WorldWideScience

Sample records for nutrition workforce development

  1. An evaluation of a public health nutrition workforce development intervention for the nutrition and dietetics workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palermo, C; Hughes, R; McCall, L

    2010-06-01

    Workforce development is a key element for building the capacity to effectively address priority population nutrition issues. On-the-job learning and mentoring have been proposed as strategies for practice improvement in public health nutrition; however, there is limited evidence for their effectiveness. An evaluation of a mentoring circle workforce development intervention was undertaken. Thirty-two novice public health nutritionists participated in one of three mentoring circles for 2 h, every 6 weeks, over a 7-month period. Pre- and post-intervention qualitative (questionnaire, interview, mentor diary) and quantitative (competence, time working in public health nutrition) data were collected. The novice public health nutritionists explained the intervention facilitated sharing of ideas and strategies and promoted reflective practice. They articulated the important attributes of the mentor in the intervention as having experience in and a passion for public health, facilitating a trusting relationship and providing effective feedback. Participants reported a gain in competency and had an overall mean increase in self-reported competence of 15% (range 3-48% change; P work time allocated to preventive work post-intervention. Mentoring supported service re-orientation and competency development in public health nutrition. The nature of the group learning environment and the role and qualities of the mentor were important elements contributing to the interventions effects. Mentoring circles offer a potentially effective strategy for workforce development in nutrition and dietetics.

  2. Public health nutrition workforce development in seven European countries: constraining and enabling factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugelberg, Susanna; Jonsdottir, Svandis; Faxelid, Elisabeth; Jönsson, Kristina; Fox, Ann; Thorsdottir, Inga; Yngve, Agneta

    2012-11-01

    Little is known about current public health nutrition workforce development in Europe. The present study aimed to understand constraining and enabling factors to workforce development in seven European countries. A qualitative study comprised of semi-structured face-to-face interviews was conducted and content analysis was used to analyse the transcribed interview data. The study was carried out in Finland, Iceland, Ireland, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden and the UK. Sixty key informants participated in the study. There are constraining and enabling factors for public health nutrition workforce development. The main constraining factors relate to the lack of a supportive policy environment, fragmented organizational structures and a workforce that is not cohesive enough to implement public health nutrition strategic initiatives. Enabling factors were identified as the presence of skilled and dedicated individuals who assume roles as leaders and change agents. There is a need to strengthen coordination between policy and implementation of programmes which may operate across the national to local spectrum. Public health organizations are advised to further define aims and objectives relevant to public health nutrition. Leaders and agents of change will play important roles in fostering intersectorial partnerships, advocating for policy change, establishing professional competencies and developing education and training programmes.

  3. Wind Energy Workforce Development & Jobs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tegen, Suzanne

    2016-11-08

    The United States needs a skilled and qualified wind energy workforce to produce domestic clean power. To assist with wind energy workforce development, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and National Renewable Energy Laboratory are engaged with several efforts.This presentation by Suzanne Tegen describes these efforts, including a wind industry survey, DOE's Wind Career Map, the DOE Wind Vision report, and an in-depth discussion of the Jobs & Economic Development Impacts Model.

  4. Forum on Workforce Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Edward

    2010-01-01

    APPEL Mission: To support NASA's mission by promoting individual, team, and organizational excellence in program/project management and engineering through the application of learning strategies, methods, models, and tools. Goals: a) Provide a common frame of reference for NASA s technical workforce. b) Provide and enhance critical job skills. c) Support engineering, program and project teams. d) Promote organizational learning across the agency. e) Supplement formal educational programs.

  5. North Dakota Energy Workforce Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, Drake [Bismarck State College, Bismarck, ND (United States)

    2014-12-29

    Bismarck State College, along with its partners (Williston State College, Minot State University and Dickinson State University), received funding to help address the labor and social impacts of rapid oilfield development in the Williston Basin of western North Dakota. Funding was used to develop and support both credit and non-credit workforce training as well as four major symposia designed to inform and educate the public; enhance communication and sense of partnership among citizens, local community leaders and industry; and identify and plan to ameliorate negative impacts of oil field development.

  6. The Workforce Education and Development in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Lung-Sheng

    2012-01-01

    Workforce education and development (WED) can be broadly defined as those formal, informal and nonformal activities that prepare people for work. In Taiwan, it includes technological and vocational education (TVE), human resource development (HRD), public vocational training and adult education. In order to promote information exchanges and…

  7. Developing a translational ecology workforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Mark W.; Hiers, J. Kevin; Davis, Frank W.; Garfin, Gregg; Jackson, Stephen T.; Terando, Adam J.; Woodhouse, Connie A.; Morelli, Toni; Williamson, Matthew A.; Brunson, Mark W.

    2017-01-01

    We define a translational ecologist as a professional ecologist with diverse disciplinary expertise and skill sets, as well as a suitable personal disposition, who engages across social, professional, and disciplinary boundaries to partner with decision makers to achieve practical environmental solutions. Becoming a translational ecologist requires specific attention to obtaining critical non‐scientific disciplinary breadth and skills that are not typically gained through graduate‐level education. Here, we outline a need for individuals with broad training in interdisciplinary skills, use our personal experiences as a basis for assessing the types of interdisciplinary skills that would benefit potential translational ecologists, and present steps that interested ecologists may take toward becoming translational. Skills relevant to translational ecologists may be garnered through personal experiences, informal training, short courses, fellowships, and graduate programs, among others. We argue that a translational ecology workforce is needed to bridge the gap between science and natural resource decisions. Furthermore, we argue that this task is a cooperative responsibility of individuals interested in pursuing these careers, educational institutions interested in training scientists for professional roles outside of academia, and employers seeking to hire skilled workers who can foster stakeholder‐engaged decision making.

  8. Workforce Development, Higher Education and Productive Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hordern, Jim

    2014-01-01

    Workforce development partnerships between higher education institutions and employers involve distinctive social and technical dynamics that differ from dominant higher education practices in the UK. The New Labour government encouraged such partnerships in England, including through the use of funding that aimed to stimulate reform to…

  9. Workforce Development : Matching Education Systems to Workforce Needs

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2014-01-01

    Equipping national workforces with job-relevant skills is a continuing challenge, and mismatches are a present concern. Many school graduates cannot find jobs commensurate with their education and training. Employers complain of difficulty in filling vacancies and bemoan the scarcity of soft skills for boosting productivity. More broadly, skills constraints make it difficult for companies ...

  10. The Public Health Nutrition workforce and its future challenges: the US experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haughton, Betsy; George, Alexa

    2008-08-01

    To describe the US public health nutrition workforce and its future social, biological and fiscal challenges. Literature review primarily for the four workforce surveys conducted since 1985 by the Association of State and Territorial Public Health Nutrition Directors. The United States. Nutrition personnel working in governmental health agencies. The 1985 and 1987 subjects were personnel in full-time budgeted positions employed in governmental health agencies providing predominantly population-based services. In 1994 and 1999 subjects were both full-time and part-time, employed in or funded by governmental health agencies, and provided both direct-care and population-based services. The workforce primarily focuses on direct-care services for pregnant and breast-feeding women, infants and children. The US Department of Agriculture funds 81.7 % of full-time equivalent positions, primarily through the WIC Program (Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children). Of those personnel working in WIC, 45 % have at least 10 years of experience compared to over 65 % of the non-WIC workforce. Continuing education needs of the WIC and non-WIC workforces differ. The workforce is increasingly more racially/ethnically diverse and with 18.2 % speaking Spanish as a second language. The future workforce will need to focus on increasing its diversity and cultural competence, and likely will need to address retirement within leadership positions. Little is known about the workforce's capacity to address the needs of the elderly, emergency preparedness and behavioural interventions. Fiscal challenges will require evidence-based practice demonstrating both costs and impact. Little is known about the broader public health nutrition workforce beyond governmental health agencies.

  11. Dynamic simulation for effective workforce management in new product development

    OpenAIRE

    M. Mutingi

    2012-01-01

    Effective planning and management of workforce for new product development (NPD) projects is a great challenge to many organisations, especially in the presence of engineering changes during the product development process. The management objective in effective workforce management is to recruit, develop and deploy the right people at the right place at the right time so as to fulfill organizational objectives. In this paper, we propose a dynamic simulation model to address the workforce mana...

  12. FY17 Environmental Workforce Development and Job Training (EWDJT) Grants

    Science.gov (United States)

    This notice announces the availability of funds and solicits proposals from eligible entities, including nonprofit organizations, to deliver Environmental Workforce Development and Job Training programs.

  13. Clean Technology Evaluation & Workforce Development Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patricia Glaza

    2012-12-01

    The overall objective of the Clean Technology Evaluation portion of the award was to design a process to speed up the identification of new clean energy technologies and match organizations to testing and early adoption partners. The project was successful in identifying new technologies targeted to utilities and utility technology integrators, in developing a process to review and rank the new technologies, and in facilitating new partnerships for technology testing and adoption. The purpose of the Workforce Development portion of the award was to create an education outreach program for middle & high-school students focused on clean technology science and engineering. While originally targeting San Diego, California and Cambridge, Massachusetts, the scope of the program was expanded to include a major clean technology speaking series and expo as part of the USA Science & Engineering Festival on the National Mall in Washington, D.C.

  14. The American Community College: Nexus for Workforce Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Robert H., Ed.

    Emphasizing the central role of community colleges in workforce development, this two-part monograph reviews the status of workforce development initiatives at the national, state, and local levels and provides descriptions of 10 exemplary programs at community colleges across North America. The first part focuses on the status of and operating…

  15. Workforce development and effective evaluation of projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerson, Claire; Green, Tess; Blass, Eddie

    The success of a project or programme is typically determined in relation to outputs. However, there is a commitment among UK public services to spending public funds efficiently and on activities that provide the greatest benefit to society. Skills for Health recognised the need for a tool to manage the complex process of evaluating project benefits. An integrated evaluation framework was developed to help practitioners identify, describe, measure and evaluate the benefits of workforce development projects. Practitioners tested the framework on projects within three NHS trusts and provided valuable feedback to support its development. The prospective approach taken to identify benefits and collect baseline data to support evaluation was positively received and the clarity and completeness of the framework, as well as the relevance of the questions, were commended. Users reported that the framework was difficult to complete; an online version could be developed, which might help to improve usability. Effective implementation of this approach will depend on the quality and usability of the framework, the willingness of organisations to implement it, and the presence or establishment of an effective change management culture.

  16. New Game, New Rules: Strategic Positioning for Workforce Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warford, Larry J.; Flynn, William J.

    2000-01-01

    Asserts that institutional planning for workforce development programs should be based on serving four major workforce segments: emerging workers, transitional workers, entrepreneurs, and incumbent workers. Suggests that a typical college be divided into four components to deal with these different workers and their differing educational and…

  17. Developing an indigenous surgical workforce for Australasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aramoana, Jaclyn; Alley, Patrick; Koea, Jonathan B

    2013-12-01

    Progress has been made in Australia and New Zealand to increase the numbers of indigenous students (Aboriginal, Torres Strait Islander and Maori) entering primary medical qualification courses. In New Zealand, up to 20 Maori are graduating annually, with similar numbers possible in Australia, creating a potential opportunity to develop an indigenous surgical workforce. A literature review identified factors utilized by medical schools to attract indigenous students into medical careers and the interventions necessary to ensure successful graduation. A further search identified those factors important in encouraging indigenous medical graduates to enter specialist training programmes and achieve faculty appointments. All medical schools have utilized elements of a 'pipeline approach' encompassing contact with students at secondary school level to encourage aspirational goals and assist with suitable subject selection. Bridging courses can ensure students leaving school have appropriate skill sets before entering medical degree courses. Extensive practical help is available during primary medical qualification study. The elements necessary for primary medical qualification success - dedicated and focused study, developing appropriate skill sets, mentoring, support, and an institutional and collegial commitment to success - are also the elements required for postgraduate achievement. The Royal Australasian College of Surgeons (RACS) is primarily involved in training rather than service provision. The increasing numbers of indigenous medical graduates in both Australia and New Zealand represent an opportunity for the College to contribute to improving indigenous health status by implementing specific measures to increase numbers of indigenous surgeons. © 2013 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  18. Wind Energy Workforce Development: Engineering, Science, & Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesieutre, George A.; Stewart, Susan W.; Bridgen, Marc

    2013-03-29

    Broadly, this project involved the development and delivery of a new curriculum in wind energy engineering at the Pennsylvania State University; this includes enhancement of the Renewable Energy program at the Pennsylvania College of Technology. The new curricula at Penn State includes addition of wind energy-focused material in more than five existing courses in aerospace engineering, mechanical engineering, engineering science and mechanics and energy engineering, as well as three new online graduate courses. The online graduate courses represent a stand-alone Graduate Certificate in Wind Energy, and provide the core of a Wind Energy Option in an online intercollege professional Masters degree in Renewable Energy and Sustainability Systems. The Pennsylvania College of Technology erected a 10 kilowatt Xzeres wind turbine that is dedicated to educating the renewable energy workforce. The entire construction process was incorporated into the Renewable Energy A.A.S. degree program, the Building Science and Sustainable Design B.S. program, and other construction-related coursework throughout the School of Construction and Design Technologies. Follow-on outcomes include additional non-credit opportunities as well as secondary school career readiness events, community outreach activities, and public awareness postings.

  19. Nutrition and pubertal development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Soliman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nutrition is one of the most important factors affecting pubertal development. Puberty entails a progressive nonlinear process starting from prepubescent to full sexual maturity through the interaction and cooperation of biological, physical, and psychological changes. Consuming an adequate and balanced healthy diet during all phases of growth (infancy, childhood and puberty appears necessary both for proper growth and normal pubertal development. Girls begin puberty at an earlier age compared to past decades. Excessive eating of many processed, high-fat foods, may be the cause of this phenomenon. Overweight or obese children are more likely to enter puberty early. Some evidence suggests that obesity can accelerate the onset of puberty in girls and may delay the onset of puberty in boys. Moreover, the progression of puberty is affected by nutrition. On the other hand, puberty triggers a growth spurt, which increases nutritional needs including macro and micronutrients. Increased caloric, protein, iron, calcium, zinc and folate needs have to be provided during this critical period of rapid growth. Severe primary or secondary malnutrition also can delay the onset and progression of puberty. The higher incidence of anorexia nervosa and bulimia in adolescents imposes a nutritional risk on pubertal development. Moreover, many environmental endocrine disruptors (EDs have been identified that can significantly impair the normal course of puberty. This mini-review sums up some important findings in this important complex that link nutrition and pubertal development.

  20. Cybersecurity Workforce Development and the Protection of Critical Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-31

    of cyberspace operations and the importance of cyber security for both the DoD and industry, UHWO developed the Bachelor of Applied Science degree...Distribution 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. A.BSTRACT This Cyber Security Workforce Development Project directly supports workforce development needs for the...Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8/98) Presclibed by .a.NSI Std. Z39.18 UNIVERSITY of HAWAI 𔃻 · WEST O’AHU Final Project Technical Report: Cyber Security

  1. Dynamic simulation for effective workforce management in new product development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mutingi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Effective planning and management of workforce for new product development (NPD projects is a great challenge to many organisations, especially in the presence of engineering changes during the product development process. The management objective in effective workforce management is to recruit, develop and deploy the right people at the right place at the right time so as to fulfill organizational objectives. In this paper, we propose a dynamic simulation model to address the workforce management problem in a typical NPD project consisting of design, prototyping, and production phases. We assume that workforce demand is a function of project work remaining and the current available skill pool. System dynamics simulation concepts are used to capture the causality relationships and feedback loops in the workforce system from a systems thinking. The evaluation of system dynamics simulation reveals the dynamic behaviour in NPD workforce management systems and shows how adaptive dynamic recruitment and training decisions can effectively balance the workforce system during the NPD process.

  2. Utilizing Local Partnerships to Enhance Workforce Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whikehart, John

    2009-01-01

    The Indiana Center for the Life Sciences, an award-winning partnership between education, government, and the private sector, houses state-of-the-art science labs, classrooms, and industry training space for community college students and local employers. This innovative partnership prepares both the current and future workforce for careers in the…

  3. Georgia's Workforce Development Pipeline: One District's Journey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Melissa H.; Hufstetler, Tammy L.

    2011-01-01

    Launched in 2006, the Georgia Work Ready initiative seeks to improve the job training and marketability of Georgia's workforce and drive the state's economic growth. Georgia Work Ready is a partnership between the state and the Georgia Chamber of Commerce. Comprised of three components, Georgia's initiative focuses on job profiling, skills…

  4. Developing Secure Power Systems Professional Competence: Alignment and Gaps in Workforce Development Programs—Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Neil, Lori Ross; Assante, Michael; Tobey, D. H.; Conway, T. J.; Vanderhorst, Jr, T. J.; Januszewski, III, J.; Leo, R.; Perman, K.

    2013-07-01

    This document is a summarization of the report, Developing Secure Power Systems Professional Competence: Alignment and Gaps in Workforce Development Programs, the final report for phase 2 of the SPSP (DOE workforce study) project.

  5. Workforce Development : Middle East and North Africa Regional Synthesis Report

    OpenAIRE

    Abu-Ghaida, Dina; Thacker, Simon

    2015-01-01

    The workforce development (WfD) systems of the seven MENA countries studied in this exercise—Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Morocco, the Palestinian Territories, Tunisia, and Yemen—were evaluated using the Systems Approach for Better Education Results (SABER) workforce development diagnostic tool and scored similarly in many aspects. Broadly, the seven MENA countries’ WfD systems remain very much in need of policy and institutional reform in order to better match skills demand with skills supply. Wi...

  6. Critical Analysis on Construction Workforce Sustainability in Developed Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Sing, Michael; Tam, Vivian; Fung, Ivan; Liu, Henry

    2017-01-01

    The construction industry in the developed economy has suffered a shortage of workforce which triggers project cost escalation and project delay and suppresses the whole economy. This paper aims to explore the perceptions of the general public and construction workers towards workforce shortage in the Hong Kong construction industry and identifies the critical factors affecting their intention to join the industry. Triangulation approach was adopted in this study and a street survey was condu...

  7. A national action plan for workforce development in behavioral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoge, Michael A; Morris, John A; Stuart, Gail W; Huey, Leighton Y; Bergeson, Sue; Flaherty, Michael T; Morgan, Oscar; Peterson, Janice; Daniels, Allen S; Paris, Manuel; Madenwald, Kappy

    2009-07-01

    Across all sectors of the behavioral health field there has been growing concern about a workforce crisis. Difficulties encompass the recruitment and retention of staff and the delivery of accessible and effective training in both initial, preservice training and continuing education settings. Concern about the crisis led to a multiphased, cross-sector collaboration known as the Annapolis Coalition on the Behavioral Health Workforce. With support from the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, this public-private partnership crafted An Action Plan for Behavioral Health Workforce Development. Created with input from a dozen expert panels, the action plan outlines seven core strategic goals that are relevant to all sectors of the behavioral health field: expand the role of consumers and their families in the workforce, expand the role of communities in promoting behavioral health and wellness, use systematic recruitment and retention strategies, improve training and education, foster leadership development, enhance infrastructure to support workforce development, and implement a national research and evaluation agenda. Detailed implementation tables identify the action steps for diverse groups and organizations to take in order to achieve these goals. The action plan serves as a call to action and is being used to guide workforce initiatives across the nation.

  8. Nutrition and pubertal development

    OpenAIRE

    Soliman, Ashraf; De Sanctis, Vincenzo; Elalaily, Rania

    2014-01-01

    Nutrition is one of the most important factors affecting pubertal development. Puberty entails a progressive nonlinear process starting from prepubescent to full sexual maturity through the interaction and cooperation of biological, physical, and psychological changes. Consuming an adequate and balanced healthy diet during all phases of growth (infancy, childhood and puberty) appears necessary both for proper growth and normal pubertal development. Girls begin puberty at an earlier age compar...

  9. A strategic approach to workforce development for local public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Beverley; Ward, Megan

    2017-11-09

    In 2009, Peel Public Health set a vision to transform the work of public health from efficient delivery of public health services as defined by provincial mandate to the robust analysis of the health status of the local population and selection and implementation of programming to achieve best health outcomes. A strategic approach to the workforce was a key enabler. PPH is a public health unit in Ontario that serves 1.4 million people. An organization-wide strategic workforce development program was instituted. It is theory-based, evidence-informed and data-driven. A first step was a conceptual framework, followed by interventions in workforce planning, human resources management, and capacity development. The program was built on evidence reviews, theory, and public health core competencies. Interventions spread across the employee work-life span. Capacity development based on the public health core competencies is a main focus, particularly analytical capacity to support decision-making. Employees gain skill and knowledge in comprehensive population health. Leadership evolves as work shifts to the analysis of health status and development of interventions. Effective human resource processes ensure appropriate job design, recruitment and orientation. Analysis of the workforce leads to vigorous employee development to ensure a strong pool of potential leadership successors. Theory, research evidence, and data provide a robust foundation for workforce development. Competencies are important inputs to job descriptions, recruitment, training, and human resource processes. A comprehensive workforce development strategy enables the development of a skilled workforce capable of responding to the needs of the population it serves.

  10. Workforce planning and development in times of delivery system transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittman, Patricia; Scully-Russ, Ellen

    2016-09-23

    As implementation of the US Affordable Care Act (ACA) advances, many domestic health systems are considering major changes in how the healthcare workforce is organized. The purpose of this study is to explore the dynamic processes and interactions by which workforce planning and development (WFPD) is evolving in this new environment. Informed by the theory of loosely coupled systems (LCS), we use a case study design to examine how workforce changes are being managed in Kaiser Permanente and Montefiore Health System. We conducted site visits with in-depth interviews with 8 to 10 stakeholders in each organization. Both systems demonstrate a concern for the impact of change on their workforce and have made commitments to avoid outsourcing and layoffs. Central workforce planning mechanisms have been replaced with strategies to integrate various stakeholders and units in alignment with strategic growth plans. Features of this new approach include early and continuous engagement of labor in innovation; the development of intermediary sense-making structures to garner resources, facilitate plans, and build consensus; and a whole system perspective, rather than a focus on single professions. We also identify seven principles underlying the WFPD processes in these two cases that can aid in development of a new and more adaptive workforce strategy in healthcare. Since passage of the ACA, healthcare systems are becoming larger and more complex. Insights from these case studies suggest that while organizational history and structure determined different areas of emphasis, our results indicate that large-scale system transformations in healthcare can be managed in ways that enhance the skills and capacities of the workforce. Our findings merit attention, not just by healthcare administrators and union leaders, but by policymakers and scholars interested in making WFPD policies at a state and national level more responsive.

  11. Workforce and Economic Development Annual Report, 2011-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    California Community Colleges, Chancellor's Office, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The California Community Colleges Workforce and Economic Development program (WED program) helps students, incumbent workers, business partners and industries develop skilled competencies in critical industry sectors. As a source for developing and implementing training and curriculum, the WED program is instrumental in helping the community…

  12. Developing a diverse and inclusive workforce in astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Lisa; McConnell, Nicholas; Seagroves, Scott; Barnes, Austin; Smith, Sonya; Palomino, Rafael

    2018-06-01

    Workforce development -- the preparation and advancement of a diverse and effective workforce -- in astronomy demands attention to a range of different career pathways, such as scientific users, telescope operations, and instrument builders. We will discuss the resources, expertise, and leadership needed to address workforce development challenges in astronomy, and the potential of one or more white papers to be prepared for the 2020 Decadal Survey. Potential white paper topics include (1) mentoring, training, and workplace practices to support diversity and inclusion; (2) enabling the next generation of astronomy faculty to teach effectively and inclusively; (3) supporting telescopes’ needs for local engineering and technologist talent, while telescope collaborations grow in scale and global extent; and (4) equipping early-career astronomers and instrumentalists with strategies and tools that are necessary for collaborating effectively on international teams.

  13. Workforce Training and Economic Development Fund: 2015 Annual Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iowa Department of Education, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The Department of Education, Division of Community Colleges, will annually provide the State Board of Education with The Workforce Training and Economic Development (WTED) Fund Annual Progress Report. Administration and oversight responsibility for the fund was transferred from the Iowa Economic Development Authority to the Iowa Department of…

  14. Workforce Training and Economic Development Fund: 2014 Annual Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iowa Department of Education, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The Workforce Training and Economic Development (WTED) Fund was established in 2003 as part of the Grow Iowa Values Fund and is currently funded through the Iowa Skilled Worker and Job Creation Fund. This fund has become an important source of financing for community college new program innovation, development, and capacity building, particularly…

  15. Rethinking Teacher Workforce Development: A Strategic Human Resource Management Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smylie, Mark A.; Miretzky, Debra; Konkol, Pamela

    2004-01-01

    In this chapter, the authors focus on teacher development as a collective and organizational issue. They begin with a brief review of conventional approaches to teacher workforce development and management, including current critiques of these efforts, their possible consequences, and an overview of the recent calls for more comprehensive,…

  16. Making Decisions about Workforce Development in Registered Training Organisations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawke, Geof

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research activity is to understand further how large and small registered training organisations (RTOs) make decisions about the allocation of resources for developing their workforces. Six registered training organisations--four technical and further education (TAFE) institutes and two private providers--were selected for…

  17. Developing a World-Class Workforce: Transformation, Not Iteration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosier, Jerrilee K.; Richey, Michael C.; McPherson, Kenneth B.; Eckhol, John O.; Cox, Frank Z.

    2006-01-01

    This article features a "Triad" partnership of a group of Snohomish County organizations representing education, government and industry. Recognizing the need for a training and workforce development effort to address the aerospace manufacturing employers' needs, Triad views themselves as the pivotal cornerstone for deployment of complex…

  18. Educational and Financial Impact of Technology on Workforce Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carruth, Paul J.; Carruth, Ann K.

    2013-01-01

    In the current evolving economic environment, developing and implementing an effective workforce to improve the skills and capability of employees are seen as central to improving individual and organizational performance and competitiveness. The availability of online education in universities as well as the work place has significantly increased…

  19. syNErgy: A Case Study in Workforce Curriculum Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killingsworth, John; Grosskopf, Kevin R.

    2013-01-01

    With high unemployment and structural changes to industry, workforce development in the United States is a growing concern. Many semiskilled workers lack knowledge, skills, and abilities to be competitive for reemployment to green jobs. Nebraska's syNErgy research grant was introduced to address the training needs of unemployed and underemployed…

  20. Economic and Workforce Development Program Annual Report, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    California Community Colleges, Chancellor's Office, 2016

    2016-01-01

    The California Community Colleges, through the Economic and Workforce Development Program (EWD), continue to propel the California economy forward by providing students with skills to earn well-paying jobs. At the same time, EWD helps provide California companies with the talent they need to compete on a global scale. This annual report for…

  1. Economic and Workforce Development Program Annual Report, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    California Community Colleges, Chancellor's Office, 2014

    2014-01-01

    California's community colleges continue to play a crucial role in the state's economy by providing students with the skills and knowledge to succeed and by advancing the economic growth and global competitiveness of California and its regional economies through the Economic and Workforce Development Program (EWD). The EWD program invests in the…

  2. State Sector Strategies: The New Workforce Development in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakes, Richard D.

    2012-01-01

    Neoliberal governments consider global business competitiveness to be thwarted by costly bureaucratic regulation and programme duplication. In an effort to downsize the costs of operating a state, the governors now streamline job training functions via a coordinated workforce and economic development effort known as sector strategies, with…

  3. Strategies for Developing a High-Skilled Workforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleezer, Catherine M.; Denny, Dan

    2004-01-01

    This article focuses on the human performance improvement and human resource development task of providing an organization with a skilled workforce. We begin by describing the U.S. demographic trends and the changing job skill requirements that will lead to a shortage of skilled workers and that highlight the importance of considering the various…

  4. Health workforce development planning in the Sultanate of Oman: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghosh Basu

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Oman's recent experience in health workforce development may be viewed against the backdrop of the situation just three or four decades ago, when it had just a few physicians and nurses (mostly expatriate. All workforce categories in Oman have grown substantially over the last two decades. Increased self-reliance was achieved despite substantial growth in workforce stocks. Stocks of physicians and nurses grew significantly during 1985–2007. This development was the outcome of well-considered national policies and plans. This case outlines how Oman is continuing to turn around its excessive dependence on expatriate workforce through strategic workforce development planning. Case description The Sultanate's early development initiatives focused on building a strong health care infrastructure by importing workforce. However, the policy-makers stressed national workforce development for a sustainable future. Beginning with the formulation of a strategic health workforce development plan in 1991, the stage was set for adopting workforce planning as an essential strategy for sustainable health development and workforce self-reliance. Oman continued to develop its educational infrastructure, and began to produce as much workforce as possible, in order to meet health care demands and achieve workforce self-reliance. Other policy initiatives with a beneficial impact on Oman's workforce development scenario were: regionalization of nursing institutes, active collaboration with universities and overseas specialty boards, qualitative improvement of the education system, development of a strong continuing professional development system, efforts to improve workforce management, planned change management and needs-based micro/macro-level studies. Strong political will and bold policy initiatives, dedicated workforce planning and educational endeavours have all contributed to help Oman to develop its health workforce stocks and gain

  5. Health workforce development planning in the Sultanate of Oman: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Basu

    2009-06-11

    Oman's recent experience in health workforce development may be viewed against the backdrop of the situation just three or four decades ago, when it had just a few physicians and nurses (mostly expatriate). All workforce categories in Oman have grown substantially over the last two decades. Increased self-reliance was achieved despite substantial growth in workforce stocks. Stocks of physicians and nurses grew significantly during 1985-2007. This development was the outcome of well-considered national policies and plans. This case outlines how Oman is continuing to turn around its excessive dependence on expatriate workforce through strategic workforce development planning. The Sultanate's early development initiatives focused on building a strong health care infrastructure by importing workforce. However, the policy-makers stressed national workforce development for a sustainable future. Beginning with the formulation of a strategic health workforce development plan in 1991, the stage was set for adopting workforce planning as an essential strategy for sustainable health development and workforce self-reliance. Oman continued to develop its educational infrastructure, and began to produce as much workforce as possible, in order to meet health care demands and achieve workforce self-reliance. Other policy initiatives with a beneficial impact on Oman's workforce development scenario were: regionalization of nursing institutes, active collaboration with universities and overseas specialty boards, qualitative improvement of the education system, development of a strong continuing professional development system, efforts to improve workforce management, planned change management and needs-based micro/macro-level studies. Strong political will and bold policy initiatives, dedicated workforce planning and educational endeavours have all contributed to help Oman to develop its health workforce stocks and gain self-reliance. Oman has successfully innovated workforce

  6. Geoscience Workforce Development at UNAVCO: Leveraging the NSF GAGE Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, A. R.; Charlevoix, D. J.; Miller, M.

    2013-12-01

    Global economic development demands that the United States remain competitive in the STEM fields, and developing a forward-looking and well-trained geoscience workforce is imperative. According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, the geosciences will experience a growth of 19% by 2016. Fifty percent of the current geoscience workforce is within 10-15 years of retirement, and as a result, the U.S. is facing a gap between the supply of prepared geoscientists and the demand for well-trained labor. Barring aggressive intervention, the imbalance in the geoscience workforce will continue to grow, leaving the increased demand unmet. UNAVCO, Inc. is well situated to prepare undergraduate students for placement in geoscience technical positions and advanced graduate study. UNAVCO is a university-governed consortium facilitating research and education in the geosciences and in addition UNAVCO manages the NSF Geodesy Advancing Geosciences and EarthScope (GAGE) facility. The GAGE facility supports many facets of geoscience research including instrumentation and infrastructure, data analysis, cyberinfrastructure, and broader impacts. UNAVCO supports the Research Experiences in the Solid Earth Sciences for Students (RESESS), an NSF-funded multiyear geoscience research internship, community support, and professional development program. The primary goal of the RESESS program is to increase the number of historically underrepresented students entering graduate school in the geosciences. RESESS has met with high success in the first 9 years of the program, as more than 75% of RESESS alumni are currently in Master's and PhD programs across the U.S. Building upon the successes of RESESS, UNAVCO is launching a comprehensive workforce development program that will network underrepresented groups in the geosciences to research and opportunities throughout the geosciences. This presentation will focus on the successes of the RESESS program and plans to expand on this success with broader

  7. Intellectual Innovation: A Paradigm Shift in Workforce Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    training courses or objectives, organizations should develop a tailored plan that focuses on what each employee needs to learn . Time and effort are...the organizations’ missions or operational requirements. Here lies the challenge. How can organizations find, develop and keep employees in this...supervisors trying to develop their respective employees so they can meet their unique workforce requirements. But employing existing technology or

  8. Mobile learning: a workforce development strategy for nurse supervisors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, Carey; Cummings, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Digital technology provides opportunities for using mobile learning strategies in healthcare environments. To realise the vision of the National Workforce Development Strategy there needs to be innovation of health professionals to further develop knowledge and skills of clinical supervisors to access and gain an understanding of the value of mobile learning at the workplace. The use of digital technology by clinical supervisors was explored in 2012 as part of a teaching development grant to evaluate the use of Web 2.0 technology to develop a community of practice about clinical supervision. Prior to developing the virtual network of clinical supervisors, feedback about the use of Web 2.0 technology by clinicians was sought via an online survey. Over 90% of respondents used social media, 85% understood what a blog and wiki were and approximately half of the respondents used smart phones. More than one-third indicated they would participate in a virtual community of practice and would like to receive information about clinical facilitation at least once per week. Findings indicate both inhibitors and opportunities for workforce development within healthcare environments that need to be addressed. Support of graduate-ready nurses can be achieved through an integrated outlook that enables health professionals within organisations to undertake mobile learning in situ. A flexible and collaborative approach to continuing professional development within organisations could enhance practice development and could positively impact on workforce development.

  9. How evidence-based workforce planning in Australia is informing policy development in the retention and distribution of the health workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crettenden, Ian F; McCarty, Maureen V; Fenech, Bethany J; Heywood, Troy; Taitz, Michelle C; Tudman, Sam

    2014-02-03

    Australia's health workforce is facing significant challenges now and into the future. Health Workforce Australia (HWA) was established by the Council of Australian Governments as the national agency to progress health workforce reform to address the challenges of providing a skilled, innovative and flexible health workforce in Australia. HWA developed Australia's first major, long-term national workforce projections for doctors, nurses and midwives over a planning horizon to 2025 (called Health Workforce 2025; HW 2025), which provided a national platform for developing policies to help ensure Australia's health workforce meets the community's needs. A review of existing workforce planning methodologies, in concert with the project brief and an examination of data availability, identified that the best fit-for-purpose workforce planning methodology was the stock and flow model for estimating workforce supply and the utilisation method for estimating workforce demand. Scenario modelling was conducted to explore the implications of possible alternative futures, and to demonstrate the sensitivity of the model to various input parameters. Extensive consultation was conducted to test the methodology, data and assumptions used, and also influenced the scenarios selected for modelling. Additionally, a number of other key principles were adopted in developing HW 2025 to ensure the workforce projections were robust and able to be applied nationally. The findings from HW 2025 highlighted that a 'business as usual' approach to Australia's health workforce is not sustainable over the next 10 years, with a need for co-ordinated, long-term reforms by government, professions and the higher education and training sector for a sustainable and affordable health workforce. The main policy levers identified to achieve change were innovation and reform, immigration, training capacity and efficiency and workforce distribution. While HW 2025 has provided a national platform for health

  10. Department of Energy: Nuclear S&T workforce development programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bingham, Michelle; Bala, Marsha; Beierschmitt, Kelly; Steele, Carolyn; Sattelberger, Alfred P.; Bruozas, Meridith A.

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratories use their expertise in nuclear science and technology (S&T) to support a robust national nuclear S&T enterprise from the ground up. Traditional academic programs do not provide all the elements necessary to develop this expertise, so the DOE has initiated a number of supplemental programs to develop and support the nuclear S&T workforce pipeline. This document catalogs existing workforce development programs that are supported by a number of DOE offices (such as the Offices of Nuclear Energy, Science, Energy Efficiency, and Environmental Management), and by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) and the Naval Reactor Program. Workforce development programs in nuclear S&T administered through the Department of Homeland Security, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and the Department of Defense are also included. The information about these programs, which is cataloged below, is drawn from the program websites. Some programs, such as the Minority Serving Institutes Partnership Programs (MSIPPs) are available through more than one DOE office, so they appear in more than one section of this document.

  11. Developing a Sustainable Academic Workforce in Paramedicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Meara, Peter; Maguire, Brian

    2018-01-01

    Paramedics are an integral part of the Australian healthcare system and are increasingly requested to provide a growing array of services in support of improved community health. Currently there are over 6,000 undergraduate paramedic students. A pressing challenge is the development and sustainability of a dedicated group of university paramedic…

  12. Aiming to Meet Workforce Needs: An Evaluation of the Economic and Workforce Development Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jez, Su Jin; Adan, Sara

    2016-01-01

    California's dynamic economy depends on having a large and skilled workforce; consequently, the state must continually support and refine efforts to provide workers with employer-valued competencies. Given the wide range of regional and state needs across this vast state, ensuring that the workforce has the training to keep up with labor market…

  13. Title V Workforce Development in the Era of Health Transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolis, Lewis; Mullenix, Amy; Apostolico, Alexsandra A; Fehrenbach, Lacy M; Cilenti, Dorothy

    2017-11-01

    Purpose The National Maternal and Child Health Workforce Development Center at UNC Chapel Hill (the Center), funded by the Maternal and Child Health Bureau, provides Title V state/jurisdiction leaders and staff and partners from other sectors with opportunities to develop skills in quality improvement, systems mapping and analysis, change management, and strategies to enhance access to care to leverage and implement health transformation opportunities to improve the health of women and children. Description Since 2013, the Center has utilized a variety of learning platforms to reach state and jurisdiction Title V leaders. In the intensive training program, new skills and knowledge are applied to a state-driven health transformation project and include distance-based learning opportunities, multi-day, in-person training and/or onsite consultation, as well as individualized coaching to develop workforce skills. Assessment The first intensive cohort of eight states reported enhanced skills in the core areas of quality improvement, systems mapping and analysis, change management, and strategies to enhance access to care which guided changes at state system and policy levels. In addition, teams reported new and/or enhanced partnerships with many sectors, thereby leveraging Title V resources to increase its impact. Conclusion The Center's provision of core workforce skills and application to state-defined goals has enabled states to undertake projects and challenges that not only have a positive impact on population health, but also encourage collaborative, productive partnerships that were once found to be challenging-creating a workforce capable of advancing the health and wellbeing of women and children.

  14. Beyond Human Capital Development: Balanced Safeguards Workforce Metrics and the Next Generation Safeguards Workforce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    Since its establishment in 2008, the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) has achieved a number of objectives under its five pillars: concepts and approaches, policy development and outreach, international nuclear safeguards engagement, technology development, and human capital development (HCD). As a result of these efforts, safeguards has become much more visible as a critical U.S. national security interest across the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex. However, limited budgets have since created challenges in a number of areas. Arguably, one of the more serious challenges involves NGSI's ability to integrate entry-level staff into safeguards projects. Laissez fair management of this issue across the complex can lead to wasteful project implementation and endanger NGSI's long-term sustainability. The authors provide a quantitative analysis of this problem, focusing on the demographics of the current safeguards workforce and compounding pressures to operate cost-effectively, transfer knowledge to the next generation of safeguards professionals, and sustain NGSI safeguards investments.

  15. Examining human resources' efforts to develop a culturally competent workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitman, Marilyn V; Valpuesta, Domingo

    2010-01-01

    The increasing diversification of the nation's population poses significant challenges in providing care that meets the needs of culturally diverse patients. Human resource management plays a vital role in developing a more culturally competent workforce. This exploratory study examines current efforts by human resource directors (HRDs) in Alabama's general hospitals to recruit more diverse candidates, train staff, and make language access resources available. A questionnaire was developed based on the Office of Minority Health's Culturally and Linguistically Appropriate Services standards. The HRDs of the 101 Alabama general hospitals served as the study's target population. A sample of 61 responses, or 60.4% of the population, was obtained. The findings indicate that most HRDs are focusing their efforts on recruiting racially/ethnically diverse candidates and training clerical and nursing staff to care for culturally and linguistically diverse patients. Less effort is being focused on recruiting candidates who speak a different language, and only 44.3% have a trained interpreter on the staff. The HRDs who indicated that they work closely with organizations that provide support to diverse groups were more likely to recruit diverse employees and have racially/ethnically and linguistically diverse individuals in leadership positions. It is crucial that health care organizations take the necessary steps to diversify their workforce to broaden access, improve the quality and equity of care, and capture a greater market share.

  16. Building systemic capacity for nutrition: training towards a professionalised workforce for Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellahi, Basma; Annan, Reginald; Sarkar, Swrajit; Amuna, Paul; Jackson, Alan A

    2015-11-01

    The fundamental role played by good nutrition in enabling personal, social and economic development is now widely recognised as presenting a fundamental global challenge that has to be addressed if major national and international problems are to be resolved in the coming decades. The recent focus provided by the Millennium Development Goals and the Scaling-Up-Nutrition (SUN) movement has been towards reducing the extent of nutrition-related malnutrition in high-burden countries. This has served to emphasise that there is a problem of inadequate professional capacity in nutrition that is sufficiently widespread to severely limit all attempts at the effective delivery and sustainability of nutrition-related and nutrition-enabling interventions that have impact at scale. Many high-burden countries are in sub-Saharan Africa where there is a high dependency on external technical support to address nutrition-related problems. We have sought to explore the nature and magnitude of the capacity needs with a particular focus on achieving levels of competency within standardised professional pre-service training which is fit-for-purpose to meet the objectives within the SUN movement in Africa. We review our experience of engaging with stakeholders through workshops, a gap analysis of the extent of the problem to be addressed, and a review of current efforts in Africa to move the agenda forward. We conclude that there are high aspirations but severely limited human resource and capacity for training that is fit-for-purpose at all skill levels in nutrition-related subjects in Africa. There are no structured or collaborative plans within professional groups to address the wide gap between what is currently available, the ongoing needs and the future expectations for meeting local technical and professional capability. Programmatic initiatives encouraged by agencies and other external players, will need to be matched by improved local capabilities to address the serious efforts

  17. Opening Doors of Opportunity to Develop the Future Nuclear Workforce - 13325

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mets, Mindy

    2013-01-01

    The United States' long-term demand for highly skilled nuclear industry workers is well-documented by the Nuclear Energy Institute. In addition, a study commissioned by the SRS Community Reuse Organization concludes that 10,000 new nuclear workers are needed in the two-state region of Georgia and South Carolina alone. Young adults interested in preparing for these nuclear careers must develop specialized skills and knowledge, including a clear understanding of the nuclear workforce culture. Successful students are able to enter well-paying career fields. However, the national focus on nuclear career opportunities and associated training and education programs has been minimal in recent decades. Developing the future nuclear workforce is a challenge, particularly in the midst of competition for similar workers from various industries. In response to regional nuclear workforce development needs, the SRS Community Reuse Organization established the Nuclear Workforce Initiative (NWI R ) to promote and expand nuclear workforce development capabilities by facilitating integrated partnerships. NWI R achievements include a unique program concept called NWI R Academies developed to link students with nuclear career options through firsthand experiences. The academies are developed and conducted at Aiken Technical College and Augusta Technical College with support from workforce development organizations and nuclear employers. Programs successfully engage citizens in nuclear workforce development and can be adapted to other communities focused on building the future nuclear workforce. (authors)

  18. Opening Doors of Opportunity to Develop the Future Nuclear Workforce - 13325

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mets, Mindy [Nuclear Workforce Initiative Program, SRS Community Reuse Organization, P.O. Box 696, Aiken, SC 29802 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The United States' long-term demand for highly skilled nuclear industry workers is well-documented by the Nuclear Energy Institute. In addition, a study commissioned by the SRS Community Reuse Organization concludes that 10,000 new nuclear workers are needed in the two-state region of Georgia and South Carolina alone. Young adults interested in preparing for these nuclear careers must develop specialized skills and knowledge, including a clear understanding of the nuclear workforce culture. Successful students are able to enter well-paying career fields. However, the national focus on nuclear career opportunities and associated training and education programs has been minimal in recent decades. Developing the future nuclear workforce is a challenge, particularly in the midst of competition for similar workers from various industries. In response to regional nuclear workforce development needs, the SRS Community Reuse Organization established the Nuclear Workforce Initiative (NWI{sup R}) to promote and expand nuclear workforce development capabilities by facilitating integrated partnerships. NWI{sup R} achievements include a unique program concept called NWI{sup R} Academies developed to link students with nuclear career options through firsthand experiences. The academies are developed and conducted at Aiken Technical College and Augusta Technical College with support from workforce development organizations and nuclear employers. Programs successfully engage citizens in nuclear workforce development and can be adapted to other communities focused on building the future nuclear workforce. (authors)

  19. Virtual Learning Communities as a Vehicle for Workforce Development: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Barbara; Lewis, Dina

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the benefits and challenges of using a virtual learning community (VLC) as a vehicle for workforce development. This paper argues that VLCs provide a flexible vehicle for workforce development. However, workplace realities may lead to unexpected challenges for participants wanting exploit the…

  20. Sports Nutrition Food Industry Chain Development Research

    OpenAIRE

    Jie Yin

    2015-01-01

    Through the study of Henan sports nutrition food industry chain optimization, the study analyses development advantage and competitive advantage of Henan in sports nutrition food industry chain and existing problems and challenges in Henan sports nutrition food industry chain and at the same time introduces the theory of supply chain management to the development of sports nutrition food industry chain, clearly optimizes countermeasures of sports nutrition food industry chain. Pointing out sp...

  1. Health Workforce Development: A Needs Assessment Study in French Speaking African Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chastonay, Philippe; Moretti, Roberto; Zesiger, Veronique; Cremaschini, Marco; Bailey, Rebecca; Pariyo, George; Kabengele, Emmanuel Mpinga

    2013-01-01

    In 2006, WHO alerted the world to a global health workforce crisis, demonstrated through critical shortages of health workers, primarily in Sub-Saharan Africa (WHO in World Health Report, 2006). The objective of our study was to assess, in a participative way, the educational needs for public health and health workforce development among potential…

  2. Developing the Whole-School Workforce in England: Building Cultures of Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simkins, Tim; Maxwell, Bronwen; Aspinwall, Kath

    2009-01-01

    Dramatic changes have occurred in the composition of the schools' workforce in England over recent years to incorporate a much higher proportion of support staff. Consequently, policy-makers and school leaders are now placing increasing emphasis on addressing the training and development needs of the whole workforce, rather than solely focusing on…

  3. Preferred strategies for workforce development: feedback from aged care workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choy, Sarojni; Henderson, Amanda

    2016-11-01

    Objective The aim of the present study was to investigate how aged care workers prefer to learn and be supported in continuing education and training activities. Methods Fifty-one workers in aged care facilities from metropolitan and rural settings across two states of Australia participated in a survey and interviews. Survey responses were analysed for frequencies and interview data provided explanations to the survey findings. Results The three most common ways workers were currently learning and prefer to continue to learn are: (1) everyday learning through work individually; (2) everyday learning through work individually assisted by other workers; and (3) everyday learning plus group training courses at work from the employer. The three most common types of provisions that supported workers in their learning were: (1) working and sharing with another person on the job; (2) direct teaching in a group (e.g. a trainer in a classroom at work); and (3) direct teaching by a workplace expert. Conclusions A wholly practice-based continuing education and training model is best suited for aged care workers. Two variations of this model could be considered: (1) a wholly practice-based model for individual learning; and (2) a wholly practice-based model with guidance from coworkers or other experts. Although the model is preferred by workers and convenient for employers, it needs to be well resourced. What is known about the topic? Learning needs for aged care workers are increasing significantly because of an aging population that demands more care workers. Workforce development is largely 'episodic', based on organisational requirements rather than systematic life-long learning. This study is part of a larger 3-year Australian research to investigate models of continuing education training. What does this paper add? Based on an analysis of survey and interview data from 51 workers, the present study suggests effective models of workforce development for aged care

  4. Perspectives on Adult Education, Human Resource Development, and the Emergence of Workforce Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Ronald L.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a perspective on the relationship between adult education and human resource development of the past two decades and the subsequent emergence of workforce development. The lesson taken from the article should be more than simply a recounting of events related to these fields of study. Instead, the more general lesson may be…

  5. Global Workforce Development - Addressing the Changing Geography of Investment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElvy, G. W.; Loudin, M. G.

    2005-12-01

    The Geography of professional workforce hiring is changing significantly and rapidly in the petroleum industry, mostly in response to shifting investment patterns. These geographical changes pose daunting challenges as well as new opportunities for philanthropic institutions such as the ExxonMobil Foundation, and especially for academia. Our Angolan affiliate illustrates the challenges brought about by investment in new areas. Although we will continue to require access to numerous Angolan Geoscience graduates who can fully participate in our global Geoscience community, there is only one Angolan institution that grants a relatively small number of Geoscience degrees. Our access to other locally-educated Angolan professional graduates is similarly limited. The Petroleum sector's response to this situation has been to seek indigenous students who are already enrolled, often in North American or European academic institutions, or to sponsor Angolan students there. If one multiplies our Angolan Geoscience example by the number of competing employers in Angola, and then by the number of countries around the world that are experiencing strong economic growth, the magnitude of the unfilled demand for international educational development seems daunting. However, several academic institutions have already taken the initiative and have provided educational, linguistic, and cultural pathways that encourage Angolans and others to obtain a world-class educational preparation on their respective campuses. This strategy has indeed begun to address the need for capacity-building for many indigenous students, and has aided various industries in their efforts to build indigenous workforces. Nevertheless, growing the capacity of indigenous academic infrastructure is also essential for the long term, and only a few academic institutions have begun to explore this educational frontier. Increased engagement and collaboration in international educational activities would clearly confer

  6. Diversity in the biomedical research workforce: developing talent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Richard; Saran, Suman; Krulwich, Terry A

    2012-01-01

    Much has been written about the need for and barriers to achievement of greater diversity in the biomedical workforce from the perspectives of gender, race, and ethnicity; this is not a new topic. These discussions often center around a "pipeline" metaphor that imagines students flowing through a series of experiences to eventually arrive at a science career. Here we argue that diversity will only be achieved if the primary focus is on (1) what is happening within the pipeline, not just counting individuals entering and leaving it; (2) de-emphasizing the achievement of academic milestones by typical ages; and (3) adopting approaches that most effectively develop talent. Students may develop skills at different rates based on factors such as earlier access to educational resources, exposure to science (especially research experiences), and competing demands for time and attention during high school and college. Therefore, there is wide variety among students at any point along the pipeline. Taking this view requires letting go of imagining the pipeline as a sequence of age-dependent steps in favor of milestones of skill and talent development decoupled from age or educational stage. Emphasizing talent development opens up many new approaches for science training outside of traditional degree programs. This article provides examples of such approaches, including interventions at the postbaccalaureate and PhD levels, as well as a novel coaching model that incorporates well-established social science theories and complements traditional mentoring. These approaches could significantly impact diversity by developing scientific talent, especially among currently underrepresented minorities. © 2012 Mount Sinai School of Medicine.

  7. Unique Education and Workforce Development for NASA Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsgren, Roger C.; Miller, Lauren L.

    2010-01-01

    NASA engineers are some of the world's best-educated graduates, responsible for technically complex, highly significant scientific programs. Even though these professionals are highly proficient in traditional analytical competencies, there is a unique opportunity to offer continuing education that further enhances their overall scientific minds. With a goal of maintaining the Agency's passionate, "best in class" engineering workforce, the NASA Academy of Program/Project & Engineering Leadership (APPEL) provides educational resources encouraging foundational learning, professional development, and knowledge sharing. NASA APPEL is currently partnering with the scientific community's most respected subject matter experts to expand its engineering curriculum beyond the analytics and specialized subsystems in the areas of: understanding NASA's overall vision and its fundamental basis, and the Agency initiatives supporting them; sharing NASA's vast reservoir of engineering experience, wisdom, and lessons learned; and innovatively designing hardware for manufacturability, assembly, and servicing. It takes collaboration and innovation to educate an organization that possesses such a rich and important historyand a future that is of great global interest. NASA APPEL strives to intellectually nurture the Agency's technical professionals, build its capacity for future performance, and exemplify its core valuesalJ to better enable NASA to meet its strategic visionand beyond.

  8. Astronomy in the United States: Workforce Development and Public Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Impey, Chris

    2012-08-01

    Astronomy workforce development and public engagement in the United States are described. The number of professional astronomers has grown by about a third in the past 25 years, to about 4000. Only one in four are faculty in an academic setting; the rest work in a wide range of public and private research institutes. PhD production has remained steady at about 200 per year. Women account for roughly half of BSc degrees and a third of PhD degrees, but their participation declines to about 10% at the level of full professor. Minorities are underrepresented by a substantial factor at all levels of the profession. In terms of public engagement, astronomy has unique advantages associated with its visual appeal and the large and active amateur astronomy community. The are 1400 public planetaria in the US, with another 110 in schools and universities. Astronomers have made good use of new media such as blogs and podcasts and social networks, but the biggest impact has been in the area of citizen science, where people with no technical background contribute directly to a research project by, for example, classifying galaxies. The International Year of Astronomy and the remarkable success of the Galileoscope have inspired large numbers of people to appreciate astronomy, contributing indirectly to the professional vitality of the field.

  9. Improving child nutrition | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    They are also assessing the extent of childhood obesity and developing ... former Head of Department, Nutrition and Food Science, at the University of Ghana. ... President of the Ghana Nutrition Association, and Africa's representative on the ...

  10. Green Brand Development in Sports Nutrition Food

    OpenAIRE

    Zhe Ren

    2015-01-01

    This study is to research the current situation and the effect which is brought by the nutrition food of the green band development in sports nutrition food. Sports nutrition is the study and practice of nutrition and diet as it relates to athletic performance. It is concerned with the type and quantity of fluid and food taken by an athlete and deals with nutrients such as vitamins, minerals, supplements and organic substances such as carbohydrates, proteins and fats. Although an important pa...

  11. Undergraduate Neuroscience Majors: A Missed Opportunity for Psychiatry Workforce Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, Matthew N; Krystal, John H

    2017-04-01

    This study sought to determine whether and to what extent medical students with an undergraduate college major in neuroscience, relative to other college majors, pursue psychiatry relative to other brain-based specialties (neurology and neurosurgery) and internal medicine. The authors analyzed data from AAMC matriculation and graduation surveys for all students who graduated from US medical schools in 2013 and 2014 (n = 29,714). Students who majored in neuroscience, psychology, and biology were compared to all other students in terms of their specialty choice at both time points. For each major, the authors determined rates of specialty choice of psychiatry, neurology, neurosurgery, and, for comparison, internal medicine. This study employed Chi-square statistic to compare odds of various specialty choices among different majors. Among medical students with an undergraduate neuroscience major (3.5% of all medical students), only 2.3% preferred psychiatry at matriculation, compared to 21.5% who chose neurology, 13.1% neurosurgery, and 11% internal medicine. By graduation, psychiatry specialty choice increased to 5.1% among neuroscience majors while choice of neurology and neurosurgery declined. Psychology majors (OR = 3.16, 95% CI 2.60-4.47) but not neuroscience majors (OR 1.28, 0.92-1.77) were more likely than their peers to choose psychiatry. Psychiatry struggles to attract neuroscience majors to the specialty. This missed opportunity is an obstacle to developing the neuroscience literacy of the workforce and jeopardizes the neuroscientific future of our field. Several potential strategies to address the recruitment challenges exist.

  12. Developing Workforce Capacity in Public Health Informatics: Core Competencies and Curriculum Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas R. Wholey

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available We describe a master’s level public health informatics (PHI curriculum to support workforce development. Public health decision-making requires intensive information management to organize responses to health threats and develop effective health education and promotion. PHI competencies prepare the public health workforce to design and implement these information systems. The objective for a Master’s and Certificate in PHI is to prepare public health informaticians with the competencies to work collaboratively with colleagues in public health and other health professions to design and develop information systems that support population health improvement. The PHI competencies are drawn from computer, information, and organizational sciences. A curriculum is proposed to deliver the competencies and result of a pilot PHI program is presented. Since the public health workforce needs to use information technology effectively to improve population health, it is essential for public health academic institutions to develop and implement PHI workforce training programs.

  13. Developing Workforce Capacity in Public Health Informatics: Core Competencies and Curriculum Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wholey, Douglas R.; LaVenture, Martin; Rajamani, Sripriya; Kreiger, Rob; Hedberg, Craig; Kenyon, Cynthia

    2018-01-01

    We describe a master’s level public health informatics (PHI) curriculum to support workforce development. Public health decision-making requires intensive information management to organize responses to health threats and develop effective health education and promotion. PHI competencies prepare the public health workforce to design and implement these information systems. The objective for a Master’s and Certificate in PHI is to prepare public health informaticians with the competencies to work collaboratively with colleagues in public health and other health professions to design and develop information systems that support population health improvement. The PHI competencies are drawn from computer, information, and organizational sciences. A curriculum is proposed to deliver the competencies and result of a pilot PHI program is presented. Since the public health workforce needs to use information technology effectively to improve population health, it is essential for public health academic institutions to develop and implement PHI workforce training programs. PMID:29770321

  14. E3 Success Story - Advancing Performance in Sustainability and Workforce Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    E3: North Carolina advances performance in sustainability and workforce development strategies for the state's manufacturers. The initiative helps communities and manufacturers address energy and sustainability challenges by leveraging expertise.

  15. Aerospace Workforce Development: The Nebraska Proposal; and Native View Connections: A Multi-Consortium Workforce Development Proposal. UNO Aviation Monograph Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Brent D.; Russell, Valerie; Vlasek, Karisa; Avery, Shelly; Calamaio, Larry; Carstenson, Larry; Farritor, Shane; deSilva, Shan; Dugan, James; Farr, Lynne

    2003-01-01

    The NASA Nebraska Space Grant Consortium (NSGC) continues to recognize the necessity of increasing the quantity and quality of highly skilled graduates and faculty involved with NASA. Through NASA Workforce Development funds awarded in 2002, NSGC spearheaded customer- focused workforce training and higher education, industry and community partnerships that are significantly impacting the state s workforce in the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) competencies. NSGC proposes to build upon these accomplishments to meet the steadily increasing demand for STEM skills and to safeguard minority representation in these disciplines. A wide range of workforce development activities target NASA s need to establish stronger connections among higher education, industry, and community organizations. Participation in the National Student Satellite Program (NSSP), Community Internship Program, and Nebraska Science and Technology Recruitment Fair will extend the pipeline of employees benefiting NASA as well as Nebraska. The diversity component of this proposal catapults from the exceptional reputation NSGC has built by delivering geospatial science experiences to Nebraska s Native Americans. For 6 years, NSGC has fostered and sustained partnerships with the 2 tribal colleges and 4 reservation school districts in Nebraska to foster aeronautics education and outreach. This program, the Nebraska Native American Outreach Program (NNAOP), has grown to incorporate more than educational institutions and is now a partnership among tribal community leaders, academia, tribal schools, and industry. The content focus has broadened from aeronautics in the school systems to aerospace technology and earth science applications in tribal community decision-making and workforce training on the reservations. To date, participants include faculty and staff at 4 Nebraska tribal schools, 2 tribal colleges, approximately 1,000 Native American youth, and over 1,200 community members

  16. Identification of Strategies to Leverage Public and Private Resources for National Security Workforce Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-02-01

    This report documents the identification of strategies to leverage public and private resources for the development of an adequate national security workforce as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP).There are numerous efforts across the United States to develop a properly skilled and trained national security workforce. Some of these efforts are the result of the leveraging of public and private dollars. As budget dollars decrease and the demand for a properly skilled and trained national security workforce increases, it will become even more important to leverage every education and training dollar. The leveraging of dollars serves many purposes. These include increasing the amount of training that can be delivered and therefore increasing the number of people reached, increasing the number and quality of public/private partnerships, and increasing the number of businesses that are involved in the training of their future workforce.

  17. Blended learning: emerging best practices in allied health workforce development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Barbara F; Quake-Rapp, Cindee; Shanedling, Janet; Spannaus-Martin, Donna; Martin, Peggy

    2010-01-01

    To remain dynamic and viable, academic institutions preparing the future workforce need to convert to a more accessible and convenient pathway for students. The need for responsiveness is especially true when considering strategies to prepare an allied health workforce in areas of shortages and to meet the needs of the underserved. A blended or hybrid learning model that strategically uses web-based and face-to-face teaching/learning methods is an innovative and strategic way that promotes learner-centered higher education and facilitates a higher learning experience. A model and emerging best practices for implementation are presented from our experience at the Center for Allied Health Programs at the University of Minnesota.

  18. Palliative Workforce Development and a Regional Training Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Mahony, Sean; Levine, Stacie; Baron, Aliza; Johnson, Tricia J; Ansari, Aziz; Leyva, Ileana; Marschke, Michael; Szmuilowicz, Eytan; Deamant, Catherine

    2018-01-01

    Our primary aims were to assess growth in the local hospital based workforce, changes in the composition of the workforce and use of an interdisciplinary team, and sources of support for palliative medicine teams in hospitals participating in a regional palliative training program in Chicago. PC program directors and administrators at 16 sites were sent an electronic survey on institutional and PC program characteristics such as: hospital type, number of beds, PC staffing composition, PC programs offered, start-up years, PC service utilization and sources of financial support for fiscal years 2012 and 2014. The median number of consultations reported for existing programs in 2012 was 345 (IQR 109 - 2168) compared with 840 (IQR 320 - 4268) in 2014. At the same time there were small increases in the overall team size from a median of 3.2 full time equivalent positions (FTE) in 2012 to 3.3 FTE in 2013, with a median increase of 0.4 (IQR 0-1.0). Discharge to hospice was more common than deaths in the acute care setting in hospitals with palliative medicine teams that included both social workers and advanced practice nurses ( p < .0001). Given the shortage of palliative medicine specialist providers more emphasis should be placed on training other clinicians to provide primary level palliative care while addressing the need to hire sufficient workforce to care for seriously ill patients.

  19. Effects of workforce transformation on responsibilities, roles and business development of Finnish pension companies

    OpenAIRE

    Uimonen, Riikka

    2016-01-01

    There are several indicators shaping the future of workforce and workforce of the future. These indicators include phenomena such as digitalization, globalization and ageing of population. Technological development brings advanced technologies including intelligent automation available, and many roles of people are being taken over by machines. Additionally, there are many new businesses evolving and societal steps taken forward as new global, digital solutions spread all over the world. All ...

  20. Career planning for the non-clinical workforce - an opportunity to develop a sustainable workforce in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavabie, Jacqueline A; Simms, Jacqueline M

    2017-03-01

    Many health and social care systems worldwide have been developing a variety of navigator and signposting roles to help patients negotiate care through increasingly complex systems and multiple provider agencies. This UK project aims to explore, through a combination of job description review and workshops of stakeholders, the common competencies and features of non-clinical roles. The information is collated to develop common job descriptions at four key levels. These form the basis for a career pathway supported by portfolio-based educational programmes, embracing Apprenticeship Training Programmes. The programmes have the potential to support recruitment and retention of an increasingly skilled workforce to move between traditional health and social care provider boundaries. This offers the opportunity to release clinicians from significant administrative workload and support patients in an integrated care system.

  1. The case for workforce development in social marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pounds, Lea

    2016-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Association of Schools and Programs of Public Health, and the Council on Linkages Between Academia and Public Health Practice have emphasized the increasing need to train the public health workforce in social marketing. With only 21 U.S. academic institutions offering course work in social marketing and only four institutions offering degrees in social marketing there is a gap between what academic institutions are offering and these recommendations (Kelly, 2013 ). The successful application of social marketing in public health practice relies on academic institutions creating and promoting social marketing-related programs.

  2. The academic radiography workforce: Age profile, succession planning and academic development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, K.M.; Wright, C.; Clarke, H.; McAnulla, S.J.; Nightingale, J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Academia is one area of practice in which radiographers can specialise; they compile approximately 2% of the total radiography profession in the UK, but are highly influential and essential for the education and development of the workforce in addition to undertaking research. However, the academic environment is very different to clinical practice and a period of transition is required. Methods: Data were collated to explore the age and retirement profile of the academic radiography workforce in the UK; to understand the research time allocated to this workforce; the time required to develop a clinical radiographer into an academic and the mentorship and succession planning provisions nationally. An online UK wide survey was conducted and sent to all 24 Universities delivering radiography education within the UK. Results: Eighteen out of 24 Universities in the UK responded to the survey. Approximately 30% of radiography academics are due to retire over the next 10 years, with over 25% of radiographers who currently hold a doctorate qualification included within this figure. Those entering academia have notably lower qualifications as a group than those who are due to retire. Developing clinical radiographers into academics was thought to take 1–3 years on average, or longer if they are required to undertake research. Conclusion: There is vulnerability in the academic radiography workforce. Higher education institutions need to invest in developing the academic workforce to maintain research and educational expertise, which is underpinned by master's and doctorate level qualifications. - Highlights: • Approximately 30% of radiography academics are due to retire over the next 10 years. • Over 25% of radiographers who currently hold a doctorate qualification included due to retire within 10 years. • Those entering academia have significantly lower qualifications as a group than those who are due to retire. • There is vulnerability in the

  3. Strategic management of the health workforce in developing countries: what have we learned?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fritzen Scott A

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The study of the health workforce has gained in prominence in recent years, as the dynamic interconnections between human resource issues and health system effectiveness have come into sharper focus. This paper reviews lessons relating to strategic management challenges emerging from the growing literature in this area. Workforce issues are strategic: they affect overall system performance as well as the feasibility and sustainability of health reforms. Viewing workforce issues strategically forces health authorities to confront the yawning gaps between policy and implementation in many developing countries. Lessons emerge in four areas. One concerns imbalances in workforce structure, whether from a functional specialization, geographical or facility lens. These imbalances pose a strategic challenge in that authorities must attempt to steer workforce distribution over time using a limited range of policy tools. A second group of lessons concerns the difficulties of central-level steering of the health workforce, often critically weak due to the lack of proper information systems and the complexities of public sector decentralization and service commercialization trends affecting the grassroots. A third cluster examines worker capacity and motivation, often shaped in developing countries as much by the informal norms and incentives as by formal attempts to support workers or to hold them accountable. Finally, a range of reforms centering on service contracting and improvements to human resource management are emerging. Since these have as a necessary (but not sufficient condition some flexibility in personnel practices, recent trends towards the sharing of such functions with local authorities are promising. The paper identifies a number of current lines of productive research, focusing on the relationship between health policy reforms and the local institutional environments in which the workforce, both public and private, is deployed.

  4. Strategic management of the health workforce in developing countries: what have we learned?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritzen, Scott A

    2007-02-26

    The study of the health workforce has gained in prominence in recent years, as the dynamic interconnections between human resource issues and health system effectiveness have come into sharper focus. This paper reviews lessons relating to strategic management challenges emerging from the growing literature in this area. Workforce issues are strategic: they affect overall system performance as well as the feasibility and sustainability of health reforms. Viewing workforce issues strategically forces health authorities to confront the yawning gaps between policy and implementation in many developing countries. Lessons emerge in four areas. One concerns imbalances in workforce structure, whether from a functional specialization, geographical or facility lens. These imbalances pose a strategic challenge in that authorities must attempt to steer workforce distribution over time using a limited range of policy tools. A second group of lessons concerns the difficulties of central-level steering of the health workforce, often critically weak due to the lack of proper information systems and the complexities of public sector decentralization and service commercialization trends affecting the grassroots.A third cluster examines worker capacity and motivation, often shaped in developing countries as much by the informal norms and incentives as by formal attempts to support workers or to hold them accountable. Finally, a range of reforms centering on service contracting and improvements to human resource management are emerging. Since these have as a necessary (but not sufficient) condition some flexibility in personnel practices, recent trends towards the sharing of such functions with local authorities are promising. The paper identifies a number of current lines of productive research, focusing on the relationship between health policy reforms and the local institutional environments in which the workforce, both public and private, is deployed.

  5. The new nutrition science: sustainability and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlqvist, Mark L

    2005-09-01

    To show that nutrition science is anchored in food systems and is influenced by the social, through the environmental to the cosmological, life's connections and rhythms. To indicate that an integrative approach is now becoming possible with advances in food technology, in the understanding of food choice and of human behaviour, and in a preparedness to recognise nutritional inputs in the full sweep of life-long well-being and health outcomes. An analysis of the much broader understanding of nutritionally related diseases from an ecological perspective, with attention to economic development, beginning with poverty alleviation. Recognition that the biological dimension of nutrition science is undergoing a profound reappraisal; that technologies will allow us to change the course of nutritionally related diseases for the better; and that nutrition science will find partners in information technology and telecommunications, food technology and energy technology. A new generation of nutrition scientists can help build a new economy that supports development amongst communities, whether close or distant from each other. The opportunities for this kind of development to be realised between Asia, Latin America and Africa are considerable. At all times, however, nutrition scientists must uphold the paramount importance of good governance, conflict resolution and maternal literacy if their work is to achieve its growing potential.

  6. A strategic approach to public health workforce development and capacity building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Hazel D; Myles, Ranell L; Spears-Jones, Crystal; Bishop-Cline, Audriene; Fenton, Kevin A

    2014-11-01

    In February 2010, CDC's National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD), and Tuberculosis (TB) Prevention (NCHHSTP) formally institutionalized workforce development and capacity building (WDCB) as one of six overarching goals in its 2010-2015 Strategic Plan. Annually, workforce team members finalize an action plan that lays the foundation for programs to be implemented for NCHHSTP's workforce that year. This paper describes selected WDCB programs implemented by NCHHSTP during the last 4 years in the three strategic goal areas: (1) attracting, recruiting, and retaining a diverse and sustainable workforce; (2) providing staff with development opportunities to ensure the effective and innovative delivery of NCHHSTP programs; and (3) continuously recognizing performance and achievements of staff and creating an atmosphere that promotes a healthy work-life balance. Programs have included but are not limited to an Ambassador Program for new hires, career development training for all staff, leadership and coaching for mid-level managers, and a Laboratory Workforce Development Initiative for laboratory scientists. Additionally, the paper discusses three overarching areas-employee communication, evaluation and continuous review to guide program development, and the implementation of key organizational and leadership structures to ensure accountability and continuity of programs. Since 2010, many lessons have been learned regarding strategic approaches to scaling up organization-wide public health workforce development and capacity building. Perhaps the most important is the value of ensuring the high-level strategic prioritization of this issue, demonstrating to staff and partners the importance of this imperative in achieving NCHHSTP's mission. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Developing a mentoring program in clinical nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martindale, Robert G; McClave, Stephen; Heyland, Daren; August, David

    2010-01-01

    Mentoring programs in nutrition are essential to the survival of clinical nutrition as we know it today. The best method known to maintain an influx of talent to a discipline is by developing an active mentoring program. This paper describes 1 concept for development of a viable mentor program. Mentoring should be flexible and based on mentees' training background. Realistic goals should be set, with written and verbal feedback, to sustain a successful program. Programs should incorporate the Socratic Method whenever possible. Factors that leave doubt about the survival of nutrition as a viable area of focus for physicians include the inability to generate adequate funds to support oneself and limited numbers of mentors available with dedicated time to be a mentor. A healthy, sustainable mentoring program in clinical nutrition will ensure survival of physician-based nutrition programs.

  8. Strategies for Overcoming Key Barriers to Development of a National Security Workforce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2008-06-30

    This report documents the strategies for overcoming identified key barriers to development of an adequate national security workforce as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP) being performed under a Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) grant. Many barriers currently exist that prevent the development of an adequate number of properly trained national security personnel. The identified strategies to address the barriers will focus on both short-term and long-term efforts, as well as strategies to capture legacy knowledge of retiring national security workforce personnel.

  9. Implementation of Strategies to Leverage Public and Private Resources for National Security Workforce Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-04-01

    This report documents implementation strategies to leverage public and private resources for the development of an adequate national security workforce as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP), being performed under a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) grant. There are numerous efforts across the United States to develop a properly skilled and trained national security workforce. Some of these efforts are the result of the leveraging of public and private dollars. As budget dollars decrease and the demand for a properly skilled and trained national security workforce increases, it will become even more important to leverage every education and training dollar. This report details some of the efforts that have been implemented to leverage public and private resources, as well as implementation strategies to further leverage public and private resources.

  10. 75 FR 24781 - Task Force on Space Industry Workforce and Economic Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-06

    ... economic and workforce-development efforts through a Task Force composed of senior-level Administration... officials on existing committees or task forces addressing technological development, research, or aerospace... Office of Management and Budget relating to budgetary, administrative, or legislative proposals. (c) This...

  11. 75 FR 53689 - Creation of the Fiscal Year (FY) 2011 “Environmental Workforce Development and Job Training...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    ... Workforce Development and Job Training Grants Program,'' Formerly Referred to as the ``Brownfields Job... collaborate on workforce development and job training with other programs within OSWER to develop a job... ``Brownfields Job Training Grants Program'' was expanded and will now be referred to as the ``Environmental...

  12. On the Origin and Development of the Medical Nutrition Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.C. Weenen (Tamar)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Product development in the health and life sciences is shifting from the development of target-specific pharmaceutical products to multi-target therapies, including medical nutrition. Medical nutrition consists of nutritional compositions, prescribed by medical

  13. The Role of VET in Alcohol and Other Drugs Workforce Development: Survey Technical Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pidd, Ken; Carne, Amanda; Roche, Ann

    2010-01-01

    To examine the effectiveness of vocational education and training qualifications as a workforce development strategy in the community services and health industries, a case study was undertaken of the alcohol and other drug sector. The project comprised of two parts: (1) An online survey to gain an understanding of employer's perceptions of and…

  14. Linking Gateway Technical College with Workforce Development: The SC Johnson-A Family Company Story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudson, Edward

    2004-01-01

    Seven years ago, SC Johnson--A Family Company approached Gateway Technical College with a need to further strengthen their incumbent workforce's technical training and education. Retirements, brain drain, and competition for technical expertise were the forces driving SC Johnson to develop a comprehensive, flexible, and timely workplace education…

  15. Preparation, Development, and Transition of Learning-Disabled Students for Workforce Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Donna Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Preparation, Development, and Transition of Learning-Disabled Students for Workforce Success. Donna Elizabeth Williams, 2011: Applied Dissertation, Nova Southeastern University, Abraham S. Fischler School of Education. ERIC Descriptors: Learning Disabilities, Community Based Instruction, Academic Advising, Career Counseling, Career Planning. This…

  16. The Role of VET in Workforce Development: A Story of Conflicting Expectations. Research Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretherton, Tanya

    2011-01-01

    This is the final report from a three-year program of research investigating the role of vocational education and training (VET) in workforce development. The research focuses on meat processing and child care, both of which are characterised by low-skill entry points to the labour market. The author pulls together the key themes emerging from the…

  17. The Outlook of Workforce Development in Community Colleges. UCLA Community College Bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarkesh, Maryam

    2004-01-01

    The 2004 State of the Union address included an announcement that $250 million was being allocated to community colleges for workforce development programs. This indication of support was good news in light of the recent trends for level funding or cutting back on educational programs, and demonstrates the perceived benefits of workforce…

  18. Differentiating Major and Incremental New Product Development: The Effects of Functional and Numerical Workforce Flexibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, R.A.W.; Ligthart, P.E.M.

    2014-01-01

    This study seeks to explain the differential effects of workforce flexibility on incremental and major new product development (NPD). Drawing on the resource-based theory of the firm, human resource management research, and innovation management literature, the authors distinguish two types of

  19. Implications for Focusing Research in Career and Technical Education and Workforce Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambeth, Jeanea M.; Joerger, Richard M.; Elliot, Jack

    2009-01-01

    Education and educational research is shaped by philosophy, psychology, practice, and ever changing educational policies. Previous studies have expressed a need for a relevant and focused research agenda for career and technical education (CTE), workforce development education and career and technical education. A need for a relevant and timely…

  20. Developing Appropriate Workforce Skills for Australia's Emerging Digital Economy: Working Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gekara, Victor; Molla, Alemayehu; Snell, Darryn; Karanasios, Stan; Thomas, Amanda

    2017-01-01

    This working paper is the first publication coming out of a project investigating the role of vocational education and training (VET) in developing digital skills in the Australian workforce, using two sectors as case studies--Transport and Logistics, and Public Safety and Correctional Services. The study employs a mixed method approach, combining…

  1. Psychosocial Influences upon the Workforce and Professional Development Participation of Family Child Care Providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Rebecca Anne; Wiley, Angela R.; A. Koziol, Natalie; Magerko, Katherine A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Family child care is commonly used in the US by families, including by those receiving child care subsidies. Psychosocial influences upon the workforce and professional development participation of family child care providers (FCCPs) have implications for the investment of public dollars that aim to improve quality and stability of…

  2. African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development. ... and African public institutions working towards solving food and nutrition problems through sound policies, ... Ecosystems Division, United Nations Environment Programme.

  3. IAEA Nutrition Programmes Feed Global Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henriques, Sasha

    2014-01-01

    As an organization, the IAEA has a statutory requirement to “accelerate and enlarge the contribution of atomic energy to peace, health and prosperity throughout the world.” Good nutrition is the cornerstone of good health and the development of nations. That’s why the IAEA is involved in nutrition. The IAEA’s Member States use nuclear methods to move their nutrition programmes forward. These nuclear techniques include the use of stable isotopes (which have no radioactivity) to better understand how nutrients are absorbed, utilized, or stored in the body. These very precise and powerful techniques can be safely and non-invasively used on everyone, from babies to the elderly, in order to determine nutritional status, and measure the effectiveness of nutrition programmes. Nuclear techniques often provide answers that are not available by any other means. By training Member States in the use of nuclear techniques for nutrition, the IAEA complements the work that these countries are doing with other international organizations and not-for-profit groups around the world to combat malnutrition in all its forms and to promote health

  4. Five generations in the nursing workforce: implications for nursing professional development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Julie A

    2013-01-01

    Positive patient outcomes require effective teamwork, communication, and technological literacy. These skills vary among the unprecedented five generations in the nursing workforce, spanning the "Silent Generation" nurses deferring retirement to the newest "iGeneration." Nursing professional development educators must understand generational differences; address communication, information technology, and team-building competencies across generations; and promote integration of learner-centered strategies into professional development activities.

  5. Indigenous Health Workforce Development: challenges and successes of the Vision 20:20 programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Elana; Reid, Papaarangi

    2013-01-01

    There are significant health workforce inequities that exist internationally. The shortage of indigenous health professionals within Australia and New Zealand requires action across multiple sectors, including health and education. This article outlines the successes and challenges of the University of Auckland's Vision 20:20 programme, which aims to improve indigenous Māori and Pacific health workforce development via recruitment, bridging/foundation and tertiary retention support interventions within the Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences (FMHS). Seven years of student data (2005-2011) are presented for undergraduate Student Pass Rate (SPR) by ethnicity and Certificate in Health Sciences (CertHSc) SPR, enrolments and completions by ethnicity. Four key areas of development are described: (i) student selection and pathway planning; (ii) foundation programme refinement; (iii) academic/pastoral support; and (iv) re-development of the indigenous recruitment model. Key programme developments have had a positive impact on basic student data outcomes. The FMHS undergraduate SPR increased from 89% in 2005 to 94% in 2011 for Māori and from 81% in 2005 to 87% in 2011 for Pacific. The CertHSc SPR increased from 52% in 2005 to 92% in 2011 with a greater proportion of Māori and Pacific enrolments achieving completion over time (18-76% for Māori and 29-74% for Pacific). Tertiary institutions have the potential to make an important contribution to indigenous health workforce development. Key challenges remain including secondary school feeder issues, equity funding, programme evaluation, post-tertiary specialist workforce development and retention in Aotearoa, New Zealand. © 2012 The Authors. ANZ Journal of Surgery © 2012 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  6. Community health workers leading the charge on workforce development: lessons from New Orleans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wennerstrom, Ashley; Johnson, Liljana; Gibson, Kristina; Batta, Sarah E; Springgate, Benjamin F

    2014-12-01

    Academic institutions and community organizations engaged community health workers (CHWs) in creating a community-appropriate CHW workforce capacity-building program in an area without a previously established CHW professional group. From 2009 to 2010, we solicited New Orleans-based CHWs' opinions about CHW professional development through a survey, a community conference, and workgroup meetings. Throughout 2011 and 2012, we created and implemented a responsive 80-h workforce development program that used popular education techniques. We interviewed CHWs 6 months post-training to assess impressions of the course and application of skills and knowledge to practice. CHWs requested training to develop nationally-recognized core competencies including community advocacy, addresses issues unique to New Orleans, and mitigate common professional challenges. Thirty-five people completed the course. Among 25 interviewees, common themes included positive impressions of the course, application of skills and community-specific information to practice, understanding of CHWs' historical roles as community advocates, and ongoing professional challenges. Engaging CHW participation in workforce development programs is possible in areas lacking organized CHW groups. CHW insight supports development of training that addresses unique local concerns. Trained CHWs require ongoing professional support.

  7. Supporting REU Leaders and Effective Workforce Development in the Geosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan, V.; Haacker, R.

    2014-12-01

    Research shows that research science experiences for undergraduates are key to the engagement of students in science, and teach critical thinking and communication, as well as the professional development skills. Nonetheless, undergraduate research programs are time and resource intensive, and program managers work in relative isolation from each other. The benefits of developing an REU community include sharing strategies and policies, developing collaborative efforts, and providing support to each other. This paper will provide an update on efforts to further develop the Geoscience REU network, including running a national workshop, an email listserv, workshops, and the creation of online resources for REU leaders. The goal is to strengthen the connections between REU community members, support the sharing of best practices in a changing REU landscape, and to make progress in formalizing tools for REU site managers.

  8. Leadership Development: Key to Success for Navy Civilian Workforce Transformation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nason, Ronald O

    2008-01-01

    ... for recapitalization through aggressive streamlining of naval business processes. This paper will address how leadership can be developed and applied toward ensuring the success of Sea Enterprise and achieving the goals of naval transformation...

  9. Fat Dogs and Coughing Horses: K-12 Programming for Veterinary Workforce Development

    OpenAIRE

    San Miguel, Sandra F.; Parker, Loran Carleton; Adedokun, Omolola A.; Burgess, Wilella D.; Cipriani Davis, Kauline S.; Blossom, Thaddaeus D.; Schneider, Jessica L.; Mennonno, Ann M.; Ruhl, Joseph D.; Veatch, Jennifer H.; Wackerly, Amy J.; Shin, Soo Yeon; Ratliff, Timothy L.

    2013-01-01

    Workforce development strategies to educate, inform, and diversify the veterinary profession of the future must begin with children in elementary school. This manuscript provides a description of the Fat Dogs and Coughing Horses program, which takes a multifaceted approach toward informing young students, beginning in first grade, about the interesting work and career opportunities available in the field of veterinary medicine. The program, a collaboration among Purdue University and Indiana ...

  10. Student Engagements Help Educate and Boost Workforce Development -

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine, California. During that period, more than 50 NREL staff members supported the event. That's part of the laboratory's legacy. NREL has organized all seven Decathlons since the inaugural event in 2002 . But it isn't just project management-NREL lets participants develop valuable skills, crafting the 10

  11. Increasing the Demand for Workplace Training: Workforce Development in Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thursfield, Denise; Holden, Rick

    2004-01-01

    In this article I draw attention to the current legitimising of new forms of identity of vocational and higher education learners. Using identity as a lens for examining pedagogy I focus on one of these new forms--the learner-worker identity. I examine one teaching and learning practice portfolio development, by discussing the program within which…

  12. 2016 Alabama PV soft cost and workforce development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Edwards, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2016-12-01

    The Southeastern US has the largest potential for growth in the solar industry. However, currently they languish behind the rest of the US. There are several bright spots including the large number of utility scale installations in North Carolina and the recent successes in South Carolina under Act 236. In order to better understand the impacts of state legislation on the growth of the solar industry in the SE US, the Savannah River National Laboratory has undertaken a study to look at the growth in each state in order to develop recommendations to help reduce the cost of solar and to spur the industry. This is the second report in the series. The first focused on developing cost metrics for South Carolina under Act 236. This report focuses on Alabama, the 49th ranked state for solar business, which has very similar population and median income to South Carolina. For this survey, the ten known in-state installers were contacted. Responses were received from seven, representing 70% of the installers, a majority of which provide both residential and commercial installations. Interestingly, none of the respondents serve the utility scale sector. Overall, costs for Alabama are on track with the rest of the country with a reported average cost of $3.29/W-DC for residential systems and $2.44/W-DC for commercial systems. 60% of this cost is attributed to hardware only. Of the remaining costs, installation contributed to the largest percentage of soft costs followed by overhead, marketing and sales, and permitting, respectively. This also closely mirrors results seen in South Carolina. Job growth in the industry is expected to proceed well. An expected 34-42 additional full time equivalent jobs were expected to be added in Alabama within the six month window following the survey period. During the three years following the survey, this number was expected to double with 89-97 additional jobs being added to the market. In both cases, a vast majority of these jobs were for

  13. Aligning career development with organizational goals: working towards the development of a strong and sustainable workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxe-Braithwaite, Marcy; Carlton, Sandra; Bass, Brenda

    2009-01-01

    The rapidly changing world of healthcare is faced with many challenges, not the least of which is a diminishing workforce. Healthcare organizations must develop multiple strategies, not only to attract and retain employees, but also to ensure that workers are prepared for continuous change in the workplace, are working at their full scope of practice and are committed to, and accountable for, the provision of high-quality care. There is evidence that by creating a healthier workplace, improved patient care will follow. Aligning Healthy Workplace Initiatives with an organization's strategic goals, corporate culture and vision reinforces their importance within the organization. In this paper, we describe an innovative pilot to assess a career development program, one of multiple Healthy Workplace Initiatives taking place at Providence Care in Kingston, Ontario in support of our three strategic goals. The results of the pilot were very encouraging; subsequent success in obtaining funding from HealthForceOntario has allowed the implementation of a sustainable program of career development within the organization. More work is required to evaluate its long-term effectiveness.

  14. Setting priorities for EU healthcare workforce IT skills competence improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sisi; Bamidis, Panagiotis D; Konstantinidis, Stathis Th; Traver, Vicente; Car, Josip; Zary, Nabil

    2017-04-01

    A major challenge for healthcare quality improvement is the lack of IT skills and knowledge of healthcare workforce, as well as their ambivalent attitudes toward IT. This article identifies and prioritizes actions needed to improve the IT skills of healthcare workforce across the EU. A total of 46 experts, representing different fields of expertise in healthcare and geolocations, systematically listed and scored actions that would improve IT skills among healthcare workforce. The Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative methodology was used for research priority-setting. The participants evaluated the actions using the following criteria: feasibility, effectiveness, deliverability, and maximum impact on IT skills improvement. The leading priority actions were related to appropriate training, integrating eHealth in curricula, involving healthcare workforce in the eHealth solution development, improving awareness of eHealth, and learning arrangement. As the different professionals' needs are prioritized, healthcare workforce should be actively and continuously included in the development of eHealth solutions.

  15. Research and Development on Food Nutrition Statistical Analysis Software System

    OpenAIRE

    Du Li; Ke Yun

    2013-01-01

    Designing and developing a set of food nutrition component statistical analysis software can realize the automation of nutrition calculation, improve the nutrition processional professional’s working efficiency and achieve the informatization of the nutrition propaganda and education. In the software development process, the software engineering method and database technology are used to calculate the human daily nutritional intake and the intelligent system is used to evaluate the user’s hea...

  16. Maximising workforce involvement in HSE (Health, Safety and Environment) case development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vine, Mark D. (DNV Energy Middle East); Ingvarson, Johan [DNV Energy, Oslo (Norway)

    2008-07-01

    The development of HSE Cases demonstrating that HSE and particularly major accident hazard risks are being managed to an acceptable level is a requirement posed on many Oil and Gas facilities by regulators and stakeholders. In order to develop a demonstration case rather than a description and to ensure a truly live document, GASCO, one of the world's largest gas processing companies, turned to DNV to develop HSE Cases for all their facilities. The DNV approach included the use of Hazard and Effects Management Process (HEMP) and the development of a customised intranet solution to ensure a continuously living process. HEMP is a systematic method of identifying hazards, assessing risk, putting controls in place to guard against those risks and defining recovery measures should an incident happen. With GASCO, HEMP was implemented through workshops involving operation workforce from senior managers to supervisory level. A powerful and popular output of HEMP is the Bow Tie diagram which is used to graphically display HSE Critical Elements and the HSE Critical Activities and Tasks (i.e. operational systems) that support them. To ensure a living process, a dedicated GASCO intranet solution was developed where all users can easily access and contribute to the electronic HSE Case without any geographical constraints. The electronic case widens the user base and creates awareness among the workforce. The added value of the HEMP and intranet solution approach is that it focuses on capitalizing on knowledge and expertise present with those operating the facilities using a 'Cradle to the Grave' approach. It is essential to maximize the interface with the workforce in order to develop and maintain a comprehensive HSE Case. (author)

  17. Patient information letters on nutrition: development and implementation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Binsbergen, J.J. van; Drenthen, A.J.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In 1998 the Dutch College of General Practitioners (NHG) began developing patient information letters (PILs), based on the practice guidelines for family physicians (FPs) (NHG standards). Five nutritional guidance letters have since been developed with the Dutch Nutrition Center.

  18. Job/Task Analysis: Enhancing the Commercial Building Workforce Through the Development of Foundational Materials; Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Studer, D.; Kemkar, S.

    2012-09-01

    For many commercial building operation job categories, industry consensus has not been reached on the knowledge, skills, and abilities that practitioners should possess. The goal of this guidance is to help streamline the minimum competencies taught or tested by organizations catering to building operations and maintenance personnel while providing a basis for developing and comparing new and existing training programs in the commercial building sector. The developed JTAs will help individuals identify opportunities to enhance their professional skills, enable industry to identify an appropriately skilled workforce, and allow training providers to ensure that they are providing the highest quality product possible.

  19. The Health Equity Leadership Institute (HELI): Developing workforce capacity for health disparities research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, James; Fryer, Craig S; Ward, Earlise; Westaby, Katelyn; Adams, Alexandra; Esmond, Sarah L; Garza, Mary A; Hogle, Janice A; Scholl, Linda M; Quinn, Sandra C; Thomas, Stephen B; Sorkness, Christine A

    2017-06-01

    Efforts to address health disparities and achieve health equity are critically dependent on the development of a diverse research workforce. However, many researchers from underrepresented backgrounds face challenges in advancing their careers, securing independent funding, and finding the mentorship needed to expand their research. Faculty from the University of Maryland at College Park and the University of Wisconsin-Madison developed and evaluated an intensive week-long research and career-development institute-the Health Equity Leadership Institute (HELI)-with the goal of increasing the number of underrepresented scholars who can sustain their ongoing commitment to health equity research. In 2010-2016, HELI brought 145 diverse scholars (78% from an underrepresented background; 81% female) together to engage with each other and learn from supportive faculty. Overall, scholar feedback was highly positive on all survey items, with average agreement ratings of 4.45-4.84 based on a 5-point Likert scale. Eighty-five percent of scholars remain in academic positions. In the first three cohorts, 73% of HELI participants have been promoted and 23% have secured independent federal funding. HELI includes an evidence-based curriculum to develop a diverse workforce for health equity research. For those institutions interested in implementing such an institute to develop and support underrepresented early stage investigators, a resource toolbox is provided.

  20. An evaluation of a public health practitioner registration programme: lessons learned for workforce development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Em; Wills, Jane

    2014-09-01

    This article explores the lessons learned for workforce development from an evaluation of a regional programme to support the assessment and registration of public health practitioners to the UK Public Health Register (UKPHR) in England. A summative and process evaluation of the public health practitioner programme in Wessex was adopted. Data collection was by an online survey of 32 public health practitioners in the Wessex area and semi-structured interviews with 53 practitioners, programme support, employers and system leaders. All survey respondents perceived regulation of the public health workforce as very important or important. Managers and system leaders saw a register of those fit to practise and able to define themselves as a public health practitioner as a necessary assurance of quality for the public. Yet, because registration is voluntary for practitioners, less value was currently placed on this than on completing a master's qualification. The local programme supports practitioners in the compilation of a retrospective portfolio of evidence that demonstrates fitness to practise; practitioners and managers stated that this does not support current and future learning needs or the needs of those working at a senior level. One of the main purposes of statutory regulation of professionals is to protect the public by an assurance of fitness to practise where there is a potential for harm. The widening role for public health practitioners without any regulation means that there is the risk of inappropriate interventions or erroneous advice. Regulators, policy makers and system leaders need to consider how they can support the development of the public health workforce to gain professional recognition at all levels of public health, including practitioners alongside specialists, and support a professional career framework for the public health system. © Royal Society for Public Health 2014.

  1. Development of the Nutrition4Kids website.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Michelle S

    2012-01-01

    According to the 2009 National Vital Statistics Report, cancer is the second-leading cause of death in the United States. Researchers have determined that consuming a diet low in fruits, vegetables, and whole grains is a common risk factor associated with the risk of developing several types of cancer including stomach, colorectal, breast, and pancreatic. Currently, there are few websites devoted to increasing students' knowledge about the role of a healthy diet in cancer prevention. The Nutrition4Kids website is a unique health education tool that targets youth aged 10 to 14 years. The website content and design were based on the Health Belief Model, the Information-Motivation and Behavioral Skills Model, and the principles of health literacy. The information included on the website was based on recommendations from the American Institute for Cancer Research and the World Cancer Research Fund. The website contains nutrition information, recipes that emphasize the consumption of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains, and interactive games. The primary objectives of the Nutrition4Kids website are to 1) increase students' knowledge of how poor dietary habits can affect their health, 2) increase students' knowledge of healthy dietary habits that can reduce their risk for cancer, 3) increase students' ability to prepare healthy, well-balanced meals and snacks, 4) increase students' ability to discuss healthy eating with their family and friends, and 5) increase students' knowledge of nutrients that have healthful benefits.

  2. Job Satisfaction: A Critical, Understudied Facet of Workforce Development in Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Elizabeth; Castrucci, Brian C; Bharthapudi, Kiran; Sellers, Katie

    2015-01-01

    The field of public health faces multiple challenges in its efforts to recruit and retain a robust workforce. Public health departments offer salaries that are lower than the private sector, and government bureaucracy can be a deterrent for those seeking to make a difference. The objective of this research was to explore the relationship between general employee satisfaction and specific characteristics of the job and the health agency and to make recommendations regarding what health agencies can do to support recruitment and retention. This is a cross-sectional study using data collected from the 2014 Public Health Workforce Interests and Needs Survey (PH WINS). A nationally representative sample was constructed from 5 geographic (paired adjacent HHS [US Department of Health and Human Services]) regions and stratified by population and state governance type. Descriptive and inferential statistics were analyzed using the balanced repeated replication method to account for the complex sampling design. A multivariate linear regression was used to examine job satisfaction and factors related to supervisory and organizational support adjusting for relevant covariates. PH WINS data were collected from state health agency central office employees using an online survey. Level of job satisfaction using the Job in General Scale (abridged). State health agency central office staff (n = 10,246) participated in the survey (response rate 46%). Characteristics related to supervisory and organizational support were highly associated with increased job satisfaction. Supervisory status, race, organization size, and agency tenure were also associated with job satisfaction. Public health leaders aiming to improve levels of job satisfaction should focus on workforce development and training efforts as well as adequate supervisory support, especially for new hires and nonsupervisors.

  3. Job Satisfaction: A Critical, Understudied Facet of Workforce Development in Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Elizabeth; Castrucci, Brian C.; Bharthapudi, Kiran; Sellers, Katie

    2015-01-01

    Context: The field of public health faces multiple challenges in its efforts to recruit and retain a robust workforce. Public health departments offer salaries that are lower than the private sector, and government bureaucracy can be a deterrent for those seeking to make a difference. Objective: The objective of this research was to explore the relationship between general employee satisfaction and specific characteristics of the job and the health agency and to make recommendations regarding what health agencies can do to support recruitment and retention. Design: This is a cross-sectional study using data collected from the 2014 Public Health Workforce Interests and Needs Survey (PH WINS). A nationally representative sample was constructed from 5 geographic (paired adjacent HHS [US Department of Health and Human Services]) regions and stratified by population and state governance type. Descriptive and inferential statistics were analyzed using the balanced repeated replication method to account for the complex sampling design. A multivariate linear regression was used to examine job satisfaction and factors related to supervisory and organizational support adjusting for relevant covariates. Setting and Participants: PH WINS data were collected from state health agency central office employees using an online survey. Main Outcome Measure: Level of job satisfaction using the Job in General Scale (abridged). Results: State health agency central office staff (n = 10 246) participated in the survey (response rate 46%). Characteristics related to supervisory and organizational support were highly associated with increased job satisfaction. Supervisory status, race, organization size, and agency tenure were also associated with job satisfaction. Conclusions: Public health leaders aiming to improve levels of job satisfaction should focus on workforce development and training efforts as well as adequate supervisory support, especially for new hires and nonsupervisors

  4. Challenges and Opportunities in Developing the Hawaiian Scientific and Technical Workforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, James R.

    2012-01-01

    In searching for dark skies, persistently clear weather, and minimal atmospheric interference, astronomical observing sites are generally located in remote, mountainous locations, and usually far from large communities. Such locations often have weak economies, and shallow workforce pools in the technical and administrative areas generally needed by the observatories. This leads to a problem, and an opportunity, for both the observatories and their local communities. Importing employees from far away locations is costly, leads to high turnover, and deprives the community of economic benefits and the sense of fealty with the observatories that would naturally result if local people occupied these comparatively good paying jobs. While by no means unique, the observatories on Mauna Kea Hawai`i are a clear example of this dual dilemma. This presentation will report findings from a model workforce needs assessment survey of all the Mauna Kea observatories, which has establish likely annual staffing requirements in several categories of technological and administrative support, including the educational entrance requirements. Results indicated that through 2023, 80% of observatory job openings on Hawai`i Island will be in technology and administration. Furthermore, the vast majority of these jobs will require only a two-year or four-year college degree in a relevant field as an entrance requirement. Efforts to realign the existing resources to better meet these common needs will be discussed, including the highly successful partnership between County of Hawai`i Workforce Development Board, the Mauna Kea observatories, the local K-12 systems, Hawai`i Community College, the University of Hawai`i Hilo, and a number of informal education and workplace experience programs. This collaboration has resulted in no fewer than three, interlocked, community programs have stepped up to meet this challenge to the benefit of both the local community and the observatories.

  5. Fat dogs and coughing horses: K-12 programming for veterinary workforce development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Miguel, Sandra F; Carleton Parker, Loran; Adedokun, Omolola A; Burgess, Wilella D; Cipriani Davis, Kauline S; Blossom, Thaddaeus D; Schneider, Jessica L; Mennonno, Ann M; Ruhl, Joseph D; Veatch, Jennifer H; Wackerly, Amy J; Shin, Soo Yeon; Ratliff, Timothy L

    2013-01-01

    Workforce development strategies to educate, inform, and diversify the veterinary profession of the future must begin with children in elementary school. This article provides a description of the Fat Dogs and Coughing Horses program, which takes a multifaceted approach toward informing young students, beginning in first grade, about the interesting work and career opportunities available in the field of veterinary medicine. The program, a collaboration among Purdue University and Indiana public schools, is supported by a Science Education Partnership Award from the Office of Research Infrastructure Programs, a component of the National Institutes of Health. The overall goal of the program is to provide formal and informal educational opportunities for students, parents, teachers, and the public about the science involved in keeping people and their animals healthy. Examples of health concerns that impact both people and their pets are used to inform and excite children about careers in the health sciences. The program resulted in (1) curricula for students in Grades 1-3, 6, and 9; (2) four children's books and a set of collectible cards which highlight veterinarians, veterinary technicians, and research scientists who work with animals; and (3) four traveling museum-level quality exhibits. Preliminary assessment data has shown that the implementation of the curricula enhanced student science learning and science attitudes and interests. The program provides evidence that partnerships among professionals in veterinary medicine and K-12 education can result in impactful workforce development programs.

  6. Early psychosis workforce development: Core competencies for mental health professionals working in the early psychosis field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Helen; Jorm, Anthony F; Killackey, Eoin; Francey, Shona; Mulcahy, Dianne

    2017-08-09

    The aim of this study was to identify the core competencies required of mental health professionals working in the early psychosis field, which could function as an evidence-based tool to support the early psychosis workforce and in turn assist early psychosis service implementation and strengthen early psychosis model fidelity. The Delphi method was used to establish expert consensus on the core competencies. In the first stage, a systematic literature search was conducted to generate competency items. In the second stage, a panel consisting of expert early psychosis clinicians from around the world was formed. Panel members then rated each of the competency items on how essential they are to the clinical practice of all early psychosis clinicians. In total, 1023 pieces of literature including textbooks, journal articles and grey literature were reviewed. A final 542 competency items were identified for inclusion in the questionnaire. A total of 63 early psychosis experts participated in 3 rating rounds. Of the 542 competency items, 242 were endorsed as the required core competencies. There were 29 competency items that were endorsed by 62 or more experts, and these may be considered the foundational competencies for early psychosis practice. The study generated a set of core competencies that provide a common language for early psychosis clinicians across professional disciplines and country of practice, and potentially are a useful professional resource to support early psychosis workforce development and service reform. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  7. Leveraging the Global Health Service Partnership Model for Workforce Development in Global Radiation Oncology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omoruyi Credit Irabor

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A major contributor to the disparity in cancer outcome across the globe is the limited health care access in low- and middle-income countries that results from the shortfall in human resources for health (HRH, fomented by the limited training and leadership capacity of low-resource countries. In 2012, Seed Global Health teamed up with the Peace Corps to create the Global Health Service Partnership, an initiative that has introduced a novel model for tackling the HRH crises in developing regions of the world. The Global Health Service Partnership has made global health impacts in leveraging partnerships for HRH development, faculty activities and output, scholarship engagement, adding value to the learning environment, health workforce empowerment, and infrastructure development.

  8. Nutrition and brain development in early life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Elizabeth L; Dewey, Kathryn G

    2014-04-01

    Presented here is an overview of the pathway from early nutrient deficiency to long-term brain function, cognition, and productivity, focusing on research from low- and middle-income countries. Animal models have demonstrated the importance of adequate nutrition for the neurodevelopmental processes that occur rapidly during pregnancy and infancy, such as neuron proliferation and myelination. However, several factors influence whether nutrient deficiencies during this period cause permanent cognitive deficits in human populations, including the child's interaction with the environment, the timing and degree of nutrient deficiency, and the possibility of recovery. These factors should be taken into account in the design and interpretation of future research. Certain types of nutritional deficiency clearly impair brain development, including severe acute malnutrition, chronic undernutrition, iron deficiency, and iodine deficiency. While strategies such as salt iodization and micronutrient powders have been shown to improve these conditions, direct evidence of their impact on brain development is scarce. Other strategies also require further research, including supplementation with iron and other micronutrients, essential fatty acids, and fortified food supplements during pregnancy and infancy. © 2014 International Life Sciences Institute.

  9. Microsystems technologist workforce development capacity and challenges in Central New Mexico.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osborn, Thor D.

    2008-04-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has made major investments in microsystems-related infrastructure and research staff development over the past two decades, culminating most recently in the MESA project. These investment decisions have been made based in part upon the necessity for highly reliable, secure, and for some purposes, radiation-hardened devices and subsystems for safety and sustainability of the United States nuclear arsenal and other national security applications. SNL's microsystems development and fabrication capabilities are located almost entirely within its New Mexico site, rendering their effectiveness somewhat dependent on the depth and breadth of the local microsystems workforce. Consequently, the status and development capacity of this workforce has been seen as a key personnel readiness issue in relation to the maintenance of SNL's microsystems capabilities. For this reason SNL has supported the instantiation and development of the Southwest Center for Microsystems Education, an Advanced Technology Education center funded primarily by the National Science Foundation, in order to foster the development of local training capacity for microsystems technologists. Although the SCME and the associated Manufacturing Technology program at Central New Mexico Community College have developed an effective curriculum and graduated several highly capable microsystems technologists, the future of both the center and the degree program remain uncertain due to insufficient student enrollment. The central region of New Mexico has become home to many microsystems-oriented commercial firms. As the demands of those firms for technologists evolve, SNL may face staffing problems in the future, especially if local training capacity is lost.

  10. Rural and remote young people's health career decision making within a health workforce development program: a qualitative exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Koshila; Jones, Debra; Naden, Kathryn; Roberts, Chris

    2015-01-01

    One strategy aimed at resolving ongoing health workforce shortages in rural and remote settings has been to implement workforce development initiatives involving the early activation and development of health career aspirations and intentions among young people in these settings. This strategy aligns with the considerable evidence showing that rural background is a strong predictor of rural practice intentions and preferences. The Broken Hill Regional Health Career Academy Program (BHRHCAP) is an initiative aimed at addressing local health workforce challenges by helping young people in the region develop and further their health career aspirations and goals. This article reports the factors impacting on rural and remote youths' health career decision-making within the context of a health workforce development program. Data were collected using interviews and focus groups with a range of stakeholders involved in the BHRHCAP including local secondary school students, secondary school teachers, career advisors, school principals, parents, and pre-graduate health students undertaking a clinical placement in Broken Hill, and local clinicians. Data interpretation was informed by the theoretical constructs articulated within socio cognitive career theory. Young people's career decision-making in the context of a local health workforce development program was influenced by a range of personal, contextual and experiential factors. These included personal factors related to young people's career goals and motivations and their confidence to engage in career decision-making, contextual factors related to BHRHCAP program design and structure as well as the visibility and accessibility of health career pathways in a rural setting, and experiential factors related to the interaction and engagement between young people and role models or influential others in the health and education sectors. This study provided theoretical insight into the broader range of interrelating and

  11. Increasing Communities Capacity to Effectively Address Climate Change Through Education, Civic Engagement and Workforce Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niepold, F., III; Ledley, T. S.; Stanton, C.; Fraser, J.; Scowcroft, G. A.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding the causes, effects, risks, and developing the social will and skills for responses to global change is a major challenge of the 21st century that requires coordinated contributions from the sciences, social sciences, humanities, arts, and beyond. There have been many effective efforts to implement climate change education, civic engagement and related workforce development programs focused on a multitude of audiences, topics and in multiple regions. This talk will focus on how comprehensive educational efforts across our communities are needed to support cities and their primary industries as they prepare for, and embrace, a low-carbon economy and develop the related workforce.While challenges still exist in identifying and coordinating all stakeholders, managing and leveraging resources, and resourcing and scaling effective programs to increase impact and reach, climate and energy literacy leaders have developed initiatives with broad input to identify the understandings and structures for climate literacy collective impact and to develop regional/metropolitan strategy that focuses its collective impact efforts on local climate issues, impacts and opportunities. This Climate Literacy initiative envisions education as a central strategy for community's civic actions in the coming decades by key leaders who have the potential to foster the effective and innovative strategies that will enable their communities to seize opportunity and prosperity in a post-carbon and resilient future. This talk discusses the advances and collaborations in the Climate Change Education community over the last decade by U.S. federal and non-profit organization that have been made possible through the partnerships of the Climate Literacy & Energy Awareness Network (CLEAN), U.S. National Science Foundation funded Climate Change Education Partnership (CCEP) Alliance, and the Tri-Agency Climate Change Education Collaborative.

  12. Development of a NASA Integrated Technical Workforce Career Development Model Entitled Requisite Occupation Competencies and Knowledge -- the ROCK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menrad, Robert J.; Larson, Wiley J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper shares the findings of NASA's Integrated Learning and Development Program (ILDP) in its effort to reinvigorate the HANDS-ON practice of space systems engineering and project/program management through focused coursework, training opportunities, on-the job learning and special assignments. Prior to March 2005, NASA responsibility for technical workforce development (the program/project manager, systems engineering, discipline engineering, discipline engineering and associated communities) was executed by two parallel organizations. In March 2005 these organizations merged. The resulting program-ILDP-was chartered to implement an integrated competency-based development model capable of enhancing NASA's technical workforce performance as they face the complex challenges of Earth science, space science, aeronautics and human spaceflight missions. Results developed in collaboration with NASA Field Centers are reported on. This work led to definition of the agency's first integrated technical workforce development model known as the Requisite Occupation Competence and Knowledge (the ROCK). Critical processes and products are presented including: 'validation' techniques to guide model development, the Design-A-CUrriculuM (DACUM) process, and creation of the agency's first systems engineering body-of-knowledge. Findings were validated via nine focus groups from industry and government, validated with over 17 space-related organizations, at an estimated cost exceeding $300,000 (US). Masters-level programs and training programs have evolved to address the needs of these practitioner communities based upon these results. The ROCK reintroduced rigor and depth to the practitioner's development in these critical disciplines enabling their ability to take mission concepts from imagination to reality.

  13. Continuous professional development of Liberia's midwifery workforce-A coordinated multi-stakeholder approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel-Schuldt, Michaela; Billy Dayon, Matilda; Toft Klar, Robin; Subah, Marion; King-Lincoln, Esther; Kpangbala-Flomo, Cecelia; Broniatowski, Raphaël

    2018-03-03

    Maternal and newborn mortality remains high in Liberia. There is a severe rural-urban gap in accessibility to health care services. A competent midwifery workforce is able to meet the needs of mothers and newborns. Evidence shows that competence can be assured through initial education along with continuous professional development (CPD). In the past, CPD was not regulated and coordinated in Liberia which is cpommon in the African region. To Support a competent regulated midwifery workforce through continuous professional development. A new CPD model was developed by the Liberian Board for Nursing and Midwifery. With its establishment, all midwives and nurses are required to undertake CPD programmes consisting of certified training and mentoring in order to renew their practicing license. The new model is being piloted in one county in which regular mentoring visits that include skills training are being conducted combined with the use of mobile learning applications addressing maternity health issues. Quality control of the CPD pilot is assured by the Liberian Board for Nursing and Midwifery. The mentoring visits are conducted on a clinical level but are coordinated on the national and county level. CPD using mobile learning on smartphones and regular mentoring visits not only improved knowledge and skills of midwives and nurses but also provided a solution to enhance accessibility in rural areas through improved communication and transportation, as well as improved career development of health personnel working in remote areas. Mentors were trained on a national, county, and health facility level in the pilot county with mentoring visits conducted regularly. The CPD programme of the Liberian Board for Nursing and Midwifery, currently in pilot-testing by various partners, aims to highlight the positive impact of the coordinating role of both the regulatory body and health authorities. Using regular process and programme reviews to improve capacity, knowledge, and

  14. Development of Core Competencies for Paraprofessional Nutrition Educators Who Deliver Food Stamp Nutrition Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Susan S.; Pearson, Meredith; Chipman, Helen

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to describe the process used for the development of core competencies for paraprofessional nutrition educators in Food Stamp Nutrition Education (FSNE). The development process included the efforts of an expert panel of state and multicounty FSNE leaders to draft the core competencies and the validation of those…

  15. Catalogue of Workforce Information Sources: Decision Making Assistance for Regional Economic Development. U.S. Department of Labor, Employment and Training Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Department of Labor, 2009

    2009-01-01

    In early 2006, The U.S. Department of Labor (DOL), Employment and Training Administration (ETA) began an initiative called Workforce Innovation in Regional Economic Development (WIRED) to help regions create competitive conditions, integrate economic and workforce development activities, and demonstrate that talent development can successfully…

  16. The DOE fellows program-a workforce development initiative for the US department of energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagos, Leonel E. [Applied Research Center, Florida International University, 10555 West Flagler St, EC2100, Miami, Florida (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The US Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) oversees one of the largest and most technically challenging cleanup programs in the world. The mission of DOE-EM is to complete the safe cleanup of the environmental legacy from five decades of nuclear weapons development and government-sponsored nuclear energy research. Since 1995, Florida International University's Applied Research Center (FIU-ARC) has supported the DOE-EM mission and provided unique research capabilities to address some of these highly technical and difficult challenges. This partnership has allowed FIU-ARC to create a unique infrastructure that is critical for the training and mentoring of science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) students and has exposed many STEM students to 'hands-on' DOE-EM applied research, supervised by the scientists and engineers at ARC. As a result of this successful partnership between DOE and FIU, DOE requested FIU-ARC to create the DOE-FIU Science and Technology Workforce Development Initiative in 2007. This innovative program was established to create a 'pipeline' of minority STEM students trained and mentored to enter DOE's environmental cleanup workforce. The program was designed to help address DOE's future workforce needs by partnering with academic, government and private companies (DOE contractors) to mentor future minority scientists and engineers in the research, development, and deployment of new technologies and processes addressing DOE's environmental cleanup challenges. Since its inception in 2007, the program has trained and mentored 78 FIU STEM minority students. Although, the program has been in existence for only six years, a total of 75 internships have been conducted at DOE National Laboratories, DOE sites, DOE Headquarters and field offices, and DOE contractors. Over 100 DOE Fellows have participated in the Waste Management (WM) Symposia since 2008 with a total of 84 student

  17. Developing the Qualifications of the ICT Workforce through problem-based learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coto, Mayela; Mora, Sonia; Lykke, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    , a growing number of local companies have been established to provide ICT products and services worldwide. Such development requires a large qualified workforce related to computer science and informatics, with skills in the areas of problem solving, group work, mathematics, business administration......, and foreign languages. In computer engineering, teaching has traditionally been deductive, with lecturers presenting theories and general principles, illustrative examples, practical work, and at the course end tests of students’ ability to do the same kind of reasoning through exams. This approach is very......-based research methodology and introduce gradually the PBL principles in a sequence of five programming courses (Introduction to Programming, Programming I, Programming II, Programming III and Programming IV). The results show that the process of implementing PBL is not straightforward. The alignment of current...

  18. Developing the Mental Health Workforce: Review and Application of Training Approaches from Multiple Disciplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Aaron R.; Stirman, Shannon Wiltsey; Kerns, Suzanne E. U.; Bruns, Eric J.

    2011-01-01

    Strategies specifically designed to facilitate the training of mental health practitioners in evidence-based practices (EBPs) have lagged behind the development of the interventions themselves. The current paper draws from an interdisciplinary literature (including medical training, adult education, and teacher training) to identify useful training and support approaches as well as important conceptual frameworks that may be applied to training in mental health. Theory and research findings are reviewed, which highlight the importance of continued consultation/ support following training workshops, congruence between the training content and practitioner experience, and focus on motivational issues. In addition, six individual approaches are presented with careful attention to their empirical foundations and potential applications. Common techniques are highlighted and applications and future directions for mental health workforce training and research are discussed. PMID:21190075

  19. The DOE fellows program-a workforce development initiative for the US department of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagos, Leonel E.

    2013-01-01

    The US Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) oversees one of the largest and most technically challenging cleanup programs in the world. The mission of DOE-EM is to complete the safe cleanup of the environmental legacy from five decades of nuclear weapons development and government-sponsored nuclear energy research. Since 1995, Florida International University's Applied Research Center (FIU-ARC) has supported the DOE-EM mission and provided unique research capabilities to address some of these highly technical and difficult challenges. This partnership has allowed FIU-ARC to create a unique infrastructure that is critical for the training and mentoring of science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) students and has exposed many STEM students to 'hands-on' DOE-EM applied research, supervised by the scientists and engineers at ARC. As a result of this successful partnership between DOE and FIU, DOE requested FIU-ARC to create the DOE-FIU Science and Technology Workforce Development Initiative in 2007. This innovative program was established to create a 'pipeline' of minority STEM students trained and mentored to enter DOE's environmental cleanup workforce. The program was designed to help address DOE's future workforce needs by partnering with academic, government and private companies (DOE contractors) to mentor future minority scientists and engineers in the research, development, and deployment of new technologies and processes addressing DOE's environmental cleanup challenges. Since its inception in 2007, the program has trained and mentored 78 FIU STEM minority students. Although, the program has been in existence for only six years, a total of 75 internships have been conducted at DOE National Laboratories, DOE sites, DOE Headquarters and field offices, and DOE contractors. Over 100 DOE Fellows have participated in the Waste Management (WM) Symposia since 2008 with a total of 84 student

  20. Developing the Child Care Workforce: Understanding "Fight" or "Flight" Amongst Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretherton, Tanya

    2010-01-01

    The early childhood education and care sector in Australia is undergoing a shift in philosophy. Changes in policy are driving the industry towards a combined early childhood education and care focus, away from one only on child care. This move has implications for the skilling of the child care workforce. This report examines workforce development…

  1. Health Workforce Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sawai, Abdulaziz; Al-Shishtawy, Moeness M.

    2015-01-01

    In most countries, the lack of explicit health workforce planning has resulted in imbalances that threaten the capacity of healthcare systems to attain their objectives. This has directed attention towards the prospect of developing healthcare systems that are more responsive to the needs and expectations of the population by providing health planners with a systematic method to effectively manage human resources in this sector. This review analyses various approaches to health workforce planning and presents the Six-Step Methodology to Integrated Workforce Planning which highlights essential elements in workforce planning to ensure the quality of services. The purpose, scope and ownership of the approach is defined. Furthermore, developing an action plan for managing a health workforce is emphasised and a reviewing and monitoring process to guide corrective actions is suggested. PMID:25685381

  2. Telemental Health Training, Team Building, and Workforce Development in Cultural Context: The Hawaii Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alicata, Daniel; Schroepfer, Amanda; Unten, Tim; Agoha, Ruby; Helm, Susana; Fukuda, Michael; Ulrich, Daniel; Michels, Stanton

    2016-04-01

    The goal of the University of Hawaii (UH) child and adolescent psychiatry telemental health (TMH) program is to train child and adolescent psychiatry fellows to provide behavioral health services for the children of Hawaii and the Pacific Islands in the cultural context of their rural communities using interactive videoteleconferencing (IVTC). The training experience balances learning objectives with community service. Learning objectives include: Understanding mental health disparities in rural communities, leveraging community resources in ongoing treatment, providing culturally effective care, and improving health care access and delivery through TMH service research and evaluation. We describe the UH experience. Several UH faculty are experienced with IVTC technology. They are triple-board trained, are recognized for their research in program evaluation and mental health disparities, and are committed to serving Hawaii's rural communities. We demonstrate the role of TMH in linking children and their families living in rural communities with multiple mental health treatment providers. The service-learning curriculum and a unique collaboration with Mayo Clinic provide the opportunity to examine the role of TMH in global service, and training, education, and research. TMH provides direct services to patients and consultation on Hawaii Island and Maui County. The collaboration with the Mayo Clinic brings further consultation in complex diagnostics, pharmacogenomics, and cross-cultural psychiatry. A curriculum provides trainees experience with IVTC with the goal of potential recruitment to underserved rural communities. The TMH program at UH is unique in its team building and workforce development by joining multiple entities through IVTC and translating expertise from the Mayo Clinic to rural communities, and strengthening collaboration with local child and adolescent psychiatrists, and primary care and other mental health providers. The UH psychiatry program is a

  3. [Development of integrated support software for clinical nutrition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siquier Homar, Pedro; Pinteño Blanco, Manel; Calleja Hernández, Miguel Ángel; Fernández Cortés, Francisco; Martínez Sotelo, Jesús

    2015-09-01

    to develop an integrated computer software application for specialized nutritional support, integrated in the electronic clinical record, which detects automatically and early those undernourished patients or at risk of developing undernourishment, determining points of opportunity for improvement and evaluation of the results. the quality standards published by the Nutrition Work Group of the Spanish Society of Hospital Pharmacy (SEFH) and the recommendations by the Pharmacy Group of the Spanish Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (SENPE) have been taken into account. According to these quality standards, the nutritional support has to include the following healthcare stages or sub-processes: nutritional screening, nutritional assessment, plan for nutritional care, prescription, preparation and administration. this software allows to conduct, in an automated way, a specific nutritional assessment for those patients with nutritional risk, implementing, if necessary, a nutritional treatment plan, conducting follow-up and traceability of outcomes derived from the implementation of improvement actions, and quantifying to what extent our practice is close to the established standard. this software allows to standardize the specialized nutritional support from a multidisciplinary point of view, introducing the concept of quality control per processes, and including patient as the main customer. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  4. Development of integrated support software for clinical nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Siquier Homar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: to develop an integrated computer software application for specialized nutritional support, integrated in the electronic clinical record, which detects automatically and early those undernourished patients or at risk of developing undernourishment, determining points of opportunity for improvement and evaluation of the results. Methods: the quality standards published by the Nutrition Work Group of the Spanish Society of Hospital Pharmacy (SEFH and the recommendations by the Pharmacy Group of the Spanish Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (SENPE have been taken into account. According to these quality standards, the nutritional support has to include the following healthcare stages or sub-processes: nutritional screening, nutritional assessment, plan for nutritional care, prescription, preparation and administration. Results: this software allows to conduct, in an automated way, a specific nutritional assessment for those patients with nutritional risk, implementing, if necessary, a nutritional treatment plan, conducting follow-up and traceability of outcomes derived from the implementation of improvement actions, and quantifying to what extent our practice is close to the established standard. Conclusions: this software allows to standardize the specialized nutritional support from a multidisciplinary point of view, introducing the concept of quality control per processes, and including patient as the main customer

  5. Future Dietitian 2025: informing the development of a workforce strategy for dietetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickson, M; Child, J; Collinson, A

    2018-02-01

    Healthcare is changing and the professions that deliver it need to adapt and change too. The aim of this research was to inform the development of a workforce strategy for Dietetics for 2020-2030. This included an understanding of the drivers for change, the views of stakeholders and recommendations to prepare the profession for the future. The research included three phases: (i) establishing the context which included a literature and document review (environmental scan); (ii) discovering the profession and professional issues using crowd-sourcing technology; and (iii) articulating the vision for the future using appreciative inquiry. The environmental scan described the current status of the dietetic profession, the changing healthcare environment, the context in which dietitians work and what future opportunities exist for the profession. The online conversation facilitated by crowd-sourcing technology asked the question: 'How can dietitians strengthen their future role, influence and impact?' Dietitians and interested stakeholders (726 and 109, respectively) made 6130 contributions. Seven priorities were identified and fed into the appreciative inquiry event. The event bought together 54 dietitians and analysis of the discussions generated five themes: (i) professional identity; (ii) strong foundations-creating structure and direction for the profession; (iii) amplifying visibility and influence; (iv) embracing advances in science and technology; and (v) career advancement and emerging opportunities. A series of recommendations were made for the next steps in moving the workforce to a new future. The future for dietetics looks bright, embracing technology, as well as exploring different ways of working and new opportunities, as this dynamic profession continues to evolve. © 2017 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  6. Delivering Economic Development in the Context of Financial Crisis: A Workforce Gap Analysis of the Sacramento Regional Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghavian, Alexander H.

    2013-01-01

    Workforce development represents a central priority in a comprehensive effort to create wealth, industry thickening, and broad-based prosperity. From the onset of the Great Recession in 2007, the Sacramento Region experienced anemic economic growth and remained behind the nation in job creation. Contextualized in the aftermath of the economic…

  7. Nutrition, poverty alleviation, and development in Central America and Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immink, Maarten D C

    2010-03-01

    This paper reviews research with policy relevance for food and nutrition in Central America and similar areas. The research was conducted by the Institute of Nutrition of Central America and Panama (INCAP) during the last three decades of the past millennium (1970-99). Six policy areas were selected for this review: agricultural commercialization and rural development; wage and price policies; human resource development; social safety nets, particularly complementary food programs; multi-sectoral nutrition planning; and food and nutrition monitoring for policy formulation. The contents and major conclusions of the work are described, as well as their public policy implications.

  8. Investing in Professional Development: Building and Sustaining a Viable 4-H Youth Workforce for the Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirk A. Astroth

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Positive youth development outcomes are influenced by a competent, highly trained work force that enjoys their work with young people. The youth work field has struggled with how to keep and motivate front line youth workers given the heavy workloads, low pay, lack of recognition and irregular time demands to compete with family responsibilities. Professional development is a key strategy for retaining and motivating youth workers. A model of professional development called the Western 4-H Institute has been developed and held now for two sessions. Results from participants indicate that this strategy can have a positive influence on job satisfaction, competencies, and retention. In fact, only 10 percent of participants had left during the intervening 5 years, and job satisfaction had increased significantly over time. Organizational loyalty among participants is not high, but with early career professionals, they may still be trying to find their niche. A regional training model has shown itself to be effective in supporting 4-H youth professionals and is building a sustainable workforce for the future.

  9. Measuring the Effects of Nutrition on Human Development and Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadeh, Ibrahim Q.

    1974-01-01

    Food and nutrition affect the course in physical development that our bodies will follow. Our emotional make-up and mental behavior may be influenced by diet, but the direct relationship between these aspects of development and nutrition needs further study. A new research approach is described. (Author/RH)

  10. Nutritional Disorders and the Development of Young Children: A Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Joan Good

    This bibliography on nutritional disorders and child development is directed towards early childhood professionals outside the field of nutrition. The main topic covered pertains to malnutrition and undernutrition as it relates to mental/intellectual/cognitive development of children from the fetal stage through the early childhood years. Included…

  11. Exploratory scoping of the literature on factors that influence oral health workforce planning and management in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knevel, Rjm; Gussy, M G; Farmer, J

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to scope the literature that exists about factors influencing oral health workforce planning and management in developing countries (DCs). The Arksey and O'Malley method for conducting a scoping review was used. A replicable search strategy was applied, using three databases. Factors influencing oral health workforce planning and management in DCs identified in the eligible articles were charted. Four thousand citations were identified; 41 papers were included for review. Most included papers were situational analyses. Factors identified were as follows: lack of data, focus on the restorative rather than preventive care in practitioner education, recent increase in number of dental schools (mostly private) and dentistry students, privatization of dental care services which has little impact on care maldistribution, and debates about skill mix and scope of practice. Oral health workforce management in the eligible studies has a bias towards dentist-led systems. Due to a lack of country-specific oral health related data in developing or least developed countries (LDCs), oral health workforce planning often relies on data and modelling from other countries. Approaches to oral health workforce management and planning in developing or LDCs are often characterized by approaches to increase numbers of dentists, thus not ameliorating maldistribution of service accessibility. Governments appear to be reducing support for public and preventative oral healthcare, favouring growth in privatized dental services. Changes to professional education are necessary to trigger a paradigm shift to the preventive approach and to improve relationships between different oral healthcare provider roles. This needs to be premised on greater appreciation of preventive care in health systems and funding models. © 2016 The Authors. International Journal of Dental Hygiene Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. The Professional Development Plan of a Health Care Workforce as a Qualitative Indicator of the Health Care System's Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiti, Anna; Mylona, Vasiliki

    2015-01-01

    The quality of a health care system is heavily dependent on a capable and skillful health care workforce so as to guarantee the delivery of quality health care services to its user groups. Hence, only through continuous training and development can the health care workforce follow rapid scientific progress while equitably balancing investment…

  13. Workforce development to embed mental health promotion research and evaluation into organisational practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joss, Nerida; Keleher, Helen

    2007-12-01

    This project engaged a mental health rehabilitation organisation in health promotion research and development to build its capacity in evaluation research. Participatory research methods were used. Staff skills development occurred through training in research and evaluation methods applied to an evaluation project in mental health promotion that they conducted. All staff had some previous training in research but little, if any, experience of research practice. Staff demonstrated commitment to the idea of embedding research practice into the organisation to strengthen its ability to demonstrate program outcomes. However, the realities of work demands eventually took precedence over the tasks involved in the research process. Staff commitment, knowledge and skills are not sufficient if an organisation lacks the capacity to provide the resources or foster support for a research culture. The health promotion capacity-building framework is relevant for efforts to build health promotion research into mental health organisations. This project demonstrated that workforce development to build the capacity for mental health promotion is more likely to be successful if it is embedded into organisational strategy and culture, has sufficient resources allocated including staff time, and is supported by management.

  14. Community annotation and bioinformatics workforce development in concert--Little Skate Genome Annotation Workshops and Jamborees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qinghua; Arighi, Cecilia N; King, Benjamin L; Polson, Shawn W; Vincent, James; Chen, Chuming; Huang, Hongzhan; Kingham, Brewster F; Page, Shallee T; Rendino, Marc Farnum; Thomas, William Kelley; Udwary, Daniel W; Wu, Cathy H

    2012-01-01

    Recent advances in high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies have equipped biologists with a powerful new set of tools for advancing research goals. The resulting flood of sequence data has made it critically important to train the next generation of scientists to handle the inherent bioinformatic challenges. The North East Bioinformatics Collaborative (NEBC) is undertaking the genome sequencing and annotation of the little skate (Leucoraja erinacea) to promote advancement of bioinformatics infrastructure in our region, with an emphasis on practical education to create a critical mass of informatically savvy life scientists. In support of the Little Skate Genome Project, the NEBC members have developed several annotation workshops and jamborees to provide training in genome sequencing, annotation and analysis. Acting as a nexus for both curation activities and dissemination of project data, a project web portal, SkateBase (http://skatebase.org) has been developed. As a case study to illustrate effective coupling of community annotation with workforce development, we report the results of the Mitochondrial Genome Annotation Jamborees organized to annotate the first completely assembled element of the Little Skate Genome Project, as a culminating experience for participants from our three prior annotation workshops. We are applying the physical/virtual infrastructure and lessons learned from these activities to enhance and streamline the genome annotation workflow, as we look toward our continuing efforts for larger-scale functional and structural community annotation of the L. erinacea genome.

  15. Community annotation and bioinformatics workforce development in concert—Little Skate Genome Annotation Workshops and Jamborees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qinghua; Arighi, Cecilia N.; King, Benjamin L.; Polson, Shawn W.; Vincent, James; Chen, Chuming; Huang, Hongzhan; Kingham, Brewster F.; Page, Shallee T.; Farnum Rendino, Marc; Thomas, William Kelley; Udwary, Daniel W.; Wu, Cathy H.

    2012-01-01

    Recent advances in high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies have equipped biologists with a powerful new set of tools for advancing research goals. The resulting flood of sequence data has made it critically important to train the next generation of scientists to handle the inherent bioinformatic challenges. The North East Bioinformatics Collaborative (NEBC) is undertaking the genome sequencing and annotation of the little skate (Leucoraja erinacea) to promote advancement of bioinformatics infrastructure in our region, with an emphasis on practical education to create a critical mass of informatically savvy life scientists. In support of the Little Skate Genome Project, the NEBC members have developed several annotation workshops and jamborees to provide training in genome sequencing, annotation and analysis. Acting as a nexus for both curation activities and dissemination of project data, a project web portal, SkateBase (http://skatebase.org) has been developed. As a case study to illustrate effective coupling of community annotation with workforce development, we report the results of the Mitochondrial Genome Annotation Jamborees organized to annotate the first completely assembled element of the Little Skate Genome Project, as a culminating experience for participants from our three prior annotation workshops. We are applying the physical/virtual infrastructure and lessons learned from these activities to enhance and streamline the genome annotation workflow, as we look toward our continuing efforts for larger-scale functional and structural community annotation of the L. erinacea genome. PMID:22434832

  16. Structured Mentoring for Workforce Engagement and Professional Development in Public Health Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dopson, Stephanie A; Griffey, Sue; Ghiya, Neelam; Laird, Susan; Cyphert, Aubrey; Iskander, John

    2017-05-01

    Mentoring is commonly used to facilitate professional growth and workforce development in a variety of settings. Organizations can use mentoring to help achieve broader personnel goals including leadership development and succession planning. While mentorship can be incorporated into training programs in public health, there are other examples of structured mentoring, with time commitments ranging from minutes to months or longer. Based on a review of the literature in public health and aggregated personal subject matter expertise of existing programs at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, we summarize selected mentoring models that vary primarily by time commitments and meeting frequency and identify specific work situations to which they may be applicable, primarily from the federal job experience point of view. We also suggest specific tasks that mentor-mentee pairs can undertake, including review of writing samples, practice interviews, and development of the mentee's social media presence. The mentor-mentee relationship should be viewed as a reciprocally beneficial one that can be a source of learning and personal growth for individuals at all levels of professional achievement and across the span of their careers.

  17. Creating a new rural pharmacy workforce: Development and implementation of the Rural Pharmacy Health Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Mollie Ashe; Kiser, Stephanie; Park, Irene; Grandy, Rebecca; Joyner, Pamela U

    2017-12-01

    An innovative certificate program aimed at expanding the rural pharmacy workforce, increasing the number of pharmacists with expertise in rural practice, and improving healthcare outcomes in rural North Carolina is described. Predicted shortages of primary care physicians and closures of critical access hospitals are expected to worsen existing health disparities. Experiential education in schools and colleges of pharmacy primarily takes place in academic medical centers and, unlike experiential education in medical schools, rarely emphasizes the provision of patient care in rural U.S. communities, where chronic diseases are prevalent and many residents struggle with poverty and poor access to healthcare. To help address these issues, UNC Eshelman School of Pharmacy developed the 3-year Rural Pharmacy Health Certificate program. The program curriculum includes 4 seminar courses, interprofessional education and interaction with medical students, embedding of each pharmacy student into a specific rural community for the duration of training, longitudinal ambulatory care practice experiences, community engagement initiatives, leadership training, development and implementation of a population health project, and 5 pharmacy practice experiences in rural settings. The Rural Pharmacy Health Certificate program at UNC Eshelman School of Pharmacy seeks to transform rural pharmacy practice by creating a pipeline of rural pharmacy leaders and teaching a unique skillset that will be beneficial to healthcare systems, communities, and patients. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The journal is envisaged to enable dissemination and sharing of food and nutrition ... food security, and nutrition that affect Africa's development and people's livelihoods. ... of children less than five years old in the southern zone of Tigray, Ethiopia ... Value chain and marketing margins of cassava: An assessment of cassava ...

  19. Thailand's National Nutritional Program : Lessons in Management and Capacity Development

    OpenAIRE

    Heaver, Richard; Kachondam, Yongyout

    2002-01-01

    Thailand's community nutrition program has been the most successful in Asia. This paper looks at what made it work from a management and capacity development point of view. Key lessons are identified in the following areas: Building a strong consensus at national and local levels about the importance of nutrition as an investment in the country's future, rather than as a welfare expenditur...

  20. Developing an Online Certification Program for Nutrition Education Assistants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christofferson, Debra; Christensen, Nedra; LeBlanc, Heidi; Bunch, Megan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To develop an online certification program for nutrition education paraprofessionals to increase knowledge and confidence and to overcome training barriers of programming time and travel expenses. Design: An online interactive certification course based on Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program-Education and Expanded Food and…

  1. The MCH navigator: tools for MCH workforce development and lifelong learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grason, Holly; Huebner, Colleen; Crawford, Alyssa Kim; Ruderman, Marjory; Taylor, Cathy R; Kavanagh, Laura; Farel, Anita; Wightkin, Joan; Long-White, Deneen; Ramirez, Shokufeh M; Preskitt, Julie; Morrissette, Meredith; Handler, Arden

    2015-02-01

    Maternal and child health (MCH) leadership requires an understanding of MCH populations and systems as well as continuous pursuit of new knowledge and skills. This paper describes the development, structure, and implementation of the MCH Navigator, a web-based portal for ongoing education and training for a diverse MCH workforce. Early development of the portal focused on organizing high quality, free, web-based learning opportunities that support established learning competencies without duplicating existing resources. An academic-practice workgroup developed a conceptual model based on the MCH Leadership Competencies, the Core Competencies for Public Health Professionals, and a structured review of MCH job responsibilities. The workgroup used a multi-step process to cull the hundreds of relevant, but widely scattered, trainings and select those most valuable for the primary target audiences of state and local MCH professionals and programs. The MCH Navigator now features 248 learning opportunities, with additional tools to support their use. Formative assessment findings indicate that the portal is widely used and valued by its primary audiences, and promotes both an individual's professional development and an organizational culture of continuous learning. Professionals in practice and academic settings are using the MCH Navigator for orientation of new staff and advisors, "just in time" training for specific job functions, creating individualized professional development plans, and supplementing course content. To achieve its intended impact and ensure the timeliness and quality of the Navigator's content and functions, the MCH Navigator will need to be sustained through ongoing partnership with state and local MCH professionals and the MCH academic community.

  2. Evidence based practice in population health: a regional survey to inform workforce development and organisational change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adily, A; Ward, J

    2004-06-01

    To assess current capacity to implement evidence based practice (EBP) in population health. Postal survey of a regional population health workforce in Sydney, Australia. Division of Population Health, South Western Sydney Area Health Service. 104 population health staff (response rate: 73%). In the sample of regional population health practitioners, views about the current promotion of EBP were positive. Non-medical respondents with less that Masters degree were more likely to report "high self assessed need" to increase their capacity in EBP (p = 0.022). Confidence in understanding of EBP terminology was not associated with seniority but with highest level of education reached (pskills" or "need to increase their capacity in EBP" in their current position. The proportion of participants "strongly" supporting implementation of a colorectal cancer screening programme whose benefit was expressed as relative risk reduction was greater than that so supporting a programme whose benefit was expressed as number needed to screen (p = 0.008). Most respondents referred to their immediate managers when seeking support for EBP. The findings provide a quantitative baseline for capacity building through workplace programmes. Managerial commitment has been increased and performance development is now underway.

  3. Workforce productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Ruth

    2012-10-26

    Managers who are responsible for delivering the workforce productivity element of the Quality, Innovation, Productivity and Prevention (QIPP) programme can network and share best practice through a dedicated NHS Employers webpage.

  4. Promoting equity through integrated early child development and nutrition interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Maureen M; Dewey, Kathryn G

    2014-01-01

    Sustainable development, a foundation of the post-2015 global agenda, depends on healthy and productive citizens. The origins of adult health begin early in life, stemming from genetic-environmental interactions that include adequate nutrition and opportunities for responsive learning. Inequities associated with inadequate nutrition and early learning opportunities can undermine children's health and development, thereby compromising their productivity and societal contributions. Transactional theory serves as a useful framework for examining the associations that link early child development and nutrition because it emphasizes the interplay that occurs between children and the environment, mediated through caregiver interactions. Although single interventions targeting early child development or nutrition can be effective, there is limited evidence on the development, implementation, evaluation, and scaling up of integrated interventions. This manuscript introduces a special edition of papers on six topics central to integrated child development/nutrition interventions: (1) review of integrated interventions; (2) methods and topics in designing integrated interventions; (3) economic considerations related to integrated interventions; (4) capacity-building considerations; (5) examples of integrated interventions; and (6) policy implications of integrated interventions. Ensuring the health and development of infants and young children through integrated child development/nutrition interventions promotes equity, a critical component of sustainable development. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.

  5. ED51: Using International Networks to Develop the Future Global Geoscience Workforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, E. E.; Pangman, P.; Jacobs, R. L.

    2011-12-01

    Developed nations face the immediate need to replace the current wave of retiring geoscientists at the same time developing nations need to build an infrastructure to train future geoscientists. But what does a successful geoscientist look like? Recruiters seem to favor candidates from respected universities that pair applied book knowledge with excellent communication skills and the ability to take a multidisciplinary approach to challenges. Students should be global thinking, business minded, and socially aware. The Society of Exploration Geophysicists as a successful global society addresses the needs of a growing diverse membership through an international approach. Student membership has doubled over the past five years to almost 10,000. The Society is building momentum through targeted, yet diverse programs. Students are eager to participate in the unique SEG/Chevron Student Leadership Symposium, SEG/ExxonMobil Student Education Program, Challenge Bowls, Student Expositions, Honorary Lecturer presentations and related events. These are transformative educational opportunities that provide the impetus for expanded and very effective international networking and transfer of knowledge. As SEG's students build on these relationships and newly acquired leadership skills, they affect the scope and breadth of SEG Student Chapter activities. There has been a resulting increase in multi-country field camps. The Geoscientists Without Borders° humanitarian program provides cross-cultural field opportunities that demonstrate how applied geoscience can make a difference in the global society, while providing students with valuable workforce skills that employers seek. These collaborative efforts are facilitated by social media and on-line communities that cause boundaries to dissolve and time zones to become irrelevant.

  6. African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development - Vol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development. ... Chemical composition, functional and baking properties of wheat-plantain ... Role of fatty acids of milk and dairy products in cardiovascular diseases: A review · EMAIL FREE ...

  7. African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development - Vol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... Assessment of pre-harvest aflatoxin and fumonisin contamination of maize in Babati District, Tanzania · EMAIL FREE ...

  8. Program Development and Evaluation - Nutrition / Health

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    Martha Archuleta: Kitchen Creations - A Cooking School for People with Diabetes. Darlene Christensen: University of Wyoming Food & Nutrition Extension Website. Judith L. Corbus: Hawaii Five-A-Day A Taste of the Tropics with Fruits and Vegetables. Luanne J. Hughes: Reaching Key Audiences with Food Safety Messages. Darlene Liesch: Pregnancy Prevention for Latino Teens. Karen Richey: Food Irradiation - Insuring your Food’s Safety. Carole Rison: Farmers Markets – Impacting Health through Economic...

  9. IT Workforce Development: A Family and Consumer Sciences Community Capacity Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meszaros, Peggy S.; Kimbrell, Monica R.; Swenson, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    This article examines Extension professionals building community capacity in 10 counties across five Appalachian states in response to the talent crisis in the United States information technology (IT) workforce. The goal has been to transfer IT knowledge and create a supportive environment to foster interest in IT careers among underserved girls…

  10. The Entrepreneurial Community College: Bringing Workforce, Economic and Community Development to Virginia Community Colleges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, Richard L.

    2001-01-01

    Proposes creating an entrepreneurial college within the community college that will offer non-credit courses to the community and workforce. States that the courses would focus on the training needs of community industry, with the employer as the customer, rather than the student. Adds that the proposed college would also focus on community…

  11. Pharmacy technician self-efficacies: Insight to aid future education, staff development, and workforce planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desselle, Shane P; Hoh, Ryan; Holmes, Erin R; Gill, Amanpreet; Zamora, Lemuel

    2017-07-15

    The roles of pharmacy technicians are increasingly prominent given pharmacy's transition to patient-centered activities and evolving scopes of practice in many U.S. states and throughout the world. The aims of this study were to assess U.S. pharmacy technicians' self-efficacies for and attitudes toward performing current and emerging roles in hospital and in community pharmacy and to identify factors related to pharmacy technician self-efficacies in these roles. A total of 5000 pharmacy technicians from 8 U.S. states were sent an electronic survey eliciting data on current involvement, self-efficacies, and attitudes for practicing in an expansive list of practice activities. The 8 states from which the sample was drawn were selected from a stratified randomized procedure using U.S. Census Bureau geographically defined regions. Pre-notification and response reminders were employed. Data were analyzed descriptively and with univariate, inferential tests, as appropriate, to determine associations with commitment, practice environment, experience level, and other variables. Of the 612 participants who responded, 494 were currently working as a technician and not enrolled in a PharmD program of study. Participants reported various activities in which they were highly engaged. Overall, attitudes toward performing most of the activities and self-efficacies were quite favorable, even for those activities in which technicians were currently less involved. There were some notable differences between technicians practicing in community versus hospital settings. Years of experience, profession commitment, and advanced employee ranking were associated with higher levels of self-efficacy, overall. This initial examination of pharmacy technician self-efficacies identified areas that along with other factors could help employers with further expanding technician practice activities and vocational institutions with considerations for education and development of these key members

  12. Evaluation of the Effect of Knowledge Concerning Healthy Nutrition and Nutrition Science on the Knowledge Development Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asghari

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Nutrition can be regarded as an important part of any preparation program, as well as an important part of life. It seems essential to develop nutritional science and improve eating habits with the purpose of developing a healthy diet and avoiding the outcomes that arise from a lack of nutrition. Proper nutrition is one of the important factors for the development of health. Lack of sufficient awareness about nutrition can result in improper eating habits. Objectives The present study evaluated the effect of knowledge about healthy nutrition and nutrition science on the knowledge development approach. Materials and Methods In this cross-sectional descriptive study, the statistical population consisted of 190 experts and other scholars in the area of nutritional science. A questionnaire based on demographic details, nutritional science, nutrition education, research, proper solutions to individuals’ nutritional problems, and a culture of nutrition was used for data collection. Results A relatively strong positive correlation was found between the knowledge development approach, nutritional science, nutrition education and research, and proper solutions for individual nutritional problems and a culture of nutrition (P < 0.001. Conclusions 1 Effective enhancement and participation in an academic community will be important in the future of food and nutrition security; however, major gaps and weaknesses also exist in this context; 2 The main weaknesses in relation to the lack of clear policies and procedures include focusing on only Tehran, Iran; the need to overcome bureaucracy; and problems related to motivation, capital, and international communications; 3 Qualitative and quantitative improvement of research is not possible without access to skilled experts and researchers; 4 To solve these problems, it will be beneficial to pay more attention to the role of universities, facilitate intellectual communication among professors in

  13. Nutrition and dementia care: developing an evidence-based model for nutritional care in nursing homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Jane L; Holmes, Joanne; Brooks, Cindy

    2017-02-14

    There is a growing volume of research to offer improvements in nutritional care for people with dementia living in nursing homes. Whilst a number of interventions have been identified to support food and drink intake, there has been no systematic research to understand the factors for improving nutritional care from the perspectives of all those delivering care in nursing homes. The aim of this study was to develop a research informed model for understanding the complex nutritional problems associated with eating and drinking for people with dementia. We conducted nine focus groups and five semi-structured interviews with those involved or who have a level of responsibility for providing food and drink and nutritional care in nursing homes (nurses, care workers, catering assistants, dietitians, speech and language therapists) and family carers. The resulting conceptual model was developed by eliciting care-related processes, thus supporting credibility from the perspective of the end-users. The seven identified domain areas were person-centred nutritional care (the overarching theme); availability of food and drink; tools, resources and environment; relationship to others when eating and drinking; participation in activities; consistency of care and provision of information. This collaboratively developed, person-centred model can support the design of new education and training tools and be readily translated into existing programmes. Further research is needed to evaluate whether these evidence-informed approaches have been implemented successfully and adopted into practice and policy contexts and can demonstrate effectiveness for people living with dementia.

  14. Developing an online certification program for nutrition education assistants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christofferson, Debra; Christensen, Nedra; LeBlanc, Heidi; Bunch, Megan

    2012-01-01

    To develop an online certification program for nutrition education paraprofessionals to increase knowledge and confidence and to overcome training barriers of programming time and travel expenses. An online interactive certification course based on Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program-Education and Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program core competencies was delivered to employees of both programs. Traditional vs online training was compared. Course content validity was determined through expert review by registered dietitians. Parameters studied included increase of nutrition knowledge and teaching technique/ability, educator satisfaction, and programming costs related to training. Utah State University Extension. Twenty-two Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program-Education and Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program educators in Utah. Knowledge and skills were measured using pre/posttest statistics. Participant satisfaction was measured with a survey. Paired t test; satisfaction survey. The change in paraprofessional knowledge score was statistically significant (P educators because of the training. An estimated $16,000 was saved by providing the training online as compared to a face-to-face training. This interactive online program is a cost-effective way to increase paraprofessional knowledge and job satisfaction. Copyright © 2012 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Nutrition and socio-economic development in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florentino, R F; Pedro, R A

    1992-05-01

    While most Third World countries, particularly in Africa and Latin America, have experienced a deterioration in child welfare as a result of the severe economic downturn in the 1980s, Southeast Asia in general managed to sustain improvements in the situation of its children because it has maintained satisfactory rates of economic growth. However, there were exceptions within Southeast Asia. The Philippines, Vietnam, Dem. Kampuchea and Laos had unsatisfactory growth rates and, consequently, unsustained nutritional gains from the 1970s through the 1980s. Economic factors exerted a big impact on the Philippine nutrition situation, particularly on the dietary status of the households and the nutritional status of children. As a result of the economic dislocation occurring in the country, the nutritional gains of 1978-82 were not maintained in succeeding years. Unlike the case of Thailand, it has been estimated that the solution to nutritional problems in the Philippines is far from being achieved in the immediate future (Villavieja et al. 1989). On the other hand, the nutrition improvements in Thailand have been as remarkable as the economic growth over the last decade. Long-term investments in health, nutrition and other social services in Thailand (as well as in Indonesia) have paid off according to the assessment by the United Nations (1990). It appears, therefore, that the nutrition situation in developing countries is highly dependent on the economic situation, globally and nationally (Cornia et al. 1987), as well as on investment in social services. Adjustment policies should, therefore, consider their implications on distribution and poverty in order that they could positively contribute to the improvement of the nutrition of the people.

  16. Development of a cost effective organizational model for the shipbuilding welder labor workforce

    OpenAIRE

    Stegelman, Michael S.

    2009-01-01

    Approved for public release, distribution unlimited For the past twenty-five years, the United States shipbuilding industry has experienced a slow decay in both hiring and retaining critical skilled professionals. One of the most critical skills required to fabricate a ship is welding, as welders play a major role in shipbuilding, from pre-fabrication to delivery. Many factors can be identified with the cause of this reduction in the welder workforce. These factors include technology ...

  17. Diffusion of a nursing education innovation: nursing workforce development through promotion of RN/BSN education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz Swearingen, Connie; Clarke, Pamela N; Gatua, Mary Wairimu; Sumner, Christa Cooper

    2013-01-01

    Despite state, national, and organizational objectives to increase the proportion of nurses with a bachelor's degree or higher, a majority of nurses hold an associate's degree in nursing. To address the need for a better-prepared nursing workforce in this rural state, an RN/BSN recruitment and retention project was implemented. The authors discuss the Leadership Education to Advance Practice project and its outcomes.

  18. Developing Collaborative Maternal and Child Health Leaders: A Descriptive Study of the National Maternal and Child Health Workforce Development Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Alina Nadira; Cilenti, Dorothy

    2018-01-01

    Purpose An assessment of the National Maternal and Child Health Workforce Development Center (the Center) was conducted to describe (1) effects of the Center's training on the use of collaborative leadership practices by MCH leaders, and (2) perceived barriers to collaboration for MCH leaders. The Center provides services to strengthen MCH professionals' skills in three core areas: Change Management/Adaptive Leadership, Evidence-Based Decision Making, and Systems Integration. Description This descriptive qualitative study compares eight interview responses from a sample of the Center's participants and findings from a document review of the training curriculum against an existing framework of collaborative leadership themes. Assessment Systems thinking tools and related training were highly referenced, and the interviewees often related process-based leadership practices with their applied learning health transformation projects. Perceived barriers to sustaining collaborative work included: (1) a tendency for state agencies to have siloed priorities, (2) difficulty achieving a consensus to move a project forward without individual partners disengaging, (3) strained organizational partnerships when the individual representative leaves that partnering organization, and (4) difficulty in sustaining project-based partnerships past the short term. Conclusion The findings in this study suggest that investments in leadership development training for MCH professionals, such as the Center, can provide opportunities for participants to utilize collaborative leadership practices.

  19. Preparing tomorrow's transportation workforce : a Midwest summit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    Preparing Tomorrows Transportation Workforce: A Midwest Summit, held April 2728, 2010, in Ames, Iowa, was one of several : regional transportation workforce development summits held across the United States in 2009 and 2010 as part of a coordin...

  20. Growing children's bodies and minds: maximizing child nutrition and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engle, Patrice; Huffman, Sandra L

    2010-06-01

    For their optimal growth, and for greater long-term human capital development, children profit not only from improved nutrition but also from improved learning opportunities in the earliest years of life. This paper describes how actions to enhance optimal infant and young child nutrition can be linked with child development interventions for children under 3 years of age. In countries with high rates of malnutrition, linking these two components will result in synergies of program activities, and will bring about a greater impact at reduced cost than either activity conducted separately. New understanding of social marketing and communication strategies can increase effectiveness of linked interventions. Public-private partnerships to improve both child development and nutrition offer promise for sustainable interventions.

  1. North Carolina's direct care workforce development journey: the case of the North Carolina New Organizational Vision Award Partner Team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brannon, S Diane; Kemper, Peter; Barry, Theresa

    2009-01-01

    Better Jobs Better Care was a five-state direct care workforce demonstration designed to change policy and management practices that influence recruitment and retention of direct care workers, problems that continue to challenge providers. One of the projects, the North Carolina Partner Team, developed a unified approach in which skilled nursing, home care, and assisted living providers could be rewarded for meeting standards of workplace excellence. This case study documents the complex adaptive system agents and processes that coalesced to result in legislation recognizing the North Carolina New Organizational Vision Award. We used a holistic, single-case study design. Qualitative data from project work plans and progress reports as well as notes from interviews with key stakeholders and observation of meetings were coded into a simple rubric consisting of characteristics of complex adaptive systems. Key system agents in the state set the stage for the successful multistakeholder coalition. These included leadership by the North Carolina Department of Health and Human Services and a several year effort to develop a unifying vision for workforce development. Grant resources were used to facilitate both content and process work. Structure was allowed to emerge as needed. The coalition's own development is shown to have changed the context from which it was derived. An inclusive and iterative process produced detailed standards and measures for the voluntary recognition process. With effective facilitation, the interests of the multiple stakeholders coalesced into a policy response that encourages practice changes. Implications for managing change-oriented coalitions are discussed.

  2. Uses of population census data for monitoring geographical imbalance in the health workforce: snapshots from three developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diallo Khassoum

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Imbalance in the distribution of human resources for health (HRH, eventually leading to inequities in health services delivery and population health outcomes, is an issue of social and political concern in many countries. However, the empirical evidence to support decision-making is often fragmented, and many standard data sources that can potentially produce statistics relevant to the issue remain underused, especially in developing countries. This study investigated the uses of demographic census data for monitoring geographical imbalance in the health workforce for three developing countries, as a basis for formulation of evidence-based health policy options. Methods Population-based indicators of geographical variations among HRH were extracted from census microdata samples for Kenya, Mexico and Viet Nam. Health workforce statistics were matched against international standards of occupational classification to control for cross-national comparability. Summary measures of inequality were calculated to monitor the distribution of health workers across spatial units and by occupational group. Results Strong inequalities were found in the geographical distribution of the health workforce in all three countries, with the highest densities of HRH tending to be found in the capital areas. Cross-national differences were found in the magnitude of distributional inequality according to occupational group, with health professionals most susceptible to inequitable distribution in Kenya and Viet Nam but less so in Mexico compared to their associate professional counterparts. Some discrepancies were suggested between mappings of occupational information from the raw data with the international system, especially for nursing and midwifery specializations. Conclusions The problem of geographical imbalance among HRH across countries in the developing world holds important implications at the local, national and international levels, in

  3. Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of States, Districts, and Schools That Required Teaching Nutrition and Dietary Behavior, by School Level 100 80 60 40 20 0 72. ... no comparable variable existed in both survey years. Nutrition Services • 68.6% of schools offered breakfast to students and 63.0% participated ...

  4. Human development, poverty, health & nutrition situation in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antony, G M; Laxmaiah, A

    2008-08-01

    Human development index (HDI) is extensively used to measure the standard of living of a country. India made a study progress in the HDI value. Extreme poverty is concentrated in rural areas of northern States while income growth has been dynamic in southern States and urban areas. This study was undertaken to assess the trends in HDI, human poverty index (HPI) and incidence of poverty among Indian states, the socio-economic, health, and diet and nutritional indicators which determine the HDI, changes in protein and calorie adequacy status of rural population, and also trends in malnutrition among children in India. The variations in socio-economic, demographic and dietary indicators by grades of HDI were studied. The trends in poverty and nutrition were also studied. Univariate, bivariate and multivariate analysis were done to analyse data. While India's HDI value has improved over a time; our rank did not improve much compared to other developing countries. Human poverty has not reduced considerably as per the HPI values. The undernutrition among preschool children is still a major public health problem in India. The incidence of poverty at different levels of calorie requirement has not reduced in both rural and urban areas. The time trends in nutritional status of pre-school children showed that, even though, there is an improvement in stunting over the years, the trend in wasting and underweight has not improved much. Proper nutrition and health awareness are important to tackle the health hazards of developmental transition. Despite several national nutrition programmes in operation, we could not make a significant dent in the area of health and nutrition. The changing dietary practices of the urban population, especially the middle class, are of concern. Further studies are needed to measure the human development and poverty situation of different sections of the population in India using an index, which includes both income indicators and non income

  5. Development of nutrition education tool: healthy eating index in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taechangam, Sunard; Pinitchun, Utumporn; Pachotikarn, Chanida

    2008-01-01

    A healthful diet can reduce major risk factors for chronic diseases. To assess the dietary status of Thais and monitor changes in food consumption patterns, the Healthy Eating Index for Thais (THEI) is developed, an important tool for meeting the nutrition goals and determining people's overall diet quality. This index measures how well the diets of Thai people conform to the recommendations of the Food Guide Thailand Nutrition Flag. The THEI consists of 11 components, each representing different aspects of a healthful diet: Components 1-5 measure the degree to which a person's diet conforms to serving recommendations for the five major food groups of Thailand Nutrition Flag; Components 6, 7 and 8 measure total fat, saturated fat and added sugar consumption, respectively; Components 9 and 10 measure total cholesterol and sodium intake; and Component 11 examines variety in a person's diet. Each of the 11 components has a score ranging from 0 to 10, for a total score of 110. The dietary intake data from selected working adults were collected to derive the THEI scores. The average THEI score indicated that the diets of most people needed improvement and some individuals were more likely than others to consume a poor diet. This suggests a continued role for nutrition education and promotion efforts should result in a significant improvement of people's overall diet quality. In conclusion, the THEI is an useful index for describing overall diet quality for Thais and serves as a basic tool for providing nutrition education and promotion.

  6. Nutrition, Health and Safety in Early Childhood Development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article investigates the nutrition, health and safety status in Early Childhood Development (ECD) programmes and its impact thereof on the quality of care and education in Harare primary schools as perceived by the school heads, ECD teachers and parents. The study is part of a larger study on assessing the quality of ...

  7. The Link between Nutrition and Cognitive Development in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tufts Univ., Medford, MA. Center on Hunger, Poverty and Nutrition Policy.

    New findings about child nutrition and cognitive development indicate that undernourished children are typically fatigued and uninterested in their social environments. Such children are less likely to establish relationships or to explore and learn from their surroundings. Undernourished children are also more susceptible to illness and, thus,…

  8. African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development - Vol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development. ... Improvement of Injera shelf life through the use of chemical preservatives · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ... DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. KM Mbae, C Kiiyukia, GM Kenji, 6490-6502 ...

  9. Genetic and nutrition development of indigenous chicken in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khobondo, J O; Muasya, T K; Miyumo, S

    2015-01-01

    This review gives insights into genetic and feeding regime development for indigenous chicken genetic resources. We highlight and combine confirming evidence of genetic diversity and variability using morphological and molecular techniques. We further discuss previous past and current genetic...... requirement for indigenous chicken and report nutritive contents of various local feedstuffs under various production systems. Various conservation strategies for sustainable utilization are hereby reviewed...

  10. African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development - Vol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development. ... Determinants of individual dietary diversity score of children less than five years old in the southern zone of Tigray, ... Value chain and marketing margins of cassava: An assessment of cassava marketing in northern Uganda ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  11. Executive summary: biomarkers of nutrition for development: building a consensus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ability to develop evidence-based clinical guidance and effective programs and policies to achieve global health promotion and disease prevention goals depends on the availability of valid and reliable data. With specific regard to the role of food and nutrition in achieving those goals, relevan...

  12. Perception of Employers' in Transforming Technical and Vocational Education and Training vis-a-vis Emerging Technology Tools for Sustainable Workforce Development in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oladiran Stephen Olabiyi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Economic competitiveness of a country depends to a large extent on the skills of its workforce. The skills and the competencies of the workforce, in turn, are dependent upon the quality of the country’s education and training. Education and training are undergoing continuous change, and this change poses more challenges to the 21st-century workforce, and to training institutions. Despite the importance of TVET in transforming economic development, of any nation, Nigeria still has different perspectives about the competency of its TVET graduates. Therefore, the paper aims at determining the perceptions of Organized Private Sector (OPS employers’ regarding the competency of TVET graduates and the role of emerging technology tools in transforming TVET for a sustainable workforce development. Using a descriptive survey research design and a sample of 80 OPS employers. A validated and piloted questionnaire based on a 5-point Likert scale used as the data collection instrument for the study. Data were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics including means, standard deviation and ANOVA. Data analysis was facilitated using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS. Findings revealed that employers were not satisfied with the competency level of TVET graduates as it is showed that they are not well prepared to enter the competitive workforce and to be self-reliant. Given the nature and complexity of the field of TVET for a sustainable workforce, it was recommended that the utilization of adequate planning and management of emerging technology tools and resources in teaching TVET programs could contribute enormously to the quality and sustainability of the Nigerian workforce.

  13. Using the Stop Transmission of Polio (STOP) Program to Develop a South Sudan Expanded Program on Immunization Workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchoualeu, Dieula D; Hercules, Margaret A; Mbabazi, William B; Kirbak, Anthony L; Usman, Abdulmumini; Bizuneh, Ketema; Sandhu, Hardeep S

    2017-07-01

    In 2009, the international Stop Transmission of Polio (STOP) program began supporting the Global Polio Eradication Initiative in the Republic of South Sudan to address shortages of human resources and strengthen acute flaccid paralysis surveillance. Workforce capacity support is provided to the South Sudan Expanded Program on Immunization by STOP volunteers, implementing partners, and non-governmental organizations. In 2013, the Polio Technical Advisory Group recommended that South Sudan transition key technical support from external partners to national staff as part of the Polio Eradication and Endgame Strategic Plan, 2013-2018. To assist in this transition, the South Sudan Expanded Program on Immunization human resources development project was launched in 2015. This 3-year project aims to build national workforce capacity as a legacy of the STOP program by training 56 South Sudanese at national and state levels with the intent that participants would become Ministry of Health staff on their successful completion of the project. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  14. Nutritional programming of reproductive development in heifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developmental programming is the biological process by which environmental factors influence the development of the organs and tissues in the body. There are two areas of developmental programming being investigated with applicability to beef production systems to improve performance of replacement...

  15. The development of android - based children's nutritional status monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryanto, Agus; Paramita, Octavianti; Pribadi, Feddy Setio

    2017-03-01

    The calculation of BMI (Body Mass Index) is one of the methods to calculate the nutritional status of a person. The BMI calculation has not yet widely understood and known by the public. In addition, people should know the importance of progress in the development of child nutrition each month. Therefore, an application to determine the nutritional status of children based on Android was developed in this study. This study restricted the calculation for children with the age of 0-60 months. The application can run on a smartphone or tablet PC with android operating system due to the rapid development of a smartphone or tablet PC with android operating system and many people own and use it. The aim of this study was to produce a android app to calculate of nutritional status of children. This study was Research and Development (R & D), with a design approach using experimental studies. The steps in this study included analyzing the formula of the Body Mass Index (BMI) and developing the initial application with the help of a computer that includes the design and manufacture of display using Eclipse software. This study resulted in android application that can be used to calculate the nutritional status of children with the age 0-60 months. The results of MES or the error calculation analysis using body mass index formula was 0. In addition, the results of MAPE percentage was 0%. It shows that there is no error in the calculation of the application based on the BMI formula. The smaller value of MSE and MAPE leads to higher level of accuracy.

  16. Analysis of the association between millennium development goals 4 & 5 and the physician workforce across international economic strata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, Christopher P; Wang, Dongliang; Mader, Emily M; Plante, Kyle P; Kingston, Lindsey N; Rabiei, Azadeh

    2017-07-18

    The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are 8 international development goals voluntarily adopted by 189 nations. The goals included health related aims to reduce the under-five child mortality rate by two-thirds (MDG4), and to reduce the maternal mortality ratio by three-quarters (MDG5). To assess the relationship between the healthcare workforce and MDGs 4-5, we examined the physician workforces of countries around the globe, in terms of the Physician Density Level (PDL, or number of physicians per 1000 population), and compared this rate across a number of years to several indicator variables specified as markers of progress towards MDG4 and MDG5. Data for each variable of interest were obtained from the World Bank's Millennium Development Goals and World Development Indicators databases for 208 countries and territories from 2004 to 2014, representing a ten-year period for which the most information is available. We analyzed the relationships between MDG outcomes and PDL, controlling for national income levels and other covariates, using linear mixed model regression. Dependent variables were logarithmically transformed to meet assumptions necessary for multivariate analysis. In unadjusted models, an increase of every one physician per 1000 population (one unit change in PDL) lowered the risk of not being vaccinated for measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) to 29.3% (p < 0.001, 95% CI: 22.2%-38.7%) and for not receiving diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTaP) vaccination rate decreased to 38.5% (p < 0.001, 95% CI: 28.7% - 51.7%). Maternal mortality rate decreased to 76.6% (p < 0.001, 95% CI: 74.3% - 79.0%), neonatal mortality decreased to 58.8% (p < 0.001, 95% CI: 54.8% - 63.2%) and under-5 mortality rate decreased to 52.1% (p < 0.001, 95% CI: 48.0% - 56.4%), with every one-unit change in PDL. Adjusted models tended to reflect unadjusted risk assessments. The maintenance and improvement of the health workforce is a vital consideration when assessing how to achieve

  17. More care out of hospital? A qualitative exploration of the factors influencing the development of the district nursing workforce in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drennan, Vari M

    2018-01-01

    Objectives Many countries seek to improve care for people with chronic conditions and increase delivery of care outside of hospitals, including in the home. Despite these policy objectives in the United Kingdom, the home visiting nursing service workforce, known as district nursing, is declining. This study aimed to investigate the factors influencing the development of district nursing workforces in a metropolitan area of England. Methods A qualitative study in a metropolitan area of three million residents in diverse socio-economic communities using semi-structured interviews with a purposive sample of senior nurses in provider and commissioning organizations. Thematic analysis was framed by theories of workforce development. All participants reported that the context for the district nursing service was one of major reorganizations in the face of wider National Health Service changes and financial pressures. The analysis identified five themes that can be seen to impact the ways in which the district nursing workforce was developed. These were: the challenge of recruitment and retention, a changing case-mix of patients and the requirement for different clinical skills, the growth of specialist home visiting nursing services and its impact on generalist nursing, the capacity of the district nursing service to meet growing demand, and the influence of the short-term service commissioning process on the need for long-term workforce development. Conclusion There is an apparent paradox between health policies which promote more care within and closer to home and the reported decline in district nursing services. Using the lens of workforce development theory, an explanatory framework was offered with factors such as the nature of the nursing labour market, human resource practices, career advancement opportunities as well as the contractual context and the economic environment.

  18. Assessing the health workforce implications of health policy and programming: how a review of grey literature informed the development of a new impact assessment tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nove, Andrea; Cometto, Giorgio; Campbell, James

    2017-11-09

    In their adoption of WHA resolution 69.19, World Health Organization Member States requested all bilateral and multilateral initiatives to conduct impact assessments of their funding to human resources for health. The High-Level Commission for Health Employment and Economic Growth similarly proposed that official development assistance for health, education, employment and gender are best aligned to creating decent jobs in the health and social workforce. No standard tools exist for assessing the impact of global health initiatives on the health workforce, but tools exist from other fields. The objectives of this paper are to describe how a review of grey literature informed the development of a draft health workforce impact assessment tool and to introduce the tool. A search of grey literature yielded 72 examples of impact assessment tools and guidance from a wide variety of fields including gender, health and human rights. These examples were reviewed, and information relevant to the development of a health workforce impact assessment was extracted from them using an inductive process. A number of good practice principles were identified from the review. These informed the development of a draft health workforce impact assessment tool, based on an established health labour market framework. The tool is designed to be applied before implementation. It consists of a relatively short and focused screening module to be applied to all relevant initiatives, followed by a more in-depth assessment to be applied only to initiatives for which the screening module indicates that significant implications for HRH are anticipated. It thus aims to strike a balance between maximising rigour and minimising administrative burden. The application of the new tool will help to ensure that health workforce implications are incorporated into global health decision-making processes from the outset and to enhance positive HRH impacts and avoid, minimise or offset negative impacts.

  19. Building leadership skills and promoting workforce development: evaluation data collected from public health professionals in the field of maternal and child health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroelinger, Charlan D; Kasehagen, Laurin; Barradas, Danielle T; 'Ali, Zarinah

    2012-12-01

    Professional development, including training and leadership skill building, is important for maternal and child health (MCH) epidemiologists. Current workforce development and training opportunities vary, but lack an emphasis on linking leadership competencies with MCH epidemiology. This paper describes efforts at the annual MCH Epidemiology Conference (the "Conference") to promote leadership activities and workforce development, and recommendations to enhance professional development. An evaluation of attendee opinions on Conference workforce development activities was conducted during the 2009 and 2010 Conferences (70 and 66 % response rates, respectively). Frequencies and percentages were calculated overall and by attendee profession. Qualitative responses to questions regarding workforce and professional development were classified by theme in 2009, and a categorical question was developed for the 2010 evaluation. A combined 38 % of Conference attendees in 2009 and 2010 were MCH epidemiologists and 62 % were other MCH professionals. Attendees recommended more support and access to training, mentoring, and resources including job opportunities. Continuing education (41 %), special knowledge and skills-building training (51 %), and development of online resources for training (57 %) were highly recommended by attendees. Career (47 %) and leadership (49 %) mentoring by senior-level professionals in the field were also highly recommended. Promotion of leadership can be achieved by integrating the concept of leadership into the Conference itself; by publishing and disseminating MCH epidemiologic research in scientific, program, and policy settings; and by communicating the importance of epidemiologic findings to stakeholders and other non-scientific audiences.

  20. Nutrição e desenvolvimento Nutrition and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilma K. G. de Arruda

    1994-09-01

    Full Text Available As discussões sobre desenvolvimento e nutrição freqüentemente se realizam sob um duplo enfoque: aqueles que consideram o estado nutricional como reflexo do desenvolvimento, e os que admitem que a nutrição influencia fortemente no nível e ritmo desse desenvolvimento. Os autores focalizam o tema visualizando a nutrição como um fator decisivo para um bom desenvolvimento social e econômico, particularizando o fato de que as intervenções nutricionais podem contribuir para melhorias significativas nos resultados escolares, na produtividade do trabalho e na resistência às infecções. Assim, os reflexos da desnutrição na economia seriam evidentes: quer pelas limitações na expectativa de renda, quer pelo aumento dos custos dos compromissos que a população assume para proteger-se, quer pelos avultados custos ocultos de origem social - absenteísmo, acidentes do trabalho e rotatividade de pessoal. Em face dos propósitos de modernização e competitividade da economia, é inquestionável a necessidade da nutrição figurar bem alto na lista de prioridades nacionais. Com isso, promover-se-ia o desenvolvimento dos recursos humanos e a preservação desse capital, que é o ideário de uma economia socialmente responsável.Discussions on development and nutrition frequently have a double focus: one that considers nutritional status as a reflection of development, and another that admits that nutrition strongly influences the level and rhythm of development. The authors view nutrition as a decisive factor for adequate social and economic development, specifying the fact that nutritional interventions might contribute to significant improvements in individual classroom performance, productivity at the workplace, and resistance to infections. The implications of malnutrition for the economy are thus evident: either by limitations in income expectations, increased costs deriving from burdens assumed by the population to protect themselves, or

  1. Female and Male Interns and Their Mentors? Perception of Workforce Skill Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Cathy W.; Pinelli, Thomas E.; Brush, Kimberly M.

    2013-01-01

    Participants in this study were student interns and mentors taking part in the 2012, 10- week Langley Aerospace Research Student Scholars (LARSS) summer internship program in Hampton, Virginia. The study examined mentors and student interns' ratings of their preparedness in basic knowledge and skills. The study focused on three primary areas: 1) overall evaluation of knowledge and skills by mentors and interns; 2) male and female interns' perceptions of their own skills in these key areas; and 3) mentors' perceptions of their student interns' knowledge and skills in the same areas by gender. Overall mentors were more positive about their interns' improvement in 12 of 17 areas assessed than were the student interns. There were no significant gender differences in how mentors rated their male and female interns' abilities in these workforce skills, but there were four key areas where female interns rated their own abilities lower than did their male peers: analytical thinking, computational skills, computer skills and technical skills. Implications of these findings are discussed.

  2. Use of public health nurse competencies to develop a childcare health consultant workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wold, Judith Lupo; Gaines, Sherry K; Leary, Janie M

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the efforts in the state of Georgia to train public health nurse-childcare health consultants (PHN-CCHCs) using the framework of the "Core competencies for public health practice." The goal of the training was twofold: (1) to prepare a statewide cadre of PHNs as the primary workforce for Georgia's emerging childcare health consultation (CCHC) system and (2) to prepare their district nurse directors to lead and support CCHCs. Administrators attended a 2-day workshop followed by access to executive coaching for their management teams. PHNs participated in a three-phase training program, with phases 1 and 3 offered as 3-day workshops with field experiences, and phase 2 offered online and as a practicum. Forty-four administrators and over 85 PHN-CCHCs completed the training. Graduates of the program reported satisfaction with training and reported the use of PHN core competencies in CCHC. Graduates also found enhanced skills in using core competencies to be applicable to a variety of population-based practices. Beyond CCHC being instituted in selected health districts, interest in CCHC has occurred statewide. The PHN-CCHC program enhanced the knowledge and use of core competencies and heightened interest in CCHC statewide.

  3. Communicating with the workforce during emergencies: developing an employee text messaging program in a local public health setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasz, Hilary N; Bogan, Sharon; Bosslet, Lindsay

    2014-01-01

    Short message service (SMS) text messaging can be useful for communicating information to public health employees and improving workforce situational awareness during emergencies. We sought to understand how the 1,500 employees at Public Health--Seattle & King County, Washington, perceived barriers to and benefits of participation in a voluntary, employer-based SMS program. Based on employee feedback, we developed the system, marketed it, and invited employees to opt in. The system was tested during an ice storm in January 2012. Employee concerns about opting into an SMS program included possible work encroachment during non-work time and receiving excessive irrelevant messages. Employees who received messages during the weather event reported high levels of satisfaction and perceived utility from the program. We conclude that text messaging is a feasible form of communication with employees during emergencies. Care should be taken to design and deploy a program that maximizes employee satisfaction.

  4. A Continuing Education Short Course and Engineering Curriculum to Accelerate Workforce Development in Wind Power Plant Design, Construction, and Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tinjum, James [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2012-11-29

    Significant advances in wind turbine technology and wind turbine power plant capabilities are appearing in the U.S. Sites that only 10 years ago might have been overlooked are being considered for build out. However, the development of a skilled workforce in the engineering fields and construction trades lags the potential market, especially if the industry is expected to site, design, construct, and operate sufficient wind power plant sites to meet the potential for 20% wind energy by 2030. A select few firms have penetrated the engineer-procure-construction (EPC) market of wind power plant construction. Competition and know-how in this market is vital to achieve cost-effective, design-construct solutions. The industry must produce or retrain engineers, contractors, and technicians to meet ambitious goals. Currently, few universities offer undergraduate or graduate classes that teach the basics in designing, building, and maintaining wind power plants that are safe, efficient, and productive.

  5. Development of a Nutrition Education Intervention for Food Bank Clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, Jayna M; Thompson, Deborah I; Svendsen-Sanchez, Ann; McNeill, Lorna Haughton; Jibaja-Weiss, Maria

    2017-03-01

    The focus of this article is the development of a nutrition education intervention for food bank clients. Formative research using mixed-methods (qualitative and quantitative) and community-based participatory research principles was conducted to assess the nutrition education needs of clients obtaining service from the Houston Food Bank (HFB). Participants were HFB and pantry staff and clients. Interview data were coded and analyzed using grounded theory approach. Themes were then identified. Quantitative data were analyzed for frequencies and descriptives. Data were used to tailor the curriculum to the target population. Six HFB staff, 49 pantry staff from 17 pantries, and 54 clients from 10 pantries participated in interviews and focus groups and completed questionnaires. The participants provided opinion on the current nutrition education provided via the food bank and made suggestions on strategies for development of an intervention. Their feedback was used to develop the six-session intervention curriculum to be delivered over 6 months. This research provides evidence that it is critical for members of the target audience be included in formative research to develop behavior change programs that are relevant and appealing and target their needs and interests.

  6. Agricultural biodiversity, nutrition, and health: making a difference to hunger and nutrition in the developing world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frison, Emile A; Smith, Ifeyironwa Francisca; Johns, Timothy; Cherfas, Jeremy; Eyzaguirre, Pablo B

    2006-06-01

    with the aim of developing a strong evidence base linking biodiversity, nutrition, and health. Although these initiatives are still ongoing, the gains realized in small-scale and local pilot efforts have encouraged IPGRI to work with local partners toward the implementation of scale-up efforts in various regions.

  7. Pathologist workforce in the United States: I. Development of a predictive model to examine factors influencing supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robboy, Stanley J; Weintraub, Sally; Horvath, Andrew E; Jensen, Bradden W; Alexander, C Bruce; Fody, Edward P; Crawford, James M; Clark, Jimmy R; Cantor-Weinberg, Julie; Joshi, Megha G; Cohen, Michael B; Prystowsky, Michael B; Bean, Sarah M; Gupta, Saurabh; Powell, Suzanne Z; Speights, V O; Gross, David J; Black-Schaffer, W Stephen

    2013-12-01

    Results of prior pathology workforce surveys have varied between a state of equilibrium and predictions of shortage. To assess the current and future supply of pathologists, and apply a dynamic modeling tool for assessing the effects of changing market forces and emerging technologies on the supply of pathologists' services through 2030. Data came from various sources, including the literature, College of American Pathologists' internal data, and primary research through custom-developed surveys for the membership and for pathology practice managers Through 2010, there were approximately 18 000 actively practicing pathologists in the United States (5.7 per 100 000 population), approximately 93% of whom were board certified. Our model projects that the absolute and per capita numbers of practicing pathologists will decrease to approximately 14 000 full-time equivalent (FTE) pathologists or 3.7 per 100 000 in the coming 2 decades. This projection reflects that beginning in 2015, the numbers of pathologists retiring will increase precipitously, and is anticipated to peak by 2021. Including all types of separation, the net pathologist strength will begin falling by year 2015. Unless workforce entry or exit rates change, this trend will continue at least through 2030. These changes reflect the closure of many training programs 2 to 4 decades ago and the substantially decreased number of graduating residents. This comprehensive analysis predicts that pathologist numbers will decline steadily beginning in 2015. Anticipated population growth in general and increases in disease incidence owing to the aging population, to be presented in a companion article on demand, will lead to a net deficit in excess of more than 5700 FTE pathologists. To reach the projected need in pathologist numbers of nearly 20 000 FTE by 2030 will require an increase from today of approximately 8.1% more residency positions. We believe a pathologist shortage will negatively impact both

  8. Raising Job Quality and Skills for American Workers: Creating More-Effective Education and Workforce Development Systems in the States. Discussion Paper 2011-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzer, Harry J.

    2011-01-01

    To improve the employment rates and earnings of Americans workers, we need to create more-coherent and more-effective education and workforce development systems, focusing primarily (though not exclusively) on disadvantaged youth and adults, and with education and training more clearly targeted towards firms and sectors that provide good-paying…

  9. Ready to Implement? How the Out-of-School Time Workforce Can Support Character Development through Social and Emotional Learning: A Review of the Literature and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroney, Deborah A.; Devaney, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    This paper reviews the evidence on staff practices and quality programs that foster character development through social and emotional learning. The paper describes the state of the OST workforce, and barriers and opportunities to adding social and emotional learning to their job description. Specifically, the paper provides an overview of the…

  10. The Economic and Workforce Development Program (ED>Net) Annual Report, 2001-02 [and] Addendum to FY 01-02 Annual Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California Community Colleges, Sacramento. Economic Development Coordination Network (EDNet).

    This document contains an annual report and its addendum from the Economic and Workforce Development Program of California Community Colleges. The annual report provides an overview of the Program's evaluation processes, regional centers, short-term projects, legislation, strategic plan, etc. It also provides vital facts about the program such as…

  11. Development of a vinasse nutritive solution for hydroponics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, José Darcy; Lopes da Silva, André Luís; da Luz Costa, Jefferson; Scheidt, Gessiel Newton; Novak, Alessandra Cristine; Sydney, Eduardo Bittencourt; Soccol, Carlos Ricardo

    2013-01-15

    Vinasse is a residue that originates from the distillation of fuel alcohol. However, it contains a relative amount of nutrients. The aim of this work was to develop a nutritive solution using vinasse and to compare it with a commercial solution for the cultivation of lettuce, watercress and rocket. Vinasse obtained from juice must was decanted and filtered, followed by chemical analyses of the nutrients. A nutritive solution composed of 10% vinasse supplemented with nutrients was in agreement with the results of the chemical analyses (a similar amount of Furlani's solution). Experiments were then performed in an NFT (Nutrient film technique) system. The treatments used the vinasse solution and a commercial solution constituted from a Yara Fertilizantes(®) product. The height of the aerial part and the number of leaves of the crops were evaluated at 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42 days. In most crops, the results were very similar. The vinasse solution promoted a larger number of leaves in lettuce and the highest aerial part in watercress. For the rocket, there were no significant differences between the two solutions. In conclusion, a nutritive solution was developed using vinasse, and this solution provided suitable growth, which was higher in some cases, for the crops studied herein. This study shows the great potential of this technology as a rational alternative to vinasse disposal. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Development of a new recipe muffins increased nutritional value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. I. Ponomareva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the technology of flour confectionery products non-traditional types of plant raw materials can be used. Introduction of muffins of pumpkin and flour from whole wheat seeds, rich in vitamins and microelements, will enrich muffins with useful substances and increase their nutritional value. The purpose work was to study the technological properties of enrichers, their chemical composition, as well as to study the efficiency of using pumpkin pulp in the recipes of cupcakes and to identify its rational dosage. In this work, conventional methods of investigating the properties of finished products have been used. The object of study were ready-made muffins with different dosages of pumpkin pulp. The rational dosage was established by examining organoleptic (taste, smell, surface, fracture appearance, structure and form and physicochemical parameters (moisture mass fraction, density, specific volume and alkalinity. The result of this work is the development of a new recipe and production technology for the cake "Ilya Muromets" with the addition of 50% pumpkin pulp to the mass of flour. The addition of the enrichant in the formulation contributed to an increase in the density of the product by 21%, a decrease in the specific volume by 16.7%. Calculation of the nutritional value of the developed product showed that due to the rich chemical and vitamin composition of the pumpkin pulp, the consumption of 100 g of cake will provide a degree of satisfaction of the daily protein requirements by 6.9%, fat 16.2%, carbohydrates – 9.2%, dietary fiber 7.2%. With the help of the received data it is possible to characterize the "Ilya Muromets" cake as a product of increased nutritional value for preventive and functional nutrition that will allow expanding the assortment of products on the bakery market.

  13. Developments in clinical food and nutrition science in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukito, Widjaja; Wibowo, Lindawati; Wahlqvist, Mark L

    2016-12-01

    Indonesia, as a major population in the Asia Pacific region, threatened with food and health insecurity through climate change and rapid economic development, faces the challenge to build capacity among its science-based food and health professionals and institutions. The nutrition research agenda is now being more actively set within the region, rather than by external imposition. A series of papers emanating from a new generation of public health and clinical nutrition scientists is reported in this issue of APJCN. It draws attention to the importance of food patterns and background culture as contributors to the failure of the nutrient rather than a food, food system and socio-ecological approach to solve the region's intransigent nutritionally-related health problems. New understandings of human eco-social biology are providing opportunities to accelerate the resolution of these problems. The challenge is to transform the food-health construct from one which is not sufficiently concerned about the precarious state of ecologically dysfunctional health and its nutrient market drivers to one which strives for more sustainable and affordable solutions. The present reports address a range of options to these ends.

  14. Workforce perceptions of hospital safety culture: development and validation of the patient safety climate in healthcare organizations survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Sara; Meterko, Mark; Baker, Laurence; Gaba, David; Falwell, Alyson; Rosen, Amy

    2007-10-01

    To describe the development of an instrument for assessing workforce perceptions of hospital safety culture and to assess its reliability and validity. Primary data collected between March 2004 and May 2005. Personnel from 105 U.S. hospitals completed a 38-item paper and pencil survey. We received 21,496 completed questionnaires, representing a 51 percent response rate. Based on review of existing safety climate surveys, we developed a list of key topics pertinent to maintaining a culture of safety in high-reliability organizations. We developed a draft questionnaire to address these topics and pilot tested it in four preliminary studies of hospital personnel. We modified the questionnaire based on experience and respondent feedback, and distributed the revised version to 42,249 hospital workers. We randomly divided respondents into derivation and validation samples. We applied exploratory factor analysis to responses in the derivation sample. We used those results to create scales in the validation sample, which we subjected to multitrait analysis (MTA). We identified nine constructs, three organizational factors, two unit factors, three individual factors, and one additional factor. Constructs demonstrated substantial convergent and discriminant validity in the MTA. Cronbach's alpha coefficients ranged from 0.50 to 0.89. It is possible to measure key salient features of hospital safety climate using a valid and reliable 38-item survey and appropriate hospital sample sizes. This instrument may be used in further studies to better understand the impact of safety climate on patient safety outcomes.

  15. Nutrition Value Of Development Of Snack Cireng Cassava And Fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Nur Rochimiwati

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Snack are ready-made foods that are self-produced or purchased from sellers or merchants. Snack sellers can be found along the roadside in stalls cake shops around the crowded places like schools offices colleges and so on. The Ministry of Health 2014 states that snack is a given or consumed between two time of meals with an energy value of about 200 Kilocalories and 5 grams of protein. Whereas PMT-US standard Supplementary Feeding of School Children requires 200-300 kilocalories and 5-7 grams of protein. Snacks are sold around the school by unsettled and non-resident sellers in the school stalls or canteens. Various snacks are sold as rice noodles sweet corn fried tempe tofu fried foods meatballs bread cracker potatos jelly cooked rice noodles cimol cilok cireng biscuits milk iced tea iced juices etc Alfid TA Retno I Setho and Yohanes K Bastianus DR Anasari M 2013 The BPOM Food and Drug Supervisory Agency research in Alfid in 2003 stated that from 9465 samples 80 contain harmful ingredients. Snack also has a contribution in the fulfillment of daily nutrition that is energy amounted to 233.11 28.41 Kcal and protein at 6.21 1.39 gram Rachmawati HN 2013. This type of research is experimental with cireng manufacture from cassava and fish cassava cireng Fish and tapioca and cireng original made from tapioca flour. The study aims to determine the taste nutritional value and large of serving portions. The results were obtained for all three products The weighing 50 gram serving portion nutritional value has not reached the standard of the nutritional value of snacks. From the aspect of approaching cireng original flavor is cireng tapioca plus cassava and fish while cireng cassava and fish not like cireng original. It is advisable to develop or further modify in order to achieve nutritional standards of snack and as a healthy and safe snacks and the characteristics of cireng are not lost.

  16. Test of a workforce development intervention to expand opioid use disorder treatment pharmacotherapy prescribers: protocol for a cluster randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd Molfenter

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Overdoses due to non-medical use of prescription opioids and other opiates have become the leading cause of accidental deaths in the USA. Buprenorphine and extended-release naltrexone are key evidence-based pharmacotherapies available to addiction treatment providers to address opioid use disorder (OUD and prevent overdose deaths. Treatment organizations’ efforts to provide these pharmacotherapies have, however, been stymied by limited success in recruiting providers (physicians, nurse practitioners, and physician assistants to prescribe these medications. Historically, the addiction treatment field has not attracted physicians, and many barriers to implementing OUD pharmacotherapy exist, ranging from lack of confidence in treating OUD patients to concerns regarding reimbursement. Throughout the USA, the prevalence of OUD far exceeds the capacity of the OUD pharmacotherapy treatment system. Poor access to OUD pharmacotherapy prescribers has become a workforce development need for the addiction treatment field and a significant health issue. Methods This cluster randomized controlled trial (RCT is designed to increase buprenorphine and extended-release naltrexone treatment capacity for OUD. The implementation intervention to be tested is a bundle of OUD pharmacotherapy capacity building practices called the Prescriber Recruitment Bundle (PRB, which was developed and piloted in a previous statewide buprenorphine implementation study. For this cluster RCT, organizational sites will be recruited and then randomized into one of two arms: (1 control, with treatment as usual and access to a website with PRB resources, or (2 intervention, with organizations implementing the PRB using the Network for the Improvement of Addiction Treatment organizational change model over a 24-month intervention period and a 10-month sustainability period. The primary treatment outcomes for each organizational site are self-reported monthly counts of

  17. Test of a workforce development intervention to expand opioid use disorder treatment pharmacotherapy prescribers: protocol for a cluster randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molfenter, Todd; Knudsen, Hannah K; Brown, Randy; Jacobson, Nora; Horst, Julie; Van Etten, Mark; Kim, Jee-Seon; Haram, Eric; Collier, Elizabeth; Starr, Sanford; Toy, Alexander; Madden, Lynn

    2017-11-15

    Overdoses due to non-medical use of prescription opioids and other opiates have become the leading cause of accidental deaths in the USA. Buprenorphine and extended-release naltrexone are key evidence-based pharmacotherapies available to addiction treatment providers to address opioid use disorder (OUD) and prevent overdose deaths. Treatment organizations' efforts to provide these pharmacotherapies have, however, been stymied by limited success in recruiting providers (physicians, nurse practitioners, and physician assistants) to prescribe these medications. Historically, the addiction treatment field has not attracted physicians, and many barriers to implementing OUD pharmacotherapy exist, ranging from lack of confidence in treating OUD patients to concerns regarding reimbursement. Throughout the USA, the prevalence of OUD far exceeds the capacity of the OUD pharmacotherapy treatment system. Poor access to OUD pharmacotherapy prescribers has become a workforce development need for the addiction treatment field and a significant health issue. This cluster randomized controlled trial (RCT) is designed to increase buprenorphine and extended-release naltrexone treatment capacity for OUD. The implementation intervention to be tested is a bundle of OUD pharmacotherapy capacity building practices called the Prescriber Recruitment Bundle (PRB), which was developed and piloted in a previous statewide buprenorphine implementation study. For this cluster RCT, organizational sites will be recruited and then randomized into one of two arms: (1) control, with treatment as usual and access to a website with PRB resources, or (2) intervention, with organizations implementing the PRB using the Network for the Improvement of Addiction Treatment organizational change model over a 24-month intervention period and a 10-month sustainability period. The primary treatment outcomes for each organizational site are self-reported monthly counts of buprenorphine slots, extended

  18. Nutrition and growth: assessing the impact of regional nutritional intake on childhood development and metacarpal parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moro, Christian; Covino, Jessica

    2018-03-01

    Measuring skeletal development throughout juvenile growth can provide a greater understanding into the health, hormonal function and genetics of children. The metacarpals have been of interest for their potential to provide insights into healthy juvenile skeletal development. This study investigated the growth patterns of developing females from isolated communities who had varied diets. Anthropometrical measurements and hand-wrist X-rays were taken of 353 juvenile females from three populations: Pari Coastal Village and Bundi Highlands Village, Papua New Guinea (PNG); and Brisbane, Australia between 1968 to 1983. Radiographs were digitized, and the length and width of the second and third metacarpals compared to each subject's height and weight. As subject heights increased, metacarpal length and width increased. However, stature and second metacarpal length indicated the strongest correlation ( P regional intake of protein in their diets. The second metacarpal presents particularly accurate measurements when determining the height or development of a child. Nutritional intake appears to have a major influence normal childhood growth, with a potential for protein deficiency to strongly inhibit growth. Any delayed growth is particularly evident in the child's stature, as well as in the development of the metacarpal long bones of the hand.

  19. Community Health Worker Employer Survey: Perspectives on CHW Workforce Development in the Midwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaidez, Virginia; Palmer-Wackerly, Angela L; Trout, Kate E

    2018-05-30

    A statewide Community Health Worker Employer Survey was administered to various clinical, community, and faith-based organizations (n = 240) across a range of rural and urban settings in the Midwest. At least 80% of participants agreed or strongly agreed that items characterized as supervisory support were present in their work environment. Thirty-six percent of respondents currently employed CHWs, over half (51%) of survey respondents reported seeing the need to hire/work with more CHWs, and 44% saw the need for CHWs increasing in the future. Regarding CHW support, a majority of respondents indicated networking opportunities (63%), paid time for networking (80%), adequate time for supervision (75%), orientation training (78%), mandatory training (78%), ongoing training (79%), and paid time for training (82%). Open-ended responses to the question "In your organization, what needs could CHWs meet?" resulted in the largest number of respondents reporting mental health issues as a priority, followed by connecting people with services or resources, educating the public on preventive health, family support, and home care/visitations. Our findings suggest that respondents, who largely have supervisory or managerial roles, view workplace environments in Nebraska favorably, despite the fact that nearly two-thirds of respondents typically work well over 40 h per week. In addition, CHWs could help address mental and physical health needs in a variety of community and clinical settings through primary and secondary prevention activities, such as provision of health screenings, health and nutrition education, connecting people to resources and empowering community members through these activities and more.

  20. Development and Evaluation of a Home Enteral Nutrition Team

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Dinenage

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The organisation of services to support the increasing number of people receiving enteral tube feeding (ETF at home varies across regions. There is evidence that multi-disciplinary primary care teams focussed on home enteral nutrition (HEN can provide cost-effective care. This paper describes the development and evaluation of a HEN Team in one UK city. A HEN Team comprising dietetians, nurses and a speech and language therapist was developed with the aim of delivering a quality service for people with gastrostomy tubes living at home. Team objectives were set and an underpinning framework of organisation developed including a care pathway and a schedule of training. Impact on patient outcomes was assessed in a pre-post test evaluation design. Patients and carers reported improved support in managing their ETF. Cost savings were realised through: (1 prevention of hospital admission and related transport for ETF related issues; (2 effective management and reduction of waste of feed and thickener; (3 balloon gastrostomy tube replacement by the HEN Team in the patient’s home, and optimisation of nutritional status. This service evaluation demonstrated that the establishment of a dedicated multi-professional HEN Team focussed on achievement of key objectives improved patient experience and, although calculation of cost savings were estimates, provided evidence of cost-effectiveness.

  1. Taking the Indonesian nutrition history to leap into betterment of the future generation: development of the Indonesian Nutrition Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soekirman

    2011-01-01

    Nutrition history in Indonesia began in 1887, when Christiann Eijkman discovered the relationship between vitamin B-1 deficiency and beri-beri. In the 1950's, the socialization of nutrition messages started with the introduction of "Healthy Four Perfect Five" (Empat Sehat Lima Sempurna-ESLS). For the next 25 years after that, ESLS became a favorite in nutrition education and was nationally known. Although the ESLS was never evaluated, food consumption pattern of Indonesians are never balanced. Undernutrition is rampant and overnutrition emerged. In 1995 the Indonesian food-based dietary guidelines was launched by the Ministry of Health, and formally incorporated into the nutrition policy. The Guide has 13 messages. Again, the guidelines were never evaluated; in 2010 undernutrition persists and the prevalence of degenerative diseases increased. Thus, it is urgent for Indonesia to have concrete Nutrition Guidelines (Gizi Seimbang) covering messages like: (1) consume a variety of foods; (2) keep clean; (3) be active, exercise regularly; and (4) monitor body weight. The guidelines shall be developed for all age groups. The guidelines were tested to over 300 audiences and the responses were promising. Dissemination of the messages widely within the formal channels is compulsory. The new Nutrition Guideline messages are an open concept ready to be revised accordingly. It is evident that nutrition sciences and its application had undergone rapid changes over time and Indonesia need to adopt accordingly and timely. Although, outcomes may not be seen in a short time, longer term output will benefit future generations.

  2. Building capacity to develop an African teaching platform on health workforce development: a collaborative initiative of universities from four sub Saharan countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amde, Woldekidan Kifle; Sanders, David; Lehmann, Uta

    2014-05-30

    Health systems in many low-income countries remain fragile, and the record of human resource planning and management in Ministries of Health very uneven. Public health training institutions face the dual challenge of building human resources capacity in ministries and health services while alleviating and improving their own capacity constraints. This paper reports on an initiative aimed at addressing this dual challenge through the development and implementation of a joint Masters in Public Health (MPH) programme with a focus on health workforce development by four academic institutions from East and Southern Africa and the building of a joint teaching platform. Data were obtained through interviews and group discussions with stakeholders, direct and participant observations, and reviews of publications and project documents. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. The institutions developed and collaboratively implemented a 'Masters Degree programme with a focus on health workforce development'. It was geared towards strengthening the leadership capacity of Health ministries to develop expertise in health human resources (HRH) planning and management, and simultaneously build capacity of faculty in curriculum development and innovative educational practices to teach health workforce development. The initiative was configured to facilitate sharing of experience and resources. The implementation of this initiative has been complex, straddling multiple and changing contexts, actors and agendas. Some of these are common to postgraduate programmes with working learners, while others are unique to this particular partnership, such as weak institutional capacity to champion and embed new programmes and approaches to teaching. The partnership, despite significant inherent challenges, has potential for providing real opportunities for building the field and community of practice, and strengthening the staff and organizational capacity of participant institutions. Key

  3. Research on the Development Route of Internationalization Brand of Sports Nutrition Food

    OpenAIRE

    Haifang Zhang

    2015-01-01

    In this study, it takes the interpretation of internationalization brand of sports nutrition food as the cutting point, by means of explaining the difficulties that Chinese sports nutrition food brand encountered at the present stage to explore the route of realizing the internationalization brand of sports nutrition food. With the rapid development of Chinese economic growth, the brand of Chinese sports nutrition food is also facing the fierce global market competition.

  4. Historical Antecedents as Precedents for Nanotechnology Vocational Education Training and Workforce Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yawson, Robert

    2011-01-01

    In an attempt to inform how to approach nanotechnology vocational education training (nanoVET), this article briefly discusses the history of the development of vocational education training (VET) in the United States during the past century. The history of nanotechnology development and the current advances in this emerging field are discussed in…

  5. Training and Developing an Age Diverse Workforce in SMEs: The Need for a Strategic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaver, Graham; Hutchings, Kate

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the importance of strategic human resource development (HRD) in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) with specific reference to key issues around training, development and education as well as an emerging issue of significance, age diversity management. Design/Methodology/Approach: The approach…

  6. Continuing Professional Development for a Diverse VET Practitioner Workforce. Occasional Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Mark; Dymock, Darryl

    2017-01-01

    This occasional paper provides a stocktake of recent developments in continuing professional development for VET practitioners. It explores issues such as industry currency, the debate around a professional association for VET and the Certificate IV in Training and Assessment as the minimum qualification for VET practitioners. Through synthesising…

  7. Position of the academy of nutrition and dietetics: nutrition security in developing nations: sustainable food, water, and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordin, Stacia M; Boyle, Marie; Kemmer, Teresa M

    2013-04-01

    It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics that all people should have consistent access to an appropriately nutritious diet of food and water, coupled with a sanitary environment, adequate health services, and care that ensure a healthy and active life for all household members. The Academy supports policies, systems, programs, and practices that work with developing nations to achieve nutrition security and self-sufficiency while being environmentally and economically sustainable. For nations to achieve nutrition security, all people must have access to a variety of nutritious foods and potable drinking water; knowledge, resources, and skills for healthy living; prevention, treatment, and care for diseases affecting nutrition status; and safety-net systems during crisis situations, such as natural disasters or deleterious social and political systems. More than 2 billion people are micronutrient deficient; 1.5 billion people are overweight or obese; 870 million people have inadequate food energy intake; and 783 million people lack potable drinking water. Adequate nutrient intake is a concern, independent of weight status. Although this article focuses on nutritional deficiencies in developing nations, global solutions for excesses and deficiencies need to be addressed. In an effort to achieve nutrition security, lifestyles, policies, and systems (eg, food, water, health, energy, education/knowledge, and economic) contributing to sustainable resource use, environmental management, health promotion, economic stability, and positive social environments are required. Food and nutrition practitioners can get involved in promoting and implementing effective and sustainable policies, systems, programs, and practices that support individual, community, and national efforts. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Workforce Planning in Complex Organizations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2004-01-01

    ...) civilian acquisition workforces. The greater need for workforce planning is expected to arise from an unusually heavy workforce turnover, itself due to a large number of expected retirements among older employees in a workforce...

  9. Learning Dynamics in Transformational Change: A Study of Workforce Behavior in the Developing Economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Majid

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Organizational and individual learning are two different concepts in contemporaryorganizational theory. Organizational learning is a difficult concept which needs to be furtherelucidated for organizational practitioner at actual work setting; especially in the developingcountries like Pakistan. This paper reviews the literature on organizational learning intransformational change, and the comparative learning processes in the developed anddeveloping economies. Furthermore, we are dealing here with the proposed learning cycle instrategic change process with special reference to the developing countries.Keywords: Learning cycle, Transformational change, Innovation, Learning Dynamics

  10. Beyond Wage Bill Ceilings : The Impact of Government Fiscal and Human Resource Management Policies on the Health Workforce in Developing Countries, Background Country Study for Rwanda

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2008-01-01

    One of the main explanations put forth on why access to health workers is so low in developing countries is that there are insufficient resources within the public sector to pay the wage bill - the salary and allowance payments - of an expanded health workforce. In turn, the lack of wage bill resources for the health sector is thought to be a direct result of restrictive macroeconomic poli...

  11. What's the matter with the information technology workforce?

    OpenAIRE

    Subramaniam, Manimegalai M.; Burnett, Kathleen

    2006-01-01

    Information technology and the information technology workforce are essential to Internet innovation, infrastructure, development, and maintenance. A comprehensive and dynamic definition of information technology will help develop and coordinate interventions to ensure that a viable, diverse, and talented workforce is available to support information technology innovation, development, implementation, maintenance and application. A viable, diverse, and talented workforce is essential if the U...

  12. "Biomedical Workforce Diversity: The Context for Mentoring to Develop Talents and Foster Success Within the 'Pipeline'".

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Richard

    2016-09-01

    Like all biomedical research fields, AIDS research needs the broadest diversity of experiences and perspectives among researchers in the field if creative advancements are to be achieved. Mentors and mentoring are the most important vehicles by which the talents of young scientists are developed. However, mentoring as a teaching and learning paradigm is very complex and idiosyncratic, and often inadvertently fails to provide the same quality and quantity of opportunity to aspiring scientists who are 'different' from those doing the mentoring. This article provides a theoretical and practical framework for understanding how differences of race, ethnicity, gender, skin color, social status and other identifiable characteristics can play into scientific development during mentoring 'within the pipeline'. It also serves as a foundation upon which mentoring in AIDS is considered by subsequent papers in this series. Finally, it goes beyond mentoring to propose systematic coaching as an effective complement to research mentoring to promote success, especially for individuals from underrepresented groups.

  13. Research, Commercialization, & Workforce Development in the Polymer/Electronics Recycling Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carl Irwin; Rakesh Gupta; Richard Turton; GangaRao Hota; Cyril Logar; Tom Ponzurick; Buddy Graham; Walter Alcorn; Jeff Tucker

    2006-02-01

    The Mid-Atlantic Recycling Center for End-of-Life Electronics (MARCEE) was set up in 1999 in response to a call from Congressman Alan Mollohan, who had a strong interest in this subject. A consortium was put together which included the Polymer Alliance Zone (PAZ) of West Virginia, West Virginia University (WVU), DN American and Ecolibrium. The consortium developed a set of objectives and task plans, which included both the research issues of setting up facilities to demanufacture End-of-Life Electronics (EoLE), the economics of the demanufacturing process, and the infrastructure development necessary for a sustainable recycling industry to be established in West Virginia. This report discusses the work of the MARCEE Project Consortium from November 1999 through March 2005. While the body of the report is distributed in hard-copy form the Appendices are being distributed on CD's.

  14. Continuation of Research, Commercialization, and Workforce Development in the Polymer/Electronics Recycling Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mel Croucher; Rakesh Gupta; Hota GangaRao; Darran Cairns; Jinzing Wang; Xiaodong Shi; Jason Linnell; Karen Facemyer; Doug Ritchie; Jeff Tucker

    2009-09-30

    The MARCEE Project was established to understand the problems associated with electronics recycling and to develop solutions that would allow an electronics recycling industry to emerge. While not all of the activities have been funded by MARCEE, but through private investment, they would not have occurred had the MARCEE Project not been undertaken. The problems tackled and the results obtained using MARCEE funds are discussed in detail in this report.

  15. Developing the Mental Health Workforce: Review and Application of Training Approaches from Multiple Disciplines

    OpenAIRE

    Lyon, Aaron R.; Stirman, Shannon Wiltsey; Kerns, Suzanne E. U.; Bruns, Eric J.

    2011-01-01

    Strategies specifically designed to facilitate the training of mental health practitioners in evidence-based practices (EBPs) have lagged behind the development of the interventions themselves. The current paper draws from an interdisciplinary literature (including medical training, adult education, and teacher training) to identify useful training and support approaches as well as important conceptual frameworks that may be applied to training in mental health. Theory and research findings a...

  16. Product development for catering - how to integrate issues on nutrition, quality and environment in the products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    1996-01-01

    Overview of the experience with integration of issues on nutrition, quality and environment from a development and technology assessment project about product development for the catering sector......Overview of the experience with integration of issues on nutrition, quality and environment from a development and technology assessment project about product development for the catering sector...

  17. 2015 South Carolina PV soft cost and workforce development Part I. Initial survey results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, Elise B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Edwards, Thomas B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-05-01

    The South Carolina solar industry has surged over the past two years, largely due to the implementation of Act 236, and continues to grow at a rapid pace. At the beginning of 2014, there was little more than 3MW total spread across the state, but by the end of 2021, that state solar industry will have grown to over 300MW across all sectors. Prior to this study, there has been little publically available information on the solar industry in SC and throughout the Southeastern US. This makes SC a key case study of an emerging market, enabling the development of regional best practices in order to decrease associated costs and increase deployment.

  18. Addressing health workforce distribution concerns: a discrete choice experiment to develop rural retention strategies in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robyn, Paul Jacob; Shroff, Zubin; Zang, Omer Ramses; Kingue, Samuel; Djienouassi, Sebastien; Kouontchou, Christian; Sorgho, Gaston

    2015-03-01

    Nearly every nation in the world faces shortages of health workers in remote areas. Cameroon is no exception to this. The Ministry of Public Health (MoPH) is currently considering several rural retention strategies to motivate qualified health personnel to practice in remote rural areas. To better calibrate these mechanisms and to develop evidence-based retention strategies that are attractive and motivating to health workers, a Discrete Choice Experiment (DCE) was conducted to examine what job attributes are most attractive and important to health workers when considering postings in remote areas. The study was carried out between July and August 2012 among 351 medical students, nursing students and health workers in Cameroon. Mixed logit models were used to analyze the data. Among medical and nursing students a rural retention bonus of 75% of base salary (aOR= 8.27, 95% CI: 5.28-12.96, Pimpact measurements were also estimated to identify combination of incentives that health workers would find most attractive. Based on these findings, the study recommends the introduction of a system of substantial monetary bonuses for rural service along with ensuring adequate and functional equipment and uninterrupted supplies. By focusing on the analysis of locally relevant, actionable incentives, generated through the involvement of policy-makers at the design stage, this study provides an example of research directly linked to policy action to address a vitally important issue in global health.

  19. Faculty and Student Teams and National Laboratories: Expanding the Reach of Research Opportunities and Workforce Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blackburn,N.; White, K.; Stegman, M.

    2009-08-05

    The Faculty and Student Teams (FaST) Program, a cooperative effort between the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science and the National Science Foundation (NSF), brings together collaborative research teams composed of a researcher at Brookhaven National Laboratory, and a faculty member with two or three undergraduate students from a college or university. Begun by the Department of Energy in 2000 with the primary goal of building research capacity at a faculty member's home institution, the FaST Program focuses its recruiting efforts on faculty from colleges and universities with limited research facilities and those institutions that serve populations under-represented in the fields of science, engineering and technology, particularly women and minorities. Once assembled, a FaST team spends a summer engaged in hands-on research working alongside a laboratory scientist. This intensely collaborative environment fosters sustainable relationships between the faulty members and BNL that allow faculty members and their BNL colleagues to submit joint proposals to federal agencies, publish papers in peer-reviewed journals, reform local curriculum, and develop new or expand existing research labs at their home institutions.

  20. Prioritizing research for integrated implementation of early childhood development and maternal, newborn, child and adolescent health and nutrition platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Renee; Gaffey, Michelle F; Alderman, Harold; Bassani, Diego G; Bogard, Kimber; Darmstadt, Gary L; Das, Jai K; de Graft-Johnson, Joseph E; Hamadani, Jena D; Horton, Susan; Huicho, Luis; Hussein, Julia; Lye, Stephen; Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael; Proulx, Kerrie; Marfo, Kofi; Mathews-Hanna, Vanessa; Mclean, Mireille S; Rahman, Atif; Silver, Karlee L; Singla, Daisy R; Webb, Patrick; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2017-06-01

    Existing health and nutrition services present potential platforms for scaling up delivery of early childhood development (ECD) interventions within sensitive windows across the life course, especially in the first 1000 days from conception to age 2 years. However, there is insufficient knowledge on how to optimize implementation for such strategies in an integrated manner. In light of this knowledge gap, we aimed to systematically identify a set of integrated implementation research priorities for health, nutrition and early child development within the 2015 to 2030 timeframe of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). We applied the Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative method, and consulted a diverse group of global health experts to develop and score 57 research questions against five criteria: answerability, effectiveness, deliverability, impact, and effect on equity. These questions were ranked using a research priority score, and the average expert agreement score was calculated for each question. The research priority scores ranged from 61.01 to 93.52, with a median of 82.87. The average expert agreement scores ranged from 0.50 to 0.90, with a median of 0.75. The top-ranked research question were: i) "How can interventions and packages to reduce neonatal mortality be expanded to include ECD and stimulation interventions?"; ii) "How does the integration of ECD and MNCAH&N interventions affect human resource requirements and capacity development in resource-poor settings?"; and iii) "How can integrated interventions be tailored to vulnerable refugee and migrant populations to protect against poor ECD and MNCAH&N outcomes?". Most highly-ranked research priorities varied across the life course and highlighted key aspects of scaling up coverage of integrated interventions in resource-limited settings, including: workforce and capacity development, cost-effectiveness and strategies to reduce financial barriers, and quality assessment of programs

  1. Addressing Health Workforce Distribution Concerns: A Discrete Choice Experiment to Develop Rural Retention Strategies in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Jacob Robyn

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Nearly every nation in the world faces shortages of health workers in remote areas. Cameroon is no exception to this. The Ministry of Public Health (MoPH is currently considering several rural retention strategies to motivate qualified health personnel to practice in remote rural areas. Methods To better calibrate these mechanisms and to develop evidence-based retention strategies that are attractive and motivating to health workers, a Discrete Choice Experiment (DCE was conducted to examine what job attributes are most attractive and important to health workers when considering postings in remote areas. The study was carried out between July and August 2012 among 351 medical students, nursing students and health workers in Cameroon. Mixed logit models were used to analyze the data. Results Among medical and nursing students a rural retention bonus of 75% of base salary (aOR= 8.27, 95% CI: 5.28-12.96, P< 0.001 and improved health facility infrastructure (aOR= 3.54, 95% CI: 2.73-4.58 respectively were the attributes with the largest effect sizes. Among medical doctors and nurse aides, a rural retention bonus of 75% of base salary was the attribute with the largest effect size (medical doctors aOR= 5.60, 95% CI: 4.12-7.61, P< 0.001; nurse aides aOR= 4.29, 95% CI: 3.11-5.93, P< 0.001. On the other hand, improved health facility infrastructure (aOR= 3.56, 95% CI: 2.75-4.60, P< 0.001, was the attribute with the largest effect size among the state registered nurses surveyed. Willingness-to-Pay (WTP estimates were generated for each health worker cadre for all the attributes. Preference impact measurements were also estimated to identify combination of incentives that health workers would find most attractive. Conclusion Based on these findings, the study recommends the introduction of a system of substantial monetary bonuses for rural service along with ensuring adequate and functional equipment and uninterrupted supplies. By focusing on

  2. Employee Engagement: Motivating and Retaining Tomorrow's Workforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuck, Michael Bradley; Wollard, Karen Kelly

    2008-01-01

    Tomorrow's workforce is seeking more than a paycheck; they want their work to meet their needs for affiliation, meaning, and self-development. Companies willing to meet these demands will capture the enormous profit potential of a workforce of fully engaged workers. This piece explores what engagement is, why it matters, and how human resource…

  3. Developing an evidence-based approach to Public Health Nutrition: translating evidence into policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margetts, B; Warm, D; Yngve, A; Sjöström, M

    2001-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to highlight the importance of an evidence-based approach to the development, implementation and evaluation of policies aimed at improving nutrition-related health in the population. Public Health Nutrition was established to realise a population-level approach to the prevention of the major nutrition-related health problems world-wide. The scope is broad and integrates activity from local, national, regional and international levels. The aim is to inform and develop coherent and effective policies that address the key rate-limiting steps critical to improving nutrition-related public health. This paper sets out the rationale for an evidence-based approach to Public Health Nutrition developed under the umbrella of the European Network for Public Health Nutrition.

  4. Workforce Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996

    This document consists of four papers presented during a symposium on work force issues moderated by Jan DeJong at the 1996 conference of the Academy of Human Resource Development (AHRD). "Rethinking the Ties that Bind: An Exploratory Study of Employee Development in Utilities in Canada and the United States" (Michael Aherne, David…

  5. Youth Workforce Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobs For the Future, 2016

    2016-01-01

    Youth unemployment has been a cause for concern in the United States for years. Youth unemployment costs society--through the loss of talent and costs of social supports and subsidies. Jobless young people are more vulnerable to a range of challenges, including the ills already plaguing their communities: high rates of unplanned pregnancy,…

  6. Developing and validating a nutrition knowledge questionnaire: key methods and considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trakman, Gina Louise; Forsyth, Adrienne; Hoye, Russell; Belski, Regina

    2017-10-01

    To outline key statistical considerations and detailed methodologies for the development and evaluation of a valid and reliable nutrition knowledge questionnaire. Literature on questionnaire development in a range of fields was reviewed and a set of evidence-based guidelines specific to the creation of a nutrition knowledge questionnaire have been developed. The recommendations describe key qualitative methods and statistical considerations, and include relevant examples from previous papers and existing nutrition knowledge questionnaires. Where details have been omitted for the sake of brevity, the reader has been directed to suitable references. We recommend an eight-step methodology for nutrition knowledge questionnaire development as follows: (i) definition of the construct and development of a test plan; (ii) generation of the item pool; (iii) choice of the scoring system and response format; (iv) assessment of content validity; (v) assessment of face validity; (vi) purification of the scale using item analysis, including item characteristics, difficulty and discrimination; (vii) evaluation of the scale including its factor structure and internal reliability, or Rasch analysis, including assessment of dimensionality and internal reliability; and (viii) gathering of data to re-examine the questionnaire's properties, assess temporal stability and confirm construct validity. Several of these methods have previously been overlooked. The measurement of nutrition knowledge is an important consideration for individuals working in the nutrition field. Improved methods in the development of nutrition knowledge questionnaires, such as the use of factor analysis or Rasch analysis, will enable more confidence in reported measures of nutrition knowledge.

  7. A public health e-learning master's programme with a focus on health workforce development targeting francophone Africa: the University of Geneva experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chastonay, Philippe; Zesiger, Véronique; Moretti, Roberto; Cremaschini, Marco; Bailey, Rebecca; Wheeler, Erika; Mattig, Thomas; Avocksouma, Djona Atchenemou; Mpinga, Emmanuel Kabengele

    2015-08-13

    Shortage of a competent public health workforce is as a worldwide problem. The situation is especially bad in sub-Saharan Africa. In 2008, the World Health Organization and the Global Health Workforce Alliance launched a call for proposals for a public health training programme with an emphasis on health workforce development specifically targeting Africa. Our article presents the development, implementation and evaluation of an e-learning Master of Advanced Studies in Public Health on Workforce Development. The project was developed in collaboration with academic partner institutions of 10 French-speaking African countries and local/regional/HQ WHO offices. A five-step approach was adopted. First, a needs assessment study was done in the target countries, with identification of priority health issues. Second, student and tutor selection was done in collaboration with local WHO offices, health authorities and partner universities. Third, the e-platform was developed and a training workshop for tutors was organized. Fourth, the learning objectives were derived from the needs assessment study and an interactive educational approach was adopted. Fifth, the participation of students, their perception of the programme, their performance on assignments and community outcomes were monitored. The needs assessment allowed the identification of 12 priority health issues (trauma related to road accidents, maternal and child health, HIV/AIDS, mental heath, food and malnutrition, health resource management, infectious diseases, access to essential drugs, chronic diseases, health promotion, ageing and violence/conflicts) of which 10 were studied through the lens of the key public health disciplines (epidemiology, human resources, health project/service planning, health policy, communication, health economics/management, informatics and ethics/human rights), each validated through a certifying examination. Student participation, measured through connection hits (total: 58 256

  8. Development and Testing of a Nutrition, Food Safety, and Physical Activity Checklist for EFNEP and FSNE Adult Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, Traliece; Serrano, Elena L.; Cox, Ruby H.; Lambur, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To develop and assess reliability and validity of the Nutrition, Food Safety, and Physical Activity Checklist to measure nutrition, food safety, and physical activity practices among adult Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP) and Food Stamp Nutrition Education program (FSNE) participants. Methods: Test-retest…

  9. Developing a nutrition and health education program for primary schools in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Jane; Muehlhoff, Ellen

    2007-01-01

    School-based health and nutrition interventions in developing countries aim at improving children's nutrition and learning ability. In addition to the food and health inputs, children need access to education that is relevant to their lives, of good quality, and effective in its approach. Based on evidence from the Zambia Nutrition Education in Basic Schools (NEBS) project, this article examines whether and to what extent school-based health and nutrition education can contribute directly to improving the health and nutrition behaviors of school children. Initial results suggest that gains in awareness, knowledge and behavior can be achieved among children and their families with an actively implemented classroom program backed by teacher training and parent involvement, even in the absence of school-based nutrition and health services.

  10. Nutrition intervention strategies to combat zinc deficiency in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, R S; Ferguson, E L

    1998-06-01

    Widespread zinc deficiency is likely to exist in developing countries where staple diets are predominantly plant based and intakes of animal tissues are low. The severe negative consequences of zinc deficiency on human health in developing countries, however, have only recently been recognized. An integrated approach employing targeted supplementation, fortification and dietary strategies must be used to maximize the likelihood of eliminating zinc deficiency at a national level in developing countries. Supplementation is appropriate only for populations whose zinc status must be improved over a relatively short time period, and when requirements cannot be met from habitual dietary sources. As well, the health system must be capable of providing consistent supply, distribution, delivery and consumption of the zinc supplement to the targeted groups. Uncertainties still exist about the type, frequency, and level of supplemental zinc required for prevention and treatment of zinc deficiency. Salts that are readily absorbed and at levels that will not induce antagonistic nutrient interactions must be used. At a national level, fortification with multiple micronutrients could be a cost effective method for improving micronutrient status, including zinc, provided that a suitable food vehicle which is centrally processed is available. Alternatively, fortification could be targeted for certain high risk groups (e.g. complementary foods for infants). Efforts should be made to develop protected fortificants for zinc, so that potent inhibitors of zinc absorption (e.g. phytate) present either in the food vehicle and/or indigenous meals do not compromise zinc absorption. Fortification does not require any changes in the existing food beliefs and practices for the consumer and, unlike supplementation, does not impose a burden on the health sector. A quality assurance programme is required, however, to ensure the quality of the fortified food product from production to consumption

  11. Developing the School Physical Activity and Nutrition Environment Tool to Measure Qualities of the Obesogenic Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Deborah H.; Gunter, Katherine; Jackson, Jennifer A.; Manore, Melinda

    2016-01-01

    Background: Practical tools are needed that reliably measure the complex physical activity (PA) and nutrition environments of elementary schools that influence children's health and learning behaviors for obesity prevention. The School Physical Activity and Nutrition-Environment Tool (SPAN-ET) was developed and beta tested in 6 rural Oregon…

  12. Using Focus Groups to Develop a Nutrition Education Video for High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Delores C. S.; Rienzo, Barbara A.; Frazee, Carol

    1997-01-01

    Study used focus group interviews with ninth graders to help develop a nutrition education video and teacher's guide for Florida high schools. Students believed a video would be successful, expressed interest in 10 nutrition topics, recommended using teen actors with varying body types, and suggested no more than three or four topics per video.…

  13. Early Child Development and Nutrition: A Review of the Benefits and Challenges of Implementing Integrated Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, Kristen M; Yousafzai, Aisha K; Lopez-Boo, Florencia

    2016-03-01

    Poor nutrition (substandard diet quantity and/or quality resulting in under- or overnutrition) and the lack of early learning opportunities contribute to the loss of developmental potential and life-long health and economic disparities among millions of children aged early child development (ECD) or nutrition have been linked to positive child development and/or nutritional status, and recommendations currently advocate for the development and testing of integrated interventions. We reviewed the theoretical and practical benefits and challenges of implementing integrated nutrition and ECD interventions along with the evidence for best practice and benefit-cost and concluded that the strong theoretical rationale for integration is more nuanced than the questions that the published empirical evidence have addressed. For example, further research is needed to 1) answer questions related to how integrated messaging influences caregiver characteristics such as well-being, knowledge, and behavior and how these influence early child nutrition and development outcomes; 2) understand population and nutritional contexts in which integrated interventions are beneficial; and 3) explore how varying implementation processes influence the efficacy, uptake, and cost-benefit of integrated nutrition and ECD interventions. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  14. Managing a national radiation oncologist workforce: A workforce planning model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuckless, Teri; Milosevic, Michael; Metz, Catherine de; Parliament, Matthew; Tompkins, Brent; Brundage, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The specialty of radiation oncology has experienced significant workforce planning challenges in many countries. Our purpose was to develop and validate a workforce-planning model that would forecast the balance between supply of, and demand for, radiation oncologists in Canada over a minimum 10-year time frame, to identify the model parameters that most influenced this balance, and to suggest how this model may be applicable to other countries. Methods: A forward calculation model was created and populated with data obtained from national sources. Validation was confirmed using a historical prospective approach. Results: Under baseline assumptions, the model predicts a short-term surplus of RO trainees followed by a projected deficit in 2020. Sensitivity analyses showed that access to radiotherapy (proportion of incident cases referred), individual RO workload, average age of retirement and resident training intake most influenced balance of supply and demand. Within plausible ranges of these parameters, substantial shortages or excess of graduates is possible, underscoring the need for ongoing monitoring. Conclusions: Workforce planning in radiation oncology is possible using a projection calculation model based on current system characteristics and modifiable parameters that influence projections. The workload projections should inform policy decision making regarding growth of the specialty and training program resident intake required to meet oncology health services needs. The methods used are applicable to workforce planning for radiation oncology in other countries and for other comparable medical specialties.

  15. Psychosocial Determinants of Nutritional Neglect in a Developing Country

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aisha Mehnaz, A.; Mala, A.; Rai, K.; Arif, F.; Raj, R.; Shah, N.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the demographic features and psycho-social and economic determinants of nutritional neglect in order to suggest interventional strategies. Study Design: Cross-sectional, observational study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Paediatrics, Dow University of Health Sciences (DUHS) and Civil Hospital Karachi (CHK), from January 2009 to December 2010. Methodology: All children suffering from nutritional neglect suggested by weight and height less than the third centile for age, and their mothers were recruited in the study through non-probability consecutive sampling. A team comprising of paediatrician, psychologist, medical social worker and social motivator interviewed the mothers and children suffering from nutritional neglect. Information about demographic, social, economic and psychological factors was obtained. The results were analyzed and described as frequency distribution and percentage. Results: A total of 658 children suffering from nutritional neglect were inducted. Around 75% of children were below 5 years of age, 51% were females. Other determinants of nutritional neglect were, large family size (family of > 5 members (84%), young mother (60%), uneducated parents (67% father and 77% mothers being illiterate), low income (77% earning less than Rs. 7000/month), addiction (23%), tobacco smoking (50%) and non-nutritive substance use (51%). Psychological indicators identified in mothers were depression (70%), anxiety (73%), helplessness (70%), displaced aggression (50%) and insecurity (36%). Psychological factors identified in children as a secondary outcome were aggression (80%), rebellious behaviour (75%), lack of confidence (70%), lack of social interaction (70%) and paranoid tendencies (60%). Conclusion: Psycho-social and economic factors are important determinants of neglect. A holistic approach and intervention at multiple levels is required to address these issues. (author)

  16. Diversity, Geosciences, and Societal Impact: Perspectives From a Geoscientist, Workforce Development Specialist, and Former Congressional Science Fellow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, A. R.

    2014-12-01

    In order for the United States to remain competitive in the STEM fields, all available interested citizens must be engaged, prepared, and retained in the geoscience workforce. The misperception that the geosciences do little to support the local community and give back to fellow citizens contributes to the lack of diversity in the field. Another challenge is that the assumptions of career paths for someone trained in geosciences are often limited to field work, perpetuated by visuals found in media, popular culture and recruiting materials and university websites. In order to combat these views it is critical that geoscientists make visible both the diverse career opportunities for those trained in geoscience and the relevance of the field to societal issues. In order to make a substantive change in the number of underrepresented minorities pursuing and working in geosciences we must rethink how we describe our work, its impacts and its relevance to society. At UNAVCO, we have undertaken this charge to change they way the future generation of geoscientists views opportunities in our field. This presentation will include reflections of a trained geoscientist taking a non-field/research career path and the opportunities it has afforded as well as the challenges encountered. The presentation will also highlight how experience managing a STEM program for middle school girls, serving as a Congressional Science Fellow, and managing an undergraduate research internship program is aiding in shaping the Geoscience Workforce Initiative at UNAVCO.

  17. African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development - Vol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Glucosinolates and other anti-nutritive compounds in canola meals from varieties cultivated in Egypt and Japan · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. HE Embaby, RA Habiba, AA Shatta, MM Elhamamy, N Morita, SS Ibrahim.

  18. Assessment of nutritional status, cognitive development, and mother-child interaction in Central American refugee children

    OpenAIRE

    Laude Monica

    1999-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted between July and December 1992 to assess the nutritional status, cognitive development, and mother-child interactions in a group of 153 Nicaraguan refugee children living in Costa Rica. Nutritional status was assessed using anthropometric indices. Cognitive development was assessed with the Bayley Scale of Mental Development. Mother-child interaction was assessed with the Nursing Child Assessment Teaching Scale and Caldwell's Home Observation and Measurem...

  19. An Operational Process for Workforce Planning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Emmerichs, Robert

    2004-01-01

    .... This report describes a methodology, developed by RAND at the behest of the Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for Civilian Personnel Policy, for conducting workforce planning-a methodology...

  20. Nutritional deficits during early development affect hippocampal structure and spatial memory later in life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pravosudov, Vladimir V; Lavenex, Pierre; Omanska, Alicja

    2005-10-01

    Development rates vary among individuals, often as a result of direct competition for food. Survival of young might depend on their learning abilities, but it remains unclear whether learning abilities are affected by nutrition during development. The authors demonstrated that compared with controls, 1-year-old Western scrub jays (Aphelocoma californica) that experienced nutritional deficits during early posthatching development had smaller hippocampi with fewer neurons and performed worse in a cache recovery task and in a spatial version of an associative learning task. In contrast, performance of nutritionally deprived birds was similar to that of controls in 2 color versions of an associative learning task. These findings suggest that nutritional deficits during early development have long-term consequences for hippocampal structure and spatial memory, which, in turn, are likely to have a strong impact on animals' future fitness.

  1. A survey among potential employers for developing a curriculum in public health nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torheim, Liv E; Granli, Gry I; Barikmo, Ingrid; Oshaug, Arne

    2009-08-01

    To describe which functions potential employers of public health nutritionists in Norway find important for a person trained in public health nutrition to be able to carry out. Further, to illustrate how the findings were used in the development of a curriculum for a bachelor in public health nutrition at Akershus University College. A non-random, cross-sectional survey using a questionnaire with both pre-coded and open-ended questions. Ninety-one establishments working in various fields more or less related to nutrition responded (response rate of 45 %). Local offices of the Norwegian Food Safety Authority were over-represented among respondents. Functions related to communication and food and nutrition laws and regulations were most frequently rated as important by the respondents. Functions in nutrition research, project work and policy and planning were also regarded important by more than half of the respondents. The priorities of the potential employers together with the additional comments and suggestions were taken into account when a new curriculum on public health nutrition was developed. The assessment of functions prioritized by employers of public health nutritionists gave a valuable input for developing a new curriculum in public health nutrition. It reflected the challenges of the real world that public health nutritionists will work in and therefore helped making the curriculum potentially more relevant.

  2. Animal models of maternal nutrition and altered offspring bone structure – Bone development across the lifecourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SA Lanham

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available It is widely accepted that the likelihood of offspring developing heart disease, stroke, or diabetes in later life, is influenced by the their in utero environment and maternal nutrition. There is increasing epidemiological evidence that osteoporosis in the offspring may also be influenced by the mother’s nutrition during pregnancy. This review provides evidence from a range of animal models that supports the epidemiological data; suggesting that lifelong bone development and growth in offspring is determined during gestation.

  3. The Chameleon Workforce

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marfelt, Mikkel Mouritz

    , cultural, professional, etc.). This PhD dissertation studies this phenomenon, ‘a diverse workforce’, in a large Scandinavian pharmaceutical company. The dissertation follows the Diverse and Global Workforce (DGW) project, a ‘headquarter centric’ and strategic corporate initiative to address the rapid......Due to advancements in technology and the expansion of companies onto a global level, organizations have become increasingly aware of the need to understand and manage diverse workforces; that is, the need to understand and manage differences among employees across borders (such as geographical...... global expansion of the company workforce....

  4. UK Nuclear Workforce Demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, John

    2017-01-01

    UK Nuclear Sites: DECOMMISSIONING - 26 Magnox Reactors, 2 Fast Reactors; OPERATIONAL - 14 AGRs, 1 PWR; 9.6 GWe Total Capacity. Nuclear Workforce Demand • Total workforce demand is expected to grow from ~88,000 in 2017 to ~101,000 in 2021 • Average “inflow” is ~7,000 FTEs per annum • 22% of the workforce is female (28% in civil, 12% in defence) • 81% generic skills, 18% nuclear skills, 1% subject matter experts • 3300 trainees total in SLCs and Defence Enterprise (16% graduate trainees) • At peak demand on Civils Construction, over 4,000 workers will be required on each nuclear new build site • Manufacturing workforce is expected to rise from around 4,000 in 2014 to 8,500 at the peak of onsite activity in 2025

  5. Landscape Analysis of Nutrition-sensitive Agriculture Policy Development in Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachat, Carl; Nago, Eunice; Ka, Abdoulaye; Vermeylen, Harm; Fanzo, Jessica; Mahy, Lina; Wüstefeld, Marzella; Kolsteren, Patrick

    2015-06-01

    Unlocking the agricultural potential of Africa offers a genuine opportunity to address malnutrition and drive development of the continent. Using Senegal as a case study, to identify gaps and opportunities to strengthen agricultural policies with nutrition-sensitive approaches. We carried out a systematic analysis of 13 policy documents that related to food production, agriculture, food security, or nutrition. Next, we collected data during a participatory analysis with 32 national stakeholders and in-depth interviews with 15 national experts of technical directorates of the different ministries that deal with agriculture and food production. The current agricultural context has various elements that are considered to enhance its nutrition sensitivity. On average, 8.3 of the 17 Food and Agriculture Organization guiding principles for agriculture programming for nutrition were included in the policies reviewed. Ensuring food security and increasing dietary diversity were considered to be the principal objectives of agricultural policies. Although there was considerable agreement that agriculture can contribute to nutrition, current agricultural programs generally do not target communities on the basis of their nutritional vulnerability. Agricultural programs were reported to have specific components to target female beneficiaries but were generally not used as delivery platforms for nutritional interventions. The findings of this study indicate the need for a coherent policy environment across the food system that aligns recommendations at the national level with local action on the ground. In addition, specific activities are needed to develop a shared understanding of nutrition and public health nutrition within the agricultural community in Senegal. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Development of professional practice through problem-based learning in human nutrition and Dietetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romero-López Ma Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although competency-based education is well established in health care education, research shows that the competencies do not always match the reality of clinical workplaces, especially in nutrition area. Student of Human Nutrition and Dietetics, have reported shortcomings in their general competencies, such as organizational skills, teamwork, knowledge to develop proposals for intervention. Were given to students a problem-based learning (PBL activity with collaborative learning competence for to investigate their evolutions in collaborative learning and the knowledge in nutrition education. The results suggest that the PBL provided better preparation with respect to several of the competencies. The effect of PBL for the experienced students' collaborative learning and education nutrition competencies is especially promising in the professional development of future nutritionists.

  7. Development of nutrition standards and therapeutic diet specifications for public hospitals in New South Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Peter; Hazlewood, Tanya; Pang, Glen

    2014-09-01

    In New South Wales (NSW), a new suite of nutrition standards for menus and specifications for therapeutic diets to be used in hospitals has been developed. These standards were required to facilitate centralised menu planning and food production, with the move to management of most hospital food services by HealthShare NSW, a state-wide business unit of NSW Health. The standards also aim to improve communication between health professionals, particularly with the increasing use of computerised meal-ordering systems. Nutrition standards have been developed for adult, paediatric and mental health inpatients, and specifications for 147 different adult and paediatric therapeutic diets. There is still significant variation in the nutrition standards for nutrition and therapeutic diets in hospitals across the Australian states, and a move to a more nationally harmonised approach would be welcome. Further research is required to examine the impact of these standards on operating efficiency and patient care outcomes.

  8. Enhancing the diversity of the pediatrician workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Aaron L

    2007-04-01

    This policy statement describes the key issues related to diversity within the pediatrician and health care workforce to identify barriers to enhancing diversity and offer policy recommendations to overcome these barriers in the future. The statement addresses topics such as health disparities, affirmative action, recent policy developments and reports on workforce diversity, and research on patient and provider diversity. It also broadens the discussion of diversity beyond the traditional realms of race and ethnicity to include cultural attributes that may have an effect on the quality of health care. Although workforce diversity is related to the provision of culturally effective pediatric care, it is a discrete issue that merits separate discussion and policy formulation. At the heart of this policy-driven action are multiorganizational and multispecialty collaborations designed to address substantive educational, financial, organizational, and other barriers to improved workforce diversity.

  9. Use of stable isotopes in developing countries: safe markers for nutrition regime study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, P.D.; Klein, E.R.

    1987-01-01

    Possible use of stable radioisotopes in studies on nutrition and medicine problems that may be used in investigations of babies, children, pregnant women is shown. Attention is paid to behaviour of limited number of elements: hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen. The IAEA plans implementation of a new coordinated research program on use of stable isotopes for studying nutrition problems and related diseases. The program emphasis will be placed on protein metabolism measurements and estimation of energy consumption in control population groups in developing countries

  10. Building Evidence for Sustainability of Food and Nutrition Intervention Programs in Developing Countries12

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Sunny S.; Rogers, Beatrice L.; Coates, Jennifer; Gilligan, Daniel O.; Sarriot, Eric

    2013-01-01

    After making large investments to put in place effective health and nutrition interventions, researchers, program implementers, policy makers, and donors all expect lasting effects. However, it is uncertain whether this is the case, and there is less certainty on how to approach the study of program sustainability. This symposium, “Building Evidence for Sustainability of Food and Nutrition Intervention Programs in Developing Countries,” provided not only frameworks for conceptualizing sustain...

  11. Development of a Food Safety and Nutrition Education Program for Adolescents by Applying Social Cognitive Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jounghee; Jeong, Soyeon; Ko, Gyeongah; Park, Hyunshin; Ko, Youngsook

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an educational model regarding food safety and nutrition. In particular, we aimed to develop educational materials, such as middle- and high-school textbooks, a teacher's guidebook, and school posters, by applying social cognitive theory. To develop a food safety and nutrition education program, we took into account diverse factors influencing an individual's behavior, such as personal, behavioral, and environmental factors, based on social cognitive theory. We also conducted a pilot study of the educational materials targeting middle-school students (n = 26), high-school students (n = 24), and dietitians (n = 13) regarding comprehension level, content, design, and quality by employing the 5-point Likert scale in May 2016. The food safety and nutrition education program covered six themes: (1) caffeine; (2) food additives; (3) foodborne illness; (4) nutrition and meal planning; (5) obesity and eating disorders; and (6) nutrition labeling. Each class activity was created to improve self-efficacy by setting one's own goal and to increase self-control by monitoring one's dietary intake. We also considered environmental factors by creating school posters and leaflets to educate teachers and parents. The overall evaluation score for the textbook was 4.0 points among middle- and high-school students, and 4.5 points among dietitians. This study provides a useful program model that could serve as a guide to develop educational materials for nutrition-related subjects in the curriculum. This program model was created to increase awareness of nutrition problems and self-efficacy. This program also helped to improve nutrition management skills and to promote a healthy eating environment in middle- and high-school students.

  12. [Development of the pregnancy nutrition knowledge scale and its relationship with eating habits in pregnant women visiting community health center].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hae Won

    2009-02-01

    This study was done to develop a pregnancy nutrition knowledge scale and to examine the relationships between pregnancy nutrition knowledge and eating habits in pregnant women. With convenient sampling, 189 pregnant women who used community health centers for their ante-natal care were recruited. Data were collected using a self administered questionnaire including items on pregnancy nutrition knowledge (18 items) developed by researcher and items on eating habits (14 items). Cronbach's alpha and exploratory factor analysis were examined to test reliability and construct validity of the scale. Pearson's correlation coefficients were used to identify the relationship between pregnancy nutrition knowledge and eating habits. Cronbach's alpha of 18 items was .80. In factor analysis using principal components, 6 factors explained 65% of the total variance. The level of pregnancy nutrition knowledge was not sufficient but correlations between pregnancy nutrition knowledge and some of eating habits were significant. Specifically, pregnancy nutrition knowledge was positively correlated with good eating habits and negatively with bad eating habits. The pregnancy nutrition knowledge scale developed in this study is acceptable for nutrition education led by nurses. Pregnancy nutrition knowledge and eating habits are considered as major variables for ante-natal nutrition education. In future studies, explorations are needed on dietary intake and physiological indices in pregnant women, comparison of women at risk with those not at risk, and development of nutritional education programs for pregnant women.

  13. Use of cognitive interview techniques in the development of nutrition surveys and interactive nutrition messages for low-income populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, Elena T; Campbell, Marci K; Honess-Morreale, Lauren

    2002-05-01

    The effectiveness of dietary surveys and educational messages is dependent in part on how well the target audience's information processing needs and abilities are addressed. Use of pilot testing is helpful; however, problems with wording and language are often not revealed. Cognitive interview techniques offer 1 approach to assist dietitians in understanding how audiences process information. With this method, respondents are led through a survey or message and asked to paraphrase items; discuss thoughts, feelings, and ideas that come to mind; and suggest alternative wording. As part of a US Department of Agriculture-funded nutrition education project, 23 cognitive interviews were conducted among technical community college students in North Carolina. Interview findings informed the development of tailored computer messages and survey questions. Better understanding of respondents' cognitive processes significantly improved the language and approach used in this intervention. Interview data indicated 4 problem areas: vague or ineffective instructions, confusing questions and response options, variable interpretation of terms, and misinterpretation of dietary recommendations. Interviews also provided insight into the meaning of diet-related stages of change. These findings concur with previous research suggesting that cognitive interview techniques are a valuable tool in the formative evaluation and development of nutrition surveys and materials.

  14. Building the Social Work Workforce: Saving Lives and Families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine Briar-Lawson

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This article depicts a journey over the decades to address some of the needs of children and families in the child welfare system. Recounting a few key milestones and challenges in the past 40 years, it is argued that workforce development is one key to improved outcomes for abused and neglected children and their families. Major events and several turning points are chronicled. Emerging workforce needs in aging are also cited as lessons learned from child welfare have implications for building a gero savvy social work workforce. Funding streams involving IV-E and Medicaid are discussed. It is argued that workforce development can be a life and death issue for some of these most vulnerable populations. Thus, the workforce development agenda must be at the forefront of the social work profession for the 21st century. Key funding streams are needed to foster investments in building and sustaining the social work workforce.

  15. Social capital and child nutrition in India: The moderating role of development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikram, Kriti

    2018-03-01

    Empirical studies of social capital rarely take into account the socioeconomic context of the region in which it operates, indeed as most of this research has been located in high income countries. It is imperative to investigate how development may influence the impact of social capital, especially in developing countries. This paper examines the relationship between social capital and child nutrition using the India Human Development Survey, 2005-2006. Using a multilevel framework and a sample of 6770 rural children under the age of five, it finds that household based bridging social capital, expressed as connections with development based organizations, is positively associated with child nutrition. Bonding social capital, expressed as ties with caste and religious based organizations, has the opposite impact. At the village level, contextual measures of social capital are associated with nutritional status of children, but their influence is conditional on local development. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Role of calcium deficiency in development of nutritional rickets in Indian children: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Varun; Seth, Anju; Aneja, Satinder; Sharma, Bhawna; Sonkar, Pitamber; Singh, Satveer; Marwaha, Raman K

    2012-10-01

    Nutritional rickets is usually attributed to vitamin D deficiency. Studies from some tropical countries have postulated low dietary intake of calcium as the cause of nutritional rickets. Both vitamin D and dietary calcium deficiency are highly prevalent in India. Information on their relative contribution in the development of rickets in Indian children is limited. The aim was to study the role of calcium and vitamin D deficiency in causation of nutritional rickets in young Indian children. In a case-control study, 67 children with nutritional rickets and 68 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were compared for demographic factors, nutritional status, sun exposure (UV score), dietary calcium and phytate intake (for subjects not breast-fed at presentation), and biochemical parameters [serum calcium, inorganic phosphate, alkaline phosphatase, 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD), and PTH]. Mean intake of calcium (204±129 vs. 453±234 mg/d; Prickets, significant negative correlations were seen between dietary calcium intake and radiological score (r=-0.28; P=0.03) and PTH (r=-0.26; P=0.02). No correlation was found between serum 25OHD level and radiological score or biochemical parameters of rickets. Rickets develops when low dietary calcium intake coexists with a low or borderline vitamin D nutrition status.

  17. Gaps in the existing public health informatics training programs: a challenge to the development of a skilled global workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Ashish; Perin, Douglas Marcel Puricelli

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore public health informatics (PHI) training programs that currently exist to meet the growing demand for a trained global workforce. We used several search engines, scientific databases, and the websites of informatics organizations; sources included PubMed, Google, the American Medical Informatics Organization, and the International Medical Informatics Organization. The search was conducted from May to July 2011 and from January to February 2012 using key words such as informatics, public health informatics, or biomedical informatics along with academic programs, training, certificate, graduate programs, or postgraduate programs. Course titles and catalog descriptions were gathered from the program or institution websites. Variables included PHI program categories, location and mode of delivery, program credits, and costs. Each course was then categorized based on its title and description as available on the Internet. Finally, we matched course titles and descriptions with the competencies for PHIs determined by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Descriptive analysis was performed to report means and frequency distributions for continuous and categorical variables. Stratified analysis was performed to explore average credits and cost per credit among both the public and private institutions. Fifteen PHI programs were identified across 13 different institutions, the majority of which were US-based. The average number of credits and the associated costs required to obtain PHI training were much higher in private as compared to public institutions. The study results suggest that a need for online contextual and cost-effective PHI training programs exists to address the growing needs of professionals worldwide who are using technology to improve public health in their respective countries.

  18. Probabilistic Decision Tools for Determining Impacts of Agricultural Development Policy on Household Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, Cory W.; Lanzanova, Denis; Muchiri, Caroline; Shepherd, Keith D.; Rosenstock, Todd S.; Krawinkel, Michael; Tabuti, John R. S.; Luedeling, Eike

    2018-03-01

    Governments around the world have agreed to end hunger and food insecurity and to improve global nutrition, largely through changes to agriculture and food systems. However, they are faced with a lot of uncertainty when making policy decisions, since any agricultural changes will influence social and biophysical systems, which could yield either positive or negative nutrition outcomes. We outline a holistic probability modeling approach with Bayesian Network (BN) models for nutritional impacts resulting from agricultural development policy. The approach includes the elicitation of expert knowledge for impact model development, including sensitivity analysis and value of information calculations. It aims at a generalizable methodology that can be applied in a wide range of contexts. To showcase this approach, we develop an impact model of Vision 2040, Uganda's development strategy, which, among other objectives, seeks to transform the country's agricultural landscape from traditional systems to large-scale commercial agriculture. Model results suggest that Vision 2040 is likely to have negative outcomes for the rural livelihoods it intends to support; it may have no appreciable influence on household hunger but, by influencing preferences for and access to quality nutritional foods, may increase the prevalence of micronutrient deficiency. The results highlight the trade-offs that must be negotiated when making decisions regarding agriculture for nutrition, and the capacity of BNs to make these trade-offs explicit. The work illustrates the value of BNs for supporting evidence-based agricultural development decisions.

  19. The evolutionary development of plant-feeding insects and their nutritional endosymbionts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skidmore, Isabel H; Hansen, Allison K

    2017-12-01

    Herbivorous insects have evolved diverse mechanisms enabling them to feed on plants with suboptimal nutrient availability. Low nutrient availability negatively impacts insect herbivore development and fitness. To overcome this obstacle numerous insect lineages have evolved intimate associations with nutritional endosymbionts. This is especially true for insects that specialize on nitrogen-poor substrates, as these insects are highly dependent on intracellular symbionts to provide nitrogen lacking in their insect host's diet. Emerging evidence in these systems suggest that the symbiont's and/or the insect's biosynthetic pathways are dynamically regulated throughout the insect's development to potentially cope with the insect's changing nutritional demands. In this review, we evaluate the evolutionary development of symbiotic insect cells (bacteriocytes) by comparing and contrasting genes and mechanisms involved in maintaining and regulating the nutritional symbiosis throughout insect development in a diversity of insect herbivore-endosymbiont associations. With new advances in genome sequencing and functional genomics, we evaluate to what extent nutritional symbioses are shaped by (i) the regulation of symbiont titer, (ii) the regulation of insect symbiosis genes, and (iii) the regulation of symbiont genes. We discuss how important these mechanisms are for the biosynthesis of essential amino acids and vitamins across insect life stages in divergent insect-symbiont systems. We conclude by suggesting future directions of research to further elucidate the evolutionary development of bacteriocytes and the impact of these nutritional symbioses on insect-plant interactions. © 2017 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  20. Management issues regarding the contingent workforce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowen-Smed, S. [Bowen Workforce Solutions, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    Fifty per cent of corporate leaders in Calgary today will be eligible for retirement over the next 5 years. In addition, 53 per cent of the entire Calgary workforce is 45 years or older. This paper suggests that only companies that seek aggressive programs to engage immigrants and contractors will weather the skills shortages anticipated in the future. It was noted that contractors care about aligning values to organizations, regardless of the project length, and that professional development is a key consideration when it comes to selecting their next project. Contingent workforce issues include: effectiveness; classification; risk; and cost. It was stated that effectiveness of the contingent workforce is an employer's responsibility. Factors that would strengthen the relationship between corporations and contractors include: proper orientation to manage expectations; training to improve productivity; tracking to enhance the quality of the workforce; and a management process to ensure adherence to protocol. It was concluded that the contingent workforce is an essential component to human capital management strategy, but that key issues must be managed to avoid unnecessary costs. In addition, effectiveness improves when processes are implemented. It was also suggested that technology is an essential component of the solution. Outsourcing is an effective approach to managing the contingent workforce. tabs., figs.

  1. Engaging the Workforce - 12347

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaden, Michael D. [Transuranic Waste Processing Center, Lenoir City, TN 37771 (United States); Wastren Advantage Inc. (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Likert, Covey, and a number of others studying and researching highly effective organizations have found that performing functions such as problem-solving, decision-making, safety analysis, planning, and continuous improvement as close to the working floor level as possible results in greater buy-in, feelings of ownership by the workers, and more effective use of resources. Empowering the workforce does several things: 1) people put more effort and thought into work for which they feel ownership, 2) the information they use for planning, analysis, problem-solving,and decision-making is more accurate, 3) these functions are performed in a more timely manner, and 4) the results of these functions have more credibility with those who must implement them. This act of delegation and empowerment also allows management more time to perform functions they are uniquely trained and qualified to perform, such as strategic planning, staff development, succession planning, and organizational improvement. To achieve this state in an organization, however, requires a very open, transparent culture in which accurate, timely, relevant, candid, and inoffensive communication flourishes, a situation that does not currently exist in a majority of organizations. (authors)

  2. Approaches to Working with Children, Young People and Families for Traveller, Irish Traveller, Gypsy, Roma and Show People Communities. A Literature Review Report for the Children's Workforce Development Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Mark; Martin, Kerry

    2008-01-01

    The Children's Workforce Development Council (CWDC) commissioned this literature review as the first part of a project exploring issues around and approaches to working with Travellers, Irish Travellers, Gypsies, Roma and Showpeople, and the support, training and other programs available to staff involved. The project is intended to contribute to…

  3. Development of job standards for clinical nutrition therapy for dyslipidemia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Min-Jae; Seo, Jung-Sook; Kim, Eun-Mi; Park, Mi-Sun; Woo, Mi-Hye; Ju, Dal-Lae; Wie, Gyung-Ah; Lee, Song-Mi; Cha, Jin-A; Sohn, Cheong-Min

    2015-04-01

    Dyslipidemia has significantly contributed to the increase of death and morbidity rates related to cardiovascular diseases. Clinical nutrition service provided by dietitians has been reported to have a positive effect on relief of medical symptoms or reducing the further medical costs. However, there is a lack of researches to identify key competencies and job standard for clinical dietitians to care patients with dyslipidemia. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to analyze the job components of clinical dietitian and develop the standard for professional practice to provide effective nutrition management for dyslipidemia patients. The current status of clinical nutrition therapy for dyslipidemia patients in hospitals with 300 or more beds was studied. After duty tasks and task elements of nutrition care process for dyslipidemia clinical dietitians were developed by developing a curriculum (DACUM) analysis method. The developed job standards were pretested in order to evaluate job performance, difficulty, and job standards. As a result, the job standard included four jobs, 18 tasks, and 53 task elements, and specific job description includes 73 basic services and 26 recommended services. When clinical dietitians managing dyslipidemia patients performed their practice according to this job standard for 30 patients the job performance rate was 68.3%. Therefore, the job standards of clinical dietitians for clinical nutrition service for dyslipidemia patients proposed in this study can be effectively used by hospitals.

  4. Development of a reliable and construct valid measure of nutritional literacy in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diamond James J

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research into the relation of literacy to health status has not included measures of nutritional literacy. This may be a critical area in the study of chronic conditions such as hypertension and diabetes, which can both relate to obesity and nutrition. This paper details the development and psychometric characteristics of the Nutritional Literacy Scale (NLS, offered as a measure of adults' ability to comprehend nutritional information. Methods In order to assess the internal consistency and construct validity of the NLS, demographic data, readability statistics, NLS scores and scores on the Reading Comprehension Section of the Short Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (S-TOFHLA were collected in a cross-sectional study of 341 patients from two primary care practices. Results The NLS score showed acceptable internal consistency of 0.84 by Cronbach's alpha coefficient. The Pearson correlation between the NLS and the S-TOFHLA was 0.61, supporting evidence for construct validity. Conclusion Given the importance of proper weight and nutrition in the health of the public, as well as the absence of research on literacy skills as related to nutritional concepts, the NLS has the potential to add to the national research agenda in these areas.

  5. Prioritizing Nutrition in Agriculture and Rural Development : Guiding Principles for Operational Investments

    OpenAIRE

    Herforth, Anna; Jones, Andrew; Pinstrup-Andersen, Per

    2012-01-01

    Agricultural and rural development provides a critically important opportunity for reducing malnutrition. The purpose of this paper is to provide a set of guiding principles for incorporating nutrition goals into the design and implementation of agricultural and rural development projects, and to provide examples of current best evidence options for operational investments. Several princip...

  6. Impact of Technology and Culture on Home Economics and Nutrition Science Education in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aburime, M. O.; Uhomoibhi, J. O.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine and report on the impact of technology and culture on home economics and nutrition science education in developing countries with a focus on Nigeria. Design/methodology/approach: Globally and most especially in developing countries, the advent of information and communication technologies has meant…

  7. Development and implementation of an audit tool for quality control of parenteral nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Rodicio, Sonsoles; Abajo, Celia; Godoy, Mercedes; Catalá, Miguel Angel

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this article is to describe the development of a quality control methodology applied to patients receiving parenteral nutrition (PN) and to present the results obtained over the past 10 years. Development of the audit tool: In 1995, a total of 13 PN quality criteria and their standards were defined based on literature and past experiences. They were applied during 5 different 6-month audits carried out in subsequent years. According to the results of each audit, the criteria with lower validity were eliminated, while others were optimized and new criteria were introduced to complete the monitoring of other areas not previously examined. Currently, the quality control process includes 22 quality criteria and their standards that examine the following 4 different areas: (1) indication and duration of PN; (2) nutrition assessment, adequacy of the nutrition support, and monitoring; (3) metabolic and infectious complications; and (4) global efficacy of the nutrition support regimen. The authors describe the current definition of each criterion and present the results obtained in the 5 audits performed. In the past year, 9 of the 22 criteria reached the predefined standards. The areas detected for further improvements were: indication for PN, nutrition assessment, and management of catheter infections. The definition of quality criteria and their standards is an efficient method of providing a qualitative and quantitative analysis of the clinical care of patients receiving PN. It detects areas for improvement and assists in developing a methodology to work efficiently.

  8. Early Childhood Nutritional Status in CARICOM Countries: An Overview with respect to Five Nutrition Related Millennium Development Goals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela S. Gaskin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous reviews of nutritional status in children under 5 years describe the Caribbean grouped with Latin America. This paper focuses specifically on the Caribbean and the goals and targets of the Millennium Declaration that have bearing on childhood development. The results indicate that CARICOM countries have made progress in terms of child health as assessed by gross health indicators. Yet, the millennium generation experiences coexistence of undernutrition and overweight in early childhood. The associations of GNI with markers such as poverty indices are somewhat inconsistent with traditional findings and highlight a need to reassess the causes of infant mortality and low birth weight. However, a lack of systematic local data has hampered progress on an individual country basis. Interventions that deal more pointedly with country specific needs are required including those targeting obesity if the MDGs are to be attained by all member states.

  9. Early childhood nutritional status in CARICOM countries: an overview with respect to five nutrition related millennium development goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskin, Pamela S; Nielsen, Anders L; Willie, Douladel; Durant, Tara C

    2014-01-01

    Previous reviews of nutritional status in children under 5 years describe the Caribbean grouped with Latin America. This paper focuses specifically on the Caribbean and the goals and targets of the Millennium Declaration that have bearing on childhood development. The results indicate that CARICOM countries have made progress in terms of child health as assessed by gross health indicators. Yet, the millennium generation experiences coexistence of undernutrition and overweight in early childhood. The associations of GNI with markers such as poverty indices are somewhat inconsistent with traditional findings and highlight a need to reassess the causes of infant mortality and low birth weight. However, a lack of systematic local data has hampered progress on an individual country basis. Interventions that deal more pointedly with country specific needs are required including those targeting obesity if the MDGs are to be attained by all member states.

  10. Playing with food. A novel approach to understanding nutritional behaviour development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Meghan

    2010-06-01

    This study explored the use of a novel method of collecting data on nutritional behaviour development in young children: videos posted on the Internet site YouTube. YouTube videos (n=115) of children alone and interacting with parents in toy kitchen settings were analyzed using constant comparison analysis. Results revealed that in the videos of play nutritional behaviours, children showed influences of their real social environments, and that this medium enabled the observation of parent-child interactions in a more natural context without the researcher's presence. These findings encourage further research in the development and validity of alternative methods of data collection. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Integrating nutrition and child development interventions: scientific basis, evidence of impact, and implementation considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Maureen M; Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael; Rao, Sylvia Fernandez

    2015-11-01

    The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) have contributed to unprecedented reductions in poverty and improvement in the lives of millions of men, women, and children in low- and middle-income countries. Yet, hundreds of millions of children under 5 y of age are not reaching their developmental potential. This article reviews the scientific basis for early childhood nutrition and child development interventions, the impact of integrated interventions on children's linear growth and cognitive development, and implementation strategies for integrated nutrition and child development programs. Advances in brain science have documented that the origins of adult health and well-being are grounded in early childhood, from conception through age 24 mo (first 1000 d) and extending to age 5 y (second 1000 d). Young children with adequate nutrition, nurturant caregiving, and opportunities for early learning have the best chances of thriving. Evidence from adoption, experimental, and quasi-experimental studies has shown that stunting prevention is sensitive during the first 1000 d, and sensitivity to child development interventions extends through the second 1000 d. Cognitive development responds to interventions post–1000 d with effect sizes that are inversely associated with initial age and length of program exposure. Integrated interventions need governance structures that support integrated policies and programming, with attention to training, supervision, and monitoring. The MDGs have been replaced by the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), with targets for the next 15 y. Achievement of the SDGs depends on children receiving adequate nutrition, nurturant caregiving, and learning opportunities from conception through age 5.

  12. Test Selection, Adaptation, and Evaluation: A Systematic Approach to Assess Nutritional Influences on Child Development in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Elizabeth L.; Hartini, Sri; Rahmawati, Atik; Ismayani, Elfa; Hidayati, Astri; Hikmah, Nurul; Muadz, Husni; Apriatni, Mandri S.; Ullman, Michael T.; Shankar, Anuraj H.; Alcock, Katherine J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Evaluating the impact of nutrition interventions on developmental outcomes in developing countries can be challenging since most assessment tests have been produced in and for developed country settings. Such tests may not be valid measures of children's abilities when used in a new context. Aims: We present several principles for the…

  13. Integration of Nutrition and Economic Development in Sri Lanka: The Graduation Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peiris, Dilka; Fernando, Sisira

    2014-01-01

    Full text: WV Lanka’s Graduation Model integrates economic development and nutrition-specific interventions in order to sustainably reduce childhood growth failure. The Graduation Model identifies families where they are on the economic and nutrition scale to tailor interventions enabling graduation from one living standard segment to the next, as well as enabling improved nutrition. Families with malnourished children are identified and supported with appropriate nutrition interventions, in addition to the tailored economic interventions, which first focus on nutrition rehabilitation through positive deviant Hearth approach and then increasing diet diversity through food security and livelihoods. WV Lanka is implementing an integrated approach to address malnutrition. The components of the Graduation Model focused on families: 1. Participatory Living Standard Ranking (PLSR) to identify the living standards of the families. PLSR leads to a segmentation of all households in to six segments depending on the living standards. They are:, Destitute (DT), Poorest of the poor (PoP), Poor (P), Vulnerable none poor (VNP), Suitable livelihood & Micro Entrepreneur (SL & ME) and Small and Medium Entrepreneur & above (SME & Above). 2. Nutrition assessment/growth monitoring to identify nutritional status of children and their families. 3. Family Development Plan prepared for all households and all members of the family – incorporating the Sustainable Livelihood. 4. The Positive Deviance/Hearth approach is used to identify existing practices which promote good nutrition and these practices later on were shared to caregivers of malnourished children through experiential learning. The Positive Deviance/Hearth sessions are used to promote the caring, feeding, hygienic and health seeking practices among caregivers. Low income families with malnourished children are supported to establish home gardens. Interventions include a combination of home gardens, business training, pre

  14. Understanding nutrition communication between health professionals and consumers: development of a model for nutrition awareness based on qualitative consumer research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dillen, van S.M.E.; Hiddink, G.J.; Koelen, M.A.; Graaf, de C.; Woerkum, van C.M.J.

    2003-01-01

    Background: Consumers have been exposed to nutrition information from a variety of sources, including the family doctor. They are often not aware of their own risk behavior regarding nutrition. Objective: This study sought to assess food associations, conversation topics, interest in food topics,

  15. Shared Principles of Ethics for Infant and Young Child Nutrition in the Developing World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daar Abdallah S

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The defining event in the area of infant feeding is the aggressive marketing of infant formula in the developing world by transnational companies in the 1970s. This practice shattered the trust of the global health community in the private sector, culminated in a global boycott of Nestle products and has extended to distrust of all commercial efforts to improve infant and young child nutrition. The lack of trust is a key barrier along the critical path to optimal infant and young child nutrition in the developing world. Discussion To begin to bridge this gap in trust, we developed a set of shared principles based on the following ideals: Integrity; Solidarity; Justice; Equality; Partnership, cooperation, coordination, and communication; Responsible Activity; Sustainability; Transparency; Private enterprise and scale-up; and Fair trading and consumer choice. We hope these principles can serve as a platform on which various parties in the in the infant and young child nutrition arena, can begin a process of authentic trust-building that will ultimately result in coordinated efforts amongst parties. Summary A set of shared principles of ethics for infant and young child nutrition in the developing world could catalyze the scale-up of low cost, high quality, complementary foods for infants and young children, and eventually contribute to the eradication of infant and child malnutrition in the developing world.

  16. Dairy development and nutrition in Kilifi District, Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leegwater, P.; Ngolo, J.; Hoorweg, J.C.

    1991-01-01

    The objectives of this study on dairy development in Kilifi District, Kenya, are, first, to assess the importance of - small-scale - intensive dairy farming as promoted by the Ministry of Livestock through the National Dairy Development Programme (DDP) compared with other types of small-scale dairy

  17. Personalised nutritional powder for elderly developed in OPTIFEL European Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica TRIF

    2016-11-01

    Developing innovative food and services tailored to elderly populations is a new challenge for key players involved in food industry and catering. The population targeted by the OPTIFEL project is elderly cooking at home or making use of meal-on-wheels services for whom the project will develop food products adapted to their taste, habits, needs and constraints.

  18. The Influence of Agricultural Development on the Nutritional Status ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    own right, it can, and should, contribute materially towards the wealth of the country and the raising of the living standards of the population. It is, therefore, gene- rally accepted that agricultural development must act as a springboard for further economic progress in under- developed or economically backward countries.

  19. The implication of nutritional psychopedagogy in the matrix of personal development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Dorina PASCA

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The birth of conceptual nutritional psycho-pedagogy represents the compulsory matrix for the development and maintenance of human and personal value. Thus, it must respond both from the point of view of attitude and behavior through education and from a structural point of view to the social command, enclosing the individual in a quality segment of his existence, starting from the nutritional act. Being a new and interdisciplinary domain, nutritional psycho pedagogy, determines, by the implication in the personalized act of nutrition, the acknowledgment of the fact that “eating is an art” and, at the same time, it makes responsible the ones who sustain that “they live to eat” and/or “they eat to live”. This fact cognitively implies both the acknowledgment and the application of the component elements necessary for the approach of a healthy life style which determines the improvement of the life quality, as a response of personal identity. We wonder: Is the nutritional psycho pedagogy able toanswer the question “Tell me what you eat and I will tell you who you are”.

  20. The Effectiveness of Community-Based Nutrition Education on the Nutrition Status of Under-five Children in Developing Countries. A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majamanda, J; Maureen, D; Munkhondia, T M; Carrier, J

    2014-12-01

    This systematic review aimed at examining the best available evidence on the effectiveness of community-based nutrition education in improving the nutrition status of under five children in developing countries. A systematic search of the literature was conducted utilising the following data bases: Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), EMBASE, Medline, and Web of Knowledge. 9 studies were identified for the critical appraisal process. The Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) critical appraisal check-list for experimental studies was utilised and two reviewers conducted the appraisal process independently. 7 studies were included for this review and data was extracted using the JBI data extraction form for experimental studies. The extracted data was heterogeneous as such narrative synthesis was conducted. The nutritional status of children in all studies improved and this was evidenced by increases in weight, height, mid upper arm circumference and reduced morbidity. Key messages about education were age at introduction of complementary foods, nutrition value on different types of feeds found locally and frequency of feeding the children. However, there were varied results regarding the effects of the intervention on the nutrition status of children. This was attributed by differences in implementers' characteristics, different intervention strategy and intensity, difference in age of the children at enrolment, pre-existing children's growth and nutritional status and follow-up periods. In addition to home visiting, conducting group meetings of care givers and community leaders, providing education twice a week and use of cooking demonstrations have shown that they produce highly significant findings. The evidence from the identified studies suggests that community- based nutrition education improves the nutrition status of under-five children in developing countries.

  1. Development, Evaluation, and Validation of Environmental Assessment Tools to Evaluate the College Nutrition Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Marjorie R.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To develop, evaluate, and validate 2 nutrition environment assessment tools (surveys), for specific use in combating overweight on college/university campuses. Participants and Methods: Invitations to complete surveys were e-mailed to food service and health center directors at 47 universities, Winter 2008. Overall response rate was…

  2. Use of Linear Programming to Develop Cost-Minimized Nutritionally Adequate Health Promoting Food Baskets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parlesak, A.; Tetens, Inge; Dejgård Jensen, Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    Food-Based Dietary Guidelines (FBDGs) are developed to promote healthier eating patterns, but increasing food prices may make healthy eating less affordable. The aim of this study was to design a range of cost-minimized nutritionally adequate health-promoting food baskets (FBs) that help prevent ...

  3. Impact of Nutrition Transition and Resulting Morbidities on Economic and Human Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayathri, Rajagopal; Ruchi, Vaidya; Mohan, Viswanathan

    2017-01-01

    Nutrition transition is an adverse outcome of rapid economic development and globalization. The present review documents the pattern of nutrition and health transition among different food groups leading to the growing global and national epidemic of non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Studies published in various national and international journals were searched using PubMed and Google Scholar search engines from the year 2000 to 2015. Literature was reviewed to gather data pertaining to nutrition and health transition and economic burden of non-communicable disease (NCDs). Diets are changing globally towards higher intakes of simple and refined carbohydrates (including sugar), fat and lower intake of complex carbohydrates. The upsurge of co-morbidities arising from nutrition transition is a serious threat worldwide especially in developing countries like India, which in turn poses a huge impact on economic development of the nation. Better awareness and encouragement of using healthier diet option can help to combat the epidemic of NCDs in the developing world. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  4. Development of NutriSportEx TM -interactive sport nutrition based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Development of NutriSportExTM-interactive sport nutrition based mobile application software. B.S. Pushpa, N.S. Safii, S.H. Hamzah, N Fauzi, W.K. Yeo, P.B. Koon, C.Y. Tsin, M.I. Mohamad, A.H.A. Rahman, C.L. Ming, R.A. Talib, M.R. Shahril ...

  5. The public health nutrition intervention management bi-cycle: a model for training and practice improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Roger; Margetts, Barrie

    2012-11-01

    The present paper describes a model for public health nutrition practice designed to facilitate practice improvement and provide a step-wise approach to assist with workforce development. The bi-cycle model for public health nutrition practice has been developed based on existing cyclical models for intervention management but modified to integrate discrete capacity-building practices. Education and practice settings. This model will have applications for educators and practitioners. Modifications to existing models have been informed by the authors' observations and experiences as practitioners and educators, and reflect a conceptual framework with applications in workforce development and practice improvement. From a workforce development and educational perspective, the model is designed to reflect adult learning principles, exposing students to experiential, problem-solving and practical learning experiences that reflect the realities of work as a public health nutritionist. In doing so, it assists the development of competency beyond knowing to knowing how, showing how and doing. This progression of learning from knowledge to performance is critical to effective competency development for effective practice. Public health nutrition practice is dynamic and varied, and models need to be adaptable and applicable to practice context to have utility. The paper serves to stimulate debate in the public health nutrition community, to encourage critical feedback about the validity, applicability and utility of this model in different practice contexts.

  6. Is surgical workforce diversity increasing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriole, Dorothy A; Jeffe, Donna B; Schechtman, Kenneth B

    2007-03-01

    We sought to determine the extent to which recent increases in levels of gender and racial diversity in the overall resident-physician workforce were evident among core-surgical specialty resident workforces. Chi-square tests for trend assessed the importance of changes from 1996 to 2004 in proportions of women and African Americans in the surgery-resident workforce. Surgery-resident trends were compared with overall resident workforce trends using two-tailed t-tests to compare regression slopes that quantified rates of change over time. Chi-square tests assessed differences between proportions of women and African Americans in the current overall board-certified workforce and their proportions in the surgery board-certified workforce. From 1996 to 2004, proportions of women increased in all seven surgical specialties studied. Compared with the overall trend toward increasing proportions of women in the resident workforce, the trend in one surgical specialty was larger (obstetrics/gynecology, p 0.05), and two were smaller (each p 0.05). Proportions of African Americans decreased in three specialties (each p workforce, except obstetrics/gynecology, remained lower than in the overall board-certified workforce (each p workforces have persisted since 1996 and will likely perpetuate ongoing surgery board-certified workforce disparities.

  7. Guidelines for developing healthy nutrition in business hotel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna Magaletska

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Developing healthy food in the business hotel is an integral part of the overall concept. Using natural ingredients with predicted physiological effect allows creating technology of products with higher biological value. The using of alternative products allows making dishes with preventive properties

  8. Operational workforce planning for check-in counters at airports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolletz, Raik

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses operation models for workforce planning for check-in systems at airports. We characterize different tasks of the hierarchical workforce planning problem with time-dependent demand. A binary linear programming formulation is developed for the fortnightly tour scheduling problem...

  9. Longleaf pine bud development: influence of seedling nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. P. Barnett; D. P. Jackson; R. K. Dumroese

    2010-01-01

    A subset of seedlings from a larger study (Jackson and others 2006, 2007) were selected and evaluated for two growing seasons to relate bud development, and root-collar diameter (RCD), and height growth with three nursery fertilization rates. We chose seedlings in the 0.5 (lowest), 2.0 (mid-range), and 4.0 (highest) mg of nitrogen per seedling treatments. Buds moved...

  10. Developing a university-workforce partnership to address rural and frontier MCH training needs: the Rocky Mountain Public Health Education Consortium (RMPHEC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taren, Douglas L; Varela, Frances; Dotson, Jo Ann W; Eden, Joan; Egger, Marlene; Harper, John; Johnson, Rhonda; Kennedy, Kathy; Kent, Helene; Muramoto, Myra; Peacock, Jane C; Roberts, Richard; Sjolander, Sheila; Streeter, Nan; Velarde, Lily; Hill, Anne

    2011-10-01

    The objective of the article is to provide the socio-cultural, political, economic, and geographic conditions that justified a regional effort for training maternal and child health (MCH) professionals in the Rocky Mountain region, describe a historical account of factors that led to the development of the Rocky Mountain Public Health Education Consortium (RMPHEC), and present RMPHEC as a replicable model developed to enhance practice/academic partnerships among state, tribal, and public health agencies and universities to enhance public health capacity and MCH outcomes. This article provides a description of the development of the RMPHEC, the impetus that drove the Consortium's development, the process used to create it, and its management and programs. Beginning in 1997, local, regional, and federal efforts encouraged stronger MCH training and continuing education in the Rocky Mountain Region. By 1998, the RMPHEC was established to respond to the growing needs of MCH professionals in the region by enhancing workforce development through various programs, including the MCH Certificate Program, MCH Institutes, and distance learning products as well as establishing a place for professionals and MCH agencies to discuss new ideas and opportunities for the region. Finally over the last decade local, state, regional, and federal efforts have encouraged a synergy of MCH resources, opportunities, and training within the region because of the health disparities among MCH populations in the region. The RMPHEC was founded to provide training and continuing education to MCH professionals in the region and as a venue to bring regional MCH organizations together to discuss current opportunities and challenges. RMPHEC is a consortium model that can be replicated in other underserved regions, looking to strengthen MCH training and continuing education.

  11. Optimising nutritional intake to promote growth and development in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton-Shepherd, Alison

    2012-08-01

    Eating habits may be formed at a young age and once entrenched, tend to track across childhood and beyond (Tsuji et al, 2012). Although parents have a significant role in the development of their child's dietary intake (Clarke et al, 2007), Harris (2010) argues that the diets and feeding habits of young children are now no longer the sole responsibility of parents but other childcare professionals, including nannies and nursery staff. The aim of this article is to provide parents and professionals with guidance to help encourage parents, and other members of the multidisciplinary team, to provide children with a healthy diet.

  12. Building the biomedical data science workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Michelle C; Bourne, Philip E

    2017-07-01

    This article describes efforts at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) from 2013 to 2016 to train a national workforce in biomedical data science. We provide an analysis of the Big Data to Knowledge (BD2K) training program strengths and weaknesses with an eye toward future directions aimed at any funder and potential funding recipient worldwide. The focus is on extramurally funded programs that have a national or international impact rather than the training of NIH staff, which was addressed by the NIH's internal Data Science Workforce Development Center. From its inception, the major goal of BD2K was to narrow the gap between needed and existing biomedical data science skills. As biomedical research increasingly relies on computational, mathematical, and statistical thinking, supporting the training and education of the workforce of tomorrow requires new emphases on analytical skills. From 2013 to 2016, BD2K jump-started training in this area for all levels, from graduate students to senior researchers.

  13. The laboratory workforce shortage: a managerial perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortelyou-Ward, Kendall; Ramirez, Bernardo; Rotarius, Timothy

    2011-01-01

    Most clinical laboratories in the nation report severe difficulties in recruitment and retention of most types of personnel. Other important factors impacting this problem include work complexities, increased automation, and a graying workforce. As a further challenge, institutional needs for clinical laboratory personnel are expected to grow significantly in the next decade. This article examines the current situation of the clinical laboratory workforce. It analyzes the different types of personnel; the managerial, supervision, and line positions that are key for different types of laboratories; the job outlook and recent projections for different types of staff; and the current issues, trends, and challenges of the laboratory workforce. Laboratory managers need to take action with strategies suggested for overcoming these challenges. Most importantly, they need to become transformational leaders by developing effective staffing models, fostering healthy and productive work environments, and creating value with a strategic management culture and implementation of knowledge management.

  14. Nutritional status and economic development in sub-Saharan Africa, 1950-1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Alexander

    2010-03-01

    How did nutritional status develop in sub-Saharan Africa during the second half of the 20th century, and what role did economic development play in nutrition and health? Aggregating data from more than 200,000 women in 28 sub-Saharan African countries, we use mean height as an indicator of net nutritional status and find that the nutritional status of 1960 birth cohorts was relatively high. This situation, however, was not sustained. In almost all countries examined, mean heights were stagnating or decreasing after the 1970 cohorts. Using regression analysis we model human growth from birth to maturity, and find that economic growth had a significant and robust influence on final adult height at two distinct periods of the life cycle: (1) in the first years of life and (2) at puberty. We conclude that the economic difficulties of the late 1970s and 1980s contributed to the decline or stagnation in heights. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Protein nutrition and metabolism during early development of the chick embryo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, N.W.

    1976-01-01

    Cultures of intact early chick embryos have been used as a model system in which to study the nutrition and metabolism of proteins during early embryonic development. Previous studies have shown that these embryos require nutrient proteins for growth and development. The protein requirement was found to be specific in that at least two proteins were essential; one a transferrin (either conalbumin or yolk transferrin) and the other either ovalbumin or lipovitellin. Variations in the quantity or type of protein provided in the medium altered the growth of embryo regions through regionally specific changes in protein breakdown. This was confirmed through protein synthetic studies with isolated polyribosomes. More recently such variations in protein nutrition have been shown also to affect the actual patterns of proteins synthesized by regions of the embryo. These observed responses to protein nutrition have been difficult to reconcile with our observation that proteins as such did not reach the embryo proper but were first degraded to amine acids within the yolk-sac membrane. Studies on the synthesis of serum proteins by the yolk-sac membrane have provided a possible explanation in that the relative synthesis of individual serum proteins was dramatically influenced by the protein composition of the culture medium. We are currently attempting to demonstrate that serum proteins are indeed the mediators of the response of embryos to protein nutrition. (author)

  16. Relationship between nutritional status, psychosocial stimulation, and cognitive development in preschool children in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warsito, Oktarina; Khomsan, Ali; Hernawati, Neti; Anwar, Faisal

    2012-10-01

    The purposes of the study were to analyze nutritional status, psychosocial stimulation, and factors affecting the cognitive development of preschool-age children. This study was conducted in the Village of Babakan, Sub-District of Dramaga, Bogor Regency, West Java. This cross-sectionally designed study was conducted with mothers who had preschool children aged 3-5 years as respondents. Fifty-eight children were included. The distribution of mother's educational level was quite diverse, and the largest percentage (44.8%) had senior high school education. Approximately 78% of the family income per capita was classified into the non-poor category and 22.4% into the poor category. The average mother's nutritional knowledge score was 76.7 ± 2.5 (moderate category). Most of the preschool children (84.4%) had psychosocial stimulation scores in the moderate category (30-45). The nutritional status of children showed that 15.5% were underweight, 5.2% were wasted, 3.4% were severely wasted, and 19% of the children were in the short and very short categories (stunted). The stepwise regression results showed that psychosocial stimulation (P education (P = 0.002) and nutritional status based on the height index for age (P = 0.028) had a positive and significant effect on cognitive development of the preschool children (adjusted R(2), 0.434; P = 0.028).

  17. The role of nutrition in integrated early child development in the 21st century: contribution from the Maternal and Child Nutrition journal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael; Moran, Victoria Hall

    2017-01-01

    Even though it is widely recognized that early childhood development (ECD) is one of the most important predictors of future social capital and national productivity, the recently published ECD Lancet Series reports that about 250 million children under 5 years are at risk of not reaching their developmental potential, mainly as a result of poverty and social injustice. So why is this and what will it take to reverse this situation? The purpose of this special issue is to highlight important contributions from previously published articles in Maternal & Child Nutrition to the field of nutrition and ECD. The collection of papers presented in this special issue collectively indicates that although nutrition-specific interventions are essential for child development, they are not sufficient by themselves for children to reach their full developmental potential. This is because ECD is influenced by many other factors besides nutrition, including hand washing/sanitation, parenting skills, psychosocial stimulation, and social protection. Future research should focus on mixed-methods implementation science seeking to understand how best to translate evidence-based integrated ECD packages into effective intersectoral policies and programs on a large scale. In addition to health and nutrition, these programs need to consider and include responsive parenting (including responsive feeding), learning stimulation, education, and social protection. Future studies should also address if and how childhood obesity affects human physical, socioemotional, and cognitive development. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. The Interaction between Epigenetics, Nutrition and the Development of Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen S. Bishop

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Unlike the genome, the epigenome can be modified and hence some epigenetic risk markers have the potential to be reversed. Such modifications take place by means of drugs, diet or environmental exposures. It is widely accepted that epigenetic modifications take place during early embryonic and primordial cell development, but it is also important that we gain an understanding of the potential for such changes later in life. These “later life” epigenetic modifications in response to dietary intervention are the focus of this paper. The epigenetic modifications investigated include DNA methylation, histone modifications and the influence of microRNAs. The epigenotype could be used not only to predict susceptibility to certain cancers but also to assess the effectiveness of dietary modifications to reduce such risk. The influence of diet or dietary components on epigenetic modifications and the impact on cancer initiation or progression has been assessed herein.

  19. The development of a nutrition teaching programme for foundation phase learners in rural schools / Michelle Jerling

    OpenAIRE

    Jerling, Michelle

    2007-01-01

    Healthy nutrition is indispensable for the advancement and maintenance of an individual's health during the whole life cycle. A huge percentage of young and developing children in South Africa are subjected to undernourishment and malnourishment. Malnourishment and undernourishment can signify permanent negative consequences for the physical, intellectual and psycho-social development of the child. The aim of the research was to: • ascertain to which extent provision is made fo...

  20. Wind-energy Science, Technology and Research (WindSTAR) Consortium: Curriculum, Workforce Development, and Education Plan Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manwell, James [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States)

    2013-03-19

    The purpose of the project is to modify and expand the current wind energy curriculum at the University of Massachusetts Amherst and to develop plans to expand the graduate program to a national scale. The expansion plans include the foundational steps to establish the American Academy of Wind Energy (AAWE). The AAWE is intended to be a cooperative organization of wind energy research, development, and deployment institutes and universities across North America, whose mission will be to develop and execute joint RD&D projects and to organize high-level science and education in wind energy

  1. Iron compounds for food fortification: The development of an essential nutritional strategy for developing countries. A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica Maria Serpa Guerra

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Iron (Fe deficiency has been recognized as a public health problem due to its health and economic implications. In developing countries like Colombia this deficiency still affects a large part of its population, especially children and women in gestation. Hence the importance of developing strategies such as food fortification with iron to improve the levels of consumption in the population and offset the consequences generated by the lack of this mineral, including mental and motor development, and immune system disorders. In this review, the main concepts of iron food fortification are developed, including the main factors which influence their physiological use, its importance from the nutritional point of view, the technologies used for food fortification and the latest trends in this type of products, such as biofortification and nanotechnology, all this in order to contribute to the research and development process of nutritional strategies whose central point is iron deficiency as an strategy of prevention and control.

  2. Integrating Nutrition and Child Development Interventions: Scientific Basis, Evidence of Impact, and Implementation Considerations123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Maureen M; Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael; Fernandez Rao, Sylvia

    2015-01-01

    The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) have contributed to unprecedented reductions in poverty and improvement in the lives of millions of men, women, and children in low- and middle-income countries. Yet, hundreds of millions of children under 5 y of age are not reaching their developmental potential. This article reviews the scientific basis for early childhood nutrition and child development interventions, the impact of integrated interventions on children’s linear growth and cognitive development, and implementation strategies for integrated nutrition and child development programs. Advances in brain science have documented that the origins of adult health and well-being are grounded in early childhood, from conception through age 24 mo (first 1000 d) and extending to age 5 y (second 1000 d). Young children with adequate nutrition, nurturant caregiving, and opportunities for early learning have the best chances of thriving. Evidence from adoption, experimental, and quasi-experimental studies has shown that stunting prevention is sensitive during the first 1000 d, and sensitivity to child development interventions extends through the second 1000 d. Cognitive development responds to interventions post–1000 d with effect sizes that are inversely associated with initial age and length of program exposure. Integrated interventions need governance structures that support integrated policies and programming, with attention to training, supervision, and monitoring. The MDGs have been replaced by the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), with targets for the next 15 y. Achievement of the SDGs depends on children receiving adequate nutrition, nurturant caregiving, and learning opportunities from conception through age 5. PMID:26875208

  3. Sustainable development in agriculture, food and nutrition--a patent analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vani, Kohila P; Doble, Mukesh

    2011-05-01

    The paper discusses the patents that have been filed in the areas of sustainable development in agriculture, food and nutrition and use of natural resources in achieving this goal. A large number of patents deal with the production of fertilizers from animal manure, plant sources and other organic wastes, which are more sustainable that the chemical fertilizers that are being currently used. Sustainability in agriculture is achieved in developing processes for the manufacture of biopesticides/insecticides and bioactive agricultural products. Development of novel sustainable agricultural processes has also been the focus of researchers and technologists. Plant derived nutritious food products are sustainable and can cater for the growing population burden. This has been the focus of several patents. Processes for enhancing the nutrition in food also serve the purpose of catering for the under nourished population.

  4. Coconut oil and palm oil's role in nutrition, health and national development: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boateng, Laurene; Ansong, Richard; Owusu, William B; Steiner-Asiedu, Matilda

    2016-09-01

    Coconut and palm oils which were the major sources of dietary fats for centuries in most of West Africa have been branded as unhealthy highly saturated fats. Their consumption has been peddled to supposedly raise the level of blood cholesterol, thereby increasing the risk of coronary heart disease. This adverse view has led to a reduction in their consumption in West Africa and they have been substituted for imported vegetable oils. Recent information however, indicates some beneficial effects of these oils particularly their roles in nutrition, health and national development. There is the need for a better understanding of their effects on health, nutritional status and national development. This paper therefore attempts to review the roles which coconut and palm oils play in these respects in developing countries, as a means of advocating for a return to their use in local diets. None declared.

  5. Implementation of nutrition care service development plan at Banning Memorial Hospital: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Oumlil, A; Rao, C P

    1992-01-01

    Health care service markets in general and hospital care service markets in particular are characterized by many competitive developments. Hence, hospital marketing managers are forced to respond to these emerging competitive pressures. However, in formulating appropriate marketing management strategies, hospital managers need to have detailed knowledge about consumers and their behaviors in the marketplace. This paper focuses on the Nutrition Care division of the Department of Nutrition Service at a hospital and its venture into new service development. This case study is intended to emphasize the significance of acquiring adequate knowledge of customers in the health care services industry. It particularly emphasizes the critical role that this type of information concerning customer behavior plays in the development and implementation of an appropriate business expansion strategy. Furthermore, the aim of this case study is to help the reader to relate the acquired marketing information to the problem at hand, and make the appropriate marketing management decision.

  6. The eNutrition Academy: Supporting a New Generation of Nutritional Scientists around the World12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geissler, Catherine; Amuna, Paul; Kattelmann, Kendra K; Zotor, Francis B; Donovan, Sharon M

    2016-01-01

    Nutrition training and building capacity to provide a competent workforce to support national and regional efforts to combat malnutrition remain a major challenge in Africa and other developing regions of the world. The capacity to provide the necessary intellectual drive for nutrition research, policy, and practice in countries lacking in readiness for nutrition actions is imperative to improve the health of their people. To help address this need, the eNutrition Academy (eNA) was formed as a global partnership organization by the African Nutrition Society, the Federation of African Nutrition Societies, the Nutrition Society of the United Kingdom and Ireland, the ASN, and the International Union of Nutritional Sciences, supported by Cambridge University Press. The primary objective of this partnership is to provide an online learning platform that is free to access, enabling users to benefit from a wide range of learning materials from basic tools to more-advanced learning materials for teachers and researchers in developing countries. The goal of this article was to summarize the findings of a symposium held at the ASN Scientific Sessions and Annual Meeting at Experimental Biology 2015, which explored the themes of international capacity development, with a particular focus on the African continent, online learning, and the eNA e-learning platform. Given the vast human capacity present in Africa that is poised to create new solutions to address the public health needs of the continent, now is an opportune time to establish South-North and South-South partnerships to develop the next generation of African nutritional scientists. PMID:27180382

  7. Communication rehabilitation in sub-Saharan Africa: A workforce profile of speech and language therapists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Wylie

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: This sample comprised a mix of African and international SLTs, with indications of growing localisation of the workforce. Workforce localisation offers potential advantages of linguistic diversity and stability. Challenges including workforce support and developing culturally and contextually relevant SLT practices are discussed.

  8. Factors contributing to the development of hypophosphataemia when refeeding using parenteral nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvin, Vanessa A; Brown, David; Portlock, Jane; Livingstone, Callum

    2008-08-01

    To identify individual attributes or risk factors which predispose to the development of refeeding hypophosphataemia in patients on parenteral nutrition (PN). The Royal Surrey County Hospital (RSCH) a 530 bed, non-teaching Trust with a cancer centre, medical and surgical inpatients and intensive care unit (ICU). Subjects were recruited prospectively from all adult inpatients referred for initiation of PN. Seventy patients (cases) with refeeding hypophosphataemia were matched with controls who had not experienced a fall in phosphate levels when commenced on PN. Their nutritional requirements, nutrition intake, and biochemical test results were compared and statistical analyses performed to show if any differences between cases and controls were due to chance. Independent risk factors for developing refeeding hypophosphataemia were: significant malnutrition measured as a Nutrition Risk Screening (NRS) score of three or more; less than 12 mmols total phosphate in the first day's PN regimen; and an initial rate of infusion of PN of more than 70% of calculated requirements. In addition increasing amounts of non-lipid phosphate in the first day's PN regimen were found to be protective. Hypomagnesaemia prior to starting PN was non-significantly associated with refeeding hypophosphataemia. Other biochemical markers included in the study: albumin, calcium, C-reactive protein, glucose and urea, did not show an association. ICU, cancer and postoperative patients were not found to be more at risk. Patients with a high NRS score prior to commencing nutrition support may be more at risk than others of refeeding hypophosphataemia. The first 24 h PN regimen should be run slowly providing less than 70% of calculated protein and calorie requirements but containing more than 12 mmol phosphate.

  9. Key Informant Perspectives on Federal Research Agency Policy and Systems and Scientific Workforce Diversity Development: A Companion Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Corey L.; Wang, Ningning; Davis, Dytisha; Aref, Fariborz; Manyibe, Edward O.; Washington, Andre L.; Johnson, Jean; Eugene-Cross, Kenyotta; Muhammad, Atashia; Jennings-Jones, Desiree

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: In the previous analysis of key informant perspectives on minority research leaders' career development factors, we identified individual and sociocultural, institutional, and federal research agency (i.e., National Institute on Disability, Independent Living, and Rehabilitation Research; National Institutes of Health; Agency for…

  10. Design and development of a nutritional assessment application for smartphones and tablets with Android OS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnero Gregorio, Miguel; Blanco Ramos, Montserrat; Obeso Carillo, Gerardo Andrés; García Fontán, Eva; Álvarez González, Miguel Ángel; Cañizares Carretero, Miguel Ángel

    2014-10-03

    To design and develop a nutritional application for smartphones and tablets with Android operating system for using to in- and outpatients that need a nutritional assessment. To check the validity of the results of such software. The application was compiled for version 2.1 of the Android operating system from Google. A cohort of 30 patients was included for evaluating the reliability of the application. The calculations were performed by staff of the Nutrition Unit of the Complexo Hospitalario Universitario de Vigo, manually and through e-Nutrimet software on a smartphone and a tablet. Concordance was absolute between results of different methods obtained using e-Nutrimet on a smartphone and a tablet (Fleiss index κ= 1). The same level of concordance was obtained by comparing handmade and e-Nutrimet made results. The degree of correlation is good, and it would be extended to all healthcare staff who wants to determine whether a patient has malnutrition, or not. The nutritional assessment software e-Nutrimet does not replace healthcare staff in any case, but could be an important aid in assessing patients who may be in risk of malnutrition, saving time of evaluation. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  11. Impact of prematurity and nutrition on the developing gut microbiome and preterm infant growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grier, Alex; Qiu, Xing; Bandyopadhyay, Sanjukta; Holden-Wiltse, Jeanne; Kessler, Haeja A; Gill, Ann L; Hamilton, Brooke; Huyck, Heidie; Misra, Sara; Mariani, Thomas J; Ryan, Rita M; Scholer, Lori; Scheible, Kristin M; Lee, Yi-Horng; Caserta, Mary T; Pryhuber, Gloria S; Gill, Steven R

    2017-12-11

    Identification of factors that influence the neonatal gut microbiome is urgently needed to guide clinical practices that support growth of healthy preterm infants. Here, we examined the influence of nutrition and common practices on the gut microbiota and growth in a cohort of preterm infants. With weekly gut microbiota samples spanning postmenstrual age (PMA) 24 to 46 weeks, we developed two models to test associations between the microbiota, nutrition and growth: a categorical model with three successive microbiota phases (P1, P2, and P3) and a model with two periods (early and late PMA) defined by microbiota composition and PMA, respectively. The more significant associations with phase led us to use a phase-based framework for the majority of our analyses. Phase transitions were characterized by rapid shifts in the microbiota, with transition out of P1 occurring nearly simultaneously with the change from meconium to normal stool. The rate of phase progression was positively associated with gestational age at birth, and delayed transition to a P3 microbiota was associated with growth failure. We found distinct bacterial metabolic functions in P1-3 and significant associations between nutrition, microbiota phase, and infant growth. The phase-dependent impact of nutrition on infant growth along with phase-specific metabolic functions suggests a pioneering potential for improving growth outcomes by tailoring nutrient intake to microbiota phase.

  12. FORUM Models for increasing the health workforce

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    stewardship of the anticipated growth of private education and services ... The Global Health Workforce Alliance3 recognises the importance of increasing ... Action 2010 - 2014 to advance economic growth and development, to be realised by ... of the private higher education sector must be better understood and supported.

  13. Geoscience and the 21st Century Workforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manduca, C. A.; Bralower, T. J.; Blockstein, D.; Keane, C. M.; Kirk, K. B.; Schejbal, D.; Wilson, C. E.

    2013-12-01

    work takes place both inside and outside of the classroom and occurs as a progression throughout the course of study. Professional skills were recognized as an area where outcomes could be strengthened. The challenge faced by geoscience programs is developing pathways into the workforce for students who bring different skills and interests to their studies. Workforce data suggest that in the past only 30% of undergraduate graduates have remained in the geosciences indicating that geoscience programs are playing an important role in developing the workforce beyond the geosciences. A collection of program descriptions describes what is known about career pathways from the programs represented at the workshop.

  14. Sultanate of Oman: building a dental workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Jennifer E; Manickam, Sivakumar; Wilson, Nairn H F

    2015-06-22

    A medium- and long-term perspective is required in human resource development to ensure that future needs and demands for oral healthcare are met by the most appropriate health professionals. This paper presents a case study of the Sultanate of Oman, one of the Gulf States with a current population of 3.8 million, which has initiated dental training through the creation of a dental college. The objectives of this paper are first to describe trends in the dental workforce in Oman from 1990 to date and compare the dental workforce with its medical counterparts in Oman and with other countries, and second, to consider future dental workforce in the Sultanate. Data were collected from published sources, including the Ministry of Health (MoH), Ministry of Manpower (MoM), and Ministry of National Economy (MoNE)-Sultanate of Oman; the World Health Organization (WHO); World Bank; and the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). Dentist-to-population ratios were compared nationally, regionally and globally for medicine and dentistry. Dental graduate outputs were mapped onto the local supply. Future trends were examined using population growth predictions, exploring the expected impact in relation to global, regional and European workforce densities. Population growth in Oman is increasing at a rate of over 2% per year. Oman has historically been dependent upon an expatriate dental workforce with only 24% of the dentist workforce Omani in 2010 (n = 160). Subsequent to Oman Dental College (ODC) starting to qualify dental (BDS) graduates in 2012, there is an increase in the annual growth of the dentist workforce. On the assumption that all future dental graduates from ODC have an opportunity to practise in Oman, ODC graduates will boost the annual Omani dentist growth rate starting at 28% per annum from 2012 onwards, building capacity towards global (n = 1711) and regional levels (Gulf State: n = 2167) in the medium term. The output of dental graduates from Oman Dental College is

  15. Effects of pre- and post-insemination maternal plane of nutrition on estrus and embryo development [Abstract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutritional changes immediately after insemination can result in differential embryonic development. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of a nutritional change immediately before or after AI on estrus expression, interval to estrus, and day 6 embryo recovery, developme...

  16. Public health workforce research in review: a 25-year retrospective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilliard, Tracy M; Boulton, Matthew L

    2012-05-01

    The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation commissioned a systematic review of public health workforce literature in fall 2010. This paper reviews public health workforce articles published from 1985 to 2010 that support development of a public health workforce research agenda, and address four public health workforce research themes: (1) diversity; (2) recruitment, retention, separation, and retirement; (3) education, training, and credentialing; and (4) pay, promotion, performance, and job satisfaction. PubMed, ERIC, and Web of Science databases were used to search for articles; Google search engine was used to identify gray literature. The study used the following inclusion criteria: (1) articles written in English published in the U.S.; (2) the main theme(s) of the article relate to at least one of the four public health workforce research themes; and (3) the document focuses on the domestic public health workforce. The literature suggests that the U.S. public health workforce is facing several urgent priorities that should be addressed, including: (1) developing an ethnically/racially diverse membership to meet the needs of an increasingly diverse nation; (2) recruiting and retaining highly trained, well-prepared employees, and succession planning to replace retirees; (3) building public health workforce infrastructure while also confronting a major shortage in the public health workforce, through increased education, training, and credentialing; and (4) ensuring competitive salaries, opportunities for career advancement, standards for workplace performance, and fostering organizational cultures which generate high levels of job satisfaction for effective delivery of services. Additional research is needed in all four thematic areas reviewed to develop well-informed, evidence-based strategies for effectively addressing critical issues facing the public health workforce. Copyright © 2012 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  17. Exploration of an allied health workforce redesign model: quantifying the work of allied health assistants in a community workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somerville, Lisa; Davis, Annette; Milne, Sarah; Terrill, Desiree; Philip, Kathleen

    2017-07-25

    setting. It provides evidence that this workforce redesign model enables data to be collected to identify the opportunity for redesign in the allied health workforce in this clinical setting. What are the implications for practitioners? There are career pathways and opportunity for growth in the allied health assistant workforce in the community and ambulatory health care setting. These opportunities will need to be coupled with the development of supervision and delegation skills in the allied health professional workforce to ensure that an integrated workforce is built to provide optimal clinical care in the community and ambulatory setting.

  18. [Birth weight and later nutritional status, cognitive development and job status: a critical revision].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas, S; Ivanovic, R; Pérez, H; Almagià, A; Urrutia, M S; Rodríguez, M del P; Larrain, C; Ivanovic, D

    2009-12-01

    The impact of prenatal nutritional status, assessed through birth weight (BW) and their effects in the short, medium and long-term on nutritional status, cognitive development and job status in the adult life, has been a problem of interest for several researchers; as regards, some of these report a positive and significant association between these variables and others do not find any relation. Children with insufficient, low or very low BW despite the early more deteriorate nutritional status should present higher risk for brain maturation, failure cognitive development and lowered head circumference which implies both lowered brain volume and intellectual development. In the short and medium-term, this situation damages the learning process at school-age, while in the long-term this might condition the quality of jobs. At present, the body of knowledge pinpoints that findings related to these associations is not conclusive verifying a great controversy in these matters. This review article has the purpose of analyzing the current evidence, in order to stimulate research about to these aspects which are relevant for child development and their future life.

  19. Nutritional programming of gastrointestinal tract development. Is the pig a good model for man?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilloteau, Paul; Zabielski, Romuald; Hammon, Harald M; Metges, Cornelia C

    2010-06-01

    The consequences of early-life nutritional programming in man and other mammalian species have been studied chiefly at the metabolic level. Very few studies, if any, have been performed in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) as the target organ, but extensive GIT studies are needed since the GIT plays a key role in nutrient supply and has an impact on functions of the entire organism. The possible deleterious effects of nutritional programming at the metabolic level were discovered following epidemiological studies in human subjects, and confirmed in animal models. Investigating the impact of programming on GIT structure and function would need appropriate animal models due to ethical restrictions in the use of human subjects. The aim of the present review is to discuss the use of pigs as an animal model as a compromise between ethically acceptable animal studies and the requirement of data which can be interpolated to the human situation. In nutritional programming studies, rodents are the most frequently used model for man, but GIT development and digestive function in rodents are considerably different from those in man. In that aspect, the pig GIT is much closer to the human than that of rodents. The swine species is closely comparable with man in many nutritional and digestive aspects, and thus provides ample opportunity to be used in investigations on the consequences of nutritional programming for the GIT. In particular, the 'sow-piglets' dyad could be a useful tool to simulate the 'human mother-infant' dyad in studies which examine short-, middle- and long-term effects and is suggested as the reference model.

  20. In ovo method for evaluating the effect of nutritional therapies on tumor development, growth and vascularization

    OpenAIRE

    Dupertuis, Yves M.; Delie, Florence; Cohen, Marie; Pichard, Claude

    2015-01-01

    In the state of the art evaluation of nutritional therapy on tumor development, growth and vascularization requires tedious and expensive in vivo assays in which a significant number of animals undergo invasive treatments. Therefore, new alternative methods to avoid animal suffering and sacrifice are welcome. This review presents a rapid and low-cost method of experimental radio/chemotherapy in tumor xenografted chicken chorioallantoic membrane (CAM), which may contribute to implement the 3R ...

  1. Nutritional and taste characteristics of low-potassium lettuce developed for patients with chronic kidney diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshida, Takuya; Sakuma, Kozue; Kumagai, Hiromichi

    2014-01-01

    Dietary potassium restriction is recommended for chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients with hyperkalemia. Boiling or soaking vegetables in water is known to decrease their potassium content. However, these methods can also reduce the quantity of other nutrients. Recently, low-potassium (LK) lettuce has been developed for CKD patients with hyperkalemia. This study compared the potassium content, other nutritional values, and taste characteristics of LK lettuce with those of normal lettuce. The...

  2. Workforce planning and knowledge management for new nuclear programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molloj, B.; Mazur, T.; ); Kosilov, A.; Pastori, Z.; )

    2010-01-01

    The authors discusses the report Milestones in the Development of a National Infrastructure for Nuclear Power produced by the IAEA to provide guidance on the use of integrated workforce planning as a tool to effectively develop these resources. The report describes three distinct phases in the development of a national infrastructure. It shows how to elaborate a workforce plan for implementing a national nuclear power program. The authors emphasize that the nuclear power field, comprising industry, government authorities, regulators, R and D organizations and educational institutions, relies for its continued success on a specialized, highly trained and motivated workforce. The role of knowledge management in nuclear power is underlined [ru

  3. Acquisition Workforce Annual Report 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — This is the Federal Acquisition Institute's (FAI's) Annual demographic report on the Federal acquisition workforce, showing trends by occupational series, employment...

  4. Acquisition Workforce Annual Report 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — This is the Federal Acquisition Institute's (FAI's) Annual demographic report on the Federal acquisition workforce, showing trends by occupational series, employment...

  5. Assessment of nutritional status, cognitive development, and mother-child interaction in Central American refugee children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Laude

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study was conducted between July and December 1992 to assess the nutritional status, cognitive development, and mother-child interactions in a group of 153 Nicaraguan refugee children living in Costa Rica. Nutritional status was assessed using anthropometric indices. Cognitive development was assessed with the Bayley Scale of Mental Development. Mother-child interaction was assessed with the Nursing Child Assessment Teaching Scale and Caldwell's Home Observation and Measurement of the Environment Inventory. Correlational analysis was performed to examine the relationship between child cognitive development scores and mother-child interaction measures and also between anthropometric measures and child cognitive development scores. Multiple regression analysis was performed to evaluate the relationship between the mother-child interaction measures and cognitive development scores, after adjusting by anthropometric measures. Thirty-three percent of the children were below the 10th percentile for height-for-age. There was no significant correlation between the total amount of mother-child interaction and child cognitive development. However, certain aspects of the home environment correlated with cognitive development, specifically the manner in which the mother responded emotionally and verbally to her child, and the organization of the child's physical and temporal environment. Multiple regression analysis revealed that the manner in which the mother responded and the child's weight-for-height were important in predicting child cognitive development. The child's weight-for-height and certain aspects of the home environment played an important role in the cognitive development of this refugee population. The findings indicate the importance of assessing nutritional status in this refugee population.

  6. Extending the Pathway: Building on a National Science Foundation Workforce Development Project for Underserved k-12 Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slattery, W.; Smith, T.

    2014-12-01

    With new career openings in the geosciences expected and a large number of presently employed geoscientists retiring in the next decade there is a critical need for a new cadre of geoscientists to fill these positions. A project funded by the National Science Foundation titled K-12 Students, Teachers, Parents, Administrators and Higher Education Faculty: Partners Helping Rural Disadvantaged Students Stay on the Pathway to a Geoscience Career involving Wright State University and the Ripley, Lewis, Union, Huntington k-12 school district in Appalachian Ohio took led to dozens of seventh and eighth grade students traveling to Sandy Hook, New Jersey for a one week field experience to study oceanography with staff of the New Jersey Sea Grant Consortium. Teachers, parent chaperones, administrators and university faculty accompanied the students in the field. Teachers worked alongside their students in targeted professional development during the weeklong field experience. During the two academic years of the project, both middle school and high school teachers received professional development in Earth system science so that all students, not just those that were on the summer field experience could receive enhanced science learning. All ninth grade high school students were given the opportunity to take a high school/college dual credit Earth system science course. Community outreach provided widespread knowledge of the project and interest among parents to have their children participate. In addition, ninth grade students raised money themselves to fund a trip to the International Field Studies Forfar Field Station on Andros Island, Bahamas to study a tropical aquatic system. Students who before this project had never traveled outside of Ohio are currently discussing ways that they can continue on the pathway to a geoscience career by applying for internships for the summer between their junior and senior years. These are positive steps towards taking charge of their

  7. Workplace programmes for HIV and tuberculosis: a systematic review to support development of international guidelines for the health workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassi, Annalee; O'Hara, Lyndsay M; Lockhart, Karen; Spiegel, Jerry M

    2013-01-01

    The health service sector has a vital role to play in delivering human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and tuberculosis (TB) prevention, treatment and care, yet evidence indicates that healthcare workers (HCWs) themselves lack adequate access to HIV and TB services. HCWs are also at increased risk from TB and other infectious diseases at work, and therefore accessing HIV services is particularly important. A systematic review was therefore conducted to inform the development of World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines to improve access to HIV and TB services, and specifically, to assess the evidence regarding providing such services through workplace-based programmes. We identified any study published since 1984 that addressed outcomes of interest as defined through multi-stakeholder consultations, and were related to workplace interventions in (1) the healthcare workplace and (2) any workplace that included HIV and/or TB diagnosis and/or treatment. Interventions focusing solely on primary prevention with no diagnostic or treatment services were excluded, as they were the subject of other guidelines. A minimum of two reviewers independently extracted data and assessed the articles against pre-set selection criteria; studies were also profiled and quality assessed by a minimum of two reviewers. Three studies met these criteria specifically for HCWs; all showed a preponderance of positive benefits, with minimal negative outcome. Seven studies met these criteria regarding workplace HIV and/or TB diagnosis and/or treatment from other sectors, public or private. Again, all showed positive results. The paucity of high-quality evidence in this field of research was itself an important finding, beckoning further research on workplace-based programmes for health workers. Nonetheless, while more well-designed intervention studies are definitely desirable, providing programmes for HCWs to obtain HIV and TB diagnosis and treatment at the workplace is supported by the literature

  8. Using social marketing principles to guide the development of a nutrition education initiative for preschool-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Laura; Anderson, Jennifer; Beckstrom, Leslie; Bellows, Laura; Johnson, Susan L

    2004-01-01

    Within the field of nutrition education, social marketing has become a promising framework to systematically approach problems related to nutrition behavior. In 1997, the Colorado Nutrition Network began developing a social marketing campaign to promote healthful food choices among low-income Coloradans. A multifaceted formative evaluation plan that included focus groups, campaign concept pretesting, and a food frequency questionnaire was used to segment and scrutinize the target audience. The resulting pilot program was a blend of educational and marketing strategies targeting preschoolers that was implemented in Head Start classrooms. The 12-week intervention contained a narrow, behavior-based "try new foods" message, multiple nutrition education activities, and repeated opportunities to taste 13 novel foods. Key strategies used and findings from the formative evaluation process are presented herein in an effort to provide insight for nutrition educators interested in developing similar interventions.

  9. [Community Nutrition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranceta, Javier

    2004-06-01

    In the last 20 years, Public Health Nutrition focused mainly on the qualitative aspects which may influence the onset of chronic diseases, quality of life, physical and mental performance and life expectancy. This applied knowledge organised as part of preventive and health promotion programs led to the development of Community Nutrition. The aim of Community Nutrition actions is to adequate lifestyles related to food consumption patterns in order to improve the quality of life and contribute to health promotion of the population in the community where programs and services are delivered. Key functions to develop in a Community Nutrition Unit consist in the identification and assessment of nutrition problems in the community as well as the design, implementation and evaluation of intervention programs by means of appropriate strategies. These should aim at different populations groups and settings, such as work places, schools, high risk groups or the general public. Nowadays, Community Nutrition work efforts should focus on three main aspects: nutrition education in schools and in the community; food safety and food security and the development and reinforcement of food preparation skills across all age groups. Social catering services, either in schools, the work place or at the community level, need to ensure adequate nutritional supply, provide foods contributing to healthy eating practices as well as to enhance culinary traditions and social learning. Food safety and food security have become a top priority in Public Health. The concepts referes to the availability of food safe and adequate as well as in sufficient amount in order to satisfy nutrition requirements of all individuals in the community. Social changes along new scientific developments will introduce new demands in Community Nutrition work and individual dietary counselling will become a key strategy. In order to face new challenges, community nutrition pactitioners require a high quality

  10. Otolaryngology workforce analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Charles Anthony; McMenamin, Patrick; Mehta, Vikas; Pillsbury, Harold; Kennedy, David

    2016-12-01

    The number of trained otolaryngologists available is insufficient to supply current and projected US health care needs. The goal of this study was to assess available databases and present accurate data on the current otolaryngology workforce, examine methods for prediction of future health care needs, and explore potential issues with forecasting methods and policy implementation based on these predictions. Retrospective analysis of research databases, public use files, and claims data. The total number of otolaryngologists and current practices in the United States was tabulated using the databases of the American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, American Medical Association, American Board of Otolaryngology, American College of Surgeons, Association of American Medical Colleges, National Center for Health Statistics, and Department of Health and Human Services. Otolaryngologists were identified as surgeons and classified into surgical groups using a combination of AMA primary and secondary self-reported specialties and American Board of Medical Specialties certifications. Data gathered were cross-referenced to rule out duplications to assess total practicing otolaryngologists. Data analyzed included type of practice: 1) academic versus private and 2) general versus specialty; and demographics: 1) urban versus rural, 2) patient age, 3) reason for visit (referral, new, established, surgical follow-up), 4) reason for visit (diagnosis), and 5) payer type. Analysis from the above resources estimates the total number of otolaryngologists practicing in the United States in 2011 to be 12,609, with approximately 10,522 fully trained practicing physicians (9,232-10,654) and 2,087 in training (1,318 residents and 769 fellows/others). Based on 2011 data, workforce projections would place the fully trained and practicing otolaryngology workforce at 11,088 in 2015 and 12,084 in 2025 unless changes in training occur. The AAO-HNS Physicians Resource Committee

  11. Interactive Effects of Endogenous and Exogenous Nutrition on Larval Development for Crown-Of-Thorns Starfish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciemon Frank Caballes

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Outbreaks of crown-of-thorns starfish are often attributed to step-changes in larval survivorship following anomalous increases in nutrients and food availability. However, larval growth and development is also influenced by the nutritional condition of spawning females, such that maternal provisioning may offset limitations imposed by limited access to exogenous sources of nutrients during the formative stages of larval development. This study examined the individual, additive, and interactive effects of endogenous (maternal diet: Acropora, Porites, mixed, and starved and exogenous (larval diet: high concentration at 104 cells·mL−1, low concentration at 103 algal cells·mL−1, and starved nutrition on the survival, growth, morphology, and development of larvae of the crown-of-thorns starfish. Female starfish on Acropora and mixed diet produced bigger oocytes compared to Porites-fed and starved treatments. Using oocyte size as a proxy for maternal provisioning, endogenous reserves in the oocyte had a strong influence on initial larval survival and development. This suggests that maternal reserves can delay the onset of obligate exogenous food acquisition and allow larvae to endure prolonged periods of poor environmental nutritive conditions or starvation. The influence of exogenous nutrition became more prominent in later stages, whereby none of the starved larvae reached the mid-to-late brachiolaria stage 16 days after the onset of the ability to feed. There was no significant difference in the survival, development, and competency of larvae between high and low food treatments. Under low algal food conditions, larvae compensate by increasing the length of ciliated feeding bands in relation to the maximum length and width, which improve food capture and feeding efficiency. However, the effects of endogenous nutrition persisted in the later developmental stages, as larvae from starved females were unable to develop larger feeding structures

  12. Nutrition Leadership Development: Capacity-Building Initiatives in Iran and the Middle-East Region Since 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davari, Azadeh; Rashidi, Arash; Baartmans, Jacques Antonius

    2015-01-01

    Personal and organizational performance is determined by commitment and both technical and general competencies, including leadership skills. Academia, however, mainly targets technical aspects in its curricular programs. On the other hand, the inter-disciplinary and multi-sector nature of Nutrition necessitates high levels of collaboration between stakeholders. Leadership development is therefore required in Nutrition. This paper describes the endeavor made in Iran and the Middle-East region, aiming at building leadership capacity among nutrition professionals. The empowered human resource is expected to facilitate nutrition security at the national and regional levels. Since 2007, the development process of the initiative has begun through research, bench marking, and consultation. The "learning organizations," "leadership from inside-out," and "transformational leadership" frameworks have been employed as underpinning theories. Main topics have been self-awareness, effective communication, shared visioning, trust building, creativity, and motivating. Outbound team-building activities and coaching have also been included. The first workshop of the Iranian Food and Nutrition Leadership Program was held in 2009 in Tehran. The experience expanded to the region as the Middle-East Nutrition Leadership Program (MENLP). The Ph.D. Nutrition programs (at four leading Universities) and Iranian Nutrition Society have been taken as other opportunity windows to develop leadership competencies. Biannual Iranian nutrition congresses have been used as the main media for advocacy purposes. High-satisfaction rates obtained following each training activity. In short, the initiative on "nutrition leadership development" has received growing investment and positive feedback in Iran. Continuous improvement of the initiative, establishment of active alumni networks, building MENLP regional platform, and integrating a monitoring and evaluation system are required to increase the

  13. Nutrition leadership development: Capacity-building initiatives in Iran and the Middle-East region since 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh eDavari

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Personal and organizational performance is determined by commitment and both technical and general competencies, including leadership skills. Academia, however, mainly targets technical aspects in its curricular programs. On the other hand, the interdisciplinary and multi-sector nature of Nutrition necessitates high levels of collaboration between stakeholders. Leadership development is therefore required in Nutrition. This paper describes the endeavor made in Iran and the Middle-East region, aiming at building leadership capacity among nutrition professionals. The empowered human resource is expected to facilitate nutrition security at the national and regional levels.Since 2007, the development process of the initiative has begun through research, bench marking and consultation. The learning organizations, leadership from inside-out and transformational leadership frameworks have been employed as underpinning theories. Main topics have been self-awareness, effective communication, shared-visioning, trust building, creativity, and motivating. Outbound team building activities and coaching have also included.The 1st workshop of the Iranian Food and Nutrition Leadership Program (IFNLP was held in 2009 in Tehran. The experience expanded to the region as the Middle-East Nutrition Leadership Program (MENLP. The PhD Nutrition programs (at 4 leading Universities and Iranian Nutrition Society have been taken as other opportunity windows to develop leadership competencies. Biannual Iranian nutrition congresses have been used as the main media for advocacy purposes. High satisfaction rates obtained following each training activity.In short, the initiative on nutrition leadership development has received growing investment and positive feedback in Iran. Continuous improvement of the initiative, establishment of active alumni networks, building MENLP regional platform, and integrating a monitoring and evaluation system are required to increase investment

  14. Nutrition in pregnancy and early childhood and associations with obesity in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhenyu; Huffman, Sandra L

    2013-01-01

    Concerns about the increasing rates of obesity in developing countries have led many policy makers to question the impacts of maternal and early child nutrition on risk of later obesity. The purposes of the review are to summarise the studies on the associations between nutrition during pregnancy and infant feeding practices with later obesity from childhood through adulthood and to identify potential ways for preventing obesity in developing countries. As few studies were identified in developing countries, key studies in developed countries were included in the review. Poor prenatal dietary intakes of energy, protein and micronutrients were shown to be associated with increased risk of adult obesity in offspring. Female offspring seem to be more vulnerable than male offspring when their mothers receive insufficient energy during pregnancy. By influencing birthweight, optimal prenatal nutrition might reduce the risk of obesity in adults. While normal birthweights (2500-3999 g) were associated with higher body mass index (BMI) as adults, they generally were associated with higher fat-free mass and lower fat mass compared with low birthweights (obesity in adults. Breastfeeding and timely introduction of complementary foods were shown to protect against obesity later in life in observational studies. High-protein intake during early childhood however was associated with higher body fat mass and obesity in adulthood. In developed countries, increased weight gain during the first 2 years of life was associated with a higher BMI in adulthood. However, recent studies in developing countries showed that higher BMI was more related to greater lean body mass than fat mass. It appears that increased length at 2 years of age was positively associated with height, weight and fat-free mass, and was only weakly associated with fat mass. The protective associations between breastfeeding and obesity may differ in developing countries compared to developed countries because many

  15. Reconnection production-consumption: change to achieve food and nutritional security, as well as rural development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirley Rodríguez-González

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the importance of changing the conventional food system to achieve food and nutritional security, as well as rural development. This text was divided into three sections. In the first one, the conventional food system and its consequences were characterized, showing the need for a change that seeks the integration of social, environmental, and health dimensions. The second part addressed the interventions related to the food supply system made by the Government, which are fundamental to achieve food and nutrition security, as well as to promote development processes in rural areas. Finally, the experience of Brazil’s National School Feeding Programme was presented. That program links food produced by small producers with the National School Feeding Program, allowing the reconnection of production and consumers through institutional markets. That link created incentives for food and nutrition security of small farmers and, at the same time, improved the availability of higher- quality food for vulnerable populations and promotedeating patterns that allow the preservation of food culture.

  16. Organoleptic and Nutritional evaluation of Apricot products developed for Hypertensive patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Mundeja

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hypertension is an important public health problem worldwide. Dietary modifications include DASH diet with less sodium and high potassium and fiber intake. Aim: Development of value added products using dried apricots for hypertensive patients. Methodology: Dried apricot was selected based on its nutritional quality and high potassium content and was incorporated at different % levels in the formulation of two basic tea time snacks i.e. muffins and cookies. The products were studied for their organoleptic and nutritional parameters. Results: Products incorporated with 15% of apricots were most acceptable by the panel members having potassium content of 4.9 ± 0.07 and 4.2 ± 0.05 %, in muffins and cookies respectively. Protein, fat and ash content of muffin was found to be 6.96 ± 1.17, 10.79 ± 0.11 and 0.84 ± 0.05% respectively. Protein, fat and ash content of cookies were found to be 5.86± 0.09, 10.02 ±0.12 and 1.41 ±0.07% respectively. Conclusion: Considering the potassium content and nutritional and organoleptic evaluation it was concluded that apricot incorporated products developed were acceptable by people and inclusion of such fortified common daily use snacks will help community to maintain a healthy life.

  17. Development of an Online Smartphone-Based eLearning Nutrition Education Program for Low-Income Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stotz, Sarah; Lee, Jung Sun

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this report was to describe the development process of an innovative smartphone-based electronic learning (eLearning) nutrition education program targeted to Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program-Education-eligible individuals, entitled Food eTalk. Lessons learned from the Food eTalk development process suggest that it is critical to include all key team members from the program's inception using effective inter-team communication systems, understand the unique resources needed, budget ample time for development, and employ an iterative development and evaluation model. These lessons have implications for researchers and funding agencies in developing an innovative evidence-based eLearning nutrition education program to an increasingly technology-savvy, low-income audience. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Executive summary—Biomarkers of Nutrition for Development: Building a Consensus123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namasté, Sorrel; Brabin, Bernard; Combs, Gerald; L'Abbe, Mary R; Wasantwisut, Emorn; Darnton-Hill, Ian

    2011-01-01

    The ability to develop evidence-based clinical guidance and effective programs and policies to achieve global health promotion and disease prevention goals depends on the availability of valid and reliable data. With specific regard to the role of food and nutrition in achieving those goals, relevant data are developed with the use of biomarkers that reflect nutrient exposure, status, and functional effect. A need exists to promote the discovery, development, and use of biomarkers across a range of applications. In addition, a process is needed to harmonize the global health community's decision making about what biomarkers are best suited for a given use under specific conditions and settings. To address these needs, the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, US Department of Health and Human Services, organized a conference entitled “Biomarkers of Nutrition for Development: Building a Consensus,” which was hosted by the International Atomic Energy Agency. Partners included key multilateral, US agencies and public and private organizations. The assembly endorsed the utility of this initiative and the need for the BOND (Biomarkers of Nutrition for Development) project to continue. A consensus was reached on the requirement to develop a process to inform the community about the relative strengths or weaknesses and specific applications of various biomarkers under defined conditions. The articles in this supplement summarize the deliberations of the 4 working groups: research, clinical, policy, and programmatic. Also described are content presentations on the harmonization processes, the evidence base for biomarkers for 5 case-study micronutrients, and new frontiers in science and technology. PMID:21733880

  19. Effects of Social Network Exposure on Nutritional Learning: Development of an Online Educational Platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagan, Noa; Beskin, Daniel; Brezis, Mayer; Reis, Ben Y

    2015-10-05

    Social networking sites (SNSs) such as Facebook have the potential to enhance online public health interventions, in part, as they provide social exposure and reinforcement. The objective of the study was to evaluate whether social exposure provided by SNSs enhances the effects of online public health interventions. As a sample intervention, we developed Food Hero, an online platform for nutritional education in which players feed a virtual character according to their own nutritional needs and complete a set of virtual sport challenges. The platform was developed in 2 versions: a "private version" in which a user can see only his or her own score, and a "social version" in which a user can see other players' scores, including preexisting Facebook friends. We assessed changes in participants' nutritional knowledge using 4 quiz scores and 3 menu-assembly scores. Monitoring feeding and exercising attempts assessed engagement with the platform. The 2 versions of the platform were randomly assigned between a study group (30 members receiving the social version) and a control group (33 members, private version). The study group's performance on the quizzes gradually increased over time, relative to that of the control group, becoming significantly higher by the fourth quiz (P=.02). Furthermore, the study group's menu-assembly scores improved over time compared to the first score, whereas the control group's performance deteriorated. Study group members spent an average of 3:40 minutes assembling each menu compared to 2:50 minutes in the control group, and performed an average of 1.58 daily sport challenges, compared to 1.21 in the control group (P=.03). This work focused on isolating the SNSs' social effects in order to help guide future online interventions. Our results indicate that the social exposure provided by SNSs is associated with increased engagement and learning in an online nutritional educational platform.

  20. Role of Australian primary healthcare organisations (PHCOs) in primary healthcare (PHC) workforce planning: lessons from abroad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naccarella, Lucio; Buchan, James; Newton, Bill; Brooks, Peter

    2011-08-01

    To review international experience in order to inform Australian PHC workforce policy on the role of primary healthcare organisations (PHCOs/Medicare Locals) in PHC workforce planning. A NZ and UK study tour was conducted by the lead author, involving 29 key informant interviews with regard to PHCOs roles and the effect on PHC workforce planning. Interviews were audio-taped with consent, transcribed and analysed thematically. Emerging themes included: workforce planning is a complex, dynamic, iterative process and key criteria exist for doing workforce planning well; PHCOs lacked a PHC workforce policy framework to do workforce planning; PHCOs lacked authority, power and appropriate funding to do workforce planning; there is a need to align workforce planning with service planning; and a PHC Workforce Planning and Development Benchmarking Database is essential for local planning and evaluating workforce reforms. With the Australian government promoting the role of PHCOs in health system reform, reflections from abroad highlight the key action within PHC and PHCOs required to optimise PHC workforce planning.

  1. First Annual LGBT Health Workforce Conference: Empowering Our Health Workforce to Better Serve LGBT Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Nelson F; Sánchez, John Paul; Lunn, Mitchell R; Yehia, Baligh R; Callahan, Edward J

    2014-03-01

    The Institute of Medicine has identified significant health disparities and barriers to health care experienced by lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) populations. By lowering financial barriers to care, recent legislation and judicial decisions have created a remarkable opportunity for reducing disparities by making health care available to those who previously lacked access. However, the current health-care workforce lacks sufficient training on LGBT-specific health-care issues and delivery of culturally competent care to sexual orientation and gender identity minorities. The LGBT Healthcare Workforce Conference was developed to provide a yearly forum to address these deficiencies through the sharing of best practices in LGBT health-care delivery, creating LGBT-inclusive institutional environments, supporting LGBT personal and professional development, and peer-to-peer mentoring, with an emphasis on students and early career professionals in the health-care fields. This report summarizes the findings of the first annual LGBT Health Workforce Conference.

  2. Nutrition Leadership Development: Capacity-Building Initiatives in Iran and the Middle-East Region Since 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davari, Azadeh; Rashidi, Arash; Baartmans, Jacques Antonius

    2015-01-01

    Personal and organizational performance is determined by commitment and both technical and general competencies, including leadership skills. Academia, however, mainly targets technical aspects in its curricular programs. On the other hand, the inter-disciplinary and multi-sector nature of Nutrition necessitates high levels of collaboration between stakeholders. Leadership development is therefore required in Nutrition. This paper describes the endeavor made in Iran and the Middle-East region, aiming at building leadership capacity among nutrition professionals. The empowered human resource is expected to facilitate nutrition security at the national and regional levels. Since 2007, the development process of the initiative has begun through research, bench marking, and consultation. The “learning organizations,” “leadership from inside-out,” and “transformational leadership” frameworks have been employed as underpinning theories. Main topics have been self-awareness, effective communication, shared visioning, trust building, creativity, and motivating. Outbound team-building activities and coaching have also been included. The first workshop of the Iranian Food and Nutrition Leadership Program was held in 2009 in Tehran. The experience expanded to the region as the Middle-East Nutrition Leadership Program (MENLP). The Ph.D. Nutrition programs (at four leading Universities) and Iranian Nutrition Society have been taken as other opportunity windows to develop leadership competencies. Biannual Iranian nutrition congresses have been used as the main media for advocacy purposes. High-satisfaction rates obtained following each training activity. In short, the initiative on “nutrition leadership development” has received growing investment and positive feedback in Iran. Continuous improvement of the initiative, establishment of active alumni networks, building MENLP regional platform, and integrating a monitoring and evaluation system are required to

  3. Training Tomorrow's Nuclear Workforce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    Training tomorrow's Nuclear Workforce Start with the children. That is the message Brian Molloy, a human resources expert in the IAEA's Nuclear Power Engineering Section, wants to convey to any country considering launching or expanding a nuclear power programme. Mathematics and science curricular and extra-curricular activities at secondary and even primary schools are of crucial importance to future recruiting efforts at nuclear power plants, he says:''You need to interest children in science and physics and engineering. The teaching needs to be robust enough to teach them, but it must also gain their interest.'' Recruiting high-calibre engineers needed for the operation of nuclear power plants is a growing challenge, even for existing nuclear power programmes, because of a wave of retirements combined with increasing global demand. But essential as engineers are, they are only a component of the staff at any nuclear power plant. In fact, most employees at nuclear power plants are not university graduates - they are skilled technicians, electricians, welders, fitters, riggers and people in similar trades. Molloy argues that this part of the workforce needs more focus. ''It's about getting a balance between focusing on the academic and the skilled vocational'', he says, adding that countries considering nuclear power programmes often initially place undue focus on nuclear engineers.

  4. A New Tool for Nutrition App Quality Evaluation (AQEL): Development, Validation, and Reliability Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiFilippo, Kristen Nicole; Huang, Wenhao; Chapman-Novakofski, Karen M

    2017-10-27

    The extensive availability and increasing use of mobile apps for nutrition-based health interventions makes evaluation of the quality of these apps crucial for integration of apps into nutritional counseling. The goal of this research was the development, validation, and reliability testing of the app quality evaluation (AQEL) tool, an instrument for evaluating apps' educational quality and technical functionality. Items for evaluating app quality were adapted from website evaluations, with additional items added to evaluate the specific characteristics of apps, resulting in 79 initial items. Expert panels of nutrition and technology professionals and app users reviewed items for face and content validation. After recommended revisions, nutrition experts completed a second AQEL review to ensure clarity. On the basis of 150 sets of responses using the revised AQEL, principal component analysis was completed, reducing AQEL into 5 factors that underwent reliability testing, including internal consistency, split-half reliability, test-retest reliability, and interrater reliability (IRR). Two additional modifiable constructs for evaluating apps based on the age and needs of the target audience as selected by the evaluator were also tested for construct reliability. IRR testing using intraclass correlations (ICC) with all 7 constructs was conducted, with 15 dietitians evaluating one app. Development and validation resulted in the 51-item AQEL. These were reduced to 25 items in 5 factors after principal component analysis, plus 9 modifiable items in two constructs that were not included in principal component analysis. Internal consistency and split-half reliability of the following constructs derived from principal components analysis was good (Cronbach alpha >.80, Spearman-Brown coefficient >.80): behavior change potential, support of knowledge acquisition, app function, and skill development. App purpose split half-reliability was .65. Test-retest reliability showed no

  5. Early Child Development and Nutrition: A Review of the Benefits and Challenges of Implementing Integrated Interventions1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, Kristen M; Yousafzai, Aisha K; Lopez-Boo, Florencia

    2016-01-01

    Poor nutrition (substandard diet quantity and/or quality resulting in under- or overnutrition) and the lack of early learning opportunities contribute to the loss of developmental potential and life-long health and economic disparities among millions of children aged child development (ECD) or nutrition have been linked to positive child development and/or nutritional status, and recommendations currently advocate for the development and testing of integrated interventions. We reviewed the theoretical and practical benefits and challenges of implementing integrated nutrition and ECD interventions along with the evidence for best practice and benefit-cost and concluded that the strong theoretical rationale for integration is more nuanced than the questions that the published empirical evidence have addressed. For example, further research is needed to 1) answer questions related to how integrated messaging influences caregiver characteristics such as well-being, knowledge, and behavior and how these influence early child nutrition and development outcomes; 2) understand population and nutritional contexts in which integrated interventions are beneficial; and 3) explore how varying implementation processes influence the efficacy, uptake, and cost-benefit of integrated nutrition and ECD interventions. PMID:26980819

  6. PENGEMBANGAN MEDIA EDUKASI GIZI MELALUI BUKU MEWARNAI UNTUK PESERTA PENDIDIKAN ANAK USIA DINI (PAUD) (MEDIA DEVELOPMENT OF NUTRITION EDUCATION THROUGH COLORING BOOKS FOR EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION (ECD))

    OpenAIRE

    Yurista Permanasari; Erna Luciasari; Aditianti Aditianti

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Early childhood education (ECD) is a right time to provide nutrition education. The education can be given through playing patterns suitable for age 2-6 years. Currently there is no active nutrition education media for ECD participants. Therefore it is necessary to develop an active media of nutrition education through colouring book. Colouring activitities can stimulate both the cognitive and motor development of children. This study aimed to develop a colouring book as a nutrition ...

  7. The Primary Dental Care Workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neenan, M. Elaine; And Others

    1993-01-01

    A study describes the characteristics of the current primary dental care workforce (dentists, hygienists, assistants), its distribution, and its delivery system in private and public sectors. Graduate dental school enrollments, trends in patient visits, employment patterns, state dental activities, and workforce issues related to health care…

  8. Early Childhood Workforce Index, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitebook, Marcy; McLean, Caitlin; Austin, Lea J. E.

    2016-01-01

    The State of the Early Childhood Workforce (SECW) Initiative is a groundbreaking multi-year project to shine a steady spotlight on the nation's early childhood workforce. The SECW Initiative is designed to challenge entrenched ideas and policies that maintain an inequitable and inadequate status quo for early educators and for the children and…

  9. Nutritional components regulate the gut immune system and its association with intestinal immune disease development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamichhane, Aayam; Kiyono, Hiroshi; Kunisawa, Jun

    2013-12-01

    The gut is equipped with a unique immune system for maintaining immunological homeostasis, and its functional immune disruption can result in the development of immune diseases such as food allergy and intestinal inflammation. Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that nutritional components play an important role in the regulation of gut immune responses and also in the development of intestinal immune diseases. In this review, we focus on the immunological functions of lipids, vitamins, and nucleotides in the regulation of the intestinal immune system and as potential targets for the control of intestinal immune diseases. © 2013 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  10. (Mal)nutrition and the new epidemiological trend in a context of development and inequalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Nathália Paula de; Lira, Pedro Israel Cabral de; Fontbonne, Annick; Pinto, Fernanda Cristina de Lima; Cesse, Eduarda Ângela Pessoa

    2017-07-01

    The current context of intense social, economic and political transformations has contributed to changes in the health profile of the population and generated discussions about the impact of these changes on the reorganization of society. At the present moment, the increase in non-communicable illnesses and diseases raises major concerns about the paradox of malnutrition and obesity. Based on an in-depth reading and interpretation of texts, documents and databases, this article discusses issues related to nutrition, considering the dimensions of shortages and excesses, the evolution of nutrition over time, and the connection with the new epidemiological trend. We begin with a conceptual characterization, the historical background and the anthropological connections with the guiding theme of the article. We then describe the prevalence, distribution and secular trend of malnutrition and obesity, as well as the temporal relationship with the new epidemiological trend in Brazil within a context of development and inequalities. Finally, we reflect on the issue of (mal)nutrition in post-modernity, the new interests at stake in the health-disease process, as well as international experiences and strategies of partnerships designed to overcome these problems. We conclude by discussing some current advances and challenges in relation to the complexity and speed of contemporary changes.

  11. Front-line ordering clinicians: matching workforce to workload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fieldston, Evan S; Zaoutis, Lisa B; Hicks, Patricia J; Kolb, Susan; Sladek, Erin; Geiger, Debra; Agosto, Paula M; Boswinkel, Jan P; Bell, Louis M

    2014-07-01

    Matching workforce to workload is particularly important in healthcare delivery, where an excess of workload for the available workforce may negatively impact processes and outcomes of patient care and resident learning. Hospitals currently lack a means to measure and match dynamic workload and workforce factors. This article describes our work to develop and obtain consensus for use of an objective tool to dynamically match the front-line ordering clinician (FLOC) workforce to clinical workload in a variety of inpatient settings. We undertook development of a tool to represent hospital workload and workforce based on literature reviews, discussions with clinical leadership, and repeated validation sessions. We met with physicians and nurses from every clinical care area of our large, urban children's hospital at least twice. We successfully created a tool in a matrix format that is objective and flexible and can be applied to a variety of settings. We presented the tool in 14 hospital divisions and received widespread acceptance among physician, nursing, and administrative leadership. The hospital uses the tool to identify gaps in FLOC coverage and guide staffing decisions. Hospitals can better match workload to workforce if they can define and measure these elements. The Care Model Matrix is a flexible, objective tool that quantifies the multidimensional aspects of workload and workforce. The tool, which uses multiple variables that are easily modifiable, can be adapted to a variety of settings. © 2014 Society of Hospital Medicine.

  12. Networking and Information Technology Workforce Study: Final Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — This report presents the results of a study of the global Networking and Information Technology NIT workforce undertaken for the Networking and Information...

  13. Promoting Early Child Development With Interventions in Health and Nutrition: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaivada, Tyler; Gaffey, Michelle F; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2017-08-01

    Although effective health and nutrition interventions for reducing child mortality and morbidity exist, direct evidence of effects on cognitive, motor, and psychosocial development is lacking. To review existing evidence for health and nutrition interventions affecting direct measures of (and pathways to) early child development. Reviews and recent overviews of interventions across the continuum of care and component studies. We selected systematic reviews detailing the effectiveness of health or nutrition interventions that have plausible links to child development and/or contain direct measures of cognitive, motor, and psychosocial development. A team of reviewers independently extracted data and assessed their quality. Sixty systematic reviews contained the outcomes of interest. Various interventions reduced morbidity and improved child growth, but few had direct measures of child development. Of particular benefit were food and micronutrient supplementation for mothers to reduce the risk of small for gestational age and iodine deficiency, strategies to reduce iron deficiency anemia in infancy, and early neonatal care (appropriate resuscitation, delayed cord clamping, and Kangaroo Mother Care). Neuroprotective interventions for imminent preterm birth showed the largest effect sizes (antenatal corticosteroids for developmental delay: risk ratio 0.49, 95% confidence interval 0.24 to 1.00; magnesium sulfate for gross motor dysfunction: risk ratio 0.61, 95% confidence interval 0.44 to 0.85). Given the focus on high-quality studies captured in leading systematic reviews, only effects reported within studies included in systematic reviews were captured. These findings should guide the prioritization and scale-up of interventions within critical periods of early infancy and childhood, and encourage research into their implementation at scale. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  14. Major Findings from The Changing Body: Health, Nutrition, and Human Development in the Western World since 1700.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogel, Robert W; Grotte, Nathaniel

    2011-12-01

    This paper discusses findings from The Changing Body: Health, Nutrition, and Human Development in the Western World since 1700 (Cambridge University Press) The book is built on the authors' work with 300 years of height and nutrition data and discusses their findings in the context of technophysio evolution, a uniquely modern form of rapid physiological development, the result of humanity's ability to control its environment and create technological innovations to adapt to it.

  15. The role of nutrition in children’s neurocognitive development, from pregnancy through childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anett eNyaradi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This review examines the current evidence for a possible connection between nutritional intake (including micronutrients and whole diet and neurocognitive development in childhood. Earlier studies which have investigated the association between nutrition and cognitive development have focused on individual micronutrients, including omega-3 fatty acids, vitamin B12, folic acid, choline, iron, iodine and zinc, and single aspects of diet. The research evidence from observational studies suggests that micronutrients may play an important role in the cognitive development of children. However, the results of intervention trials utilising single micronutrients are inconclusive. More generally, there is evidence that malnutrition can impair cognitive development, whilst breastfeeding appears to be beneficial for cognition. Eating breakfast is also beneficial for cognition. In contrast, there is currently inconclusive evidence regarding the association between obesity and cognition. Since individuals consume combinations of foods, more recently researchers have become interested in the cognitive impact of diet as a composite measure. Only a few studies to date have investigated the associations between dietary patterns and cognitive development. In future research, more well designed intervention trials are needed, with special consideration given to the interactive effects of nutrients.

  16. Nutritional contribution of street foods to the diet of people in developing countries: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steyn, Nelia Patricia; McHiza, Zandile; Hill, Jillian; Davids, Yul Derek; Venter, Irma; Hinrichsen, Enid; Opperman, Maretha; Rumbelow, Julien; Jacobs, Peter

    2014-06-01

    To review studies examining the nutritional value of street foods and their contribution to the diet of consumers in developing countries. The electronic databases PubMed/MEDLINE, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, Proquest Health and Science Direct were searched for articles on street foods in developing countries that included findings on nutritional value. From a total of 639 articles, twenty-three studies were retained since they met the inclusion criteria. In summary, daily energy intake from street foods in adults ranged from 13 % to 50 % of energy and in children from 13 % to 40 % of energy. Although the amounts differed from place to place, even at the lowest values of the percentage of energy intake range, energy from street foods made a significant contribution to the diet. Furthermore, the majority of studies suggest that street foods contributed significantly to the daily intake of protein, often at 50 % of the RDA. The data on fat and carbohydrate intakes are of some concern because of the assumed high contribution of street foods to the total intakes of fat, trans-fat, salt and sugar in numerous studies and their possible role in the development of obesity and non-communicable diseases. Few studies have provided data on the intake of micronutrients, but these tended to be high for Fe and vitamin A while low for Ca and thiamin. Street foods make a significant contribution to energy and protein intakes of people in developing countries and their use should be encouraged if they are healthy traditional foods.

  17. Nutritional status and intellectual development in children: A community-based study from rural Southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Amita; Thomas, Leah; Stephen, Kezia; Marconi, Sam; Noel, J; Jacob, K S; Prasad, Jasmin

    2016-01-01

    There is a dearth of recent data on the relationship between nutritional status and intellectual development among children in India. To determine whether such a relationship exists, we studied children in a rural area of Tamil Nadu. We stratified villages in Kaniyambadi block, Tamil Nadu, and recruited consecutive children who satisfied the study criteria. We assessed nutritional status by measuring height and weight and recording chronological age, and calculated indices weight-for-age, height-for-age, weight-forheight and their Z scores. We assessed intellectual development using the Indian adaptation of the Vineland Social Maturity Scale. We used a case-control framework to determine the relationship and logistic regression to adjust for common confounders. We recruited 114 children between the ages of 12 and 72 months. Z score means (weight-for-age -1.36; height-for-age -1.42; weight-for-height -0.78) were much less than 0 and indicate undernutrition. Z score standard deviations (weight-for-age 1.04; height-for-age 1.18; weightfor- height 1.06) were within the WHO recommended range for good quality of nutrition data suggesting reduced measurement errors and incorrect reporting of age. The frequency distributions of population Z scores suggest high undernutrition, wasting and medium stunting. A tenth of the population (9.6%) had values to suggest borderline/below average intelligence (social quotient social quotient. These relationships remained statistically significant after adjusting for sex and socioeconomic status using logistic regression. Chronic undernutrition, wasting and stunting and their association with lower intellectual development demand an urgent re-assessment of national food policies and programmes.

  18. Economic development and its influences and risks for nutrition, cuisine and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, John

    2004-01-01

    This paper reviews the evidence on some of the major trends in economic development at a global level and assess their influence on food, nutrition and health. Food and nutrition are themselves broad topics, and each is influenced by a myriad of local and international forces, making them both interesting and important, but also challenging in their complexity. It is especially difficult to deal with such a vast and complicated terrain in such a short paper, and one must inevitably deal only superficially with a number of complex areas. This paper will review a number of key forces for change in the global system, with a focus on the implications of each for food and nutrition. Each area is central to the experience of economic, social and political development, particularly in the period since 1945, and each is tied in various ways with that complex and interrelated set of changes that we call globalisation. Seven key factors will be explored: global population growth, leading to strong pressures on world availability of arable land and food; increasing integration in the global economy, as measured through such things as trade, financial flows and information exchanges, and with specific implications for the food industry and for trade in food products; growing gaps between rich and poor countries; similar increases in disparities between rich and poor segments within individual countries; the rapid growth of cities in the developing world, resulting in massive challenges for the food supply systems of many nations; the growth within some countries, for example in a number of Asian countries, of a "new middle class" with distinctive patterns of consumption; and, high levels of population movements between countries resulting in the creation of significant communities of immigrants in a number of nations. Examples will be drawn from the two regions familiar to the author, Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa, but with a particular emphasis on East Asia.

  19. Modified egg as a nutritional supplement during peak brain development: a new target for fortification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapira, Niva

    2009-01-01

    Though eggs have the unique capacity, like breastmilk, to concentrate essential nutrients required for early growth and brain development of offspring - i.e. n-3 PUFA, increasingly deficient and sources contaminated - cholesterol and allergy concerns often exclude them from perinatal recommendations. Egg's potential contribution of key nutrients required for peak brain development are re-evaluated vis-à-vis fortification, accessibility, and risks. Contributions of standard (USDA) and fortified (selected market-available) egg compositions to perinatal requirements for critical brain-supporting nutrients were compared to human and cow milks, and risks and recommendations evaluated. Standard egg has already higher concentrations/kcal of iron, selenium, zinc, choline, vitamins B12 and E, and essential amino acids (plus taurine) than human milk. Fortified egg could further yield significant n-3 PUFA % recommendations for pregnancy-lactation (total n-3 69.6-75.0% [DRI=1400-1300 mg/day]), including DHA (120.1-129.3%, mostly approximately 80% [calculated DRI=140-130 mg/day]), plus antioxidant vitamins A (9.0-15.2%) and E (51.6-65.3%), and minerals iodine (33.6-44.5%) and selenium (33.7-39.3%); % recommendations for children (1-3 y) even more. Cholesterol, important for nerve membranes and learning, may not be generally contraindicated in childbearing-aged women (approximately 10.5% hypercholesterolemia), and early-life egg exposure may increase tolerance. Egg-inclusive perinatal nutrition programs have shown significant contributions. Eggs, especially target-fortified, may provide a unique nutritional supplement for peak brain development continously during pregnancy, nursing, and infancy (from 6 months), especially vs. insufficiencies. Missing nutritional opportunities by egg exclusion vs. concerns of hypercholesterolemia or allergy could be addressed individually, rather than as general recommendations, warranting further research and targeted egg design.

  20. Development of Nutrition Education Using support tools to select a well-balanced diet in the Homemaking in Elementary School

    OpenAIRE

    Itou, Keiko; Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Nami; Ishida, Hiroko

    2015-01-01

    The implementation plan of the nutrition education for children of 5th graders of the elementary school using the support tools to select a well-balanced diet was developed and practiced. The children’ behavior in the learning process were recorded and analyzed to empirically examine the effect of the nutrition education on the students in their learning process of nutrition knowledge as well as in their acquiring process of behavior to arrange a well-balanced diet.   The results were as ...

  1. Nutritional deficiencies in the developing world: current status and opportunities for intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Yasir; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2010-12-01

    Several contributory factors such as poverty, lack of purchasing power, household food insecurity, and limited general knowledge about appropriate nutritional practices increase the risk of undernutrition in developing countries. The synergistic interaction between inadequate dietary intake and disease burden leads to a vicious cycle that accounts for much of the high morbidity and mortality in these countries. Three groups of underlying factors contribute to inadequate dietary intake and infectious disease: inadequate maternal and child care, household food insecurity, and poor health services in an unhealthy environment. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Design and development of a meal system for the elderly. [public health - nutrition/diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Food preference surveys (taste tests) were performed for 95 food items (which were selected from an original list of 150 items), and 21 menus were developed from the survey results. Each menu contains an entree, two side dishes, dessert, and a beverage. Food manufacturing specifications for freeze dried foods, frozen foods, and beverages are examined, and product labeling and packaging requirements are discussed. The nutritional value of the various foods is listed in tabular form, and sample product labels are shown. Cost estimates per serving are also included.

  3. Applications of isotopes in the development of nutrition policies and evaluation of interventions. Report of a contractual service agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vio, F.; Uauy, R.

    2000-01-01

    In the last 10-20 years, the development of science and technology applied to nutrition has been impressive. Nutrition can no longer be underestimated as a scientific discipline; nutrition embraces now modern physiology and biochemistry (including molecular biology), anthropology and the social sciences and requires real expertise from many sources, including the nuclear sector. Isotopic-based nuclear techniques provide reliable biological indicators that give, at the decision-maker level, important information to target and track progress in food and nutrition programs. They serve as tools for evaluating nutritional status of populations and individuals for micronutrients and vitamins, nutrient intake and bioavailability, body composition and energy balance. The information provided verifies the nature of the nutrition problem, helps implement or redirect on-going programs, guides in the processing of local foods and provides indicators of important long-term health improvements or broader social and economic advances. As a result of the investment in human resources undertaken by IAEA in recent years, under its mandate to promote the peaceful uses of nuclear technology, nutritionists in developing countries are now more aware of the significance and benefits of isotopic techniques. This includes stable isotopic methods that are biologically safe and have no adverse environmental impacts. Equipment is being increasingly made available by national investments in the science base. Sometimes IAEA has given specific and direct support but in many instances support previously provided for other nuclear sectors could be harnessed to address nutritional problems. In summary, the objectives now are to meet the nutrition challenges facing countries by the use of isotopes in nutritional evaluations, bearing in mind that isotopic and nuclear techniques are tools, not solutions by themselves. IAEA does not manage or fund nutrition investigations or interventions at the public

  4. Applications of isotopes in the development of nutrition policies and evaluation of interventions. Report of a contractual service agreement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vio, F; Uauy, R [Instituto de Nutricion y Tecnologia de los Alimentos, Universidad de Chile, Santiago (Chile)

    2000-07-01

    In the last 10-20 years, the development of science and technology applied to nutrition has been impressive. Nutrition can no longer be underestimated as a scientific discipline; nutrition embraces now modern physiology and biochemistry (including molecular biology), anthropology and the social sciences and requires real expertise from many sources, including the nuclear sector. Isotopic-based nuclear techniques provide reliable biological indicators that give, at the decision-maker level, important information to target and track progress in food and nutrition programs. They serve as tools for evaluating nutritional status of populations and individuals for micronutrients and vitamins, nutrient intake and bioavailability, body composition and energy balance. The information provided verifies the nature of the nutrition problem, helps implement or redirect on-going programs, guides in the processing of local foods and provides indicators of important long-term health improvements or broader social and economic advances. As a result of the investment in human resources undertaken by IAEA in recent years, under its mandate to promote the peaceful uses of nuclear technology, nutritionists in developing countries are now more aware of the significance and benefits of isotopic techniques. This includes stable isotopic methods that are biologically safe and have no adverse environmental impacts. Equipment is being increasingly made available by national investments in the science base. Sometimes IAEA has given specific and direct support but in many instances support previously provided for other nuclear sectors could be harnessed to address nutritional problems. In summary, the objectives now are to meet the nutrition challenges facing countries by the use of isotopes in nutritional evaluations, bearing in mind that isotopic and nuclear techniques are tools, not solutions by themselves. IAEA does not manage or fund nutrition investigations or interventions at the public

  5. Addressing the workforce pipeline challenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard Bond; Kevin Kostelnik; Richard Holman

    2006-11-01

    A secure and affordable energy supply is essential for achieving U.S. national security, in continuing U.S. prosperity and in laying the foundations to enable future economic growth. To meet this goal the next generation energy workforce in the U.S., in particular those needed to support instrumentation, controls and advanced operations and maintenance, is a critical element. The workforce is aging and a new workforce pipeline, to support both current generation and new build has yet to be established. The paper reviews the challenges and some actions being taken to address this need.

  6. Developing measures of food and nutrition security within an Australian context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Claire; Gallegos, Danielle; McKechnie, Rebecca

    2017-10-01

    To develop a measure of food and nutrition security for use among an Australian population that measures all pillars of food security and to establish its content validity. The study consisted of two phases. Phase 1 involved focus groups with experts working in the area of food security. Data were assessed using content analysis and results informed the development of a draft tool. Phase 2 consisted of a series of three online surveys using the Delphi technique. Findings from each survey were used to establish content validity and progressively modify the tool until consensus was reached for all items. Australia. Phase 1 focus groups involved twenty-five experts working in the field of food security, who were attending the Dietitians Association of Australia National Conference, 2013. Phase 2 included twenty-five experts working in food security, who were recruited via email. Findings from Phase 1 supported the need for an Australian-specific tool and highlighted the failure of current tools to measure across all pillars of food security. Participants encouraged the inclusion of items to measure barriers to food acquisition and the previous single item to enable comparisons with previous data. Phase 2 findings informed the selection and modification of items for inclusion in the final tool. The results led to the development of a draft tool to measure food and nutrition security, and supported its content validity. Further research is needed to validate the tool among the Australian population and to establish inter- and intra-rater reliability.

  7. Development and evaluation of a Nutrition Transition-FFQ for adolescents in South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Nida I; Frediani, Jennifer K; Ramakrishnan, Usha; Patil, Shailaja S; Yount, Kathryn M; Martorell, Reynaldo; Narayan, Km Venkat; Cunningham, Solveig A

    2017-05-01

    To develop and evaluate a Nutrition Transition-FFQ (NT-FFQ) to measure nutrition transition among adolescents in South India. We developed an interviewer-administered NT-FFQ comprising a 125-item semi-quantitative FFQ and a twenty-seven-item eating behaviour survey. The reproducibility and validity of the NT-FFQ were assessed using Spearman correlations, intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC), and levels of agreement using Bland-Altman and cross-classification over 2 months (NT-FFQ1 and NT-FFQ2). Validity of foods was evaluated against three 24-h dietary recalls (24-HR). Face validity of eating behaviours was evaluated through semi-structured cognitive interviews. The reproducibility of eating behaviours was assessed using weighted kappa (κ w) and cross-classification analyses. Vijayapura, India. A representative sample of 198 adolescents aged 14-18 years. Reproducibility of NT-FFQ: Spearman correlations ranged from 0·33 (pulses) to 0·80 (red meat) and ICC from 0·05 (fruits) to 1·00 (tea). On average, concordance (agreement) was 60 % and discordance was 7 % for food groups. For eating behaviours, κ w ranged from 0·24 (eating snacks while watching television) to 0·67 (eating lunch at home) with a mean of 0·40. Validity of NT-FFQ: Spearman correlations ranged from 0·11 (fried traditional foods) to 0·70 (tea) and ICC ranged from 0·02 (healthy global foods) to 1·00 (grains). The concordance and discordance were 48 % and 8 %, respectively. Bland-Altman plots showed acceptable agreement between NT-FFQ2 and 24-HR. The eating behaviours had acceptable face validity. The NT-FFQ has good reproducibility and acceptable validity for food intake and eating behaviours. The NT-FFQ can quantify the nutrition transition among Indian adolescents.

  8. An investment in children's health, nutrition and education is the foundation stone for all national development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalra, S

    1991-01-01

    A medical student at the Christian Medical College in Ludhiana, India, won first place in the First Annual Dr. S.M. Gupta Memorial Essay Contest with this essay on investing in the health, nutrition, and education of India's children. The health, nutrition, and education condition of India's children is substandard. 10% of infants die before their first birthday. 15% of children die before age 5. Many Indian children suffer from diarrhea and acute respiratory infections. Investment in immunization, oral rehydration therapy, hygiene, and health education would prevent many of these deaths and illnesses. Illness and death cost parents time, energy, and money. Children suffering from malnutrition and sickness cannot concentrate on learning. The state of today's children foretells the state of tomorrow's adults, work force, and leaders. Poor nutrition and health contribute to India's substandard economic productivity. India has 14% of the world's population, but produces only 1.2% of its gross national product. Even though India was the first country to have a national family planning program, its fertility and population growth rates are high. Investment in children's health would show parents the benefits of planning their families. It would also improve India's poor performance in sports and war as well as national prestige and socioeconomic development. The considerable number of illiterates reflect India's failure to invest in education. Females have a lower literacy rate than males. Girls in India suffer much discrimination. They receive less food, less medical care, less opportunities for education, and less recreation. National development depends on the active participation of girls. Prevention is the key: nourish the children, educate them, and keep them healthy.

  9. Designing and development of a nutrition counseling center in for the primary health care system in Ahvaz, Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minaei, Mina; Zarei, Maryam

    2014-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: Malnutrition is one of the most important nutritional challenges in Iran and other developing countries. The aim of this study was to improve the quality of nutritional service provided to children under six years old in rural areas in Ahvaz city through designing nutrition counseling centers. Methods: An intervention study was conducted on 660 under six year old children from May to November 2007 in Lali district of Ahvaz. Data was gathered using a general questionnaire and anthropometric measurements filled by trained questioners in the Health house. The anthropometric indicators of participants, the knowledge, attitude and practice of their mothers were re-assessed after the intervention. Results: At the beginning of the study the mean points for knowledge, attitude and practice of mothers on principles of nutrition in children were 71.2%, 68.6% and 69.3% respectively. After the intervention these figures reached 85.6%, 74.4% and 82.1% respectively. The changes were statistically significant (P<0.01, P<0.05 and P<0.05 respectively). The mean points gained by mothers living in suburb villages were lower than mothers living in the main villages before and after the intervention. Mean knowledge, attitude and practice levels in mothers of both healthy and malnourished children was significantly higher after the project compared to its start (p<0.05). About 68.9% of children were referred to nutrition counseling centers for further treatment after the intervention. The intervention was most efficient in children suffering growth retardation, with a cure rate of 91%; only 48.6% of malnourished children referred to the center were cured (p<0.05). Conclusion: Results obtained from this study showed that over 90% of children suffering growth retardation were cured. This means establishing nutrition counseling centers to encourage proper nutrition behaviors, evaluate current issues and find possible solutions, persuade mothers to improve child

  10. Nutritional aspects of honey bee-collected pollen and constraints on colony development in the eastern Mediterranean

    OpenAIRE

    Shafir, S.; Avni, D.; Hendriksma, H.; Dag, A.; Uni, Z.; Avni, Dorit; Hendriksma, Harmen; Dag, Arnon; Uni, Zehava; Shafir, Sharoni

    2014-01-01

    Pollen is the main protein and lipid source for honey bees (Apis mellifera), and nutritionally impoverished landscapes pose a threat to colony development. To determine colony nutritional demands, we analyzed a yearly cycle of bee-collected pollen from colonies in the field and compared it to colony worker production and honey bee body composition, for the first time in social insects. We monitored monthly bee production in ten colonies at each of seven sites throughout Israel, and trapped po...

  11. Proceedings of the seventh international food convention: nutritional security through sustainable development research and education for healthy foods - souvenir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-12-01

    At present, the application of advanced technology during production, processing, storage and distribution of food with an ultimate aim of strengthening the socio-economic status of farmers, entrepreneurs and rural artisan community has paramount importance. The convention made an effort to touch upon the following areas: food and nutritional security and sustainability, food processing and engineering, food safety management systems, food health and nutrition, skill development and entrepreneurship, food science and technology research etc. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  12. Transcriptional markers of sub-optimal nutrition in developing Apis mellifera nurse workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Honey bees (Apis mellifera) contribute substantially to the worldwide economy and ecosystem health as pollinators. Pollen is essential to the bee’s diet, providing protein, lipids, and micronutrients. The dramatic shifts in physiology, anatomy, and behavior that accompany normal worker development are highly plastic and recent work demonstrates that development, particularly the transition from nurse to foraging roles, is greatly impacted by diet. However, the role that diet plays in the developmental transition of newly eclosed bees to nurse workers is poorly understood. To further understand honey bee nutrition and the role of diet in nurse development, we used a high-throughput screen of the transcriptome of 3 day and 8 day old worker bees fed either honey and stored pollen (rich diet) or honey alone (poor diet) within the hive. We employed a three factor (age, diet, age x diet) analysis of the transcriptome to determine whether diet affected nurse worker physiology and whether poor diet altered the developmental processes normally associated with aging. Results Substantial changes in gene expression occurred due to starvation. Diet-induced changes in gene transcription occurring in younger bees were largely a subset of those occurring in older bees, but certain signatures of starvation were only evident 8 day old workers. Of the 18,542 annotated transcripts in the A. mellifera genome, 150 transcripts exhibited differential expression due to poor diet at 3d of age compared with 17,226 transcripts that differed due to poor diet at 8d of age, and poor diet caused more frequent down-regulation of gene expression in younger bees compared to older bees. In addition, the age-related physiological changes that accompanied early adult development differed due to the diet these young adult bees were fed. More frequent down-regulation of gene expression was observed in developing bees fed a poor diet compared to those fed an adequate diet. Functional

  13. An Intelligent Decision Support System for Workforce Forecast

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    growth. Brown (1999) developed a model to forecast dental workforce size and mix (by sex) for the first twenty years of the twenty first century in...forecasted competencies required to deliver needed dental services. Labor market signaling approaches based workforce forecasting model was presented...techniques viz. algebra, calculus or probability theory, (Law and Kelton, 1991). Simulation processes, same as conducting experiments on computers, deals

  14. Sustainability and the Tourism and Hospitality Workforce: A Thematic Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Tom Baum; Catherine Cheung; Haiyan Kong; Anna Kralj; Shelagh Mooney; Hải Nguyễn Thị Thanh; Sridar Ramachandran; Marinela Dropulić Ružić; May Ling Siow

    2016-01-01

    This paper is about the position of workforce and employment considerations within the sustainable tourism narrative. The paper aims to address the relative neglect of this area within the discourse of sustainable tourism and highlights references to the workforce within the United Nations’ 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. The discussion follows the emerging field of sustainable human resource management and the contribution that this can make to meeting both the UN Sustainable Develo...

  15. Leveraging multi-generational workforce values in interactive information societies

    OpenAIRE

    Sophie van der Walt; Tanya du Plessis

    2010-01-01

    Background: The success of organisations relies on various factors including the ability of its multi-generational workforce to collaborate within the interactive information society. By developing an awareness of the different values of a diverse workforce, organisations may benefit from diversity. Various diversity factors, such as ethnicity, age and gender, impact on the way people interact, especially in the interactive information society.Objectives: This article advocates the need for g...

  16. Domestic Wind Energy Workforce; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tegen, Suzanne

    2015-07-30

    A robust workforce is essential to growing domestic wind manufacturing capabilities. NREL researchers conducted research to better understand today's domestic wind workforce, projected needs for the future, and how existing and new education and training programs can meet future needs. This presentation provides an overview of this research and the accompanying industry survey, as well as the Energy Department's Career Maps, Jobs & Economic Development Impacts models, and the Wind for Schools project.

  17. The nutrition for sport knowledge questionnaire (NSKQ): development and validation using classical test theory and Rasch analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trakman, Gina Louise; Forsyth, Adrienne; Hoye, Russell; Belski, Regina

    2017-01-01

    Appropriate dietary intake can have a significant influence on athletic performance. There is a growing consensus on sports nutrition and professionals working with athletes often provide dietary education. However, due to the limitations of existing sports nutrition knowledge questionnaires, previous reports of athletes' nutrition knowledge may be inaccurate. An updated questionnaire has been developed based on a recent review of sports nutrition guidelines. The tool has been validated using a robust methodology that incorporates relevant techniques from classical test theory (CTT) and Item response theory (IRT), namely, Rasch analysis. The final questionnaire has 89 questions and six sub-sections (weight management, macronutrients, micronutrients, sports nutrition, supplements, and alcohol). The content and face validity of the tool have been confirmed based on feedback from expert sports dietitians and university sports students, respectively. The internal reliability of the questionnaire as a whole is high (KR = 0.88), and most sub-sections achieved an acceptable internal reliability. Construct validity has been confirmed, with an independent T-test revealing a significant ( p  < 0.001) difference in knowledge scores of nutrition (64 ± 16%) and non-nutrition students (51 ± 19%). Test-retest reliability has been assured, with a strong correlation ( r  = 0.92, p  < 0.001) between individuals' scores on two attempts of the test, 10 days to 2 weeks apart. Three of the sub-sections fit the Rasch Unidimensional Model. The final version of the questionnaire represents a significant improvement over previous tools. Each nutrition sub-section is unidimensional, and therefore researchers and practitioners can use these individually, as required. Use of the questionnaire will allow researchers to draw conclusions about the effectiveness of nutrition education programs, and differences in knowledge across athletes of varying ages, genders, and athletic

  18. The influence of postnatal nutrition on reproductive tract and endometrial gland development in dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Meghan L; McCoski, Sarah R; Geiger, Adam J; Akers, R Michael; Johnson, Sally E; Ealy, Alan D

    2017-04-01

    Uterine gland development occurs after birth in cattle and other mammals. The timeline of gland development has been described in various species, but little is known about how postnatal diet influences uterine gland development. This is especially concerning in dairy heifers, where a variety of milk replacer and whole milk nutrition options exist. Little work also exists in cattle to describe how early exposure to steroids influences reproductive tract and uterine gland development. The objective of this work was to determine the effects of early postnatal plane of nutrition and estrogen supplementation on uterine gland development in calves. In both studies, Holstein heifer calves were assigned to restricted milk replacer (R-MR) or enhanced milk replacer (EH-MR) diets. In study 1, calves (R-MR, n = 6; EH-MR, n = 5) were euthanized at 8 wk. In study 2, calves were weaned at 8 wk and administered estradiol (R-MR, n = 6; EH-MR, n = 6) or placebo (R-MR, n = 6; EH-MR, n = 5) for an additional 14 d before euthanasia. Average daily gain and final body weight was greater in both studies in heifers fed the enhanced diet. At 8 wk, EH-MR calves had a greater number of glands and a smaller average gland size, but total gland area was not different from the R-MR group. At 10 wk, uterine gland number and size were not affected by diet or estrogen. Expression profiles of several paracrine mediators of gland development were examined. Increases in transcript abundance for IGF1 and IGFBP3 and a decrease in abundance of WNT7A were detected in calves fed the enhanced diet at 8 wk of age. Plane of nutrition did not affect transcript profiles at 10 wk of age, but estradiol supplementation decreased MET and WNT7A transcript abundance. To conclude, heifer calves on a restricted diet exhibited a uterine morphology and transcript profile suggestive of delayed uterine gland development. These changes appear to be corrected by wk 10 of life. Also, this work provides evidence supporting the

  19. To effectively adapt and renew workforce competences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pezzani, P.

    2007-01-01

    potential to work in nuclear plants, develop nuclear skills, behaviors, and capacity for the job. For each of the most important job areas (Operation, Maintenance, Chemistry, Electricity, Health Physic), we built: A requirement regarding both profile (diploma, job experience) and training needed; A promotional campaign based on a technical form describing the job, profile requirement, training needed, skills ability test); A process enrolment based on a regional 'job cafe meeting', cross interviews, and job try out; Enhancement Training Program to achieve the enrolment level. Management gets Total Commitment to competence improvement leadership: A Knowledge and Competence Management Training Program is developed from observation in the field to competence assessment and Personal competence progress interview.Management is also involved as workforce trainers. (author)

  20. Epigenetic Matters: The Link between Early Nutrition, Microbiome, and Long-term Health Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Indrio

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Epigenetic modifications are among the most important mechanisms by which environmental factors can influence early cellular differentiation and create new phenotypic traits during pregnancy and within the neonatal period without altering the deoxyribonucleic acid sequence. A number of antenatal and postnatal factors, such as maternal and neonatal nutrition, pollutant exposure, and the composition of microbiota, contribute to the establishment of epigenetic changes that can not only modulate the individual adaptation to the environment but also have an influence on lifelong health and disease by modifying inflammatory molecular pathways and the immune response. Postnatal intestinal colonization, in turn determined by maternal flora, mode of delivery, early skin-to-skin contact and neonatal diet, leads to specific epigenetic signatures that can affect the barrier properties of gut mucosa and their protective role against later insults, thus potentially predisposing to the development of late-onset inflammatory diseases. The aim of this review is to outline the epigenetic mechanisms of programming and development acting within early-life stages and to examine in detail the role of maternal and neonatal nutrition, microbiota composition, and other environmental factors in determining epigenetic changes and their short- and long-term effects.

  1. Changes in stature, weight, and nutritional status with tourism-based economic development in the Yucatan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leatherman, Thomas L; Goodman, Alan H; Stillman, Tobias

    2010-07-01

    Over the past 40 years, tourism-based economic development has transformed social and economic conditions in the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. We address how these changes have influenced anthropometric indicators of growth and nutritional status in Yalcoba, a Mayan farming community involved in the circular migration of labor in the tourist economy. Data are presented on stature and weight for children measured in 1938 in the Yucatan Peninsula and from 1987 to 1998 in the Mayan community of Yalcoba. In addition, stature, weight and BMI are presented for adults in Yalcoba based on clinic records. Childhood stature varied little between 1938 and 1987. Between 1987 and 1998 average male child statures increased by 2.6cm and female child statures increased by 2.7cm. Yet, 65% of children were short for their ages. Between 1987 and 1998, average child weight increased by 1.8kg. Child BMIs were similar to US reference values and 13% were considered to be above average for weight. Forty percent of adult males and 64% of females were overweight or obese. The anthropometric data from Yalcoba suggest a pattern of stunted children growing into overweight adults. This pattern is found elsewhere in the Yucatan and in much of the developing world where populations have experienced a nutrition transition toward western diets and reduced physical activity levels. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Epigenetic Matters: The Link between Early Nutrition, Microbiome, and Long-term Health Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indrio, Flavia; Martini, Silvia; Francavilla, Ruggiero; Corvaglia, Luigi; Cristofori, Fernanda; Mastrolia, Salvatore Andrea; Neu, Josef; Rautava, Samuli; Russo Spena, Giovanna; Raimondi, Francesco; Loverro, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    Epigenetic modifications are among the most important mechanisms by which environmental factors can influence early cellular differentiation and create new phenotypic traits during pregnancy and within the neonatal period without altering the deoxyribonucleic acid sequence. A number of antenatal and postnatal factors, such as maternal and neonatal nutrition, pollutant exposure, and the composition of microbiota, contribute to the establishment of epigenetic changes that can not only modulate the individual adaptation to the environment but also have an influence on lifelong health and disease by modifying inflammatory molecular pathways and the immune response. Postnatal intestinal colonization, in turn determined by maternal flora, mode of delivery, early skin-to-skin contact and neonatal diet, leads to specific epigenetic signatures that can affect the barrier properties of gut mucosa and their protective role against later insults, thus potentially predisposing to the development of late-onset inflammatory diseases. The aim of this review is to outline the epigenetic mechanisms of programming and development acting within early-life stages and to examine in detail the role of maternal and neonatal nutrition, microbiota composition, and other environmental factors in determining epigenetic changes and their short- and long-term effects. PMID:28879172

  3. Development of a nutritionally balanced pizza as a functional meal designed to meet published dietary guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combet, Emilie; Jarlot, Amandine; Aidoo, Kofi E; Lean, Michael E J

    2014-11-01

    To develop a worked example of product reformulation of a very popular 'junk food' to meet nutritional guidelines for public health in a ready meal. Indicative survey of popular Margherita pizzas, followed by product reformulation, applying dietary guidelines to generate a single-item pizza meal containing 30 % daily amounts of energy and all nutrients. An iterative process was used; first to optimize nutrient balance by adjusting the proportions of bread base, tomato-based sauce and mozzarella topping, then adding ingredients to provide specific nutrients and consumer tasting. Urban areas of contrasting socio-economic status. Untrained unselected adults (n 49) and children (n 63), assessing pizza at tasting stations. Most commercial pizzas provide insufficient information to assess all nutrients and traditional Margherita pizza ingredients provide insufficient Fe, Zn, iodine, and vitamins C and B12. Energy content of the portions currently sold as standard range from 837 to 2351 kJ (200 to 562 kcal), and most exceed 30 % Guideline Daily Amounts for saturated fat and Na when a 2510 kJ (600 kcal) notional meal is considered. The 'nutritionally balanced pizza' provides the required energy for a single-item meal (2510 kJ/600 kcal), with all nutrients within recommended ranges: Na (473 mg, ∼45 % below recommended level), saturated fat (<11 % energy) and dietary fibre (13·7 g). Most adults (77 %) and children (81 %) rated it 'as good as' or 'better than' their usual choice. Nutritional guidelines to reduce chronic diseases can be applied to reformulate 'junk food' ready meals, to improve public health through a health-by-stealth approach without requiring change in eating habits.

  4. Diversity in the dermatology workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinojosa, Jorge A; Pandya, Amit G

    2016-12-01

    The United States is becoming increasingly diverse, and minorities are projected to represent the majority of our population in the near future. Unfortunately, health disparities still exist for these groups, and inequalities have also become evident in the field of dermatology. There is currently a lack of diversity within the dermatology workforce. Potential solutions to these health care disparities include increasing cultural competence for all physicians and improving diversity in the dermatology workforce. ©2016 Frontline Medical Communications.

  5. Inter-Tribal Student Services (I.S.S.): Collaborative Action Education in Building and Guiding the Future Under-represented Geosciences Workforce Through Tribal Foundations, Mentorship and Professional Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolman, J.

    2015-12-01

    Inter-Tribal Student Services (I.S.S.) was created as an Indian Self-Determination Organization to meet the every growing Tribal and under-represented minorities (URM) geosciences workforce needs. I.S.S. is one of only a few Indian Self-Determined Organizations in the U.S. with a distinct focused on buidling the Tribal and URM geosciences and natural resources workforces. In past three years, I.S.S has worked in partnership with U.S. colleges/universities, state/federal agencies (Bureau of Indian Affairs), private and International organizations and most importantly U.S. Tribal Nations to ensure emerging high school students, undergraduates, graduate students and post doctorates have the opportunities for training in supportive and unique environments, navigational mentoring, and broad professional development to build and practice the skills required for blue-collar, scientific, and managerial positions. I.S.S. has been highly successful in filling workforce opportunities within the broad range of geosciences positions. I.S.S. students are proficient in understanding and maneuvering the complex landscapes of interdisciplinary research, multidisciplinary multi-partner projects, traditional/western philosophies as well as being highly proficient in all areas of problem solving and communications. Research and on-site projects have heightened the educational experiences of all participants, in addition to addressing a perplexing geosciences challenge grounded in a Tribal environment. A number of the I.S.S. participants and students have found geosciences positions in Tribes, state/federal agencies, enterprize as well as International organizations. I.S.S. practices and has infused all research and projects with intergenerational teaching/learning, participation solution-focused initiatives, and holistic/multicultural mentoring. The presentation will highlight the vision, design, implementation, outcomes and future directions of I.S.S and participants.

  6. Early phosphorus nutrition, mycorrhizae development, dry matter partitioning and yield of maize

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gavito, M.E.; Miller, M.H.

    1998-01-01

    to a mycorrhizal mycelium network (no-tillage treatments). Maize yield and harvest index were lower after cropping With canola. The yield for conventional tillage was higher than that for no-tillage but the harvest index was lower. The hypothesis was supported at early stages of maize growth by the effect...... was used with previous crop (Zea mays L.-maize and Brassica napus L.-canola), tillage practices (no-tillage or conventional tillage) and P fertilization (5 levels) as factors chosen to modify mycorrhizae development at early developmental stages of maize. Previous cropping with canola resulted in decreased......We conducted a field experiment to test the hypothesis that improved phosphorus nutrition occurs in maize plants with rapid arbuscular (AM) mycorrhizae development at early developmental stages and that this also is reflected in dry matter allocation and final yield. A split-split plot design...

  7. Cultural and historical trends and influences of food, nutrition and cuisine on health and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlich, Rita

    2004-01-01

    The distinctive qualities of the cuisine of Hangzhou are the result of its geographical situation, which provided good soils, reliable rainfall, a lake that has been a water source and renowned beauty spot for centuries. The rich water-sources facilitated the development of gastronomy, agriculture, trade and administration, especially after it became the capital of the Southern Sung Dynasty. Hangzhou's food sources are especially diverse, notably for fish, green vegetables, fungi, and tofu, and have been since early records. As capital, it became a leader in cuisine, and in the development of the restaurant industry. The strength of food traditions has been reinforced constantly by the cultural, medicinal, nutritional, and social values of food and cooking, by the interest of Chinese scholars in food and wine, and by the narrative that accompanies specific dishes.

  8. Cardiac Development and Transcription Factors: Insulin Signalling, Insulin Resistance, and Intrauterine Nutritional Programming of Cardiovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindsamy, Annelene; Naidoo, Strinivasen

    2018-01-01

    Programming with an insult or stimulus during critical developmental life stages shapes metabolic disease through divergent mechanisms. Cardiovascular disease increasingly contributes to global morbidity and mortality, and the heart as an insulin-sensitive organ may become insulin resistant, which manifests as micro- and/or macrovascular complications due to diabetic complications. Cardiogenesis is a sequential process during which the heart develops into a mature organ and is regulated by several cardiac-specific transcription factors. Disrupted cardiac insulin signalling contributes to cardiac insulin resistance. Intrauterine under- or overnutrition alters offspring cardiac structure and function, notably cardiac hypertrophy, systolic and diastolic dysfunction, and hypertension that precede the onset of cardiovascular disease. Optimal intrauterine nutrition and oxygen saturation are required for normal cardiac development in offspring and the maintenance of their cardiovascular physiology. PMID:29484207

  9. Screening for Malnutrition in Community Dwelling Older Japanese: Preliminary Development and Evaluation of the Japanese Nutritional Risk Screening Tool (NRST).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Htun, N C; Ishikawa-Takata, K; Kuroda, A; Tanaka, T; Kikutani, T; Obuchi, S P; Hirano, H; Iijima, K

    2016-02-01

    Early and effective screening for age-related malnutrition is an essential part of providing optimal nutritional care to older populations. This study was performed to evaluate the adaptation of the original SCREEN II questionnaire (Seniors in the Community: Risk Evaluation for Eating and Nutrition, version II) for use in Japan by examining its measurement properties and ability to predict nutritional risk and sarcopenia in community-dwelling older Japanese people. The ultimate objective of this preliminary validation study is to develop a license granted full Japanese version of the SCREEN II. The measurement properties and predictive validity of the NRST were examined in this cross-sectional study of 1921 community-dwelling older Japanese people. Assessments included medical history, and anthropometric and serum albumin measurements. Questions on dietary habits that corresponded to the original SCREEN II were applied to Nutritional Risk Screening Tool (NRST) scoring system. Nutritional risk was assessed by the Geriatric Nutrition Risk Index (GNRI) and the short form of the Mini-Nutritional Assessment (MNA-SF). Sarcopenia was diagnosed according to the criteria of the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People. The nutritional risk prevalences determined by the GNRI and MNA-SF were 5.6% and 34.7%, respectively. The prevalence of sarcopenia was 13.3%. Mean NRST scores were significantly lower in the nutritionally at-risk than in the well-nourished groups. Concurrent validity analysis showed significant correlations between NRST scores and both nutritional risk parameters (GNRI or MNA-SF) and sarcopenia. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC) of NRST for the prediction of nutritional risk were 0.635 and 0.584 as assessed by GNRI and MNA-SF, respectively. AUCs for the prediction of sarcopenia were 0.602 (NRST), 0.655 (age-integrated NRST), and 0.676 (age and BMI-integrated NRST). These results indicate that the NRST is a

  10. People matter: tomorrow's workforce for tomorrow's world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easmon, Charles

    2014-01-01

    The focus of any health service, now and into the future, should be people delivering safe, quality care to people; care that covers not just diagnosis and treatment, but the whole experience that patients and their carers have of the service. Workforce development, the process by which the current and future workforce is planned and trained, must be related to current and future patterns of service delivery and take account of financial reality. It cannot exist in isolation. Despite employing 1.3 million people, upon whom up to 70% of its budget is spent, the NHS has been curiously relaxed about the workforce development of both its staff in training and of those trained staff who, with the impact of demographic change and the increasing speed of technological progress, will need to adapt to new ways of working and learn new skills. Given that the NHS has been repeatedly criticised by the Health Select Committee for its failure to link workforce planning and development with service and financial planning, and that inadequate staffing has been a feature of a number of recent organizational failures, how is this to be achieved? Some NHS organisations have been shown to be poor employers with a culture of bullying and fear and the use of suspensions and financial settlements bound to gagging clauses to remove whistleblowers. Gender and ethnic discrimination is an issue not yet fully resolved. Furthermore with the demographic changes around the increasing needs of an elderly population, the introduction of new technology and the increasing interdependency of health and social care, there is a need for a clear vision as to how the future NHS will be structured and developed. Fewer large specialist centres are likely, combined with local, community oriented integrated services with appropriate specialist support. Decisions need to be taken about this in time to give workforce development processes time to plan the best skill mix combinations and to develop clinicians

  11. Development and optimization of iron- and zinc-containing nanostructured powders for nutritional applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilty, F M; Hurrell, R F; Zimmermann, M B [Human Nutrition Laboratory, Institute of Food Science and Nutrition, ETH Zurich (Switzerland); Teleki, A; Buechel, R; Pratsinis, S E [Particle Technology Laboratory, Department of Mechanical and Process Engineering, ETH Zurich (Switzerland); Krumeich, F, E-mail: michael.zimmermann@ilw.agrl.ethz.c [Electron Microscopy Center (EMEZ), ETH Zurich (Switzerland)

    2009-11-25

    Reducing the size of low-solubility iron (Fe)-containing compounds to nanoscale has the potential to improve their bioavailability. Because Fe and zinc (Zn) deficiencies often coexist in populations, combined Fe/Zn-containing nanostructured compounds may be useful for nutritional applications. Such compounds are developed here and their solubility in dilute acid, a reliable indicator of iron bioavailability in humans, and sensory qualities in sensitive food matrices are investigated. Phosphates and oxides of Fe and atomically mixed Fe/Zn-containing (primarily ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) nanostructured powders were produced by flame spray pyrolysis (FSP). Chemical composition and surface area were systematically controlled by varying precursor concentration and feed rate during powder synthesis to increase solubility to the level of ferrous sulfate at maximum Fe and Zn content. Solubility of the nanostructured compounds was dependent on their particle size and crystallinity. The new nanostructured powders produced minimal color changes when added to dairy products containing chocolate or fruit compared to the changes produced when ferrous sulfate or ferrous fumarate were added to these foods. Flame-made Fe- and Fe/Zn-containing nanostructured powders have solubilities comparable to ferrous and Zn sulfate but may produce fewer color changes when added to difficult-to-fortify foods. Thus, these powders are promising for food fortification and other nutritional applications.

  12. Development and optimization of iron- and zinc-containing nanostructured powders for nutritional applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilty, F M; Hurrell, R F; Zimmermann, M B; Teleki, A; Buechel, R; Pratsinis, S E; Krumeich, F

    2009-01-01

    Reducing the size of low-solubility iron (Fe)-containing compounds to nanoscale has the potential to improve their bioavailability. Because Fe and zinc (Zn) deficiencies often coexist in populations, combined Fe/Zn-containing nanostructured compounds may be useful for nutritional applications. Such compounds are developed here and their solubility in dilute acid, a reliable indicator of iron bioavailability in humans, and sensory qualities in sensitive food matrices are investigated. Phosphates and oxides of Fe and atomically mixed Fe/Zn-containing (primarily ZnFe 2 O 4 ) nanostructured powders were produced by flame spray pyrolysis (FSP). Chemical composition and surface area were systematically controlled by varying precursor concentration and feed rate during powder synthesis to increase solubility to the level of ferrous sulfate at maximum Fe and Zn content. Solubility of the nanostructured compounds was dependent on their particle size and crystallinity. The new nanostructured powders produced minimal color changes when added to dairy products containing chocolate or fruit compared to the changes produced when ferrous sulfate or ferrous fumarate were added to these foods. Flame-made Fe- and Fe/Zn-containing nanostructured powders have solubilities comparable to ferrous and Zn sulfate but may produce fewer color changes when added to difficult-to-fortify foods. Thus, these powders are promising for food fortification and other nutritional applications.

  13. Development and optimization of iron- and zinc-containing nanostructured powders for nutritional applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilty, F M; Teleki, A; Krumeich, F; Büchel, R; Hurrell, R F; Pratsinis, S E; Zimmermann, M B

    2009-11-25

    Reducing the size of low-solubility iron (Fe)-containing compounds to nanoscale has the potential to improve their bioavailability. Because Fe and zinc (Zn) deficiencies often coexist in populations, combined Fe/Zn-containing nanostructured compounds may be useful for nutritional applications. Such compounds are developed here and their solubility in dilute acid, a reliable indicator of iron bioavailability in humans, and sensory qualities in sensitive food matrices are investigated. Phosphates and oxides of Fe and atomically mixed Fe/Zn-containing (primarily ZnFe2O4) nanostructured powders were produced by flame spray pyrolysis (FSP). Chemical composition and surface area were systematically controlled by varying precursor concentration and feed rate during powder synthesis to increase solubility to the level of ferrous sulfate at maximum Fe and Zn content. Solubility of the nanostructured compounds was dependent on their particle size and crystallinity. The new nanostructured powders produced minimal color changes when added to dairy products containing chocolate or fruit compared to the changes produced when ferrous sulfate or ferrous fumarate were added to these foods. Flame-made Fe- and Fe/Zn-containing nanostructured powders have solubilities comparable to ferrous and Zn sulfate but may produce fewer color changes when added to difficult-to-fortify foods. Thus, these powders are promising for food fortification and other nutritional applications.

  14. NUTRITION AND VASCULAR SUPPLY OF RETINAL GANGLION CELLS DURING HUMAN DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul eRutkowski

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To review the roles of the different vascular beds nourishing the inner retina (retinal ganglion cells during normal development of the human eye and using our own tissue specimens to support our conclusions.Methods. An extensive search of the appropriate literature included PubMed, Google scholar, and numerous available textbooks. In addition, choroidal and retinal NADPH-diaphorase stained whole mount preparations were investigated.Results. The first critical interaction between vascular bed and retinal ganglion cell (RGC formation occurs in the 6th-8th month of gestation leading to a massive reduction of RGCs mainly in the peripheral retina. The first three years of age are characterized by an intense growth of the eyeball to near adult size. In the adult eye, the influence of the choroid on inner retinal nutrition was determined by examining the peripheral retinal watershed zones in more detail.Conclusion. This delicately balanced situation of retinal ganglion cell nutrition is described in the different regions of the eye, and a new graphic presentation is introduced to combine morphological measurements and clinical visual field data.

  15. Building Evidence for Sustainability of Food and Nutrition Intervention Programs in Developing Countries12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sunny S.; Rogers, Beatrice L.; Coates, Jennifer; Gilligan, Daniel O.; Sarriot, Eric

    2013-01-01

    After making large investments to put in place effective health and nutrition interventions, researchers, program implementers, policy makers, and donors all expect lasting effects. However, it is uncertain whether this is the case, and there is less certainty on how to approach the study of program sustainability. This symposium, “Building Evidence for Sustainability of Food and Nutrition Intervention Programs in Developing Countries,” provided not only frameworks for conceptualizing sustainability but concrete evidence about the approaches and methods used as well as lessons on how they do or do not work in particular contexts. We presented the following findings: 1) sustainability of activities and impacts of Title II food aid programs in Bolivia and Kenya, 2) sustainability of impact in terms of adoption and consumption of a biofortified orange sweet potato in Uganda, and 3) lessons from incorporating pro-sustainability investment strategies in child survival programs in Guinea. Our symposium introduced a new important body of research on program sustainability to provide insights and stimulate innovative thinking in the design and planning of further applied research and future prosustainability intervention programs. PMID:24038245

  16. Building evidence for sustainability of food and nutrition intervention programs in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sunny S; Rogers, Beatrice L; Coates, Jennifer; Gilligan, Daniel O; Sarriot, Eric

    2013-09-01

    After making large investments to put in place effective health and nutrition interventions, researchers, program implementers, policy makers, and donors all expect lasting effects. However, it is uncertain whether this is the case, and there is less certainty on how to approach the study of program sustainability. This symposium, "Building Evidence for Sustainability of Food and Nutrition Intervention Programs in Developing Countries," provided not only frameworks for conceptualizing sustainability but concrete evidence about the approaches and methods used as well as lessons on how they do or do not work in particular contexts. We presented the following findings: 1) sustainability of activities and impacts of Title II food aid programs in Bolivia and Kenya, 2) sustainability of impact in terms of adoption and consumption of a biofortified orange sweet potato in Uganda, and 3) lessons from incorporating pro-sustainability investment strategies in child survival programs in Guinea. Our symposium introduced a new important body of research on program sustainability to provide insights and stimulate innovative thinking in the design and planning of further applied research and future prosustainability intervention programs.

  17. Policies to sustain the nursing workforce: an international perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchan, J; Twigg, D; Dussault, G; Duffield, C; Stone, P W

    2015-06-01

    Examine metrics and policies regarding nurse workforce across four countries. International comparisons inform health policy makers. Data from the OECD were used to compare expenditure, workforce and health in: Australia, Portugal, the United Kingdom (UK) and the United States (US). Workforce policy context was explored. Public spending varied from less than 50% of gross domestic product in the US to over 80% in the UK. Australia had the highest life expectancy. Portugal has fewer nurses and more physicians. The Australian national health workforce planning agency has increased the scope for co-ordinated policy intervention. Portugal risks losing nurses through migration. In the UK, the economic crisis resulted in frozen pay, reduced employment, and reduced student nurses. In the US, there has been limited scope to develop a significant national nursing workforce policy approach, with a continuation of State based regulation adding to the complexity of the policy landscape. The US is the most developed in the use of nurses in advanced practice roles. Ageing of the workforce is likely to drive projected shortages in all countries. There are differences as well as variation in the overall impact of the global financial crisis in these countries. Future supply of nurses in all four countries is vulnerable. Work force planning is absent or restricted in three of the countries. Scope for improved productivity through use of advanced nurse roles exists in all countries. © 2015 International Council of Nurses.

  18. Varying coefficient function models to explore interactions between maternal nutritional status and prenatal methylmercury toxicity in the Seychelles Child Development Nutrition Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Miranda L; Huang, Li-Shan; Cox, Christopher; Strain, J J; Myers, Gary J; Bonham, Maxine P; Shamlaye, Conrad F; Stokes-Riner, Abbie; Wallace, Julie M W; Duffy, Emeir M; Clarkson, Thomas W; Davidson, Philip W

    2011-01-01

    Maternal consumption of fish during the gestational period exposes the fetus to both nutrients, especially the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs), believed to be beneficial for fetal brain development, as well as to the neurotoxicant methylmercury (MeHg). We recently reported that nutrients present in fish may modify MeHg neurotoxicity. Understanding the apparent interaction of MeHg exposure and nutrients present in fish is complicated by the limitations of modeling methods. In this study we fit varying coefficient function models to data from the Seychelles Child Development Nutrition Study (SCDNS) cohort to assess the association of dietary nutrients and children's development. This cohort of mother-child pairs in the Republic of Seychelles had fish consumption averaging 9 meals per week. Maternal nutritional status was assessed for five different nutritional components known to be present in fish (n-3 LCPUFA, n-6 LCPUFA, iron status, iodine status, and choline) and associated with children's neurological development. We also included prenatal MeHg exposure (measured in maternal hair). We examined two child neurodevelopmental outcomes (Bayley Scales Infant Development-II (BSID-II) Mental Developmental Index (MDI) and Psychomotor Developmental Index (PDI)), each administered at 9 and at 30 months. The varying coefficient models allow the possible interactions between each nutritional component and MeHg to be modeled as a smoothly varying function of MeHg as an effect modifier. Iron, iodine, choline, and n-6 LCPUFA had little or no observable modulation at different MeHg exposures. In contrast the n-3 LCPUFA docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) had beneficial effects on the BSID-II PDI that were reduced or absent at higher MeHg exposures. This study presents a useful modeling method that can be brought to bear on questions involving interactions between covariates, and illustrates the continuing importance of viewing fish consumption during pregnancy as a case

  19. Varying coefficient function models to explore interactions between maternal nutritional status and prenatal methylmercury toxicity in the Seychelles Child Development Nutrition Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynch, Miranda L.; Huang, Li-Shan; Cox, Christopher; Strain, J.J.; Myers, Gary J.; Bonham, Maxine P.; Shamlaye, Conrad F.; Stokes-Riner, Abbie; Wallace, Julie M.W.; Duffy, Emeir M.; Clarkson, Thomas W.; Davidson, Philip W.

    2011-01-01

    Maternal consumption of fish during the gestational period exposes the fetus to both nutrients, especially the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs), believed to be beneficial for fetal brain development, as well as to the neurotoxicant methylmercury (MeHg). We recently reported that nutrients present in fish may modify MeHg neurotoxicity. Understanding the apparent interaction of MeHg exposure and nutrients present in fish is complicated by the limitations of modeling methods. In this study we fit varying coefficient function models to data from the Seychelles Child Development Nutrition Study (SCDNS) cohort to assess the association of dietary nutrients and children's development. This cohort of mother-child pairs in the Republic of Seychelles had fish consumption averaging 9 meals per week. Maternal nutritional status was assessed for five different nutritional components known to be present in fish (n-3 LCPUFA, n-6 LCPUFA, iron status, iodine status, and choline) and associated with children's neurological development. We also included prenatal MeHg exposure (measured in maternal hair). We examined two child neurodevelopmental outcomes (Bayley Scales Infant Development-II (BSID-II) Mental Developmental Index (MDI) and Psychomotor Developmental Index (PDI)), each administered at 9 and at 30 months. The varying coefficient models allow the possible interactions between each nutritional component and MeHg to be modeled as a smoothly varying function of MeHg as an effect modifier. Iron, iodine, choline, and n-6 LCPUFA had little or no observable modulation at different MeHg exposures. In contrast the n-3 LCPUFA docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) had beneficial effects on the BSID-II PDI that were reduced or absent at higher MeHg exposures. This study presents a useful modeling method that can be brought to bear on questions involving interactions between covariates, and illustrates the continuing importance of viewing fish consumption during pregnancy as a case

  20. Varying coefficient function models to explore interactions between maternal nutritional status and prenatal methylmercury toxicity in the Seychelles Child Development Nutrition Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynch, Miranda L., E-mail: Miranda_Lynch@urmc.rochester.edu [University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY 14642 (United States); Huang, Li-Shan [University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY 14642 (United States); Cox, Christopher [Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD (United States); Strain, J.J. [University of Ulster, Coleraine, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Myers, Gary J. [University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY 14642 (United States); Bonham, Maxine P. [University of Ulster, Coleraine, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Shamlaye, Conrad F. [Ministry of Health, Republic of Seychelles (Seychelles); Stokes-Riner, Abbie [University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY 14642 (United States); Wallace, Julie M.W.; Duffy, Emeir M. [University of Ulster, Coleraine, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Clarkson, Thomas W.; Davidson, Philip W. [University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY 14642 (United States)

    2011-01-15

    Maternal consumption of fish during the gestational period exposes the fetus to both nutrients, especially the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs), believed to be beneficial for fetal brain development, as well as to the neurotoxicant methylmercury (MeHg). We recently reported that nutrients present in fish may modify MeHg neurotoxicity. Understanding the apparent interaction of MeHg exposure and nutrients present in fish is complicated by the limitations of modeling methods. In this study we fit varying coefficient function models to data from the Seychelles Child Development Nutrition Study (SCDNS) cohort to assess the association of dietary nutrients and children's development. This cohort of mother-child pairs in the Republic of Seychelles had fish consumption averaging 9 meals per week. Maternal nutritional status was assessed for five different nutritional components known to be present in fish (n-3 LCPUFA, n-6 LCPUFA, iron status, iodine status, and choline) and associated with children's neurological development. We also included prenatal MeHg exposure (measured in maternal hair). We examined two child neurodevelopmental outcomes (Bayley Scales Infant Development-II (BSID-II) Mental Developmental Index (MDI) and Psychomotor Developmental Index (PDI)), each administered at 9 and at 30 months. The varying coefficient models allow the possible interactions between each nutritional component and MeHg to be modeled as a smoothly varying function of MeHg as an effect modifier. Iron, iodine, choline, and n-6 LCPUFA had little or no observable modulation at different MeHg exposures. In contrast the n-3 LCPUFA docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) had beneficial effects on the BSID-II PDI that were reduced or absent at higher MeHg exposures. This study presents a useful modeling method that can be brought to bear on questions involving interactions between covariates, and illustrates the continuing importance of viewing fish consumption during pregnancy

  1. A pilot study of an online workplace nutrition program: the value of participant input in program development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousineau, Tara; Houle, Brian; Bromberg, Jonas; Fernandez, Kathrine C; Kling, Whitney C

    2008-01-01

    Tailored nutrition Web programs constitute an emerging trend in obesity prevention. Initial investment in innovative technology necessitates that the target population be well understood. This pilot study's purpose was to determine the feasibility of a workplace nutrition Web program. Formative research was conducted with gaming industry employees and benefits managers to develop a consensus on workplace-specific nutrition needs. A demonstration Web program was piloted with stakeholders to determine feasibility. Indiana, Mississippi, Nevada, and New Jersey gaming establishments. 86 employees, 18 benefits managers. Prototype Web program. Concept mapping; 16-item nutrition knowledge test; satisfaction. Concept mapping was used to aggregate importance ratings on programmatic content, which informed Web program curriculum. Chi-square tests were performed postintervention to determine knowledge improvement. (1) Employees and benefits managers exhibited moderate agreement about content priorities for the program (r = 0.48). (2) There was a significant increase in employees' nutrition knowledge scores postintervention (t = 7.16, df = 36, P benefit managers do not necessarily agree on the priority of nutrition-related content, suggesting a need for programs to appeal to various stakeholders. Computer-based approaches can address various stakeholder health concerns via tailored, customized programming.

  2. Development and evaluation of an educational intervention program for pre-professional adolescent ballet dancers: nutrition for optimal performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle-Lucas, Ashley F; Davy, Brenda M

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to develop, implement, and evaluate a theoretically based nutritional education intervention through a DVD lecture series (three 30-minute classes) in summer intensive programs for pre-professional, adolescent ballet dancers. Objectives of this intervention program were to increase knowledge of basic sports nutrition principles and the Female Athlete Triad and promote self-efficacy for adopting healthier dietary habits. Dancers ranging from 13 to 18 years old who were attending summer intensive programs affiliated with professional ballet companies were recruited. Group One (n = 231) participated in the nutrition education program, while Group Two the control participants (n = 90) did not. Assessments of the participants' dietary status consisted of a demographic questionnaire, a Sports Nutrition Knowledge and Behavior Questionnaire, and a Food Frequency Questionnaire. The intervention group was assessed at baseline, immediately post-program, and at six weeks post-program. The control group was assessed at baseline and at six weeks post-baseline. The intervention program was effective at increasing nutrition knowledge, perceived susceptibility to the Female Athlete Triad, and self-efficacy constructs. Improvements in dietary intake were also observed among intervention group participants. To improve overall health and performance nutrition education should be incorporated into the training regimens of adolescent dancers. This potentially replicable DVD-based program may be an effective, low-cost mechanism for doing that.

  3. Development of smartphone applications for nutrition and physical activity behavior change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebden, Lana; Cook, Amelia; van der Ploeg, Hidde P; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret

    2012-08-22

    Young adults (aged 18 to 35) are a population group at high risk for weight gain, yet we know little about how to intervene in this group. Easy access to treatment and support with self-monitoring of their behaviors may be important. Smartphones are gaining in popularity with this population group and software applications ("apps") used on these mobile devices are a novel technology that can be used to deliver brief health behavior change interventions directly to individuals en masse, with potentially favorable cost-utility. However, existing apps for modifying nutrition or physical activity behaviors may not always reflect best practice guidelines for weight management. This paper describes the process of developing four apps aimed at modifying key lifestyle behaviors associated with weight gain during young adulthood, including physical activity, and consumption of take-out foods (fast food), fruit and vegetables, and sugar-sweetened drinks. The development process involved: (1) deciding on the behavior change strategies, relevant guidelines, graphic design, and potential data collection; (2) selecting the platform (Web-based versus native); (3) creating the design, which required decisions about the user interface, architecture of the relational database, and programming code; and (4) testing the prototype versions with the target audience (young adults aged 18 to 35). The four apps took 18 months to develop, involving the fields of marketing, nutrition and dietetics, physical activity, and information technology. Ten subjects provided qualitative feedback about using the apps. The slow running speed of the apps (due to a reliance on an active Internet connection) was the primary issue identified by this group, as well as the requirement to log in to the apps. Smartphone apps may be an innovative medium for delivering individual health behavior change intervention en masse, but researchers must give consideration to the target population, available technologies

  4. Perinatal nutrition in maternal mental health and child development: Birth of a pregnancy cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Brenda M Y; Giesbrecht, Gerald F; Letourneau, Nicole; Field, Catherine J; Bell, Rhonda C; Dewey, Deborah

    2016-02-01

    Mental disorders are one of the leading contributors to the global burden of disease. The Alberta Pregnancy Outcomes and Nutrition (APrON) study was initiated in 2008 to better understand perinatal environmental impacts on maternal mental health and child development. This pregnancy cohort was established to investigate the relationship between the maternal environment (e.g. nutritional status), maternal mental health status, birth outcomes, and child development. The purpose of this paper is to describe the creation of this longitudinal cohort, the data collection tools and procedures, and the background characteristics of the participants. Participants were pregnant women age 16 or older, their infants and the biological fathers. For the women, data were collected during each trimester of pregnancy and at 3, 6, 12, 24, and 36months after the birth of their infant. Maternal measures included diet, stress, current mental and physical health, health history, and lifestyle. In addition, maternal biological samples (DNA, blood, urine, and spot breast milk samples) were banked. Paternal data included current mental and physical health, health history, lifestyle, and banked DNA samples. For infants, DNA and blood were collected as well as information on health, development and feeding behavior. At the end of recruitment in 2012, the APrON cohort included 2140 women, 2172 infants, and 1417 biological fathers. Descriptive statistics of the cohort, and comparison of women who stayed in the study and those who dropped out are discussed. Findings from the longitudinal cohort may have important implications for health policy and clinical practice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Policy challenges for the pediatric rheumatology workforce: Part III. the international situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrickson Michael

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Survival dominates current pediatric global health priorities. Diseases of poverty largely contribute to overall mortality in children under 5 years of age. Infectious diseases and injuries account for 75% of cause-specific mortality among children ages 5-14 years. Twenty percent of the world's population lives in extreme poverty (income below US $1.25/day. Within this population, essential services and basic needs are not met, including clean water, sanitation, adequate nutrition, shelter, access to health care, medicines and education. In this context, musculoskeletal disease comprises 0.1% of all-cause mortality in children ages 5-14 years. Worldwide morbidity from musculoskeletal disease remains generally unknown in the pediatric age group. This epidemiologic data is not routinely surveyed by international agencies, including the World Health Organization. The prevalence of pediatric rheumatic diseases based on data from developed nations is in the range of 2,500 - 3,000 cases per million children. Developing countries' needs for musculoskeletal morbidity are undergoing an epidemiologic shift to chronic conditions, as leading causes of pediatric mortality are slowly quelled. A global crisis of health care providers and human resources stems from insufficient workforce production, inability to retain workers in areas of greatest need, distribution disparity and poor management of both health care systems and health workforce. Internationally, the pediatric rheumatology workforce will also be in very short supply for the foreseeable future relative to projected demand. Physician extenders are an essential resource to meet this demand in underserved regions. They can be trained in common aspects of musculoskeletal medicine and rheumatic conditions. Innovative strategies have been introduced in the United Kingdom to address musculoskeletal medicine educational deficiencies. Telemedicine offers an important capacity to improve access to

  6. How policy can help develop and sustain workforce capacity in UK dementia research: insights from a career tracking analysis and stakeholder interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marjanovic, Sonja; Lichten, Catherine A; Robin, Enora; Parks, Sarah; Harte, Emma; MacLure, Calum; Walton, Clare; Pickett, James

    2016-08-31

    To identify research support strategies likely to be effective for strengthening the UK's dementia research landscape and ensuring a sustainable and competitive workforce. Interviews and qualitative analysis; systematic internet search to track the careers of 1500 holders of UK doctoral degrees in dementia, awarded during 1970-2013, to examine retention in this research field and provide a proxy profile of the research workforce. 40 interviewees based in the UK, whose primary role is or has been in dementia research (34 individuals), health or social care (3) or research funding (3). Interviewees represented diverse fields, career stages and sectors. While the UK has diverse strengths in dementia research, needs persist for multidisciplinary collaboration, investment in care-related research, supporting research-active clinicians and translation of research findings. There is also a need to better support junior and midlevel career opportunities to ensure a sustainable research pipeline and future leadership. From a sample of 1500 UK doctorate holders who completed a dementia-related thesis in 1970-2013, we identified current positions for 829 (55%). 651 (43% of 1500) could be traced and identified as still active in research (any field) and 315 (21%) as active in dementia research. Among recent doctoral graduates, nearly 70% left dementia research within 4-6 years of graduation. A dementia research workforce blueprint should consider support for individuals, institutions and networks. A mix of policy interventions are needed, aiming to attract and retain researchers; tackle bottlenecks in career pathways, particularly at early and midcareer stages (eg, scaling-up fellowship opportunities, rising star programmes, bridge-funding, flexible clinical fellowships, leadership training); and encourage research networks (eg, doctoral training centres, succession and sustainability planning). Interventions should also address the need for coordinated investment to improve

  7. Building the biomedical data science workforce.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle C Dunn

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This article describes efforts at the National Institutes of Health (NIH from 2013 to 2016 to train a national workforce in biomedical data science. We provide an analysis of the Big Data to Knowledge (BD2K training program strengths and weaknesses with an eye toward future directions aimed at any funder and potential funding recipient worldwide. The focus is on extramurally funded programs that have a national or international impact rather than the training of NIH staff, which was addressed by the NIH's internal Data Science Workforce Development Center. From its inception, the major goal of BD2K was to narrow the gap between needed and existing biomedical data science skills. As biomedical research increasingly relies on computational, mathematical, and statistical thinking, supporting the training and education of the workforce of tomorrow requires new emphases on analytical skills. From 2013 to 2016, BD2K jump-started training in this area for all levels, from graduate students to senior researchers.

  8. Use of Linear Programming to Develop Cost-Minimized Nutritionally Adequate Health Promoting Food Baskets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parlesak, A.; Tetens, Inge; Dejgård Jensen, Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    Food-Based Dietary Guidelines (FBDGs) are developed to promote healthier eating patterns, but increasing food prices may make healthy eating less affordable. The aim of this study was to design a range of cost-minimized nutritionally adequate health-promoting food baskets (FBs) that help prevent...... both micronutrient inadequacy and diet-related non-communicable diseases at lowest cost. Average prices for 312 foods were collected within the Greater Copenhagen area. The cost and nutrient content of five different cost-minimized FBs for a family of four were calculated per day using linear...... in each of the resulting five baskets was increased through limiting the relative share of individual foods. The one-day version of N contained only 12 foods at the minimum cost of DKK 27 (€ 3.6). The CA, DG, and DGN were about twice of this and the CAN cost ~DKK 81 (€ 10.8). The baskets with the greater...

  9. Nutritional surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, J B; Mitchell, J T

    1983-01-01

    The concept of nutritional surveillance is derived from disease surveillance, and means "to watch over nutrition, in order to make decisions that lead to improvements in nutrition in populations". Three distinct objectives have been defined for surveillance systems, primarily in relation to problems of malnutrition in developing countries: to aid long-term planning in health and development; to provide input for programme management and evaluation; and to give timely warning of the need for intervention to prevent critical deteriorations in food consumption. Decisions affecting nutrition are made at various administrative levels, and the uses of different types of nutritional surveillance information can be related to national policies, development programmes, public health and nutrition programmes, and timely warning and intervention programmes. The information should answer specific questions, for example concerning the nutritional status and trends of particular population groups.Defining the uses and users of the information is the first essential step in designing a system; this is illustrated with reference to agricultural and rural development planning, the health sector, and nutrition and social welfare programmes. The most usual data outputs are nutritional outcome indicators (e.g., prevalence of malnutrition among preschool children), disaggregated by descriptive or classifying variables, of which the commonest is simply administrative area. Often, additional "status" indicators, such as quality of housing or water supply, are presented at the same time. On the other hand, timely warning requires earlier indicators of the possibility of nutritional deterioration, and agricultural indicators are often the most appropriate.DATA COME FROM TWO MAIN TYPES OF SOURCE: administrative (e.g., clinics and schools) and household sample surveys. Each source has its own advantages and disadvantages: for example, administrative data often already exist, and can be

  10. Building capacity to develop an African teaching platform on health workforce development: a collaborative initiative of universities from four sub Saharan countries

    OpenAIRE

    Amde, Woldekidan Kifle; Sanders, David; Lehmann, Uta

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Health systems in many low-income countries remain fragile, and the record of human resource planning and management in Ministries of Health very uneven. Public health training institutions face the dual challenge of building human resources capacity in ministries and health services while alleviating and improving their own capacity constraints. This paper reports on an initiative aimed at addressing this dual challenge through the development and implementation of a joint Maste...

  11. How Accessible Are the Geosciences? a Study of Professionally Held Perceptions and What They Mean for the Future of Geoscience Workforce Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atchison, C.; Libarkin, J. C.

    2014-12-01

    Individuals with disabilities are not entering pathways leading to the geoscience workforce; the reasons for which continue to elude access-focused geoscience educators. While research has focused on barriers individuals face entering into STEM disciplines, very little research has considered the role that practitioner perceptions play in limiting access and accommodation to scientific disciplines. The authors argue that changing the perceptions within the geoscience community is an important step to removing barriers to entry into the myriad fields that make up the geosciences. This paper reports on an investigation of the perceptions that geoscientist practitioners hold about opportunities for engagement in geoscience careers for people with disabilities. These perspectives were collected through three separate iterations of surveys at three professional geoscience meetings in the US and Australia between 2011 and 2012. Respondents were asked to indicate the extent to which individuals with specific types of disabilities would be able to perform various geoscientific tasks. The information obtained from these surveys provides an initial step in engaging the larger geoscience community in a necessary discussion of minimizing the barriers of access to include students and professionals with disabilities. The results imply that a majority of the geoscience community believes that accessible opportunities exist for inclusion regardless of disability. This and other findings suggest that people with disabilities are viewed as viable professionals once in the geosciences, but the pathways into the discipline are prohibitive. Perceptions of how individuals gain entry into the field are at odds with perceptions of accessibility. This presentation will discuss the common geoscientist perspectives of access and inclusion in the geoscience discipline and how these results might impact the future of the geoscience workforce pathway for individuals with disabilities.

  12. The global pharmacy workforce: a systematic review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Claire

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The importance of health workforce provision has gained significance and is now considered one of the most pressing issues worldwide, across all health professions. Against this background, the objectives of the work presented here were to systematically explore and identify contemporary issues surrounding expansion of the global pharmacy workforce in order to assist the International Pharmaceutical Federation working group on the workforce. International peer and non-peer-reviewed literature published between January 1998 and February 2008 was analysed. Articles were collated by performing searches of appropriate databases and reference lists of relevant articles; in addition, key informants were contacted. Information that met specific quality standards and pertained to the pharmacy workforce was extracted to matrices and assigned an evidence grade. Sixty-nine papers were identified for inclusion (48 peer reviewed and 21 non-peer-reviewed. Evaluation of evidence revealed the global pharmacy workforce to be composed of increasing numbers of females who were working fewer hours; this decreased their overall full-time equivalent contribution to the workforce, compared to male pharmacists. Distribution of pharmacists was uneven with respect to location (urban/rural, less-developed/more-developed countries and work sector (private/public. Graduates showed a preference for completing pre-registration training near where they studied as an undergraduate; this was of considerable importance to rural areas. Increases in the number of pharmacy student enrolments and pharmacy schools occurred alongside an expansion in the number and roles of pharmacy technicians. Increased international awareness and support existed for the certification, registration and regulation of pharmacy technicians and accreditation of training courses. The most common factors adding to the demand for pharmacists were increased feminization, clinical governance measures

  13. An investigation of the ways in which public health nutrition policy and practices can address climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulda, Heidi; Coveney, John; Bentley, Michael

    2010-03-01

    To develop a framework to guide action in the public health nutrition workforce to develop policies and practices addressing factors contributing to climate change. Action/consultative research. Interviews - South Australia, questionnaire - Australia. Interviews - key informants (n 6) were from various government, academic and non-government positions, invited through email. Questionnaire - participants were members of the public health nutrition workforce (n 186), recruited to the study through emails from public health nutrition contacts for each State in Australia (with the exception of South Australia). Support by participants for climate change as a valid role for dietitians and nutritionists was high (78 %). However, climate change was ranked low against other public health nutrition priorities. Support of participants to conduct programmes to address climate change from professional and work organisations was low. The final framework developed included elements of advocacy/lobbying, policy, professional recognition/support, organisational support, knowledge/skills, partnerships and programmes. This research demonstrates a need for public health nutrition to address climate change, which requires support by organisations, policy, improved knowledge and increased professional development opportunities.

  14. Systems biology of personalized nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ommen, B. van; Broek, T. van den; Hoogh, I. de; Erk, M. van; Someren, E. van; Rouhani-Rankouhi, T.; Anthony, J.C.; Hogenelst, K.; Pasman, W.; Boorsma, A.; Wopereis, S.

    2017-01-01

    Personalized nutrition is fast becoming a reality due to a number of technological, scientific, and societal developments that complement and extend current public health nutrition recommendations. Personalized nutrition tailors dietary recommendations to specific biological requirements on the

  15. Industry Approach to Nutrition-Based Product Development and Reformulation in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlassopoulos, Antonis; Masset, Gabriel; Leroy, Fabienne; Spieldenner, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    In the recent years there has been a proliferation of initiatives to classify food products according to their nutritional composition (e.g., high in fat/sugar) to better guide consumer choices and regulate the food environment. This global trend, lately introduced in Asia as well, utilizes nutrient profiling (NP) to set compositional criteria for food products. Even though the use of NP to set targets for product reformulation has been proposed for years, to date only two NP systems have been specifically developed for that purpose. The majority of the NP applications, especially in Asia, focus on marketing and/or health claim regulation, as well as front-of-pack labeling. Product reformulation has been identified, by the World Health Organization and other official bodies, as a key tool for the food industry to help address public health nutrition priorities and provide support towards the reduction of excessive dietary sugar, salt and fats. In the United Kingdom, the Responsibility Deal is an excellent example of a public-private collaborative initiative that successfully reduced the salt content of products available in the supermarkets by 20-30%, resulting in an estimated 10% reduction in salt intake at the population level. Validation of NP systems targeted towards reformulation supports the hypothesis that, by adopting them, the industry can actively support existing policies in the direction of lowering consumptions in public health-sensitive nutrients. The symposium presented a discussion on the current NP landscape in Asia, the importance of reformulation for public health and the Nestlé approach to improve the food environment in Asia through NP.

  16. Use of Linear Programming to Develop Cost-Minimized Nutritionally Adequate Health Promoting Food Baskets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parlesak, Alexandr; Tetens, Inge; Dejgård Jensen, Jørgen; Smed, Sinne; Gabrijelčič Blenkuš, Mojca; Rayner, Mike; Darmon, Nicole; Robertson, Aileen

    2016-01-01

    Food-Based Dietary Guidelines (FBDGs) are developed to promote healthier eating patterns, but increasing food prices may make healthy eating less affordable. The aim of this study was to design a range of cost-minimized nutritionally adequate health-promoting food baskets (FBs) that help prevent both micronutrient inadequacy and diet-related non-communicable diseases at lowest cost. Average prices for 312 foods were collected within the Greater Copenhagen area. The cost and nutrient content of five different cost-minimized FBs for a family of four were calculated per day using linear programming. The FBs were defined using five different constraints: cultural acceptability (CA), or dietary guidelines (DG), or nutrient recommendations (N), or cultural acceptability and nutrient recommendations (CAN), or dietary guidelines and nutrient recommendations (DGN). The variety and number of foods in each of the resulting five baskets was increased through limiting the relative share of individual foods. The one-day version of N contained only 12 foods at the minimum cost of DKK 27 (€ 3.6). The CA, DG, and DGN were about twice of this and the CAN cost ~DKK 81 (€ 10.8). The baskets with the greater variety of foods contained from 70 (CAN) to 134 (DGN) foods and cost between DKK 60 (€ 8.1, N) and DKK 125 (€ 16.8, DGN). Ensuring that the food baskets cover both dietary guidelines and nutrient recommendations doubled the cost while cultural acceptability (CAN) tripled it. Use of linear programming facilitates the generation of low-cost food baskets that are nutritionally adequate, health promoting, and culturally acceptable.

  17. Influence of development factors on nutritional patterns in the Solomon Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, F G

    1981-01-01

    Looks at the general changes brought about by development, and how the nutritional habits of the Solomon Island communities have been affected by development. The development aspirations of Third World countries include the introduction of cash crops for foreign exchange; moving away from subsistence-type economy and self-reliance in feeding one's family to dependence on outside sources; employment of more people at salaried jobs, small industries and factories; and modernization. Many governments view these developmental approaches as a positive way of progressive development, despite the unfavorable changes that they bring. These changes need to be examined and studied by socio-political authorities. Before development, communities throughout the South Pacific islands lived on various root crops, other starches, such as bread fruit and bananas, and a variety of green leaves. Animal fats, oils, butter, and sauces were not used. The cooking process was superior to western methods because the nutrient content of food was preserved. Little meat or milk was eaten because of the absence of edible animals. Protein sources consisted of seafood and occasionally wild or domestic pig. Birds were eaten on some islands. Though no gross malnutrition was observed, studies have shown that dietary intake was borderline and there wre varying degrees of vitamin deficiencies. There was minimal high blood pressure, obesity, cardiovascular diseases, or bowel pathology. Development, however, brought new dietary patterns and cases of malnutrition have been seen. Though the situation is not serious, it is of concern because it is affecting school children. National policies which take into account human factors are needed to begin to solve such dietary problems. Communities should be encouraged to continue producing and consuming tuberous crops and unrefined plant starches. Laws should be created to moderate drinking and advertisements for foreign foods should be restricted. Unless

  18. Development and Evaluation of Activity-Oriented Nutrition Classes for Pregnant and Parenting Teens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Darcy; Kendall, Patricia; Wilken, Karen

    1997-01-01

    Compared to 10 controls, pregnant or parenting teens (n=60) who attended nutrition workshops significantly increased their knowledge; 87% reported improvements in nutrition behavior. There were no significant improvements in dietary intake, possibly due to lack of control of food purchasing and preparation or lack of readiness to change. (SK)

  19. Proceedings of an Infonex conference on finding, hiring and developing skilled staff in the energy, oil and gas industry : long-term solutions for building a strong and enduring workforce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    Presentations focused on a range of issues dealing with the labour force profile and the projected supply and demand of current students and new graduates. The issue of First Nations, new immigrants and a foreign skill base was also addressed with reference to the challenges of tapping into this trained skilled resource. Lessons learned from the Canadian Electricity Association in 2004 were reviewed along with measures taken by the Alberta government in improving the supply of skilled workers for the energy industry in that province. The Northern Alberta Institute of Technology (NAIT) and the Southern Alberta Institute of Technology (SAIT) were both highlighted as being proactive in developing collaborative targeted training and development programs that provide the energy industry with a skilled workforce. Options for recruiting and retaining skilled workers were also presented. The conference featured 12 presentations, of which 3 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. tabs., figs.

  20. Nutrition and OI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutrition and OI Introduction To promote bone development and optimal health, children and adults with osteogenesis imperfecta ( ... no foods or supplements that will cure OI. Nutrition Related Problems Difficulties eating solid food have been ...

  1. Research review: maternal prenatal distress and poor nutrition - mutually influencing risk factors affecting infant neurocognitive development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monk, Catherine; Georgieff, Michael K; Osterholm, Erin A

    2013-02-01

    Accumulating data from animal and human studies indicate that the prenatal environment plays a significant role in shaping children's neurocognitive development. Clinical, epidemiologic, and basic science research suggests that two experiences relatively common in pregnancy - an unhealthy maternal diet and psychosocial distress - significantly affect children's future neurodevelopment. These prenatal experiences exert their influence in the context of one another and yet, almost uniformly, are studied independently. In this review, we suggest that studying neurocognitive development in children in relation to both prenatal exposures is ecologically most relevant, and methodologically most sound. To support this approach, we selectively review two research topics that demonstrate the need for dual exposure studies, including exemplar findings on (a) the associations between pregnant women's inadequate maternal intake of key nutrients - protein, fat, iron, zinc, and choline - as well as distress in relation to overlapping effects on children's neurocognitive development; and (b) cross-talk between the biology of stress and nutrition that can amplify each experience for the mother and fetus,. We also consider obstacles to this kind of study design, such as questions of statistical methods for 'disentangling' the exposure effects, and aim to provide some answers. Studies that specifically include both exposures in their design can begin to determine the relative and/or synergistic impact of these prenatal experiences on developmental trajectories - and thereby contribute most fully to the understanding of the early origins of health and disease. © 2012 The Author. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry © 2012 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  2. Effects of nutritional deprivation on development and behavior in the subsocial bee Ceratina calcarata (Hymenoptera: Xylocopinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Sarah P; Helmreich, Salena L; Rehan, Sandra M

    2017-12-01

    By manipulating resources or dispersal opportunities, mothers can force offspring to remain at the nest to help raise siblings, creating a division of labor. In the subsocial bee Ceratina calcarata , mothers manipulate the quantity and quality of pollen provided to the first female offspring, producing a dwarf eldest daughter that is physically smaller and behaviorally subordinate. This daughter forages for her siblings and forgoes her own reproduction. To understand how the mother's manipulation of pollen affects the physiology and behavior of her offspring, we manipulated the amount of pollen provided to offspring and measured the effects of pollen quantity on offspring development, adult body size and behavior. We found that by experimentally manipulating pollen quantities we could recreate the dwarf eldest daughter phenotype, demonstrating how nutrient deficiency alone can lead to the development of a worker-like daughter. Specifically, by reducing the pollen and nutrition to offspring, we significantly reduced adult body size and lipid stores, creating significantly less aggressive, subordinate individuals. Worker behavior in an otherwise solitary bee begins to explain how maternal manipulation of resources could lead to the development of social organization and reproductive hierarchies, a major step in the transition to highly social behaviors. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  3. Development and psychometric evaluation of a new instrument to assess nutritional perceptions and behaviors of diabetic men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani-Alavijeh, Fereshteh; Araban, Marzieh; Mohammadi, Vida; Goodarzi, Fataneh

    2017-12-01

    It is obvious that unhealthy nutritional behaviors have caused the increasing incidence of diabetes. This study aimed to design the Measure of Nutritional Perceptions and Behaviors in diabetic men and to evaluate its psychometric properties. A questionnaire was developed within 7 factors. Three methods of face validity, content validity, and construct validity were employed to ensure the validity of the scale. 206 men with diabetes completed the questionnaires. Internal was used to evaluate the reliability of the scale. The mean age of men was 58.26 (9.74) years. Results showed that each item in the final questionnaire was highly correlated with the total score of each dimension Pnutritional behaviors were desired and the overall structure of the questions was confirmed. This questionnaire can be used to identify individuals at risk for unhealthy nutritional behaviors and also to conduct and evaluate the impact of educational interventions. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Use of Community Readiness Model to Develop and Evaluate a Pilot Culinary Training Program for School Nutrition Staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand, Deana A; Blevins, Priscilla; Carl, Lillian; Brown, Barbara; Betts, Nancy M; Poe, Tiffany

    2018-02-01

    Use the Community Readiness Model (CRM) to develop and evaluate a contextually appropriate pilot culinary training program for school nutrition staff members. Mixed methods to guide intervention development. Six school districts in rural and urban areas of a southwestern state. School nutrition staff (n = 36; female; 20 years' experience). Pre- and post-training assessments used the CRM. Findings from the pre-assessment were used to develop the pilot culinary training intervention. Readiness to integrate new food preparation methods into existing practices. The researchers used t and Wilcoxon tests to compare overall readiness and dimension scores (P ≤ .05). Thematic analysis was used to identify themes from the discussion component of the assessments. Overall readiness increased from vague awareness to preparation (P = .02). Improved dimensions were knowledge of efforts (P = .004), leadership (P = .05), and knowledge of issues (P = .04). Themes included barriers, leadership, and motivation. The CRM was useful for developing and evaluating a contextually appropriate and effective culinary training program for school nutrition staff. Future efforts should address the provision of additional resources such as on-site chefs, small equipment grants, and engaging school stakeholders. Copyright © 2017 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. English/Spanish Glossary of Health and Nutrition Terms. Appropriate Technologies for Development. Reprint Series R-54.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peace Corps, Washington, DC. Information Collection and Exchange Div.

    This glossary was developed to aid English-speaking health workers in Guatemala in translating health and nutrition terms from English to Spanish. Because Guatemala is renowned for its extensive vocabulary of "modismos", or slang, a column has been added to facilitate adaptation of the glossary to regional variations. The terms in the…

  6. Development of nutritionally at-risk young children is predicted by malaria, anemia, and stunting in Pemba, Zanzibar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutritionally at-risk children suffer delays in physical growth and motor and language development. Infectious diseases such as malaria pose an additional risk. We examined the cross-sectional relationships among malaria infection, hemoglobin (Hb) concentration, length-for-age Z-scores (LAZ), motor ...

  7. Comparison of Three Instructional Strategies in Food and Nutrition Education: Developing a Diet Plan for a Diabetic Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darabi, Aubteen; Pourafshar, Shirin; Suryavanshi, Rinki; Arrington, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the performance of dietitians-in-training on developing a diet plan for a diabetic patient either independently or after peer discussion. Participants (n = 58) from an undergraduate program in food and nutrition were divided into two groups based on their prior knowledge before being randomly assigned into three conditions: (1)…

  8. Stepping up to the challenge: the development, implementation, and assessment of a statewide, regional, leadership program for school nutrition directors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Jacqueline J; Briggs, Marilyn M; Beall, Deborah L; Curwood, Sandy; Gray, Pilar; Soiseth, Scott; Taylor, Rodney K; Zidenberg-Cherr, Sheri

    2015-01-01

    A statewide professional development program was developed and implemented throughout California for school nutrition directors with the goal of creating healthy school environments and regional networks for collaboration and healthy school environment sustainability. Needs of school nutrition directors were identified through a needs assessment questionnaire. Results of the needs assessment questionnaire (n = 256) identified (a) planning cost-effective menus; (b) reducing calories, sodium, saturated fat, and trans fat in menus; and (c) using U.S. Department of Agriculture foods cost-effectively as the most useful topics. Highest rated topics informed the content of the professional development program. A post-professional development questionnaire identified key "insights, inspirations, and strategies" as (a) marketing of school foods program, (b) expansion of salad bars, and (c) collaboration with community partners. A 6-month follow-up questionnaire identified that 86% of participants made progress toward implementing at least one of their five insights, inspirations, and strategies in their school districts. Most common areas that were implemented were marketing and branding (32%), revamping salad bars (18%), and motivating staff (16%). School and Community Actions for Nutrition survey analysis showed a significant increase in the use of marketing methods in school nutrition programs from baseline to 6-month post-program implementation (p = .024). © 2014 Society for Public Health Education.

  9. Using Event-Related Potentials to Study Perinatal Nutrition and Brain Development in Infants of Diabetic Mothers

    OpenAIRE

    deRegnier, Raye-Ann; Long, Jeffrey D.; Georgieff, Michael K.; Nelson, Charles A.

    2007-01-01

    Proper prenatal and postnatal nutrition is essential for optimal brain development and function. The early use of event-related potentials enables neuroscientists to study the development of cognitive function from birth and to evaluate the role of specific nutrients in development. Perinatal iron deficiency occurs in severely affected infants of diabetic mothers. In animal models, severe perinatal iron deficiency targets the explicit memory system of the brain. Cross-sectional ERP studies ha...

  10. NOAA Workforce Management Office - About Us

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agency's mission. The WFMO provides NOAA-wide leadership to workforce management functions including * WorkLife Center * WebTA * New Employee Info * Separation Info Workforce Management Office (WFMO) Serving accomplishment of the NOAA mission and the Nation's interests. The NOAA Workforce Management Office (WFMO

  11. Influence of aggressive nutritional support on growth and development of very low birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Y M; Zhu, X P; Xiao, Z; Yu, L; Zhao, X

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the influence of the early postnatal aggressive nutritional support on the very low birth weight infants (VLBWI) during hospitalization. Surviving premature infants without obvious deformity, with gestational age more than 28 weeks and less than 32 weeks, birth weight 1,000 g to 1,500 g, admitted in NICU in Affiliated Children's Hospital of Suzhou University during 12 hours after birth and stay for two weeks or more from January 2008 to December 2011 were selected, including 44 cases (admitted from September 2010 to December 2011) in the observation group and 36 cases in the control group (admitted from January 2008 and September 2010). The infants in the observation group were treated by aggressive nutritional management, while traditional nutritional management for infants in the control group. The variations of nutritional intake, weight gain, jaundice index, blood biochemistry, serum electrolytes indexes, and complications were compared between the two groups. Compared to the control group, the average growth rate and the albumin (ALB) and prealbumin (PA) levels two week after birth and before leaving hospital of the infants in the observation group was significantly higher (p nutrition, liver function, blood lipid levels, blood glucose, blood PH, serum creatinine, urea nitrogen, and electrolytes of the first day and the seventh day after birth and the in- cidence of parenteral nutrition-associated cholestasis (PNAC) and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) between the two group had no difference (p > 0.05). The implementation of aggressive nutritional management on the with VLBWI was safe and effective.

  12. The Role of Public Health Nutrition in Achieving the Sustainable Development Goals in the Asia Pacific Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binns, Colin; Lee, Mi Kyung; Low, Wah Yun; Zerfas, Alfred

    2017-10-01

    The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) replaced the Millennium Development Goals (MDCs) in 2015, which included several goals and targets primarily related to nutrition: to eradicate extreme poverty and hunger and to reduce child mortality and improve maternal health. In the Asia-Pacific Academic Consortium for Public Health (APACPH) member countries as a group, infant and child mortality were reduced by more than 65% between 1990 and 2015, achieving the MDG target of two-thirds reduction, although these goals were not achieved by several smaller countries. The SDGs are broader in focus than the MDGs, but include several goals that relate directly to nutrition: 2 (zero hunger-food), 3 (good health and well-being-healthy life), and 12 (responsible consumption and production-sustainability). Other SDGs that are closely related to nutrition are 4 and 5 (quality education and equality in gender-education and health for girls and mothers, which is very important for infant health) and 13 (climate action). Goal 3 is "good health and well-being," which includes targets for child mortality, maternal mortality, and reducing chronic disease. The Global Burden of Disease Project has confirmed that the majority of risk for these targets can be attributed to nutrition-related targets. Dietary Guidelines were developed to address public health nutrition risk in the Asia Pacific region at the 48th APACPH 2016 conference and they are relevant to the achievement of the SDGs. Iron deficiency increases the risk of maternal death from haemorrhage, a cause of 300000 deaths world-wide each year. Improving diets and iron supplementation are important public health interventions in the APACPH region. Chronic disease and obesity rates in the APACPH region are now a major challenge and healthy life course nutrition is a major public health priority in answering this challenge. This article discusses the role of public health nutrition in achieving the SDGs. It also examines the role of

  13. Sustainability and the Tourism and Hospitality Workforce: A Thematic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Baum

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper is about the position of workforce and employment considerations within the sustainable tourism narrative. The paper aims to address the relative neglect of this area within the discourse of sustainable tourism and highlights references to the workforce within the United Nations’ 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. The discussion follows the emerging field of sustainable human resource management and the contribution that this can make to meeting both the UN Sustainable Development Goals and to enhancing the recognition of workforce and employment issues within the related debate in tourism. The body of the paper highlights examples of key dimensions of work and employment across varied tourism contexts, where sustainability is of increasing consequence and significance. The paper concludes by drawing together the implications of these “mini-cases” and locating them within key principles of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.

  14. Central Arctic caribou and petroleum development: Distributional, nutritional, and reproductive implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameron, R. D. [Alaska Dept. of Fish and Game, Fairbanks, AK (United States); Smith, W. T. [University of Alaska, Institute of Arctic Biology, Fairbanks, AK (United States); Griffith, B. [US Geological Survey - Alaska Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit, University of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK (United States)

    2005-03-01

    Findings from a cooperative research project on the effects of petroleum development on caribou of the Central Arctic Herd are summarized. The herd increased from about 6,000 animals in 1978 to 23,000 in 1992, declined by 18,000 by 1995, and again increased to 27,000 by 2000. Net calf production was consistent with changes in herd size. In the area west of Prudhoe Bay, abundance of calving caribou was less than expected within four km of the roads, and declined exponentially with road density. It is suggested that female caribou in the oil field complex at Prudhoe Bay and west of the Sagavanirktok River may have consumed less forage during calving period and experienced lower energy balance during midsummer insect season than those under disturbance-free conditions east of the river, which was the probable cause of poorer body conditions at breeding and lower birth rates for western females than for eastern females. The overall conclusion was that changes in distribution associated with surface development will either retard an increase in herd size or accelerate a decrease, and birth rates will decline if the cumulative loss of preferred habitat, combined with other natural forces, is sufficient to compromise nutrition. 47 refs., 1 tab., 10 figs.

  15. Maternal nutritional status, breast-milk production and newborn growth and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paez Valery, M.C.; Eden Yepez, C.; Sanchez Jaeger, A.; Pontiles Colina, M.; Llovera, D.; Teran, D.

    1999-01-01

    The decrease in the practice of breast-feeding has occurred in Venezuela like in many other countries. In Venezuela, many efforts have been made to promote this practice because of its impact on children growth and development, and also because breast-feeding is not a common practice among the socioeconomic deprived groups of our urban areas. Several methodologies have been used to evaluate different breast-milk aspects, including questionnaires on beliefs and attitudes, milk composition studies, and immunity studies. However, is not an accurate and reliable technique for breast milk volume determinations. In this study we selected to use isotopic methods to measure breast-milk output, and its composition in lactating women who are at nutritional risk. Another objective of the project is to assess vitamin A status and reserves according to the conjunctival impression cytology (CIC) and the retinol dose response (RDR) methodology. Body composition will be determined through different skinfold measurements, and body mass composition (BMI). Also, the growth development of their babies, during the first three months of breast-feeding will be evaluated. (author)

  16. Maternal nutritional status, breast-milk production and newborn growth and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paez Valery, M C; Eden Yepez, C; Sanchez Jaeger, A; Pontiles Colina, M; Llovera, D; Teran, D [Unidad de Investigaciones en Nutricion, Universidad de Carabobo, Valencia (Venezuela)

    1999-09-01

    The decrease in the practice of breast-feeding has occurred in Venezuela like in many other countries. In Venezuela, many efforts have been made to promote this practice because of its impact on children growth and development, and also because breast-feeding is not a common practice among the socioeconomic deprived groups of our urban areas. Several methodologies have been used to evaluate different breast-milk aspects, including questionnaires on beliefs and attitudes, milk composition studies, and immunity studies. However, is not an accurate and reliable technique for breast milk volume determinations. In this study we selected to use isotopic methods to measure breast-milk output, and its composition in lactating women who are at nutritional risk. Another objective of the project is to assess vitamin A status and reserves according to the conjunctival impression cytology (CIC) and the retinol dose response (RDR) methodology. Body composition will be determined through different skinfold measurements, and body mass composition (BMI). Also, the growth development of their babies, during the first three months of breast-feeding will be evaluated. (author) 21 refs, 1 tab

  17. Establishing a sustainable nursing workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Judie

    2010-07-01

    Occupational sustainability in healthcare services involves meeting the demands of a changing NHS without compromising the health and wellbeing of nurses. This article examines occupational sustainability in the nursing profession, focusing on issues of nursing workload, employee health and recruitment issues, and workforce diversity.

  18. Today's Higher Education IT Workforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bichsel, Jacqueline

    2014-01-01

    The professionals making up the current higher education IT workforce have been asked to adjust to a culture of increased IT consumerization, more sourcing options, broader interest in IT's transformative potential, and decreased resources. Disruptions that include the bring-your-own-everything era, cloud computing, new management practices,…

  19. Central New York's New Workforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for an Urban Future, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Conducted in late 2008 in partnership with the Greater Syracuse Chamber of Commerce and the Mohawk Valley Chamber of Commerce, this is the largest survey ever taken of Central New York businesses regarding the English language skills of the area workforce. The online survey was emailed to several hundred local businesses; 126 responses were…

  20. The first year experience of occupational therapy students at an Australian regional university: Promoting student retention and developing a regional and remote workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, Jackie; Cordier, Reinie; Thomas, Yvonne; Tanner, Bronwyn; Salata, Karen

    2017-02-01

    Student retention at regional universities is important in addressing regional and remote workforce shortages. Students attending regional universities are more likely to work in regional areas. First year experience at university plays a key role in student retention. This study aimed to explore factors influencing the first year experience of occupational therapy students at a regional Australian university. Surveys were administered to 58 second year occupational therapy students in the first week of second year. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, inferential statistics (Pearson χ 2 ; Spearman rho) and summarising descriptive responses. An Australian regional university. Second year undergraduate occupational therapy students. Factors influencing students' decisions to study and continue studying occupational therapy; factors enhancing first year experience of university. Fifty-four students completed the survey (93.1%). A quarter (25.9%) of students considered leaving the course during the first year. The primary influence for continuing was the teaching and learning experience. Most valued supports were orientation week (36.7%) and the first year coordinator (36.7%). The importance of the first year experience in retaining occupational therapy students is highlighted. Engagement with other students and staff and academic support are important factors in facilitating student retention. It is important to understand the unique factors influencing students' decisions, particularly those from regional and remote areas, to enter and continue in tertiary education to assist in implementing supports and strategies to improve student retention. © 2015 National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  1. Investing in the Early Childhood Mental Health Workforce Development: Enhancing Professionals' Competencies to Support Emotion and Behavior Regulation in Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritblatt, Shulamit N; Hokoda, Audrey; Van Liew, Charles

    2017-09-19

    This paper delineates a preventive approach to early childhood mental health by preparing the workforce to provide relational, sensitive care to young children ages 0-5. One of the most prevalent issues in early childhood is behavioral challenges and the inability of young children to regulate themselves. This leads to an expulsion rate in early childhood (3-4 times higher than K-12 expulsion rate) and future mental health issues. The Early Childhood Social-Emotional and Behavior Regulation Intervention Specialist (EC-SEBRIS) graduate level certificate program was created to strengthen early care and education providers with the knowledge and practice of how to support emotion and behavior regulation in young children in their groups. Evaluation data provide evidence that early care and education professionals increased in their perception of self-efficacy and in their sensitivity of care and skills to support behavioral health in young children. Results indicated that the children in their care showed less challenging behaviors and increased social competencies. This manuscript highlights the importance of prevention and the dire need to provide young children with high-quality, appropriate care to support their mental health.

  2. Need for an Australian Indigenous disability workforce strategy: review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilroy, John; Dew, Angela; Lincoln, Michelle; Hines, Monique

    2017-08-01

    To identify approaches for developing workforce capacity to deliver the National Disability Insurance Scheme (NDIS) to Indigenous people with disability in Australian rural and remote communities. A narrative review of peer-reviewed and gray literature was undertaken. Searches of electronic databases and websites of key government and non-government organizations were used to supplement the authors' knowledge of literature that (a) focused on Indigenous peoples in Australia or other countries; (b) referred to people with disability; (c) considered rural/remote settings; (d) recommended workforce strategies; and (e) was published in English between 2004 and 2014. Recommended workforce strategies in each publication were summarized in a narrative synthesis. Six peer-reviewed articles and 12 gray publications met inclusion criteria. Three broad categories of workforce strategies were identified: (a) community-based rehabilitation (CBR) and community-centered approaches; (b) cultural training for all workers; and (c) development of an Indigenous disability workforce. An Indigenous disability workforce strategy based on community-centered principles and incorporating cultural training and Indigenous disability workforce development may help to ensure that Indigenous people with a disability in rural and remote communities benefit from current disability sector reforms. Indigenous workforce development requires strategies to attract and retain Aboriginal workers. Implications for Rehabilitation Indigenous people with disability living in rural and remote areas experience significant access and equity barriers to culturally appropriate supports and services that enable them to live independent, socially inclusive lives. A workforce strategy based on community-centered principles has potential for ensuring that the disability services sector meets the rehabilitation needs of Aboriginal people with disability living in rural and remote areas. Cultural training and

  3. Development and preliminary validation of a Family Nutrition and Physical Activity (FNPA screening tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eisenmann Joey C

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parents directly influence children's physical activity and nutrition behaviors and also dictate the physical and social environments that are available to their children. This paper summarizes the development of an easy to use screening tool (The Family Nutrition and Physical Activity (FNPA Screening Tool designed to assess family environmental and behavioral factors that may predispose a child to becoming overweight. Methods The FNPA instrument was developed using constructs identified in a comprehensive evidence analysis conducted in collaboration with the American Dietetics Association. Two or three items were created for each of the ten constructs with evidence grades of II or higher. Parents of first grade students from a large urban school district (39 schools were recruited to complete the FNPA screening tool and provide permission to link results to BMI data obtained from trained nurses in each school. A total of 1085 surveys were completed out of the available sample of 2189 children in the district. Factor analysis was conducted to examine the factor structure of the scale. Mixed model analyses were conducted on the composite FNPA score to determine if patterns in home environments and behaviors matched some of the expected socio-economic (SES and ethnic patterns in BMI. Correlations among FNPA constructs and other main variables were computed to examine possible associations among the various factors. Finally, logistic regression was used to evaluate the construct validity of the FNPA scale. Results Factor analyses revealed the presence of a single factor and this unidimensional structure was supported by the correlation analyses. The correlations among constructs were consistently positive but the total score had higher correlations with child BMI than the other individual constructs. The FNPA scores followed expected demographic patterns with low income families reporting lower (less favorable scores than

  4. AN INTEGER PROGRAMMING MODEL FOR HIERARCHICAL WORKFORCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BANU SUNGUR

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The model presented in this paper is based on the model developed by Billionnet for the hierarchical workforce problem. In Billionnet’s Model, while determining the workers’ weekly costs, weekly working hours of workers are not taken into consideration. In our model, the weekly costs per worker are reduced in proportion to the working hours per week. Our model is illustrated on the Billionnet’s Example. The models in question are compared and evaluated on the basis of the results obtained from the example problem. A reduction is achieved in the total cost by the proposed model.

  5. Processes underlying the nutritional programming of embryonic development by iron deficiency in the rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelina Swali

    Full Text Available Poor iron status is a global health issue, affecting two thirds of the world population to some degree. It is a particular problem among pregnant women, in both developed and developing countries. Feeding pregnant rats a diet deficient in iron is associated with both hypertension and reduced nephron endowment in adult male offspring. However, the mechanistic pathway leading from iron deficiency to fetal kidney development remains elusive. This study aimed to establish the underlying processes associated with iron deficiency by assessing gene and protein expression changes in the rat embryo, focussing on the responses occurring at the time of the nutritional insult. Analysis of microarray data showed that iron deficiency in utero resulted in the significant up-regulation of 979 genes and down-regulation of 1545 genes in male rat embryos (d13. Affected processes associated with these genes included the initiation of mitosis, BAD-mediated apoptosis, the assembly of RNA polymerase II preinitiation complexes and WNT signalling. Proteomic analyses highlighted 7 proteins demonstrating significant up-regulation with iron deficiency and the down-regulation of 11 proteins. The main functions of these key proteins included cell proliferation, protein transport and folding, cytoskeletal remodelling and the proteasome complex. In line with our recent work, which identified the perturbation of the proteasome complex as a generalised response to in utero malnutrition, we propose that iron deficiency alone leads to a more specific failure in correct protein folding and transport. Such an imbalance in this delicate quality-control system can lead to cellular dysfunction and apoptosis. Therefore these findings offer an insight into the underlying mechanisms associated with the development of the embryo during conditions of poor iron status, and its health in adult life.

  6. Maternal stress, nutrition and physical activity: Impact on immune function, CNS development and psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Andrea Horvath; Bjørke-Monsen, Anne-Lise; Teixeira, Antônio L; Silverman, Marni N

    2015-08-18

    Evidence suggests that maternal and fetal immune dysfunction may impact fetal brain development and could play a role in neurodevelopmental disorders, although the definitive pathophysiological mechanisms are still not completely understood. Stress, malnutrition and physical inactivity are three maternal behavioral lifestyle factors that can influence immune and central nervous system (CNS) functions in both the mother and fetus, and may therefore, increase risk for neurodevelopmental/psychiatric disorders. First, we will briefly review some aspects of maternal-fetal immune system interactions and development of immune tolerance. Second, we will discuss the bidirectional communication between the immune system and CNS and the pathways by which immune dysfunction could contribute to neurodevelopmental disorders. Third, we will discuss the effects of prenatal stress and malnutrition (over and undernutrition) on perinatal programming of the CNS and immune system, and how this might influence neurodevelopment. Finally, we will discuss the beneficial impact of physical fitness during pregnancy on the maternal-fetal unit and infant and how regular physical activity and exercise can be an effective buffer against stress- and inflammatory-related disorders. Although regular physical activity has been shown to promote neuroplasticity and an anti-inflammatory state in the adult, there is a paucity of studies evaluating its impact on CNS and immune function during pregnancy. Implementing stress reduction, proper nutrition and ample physical activity during pregnancy and the childbearing period may be an efficient strategy to counteract the impact of maternal stress and malnutrition/obesity on the developing fetus. Such behavioral interventions could have an impact on early development of the CNS and immune system and contribute to the prevention of neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders. Further research is needed to elucidate this relationship and the underlying

  7. Association between maternal breastfeeding and the development of non-nutritive sucking habits

    OpenAIRE

    FREIRE, Gabriela Lopes Mesquita; FERRARI, Junia Carolina Linhares; PERCINOTO, Célio

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze the association of maternal breastfeeding time with the introduction of non-nutritive sucking habits in children attending the Baby Clinic at the Araçatuba College of Dentistry, Universidade Estadual Paulista Júlio de Mesquita.METHODS: Interviews were conducted with the parents/legal guardians of 228 children, with the aim of obtaining information about the period of natural breastfeeding, the presence of non-nutritive sucking habits and the duration of the habit. A desc...

  8. NOAA Workforce Management Office

    Science.gov (United States)

    Management Fellows (PMFs) Program Coordination Office - Leadership Development Program (PCO-LDP) Employee (NRAP) Presidential Management Fellows (PMFs) Program Coordination Office - Leadership Development ) NOAA Leadership Seminar (NLS) NOAA Rotational Assignment Program (NRAP) Presidential Management Fellows

  9. Consolidated Workforce Planning Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — Web-based strategic management tool that utilizes assumptions based on strategic direction, ratings of diplomatic importance and development need, funding data, and...

  10. A job analysis of community health workers in the context of integrated nutrition and early child development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phuka, John; Maleta, Kenneth; Thomas, Mavuto; Gladstone, Melisa

    2014-01-01

    Stunting and poor child development are major public health concerns in Malawi. Integrated nutrition and early child development (ECD) interventions have shown potential to reduce stunting, but it is not known how these integrated approaches can be implemented in Malawi. In this paper, we aimed to evaluate the current jobs status of community health workers and their potential to implement integrated approaches. This was accomplished by a desk review of nutrition and ECD policy documents, as well as interviews with key informants, community health workers, and community members. We found that Malawi has comprehensive policies and well-outlined coordination structures for nutrition and ECD that advocate for integrated approaches. Strong multidisciplinary interaction exists at central levels but not at the community level. Integration of community health workers from different sectors is limited by workload, logistics, and a lack of synchronized work schedules. Favorable, sound policies and well-outlined coordination structures alone are not enough for the establishment of integrated nutrition and ECD activities. Balanced bureaucratic structures, improved task allocation, and synchronization of work schedules across all relevant sectors are needed for integrated intervention in Malawi. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.

  11. In ovo method for evaluating the effect of nutritional therapies on tumor development, growth and vascularization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves M. Dupertuis

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In the state of the art evaluation of nutritional therapy on tumor development, growth and vascularization requires tedious and expensive in vivo assays in which a significant number of animals undergo invasive treatments. Therefore, new alternative methods to avoid animal suffering and sacrifice are welcome. This review presents a rapid and low-cost method of experimental radio/chemotherapy in tumor xenografted chicken chorioallantoic membrane (CAM, which may contribute to implement the 3R principle (Reduce, Refine, Replace. Advantages and limitations of the CAM as an experimental model in cancer research are discussed. Improving the CAM model by using tumor spheroid grafting and positron emission and computed tomography imaging would help to overcome the drawbacks of poor tumor grafting efficiency and restrained 2-D tumor growth measurement to the CAM surface. Such a simple, reliable, reproducible and quantitative method for obtaining dose–response analysis and estimating treatment schedule (i.e. type, route, dose and timing would provide an alternative to the time-consuming and expensive evaluation step in animals before initiating clinical trials.

  12. Iron and Zinc Nutrition in the Economically-Developed World: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison O. Booth

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This review compares iron and zinc food sources, dietary intakes, dietary recommendations, nutritional status, bioavailability and interactions, with a focus on adults in economically-developed countries. The main sources of iron and zinc are cereals and meat, with fortificant iron and zinc potentially making an important contribution. Current fortification practices are concerning as there is little regulation or monitoring of intakes. In the countries included in this review, the proportion of individuals with iron intakes below recommendations was similar to the proportion of individuals with suboptimal iron status. Due to a lack of population zinc status information, similar comparisons cannot be made for zinc intakes and status. Significant data indicate that inhibitors of iron absorption include phytate, polyphenols, soy protein and calcium, and enhancers include animal tissue and ascorbic acid. It appears that of these, only phytate and soy protein also inhibit zinc absorption. Most data are derived from single-meal studies, which tend to amplify impacts on iron absorption in contrast to studies that utilize a realistic food matrix. These interactions need to be substantiated by studies that account for whole diets, however in the interim, it may be prudent for those at risk of iron deficiency to maximize absorption by reducing consumption of inhibitors and including enhancers at mealtimes.

  13. Maternal prenatal distress and poor nutrition – mutually influencing risk factors affecting infant neurocognitive development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monk, Catherine; Georgieff, Michael K.; Osterholm, Erin A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Accumulating data from animal and human studies indicate that the prenatal environment plays a significant role in shaping children’s neurocognitive development. Clinical, epidemiologic, and basic science research suggests that two experiences relatively common in pregnancy — an unhealthy maternal diet and psychosocial distress — significantly affect children’s future neurodevelopment. These prenatal experiences exert their influence in the context of one another and yet, almost uniformly, are studied independently. Scope and Method of Review In this review, we suggest that studying neurocognitive development in children in relation to both prenatal exposures is ecologically most relevant, and methodologically most sound. To support this approach, we selectively review two research topics that demonstrate the need for dual exposure studies, including exemplar findings on (1) the associations between pregnant women’s inadequate maternal intake of key nutrients – protein, fat, iron, zinc, and choline – as well as distress in relation to overlapping effects on children’s neurocognitive development; and (2) cross-talk between the biology of stress and nutrition that can amplify each experience for the mother and fetus,. We also consider obstacles to this kind of study design, such as questions of statistical methods for ‘disentangling’ the exposure effects, and aim to provide some answers. Conclusion Studies that specifically include both exposures in their design can begin to determine the relative and/or synergistic impact of these prenatal experiences on developmental trajectories — and thereby contribute most fully to the understanding of the early origins of health and disease. PMID:23039359

  14. Can New Zealand achieve self-sufficiency in its nursing workforce?

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, Nicola

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews impacts on the nursing workforce of health policy and reforms of the past two decades and suggests reasons for both current difficulties in retaining nurses in the workforce and measures to achieve short-term improvements. Difficulties in retaining nurses in the New Zealand workforce have contributed to nursing shortages, leading to a dependence on overseas recruitment. In a context of global shortages and having to compete in a global nursing labour market, an alternative to dependence on overseas nurses is self-sufficiency. Discursive paper. Analysis of nursing workforce data highlighted threats to self-sufficiency, including age structure, high rates of emigration of New Zealand nurses with reliance on overseas nurses and an annual output of nurses that is insufficient to replace both expected retiring nurses and emigrating nurses. A review of recent policy and other documents indicates that two decades of health reform and lack of a strategic focus on nursing has contributed to shortages. Recent strategic approaches to the nursing workforce have included workforce stocktakes, integrated health workforce development and nursing workforce projections, with a single authority now responsible for planning, education, training and development for all health professions and sectors. Current health and nursing workforce development strategies offer wide-ranging and ambitious approaches. An alternative approach is advocated: based on workforce data analysis, pressing threats to self-sufficiency and measures available are identified to achieve, in the short term, the maximum impact on retaining nurses. A human resources in health approach is recommended that focuses on employment conditions and professional nursing as well as recruitment and retention strategies. Nursing is identified as 'crucial' to meeting demands for health care. A shortage of nurses threatens delivery of health services and supports the case for self-sufficiency in the nursing

  15. Quality of the ECEC Workforce in Romania: Empirical Evidence from Parents' Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matei, Aniela; Ghenta, Mihaela

    2018-01-01

    The quality of the early childhood workforce is central to service provision in this area, being a major factor in determining children's development over the course of their lives. Specific skills and competencies are expected from early childhood education and care (ECEC) workforce. Well-trained staff from ECEC settings are an extremely…

  16. Meeting 2020 Workforce Goals: The Role of Industry-College Collaboration and Goals for Instructional Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarnall, Louise

    2014-01-01

    Since the 1990s, federal programs for workforce training have aimed to transform the role of community colleges from narrow contract training to a broader role that encompasses strategic instructional program planning and innovation to support lifelong learning for a changing workforce and economic development (Jacobs & Teahen, 1996). Yet, to…

  17. Highlighting the evidence gap: how cost-effective are interventions to improve early childhood nutrition and development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batura, Neha; Hill, Zelee; Haghparast-Bidgoli, Hassan; Lingam, Raghu; Colbourn, Timothy; Kim, Sungwook; Sikander, Siham; Pulkki-Brannstrom, Anni-Maria; Rahman, Atif; Kirkwood, Betty; Skordis-Worrall, Jolene

    2015-07-01

    There is growing evidence of the effectiveness of early childhood interventions to improve the growth and development of children. Although, historically, nutrition and stimulation interventions may have been delivered separately, they are increasingly being tested as a package of early childhood interventions that synergistically improve outcomes over the life course. However, implementation at scale is seldom possible without first considering the relative cost and cost-effectiveness of these interventions. An evidence gap in this area may deter large-scale implementation, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. We conduct a literature review to establish what is known about the cost-effectiveness of early childhood nutrition and development interventions. A set of predefined search terms and exclusion criteria standardized the search across five databases. The search identified 15 relevant articles. Of these, nine were from studies set in high-income countries and six in low- and middle-income countries. The articles either calculated the cost-effectiveness of nutrition-specific interventions (n = 8) aimed at improving child growth, or parenting interventions (stimulation) to improve early childhood development (n = 7). No articles estimated the cost-effectiveness of combined interventions. Comparing results within nutrition or stimulation interventions, or between nutrition and stimulation interventions was largely prevented by the variety of outcome measures used in these analyses. This article highlights the need for further evidence relevant to low- and middle-income countries. To facilitate comparison of cost-effectiveness between studies, and between contexts where appropriate, a move towards a common outcome measure such as the cost per disability-adjusted life years averted is advocated. Finally, given the increasing number of combined nutrition and stimulation interventions being tested, there is a significant need for evidence of cost

  18. Educating Our Workforce

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Curry, Cynthia

    1999-01-01

    The workplace is changing rapidly. Technological advancements, downsizing, and contracting out to specialized companies demand that we continue to develop our adult workers to meet the rising competition...

  19. Moving beyond hunger and nutrition: a systematic review of the evidence linking food insecurity and mental health in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Lesley Jo; Hadley, Craig

    2009-01-01

    Food insecurity is a significant problem in the developing world, and one that is likely to increase given the current global food crisis spurred by rising oil prices, conversion of food to biofuels, and reduced harvests in the wake of natural disasters. The impacts of food insecurity on nutrition status, growth, and development are well substantiated; less is known about the non-nutritional impacts of food insecurity, such as its effects on mental health. This systematic review assesses current findings regarding the impacts of food insecurity on mental health in developing countries. Both qualitative and quantitative studies are considered. The results of the search reveal that little work has examined these issues directly, and serious methodological flaws are present in many of the existing studies. Gaps in the literature, implications, and research priorities are discussed.

  20. Nutritionally driven differential gene expression leads to heterochronic brain development in honeybee castes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Maria Moda

    Full Text Available The differential feeding regimes experienced by the queen and worker larvae of the honeybee Apis mellifera shape a complex endocrine response cascade that ultimately gives rise to differences in brain morphologies. Brain development analyzed at the morphological level from the third (L3 through fifth (L5 larval instars revealed an asynchrony between queens and workers. In the feeding phase of the last larval instar (L5F, two well-formed structures, pedunculi and calyces, are identifiable in the mushroom bodies of queens, both of which are not present in workers until a later phase (spinning phase, L5S. Genome-wide expression analyses and normalized transcript expression experiments monitoring specific genes revealed that this differential brain development starts earlier, during L3. Analyzing brains from L3 through L5S1 larvae, we identified 21 genes with caste-specific transcription patterns (e.g., APC-4, GlcAT-P, fax, kr-h1 and shot, which encode proteins that are potentially involved in the development of brain tissues through controlling the cell proliferation rate (APC4, kr-h1 and fasciculation (GlcAT-P, fax, and shot. Shot, whose expression is known to be required for axon extension and cell proliferation, was found to be transcribed at significantly higher levels in L4 queens compared with worker larvae. Moreover, the protein encoded by this gene was immunolocalized to the cytoplasm of cells near the antennal lobe neuropiles and proximal to the Kenyon cells in the brains of L4 queens. In conclusion, during the larval period, the brains of queens are larger and develop more rapidly than workers' brains, which represents a developmental heterochrony reflecting the effect of the differential feeding regime of the two castes on nervous system development. Furthermore, this differential development is characterized by caste-specific transcriptional profiles of a set of genes, thus pointing to a link between differential nutrition and

  1. Nutritionally driven differential gene expression leads to heterochronic brain development in honeybee castes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moda, Lívia Maria; Vieira, Joseana; Guimarães Freire, Anna Cláudia; Bonatti, Vanessa; Bomtorin, Ana Durvalina; Barchuk, Angel Roberto; Simões, Zilá Luz Paulino

    2013-01-01

    The differential feeding regimes experienced by the queen and worker larvae of the honeybee Apis mellifera shape a complex endocrine response cascade that ultimately gives rise to differences in brain morphologies. Brain development analyzed at the morphological level from the third (L3) through fifth (L5) larval instars revealed an asynchrony between queens and workers. In the feeding phase of the last larval instar (L5F), two well-formed structures, pedunculi and calyces, are identifiable in the mushroom bodies of queens, both of which are not present in workers until a later phase (spinning phase, L5S). Genome-wide expression analyses and normalized transcript expression experiments monitoring specific genes revealed that this differential brain development starts earlier, during L3. Analyzing brains from L3 through L5S1 larvae, we identified 21 genes with caste-specific transcription patterns (e.g., APC-4, GlcAT-P, fax, kr-h1 and shot), which encode proteins that are potentially involved in the development of brain tissues through controlling the cell proliferation rate (APC4, kr-h1) and fasciculation (GlcAT-P, fax, and shot). Shot, whose expression is known to be required for axon extension and cell proliferation, was found to be transcribed at significantly higher levels in L4 queens compared with worker larvae. Moreover, the protein encoded by this gene was immunolocalized to the cytoplasm of cells near the antennal lobe neuropiles and proximal to the Kenyon cells in the brains of L4 queens. In conclusion, during the larval period, the brains of queens are larger and develop more rapidly than workers' brains, which represents a developmental heterochrony reflecting the effect of the differential feeding regime of the two castes on nervous system development. Furthermore, this differential development is characterized by caste-specific transcriptional profiles of a set of genes, thus pointing to a link between differential nutrition and differential

  2. Effects of psychosocial stimulation on growth and development of severely malnourished children in a nutrition unit in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahar, B; Hamadani, J D; Ahmed, T; Tofail, F; Rahman, A; Huda, S N; Grantham-McGregor, S M

    2009-06-01

    Young children with severe malnutrition usually have poor mental development. Psychosocial stimulation may reduce their cognitive deficit, but it is not usually provided. The aim of the study was to incorporate stimulation into the routine treatment of severely malnourished children in a nutrition unit and evaluate the impact on their growth and development. Time-lagged controlled study. Nutritional Rehabilitation Unit (NRU) in ICDDR,B Dhaka Hospital. Severely malnourished children, aged 6-24 months, admitted to the NRU were enrolled. All received standard nutritional care. A control group of 43 children was studied initially, followed by an intervention group of 54 children. The intervened mothers and children participated in daily group meetings and individual play sessions for 2 weeks in hospital and were visited at home for 6 months. Children's growth was measured and development assessed using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development. Twenty-seven children were lost to the study. In the remaining children, both groups had similar developmental scores and anthropometry initially. After 6 months, the intervention group had improved more than the controls did by a mean of 6.9 (Pchildren in hospital, followed by home visits for 6 months, was effective in improving children's growth and development and should be an integral part of their treatment.

  3. Culture change, leadership and the grass-roots workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Mark; Penlington, Clare; Kalidasan, Varadarajan; Kelly, Tony

    2014-08-01

    The NHS is arguably entering its most challenging era. It is being asked to do more for less and, in parallel, a cultural shift in response to its described weaknesses has been prescribed. The definition of culture, the form this change should take and the mechanism to achieve it are not well understood. The complexity of modern healthcare requires that we evolve our approach to the workforce and enhance our understanding of the styles of leadership that are required in order to bring about this cultural change. Identification of leaders within the workforce and dissemination of a purposeful and strategic quality improvement agenda, in part defined by the general workforce, are important components in establishing the change that the organisation currently requires. We are implementing this approach locally by identifying and developing grassroots networks linked to a portfolio of safety and quality projects. © 2014 Royal College of Physicians.

  4. Product Oriented Workforce

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Black, Tom G; Payne, A. A

    1989-01-01

    This paper represents documentation of an effort by General Dynamics' Electric Boat Division to develop and implement a plan to achieve a multi-disciplined work force at its Quonset Point, Rhode Island Facility...

  5. Future changes driving dietetics workforce supply and demand: future scan 2012-2022.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhea, Marsha; Bettles, Craig

    2012-03-01

    The dietetics profession faces many workforce challenges and opportunities to ensure that registered dietitians (RDs) and dietetic technicians, registered (DTRs) are at the forefront of health and nutrition. The profession must prepare for new public priorities, changes in population, and the restructuring of how people learn and work, as well as new advances in science and technology. In September 2010, the Dietetics Workforce Demand Task Force, in consultation with a panel of thought leaders, identified 10 change drivers that affect dietetics workforce supply and demand. This future scan report provides an overview of eight of these drivers. Two change drivers-health care reform and population risk factors/nutrition initiatives-are addressed in separate technical articles. A change matrix has been included at the end of this executive summary. The matrix contains a summary of each change driver and its expected impact and is designed to present the drivers in the context of a larger, dynamic system of change in the dietetics profession. The impact of any of these change drivers individually and collectively in a dynamic system is uncertain. The outcome of any change driver is also uncertain. The dietetics profession faces many choices within each change driver to meet the workforce challenges and seize the opportunities for leadership and growth. Copyright © 2012 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Return to the Workforce After First Hospitalization for Heart Failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rørth, Rasmus; Wong, Chih; Kragholm, Kristian

    2016-01-01

    Background: Return to work is important financially, as a marker of functional status and for self-esteem in patients developing chronic illness. We examined return to work after first heart failure (HF) hospitalization. Methods: By individual-level linkage of nationwide Danish registries, we...... with lower chance of return to work. Conclusions: Patients in the workforce before HF hospitalization had low mortality but high risk of detachment from the workforce 1 year later. Young age, male sex, and a higher level of education were predictors of return to work....

  7. Workforce Planning for New Nuclear Power Programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    An appropriate infrastructure is essential for the efficient, safe, reliable and sustainable use of nuclear power. The IAEA continues to be encouraged by its Member States to provide assistance to those considering the introduction of nuclear power. Its response has been to increase technical assistance, organize more missions and hold workshops, as well as to issue new and updated publications in the IAEA Nuclear Energy Series. Milestones in the Development of a National Infrastructure for Nuclear Power, an IAEA Nuclear Energy Series publication (NG-G-3.1), provides detailed guidance on a holistic approach to national nuclear infrastructure development involving three phases. Nineteen issues are identified in this guide, ranging from development of a government's national position on nuclear power to planning for procurement related to the first nuclear power plant. One of these 19 issues upon which each of the other 18 depend is suitable human resources development. As a growing number of Member States begin to consider the nuclear power option, they ask for guidance from the IAEA on how to develop the human resources necessary to launch a nuclear power programme. The nuclear power field, comprising industry, government authorities, regulators, R and D organizations and educational institutions, relies on a specialized, highly trained and motivated workforce for its sustainability and continued success, quite possibly more than any other industrial field. This report has been prepared to provide information on the use of integrated workforce planning as a tool to effectively develop these resources for the spectrum of organizations that have a stake in such nuclear power programmes. These include, during the initial stages, a nuclear energy programme implementing organization (NEPIO), as well as the future operating organization, nuclear regulatory body, government authorities and technical support organizations if a decision is made to initiate a nuclear power

  8. Developing Healthy Food Preferences in Preschool Children Through Taste Exposure, Sensory Learning, and Nutrition Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekitsing, Chandani; Hetherington, Marion M; Blundell-Birtill, Pam

    2018-03-01

    The present review was undertaken in order to summarize and evaluate recent research investigating taste exposure, sensory learning, and nutrition education interventions for promoting vegetable intake in preschool children. Overall, taste exposure interventions yielded the best outcomes for increasing vegetable intake in early childhood. Evidence from sensory learning strategies such as visual exposure and experiential learning also show some success. While nutrition education remains the most common approach used in preschool settings, additional elements are needed to strengthen the educational program for increasing vegetable intake. There is a substantial gap in the evidence base to promote vegetable intake in food fussy children. The present review reveals the relative importance of different intervention strategies for promoting vegetable intake. To strengthen intervention effects for improving vegetable intake in preschool children, future research could consider integrating taste exposure and sensory learning strategies with nutrition education within the preschool curriculum.

  9. Development of aerated confectionery products of high nutritional value using triticale flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. O. Magomedov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pastries are very popular among the Russian population. Pastry are the most promising targets for the enrichment of their function ingredients.. One of the most promising feedstocks for the production of flour confectionery products is flour from grain crops ofspring triticale. The different varieties of triticale were studied in particular, triticale flour grade "Ukro" for use in technologies of shortbread-butter cookies with enhanced food value. The first in the history of our country varieties of spring triticale "Ukro" was included in the State Register of selection achievements since 2004. Triticale is characterized by high-protein content. Triticale, protein is higher than in wheat by amino acids lysine and tryptophan, minerals (calcium, potassium, magnesium, iron, B vitamins. It was pointed the choice and ratio of prescription ingredients. Recipe shortbread-butter cookies based on the seeded triticale flour and flour from coarse whole meal grain, grade "Ukro", with high consumer properties was developed. Cake samples prepared on the basis of flour triticale exceed the reference sample of prime grade wheat flour. Biscuits have a high content of complete protein, vitamins, macro - and microelements, dietary fibers, high gustatory qualities. The influence of prescription components on organoleptic and physical-chemical properties of sandy butter cookies was studied. The nutritional and biological value was calculated. It was state the daily needs of the organism in these materials when using 100 g. As a result of the conducted studies proved the feasibility of the use of flour from grain triticale in the production of flour confectionery products of functional purpose.

  10. Development and quality characteristics of nutritionally enhanced potato legume based wari- an Indian traditional savoury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Sukhpreet; Aggarwal, Poonam

    2016-04-01

    The present study was carried out to develop waris from potato and legume blends and to analyze them for organoleptic, physicochemical, phytochemical and shelf life quality. Wari is a partially fermented legume based savoury, used as adjunct in vegetable curries. In this study, potato (boiled and dehydrated) was used to supplement black gram or urad dhal waris. Two processing cultivars (Kufri Chipsona-1, Kufri Chandramukhi) and one commonly grown cultivar (Kufri Pukhraj) were evaluated for processing into waris. Based on preliminary sensory trails, waris with potato (70 %) and urad dhal (30 %) level of supplementation were found to be most acceptable and these waris were subjected to nutritional evaluation. Storage stability of the waris was assessed by storing the product at room temperature for a period of 12 months. Results were compared with dhal waris (control). Protein content was significantly higher in control waris compared to potato supplemented waris. Bioactive compounds including ascorbic acid, total phenolics and total antioxidant activity measured as DPPH radical scavenging activity increased significantly on incorporation of potato. Between the cultivars, waris enriched with Kufri Pukhraj, a table variety which is considered unfit for processing, displayed the highest phytochemical content and total antioxidant activity. Sensory evaluation indicated higher overall acceptability scores of potato enriched waris compared to control waris. Between the treatments i.e. boiled mash and dehydrated flour, waris supplemented with boiled potato mash showed a significantly higher content of phytochemicals and total antioxidant activity compared to potato flour waris. However no significant difference was observed in sensory quality of the product prepared either with fresh potato mash or potato flour. Storage studies showed that the potato waris can be stored safely for 12 months with its nutrient constituents intact.

  11. NOAA Workforce Management Office

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assault and Harassment Prevention and Response Policy NOAA Sexual Assault and Sexual Harassment Helpline Classification System How to Develop a Specialty Descriptor Request form for an addition to the ACS Workplace Program (PCO-LDP) Workplace Resources Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) Employee Assistance Program

  12. Analysis of genes that influence sheep follicular development by different nutrition levels during the luteal phase using expression profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, F; Jia, R; Ying, S; Wang, Z; Wang, F

    2016-06-01

    Nutrition is an important factor that regulates reproductive performance of sheep and affects follicle development. However, the correlation between nutrition and follicle development is poorly understood at the molecular level. To study its possible molecular mechanisms, we performed expression profiling of granulosa cells isolated from sheep that were fed different levels of nutrition levels during the luteal phase. To do this, ewes received a maintenance diet (M), and their estrus was synchronized by intravaginal progestogen sponges for 12 days. Ewes were randomly divided into the short-term dietary-restricted group (R; 0.5 × M) and the nutrient-supplemented group (S; 1.5 × M). RNA samples were extracted from granulosa cells. Transcriptome libraries from each group were constructed by Illumina sequencing. Among 18 468 detected genes, 170 genes were significantly differentially expressed, of which 140 genes were upregulated and 30 genes were downregulated in group S relative to group R. These genes could be candidates regulating follicular development in sheep. Gene Ontology, KEGG and clustering analyses were performed. Genes related to oocyte meiosis, such as ADCY7, were upregulated. We identified two important groups of related genes that were upregulated with improved nutrition: one group comprising the genes PTGS2, UCP2 and steroidogenic acute regulatory protein and the other group comprising interleukin-1A and interleukin-1B. The genes within each group showed similar expression patterns. Additionally, all five genes are involved in the reproduction process. Quantitative real-time PCR was performed to validate the results of expression profiling. These data in our study are an abundant genomic resource to expand the understanding of the molecular and cellular events underlying follicle development. © 2016 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  13. Effects of larvicidal and larval nutritional stresses on Anopheles gambiae development, survival and competence for Plasmodium falciparum

    OpenAIRE

    Vantaux, Am?lie; Ouattarra, Issiaka; Lef?vre, Thierry; Dabir?, Kounbobr Roch

    2016-01-01

    Background Many studies have shown that the environment in which larvae develop can influence adult characteristics with consequences for the transmission of pathogens. We investigated how two environmental stresses (larviciding and nutritional stress) interact to affect Anopheles gambiae (previously An. gambiae S molecular form) life history traits and its susceptibility for field isolates of its natural malaria agent Plasmodium falciparum. Methods Larvae were reared in the presence or not o...

  14. How to characterize the public health workforce based on essential public health operations? environmental public health workers in the Netherlands as an example

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jambroes, M.; van Honschooten, R.; Doosje, J.; Stronks, K.; Essink-Bot, M. L.

    2015-01-01

    Public health workforce planning and policy development require adequate data on the public health workforce and the services provided. If existing data sources do not contain the necessary information, or apply to part of the workforce only, primary data collection is required. The aim of this

  15. The global nephrology workforce: emerging threats and potential solutions!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, Muhammad U; Elsayed, Mohamed E; Stack, Austin G

    2016-02-01

    Amidst the rising tide of chronic kidney disease (CKD) burden, the global nephrology workforce has failed to expand in order to meet the growing healthcare needs of this vulnerable patient population. In truth, this shortage of nephrologists is seen in many parts of the world, including North America, Europe, Australia, New Zealand, Asia and the African continent. Moreover, expert groups on workforce planning as well as national and international professional organizations predict further reductions in the nephrology workforce over the next decade, with potentially serious implications. Although the full impact of this has not been clearly articulated, what is clear is that the delivery of care to patients with CKD may be threatened in many parts of the world unless effective country-specific workforce strategies are put in place and implemented. Multiple factors are responsible for this apparent shortage in the nephrology workforce and the underpinning reasons may vary across health systems and countries. Potential contributors include the increasing burden of CKD, aging workforce, declining interest in nephrology among trainees, lack of exposure to nephrology among students and residents, rising cost of medical education and specialist training, increasing cultural and ethnic disparities between patients and care providers, increasing reliance on foreign medical graduates, inflexible work schedules, erosion of nephrology practice scope by other specialists, inadequate training, reduced focus on scholarship and research funds, increased demand to meet quality of care standards and the development of new care delivery models. It is apparent from this list that the solution is not simple and that a comprehensive evaluation is required. Consequently, there is an urgent need for all countries to develop a policy framework for the provision of kidney disease services within their health systems, a framework that is based on accurate projections of disease burden, a

  16. Ethical issues in the development and implementation of nutrition-related public health policies and interventions: A scoping review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña-Rosas, Juan Pablo; Saxena, Abha; Zamora, Gerardo

    2017-01-01

    Background The limited integration of ethics in nutrition-related public health policies and interventions is one major concern for those who have the task of implementing them. Ethical challenges that are overlooked during the development of such interventions could raise serious ethical issues during their implementation and even after. As a result, these decision makers need technical support and ethical guidance for adaptation of interventions to local (cultural, social, economic, etc.) contexts. Aim The goal of this scoping review is to delineate and “map” the range of ethical issues in nutrition-related public health interventions, as well as the range of the various fields in which they may arise. Methods A scoping review of empirical research and conceptual literature was conducted following the framework of Arksey and O’Malley. Searches using PubMed with Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) categories and Advanced Search Builder as well as in the Global Health Library were performed. The final sample consists of 169 publications. Results The ethics of public health prevention or treatment of obesity and non-communicable diseases is the most explicitly and frequently discussed subject. In comparison, ethical issues raised by public health interventions in the fields of undernutrition, breastfeeding, vitamin/mineral supplementation and food fortification, food security, food sustainability and food safety are addressed in a lower proportion of the sample. The results illustrate the various natures, types, and scopes of existing public health nutrition-related interventions, and the various ethical issues that may be raised by these interventions, in addition to the numerous and different contexts in which they may be implemented. Discussion The ethical issues faced in the development and implementation of nutrition-related public health interventions are varied and cannot be equated with, nor generalized about, when dealing with specific activities in this

  17. Ethical issues in the development and implementation of nutrition-related public health policies and interventions: A scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurlimann, Thierry; Peña-Rosas, Juan Pablo; Saxena, Abha; Zamora, Gerardo; Godard, Béatrice

    2017-01-01

    The limited integration of ethics in nutrition-related public health policies and interventions is one major concern for those who have the task of implementing them. Ethical challenges that are overlooked during the development of such interventions could raise serious ethical issues during their implementation and even after. As a result, these decision makers need technical support and ethical guidance for adaptation of interventions to local (cultural, social, economic, etc.) contexts. The goal of this scoping review is to delineate and "map" the range of ethical issues in nutrition-related public health interventions, as well as the range of the various fields in which they may arise. A scoping review of empirical research and conceptual literature was conducted following the framework of Arksey and O'Malley. Searches using PubMed with Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) categories and Advanced Search Builder as well as in the Global Health Library were performed. The final sample consists of 169 publications. The ethics of public health prevention or treatment of obesity and non-communicable diseases is the most explicitly and frequently discussed subject. In comparison, ethical issues raised by public health interventions in the fields of undernutrition, breastfeeding, vitamin/mineral supplementation and food fortification, food security, food sustainability and food safety are addressed in a lower proportion of the sample. The results illustrate the various natures, types, and scopes of existing public health nutrition-related interventions, and the various ethical issues that may be raised by these interventions, in addition to the numerous and different contexts in which they may be implemented. The ethical issues faced in the development and implementation of nutrition-related public health interventions are varied and cannot be equated with, nor generalized about, when dealing with specific activities in this field. More importantly, these ethical issues

  18. Ethical issues in the development and implementation of nutrition-related public health policies and interventions: A scoping review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Hurlimann

    Full Text Available The limited integration of ethics in nutrition-related public health policies and interventions is one major concern for those who have the task of implementing them. Ethical challenges that are overlooked during the development of such interventions could raise serious ethical issues during their implementation and even after. As a result, these decision makers need technical support and ethical guidance for adaptation of interventions to local (cultural, social, economic, etc. contexts.The goal of this scoping review is to delineate and "map" the range of ethical issues in nutrition-related public health interventions, as well as the range of the various fields in which they may arise.A scoping review of empirical research and conceptual literature was conducted following the framework of Arksey and O'Malley. Searches using PubMed with Medical Subject Headings (MeSH categories and Advanced Search Builder as well as in the Global Health Library were performed. The final sample consists of 169 publications.The ethics of public health prevention or treatment of obesity and non-communicable diseases is the most explicitly and frequently discussed subject. In comparison, ethical issues raised by public health interventions in the fields of undernutrition, breastfeeding, vitamin/mineral supplementation and food fortification, food security, food sustainability and food safety are addressed in a lower proportion of the sample. The results illustrate the various natures, types, and scopes of existing public health nutrition-related interventions, and the various ethical issues that may be raised by these interventions, in addition to the numerous and different contexts in which they may be implemented.The ethical issues faced in the development and implementation of nutrition-related public health interventions are varied and cannot be equated with, nor generalized about, when dealing with specific activities in this field. More importantly, these

  19. Influence of Species of Vesicular-Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Phosphorus Nutrition on Growth, Development, and Mineral Nutrition of Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArthur, DAJ.; Knowles, N. R.

    1993-07-01

    Growth, development, and mineral physiology of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) plants in response to infection by three species of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungi and different levels of P nutrition were characterized. P deficiency in no-P and low-P (0.5 mM) nonmycorrhizal plants developed between 28 and 84 d after planting. By 84 d after planting, P deficiency decreased plant relative growth rate such that no-P and low-P plants had, respectively, 65 and 45% less dry mass and 76 and 55% less total P than plants grown with high P (2.5 mM). A severe reduction in leaf area was also evident, because P deficiency induced a restriction of lateral bud growth and leaf expansion and, also, decreased the relative plant allocation of dry matter to leaf growth. Root growth was less influenced by P deficiency than either leaf or stem growth. Moreover, P-deficient plants accumulated a higher proportion of total available P than high-P plants, indicating that P stress had enhanced root efficiency of P acquisition. Plant P deficiency did not alter the shoot concentration of N, K, Mg, or Fe; however, the total accumulation of these mineral nutrients in shoots of P-stressed plants was substantially less than that of high-P plants. P uptake by roots was enhanced by each of the VAM symbionts by 56 d after planting and at all levels of abiotic P supply. Species differed in their ability to colonize roots and similarly to produce a plant growth response. In this regard, Glomus intraradices (Schenck and Smith) enhanced plant growth the most, whereas Glomus dimorphicum (Boyetchko and Tewari) was least effective, and Glomus mosseae ([Nicol. and Gerd.] Gerd. and Trappe) produced an intermediate growth response. The partial alleviation of P deficiency in no-P and low-P plants by VAM fungi stimulated uptake of N, K, Mg, Fe, and Zn. VAM fungi enhanced shoot concentrations of P, N, and Mg by 28 d after planting and, through a general improvement of overall plant mineral nutrition

  20. Development of phytase-expressing chlamydomonas reinhardtii for monogastric animal nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erpel, Fernanda; Restovic, Franko; Arce-Johnson, Patricio

    2016-03-12

    In plant-derived animal feedstuffs, nearly 80 % of the total phosphorus content is stored as phytate. However, phytate is poorly digested by monogastric animals such as poultry, swine and fish, as they lack the hydrolytic enzyme phytase; hence it is regarded as a nutritionally inactive compound from a phosphate bioavailability point of view. In addition, it also chelates important dietary minerals and essential amino acids. Therefore, dietary supplementation with bioavailable phosphate and exogenous phytases are required to achieve optimal animal growth. In order to simplify the obtaining and application processes, we developed a phytase expressing cell-wall deficient Chlamydomonas reinhardtii strain. In this work, we developed a transgenic microalgae expressing a fungal phytase to be used as a food supplement for monogastric animals. A codon optimized Aspergillus niger PhyA E228K phytase (mE228K) with improved performance at pH 3.5 was transformed into the plastid genome of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii in order to achieve optimal expression. We engineered a plastid-specific construction harboring the mE228K gene, which allowed us to obtain high expression level lines with measurable in vitro phytase activity. Both wild-type and cell-wall deficient strains were selected, as the latter is a suitable model for animal digestion. The enzymatic activity of the mE228K expressing lines were approximately 5 phytase units per gram of dry biomass at pH 3.5 and 37 °C, similar to physiological conditions and economically competitive for use in commercial activities. A reference basis for the future biotechnological application of microalgae is provided in this work. A cell-wall deficient transgenic microalgae with phytase activity at gastrointestinal pH and temperature and suitable for pellet formation was developed. Moreover, the associated microalgae biomass costs of this strain would be between US$5 and US$60 per ton of feedstuff, similar to the US$2 per ton of feedstuffs