techniques. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The effect of postoperative radiotherapy on leukocyte zinc, serum trace elements and nutritional status of breast cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antila, H.M.J.; Salo, M.S.; Kirvelae, O.; Nikkanen, V.

    1992-01-01

    Mononuclear (MNC) and polymorphonuclear cell (PMNC) zinc content was determined together with serum zinc, copper, selenium and iron concentrations in 24 operable breast cancer patients during and after postoperative radiotherapy. Anthropometric and biochemical indices of nutritional status were measured as background data. The measurements were carried out in the years 1987-1988. Nine patients used unconventional multivitamin or trace element preparations. A steady but statistically insignificant decrease in PMNC zinc was seen during treatment. No changes occurred in MNC zinc. Serum copper levels increased in five patients possibly due to tamoxifen treatment, but no other alterations occurred in serum trace element levels. Appetite was well maintained and nutritional status remained unaltered. Postoperative radiotherapy for breast carcinoma had thus no effect on either trace element or nutritional status. Patient-initiated alternative treatments did not significantly affect their trace element levels. This was probably due to small supplementation doses or irregular use of the preparations. (orig.)

  9. Kinetics of the conversion of copper sulfide to blister copper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrillo, F.

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available The desulfurization of copper sulfide by air and oxygen has been studied in two laboratory reactors where the gas is blown onto the melt surface. Rates of oxidation in a vertical resistance furnace may be explained by the mass transfer control in the gas phase. However, results for a horizontal tube suggest that the chemical resistance is controlling.

    La desulfuración del sulfuro cuproso con aire y oxígeno se ha estudiado en dos reactores de laboratorio, en los cuales el gas se sopla sobre la superficie del fundido. La velocidad de reacción en un horno de resistencias verticales se puede explicar considerando como controlante la resistencia a la transferencia de materia de la fase gas. Sin embargo, los resultados del horno horizontal indican que la resistencia química es la controlante.

  10. Surface films and corrosion of copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilden, J.; Laitinen, T.; Maekelae, K.; Saario, T.; Bojinov, M.

    1999-03-01

    In Sweden and Finland the spent nuclear fuel is planned to be encapsulated in cast iron canisters that have an outer shield made of copper. The copper shield is responsible for the corrosion protection of the canister construction. General corrosion of the copper is not expected to be the limiting factor in the waste repository environment when estimating the life-time of the canister construction. However, different forms of localised corrosion, i.e. pitting, stress corrosion cracking, or environmentally assisted creep fracture may cause premature failure of the copper shield. Of the probable constituents in the groundwater, nitrites, chlorides, sulphides and carbonates have been suggested to promote localised corrosion of copper. The main assumption made in planning this research program is that the surface films forming on copper in the repository environment largely determine the susceptibility of copper to the different forms of localised corrosion. The availability of reactants, which also may become corrosion rate limiting, is investigated in several other research programs. This research program consists of a set of successive projects targeted at characterising the properties of surface films on copper in repository environment containing different detrimental anions. A further aim was to assess the significance of the anion-induced changes in the stability of the oxide films with regard to localised corrosion of copper. This report summarises the results from a series of investigations on properties of surface films forming on copper in water of pH = 8.9 at temperature of 80 deg C and pressure of 2 MPa. The main results gained so far in this research program are as follows: The surface films forming on copper in the thermodynamic stability region of monovalent copper at 80 deg C consist of a bulk part (about 1 mm thick) which is a good ionic and electronic conductor, and an outer, interfacial layer (0.001 - 0.005 mm thick) which shows p-type semiconductor

  11. Nutritional and Anti – Nutritional Composition of the African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the nutritional and anti – nutritional composition of the African palmyrah palm (Borassus aethiopum). Subjects/ Materials and Methods: Studies were conducted on the proximate composition, vitamin C, total carotenoids and some anti-nutritional factors / toxins of the fresh seedling of the African ...

  12. Nutritional status of children on the National School Nutrition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. School feeding programmes are intended to alleviate short-term hunger, improve nutrition and cognition of children, and provide incomes to families. Objectives. To assess the nutritional status of children receiving meals provided by the National School Nutrition Programme (NSNP) in Capricorn Municipality, ...

  13. Special Food and Nutrition Needs in School Nutrition Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molaison, Elaine Fontenot; Nettles, Mary Frances

    2010-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this research was to determine the prevalence of special food and/or nutrition needs in school nutrition programs. In addition, researchers focused on the issues surrounding these needs and the role of the school nutrition (SN) directors and managers in meeting these needs. Methods: An expert panel was used to…

  14. The Importance of Appropriate Nutrition and Nutrition Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhr, Janet E.; Barclay, Kathy H.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses how nutrition education may be implemented in early childhood classrooms. Describes the incidence of malnutrition and obesity, and topics covered--the food pyramid, vegetable growth, and nutritional needs--through several integrated nutrition units including: (1) the bread basket; (2) potatoes; (3) vegetable soup; (4) fruit basket; (5)…

  15. Towards implementation of optimum nutrition and better clinical nutrition support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonkers, C. F.; Prins, F.; van Kempen, A.; Tepaske, R.; Sauerwein, H. P.

    2001-01-01

    Clinical Nutrition Support--defined as nutrition for hospitalized patients suffering from metabolic stress--plays a limited role in the therapeutic routine of the physician. This is not surprising as most research in the field of clinical nutrition is disappointing with regard to the objective

  16. [Nutritional Assessment and Management for Patients with Chronic Liver Disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tae Hee

    2018-04-25

    When liver disease is severe, the prognosis can be worse if the patient is malnourished. Adequate nutritional support for patients with liver diseases can improve the patient's condition and prognosis. In the case of liver cirrhosis, malnutrition can occur due to a variety of causes, including poor oral intake, maldigestion, malabsorption, associated renal disease, and metabolic abnormalities. For a nutritional assessment, it is important to check the dietary intake, change in body composition, including anthropometry, and a functional assessment of muscle. Counselling and oral or enteral nutrition is preferred over parenteral nutrition as in other diseases. If esophageal varices are present, care should be taken when installing a feeding tube, but if there are ascites, percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy is contraindicated because of the risk of complications. Calories of 30-35 kcal/kg/day and protein from 1.2 to 1.5 g/kg/day are appropriate. Protein restriction is unnecessary unless the hepatic encephalopathy is severe. A late evening snack and branched chain amino acids can be helpful. In the case of cholestasis, the supply of manganese and copper should be restricted. Sarcopenia in patients with liver cirrhosis is also prevalent and associated with the prognosis.

  17. Interactions between nutrition and gastrointestinal parasitism in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sykes, A R; Coop, R L

    2001-12-01

    Effects of gastrointestinal nematode infection on metabolism and nutrient utilisation in sheep are reviewed. Infection induces protein deficiency by increasing the demand for amino acids in the alimentary tract while reducing supply through depression of appetite. Mechanisms through which improved protein nutrition could improve the performance of the host are then discussed. Opportunities for capitalising on such effects are limited by our rudimentary understanding of the cell-mediated immune response in gastrointestinal epithelial tissue. Both resistance of the animal to larval establishment and performance in the face of larval challenge can be enhanced by improved protein nutrition. However, enhanced immune responses may not necessarily be synonymous with improved productivity except at luxurious levels of protein intake, because of apparently competing demands for protein. Such levels of protein nutrition are difficult to achieve in pasture-based systems, because of the protein limiting role of the rumen. Work with proteinprotecting tannins to overcome this limitation is discussed. The much more limited evidence for effect of mineral nutrition, particularly copper (Cu), molybdenum (Mo), cobalt (Co) and phosphorus (P), on outcome of larval challenge is also reviewed.

  18. Enteral nutrition - child - managing problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000164.htm Enteral nutrition - child - managing problems To use the sharing features ... trouble breathing, call 911. References Mcclave SA. Enteral nutrition. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil ...

  19. What Is Nutrition Support Therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sponsored CE Programs Calendar of Events What Is Nutrition Support Therapy All people need food to live. ... patient populations from pediatrics to geriatrics. Key Terms: Nutrition Support Therapy The provision of enteral or parenteral ...

  20. Nutritional Lifestyles of College Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Harmon, Michelle

    2001-01-01

    ...., second only to smoking. The purpose of this study is to explore the nutritional lifestyle of college women, and to determine if there are differences in nutritional lifestyle, as well as, perception of health status...

  1. Industrial Tests to Modify Molten Copper Slag for Improvement of Copper Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhengqi; Zhu, Deqing; Pan, Jian; Zhang, Feng; Yang, Congcong

    2018-04-01

    In this article, to improve the recovery of copper from copper slag by flotation process, industrial tests of the modification process involving addition of a composite additive into molten copper slag were conducted, and the modified slag was subjected to the flotation process to confirm the modification effect. The phase evolution of the slag in the modification process was revealed by thermodynamic calculations, x-ray diffraction, optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The results show that more copper was transformed and enriched in copper sulfide phases. The magnetite content in the modified slag decreased, and that of "FeO" increased correspondingly, leading to a better fluidity of the molten slag, which improved the aggregation and growth of fine particles of the copper sulfide minerals. Closed-circuit flotation tests of the original and modified slags were conducted, and the results show that the copper recovery increased obviously from 69.15% to 73.38%, and the copper grade of concentrates was elevated slightly from 20.24% to 21.69%, further confirming that the industrial tests of the modification process were successful. Hence, the modification process has a bright future in industrial applications for enhancing the recovery of copper from the copper slag.

  2. Neutron activation analysis of copper traces: a study for sodium correction factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripathi, A.B.R.; Bhadkambekar, C.A.; Basu, A.K.; Chattopadhyay, N.

    2007-01-01

    Peak ratio correction factors for accurate quantitative determination of copper by NAA via 64 Cu radioisotope in presence of high 24 Na radioactivities has been established. Copper is the principal element as a marker of bullet residues on targets in connection to forensic ballistics cases. Reliable and precise estimation of copper by NAA either via non-destructive way or by resorting to radiochemical separation is of importance in forensic analysis for arriving at definitive inferences. However, majority of samples originating from wearing apparels, paper, leather, skin, glass or any other metal exhibit matrices contain high levels of sodium. The NAA scheme for determination of copper rests on measurements of net counts at 511 KeV which is the positron annihilation peak of 64 Cu. 24 Na also contributes significantly exactly at 511 KeV of gamma energy albeit by different mechanism i.e., by pair production. Therefore, total signal at 511 KeV is contributed by both. The easiest approach for correct estimation of copper traces has been established by the peak ratio correction factor. This has significance as both 64 Cu and 24 Na have comparable half lives, hence, as such time gap measurements cannot improve the situation. The consistency of peak ratio correction factor could be established for a particular geometry. (author)

  3. Nutrition of the transition cow

    OpenAIRE

    BEŇASOVÁ, Veronika

    2017-01-01

    This bachelor thesis titled Nutrition of the transition cow deals with nutrition of dairy cows in peripartum period with regard to prevention of development of metabolic diseases. Anatomy of digestive system and physiology of digestive processes are briefly described. Characteristic of nutrients and of the most common feeds used for nutrition of dairy cattle serves as introduction to formulation of dairy rations. Metabolic diseases caused by inadequate nutrition in transition period are the b...

  4. Neonatal nutrition and metabolism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thureen, Patti J; Hay, William W

    2006-01-01

    ..., the volume highlights the important longterm effects of fetal and neonatal growth on health in later life. In addition, there are very practical chapters on methods and techniques for assessing nutritional status, body composition, and evaluating metabolic function. Written by an authoritative, international team of cont...

  5. Insects: A nutritional alternative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufour, P. A.

    1981-01-01

    Insects are considered as potential food sources in space. Types of insects consumed are discussed. Hazards of insect ingestion are considered. Insect reproduction, requirements, and raw materials conversion are discussed. Nutrition properties and composition of insects are considered. Preparation of insects as human food is discussed.

  6. Nutrition and Allergic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.J.J. van Neerven

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The development of IgE-mediated allergic diseases is influenced by many factors, including genetic and environmental factors such as pollution and farming, but also by nutrition. In the last decade, substantial progress has been made in our understanding of the impact that nutrition can have on allergic diseases. Many studies have addressed the effect of breastfeeding, pre-, pro- and synbiotics, vitamins and minerals, fiber, fruit and vegetables, cow’s milk, and n-3 fatty acids, on the development of allergies. In addition, nutrition can also have indirect effects on allergic sensitization. This includes the diet of pregnant and breastfeeding women, which influences intrauterine development, as well as breastmilk composition. These include the diet of pregnant and breastfeeding women that influences intrauterine development as well as breastmilk composition, effects of food processing that may enhance allergenicity of foods, and effects via modulation of the intestinal microbiota and their metabolites. This editorial review provides a brief overview of recent developments related to nutrition and the development and management of allergic diseases.

  7. Nutrition during lactation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Committee on Nutritional Status During Pregnancy and Lactation; Institute of Medicine

    ... and Nutrition Board Institute of Medicine National Academy of Sciences NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1991 Copyrightthe cannot be not from book, paper however, version for formatting, original authoritative the typesetting-specific the as from created publication files XML from other this and of recomposed styles, version ...

  8. Youth, Nutrition and Behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voordouw, J.; Snoek, H.M.; Broek, van den E.; Reinders, M.J.; Meeusen, M.J.G.; Veggel, van R.J.F.M.; Kooijman, V.M.; Stijnen, D.A.J.M.; Trentelman, I.

    2012-01-01

    Healthy nutrition is widely assumed to have a beneficial influence on educational performance and social behaviour. Yet research in developed countries about the effects of food intake on children's behaviour and school performance is limited. We propose a randomised controlled field experiment to

  9. Nutritional iron deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, M.B.; Hurrell, R.F.

    2007-01-01

    Iron deficiency is one of the leading risk factors for disability and death worldwide, affecting an estimated 2 billion people. Nutritional iron deficiency arises when physiological requirements cannot be met by iron absorption from diet. Dietary iron bioavailability is low in populations consuming

  10. Shopper marketing nutrition interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Collin R; Niculescu, Mihai; Just, David R; Kelly, Michael P

    2014-09-01

    Grocery stores represent a context in which a majority of people's food purchases occur. Considering the nutrition quality of the population's food intake has dramatically decreased, understanding how to improve food choice in the grocery store is paramount to healthier living. In this work, we detail the type of financial resources from which shoppers could draw (i.e., personal income and benefits from government food assistance programs to low income populations) and explain how these financial resources are allocated in the grocery store (i.e., planned, unplanned, error). Subsequently, we identify a conceptual framework for shopper marketing nutrition interventions that targets unplanned fruit and vegetable purchases (i.e., slack, or willingness to spend minus list items). Targeting slack for fresh fruit and vegetable purchases allows retailers to benefit economically (i.e., fruit and vegetables are higher margin) and allows shoppers to improve their nutrition without increasing their budgets (i.e., budget neutrality). We also provide preliminary evidence of what in-store marketing of fresh fruits and vegetables could entail by modifying grocery carts and grocery floors to provide information of what is common, normal, or appropriate fruit and vegetable purchases. In each example, fresh fruit and vegetable purchases increased and evidence suggested shopper budget neutrality. To provide context for these results, we detail measurement tools that can be used to measure shopper behaviors, purchases, and consumption patterns. Finally, we address theoretical, practical, and policy implications of shopper marketing nutrition interventions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Cystic fibrosis - nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and crackers, muffins, or trail mix. Try to eat regularly, even if it is only a few bites. Or, include a nutrition supplement or milkshake. Be flexible. If you aren't hungry at dinner time, make breakfast, mid-morning snacks, and lunch ...

  12. Food security and nutrition

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Efforts to improve one of the world's most resilient staples — cassava — have paid off, with lasting and, in some instances, dra- matic benefits. Plant breeding has increased this starchy root's nutritional value and dis- ease resistance, saving countless lives. IDRC has long recognized cassava, also known as manioc, as an ...

  13. [Nutritional support in sepsis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz Leyba, C; López Martínez, J; Blesa Malpica, A L

    2005-06-01

    Although it is considered that metabolic and nutritional support must be part of the management of septic patients, it has not been conclusively shown that nutritional support will improve survival or complications from sepsis. Specific data on this issue are scarce since there are few studies that have investigated specialized nutritional support in septic patients. Thus, most of the recommendations are based on outcomes obtained in severely ill patients with different pathologies. It is assumed that nutritional support should be carried out through the enteral route whenever possible, as in other critically ill patients. The energetic waste in these patients is highly variable, although in general terms the hypermetabolic situation may be classified as moderate. An adjustment factor of 1.25-1.30 is recommended for the Harris-Benedict's equation to calculate the caloric intake. Septic patients should receive a hyperproteic intake. The amount of glucose administered should not exceed 70% of non-protein calories, and lipids intake should not exceed 40%. With regards to micronutrients, it is recommended to increase the supply of those with antioxidant properties (vitamin E, carotenes, vitamin C, selenium). There are data to consider that the use of diets enriched with pharmaco-nutrients (both with parenteral and enteral routes) may be beneficial in septic patients, although there is some controversy when interpreting the outcomes.

  14. Tuberculosis and nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Krishna

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Malnutrition and tuberculosis are both problems of considerable magnitude in most of the underdeveloped regions of the world. These two problems tend to interact with each other. Tuberculosis mortality rates in different economic groups in a community tend to vary inversely with their economic levels. Similarly, nutritional status is significantly lower in patients with active tuberculosis compared with healthy controls. Malnutrition can lead to secondary immunodeficiency that increases the host′s susceptibility to infection. In patients with tuberculosis, it leads to reduction in appetite, nutrient malabsorption, micronutrient malabsorption, and altered metabolism leading to wasting. Both, protein-energy malnutrition and micronutrients deficiencies increase the risk of tuberculosis. It has been found that malnourished tuberculosis patients have delayed recovery and higher mortality rates than well-nourished patients. Nutritional status of patients improves during tuberculosis chemotherapy. High prevalence of human immunodeficiency (HIV infection in the underdeveloped countries further aggravates the problem of malnutrition and tuberculosis. Effect of malnutrition on childhood tuberculosis and tuberculin skin test are other important considerations. Nutritional supplementation may represent a novel approach for fast recovery in tuberculosis patients. In addition, raising nutritional status of population may prove to be an effective measure to control tuberculosis in underdeveloped areas of world.

  15. Nutrition in Children's Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Nathan J.

    Young athletes need to be aware of the importance of good nutrition to athletic performance. A basic diet plan, worked out with a physician to satisfy energy and weight needs, is essential. The best eating schedule and amount and type of food varies with different sports depending on the intensity and duration of physical activity. Weight control…

  16. Maternal nutrition in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-08-05

    Aug 5, 2017 ... Results: Undernutrition in women aged 15–49 years decreased from ... Food restrictions/taboos are common with proteins and vegetable. ... This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the ... economic resources—all critical toward good nutrition that ..... Indian J Pediatr 2004;71:1007-14. 23.

  17. Sleep, Exercise, and Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrelson, Orvis A.; And Others

    The first part of this booklet concerns why sleep and exercise are necessary. It includes a discussion of what occurs during sleep and what dreams are. It also deals with the benefits of exercise, fatigue, posture, and the correlation between exercise and personality. The second part concerns nutrition and the importance of food. This part covers…

  18. Nutritional disturbances by adolescent

    OpenAIRE

    Stassart, Martine

    2011-01-01

    The nutritional disturbances are frequent by adolescents. That is a psychological defense against dependance toward the mother but also a middle to remain in a childish position i.e. either as a fat baby - in the fall of obesity- or as the ideal pre- or bisexual great child - in the case of anorexia.

  19. Nutrition and Liver Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Alan A

    2017-01-01

    Good clinical practice is based on a secure and accurate diagnosis. Poor nutrition is frequently associated with disorders of the liver, and a specific nutrition diagnosis is needed for providing best care and experiencing successful outcome. There is opportunity for better-structured approaches to making secure and consistent nutritional diagnoses in patients with liver disease. Nutrition is the set of integrated processes by which cells, tissues, organs and the whole body acquire the energy and nutrients to retain normal structure and perform the required functions. At the level of the whole body, this is achieved through dietary supply and the capacity of the body to transform the substrates and cofactors necessary for metabolism. All of these domains (diet, metabolic capacity, activity of the microbiome, body composition and the level of demand for energy and nutrients) are influenced by levels of physical activity and can vary according to physiological and pathological disease states. The liver plays a central role in establishing and maintaining these regulated processes. Its capacity to achieve and maintain these functional capabilities is established during one's early life. When these capabilities are exceeded and the ability to maintain the milieu interieur is compromised, ill-health supervenes. Stress tests that assess flow through gateway pathways can be used to determine the maximal capacity and functional reserve for critical functions. The inability of the liver to reliably integrate body lipid metabolism and the accumulation of abnormal lipid are obvious manifestations of impaired regulation both in situations of weight loss, for example, the fatty liver of severe malnutrition, and in situations of energy excess, as in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. The use of stable isotopic probes and the more recent definition of the variability in the metabolome in different nutritional and pathological states indicate the great potential for clinical tools

  20. Grain boundary corrosion of copper canister material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fennell, P.A.H.; Graham, A.J.; Smart, N.R.; Sofield, C.J.

    2001-03-01

    The proposed design for a final repository for spent fuel and other long-lived residues in Sweden is based on the multi-barrier principle. The waste will be encapsulated in sealed cylindrical canisters, which will then be placed in granite bedrock and surrounded by compacted bentonite clay. The canister design is based on a thick cast inner container fitted inside a corrosion-resistant copper canister. During fabrication of the outer copper canisters there will be some unavoidable grain growth in the welded areas. As grains grow they will tend to concentrate impurities within the copper at the new grain boundaries. The work described in this report was undertaken to determine whether there is any possibility of enhanced corrosion at grain boundaries within the copper canister. The potential for grain boundary corrosion was investigated by exposing copper specimens, which had undergone different heat treatments and hence had different grain sizes, to aerated artificial bentonite-equilibrated groundwater with two concentrations of chloride, for increasing periods of time. The degree of grain boundary corrosion was determined by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and optical microscopy. AFM showed no increase in grain boundary 'ditching' for low chloride groundwater. In high chloride groundwater the surface was covered uniformly with a fine-grained oxide. No increases in oxide thickness were observed. No significant grain boundary attack was observed using optical microscopy either. The work suggests that in aerated artificial groundwaters containing chloride ions, grain boundary corrosion of copper is unlikely to adversely affect SKB's copper canisters

  1. Normal macrophage function in copper deficient mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukasewycz, O.A.; Kolquist, K.L.; Prohaska, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    Copper deficiency (-Cu) was produced in C57 BL and C58 mice by feeding a low copper diet (modified AIN-76A) from birth. Mice given supplemental copper in the drinking water (+Cu) served as controls. Copper status was monitored by assay of ceruloplasmin (CP) activity. Macrophages (M0) were obtained from matched +Cu and -Cu male 7 week-old mice by peritoneal lavage 3 days after thioglycollate stimulation. M0 were assayed in terms of lipopolysaccharide-induced hexose monophosphate shunt activity by monitoring 14 CO 2 production from [1- 14 C]-glucose and by the determination of phagocytic index using fluorescein labelled latex bead ingestion. M0 from -Cu mice were equivalent to those of +Cu mice in both these parameters. However, superoxide dismutase and cytochrome oxidase activities were both significantly lower in -Cu M0, confirming a functional copper deficiency. Previous results from this laboratory have shown that -Cu mice have a decreased antibody response to sheep erythrocyte antigens and a diminished reactivity to B and T cell mitogens. These immunological insufficiencies appear to be proportional to the severity of copper depletion as determined by CP levels. Furthermore, -Cu lymphocytes exhibit depressed mixed lymphocyte reactivity consistent with alterations at the membrane surface. The present results suggest that M0/monocytes are less severely affected than lymphocytes in copper deficiency states

  2. Home parenteral nutrition in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalousova, J.; Rouskova, B.; Styblova, J.

    2011-01-01

    Parenteral nutrition delivered at home presents a major improvement in the quality of life of children dependent on long term parenteral nutrition. Indications, technical conditions, logistics, complications, prognosis of home parenteral nutrition as well as some health-care issues to be addressed by pediatric practitioner are summarized. (author)

  3. Personalised nutrition: Status and perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joost, H.G.; Gibney, M.J.; Cashman, K.D.; Görman, U.; Hesketh, J.E.; Mueller, M.; Ommen, B. van; Williams, C.M.; Mathers, J.C.

    2007-01-01

    Personalised, genotype-based nutrition is a concept that links genotyping with specific nutritional advice in order to improve the prevention of nutrition-associated, chronic diseases. This review describes the current scientific basis of the concept and discusses its problems. There is convincing

  4. Sports Nutrition for Young Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotugna, Nancy; Vickery, Connie E.; McBee, Sheldon

    2005-01-01

    Nutritional needs for peak athletic performance include sufficient calorie intake, adequate hydration, and attention to timing of meals. Student athletes and their advisors often are misinformed or have misconceptions about sports nutrition. This paper identifies nutritional needs of young athletes, reviews common misconceptions, and examines the…

  5. State of nutrition support teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLegge, Mark Henry; Kelly, Andrea True; Kelley, Andrea True

    2013-12-01

    The incidence of malnutrition in hospitalized patients is relatively high (up to 55%) despite breakthroughs in nutrition support therapies. These patients have increased morbidity and mortality, extended hospital stays, and care that is associated with higher costs. These patients are often poorly managed due to inadequate nutrition assessment and poor medical knowledge and practice in the field of nutrition. Nutrition support teams (NSTs) are interdisciplinary support teams with specialty training in nutrition that are often comprised of physicians, dietitians, nurses, and pharmacists. Their role includes nutrition assessment, determination of nutrition needs, recommendations for appropriate nutrition therapy, and management of nutrition support therapy. Studies have demonstrated significant improvements in patient nutrition status and improved clinical outcomes as well as reductions in costs when patients were appropriately managed by a multispecialty NST vs individual caregivers. Despite this, there has been steady decline in the number of formal NST in recent years (65% of hospitals in 1995 to 42% in 2008) as hospitals and other healthcare organizations look for ways to cut costs. Given the importance of nutrition status on clinical outcomes and overall healthcare costs, a number of institutions have introduced and sustained strong nutrition training and support programs and teams, demonstrating both clinical and economic benefit. The benefits of NST, training and implementation strategies, and tips for justifying these clinically and economically beneficial groups to healthcare organizations and governing bodies are discussed in this review.

  6. Nutrition communication in general practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dillen, van S.M.E.; Hiddink, G.J.; Koelen, M.A.; Graaf, de C.; Woerkum, van C.M.J.

    2006-01-01

    General practitioners (GPs) are frequently confronted with patients who suffer from obesity or other nutrition-related diseases, such as diabetes and coronary heart disease. There is increasing evidence that nutrition communication is effective in changing nutrition behaviour. Moreover, it is widely

  7. Copper adsorption in tropical oxisols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silveira Maria Lucia Azevedo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Cu adsorption, at concentrations between 0 to 800 mg L-1, was evaluated in surface and subsurface samples of three Brazilian soils: a heavy clayey-textured Rhodic Hapludalf (RH, a heavy clayey-textured Anionic ''Rhodic'' Acrudox (RA and a medium-textured Anionic ''Xanthic'' Acrudox (XA. After adsorption, two consecutive extractions were performed to the samples which received 100 mg L-1 copper. Surface samples adsorbed higher amounts of Cu than the subsurface, and exhibited lower Cu removed after the extractions, reinforcing the influence of the organic matter in the reactions. Cu adsorption was significant in the subsurface horizons of the Oxisols, despite the positive balance of charge, demonstrating the existence of mechanisms for specific adsorption, mainly related to the predominance of iron and aluminum oxides in the mineral fractions. In these samples, Cu was easily removed from the adsorption sites. RH demonstrated a higher capacity for the Cu adsorption in both horizons.

  8. Nutrition in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray-lee, M

    1989-07-01

    Village women have adopted techniques set down by UNICEF in achieving higher food production and, ultimately, self sufficiency. Women's cooperatives integrate kitchen gardening and irrigated agriculture in an effort to combat the complex nutritional problems in Africa. Projects also offered training in a variety of areas including management of plots, labor-saving technology--diesel-driven grinding mills, rice husking, machines, wells with hand pumps, motor pumps for irrigation, all geared towards women benefitting themselves by growing their own food and furthering their children's health and development. Projects such as the one in Senegal were undertaken in other regions of Africa, like the Sahel and the Wadis--low-lying areas. From these projects, aid agencies and governments have suggested a number of recommendations in seeking a solution to Africa's nutritional problems. 1st, a balance between production of cash crops and food for consumption is called for. 2nd, research is necessary to improve the quality of locally grown food as much as livestock. 3rd, governments should extend surface area cultivation, 4th, more research on the advantage of indigenous food plants, 5th, women should be in on all levels of decision making in food production, 6th, governments should increase women farmer's efficiency, and further women's access to land and credit and 7th, women should be provided with increased educational opportunities. Nutrition in developing countries cannot be viewed as an isolated phenomenon--solutions to nutritional development should include all aspects of the problem including health and nutrition education, growth monitoring, water supply, literacy, technological know-how, and agricultural and plant and soil conservation.

  9. Copper accumulation by stickleback nests containing spiggin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinho, G L L; Martins, C M G; Barber, I

    2016-07-01

    The three-spined stickleback is a ubiquitous fish of marine, brackish and freshwater ecosystems across the Northern hemisphere that presents intermediate sensitivity to copper. Male sticklebacks display a range of elaborate reproductive behaviours that include nest construction. To build the nests, each male binds nesting material together using an endogenous glycoprotein nesting glue, known as 'spiggin'. Spiggin is a cysteine-rich protein and, therefore, potentially binds heavy metals present in the environment. The aim of this study was to investigate the capacity of stickleback nests to accumulate copper from environmental sources. Newly built nests, constructed by male fish from polyester threads in laboratory aquaria, were immersed in copper solutions ranging in concentration from 21.1-626.6 μg Cu L(-1). Bundles of polyester threads from aquaria without male fish were also immersed in the same copper solutions. After immersion, nests presented higher amounts of copper than the thread bundles, indicating a higher capacity of nests to bind this metal. A significant, positive correlation between the concentration of copper in the exposure solution and in the exposed nests was identified, but there was no such relationship for thread bundles. Since both spiggin synthesis and male courtship behaviour are under the control of circulating androgens, we predicted that males with high courtship scores would produce and secrete high levels of the spiggin protein. In the present study, nests built by high courtship score males accumulated more copper than those built by low courtship score males. Considering the potential of spiggin to bind metals, the positive relationship between fish courtship and spiggin secretion seems to explain the higher amount of copper on the nests from the fish showing high behaviour scores. Further work is now needed to determine the consequences of the copper binding potential of spiggin in stickleback nests for the health and survival of

  10. 21 CFR 74.3045 - [Phthalocyaninato(2-)] copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false [Phthalocyaninato(2-)] copper. 74.3045 Section 74...-)] copper. (a) Identity. The color additive is [phthalocyaninato(2-)] copper (CAS Reg. No. 147-14-8) having... [phthalocyaninato(2-)] copper shall conform to the following specifications and shall be free from impurities other...

  11. Possibilities of radioisotopic fluorescence analysis application in copper industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parus, J.; Kierzek, J.

    1983-01-01

    The main applications of X-ray fluorescence analysis in copper industry such as: copper ores and other materials from flotation analysis, lead and silver determination in blister copper, analysis of metallurgic dusts and copper base alloys analysis are presented. (A.S.)

  12. 49 CFR 192.125 - Design of copper pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Design of copper pipe. 192.125 Section 192.125... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Pipe Design § 192.125 Design of copper pipe. (a) Copper... hard drawn. (b) Copper pipe used in service lines must have wall thickness not less than that indicated...

  13. Conditions for precipitation of copper phases in DWPF waste glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schumacher, R.F.; Ramsey, W.G.

    1993-01-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) precipitate hydrolysis process requires the use of copper formate catalyst. The expected absorbed radiation doses to the precipitate require levels of copper formate that increase the potential for the precipitation of metallic copper in the DWPF Melter. The conditions required to avoid the precipitation of copper are described

  14. Copper doped borate dosimeters revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alajerami, Y.S.M. [Department of Physics, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Johor (Malaysia); Department of Medical Radiography, Al-Azhar University, Gaza Strip, Palestine (Country Unknown); Hashim, S., E-mail: suhairul@utm.my [Department of Physics, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Johor (Malaysia); Oncology Treatment Centre, Sultan Ismail Hospital, 81100 Johor Bahru (Malaysia); Ghoshal, S.K. [Department of Physics, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Johor (Malaysia); Bradley, D.A. [Centre for Nuclear and Radiation Physics, Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Mhareb, M. [Department of Physics, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Johor (Malaysia); Saleh, M.A. [Department of Physics, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Johor (Malaysia); National Atomic Energy Commission (NATEC), Sana' a (Yemen)

    2014-11-15

    We render a panoramic overview on copper (Cu) doped borate dosimeters. Preparing a dosimeter by mixing specific materials with precise weights and methods is a never-ending quest. The recommended composition is highly decisive for accurate estimation of the absorbed dose, prediction of the biological outcome, determination of the treatment dose for radiation therapy and facilitation of personal monitoring. Based on these principles, the proposed dosimeter must cover a series of dosimetric properties to realize the exact results and assessment. The doped borate dosimeters indeed demonstrate attractive thermoluminescence (TL) features. Several dedicated efforts are attempted to improve the luminescence properties by doping various transition metals or rare-earth elements. The Cu ion being one of the preferred activators shows excellent TL properties as revealed via detail comparison with other dosimeters. Two oxide states of Cu (Cu{sup +} and Cu{sup ++}) with reasonable atomic number allow easy interaction with boron network. Interestingly, the intrinsic luminescent centers of borate lattice are in cross linked with that of Cu{sup +} ions. Thus, the activation of borate dosimeter with Cu ions for the enhancement of the TL sensitivity is recognized. These dosimeters reveal similar glow curves as the standard TLD-100 (LiF:Mg,Ti) one irrespective of the use of modifiers and synthesis techniques. They display high sensitivity, low fading, dose response linearity over wide range and practical minimum detectable dose. Furthermore, the effective atomic number being the most beneficial aspect (equivalent to that of human tissue) of borate dosimeters do not show any change due to Cu ion activations. The past development, major challenges, excitement, applications, recent progress and the future promises of Cu doped borate TL dosimeters are highlighted. - Highlights: • The manuscript gives a panoramic overview on copper doped borate dosimeters. • Cu ions activated

  15. Copper doped borate dosimeters revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alajerami, Y.S.M.; Hashim, S.; Ghoshal, S.K.; Bradley, D.A.; Mhareb, M.; Saleh, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    We render a panoramic overview on copper (Cu) doped borate dosimeters. Preparing a dosimeter by mixing specific materials with precise weights and methods is a never-ending quest. The recommended composition is highly decisive for accurate estimation of the absorbed dose, prediction of the biological outcome, determination of the treatment dose for radiation therapy and facilitation of personal monitoring. Based on these principles, the proposed dosimeter must cover a series of dosimetric properties to realize the exact results and assessment. The doped borate dosimeters indeed demonstrate attractive thermoluminescence (TL) features. Several dedicated efforts are attempted to improve the luminescence properties by doping various transition metals or rare-earth elements. The Cu ion being one of the preferred activators shows excellent TL properties as revealed via detail comparison with other dosimeters. Two oxide states of Cu (Cu + and Cu ++ ) with reasonable atomic number allow easy interaction with boron network. Interestingly, the intrinsic luminescent centers of borate lattice are in cross linked with that of Cu + ions. Thus, the activation of borate dosimeter with Cu ions for the enhancement of the TL sensitivity is recognized. These dosimeters reveal similar glow curves as the standard TLD-100 (LiF:Mg,Ti) one irrespective of the use of modifiers and synthesis techniques. They display high sensitivity, low fading, dose response linearity over wide range and practical minimum detectable dose. Furthermore, the effective atomic number being the most beneficial aspect (equivalent to that of human tissue) of borate dosimeters do not show any change due to Cu ion activations. The past development, major challenges, excitement, applications, recent progress and the future promises of Cu doped borate TL dosimeters are highlighted. - Highlights: • The manuscript gives a panoramic overview on copper doped borate dosimeters. • Cu ions activated technique in borate

  16. Graphene-protected copper and silver plasmonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kravets, V. G.; Jalil, R.; Kim, Y. J.

    2014-01-01

    suitable for plasmonic applications. To this end, there has been a continuous search for alternative plasmonic materials that are also compatible with complementary metal oxide semiconductor technology. Here we show that copper and silver protected by graphene are viable candidates. Copper films covered...... with one to a few graphene layers show excellent plasmonic characteristics. They can be used to fabricate plasmonic devices and survive for at least a year, even in wet and corroding conditions. As a proof of concept, we use the graphene-protected copper to demonstrate dielectric loaded plasmonic...

  17. Copper Promoted Synthesis of Diaryl Ethers

    OpenAIRE

    Ghosh, Rajshekhar; Samuelson, Ashoka G

    2004-01-01

    An efficient protocol using copper based reagents for the coupling of aryl halides with phenols to generate diaryl ethers is described. Acopper( I) complex, [ Cu( CH3CN) (4)] ClO4, or the readily available copper( II) source, CuCO3 . Cu( OH) (2) . H2O ( in combination with potassium phosphate), can be used. Aryl halides and phenols with different steric and electronic demands have been used to assess the efficiency of the procedure. The latter source of copper gives better yields under all co...

  18. Energy and environmental implications of copper production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvardo, Sergio [Chile Univ., Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Santiago (Chile); Maldonado, Pedro; Jaques, Ivan [Chile Univ., Energy Research Program, Santiago (Chile)

    1999-04-01

    Primary copper production is a major activity in the mining sector. It is highly energy-intensive, ranking third in specific energy consumption (SEC) among the five major basic metals (aluminum, copper, iron, lead and zinc) and poses important environmental hazards. We examine the large discrepancy between theoretical (from thermodynamics) and actual (from empirical data) SECs and then describe relevant environmental issues, focusing on the most significant energy-related environmental impacts of primary copper production with emphasis on greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions. An example of GHG energy-related abatement that concurrently improves energy use is presented. (Author)

  19. Present status and prospect of copper radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Huawei; Li Hongfeng; Liu Boli

    1996-01-01

    In the past decade most of the efforts of copper radiopharmaceuticals research has been focused on bis(thiosemicarbazonato) copper complexes for use in myocardial and brain imaging agents. In the present work, the analogs of bis(thiosemicarbazone) is studied in labeling antibodies and tumors. The retention mechanism of Cu-PTSM is investigated. Other kinds of ligands, BAT (N 2 S 2 ) for example, can be used to prepare neutral copper complexes in order to obtain brain radiopharmaceuticals in future. (60 refs.)

  20. Proximal Limb Weakness in a Patient with Celiac Disease: Copper Deficiency, Gluten Sensitivity, or Both as the Underlying Cause?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. David Avila

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Celiac disease has been associated with several neurologic disorders which may result from micronutrient deficiencies, coexisting autoimmune conditions, or gluten sensitivity. Copper deficiency can produce multiple neurologic manifestations. Myeloneuropathy is the most common neurologic syndrome and it is often irreversible, despite copper replacement. We report the case of a 55-year-old man who presented with progressive proximal limb weakness and weight loss in the setting of untreated celiac disease without gastrointestinal symptoms. He had anemia, neutropenia, and severe hypocupremia. The pattern of weakness raised the suspicion that there was an underlying myopathy, although this was not confirmed by electrodiagnostic studies. Weakness and hematologic abnormalities resolved completely within 1 month of total parenteral nutrition with copper supplementation and a gluten-free diet. Myopathy can rarely occur in patients with celiac disease, but the mechanism is unclear. Pure proximal limb weakness has not been previously reported in copper deficiency. We propose that this may represent a novel manifestation of hypocupremia and recommend considering copper deficiency and gluten sensitivity in patients presenting with proximal limb weakness.

  1. Serum concentrations of trace elements in patients with Crohn's disease receiving enteral nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johtatsu, Tomoko; Andoh, Akira; Kurihara, Mika; Iwakawa, Hiromi; Tsujikawa, Tomoyuki; Kashiwagi, Atsunori; Fujiyama, Yoshihide; Sasaki, Masaya

    2007-11-01

    We investigated the trace element status in Crohn's disease (CD) patients receiving enteral nutrition, and evaluated the effects of trace element-rich supplementation. Thirty-one patients with CD were enrolled in this study. All patients were placed on an enteral nutrition regimen with Elental(R) (Ajinomoto pharmaceutical. Ltd., Tokyo, Japan). Serum selenium, zinc and copper concentrations were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Serum selenoprotein P levels were determined by an ELISA system. Average serum levels of albumin, selenium, zinc and copper were 4.1 +/- 0.4 g/dl, 11.2 +/- 2.8 microg/dl, 71.0 +/- 14.8 microg/dl, and 112.0 +/- 25.6 microg/dl, respectively. In 9 patients of 31 CD patients, serum albumin levels were lower than the lower limit of the normal range. Serum selenium, zinc and copper levels were lower than lower limits in 12 patients, 9 patients and 1 patient, respectively. Serum selenium levels significantly correlated with both serum selenoprotein P levels and glutathione peroxidase activity. Supplementation of selenium (100 microg/day) and zinc (10 mg/day) for 2 months significantly improved the trace element status in CD patients. In conclusion, serum selenium and zinc levels are lower in many CD patients on long-term enteral nutrition. In these patients, supplementation of selenium and zinc was effective in improving the trace element status.

  2. Underwater explosive compaction-sintering of tungsten-copper coating on a copper surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiang; Li, Xiaojie; Yan, Honghao; Wang, Xiaohong; Chen, Saiwei

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated underwater explosive compaction-sintering for coating a high-density tungsten-copper composite on a copper surface. First, 50% W-50% Cu tungsten-copper composite powder was prepared by mechanical alloying. The composite powder was pre-compacted and sintered by hydrogen. Underwater explosive compaction was carried out. Finally, a high-density tungsten-copper coating was obtained by diffusion sintering of the specimen after explosive compaction. A simulation of the underwater explosive compaction process showed that the peak value of the pressure in the coating was between 3.0 and 4.8 GPa. The hardness values of the tungsten-copper layer and the copper substrate were in the range of 87-133 and 49 HV, respectively. The bonding strength between the coating and the substrate was approximately 100-105 MPa.

  3. Preparation of graphite dispersed copper composite on copper plate with CO2 laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, S.; Ishikawa, Y.; Muizz, M. N. A.; Hisyamudin, M. N. N.; Nishiyama, K.; Sasano, J.; Izaki, M.

    2018-01-01

    It was tried in this work to prepare the graphite dispersed copper composite locally on a copper plate with a CO2 laser. The objectives of this study were to clear whether copper graphite composite was prepared on a copper plate and how the composite was prepared. The carbon content at the laser spot decreased with the laser irradiation time. This mainly resulted from the elimination by the laser trapping. The carbon content at the outside of the laser spot increased with time. Both the laser ablation and the laser trapping did not act on the graphite particles at the outside of the laser spot. Because the copper at the outside of the laser spot melted by the heat conduction from the laser spot, the particles were fixed by the wetting. However, the graphite particles were half-floated on the copper plate. The Vickers hardness decreased with an increase with laser irradiation time because of annealing.

  4. Copper localization, elemental content, and thallus colour in the copper hyperaccumulator lichen Lecanora sierra from California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purvis, O.W.; Bennett, J.P.; Spratt, J.

    2011-01-01

    An unusual dark blue-green lichen, Lecanora sierrae, was discovered over 30 years ago by Czehura near copper mines in the Lights Creek District, Plumas County, Northern California. Using atomic absorption spectroscopy, Czehura found that dark green lichen samples from Warren Canyon contained 4% Cu in ash and suggested that its colour was due to copper accumulation in the cortex. The present study addressed the hypothesis that the green colour in similar material we sampled from Warren Canyon in 2008, is caused by copper localization in the thallus. Optical microscopy and electron microprobe analysis of specimens of L. sierrae confirmed that copper localization took place in the cortex. Elemental analyses of L. sierrae and three other species from the same localities showed high enrichments of copper and selenium, suggesting that copper selenates or selenites might occur in these lichens and be responsible for the unusual colour.

  5. Copper localization, elemental content, and thallus colour in the copper hyperaccumulator lichen Lecanora sierrae from California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purvis, O.W.; Bennett, J.P.; Spratt, J.

    2011-01-01

    An unusual dark blue-green lichen, Lecanora sierrae, was discovered over 30 years ago by Czehura near copper mines in the Lights Creek District, Plumas County, Northern California. Using atomic absorption spectroscopy, Czehura found that dark green lichen samples from Warren Canyon contained 4% Cu in ash and suggested that its colour was due to copper accumulation in the cortex. The present study addressed the hypothesis that the green colour in similar material we sampled from Warren Canyon in 2008, is caused by copper localization in the thallus. Optical microscopy and electron microprobe analysis of specimens of L. sierrae confirmed that copper localization took place in the cortex. Elemental analyses of L. sierrae and three other species from the same localities showed high enrichments of copper and selenium, suggesting that copper selenates or selenites might occur in these lichens and be responsible for the unusual colour. Copyright ?? 2011 British Lichen Society.

  6. Effects of organic matters coming from Chinese tea on soluble copper release from copper teapot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ni Lixiao; Li Shiyin

    2008-01-01

    The morphology and elemental composition of the corrosion products of copper teapot's inner-surface were characterized by the scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray surface analysis (SEM/EDS), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photon spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. It was revealed that Cu, Fe, Ca, P, Si and Al were the main elements of corrosion by-products, and the α-SiO 2 , Cu 2 O and CaCO 3 as the main mineral components on the inner-surface of copper teapot. The effects of organic matters coming from Chinese tea on soluble copper release from copper teapots in tap water were also investigated. The results showed that the doses of organic matter (as TOC), temperate and stagnation time have significant effects on the concentration of soluble copper released from copper teapots in tap water

  7. Do European consumers use nutrition labels?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wills, Josephine M.; Grunert, Klaus G.; Celemín, Laura Fernández

    2009-01-01

    Nutrition labelling on food packages becomes more and more widespread in the European Union. Such information is not compulsory, unless a nutrition or health claim is made. However, how do consumers use nutrition information? Two European studies are currently assessing whether nutrition...... knowledge about nutrition and are able to use nutrition labels to identify healthier products within a category....

  8. 7 CFR 249.9 - Nutrition education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nutrition education. 249.9 Section 249.9 Agriculture... Nutrition education. (a) Goal. Nutrition education shall emphasize the relationship of proper nutrition to... agency shall integrate nutrition education into SFMNP operations and may satisfy nutrition education...

  9. Nutrition for Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.

    2005-01-01

    Nutrition has proven to be critical throughout the history of human exploration, on both land and water. The importance of nutrition during long-duration space exploration is no different. Maintaining optimal nutritional status is critical for all bodily systems, especially in light of the fact that that many are also affected by space flight itself. Major systems of concern are bone, muscle, the cardiovascular system, the immune system, protection against radiation damage, and others. The task ahead includes defining the nutritional requirements for space travelers, ensuring adequacy of the food system, and assessing crew nutritional status before, during, and after flight. Accomplishing these tasks will provide significant contributions to ensuring crew health on long-duration missions. In addition, development and testing of nutritional countermeasures to effects of space flight is required, and assessment of the impact of other countermeasures (such as exercise and pharmaceuticals) on nutrition is also critical for maintaining overall crew health. Vitamin D stores of crew members are routinely low after long-duration space flight. This occurs even when crew members take vitamin D supplements, suggesting that vitamin D metabolism may be altered during space flight. Vitamin D is essential for efficient absorption of calcium, and has numerous other benefits for other tissues with vitamin D receptors. Protein is a macronutrient that requires additional study to define the optimal intake for space travelers. Administration of protein to bed rest subjects can effectively mitigate muscle loss associated with disuse, but too much or too little protein can also have negative effects on bone. In another bed rest study, we found that the ratio of protein to potassium was correlated with the level of bone resorption: the higher the ratio, the more bone resorption. These relationships warrant further study to optimize the beneficial effect of protein on both bone and muscle

  10. Theft in Price-Volatile Markets: On the Relationship between Copper Price and Copper Theft

    OpenAIRE

    Sidebottom, A.; Belur, J.; Bowers, K.; Tompson, L.; Johnson, S. D.

    2011-01-01

    Recently, against a backdrop of general reductions in acquisitive crime, increases have been observed in the frequency of metal theft offences. This is generally attributed to increases in metal prices in response to global demand exceeding supply. The main objective of this article was to examine the relationship between the price of copper and levels of copper theft, focusing specifically on copper cable theft from the British railway network. Results indicated a significant positive correl...

  11. “Pulling the plug” on cellular copper: The role of mitochondria in copper export

    OpenAIRE

    Leary, Scot C.; Winge, Dennis R.; Cobine, Paul A.

    2008-01-01

    Mitochondria contain two enzymes, Cu, Zn superoxide dismutase (Sod1) and cytochrome c oxidase (CcO), that require copper as a cofactor for their biological activity. The copper used for their metallation originates from a conserved, bioactive pool contained within the mitochondrial matrix, the size of which changes in response to either genetic or pharmacological manipulation of cellular copper status. Its dynamic nature implies molecular mechanisms exist that functionally couple mitochondria...

  12. Reparatory adaptation to copper-induced injury and occurrence of a copper-binding protein in the polycheate, Eudistylia vancouveri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, J.S.; Roesijadi, G.

    1983-01-01

    Chemically injured branchial pinnae of copper-treated polychaetes, Eudistylia vancouveri, regenerated while still exposed to copper. The first observations of pinna regeneration coincided with the apparent induction of a low molecular weight (approx.5000 daltons) copper-binding protein. This protein may play a role in the detoxification of copper and subsequent tissue regeneration. 7 references, 5 figures.

  13. RECYCLING OF SCRAP AND WASTE OF COPPER AND COPPER ALLOYS IN BELARUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. L. Rovin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The construction of a new casting and mechanical shop of unitary enterprise «Tsvetmet» in December 2015 has allowed to solve the complex problem of processing and utilization of scrap and wastes of copper and copper alloys in the Republic of Belarus. The technological processes of fire refinement of copper and manufacturing of copper rod from scrap and production of brass rod by hot pressing (extrusion of the continuously casted round billet have been mastered for the first time in the Republic of Belarus.

  14. Effects of stimulation of copper bioleaching on microbial community in vineyard soil and copper mining waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreazza, Robson; Okeke, Benedict C; Pieniz, Simone; Bortolon, Leandro; Lambais, Márcio R; Camargo, Flávio A O

    2012-04-01

    Long-term copper application in vineyards and copper mining activities cause heavy metal pollution sites. Such sites need remediation to protect soil and water quality. Bioremediation of contaminated areas through bioleaching can help to remove copper ions from the contaminated soils. Thus, the aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of different treatments for copper bioleaching in two diverse copper-contaminated soils (a 40-year-old vineyard and a copper mining waste) and to evaluate the effect on microbial community by applying denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of 16S ribosomal DNA amplicons and DNA sequence analysis. Several treatments with HCl, H(2)SO(4), and FeSO(4) were evaluated by stimulation of bioleaching of copper in the soils. Treatments and extractions using FeSO(4) and H(2)SO(4) mixture at 30°C displayed more copper leaching than extractions with deionized water at room temperature. Treatment with H(2)SO(4) supported bioleaching of as much as 120 mg kg(-1) of copper from vineyard soil after 115 days of incubation. DGGE analysis of the treatments revealed that some treatments caused greater diversity of microorganisms in the vineyard soil compared to the copper mining waste. Nucleotide Blast of PCR-amplified fragments of 16S rRNA gene bands from DGGE indicated the presence of Rhodobacter sp., Silicibacter sp., Bacillus sp., Paracoccus sp., Pediococcus sp., a Myxococcales, Clostridium sp., Thiomonas sp., a firmicute, Caulobacter vibrioides, Serratia sp., and an actinomycetales in vineyard soil. Contrarily, Sphingomonas was the predominant genus in copper mining waste in most treatments. Paracoccus sp. and Enterobacter sp. were also identified from DGGE bands of the copper mining waste. Paracoccus species is involved in the copper bioleaching by sulfur oxidation system, liberating the copper bounded in the soils and hence promoting copper bioremediation. Results indicate that stimulation of bioleaching with a combination of FeSO(4

  15. Improving nutrition through nuclear science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-06-01

    Good nutrition is essential to health and quality of life. As a United Nations agency dedicated to helping Member States achieve their social and economic goals, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) recognizes the importance of good nutrition and is working to address the problems underlying poor nutrition. In fact, many Agency activities serve basic human needs, by applying nuclear science to increase food production, improve health care, improve management of water resources, and assess sources of environmental pollution. Global progress in reducing malnutrition throughout the human life cycle has been slow and patchy. In its 2000 Report on the World Nutrition Situation, the United Nations Sub Committee on Nutrition estimated that in developing countries 182 million children under five years of age are chronically undernourished and 150 million are underweight. An estimated 30 million infants are born each year with impaired growth due to poor nutrition during pregnancy. Worldwide, renewed international commitments have been made to address this situation, and the IAEA is a vital partner in these efforts. Nuclear science provides valuable tools for monitoring factors that influence nutrition, such as micronutrients, body composition, and breast milk uptake. Through its sub-programme on nutrition, the Agency is helping countries to use isotope applications and other nuclear techniques to their nutritional problems and is supporting leading-edge research on the interaction between nutrition and environmental pollution and infection with the ultimate goal of improving human nutrition

  16. Nutritional Ecology and Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raubenheimer, David; Simpson, Stephen J

    2016-07-17

    In contrast to the spectacular advances in the first half of the twentieth century with micronutrient-related diseases, human nutrition science has failed to stem the more recent rise of obesity and associated cardiometabolic disease (OACD). This failure has triggered debate on the problems and limitations of the field and what change is needed to address these. We briefly review the two broad historical phases of human nutrition science and then provide an overview of the main problems that have been implicated in the poor progress of the field with solving OACD. We next introduce the field of nutritional ecology and show how its ecological-evolutionary foundations can enrich human nutrition science by providing the theory to help address its limitations. We end by introducing a modeling approach from nutritional ecology, termed nutritional geometry, and demonstrate how it can help to implement ecological and evolutionary theory in human nutrition to provide new direction and to better understand and manage OACD.

  17. Nutritional and anti-nutritional compositions of underutilized wild ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    zemede

    2013-04-02

    Apr 2, 2013 ... Green leafy vegetables (GLVs) gave 1.5-5.8% ether extractives and ... that contain antioxidants to degrade cholesterol from their traditional foods of meat, .... magnesium, manganese, zinc and copper were estimated using ...

  18. Ultralow-loss CMOS copper plasmonic waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fedyanin, Dmitry Yu.; Yakubovsky, Dmitry I.; Kirtaev, Roman V.

    2016-01-01

    with microelectronics manufacturing technologies. This prevents plasmonic components from integration with both silicon photonics and silicon microelectronics. Here, we demonstrate ultralow-loss copper plasmonic waveguides fabricated in a simple complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) compatible process, which...

  19. Refining processes of selected copper alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Rzadkosz

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the refining effectiveness of the liquid copper and selected copper alloys by various micro additions and special refiningsubstances – was performed. Examinations of an influence of purifying, modifying and deoxidation operations performed in a metal bath on the properties of certain selected alloys based on copper matrix - were made. Refining substances, protecting-purifying slag, deoxidation and modifying substances containing micro additions of such elements as: zirconium, boron, phosphor, sodium, lithium, or their compounds introduced in order to change micro structures and properties of alloys, were applied in examinations. A special attention was directed to macro and micro structures of alloys, their tensile and elongation strength and hot-cracks sensitivity. Refining effects were estimated by comparing the effectiveness of micro structure changes with property changes of copper and its selected alloys from the group of tin bronzes.

  20. Thermally modified bentonite clay for copper removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertagnolli, C.; Kleinübing, S.J.; Silva, M.G.C.

    2011-01-01

    Bentonite clay coming from Pernambuco was thermally modified in order to increase its affinity and capacity in the copper removal in porous bed. The application of this procedure is justified by the low cost of clay, their abundance and affinity for various metal ions. Thermally treatment modifies the clay adsorption properties enables its use in porous bed system, with the increase in surface area and mechanical strength. The material was characterized by x-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis and N_2 physisorption. Then tests were carried out for adsorption of copper in various experimental conditions and evaluated the mass transfer zone, useful and total adsorbed removal amounts and total copper removal percentage. The results showed that the clay treated at higher temperature showed higher copper removal. (author)

  1. Formation of copper precipitates in silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flink, Christoph; Feick, Henning; McHugo, Scott A.; Mohammed, Amna; Seifert, Winfried; Hieslmair, Henry; Heiser, Thomas; Istratov, Andrei A.; Weber, Eicke R.

    1999-12-01

    The formation of copper precipitates in silicon was studied after high-temperature intentional contamination of p- and n-type FZ and Cz-grown silicon and quench to room temperature. With the Transient Ion Drift (TID) technique on p-type silicon a critical Fermi level position at EC-0.2 eV was found. Only if the Fermi level position, which is determined by the concentrations of the acceptors and the copper donors, surpasses this critical value precipitation takes place. If the Fermi level is below this level the supersaturated interstitial copper diffuses out. An electrostatic precipitation model is introduced that correlates the observed precipitation behavior with the electrical activity of the copper precipitates as detected with Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy (DLTS) on n-type and with Minority Carrier Transient Spectroscopy (MCTS) on p-type silicon.

  2. Water requirements of the copper industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mussey, Orville Durey

    1961-01-01

    The copper industry in 1955 used about 330 million gallons of water per day in the mining and manufacturing of primary copper. This amount is about 0.3 percent of the total estimated withdrawals of industrial water in the United States in 1955. These facts were determined by a survey, in 1956, of the amount and chemical quality of the water used by the copper industry. A large part of this water was used in Arizona, Nevada, New Mexico, and Utah, where about five-sixths of the domestic copper is mined. Much of the remaining water use was near New York City where most of the electrolytic refineries are located, and the rest of the water was used in widely scattered places. A little more than 100,000 gallons of water per ton of copper was used in the production of copper from domestic ores. Of this amount about 70,000 gallons per ton was used in mining and concentrating the ore, and about 30,000 gallons per ton was used to reduce the concentrate to refined copper. In areas where water was scarce or expensive, the unit water use was a little more than half the average. About 60 mgd (million gallons per day) or 18 percent of the water was used consumptively, and nearly all of the consumptive use occurred in the water-short areas of the West. Of the water used in mining and manufacturing primary copper 75 percent was surface water and 25 percent was ground water, 89 percent of this water was self-supplied by the copper companies and 11 percent came from public supplies. Much of the water used in producing primary copper was of comparatively poor quality; about 46 percent was saline containing 1,000 ppm (parts per million) or more of dissolved solids and 54 percent was fresh. Water that is used for concentration of copper ores by flotation or even any water that comes in contact with the ore at any time before it reaches the flotation plant must be free of petroleum products because they interfere with the flotation process. The water used in mining and ore concentration

  3. Oxalic acid overproduction by copper-tolerant brown-rot basidiomycetes on southern yellow pine treated with copper-based preservatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carol A. Clausen; Frederick Green

    2003-01-01

    Accumulation of oxalic acid (OA) by brown-rot fungi and precipitation of copper oxalate crystals in wood decayed by copper-tolerant decay fungi has implicated OA in the mechanism of copper tolerance. Understanding the role of OA in copper tolerance is important due to an increasing reliance on copper-based wood preservatives. In this study, four copper-tolerant brown-...

  4. Perioperative nutritional support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morán López, Jesús Manuel; Piedra León, María; García Unzueta, María Teresa; Ortiz Espejo, María; Hernández González, Miriam; Morán López, Ruth; Amado Señaris, José Antonio

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between preoperative malnutrition and morbi-mortality has been documented for years. Despite the existence of tools that allow its detection, and therefore treat this entity, their introduction into clinical practice is not wide-spread. Both perioperative insulin resistance and hyperglycemia are associated with increased perioperative morbidity and length of hospital stay. The intake of carbohydrate-rich drinks 2-4h prior to surgery reduces insulin resistance. In the immediate postoperative period, the enteral route is safe and well tolerated and its early use reduces hospital stay and postoperative complications compared with parenteral nutritional support. Inmunonutrition has been proven effective to decrease postoperative complications and hospital stay. In view of these data we opted for the adoption of these measures replacing bowel rest and the indiscriminate use of postoperative parenteral nutrition. Copyright © 2013 AEC. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  5. Acute nutritional axonal neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamel, Johanna; Logigian, Eric L

    2018-01-01

    This study describes clinical, laboratory, and electrodiagnostic features of a severe acute axonal polyneuropathy common to patients with acute nutritional deficiency in the setting of alcoholism, bariatric surgery (BS), or anorexia. Retrospective analysis of clinical, electrodiagnostic, and laboratory data of patients with acute axonal neuropathy. Thirteen patients were identified with a severe, painful, sensory or sensorimotor axonal polyneuropathy that developed over 2-12 weeks with sensory ataxia, areflexia, variable muscle weakness, poor nutritional status, and weight loss, often with prolonged vomiting and normal cerebrospinal fluid protein. Vitamin B6 was low in half and thiamine was low in all patients when obtained before supplementation. Patients improved with weight gain and vitamin supplementation, with motor greater than sensory recovery. We suggest that acute or subacute axonal neuropathy in patients with weight loss or vomiting associated with alcohol abuse, BS, or dietary deficiency is one syndrome, caused by micronutrient deficiencies. Muscle Nerve 57: 33-39, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. School nutrition survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, M; Kiely, D; Mulvihill, M; Winters, A; Bollard, C; Hamilton, A; Corrigan, C; Moore, E

    1993-05-01

    Food we eat has an important influence on health and well-being. Many eating habits are established in childhood. 456 children aged eight to 12 years participated in this survey of food eaten at school. Of all the food items eaten as a snack, 48.6% were categorised as junk. 75.8% of the sandwiches brought to school for lunch were made with white bread. Of the remaining food items brought for lunch 63.5% were of the junk variety. Compared with those who brought a snack or lunch from home, those given money to buy their own were more likely to eat junk (p daily food intake but health food practises for even a third of food intake may be of a value for health and long term eating habits. Nutritional education with the reinforcement of high nutritional standards in schools could improve the situation.

  7. Signal Processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Signal processing techniques, extensively used nowadays to maximize the performance of audio and video equipment, have been a key part in the design of hardware and software for high energy physics detectors since pioneering applications in the UA1 experiment at CERN in 1979

  8. Copper-resistant bacteria enhance plant growth and copper phytoextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Renxiu; Luo, Chunling; Chen, Yahua; Wang, Guiping; Xu, Yue; Shen, Zhenguo

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the role of rhizospheric bacteria in solubilizing soil copper (Cu) and promoting plant growth. The Cu-resistant bacterium DGS6 was isolated from a natural Cu-contaminated soil and was identified as Pseudomonas sp. DGS6. This isolate solubilized Cu in Cu-contaminated soil and stimulated root elongation of maize and sunflower. Maize was more sensitive to inoculation with DGS6 than was sunflower and exhibited greater root elongation. In pot experiment, inoculation with DGS6 increased the shoot dry weight of maize by 49% and sunflower by 34%, and increased the root dry weight of maize by 85% and sunflower by 45%. Although the concentrations of Cu in inoculated and non-inoculated seedlings did not differ significantly, the total accumulation of Cu in the plants increased after inoculation. DGS6 showed a high ability to solubilize P and produce iron-chelating siderophores, as well as significantly improved the accumulation of P and Fe in both maize and sunflower shoots. In addition, DGS6 produced indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and ACC deaminase, which suggests that it may modulate ethylene levels in plants. The bacterial strain DGS6 could be a good candidate for re-vegetation of Cu-contaminated sites. Supplemental materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of International Journal of Phytoremediation to view the supplemental file.

  9. Forming Refractory Insulation On Copper Wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setlock, J.; Roberts, G.

    1995-01-01

    Alternative insulating process forms flexible coat of uncured refractory insulating material on copper wire. Coated wire formed into coil or other complex shape. Wire-coating apparatus forms "green" coat on copper wire. After wire coiled, heating converts "green" coat to refractory electrical insulator. When cured to final brittle form, insulating material withstands temperatures above melting temperature of wire. Process used to make coils for motors, solenoids, and other electrical devices to be operated at high temperatures.

  10. Copper content in blood of Uzbek population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhol'skaya, I.N.; Agzamova, S.S.; Kutyakova, T.Yu.; Osinskaya, N.S.

    1990-01-01

    The content of copper in blood of Uzbekistan population, depending on place of residence, sex and age was studied to solve certain medicobiological problems. The method of neutron activation with radiochemcial isolation was employed for the analysis. According to the data obtained average content of copper for the points in the republic selected for men and women of different age groups were calculated. 5 refs

  11. Radiation environmental impact assessment of copper exploitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Guang; Wen Zhijian

    2010-01-01

    The radiation environmental impact of mineral exploitation on the surrounding environment has become a public concern. This paper presents the radiation environmental impact assessment of copper exploitation. Based on the project description and detailed investigations of surrounding environment, systematic radiation environmental impacts have been identified. The environmental impacts are assessed during both construction and operation phase. The environmental protection measures have also been proposed. The related conclusion and measures can play an active role in copper exploitation and environmental protection. (authors)

  12. Electrodialytic Remediation of Copper Mine Tailings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, H.K.; Rojo, A.; Ottosen, L.M.

    2012-01-01

    This work compares and evaluates sixteen electrodialytic laboratory remediation experiments on copper mine tailings. Different parameters were analysed, such as remediation time, addition of desorbing agents, and the use of pulsed electrical fields.......This work compares and evaluates sixteen electrodialytic laboratory remediation experiments on copper mine tailings. Different parameters were analysed, such as remediation time, addition of desorbing agents, and the use of pulsed electrical fields....

  13. Chronic copper exposure causes spatial memory impairment, selective loss of hippocampal synaptic proteins, and activation of PKR/eIF2α pathway in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Quan; Ying, Ming; Sui, Xiaojing; Zhang, Huimin; Huang, Haiyan; Yang, Linqing; Huang, Xinfeng; Zhuang, Zhixiong; Liu, Jianjun; Yang, Xifei

    2015-01-01

    Copper is an essential element for human growth and development; however, excessive intake of copper could contribute to neurotoxicity. Here we show that chronic exposure to copper in drinking water impaired spatial memory with simultaneous selective loss of hippocampal pre-synaptic protein synapsin 1, and post-synaptic density protein (PSD)-93/95 in mice. Copper exposure was shown to elevate the levels of nitrotyrosine and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) in hippocampus, two markers of oxidative stress. Concurrently, we also found that copper exposure activated double stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) as evidenced by increased ratio of phosphorylated PKR at Thr451 and total PKR and increased the phosphorylation of its downstream signaling molecule eukaryotic initiation factor 2α (eIF2α) at Ser51 in hippocampus. Consistent with activation of PKR/eIF2α signaling pathway which was shown to mediate synaptic deficit and cognitive impairment, the levels of activating transcription factor 4 (ATF-4), a downstream signaling molecule of eIF2α and a repressor of CREB-mediated gene expression, were significantly increased, while the activity of cAMP response elements binding protein (CREB) was inactivated as suggested by decreased phosphorylation of CREB at Ser133 by copper exposure. In addition, the expression of the pro-apoptotic target molecule C/EBP homology protein (CHOP) of ATF-4 was upregulated and hippocampal neuronal apoptosis was induced by copper exposure. Taken together, we propose that chronic copper exposure might cause spatial memory impairment, selective loss of synaptic proteins, and neuronal apoptosis through the mechanisms involving activation of PKR/eIF2α signaling pathway.

  14. Nutrition - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Italiano) Japanese (日本語) Karen (S’gaw Karen) Kirundi (Rundi) Korean (한국어) Malay (Bahasa Malaysia) Nepali (नेपाली) Pashto (Pax̌tō / پښتو ) Portuguese (português) ... Agriculture MyPlate Icon - English HTML ... Center for Nutrition Policy and Promotion U.S. Department of Agriculture Malay (Bahasa Malaysia) Expand Section Choose MyPlate: 10 Tips to a ...

  15. Weight Loss Nutritional Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckerson, Joan M.

    Obesity has reached what may be considered epidemic proportions in the United States, not only for adults but for children. Because of the medical implications and health care costs associated with obesity, as well as the negative social and psychological impacts, many individuals turn to nonprescription nutritional weight loss supplements hoping for a quick fix, and the weight loss industry has responded by offering a variety of products that generates billions of dollars each year in sales. Most nutritional weight loss supplements are purported to work by increasing energy expenditure, modulating carbohydrate or fat metabolism, increasing satiety, inducing diuresis, or blocking fat absorption. To review the literally hundreds of nutritional weight loss supplements available on the market today is well beyond the scope of this chapter. Therefore, several of the most commonly used supplements were selected for critical review, and practical recommendations are provided based on the findings of well controlled, randomized clinical trials that examined their efficacy. In most cases, the nutritional supplements reviewed either elicited no meaningful effect or resulted in changes in body weight and composition that are similar to what occurs through a restricted diet and exercise program. Although there is some evidence to suggest that herbal forms of ephedrine, such as ma huang, combined with caffeine or caffeine and aspirin (i.e., ECA stack) is effective for inducing moderate weight loss in overweight adults, because of the recent ban on ephedra manufacturers must now use ephedra-free ingredients, such as bitter orange, which do not appear to be as effective. The dietary fiber, glucomannan, also appears to hold some promise as a possible treatment for weight loss, but other related forms of dietary fiber, including guar gum and psyllium, are ineffective.

  16. Nutrition and pubertal development

    OpenAIRE

    Soliman, Ashraf; De Sanctis, Vincenzo; Elalaily, Rania

    2014-01-01

    Nutrition is one of the most important factors affecting pubertal development. Puberty entails a progressive nonlinear process starting from prepubescent to full sexual maturity through the interaction and cooperation of biological, physical, and psychological changes. Consuming an adequate and balanced healthy diet during all phases of growth (infancy, childhood and puberty) appears necessary both for proper growth and normal pubertal development. Girls begin puberty at an earlier age compar...

  17. Dairy cow nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Tame, Mike

    2008-01-01

    This review pulls together the results of over 40 research projects and brings us up to date with the latest in thinking on dairy cow nutrition, incorporates the findings of a wide range of organic trials and draws some clear recommendations on appropriate strategies for forage type and management, supplementary feeding, ration formulation and farming systems. It raises important issues around sustainability versus optimum production and highlights future research priorities.

  18. Child nutrition in Senegal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Efforts to reduce malnutrition, particularly in densely populated, peri-urban areas, is considered a priority among governments around the world. The problem is especially acute in Africa due to the high prevalence of malnutrition and micronutrient deficiency. The International Atomic Energy Agency is providing technical support to a community nutrition programme in Senegal where nuclear techniques help to monitor the programme's effectiveness in order to ensure that it produces maximum benefits on vulnerable groups (women and children). (IAEA)

  19. The lumenal loop M672-P707 of the Menkes protein (ATP7A) transfers copper to peptidylglycine monooxygenase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otoikhian, Adenike [Oregon Health & Sciences University; Barry, Amanda N. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mayfield, Mary [Oregon Health & Science University; Nilges, Mark [Illinois EPR Center; Huang, Yiping [Johns Hopkins University; Lutsenko, Svetlana [Johns Hopkins University; Blackburn, Ninian [Oregon Health & Science University

    2012-05-14

    Copper transfer to cuproproteins located in vesicular compartments of the secretory pathway depends on activity of the copper translocating ATPase (ATP7A or ATP7B) but the mechanism of transfer is largely unexplored. Copper-ATPase ATP7A is unique in having a sequence rich in histidine and methionine residues located on the lumenal side of the membrane. The corresponding fragment binds Cu(I) when expressed as a chimera with a scaffold protein, and mutations or deletions of His and/or Met residues in its sequence inhibit dephosphorylation of the ATPase, a catalytic step associated with copper release. Here we present evidence for a potential role of this lumenal region of ATP7A in copper transfer to cuproenzymes. Both Cu(II) and Cu(I) forms were investigated since the form in which copper is transferred to acceptor proteins is currently unknown. Analysis of Cu(II) using EPR demonstrated that at Cu:P ratios below 1:1, 15N-substituted protein had Cu(II) bound by 4 His residues, but this coordination changed as the Cu(II) to protein ratio increased towards 2:1. XAS confirmed this coordination via analysis of the intensity of outer-shell scattering from imidazole residues. The Cu(II) complexes could be reduced to their Cu(I) counterparts by ascorbate, but here again, as shown by EXAFS and XANES spectroscopy, the coordination was dependent on copper loading. At low copper Cu(I) was bound by a mixed ligand set of His + Met while at higher ratios His coordination predominated. The copper-loaded loop was able to transfer either Cu(II) or Cu(I) to peptidylglycine monooxygenase in the presence of chelating resin, generating catalytically active enzyme in a process that appeared to involve direct interaction between the two partners. The variation of coordination with copper loading suggests copper-dependent conformational change which in turn could act as a signal for regulating copper release by the ATPase pump.

  20. Nutrition in Heart Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reci Meseri

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Heart failure is defined as decreased ability of heart due to various reasons. It%u2019s seen 2-3% but the prevalence increases sharply after the age of seventy. The objectives of nutrition therapy in heart failure are to prevent from water retention and edema, to avoid from hard digestion and to offer a balanced diet. In order to avoid fluid retention and edema, daily sodium and fluid intake must be monitored carefully. Main dilemma of the heart failure patients is the obesity-cachexia dilemma. Since one of the main reasons of heart failure is cardiovascular diseases, in first phase, the patient may be obese. In the later phases, cachexia may show up. It was shown that cachexia is associated with mortality. Within this period, patients should not be over-fed and the patient should pass from catabolic state to anabolic state slowly. If the gastrointestinal track is functional oral/enteral feeding must be preferred. Multi vitamin and mineral supportsmay be beneficial, which may replace the increased loss, increase anti-inflammatory response and be anti-oxidants. Large, controlled and well-designed studies must be conducted in order to evaluate the benefits of nutritional practices such as nutritional assessment, enteral feeding and nutrient supports in heart failure patients.

  1. Nutrition and acute schistosomiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eridan M. Coutinho

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available In northeast Brazil, nutritional deficiency diseases and schistosomiasis mansoni overlap. An experimental model, wich reproduces the marasmatic clinical form of protein-energy malnutrition, was developed in this laboratory to study these interactions. Albino Swiss mice were fed with a food association ingested usually by human populations in northeast Brazil. This diet (Regional Basic Diet - RBD has negative effects on the growth, food intake and protein utilization in infected mice (acute phase of murine schistosomiasis. Nitrogen balance studies have also shown that infection with Schistosoma mansoni has apparently no effect on protein intestinal absorption in well nourished mice. However, the lowest absorption ratios have been detected among RBD - fed infected animals, suggesting that suprerimposed schistosome infection aggravated the nutritional status of the undernourished host. The serum proteins electrophoretic pattern, as far as albumins are concerned, is quite similar for non-infected undernourished and infected well-fed animals. So, the significance of albumins as a biochemical indicator of the nutritional status of human populations residing in endemic foci of Manson's schistosomiasis, is discussable.

  2. Bonding and structure of copper nitrenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cundari, Thomas R; Dinescu, Adriana; Kazi, Abul B

    2008-11-03

    Copper nitrenes are of interest as intermediates in the catalytic aziridination of olefins and the amination of C-H bonds. However, despite advances in the isolation and study of late-transition-metal multiply bonded complexes, a bona fide structurally characterized example of a terminal copper nitrene has, to our knowledge, not been reported. In anticipation of such a report, terminal copper nitrenes are studied from a computational perspective. The nitrene complexes studied here are of the form (beta-diketiminate)Cu(NPh). Density functional theory (DFT), complete active space self-consistent-field (CASSCF) electronic structure techniques, and hybrid quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) methods are employed to study such species. While DFT methods indicate that a triplet (S = 1) is the ground state, CASSCF calculations indicate that a singlet (S = 0) is the ground state, with only a small energy gap between the singlet and triplet. Moreover, the ground-state (open-shell) singlet copper nitrene is found to be highly multiconfigurational (i.e., biradical) and to possess a bent geometry about the nitrene nitrogen, contrasting with the linear nitrene geometry of the triplet copper nitrenes. CASSCF calculations also reveal the existence of a closed-shell singlet state with some degree of multiple bonding character for the copper-nitrene bond.

  3. Corrosion mechanism of copper in palm biodiesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazal, M.A.; Haseeb, A.S.M.A.; Masjuki, H.H.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Corrosion of copper in biodiesel increases with the increase of immersion time. ► The corrosion patina is found to be composed of CuO, Cu 2 O, CuCO 3 and Cu(OH) 2 . ► Green CuCO 3 was found as the major corrosion product. ► The mechanisms governing corrosion of copper in palm biodiesel are discussed. - Abstract: Biodiesel is a promising alternative fuel. However, it causes enhanced corrosion of automotive materials, especially of copper based components. In the present study, corrosion mechanism of copper was investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Compositional change of biodiesel due to the exposure of copper was also investigated. Corrosion patina on copper is found to be composed of Cu 2 O, CuO, Cu(OH) 2 and CuCO 3. Dissolved O 2 , H 2 O, CO 2 and RCOO − radical in biodiesel seem to be the leading factors in enhancing the corrosiveness of biodiesel.

  4. 113Cd-NMR investigation of a cadmium-substituted copper, zinc-containing superoxide dismutase from yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofod, Pauli; Bauer, Rogert; Danielsen, Eva

    1991-01-01

    113Cd nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy has been used to investigate the metal binding sites of cadmium-substituted copper,zinc-containing superoxide dismutase from baker's yeast. NMR signals were obtained for 113Cd(II) at the Cu site as well as for 113Cd(II) at the Zn site. The two subunits...

  5. Divalent Copper as a Major Triggering Agent in Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, George J

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is at epidemic proportions in developed countries, with a steady increase in the early 1900 s, and then exploding over the last 50 years. This epidemiology points to something causative in the environment of developed countries. This paper will review the considerable evidence that that something could be inorganic copper ingestion. The epidemic parallels closely the spread of copper plumbing, with copper leached from the plumbing into drinking water being a main causal feature, aided by the increasingly common use of supplement pills containing copper. Inorganic copper is divalent copper, or copper-2, while we now know that organic copper, or copper in foods, is primarily monovalent copper, or copper-1. The intestinal transport system, Ctr1, absorbs copper-1 and the copper moves to the liver, where it is put into safe channels. Copper-2 is not absorbed by Ctr1, and some of it bypasses the liver and goes directly into the blood, where it appears to be exquisitely toxic to brain cognition. Thus, while aggregation of amyloid-β has been postulated to be the cause of AD under current dogma, the great increase in prevalence over the last century appears to be due to ingestion of copper-2, which may be causing the aggregation, and/or increasing the oxidant toxicity of the aggregates. An alternative hypothesis proposes that oxidant stress is the primary injuring agent, and under this hypothesis, copper-2 accumulation in the brain may be a causal factor of the oxidant injury. Thus, irrespective of which hypothesis is correct, AD can be classified, at least in part, as a copper-2 toxicity disease. It is relatively easy to avoid copper-2 ingestion, as discussed in this review. If most people begin avoiding copper-2 ingestion, perhaps the epidemic of this serious disease can be aborted.

  6. Stage specific effects of soluble copper and copper oxide nanoparticles during sea urchin embryo development and their relation to intracellular copper uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Duarte, Cristina; Ramos-Torres, Karla M; Rahimoff, René; Cherr, Gary N

    2017-08-01

    The effects of exposure to either soluble copper (copper sulfate) or copper oxide nanoparticles (nano-CuO) during specific early developmental stages of sea urchin embryos were analyzed. Soluble copper caused significant malformations in embryos (skeletal malformations, delayed development or gut malformations) when present at any given stage, while cleavage stage was the most sensitive to nano-CuO exposure causing skeletal malformations and decreased total antioxidant capacity. The stage specificity was linked to higher endocytic activity during the first hours of development that leads to higher accumulation of copper in specific cells critical for development. Results indicate that nano-CuO results in higher accumulation of copper inside of embryos and this intracellular copper is more persistent as compared to soluble copper. The possible implications later in development are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparative genomic analyses of copper transporters and cuproproteomes reveal evolutionary dynamics of copper utilization and its link to oxygen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perry G Ridge

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Copper is an essential trace element in many organisms and is utilized in all domains of life. It is often used as a cofactor of redox proteins, but is also a toxic metal ion. Intracellular copper must be carefully handled to prevent the formation of reactive oxygen species which pose a threat to DNA, lipids, and proteins. In this work, we examined patterns of copper utilization in prokaryotes by analyzing the occurrence of copper transporters and copper-containing proteins. Many organisms, including those that lack copper-dependent proteins, had copper exporters, likely to protect against copper ions that inadvertently enter the cell. We found that copper use is widespread among prokaryotes, but also identified several phyla that lack cuproproteins. This is in contrast to the use of other trace elements, such as selenium, which shows more scattered and reduced usage, yet larger selenoproteomes. Copper transporters had different patterns of occurrence than cuproproteins, suggesting that the pathways of copper utilization and copper detoxification are independent of each other. We present evidence that organisms living in oxygen-rich environments utilize copper, whereas the majority of anaerobic organisms do not. In addition, among copper users, cuproproteomes of aerobic organisms were larger than those of anaerobic organisms. Prokaryotic cuproproteomes were small and dominated by a single protein, cytochrome c oxidase. The data are consistent with the idea that proteins evolved to utilize copper following the oxygenation of the Earth.

  8. Review of nutrition labeling formats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, C J; Wyse, B W; Parent, C R; Hansen, R G

    1991-07-01

    This article examines nutrition labeling history as well as the findings of nine research studies of nutrition labeling formats. Nutrition labeling regulations were announced in 1973 and have been periodically amended since then. In response to requests from consumers and health care professionals for revision of the labeling system, the Food and Drug Administration initiated a three-phase plan for reform of nutrition labeling in 1990. President Bush signed the Nutrition Labeling and Education Act in November 1990. Literature analysis revealed that only nine studies with an experimental design have focused on nutrition labeling since 1971. Four were conducted before 1975, which was the year that nutrition labeling was officially implemented, two were conducted in 1980, and three were conducted after 1986. Only two of the nine studies supported the traditional label format mandated by the Code of Federal Regulations, and one study partially supported it. Four of the nine studies that evaluated graphic presentations of nutrition information found that consumer comprehension of nutrition information was improved with a graphic format for nutrition labeling: three studies supported the use of bar graphs and one study supported the use of a pie chart. Full disclosure (ie, complete nutrient and ingredient labeling) was preferred by consumers in two of the three studies that examined this variable. The third study supported three types of information disclosure dependent upon socioeconomic class. In those studies that tested graphics, a bar graph format was significantly preferred and showed better consumer comprehension than the traditional format.

  9. [Nutrition therapy of cancer patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lövey, József

    2017-09-20

    The majority of cancer patients becomes malnourished during the course of their disease. Malnutrition deteriorates the efficiency of all kinds of oncologic interventions. As a consequence of it, treatment-related toxicity increases, hospital stay is lengthened, chances of cure and survival as well as the quality of life of the patients worsen. Nutritional status therefore influences all aspects of outcome of oncology care. In spite of this the use of nutritional therapy varies across health care providers but its application is far from being sufficient during active oncology interventions as well as rehabilitation and supportive care. It threatens not only the outcome and quality of life of cancer patients but also the success of oncologic treatments which often demand high input of human and financial resources. Meanwhile application of nutritional therapy is legally regulated in Hungary and a very recent update of the European guideline on cancer patient nutrition published in 2017 is available. Moreover, cost effectiveness of nutritional therapy has been proven in a number of studies. In this review we present the basics of nutritional therapy including nutritional screening and evaluation, nutritional plan, the role of nutrition support teams, oral, enteral and parenteral nutrition, the use of different drugs and special nutrients and the follow-up of the patients.

  10. Surface characteristics, copper release, and toxicity of nano- and micrometer-sized copper and copper(II) oxide particles: a cross-disciplinary study.

    OpenAIRE

    Midander, Klara; Cronholm, Pontus; Karlsson, Hanna L.; Elihn, Karine; Moller, Lennart; Leygraf, Christofer; Wallinder, Inger Odnevall

    2009-01-01

    An interdisciplinary and multianalytical research effort is undertaken to assess the toxic aspects of thoroughly characterized nano- and micrometer-sized particles of oxidized metallic copper and copper(II) oxide in contact with cultivated lung cells, as well as copper release in relevant media. All particles, except micrometer-sized Cu, release more copper in serum-containing cell medium (supplemented Dulbecco's minimal essential medium) compared to identical exposures in phosphate-buffered ...

  11. Nutritional knowledge assessment of syrian university students

    OpenAIRE

    Louay Labban

    2015-01-01

    Nutrition knowledge is one of the factors that affect nutritional status and nutritional habits of individuals, families, and societies. Nutrition knowledge is an important tool in assessing the nutritional status of an individual, group or community. Researchers have been trying to design and develop reliable and valid questionnaires that distinguish and measure nutrition knowledge and its impact on dietary behavior and diet-health awareness. Many studies have shown that nutrition knowledge ...

  12. Vitrification of copper flotation waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karamanov, Alexander [Institute of Physical Chemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Science, G. Bonchev Str. Block 11, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria)]. E-mail: karama@ing.univaq.it; Aloisi, Mirko [Department of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Materials, University of L' Aquila, 67040 Monteluco di Roio, L' Aquila (Italy); Pelino, Mario [Department of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Materials, University of L' Aquila, 67040 Monteluco di Roio, L' Aquila (Italy)

    2007-02-09

    The vitrification of an hazardous iron-rich waste (W), arising from slag flotation of copper production, was studied. Two glasses, containing 30 wt% W were melted for 30 min at 1400 deg. C. The first batch, labeled WSZ, was obtained by mixing W, blast furnace slag (S) and zeolite tuff (Z), whereas the second, labeled WG, was prepared by mixing W, glass cullet (G), sand and limestone. The glass frits showed high chemical durability, measured by the TCLP test. The crystallization of the glasses was evaluated by DTA. The crystal phases formed were identified by XRD resulting to be pyroxene and wollastonite solid solutions, magnetite and hematite. The morphology of the glass-ceramics was observed by optical and scanning electron microscopy. WSZ composition showed a high rate of bulk crystallization and resulted to be suitable for producing glass-ceramics by a short crystallization heat-treatment. WG composition showed a low crystallization rate and good sinterability; glass-ceramics were obtained by sinter-crystallization of the glass frit.

  13. The Copper Balance of Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kral, Ulrich; Lin, Chih-Yi; Kellner, Katharina; Ma, Hwong-wen; Brunner, Paul H

    2014-01-01

    Material management faces a dual challenge: on the one hand satisfying large and increasing demands for goods and on the other hand accommodating wastes and emissions in sinks. Hence, the characterization of material flows and stocks is relevant for both improving resource efficiency and environmental protection. This article focuses on the urban scale, a dimension rarely investigated in past metal flow studies. We compare the copper (Cu) metabolism of two cities in different economic states, namely, Vienna (Europe) and Taipei (Asia). Substance flow analysis is used to calculate urban Cu balances in a comprehensive and transparent form. The main difference between Cu in the two cities appears to be the stock: Vienna seems close to saturation with 180 kilograms per capita (kg/cap) and a growth rate of 2% per year. In contrast, the Taipei stock of 30 kg/cap grows rapidly by 26% per year. Even though most Cu is recycled in both cities, bottom ash from municipal solid waste incineration represents an unused Cu potential accounting for 1% to 5% of annual demand. Nonpoint emissions are predominant; up to 50% of the loadings into the sewer system are from nonpoint sources. The results of this research are instrumental for the design of the Cu metabolism in each city. The outcomes serve as a base for identification and recovery of recyclables as well as for directing nonrecyclables to appropriate sinks, avoiding sensitive environmental pathways. The methodology applied is well suited for city benchmarking if sufficient data are available. PMID:25866460

  14. Vitrification of copper flotation waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamanov, Alexander; Aloisi, Mirko; Pelino, Mario

    2007-02-09

    The vitrification of an hazardous iron-rich waste (W), arising from slag flotation of copper production, was studied. Two glasses, containing 30wt% W were melted for 30min at 1400 degrees C. The first batch, labeled WSZ, was obtained by mixing W, blast furnace slag (S) and zeolite tuff (Z), whereas the second, labeled WG, was prepared by mixing W, glass cullet (G), sand and limestone. The glass frits showed high chemical durability, measured by the TCLP test. The crystallization of the glasses was evaluated by DTA. The crystal phases formed were identified by XRD resulting to be pyroxene and wollastonite solid solutions, magnetite and hematite. The morphology of the glass-ceramics was observed by optical and scanning electron microscopy. WSZ composition showed a high rate of bulk crystallization and resulted to be suitable for producing glass-ceramics by a short crystallization heat-treatment. WG composition showed a low crystallization rate and good sinterability; glass-ceramics were obtained by sinter-crystallization of the glass frit.

  15. Vitrification of copper flotation waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karamanov, Alexander; Aloisi, Mirko; Pelino, Mario

    2007-01-01

    The vitrification of an hazardous iron-rich waste (W), arising from slag flotation of copper production, was studied. Two glasses, containing 30 wt% W were melted for 30 min at 1400 deg. C. The first batch, labeled WSZ, was obtained by mixing W, blast furnace slag (S) and zeolite tuff (Z), whereas the second, labeled WG, was prepared by mixing W, glass cullet (G), sand and limestone. The glass frits showed high chemical durability, measured by the TCLP test. The crystallization of the glasses was evaluated by DTA. The crystal phases formed were identified by XRD resulting to be pyroxene and wollastonite solid solutions, magnetite and hematite. The morphology of the glass-ceramics was observed by optical and scanning electron microscopy. WSZ composition showed a high rate of bulk crystallization and resulted to be suitable for producing glass-ceramics by a short crystallization heat-treatment. WG composition showed a low crystallization rate and good sinterability; glass-ceramics were obtained by sinter-crystallization of the glass frit

  16. The science and practice of micronutrient supplementations in nutritional anemia: an evidence-based review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Lingtak-Neander; Mike, Leigh Ann

    2014-08-01

    Nutritional anemia is the most common type of anemia, affecting millions of people in all age groups worldwide. While inadequate access to food and nutrients can lead to anemia, patients with certain health status or medical conditions are also at increased risk of developing nutritional anemia. Iron, cobalamin, and folate are the most recognized micronutrients that are vital for the generation of erythrocytes. Iron deficiency is associated with insufficient production of hemoglobin. Deficiency of cobalamin or folate leads to impaired synthesis of deoxyribonucleic acid, proteins, and cell division. Recent research has demonstrated that the status of copper and zinc in the body can significantly affect iron absorption and utilization. With an increasing number of patients undergoing bariatric surgical procedures, more cases of anemia associated with copper and zinc deficiencies have also emerged. The intestinal absorption of these 5 critical micronutrients are highly regulated and mediated by specific apical transport mechanisms in the enterocytes. Health conditions that persistently alter the histology of the upper intestinal architecture, expression, or function of these substrate-specific transporters, or the normal digestion and flow of these key micronutrients, can lead to nutritional anemia. The focus of this article is to review the science of intestinal micronutrient absorption, discuss the clinical assessment of micronutrient deficiencies in relation to anemia, and suggest an effective treatment plan and monitoring strategies using an evidence-based approach. © 2014 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  17. Evaluation of the Brazilian population's intake of antioxidant nutrients and their relation with the nutritional status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tureck, Camila; Locateli, Gelvani; Corrêa, Vanesa Gesser; Koehnlein, Eloá Angélica

    2017-01-01

    The study of dietary antioxidants has gained prominence owing to the elucidation of the deleterious effects of oxidative stress to the human body. Objective: To evaluate the Brazilian population's intake of antioxidant nutrients and their association with the nutritional status. A cross-sectional study was carried out including secondary data on food consumption of 33,459 individuals from both sexes, aged 10 years or older, from all Brazilian regions based on microdata of the "2008-2009 Household Budget Survey, Brazilian Dairy Survey." The content of vitamins E, A, and C; zinc; manganese; copper; and selenium from 188 food items, divided into 12 groups, according to the habitual consumption form was analyzed. The means of antioxidant nutrient intake according to the nutritional status were compared using Bonferroni's t-test. Higher percentages of insufficient intake of vitamins than antioxidant minerals were seen. A significant difference in the intake of vitamin E as to the nutritional status was noticed, wherein the intake in overweight individuals was lower than in those with proper weight. Participants with low weight presented lower intake of almost all antioxidant minerals, except for copper, in which the intake of participants with low weight was equal to those with normal weight. High percentages of insufficient intake of antioxidant nutrients were observed in the studied population, especially vitamins. It was also found that the intake of antioxidant nutrients varied based on nutritional status, gender, and life stage.

  18. Method for providing uranium with a protective copper coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldrop, Forrest B.; Jones, Edward

    1981-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a method for providing uranium metal with a protective coating of copper. Uranium metal is subjected to a conventional cleaning operation wherein oxides and other surface contaminants are removed, followed by etching and pickling operations. The copper coating is provided by first electrodepositing a thin and relatively porous flash layer of copper on the uranium in a copper cyanide bath. The resulting copper-layered article is then heated in an air or inert atmosphere to volatilize and drive off the volatile material underlying the copper flash layer. After the heating step an adherent and essentially non-porous layer of copper is electro-deposited on the flash layer of copper to provide an adherent, multi-layer copper coating which is essentially impervious to corrosion by most gases.

  19. Earth's copper resources estimated from tectonic diffusion of porphyry copper deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesler, Stephen E.; Wilkinson, Bruce H.

    2008-03-01

    Improved estimates of global mineral endowments are relevantto issues ranging from strategic planning to global geochemicalcycling. We have used a time-space model for the tectonic migrationof porphyry copper deposits vertically through the crust tocalculate Earth's endowment of copper in mineral deposits. Themodel relies only on knowledge of numbers and ages of porphyrycopper deposits, Earth's most widespread and important sourceof copper, in order to estimate numbers of eroded and preserveddeposits in the crust. Model results indicate that 125,895 porphyrycopper deposits were formed during Phanerozoic time, that only47,789 of these remain at various crustal depths, and that thesecontain 1.7 x 1011 tonnes (t) of copper. Assuming that othertypes of copper deposits behave similarly in the crust and haveabundances proportional to their current global production yieldsan estimate of 3 x 1011 t for total global copper resourcesat all levels in Earth's crust. Thus, 0.25% of the copper inthe crust has been concentrated into deposits through Phanerozoictime, and about two-thirds of this has been recycled by upliftand erosion. The amount of copper in deposits above 3.3 km,a likely limit of future mining, could supply current worldmine production for 5500 yr, thus quantifying the highly unusualand nonrenewable nature of mineral deposits.

  20. Interesting properties of some iron(II), copper(I) and copper(II ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Tridendate ligands with nitrogen centers, generally well-known as the tripod ligands, have been of considerable interest to inorganic chemists dealing with the preparation of model compounds for hemocyanin, tyrosinase etc. We have found that such ligands when complexed with iron(II) and copper(II) and copper(I) ions ...

  1. Speciation and leachability of copper in mine tailings from porphyry copper mining: influence of particle size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Henrik K; Yianatos, Juan B; Ottosen, Lisbeth M

    2005-09-01

    Mine tailing from the El Teniente-Codelco copper mine situated in VI Region of Chile was analysed in order to evaluate the mobility and speciation of copper in the solid material. Mine tailing was sampled after the rougher flotation circuits, and the copper content was measured to 1150 mg kg (-1) dry matter. This tailing was segmented into fractions of different size intervals: 0-38, 38-45, 45-53, 53-75, 75-106, 106-150, 150-212, and >212 microm, respectively. Copper content determination, sequential chemical extraction, and desorption experiments were carried out for each size interval in order to evaluate the speciation of copper. It was found that the particles of smallest size contained 50-60% weak acid leachable copper, whereas only 32% of the copper found in largest particles could be leached in weak acid. Copper oxides and carbonates were the dominating species in the smaller particles, and the larger particles contained considerable amounts of sulphides.

  2. Sulfidation treatment of copper-containing plating sludge towards copper resource recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchar, D; Fukuta, T; Onyango, M S; Matsuda, H

    2006-11-02

    The present study is concerned with the sulfidation treatment of copper-containing plating sludge towards copper resource recovery by flotation of copper sulfide from treated sludge. The sulfidation treatment was carried out by contacting simulated or real copper plating sludge with Na(2)S solution for a period of 5 min to 24 h. The initial molar ratio of S(2-) to Cu(2+) (S(2-) to Me(2+) in the case of real sludge) was adjusted to 1.00, 1.25 or 1.50, while the solid to liquid ratio was set at 1:50. As a result, it was found that copper compounds were converted to various copper sulfides within the first 5 min. In the case of simulated copper sludge, CuS was identified as the main sulfidation product at the molar ratio of S(2-) to Cu(2+) of 1.00, while Cu(7)S(4) (Roxbyite) was mainly found at the molar ratios of S(2-) to Cu(2+) of 1.50 and 1.25. Based on the measurements of oxidation-reduction potential, the formation of either CuS or Cu(7)S(4) at different S(2-) to Cu(2+) molar ratios was attributed to the changes in the oxidation-reduction potential. By contrast, in the case of sulfidation treatment of real copper sludge, CuS was predominantly formed, irrespective of S(2-) to Me(2+) molar ratio.

  3. Nutrition, ecology and nutritional ecology: towardan integrated framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raubenheimer, David; Simpson, Steven J.; Mayntz, David

    2009-01-01

    requirements: it should be nutritionally explicit, organismally explicit, and ecologically explicit. 4. We evaluate against these criteria four existing frameworks (Optimal Foraging Theory, Classical Insect Nutritional Ecology, the Geometric Framework for nutrition, and Ecological Stoichiometry), and conclude...... in its own right? 2. We suggest that the distinctive feature of nutritional ecology is its integrative nature, and that the field would benefit from more attention to formalizing a theoretical and quantitative framework for developing this. 3. Such a framework, we propose, should satisfy three minimal...

  4. Inspection of copper canister for spent nuclear fuel by means of ultrasound. FSW monitoring with emission, copper characterization and ultrasonic imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stepinski, Tadeusz (ed.); Engholm, Marcus; Olofsson, Tomas (Uppsala Univ., Signals and Systems, Dept. of Technical Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden))

    2008-09-15

    This report contains the research results concerning advanced ultrasound for the inspection of copper canisters for spent nuclear fuel obtained at Signals and Systems, Uppsala University in 2007. In the first part of the report we further develop the concept of monitoring of the friction stir welding (FSW) process by means of acoustic emission (AE) technique implemented using multiple sensors formed into a circular array. After a brief introduction into the field of arrays and beamforming we focus on the features of uniform circular arrays (UCA). Results obtained from the simulations of UCA beamformer based on phase mode concept are presented for the continuous wave as well as for the pulse, noise-free input signals. The influence of white noise corrupting the input pulse is also considered and a simple regularization technique proposed as a solution to this problem. The second part of the report is concerned with aspects related to ultrasonic attenuation of copper material used for canisters. We compare resonant ultrasound spectroscopy (RUS) with other methods used for characterization of the copper material. RUS is a non-destructive technique based on sensing mechanical resonances present in a tested sample in the ultrasonic frequency range. Resonance frequencies observed in a material sample (with given geometry) are directly related to the vibration modes occurring in the inspected volume defined by the material parameters (elastic constants). We solve the inverse problem that consists in using the information about resonance frequencies acquired in physical measurements for estimating material parameters. Our aim in this project is to investigate the feasibility of RUS for the grain size estimation in copper using copper specimens that were provided by SKB. In the final part we consider the design of input signals for ultrasonic arrays. The Bayesian linear minimum mean squared error (LMMSE) estimator discussed in our former reports is studied. We show that it

  5. Involvement of purinergic system in inflammation and toxicity induced by copper in zebrafish larvae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leite, Carlos Eduardo, E-mail: carlos.leite@pucrs.br [Instituto de Toxicologia e Farmacologia, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, CEP 90619-900 (Brazil); Programa de Pós-Graduação em Medicina: Ciências Médicas, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, CEP 90035-003 (Brazil); Maboni, Lucas de Oliveira [Instituto de Toxicologia e Farmacologia, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, CEP 90619-900 (Brazil); Faculdade de Biociências, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, CEP 90619-900 (Brazil); Cruz, Fernanda Fernandes [Instituto de Toxicologia e Farmacologia, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, CEP 90619-900 (Brazil); Faculdade de Farmácia, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, CEP 90619-900 (Brazil); Rosemberg, Denis Broock [Programa de Pós-graduação em Ciências Ambientais, Universidade Comunitária da Região de Chapecó, Chapecó, CEP 89809-000 (Brazil); and others

    2013-11-01

    The use of zebrafish (Danio rerio) is increasing as an intermediate preclinical model, to prioritize drug candidates for mammalian testing. As the immune system of the zebrafish is quite similar to that of mammals, models of inflammation are being developed for the screening of new drugs. The characterization of these models is crucial for studies that seek for mechanisms of action and specific pharmacological targets. It is well known that copper is a metal that induces damage and cell migration to hair cells of lateral line of zebrafish. Extracellular nucleotides/nucleosides, as ATP and adenosine (ADO), act as endogenous signaling molecules during tissue damage by exerting effects on inflammatory and immune responses. The present study aimed to characterize the inflammatory status, and to investigate the involvement of the purinergic system in copper-induced inflammation in zebrafish larvae. Fishes of 7 days post-fertilization were exposed to 10 μM of copper for a period of 24 h. The grade of oxidative stress, inflammatory status, copper uptake, the activity and the gene expression of the enzymes responsible for controlling the levels of nucleotides and adenosine were evaluated. Due to the copper accumulation in zebrafish larvae tissues, the damage and oxidative stress were exacerbated over time, resulting in an inflammatory process involving IL-1β, TNF-α, COX-2 and PGE{sub 2}. Within the purinergic system, the mechanisms that control the ADO levels were the most involved, mainly the reactions performed by the isoenzyme ADA 2. In conclusion, our data shed new lights on the mechanisms related to copper-induced inflammation in zebrafish larvae. - Graphical abstract: This scheme provides a chronological proposition for the biochemical events induced by copper in zebrafish larvae. The dashed line shows the absorption of copper over the exposure time. After 1 h of exposure to copper, the release of PGE{sub 2} occurs, followed by an increase of MPO (as a consequence

  6. Involvement of purinergic system in inflammation and toxicity induced by copper in zebrafish larvae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leite, Carlos Eduardo; Maboni, Lucas de Oliveira; Cruz, Fernanda Fernandes; Rosemberg, Denis Broock

    2013-01-01

    The use of zebrafish (Danio rerio) is increasing as an intermediate preclinical model, to prioritize drug candidates for mammalian testing. As the immune system of the zebrafish is quite similar to that of mammals, models of inflammation are being developed for the screening of new drugs. The characterization of these models is crucial for studies that seek for mechanisms of action and specific pharmacological targets. It is well known that copper is a metal that induces damage and cell migration to hair cells of lateral line of zebrafish. Extracellular nucleotides/nucleosides, as ATP and adenosine (ADO), act as endogenous signaling molecules during tissue damage by exerting effects on inflammatory and immune responses. The present study aimed to characterize the inflammatory status, and to investigate the involvement of the purinergic system in copper-induced inflammation in zebrafish larvae. Fishes of 7 days post-fertilization were exposed to 10 μM of copper for a period of 24 h. The grade of oxidative stress, inflammatory status, copper uptake, the activity and the gene expression of the enzymes responsible for controlling the levels of nucleotides and adenosine were evaluated. Due to the copper accumulation in zebrafish larvae tissues, the damage and oxidative stress were exacerbated over time, resulting in an inflammatory process involving IL-1β, TNF-α, COX-2 and PGE 2 . Within the purinergic system, the mechanisms that control the ADO levels were the most involved, mainly the reactions performed by the isoenzyme ADA 2. In conclusion, our data shed new lights on the mechanisms related to copper-induced inflammation in zebrafish larvae. - Graphical abstract: This scheme provides a chronological proposition for the biochemical events induced by copper in zebrafish larvae. The dashed line shows the absorption of copper over the exposure time. After 1 h of exposure to copper, the release of PGE 2 occurs, followed by an increase of MPO (as a consequence of

  7. Utilization of Copper Alloys for Marine Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drach, Andrew

    Utilization of copper alloy components in systems deployed in marine environment presents potential improvements by reducing maintenance costs, prolonging service life, and increasing reliability. However, integration of these materials faces technological challenges, which are discussed and addressed in this work, including characterization of material performance in seawater environment, hydrodynamics of copper alloy components, and design procedures for systems with copper alloys. To characterize the hydrodynamic behavior of copper alloy nets, mesh geometry of the major types of copper nets currently used in the marine aquaculture are analyzed and formulae for the solidity and strand length are proposed. Experimental studies of drag forces on copper alloy net panels are described. Based on these studies, empirical values for normal drag coefficients are proposed for various types of copper netting. These findings are compared to the previously published data on polymer nets. It is shown that copper nets exhibit significantly lower resistance to normal currents, which corresponds to lower values of normal drag coefficient. The seawater performance (corrosion and biofouling) of copper alloys is studied through the field trials of tensioned and untensioned specimens in a one-year deployment in the North Atlantic Ocean. The corrosion behavior is characterized by weight loss, optical microscopy, and SEM/EDX analyses. The biofouling performance is quantified in terms of the biomass accumulation. To estimate the effects of stray electrical currents on the seawater corrosion measurements, a low cost three-axis stray electric current monitoring device is designed and tested both in the lab and in the 30-day field deployment. The system consists of a remotely operated PC with a set of pseudo-electrodes and a digital compass. The collected data is processed to determine magnitudes of AC and DC components of electric field and dominant AC frequencies. Mechanical behavior of

  8. Copper Recycling in the United States in 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goonan, Thomas G.

    2009-01-01

    As one of a series of reports that describe the recycling of metal commodities in the United States, this report discusses the flow of copper from production through distribution and use, with particular emphasis on the recycling of industrial scrap (new scrap1) and used products (old scrap) in the year 2004. This materials flow study includes a description of copper supply and demand for the United States to illustrate the extent of copper recycling and to identify recycling trends. Understanding how materials flow from a source through disposition can aid in improving the management of natural resource delivery systems. In 2004, the U.S. refined copper supply was 2.53 million metric tons (Mt) of refined unalloyed copper. With adjustment for refined copper exports of 127,000 metric tons (t) of copper, the net U.S. refined copper supply was 2.14 Mt of copper. With this net supply and a consumer inventory decrease of 9,000 t of refined copper, 2.42 Mt of refined copper was consumed by U.S. semifabricators (brass mills, wire rod mills, ingot makers, and foundries and others) in 2004. In addition to the 2.42 Mt of refined copper consumed in 2004, U.S. copper semifabricators consumed 853,000 t of copper contained in recycled scrap. Furthermore, 61,000 t of copper contained in scrap was consumed by noncopper alloy makers, for example, steelmakers and aluminum alloy makers. Old scrap recycling efficiency for copper was estimated to be 43 percent of theoretical old scrap supply, the recycling rate for copper was 30 percent of apparent supply, and the new-scrap-to-old-scrap ratio for U.S. copper product production was 3.2 (76:24).

  9. Hepatic copper content, urinary copper excretion, and serum ceruloplasmin in liver disease. [Activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritland, S; Skrede, S [Rikshospitalet, Oslo (Norway); Steinnes, E [Institutt for Atomenergi, Kjeller (Norway)

    1977-01-01

    Liver copper content, urinary copper output and plasma ceruloplasmin have been evaluated in a variety of liver disorders. An activation analysis procedure for the determination of liver copper content is described. Dried biopsy samples were irradiated for two days at a thermal neutron flux of 1.5x10/sup 13/ ncm/sup -2/sec/sup -1/. After one day's delay the samples were dissolved in an acid mixture with copper carrier, and separated on an anion exchange column. The /sup 64/Cu activity in the separated fractions was recorded by gamma spectrometry using a Ge(Li) solid detector. The urinary copper excretion and the serum ceruloplasmin were determined by conventional laboratory methods.

  10. The effect of primary copper slag cooling rate on the copper valorization in the flotation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar Mihajlović

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Technological procedure of slow cooling slag from primary copper production is applied in the purpose of copper recovery in the level of 98.5% to blister. This technological procedure is divided into two phases, first slow cooling of slag on the air for 24 hours, and then accelerated cooling with water for 48 hours. Within the research following methods were used: calculation of nonstationary slag cooling, verification of the calculation using computer simulation of slag cooling in the software package COMSOL Multiphysics and experimental verification of simulation results. After testing of the experimentally gained samples of slowly cooled slag it was found that this technological procedure gives the best results in promoting growth or coagulation of dispersed particles of copper sulfide and copper in the slag, thereby increasing the utilization of the flotation process with a decrease of copper losses through very fine particles.

  11. Transpassive Dissolution of Copper and Rapid Formation of Brilliant Colored Copper Oxide Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredj, Narjes; Burleigh, T. David; New Mexico Tech Team

    2014-03-01

    This investigation describes an electrochemical technique for growing adhesive copper oxide films on copper with attractive colors ranging from gold-brown to pearl with intermediate colors from red violet to gold green. The technique consists of anodically dissolving copper at transpassive potentials in hot sodium hydroxide, and then depositing brilliant color films of Cu2O onto the surface of copper after the anodic potential has been turned off. The color of the copper oxide film depends on the temperature, the anodic potential, the time t1 of polarization, and the time t2, which is the time of immersion after potential has been turned off. The brilliant colored films were characterized using glancing angle x-ray diffraction, and the film was found to be primarily Cu2O. Cyclic voltammetry, chronopotentiometry, scanning electron microscopy, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were also used to characterize these films.

  12. Development of highly faceted reduced graphene oxide-coated copper oxide and copper nanoparticles on a copper foil surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebeca Ortega-Amaya

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the formation of reduced graphene oxide-coated copper oxide and copper nanoparticles (rGO-Cu2ONPs, rGO-CuNPs on the surface of a copper foil supporting graphene oxide (GO at annealing temperatures of 200–1000 °C, under an Ar atmosphere. These hybrid nanostructures were developed from bare copper oxide nanoparticles which grew at an annealing temperature of 80 °C under nitrogen flux. The predominant phase as well as the particle size and shape strongly depend on the process temperature. Characterization with transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy indicates that Cu or Cu2O nanoparticles take rGO sheets from the rGO network to form core–shell Cu–rGO or Cu2O–rGO nanostructures. It is noted that such ones increase in size from 5 to 800 nm as the annealing temperature increases in the 200–1000 °C range. At 1000 °C, Cu nanoparticles develop a highly faceted morphology, displaying arm-like carbon nanorods that originate from different facets of the copper crystal structure.

  13. Nutrition in acute renal failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Mussi Guimarães

    Full Text Available Nutritional status has been considered to be one of the possible determinants of mortality rates in cases of acute renal failure (ARF. However, most studies evaluating possible mortality indicators in ARF cases have not focused on the nutritional status, possibly because of the difficulties involved in assessing the nutritional status of critically ill patients. Although the traditional methods for assessing nutritional status are used for ARF patients, they are not the best choice in this population. The use of nutritional support for these patients has produced conflicting results regarding morbidity and mortality. This review covers the mechanisms and indicators of malnutrition in ARF cases and the types of nutritional support that may be used.

  14. A Summary of Pathways or Mechanisms Linking Preconception Maternal Nutrition with Birth Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Janet C

    2016-07-01

    Population, human, animal, tissue, and molecular studies show collectively and consistently that maternal nutrition in the pre- or periconception period influences fetal growth and development, which subsequently affects the individual's long-term health. It is known that nutrition during pregnancy is an important determinant of the offspring's growth and health. However, now there is evidence that the mother's nutritional status at conception also influences pregnancy outcome and long-term health. For example, the mother's nutritional status at conception influences the way energy is partitioned between maternal and fetal needs. Furthermore, placental development during the first weeks of gestation reflects maternal nutrition and establishes mechanisms for balancing maternal and fetal nutritional needs. Also, maternal nutritional signals at fertilization influence epigenetic remodeling of fetal genes. These findings all indicate that maternal parenting begins before conception. The following papers from a symposium on preconception nutrition presented at the 2015 Scientific Sessions and Annual Meeting of the ASN emphasize the importance of maternal nutrition at conception on the growth and long-term health of the child. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  15. Treatment of copper ores containing atacamite by the brisa process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carranza, F.; Mazuelos, A.; Romero, R.

    2003-01-01

    The current treatment of copper ores containing atacamite and secondary copper sulphides consists of heap leaching, by the TL process. copper recoveries by this treatment are very low (less than 50% for operating times higher than six months). In order to improve the copper extraction yields, several treatment options are presented in this work, wich consist on promoting the acid leaching of the atacamite and the indirect bio leaching (Brisk process) of the secondary copper sulphides. All the options lead to improved copper recoveries in comparison with the current treatment. An economic estimation of each option of treatment is included, with really attractive results. (Author) 13 refs

  16. Parenteral nutrition in malnourished patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lichvarova, I.

    2011-01-01

    Parenteral nutrition became a routine therapeutic option in malnourished patients, if conventional nutritional enteral support is not effective. Cachexia and malnutrition prolong the wound healing, contribute to immunosuppression, increase morbidity and the cost of treatment. Using of a malnutrition protocol as a screening tool is necessary to sort out malnourished patients. Parenteral nutrition is therefore an important part of the multimodal therapy and from the medical and the ethical point of view is a great mistake not to feed a patient. (author)

  17. Update on the possible nutritional importance of silicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Forrest H

    2014-10-01

    Convincing evidence that silicon is a bioactive beneficial trace element continues to accumulate. The evidence, which has come from human, animal, and in vitro studies performed by several laboratories, indicate that silicon in nutritional and supra nutritional amounts promotes bone and connective tissue health, may have a modulating effect on the immune or inflammatory response, and has been associated with mental health. A plausible mechanism of action for the beneficial effects of silicon is the binding of hydroxyl groups of polyols such that it influences the formation and/or utilization of glycosaminoglycans, mucopolysaccharides, and collagen in connective tissue and bone. In addition, silicon may affect the absorption, retention or action of other mineral elements (e.g., aluminum, copper, magnesium). Based on findings from both animal and human experiments, an intake of silicon of near 25mg/d would be a reasonable suggestion for an adequate intake that would assure its nutritional benefits. Increased intakes of silicon through consuming unrefined grains, certain vegetables, and beverages and cereals made from grains should be recognized as a reasonable dietary recommendation. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  18. Potential phytoextraction and phytostabilization of perennial peanut on copper-contaminated vineyard soils and copper mining waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreazza, Robson; Bortolon, Leandro; Pieniz, Simone; Giacometti, Marcelo; Roehrs, Dione D; Lambais, Mácio R; Camargo, Flávio A O

    2011-12-01

    This study sought to evaluate the potential of perennial peanut (Arachis pintoi) for copper phytoremediation in vineyard soils (Inceptisol and Mollisol) contaminated with copper and copper mining waste. Our results showed high phytomass production of perennial peanut in both vineyard soils. Macronutrient uptakes were not negatively affected by perennial peanut cultivated in all contaminated soils. Plants cultivated in Mollisol showed high copper concentrations in the roots and shoots of 475 and 52 mg kg(-1), respectively. Perennial peanut plants showed low translocation factor values for Cu, although these plants showed high bioaccumulation factor (BCF) for both vineyard soils, Inceptisol and Mollisol, with BCF values of 3.83 and 3.24, respectively, being characterized as a copper hyperaccumulator plant in these soils. Copper phytoextraction from Inceptisol soil was the highest for both roots and entire plant biomass, with more than 800 mg kg(-1) of copper in whole plant. The highest potential copper phytoextraction by perennial peanut was in Inceptisol soil with copper removal of 2,500 g ha(-1). Also, perennial peanut showed high potential for copper phytoremoval in copper mining waste and Mollisol with 1,700 and 1,500 g of copper per hectare, respectively. In addition, perennial peanuts characterized high potential for phytoextraction and phytostabilization of copper in vineyard soils and copper mining waste.

  19. Precision Nutrition for Targeting Lipid Metabolism in Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Aguirre-Portolés

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is a multistage and multifactorial condition with genetic and environmental factors modulating tumorogenesis and disease progression. Nevertheless, cancer is preventable, as one third of cancer deaths could be avoided by modifying key risk factors. Nutrients can directly affect fundamental cellular processes and are considered among the most important risk factors in colorectal cancer (CRC. Red and processed meat, poultry consumption, fiber, and folate are the best-known diet components that interact with colorectal cancer susceptibility. In addition, the direct association of an unhealthy diet with obesity and dysbiosis opens new routes in the understanding of how daily diet nutrients could influence cancer prognosis. In the “omics” era, traditional nutrition has been naturally evolved to precision nutrition where technical developments have contributed to a more accurate discipline. In this sense, genomic and transcriptomic studies have been extensively used in precision nutrition approaches. However, the relation between CRC carcinogenesis and nutrition factors is more complex than originally expected. Together with classical diet-nutrition-related genes, nowadays, lipid-metabolism-related genes have acquired relevant interest in precision nutrition studies. Lipids regulate very diverse cellular processes from ATP synthesis and the activation of essential cell-signaling pathways to membrane organization and plasticity. Therefore, a wide range of tumorogenic steps can be influenced by lipid metabolism, both in primary tumours and distal metastasis. The extent to which genetic variants, together with the intake of specific dietary components, affect the risk of CRC is currently under investigation, and new therapeutic or preventive applications must be explored in CRC models. In this review, we will go in depth into the study of co-occurring events, which orchestrate CRC tumorogenesis and are essential for the evolution of precision

  20. The changing nutrition scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalan, C

    2013-09-01

    The past seven decades have seen remarkable shifts in the nutritional scenario in India. Even up to the 1950s severe forms of malnutrition such as kwashiorkar and pellagra were endemic. As nutritionists were finding home-grown and common-sense solutions for these widespread problems, the population was burgeoning and food was scarce. The threat of widespread household food insecurity and chronic undernutrition was very real. Then came the Green Revolution. Shortages of food grains disappeared within less than a decade and India became self-sufficient in food grain production. But more insidious problems arising from this revolution were looming, and cropping patterns giving low priority to coarse grains and pulses, and monocropping led to depletion of soil nutrients and 'Green Revolution fatigue'. With improved household food security and better access to health care, clinical manifestations of severe malnutrition virtually disappeared. But the decline in chronic undernutrition and "hidden hunger" from micronutrient deficiencies was slow. On the cusp of the new century, an added factor appeared on the nutritional scene in India. With steady urban migration, upward mobility out of poverty, and an increasingly sedentary lifestyle because of improvements in technology and transport, obesity rates began to increase, resulting in a dual burden. Measured in terms of its performance in meeting its Millennium Development Goals, India has fallen short. Despite its continuing high levels of poverty and illiteracy, India has a huge demographic potential in the form of a young population. This advantage must be leveraged by investing in nutrition education, household access to nutritious diets, sanitary environment and a health-promoting lifestyle. This requires co-operation from all the stakeholders, including governments, non government organizations, scientists and the people at large.

  1. The changing nutrition scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Gopalan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The past seven decades have seen remarkable shifts in the nutritional scenario in India. Even up to the 1950s severe forms of malnutrition such as kwashiorkar and pellagra were endemic. As nutritionists were finding home-grown and common-sense solutions for these widespread problems, the population was burgeoning and food was scarce. The threat of widespread household food insecurity and chronic undernutrition was very real. Then came the Green Revolution. Shortages of food grains disappeared within less than a decade and India became self-sufficient in food grain production. But more insidious problems arising from this revolution were looming, and cropping patterns giving low priority to coarse grains and pulses, and monocropping led to depletion of soil nutrients and ′Green Revolution fatigue′. With improved household food security and better access to health care, clinical manifestations of severe malnutrition virtually disappeared. But the decline in chronic undernutrition and "hidden hunger" from micronutrient deficiencies was slow. On the cusp of the new century, an added factor appeared on the nutritional scene in India. With steady urban migration, upward mobility out of poverty, and an increasingly sedentary lifestyle because of improvements in technology and transport, obesity rates began to increase, resulting in a dual burden. Measured in terms of its performance in meeting its Millennium Development Goals, India has fallen short. Despite its continuing high levels of poverty and illiteracy, India has a huge demographic potential in the form of a young population. This advantage must be leveraged by investing in nutrition education, household access to nutritious diets, sanitary environment and a health-promoting lifestyle. This requires co-operation from all the stakeholders, including governments, non government organizations, scientists and the people at large.

  2. Nutritional Aspects of Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Undine E. Lang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Several nutrition, food and dietary compounds have been suggested to be involved in the onset and maintenance of depressive disorders and in the severity of depressive symptoms. Nutritional compounds might modulate depression associated biomarkers and parallel the development of depression, obesity and diabetes. In this context, recent studies revealed new mediators of both energy homeostasis and mood changes (i.e. IGF-1, NPY, BDNF, ghrelin, leptin, CCK, GLP-1, AGE, glucose metabolism and microbiota acting in gut brain circuits. In this context several healthy foods such as olive oil, fish, fruits, vegetables, nuts, legumes, poultry, dairy and unprocessed meat have been inversely associated with depression risk and even have been postulated to improve depressive symptoms. In contrast, unhealthy western dietary patterns including the consumption of sweetened beverage, refined food, fried food, processed meat, refined grain, and high fat diary, biscuits, snacking and pastries have been shown to be associated with an increased risk of depression in longitudinal studies. However, it is always difficult to conclude a real prospective causal relationship from these mostly retrospective studies as depressed individuals might also change their eating habits secondarily to their depression. Additionally specific selected nutritional compounds, e.g. calcium, chromium, folate, PUFAs, vitamin D, B12, zinc, magnesium and D-serine have been postulated to be used as ad-on strategies in antidepressant treatment. In this context, dietary and lifestyle interventions may be a desirable, effective, pragmatical and non-stigmatizing prevention and treatment strategy for depression. At last, several medications (pioglitazone, metformin, exenatide, atorvastatin, gram-negative antibiotics, which have traditionally been used to treat metabolic disorders showed a certain potential to treat depression in first randomized controlled clinical trials.

  3. Nutritional aspects of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Undine E; Beglinger, Christoph; Schweinfurth, Nina; Walter, Marc; Borgwardt, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Several nutrition, food and dietary compounds have been suggested to be involved in the onset and maintenance of depressive disorders and in the severity of depressive symptoms. Nutritional compounds might modulate depression associated biomarkers and parallel the development of depression, obesity and diabetes. In this context, recent studies revealed new mediators of both energy homeostasis and mood changes (i.e. IGF-1, NPY, BDNF, ghrelin, leptin, CCK, GLP-1, AGE, glucose metabolism and microbiota) acting in gut brain circuits. In this context several healthy foods such as olive oil, fish, fruits, vegetables, nuts, legumes, poultry, dairy and unprocessed meat have been inversely associated with depression risk and even have been postulated to improve depressive symptoms. In contrast, unhealthy western dietary patterns including the consumption of sweetened beverage, refined food, fried food, processed meat, refined grain, and high fat diary, biscuits, snacking and pastries have been shown to be associated with an increased risk of depression in longitudinal studies. However, it is always difficult to conclude a real prospective causal relationship from these mostly retrospective studies as depressed individuals might also change their eating habits secondarily to their depression. Additionally specific selected nutritional compounds, e.g. calcium, chromium, folate, PUFAs, vitamin D, B12, zinc, magnesium and D-serine have been postulated to be used as ad-on strategies in antidepressant treatment. In this context, dietary and lifestyle interventions may be a desirable, effective, pragmatical and non-stigmatizing prevention and treatment strategy for depression. At last, several medications (pioglitazone, metformin, exenatide, atorvastatin, gram-negative antibiotics), which have traditionally been used to treat metabolic disorders showed a certain potential to treat depression in first randomized controlled clinical trials. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by S

  4. Childhood nutrition and poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, M

    2000-05-01

    One in three children in Britain lives in poverty (households whose income was less than 50% average earnings). Low income is associated with poor nutrition at all stages of life, from lower rates of breast-feeding to higher intakes of saturated fatty acids and lower intakes of antioxidant nutrients. Moreover, there is increasing evidence that poor nutrition in childhood is associated with both short-term and long-term adverse consequences such as poorer immune status, higher caries rates and poorer cognitive function and learning ability. These problems arise primarily because parents do not have enough money to spend on food, not because money is being spent unwisely. Policy options to improve the dietary health of poor children include: giving more money to the parents by increasing Income Support (social security) payments, providing food stamps or vouchers, and using food budget standards to inform the levels of income needed to purchase an adequate diet; feeding children directly at school (not only at lunchtime but also at breakfast or homework clubs), by providing free fruit at school, and by increasing entitlement to free food amongst children living in households with low incomes; improving access to a healthy and affordable diet by first identifying 'food deserts' and then considering with retailers and local planners how best to provide food in an economical and sustainable way. The value of using food budget standards is illustrated with data relating expenditure on food to growth in children from 'at-risk' families (on low income, overcrowded, headed by a lone parent or with four or more children under 16 years of age) living in a poor area in London. Lower levels of expenditure are strongly associated with poorer growth and health, independent of factors such as birth weight, mother's height, or risk score. The present paper provides evidence that supports the need to review Government legislation in light of nutrition-related inequalities in the

  5. Nutritional support of reptile patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Voe, Ryan S

    2014-05-01

    Providing nutritional support to reptile patients is a challenging and often misunderstood task. Ill reptiles are frequently anorexic and can benefit greatly from appropriate nutrition delivered via a variety of assist-feeding techniques. Neonatal reptiles can also be very challenging patients because many fail to thrive without significant efforts to establish normal feeding behaviors. This article presents ideas supporting the benefit of timely nutritional support as well as specific recommendations for implementation of assist feeding. Also discussed are a few nutritional issues that affect captive reptile species. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... out more Categories Sports and Performance Training and Recovery Exercise Topics Fueling Your Workout Benefits of Physical Activity Exercise Nutrition Top Articles Man running - Protein and the Athlete - ...

  7. Parenteral Nutrition in Liver Resection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Chiarla

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Albeit a very large number of experiments have assessed the impact of various substrates on liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy, a limited number of clinical studies have evaluated artificial nutrition in liver resection patients. This is a peculiar topic because many patients do not need artificial nutrition, while several patients need it because of malnutrition and/or prolonged inability to feeding caused by complications. The optimal nutritional regimen to support liver regeneration, within other postoperative problems or complications, is not yet exactly defined. This short review addresses relevant aspects and potential developments in the issue of postoperative parenteral nutrition after liver resection.

  8. Nutrition and Bipolar Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, John L; Payne, Martha E

    2016-03-01

    As with physical conditions, bipolar disorder is likely to be impacted by diet and nutrition. Patients with bipolar disorder have been noted to have relatively unhealthy diets, which may in part be the reason they also have an elevated risk of metabolic syndrome and obesity. An improvement in the quality of the diet should improve a bipolar patient's overall health risk profile, but it may also improve their psychiatric outcomes. New insights into biological dysfunctions that may be present in bipolar disorder have presented new theoretic frameworks for understanding the relationship between diet and bipolar disorder. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Nutrition in Heart Failure

    OpenAIRE

    Reci Meseri

    2013-01-01

    Heart failure is defined as decreased ability of heart due to various reasons. It%u2019s seen 2-3% but the prevalence increases sharply after the age of seventy. The objectives of nutrition therapy in heart failure are to prevent from water retention and edema, to avoid from hard digestion and to offer a balanced diet. In order to avoid fluid retention and edema, daily sodium and fluid intake must be monitored carefully. Main dilemma of the heart failure patients is the obesity-cachexia dilem...

  10. Energy - environment - nutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The special edition contains contributions made by different authors on the array of problems presented by the environment, energy, and nutrition, biosphere and man, economic growth and energy supplies for future security, new environmental awareness, - the end of market economy., power plant safety, conditions for the evolution of mankind, policy and criminal law demonstrated by means of environmental protection. The concept of ecology and the development of world energy supplies are documented. The bibliography report goes into detail as far as studies are concerned which deal with the hazards of nuclear power plants, related pros and cons, with the energy crisis in general, and with nuclear weapons. (HSCH) [de

  11. 45 CFR 1326.15 - Nutrition services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... INDIAN TRIBES FOR SUPPORT AND NUTRITION SERVICES § 1326.15 Nutrition services. (a) In addition to providing nutrition services to older Indians, a tribal organization may: (1) Provide nutrition services to... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nutrition services. 1326.15 Section 1326.15 Public...

  12. 7 CFR 248.9 - Nutrition education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nutrition education. 248.9 Section 248.9 Agriculture... Nutrition education. (a) Goals. Nutrition education shall emphasize the relationship of proper nutrition to.... (b) Requirement. The State agency shall integrate nutrition education into FMNP operations and may...

  13. Integrin Signalling

    OpenAIRE

    Schelfaut, Roselien

    2005-01-01

    Integrins are receptors presented on most cells. By binding ligand they can generate signalling pathways inside the cell. Those pathways are a linkage to proteins in the cytosol. It is known that tumor cells can survive and proliferate in the absence of a solid support while normal cells need to be bound to ligand. To understand why tumour cells act that way, we first have to know how ligand-binding to integrins affect the cell. This research field includes studies on activation of proteins b...

  14. Copper-beryllium alloys for technical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, W.

    1976-01-01

    Data of physical properties are compiled for the most commonly used copper-beryllium alloys (CuBe 2, CuBe 1.7, CuCoBe, and CuCoAgBe), with emphasis on their temperature dependence and their variation with particular annealing and hardening treatments. The purpose is to provide a reference source and to indicate the versatility of these materials with respect to other copper alloys and to pure copper. The special features of CuBe alloys include high mechanical strength with reasonably high electrical conductivity, as well as good wear and corrosion resistance. For example, CuBe 2 has a yield strength of up to 1200 N/mm 2 , about three times that of pure copper, whilst the electrical conductivity of CuCoBe can be as high as 28 MS/m, nearly half that of pure copper. Typical applications are springs and electrical contacts. The importance of a proper heat treatment is discussed in some detail, notably the metallurgy and effects of low-temperature annealing (precipitation-hardening). A chapter on manufacturing processes covers machining, brazing, welding, and cleaning. This is followed by some remarks on safety precautions against beryllium poisoning. CuBe alloys are commercially available in the form of wires, strips, rods, and bars. Typical dimensions, specifications, a brief cost estimate, and addresses of suppliers are listed. (Author)

  15. Copper in the sea: a bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, R.L.

    1977-04-01

    Life in the sea is vulnerable to the influx of trace metals resulting from man's activities. Although many pollutants introduced to the sea eventually degrade to less harmful forms, trace metals accumulate in sediments and have a continued potential for effect on biota. Copper has a toxic potential exceeding all other metals due to the quantity discharged and its toxicological effect. Fortunately, copper in the oceans is rendered less bioavailable or less toxic by its ready interaction with the complex chemical components of seawater. This bibliography was prepared to illustrate the status of current knowledge of the biogeochemistry of copper and to aid the development of research programs to define the effects of copper discharged to the marine environment. The references are categorized to aid the reader to locate literature concerning specific aspects of the biogeochemistry of copper. A brief comment describing the important findings in each category is given. Although this bibliography is not exhaustive, the listed references are likely representative of current knowledge.

  16. Optical properties of stabilized copper nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohindroo, Jeevan Jyoti, E-mail: jjmdav@gmail.com [Punjab Technical University, Kapurthala Punjab (India); Department of Chemistry, DAV College, Amritsar, Punjab India (India); Garg, Umesh Kumar, E-mail: Umeshkgarg@gmail.com [Punjab Technical University, Kapurthala Punjab (India); Guru Teg Bahadur Khalsa College of IT, Malout, Punjab (India); Sharma, Anshul Kumar [Department of Physics, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar 143005 (India)

    2016-05-06

    Optical studies involving calculation of Band Gap of the synthesized copper nanoparticles were carried out in the wavelength range of 500 to 650 nm at room temperature, the particles showed high absorption at 550 nm indicating their good absorptive properties. In this method water is used as the medium for reduction of copper ions in to copper Nanoparticles the stabilization of copper Nanoparticles was studied with starch both as a reductant and stabilizer,. The reaction mixture was heated using a kitchen microwave for about 5 minutes to attain the required temp for the reaction. The pH of the solution was adjusted to alkaline using 5% solution of NaOH. Formation of Copper Nanoparticles was indicated by change in color of the solution from blue to yellowish black which is supported by the UV absorption at 570 nm.the synthesized particles were washed with water and alcohol. The optical properties depend upon absorption of radiations which in turn depends upon ratio of electrons and holes present in the material and also on the shape of the nanoparticles. In the present investigation it was observed that optical absorption increases with increase in particle size. The optical band gap for the Nanoparticles was obtained from plots between hv vs. (αhv){sup 2} and hv vs. (αhv){sup 1/2}. The value of Band gap came out to be around 1.98–2.02 eV which is in close agreement with the earlier reported values.

  17. Stable isotopes for improving human nutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uauy, Ricardo

    2001-01-01

    , e.g., vitamin A, iron and zinc nutrition. Copper deficit and excess also have important implications for human health. Here, isotopic methods for measuring absorption, storage and excretion permit a more precise definition of the range of exposures that are tolerated without adverse effects. The mandate of IAEA to support national governments, UN agencies and others in using nuclear procedures to monitor the impact of interventions, demographic change and development is being served by regional technical cooperation projects in Latin America, Africa and Asia. Building local capacity has been incorporated in the process, establishing networks to support local programs, training activities, and laboratories. These efforts will serve applied researchers and planners who need the practical applications of novel methodologies to improve nutrition and the well being of underserved populations world-wide. (author)

  18. Metallic copper corrosion rates, moisture content, and growth medium influence survival of copper ion-resistant bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elguindi, J; Moffitt, S; Hasman, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    of both copper ion-resistant E. coli and E. faecium strains when samples in rich medium were spread in a thin, moist layer on copper alloys with 85% or greater copper content. E. coli strains were rapidly killed under dry conditions, while E. faecium strains were less affected. Electroplated copper...... on electroplated copper surfaces with benzotriazole coating and thermal oxide coating compared to surfaces without anti-corrosion treatment. Control of surface corrosion affected the level of copper ion influx into bacterial cells, which contributed directly to bacterial killing....

  19. Effect of a nutrition education programme on nutritional status of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Globally, the prevalence of chronic and acute malnutrition and micronutrient deficiency is high in young children, especially in developing countries. Nutrition education is an important intervention to address these challenges. Objective. To determine the nutritional (anthropometric and micronutrient) status of ...

  20. Nutrition economics - characterising the economic and health impact of nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenoir-Wijnkoop, I; Dapoigny, M; Dubois, D; van Ganse, E; Gutiérrez-Ibarluzea, I; Hutton, J; Jones, P; Mittendorf, T; Poley, M J; Salminen, S; Nuijten, M J C

    2011-01-01

    There is a new merging of health economics and nutrition disciplines to assess the impact of diet on health and disease prevention and to characterise the health and economic aspects of specific changes in nutritional behaviour and nutrition recommendations. A rationale exists for developing the field of nutrition economics which could offer a better understanding of both nutrition, in the context of having a significant influence on health outcomes, and economics, in order to estimate the absolute and relative monetary impact of health measures. For this purpose, an expert meeting assessed questions aimed at clarifying the scope and identifying the key issues that should be taken into consideration in developing nutrition economics as a discipline that could potentially address important questions. We propose a first multidisciplinary outline for understanding the principles and particular characteristics of this emerging field. We summarise here the concepts and the observations of workshop participants and propose a basic setting for nutrition economics and health outcomes research as a novel discipline to support nutrition, health economics and health policy development in an evidence and health-benefit-based manner.