WorldWideScience

Sample records for nutrition policy electronic

  1. Networking to Improve Nutrition Policy Research

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Sonia A.; Blanck, Heidi M.; Cradock, Angie; Gortmaker, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Effective nutrition and obesity policies that improve the food environments in which Americans live, work, and play can have positive effects on the quality of human diets. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC’s) Nutrition and Obesity Policy Research and Evaluation Network (NOPREN) conducts transdisciplinary practice-based policy research and evaluation to foster understanding of the effectiveness of nutrition policies. The articles in this special collection bring to light a...

  2. Networking to Improve Nutrition Policy Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sonia A; Blanck, Heidi M; Cradock, Angie; Gortmaker, Steven

    2015-09-10

    Effective nutrition and obesity policies that improve the food environments in which Americans live, work, and play can have positive effects on the quality of human diets. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC's) Nutrition and Obesity Policy Research and Evaluation Network (NOPREN) conducts transdisciplinary practice-based policy research and evaluation to foster understanding of the effectiveness of nutrition policies. The articles in this special collection bring to light a set of policies that are being used across the United States. They add to the larger picture of policies that can work together over time to improve diet and health.

  3. How nutrition policy affects food and agricultural policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, S R

    1994-09-01

    The impact of the improved understanding of nutrition and the importance of the diet in nutrition status has had subtle but far-reaching consequences for food and agricultural policy. Many of the changes in the food supply are in response to increased consciousness of diet, nutrition and health status. The simple connection between nutrition policy and food and agricultural policy follows from the sovereignty of the consumer. Nutrition policy influences consumers' attitudes and choices. These impact the behavior of agents in the food and production system. And, if properly designed, food and agricultural policies can accelerate the process of adapting the production and distribution systems for agriculture and food to better meet the demands of the more informed consumer. Policies that reflect the behavior of consumers and supply better information to the agents in the food and agricultural system will be the most effective.

  4. Health, nutrition, and public policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frenk, J.; Coutre, le J.; Bladeren, van P.J.; Blum, S.

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between health and the economy is complex and hardly a matter of unidirectional cause and consequence. With health increasingly being understood as a stimulus for the economy, nutrition directly assumes the status of an economic identifier. This paper discusses the growing

  5. Electronic Signature Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Establishes the United States Environmental Protection Agency's approach to adopting electronic signature technology and best practices to ensure electronic signatures applied to official Agency documents are legally valid and enforceable

  6. Canadian Government Electronic Information Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Kirsti

    1993-01-01

    Examines development and evolution of Canadian government information policy in response to issues of preservation of data, information industry involvement in government data development and marketing, role of Crown copyright, and public access to government information in electronic formats. Six key information policy instruments are also…

  7. How Nutrition Sensitive Are the Nutrition Policies of New Zealand Food Manufacturers? A Benchmarking Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doonan, Rebecca

    2017-01-01

    Nutrition sensitive policy addresses the underlying determinants of nutrition-related disease and is a powerful tool in reducing the incidence of non-communicable disease. Some members of the food industry have long standing commitments to health-oriented nutrition policies. The aim of this study was to develop and apply a balanced scorecard of nutrition sensitive indicators to the policies of influential New Zealand food and beverage manufacturers and explore factors affecting policy processes. Results: The average nutrition sensitivity score of the twenty influential manufacturers policies was 42 against a benchmark of 75. Some manufacturers performed well whilst others had substantial scope for improvement, the largest variation was in policy development and implementation, whereas nutrition quality was relatively consistent. Manufacturers with written policy (n = 11) scored on average three times higher than their counterparts with verbal policy. The value a manufacturer placed on nutrition influenced whether formal nutrition policies were developed. The reputational risk of failing to deliver on publicly declared nutrition commitments acted as an informal accountability mechanism. We conclude the balanced scorecard offers a useful tool for assessing the nutrition sensitivity of influential food and beverage manufacturers’ policies. Our results provide a baseline for repeat assessments of the nutrition sensitivity of food manufacturers’ policies. PMID:29257049

  8. How Nutrition Sensitive Are the Nutrition Policies of New Zealand Food Manufacturers? A Benchmarking Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Doonan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Nutrition sensitive policy addresses the underlying determinants of nutrition-related disease and is a powerful tool in reducing the incidence of non-communicable disease. Some members of the food industry have long standing commitments to health-oriented nutrition policies. The aim of this study was to develop and apply a balanced scorecard of nutrition sensitive indicators to the policies of influential New Zealand food and beverage manufacturers and explore factors affecting policy processes. Results: The average nutrition sensitivity score of the twenty influential manufacturers policies was 42 against a benchmark of 75. Some manufacturers performed well whilst others had substantial scope for improvement, the largest variation was in policy development and implementation, whereas nutrition quality was relatively consistent. Manufacturers with written policy (n = 11 scored on average three times higher than their counterparts with verbal policy. The value a manufacturer placed on nutrition influenced whether formal nutrition policies were developed. The reputational risk of failing to deliver on publicly declared nutrition commitments acted as an informal accountability mechanism. We conclude the balanced scorecard offers a useful tool for assessing the nutrition sensitivity of influential food and beverage manufacturers’ policies. Our results provide a baseline for repeat assessments of the nutrition sensitivity of food manufacturers’ policies.

  9. How Nutrition Sensitive Are the Nutrition Policies of New Zealand Food Manufacturers? A Benchmarking Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doonan, Rebecca; Field, Penny

    2017-12-19

    Nutrition sensitive policy addresses the underlying determinants of nutrition-related disease and is a powerful tool in reducing the incidence of non-communicable disease. Some members of the food industry have long standing commitments to health-oriented nutrition policies. The aim of this study was to develop and apply a balanced scorecard of nutrition sensitive indicators to the policies of influential New Zealand food and beverage manufacturers and explore factors affecting policy processes. The average nutrition sensitivity score of the twenty influential manufacturers policies was 42 against a benchmark of 75. Some manufacturers performed well whilst others had substantial scope for improvement, the largest variation was in policy development and implementation, whereas nutrition quality was relatively consistent. Manufacturers with written policy ( n = 11) scored on average three times higher than their counterparts with verbal policy. The value a manufacturer placed on nutrition influenced whether formal nutrition policies were developed. The reputational risk of failing to deliver on publicly declared nutrition commitments acted as an informal accountability mechanism. We conclude the balanced scorecard offers a useful tool for assessing the nutrition sensitivity of influential food and beverage manufacturers' policies. Our results provide a baseline for repeat assessments of the nutrition sensitivity of food manufacturers' policies.

  10. What Shapes Policy Formation in China? A Study of National Student Nutrition Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ji

    2015-01-01

    This article juxtaposes "world culture" and "policy borrowing and lending" literatures to understand policy formation in China. Through reviewing China's student nutrition policy evolution since the International Conference on Nutrition in 1992 to the launch of China's landmark national rural student nutrition program in 2011,…

  11. Grenada School Nutrition Study: Evidence to Inform Policy | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Grenada School Nutrition Study: Evidence to Inform Policy ... LMICs can direct their efforts to changing the environments and habits that promote ... Report Card that will be suited for advocacy work, and could be used to influence policy.

  12. Nutrition and sustainability: an emerging food policy discourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Tim; Barling, David

    2013-02-01

    It is well known that food has a considerable environmental impact. Less attention has been given to mapping and analysing the emergence of policy responses. This paper contributes to that process. It summarises emerging policy development on nutrition and sustainability, and explores difficulties in their integration. The paper describes some policy thinking at national, European and international levels of governance. It points to the existence of particular policy hotspots such as meat and dairy, sustainable diets and waste. Understanding the environmental impact of food systems challenges nutrition science to draw upon traditions of thinking which have recently been fragmented. These perspectives (life sciences, social and environmental) are all required if policy engagement and clarification is to occur. Sustainability issues offer opportunities for nutrition science and scientists to play a more central role in the policy analysis of future food systems. The task of revising current nutrition policy advice to become sustainable diet advice needs to begin at national and international levels.

  13. Nutritional Problems and Policy in Tanzania. Cornell International Nutrition Monograph Series, Number 7 (1980).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mgaza, Olyvia

    This monograph discusses policies designed to deal with food and nutrition problems in Tanzania. Available information on food supplies and nutritional conditions in Tanzania clearly shows that the country faces nutritional problems; protein energy malnutrition is the most serious and requires priority action. Iron deficiency anemia, goiter, and…

  14. European food and nutrition policies in action. Finland's food and nutrition policy: progress, problems and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milio, N

    1998-01-01

    Some progress has clearly been made in several aspects of Finland's food and nutrition policy: access to nutrition information and education, improvements in mass catering, increased availability of healthier food products, and pricing and quality requirements favourable to a healthy diet. Finnish eating patterns have improved in relation to some recommended foods and macronutrients. The structural changes in farm and food production are largely the result of new political and economic realities both in Finland and internationally, resulting in the Government focusing on fiscal efficiency, decentralization and a more competitive, consumer-oriented market. This new environment is creating pressures to reduce surplus animal fat production and to expand markets in new foods for Finns and other Europeans who, for reasons of demography, health or working or living arrangements, demand new and sometimes healthier foods. Within this context, some health leaders have been able to make and work for proposals that are consistent both with political and economic imperatives and with health needs. Although the populations health status is improving and in some respects is exemplary, diet-related death and illness rates and risk factors (such as serum cholesterol and obesity) are high and their decline, along with some healthy changes in eating patterns, has slowed since the mid-1980s (ironically, since the adoption of the nutrition policy). The more slowly improvements occur, the higher will be the social and economic costs. Major problems in policy implementation exist. Although much has been done in research and demonstration and in the development of national guidelines (in public catering and labeling, for example) there is an apparent lag in translating such soft technology into action and monitoring its implementation in order to develop corrective measures at the operational level. This problem may increase with decentralized budget control and a less regulated market

  15. Translating Nutrition Science into Policy as Witness and Actor

    Science.gov (United States)

    The sustained effort to witness and participate in the targeted translation of nutritional science and policy forms the structure of this narrative. The memoir starts with an early career-directing experience with nutrition and cholera and proceeds with a long thread of interest in folic acid malabs...

  16. Mapping the nutrition transition in Peru: evidence for decentralized nutrition policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaparro, M Pia; Estrada, Leobardo

    2012-09-01

    The study objectives were to map the different stages of the nutrition transition for each department within Peru, and to determine the nutrition policy needs for each geographic area based on their current stage in the nutrition transition. Results show that most of the country is suffering from a double-burden of malnutrition, with high rates of stunting among children less than 5 years of age and high rates of overweight and obesity among women of reproductive age. Currently, Peru has only country-wide nutrition policies, administered by the Ministry of Health, that are primarily focused on stunting prevention. This study argues for the need to have decentralized nutrition policies that vary according to what type of malnutrition is being experienced in each geographic area.

  17. Simulating Policy Processes through Electronic Mail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, John P.

    1987-01-01

    Focuses on the use of electronic mail for teaching and learning about social welfare policy processes and compares electronic mail as a simulation medium to more structured computer applications. (Author)

  18. Nutrition policy in whose interests? A New Zealand case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkin, Gabrielle; Signal, Louise; Thomson, George

    2012-08-01

    In the context of the global obesity epidemic, national nutrition policies have come under scrutiny. The present paper examines whose interests - industry or public health - are served by these policies and why. Using an exemplary case study of submissions to an inquiry into obesity, the research compared the positions of industry and public health groups with that taken by government. We assessed whether the interests were given equal consideration (a pluralist model of influence) or whether the interests of one group were favoured over the other (a neo-pluralist model). 2006 New Zealand Inquiry into Obesity. Food and advertising industry and public health submitters. The Government's position was largely aligned with industry interests in three of four policy domains: the national obesity strategy; food industry policy; and advertising and marketing policies. The exception to this was nutrition policy in schools, where the Government's position was aligned with public health interests. These findings support the neo-pluralist model of interest group influence. The dominance of the food industry in national nutrition policy needs to be addressed. It is in the interests of the public, industry and the state that government regulates the food and advertising industries and limits the involvement of industry in policy making. Failure to do so will be costly for individuals, in terms of poor health and earlier death, costly to governments in terms of the associated health costs, and costly to both the government and industry due to losses in human productivity.

  19. Strong nutrition governance is a key to addressing nutrition transition in low and middle-income countries: review of countries' nutrition policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunguya, Bruno F; Ong, Ken I C; Dhakal, Sumi; Mlunde, Linda B; Shibanuma, Akira; Yasuoka, Junko; Jimba, Masamine

    2014-06-27

    Nutrition transition necessitates low and middle-income countries (LAMICs) to scale up their efforts in addressing the burdens of undernutrition and overweight/obesity. Magnitudes of undernutrition and overweight are high in LAMICs, but no study has reviewed the existence of nutrition policies to address it. No evidence is also available on the effect of nutrition policies and governance on the undernutrition and overweight/obesity patterns in such countries. We conducted a policy review to examine the presence and associations of nutrition policies and governance with the children's nutrition statuses in LAMICs. We reviewed nutrition policies, nutrition governance, and the trends of nutrition status from LAMICs. We retrieved data on the policies from the global database on the implementation of nutrition actions (GINA). We also retrieved data on the trends of nutrition status and nutrition governance from the nutrition landscape information system (NLiS), and on LAMICs from the World Bank database. We then analyzed the data both descriptively and by using a mixed effects model with random-intercept by country. Of the 139 LAMICs reviewed, only 39.6% had policies to address both undernutrition and overweight/obesity. A higher proportion of low-income countries (LICs) had policies to address undernutrition compared to that of middle-income countries (MICs) (86.1% vs. 63.1%, p = 0.002), and a low proportion of both had policy to address overweight. Having a nutrition policy that addresses undernutrition was not associated with better nutrition status outcomes. Strong nutrition governance in LAMICS was associated with low magnitudes of stunting (beta = -4.958, p = 0.015); wasting (beta = -5.418, p = 0.003); and underweight (beta = -6.452, p = 0.001). Despite high magnitudes of undernutrition and overweight/obesity in LAMICs, only about one third of them had nutrition policies to address such nutrition transition. Having strong nutrition governance may help to bring

  20. Design of economic incentive instruments in nutrition policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård

    2011-01-01

    • Economic incentives are instruments to improve diets and reduce the fraction of people exposed to diet-related health risks • Proper targeting and design of economic incentive instruments is important, if such instruments should be efficient and feasible policy measures in the improvement...... of dietary behaviour in industrialised countries • From a cost-effectiveness perspective, there are considerable potential for optimizing the targeting and design of economic incentive instruments in nutritional policy...

  1. [Nutrition or industry. Experiences with nutritional considerations in the agricultural policy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botten, G

    1991-06-30

    The need to export health considerations to various sector policies is regarded as important in health promotion. Health is generally a highly appreciated benefit; thus many sectors seek to use health as an argument for their policy. This article describes the relation between nutrition and agricultural policy in Norway. In areas where nutrition and agriculture had mutual interests, health considerations were easily exported. However, when interests diverged the issue became more complicated. Much effort was focused upon achieving correct use of nutritional arguments. Before negotiating and weighing respective viewpoints it is essential to clarify each sector's standpoint and interest. Conflicts and negotiations are linked to strategies which seek explicitly to integrate health premisses into sectors outside the health services itself.

  2. Moving Forward with School Nutrition Policies: A Case Study of Policy Adherence in Nova Scotia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIsaac, Jessie-Lee D; Shearer, Cindy L; Veugelers, Paul J; Kirk, Sara F L

    2015-12-01

    Many Canadian school jurisdictions have developed nutrition policies to promote health and improve the nutritional status of children, but research is needed to clarify adherence, guide practice-related decisions, and move policy action forward. The purpose of this research was to evaluate policy adherence with a review of online lunch menus of elementary schools in Nova Scotia (NS) while also providing transferable evidence for other jurisdictions. School menus in NS were scanned and a list of commonly offered items were categorized, according to minimum, moderate, or maximum nutrition categories in the NS policy. The results of the menu review showed variability in policy adherence that depended on food preparation practices by schools. Although further research is needed to clarify preparation practices, the previously reported challenges of healthy food preparations (e.g., cost, social norms) suggest that many schools in NS are likely not able to use these healthy preparations, signifying potential noncompliance to the policy. Leadership and partnerships are needed among researchers, policy makers, and nutrition practitioners to address the complexity of issues related to food marketing and social norms that influence school food environments to inspire a culture where healthy and nutritious food is available and accessible to children.

  3. Legislative background of food and nutrition policy in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Andreeva

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The importance of effective policy aimed at improving nutrition practices is highly recognized by the global community. METHODS: Analysis of Ukrainian legislative documents was conducted to clarify the situation in the field of policy initiatives and legislation devoted to nutrition in Ukraine. Documents in force adopted from 1991 to 2011 including key words “nutrition”, “health”, “concept”, and “food products” were reviewed.RESULTS: We reviewed 55 legislative acts related to nutrition and identified several groups: 18 documents are related to organization of supply, regimen, norms of nutrition in state establishments or for special populations; 12 documents related to economic and technological regulation of food preparation, quality control and distribution; 3 documents regulating nutritious and safety norms of food products for children under 3 years; 14 documents aimed to control food safety, quality and accessibility; 6 other documents partly referred to nutrition, including 4 Concepts of healthy lifestyles. Some of the principles of healthy eating are declared in the “Concept of improving food security and quality of nutrition of the population” approved by the Cabinet of Ministers in 2004. Principles of maintaining breastfeeding, activities aimed to reduce iodine deficiency among population as well as school educational program “Foundations of health” were those few governmental activities, which supported some of the ideas declared in the Concept. CONCLUSION: Great attention of policymakers is paid to regulation of production, distribution of food, its quality control, affordability of products for special population groups, especially children. Not much attention is devoted in the official documents to creating and maintaining the healthy eating practices of the population. Mechanisms aimed to form healthy eating practices are not specified in the legislative documents. No regulatory documents to

  4. Cost-effective design of economic instruments in nutrition policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smed Sinne

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper addresses the potential for using economic regulation, e.g. taxes or subsidies, as instruments to combat the increasing problems of inappropriate diets, leading to health problems such as obesity, diabetes 2, cardiovascular diseases etc. in most countries. Such policy measures may be considered as alternatives or supplements to other regulation instruments, including information campaigns, bans or enhancement of technological solutions to the problems of obesity or related diseases. 7 different food tax and subsidy instruments or combinations of instruments are analysed quantitatively. The analyses demonstrate that the average cost-effectiveness with regard to changing the intake of selected nutritional variables can be improved by 10–30 per cent if taxes/subsidies are targeted against these nutrients, compared with targeting selected food categories. Finally, the paper raises a range of issues, which need to be investigated further, before firm conclusions about the suitability of economic instruments in nutrition policy can be drawn.

  5. Cost-effective design of economic instruments in nutrition policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård; Smed, Sinne

    2007-01-01

    This paper addresses the potential for using economic regulation, e.g. taxes or subsidies, as instruments to combat the increasing problems of inappropriate diets, leading to health problems such as obesity, diabetes 2, cardiovascular diseases etc. in most countries. Such policy measures may....... The analyses demonstrate that the average cost-effectiveness with regard to changing the intake of selected nutritional variables can be improved by 10–30 per cent if taxes/subsidies are targeted against these nutrients, compared with targeting selected food categories. Finally, the paper raises a range...... of issues, which need to be investigated further, before firm conclusions about the suitability of economic instruments in nutrition policy can be drawn....

  6. Support for Policies to Improve the Nutritional Impact of the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan-Ibarra, Suzanne; Linares, Amanda; Induni, Marta; Sugerman, Sharon; Long, Michael W.; Rimm, Eric B.; Willett, Walter C.

    2015-01-01

    The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) provides a vital buffer against hunger and poverty for 47.6 million Americans. Using 2013 California Dietary Practices Survey data, we assessed support for policies to strengthen the nutritional influence of SNAP. Among SNAP participants, support ranged from 74% to 93% for providing monetary incentives for fruits and vegetables, restricting purchases of sugary beverages, and providing more total benefits. Nonparticipants expressed similar levels of support. These approaches may alleviate the burden of diet-related disease in low-income populations. PMID:26066922

  7. Support for Policies to Improve the Nutritional Impact of the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Cindy W; Ryan-Ibarra, Suzanne; Linares, Amanda; Induni, Marta; Sugerman, Sharon; Long, Michael W; Rimm, Eric B; Willett, Walter C

    2015-08-01

    The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) provides a vital buffer against hunger and poverty for 47.6 million Americans. Using 2013 California Dietary Practices Survey data, we assessed support for policies to strengthen the nutritional influence of SNAP. Among SNAP participants, support ranged from 74% to 93% for providing monetary incentives for fruits and vegetables, restricting purchases of sugary beverages, and providing more total benefits. Nonparticipants expressed similar levels of support. These approaches may alleviate the burden of diet-related disease in low-income populations.

  8. The nutrition policy process: the role of strategic capacity in advancing national nutrition agendas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, David L; Menon, Purnima; Ngo, Tien; Frongillo, Edward A; Frongillo, Dominic

    2011-06-01

    Undernutrition is the single largest contributor to the burden of disease in developing countries and has documented effects on social and economic development, yet progress in reducing undernutrition remains slow. This paper identifies the range of factors that have influenced the nutrition agenda in developing countries, in order to inform the implementation of three major global initiatives related to undernutrition. Data sources include interviews with nutrition practitioners at the national and international level, written accounts from six African countries, and observations of the policy process in five countries. Data were thematically coded to identify recurrent factors that facilitated or inhibited progress in addressing undernutrition. The data reveal the following: First, societal conditions and catalytic events pose a variety of challenges and opportunities to enlarge and shape the nutrition agenda. Some countries have been successful in using such opportunities, while others have been less successful and there have been some unintended consequences. Second, disagreements over interventions and strategies are an almost universal feature of the nutrition policy process, occur primarily among mid-level actors rather than among politicians or senior administrators, and are primarily the product of structural factors such as organizational mandates, interests, and differences in professional perspectives. Third, many of these structural factors can be molded, aligned, and/or circumvented through strategic action on the part of the mid-level actors to strengthen movement on the nutrition agenda. This evidence that strategic action can redirect and/or overcome the effects of structural factors has important implications for future efforts to advance the nutrition agenda.

  9. Food and nutrition policies associate with indicators of healthy eating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Chen; Mikkelsen, Bent Egberg

    2009-01-01

    become one of the preferred organizational tools to frame these efforts. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the association between having a local food & nutrition policy and indicators of healthy eating at school. It is based results from a web survey among food service coordinators in 179......The increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity has resulted in more focus on the role that public settings such as school for children can play in promoting healthy lifestyle. As a consequence increasingly organizational efforts have been directed towards this issue and policy instruments have......, the attitude of school respondents regarding promoting organic food and healthy eating habits through school environment, the existing policies concerning healthy school food and the development of school food serving practice, were analyzed by using statistic tools. The results indicate a strong relationship...

  10. Window of opportunity--positioning food and nutrition policy within a sustainability agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeatman, Heather

    2008-04-01

    Public health professionals have an opportunity to refocus national attention on food and nutrition policy, within a sustainability agenda. A broadly based national Food and Nutrition Policy was developed in 1992. However, its implementation has been selective and primarily based within the health sector. Other major policy areas, for example; industry, agriculture and trade, have dominated Australian nutrition and health policy. A broad, whole-of-government commitment to a comprehensive food and nutrition policy that engages with the community is required to achieve outcomes in terms of public health, a sustainable environment and viable food production for future generations.

  11. Promoting Nutrition and Wellness Statewide through an Electronic Newsletter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahl, Morgan; Francis, Sarah L.

    2016-01-01

    The "Words on Wellness" (WOW) newsletter was designed as an electronic newsletter intended to provide research-based nutrition and wellness information to Iowans. An evaluation was conducted to assess to what extent the newsletter is being used by its readership and whether readers are making lifestyle changes as a result. Those who…

  12. Monetary Policy Implications of Electronic Money

    OpenAIRE

    Berentsen, Aleksander

    1997-01-01

    The term digital money refers to various proposed electronic payment mechanisms designed for use by consumers to make retail payments. Digital money products have the potential to replace central bank currency, thereby affecting the money supply. This paper studies the effect of replacing central bank currency on the narrowly defined stock of money under various assumptions regarding regulatory policies and monetary operations of central banks and the reaction of the banking system.

  13. Preventing hospital malnutrition: a survey on nutritional policies in an Italian University Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annetta, M G; Pittiruti, M; De Rosa, S; Franchi, P; Pintaudi, G; Caricato, A; Antonelli, M

    2015-11-01

    A proper strategy for fighting hospital malnutrition should include nutritional screening of all hospitalized patients, adequate utilization of the Hospital facilities - such as Clinical Nutrition Services or Nutrition Teams - and an adequate algorithm for the adoption of proper nutrition support (oral, enteral or parenteral) with proper timing. The main aim of the present study was to investigate the current policies of different non-intensive wards of our institution (a 1100 beds University Hospital) in terms of prevention of hospital malnutrition. We conducted a one-day survey to verify the current policies of nutritional screening and the indication to nutritional support in adult patients, interviewing nurses and physicians of our non-intensive hospital wards. A total of 29 wards were considered, which sum up to 755 hospitalized patients. We found that nutritional screening at admission is routinely assessed only in 41% of wards and that oral nutrient intake is controlled regularly only in 72%. Indication to clinical nutrition support and specifically to artificial nutrition is not consistent with the current international guidelines. Only 14% of patients were receiving artificial nutrition at the moment of the survey and the majority of them were given parenteral nutrition rather than enteral feeding. Our survey confirmed that in large hospitals the main barriers to the fight against hospital malnutrition are the lack of knowledge and/or commitment by nurses and physicians as well as the lack of well-defined hospital policies on early nutritional screening, surveillance of nutritional status and indication to nutrition support.

  14. Perspective: Improving nutritional guidelines for sustainable health policies: Current status and perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magni, Paolo; Bier, Dennis M; Pecorelli, Sergio

    2017-01-01

    a constructive coalition among scientists, policy makers, and communication professionals for sustainable health and nutritional policies. Currently, a strong rationale and available data support a personalized dietary approach according to personal variables, including sex and age, circulating metabolic...

  15. The Methodology for Formation of National Nutrition Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yatsun Leonid M.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The materials of the study of management processes in the food service industry based on the criteria of composition of tasks of establishments’ activities, their participation in the integration process of production, sale and organization of food consumption and catering services are outlined. A model of nature-aligned development of the food service industry as a natural and socio-economic system is proposed. Priority directions of the national nutrition policy are determined on the basis of integration of participants in the process of organizing catering. There justified methodological approaches to the formation of a management model for development of enterprises in the food services industry by stages of preparing and making decisions on integration of business entities, including enterprises of the agrarian sector, food industry, trade, restaurant business and households.

  16. Public Policy to Promote Healthy Nutrition in Schools: Views of Policymakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Mat; Signal, Louise; Thomson, George

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to identify policy options to support nutrition promotion in New Zealand primary schools. In achieving this aim, the study sought to identify framing by policymakers regarding child diet and obesity; views on the role of schools in nutrition promotion; policy options and degree of support for these options. Issue…

  17. Implications of Electronic Commerce for Fiscal Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goolsbee, Austan

    In this chapter, I will consider both sides of the relationship between electronic commerce and fiscal policy. For the impact of electronic commerce on fiscal policy, I will pay particular attention to the potential sales-tax revenue losses. The data suggest that the potential losses are actually modest over the next several years. I will also consider the reverse relationship - how fiscal policy affects Internet commerce. Here the evidence suggests that taxes have a sizable effect. I point out, though, that this only supports special treatment if there is some positive externality. Without one, the tax system will lead to excessive online buying to avoid taxes. I will then deal the neglected issue of taxes and Internet access, which can create large deadweight costs both because demand may be price-sensitive and because taxes can slow the spread of new technologies. Finally, I offer some discussion of the international context of taxes and the Internet and the international temptations to raise rates on E-commerce.

  18. Is Aboriginal nutrition a priority for local government? A policy analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helson, Catherine; Walker, Ruth; Palermo, Claire; Rounsefell, Kim; Aron, Yudit; MacDonald, Catherine; Atkinson, Petah; Browne, Jennifer

    2017-11-01

    The present study aimed to explore how Australian local governments prioritise the health and well-being of Aboriginal populations and the extent to which nutrition is addressed by local government health policy. In the state of Victoria, Australia, all seventy-nine local governments' public health policy documents were retrieved. Inclusion of Aboriginal health and nutrition in policy documents was analysed using quantitative content analysis. Representation of Aboriginal nutrition 'problems' and 'solutions' was examined using qualitative framing analysis. The socio-ecological framework was used to classify the types of Aboriginal nutrition issues and strategies within policy documents. Victoria, Australia. Local governments' public health policy documents (n 79). A small proportion (14 %, n 11) of local governments addressed Aboriginal health and well-being in terms of nutrition. Where strategies aimed at nutrition existed, they mostly focused on individual factors rather than the broader macroenvironment. A limited number of Victorian local governments address nutrition as a health issue for their Aboriginal populations in policy documents. Nutrition needs to be addressed as a community and social responsibility rather than merely an individual 'behaviour'. Partnerships are required to ensure Aboriginal people lead government policy development.

  19. On food and nutrition policy activities in the USA, Australia, and Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannan, Mohammad Abdul

    2004-06-01

    Formulation and implementation of a national food and nutrition policy is important for ensuring good health and quality of life. This study examined the formulation and implementation of food and nutrition policies in the USA, Australia, and Norway. Library searches, MEDLINE and POPLINE searches, and personal communications were used for collecting information and data on nutrition activities and policy formulation and implementation in each country. These countries were selected because policy activities have been ongoing since the 1930s with a clear improvement in the nutritional status of the people. Multisectoral participation, conflicts of interest, strategies to alter diet, and attempts to deal with new problems have been highlighted and compared. Findings of the study may be useful to policy-makers in less-developed countries during future policy-making processes.

  20. Evaluating the Impacts of School Nutrition and Physical Activity Policies on Child Health. PRGS Dissertation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Meenakshi Maria

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation evaluates the impact of elementary school policies on child health behaviors and obesity in the United States. Two chapters address nutrition policies, two chapters address physical activity policies, and a final chapter estimates the health care cost savings associated with a decline in childhood obesity prevalence. The use of…

  1. Developing an evidence-based approach to Public Health Nutrition: translating evidence into policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margetts, B; Warm, D; Yngve, A; Sjöström, M

    2001-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to highlight the importance of an evidence-based approach to the development, implementation and evaluation of policies aimed at improving nutrition-related health in the population. Public Health Nutrition was established to realise a population-level approach to the prevention of the major nutrition-related health problems world-wide. The scope is broad and integrates activity from local, national, regional and international levels. The aim is to inform and develop coherent and effective policies that address the key rate-limiting steps critical to improving nutrition-related public health. This paper sets out the rationale for an evidence-based approach to Public Health Nutrition developed under the umbrella of the European Network for Public Health Nutrition.

  2. Translating Government Policy into Recipes for Success! Nutrition Criteria Promoting Fruits and Vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Christina M.; Nicolson, Clemency; Pulker, Claire E.; Binns, Colin W.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To develop nutrition criteria consistent with Australian dietary guidelines encouraging fruit and vegetable consumption for branding recipes with the "Go for 2&5" campaign message. Design: Dietary policies, guidelines, food selection guides, nutrient targets, existing consumer education programs' nutrition criteria, food…

  3. Incorporating the catering sector in nutrition policies of WHO European Region: is there a good recipe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachat, Carl; Roberfroid, Dominique; Huybregts, Lieven; Van Camp, John; Kolsteren, Patrick

    2009-03-01

    To review how countries of the WHO European Region address issues related to the catering sector in their nutrition policy plans. Documentary analysis of national nutrition policy documents from the policy database of the WHO Regional Office for Europe by a multidisciplinary research team. Recurring themes were identified and related information extracted in an analysis matrix. Case studies were performed for realistic evaluation. Fifty-three member states of the WHO European Region in September 2007. The catering sector is a formally acknowledged stakeholder in national nutrition policies in about two-thirds of countries of the European region. Strategies developed for the catering sector are directed mainly towards labelling of foods and prepared meals, training of health and catering staff, and advertising. Half of the countries reviewed propose dialogue structures with the catering sector for the implementation of the policy. However, important policy fields remain poorly developed, such as strategies for stimulating and monitoring actual implementation of policies. Others are simply lacking, such as strategies to ensure affordability of healthy out-of-home eating or to enhance accountability of stakeholders. It is also striking that strategies for the private sector are rarely developed. Important policy issues are still embryonic. As evidence is accumulating on the impact of out-of-home eating on the increase of overweight, member states are advised to urgently develop operational frameworks and instruments for participatory planning and evaluation of stakeholders in public health nutrition policy.

  4. Policy efficiency in the field of food sustainability. The adjusted food agriculture and nutrition index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agovino, Massimiliano; Cerciello, Massimiliano; Gatto, Andrea

    2018-07-15

    This work introduces a revised version of the Food Sustainability Index, proposed by the Economist Intelligence Unit and the Barilla Center for Food and Nutrition in 2016. Our Adjusted Food Sustainability Index features two important advantages: 1) it employs the Mazziotta-Pareto method to compute weights, hence granting an objective aggregation criterion and 2) it does not take policy variables into account, thus focusing on the status quo. The policy variables are aggregated into the Policy Index, measuring the quality of the food sustainability policies. We compute the two indices for 25 countries worldwide, then we use the Data Envelopment Analysis to evaluate policy efficiency. Our results show that country-level variation in policy efficiency is wide and policies affect food sustainability significantly, especially when they target nutritional challenges. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Food security and nutrition in the Russian Federation – a health policy analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karsten Lunze

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the Russian Federation (Russia, an elevated burden of premature mortality attributable to non-communicable diseases (NCDs has been observed since the country's economic transition. NCDs are largely related to preventable risk factors such as unhealthy diets. Objective: This health policy study's aim was to analyze past and current food production and nutritional trends in Russia and their policy implications for Russia's NCD burden. Design: We examined food security and nutrition in Russia using an analytical framework of food availability, access to food, and consumption. Results: Agricultural production declined during the period of economic transition, and nutritional habits changed from high-fat animal products to starches. However, per-capita energy consumption remained stable due to increased private expenditures on food and use of private land. Paradoxically, the prevalence of obesity still increased because of an excess consumption of unsaturated fat, sugar, and salt on one side, and insufficient intake of fruit and vegetables on the other. Conclusions: Policy and economic reforms in Russia were not accompanied by a food security crisis or macronutrient deprivation of the population. Yet, unhealthy diets in contemporary Russia contribute to the burden of NCDs and related avoidable mortality. Food and nutrition policies in Russia need to specifically address nutritional shortcomings and food-insecure vulnerable populations. Appropriate, evidence-informed food and nutrition policies might help address Russia's burden of NCDs on a population level.

  6. How nutrition-friendly are agriculture and health policies in Bangladesh?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naher, Firdousi; Barkat-e-Khuda; Ahmed, Shaikh Shamsuddin; Hossain, Mahabub

    2014-03-01

    The improvements in nutrition status in Bangladesh, particularly child nutrition outcomes, have been relatively slow, despite remarkable improvements in the country's food situation as well as in the health sector. At present more than 40% of children under 5 years of age are stunted. To examine the specific food, agriculture, and health policies that have existed and currently exist in Bangladesh from the perspective of nutrition and identify gaps in the policy framework for which improvements in nutrition have been slow. Policy documents, public financial and budget documents, and related papers were reviewed. Several interviews with former civil servants and bureaucrats were conducted. The approach to achieving food security has been a partial one, with policy provisions focusing excessively on increasing the availability of food, primarily rice. The "accessibility" pillar of food security has received little attention, while the neglect of the "utilization" pillar is conspicuous by the dearth of appropriate policies and laws for ensuring food safety. The efforts in the health sector have largely concentrated on expanding the coverage of primary healthcare, with little consideration of equity and quality. There exists a wide window of unexplored opportunity to align the remarkable increases in food production and advances in the health sector with nutrition considerations toward an improved nutrition status in Bangladesh.

  7. China's Industrial Policy in Relation to Electronics Manufacturing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhongxiu Zhao; Xiaoling Huang; Dongya Ye; Paul Gentle

    2007-01-01

    China has become the biggest exporter of electronic products in the world. Government policy intervention has contributed significantly to the rapid expansion of the electronics industry. The present paper examines the evolutionary development of industrial policies related to the electronics industry in China and the impacts of such policies on the shaping of the industry. In particular, the relationship between foreign funded enterprises and domestic firms are examined in detail. The future trend of the industry is also discussed in the paper, and the policy focus of the Chinese Government is predicted.

  8. Landscape Analysis of Nutrition-sensitive Agriculture Policy Development in Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachat, Carl; Nago, Eunice; Ka, Abdoulaye; Vermeylen, Harm; Fanzo, Jessica; Mahy, Lina; Wüstefeld, Marzella; Kolsteren, Patrick

    2015-06-01

    Unlocking the agricultural potential of Africa offers a genuine opportunity to address malnutrition and drive development of the continent. Using Senegal as a case study, to identify gaps and opportunities to strengthen agricultural policies with nutrition-sensitive approaches. We carried out a systematic analysis of 13 policy documents that related to food production, agriculture, food security, or nutrition. Next, we collected data during a participatory analysis with 32 national stakeholders and in-depth interviews with 15 national experts of technical directorates of the different ministries that deal with agriculture and food production. The current agricultural context has various elements that are considered to enhance its nutrition sensitivity. On average, 8.3 of the 17 Food and Agriculture Organization guiding principles for agriculture programming for nutrition were included in the policies reviewed. Ensuring food security and increasing dietary diversity were considered to be the principal objectives of agricultural policies. Although there was considerable agreement that agriculture can contribute to nutrition, current agricultural programs generally do not target communities on the basis of their nutritional vulnerability. Agricultural programs were reported to have specific components to target female beneficiaries but were generally not used as delivery platforms for nutritional interventions. The findings of this study indicate the need for a coherent policy environment across the food system that aligns recommendations at the national level with local action on the ground. In addition, specific activities are needed to develop a shared understanding of nutrition and public health nutrition within the agricultural community in Senegal. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Grenada School Nutrition Study: Evidence to Inform Policy

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Grenada School Nutrition Study: Evidence to Inform ... research focusing on the main risk factors for NCDs: tobacco use, unhealthy diet, alcohol misuse, and physical inactivity. ... study predicts that non-communicable diseases associated.

  10. South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Journal is committed to high scientific and ethical standards. ... The SAJCN welcomes advertising or funding from all possible sources, provided ... of Clinical Nutrition (SAJCN) accepts paid advertisements in its print and online editions.

  11. Regional Comparison of Enteral Nutrition-Related Admission Policies in Skilled Nursing Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgermaster, Marissa; Slattery, Eoin; Islam, Nafeesa; Ippolito, Paul R; Seres, David S

    2016-06-01

    Nursing home admission policies are one driver of increased and earlier gastrostomy placement, a procedure that is not always medically or ethically indicated among patients needing short-term nutrition support. This important clinical decision should be based upon patient prognosis, goals, and needs. We compared nursing home enteral nutrition-related admission policies in New York City and other regions of the United States. We also explored motivations for these policies. We conducted a telephone survey with skilled nursing facility administrators in New York City and a random sample of facilities throughout the United States about enteral nutrition-related admission policies. Survey data were matched with publically available data about facility characteristics from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. The relationship between facility location and admission policies was described with regression models. Reasons for these policies were thematically analyzed. New York City nursing homes were significantly less likely to admit patients with nasogastric feeding tubes than were nursing homes nationwide, after we controlled for facility characteristics (odds ratio = 0.111; 95% CI, 0.032-0.344). Reasons for refusing nasogastric tubes fell into 5 categories: safety, capacity, policy, perception of appropriate level of care, and patient quality of life. Our findings indicate that enteral nutrition-related admission policies vary greatly between nursing homes in New York City and nationwide. Many administrators cited safety and policy as factors guiding their institutional policies and practices, despite a lack of evidence. This gap in research, practice, and policy has implications for quality and cost of care, length of hospital stay, and patient morbidity and mortality. © 2016 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  12. Food and nutrition policies: what's being done in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekcan, Gülden

    2006-02-01

    The aim of the present paper is to describe the development of the National Plan of Action for Food and Nutrition (NPAFN) for Turkey. Access to a safe and healthy variety of food, a fundamental human right, was stressed by the International Conference on Nutrition and by the World Food Summit. In the International Conference on Nutrition in December 1992, one major commitment was the preparation of NPAFN. The NPAFN for Turkey was designed according to this commitment. Turkey. To this end, under the coordination of the State Planning Organization, a Working Committee Report for National Food and Nutrition Strategy of Turkey was prepared and published, with the participation of different sectors. The goal of the prepared National Food and Nutrition Strategy for Turkey is to protect and promote health through and healthy nutrition and reduce the burden of diseases, while contributing to socio-economic development and a sustainable food security. In Turkey the NPAFN was developed and implementation has initiated. Nearly for all the actions, related projects are being developed.

  13. Impacts of China’s Edible Oil Pricing Policy on Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Shu Wen; Popkin, Barry M.

    2008-01-01

    China’s health profile has shifted to one dominated by obesity and nutrition-related noncommunicable diseases (NR-NCDs) necessitating an examination of how economic policies can improve this situation. Edible oil consumption is responsible for much of the increase in energy density of the Chinese diet and particularly linked with the shifting burden of NR-NCDs toward the poor. Longitudinal analysis among adults in the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) covering the period 1991 to 2000 revealed that price policy effects on edible oil can influence dietary composition (particularly of the poor) and the results identify a key preventive policy need. PMID:17996345

  14. Mapping of nutrition and sectoral policies addressing malnutrition in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Cristina Tirado

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To map existing policies addressing malnutrition in all its forms in Latin America and identify gaps in enabling environments supporting the five priority lines of action outlined in the World Health Organization Comprehensive Implementation Plan on Maternal, Infant and Young Child Nutrition (CIP approved in 2014. Methods This descriptive study consisted of a systematic Internet search for and mapping of publicly available nutrition-related and sectoral policies already in place to address malnutrition in all its forms in 18 Latin American countries (Argentina, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, and Uruguay. The policies were described in documents retrieved from the websites of ministries of health, education, agriculture, labor, and development; the national congress; and other government agencies. Results All 18 countries had relevant policies to address malnutrition, especially undernutrition and micronutrient deficiencies, but only a few had policies to address overweight and obesity. Nutrition actions were incorporated in food and nutrition security and social protection policies in all 18 countries, and were part of education, environment, agricultural, development, and/or employment policies in some countries. Information on human and financial resources assigned to nutrition was not available through the search strategies used in the study. Conclusions All 18 countries included in this review had established enabling environments to support CIP implementation. However, each of the 18 countries needs to develop integrated policies for the promotion of nutrition and prevention of noncommunicable diseases through cross-sector involvement and multi-stakeholder collaboration.

  15. Smorgasbord or symphony? Assessing public health nutrition policies across 30 European countries using a novel framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd-Williams, Ffion; Bromley, Helen; Orton, Lois; Hawkes, Corinna; Taylor-Robinson, David; O'Flaherty, Martin; McGill, Rory; Anwar, Elspeth; Hyseni, Lirije; Moonan, May; Rayner, Mike; Capewell, Simon

    2014-11-21

    Countries across Europe have introduced a wide variety of policies to improve nutrition. However, the sheer diversity of interventions represents a potentially bewildering smorgasbord. We aimed to map existing public health nutrition policies, and examine their perceived effectiveness, in order to inform future evidence-based diet strategies. We created a public health nutrition policy database for 30 European countries. National nutrition policies were classified and assigned using the marketing "4 Ps" approach Product (reformulation, elimination, new healthier products); Price (taxes, subsidies); Promotion (advertising, food labelling, health education) and Place (schools, workplaces, etc.). We interviewed 71 senior policy-makers, public health nutrition policy experts and academics from 14 of the 30 countries, eliciting their views on diverse current and possible nutrition strategies. Product Voluntary reformulation of foods is widespread but has variable and often modest impact. Twelve countries regulate maximum salt content in specific foods. Denmark, Austria, Iceland and Switzerland have effective trans fats bans. Price EU School Fruit Scheme subsidies are almost universal, but with variable implementation.Taxes are uncommon. However, Finland, France, Hungary and Latvia have implemented 'sugar taxes' on sugary foods and sugar-sweetened beverages. Finland, Hungary and Portugal also tax salty products. Promotion Dialogue, recommendations, nutrition guidelines, labelling, information and education campaigns are widespread. Restrictions on marketing to children are widespread but mostly voluntary. Place Interventions reducing the availability of unhealthy foods were most commonly found in schools and workplace canteens. Interviewees generally considered mandatory reformulation more effective than voluntary, and regulation and fiscal interventions much more effective than information strategies, but also politically more challenging. Public health nutrition

  16. Disparities persist in nutrition policies and practices in Minnesota secondary schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspi, Caitlin Eicher; Davey, Cynthia; Nelson, Toben F.; Larson, Nicole; Kubik, Martha Y.; Coombes, Brandon; Nanney, Marilyn S.

    2014-01-01

    Access to healthy foods among secondary school students is patterned by individual-level socioeconomic status, but few studies have examined how school nutrition policies and practices are patterned by school-level characteristics. The objective of this study was to examine school nutrition policies and practices by school characteristics (location, racial/ethnic composition and free/reduced priced lunch eligibility [FRPL]) in Minnesota secondary schools between 2008 and 2012. Data from the 2008 to 2012 Minnesota School Health Profiles survey were used to assess school nutrition policies and practices, and National Center for Educational Statistics (NCES) data were used for school characteristics (n = 505 secondary schools). Nutrition policies and practices included: 1) the availability of low-nutrient, energy dense (LNED) items, 2) strategies to engage students in healthy eating, and 3) restrictions on advertisements of LNED products in areas around the school. Among school-level characteristics, school location was most strongly related to school nutrition policies. Across all years, city schools were less likely than town/rural schools to have vending machines/school stores [prevalence difference (PD)=13.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) -25.0,-2.3], and less likely to sell sports drinks (PD= -36.3, 95% CI: -51.8, -20.7). City schools were also more likely to prohibit advertisements for LNED products in school buildings (PD=17.7, 95% CI: 5.5, 29.9) and on school grounds (PD=15.6, 95% CI: 1.7, 29.5). Between 2008 and 2012 the prevalence of some healthy eating policies/practices (limiting salty snacks, offering taste testing, banning unhealthy food advertisements in school publications) declined in city schools only, where these policies/practices had previously been more common. Monitoring of these trends is needed to understand the impact of these policies on student outcomes across school settings. PMID:25441964

  17. Can nutrition be promoted through agriculture-led food price policies? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dangour, Alan D; Hawkesworth, Sophie; Shankar, Bhavani; Watson, Louise; Srinivasan, C S; Morgan, Emily H; Haddad, Lawrence; Waage, Jeff

    2013-06-25

    To systematically review the available evidence on whether national or international agricultural policies that directly affect the price of food influence the prevalence rates of undernutrition or nutrition-related chronic disease in children and adults. Systematic review. Global. We systematically searched five databases for published literature (MEDLINE, EconLit, Agricola, AgEcon Search, Scopus) and systematically browsed other databases and relevant organisational websites for unpublished literature. Reference lists of included publications were hand-searched for additional relevant studies. We included studies that evaluated or simulated the effects of national or international food-price-related agricultural policies on nutrition outcomes reporting data collected after 1990 and published in English. Prevalence rates of undernutrition (measured with anthropometry or clinical deficiencies) and overnutrition (obesity and nutrition-related chronic diseases including cancer, heart disease and diabetes). We identified a total of four relevant reports; two ex post evaluations and two ex ante simulations. A study from India reported on the undernutrition rates in children, and the other three studies from Egypt, the Netherlands and the USA reported on the nutrition-related chronic disease outcomes in adults. Two of the studies assessed the impact of policies that subsidised the price of agricultural outputs and two focused on public food distribution policies. The limited evidence base provided some support for the notion that agricultural policies that change the prices of foods at a national level can have an effect on population-level nutrition and health outcomes. A systematic review of the available literature suggests that there is a paucity of robust direct evidence on the impact of agricultural price policies on nutrition and health.

  18. Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity - Policy and Environmental Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset includes data on policy and environmental supports for physical activity, diet, and breastfeeding. This data is used for DNPAO's Data, Trends, and Maps...

  19. Stakeholders’ Views on Factors Influencing Nutrition Policy: a Qualitative Study Across Ten European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeruszka-Bielak Marta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to identify the main factors influencing micronutrient policies in the opinion of policy actors in ten European countries. Study was carried out during Jan-Nov 2010 in European countries: the Czech Republic, Denmark, England, Germany, Greece, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland and Spain. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with representatives of stakeholders involved in the vitamin D, folate and iodine policy making process. Fifty eight key informants representing mainly scientific advisory bodies (n=24 and governmental organisations (n=19 participated in the study. The remaining interviewees represented non-governmental organisations (n=6, industry (n=4 or were independent academic or health professional experts (n=5. Data were analysed by theoretical interpretative thematic analysis. Insights from interviewees on the development of micronutrient policies were grouped using the Public Health Nutrition Policy-making model. The main factors influencing the micronutrient policies were: systematic monitoring of nutrition and health, causal relationships between consumers’ diet-related behaviours and health outcomes, scientific recommendations from national bodies (Science area; scientific recommendations from international authorities and experiences of other countries, EU legislation, cultural factors (Wider context and political environment, national capacity to deal with the problem, national legislation, economics, stakeholder engagement, relationships between stakeholders (Policy and institutions area. The spectrum and weight of the factors influencing nutritional policy depends on nutrient, country and degree of its “advanced status” within nutrition policy, political environment, culture and socio-economic conditions as well as the point of view (who is expressing the opinion.

  20. Copyright Policy and Practice in Electronic Reserves among ARL Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, David R.; Cross, William M.; Edwards, Phillip M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a survey of 110 ARL institutions regarding their copyright policies for providing electronic reserves. It compiles descriptive statistics on library practice as well as coding responses to reveal trends and shared practices. Finally, it presents conclusions about policy making, decision making and risk aversion…

  1. Improvements in middle school student dietary intake after implementation of the Texas Public School Nutrition Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Karen Weber; Watson, Kathy; Zakeri, Issa

    2008-01-01

    We assessed the effect of the Texas Public School Nutrition Policy on middle school student lunchtime food consumption. Three years of lunch food records were collected from middle school students in southeast Texas: baseline (2001-2002), after local district changes (2002-2003), and 1 year after implementation of the Texas Public School Nutrition Policy (2005-2006). Students recorded amount and source of foods and beverages they consumed. Analysis of variance and covariance and nonparametric tests were used to compare intake after the policy change with intake during the 2 previous years. After implementation of the nutrition policy, student lunch consumption of vegetables, milk, and several nutrients increased (protein, fiber, vitamins A and C, calcium, and sodium), and consumption of less desirable items (sweetened beverages, snack chips) decreased, as did percentage of energy from fat. Most of the desired nutrients and foods (vegetables and milk) were obtained from the National School Lunch Program meal. Fewer sweetened beverages, candy, chips, and dessert foods were purchased and consumed, but more of these items were brought from home and purchased from the snack bar. Overall, state school nutrition policies can improve the healthfulness of foods consumed by students at lunch.

  2. Evaluation of Nutrition and Physical Activity Policies and Practices in Child Care Centers within Rural Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Jaime S; Contreras, Dawn; Gold, Abby; Keim, Ann; Oscarson, Renee; Peters, Paula; Procter, Sandra; Remig, Valentina; Smathers, Carol; Mobley, Amy R

    2015-10-01

    Although some researchers have examined nutrition and physical activity policies within urban child care centers, little is known about the potentially unique needs of rural communities. Child care centers serving preschool children located within low-income rural communities (n = 29) from seven states (Indiana, Kansas, Michigan, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin) were assessed to determine current nutrition and physical activity (PA) practices and policies. As part of a large-scale childhood obesity prevention project, the Community Healthy Living Index's previously validated Early Childhood Program Assessment Tool was used to collect data. Descriptive statistical analysis was conducted to identify high-priority areas. Healthy People 2020 and the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics' recommendations for nutrition and PA policies in child care centers were used as benchmarks. Reports of not fully implementing (nutrition-related policies or practices within rural early child care centers were identified. Centers not consistently serving a variety of fruits (48%), vegetables (45%), whole grains (41%), limiting saturated fat intake (31%), implementing healthy celebration guidelines (41%), involving children in mealtime (62%), and referring families to nutrition assistance programs (24%) were identified. More than one third of centers also had limited structured PA opportunities. Although eligible, only 48% of the centers participated in the Child and Adult Care Food Program. Overall, centers lacked parental outreach, staff training, and funding/resources to support nutrition and PA. These results provide insight into where child care centers within low-income, rural communities may need assistance to help prevent childhood obesity.

  3. Food price policies improve diet quality while increasing socioeconomic inequalities in nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Prices are an important determinant of food choices. Consequently, food price policies (subsidies and/or taxes) are proposed to improve the nutritional quality of diets. The aim of the present study was to explore the impact of food price policies on the expenditures and nutritional quality of the food baskets chosen by low- and medium-income households. Methods Experimental economics was used to examine two price manipulations: i) a fruit and vegetable price subsidy named “fruit and vegetables condition”; ii) a healthy-product subsidy coupled with an unhealthy-product tax named “nutrient profile condition”. The nutrient profiling system called SAIN,LIM was used. This system classifies each individual food according to its overall nutritional quality which then allows for a food item to be taxed or subsidized. Women from low- (n = 95) and medium-incomes (n = 33) selected a daily food basket, first, at current prices and then at manipulated prices. The redistributive effects of experimental conditions were assessed by comparing the extent of savings induced by subsidies and of costs generated by the tax on the two income groups. Energy density (kcal/100 g), free sugars (% energy) and the mean adequacy ratio (MAR) were used as nutritional quality indicators. Results At baseline (before price manipulations), low-income women selected less expensive and less healthy baskets than medium-income ones. After price manipulations expenditures for both income group decreased significantly, whereas, the nutritional quality improved (energy density decreased, the MAR increased). Additionally, the redistributive effects were less favourable for low-income women and their nutritional quality improvements from baseline were significantly lower. Conclusion Low-income women derived fewer financial and nutritional benefits from implemented food subsidies and taxes than medium-income women. This outcome suggests that food price policies may improve diet

  4. Food price policies improve diet quality while increasing socioeconomic inequalities in nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmon, Nicole; Lacroix, Anne; Muller, Laurent; Ruffieux, Bernard

    2014-05-20

    Prices are an important determinant of food choices. Consequently, food price policies (subsidies and/or taxes) are proposed to improve the nutritional quality of diets. The aim of the present study was to explore the impact of food price policies on the expenditures and nutritional quality of the food baskets chosen by low- and medium-income households. Experimental economics was used to examine two price manipulations: i) a fruit and vegetable price subsidy named "fruit and vegetables condition"; ii) a healthy-product subsidy coupled with an unhealthy-product tax named "nutrient profile condition". The nutrient profiling system called SAIN,LIM was used. This system classifies each individual food according to its overall nutritional quality which then allows for a food item to be taxed or subsidized. Women from low- (n = 95) and medium-incomes (n = 33) selected a daily food basket, first, at current prices and then at manipulated prices. The redistributive effects of experimental conditions were assessed by comparing the extent of savings induced by subsidies and of costs generated by the tax on the two income groups. Energy density (kcal/100 g), free sugars (% energy) and the mean adequacy ratio (MAR) were used as nutritional quality indicators. At baseline (before price manipulations), low-income women selected less expensive and less healthy baskets than medium-income ones. After price manipulations expenditures for both income group decreased significantly, whereas, the nutritional quality improved (energy density decreased, the MAR increased). Additionally, the redistributive effects were less favourable for low-income women and their nutritional quality improvements from baseline were significantly lower. Low-income women derived fewer financial and nutritional benefits from implemented food subsidies and taxes than medium-income women. This outcome suggests that food price policies may improve diet quality while increasing socio

  5. The Stakeholders’ Views on Factors Influencing Nutrition Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeruszka-Bielak, Marta; Sicinska, Ewa; de Wit, Liesbeth

    2015-01-01

    The objective was to identify the main factors infl uencing micronutrient policies in the opinion of policy actors in ten European countries. Study was carried out during Jan-Nov 2010 in European countries: the Czech Republic, Denmark, England, Germany, Greece, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway......) participated in the study. The remaining interviewees represented non-governmental organisations (n=6), industry (n=4) or were independent academic or health professional experts (n=5). Data were analysed by theoretical interpretative thematic analysis. Insights from interviewees on the development...

  6. Food Price Policies May Improve Diet but Increase Socioeconomic Inequalities in Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmon, Nicole; Lacroix, Anne; Muller, Laurent; Ruffieux, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Unhealthy eating is more prevalent among women and people with a low socioeconomic status. Policies that affect the price of food have been proposed to improve diet quality. The study's objective was to compare the impact of food price policies on the nutritional quality of food baskets chosen by low-income and medium-income women. Experimental economics was used to simulate a fruit and vegetable subsidy and a mixed policy subsidizing healthy products and taxing unhealthy ones. Food classification was based on the Score of Nutritional Adequacy of Individual Foods, Score of Nutrients to Be Limited nutrient profiling system. Low-income (n = 95) and medium-income (n = 33) women selected a daily food basket first at current prices and then at policy prices. Energy density (ED) and the mean adequacy ratio (MAR) were used as nutritional quality indicators. At baseline, low-income women selected less healthy baskets than medium-income women (less fruit and vegetables, more unhealthy products, higher ED, lower MAR). Both policies improved nutritional quality (fruit and vegetable quantities increased, ED decreased, the MAR increased), but the magnitude of the improvement was often lower among low-income women. For instance, ED decreased by 5.3% with the fruit and vegetable subsidy and by 7.3% with the mixed subsidy, whereas decreases of 13.2 and 12.6%, respectively, were recorded for the medium-income group. Finally, both policies improved dietary quality, but they increased socioeconomic inequalities in nutrition. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Protecting policy space for public health nutrition in an era of international investment agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thow, Anne Marie; McGrady, Benn

    2014-02-01

    Philip Morris has recently brought claims against Australia (2011) and Uruguay (2010) under international investment agreements (IIAs). The claims allege that Philip Morris is entitled to compensation following the introduction of innovative tobacco packaging regulations to reduce smoking and prevent noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). Since tobacco control measures are often viewed as a model for public health nutrition measures, the claims raise the question of how investment law governs the latter. This paper begins to answer this question and to explain how governments can proactively protect policy space for public health nutrition in an era of expanding IIAs. The authors first consider the main interventions proposed to reduce diet-related NCDs and their intersection with investment in the food supply chain. They then review the nature of investment regimes and relevant case law and examine ways to maximize policy space for public health nutrition intervention within this legal context. As foreign investment increases across the food-chain and more global recommendations discouraging the consumption of unhealthful products are issued, investment law will increase in importance as part of the legal architecture governing the food supply. The implications of investment law for public health nutrition measures depend on various factors: the measures themselves, the terms of the applicable agreements, the conditions surrounding the foreign investment and the policies governing agricultural support. This analysis suggests that governments should adopt proactive measures--e.g. the clarification of terms and reliance on exceptions--to manage investment and protect their regulatory autonomy with respect to public health nutrition.

  8. Electronic U.S. Government Information: Policy Issues and Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernon, Peter; McClure, Charles R.

    1993-01-01

    Provides an overview of U.S. federal information policy and its treatment of electronic information resources. Highlights include government publications; electronic government information; main providers of government information, including the Government Printing Office; the Freedom of Information Act; public access and use; information…

  9. Federal Government Electronic Bulletin Boards: An Assessment with Policy Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertot, John Carlo; McClure, Charles R.

    1993-01-01

    Identifies and analyzes federal government electronic bulletin boards; assesses the types of information available to users, including costs and technological access issues; discusses federal information policy; and considers the role of federal bulletin boards in accessing and managing electronic government information. (Contains 29 references.)…

  10. Association of School Nutrition Policy and Parental Control with Childhood Overweight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Dong-Chul; Lee, Chung Gun

    2012-01-01

    Background: Schools and parents may play important roles in preventing childhood obesity by affecting children's behaviors related to energy balance. This study examined how school nutrition policy and parental control over children's eating and physical activity habits are associated with the children's overweight/obesity (hereafter overweight)…

  11. Editorial: Conflict of interest policy for Editors of The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Integrity in the publication process requires impartiality at all levels of review. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition (AJCN) adheres to the policy of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE), Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals: Writin...

  12. The impact of nutritional policy on socioeconomic disparity in the unhealthy food intake among Korean adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kirang; Park, Sun Min; Oh, Kyung Won

    2013-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine the trend in unhealthy food intake by socioeconomic position (SEP) and to determine whether the government's nutritional policies affect socioeconomic disparity in the food intake among adolescents. Data were from the six independent cross-sectional survey data (2006-2011) of Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey and included 445,287 subjects aged 12-18 years. The unhealthy food intake was assessed by food frequency intake and SEP was evaluated with the family affluence scale. We observed that unhealthy food intakes decreased through the years, showing the apparent decline when nutritional policies focusing on the restriction of unhealthy foods were implemented, and the trend was all same in the different SEP groups. The pattern of unhealthy food intakes by SEP has changed before and after implementation of the policies. The intakes of carbonated beverages, fast food, and confectioneries were higher in the higher SEP group before implementation of the policies but the difference was not shown after implementation of the policies. The intake of instant noodles was consistently higher in the lower SEP group. The risk of frequent consumption of unhealthy foods was generally more decreased through the years in the higher SEP group than the lower SEP group. In conclusion, this study found the positive effect of nutritional policy on unhealthy food intake among adolescents and the high SEP group appeared to undergo greater desirable changes in dietary behaviors after implementation of nutritional policies than the low SEP group. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Integrating Environmental Sustainability Considerations into Food and Nutrition Policies: Insights from Australia's National Food Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgway, Ella Megan; Lawrence, Mark Andrew; Woods, Julie

    2015-01-01

    The environmental sustainability (ES) of food systems is a critical challenge for policy makers. This is a highly contested policy area with differing views among stakeholders. The aim of the study was to develop a better understanding of how ES considerations are addressed in Australian food and nutrition policies and the way that consultation processes affect final policy outcomes. A mixed-methods study design combined a detailed chronology of key policy developments (2009-2015), a content analysis of written submissions obtained during the NFP's consultation period (2011-2013) and a frame analysis of the sustainability perspectives - efficiency, demand restraint, and system transformation - in the NFP's Issues, Green, and White Papers. There were 555 written submissions responding to two consultation papers. Stakeholders represented all sectors of Australia's food system including government, non-government organizations, the food supply chain, research and academic institutions, and members of the general public. Around 74% of submissions referred to ES considerations and ~65% supported their inclusion into the final policy. Efficiency frames were most dominant; emphasizing a production-oriented approach that regards the environment as a natural resource base for food production but overlooks consumption and equity concerns. Despite strong support for the inclusion of ES considerations in the NFP, the influence of Australia's socio-political context, powerful, industry-dominated stakeholders, and a reliance on traditional production-oriented perspectives delivered a business-as-usual approach to food policy making. It has since been replaced by an agricultural strategy that provides only cursory attention to ES. Our findings indicate that Australia's political environment is not sufficiently mature for ES considerations to be integrated into food and nutrition policies. We propose reforms to the current consultation process in Australia to better support this

  14. Disparities persist in nutrition policies and practices in Minnesota secondary schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspi, Caitlin E; Davey, Cynthia; Nelson, Toben F; Larson, Nicole; Kubik, Martha Y; Coombes, Brandon; Nanney, Marilyn S

    2015-03-01

    Access to healthy foods among secondary school students is patterned by individual-level socioeconomic status, but few studies have examined how school nutrition policies and practices are patterned by school-level characteristics. The objective of our study was to examine school nutrition policies and practices by school characteristics (eg, location, racial/ethnic composition, and free/reduced priced lunch eligibility) in Minnesota secondary schools between 2008 and 2012. Data from the 2008 to 2012 Minnesota School Health Profiles survey were used to assess school nutrition policies and practices, and National Center for Educational Statistics data were used for school characteristics (n=505 secondary schools). Nutrition policies and practices included the availability of low-nutrient, energy dense (LNED) items, strategies to engage students in healthy eating, and restrictions on advertisements of LNED products in areas around the school. Among school-level characteristics, school location was most strongly related to school nutrition policies. Across all years, city schools were less likely than town/rural schools to have vending machines/school stores (prevalence difference [PD] -13.7, 95% CI -25.0 to -2.3), and less likely to sell sport drinks (PD -36.3, 95% CI -51.8 to -20.7). City schools were also more likely to prohibit advertisements for LNED products in school buildings (PD 17.7, 95% CI 5.5 to 29.9) and on school grounds (PD 15.6, 95% CI 1.7 to 29.5). Between 2008 and 2012, the prevalence of some healthy eating policies/practices (eg, limiting salty snacks, offering taste testing, and banning unhealthy food advertisements in school publications) declined in city schools only, where these policies/practices had previously been more common. Monitoring of these trends is needed to understand the influence of these policies on student outcomes across school settings. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  15. Optimizing the electronic health record to standardize administration and documentation of nutritional supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citty, Sandra W; Kamel, Amir; Garvan, Cynthia; Marlowe, Lee; Westhoff, Lynn

    2017-01-01

    Malnutrition in hospitalized patients is a major cause for hospital re-admission, pressure ulcers and increased hospital costs. Methods to improve the administration and documentation of nutritional supplements for hospitalized patients are needed to improve patient care, outcomes and resource utilization. Staff at a medium-sized academic health science center hospital in the southeastern United States noted that nutritional supplements ordered for patients at high risk for malnutrition were not offered or administered to patients in a standardized manner and/or not documented clearly in the electronic health record as per prescription. This paper reports on a process improvement project that redesigned the ordering, administration and documentation process of oral nutritional supplements in the electronic health record. By adding nutritional products to the medication order sets and adding an electronic nutrition administration record (ENAR) tab, the multidisciplinary team sought to standardize nutritional supplement ordering, documentation and administration at prescribed intervals. This process improvement project used a triangulated approach to evaluating pre- and post-process change including: medical record reviews, patient interviews, and nutrition formula room log reports. Staff education and training was carried out prior to initiation of the system changes. This process change resulted in an average decrease in the return of unused nutritional formula from 76% returned at baseline to 54% post-process change. The process change resulted in 100% of nutritional supplement orders having documentation about nutritional medication administration and/or reason for non-administration. Documentation in the ENAR showed that 41% of ONS orders were given and 59% were not given. Significantly more patients reported being offered the ONS product (p=0.0001) after process redesign and more patients (5% before ENAR and 86% after ENAR reported being offered the correct

  16. State school nutrition and physical activity policy environments and youth obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanney, Marilyn S; Nelson, Toben; Wall, Melanie; Haddad, Tarek; Kubik, Martha; Laska, Melissa Nelson; Story, Mary

    2010-01-01

    With the epidemic of childhood obesity, there is national interest in state-level school policies related to nutrition and physical activity, policies adopted by states, and relationships to youth obesity. This study develops a comprehensive state-level approach to characterize the overall obesity prevention policy environment for schools and links the policy environments to youth obesity for each state. Using 2006 School Health Policies and Programs Study (SHPPS) state data, qualitative and quantitative methods were used (2008-2009) to construct domains of state-level school obesity prevention policies and practices, establish the validity and reliability of the domain scales, and examine their associations with state-level obesity prevalence among youth aged 10-17 years from the 2003 National Survey of Children's Health. Nearly 250 state-level obesity prevention-policy questions were identified from the SHPPS. Three broad policy topic areas containing 100 food service and nutrition (FSN) questionnaire items; 146 physical activity and education (PAE) items; and two weight assessment (WA) items were selected. Principal components analysis and content validity assessment were used to further categorize the items into six FSN, ten PAE, and one WA domain. Using a proportional scaled score to summarize the number of policies adopted by states, it was found that on average states adopted about half of the FSN (49%), 38% of the PAE, and 17% of the WA policies examined. After adjusting for state-level measures of ethnicity and income, the average proportion of FSN policies adopted by states was correlated with the prevalence of youth obesity at r =0.35 (p=0.01). However, no correlation was found between either PAE or WA policies and youth obesity (PAE policies at r =0.02 [p=0.53] and WA policies at r =0.16 [p=0.40]). States appear to be doing a better job adopting FSN policies than PA or WA policies, and adoption of policies is correlated with youth obesity. Continued

  17. Probabilistic Decision Tools for Determining Impacts of Agricultural Development Policy on Household Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, Cory W.; Lanzanova, Denis; Muchiri, Caroline; Shepherd, Keith D.; Rosenstock, Todd S.; Krawinkel, Michael; Tabuti, John R. S.; Luedeling, Eike

    2018-03-01

    Governments around the world have agreed to end hunger and food insecurity and to improve global nutrition, largely through changes to agriculture and food systems. However, they are faced with a lot of uncertainty when making policy decisions, since any agricultural changes will influence social and biophysical systems, which could yield either positive or negative nutrition outcomes. We outline a holistic probability modeling approach with Bayesian Network (BN) models for nutritional impacts resulting from agricultural development policy. The approach includes the elicitation of expert knowledge for impact model development, including sensitivity analysis and value of information calculations. It aims at a generalizable methodology that can be applied in a wide range of contexts. To showcase this approach, we develop an impact model of Vision 2040, Uganda's development strategy, which, among other objectives, seeks to transform the country's agricultural landscape from traditional systems to large-scale commercial agriculture. Model results suggest that Vision 2040 is likely to have negative outcomes for the rural livelihoods it intends to support; it may have no appreciable influence on household hunger but, by influencing preferences for and access to quality nutritional foods, may increase the prevalence of micronutrient deficiency. The results highlight the trade-offs that must be negotiated when making decisions regarding agriculture for nutrition, and the capacity of BNs to make these trade-offs explicit. The work illustrates the value of BNs for supporting evidence-based agricultural development decisions.

  18. The industrial policy experience of the electronics industry in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Rasiah, Rajah

    2015-01-01

    Despite the use of industrial policies to stimulate economic growth by several successful developers, latecomers have faced mixed experiences. Hence, this paper analyses the industrial policy experience of the electronics industry in Malaysia. A blend of institutions have guided technological upgrading in the industry, especially in the state of Penang. Smooth co-ordination between the state government, multinational corporations, national firms, and the federal government helped stimulate te...

  19. Inflammation and Nutritional Science for Programs/Policies and Interpretation of Research Evidence (INSPIRE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raiten, Daniel J; Sakr Ashour, Fayrouz A; Ross, A Catharine; Meydani, Simin N; Dawson, Harry D; Stephensen, Charles B; Brabin, Bernard J; Suchdev, Parminder S; van Ommen, Ben

    2015-05-01

    An increasing recognition has emerged of the complexities of the global health agenda—specifically, the collision of infections and noncommunicable diseases and the dual burden of over- and undernutrition. Of particular practical concern are both 1) the need for a better understanding of the bidirectional relations between nutritional status and the development and function of the immune and inflammatory response and 2) the specific impact of the inflammatory response on the selection, use, and interpretation of nutrient biomarkers. The goal of the Inflammation and Nutritional Science for Programs/Policies and Interpretation of Research Evidence (INSPIRE) is to provide guidance for those users represented by the global food and nutrition enterprise. These include researchers (bench and clinical), clinicians providing care/treatment, those developing and evaluating programs/interventions at scale, and those responsible for generating evidence-based policy. The INSPIRE process included convening 5 thematic working groups (WGs) charged with developing summary reports around the following issues: 1) basic overview of the interactions between nutrition, immune function, and the inflammatory response; 2) examination of the evidence regarding the impact of nutrition on immune function and inflammation; 3) evaluation of the impact of inflammation and clinical conditions (acute and chronic) on nutrition; 4) examination of existing and potential new approaches to account for the impact of inflammation on biomarker interpretation and use; and 5) the presentation of new approaches to the study of these relations. Each WG was tasked with synthesizing a summary of the evidence for each of these topics and delineating the remaining gaps in our knowledge. This review consists of a summary of the INSPIRE workshop and the WG deliberations. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  20. Main Issues on Electronic Commerce and Policy Recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    Chongwha Lee; Seongbong Lee

    1998-01-01

    "Electronic Commerce" means that people sell and buy commodity, labor service and information through internet and now is mainly be used in commercial intercourse. The core of the international research related to Electronic Commerce is a tax-exemption, land tax, liberalization of encrypted technology and privacy protection policy, etc. Meanwhile, intellectual property, consumer protection and limitation of packing specification are also researched together with the business activeness. The r...

  1. The global nutrition transition: trends, disease burdens and policy interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronto, Rimante; Wu, Jason Hy; Singh, Gitanjali M

    2018-03-06

    Non-communicable diseases (NCD) have increased dramatically in developed and developing countries. Unhealthy diet is one of the major factors contributing to NCD development. Recent evidence has identified deterioration in aspects of dietary quality across many world regions, including low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). Most burdens of disease attributable to poor diet can be prevented or delayed as they occur prematurely. Therefore, it is important to identify and target unhealthy dietary behaviours in order to have the greatest impact. National dietary-related programmes have traditionally focused on micronutrient deficiency and food security and failed to acknowledge unhealthy dietary intakes as a risk factor that contributes to the development of NCD. Inadequate intakes of healthy foods and nutrients and excess intakes of unhealthy ones are commonly observed across the world, and efforts to reduce the double burden of micronutrient deficiency and unhealthy diets should be a particular focus for LMIC. Interventions and policies targeting whole populations are likely to be the most effective and sustainable, and should be prioritized. Population-based approaches such as health information and communication campaigns, fiscal measures such as taxes on sugar-sweetened beverages, direct restrictions and mandates, reformulation and improving the nutrient profile of food products, and standards regulating marketing to children can have significant and large impacts to improve diets and reduce the incidence of NCD. There is a need for more countries to implement population-based effective approaches to improve current diets.

  2. Inflammation and Nutritional Science for Programs/Policies and Interpretation of Research Evidence (INSPIRE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raiten, Daniel J; Sakr Ashour, Fayrouz A; Ross, A Catharine

    2015-01-01

    of the bidirectional relations between nutritional status and the development and function of the immune and inflammatory response and 2) the specific impact of the inflammatory response on the selection, use, and interpretation of nutrient biomarkers. The goal of the Inflammation and Nutritional Science for Programs......; and 5) the presentation of new approaches to the study of these relations. Each WG was tasked with synthesizing a summary of the evidence for each of these topics and delineating the remaining gaps in our knowledge. This review consists of a summary of the INSPIRE workshop and the WG deliberations......./Policies and Interpretation of Research Evidence (INSPIRE) is to provide guidance for those users represented by the global food and nutrition enterprise. These include researchers (bench and clinical), clinicians providing care/treatment, those developing and evaluating programs/interventions at scale, and those responsible...

  3. Creating supportive nutrition environments for population health impact and health equity: an overview of the Nutrition and Obesity Policy Research and Evaluation Network's efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanck, Heidi M; Kim, Sonia A

    2012-09-01

    Childhood obesity is a major threat to individual health and society overall. Policies that support healthier food and beverage choices have been endorsed by many decision makers. These policies may reach a large proportion of the population or in some circumstances aim to reduce nutrition disparities to ensure health equity. The Nutrition and Obesity Policy Research and Evaluation Network (NOPREN) evaluates policy as a tool to improve food and beverage environments where Americans live, work, play, and learn. The network aspires to address research and evaluation gaps related to relevant policies, create standardized research tools, and help build the evidence base of effective policy solutions for childhood obesity prevention with a focus on reach, equity, cost effectiveness, and sustainability. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Inflammation and Nutritional Science for Programs/Policies and Interpretation of Research Evidence (INSPIRE)12345

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raiten, Daniel J; Ashour, Fayrouz A Sakr; Ross, A Catharine; Meydani, Simin N; Dawson, Harry D; Stephensen, Charles B; Brabin, Bernard J; Suchdev, Parminder S; van Ommen, Ben

    2015-01-01

    An increasing recognition has emerged of the complexities of the global health agenda—specifically, the collision of infections and noncommunicable diseases and the dual burden of over- and undernutrition. Of particular practical concern are both 1) the need for a better understanding of the bidirectional relations between nutritional status and the development and function of the immune and inflammatory response and 2) the specific impact of the inflammatory response on the selection, use, and interpretation of nutrient biomarkers. The goal of the Inflammation and Nutritional Science for Programs/Policies and Interpretation of Research Evidence (INSPIRE) is to provide guidance for those users represented by the global food and nutrition enterprise. These include researchers (bench and clinical), clinicians providing care/treatment, those developing and evaluating programs/interventions at scale, and those responsible for generating evidence-based policy. The INSPIRE process included convening 5 thematic working groups (WGs) charged with developing summary reports around the following issues: 1) basic overview of the interactions between nutrition, immune function, and the inflammatory response; 2) examination of the evidence regarding the impact of nutrition on immune function and inflammation; 3) evaluation of the impact of inflammation and clinical conditions (acute and chronic) on nutrition; 4) examination of existing and potential new approaches to account for the impact of inflammation on biomarker interpretation and use; and 5) the presentation of new approaches to the study of these relations. Each WG was tasked with synthesizing a summary of the evidence for each of these topics and delineating the remaining gaps in our knowledge. This review consists of a summary of the INSPIRE workshop and the WG deliberations. PMID:25833893

  5. Policy windows for school-based health education about nutrition in Ecuador

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torres, Irene

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to identify opportunities in policy framing for critical health education (CHE) about food and nutrition in Ecuadorian schools. The research engages in a dialogue between the perspectives of critical nutrition and political ecology, as it seeks to clarify and develop...... through critical, democratic and collaborative processes, anchored in and supported by the local community. Based on a textual analysis of health, food and education policy documents, the study finds that concrete norms endorse a biomedical stance. Consequently, focus remains on prescribing individual...... behavior, and schools are regarded as intervention settings, rather than a site for generating change as would be the case of health promotion using a CHE viewpoint. However, the study finds the possibility for developing a CHE perspective in the overarching rationale of “good living”, which reaffirms...

  6. Public Access to Government Electronic Information. Policy Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulletin of the American Society for Information Science, 1992

    1992-01-01

    This policy framework provides guidelines for federal agencies on public access to government electronic information. Highlights include reasons for disseminating information; defining user groups; which technology to use; pricing flexibility; security and privacy issues; and the private sector and state and local government roles. (LRW)

  7. Public Opinion on Nutrition-Related Policies to Combat Child Obesity, Los Angeles County, 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Simon, Paul A.; Chiang, Choiyuk; Lightstone, Amy S.; Shih, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    We assessed public opinion on nutrition-related policies to address child obesity: a soda tax, restrictions on advertising unhealthy foods and beverages to children, and restrictions on siting fast food restaurants and convenience stores near schools. We analyzed data from 998 adults (aged ≥18 years) in the 2011 Los Angeles County Health Survey. Support was highest for advertising restrictions (74%), intermediate for a soda tax (60%), and lowest for siting restrictions on fast food restaurant...

  8. Strengthening policy research on infant and young child feeding: An imperative to support countries in scaling up impact on nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Purnima; Thow, Anne Marie

    2017-06-13

    Enabling policy environments for nutrition require require evidence to support best practice and engagement with political and policy contexts, as well as leadership, resourcing, advocacy, and technical support. However, research on nutrition policy contexts is limited. The papers in this special supplement on policy contexts for infant and young child feeding (IYCF) in South Asia makes a valuable contribution to understanding the policy landscape and political dynamics in the region and the global literature. Studies included in this special supplement analyzed policy content and stakeholder influence on IYCF in Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka, and assess the role of advocacy in addressing multiple elements of the policy environment. These analyses highlight opportunities to harmonize and manage the demands and interests of multiple actors while strengthening policy to strategically support optimal IYCF as the ultimate goal. They also provide robust examples of research on policy environments and policy change. Further investments in research on policy contexts for nutrition can help to understand and support continued progress towards improved actions for nutrition.

  9. Strengthening policy research on infant and young child feeding: An imperative to support countries in scaling up impact on nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purnima Menon

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Enabling policy environments for nutrition require require evidence to support best practice and engagement with political and policy contexts, as well as leadership, resourcing, advocacy, and technical support. However, research on nutrition policy contexts is limited. The papers in this special supplement on policy contexts for infant and young child feeding (IYCF in South Asia makes a valuable contribution to understanding the policy landscape and political dynamics in the region and the global literature. Studies included in this special supplement analyzed policy content and stakeholder influence on IYCF in Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka, and assess the role of advocacy in addressing multiple elements of the policy environment. These analyses highlight opportunities to harmonize and manage the demands and interests of multiple actors while strengthening policy to strategically support optimal IYCF as the ultimate goal. They also provide robust examples of research on policy environments and policy change. Further investments in research on policy contexts for nutrition can help to understand and support continued progress towards improved actions for nutrition.

  10. Insights on the Intersection of Health Equity and School Nutrition Policy Implementation: An Exploratory Qualitative Secondary Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asada, Yuka; Hughes, Alejandro; Chriqui, Jamie

    2017-01-01

    Background: Recent federal policies aimed to ensure that all children have equitable access to healthy school nutrition environments. However, historically, disparities have persisted in the quality of school nutrition environments across geographic and socioeconomic groups. There is limited literature addressing if and how recent efforts to…

  11. Nutrition labelling is a trade policy issue: lessons from an analysis of specific trade concerns at the World Trade Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thow, Anne Marie; Jones, Alexandra; Hawkes, Corinna; Ali, Iqra; Labonté, Ronald

    2017-01-12

    Interpretive nutrition labels provide simplified nutrient-specific text and/or symbols on the front of pre-packaged foods, to encourage and enable consumers to make healthier choices. This type of labelling has been proposed as part of a comprehensive policy response to the global epidemic of non-communicable diseases. However, regulation of nutrition labelling falls under the remit of not just the health sector but also trade. Specific Trade Concerns have been raised at the World Trade Organization's Technical Barriers to Trade Committee regarding interpretive nutrition labelling initiatives in Thailand, Chile, Indonesia, Peru and Ecuador. This paper presents an analysis of the discussions of these concerns. Although nutrition labelling was identified as a legitimate policy objective, queries were raised regarding the justification of the specific labelling measures proposed, and the scientific evidence for effectiveness of such measures. Concerns were also raised regarding the consistency of the measures with international standards. Drawing on policy learning theory, we identified four lessons for public health policy makers, including: strategic framing of nutrition labelling policy objectives; pro-active policy engagement between trade and health to identify potential trade issues; identifying ways to minimize potential 'practical' trade concerns; and engagement with the Codex Alimentarius Commission to develop international guidance on interpretative labelling. This analysis indicates that while there is potential for trade sector concerns to stifle innovation in nutrition labelling policy, care in how interpretive nutrition labelling measures are crafted in light of trade commitments can minimize such a risk and help ensure that trade policy is coherent with nutrition action. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Healthy food procurement and nutrition standards in public facilities: evidence synthesis and consensus policy recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim D. Raine

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Unhealthy foods are widely available in public settings across Canada, contributing to diet-related chronic diseases, such as obesity. This is a concern given that public facilities often provide a significant amount of food for consumption by vulnerable groups, including children and seniors. Healthy food procurement policies, which support procuring, distributing, selling, and/or serving healthier foods, have recently emerged as a promising strategy to counter this public health issue by increasing access to healthier foods. Although numerous Canadian health and scientific organizations have recommended such policies, they have not yet been broadly implemented in Canada. Methods: To inform further policy action on healthy food procurement in a Canadian context, we: (1 conducted an evidence synthesis to assess the impact of healthy food procurement policies on health outcomes and sales, intake, and availability of healthier food, and (2 hosted a consensus conference in September 2014. The consensus conference invited experts with public health/nutrition policy research expertise, as well as health services and food services practitioner experience, to review evidence, share experiences, and develop a consensus statement/recommendations on healthy food procurement in Canada. Results: Findings from the evidence synthesis and consensus recommendations for healthy food procurement in Canada are described. Specifically, we outline recommendations for governments, publicly funded institutions, decision-makers and professionals, citizens, and researchers. Conclusion: Implementation of healthy food procurement policies can increase Canadians’ access to healthier foods as part of a broader vision for food policy in Canada.

  13. Healthy food procurement and nutrition standards in public facilities: evidence synthesis and consensus policy recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim D., Raine; Kayla, Atkey; Dana Lee, Dana Lee; Alexa R., Ferdinands; Dominique, Beaulieu; Susan, Buhler; Norm, Campbell; Brian, Cook; Mary, L’Abbé; Ashley, Lederer; David, Mowat; Joshna, Maharaj; Candace, Nykiforuk; Jacob, Shelley; Jacqueline, Street

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Unhealthy foods are widely available in public settings across Canada, contributing to diet-related chronic diseases, such as obesity. This is a concern given that public facilities often provide a significant amount of food for consumption by vulnerable groups, including children and seniors. Healthy food procurement policies, which support procuring, distributing, selling, and/or serving healthier foods, have recently emerged as a promising strategy to counter this public health issue by increasing access to healthier foods. Although numerous Canadian health and scientific organizations have recommended such policies, they have not yet been broadly implemented in Canada. Methods: To inform further policy action on healthy food procurement in a Canadian context, we: (1) conducted an evidence synthesis to assess the impact of healthy food procurement policies on health outcomes and sales, intake, and availability of healthier food, and (2) hosted a consensus conference in September 2014. The consensus conference invited experts with public health/nutrition policy research expertise, as well as health services and food services practitioner experience, to review evidence, share experiences, and develop a consensus statement/recommendations on healthy food procurement in Canada. Results: Findings from the evidence synthesis and consensus recommendations for healthy food procurement in Canada are described. Specifically, we outline recommendations for governments, publicly funded institutions, decision-makers and professionals, citizens, and researchers. Conclusion: Implementation of healthy food procurement policies can increase Canadians’ access to healthier foods as part of a broader vision for food policy in Canada. PMID:29323862

  14. Gadgets and Gigawatts - Policies for Energy Efficient Electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-05-13

    By 2010 there will be over 3.5 billion mobile phones subscribers, 2 billion TVs in use around the world and 1 billion personal computers. Electronic devices are a growing part of our lives and many of us can count between 20 and 30 separate items in our homes, from major items like televisions to a host of small gadgets. The communication and entertainment benefits these bring are not only going to people in wealthier nations - in Africa, for example, one in nine people now has a mobile phone. But as these electronic devices gain popularity, they account for a growing portion of household energy consumption. How 'smart' is this equipment from an energy efficiency perspective and should we be concerned about how much energy these gadgets use? What is the potential for energy savings? This new book, Gadgets and Gigawatts: Policies for Energy Efficient Electronics, includes a global assessment of the changing pattern in residential electricity consumption over the past decade and an in-depth analysis of the role played by electronic equipment. It reviews the influence that government policies have had on creating markets for more energy efficient appliances and identifies new opportunities for creating smarter, more energy efficient homes. This book is essential reading for policy makers and others interested in improving the energy efficiency of our homes.

  15. Family eating out-of-home: a review of nutrition and health policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuffin, L E; Wallace, J M W; McCrorie, T A; Price, R K; Pourshahidi, L K; Livingstone, M B E

    2013-02-01

    Childhood obesity is a growing problem worldwide. In recent years, out-of-home (OH) eating has been highlighted as one of the many factors contributing to the obesogenic environment. This review seeks to identify a range of existing guidelines for the provision of healthy food options for families who eat OH frequently. Nationally available nutrition policies were identified using targeted and untargeted searches of the internet to identify established strategies for providing food for children in the family eating out sector in America (US), Australia, Canada and the WHO's European Region (EUR). These were categorised on the basis of eleven pre-defined criteria including: family eating out sector included as stakeholder; inclusion of children's food OH; cost strategies for healthier food choices; provision of nutrition information for customers; nutrition training of catering staff; and monitoring and evaluation structures. Fifty-five policies were reviewed, of which 71% addressed children's food served OH, but principally only for food available in schools. Two voluntary programmes, from Colorado and Slovenia, were identified as possible best practice models as they met a majority of the evaluation criteria. The most frequently used strategy by policies to promote healthier eating OH was the provision of nutrition information on menus, while monitoring and evaluation plans were poorly incorporated into any OH strategies, thus raising issues about their effectiveness. This review has identified a range of initiatives that could be employed to make healthier eating OH more accessible for families. However, to establish best practice guidelines for healthier OH food choices further investigations are required.

  16. Use of electronic sales data to tailor nutrition education resources for an ethnically diverse population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyles, H; Rodgers, A; Ni Mhurchu, C

    2010-02-01

    Nutrition education may be most effective when personally tailored. Individualised electronic supermarket sales data offer opportunities to tailor nutrition education using shopper's usual food purchases. The present study aimed to use individualised electronic supermarket sales data to tailor nutrition resources for an ethnically diverse population in a large supermarket intervention trial in New Zealand. Culturally appropriate nutrition education resources (i.e. messages and shopping lists) were developed with the target population (through two sets of focus groups) and ethnic researchers. A nutrient database of supermarket products was developed using retrospective sales data and linked to participant sales to allow tailoring by usual food purchases. Modified Heart Foundation Tick criteria were used to identify 'healthier' products in the database suitable for promotion in the resources. Rules were developed to create a monthly report listing the tailored and culturally targeted messages to be sent to each participant, and to produce automated, tailored shopping lists. Culturally targeted nutrition messages (n = 864) and shopping lists (n = 3 formats) were developed. The food and nutrient database (n = 3000 top-selling products) was created using 12 months of retrospective sales data, and comprised 60%'healthier' products. Three months of baseline sales data were used to determine usual food purchases. Tailored resources were successfully mailed to 123 Māori, 52 Pacific and 346 non-Māori non-Pacific participants over the 6-month trial intervention period. Electronic supermarket sales data can be used to tailor nutrition education resources for a large number of ethnically diverse supermarket shoppers.

  17. The first 500 days of life: policies to support maternal nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John B. Mason

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: From conception to 6 months of age, an infant is entirely dependent for its nutrition on the mother: via the placenta and then ideally via exclusive breastfeeding. This period of 15 months – about 500 days – is the most important and vulnerable in a child's life: it must be protected through policies supporting maternal nutrition and health. Those addressing nutritional status are discussed here. Objective and design: This paper aims to summarize research on policies and programs to protect women's nutrition in order to improve birth outcomes in low- and middle-income countries, based on studies of efficacy from the literature, and on effectiveness, globally and in selected countries involving in-depth data collection in communities in Ethiopia, India and Northern Nigeria. Results of this research have been published in the academic literature (more than 30 papers. The conclusions now need to be advocated to policy-makers. Results: The priority problems addressed are: intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR, women's anemia, thinness, and stunting. The priority interventions that need to be widely expanded for women before and during pregnancy, are: supplementation with iron–folic acid or multiple micronutrients; expanding coverage of iodine fortification of salt particularly to remote areas and the poorest populations; targeted provision of balanced protein energy supplements when significant resources are available; reducing teenage pregnancies; increasing interpregnancy intervals through family planning programs; and building on conditional cash transfer programs, both to provide resources and as a platform for public education. All these have known efficacy but are of inadequate coverage and resourcing. The next steps are to overcome barriers to wide implementation, without which targets for maternal and child health and nutrition (e.g. by WHO are unlikely to be met, especially in the poorest countries. Conclusions: This

  18. Impact of Maine's statewide nutrition policy on high school food environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whatley Blum, Janet E; Beaudoin, Christina M; O'Brien, Liam M; Polacsek, Michele; Harris, David E; O'Rourke, Karen A

    2011-01-01

    We assessed the effect on the food environments of public high schools of Maine's statewide nutrition policy (Chapter 51), which banned "foods of minimal nutritional value" (FMNV) in public high schools that participated in federally funded meal programs. We documented allowable exceptions to the policy and describe the school food environments. We mailed surveys to 89 high school food-service directors to assess availability pre-Chapter 51 and post-Chapter 51 of soda, other sugar-sweetened beverages, and junk food. Frequency data were tabulated pre-Chapter 51 and post-Chapter 51, and Fisher exact test was used to assess significance in changes. We conducted food and beverage inventories at 11 high schools. The survey return rate was 61% (N = 54). Availability of soda in student vending significantly decreased pre-Chapter 51 versus post-Chapter 51 (P = .04). No significant changes were found for other sugar-sweetened beverages and junk food. Exceptions to Chapter 51 were permitted to staff (67%), to the public (86%), and in career and technical education programs (31%). Inventories in a subset of schools found no availability of soda for students, whereas other sugar-sweetened beverages and junk food were widely available in à la carte, vending machines, and school stores. Candy, considered a FMNV, was freely available. Soda advertisement on school grounds was common. Student vending choices improved after the implementation of Chapter 51; however, use of FMNV as the policy standard may be limiting, as availability of other sugar-sweetened beverages and junk food was pervasive. School environments were not necessarily supportive of the policy, as advertisement of soda was common and some FMNV were available. Furthermore, local exceptions to Chapter 51 likely reduced the overall effect of the policy.

  19. Towards a food and nutrition policy for Australia, an environmentalist view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, F G

    1986-11-01

    The state government of Victoria, Australia, recently prepared a discussion paper towards a regional food and nutrition policy. This evaluation finds it deficient in various ways. The critique contains recommendations for the building of a national food policy. The commission report displays a lack of a systems view of the problem of nutrition, which would recognize a diversity of influences on eating (e.g. social frameworks and frameworks by which we think and know). Linear causality is not an adequate concept. Agribusiness impacts heavily on the environment. In the case of meat production, inputs to production far exceed food energy outputs. Disposal of the by-products of meat production is also more problematic. The way to impact on these wasteful and destructive industrial practices is to consume less meat. Additives in food are a serious problem not well enough addressed. This and other processing increase the cultural perception of foodstuffs as human artifacts. Awareness of the cultural role of foods would allow Australians to cope with industry campaigns promoting meat and processed foodstuffs. There should be more attention to mutual impacts of environment, consumptiuon, and additives and processing. Food from low in the food chain (cereals, seafood) should be promoted not as substitutes but as foods in their own right. Commission recommendations should deal with questions such as nutritional information labeling of foods, and especially an attempt to foster consciousness of the environmental impact of food consumption: Government policy should be mindful to the extent possible of the impact on poor areas of the world of wasteful food consumption in Australia. Proposals for action should benefit from the impact of several fields of expertise beyond health, agriculture, consumer affairs and others; for instance, anthropology or environmental science.

  20. Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of States, Districts, and Schools That Required Teaching Nutrition and Dietary Behavior, by School Level 100 80 60 40 20 0 72. ... no comparable variable existed in both survey years. Nutrition Services • 68.6% of schools offered breakfast to students and 63.0% participated ...

  1. Main Issues on Electronic Commerce and Policy Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chongwha Lee

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available "Electronic Commerce" means that people sell and buy commodity, labor service and information through internet and now is mainly be used in commercial intercourse. The core of the international research related to Electronic Commerce is a tax-exemption, land tax, liberalization of encrypted technology and privacy protection policy, etc. Meanwhile, intellectual property, consumer protection and limitation of packing specification are also researched together with the business activeness. The reason why questions related to Electronic Commerce are in the back of the spotlight is that US and major countries in EU lead the international research to maximize their own benefits. These researches are related to rectify legal system framework for protecting development of Electronic Commerce and to work out international standards. Also, enlarging Electronic Commerce on online resources is also regarded as the core issue by OECD, APEC and other international organization and it is inevitable to have multilateral negotiation regarding this issue. Based on the opinion above mentioned, we collect all the problems brought by Electronic Commerce Activeness in each area in this paper and try to find out corresponding solutions to face these problems.

  2. Using data from a nationally representative nutrition surveillance system to assess trends and influence nutrition programs and policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasima Akhter

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The Nutritional Surveillance Project (NSP* of Helen Keller International (HKI, Bangladesh, implemented in partnership with the Government of Bangladesh’s (GOB Institute of Public Health Nutrition (IPHN from 1990 until 2006, is among the longest running surveillance systems; and was implemented with an overall goal to monitor nutrition and health status of children and mothers in Bangladesh. From 1990-1997, NSP data collection included rural and urban poor populations of disaster prone areas of Bangladesh. Since 1998, it evolved into a nationally representative nutrition surveillance system in rural Bangladesh and also continued assessing trends of malnutrition in urban poor areas. Over the 16 year period, the NSP produced plethora of information that was packaged and shared as bulletins, in peer reviewed journal articles, as presentations at conferences, seminars, workshops. The NSP had a flexible framework that allowed it to assess trends and underlying factors of malnutrition, monitor and evaluate selected programs and conduct special studies related to current and emerging issues. NSP findings were available to contribute to program development and supported policy discussions in-country and internationally. The NSP continuously highlighted the importance of monitoring, which is not only an indispensible element for a successful program, but also helps prioritization and decision making to maximize utilization of limited resources for developing countries burdened with numerous problems to address. The NSP provides an example of a technically sound surveillance system with rapid turnover of data and findings, which is imperative to successful program planning, policy formulation and tracking progress toward developmental goals.Le projet Nutritional Surveillance Project (NSP* de l’association Helen Keller International (HKI, mis en œuvre au Bangladesh en partenariat avec l’Institute of Public Health Nutrition (IPHN,

  3. Human nutrition and adaptation in Brazilian Amazon fishing areas: contributions to health policies

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    Gilberto Ferreira de Souza Aguiar

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The search for equity in access to services is presently an important principle in public policies for health in Brazil. Social inequalities in the Amazonia occur at high levels comparatively to the other regions in the country; and, within Amazonia, they particularly affect rural communities. The present study aims to appreciate associations between food and nutritional profile, adaptive strategies, and epidemiology in these communities, specially in areas of artisanal fishery, and also to suggest general lines of appropriated health policies. The construction of a context of equitable assistance and of sustainable health, without significant damage to biodiversity, depends on the capacity of public power in exploring the relationships between use and management of natural resources and the quality of life of riverine man.

  4. USDA food and nutrient databases provide the infrastructure for food and nutrition research, policy, and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuja, Jaspreet K C; Moshfegh, Alanna J; Holden, Joanne M; Harris, Ellen

    2013-02-01

    The USDA food and nutrient databases provide the basic infrastructure for food and nutrition research, nutrition monitoring, policy, and dietary practice. They have had a long history that goes back to 1892 and are unique, as they are the only databases available in the public domain that perform these functions. There are 4 major food and nutrient databases released by the Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center (BHNRC), part of the USDA's Agricultural Research Service. These include the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, the Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database, the Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies, and the USDA Food Patterns Equivalents Database. The users of the databases are diverse and include federal agencies, the food industry, health professionals, restaurants, software application developers, academia and research organizations, international organizations, and foreign governments, among others. Many of these users have partnered with BHNRC to leverage funds and/or scientific expertise to work toward common goals. The use of the databases has increased tremendously in the past few years, especially the breadth of uses. These new uses of the data are bound to increase with the increased availability of technology and public health emphasis on diet-related measures such as sodium and energy reduction. Hence, continued improvement of the databases is important, so that they can better address these challenges and provide reliable and accurate data.

  5. Methodological approach to a multidimensional evaluation of food and nutrition policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Leonor Maria Pacheco; dos Santos, Sandra Maria Chaves

    2003-01-01

    Recommendations arising from global conferences and summits, expressed the need to formulate and implement public policies to improve household food security. In the context of maximizing benefits given available resources, comprehensive evaluations of the nutrition policies and programs are needed. One obstacle to overcome was a clear definition of terminology; the words efficiency, effectiveness, efficacy and impact, widely used in the context of program evaluation, are sometimes interchanged and there is no consensus about their precise definition. Another approach to health evaluation is based in the paradigm structure-process-outcome. The level structure contemplated the installations, resources, instruments (physical and discursive), as well as the technical bureaucratic organizational structures. Process encompassed the whole set of intervention activities developed, whereas the dimension of outcome comprised the effects of interventions on the health and nutrition of beneficiaries. Each of the three dimensions constitutes a continuum in the evaluation procedure: the structure only fulfills its purposes if the processes are adequate and conversely, processes cannot alone supersede structural limitations. Moreover, all the three dimensions only reach their ultimate objectives through the completion of outcomes. The methodology proposed here has been tested in the case of Bahia, Northeast Brazil, and it was found to be adequate for this type of analysis. We hope this approach of a comprehensive multidimensional evaluation, constitutes an effective contribution for program planners and program managers, in particular with regard to the obstacles detected, some of which can surely be overcome.

  6. Situational analysis of infant and young child nutrition policies and programmatic activities in Niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuehler, Sara E; Biga Hassoumi, Abdoulazize

    2011-04-01

    Due to limited progress towards reducing mortality and malnutrition among children security, and hygienic practices. The results reported are limited by the availability of documents for review. Mortality rates are on track to reaching the Millennium Development Goal to reduce mortality among young children by two-thirds by 2015, but there has been no change in undernutrition, and total mortality rates are still high among young children. Nearly all of the key IYCN topics were addressed, specifically or generally, in national policy documents, training materials, and programmes. A national nutrition council meets regularly to coordinate programme activities nationally. Many of the IYCN-related programmes are intended for national coverage, but few reach this coverage. Monitoring and impact evaluations were conducted on some programmes, but few of these reported on whether the specific IYCN components of the programme were implemented as designed or compared outcomes with non-intervention sites. Human resources have been identified as inadequate to fully carry out nutrition programmes in Niger. Due to these limitations, we could not confirm whether the lack of progress in reducing malnutrition was due to ineffective or inadequately implemented programmes, though both of these were likely contributors. The policy framework is well established for the promotion of optimal IYCN practices, but greater resources and capacity building are needed to: (i) increase human capacities to carry out nutrition programmes; (ii) expand and track the implementation of evidence-based programmes nationally; (iii) improve and carry out monitoring and evaluation that identify effective and ineffective programmes; and (iv) apply these findings in developing, expanding, and improving effective programmes. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. A qualitative study of junior high school principals' and school food service directors' experiences with the Texas school nutrition policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Stephen M; Pobocik, Rebecca S; Deek, Rima; Besgrove, Ashley; Prostine, Becky A

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to learn about the experiences of principals and school food service directors with the Texas Public School Nutrition Policy. Semistructured qualitative interviews were conducted to gain first hand reactions to the new nutrition policy. Data were gathered from Texas middle schools. Principals and food service directors from 24 schools randomly selected from 10 Texas Education regions were interviewed. Participants were interviewed about their reactions to the implementation of the Texas School Nutrition Policy. Two researchers, using thematic analysis, independently analyzed each interview. Differences in coding were reconciled and themes were generated. The themes that surfaced included resistance to the policy, policy development process, communication, government role, parental role, food rewards, fund raising, and leadership. Resistance to the policy was not extreme. In the future a wider array of school personnel who are affected by school food regulations should be included in the development of new policies. It is critical to communicate with all concerned parties about the policy.

  8. nstitutional Capacities and Social Policy Implementation: Maternal Child Health and Nutrition Programmes in Argentina and Chile (1930-2000

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    Alma Idiart

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article compares maternal child health and nutrition programmes in Argentina and Chile, focusing on long-term institutional features and the central neo-liberal trends organizing social reforms during the 1980s and the 1990s. Objective: To carry out a comparative study of the ransformations of Maternal Child Health and Nutrition Programmes, taking into account three intertwined issues: social policies, institutional capacity, and policy implementation. Methodology: The documentary analysis done in this article is framed in the structural force model of Carmelo Mesa-Lago and the polity-centred structure model of Theda Skocpol. Conclusions: Despite relatively similar policy lines implemented in both countries, the contrasting long-term institutional features (Chilean programmes addressed maternal and child health more efficiently than the Argentines account for most of the variation in the overall process of reform implementation and the performance of maternal and child health policies.

  9. Global policy and programme guidance on maternal nutrition: what exists, the mechanisms for providing it, and how to improve them?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrimpton, Roger

    2012-07-01

    Undernutrition in one form or another affects the majority of women of reproductive age in most developing countries. However, there are few or no effective programmes trying to solve maternal undernutrition problems. The purpose of the paper is to examine global policy and programme guidance mechanisms for nutrition, what their content is with regard to maternal nutrition in particular, as well as how these might be improved. Almost all countries have committed themselves politically to ensuring the right of pregnant and lactating women to good nutrition through the Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination Against Women. Despite this, the World Health Organization (WHO) has not endorsed any policy commitments with regard to maternal nutrition. The only policy guidance coming from the various technical departments of WHO relates to the control of maternal anaemia. There is no policy or programme guidance concerning issues of maternal thinness, weight gain during pregnancy and/or low birthweight prevention. Few if any countries have maternal nutrition programmes beyond those for maternal anaemia, and most of those are not effective. The lack of importance given to maternal nutrition is related in part to a weakness of evidence, related to the difficulty of getting ethical clearance, as well as a generalised tendency to downplay the importance of those interventions found to be efficacious. No priority has been given to implementing existing policy and programme guidance for the control of maternal anaemia largely because of a lack of any dedicated funding, linked to a lack of Millennium Development Goals indicator status. This is partly due to the poor evidence base, as well as to the common belief that maternal anaemia programmes were not effective, even if efficacious. The process of providing evidence-based policy and programme guidance to member states is currently being revamped and strengthened by the Department of Nutrition for Health and

  10. Teacher Perceptions of Multilevel Policies and the Influence on Nutrition Education in North Carolina Head Start Preschools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Amanda D; Goodell, L Suzanne; Hegde, Archana; Stage, Virginia C

    2017-05-01

    To develop a theory that explains the process of how teachers' perception of multilevel policies may influence nutrition education (NE) teaching strategies in Head Start preschools. Semistructured telephone interviews. North Carolina Head Start preschools. Thirty-two Head Start teachers. All interviews were transcribed verbatim. Following a grounded theory approach, authors coded interview data for emergent themes. Two primary themes emerged during analysis, including teachers' policy perceptions and teacher-perceived influence of policy on NE. A theoretical model was developed to explain how teachers' perceptions of policies influenced NE (eg, teaching strategies) in the classroom. Teachers discussed multiple policy areas governing their classrooms and limiting their ability to provide meaningful and consistent NE. How teachers perceived the level of regulation in the classroom (ie, high or low) influenced the frequency with which they used specific teaching strategies. Despite federal policies supporting the provision of NE, teachers face competing priorities in the classroom (eg, school readiness vs NE) and policies may conflict with standardized NE curricula. To understand how Head Start centers develop local policies, additional research should investigate how administrators interpret federal and state policies. Copyright © 2017 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. National policies for the promotion of physical activity and healthy nutrition in the workplace context: a behaviour change wheel guided content analysis of policy papers in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuija Seppälä

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health policy papers disseminate recommendations and guidelines for the development and implementation of health promotion interventions. Such documents have rarely been investigated with regard to their assumed mechanisms of action for changing behaviour. The Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF and Behaviour Change Techniques (BCT Taxonomy have been used to code behaviour change intervention descriptions, but to our knowledge such “retrofitting” of policy papers has not previously been reported. This study aims first to identify targets, mediators, and change strategies for physical activity (PA and nutrition behaviour change in Finnish policy papers on workplace health promotion, and second to assess the suitability of the Behaviour Change Wheel (BCW approach for this purpose. Method We searched all national-level health policy papers effectual in Finland in August 2016 focusing on the promotion of PA and/or healthy nutrition in the workplace context (n = 6. Policy recommendations targeting employees’ nutrition and PA including sedentary behaviour (SB were coded using BCW, TDF, and BCT Taxonomy. Results A total of 125 recommendations were coded in the six policy papers, and in two additional documents referenced by them. Psychological capability, physical opportunity, and social opportunity were frequently identified (22%, 31%, and 24%, respectively, whereas physical capability was almost completely absent (1%. Three TDF domains (knowledge, skills, and social influence were observed in all papers. Multiple intervention functions and BCTs were identified in all papers but several recommendations were too vague to be coded reliably. Influencing individuals (46% and changing the physical environment (44% were recommended more frequently than influencing the social environment (10%. Conclusions The BCW approach appeared to be useful for analysing the content of health policy papers. Paying more attention to underlying

  12. National policies for the promotion of physical activity and healthy nutrition in the workplace context: a behaviour change wheel guided content analysis of policy papers in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seppälä, Tuija; Hankonen, Nelli; Korkiakangas, Eveliina; Ruusuvuori, Johanna; Laitinen, Jaana

    2017-08-02

    Health policy papers disseminate recommendations and guidelines for the development and implementation of health promotion interventions. Such documents have rarely been investigated with regard to their assumed mechanisms of action for changing behaviour. The Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) and Behaviour Change Techniques (BCT) Taxonomy have been used to code behaviour change intervention descriptions, but to our knowledge such "retrofitting" of policy papers has not previously been reported. This study aims first to identify targets, mediators, and change strategies for physical activity (PA) and nutrition behaviour change in Finnish policy papers on workplace health promotion, and second to assess the suitability of the Behaviour Change Wheel (BCW) approach for this purpose. We searched all national-level health policy papers effectual in Finland in August 2016 focusing on the promotion of PA and/or healthy nutrition in the workplace context (n = 6). Policy recommendations targeting employees' nutrition and PA including sedentary behaviour (SB) were coded using BCW, TDF, and BCT Taxonomy. A total of 125 recommendations were coded in the six policy papers, and in two additional documents referenced by them. Psychological capability, physical opportunity, and social opportunity were frequently identified (22%, 31%, and 24%, respectively), whereas physical capability was almost completely absent (1%). Three TDF domains (knowledge, skills, and social influence) were observed in all papers. Multiple intervention functions and BCTs were identified in all papers but several recommendations were too vague to be coded reliably. Influencing individuals (46%) and changing the physical environment (44%) were recommended more frequently than influencing the social environment (10%). The BCW approach appeared to be useful for analysing the content of health policy papers. Paying more attention to underlying assumptions regarding behavioural change processes may help to

  13. A nutritional comparison of foods and beverages marketed to children in two advertising policy environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potvin Kent, Monique; Dubois, Lise; Wanless, Alissa

    2012-09-01

    Childhood obesity is associated with children's exposure to food/beverage marketing. Policy options in this area are being sought in order to reduce childhood obesity rates on a population-level. We examined the nutritional quality of foods advertised to children during their preferred television viewing in Ontario (Canada), where advertising is self-regulated by industry, and in Quebec (Canada), where a child-directed advertising ban exists. A total of 428 children aged 10-12 years completed television viewing diaries for 7 days. Thirty-two television stations were recorded simultaneously between 6 AM and midnight. A content analysis of 90 h of English Ontario, French Quebec, and English Quebec children's preferred viewing was then undertaken. A total of 429 food and beverage advertisements were analyzed and their nutritional quality was assessed. Food advertisements in the Quebec French sample were statistically significantly higher in total fat, saturated fat and protein, and lower in carbohydrates and sugar per 100 g, and as a percentage of energy than food ads in the two English samples. A statistically significantly lower percentage of the Quebec French food advertisements were classified as either high fat, sugar or sodium and a smaller proportion of food ads were classified as "less healthy" compared to the Ontario and Quebec English samples. These results suggest that the Quebec advertising ban is influencing the macronutrient profile of advertised foods viewed by French Quebec children during their preferred viewing and that their promotions are marginally healthier than that viewed by the English samples.

  14. Changes in Dietary Behavior Among Adolescents and Their Association With Government Nutrition Policies in Korea, 2005-2009

    OpenAIRE

    Bae, Sang Geun; Kim, Jong Yeon; Kim, Keon Yeop; Park, Soon Woo; Bae, Jisuk; Lee, Won Kee

    2012-01-01

    Objectives This study was conducted to observe recent changes in adolescents' dietary behavior and indirectly evaluate the effects of the government's nutritional policies in Korea. Methods We analyzed the secular trends in seven dietary behaviors using the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey data from 2005 to 2009. Through literature review, we included the policies implemented for the improvement of adolescents'dietary behaviors during the same periods. Results The significant linear...

  15. Low sugar nutrition policies and dental caries: A study of primary schools in South Auckland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornley, Simon; Marshall, Roger; Reynolds, Gary; Koopu, Pauline; Sundborn, Gerhard; Schofield, Grant

    2017-05-01

    The study assessed whether a healthy food policy implemented in one school, Yendarra Primary, situated in a socio-economically deprived area of South Auckland, had improved student oral health by comparing dental caries levels with students of similar schools in the same region with no such policy. Records of caries of the primary and adult teeth were obtained between 2007 and 2014 for children attending Yendarra, and were compared to those of eight other public schools in the area, with a similar demographic profile. Children were selected between the ages of 8 and 11 years. Linear regression models were used to estimate the strength of association between attending Yendarra school and dental caries. During the study period, 3813 records were obtained of children who attended dental examinations and the schools of interest. In a linear model, mean number of carious primary and adult teeth were 0.37 lower (95% confidence interval: 0.09-0.65) in Yendarra school children, compared to those in other schools, after adjustment for confounders. Pacific students had higher numbers of carious teeth (adjusted β coefficient: 0.25; 95% confidence interval: 0.03-0.46) than Māori. This nutrition policy, implemented in a school in the poorest region of South Auckland, which restricted sugary food and drink availability, was associated with a marked positive effect on the oral health of students, compared to students in surrounding schools. We recommend that such policies are a useful means of improving child oral health. © 2017 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  16. An investigation of the ways in which public health nutrition policy and practices can address climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulda, Heidi; Coveney, John; Bentley, Michael

    2010-03-01

    To develop a framework to guide action in the public health nutrition workforce to develop policies and practices addressing factors contributing to climate change. Action/consultative research. Interviews - South Australia, questionnaire - Australia. Interviews - key informants (n 6) were from various government, academic and non-government positions, invited through email. Questionnaire - participants were members of the public health nutrition workforce (n 186), recruited to the study through emails from public health nutrition contacts for each State in Australia (with the exception of South Australia). Support by participants for climate change as a valid role for dietitians and nutritionists was high (78 %). However, climate change was ranked low against other public health nutrition priorities. Support of participants to conduct programmes to address climate change from professional and work organisations was low. The final framework developed included elements of advocacy/lobbying, policy, professional recognition/support, organisational support, knowledge/skills, partnerships and programmes. This research demonstrates a need for public health nutrition to address climate change, which requires support by organisations, policy, improved knowledge and increased professional development opportunities.

  17. Changes in dietary behavior among adolescents and their association with government nutrition policies in Korea, 2005-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Sang Geun; Kim, Jong Yeon; Kim, Keon Yeop; Park, Soon Woo; Bae, Jisuk; Lee, Won Kee

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to observe recent changes in adolescents' dietary behavior and indirectly evaluate the effects of the government's nutritional policies in Korea. We analyzed the secular trends in seven dietary behaviors using the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey data from 2005 to 2009. Through literature review, we included the policies implemented for the improvement of adolescents'dietary behaviors during the same periods. The significant linear trends were observed in all dietary behaviors (ppolicies were implemented including 'Ban on carbonated-beverages in school', 'Green Food Zone', etc. Despite confirmed evidence of their effects, the policies on individual behavior such as nutrition education didn't influence the prevalence of dietary behaviors because they were conducted to too limited persons. Policies on the school environmental improvement, such as ban on carbonated beverage in school, were more effective because they decreased the exposure of undesirable food environment. However, for effect of Green Food Zone improving community environment we couldn't come to a conclusion because of too short period after full implementation. Among government nutrition policies conducted from 2005 to 2009, those on environmental improvement, especially in school, were more effective than those on individual behavior. Therefore, the development and implement of policies on school environmental improvement are needed in Korea.

  18. Bringing Policy and Practice To the Table: Young Women’s Nutritional Experiences In An Ontario Secondary School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Gray

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, media, health organizations and researchers have raised concern over the health of Canadian children and adolescents. Stakeholders have called on the government to confront the problem. Schools are seen as an ideal site for developing and implementing large-scale interventions because of the ease of access to large groups of children and adolescents. Within Ontario, new nutrition policies, such as the School Food and Beverage Policy (2011 have been implemented in an attempt to change the current health status of children and adolescents. The purpose of this study was to examine the eating behaviours and nutrition knowledge of young women in an Ontario secondary school.  Semi-structured interviews were used to examine the reproduction, negotiation and resistance to the nutrition messages received by young women within the school environment. The interviews revealed the influence of parents, the inability of apply learned knowledge and the ineffectiveness of the school environment.

  19. Nutrition Services and Foods and Beverages Available at School: Results from the School Health Policies and Programs Study 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Toole, Terrence P.; Anderson, Susan; Miller, Clare; Guthrie, Joanne

    2007-01-01

    Background: Schools are in a unique position to promote healthy dietary behaviors and help ensure appropriate nutrient intake. This article describes the characteristics of both school nutrition services and the foods and beverages sold outside of the school meals program in the United States, including state- and district-level policies and…

  20. The Impact of School Socioeconomic Status on Student Lunch Consumption after Implementation of the Texas Public School Nutrition Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Karen Weber; Watson, Kathleen B.; Fithian, Ashley R.

    2009-01-01

    Background: This study compares the impact of the Texas Public School Nutrition Policy on lunch consumption of low- and middle-income students in sixth through eighth grades. Methods: Students in 1 middle socioeconomic status (SES) and 1 low SES school completed lunch food records before (2001/2002) and after (2005/2006) implementation of the…

  1. The impact of school socioeconomic status on student lunch consumption after implementation of the Texas Public School Nutrition policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study compared the impact of the Texas Public School Nutrition Policy on lunch consumption of low- and middle-income students in sixth through eighth grades. Students in one middle socioeconomic status (SES), and one low SES school completed lunch food records before (2001/2002), and after (200...

  2. Integrating Environmental Sustainability Considerations into Food and Nutrition Policies: Insights from Australia’s National Food Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgway, Ella Megan; Lawrence, Mark Andrew; Woods, Julie

    2015-01-01

    The environmental sustainability (ES) of food systems is a critical challenge for policy makers. This is a highly contested policy area with differing views among stakeholders. The aim of the study was to develop a better understanding of how ES considerations are addressed in Australian food and nutrition policies and the way that consultation processes affect final policy outcomes. A mixed-methods study design combined a detailed chronology of key policy developments (2009–2015), a content analysis of written submissions obtained during the NFP’s consultation period (2011–2013) and a frame analysis of the sustainability perspectives – efficiency, demand restraint, and system transformation – in the NFP’s Issues, Green, and White Papers. There were 555 written submissions responding to two consultation papers. Stakeholders represented all sectors of Australia’s food system including government, non-government organizations, the food supply chain, research and academic institutions, and members of the general public. Around 74% of submissions referred to ES considerations and ~65% supported their inclusion into the final policy. Efficiency frames were most dominant; emphasizing a production-oriented approach that regards the environment as a natural resource base for food production but overlooks consumption and equity concerns. Despite strong support for the inclusion of ES considerations in the NFP, the influence of Australia’s socio-political context, powerful, industry-dominated stakeholders, and a reliance on traditional production-oriented perspectives delivered a business-as-usual approach to food policy making. It has since been replaced by an agricultural strategy that provides only cursory attention to ES. Our findings indicate that Australia’s political environment is not sufficiently mature for ES considerations to be integrated into food and nutrition policies. We propose reforms to the current consultation process in Australia to

  3. Integrating environmental sustainability considerations into food and nutrition policies: insights from Australia’s National Food Plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ella Megan Ridgway

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The environmental sustainability (ES of food systems is a critical challenge for policy-makers. This is a highly contested policy area with differing views among stakeholders. The aim of the study was to develop a better understanding of how ES considerations are addressed in Australian food and nutrition policies and the way that consultation processes affect final policy outcomes. A mixed-methods study design combined a detailed chronology of key policy developments (2009 – 2015, a content analysis of written submissions obtained during the NFP’s consultation period (2011 – 2013 and a framing analysis of the sustainability perspectives - efficiency, demand restraint and system transformation – in the NFP’s Issues, Green and White Papers. There were 555 written submissions responding to two consultation papers. Stakeholders represented all sectors of Australia’s food system including government, non-government organizations, the food supply chain, research and academic institutions and members of the general public. Around 74% of submissions referred to ES considerations and approximately 65% supported their inclusion into the final policy. Efficiency frames were most dominant; emphasizing a production-oriented approach that regards the environment as a natural resource base for food production but overlooks consumption and equity concerns. Despite strong support for the inclusion of ES considerations in the NFP the influence of Australia’s sociopolitical context, powerful, industry-dominated stakeholders and a reliance on traditional production-oriented perspectives delivered a business-as-usual approach to food policy-making. It has since been replaced by an agricultural strategy that provides only cursory attention to ES. Our findings indicate that Australia’s political environment is not sufficiently mature for ES considerations to be integrated into food and nutrition policies. We propose reforms to the current consultation

  4. Consumers' Response to an On-Shelf Nutrition Labelling System in Supermarkets: Evidence to Inform Policy and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobin, Erin; Bollinger, Bryan; Sacco, Jocelyn; Liebman, Eli; Vanderlee, Lana; Zuo, Fei; Rosella, Laura; L'abbe, Mary; Manson, Heather; Hammond, David

    2017-09-01

    Policy Points: On-shelf nutrition labelling systems in supermarkets, such as the Guiding Stars system, are intended to provide consumers with simple, standardized nutrition information to support more informed and healthier food choices. Policies that support the provision of simplified nutrition labelling systems may encourage consumers to make positive shifts in food-purchasing behaviors. The shifts in consumer food-purchasing patterns observed in our study after the introduction of the Guiding Stars system in supermarkets translated into measurable nutritional benefits, including more items purchased with slightly less trans fat and sugar and more fiber and omega-3 fatty acids. This study is one of the first to report the positive impact of an on-shelf nutrition labelling system on supermarket sales and revenues-key information that was specifically requested by the US National Academies, as such labelling interventions may be more sustainable if they lead to higher revenues. Providing a nutrition rating system on the front of food packages or on retail shelf tags has been proposed as a policy strategy for supporting healthier food choices. Guiding Stars is an on-shelf nutrition labelling system that scores foods in a supermarket based on nutritional quality; scores are then translated into ratings of 0 to 3 stars. It is consistent with evidence-informed recommendations for well-designed labels, except for not labelling 0-star products. The largest supermarket retailer in Canada rolled out the Guiding Stars system in supermarkets across Ontario, Canada. The aim of our study was to examine the extent to which consumers respond to an on-shelf nutrition labelling system in supermarkets to inform current and future nutrition labelling policies and practices. Capitalizing on a natural experiment, we conducted a quasi-experimental study across 3 supermarket banners (or "chains") in Ontario, one of which implemented the Guiding Stars system in 2012. We used aggregated

  5. A critical analysis of UK public health policies in relation to diet and nutrition in low-income households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attree, Pamela

    2006-04-01

    Diet and nutrition, particularly among low-income groups, is a key public health concern in the UK. Low levels of fruit and vegetable consumption, and obesity, especially among children, have potentially severe consequences for the future health of the nation. From a public health perspective, the UK government's role is to help poorer families make informed choices within healthy frameworks for living. However, the question is - to what extent are such policies in accordance with lay experiences of managing diet and nutrition on a low-income? This paper critically examines contemporary public health policies aimed at improving diet and nutrition, identifying the underlying theories about the influences on healthy eating in poor families, and exploring the extent to which these assumptions are based on experiential accounts. It draws on two qualitative systematic reviews - one prioritizing low-income mothers' accounts of 'managing' in poverty; and the other focusing on children's perspectives. The paper finds some common ground between policies and lay experiences, but also key divergencies. Arguably, the emphasis of public health policy on individual behaviour, coupled with an ethos of empowered consumerism, underplays material limitations on 'healthy eating' for low-income mothers and children. Health policies fail to take into account the full impact of structural influences on food choices, or recognize the social and emotional factors that influence diet and nutrition. In conclusion, it is argued that while health promotion campaigns to improve low-income families' diets do have advantages, these are insufficient to outweigh the negative effects of poverty on nutrition.

  6. A Qualitative Investigation to Underpin the Development of an Electronic Tool to Assess Nutrition Literacy in Australian Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyssa M Cassar

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Nutrition literacy is linked to health via its influence on dietary intake. There is a need for a tool to assess nutrition literacy in research and dietetic practice. We sought guidance from nutrition professionals on topic areas and features of an electronic nutrition literacy assessment tool for Australian adults. 28 experienced nutrition professionals engaged in a range of nutrition and dietetic work areas participated in six focus groups using a semi-structured interview schedule. Data were analysed using an inductive approach using NVivo 10 (QSR International, Pty Ltd., Doncaster, Australia, 2012. Key areas identified to assess nutrition literacy included specific nutrients versus foods, labels and packaging, construction of the diet, knowledge of the Australian Dietary Guidelines and Australian Guide to Healthy Eating, understanding of serve and portion sizes, ability to select healthier foods, and demographics such as belief systems and culture. Exploitation of electronic features to enhance visual and auditory displays, including interactive animations such as “drag and drop” and virtual reality situations, were discussed. This study provided insight into the most relevant topic areas and presentation format to assess the nutrition literacy of adult Australians. The visual, auditory, and interactive capacity of the available technology could enhance the assessment of nutrition literacy.

  7. A Qualitative Investigation to Underpin the Development of an Electronic Tool to Assess Nutrition Literacy in Australians Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassar, Alyssa M; Denyer, Gareth S; O'Connor, Helen T; Gifford, Janelle A

    2018-02-23

    Nutrition literacy is linked to health via its influence on dietary intake. There is a need for a tool to assess nutrition literacy in research and dietetic practice. We sought guidance from nutrition professionals on topic areas and features of an electronic nutrition literacy assessment tool for Australian adults. 28 experienced nutrition professionals engaged in a range of nutrition and dietetic work areas participated in six focus groups using a semi-structured interview schedule. Data were analysed using an inductive approach using NVivo 10 (QSR International, Pty Ltd., Doncaster, Australia, 2012). Key areas identified to assess nutrition literacy included specific nutrients versus foods, labels and packaging, construction of the diet, knowledge of the Australian Dietary Guidelines and Australian Guide to Healthy Eating, understanding of serve and portion sizes, ability to select healthier foods, and demographics such as belief systems and culture. Exploitation of electronic features to enhance visual and auditory displays, including interactive animations such as "drag and drop" and virtual reality situations, were discussed. This study provided insight into the most relevant topic areas and presentation format to assess the nutrition literacy of adult Australians. The visual, auditory, and interactive capacity of the available technology could enhance the assessment of nutrition literacy.

  8. [Food and nutrition security policy in Brazil: an analysis of resource allocation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custódio, Marta Battaglia; Yuba, Tânia Yuka; Cyrillo, Denise Cavallini

    2013-02-01

    To describe the progression and distribution of federal funds for programs and activities that fall within the scope of the guidelines of the Brazilian National Policy on Food and Nutrition Security (PNSAN) in the period from 2004 to 2010. This descriptive study used data from the Transparency Website maintained by the Brazilian Public Sector Internal Control Office. Search results were exported to Excel spreadsheets. To determine the resources allocated to food security initiatives, a database was set up containing all actions developed by the federal government between 2004 and 2010. This database was reviewed and the actions that were not related to PNSAN were discarded. The annual amounts obtained were corrected by the Consumer Price Index and updated for the year 2010. Since actions are part of specific programs, the sum of the resources allocated for all the actions of a program amounted to the resources invested in the program as a whole. The programs were then prioritized according to the amount of resources received in 2010. Of the 5 014 actions receiving federal funds in the study period, 814 were related to PNSAN (229 programs). There was growth in resources allocated for PNSAN programs, reaching US$ 15 billion in 2010 (an 82% increase over the previous year). The largest amount was invested in Bolsa Família, a cash transfer program. Ten programs received 90% of the funds, of which five were linked to food production processes. The amount of resources invested in the PNSAN and in actions and programs that promote food and nutrition security is increasing in Brazil.

  9. A Participatory Regional Partnership Approach to Promote Nutrition and Physical Activity Through Environmental and Policy Change in Rural Missouri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnidge, Ellen K; Baker, Elizabeth A; Estlund, Amy; Motton, Freda; Hipp, Pamela R; Brownson, Ross C

    2015-06-11

    Rural residents are less likely than urban and suburban residents to meet recommendations for nutrition and physical activity. Interventions at the environmental and policy level create environments that support healthy eating and physical activity. Healthier Missouri Communities (Healthier MO) is a community-based research project conducted by the Prevention Research Center in St. Louis with community partners from 12 counties in rural southeast Missouri. We created a regional partnership to leverage resources and enhance environmental and policy interventions to improve nutrition and physical activity in rural southeast Missouri. Partners were engaged in a participatory action planning process that included prioritizing, implementing, and evaluating promising evidence-based interventions to promote nutrition and physical activity. Group interviews were conducted with Healthier MO community partners post intervention to evaluate resource sharing and sustainability efforts of the regional partnership. Community partners identified the benefits and challenges of resource sharing within the regional partnership as well as the opportunities and threats to long-term partnership sustainability. The partners noted that the regional participatory process was difficult, but the benefits outweighed the challenges. Regional rural partnerships may be an effective way to leverage relationships to increase the capacity of rural communities to implement environmental and policy interventions to promote nutrition and physical activity.

  10. Regional trade and the nutrition transition: opportunities to strengthen NCD prevention policy in the Southern African Development Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thow, Anne Marie; Sanders, David; Drury, Eliza; Puoane, Thandi; Chowdhury, Syeda N; Tsolekile, Lungiswa; Negin, Joel

    2015-01-01

    Addressing diet-related non-communicable diseases (NCDs) will require a multisectoral policy approach that includes the food supply and trade, but implementing effective policies has proved challenging. The Southern African Development Community (SADC) has experienced significant trade and economic liberalization over the past decade; at the same time, the nutrition transition has progressed rapidly in the region. This analysis considers the relationship between regional trade liberalization and changes in the food environment associated with poor diets and NCDs, with the aim of identifying feasible and proactive policy responses to support healthy diets. Changes in trade and investment policy for the SADC were documented and compared with time-series graphs of import data for soft drinks and snack foods to assess changes in imports and source country in relation to trade and investment liberalization. Our analysis focuses on regional trade flows. Diets and the burden of disease in the SADC have changed since the 1990s in parallel with trade and investment liberalization. Imports of soft drinks increased by 76% into SADC countries between 1995 and 2010, and processed snack foods by 83%. South Africa acts as a regional trade and investment hub; it is the major source of imports and investment related to these products into other SADC countries. At the same time, imports of processed foods and soft drinks from outside the region - largely from Asia and the Middle East - are increasing at a dramatic rate with soft drink imports growing by almost 1,200% and processed snack foods by 750%. There is significant intra-regional trade in products associated with the nutrition transition; however, growing extra-regional trade means that countries face new pressures in implementing strong policies to prevent the increasing burden of diet-related NCDs. Implementation of a regional nutrition policy framework could complement the SADC's ongoing commitment to regional trade policy.

  11. Regional trade and the nutrition transition: opportunities to strengthen NCD prevention policy in the Southern African Development Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thow, Anne Marie; Sanders, David; Drury, Eliza; Puoane, Thandi; Chowdhury, Syeda N.; Tsolekile, Lungiswa; Negin, Joel

    2015-01-01

    Background Addressing diet-related non-communicable diseases (NCDs) will require a multisectoral policy approach that includes the food supply and trade, but implementing effective policies has proved challenging. The Southern African Development Community (SADC) has experienced significant trade and economic liberalization over the past decade; at the same time, the nutrition transition has progressed rapidly in the region. This analysis considers the relationship between regional trade liberalization and changes in the food environment associated with poor diets and NCDs, with the aim of identifying feasible and proactive policy responses to support healthy diets. Design Changes in trade and investment policy for the SADC were documented and compared with time-series graphs of import data for soft drinks and snack foods to assess changes in imports and source country in relation to trade and investment liberalization. Our analysis focuses on regional trade flows. Results Diets and the burden of disease in the SADC have changed since the 1990s in parallel with trade and investment liberalization. Imports of soft drinks increased by 76% into SADC countries between 1995 and 2010, and processed snack foods by 83%. South Africa acts as a regional trade and investment hub; it is the major source of imports and investment related to these products into other SADC countries. At the same time, imports of processed foods and soft drinks from outside the region – largely from Asia and the Middle East – are increasing at a dramatic rate with soft drink imports growing by almost 1,200% and processed snack foods by 750%. Conclusions There is significant intra-regional trade in products associated with the nutrition transition; however, growing extra-regional trade means that countries face new pressures in implementing strong policies to prevent the increasing burden of diet-related NCDs. Implementation of a regional nutrition policy framework could complement the SADC

  12. Regional trade and the nutrition transition: opportunities to strengthen NCD prevention policy in the Southern African Development Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Marie Thow

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Addressing diet-related non-communicable diseases (NCDs will require a multisectoral policy approach that includes the food supply and trade, but implementing effective policies has proved challenging. The Southern African Development Community (SADC has experienced significant trade and economic liberalization over the past decade; at the same time, the nutrition transition has progressed rapidly in the region. This analysis considers the relationship between regional trade liberalization and changes in the food environment associated with poor diets and NCDs, with the aim of identifying feasible and proactive policy responses to support healthy diets. Design: Changes in trade and investment policy for the SADC were documented and compared with time-series graphs of import data for soft drinks and snack foods to assess changes in imports and source country in relation to trade and investment liberalization. Our analysis focuses on regional trade flows. Results: Diets and the burden of disease in the SADC have changed since the 1990s in parallel with trade and investment liberalization. Imports of soft drinks increased by 76% into SADC countries between 1995 and 2010, and processed snack foods by 83%. South Africa acts as a regional trade and investment hub; it is the major source of imports and investment related to these products into other SADC countries. At the same time, imports of processed foods and soft drinks from outside the region – largely from Asia and the Middle East – are increasing at a dramatic rate with soft drink imports growing by almost 1,200% and processed snack foods by 750%. Conclusions: There is significant intra-regional trade in products associated with the nutrition transition; however, growing extra-regional trade means that countries face new pressures in implementing strong policies to prevent the increasing burden of diet-related NCDs. Implementation of a regional nutrition policy framework could

  13. The healthy options for nutrition environments in schools (Healthy ONES group randomized trial: using implementation models to change nutrition policy and environments in low income schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coleman Karen J

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Healthy Options for Nutrition Environments in Schools (Healthy ONES study was an evidence-based public health (EBPH randomized group trial that adapted the Institute for Healthcare Improvement’s (IHI rapid improvement process model to implement school nutrition policy and environmental change. Methods A low-income school district volunteered for participation in the study. All schools in the district agreed to participate (elementary = 6, middle school = 2 and were randomly assigned within school type to intervention (n = 4 and control (n =4 conditions following a baseline environmental audit year. Intervention goals were to 1 eliminate unhealthy foods and beverages on campus, 2 develop nutrition services as the main source on campus for healthful eating (HE, and 3 promote school staff modeling of HE. Schools were followed across a baseline year and two intervention years. Longitudinal assessment of height and weight was conducted with second, third, and sixth grade children. Behavioral observation of the nutrition environment was used to index the amount of outside foods and beverages on campuses. Observations were made monthly in each targeted school environment and findings were presented as items per child per week. Results From an eligible 827 second, third, and sixth grade students, baseline height and weight were collected for 444 second and third grade and 135 sixth grade students (51% reach. Data were available for 73% of these enrolled students at the end of three years. Intervention school outside food and beverage items per child per week decreased over time and control school outside food and beverage items increased over time. The effects were especially pronounced for unhealthy foods and beverage items. Changes in rates of obesity for intervention school (28% baseline, 27% year 1, 30% year 2 were similar to those seen for control school (22% baseline, 22% year 1, 25% year 2 children

  14. Grasping the Nettle: The Evolution of Australian Archives Electronic Records Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, Greg

    1997-01-01

    Examines issues in electronic records management from an archival perspective and illustrates points by referring to policy development at the Australian Archives. Describes the Australian Archives; outlines its strategy for managing electronic records; discusses policy response; preservation of format versus virtual records; and records creation,…

  15. Opportunities and challenges in developing a whole-of-government national food and nutrition policy: lessons from Australia's National Food Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Rachel; Caraher, Martin; Lawrence, Mark; Friel, Sharon

    2016-01-01

    The present article tracks the development of the Australian National Food Plan as a 'whole of government' food policy that aimed to integrate elements of nutrition and sustainability alongside economic objectives. The article uses policy analysis to explore the processes of consultation and stakeholder involvement in the development of the National Food Plan, focusing on actors from the sectors of industry, civil society and government. Existing documentation and submissions to the Plan were used as data sources. Models of health policy analysis and policy streams were employed to analyse policy development processes. Australia. Australian food policy stakeholders. The development of the Plan was influenced by powerful industry groups and stakeholder engagement by the lead ministry favoured the involvement of actors representing the food and agriculture industries. Public health nutrition and civil society relied on traditional methods of policy influence, and the public health nutrition movement failed to develop a unified cross-sector alliance, while the private sector engaged in different ways and presented a united front. The National Food Plan failed to deliver an integrated food policy for Australia. Nutrition and sustainability were effectively sidelined due to the focus on global food production and positioning Australia as a food 'superpower' that could take advantage of the anticipated 'dining boom' as incomes rose in the Asia-Pacific region. New forms of industry influence are emerging in the food policy arena and public health nutrition will need to adopt new approaches to influencing public policy.

  16. Changes in Nutrition Policies and Dietary Intake in Child Care Homes Participating in Healthy Eating and Active Living Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward-Lopez, Gail; Kao, Janice; Kuo, Elena S; James, Paula; Lenhart, Kitty; Becker, Christina; Boyle, Kathryn; Williamson, Dana; Rauzon, Suzanne

    2018-05-01

    From 2012 to 2014, a total of 17 family child care homes participated in a multisector, community-wide initiative to prevent obesity. Strategies included staff workshops, materials, site visits, and technical assistance regarding development and implementation of nutrition policies. The purpose of the evaluation was to examine the impact of the initiative on family child care home nutrition-related policies and practices and child dietary intake. Pre- and post-intervention without control group. Measures taken at baseline and follow-up included structured observations and questionnaires regarding nutrition policies, practices, and environments; documentation of lunch foods served on 5 days; and lunch plate waste observations on 2 days. Paired t-tests were used to determine the significance of change over time. Seventeen family child care homes in a low-income diverse community in Northern California; children aged 2-5 years who attended the family child care homes. Change in nutrition-related policies and practices, lunch foods served and consumed. Data was collected at 17 sites for an average of 5.2 children aged 2-5 years per site per day at baseline and 4.6 at follow-up for a total of 333 plate waste observations. There were significant increases in staff training, parental involvement, and several of the targeted nutrition-related practices; prevalence of most other practices either improved or was maintained over time. There were significant increases in the number of sites meeting Child and Adult Care Food Program meal guidelines, variety of fruit and frequency of vegetables offered, and reductions in frequency of juice and high-fat processed meats offered. Adequate portions of all food groups were consumed at both time points with no significant change over time. A simple, policy-focused intervention by a child care resource and referral agency was successful at reinforcing and improving upon nutrition-related practices at family child care homes. Children

  17. A Participatory Regional Partnership Approach to Promote Nutrition and Physical Activity Through Environmental and Policy Change in Rural Missouri

    OpenAIRE

    Barnidge, Ellen K.; Baker, Elizabeth A.; Estlund, Amy; Motton, Freda; Hipp, Pamela R.; Brownson, Ross C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Rural residents are less likely than urban and suburban residents to meet recommendations for nutrition and physical activity. Interventions at the environmental and policy level create environments that support healthy eating and physical activity. Community Context Healthier Missouri Communities (Healthier MO) is a community-based research project conducted by the Prevention Research Center in St. Louis with community partners from 12 counties in rural southeast Missouri. We crea...

  18. Nutrition and food security policy in the Islamic Republic of Iran: situation analysis and roadmap towards 2021.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damari, Behzad; Abdollahi, Zahra; Hajifaraji, Majid; Rezazadeh, Arezoo

    2018-05-03

    All government policies and programmes for food and nutrition security should include providing healthy food, as well as providing economic and social availability for all people. This study aimed to analyse the current situation of Iranian food and nutrition security and establish a road map towards 2021. The applied methods were situation analysis and a mixed qualitative-quantitative method. The conceptual method used for developing this national document encompassed three areas: sustainable food supply, food safety and nutrition. The outcomes of the Iranian food and nutrition security system in the past three decades include development of management infrastructure and improvement in food and nutrition security status. However, analysis of current programmes showed that there were some overlapping, intertwining and parallel works in the responsibilities of related organizations in the field of supervision of food safety (from production to supply). The national document produced as the outcome of this paper was communicated by the Iranian Ministry of Health in 2012 and has been running for 2 years. Selected ministries are responsible for implementation of 20 national programmes by the end of the 5th Economic, Social and Cultural Development Programme (2016-2011). The consensus of stakeholders by the end of the 6th Development Programme (2021) is to put all of the provinces in a safe or very safe situation in terms of food and nutrition security. The most important challenge in establishing national documents is to make them operational. This aim was achieved by an intersectoral nutrition and food security working group, which produced a general memorandum of understanding with the main organizations, the media, universities and private sector. Copyright © World Health Organization (WHO) 2018. Some rights reserved. This work is available under the CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/igo).

  19. Securing a Stop to the Summer Setback: Policy Considerations in the Future Expansion of the Summer Electronic Benefit Transfer for Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Laura C; Hooker, Neal H; Gunther, Carolyn

    2017-09-01

    The Summer Electronic Benefits Transfer for Children (SEBTC) has been proposed as a solution to address the problem of child food security during the summer. Initial SEBTC findings from a demonstration project show promise and the federal government has approved substantial funding for its continuation. This report reviews empirical assessments of SEBTC and Electronic Benefits Transfer research, and presents policy considerations in the program's future expansion. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of electron beam irradiation on the nutritional ingredient of Sciaenops ocellatus meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Chunfang; Yang Wenge; Xu Dalun; Shi Huidong

    2011-01-01

    The influences of electron beam irradiation and package pattern (vacuum or ordinary) on the nutritional ingredient of Sciaenops ocellatus meat were investigated. The results were summarized as follows: (1) Electron-beam irradiation dose had notable effect on the moisture content, but no significant impact on the content of ash, protein, lipid and total carbohydrate. Teh package pattern had no significant effect on the common nutrional composition of Sciaenops ocellatus meat. (2) Either package pattern or irradiation dose showed little influence on the total amino acids, delicious amino acid, EAA/TAA and EAA/NEAA of Sciaenops ocellatus meat. The first limiting amino acid of Sciaenops ocellatus meat changed from Met plus Cys to Val in virtue of electron beam irradiation. (3) Both irradiation dose and package pattern showed no difference to the total fatty acid content. But the irradiation dose had notable effect on the relative content of unsaturated fatty acid, polyunsaturated fatty acid and DHA. The vacuum-packaged group had less DHA loss than the ordinary-packaged group with the same absorbed dose, and low dose groups had less DHA loss than the high groups. As conclusion, combining with the bactericidal effect of electron beam irradiation to Sciaenops ocellatus meat, the recommended dose has been proposed to be 3-5 kGy. (authors)

  1. Evaluation and development of a policy for waste generation control - electric and electronic waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kwang Im [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    Although a policy to reduce waste amount and promote recycling for large electric appliances was introduced, it is still in the initial stage operated in a form of recommendation and the general management system of electric and electronic waste has not established yet. In this study, the generation and disposal of electric and electronic waste were examined and the effectiveness of present policy was evaluated. Based on the analysis, a policy for the more appropriate electric and electronic waste management was presented. 34 refs., 4 figs., 51 tabs.

  2. Potential Application of Electronic Olfaction Systems in Feedstuffs Analysis and Animal Nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittorio Dell'Orto

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Electronic Olfaction Systems (EOSs based on a variety of gas-sensing technologies have been developed to simulate in a simplified manner animal olfactory sensing systems. EOSs have been successfully applied to many applications and fields, including food technology and agriculture. Less information is available for EOS applications in the feed technology and animal nutrition sectors. Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs, which are derived from both forages and concentrate ingredients of farm animal rations, are considered and described in this review as olfactory markers for feedstock quality and safety evaluation. EOS applications to detect VOCs from feedstuffs (as analytical matrices are described, and some future scenarios are hypothesised. Furthermore, some EOS applications in animal feeding behaviour and organoleptic feed assessment are also described.

  3. Delivering Summer Electronic Benefit Transfers for Children through the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program or the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children: Benefit Use and Impacts on Food Security and Foods Consumed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Anne R; Briefel, Ronette R; Collins, Ann M; Rowe, Gretchen M; Klerman, Jacob A

    2017-03-01

    The Summer Electronic Benefit Transfers for Children (SEBTC) demonstration piloted summer food assistance through electronic benefit transfers (EBTs), providing benefits either through the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) or the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) EBT. To inform food assistance policy and describe how demonstrations using WIC and SNAP models differed in benefit take-up and impacts on food security and children's food consumption. Sites chose to deliver SEBTC using the SNAP or WIC EBT system. Within each site, in 2012, households were randomly assigned to a benefit group or a no-benefit control group. Grantees (eight states and two Indian Tribal Organizations) selected school districts serving many low-income children. Schoolchildren were eligible in cases where they had been certified for free or reduced-price meals during the school year. Before the demonstration, households in the demonstration sample had lower incomes and lower food security, on average, than households with eligible children nationally. Grantees provided selected households with benefits worth $60 per child per summer month using SNAP or WIC EBT systems. SNAP-model benefits covered most foods. WIC-model benefits could only be used for a specific package of foods. Key outcomes were children's food security (assessed using the US Department of Agriculture food security scale) and food consumption (assessed using food frequency questions). Differences in mean outcomes between the benefit and control groups measured impact, after adjusting for household characteristics. In WIC sites, benefit-group households redeemed a lower percentage of SEBTC benefits than in SNAP sites. Nonetheless, the benefit groups in both sets of sites had similar large reductions in very low food security among children, relative to no-benefit controls. Children receiving benefits consumed more healthful foods, and these impacts were larger in WIC

  4. Improving Nutrition and Physical Activity Policies and Practices in Early Care and Education in Three States, 2014-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Teresa M; Blaser, Casey; Geno-Rasmussen, Cristy; Shuell, Julie; Plumlee, Catherine; Gargano, Tony; Yaroch, Amy L

    2017-08-31

    The National Early Care and Education Learning Collaboratives (ECELC) project aims to facilitate best practices in nutrition, physical activity, screen time, and breastfeeding support and infant feeding among early care and education (ECE) programs across multiple states. The project uses a train-the-trainer approach with 5, in-person learning-collaborative sessions, technical assistance, and action planning. We describe the longitudinal practice-based evaluation of the project and assess whether ECE programs evaluated (n = 104) sustained changes in policies and practices 1 year after completing the project. The number of best practices increased from pre-assessment to post-assessment (P professional development and training focused on improving best practices for environment-level child nutrition and physical activity, which is one strategy among many that are warranted for obesity prevention in young children.

  5. Predictors of public support for nutrition-focused policy, systems and environmental change strategies in Los Angeles County, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles, Brenda; Kuo, Tony

    2017-01-13

    Since 2010, federal and local agencies have invested broadly in a variety of nutrition-focused policy, systems and environmental change (PSE) initiatives in Los Angeles County (LAC). To date, little is known about whether the public supports such efforts. We address this gap in the literature by examining predictors of support for a variety of PSEs. Voters residing in LAC (n=1007) were randomly selected to participate in a cross-sectional telephone survey commissioned by the LAC Department of Public Health. The survey asked questions about attitudes towards the obesity epidemic, nutrition knowledge and behaviours, public opinions about changing business practices/government policies related to nutrition, and sociodemographics. A factor analysis informed outcome variable selection (ie, type of PSEs). Multivariable regression analyses were performed to examine predictors of public support. Predictors in the regression models included (primary regressor) community economic hardship; (control variables) political affiliation, sex, age, race and income; and (independent variables) perceptions about obesity, perceived health and weight status, frequency reading nutrition labels, ease of finding healthy and unhealthy foods, and food consumption behaviours (ie, fruit and vegetables, non-diet soda, fast-food and sit-down restaurant meals). 3 types of PSE outcome variables were identified: promotional/incentivising, limiting/restrictive and business practices. Community economic hardship was not found to be a significant predictor of public support for any of the 3 PSE types. However, Republican party affiliation, being female and perceiving obesity as a serious health problem were. These findings have implications for public health practice and community planning in local health jurisdictions. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  6. Ethical issues in the development and implementation of nutrition-related public health policies and interventions: A scoping review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña-Rosas, Juan Pablo; Saxena, Abha; Zamora, Gerardo

    2017-01-01

    Background The limited integration of ethics in nutrition-related public health policies and interventions is one major concern for those who have the task of implementing them. Ethical challenges that are overlooked during the development of such interventions could raise serious ethical issues during their implementation and even after. As a result, these decision makers need technical support and ethical guidance for adaptation of interventions to local (cultural, social, economic, etc.) contexts. Aim The goal of this scoping review is to delineate and “map” the range of ethical issues in nutrition-related public health interventions, as well as the range of the various fields in which they may arise. Methods A scoping review of empirical research and conceptual literature was conducted following the framework of Arksey and O’Malley. Searches using PubMed with Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) categories and Advanced Search Builder as well as in the Global Health Library were performed. The final sample consists of 169 publications. Results The ethics of public health prevention or treatment of obesity and non-communicable diseases is the most explicitly and frequently discussed subject. In comparison, ethical issues raised by public health interventions in the fields of undernutrition, breastfeeding, vitamin/mineral supplementation and food fortification, food security, food sustainability and food safety are addressed in a lower proportion of the sample. The results illustrate the various natures, types, and scopes of existing public health nutrition-related interventions, and the various ethical issues that may be raised by these interventions, in addition to the numerous and different contexts in which they may be implemented. Discussion The ethical issues faced in the development and implementation of nutrition-related public health interventions are varied and cannot be equated with, nor generalized about, when dealing with specific activities in this

  7. Ethical issues in the development and implementation of nutrition-related public health policies and interventions: A scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurlimann, Thierry; Peña-Rosas, Juan Pablo; Saxena, Abha; Zamora, Gerardo; Godard, Béatrice

    2017-01-01

    The limited integration of ethics in nutrition-related public health policies and interventions is one major concern for those who have the task of implementing them. Ethical challenges that are overlooked during the development of such interventions could raise serious ethical issues during their implementation and even after. As a result, these decision makers need technical support and ethical guidance for adaptation of interventions to local (cultural, social, economic, etc.) contexts. The goal of this scoping review is to delineate and "map" the range of ethical issues in nutrition-related public health interventions, as well as the range of the various fields in which they may arise. A scoping review of empirical research and conceptual literature was conducted following the framework of Arksey and O'Malley. Searches using PubMed with Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) categories and Advanced Search Builder as well as in the Global Health Library were performed. The final sample consists of 169 publications. The ethics of public health prevention or treatment of obesity and non-communicable diseases is the most explicitly and frequently discussed subject. In comparison, ethical issues raised by public health interventions in the fields of undernutrition, breastfeeding, vitamin/mineral supplementation and food fortification, food security, food sustainability and food safety are addressed in a lower proportion of the sample. The results illustrate the various natures, types, and scopes of existing public health nutrition-related interventions, and the various ethical issues that may be raised by these interventions, in addition to the numerous and different contexts in which they may be implemented. The ethical issues faced in the development and implementation of nutrition-related public health interventions are varied and cannot be equated with, nor generalized about, when dealing with specific activities in this field. More importantly, these ethical issues

  8. Ethical issues in the development and implementation of nutrition-related public health policies and interventions: A scoping review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Hurlimann

    Full Text Available The limited integration of ethics in nutrition-related public health policies and interventions is one major concern for those who have the task of implementing them. Ethical challenges that are overlooked during the development of such interventions could raise serious ethical issues during their implementation and even after. As a result, these decision makers need technical support and ethical guidance for adaptation of interventions to local (cultural, social, economic, etc. contexts.The goal of this scoping review is to delineate and "map" the range of ethical issues in nutrition-related public health interventions, as well as the range of the various fields in which they may arise.A scoping review of empirical research and conceptual literature was conducted following the framework of Arksey and O'Malley. Searches using PubMed with Medical Subject Headings (MeSH categories and Advanced Search Builder as well as in the Global Health Library were performed. The final sample consists of 169 publications.The ethics of public health prevention or treatment of obesity and non-communicable diseases is the most explicitly and frequently discussed subject. In comparison, ethical issues raised by public health interventions in the fields of undernutrition, breastfeeding, vitamin/mineral supplementation and food fortification, food security, food sustainability and food safety are addressed in a lower proportion of the sample. The results illustrate the various natures, types, and scopes of existing public health nutrition-related interventions, and the various ethical issues that may be raised by these interventions, in addition to the numerous and different contexts in which they may be implemented.The ethical issues faced in the development and implementation of nutrition-related public health interventions are varied and cannot be equated with, nor generalized about, when dealing with specific activities in this field. More importantly, these

  9. Nutrition labelling and the choices logo in Israel: positions and perceptions of leading health policy makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesser-Edelsburg, A; Endevelt, R; Tirosh-Kamienchick, Y

    2014-02-01

    Based on the Social Marketing approach and Diffusion of Innovations Theory that indicates the importance of opinion leaders with respect to the spreading of new ideas, concepts or practices within a community, the present study aimed to examine positions and perceptions of Israeli leading dietitians and health officials regarding nutrition labelling and the Choices logo, before it was launched in Israel in February 2011, as well as how they would communicate it to the public as agents of influence. The study involved in-depth face-to-face and telephone interviews with 15 senior dietitians and Health Ministry officials using semi-structured protocols including questions about nutrition labelling and the Choices logo. The respondents considered that the nutrition facts panels usually found on the backs of packages are too complicated for the average consumer. Simiularly, fronts of packages are cluttered with advertisements and health claims, causing confusion. The study participants would like to see an integrative label on the front of the package to facilitate consumers' decisions. However, the Choices logo raises ethical and social questions about the conflict between corporate interests and public health: (i) the label's relativity versus objectivity; (ii) the consumer's responsibility to create a balanced diet; (iii) the label's credibility; and (iv) bias against companies, products and audiences. The results of the present study highlight the importance of a need for an integrated programme of nutrition promotion, including the use of social marketing based on a cooperative effort between the food industry, regulators and professionals, to recommend changes and adjustments in nutritional front of package labelling with the aim of promoting healthier nutrition consumption. © 2013 The Authors Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  10. Electronic Health Record Data Versus the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES): A Comparison of Overweight and Obesity Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Luke M; Shan, Ying; Voils, Corrine I; Kloke, John; Hanrahan, Lawrence P

    2017-06-01

    Estimating population-level obesity rates is important for informing policy and targeting treatment. The current gold standard for obesity measurement in the United States-the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES)-samples health system-level measurement. To assess the feasibility of using body mass index (BMI) data from the electronic health record (EHR) to assess rates of overweight and obesity and compare these rates to national NHANES estimates. Using outpatient data from 42 clinics, we studied 388,762 patients in a large health system with at least 1 primary care visit in 2011-2012. We compared crude and adjusted overweight and obesity rates by age category and ethnicity (white, black, Hispanic, Other) between EHR and NHANES participants. Adjusted overweight (BMI≥25) and obesity rates were calculated by a 2-step process. Step 1 accounted for missing BMI data using inverse probability weighting, whereas step 2 included a poststratification correction to adjust the EHR population to a nationally representative sample. Adjusted rates of obesity (BMI≥30) for EHR patients were 37.3% [95% confidence interval (95% CI), 37.1-37.5] compared with 35.1% (95% CI, 32.3-38.1) for NHANES patients. Among the 16 different obesity class, ethnicity, and sex strata that were compared between EHR and NHANES patients, 14 (87.5%) contained similar obesity estimates (ie, overlapping 95% CIs). EHRs may be an ideal tool for identifying and targeting patients with obesity for implementation of public health and/or individual level interventions.

  11. The management of conflict in nutrition policy formulation: choosing growth-monitoring indicators in the context of dual burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoey, Lesli; Pelletier, David L

    2011-06-01

    We argue in this paper that a shared desire to find a solution to malnutrition and agreement at a broad level concerning priority, evidence-based interventions are important but not sufficient conditions for effective policy development. This paper illustrates this point, and draws out general implications, through a detailed analysis of a case in which conflict emerged when committed nutrition policy actors began discussing the details of program design and implementation. The case involves one country's effort to select "the best" anthropometric indicator for use in its national child growth-monitoring program. In this case the interested parties approached this deceptively simple decision for different reasons, using different sources and standards of evidence and focusing their attention on opposite, but equally critical, operational considerations, while being heavily influenced by global, national, and interorganizational events and relationships. We suggest that actors seeking to translate political commitment for nutrition into effective action should recognize the technical and sociopolitical complexity of seemingly simple decisions related to intervention design and employ more systematic, intentional, and inclusive decision-making procedures. Without attention to such practical matters, the current window of opportunity to reduce malnutrition on a global scale may quickly close.

  12. Feasibility of Implementing a School Nutrition Intervention That Addresses Policies, Systems, and Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Jacqueline J.; Linnell, Jessica D.; Scherr, Rachel E.; Ginsburg, David C.; Brian, Kelley M.; Carter, Rosemary; Donohue, Susan; Klisch, Shannon; Lawry-Hall, Suzanne; Pressman, Jona; Soule, Katherine; Zidenberg-Cherr, Sheri

    2018-01-01

    We conducted a process evaluation of the Shaping Healthy Choices Program, a multicomponent school-based nutrition program, when implemented in partnership with University of California (UC) CalFresh and UC Cooperative Extension (UCCE). There were positive impacts on participating students, but results varied across counties, possibly due to…

  13. An Evaluation of Elementary School Nutrition Practices and Policies in a Southern Illinois County

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherry, Jennifer S.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess elementary school nutrition programs in a rural county in southern Illinois. The researcher interviewed the food service managers of eight schools and completed the School Health Index (SHI) based on their responses. Eighty-seven percent of the schools did not have venues such as vending machines outside the…

  14. Nutrition, health policy, and ethics in the age of public-private ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2018-01-23

    Jan 23, 2018 ... A young mother and her baby visit the local nutrition center in rural ... and marketing of the unhealthy and ultra-processed food and drinks driving the ... joint programs — pose a risk to the school's independence and capacity ...

  15. Finding electronic information for health policy advocacy: a guide to improving search results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsan, Tobie H; Bianchi, Carolanne; White, Pamela; Glessner, Theresa; Mapstone, Pamela L

    2011-12-01

    The success of advanced practice registered nurses' (APRNs') health policy advocacy depends on staying well informed about key issues. Searching for high-quality health policy information, however, can be frustrating and time consuming. Busy clinicians need strategies and tips to reduce information overload and to access synthesized research for evidence-based health policy. This article therefore offers APRNs practical guidelines and resources for searching electronic health policy information. Scholarly databases and Internet sites. Electronic health policy information is generated by a wide variety of public and private organizations and disseminated in hundreds of journals and Web pages. Specialty search tools are needed to retrieve the unindexed gray literature, which includes government documents, agency reports, fact sheets, standards, and statistics not produced by commercial publishers. Further, Internet users need to examine search results with a critical eye for information quality. Expertise in searching electronic health policy information is a prerequisite for developing APRNs' leadership in political arenas to influence health policy and the delivery of healthcare services. ©2011 The Author(s) Journal compilation ©2011 American Academy of Nurse Practitioners.

  16. Evaluating the Potential Health and Revenue Outcomes of a 100% Healthy Vending Machine Nutrition Policy at a Large Agency in Los Angeles County, 2013-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickramasekaran, Ranjana N; Robles, Brenda; Dewey, George; Kuo, Tony

    Healthy vending machine policies are viewed as a promising strategy for combating the growing obesity epidemic in the United States. Few studies have evaluated the short- and intermediate-term outcomes of healthy vending policies, especially for interventions that require 100% healthy products to be stocked. To evaluate the potential impact of a 100% healthy vending machine nutrition policy. The vendor's quarterly revenue, product sales records, and nutritional information data from 359 unique vending machines were used to conduct a baseline and follow-up policy analysis. County of Los Angeles facilities, 2013-2015. Vending machines in facilities located across Los Angeles County. A healthy vending machine policy executed in 2013 that required 100% of all products sold in contracted machines meet specified nutrition standards. Policy adherence; average number of calories, sugar, and sodium in food products sold; revenue change. Policy adherence increased for snacks and beverages sold by the vending machines by 89% and 98%, respectively. Average snack and beverage revenues decreased by 37% and 34%, respectively, during the sampled period. Although a 100% healthy vending policy represents a promising strategy for encouraging purchases of healthier foods, steps should be taken to counteract potential revenue changes when planning its implementation.

  17. Trialling an electronic decision aid for policy developers to support ageing well.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Elizabeth; Ellis, Leonie; Tin, Eh Eh; Boyer, Kim; Orpin, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The complex process of developing policies and planning services requires the compilation and collation of evidence from multiple sources. With the increasing numbers of people living longer there will be a high demand for a wide range of aged care services to support people in ageing well. The premise of ageing well is based on providing an ageing population with quality care and resources that support their ongoing needs. These include affordable healthcare, end of life care improvement, mental health services improvement, care and support improvement for people with dementia, and support for healthy ageing. The National Health and Medical Research Council funded a research project to develop a policy tool to provide a framework to assist policy makers and service planners in the area of ageing well in rural and regional Australia. It was identified that development of an electronic version of the policy tool could be useful resulting in a small pilot development being undertaken and tested with policy makers and service planners. This paper describes the development and trialling of a tablet based application used to assess the acceptability of computerised forms for participants actively involved in policy development. It reports on the policy developer's experience of the electronic tool to support ageing well policy making based on evidence.

  18. Sustainable transition of electronic products through waste policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Erik Hagelskjær; Jørgensen, Ulrik

    2010-01-01

    regimes are described and analyzed together with the underlying regulatory principle of extended producer responsibility, which has guided the design of the directive. Conflicting interpretations of sustainability, in combination with a simplistic understanding and agency introduced from the top-down, has...... eliminated waste minimization as the main outcome of the directive. The concluding discussions raise the issues of the role of sustainable niche initiatives in electronics compared to multi-regime interaction. Guiding visions may need to be supplemented with other alignment devices in order to support co...

  19. Guidance to employers on integrating e-cigarettes/electronic nicotine delivery systems into tobacco worksite policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitsel, Laurie P; Benowitz, Neal; Bhatnagar, Aruni; Bullen, Chris; Goldstein, Fred; Matthias-Gray, Lena; Grossmeier, Jessica; Harris, John; Isaac, Fikry; Loeppke, Ron; Manley, Marc; Moseley, Karen; Niemiec, Ted; OʼBrien, Vince; Palma-Davis, LaVaughn; Pronk, Nico; Pshock, Jim; Stave, Gregg M; Terry, Paul

    2015-03-01

    In recent years, new products have entered the marketplace that complicate decisions about tobacco control policies and prevention in the workplace. These products, called electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) or electronic nicotine delivery systems, most often deliver nicotine as an aerosol for inhalation, without combustion of tobacco. This new mode of nicotine delivery raises several questions about the safety of the product for the user, the effects of secondhand exposure, how the public use of these products should be handled within tobacco-free and smoke-free air policies, and how their use affects tobacco cessation programs, wellness incentives, and other initiatives to prevent and control tobacco use. In this article, we provide a background on e-cigarettes and then outline key policy recommendations for employers on how the use of these new devices should be managed within worksite tobacco prevention programs and control policies.

  20. [Food and nutritional security: situation analysis of decentralization in the national public policy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcellos, Ana Beatriz Pinto de Almeida; Moura, Leides Barroso Azevedo de

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the situation with the decentralization of the Brazilian National System of Food and Nutritional Security (SISAN), created in 2006 under the Brazilian National Food and Nutritional Security Act (LOSAN). Based on the criteria for joining SISAN, as set out in Decree 7,272 of August 25, 2010, the authors analyzed data from the basic information surveys of the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics, 2014 (Estadic e Munic/2014). The results show that decentralization of SISAN is still incipient at the municipal level, although all the states of Brazil have already joined the system. The social assistance sector has played an outstanding role in coordinating SISAN at the state and municipal levels, while in the latter the health sector has also played a relevant role. The analysis of food and nutritional security activities conducted to date, based on the sources of federal, state, and municipal funds, further shows that the federal sphere has still not played a strong inductive role capable of leading the expansion of SISAN. More effective funding mechanisms and the assignment of responsibilities to the states and municipalities are relevant factors for consolidating the system's state-level base and expanding the municipal base in the search for an identity and capillarity for SISAN.

  1. Selecting Policy Indicators and Developing Simulation Models for the National School Lunch and Breakfast Programs. Final Report. Special Nutrition Programs Report Series. Special Nutrition Programs Report No. CN-10-PRED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragoset, Lisa; Gordon, Anne

    2010-01-01

    This report describes work using nationally representative 2005 data from the School Nutrition Dietary Assessment-III (SNDA-III) study to develop a simulation model to predict the potential implications of changes in policies or practices related to school meals and school food environments. The model focuses on three domains of outcomes: (1) the…

  2. Development and validation of a beverage and snack questionnaire for use in evaluation of school nutrition policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhouser, Marian L; Lilley, Sonya; Lund, Anne; Johnson, Donna B

    2009-09-01

    School nutrition policies limiting access to sweetened beverages, candy, and salty snacks have the potential to improve the health of children. To effectively evaluate policy success, appropriate and validated dietary assessment instruments are needed. The objective of this study was to develop and validate a beverage and snack questionnaire suitable for use among young adolescents. A new 19-item Beverage and Snack Questionnaire (BSQ) was administered to middle school students on two occasions, 2 weeks apart, to measure test-retest reliability. The questionnaire inquired about frequency of consumption, both at school and away from school, of soft drinks, salty snacks, sweets, milk, and fruits and vegetables. Students also completed 4-day food records. To assess validity, food-record data were compared with BSQ data. Forty-six students of diverse backgrounds from metropolitan Seattle, WA, participated in this study. Participants answered the BSQ during class time and completed the food record at home. Pearson correlation coefficients assessed test-retest reliability and validity. Using frequency per week data, the test-retest reliability coefficients were r=0.85 for fruits and vegetables consumed at school and r=0.74 and r=0.72 for beverages and sweets/snacks, respectively, consumed at school. Correlations ranged from r=0.73 to 0.77 for foods consumed outside of school. Compared with the criterion food record, validity coefficients were very good: r=0.69 to 0.71 for foods consumed at school and r=0.63 to 0.70 for foods consumed away from school. The validity coefficients for the 19 individual food items ranged from r=0.56 to 0.87. This easy-to-administer 19-item questionnaire captures data on sugar-sweetened beverages, salty snacks, sweets, milk, and fruit and vegetables as well as a more lengthy and expensive food record does. The BSQ can be used by nutrition researchers and practitioners to accurately evaluate student consumption of foods that are the focus of

  3. Compliance with school nutrition policies in Ontario and Alberta: An assessment of secondary school vending machine data from the COMPASS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vine, Michelle M; Harrington, Daniel W; Butler, Alexandra; Patte, Karen; Godin, Katelyn; Leatherdale, Scott T

    2017-04-20

    We investigated the extent to which a sample of Ontario and Alberta secondary schools are being compliant with their respective provincial nutrition policies, in terms of the food and beverages sold in vending machines. This observational study used objective data on drinks and snacks from vending machines, collected over three years of the COMPASS study (2012/2013-2014/2015 school years). Drink (e.g., sugar-containing carbonated/non-carbonated soft drinks, sports drinks, etc.) and snack (e.g., chips, crackers, etc.) data were coded by number of units available, price, and location of vending machine(s) in the school. Univariate and bivariate analyses were undertaken using R version 3.2.3. In order to assess policy compliancy over time, nutritional information of products in vending machines was compared to nutrition standards set out in P/PM 150 in Ontario, and those set out in the Alberta Nutrition Guidelines for Children and Youth (2012) in Alberta. Results reveal a decline over time in the proportion of schools selling sugar-containing carbonated soft drinks (9% in 2012/2013 vs. 3% in 2014/2015), crackers (26% vs. 17%) and cake products (12% vs. 5%) in vending machines, and inconsistent changes in the proportion selling chips (53%, 67% and 65% over the three school years). Conversely, results highlight increases in the proportion of vending machines selling chocolate bars (7% vs. 13%) and cookies (21% vs. 40%) between the 2012/2013 and 2014/2015 school years. Nutritional standard policies were not adhered to in the majority of schools with respect to vending machines. There is a need for investment in formal monitoring and evaluation of school policies, and the provision of information and tools to support nutrition policy implementation.

  4. Submissions to the Australian and New Zealand Review of Food Labelling Law and Policy support traffic light nutrition labelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, John; Signal, Louise

    2012-10-01

    Food labels to support healthier choices are an important potential intervention for improving population health by reducing obesity and diet-related disease. This study examines the use of research evidence about traffic light nutrition labelling in submissions to the Review of Food Labelling Law and Policy conducted in Australia and New Zealand. Content analysis of final submissions to the Review and a literature review of documents reporting research evidence about traffic light labelling. Sixty-two submitters to the Review were categorised as 'supporters' of traffic light labelling and 29 as 'opponents'. Supporters focused on studies showing traffic light labels were better than other systems at helping consumers identify healthier food options. Opponents cited evidence that traffic light labels were no better than other systems in this respect and noted a lack of evidence that they led to changes in food consumption. A literature review demonstrated that, as a group, submitters had drawn attention to most of the relevant research evidence on traffic light labelling. Both supporters and opponents were, however, selective in their use of evidence. The weight of evidence suggested that traffic light labelling has strengths in helping consumers to identify healthier food options. Further research would be valuable in informing the development of an interpretive front-of-pack labelling system. The findings have significant implications for the development of front-of-pack nutrition labelling currently being considered in Australia and New Zealand. © 2012 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2012 Public Health Association of Australia.

  5. Language and Nutrition (Mis)Information: Food Labels, FDA Policies and Meaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Christy Marie

    2013-01-01

    In this dissertation, I address the ways in which food manufacturers can exploit the often vague and ambiguous nature of FDA policies concerning language and images used on food labels. Employing qualitative analysis methods (Strauss, 1987; Denzin and Lincoln, 2003; Mackey and Gass, 2005) that drew upon critical discourse analysis (Fairclough,…

  6. EURRECA - A framework for considering evidence in public health nutrition policy development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timotijevic, Lada; Brown, Kerry A.; Lähteenmäki, Liisa

    2013-01-01

    an epistemological framework which offers a range of considerations affecting this process generally and with particular implications for both micronutrient requirements and the role of behavior in the policy-making process. Qualitative case study data covering 6 European countries/regions (Czech Republic, Italy...

  7. A software platform to analyse the ethical issues of electronic patient privacy policy: the S3P example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizani, M A; Baykal, N

    2007-12-01

    Paper-based privacy policies fail to resolve the new changes posed by electronic healthcare. Protecting patient privacy through electronic systems has become a serious concern and is the subject of several recent studies. The shift towards an electronic privacy policy introduces new ethical challenges that cannot be solved merely by technical measures. Structured Patient Privacy Policy (S3P) is a software tool assuming an automated electronic privacy policy in an electronic healthcare setting. It is designed to simulate different access levels and rights of various professionals involved in healthcare in order to assess the emerging ethical problems. The authors discuss ethical issues concerning electronic patient privacy policies that have become apparent during the development and application of S3P.

  8. Nutrition and Physical Activity Policies and Practices in Family Child Care Homes in Oregon: Baseline Findings from the Healthy Home Child Care Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunter, Katherine B.; Rice, Kelly R.; Trost, Stewart G.

    2012-01-01

    Baseline findings from the Healthy Home Child Care Project include data from Family Child Care Providers (FCCPs) in Oregon (n=53) who completed assessments of nutrition and physical activity policies and practices and BMI data for children in the care of FCCPs (n=205). Results show that a significant percentage of FCCPs failed to meet child care…

  9. The role of cost-effectiveness analysis in developing nutrition policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobiac, Linda J; Veerman, Lennert; Vos, Theo

    2013-01-01

    Concern about the overconsumption of unhealthy foods is growing worldwide. With high global rates of noncommunicable diseases related to poor nutrition and projections of more rapid increases of rates in low- and middle-income countries, it is vital to identify effective but low-cost interventions. Cost-effectiveness studies show that individually targeted dietary interventions can be effective and cost-effective, but a growing number of modeling studies suggest that population-wide approaches may bring larger and more sustained benefits for population health at a lower cost to society. Mandatory regulation of salt in processed foods, in particular, is highly recommended. Future research should focus on lacunae in the current evidence base: effectiveness of interventions addressing the marketing, availability, and price of healthy and unhealthy foods; modeling health impacts of complex dietary changes and multi-intervention strategies; and modeling health implications in diverse subpopulations to identify interventions that will most efficiently and effectively reduce health inequalities.

  10. The DAFNE databank as a simple tool for nutrition policy. DAta Food NEtworking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trichopoulou, A

    2001-10-01

    To identify, quantify and depict variation of food habits in Europe, using data from the DAFNE (DAta Food NEtworking) databank. Household budget survey data of 12 European countries, namely Belgium, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Spain and the United Kingdom, around 1990. Data from the DAFNE databank are presented in simple pictorial presentations, which reveal considerable disparities in food habits. Furthermore, there appears to be nutritional variation within countries by socio-demographic groups, defined by their residence and educational level. The distribution patterns of food availability provide insights into the determinants of food preferences, as conditioned by current forces. The factors influencing consumer choice are many and varied. Thus, in order to promote healthy eating, it is essential to identify the food habits of the target population. In this context, information derived from household budget surveys, used in the development of the DAFNE databank, could be very important.

  11. Mapping the nutrition transition in Peru: evidence for decentralized nutrition policies Cartografía de la transición nutricional en el Perú: datos que avalan la necesidad de políticas nutricionales descentralizadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pia Chaparro

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The study objectives were to map the different stages of the nutrition transition for each department within Peru, and to determine the nutrition policy needs for each geographic area based on their current stage in the nutrition transition. Results show that most of the country is suffering from a double-burden of malnutrition, with high rates of stunting among children less than 5 years of age and high rates of overweight and obesity among women of reproductive age. Currently, Peru has only country-wide nutrition policies, administered by the Ministry of Health, that are primarily focused on stunting prevention. This study argues for the need to have decentralized nutrition policies that vary according to what type of malnutrition is being experienced in each geographic area.Los objetivos de este estudio consistían en trazar un mapa por departamentos y etapas de la transición nutricional en el Perú y determinar las políticas nutricionales necesarias en las distintas zonas geográficas en función de sus etapas en la transición. Los resultados demuestran que la mayor parte del país está sufriendo la llamada "doble carga de la malnutrición", en la que coexisten tasas elevadas de desnutrición crónica entre los menores de 5 años y tasas elevadas de sobrepeso y obesidad en las mujeres en edad fecunda. En el Perú actual, las políticas nutricionales, gestionadas por el Ministerio de Salud, están centralizadas y su prioridad es prevenir la detención del crecimiento. Este estudio aboga por la necesidad de contar con políticas nutricionales descentralizadas que varíen en función del tipo de malnutrición que se esté padeciendo en cada zona geográfica.

  12. EPR policies for electronics in developing Asia: an adapted phase-in approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akenji, Lewis; Hotta, Yasuhiko; Bengtsson, Magnus; Hayashi, Shiko

    2011-09-01

    The amount of e-waste is growing rapidly in developing countries, and the health and environmental problems resulting from poor management of this waste have become a concern for policy makers. In response to these challenges, a number of Asian developing countries have been inspired by policy developments in OECD countries, and have drafted legislations based on the principle of extended producer responsibility (EPR). However, the experiences from developed countries show that a successful implementation of EPR policies requires adequate institutions and sufficient administrative capacity. Even advanced countries are thus facing difficulties. This paper concludes from existing literature and from the authors' own observations that there seems to be a mismatch between the typical policy responses to e-waste problems in developing Asia and the capacity for successful implementation of such policies. It also notes that the e-waste situation in developing Asian countries is further complicated by a number of additional factors, such as difficulties in identifying producers, import of used electronic products and e-waste (sometimes illegal), and the existence of a strong informal waste sector. Given these challenges, the authors conclude that comprehensive EPR policy schemes of the kind that have been implemented in some advanced countries are not likely to be effective. The paper therefore proposes an alternative phase-in approach whereby developing Asian countries are able to move gradually towards EPR systems. It argues that this approach would be more feasible, and discusses what could be the key building blocks of each implementation stage.

  13. How is the process of setting micronutrients recommendations reflected in nutrition policies in Poland? The case study of folate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Sicińska

    2018-03-01

    The current Polish nutrition recommendations for folate are consistent with the levels set by most other countries. The constant improvement of nutritional knowledge on folate among consumers, especially young women, is necessary.

  14. The association of soda sales tax and school nutrition laws: a concordance of policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greathouse, K Leigh; Chriqui, Jamie; Moser, Richard P; Agurs-Collins, Tanya; Perna, Frank M

    2014-10-01

    The current research examined the association between state disfavoured tax on soda (i.e. the difference between soda sales tax and the tax on food products generally) and a summary score representing the strength of state laws governing competitive beverages (beverages that compete with the beverages in the federally funded school lunch programme) in US schools. The Classification of Laws Associated with School Students (CLASS) summary score reflected the strength of a state's laws restricting competitive beverages sold in school stores, vending machines, school fundraisers and à la carte cafeteria items. Bridging the Gap (BTG) is a nationally recognized research initiative that provided state-level soda tax data. The main study outcome was the states' competitive beverage summary scores for elementary, middle and high school grade levels, as predicted by the states' disfavoured soda tax. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted, adjusting for year and state. Data from BTG and CLASS were used. BTG and CLASS data from all fifty states and the District of Columbia from 2003 to 2010 were used. A higher disfavoured soda sales tax was generally associated with an increased likelihood of having strong school beverage laws across grade levels, and especially when disfavoured soda sales tax was >5 %. These data suggest a concordance between states' soda taxes and laws governing beverages sold in schools. States with high disfavoured sales tax on soda had stronger competitive beverage laws, indicating that the state sales tax environment may be associated with laws governing beverage policy in schools.

  15. 75 FR 32984 - Policy on the Retention of Supporting Documents and the Use of Electronic Mobile Communication...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-10

    ...-0168] Policy on the Retention of Supporting Documents and the Use of Electronic Mobile Communication... changes regarding the retention of supporting documents and the use of electronic mobile communication... electronic mobile communication/tracking records to be supporting documents, as they record the time, date...

  16. Factors Affecting Nutrition and Physical Activity Behaviors of Hispanic Families With Young Children: Implications for Obesity Policies and Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stang, Jamie; Bonilla, Zobeida

    2017-09-29

    To determine preferred policies and programs to prevent obesity and diabetes as identified by parents and caregivers of 3- to 5-year-old Latino children. Constructs from the Social Ecological Model were used to develop 10 focus group and key informant interview questions. Community venues and schools in St Paul, MN. A total of 64 parents and caregivers and 20 key informants provided comments. Community-based participatory research methods were used to gather opinions regarding appropriate and preferred methods to prevent obesity and diabetes among Latino youth. Native Spanish-speaking investigators who were members of the community conducted 7 focus groups (60-90 minutes each) and 20 key informant interviews. Themes and subthemes of preferences based on participant comments. Transcript-based, long-table qualitative analysis. Five themes were identified: (1) cultural beliefs and practices are inconsistent with obesity prevention; (2) cost and convenience; (3) positive parenting practices; (4) we want to learn more about being healthy; and (5) gardens, parks, gyms, and school meals. At least 1 theme fell within each of the social ecological model domains. Our results suggest that parents of young Hispanic children prefer that obesity and diabetes prevention programs address multiple levels of influence. Copyright © 2017 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Assessment of nutrition and physical activity environments in family child care homes: modification and psychometric testing of the Environment and Policy Assessment and Observation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber E. Vaughn

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early care and education (ECE settings play an important role in shaping the nutrition and physical activity habits of young children. Increasing research attention is being directed toward family child care homes (FCCHs specifically. However, existing measures of child care nutrition and physical activity environments are limited in that they have been created for use with center-based programs and require modification for studies involving FCCHs. This paper describes the modification of the Environment and Policy Assessment and Observation (EPAO for use in FCCHs. Methods The EPAO underwent a through modification process that incorporated an updated format for the data collection instrument, assessment of emerging best practices, tailoring to the FCCH environment, and creation of a new scoring rubric. The new instrument was implemented as part of a larger randomized control trial. To assess inter-rater reliability, observations on 61 different days were performed independently by two data collectors. To assess construct validity, associations between EPAO scores and measures of children’s dietary intake (Healthy Eating Index (HEI score and physical activity (accelerometer-measured minutes per hour of moderate to vigorous physical activity, MVPA were examined. Results The modified EPAO assesses 38 nutrition and 27 physical activity best practices, which can be summarized into 7 nutrition-related and 10 physical activity-related environmental sub- scores as well as overall nutrition and overall physical activity scores. There was generally good agreement between data collectors (ICC > 0.60. Reliability was slightly lower for feeding practices and physical activity education and professional development (ICC = 0.56 and 0.22, respectively. Child HEI was significantly correlated with the overall nutrition score (r = 0.23, foods provided (r = 0.28, beverages provided (r = 0.15, nutrition education and professional

  18. Assessment of nutrition and physical activity environments in family child care homes: modification and psychometric testing of the Environment and Policy Assessment and Observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Amber E; Mazzucca, Stephanie; Burney, Regan; Østbye, Truls; Benjamin Neelon, Sara E; Tovar, Alison; Ward, Dianne S

    2017-08-29

    Early care and education (ECE) settings play an important role in shaping the nutrition and physical activity habits of young children. Increasing research attention is being directed toward family child care homes (FCCHs) specifically. However, existing measures of child care nutrition and physical activity environments are limited in that they have been created for use with center-based programs and require modification for studies involving FCCHs. This paper describes the modification of the Environment and Policy Assessment and Observation (EPAO) for use in FCCHs. The EPAO underwent a through modification process that incorporated an updated format for the data collection instrument, assessment of emerging best practices, tailoring to the FCCH environment, and creation of a new scoring rubric. The new instrument was implemented as part of a larger randomized control trial. To assess inter-rater reliability, observations on 61 different days were performed independently by two data collectors. To assess construct validity, associations between EPAO scores and measures of children's dietary intake (Healthy Eating Index (HEI) score) and physical activity (accelerometer-measured minutes per hour of moderate to vigorous physical activity, MVPA) were examined. The modified EPAO assesses 38 nutrition and 27 physical activity best practices, which can be summarized into 7 nutrition-related and 10 physical activity-related environmental sub- scores as well as overall nutrition and overall physical activity scores. There was generally good agreement between data collectors (ICC > 0.60). Reliability was slightly lower for feeding practices and physical activity education and professional development (ICC = 0.56 and 0.22, respectively). Child HEI was significantly correlated with the overall nutrition score (r = 0.23), foods provided (r = 0.28), beverages provided (r = 0.15), nutrition education and professional development (r = 0.21), and nutrition policy (r

  19. The impact of price and tobacco control policies on the demand for electronic nicotine delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jidong; Tauras, John; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2014-07-01

    While much is known about the demand for conventional cigarettes, little is known about the determinants of demand for electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS or e-cigarettes). The goal of this study is to estimate the own and cross-price elasticity of demand for e-cigarettes and to examine the impact of cigarette prices and smoke-free policies on e-cigarette sales. Quarterly e-cigarette prices and sales and conventional cigarette prices from 2009 to 2012 were constructed from commercial retail store scanner data from 52 U.S. markets, for food, drug and mass stores, and from 25 markets, for convenience stores. Fixed-effects models were used to estimate the own and cross-price elasticity of demand for e-cigarettes and associations between e-cigarette sales and cigarette prices and smoke-free policies. Estimated own price elasticities for disposable e-cigarettes centred around -1.2, while those for reusable e-cigarettes were approximately -1.9. Disposable e-cigarette sales were higher in markets where reusable e-cigarette prices were higher and where less of the population was covered by a comprehensive smoke-free policy. There were no consistent and statistically significant relationships between cigarette prices and e-cigarette sales. E-cigarette sales are very responsive to own price changes. Disposable e-cigarettes appear to be substitutes for reusable e-cigarettes. Policies increasing e-cigarette retail prices, such as limiting rebates, discounts and coupons and imposing a tax on e-cigarettes, could potentially lead to significant reductions in e-cigarette sales. Differential tax policies based on product type could lead to substitution between different types of e-cigarettes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  20. The impact of price and tobacco control policies on the demand for electronic nicotine delivery systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jidong; Tauras, John; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2014-01-01

    Background While much is known about the demand for conventional cigarettes, little is known about the determinants of demand for electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS or e-cigarettes). The goal of this study is to estimate the own and cross-price elasticity of demand for e-cigarettes and to examine the impact of cigarette prices and smoke-free policies on e-cigarette sales. Methods Quarterly e-cigarette prices and sales and conventional cigarette prices from 2009 to 2012 were constructed from commercial retail store scanner data from 52 US markets, for food, drug and mass stores, and from 25 markets, for convenience stores. Fixed-effects models were used to estimate the own and cross-price elasticity of demand for e-cigarettes and associations between e-cigarette sales and cigarette prices and smoke-free policies. Results Estimated own price elasticities for disposable e-cigarettes centred around −1.2, while those for reusable e-cigarettes were approximately −1.9. Disposable e-cigarette sales were higher in markets where reusable e-cigarette prices were higher and where less of the population was covered by a comprehensive smoke-free policy. There were no consistent and statistically significant relationships between cigarette prices and e-cigarette sales. Conclusions E-cigarette sales are very responsive to own price changes. Disposable e-cigarettes appear to be substitutes for reusable e-cigarettes. Policies increasing e-cigarette retail prices, such as limiting rebates, discounts and coupons and imposing a tax on e-cigarettes, could potentially lead to significant reductions in e-cigarette sales. Differential tax policies based on product type could lead to substitution between different types of e-cigarettes. PMID:24935898

  1. Effect of electron beam irradiation on nutritional ingredient of Tegillarca granosa meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Chao; Yang Wenge; Xu Dalun; Ou Changrong; Shi Huidong

    2011-01-01

    The influences of 0, 1, 3, 5, 7 and 9 kGy electron beam irradiation on the contents of protein and amino acid and the composition of amino acids and fatty acids in Tegillarca granosa meat were investigated. The results showed that the electron beam had no significant effect on contents of moisture, ash and protein. Fat was sensitive to electron beam irradiation, which decreased with the increasing of irradiation dose. The composition of amino acids remained stable with different doses. The values of EAA/TAA and EAA/NEAA were kept in accordance with FAO/WHO protein model. Besides, electron beam irradiation made no effect on the limiting amino acid (the first and second limiting amino acids were Met + Cys and Val, respectively). The relative content of PUFA increased significantly 1 ∼ 7 kGy irradiation. Electron beam irradiation produced a notable impact on the essential fatty acid, induced the increase of linoleic acid, linolenic acid and arachidonic acid at the doses of 5 ∼ 9 kGy. After the irradiation of 9 kGy, the increments of relative contents of the three essential fatty acids reached 94.61%, 41.37% and 89.91%, respectively. Electron beam irradiation had positive effect on EPA with the doses of 3, 5 and 9 kGy. However, DHA was sensitive to electron beam irradiation, whose relative content decreased with the increasing of irradiation dose and undetected at the dose of 9 kGy. According to the research of decontamination effect, the recommended dose of electron beam irradiation on Tegillarca granosa ws fixed at 3 ∼ 5 kGy. (authors)

  2. Uneven dietary development: linking the policies and processes of globalization with the nutrition transition, obesity and diet-related chronic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hawkes Corinna

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In a "nutrition transition", the consumption of foods high in fats and sweeteners is increasing throughout the developing world. The transition, implicated in the rapid rise of obesity and diet-related chronic diseases worldwide, is rooted in the processes of globalization. Globalization affects the nature of agri-food systems, thereby altering the quantity, type, cost and desirability of foods available for consumption. Understanding the links between globalization and the nutrition transition is therefore necessary to help policy makers develop policies, including food policies, for addressing the global burden of chronic disease. While the subject has been much discussed, tracing the specific pathways between globalization and dietary change remains a challenge. To help address this challenge, this paper explores how one of the central mechanisms of globalization, the integration of the global marketplace, is affecting the specific diet patterns. Focusing on middle-income countries, it highlights the importance of three major processes of market integration: (I production and trade of agricultural goods; (II foreign direct investment in food processing and retailing; and (III global food advertising and promotion. The paper reveals how specific policies implemented to advance the globalization agenda account in part for some recent trends in the global diet. Agricultural production and trade policies have enabled more vegetable oil consumption; policies on foreign direct investment have facilitated higher consumption of highly-processed foods, as has global food marketing. These dietary outcomes also reflect the socioeconomic and cultural context in which these policies are operating. An important finding is that the dynamic, competitive forces unleashed as a result of global market integration facilitates not only convergence in consumption habits (as is commonly assumed in the "Coca-Colonization" hypothesis, but adaptation to

  3. Uneven dietary development: linking the policies and processes of globalization with the nutrition transition, obesity and diet-related chronic diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkes, Corinna

    2006-01-01

    In a "nutrition transition", the consumption of foods high in fats and sweeteners is increasing throughout the developing world. The transition, implicated in the rapid rise of obesity and diet-related chronic diseases worldwide, is rooted in the processes of globalization. Globalization affects the nature of agri-food systems, thereby altering the quantity, type, cost and desirability of foods available for consumption. Understanding the links between globalization and the nutrition transition is therefore necessary to help policy makers develop policies, including food policies, for addressing the global burden of chronic disease. While the subject has been much discussed, tracing the specific pathways between globalization and dietary change remains a challenge. To help address this challenge, this paper explores how one of the central mechanisms of globalization, the integration of the global marketplace, is affecting the specific diet patterns. Focusing on middle-income countries, it highlights the importance of three major processes of market integration: (I) production and trade of agricultural goods; (II) foreign direct investment in food processing and retailing; and (III) global food advertising and promotion. The paper reveals how specific policies implemented to advance the globalization agenda account in part for some recent trends in the global diet. Agricultural production and trade policies have enabled more vegetable oil consumption; policies on foreign direct investment have facilitated higher consumption of highly-processed foods, as has global food marketing. These dietary outcomes also reflect the socioeconomic and cultural context in which these policies are operating. An important finding is that the dynamic, competitive forces unleashed as a result of global market integration facilitates not only convergence in consumption habits (as is commonly assumed in the "Coca-Colonization" hypothesis), but adaptation to products targeted at different

  4. Impact of the revised Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) food package policy on fruit and vegetable prices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenk, Shannon N; Powell, Lisa M; Odoms-Young, Angela M; Krauss, Ramona; Fitzgibbon, Marian L; Block, Daniel; Campbell, Richard T

    2014-02-01

    Obesity is generally inversely related to income among women in the United States. Less access to healthy foods is one way lower income can influence dietary behaviors and body weight. Federal food assistance programs, such as the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC), are an important source of healthy food for low-income populations. In 2009, as part of a nationwide policy revision, WIC added a fruit and vegetable (F/V) voucher to WIC food packages. This quasi-experimental study determined whether F/V prices at stores authorized to accept WIC (ie, WIC vendors) decreased after the policy revision in seven Illinois counties. It also examined cross-sectional F/V price variations by store type and neighborhood characteristics. Two pre-policy observations were conducted in 2008 and 2009; one post-policy observation was conducted in 2010. Small pre- to post-policy reductions in some F/V prices were found, particularly for canned fruit and frozen vegetables at small stores. Compared with chain supermarkets, mass merchandise stores had lower prices for fresh F/V and frozen F/V and small stores and non-chain supermarkets had higher canned and frozen F/V prices, but lower fresh F/V prices. Limited price differences were found across neighborhoods, although canned vegetables were more expensive in neighborhoods with higher concentrations of either Hispanics or blacks and fresh F/V prices were lower in neighborhoods with more Hispanics. Results suggest the WIC policy revision contributed to modest reductions in F/V prices. WIC participants' purchasing power can differ depending on the type and neighborhood of the WIC vendor used. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Assessment of the nutritional status among residents in a Danish nursing home - health effects of a formulated food and meal policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuosma, Kirsi; Hjerrild, Joan; Pedersen, Preben Ulrich; Hundrup, Yrsa Andersen

    2008-09-01

    To gain information about the effects of implementation of a written food and meal policy and to evaluate to what extent systematic nutritional assessment and intervention would result in weight stability among the residents. Studies have shown that aged residents living in institutions suffer from malnutrition or are at risk of malnutrition. Health policies have pointed out that more attention should be given to individualised nutritional care. Several techniques are available to identify malnourished nursing home residents, but very few studies have reported findings of studies based on systematic nutritional assessment. A quasi-experimental study based on a time series design used the residents as their own controls. The study included all 20 residents who resided at the nursing home at baseline in September 2004. Five residents died during the study period (mean age 84.4 years, range 62-91 years). Altogether 15 residents (75%) were assessed all five times during the study period. The proportion of weight-stable residents increased significantly over the study from 52.6% (CI 99%: 23.1-80.2) at baseline to 87.7% (p hospitals.

  6. A Deterrence Approach to Regulate Nurses' Compliance with Electronic Medical Records Privacy Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Kuang-Ming; Talley, Paul C; Hung, Ming-Chien; Chen, Yen-Liang

    2017-11-03

    Hospitals have become increasingly aware that electronic medical records (EMR) may bring about tangible/intangible benefits to managing institutions, including reduced medical errors, improved quality-of-care, curtailed costs, and allowed access to patient information by healthcare professionals regardless of limitations. However, increased dependence on EMR has led to a corresponding increase in the influence of EMR breaches. Such incursions, which have been significantly facilitated by the introduction of mobile devices for accessing EMR, may induce tangible/intangible damage to both hospitals and concerned individuals. The purpose of this study was to explore factors which may tend to inhibit nurses' intentions to violate privacy policy concerning EMR based upon the deterrence theory perspective. Utilizing survey methodology, 262 responses were analyzed via structural equation modeling. Results revealed that punishment certainty, detection certainty, and subjective norm would most certainly and significantly reduce nurses' intentions to violate established EMR privacy policy. With these findings, recommendations for health administrators in planning and designing effective strategies which may potentially inhibit nurses from violating EMR privacy policy are discussed.

  7. State but not District Nutrition Policies Are Associated with Less Junk Food in Vending Machines and School Stores in US Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    KUBIK, MARTHA Y.; WALL, MELANIE; SHEN, LIJUAN; NANNEY, MARILYN S.; NELSON, TOBEN F.; LASKA, MELISSA N.; STORY, MARY

    2012-01-01

    Background Policy that targets the school food environment has been advanced as one way to increase the availability of healthy food at schools and healthy food choice by students. Although both state- and district-level policy initiatives have focused on school nutrition standards, it remains to be seen whether these policies translate into healthy food practices at the school level, where student behavior will be impacted. Objective To examine whether state- and district-level nutrition policies addressing junk food in school vending machines and school stores were associated with less junk food in school vending machines and school stores. Junk food was defined as foods and beverages with low nutrient density that provide calories primarily through fats and added sugars. Design A cross-sectional study design was used to assess self-report data collected by computer-assisted telephone interviews or self-administered mail questionnaires from state-, district-, and school-level respondents participating in the School Health Policies and Programs Study 2006. The School Health Policies and Programs Study, administered every 6 years since 1994 by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, is considered the largest, most comprehensive assessment of school health policies and programs in the United States. Subjects/setting A nationally representative sample (n = 563) of public elementary, middle, and high schools was studied. Statistical analysis Logistic regression adjusted for school characteristics, sampling weights, and clustering was used to analyze data. Policies were assessed for strength (required, recommended, neither required nor recommended prohibiting junk food) and whether strength was similar for school vending machines and school stores. Results School vending machines and school stores were more prevalent in high schools (93%) than middle (84%) and elementary (30%) schools. For state policies, elementary schools that required prohibiting junk food

  8. State but not district nutrition policies are associated with less junk food in vending machines and school stores in US public schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubik, Martha Y; Wall, Melanie; Shen, Lijuan; Nanney, Marilyn S; Nelson, Toben F; Laska, Melissa N; Story, Mary

    2010-07-01

    Policy that targets the school food environment has been advanced as one way to increase the availability of healthy food at schools and healthy food choice by students. Although both state- and district-level policy initiatives have focused on school nutrition standards, it remains to be seen whether these policies translate into healthy food practices at the school level, where student behavior will be impacted. To examine whether state- and district-level nutrition policies addressing junk food in school vending machines and school stores were associated with less junk food in school vending machines and school stores. Junk food was defined as foods and beverages with low nutrient density that provide calories primarily through fats and added sugars. A cross-sectional study design was used to assess self-report data collected by computer-assisted telephone interviews or self-administered mail questionnaires from state-, district-, and school-level respondents participating in the School Health Policies and Programs Study 2006. The School Health Policies and Programs Study, administered every 6 years since 1994 by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, is considered the largest, most comprehensive assessment of school health policies and programs in the United States. A nationally representative sample (n=563) of public elementary, middle, and high schools was studied. Logistic regression adjusted for school characteristics, sampling weights, and clustering was used to analyze data. Policies were assessed for strength (required, recommended, neither required nor recommended prohibiting junk food) and whether strength was similar for school vending machines and school stores. School vending machines and school stores were more prevalent in high schools (93%) than middle (84%) and elementary (30%) schools. For state policies, elementary schools that required prohibiting junk food in school vending machines and school stores offered less junk food than

  9. Applications of isotopes in the development of nutrition policies and evaluation of interventions. Report of a contractual service agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vio, F.; Uauy, R.

    2000-01-01

    In the last 10-20 years, the development of science and technology applied to nutrition has been impressive. Nutrition can no longer be underestimated as a scientific discipline; nutrition embraces now modern physiology and biochemistry (including molecular biology), anthropology and the social sciences and requires real expertise from many sources, including the nuclear sector. Isotopic-based nuclear techniques provide reliable biological indicators that give, at the decision-maker level, important information to target and track progress in food and nutrition programs. They serve as tools for evaluating nutritional status of populations and individuals for micronutrients and vitamins, nutrient intake and bioavailability, body composition and energy balance. The information provided verifies the nature of the nutrition problem, helps implement or redirect on-going programs, guides in the processing of local foods and provides indicators of important long-term health improvements or broader social and economic advances. As a result of the investment in human resources undertaken by IAEA in recent years, under its mandate to promote the peaceful uses of nuclear technology, nutritionists in developing countries are now more aware of the significance and benefits of isotopic techniques. This includes stable isotopic methods that are biologically safe and have no adverse environmental impacts. Equipment is being increasingly made available by national investments in the science base. Sometimes IAEA has given specific and direct support but in many instances support previously provided for other nuclear sectors could be harnessed to address nutritional problems. In summary, the objectives now are to meet the nutrition challenges facing countries by the use of isotopes in nutritional evaluations, bearing in mind that isotopic and nuclear techniques are tools, not solutions by themselves. IAEA does not manage or fund nutrition investigations or interventions at the public

  10. Applications of isotopes in the development of nutrition policies and evaluation of interventions. Report of a contractual service agreement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vio, F; Uauy, R [Instituto de Nutricion y Tecnologia de los Alimentos, Universidad de Chile, Santiago (Chile)

    2000-07-01

    In the last 10-20 years, the development of science and technology applied to nutrition has been impressive. Nutrition can no longer be underestimated as a scientific discipline; nutrition embraces now modern physiology and biochemistry (including molecular biology), anthropology and the social sciences and requires real expertise from many sources, including the nuclear sector. Isotopic-based nuclear techniques provide reliable biological indicators that give, at the decision-maker level, important information to target and track progress in food and nutrition programs. They serve as tools for evaluating nutritional status of populations and individuals for micronutrients and vitamins, nutrient intake and bioavailability, body composition and energy balance. The information provided verifies the nature of the nutrition problem, helps implement or redirect on-going programs, guides in the processing of local foods and provides indicators of important long-term health improvements or broader social and economic advances. As a result of the investment in human resources undertaken by IAEA in recent years, under its mandate to promote the peaceful uses of nuclear technology, nutritionists in developing countries are now more aware of the significance and benefits of isotopic techniques. This includes stable isotopic methods that are biologically safe and have no adverse environmental impacts. Equipment is being increasingly made available by national investments in the science base. Sometimes IAEA has given specific and direct support but in many instances support previously provided for other nuclear sectors could be harnessed to address nutritional problems. In summary, the objectives now are to meet the nutrition challenges facing countries by the use of isotopes in nutritional evaluations, bearing in mind that isotopic and nuclear techniques are tools, not solutions by themselves. IAEA does not manage or fund nutrition investigations or interventions at the public

  11. THE JEOPARDIZED SITUATION OF ELECTRONIC WASTE IN BANGLADESH: CAN CUSTOMIZED POLICY APPROACH SOLVE THE CHALLENGE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Md. Bahauddin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Electronic waste (e-waste is one of the fastest-growing pollution problems worldwide given the presence if a variety of toxic substances which can contaminate the environment and threaten human health, if disposal protocols are not meticulously managed. In Bangladesh almost 2.7 million metric tons of e-waste generated per year. Of this amountonly 20 to 30 percent is recycled and the rest of the waste is released in to landfills,  rivers, drains lakes, canals, open spaces which are very hazardous for the health and environment. Since Bangladesh is in the stream of rapid technological advancement, it is seldom to take necessary steps to avoid the future jeopardized situation because of e-waste. The current practices of e-waste management in Bangladesh suffer from a number of drawbacks like the difficulty in inventorisation, unhealthy conditions of informal recycling, inadequate legislation and policy, poor awareness and reluctance on part of the corporate to address the critical issues. The paper highlights the associated issues and strategies to address this emerging problem, analyses the policy and its gaps. Therefore, this paper also suggest that e-waste policy development may require a more customized approach where, instead of addressing e-waste in isolation, it should be addressed as part of the national development agenda that integrates green economy assessment and strategic environmental assessment as part of national policy planning. Finally this work also suggests some alternative strategies and approaches to overcome the challenges of e-waste.

  12. Urban-rural disparities in child nutrition-related health outcomes in China: The role of hukou policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong; Rizzo, John A; Fang, Hai

    2015-11-23

    Hukou is the household registration system in China that determines eligibility for various welfare benefits, such as health care, education, housing, and employment. The hukou system may lead to nutritional and health disparities in China. We aim at examining the role of the hukou system in affecting urban-rural disparities in child nutrition, and disentangling the institutional effect of hukou from the effect of urban/rural residence on child nutrition-related health outcomes. This study uses data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey 1993-2009 with a sample of 9616 children under the age of 18. We compute height-for-age z-score and weight-for-age z-score for children. We use both descriptive statistics and multiple regression techniques to study the levels and significance of the association between child nutrition-related health outcomes and hukou type. Children with urban hukou have 0.25 (P system exacerbates urban-rural disparities in child nutrition-related health outcomes independent of the well-known disparity stemming from urban-rural residence. Fortunately, however, child health disparities due to hukou have been declining since 2000.

  13. Frequency and Severity of Parenteral Nutrition Medication Errors at a Large Children's Hospital After Implementation of Electronic Ordering and Compounding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKay, Mark; Anderson, Collin; Boehme, Sabrina; Cash, Jared; Zobell, Jeffery

    2016-04-01

    : prescribing, transcription, preparation, and administration. There were no transcription errors, and most (95%) errors occurred during administration. We conclude that PN practices that conferred a meaningful cost reduction and a lower error rate (2.7/1000 PN) than reported in the literature (15.6/1000 PN) were ascribed to the development and implementation of practices that conform to national PN guidelines and recommendations. Electronic ordering and compounding programs eliminated all transcription and related opportunities for errors. © 2015 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  14. Using political science to progress public health nutrition: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullerton, Katherine; Donnet, Timothy; Lee, Amanda; Gallegos, Danielle

    2016-08-01

    Poor dietary intake is the most important behavioural risk factor affecting health globally. Despite this, there has been little investment in public health nutrition policy actions. Policy process theories from the field of political science can aid understanding why policy decisions have occurred and identify how to influence ongoing or future initiatives. The present review aims to examine public health nutrition policy literature and identify whether a policy process theory has been used to analyse the process. Electronic databases were searched systematically for studies examining policy making in public health nutrition in high-income, democratic countries. International, national, state and local government jurisdictions within high-income, democratic countries. Individuals and organisations involved in the nutrition policy-making process. Sixty-three studies met the eligibility criteria, most were conducted in the USA and a majority focused on obesity. The analysis demonstrates an accelerating trend in the number of nutrition policy papers published annually and an increase in the diversity of nutrition topics examined. The use of policy process theory was observed from 2003; however, it was utilised by only 14 % of the reviewed papers. There is limited research into the nutrition policy process in high-income countries. While there has been a small increase in the use of policy process theory from 2003, an opportunity to expand its use is evident. We suggest that nutrition policy making would benefit from a pragmatic approach that ensures those trying to influence or understand the policy-making process are equipped with basic knowledge around these theories.

  15. Electronic Cigarettes Among Priority Populations: Role of Smoking Cessation and Tobacco Control Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jidong; Kim, Yoonsang; Vera, Lisa; Emery, Sherry L

    2016-02-01

    The electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) market has evolved rapidly in recent years, with exploding growth in brands and product types; however, e-cigarette use among priority (sexual minority and low-income) populations and its relationship with smoking-cessation and tobacco control policies have yet to be fully characterized. The authors conducted a nationally representative online survey of 17,522 U.S. adults in 2013. Participants were drawn from GfK's KnowledgePanel. Logistic regression models were used to analyze relationships between e-cigarettes (awareness, ever use, current use) and cigarette smoking and cessation behaviors, tobacco control policies, and demographics. Analyses were conducted in 2014. Approximately 15% of participants reported ever use of e-cigarettes, 5.1% reported current use, and 34.5% of ever users reported current use. E-cigarette awareness was lower among women, minorities, and those with low education. Ever and current use of e-cigarettes was higher among current cigarette smokers, young adults, and those with low SES; both ever use and current use were correlated with current cigarette smoking status, particularly when combined with quit intentions or attempts. Lesbian/gay/bisexual/transgender respondents had higher rates of ever use and current use. Ever use was lower in states with comprehensive smoking bans. No significant relationship between cigarette price and e-cigarette use was detected. Ongoing surveillance of e-cigarette use among subpopulation groups and monitoring their use for combustible cigarette cessation are needed. Important variations in the patterns and correlates of e-cigarette awareness and use exist among priority populations. These findings have implications for future e-cigarette policy decisions. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Society of Behavioral Medicine's (SBM) position on emerging policy issues regarding electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS): A need for regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojewski, Alana M; Coleman, Nortorious; Toll, Benjamin A

    2016-09-01

    Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), commonly known as electronic cigarettes (or e-cigarettes), are widely available in the USA, yet almost entirely unregulated on a national level. Researchers are currently gathering data to understand the individual and public health effects of ENDS, as well as the role that ENDS may play in tobacco treatment. Given these uncertainties, regulatory efforts should be aimed at understanding and minimizing any potential harms of ENDS. The Society of Behavioral Medicine (SBM) supports stronger regulation of ENDS, incorporation of ENDS into clean air policies, and special consideration of safety standards to protect vulnerable populations. SBM also supports research on ENDS to guide policy decisions.

  17. Nutrition-Related Policy and Environmental Strategies to Prevent Obesity in Rural Communities: A Systematic Review of the Literature, 2002–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeman, Jennifer; Jilcott Pitts, Stephanie B.; Khan, Laura Kettel; Fleischhacker, Sheila; Evenson, Kelly R.; Schreiner, Michelle; Byker, Carmen; Owens, Clint; McGuirt, Jared; Barnidge, Ellen; Dean, Wesley; Johnson, Donna; Kolodinsky, Jane; Piltch, Emily; Pinard, Courtney; Quinn, Emilee; Whetstone, Lauren; Ammerman, Alice

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Residents of rural communities in the United States are at higher risk for obesity than their urban and suburban counterparts. Policy and environmental-change strategies supporting healthier dietary intake can prevent obesity and promote health equity. Evidence in support of these strategies is based largely on urban and suburban studies; little is known about use of these strategies in rural communities. The purpose of this review was to synthesize available evidence on the adaptation, implementation, and effectiveness of policy and environmental obesity-prevention strategies in rural settings. Methods The review was guided by a list of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Recommended Community Strategies and Measurements to Prevent Obesity in the United States, commonly known as the “COCOMO” strategies. We searched PubMed, Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Public Affairs Information Service, and Cochrane databases for articles published from 2002 through 2013 that reported findings from research on nutrition-related policy and environmental strategies in rural communities in the United States and Canada. Two researchers independently abstracted data from each article, and resolved discrepancies by consensus. Results Of the 663 articles retrieved, 33 met inclusion criteria. The interventions most commonly focused on increasing access to more nutritious foods and beverages or decreasing access to less nutritious options. Rural adaptations included accommodating distance to food sources, tailoring to local food cultures, and building community partnerships. Conclusions Findings from this literature review provide guidance on adapting and implementing policy and environmental strategies in rural communities. PMID:25927605

  18. Nutrition-related policy and environmental strategies to prevent obesity in rural communities: a systematic review of the literature, 2002-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calancie, Larissa; Leeman, Jennifer; Jilcott Pitts, Stephanie B; Khan, Laura Kettel; Fleischhacker, Sheila; Evenson, Kelly R; Schreiner, Michelle; Byker, Carmen; Owens, Clint; McGuirt, Jared; Barnidge, Ellen; Dean, Wesley; Johnson, Donna; Kolodinsky, Jane; Piltch, Emily; Pinard, Courtney; Quinn, Emilee; Whetstone, Lauren; Ammerman, Alice

    2015-04-30

    Residents of rural communities in the United States are at higher risk for obesity than their urban and suburban counterparts. Policy and environmental-change strategies supporting healthier dietary intake can prevent obesity and promote health equity. Evidence in support of these strategies is based largely on urban and suburban studies; little is known about use of these strategies in rural communities. The purpose of this review was to synthesize available evidence on the adaptation, implementation, and effectiveness of policy and environmental obesity-prevention strategies in rural settings. The review was guided by a list of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Recommended Community Strategies and Measurements to Prevent Obesity in the United States, commonly known as the "COCOMO" strategies. We searched PubMed, Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Public Affairs Information Service, and Cochrane databases for articles published from 2002 through 2013 that reported findings from research on nutrition-related policy and environmental strategies in rural communities in the United States and Canada. Two researchers independently abstracted data from each article, and resolved discrepancies by consensus. Of the 663 articles retrieved, 33 met inclusion criteria. The interventions most commonly focused on increasing access to more nutritious foods and beverages or decreasing access to less nutritious options. Rural adaptations included accommodating distance to food sources, tailoring to local food cultures, and building community partnerships. Findings from this literature review provide guidance on adapting and implementing policy and environmental strategies in rural communities.

  19. The Role of Family and Community Involvement in the Development and Implementation of School Nutrition and Physical Activity Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehm, Rebecca; Davey, Cynthia S.; Nanney, Marilyn S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although there are several evidence-based recommendations directed at improving nutrition and physical activity standards in schools, these guidelines have not been uniformly adopted throughout the United States. Consequently, research is needed to identify facilitators promoting schools to implement these recommendations. Therefore,…

  20. How the Nutritional Foods in the Schools Committee of the Sudbury Board of Education Developed a Food Services Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yackman, Bernardine

    This paper chronicles the attempt by the Sudbury Board of Education (Ontario) to minimize the addiction of the children and teenagers in its schools to "junk foods." The plan involved the teaching of good eating habits and the principles of nutrition in food choices. The program used a variety of pedagogical and merchandising strategies to effect…

  1. The scientific production of Nutrition published by the Scientific Electronic Library under the gaze of the evaluation of the Coordination for the Development of Higher Education Personnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco de Assis Guedes de VASCONCELOS

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: Perform analysis of the scientific production of Nutrition published by the Scientific Electronic Library under the gaze of the evaluation of Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior. Methods: Systematic search was performed in the 286 current title journals, using the "article search" path, the "subject index" window and the "Nutrition" indexer. The articles and periodicals selected were analyzed in order to answer the following questions: Which journals from Scientific Electronic Library publish articles on Nutrition? Do these journals have an impact factor as measured by the Journal Citation Reports? Which are? What is the classification of these journals by the areas of evaluation of Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior, specifically by the area of Nutrition? Results: We analyzed 779 articles published in 85 journals. The majority of articles (n=698; 89.6% were related to the area of Health Sciences. The five journals with higher volumes of articles were: Brazilian Journal of Nutrition, Reports in Public Health, Public Health Journal, Science & Public Health and Journal of Pediatrics. Most (62.4% does not have Journal Citation Reports. The Nutrition area not rated any journal in strata A1 and A2, classifying them from B1 to B4. For eight areas analyzed their specific journals were induced to the upper strata of Qualis (A1, A2 and B1. Conclusion: The analyzed journals are the main vehicles of circulation of scientific paradigms of national scientific communities. Considering the correlation of forces between the vehicles of circulation of scientific knowledge in the international context, stimuli for valorization and qualification of these journals are essential.

  2. Impact of the Revised Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) Food Package Policy on Fruit and Vegetable Prices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenk, Shannon N.; Powell, Lisa M.; Odoms-Young, Angela M.; Krauss, Ramona; Fitzgibbon, Marian L.; Block, Daniel; Campbell, Richard T.

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is generally inversely related to income among women in the United States. Less access to healthy foods is one way lower income can influence dietary behaviors and body weight. Federal food assistance programs, such as the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC), are an important source of healthy food for low-income populations. In 2009, as part of a nationwide policy revision, WIC added a fruit and vegetable (F/V) voucher to WIC food packages. This quasi-experimental study determined whether F/V prices at stores authorized to accept WIC (ie, WIC vendors) decreased after the policy revision in seven Illinois counties. It also examined cross-sectional F/V price variations by store type and neighborhood characteristics. Two pre-policy observations were conducted in 2008 and 2009; one post-policy observation was conducted in 2010. Small pre- to post-policy reductions in some F/V prices were found, particularly for canned fruit and frozen vegetables at small stores. Compared with chain supermarkets, mass merchandise stores had lower prices for fresh F/V and frozen F/V and small stores and non-chain supermarkets had higher canned and frozen F/V prices, but lower fresh F/V prices. Limited price differences were found across neighborhoods, although canned vegetables were more expensive in neighborhoods with higher concentrations of either Hispanics or blacks and fresh F/V prices were lower in neighborhoods with more Hispanics. Results suggest the WIC policy revision contributed to modest reductions in F/V prices. WIC participants’ purchasing power can differ depending on the type and neighborhood of the WIC vendor used. PMID:24183996

  3. Nutritional surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, J B; Mitchell, J T

    1983-01-01

    The concept of nutritional surveillance is derived from disease surveillance, and means "to watch over nutrition, in order to make decisions that lead to improvements in nutrition in populations". Three distinct objectives have been defined for surveillance systems, primarily in relation to problems of malnutrition in developing countries: to aid long-term planning in health and development; to provide input for programme management and evaluation; and to give timely warning of the need for intervention to prevent critical deteriorations in food consumption. Decisions affecting nutrition are made at various administrative levels, and the uses of different types of nutritional surveillance information can be related to national policies, development programmes, public health and nutrition programmes, and timely warning and intervention programmes. The information should answer specific questions, for example concerning the nutritional status and trends of particular population groups.Defining the uses and users of the information is the first essential step in designing a system; this is illustrated with reference to agricultural and rural development planning, the health sector, and nutrition and social welfare programmes. The most usual data outputs are nutritional outcome indicators (e.g., prevalence of malnutrition among preschool children), disaggregated by descriptive or classifying variables, of which the commonest is simply administrative area. Often, additional "status" indicators, such as quality of housing or water supply, are presented at the same time. On the other hand, timely warning requires earlier indicators of the possibility of nutritional deterioration, and agricultural indicators are often the most appropriate.DATA COME FROM TWO MAIN TYPES OF SOURCE: administrative (e.g., clinics and schools) and household sample surveys. Each source has its own advantages and disadvantages: for example, administrative data often already exist, and can be

  4. Effect of Soft Drink, Electronic Media Exposure, Family Income, Pocket Money, and Nutritional Status, on Age at Menarche Among Adolescents in Surakarta

    OpenAIRE

    Mirzawati Latifah; Bhisma Murti; Yulia Lanti Retno Dewi

    2017-01-01

    Background: Age at menarche has become earlier for the last 100 years. This situation poses worrying problem as it may be lead to an increased risk of premarital sex, teenage pregnancy, mental unpreparedness, and increased risk of Malignant diseases such as ovarial cancer and breast cancer. This study aimed to determine the effect of soft drink, electronic media exposure, family income, pocket money, and nutritional status, on age at menarche among adolescents in Surakarta. Subjects and Metho...

  5. Major multinational food and beverage companies and informal sector contributions to global food consumption: implications for nutrition policy

    OpenAIRE

    Yach Derek; Alexander Eleanore; Mensah George A

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background In recent years, 10 major multinational food and beverage companies have worked together within the International Food and Beverage Alliance (IFBA) to increase their commitments to public health. Current IFBA commitments include initiatives to improve the nutrition quality of products and how these products are advertised to children. The impact and magnitude of IFBA member contributions to the total market share of packaged foods and beverages consumed remain incompletely...

  6. FIELD NOTES: PEOPLE, PROGRAMS, & POLICIES Farmers' Market Produce Delivery Program for Mitigating Nutritional Risk in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dover, Sally E; Buys, David R; Allocca, Sally; Locher, Julie L

    2013-01-01

    Community-dwelling older adults in disadvantaged neighborhoods may face nutritional risks not mitigated by existing programs. The Senior Market Basket Program, administered by nonprofit organization P.E.E.R., Inc., is a unique approach to serving community-dwelling senior adults and a valuable model for integrating targeted social services into local food systems. The program ensures access to fresh produce during the growing season for a defined target population.

  7. [Evaluation of Brazilian public policies to promote food security and fight hunger, 1995-2002. 2 - the Workers' Nutrition Program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco Santos, Leonor Maria; Nazaré Araújo, Maria da Purificação; Martins, Maísa Cruz; Veloso, Iracema Santos; Assunção, Marilena Pacheco; Chaves dos Santos, Sandra Maria

    2007-08-01

    This study evaluated the Workers' Nutrition Program in Brazil from 1995 to 2002, from a structure-process-results perspective. The methodology involved documental research and a case study in 45 municipalities in the State of Bahia, resulting in 2,389 household interviews. In relation to structure, we analyzed the program's normative evolution until 2002. As for nutritional recommendations, the program shifted from insufficient calorie supply in the 1980s to a positive association between overweight and employment in companies adopting the Workers' Nutrition Program. In Bahia, overall program coverage was insufficient among the 5,120 adults 20 years or older who were interviewed. A significant difference was observed in access to food benefits among workers in the interior of the State (6.1%) as compared to the State capital, Salvador (26.1%). However, targeting was adequate: all workers benefiting from the program in the interior and 92.4% of those in Salvador earned less than five times the minimum wage (approximately US dollars 950/month). It is necessary to improve the program's coverage in the target population in order to raise workers' awareness about their rights and the actions developed by the program.

  8. Optimising reverse logistics network to support policy-making in the case of Electrical and Electronic Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achillas, Ch; Vlachokostas, Ch; Aidonis, D; Moussiopoulos, N; Iakovou, E; Banias, G

    2010-12-01

    Due to the rapid growth of Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) volumes, as well as the hazardousness of obsolete electr(on)ic goods, this type of waste is now recognised as a priority stream in the developed countries. Policy-making related to the development of the necessary infrastructure and the coordination of all relevant stakeholders is crucial for the efficient management and viability of individually collected waste. This paper presents a decision support tool for policy-makers and regulators to optimise electr(on)ic products' reverse logistics network. To that effect, a Mixed Integer Linear Programming mathematical model is formulated taking into account existing infrastructure of collection points and recycling facilities. The applicability of the developed model is demonstrated employing a real-world case study for the Region of Central Macedonia, Greece. The paper concludes with presenting relevant obtained managerial insights. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Childhood Obesity and Nutrition Issues in the United States: An Update on School-based Policies and Practices. Education Policy Brief, Volume 10, Number 1, Spring 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spradlin, Terry; Gard, Greta; Huang, Vivian; Kopp, Beth; Malik, Alanna

    2012-01-01

    This Education Policy Brief examines the latest research and statistics regarding childhood obesity. In addition to providing an overview of current trends and effects of childhood obesity, this brief considers the reasons for the increase in obesity rates among children, as well as the latest federal and state initiatives created to combat…

  10. Food and nutrition surveillance and planning in Kilifi District, Kenya : a model for district based multi-sectoral policy formulation and planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Owuor, J.O.; Okello, W.O.

    1995-01-01

    Chronic malnutrition has been consistently high in Kilifi District, Kenya, despite efforts to improve nutrition. This report presents an alternative approach to nutrition planning in Kilifi District, taking into account the multidimensional and multidisciplinary nature of nutrition. This approach

  11. 76 FR 66721 - New Policies and Procedural Requirements for the Electronic Submission of Discretionary Grant...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-27

    ... electronic submission of discretionary grant applications through the government-wide grants application site... Procedural Requirements for the Electronic Submission of Discretionary Grant Applications AGENCY: Division of... requirements for the electronic submission of discretionary grant applications. Overview Information: The...

  12. Investigation of electron beam irradiation effects on anti-nutritional factors, chemical composition and digestion kinetics of whole cottonseed, soybean and canola seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebrahimi-Mahmoudabad, S.R.; Taghinejad-Roudbaneh, M.

    2011-01-01

    This study was completed to determine effects of electron beam (EB) irradiation at doses of 15, 30 and 45 kGy on anti-nutritional factors, ruminal degradation and in vitro crude protein (CP) digestibility of whole cottonseed (WCS), soybean (SB) and canola seeds (CS). EB-irradiation eliminated completely (P<0.001) phytic acid of WCS, SB and CS at a dose of 30 kGy. EB-irradiation decreased linearly (P<0.001) the total glucosinolate content of CS. Trypsin inhibitor activity of 15, 30 and 45 kGy EB-irradiated SB was decreased by 19, 73 and 88%, respectively. Free gossypol content of WCS was reduced linearly (P<0.001) by irradiation. EB-irradiation increased linearly (P<0.001) CP digestibility of feeds. In conclusion, EB-irradiation was an effective processing method for improving the nutritive value of WCS, SB and CS. - Highlights: → Effects of electron beam (EB) irradiation on nutritive value of some oilseeds were evaluated. → EB-irradiation eliminated completely phytic acid of seeds at a dose of 30 kGy. → EB-irradiation decreased trypsin inhibitor activity of soybean. → Free gossypol content of whole cottonseed was reduced linearly by EB-irradiation. → EB-irradiation increased escape protein and crude protein digestibility of seeds.

  13. Investigation of electron beam irradiation effects on anti-nutritional factors, chemical composition and digestion kinetics of whole cottonseed, soybean and canola seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebrahimi-Mahmoudabad, S.R., E-mail: ebrahimiyazd@yahoo.com [Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahr-e-Qods Branch, Islamic Azad University, P.O. Box 37515-374, Shahr-e-Qods (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Taghinejad-Roudbaneh, M. [Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University, P.O. Box 51589, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-12-15

    This study was completed to determine effects of electron beam (EB) irradiation at doses of 15, 30 and 45 kGy on anti-nutritional factors, ruminal degradation and in vitro crude protein (CP) digestibility of whole cottonseed (WCS), soybean (SB) and canola seeds (CS). EB-irradiation eliminated completely (P<0.001) phytic acid of WCS, SB and CS at a dose of 30 kGy. EB-irradiation decreased linearly (P<0.001) the total glucosinolate content of CS. Trypsin inhibitor activity of 15, 30 and 45 kGy EB-irradiated SB was decreased by 19, 73 and 88%, respectively. Free gossypol content of WCS was reduced linearly (P<0.001) by irradiation. EB-irradiation increased linearly (P<0.001) CP digestibility of feeds. In conclusion, EB-irradiation was an effective processing method for improving the nutritive value of WCS, SB and CS. - Highlights: > Effects of electron beam (EB) irradiation on nutritive value of some oilseeds were evaluated. > EB-irradiation eliminated completely phytic acid of seeds at a dose of 30 kGy. > EB-irradiation decreased trypsin inhibitor activity of soybean. > Free gossypol content of whole cottonseed was reduced linearly by EB-irradiation. > EB-irradiation increased escape protein and crude protein digestibility of seeds.

  14. Investigation of electron beam irradiation effects on anti-nutritional factors, chemical composition and digestion kinetics of whole cottonseed, soybean and canola seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi-Mahmoudabad, S. R.; Taghinejad-Roudbaneh, M.

    2011-12-01

    This study was completed to determine effects of electron beam (EB) irradiation at doses of 15, 30 and 45 kGy on anti-nutritional factors, ruminal degradation and in vitro crude protein (CP) digestibility of whole cottonseed (WCS), soybean (SB) and canola seeds (CS). EB-irradiation eliminated completely ( Pcontent of CS. Trypsin inhibitor activity of 15, 30 and 45 kGy EB-irradiated SB was decreased by 19, 73 and 88%, respectively. Free gossypol content of WCS was reduced linearly ( P<0.001) by irradiation. EB-irradiation increased linearly ( P<0.001) CP digestibility of feeds. In conclusion, EB-irradiation was an effective processing method for improving the nutritive value of WCS, SB and CS.

  15. Tweeting for and against public health policy: response to the Chicago Department of Public Health's electronic cigarette Twitter campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Jenine K; Moreland-Russell, Sarah; Choucair, Bechara; Mansour, Raed; Staub, Mackenzie; Simmons, Kendall

    2014-10-16

    In January 2014, the Chicago City Council scheduled a vote on local regulation of electronic cigarettes as tobacco products. One week prior to the vote, the Chicago Department of Public Health (CDPH) released a series of messages about electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) through its Twitter account. Shortly after the messages, or tweets, were released, the department's Twitter account became the target of a "Twitter bomb" by Twitter users sending more than 600 tweets in one week against the proposed regulation. The purpose of our study was to examine the messages and tweet patterns in the social media response to the CDPH e-cigarette campaign. We collected all tweets mentioning the CDPH in the week between the e-cigarette campaign and the vote on the new local e-cigarette policy. We conducted a content analysis of the tweets, used descriptive statistics to examine characteristics of involved Twitter users, and used network visualization and descriptive statistics to identify Twitter users prominent in the conversation. Of the 683 tweets mentioning CDPH during the week, 609 (89.2%) were anti-policy. More than half of anti-policy tweets were about use of electronic cigarettes for cessation as a healthier alternative to combustible cigarettes (358/609, 58.8%). Just over one-third of anti-policy tweets asserted that the health department was lying or disseminating propaganda (224/609, 36.8%). Approximately 14% (96/683, 14.1%) of the tweets used an account or included elements consistent with "astroturfing"-a strategy employed to promote a false sense of consensus around an idea. Few Twitter users were from the Chicago area; Twitter users from Chicago were significantly more likely than expected to tweet in support of the policy. Our findings may assist public health organizations to anticipate, recognize, and respond to coordinated social media campaigns.

  16. African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development. ... and African public institutions working towards solving food and nutrition problems through sound policies, ... Ecosystems Division, United Nations Environment Programme.

  17. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in China: policies and recommendations for sound management of plastics from electronic wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Kun; Lu, Yonglong; Wang, Tieyu; Shi, Yajuan; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Xu, Li; Li, Qiushuang; Liu, Shijie

    2013-01-30

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), used as flame retardants (BFRs), are incorporated in plastics of most electronic equipment. Among BFR mixtures, deca-BDE is the most widely used commercial additive in the polymer industry and the use of deca-BDE is currently not subject to any restrictions in China. However, debate over environmental and health risks associated with deca-BDE still remains. Regulatory agencies in developed countries have adopted and/or established environmentally sound strategies for the management of potential threat posed by PBDEs to the environment and human health. No regulations or management policies for PBDEs currently exist in China at either central or provincial government levels. Large amounts of plastics containing PBDEs are still in use and must be disposed of after their lifetimes, creating outdoor reservoirs for the future dispersal of PBDEs into the environment. Concerted action is needed not only to regulate the production and use of PBDEs but also to find ways to effectively manage waste electrical and electronic products that contain PBDEs. This article is the first to investigate the policy issues and current problems related to the use of PBDEs in China. In addition, we estimate the mass flows of PBDEs contained in Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) in China. We suggest alternatives to PBDEs and sound management of plastics used in electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) that contain PBDEs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Information Operations, Electronic Warfare, and Cyberwar: Capabilities and Related Policy Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wilson, Clay

    2007-01-01

    .... It also suggests related policy issues of potential interest to Congress. For military planners, the control of information is critical to military success, and communications networks and computers are of vital operational importance...

  19. A Qualitative Examination of Smoke-Free Policies and Electronic Cigarettes Among Sheltered Homeless Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayaraghavan, Maya; Hurst, Samantha; Pierce, John P

    2017-05-01

    To examine attitudes toward smoke-free policies and perceptions of e-cigarette use among homeless adults. A cross-sectional qualitative study was conducted. Study setting comprised seven transitional homeless shelters with indoor smoke-free policies in San Diego County; facilities differed in outdoor restrictions on smoking. Sixty-six current or former smokers were the study participants. Participants completed a questionnaire on smoking behaviors, perceived antitobacco norms, and attitudes toward smoke-free policies, and attended a focus group interview that explored these topics. We used a directed content analysis approach to analyze the focus group transcripts. Clients in facilities with outdoor restrictions on smoking had stronger perceived antitobacco norms than those in facilities without such restrictions. We identified the following major themes: attitudes toward smoke-free policies, the use of e-cigarettes, the addictive potential of cigarettes, vulnerability to tobacco industry marketing, and interest in smoking cessation. The consensus was that smoke-free policies were important because they limited secondhand smoke exposure to nonsmokers and children. All were curious about e-cigarettes, particularly if they could be smoked in areas where smoking was prohibited and/or used as a cessation aid. In this study of homeless adults, there was strong support for indoor and outdoor smoke-free policies. However, misperceptions that e-cigarettes could be used indoors could threaten antitobacco norms, highlighting opportunities to educate about the potential risks of e-cigarette use among homeless individuals.

  20. Cardiovascular disease risk factors among children of different socioeconomic status in Istanbul, Turkey: Directions for public health and nutrition policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keskin Yasar

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives The aim of the current study was to examine the influence of socioeconomic status (SES on physiological (lipid profile, obesity indices and behavioral (dietary habits, physical activity cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors among primary schoolchildren in Istanbul. Design Cross sectional study. Setting One private school and two public schools from different SES districts in Istanbul. Participants 510 randomly selected children aged 12 and 13 years old (257 boys, 253 girls. Results The prevalence of overweight (15.2% and the energy intake (p Conclusion The findings of the current study revealed a coexistence of both overweight and higher energy intake in middle/ high SES children, as well as a coexistence of underweight and lower physical activity levels in low SES children. These observations should guide the public health policy in developing appropriate intervention strategies to efficiently tackle these health and social issues early in life.

  1. Public Policy Instruments and Their Impact: From Analogue to Electronic Government in the Bus Services of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Lopes Campos

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the relations between public policy instruments and production practices of objects related to government action. It demonstrates that the materiality of the instruments built to make a public policy object legible to its operators has independent effects on the relations among private operators, bureaucrats, and the public sector. Based on the bus service provision policies in the city of São Paulo between the 1980s and the 2000s, it shows that transportation policies are structured around the dilemmas and conflicts associated with the production of reports and databases. This article suggests that everyday practices and instruments, especially those associated with the documentation of operational performance, are key dimensions to understand the limits and potential of both state capacities and the regulation of companies’ profits. Because of its materiality, documentation practices and document pathways, operate as devices and artifacts which structure opacities, asymmetries of information, and power struggles between the state bureaucrats and private companies in the construction of service legibility. This article concludes that the transition from the governance through analogue instruments to the governance through electronic instruments is characterized by more transparency and greater regulatory potential over the private sector.

  2. Electronic Waste in Bangladesh: Evaluating the Situation, Legislation and Policy and Way Forward With Strategy and Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alam Mahbub

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Electronic waste (e-waste is one of the fastest-growing pollution problems worldwide given the presence if a variety of toxic substances which can contaminate the environment and threaten human health, if disposal protocols are not meticulously managed. In Bangladesh almost 2.7 million metric tons of e-waste generated per year. Of this amount only 20 to 30 percent is recycled and the rest of the waste is released in to landfills, rivers, drains lakes, canals, open spaces which are very hazardous for the health and environment. Since Bangladesh is in the stream of rapid technological advancement, it is seldom to take necessary steps to avoid the future jeopardized situation because of e-waste. The current practices of e-waste management in Bangladesh suffer from a number of drawbacks like the difficulty in inventorisation, unhealthy conditions of informal recycling, inadequate legislation and policy, poor awareness and reluctance on part of the corporate to address the critical issues. The paper highlights the associated issues and strategies to address this emerging problem, analyses the policy and its gaps. Therefore, this paper also suggest that e-waste policy development may require a more customized approach where, instead of addressing e-waste in isolation, it should be addressed as part of the national development agenda that integrates green economy assessment and strategic environmental assessment as part of national policy planning. Finally this work also suggests some alternative strategies and approaches to overcome the challenges of e-waste.

  3. Major multinational food and beverage companies and informal sector contributions to global food consumption: implications for nutrition policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yach Derek

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years, 10 major multinational food and beverage companies have worked together within the International Food and Beverage Alliance (IFBA to increase their commitments to public health. Current IFBA commitments include initiatives to improve the nutrition quality of products and how these products are advertised to children. The impact and magnitude of IFBA member contributions to the total market share of packaged foods and beverages consumed remain incompletely understood, however. Methods In order to evaluate this impact, we examined packaged food and soft drink company shares provided by Euromonitor, an international independent market analysis company. Packaged foods include baby food, bakery, canned/preserved food, chilled/processed food, confectionery, dairy, dried processed food, frozen processed food, ice cream, meal replacement, noodles, oils and fats, pasta, ready meals, sauces, dressings and condiments, snack bars, soup, spreads, and sweet and savoury snacks. Soft drinks include carbonates, packaged fruit/vegetable juice, bottled water, functional drinks, concentrates, ready-to-drink tea, ready-to-drink coffee and Asian specialty drinks. We calculated the market shares for IFBA companies, globally and within nine countries--the US, China, India, Egypt, South Africa, Brazil, Mexico, Turkey and the UK. Results Worldwide, the top ten packaged food companies account for 15.2% of sales, with each individual company contributing less than 3.3%. The top ten soft drink companies account for 52.3% of sales worldwide; Coca-Cola and PepsiCo lead with 25.9% and 11.5% of sales, respectively. Conclusions Although the top ten soft drink companies account for half of global sales, the top ten packaged food companies account for only a small proportion of market share with most individual companies contributing less than 3.3% each. Major multinational companies need to be joined by the myriad of small- and medium

  4. Major multinational food and beverage companies and informal sector contributions to global food consumption: implications for nutrition policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background In recent years, 10 major multinational food and beverage companies have worked together within the International Food and Beverage Alliance (IFBA) to increase their commitments to public health. Current IFBA commitments include initiatives to improve the nutrition quality of products and how these products are advertised to children. The impact and magnitude of IFBA member contributions to the total market share of packaged foods and beverages consumed remain incompletely understood, however. Methods In order to evaluate this impact, we examined packaged food and soft drink company shares provided by Euromonitor, an international independent market analysis company. Packaged foods include baby food, bakery, canned/preserved food, chilled/processed food, confectionery, dairy, dried processed food, frozen processed food, ice cream, meal replacement, noodles, oils and fats, pasta, ready meals, sauces, dressings and condiments, snack bars, soup, spreads, and sweet and savoury snacks. Soft drinks include carbonates, packaged fruit/vegetable juice, bottled water, functional drinks, concentrates, ready-to-drink tea, ready-to-drink coffee and Asian specialty drinks. We calculated the market shares for IFBA companies, globally and within nine countries--the US, China, India, Egypt, South Africa, Brazil, Mexico, Turkey and the UK. Results Worldwide, the top ten packaged food companies account for 15.2% of sales, with each individual company contributing less than 3.3%. The top ten soft drink companies account for 52.3% of sales worldwide; Coca-Cola and PepsiCo lead with 25.9% and 11.5% of sales, respectively. Conclusions Although the top ten soft drink companies account for half of global sales, the top ten packaged food companies account for only a small proportion of market share with most individual companies contributing less than 3.3% each. Major multinational companies need to be joined by the myriad of small- and medium-sized enterprises in developing and

  5. Major multinational food and beverage companies and informal sector contributions to global food consumption: implications for nutrition policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Eleanore; Yach, Derek; Mensah, George A

    2011-08-01

    In recent years, 10 major multinational food and beverage companies have worked together within the International Food and Beverage Alliance (IFBA) to increase their commitments to public health. Current IFBA commitments include initiatives to improve the nutrition quality of products and how these products are advertised to children. The impact and magnitude of IFBA member contributions to the total market share of packaged foods and beverages consumed remain incompletely understood, however. In order to evaluate this impact, we examined packaged food and soft drink company shares provided by Euromonitor, an international independent market analysis company. Packaged foods include baby food, bakery, canned/preserved food, chilled/processed food, confectionery, dairy, dried processed food, frozen processed food, ice cream, meal replacement, noodles, oils and fats, pasta, ready meals, sauces, dressings and condiments, snack bars, soup, spreads, and sweet and savoury snacks. Soft drinks include carbonates, packaged fruit/vegetable juice, bottled water, functional drinks, concentrates, ready-to-drink tea, ready-to-drink coffee and Asian specialty drinks. We calculated the market shares for IFBA companies, globally and within nine countries--the US, China, India, Egypt, South Africa, Brazil, Mexico, Turkey and the UK. Worldwide, the top ten packaged food companies account for 15.2% of sales, with each individual company contributing less than 3.3%. The top ten soft drink companies account for 52.3% of sales worldwide; Coca-Cola and PepsiCo lead with 25.9% and 11.5% of sales, respectively. Although the top ten soft drink companies account for half of global sales, the top ten packaged food companies account for only a small proportion of market share with most individual companies contributing less than 3.3% each. Major multinational companies need to be joined by the myriad of small- and medium-sized enterprises in developing and implementing programs to improve the

  6. Nutrition and physical activity related school environment/policy factors and child obesity in China: a nationally representative study of 8573 students in 110 middle schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, M; Xue, H; Wen, M; Wang, W; Wang, Y

    2017-12-01

    Obesity is a serious threat to global health. School is a key setting for obesity intervention. Research on school risk factors for child obesity is limited in developing countries. To examine regional variations in obesity and school environments/policies and their associations among students in China. Analyses were based on the first nationally representative sample of 8573 9 th graders in 110 middle schools from 28 regions across China. Multilevel models tested associations between school factors and child self-reported weight outcomes and by school urbanicity setting (urban, rural). Overweight/obesity rate is higher among boys and in urban areas. Schools in rural areas, or less developed regions, promote longer on-campus life, as is indicated by the presence of school cafeterias, night study sessions and longer class hours. Multilevel models show that (i) school cafeterias (OR = 2.53, 95% CI = 1.35-4.75) and internet bars close to school (OR = 1.63, 95% CI = 1.15-2.30) are associated with increased overweight/obesity risk in rural areas, especially for boys; (ii) school night study sessions are associated with lower overweight/obesity risk (OR = 0.69, 95% CI = 0.50-0.96) in rural areas. China has large regional disparities in school environment/policies related to nutrition and physical activity. Some school factors are associated with students' weight status, which vary across gender and areas. Future school-based interventions should attend to diverse regional contexts. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.

  7. Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior, and School Nutrition Association: Comprehensive Nutrition Programs and Services in Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Dayle; Contento, Isobel R; Weekly, Carol

    2018-05-01

    It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, School Nutrition Association, and Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior that comprehensive, integrated nutrition programs in preschool through high school are essential to improve the health, nutritional status, and academic performance of our nation's children. Through the continued use of multidisciplinary teams, local school needs will be better identified and addressed within updated wellness policies. Updated nutrition standards are providing students with a wider variety of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains, while limiting sodium, calories, and saturated fat. Millions of students enjoy school meals every day in the US, with the majority of these served to children who are eligible for free and reduced-priced meals. To maximize impact, the Academy, School Nutrition Association, and Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior recommend specific strategies in the following key areas: food and nutrition services available throughout the school campus, nutrition initiatives such as farm to school and school gardens, wellness policies, nutrition education and promotion, food and beverage marketing at school, and consideration of roles and responsibilities. It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, School Nutrition Association, and Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior that comprehensive, integrated nutrition programs in preschool through high school are essential to improve the health, nutritional status, and academic performance of our nation's children. To maximize impact, the Academy, School Nutrition Association, and Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior recommend specific strategies in the following key areas: food and nutrition services available throughout the school campus; nutrition initiatives such as farm to school and school gardens; wellness policies; nutrition education and promotion; food and beverage marketing at school; and consideration of

  8. 78 FR 38989 - New Policies and Procedural Requirements for Electronic Submission of State Plans, and Program...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-28

    .... Report (FFR). Child Abuse and Neglect State Grant Form SF-425: Federal Financial Part 1. Report (FFR... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Administration for Children and Families New Policies and..., for Mandatory Grant Programs AGENCY: Office of Administration (OA), Administration for Children and...

  9. The challenges of nutrition policymaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, Joanne L

    2015-02-07

    In my over three decades of work in the field of food and nutrition, I have participated in many efforts that seek new policy initiatives in the hopes that these programs can curb rates of obesity and chronic disease and help consumers make healthier dietary choices. Because of the profound effect that many of these policies have on consumers, the food environment, federal nutrition assistance programs and subsequent policy and regulatory recommendations, it is imperative that only the strongest, best available evidence is used to set policy. This review evaluates methods by which current nutrition policies use scientific research as well as provides recommendations for how best to ensure future nutrition policies are truly science-based and likely to have a meaningful impact on public health. Specifically, this review will: Describe the current food and nutrition policy environment in the US Examine how science is used in federal food and nutrition policymaking efforts, using the Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA) as an example Describe strong versus weak science as well as what types of studies are most appropriate for use in policymaking Discuss the potential effects and consequences of making policy recommendations in the absence of scientific consensus or agreement Make recommendations to support the present and ongoing development of science-based policy likely to positively impact public health.

  10. assessing nutrition intervention programmes that addressed

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-04-02

    Apr 2, 2012 ... national nutrition strategy for combating malnutrition was ..... Efficient and effective nutrition information system for planning, policy formulation and ... Efficient and effective financial management and administration in support ...

  11. Factors contributing to perceptions about policies regarding the electronic monitoring of sex offenders: the role of demographic characteristics, victimization experiences, and social disorganization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Button, Deeanna M; Tewksbury, Richard; Mustaine, Elizabeth E; Payne, Brian K

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore factors contributing to perceptions about electronic monitoring policies governing sex offenders. Guided by Tannenbaum's theory of attribution and Shaw and McKay's theory of social disorganization, the authors examine the influence of demographic characteristics, victimization experiences, and neighborhood characteristics on perceptions about policies regarding the electronic monitoring of sex offenders. Ordinary least squares regression and logistic regression analyses of stratified telephone survey data reveal that factors associated with favorable views on the use of global positioning satellite monitoring for registered sex offenders appear to stem primarily from individuals' demographic characteristics. Experiential and neighborhood factors do provide some influence over individuals' views of electronic monitoring policies for sex offenders. Theoretical and policy implications are discussed.

  12. Diet & Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Nutrition Share this page Facebook Twitter Email Diet & Nutrition Eating healthy to take charge of your health. Shelly Diagnosed in 2006 Diet & Nutrition Take Control of Your Weight Portion Control Low ...

  13. Public-Private Collaboration in the Emergence of a National Electronic Identification Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Medaglia, Rony; Hedman, Jonas; Eaton, Ben

    2017-01-01

    Governments envisioning large-scale national egovernment policies increasingly draw on collaboration with private actors, yet the relationship between dynamics and outcomes of public-private partnership (PPP) is still unclear. The involvement of the banking sector in the emergence of a national...... of governance models between government and the banking sector shaped the emergence of the Danish national e-ID. We propose a process model to conceptualize paths towards the emergence of public-private collaboration for digital information infrastructure – a common good....

  14. The System Dynamics Model in Electronic Products Closed-Loop Supply Chain Distribution Network with Three-Way Recovery and the Old-for-New Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-qing Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the technological developments and rapid changes in demand pattern, diverse varieties of electronic products are entering into the market with reduced lifecycle which leads to the environmental problems. The awareness of electronic products take-back and recovery has been increasing in electronic products supply chains. In this paper, we build a system dynamics model for electronic products closed-loop supply chain distribution network with the old-for-new policy and three electronic products recovery ways, namely, electronic products remanufacturing, electronic component reuse and remanufacturing, and electronic raw material recovery. In the simulation study, we investigate the significance of various factors including the old-for-new policy, collection and remanufacturing, their interactions and the type of their impact on bullwhip, and profitability through sensitivity analysis. Our results instruct that the old-for-new policy and three electronic products recovery ways can reduce the bullwhip effect in the retailers and the distributors and increases the profitability in the closed-loop supply chain distribution network.

  15. Nutrition and Health with an Evaluation on Nutritional Surveillance in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs.

    Focusing on America's self-knowledge about its nutritional health, this report deals with the availability of nutrition evaluation and counseling to individuals and the adequacy of the national nutrition monitoring system. Bureaucratic and political problems of applying nutritional health considerations to food policy are also examined. Nutrition…

  16. A study of regulatory policies and relevant issues concerning electronic cigarette use in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Tzuu Hwa; Cheng, Li Min; Hawkins, Matthew A

    2018-01-01

    Recent technological innovations have increased the amount of tobacco products available to smokers. In particular, electronic cigarettes, sometimes call e-cigarettes, have received substantial attention as their sales have rapidly increased. Electronic cigarettes were invented in China and now have become prevalent worldwide. Electronic cigarettes can be considered fashionable and come in numerous flavors; accordingly, many young adults and students have begun to use e-cigarettes. However, like traditional tobacco products, e-cigarettes have negative influences on human health. After e-cigarettes were introduced into Taiwan, they have not been effectively managed and regulated because of insufficient supporting measures. Related legislation in developed countries can serve as a reference for Taiwan. For this study, the development of e-cigarettes is described and a theoretical analysis was performed from the administration and legal perspectives. In addition to clarifying related problems and offering measures to prevent students from using e-cigarettes, we propose suggestions to help governments improve their strategies to protect students' health. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Survey of patient and public perceptions of electronic health records for healthcare, policy and research: Study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luchenski Serena

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Immediate access to patients’ complete health records via electronic databases could improve healthcare and facilitate health research. However, the possible benefits of a national electronic health records (EHR system must be balanced against public concerns about data security and personal privacy. Successful development of EHR requires better understanding of the views of the public and those most affected by EHR: users of the National Health Service. This study aims to explore the correlation between personal healthcare experience (including number of healthcare contacts and number and type of longer term conditions and views relating to development of EHR for healthcare, health services planning and policy and health research. Methods/design A multi-site cross-sectional self-complete questionnaire designed and piloted for use in waiting rooms was administered to patients from randomly selected outpatients’ clinics at a university teaching hospital (431 beds and general practice surgeries from the four primary care trusts within the catchment area of the hospital. All patients entering the selected outpatients clinics and general practice surgeries were invited to take part in the survey during August-September 2011. Statistical analyses will be conducted using descriptive techniques to present respondents’ overall views about electronic health records and logistic regression to explore associations between these views and participants’ personal circumstances, experiences, sociodemographics and more specific views about electronic health records. Discussion The study design and implementation were successful, resulting in unusually high response rates and overall recruitment (85.5%, 5336 responses. Rates for face-to-face recruitment in previous work are variable, but typically lower (mean 76.7%, SD 20. We discuss details of how we collected the data to provide insight into how we obtained this unusually high

  18. Effect of gamma and electron beam irradiation on the physico-chemical and nutritional properties of mushrooms: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, Ângela; Antonio, Amilcar L.; Oliveira, M.B.P.P.; Martins, Anabela; Ferreira, Isabel C.F.R.

    2012-01-01

    The short shelf-life of mushrooms is an obstacle to the distribution and marketing of the fresh product. Thus, prolonging postharvest storage, while preserving their quality, would benefit the mushroom industry as well as consumers. There has been extensive research on finding the most appropriate technology for mushrooms preservation. Gamma, electron-beam and UV irradiation have been shown to be potential tools in extending the postharvest shelf-life of fresh mushrooms. Studies eval...

  19. Electronic nicotine delivery systems: executive summary of a policy position paper from the American College of Physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, Ryan A

    2015-04-21

    Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), which include electronic cigarettes, or e-cigarettes, are growing in popularity, but their safety and efficacy as a smoking cessation aid are not well understood. Some argue that they have the potential to reduce tobacco-related morbidity and mortality and could be a useful tool for reducing tobacco-related harm. Others express concern that the health effects of ENDS use are unknown, that they may appeal to young people, and that they may encourage dual use of ENDS and traditional tobacco products. Although ENDS are a new and unregulated product, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration has proposed regulations that would deem ENDS to be subject to the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act, which regulates cigarettes and other tobacco products. In this position paper, the American College of Physicians offers policy recommendations on ENDS regulation and oversight, taxation, flavorings, promotion and marketing, indoor and public use, and research. This paper is not intended to offer clinical guidance or serve as an exhaustive literature review of existing ENDS-related evidence but to help direct the College, policymakers, and regulators on how to address these products.

  20. Increasing supplemental nutrition assistance program/electronic benefits transfer sales at farmers' markets with vendor-operated wireless point-of-sale terminals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttenheim, Alison M; Havassy, Joshua; Fang, Michelle; Glyn, Jonathan; Karpyn, Allison E

    2012-05-01

    Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) (formerly Food Stamp Program) participants can use their benefits at many farmers' markets. However, most markets have only one market-operated wireless point-of-sale (POS) card swipe terminal for electronic benefits transfer (EBT) transactions. It is not known whether providing each farmer/vendor with individual wireless POS terminals and subsidizing EBT fees will increase SNAP/EBT purchases at farmers' markets. To evaluate the effects of multiple vendor-operated wireless POS terminals (vs a single market-operated terminal) on use of SNAP benefits at an urban farmers' market. Time-series analyses of SNAP/EBT sales. The Clark Park farmers' market in West Philadelphia, PA, which accounts for one quarter of all SNAP/EBT sales at farmers' markets in Pennsylvania. Vendors were provided with individual wireless POS terminals for 9 months (June 2008-February 2009.) The pilot program covered all equipment and wireless service costs and transaction fees associated with SNAP/EBT, credit, and debit sales. Monthly SNAP/EBT sales at the Clark Park farmers' market. SNAP/EBT sales data were collected for 48 months (January 2007-December 2010). Time-series regression analysis was used to estimate the effect of the intervention period (June 2008-February 2009) on SNAP/EBT sales, controlling for seasonal effects and total SNAP benefits issued in Philadelphia. The intervention was associated with a 38% increase in monthly SNAP/EBT sales. Effects were greatest during the busy fall market seasons. SNAP/EBT sales did not remain significantly higher after the intervention period. Providing individual wireless POS terminals to farmers' market vendors leads to increased sales. However, market vendors indicated that subsidies for equipment costs and fees would be needed to break even. Currently, SNAP provides some support for these services for supermarket and other SNAP retailers with landline access, but not for farmers' markets. Copyright

  1. Electronic Cigarettes in Mississippi: Issues Facing Healthcare Providers and Policy Makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, Nell; McClelland, Emily; Bryant, Jessica; McMillen, Robert

    2016-06-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are currently unregulated nicotine delivery products, and use is increasing among youth and young adults in the U.S. Little is known about use in Mississippi. Surveys assessed e-cigarette use among Mississippi adolescents and adults. UMMC provided data on reported cases of e-cigarette poisonings. From 2010 to 2014, current e-cigarette use increased from 0.6% to 6.7% among middle school students, from 1.2% to 10.1% among high school students, and from 0.2% to 6.8% among adults. There were no reported cases of e-cigarette poisonings in 2010, 2011, or 2013. There was one case in 2012. Cases increased to 26 in 2014, and 17 cases were reported in 2015. E-cigarette use has increased substantially. E-cigarettes expose users and bystanders to harmful chemicals and cancer-causing compounds. Regulation of e-cigarettes at the local, state, and federal levels is needed to address the clear harms to non-smokers.

  2. Measuring trade-offs that matter: assessing the impact of a new electronic cross-match policy on the turnaround time and the cross-match workload efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, David M; Goldfinger, Dennis; Lu, Qun; Wallace, Bridget; Kosaka-Nguyen, Dawn; Wood, Alisa; Porter, Bethany; Bumerts, Pamela; Jeffery, Rebecca; Fang, Amy; Stalcup, Irene; Penaflorida, Tracy; Ziman, Alyssa

    2014-12-01

    Our traditional cross-match (XM) policy generated a significant number of XM units that were never issued. To minimize the unnecessary XM workload, we proposed a new policy where orders eligible for the electronic XM (EXM) are pended until orders to issue red blood cells (RBCs) are received. To address concerns that this new policy might unduly delay blood availability, we conducted a study to assess whether the new policy was noninferior to the traditional policy with regard to the turnaround time (TAT). We monitored the TAT and XM workload efficiency (XM-to-issue [C : I] ratio) for a total of 8 weeks split between the two policies' periods. The primary outcome was the proportion of RBC issue requests that was turned around in less than 12 minutes. Fifty percent (1133 of 2265) of issue requests were turned around in 12 minutes or less under the traditional policy compared to 43.9% (975 of 2223) under the new policy (absolute difference of 6.1%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.2%-9.1%; p trade-off between delays in the TAT and efficiency gains in the XM workload remained acceptable for patient care. © 2014 AABB.

  3. Nutrition Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Shareables Autoimmune Diseases Breastfeeding Cancer Fitness and Nutrition Heart Disease and Stroke HIV and AIDS Mental ... health topic Autoimmune Diseases Breastfeeding Cancer Fitness and Nutrition Heart Disease and Stroke HIV and AIDS Mental ...

  4. Nutritional Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutritional support is therapy for people who cannot get enough nourishment by eating or drinking. You may need ... absorb nutrients through your digestive system You receive nutritional support through a needle or catheter placed in your ...

  5. Nutritional supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Gry Bjerg; Andersen, Jens Rikardt

    2015-01-01

    Background: Several studies have indicated that cancer patients have significantly altered taste sensitivity without specifying the preferences. One of the related problems is low compliance to nutritional therapy with oral nutritional supplements (ONS) in patients suffering severe weight loss...

  6. Effect of gamma and electron beam irradiation on the physico-chemical and nutritional properties of mushrooms: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Ângela; Antonio, Amilcar L; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P; Martins, Anabela; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2012-11-15

    The short shelf-life of mushrooms is an obstacle to the distribution and marketing of the fresh product. Thus, prolonging postharvest storage, while preserving their quality, would benefit the mushroom industry as well as consumers. There has been extensive research on finding the most appropriate technology for mushrooms preservation. Gamma, electron-beam and UV irradiation have been shown to be potential tools in extending the postharvest shelf-life of fresh mushrooms. Studies evaluating the effects of ionizing radiation are available mainly in cultivated species such as Agaricus bisporus, Lentinus edodes and Pleurotus ostreatus. This review comprises a comprehensive study of the effects of irradiation on physico-chemical parameters (weight, colour, texture and pH), chemical compounds including nutrients (proteins, sugars and vitamins) and non-nutrients (phenolics, flavonoids and flavour compounds), and on biochemical parameters such as enzymatic activity of mushrooms for different species and from different regions of the world. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of a 2014 Statewide Policy Change on Cash-Value Voucher Redemptions for Fruits/Vegetables Among Participants in the Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeke, Janice O; Ekanayake, Ruwani M; Santorelli, Melissa L

    2017-10-01

    Purpose In 2014, the New Jersey Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) began requiring WIC-authorized stores to stock at least two fresh fruits and two fresh vegetables. We aimed to evaluate the effect of this policy change on fruit and vegetable purchases among WIC-participating households and to assess variation by household access to a healthy food store such as a supermarket or large grocery store. Description Households with continuous WIC enrollment from June 2013 to May 2015 were included (n = 16,415). Participants receive monthly cash-value vouchers (CVVs) to purchase fruits and vegetables. For each household, the CVV redemption proportion was calculated for the period before and after the policy by dividing the total dollar amount redeemed by the total dollar amount issued. Complete redemption was defined as a proportion ≥90% and the change in complete redemption odds was assessed after adjusting for Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program participation. Assessment We observed a small increase following the policy change [odds ratio (OR) 1.10, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04-1.17]; however, the effect varied by healthy food access (p = 0.03). The odds increased for households with access to at least one healthy food store (OR 1.13, 95% CI 1.06-1.20) while no effect was observed for households without such access (OR 0.91, 95% CI 0.76-1.10). Conclusion Policy change was associated with a small increase in purchasing, but only among households with healthy food access. The state is addressing this gap through technical assistance interventions targeting WIC-authorized small stores in communities with limited access.

  8. Advantages of enteral nutrition over parenteral nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Seres, David S.; Valcarcel, Monika; Guillaume, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    It is a strong and commonly held belief among nutrition clinicians that enteral nutrition is preferable to parenteral nutrition. We provide a narrative review of more recent studies and technical reviews comparing enteral nutrition with parenteral nutrition. Despite significant weaknesses in the existing data, current literature continues to support the use of enteral nutrition in patients requiring nutrition support, over parenteral nutrition.

  9. Marcos referenciais da trajetória das políticas de alimentação e nutrição no Brasil Milestones of the feeding policies and nutrition in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertoldo Kruse Grande de Arruda

    2007-09-01

    assist the government in formulating a National Policy for Food and Nutrition the National Institute for Food and Nutrition (INAN was founded in 1972 and the I National Program for Food and Nutrition (PRONAN I was designed comprising 12 sub-programs of different governmental entities. With the innovative concept of malnutrition as a social disease PRONAN I was replaced in 1976 by the PRONAN II. INAN became extinct in 1997 and was replaced by the General Coordination of Feeding and Nutrition Policies, in charge of designing a National Policy for Food and Nutrition in the context of Food and Nutrition Security which, in 2001 created the Food Aid Program. The creation of the National Council of Food Security in 1993 encouraged the approval of the Fome Zero Program (Zero Hunger Program. The Brazilian reality is one traditionally impacted by the lack of systematic procedures.

  10. Strategies for nutritional improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, K S

    1991-01-01

    India has achieved self-sufficiency in the production of food grains, yet the production of milk, legumes, vegetables, oils and fats, eggs, and meat is far short of the needs of the population. The Indian diet predominantly comprises cereals, and the diets of expectant and nursing mothers as well as children are grossly deficient in protective foods. Serious nutritional inadequacies have resulted in low birth weight, retarded growth, and nutritional deficiencies (protein energy malnutrition in preschool children, vitamin A deficiency, iron deficiency in women of reproductive age, and iodine deficiency disorders among neonates and schoolchildren). General malnutrition is prevalent in 25% of the rural and 20% of the urban population. Deficiency symptoms of vitamin B complex and vitamin C are also not uncommon. 37% of the population of India lives below the poverty limit, the literacy rate is only 52.1% (39.4% for women), safe drinking water is scarce, nutritional ignorance is rampant, there is a lack of personal hygiene, and poor sanitation all account for malnutrition. A number of government and nongovernmental organizations' programs have attempted to raise the level of nutrition and the standard of living of the people. Some of them include the integrated child development services, special nutritional program, national vitamin A deficiency prophylaxis program, national anemia prophylaxis program, national goiter control program, midday meal program, special class feeding programs, universal immunization program, nutritional and health education through the mass media as well as the observance of world food day and world health day. The national health policy gives high priority to the promotion of family planning, the provision of primary health care, and the acceleration of welfare programs for women and children. As a result of policies and programs of health and nutrition, the infant, child, and maternal mortality rates have declined and life expectancy at

  11. Climate change and nutrition: creating a climate for nutrition security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirado, M C; Crahay, P; Mahy, L; Zanev, C; Neira, M; Msangi, S; Brown, R; Scaramella, C; Costa Coitinho, D; Müller, A

    2013-12-01

    Climate change further exacerbates the enormous existing burden of undernutrition. It affects food and nutrition security and undermines current efforts to reduce hunger and promote nutrition. Undernutrition in turn undermines climate resilience and the coping strategies of vulnerable populations. The objectives of this paper are to identify and undertake a cross-sectoral analysis of the impacts of climate change on nutrition security and the existing mechanisms, strategies, and policies to address them. A cross-sectoral analysis of the impacts of climate change on nutrition security and the mechanisms and policies to address them was guided by an analytical framework focused on the three 'underlying causes' of undernutrition: 1) household food access, 2) maternal and child care and feeding practices, 3) environmental health and health access. The analytical framework includes the interactions of the three underlying causes of undernutrition with climate change,vulnerability, adaptation and mitigation. Within broad efforts on climate change mitigation and adaptation and climate-resilient development, a combination of nutrition-sensitive adaptation and mitigation measures, climate-resilient and nutrition-sensitive agricultural development, social protection, improved maternal and child care and health, nutrition-sensitive risk reduction and management, community development measures, nutrition-smart investments, increased policy coherence, and institutional and cross-sectoral collaboration are proposed as a means to address the impacts of climate change to food and nutrition security. This paper proposes policy directions to address nutrition in the climate change agenda and recommendations for consideration by the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). Nutrition and health stakeholders need to be engaged in key climate change adaptation and mitigation initiatives, including science-based assessment by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC

  12. Nutrition Labeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G

    2013-01-01

    because consumers will avoid products that the label shows to be nutritionally deficient, but also because food producers will try to avoid marketing products that appear, according to the label, as nutritionally problematic, for example, because of a high content of saturated fat or salt. Nutrition......Nutrition labeling refers to the provision of information on a food product’s nutritional content on the package label. It can serve both public health and commercial purposes. From a public health perspective, the aim of nutrition labeling is to provide information that can enable consumers...... to make healthier choices when choosing food products. Nutrition labeling is thus closely linked to the notion of the informed consumer, that chooses products according to their aims, on the basis of the information at their disposal. Because many consumers are assumed to be interested in making healthy...

  13. Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    International Acer Incorporated, Hsin Chu, Taiwan Aerospace Industrial Development Corporation, Taichung, Taiwan American Institute of Taiwan, Taipei, Taiwan...Singapore and Malaysia .5 - 4 - The largest market for semiconductor products is the high technology consumer electronics industry that consumes up...Singapore, and Malaysia . A new semiconductor facility costs around $3 billion to build and takes about two years to become operational

  14. Nutrition, poverty alleviation, and development in Central America and Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immink, Maarten D C

    2010-03-01

    This paper reviews research with policy relevance for food and nutrition in Central America and similar areas. The research was conducted by the Institute of Nutrition of Central America and Panama (INCAP) during the last three decades of the past millennium (1970-99). Six policy areas were selected for this review: agricultural commercialization and rural development; wage and price policies; human resource development; social safety nets, particularly complementary food programs; multi-sectoral nutrition planning; and food and nutrition monitoring for policy formulation. The contents and major conclusions of the work are described, as well as their public policy implications.

  15. 78 FR 61324 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request-Special Nutrition...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-03

    ..., Social Science Research Analyst, Office of Policy Support, Food and Nutrition Service, USDA, 3101 Park... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Food and Nutrition Service Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request--Special Nutrition Program Operations Study (SNPOS) AGENCY: Food and...

  16. National Nutrition Policy Study--1974; Part 7-Nutrition and Government; and Part 7A-Appendix. Hearings Before the Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs of the United States Senate, Ninety-third Congress, Second Session. Hearings Held Washington, D.C., June 21, 1974.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs.

    These hearings of the Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs opened with a statement by Senator McGovern, chairman. The Panel on Nutrition and Government then delivered its report and recommendations to the committee. The panel was concerned with surveillance, research, the training of professional personnel, and the overall…

  17. [Community Nutrition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranceta, Javier

    2004-06-01

    In the last 20 years, Public Health Nutrition focused mainly on the qualitative aspects which may influence the onset of chronic diseases, quality of life, physical and mental performance and life expectancy. This applied knowledge organised as part of preventive and health promotion programs led to the development of Community Nutrition. The aim of Community Nutrition actions is to adequate lifestyles related to food consumption patterns in order to improve the quality of life and contribute to health promotion of the population in the community where programs and services are delivered. Key functions to develop in a Community Nutrition Unit consist in the identification and assessment of nutrition problems in the community as well as the design, implementation and evaluation of intervention programs by means of appropriate strategies. These should aim at different populations groups and settings, such as work places, schools, high risk groups or the general public. Nowadays, Community Nutrition work efforts should focus on three main aspects: nutrition education in schools and in the community; food safety and food security and the development and reinforcement of food preparation skills across all age groups. Social catering services, either in schools, the work place or at the community level, need to ensure adequate nutritional supply, provide foods contributing to healthy eating practices as well as to enhance culinary traditions and social learning. Food safety and food security have become a top priority in Public Health. The concepts referes to the availability of food safe and adequate as well as in sufficient amount in order to satisfy nutrition requirements of all individuals in the community. Social changes along new scientific developments will introduce new demands in Community Nutrition work and individual dietary counselling will become a key strategy. In order to face new challenges, community nutrition pactitioners require a high quality

  18. Nutrition - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Italiano) Japanese (日本語) Karen (S’gaw Karen) Kirundi (Rundi) Korean (한국어) Malay (Bahasa Malaysia) Nepali (नेपाली) Pashto (Pax̌tō / پښتو ) Portuguese (português) ... Agriculture MyPlate Icon - English HTML ... Center for Nutrition Policy and Promotion U.S. Department of Agriculture Malay (Bahasa Malaysia) Expand Section Choose MyPlate: 10 Tips to a ...

  19. Sports Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missouri State Dept. of Health, Jefferson City.

    This guide deals with various aspects of sports and nutrition. Twelve chapters are included: (1) "Sports and Nutrition"; (2) "Eat to Compete"; (3) "Fit Folks Need Fit Food"; (4) "The Food Guide Pyramid"; (5) "Fat Finder's Guide"; (6) "Pre- and Post-Event Meals"; (7) "Tips for the…

  20. Nutritional epigenetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter is intended to provide a timely overview of the current state of research at the intersection of nutrition and epigenetics. I begin by describing epigenetics and molecular mechanisms of eigenetic regulation, then highlight four classes of nutritional exposures currently being investiga...

  1. Sports nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomanić Milena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to higher energy consumption, physically active people have higher nutritional requirements. In addition to other important factors for sports, such as good health and physical predisposition, adequate nutrition is a fundamental component. Sports nutrition must be well planned and individually adapted based on physical characteristics, tendencies towards gaining or losing weight, frequency, duration and intensity of training sessions. Studies have shown that a well-balanced ratio of macro and micronutrients, with the support of supplements and adequate hydration, can significantly improve athletic performance and plays a key role in achieving better results. An optimally designed nutritional program, with realistic and achievable goals, which complements a well-planned training program, is the basis for success in sports. Only when nutritional requirements are met, deficits can be prevented and performance in sport pushed to the limit.

  2. The influence of electron beam radiation in the nutritional value, chemical composition and bioactivities of edible flowers of Bauhinia variegata L. var. candida alba Buch.-Ham from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villavicencio, Anna L C H; Heleno, Sandrina A; Calhelha, Ricardo C; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Barros, Lillian; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2018-02-15

    As edible flowers are highly perishable, irradiation technology can be applied to increase their shelf life, as also for phytosanitary purposes. Herein, flowers of Bauhinia variegata L. var. candida alba Buch.-Ham were submitted to electron beam irradiation at the doses of 0.5, 0.8 and 1kGy, to study the effects in the nutritional and chemical profiles, and also in antioxidant, cytotoxic and anti-inflammatory activities. The petals of white flowers revealed interesting bioactive properties being kaempferol derivatives the most abundant compounds, especially kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside. The applied irradiation doses did not highly affect the nutritional profile. No changes were produced in cytotoxicity, but the anti-inflammatory activity slightly decreased. However, the antioxidant activity was increased, especially in the dose of 0.5kGy, in agreement with the higher content in phenolic compounds found at this dose. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Nutrition economics - characterising the economic and health impact of nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenoir-Wijnkoop, I; Dapoigny, M; Dubois, D; van Ganse, E; Gutiérrez-Ibarluzea, I; Hutton, J; Jones, P; Mittendorf, T; Poley, M J; Salminen, S; Nuijten, M J C

    2011-01-01

    There is a new merging of health economics and nutrition disciplines to assess the impact of diet on health and disease prevention and to characterise the health and economic aspects of specific changes in nutritional behaviour and nutrition recommendations. A rationale exists for developing the field of nutrition economics which could offer a better understanding of both nutrition, in the context of having a significant influence on health outcomes, and economics, in order to estimate the absolute and relative monetary impact of health measures. For this purpose, an expert meeting assessed questions aimed at clarifying the scope and identifying the key issues that should be taken into consideration in developing nutrition economics as a discipline that could potentially address important questions. We propose a first multidisciplinary outline for understanding the principles and particular characteristics of this emerging field. We summarise here the concepts and the observations of workshop participants and propose a basic setting for nutrition economics and health outcomes research as a novel discipline to support nutrition, health economics and health policy development in an evidence and health-benefit-based manner.

  4. Healthcare staff attitudes towards the use of electronic cigarettes ('e-cigarettes') compared with a local trust policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pippard, Benjamin J; Shipley, Mark D

    2017-07-01

    E-cigarette use has risen dramatically in recent years, despite uncertainty over long-term health effects and concerns regarding efficacy as a smoking cessation device. Currently, there is no legislation prohibiting use in public, though many trusts have extended the NHS Smokefree policy to include e-cigarettes. The successful implementation of such policy is, however, unclear. This study examined staff attitudes towards the use of e-cigarettes in a hospital environment with respect to enforcement of a local trust smoking policy. A total of 79 healthcare professionals working at South Tyneside District Hospital, South Shields, completed a written questionnaire regarding use of e-cigarettes, particularly views on use in public and on hospital premises. Factors influencing the likelihood of individuals to challenge the use of e-cigarettes were assessed. In all, 45% of respondents thought that e-cigarettes should be allowed in public places, though a majority (62%) favoured use on hospital grounds compared to within hospital buildings (18%). Over 50% of respondents were unaware of trust policy relating to e-cigarettes and only 25% had ever challenged someone using a device. Roughly, one-third reported that they would still not challenge someone in future, despite being informed of trust policy. Fear of abuse was the most cited reason for not challenging. Expressed concerns of e-cigarette use related to fire risk, 'normalising' smoking behaviour and uncertainty of long-term effects. Most staff do not enforce trust policy regarding e-cigarette use. This reflects variation in opinion over use, poor awareness of the policy itself and perceived barriers to implementation, including fear of abuse. Addressing these issues through staff education sessions may help successful future implementation.

  5. AN INTEGRATED APPROACH ON CHILD NUTRITION

    OpenAIRE

    Reena Kulkarni

    2013-01-01

    Nutrition is one of the most important and highly discussed topics in medical community. It determines the quality of health in young citizens as well as the future of the nation. Infant and child nutrition, especially in the first few years of life is crucial; lest ends up in malnutrition. Policies on nutrition and health education of mothers on infant and young child feeding as well as efforts to trigger appropriate behavioural changes among mothers are being considered as direct interventi...

  6. Space Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.

    2009-01-01

    Optimal nutrition will be critical for crew members who embark on space exploration missions. Nutritional assessment provides an opportunity to ensure that crewmembers begin their missions in optimal nutritional status, to document changes during a mission and, if necessary, to provide intervention to maintain that status throughout the mission, and to assesses changes after landing in order to facilitate the return to their normal status as soon as possible after landing. We report here the findings from our nutritional assessment of astronauts who participated in the International Space Station (ISS) missions, along with flight and ground-based research findings. We also present ongoing and planned nutrition research activities. These studies provide evidence that bone loss, compromised vitamin status, and oxidative damage are the critical nutritional concerns for space travelers. Other nutrient issues exist, including concerns about the stability of nutrients in the food system, which are exposed to longterm storage and radiation during flight. Defining nutrient requirements, and being able to provide and maintain those nutrients on exploration missions, will be critical for maintaining crew member health.

  7. Shopper marketing nutrition interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Collin R; Niculescu, Mihai; Just, David R; Kelly, Michael P

    2014-09-01

    Grocery stores represent a context in which a majority of people's food purchases occur. Considering the nutrition quality of the population's food intake has dramatically decreased, understanding how to improve food choice in the grocery store is paramount to healthier living. In this work, we detail the type of financial resources from which shoppers could draw (i.e., personal income and benefits from government food assistance programs to low income populations) and explain how these financial resources are allocated in the grocery store (i.e., planned, unplanned, error). Subsequently, we identify a conceptual framework for shopper marketing nutrition interventions that targets unplanned fruit and vegetable purchases (i.e., slack, or willingness to spend minus list items). Targeting slack for fresh fruit and vegetable purchases allows retailers to benefit economically (i.e., fruit and vegetables are higher margin) and allows shoppers to improve their nutrition without increasing their budgets (i.e., budget neutrality). We also provide preliminary evidence of what in-store marketing of fresh fruits and vegetables could entail by modifying grocery carts and grocery floors to provide information of what is common, normal, or appropriate fruit and vegetable purchases. In each example, fresh fruit and vegetable purchases increased and evidence suggested shopper budget neutrality. To provide context for these results, we detail measurement tools that can be used to measure shopper behaviors, purchases, and consumption patterns. Finally, we address theoretical, practical, and policy implications of shopper marketing nutrition interventions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Nutritional status of in-school children and its associated factors in Denkyembour District, eastern region, Ghana: comparing schools with feeding and non-school feeding policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwabla, Mavis Pearl; Gyan, Charlotte; Zotor, Francis

    2018-01-12

    Childhood malnutrition still remains a major public health problem impacting negatively on the academic aptitude of school-aged children (SAC) particularly in limited resource countries. The Government of Ghana in collaboration with the Dutch Government introduced the school feeding programme (SFP) to boost the nutritional status of SAC in the country. This study sought to compare the nutritional status of SAC enrolled in schools with the SFP and SAC enrolled in schools without the SFP in place for the purpose of identifying which group has the higher rate of malnutrition. A multi-stage sampling was used to select 359 SAC between 5 and 12 years who are enrolled in primary one to six. Twelve public schools were selected, of which 6 schools benefit from the SFP and the other six do not. Anthropometric measurements were conducted for the subjects and SPSS version 20.0 was used for data entry and analysis. Chi square test was carried out to determine the difference between the two groups of schools. Of the total of 359 subjects, 55.1% were from schools that do not implement the SFP and 44.9% were from schools that implement the SFP. The prevalence of stunting among children in schools on the SFP was 16.2% compared with 17.2% among children in schools that do not implement the SFP. The prevalence of thinness was two times higher (9.3%) among children in schools on the SFP than in children in schools that do not implement the SFP (4.6%) (p = 0.028). The prevalence of overweight among children in schools on the SFP was 1.9% and 0.0% for children in schools that do not implement the SFP. Sub district, sex, age of pupil, area of residence and community type were significantly associated with stunting (p = 0.002), (p = 0.008), (p = 0.008), (p schools on SFP than in children in schools without SFP. An evaluation of the implementation of the school feeding programme is recommended for future studies.

  9. Policy design in closed-loop supply chains for the integrated management of component recycling and spare parts supply in the electronics industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeter, Marcus; Spengler, Thomas

    2004-02-01

    The strategy to recover components from discarded electrical and electronic equipment to obtain spare parts is promising, especially during the final service phase. In that phase, the original product is no longer produced and the sources of new parts are often limited. Controlling those closed-loop supply chains is challenging. Decision makers have to choose when to acquire discarded equipment, when to recover used parts, and when to produce new parts. We developed a generic system dynamics model that provides a test for various proposed policies to control closed-loop supply chains with parts recovery and spare-parts supply.

  10. Parenteral nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inayet, N; Neild, P

    2015-03-01

    Over the last 50 years, parenteral nutrition has been recognised as an invaluable and potentially lifesaving tool in the physician's arsenal in the management of patients with intestinal failure or inaccessibility; however, it may also be associated with a number of potentially life-threatening complications. A recent NCEPOD report (2010) identified a number of inadequacies in the overall provision and management of parenteral nutrition and recommendations were made with the aim of improving clinical practice in the future. This paper focuses on the practical aspects relating to parenteral nutrition for adults, including important concepts, such as patient selection, as well as general management. We also explore the various pitfalls and potential complications and how these may be minimised.

  11. Energy - environment - nutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The special edition contains contributions made by different authors on the array of problems presented by the environment, energy, and nutrition, biosphere and man, economic growth and energy supplies for future security, new environmental awareness, - the end of market economy., power plant safety, conditions for the evolution of mankind, policy and criminal law demonstrated by means of environmental protection. The concept of ecology and the development of world energy supplies are documented. The bibliography report goes into detail as far as studies are concerned which deal with the hazards of nuclear power plants, related pros and cons, with the energy crisis in general, and with nuclear weapons. (HSCH) [de

  12. The Policy Implications of a Regional Case Study: Skills Shortages and Provision in the Welsh Automotive and Electronics Industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockrill, Antje

    2002-01-01

    Responses from 22 automotive/electronics small businesses in Wales were compared with a 1996 survey. Results show that government initiatives such as Modern Apprenticeships had limited impact on small businesses. Barriers to training such as time, cost, and motivation also appeared, suggesting that mere availability of training programs does not…

  13. Nutrition and Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Thai HbH:Vietnamese Relevant links Living with Thalassemia NUTRITION AND EXERCISE ▶ Nutrition and Diet ▶ Diet for the ... Thalassemia (for providers) Exercise for Patients with Thalassemia Nutrition and Diet Nutritional deficiencies are common in thalassemia, ...

  14. Medical Issues: Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... support & care > living with sma > medical issues > nutrition Nutrition Good nutrition is essential to health and growth. ... must make decisions based on their own needs. Nutrition Considerations Since we are still waiting for clinical ...

  15. European Nutrition and Health Report 2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmadfa, Ibrahim; Meyer, A.; Nowak, V.

    The general aim of the ENHR II project is to provide a comprehensive and up-to-date report on the nutrition and health situation in Europe that focuses on diet, physical activity, tobacco use and alcohol consumption. The European Nutrition and Health Report 2009 will contribute to the identificat......The general aim of the ENHR II project is to provide a comprehensive and up-to-date report on the nutrition and health situation in Europe that focuses on diet, physical activity, tobacco use and alcohol consumption. The European Nutrition and Health Report 2009 will contribute...... to the identification of major nutrition and health problems in the EU regions and to the monitoring and evaluation of food and nutrition policies already in place within the Member States. The method implies collecting and critically reviewing available data on the most common indicators used for the assessment...... of nutrition and health situation of 25 European countries. The European Nutrition and Health Report 2009 will provide information on dietary habits, diet related health indicators as well as established food and nutrition policies in European countries....

  16. Nutrition and Oral Health: Experiences in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Zohre Sadat Sangsefidi; Amin Salehi-Abargouei

    2017-01-01

    Background: Oral health is a crucial factor for overall well-being and there is a mutual relationship between nutrition and oral health. The aim of this study was to review the publications which have examined the association between nutrition or diet and oral health status or oral disease in Iran. Methods: The electronic databases of PubMed, Scopus, Google scholar, scientific information database (SID), and Magiran were searched using key words of diet, nutrition, oral health, oral disease, ...

  17. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & Safety Doctors & Hospitals Videos Recipes for Kids Kids site Sitio para ... nutricionales (video) Most packaged foods come with a Nutrition Facts label. These labels have a lot of important ... Policy Permissions Guidelines Privacy Policy & Terms of Use Notice ...

  18. Perceived Harm of Secondhand Electronic Cigarette Vapors and Policy Support to Restrict Public Vaping: Results From a National Survey of US Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigman, Cabral A.; Sanders-Jackson, Ashley; Tan, Andy S. L.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: There is ongoing debate over banning electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use (vaping) in public places. Many people perceive secondhand e-cigarette vapors (SHV) to be relatively harmless, which may affect their support for policies to restrict vaping in public places. Given that awareness of secondhand cigarette smoke risks predicts public support for clean air policies, we hypothesized that greater perceived harm of SHV to personal health would be associated with stronger support for vaping restrictions. Methods: Data from 1449 US adults in a national online panel was collected from October to December 2013. Using multiple regressions, we predict a three-item scale of support for e-cigarette restricting policies in restaurants, bars/casinos/clubs, and parks using a two-item scale measuring concern and perceptions of harm to personal health from breathing SHV. Analyses adjusted for demographic covariates, smoking status and e-cigarette use, and were weighted to represent the US adult population. Results: Overall, respondents considered SHV exposure to be moderately harmful to their health and tended to favor restricting vaping in public places. Perceived harm of SHV to personal health was associated with support for vaping restrictions in public spaces (unstandardized regression coefficient, B = 0.18, 95% CI = 0.16, 0.20). Current smokers (vs. nonsmokers), those who ever tried e-cigarettes (vs. never), those who directly observed others vaping, and those with some college education (vs. high school or less) demonstrated less support for such policies. Implications: This study shows that support for banning vaping in public spaces in the United States is positively associated with perceived health harms of SHV exposure. The findings suggest that continued monitoring of public perception of SHV harm and the accuracy of e-cigarette marketing claims about reduced harm would be needed to guide clean air policy decisions. With the emergence of new

  19. Perceived Harm of Secondhand Electronic Cigarette Vapors and Policy Support to Restrict Public Vaping: Results From a National Survey of US Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello, Susan; Bigman, Cabral A; Sanders-Jackson, Ashley; Tan, Andy S L

    2016-05-01

    There is ongoing debate over banning electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use (vaping) in public places. Many people perceive secondhand e-cigarette vapors (SHV) to be relatively harmless, which may affect their support for policies to restrict vaping in public places. Given that awareness of secondhand cigarette smoke risks predicts public support for clean air policies, we hypothesized that greater perceived harm of SHV to personal health would be associated with stronger support for vaping restrictions. Data from 1449 US adults in a national online panel was collected from October to December 2013. Using multiple regressions, we predict a three-item scale of support for e-cigarette restricting policies in restaurants, bars/casinos/clubs, and parks using a two-item scale measuring concern and perceptions of harm to personal health from breathing SHV. Analyses adjusted for demographic covariates, smoking status and e-cigarette use, and were weighted to represent the US adult population. Overall, respondents considered SHV exposure to be moderately harmful to their health and tended to favor restricting vaping in public places. Perceived harm of SHV to personal health was associated with support for vaping restrictions in public spaces (unstandardized regression coefficient, B = 0.18, 95% CI = 0.16, 0.20). Current smokers (vs. nonsmokers), those who ever tried e-cigarettes (vs. never), those who directly observed others vaping, and those with some college education (vs. high school or less) demonstrated less support for such policies. This study shows that support for banning vaping in public spaces in the United States is positively associated with perceived health harms of SHV exposure. The findings suggest that continued monitoring of public perception of SHV harm and the accuracy of e-cigarette marketing claims about reduced harm would be needed to guide clean air policy decisions. With the emergence of new scientific evidence of the potential effects of SHV

  20. Nutritional Metabolomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gürdeniz, Gözde

    strategy influences the patterns identified as important for the nutritional question under study. Therefore, in depth understanding of the study design and the specific effects of the analytical technology on the produced data is extremely important to achieve high quality data handling. Besides data......Metabolomics provides a holistic approach to investigate the perturbations in human metabolism with respect to a specific exposure. In nutritional metabolomics, the research question is generally related to the effect of a specific food intake on metabolic profiles commonly of plasma or urine....... Application of multiple analytical strategies may provide comprehensive information to reach a valid answer to these research questions. In this thesis, I investigated several analytical technologies and data handling strategies in order to evaluate their effects on the biological answer. In metabolomics, one...

  1. Nutrition, Food Science, and Dietetics Faculty Have Information Needs Similar to Basic and Medical Sciences Faculty – Online Access to Electronic Journals, PubMed/Medline, and Google. A Review of: Shpilko, I. (2011. Assessing information-seeking patterns and needs of nutrition, food science, and dietetics faculty. Library & Information Science Research, 33(2, 151-157.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mê-Linh Lê

    2011-01-01

    .1%. Databases were cited as the most effective way to locate relevant information (63.1%; PubMed was the most heavily used database (73.7%, although Medline (via EBSCO, Science Direct, and Academic Search Premier were also used.Respondents were asked how they preferred to obtain online research skills (e.g., on their own, via a colleague, via a librarian, or in some other way. The linked data does not answer this question, however, and instead supplies figures on what types of sessions respondents had attended in the past (44.4% attended library instruction sessions, while others were self-taught, consulted colleagues, attended seminars, or obtained skills through their PhD research.Conclusion – Strong public interest in nutritional issues is a growing trend in the Western world. For those faculty members and scholars researching and teaching on nutrition and related areas, more work on their information needs is required. This study begins to address that gap and found that nutrition, food science, and dietetics faculty share strong similarities with researchers in medicine and the other basic sciences with regard to information needs and behaviours. The focus is on electronic journals, PubMed/Medline, and online access to resources. Important insights include the fact that print journals are still in modest use, researchers use grey literature (e.g., government sources and other non-traditional formats (e.g., conference proceedings and electronic mail lists as information sources, and training sessions need to be offered in a variety of formats in order to address individual preferences.

  2. Nutritional Biochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews some of the effects that space flight has on humans nutritional biochemistry. Particular attention is devoted to the study of protein breakdown, inflammation, hypercatabolism, omega 3 fatty acids, vitamin D, calcium, urine, folate and nutrient stability of certain vitamins, the fluid shift and renal stone risk, acidosis, iron/hematology, and the effects on bone of dietary protein, potassium. inflammation, and omega-3 fatty acids

  3. Electronic Communication in Plastic Surgery: Guiding Principles from the American Society of Plastic Surgeons Health Policy Committee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberlin, Kyle R; Perdikis, Galen; Damitz, Lynn; Krochmal, Dan J; Kalliainen, Loree K; Bonawitz, Steven C

    2018-02-01

    With the advancement of technology, electronic communication has become an important mode of communication within plastic and reconstructive surgery. This can take the form of e-mail, text messaging, video conferencing, and social media, among others. There are currently no defined American Society of Plastic Surgeons guidelines for appropriate professional use of these technologies. A search was performed on PubMed and the Cochrane database; terms included "telemedicine," "text messaging," "HIPAA," "metadata," "video conferencing," "photo sharing," "social media," "Facebook," "Twitter," and "Instagram." Initial screening of all identified articles was performed; the level of evidence, limitations, and recommendations were evaluated and articles were reviewed. A total of 654 articles were identified in the level I screening process; after more comprehensive review, 41 articles fit inclusion criteria: social networking, 12; telemedicine, 11; text messaging, 10; metadata, four; video conferencing, three; and Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act, one. General themes were identified from these articles and guidelines proposed. Electronic communication can provide an efficient method of information exchange for professional purposes within plastic surgery but should be used thoughtfully and with all professional, legal, and ethical considerations.

  4. Policy development and opportunities in ICT for sustainable food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Policy development and opportunities in ICT for sustainable food and nutrition ... improved marketing and distribution that would lead to food and nutrition security ... Bridging the digital divide through development and utilization of information ...

  5. Measuring treatment costs of typical waste electrical and electronic equipment: A pre-research for Chinese policy making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinhui; Dong, Qingyin; Liu, Lili; Song, Qingbin

    2016-11-01

    Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) volume is increasing, worldwide. In 2011, the Chinese government issued new regulations on WEEE recycling and disposal, establishing a WEEE treatment subsidy funded by a levy on producers of electrical and electronic equipment. In order to evaluate WEEE recycling treatment costs and revenue possibilities under the new regulations, and to propose suggestions for cost-effective WEEE management, a comprehensive revenue-expenditure model (REM), were established for this study, including 7 types of costs, 4 types of fees, and one type of revenue. Since TV sets dominated the volume of WEEE treated from 2013 to 2014, with a contribution rate of 87.3%, TV sets were taken as a representative case. Results showed that the treatment cost varied from 46.4RMB/unit to 82.5RMB/unit, with a treatment quantity of 130,000 units to 1,200,000 units per year in China. Collection cost accounted for the largest portion (about 70.0%), while taxes and fees (about 11.0 %) and labor cost (about 7.0 %) contributed less. The average costs for disposal, sales, and taxes had no influence on treatment quantity (TQ). TQ might have an adverse effect on average labor and management costs; while average collection and purchase fees, and financing costs, would vary with purchase price, and the average sales fees and taxes would vary with the sales of dismantled materials and other recycled products. Recycling enterprises could reduce their costs by setting up online and offline collection platforms, cooperating with individual collectors, creating door-to-door collection channels, improving production efficiency and reducing administrative expenditures. The government could provide economic incentives-such as subsidies, low-cost loans, tax cuts and credits-and could also raise public awareness of waste management and environmental protection, in order to capture some of the WEEE currently discarded into the general waste stream. Foreign companies with

  6. Use of a new availability index to evaluate the effect of policy changes to the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) on the food environment in New Orleans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, Keelia; Luckett, Brian G; Dunaway, Lauren Futrell; Bodor, J Nicholas; Rose, Donald

    2015-01-01

    Changes to the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) occurred in 2009 when supplemental foods offered through the programme were updated to align with current dietary recommendations. The present study reports on a new index developed to monitor the retail environment's adoption of these new food supply requirements in New Orleans. A 100-point WIC Availability Index (WIC-AI) was derived from new minimum state stocking requirements for WIC vendors. A sample of supermarkets, medium and small food stores was assessed in 2009 before changes were implemented and in 2010 after revisions had gone into effect. WIC-AI scores were utilized to compare differences in meeting requirements by store type, WIC vendor status and year of measurement. Supermarkets, medium and small WIC and non-WIC food stores in New Orleans, Louisiana, USA. At baseline supermarkets had the highest median WIC-AI score (93·3) followed by medium (69·8) and small food stores (48·0). Small WIC stores had a higher median WIC-AI score at baseline than small non-WIC stores (66·9 v. 38·0). Both medium and small WIC stores significantly increased their median WIC-AI scores between 2009 and 2010 (P<0·01). The increased median WIC-AI score in small food stores was largely attributed to increased availability of cereals and grains, juices and fruit, and infant fruit and vegetables. The WIC-AI is a simple tool useful in summarizing complex food store environment data and may be adapted for use in other states or a national level to inform food policy decisions and direction.

  7. Maternal nutrition knowledge and child nutritional outcomes in urban Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debela, Bethelhem Legesse; Demmler, Kathrin M; Rischke, Ramona; Qaim, Matin

    2017-09-01

    We examine the link between maternal nutrition knowledge and nutritional outcomes of children and adolescents (5-18 years) measured in terms of height-for-age Z-scores (HAZ). One particular focus is on the role of different types of nutrition knowledge. The analysis builds on household-level and individual-level data collected in urban Kenya in 2012 and 2015. Various regression models are developed and estimated. Results show that maternal nutrition knowledge - measured through an aggregate knowledge score - is positively associated with child HAZ, even after controlling for other influencing factors such as household living standard and general maternal education. However, disaggregation by type of knowledge reveals important differences. Maternal knowledge about food ingredients only has a weak positive association with child HAZ. For maternal knowledge about specific dietary recommendations, no significant association is detected. The strongest positive association with child HAZ is found for maternal knowledge about the health consequences of not following recommended dietary practices. These findings have direct relevance for nutrition and health policies, especially for designing the contents of educational campaigns and training programs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Nutrition and Oral Health: Experiences in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohre Sadat Sangsefidi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oral health is a crucial factor for overall well-being and there is a mutual relationship between nutrition and oral health. The aim of this study was to review the publications which have examined the association between nutrition or diet and oral health status or oral disease in Iran. Methods: The electronic databases of PubMed, Scopus, Google scholar, scientific information database (SID, and Magiran were searched using key words of diet, nutrition, oral health, oral disease, and Iran to reach the related articles published up to 2016. The English and Persian articles with cross-sectional, clinical trial, prospective, and case-control designs were selected. The Persian studies were then translated into English. The animal studies were not investigated. Results: The findings showed that nutrition and diet were associated with oral health. However, the majority of studies focused on evaluation of the relation between nutrition and dental caries. Further, a few studies were conducted on the association between nutrition and other oral problems such as periodontal disease or oral cancer. Moreover, the limited nutritional or dietary factors were investigated in the literature. Conclusions: Nutrition and diet are related to oral health and prevention of oral disease. Further studies are therefore recommended to evaluate the association between nutrition and oral health with considering various dietary or nutritional factors and different types of oral problems in Iran.

  9. Nutrition for Young Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Healthy Aging Nutrition for Young Men Print Email Nutrition for Young Men Reviewed by Taylor Wolfram, MS, ... 2017 XiXinXing/iStock/Thinkstock For many young men, nutrition isn't always a focus. There are many ...

  10. Nutrition Advice and Recipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sign-Up Home Patient Information Nutrition Advice & Recipes Nutrition Advice & Recipes This is a very important section ... information on all aspects of daily life, including nutrition, medical treatments, pain management, and practical tips. For ...

  11. Nutrition Following Pancreatic Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... BACK Contact Us DONATE NOW GENERAL DONATION PURPLESTRIDE Nutrition Following Pancreatic Surgery Home Facing Pancreatic Cancer Living with Pancreatic Cancer Diet and Nutrition Nutrition Following Pancreatic Surgery Ver esta página en ...

  12. Artificial Hydration and Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Crisis Situations Pets and Animals myhealthfinder Food and Nutrition Healthy Food Choices Weight Loss and Diet Plans ... Your Health Resources Healthcare Management Artificial Hydration and Nutrition Artificial Hydration and Nutrition Share Print Patients who ...

  13. Selecting options for national nutrition policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Wit, L.; Timotjevic, L.; Guzzon, A.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Children’s increased consumption of soft drinks is a public health problem as excessive intake has been associated with an increased risk of childhood obesity, diabetes type two and dental caries. Previous studies have found positive associations between TV-viewing, including watchi...

  14. Uncovering the nutritional landscape of food.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seunghyeon Kim

    Full Text Available Recent progresses in data-driven analysis methods, including network-based approaches, are revolutionizing many classical disciplines. These techniques can also be applied to food and nutrition, which must be studied to design healthy diets. Using nutritional information from over 1,000 raw foods, we systematically evaluated the nutrient composition of each food in regards to satisfying daily nutritional requirements. The nutrient balance of a food was quantified and termed nutritional fitness; this measure was based on the food's frequency of occurrence in nutritionally adequate food combinations. Nutritional fitness offers a way to prioritize recommendable foods within a global network of foods, in which foods are connected based on the similarities of their nutrient compositions. We identified a number of key nutrients, such as choline and α-linolenic acid, whose levels in foods can critically affect the nutritional fitness of the foods. Analogously, pairs of nutrients can have the same effect. In fact, two nutrients can synergistically affect the nutritional fitness, although the individual nutrients alone may not have an impact. This result, involving the tendency among nutrients to exhibit correlations in their abundances across foods, implies a hidden layer of complexity when exploring for foods whose balance of nutrients within pairs holistically helps meet nutritional requirements. Interestingly, foods with high nutritional fitness successfully maintain this nutrient balance. This effect expands our scope to a diverse repertoire of nutrient-nutrient correlations, which are integrated under a common network framework that yields unexpected yet coherent associations between nutrients. Our nutrient-profiling approach combined with a network-based analysis provides a more unbiased, global view of the relationships between foods and nutrients, and can be extended towards nutritional policies, food marketing, and personalized nutrition.

  15. Uncovering the Nutritional Landscape of Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seunghyeon; Sung, Jaeyun; Foo, Mathias; Jin, Yong-Su; Kim, Pan-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Recent progresses in data-driven analysis methods, including network-based approaches, are revolutionizing many classical disciplines. These techniques can also be applied to food and nutrition, which must be studied to design healthy diets. Using nutritional information from over 1,000 raw foods, we systematically evaluated the nutrient composition of each food in regards to satisfying daily nutritional requirements. The nutrient balance of a food was quantified and termed nutritional fitness; this measure was based on the food’s frequency of occurrence in nutritionally adequate food combinations. Nutritional fitness offers a way to prioritize recommendable foods within a global network of foods, in which foods are connected based on the similarities of their nutrient compositions. We identified a number of key nutrients, such as choline and α-linolenic acid, whose levels in foods can critically affect the nutritional fitness of the foods. Analogously, pairs of nutrients can have the same effect. In fact, two nutrients can synergistically affect the nutritional fitness, although the individual nutrients alone may not have an impact. This result, involving the tendency among nutrients to exhibit correlations in their abundances across foods, implies a hidden layer of complexity when exploring for foods whose balance of nutrients within pairs holistically helps meet nutritional requirements. Interestingly, foods with high nutritional fitness successfully maintain this nutrient balance. This effect expands our scope to a diverse repertoire of nutrient-nutrient correlations, which are integrated under a common network framework that yields unexpected yet coherent associations between nutrients. Our nutrient-profiling approach combined with a network-based analysis provides a more unbiased, global view of the relationships between foods and nutrients, and can be extended towards nutritional policies, food marketing, and personalized nutrition. PMID:25768022

  16. Nutrition during lactation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Committee on Nutritional Status During Pregnancy and Lactation, Institute of Medicine

    On the basis of a comprehensive literature review and analysis, Nutrition During Lactation points out specific directions for needed research in understanding the relationship between the nutrition...

  17. The IAEA Supports Member States’ Nutrition Programmes: What They Have to Say

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouedraogo, Jean-Bosco; Medoua, Gabriel; Hernandez Triana, Manuel; Kurpad, Anura; Aguenaou, Hassan; Elmanchawy, Imane; Winichagoon, Pattanee; Wade, Salimata; Diop, Cheikh Anta

    2014-01-01

    The following programmes are briefly described: IAEA Capacity Building in Burkina Faso; Building the Capacity to Evaluate Vitamin A Supplementation Programmes in Cameroon; Isotope Studies in Cuba Influence the National Nutrition Recommendations; The IAEA’s Collaborating Centre in Nutrition in Bangalore, India; Promoting Good Nutrition through Isotope Techniques in Morocco; Improving Nutrition in Thailand; IAEA-Supported Studies Influence Nutrition Supplementation Policy in Senegal

  18. The IAEA Supports Member States’ Nutrition Programmes: What They Have to Say

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouedraogo, Jean-Bosco [IRSS (Burkina Faso); Medoua, Gabriel [Centre for Food and Nutrition Research, Yaoundé (Cameroon); Hernandez Triana, Manuel [Institute of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, Havana (Cuba); Kurpad, Anura [St John’s Research Institute, Bangalore (India); Aguenaou, Hassan; Elmanchawy, Imane [Joint Unit for Nutrition and Food Research at Ibn Tofaïl University, National Centre for Nuclear Energy, Sciences and Technology (CNESTEN) (Morocco); Winichagoon, Pattanee [Mahidol University, Bangkok (Thailand); Wade, Salimata; Diop, Cheikh Anta [University, Dakar (Senegal)

    2014-03-15

    The following programmes are briefly described: IAEA Capacity Building in Burkina Faso; Building the Capacity to Evaluate Vitamin A Supplementation Programmes in Cameroon; Isotope Studies in Cuba Influence the National Nutrition Recommendations; The IAEA’s Collaborating Centre in Nutrition in Bangalore, India; Promoting Good Nutrition through Isotope Techniques in Morocco; Improving Nutrition in Thailand; IAEA-Supported Studies Influence Nutrition Supplementation Policy in Senegal.

  19. Adolescent nutrition: what do pediatricians do?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eell Ryoo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Multiple psychosocial problems and many chronic diseases of adulthood can be influenced by adolescent nutritional problems. In Korea, adolescent obesity and obesity related health risks have been increased and insufficient intakes of nutrients, such as calcium, iron and potassium, and distorted thinking about obesity are also common. However there are no comprehensive countermeasure because of the excessive burden of studies and the lack of community interest. And the nutrition guidelines that is suitable for Korean adolescent leaves something to be desired, and the pediatrician’s concern is lacking yet. In the Korean dietary reference intakes 2010 that was revised according to the 2007 Korean National Growth Chart and 2007 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, the range for adolescents is changed to the age 12-18 and dietary reference intakes of some nutrients mainly with vitamin D is changed. Recently several researches, about how school nutrition policies and media effect on eating habits and the weight concerns, and influences of public nutrition policies and fast food commercials have been actively studied to improve adolescent nutritive conditions. In this review, I summarize the dietary reference intakes for Korean adolescents that were revised in 2010, and current studies about the adolescent nutrition.

  20. Childhood nutrition and poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, M

    2000-05-01

    One in three children in Britain lives in poverty (households whose income was less than 50% average earnings). Low income is associated with poor nutrition at all stages of life, from lower rates of breast-feeding to higher intakes of saturated fatty acids and lower intakes of antioxidant nutrients. Moreover, there is increasing evidence that poor nutrition in childhood is associated with both short-term and long-term adverse consequences such as poorer immune status, higher caries rates and poorer cognitive function and learning ability. These problems arise primarily because parents do not have enough money to spend on food, not because money is being spent unwisely. Policy options to improve the dietary health of poor children include: giving more money to the parents by increasing Income Support (social security) payments, providing food stamps or vouchers, and using food budget standards to inform the levels of income needed to purchase an adequate diet; feeding children directly at school (not only at lunchtime but also at breakfast or homework clubs), by providing free fruit at school, and by increasing entitlement to free food amongst children living in households with low incomes; improving access to a healthy and affordable diet by first identifying 'food deserts' and then considering with retailers and local planners how best to provide food in an economical and sustainable way. The value of using food budget standards is illustrated with data relating expenditure on food to growth in children from 'at-risk' families (on low income, overcrowded, headed by a lone parent or with four or more children under 16 years of age) living in a poor area in London. Lower levels of expenditure are strongly associated with poorer growth and health, independent of factors such as birth weight, mother's height, or risk score. The present paper provides evidence that supports the need to review Government legislation in light of nutrition-related inequalities in the

  1. Política de segurança alimentar e nutricional no Brasil: uma análise da alocação de recursos Food and nutrition security policy in Brazil: an analysis of resource allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Battaglia Custódio

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever a evolução e a distribuição dos recursos da União para programas e ações que se inserem nas diretrizes brasileiras da Política Nacional de Segurança Alimentar e Nutricional (PNSAN no período de 2004 a 2010. MÉTODOS: Este estudo descritivo utilizou dados do Portal da Transparência mantido pela Controladoria Geral da União, que gera planilhas de Excel para cada pesquisa realizada. Para o levantamento dos recursos alocados, foi organizada uma base de dados contendo todas as ações executadas pelo governo federal entre 2004 e 2010. Essa base foi revisada e as ações que não eram relativas à PNSAN foram descartadas. Os montantes anuais obtidos tiveram os valores corrigidos pelo Índice de Preços ao Consumidor e atualizados para o ano de 2010. Como as ações são parte de programas específicos, a soma dos recursos destinados a todas as ações de um programa equivaleu aos recursos destinados ao programa como um todo. Os programas foram então hierarquizados de acordo com o volume de recursos recebidos em 2010. RESULTADOS: Das 5 014 ações que receberam recursos da União no período, 814 foram relacionadas à PNSAN (229 programas. Houve crescimento dos recursos alocados para os programas da PNSAN, alcançando, em 2010, US$ 15 bilhões (82% superior ao gasto no ano de 2004. A maior proporção dos recursos foi absorvida pelo Programa Bolsa Família. Dez programas receberam 90% dos recursos, sendo cinco ligados aos processos de produção alimentar. CONCLUSÕES: A PNSAN vem recebendo aporte crescente de recursos concentrados em ações e programas que favorecem a segurança alimentar e nutricional.OBJECTIVE: To describe the progression and distribution of federal funds for programs and activities that fall within the scope of the guidelines of the Brazilian National Policy on Food and Nutrition Security (PNSAN in the period from 2004 to 2010. METHODS: This descriptive study used data from the Transparency Website

  2. Nutrition inequities in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasuk, Valerie; Fitzpatrick, Sandra; Ward, Heather

    2010-04-01

    In Canada, increased morbidity and shorter life expectancy have been found among those with lower incomes and lower levels of education, but there has been little examination of socioeconomic variation in food and nutrient intake. Using data from the 2004 Canadian Community Health Survey, we examined the relationship between household income and education level and adults' and children's intakes of energy, fibre, micronutrients, and number of servings consumed of food groups from Canada's Food Guide. To explore the public health significance of observed associations, we estimated the prevalence of inadequacy for selected nutrients for adults, stratifying by household income, education level, and sex. We found that a higher household income adequacy and (or) higher levels of education were associated with increased consumption of milk and alternatives, and vegetables and fruit, and significantly higher vitamin, mineral, and fibre intakes among both adults and children. The prevalence of inadequate nutrient intakes among adults was higher among adults with the lowest level of income adequacy or educational attainment, compared with others. Our results suggest that the nutritional quality of Canadians' food intakes is, in part, a function of their social position. The impact of policy and program interventions needs to be examined across socioeconomic strata to ensure that actions reduce rather than exacerbate nutrition inequities.

  3. Montreal Accord on Patient-Reported Outcomes (PROs) use series - Paper 8: patient-reported outcomes in electronic health records can inform clinical and policy decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Sara; Ware, Patrick; Gardner, William; Witter, James; Bingham, Clifton O; Kairy, Dahlia; Bartlett, Susan J

    2017-09-01

    Given that the goal of health care systems is to improve and maintain the health of the populations they serve, the indicators of performance must include outcomes that are meaningful to patients. The growth of health technologies provides an unprecedented opportunity to integrate the patient voice into clinical care by linking electronic health records (EHRs) to patient-reported outcome (PRO) data collection. However, PRO data must be relevant, meaningful, and actionable for those who will have to invest the time and effort to collect it. In this study, we highlight opportunities to integrate PRO data collection into EHRs. We consider how stakeholder perspectives should influence the selection of PROs and ways to enhance engagement in and commitment to PRO implementation. We propose a research and policy agenda to address unanswered questions and facilitate the widespread adoption of PRO data collection into EHRs. Building a learning health care system that gathers PRO data in ways that can inform individual patient care, quality improvement, and comparative effectiveness research has the potential to accelerate the application of new evidence and knowledge to patient care. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Application of Behavior Change Techniques in a Personalized Nutrition Electronic Health Intervention Study: Protocol for the Web-Based Food4Me Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macready, Anna L; Fallaize, Rosalind; Butler, Laurie T; Ellis, Judi A; Kuznesof, Sharron; Frewer, Lynn J; Celis-Morales, Carlos; Livingstone, Katherine M; Araújo-Soares, Vera; Fischer, Arnout RH; Stewart-Knox, Barbara J; Mathers, John C

    2018-01-01

    communication. Smoking cessation texts were adapted for dietary use where necessary. A posteriori, a further 9 techniques were included. Examination of excluded items highlighted the distinction between techniques considered appropriate for face-to-face versus internet-based delivery. Conclusions The use of existing taxonomies facilitated the description and standardization of techniques used in Food4Me. We recommend that for complex studies of this nature, technique analysis should be conducted a priori to develop standardized procedures and training and reviewed a posteriori to audit the techniques actually adopted. The present framework description makes a valuable contribution to future systematic reviews and meta-analyses that explore technique efficacy and underlying psychological constructs. This was a novel application of the behavior change taxonomies and was the first internet-based personalized nutrition intervention to use such a framework remotely. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01530139; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01530139 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6y8XYUft1) PMID:29631993

  5. Probiotics and prebiotics: prospects for public health and nutritional recommendations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanders, Mary Ellen; Lenoir-Wijnkoop, Irene; Salminen, Seppo; Merenstein, Daniel J.; Gibson, Glenn R.; Petschow, Bryon W.; Nieuwdorp, Max; Tancredi, Daniel J.; Cifelli, Christopher J.; Jacques, Paul; Pot, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    Probiotics and prebiotics are useful interventions for improving human health through direct or indirect effects on the colonizing microbiota. However, translation of these research findings into nutritional recommendations and public health policy endorsements has not been achieved in a manner

  6. Nutrition and Food Security in Uplands of Vietnam and Thailand ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... farms are leading to losses in food production and disruption to the food chain. ... the basis for policy recommendations related to natural resource management, ... and health to support sustainable food supply and nutrition for smallholder ...

  7. Promoting healthy food consumption: a review of state-level policies to improve access to fruits and vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Carlyn; Martinez-Donate, Ana; Meinen, Amy

    2012-12-01

    Research indicates poor nutrition is a leading determinant of the development of chronic disease, and increasing fruit and vegetable consumption is one method for decreasing obesity. Many policies have focused on increasing the demand for fruits and vegetables through price reductions and coupons. However, without ensuring a stable supply, increased demand can continue to raise prices, crowding out individuals who may otherwise have purchased fruits and vegetables and ultimately leading to continued disparities in access. This paper presents a review of selected state-level policy options recently proposed or implemented in states across the United States, and provides an evidence-based lens through which food access policy can be shaped in the Midwest. This review and potential framework uses Wisconsin to illustrate the feasibility of different state-level decisions and their potential impact on particular populations. Future supply-side policies to consider include expanding Electronic Benefit Transfer to the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC),program and farmers markets, incentivizing the purchase of locally grown produce, assisting local specialty farmers directly, and/or establishing a state-level food policy council. This review reveals that a food policy council would create a more sustainable policy analysis process to better ensure future policy adoption is truly comprehensive, encompassing the production, distribution and purchase of locally grown fruits and vegetables.

  8. Iron deficiency and overload in relation to nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spanjersberg MQI; Jansen EHJM; LEO

    2000-01-01

    Nutritional iron intake in the Netherlands has been reviewed with respect to both iron deficiency and iron overload. In general, iron intake and iron status in the Netherlands are adequate and therefore no change in nutrition policy is required. The following aspects and developments, however, need

  9. Nutrition, health and human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brundtland, G H

    1999-07-01

    This paper presents the speech delivered by Gro Harlem Brundtland, Director-General of WHO, on issues related to nutrition from a health and a human rights perspective. According to Brundtland, nutrition is a universal factor that both affects and defines the health of all people. It affects not only growth and physical development of a child, but also his cognitive and social development. However, inequity, poverty, underdevelopment, as well as inadequate access to food, health and care still exist which have resulted to the deaths of millions of children and left many more suffering from diseases. Poverty has also been identified as the main obstacle to the attainment of health. The existence of structural poverty and ill health eventually leads to poor development, which includes poor nutrition, poor health, and poor human rights. The impact of poverty on health is further worsened by discrimination on the basis of race, color, sex, language, or religion. To address this issue, the WHO will renew their focus on the political and legal links between health and human rights. A human rights perspective provides the international community with an opportunity to support the development of public health policies and practices that promote healthy nutrition as a center of all social and economic development.

  10. Nutritional sustainability of pet foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Kelly S; Carter, Rebecca A; Yount, Tracy P; Aretz, Jan; Buff, Preston R

    2013-03-01

    Sustainable practices meet the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs. Applying these concepts to food and feed production, nutritional sustainability is the ability of a food system to provide sufficient energy and essential nutrients required to maintain good health in a population without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their nutritional needs. Ecological, social, and economic aspects must be balanced to support the sustainability of the overall food system. The nutritional sustainability of a food system can be influenced by several factors, including the ingredient selection, nutrient composition, digestibility, and consumption rates of a diet. Carbon and water footprints vary greatly among plant- and animal-based ingredients, production strategy, and geographical location. Because the pet food industry is based largely on by-products and is tightly interlinked with livestock production and the human food system, however, it is quite unique with regard to sustainability. Often based on consumer demand rather than nutritional requirements, many commercial pet foods are formulated to provide nutrients in excess of current minimum recommendations, use ingredients that compete directly with the human food system, or are overconsumed by pets, resulting in food wastage and obesity. Pet food professionals have the opportunity to address these challenges and influence the sustainability of pet ownership through product design, manufacturing processes, public education, and policy change. A coordinated effort across the industry that includes ingredient buyers, formulators, and nutritionists may result in a more sustainable pet food system.

  11. Evaluation of the Effect of Knowledge Concerning Healthy Nutrition and Nutrition Science on the Knowledge Development Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asghari

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Nutrition can be regarded as an important part of any preparation program, as well as an important part of life. It seems essential to develop nutritional science and improve eating habits with the purpose of developing a healthy diet and avoiding the outcomes that arise from a lack of nutrition. Proper nutrition is one of the important factors for the development of health. Lack of sufficient awareness about nutrition can result in improper eating habits. Objectives The present study evaluated the effect of knowledge about healthy nutrition and nutrition science on the knowledge development approach. Materials and Methods In this cross-sectional descriptive study, the statistical population consisted of 190 experts and other scholars in the area of nutritional science. A questionnaire based on demographic details, nutritional science, nutrition education, research, proper solutions to individuals’ nutritional problems, and a culture of nutrition was used for data collection. Results A relatively strong positive correlation was found between the knowledge development approach, nutritional science, nutrition education and research, and proper solutions for individual nutritional problems and a culture of nutrition (P < 0.001. Conclusions 1 Effective enhancement and participation in an academic community will be important in the future of food and nutrition security; however, major gaps and weaknesses also exist in this context; 2 The main weaknesses in relation to the lack of clear policies and procedures include focusing on only Tehran, Iran; the need to overcome bureaucracy; and problems related to motivation, capital, and international communications; 3 Qualitative and quantitative improvement of research is not possible without access to skilled experts and researchers; 4 To solve these problems, it will be beneficial to pay more attention to the role of universities, facilitate intellectual communication among professors in

  12. Electronic nicotine delivery systems: a policy statement from the American Association for Cancer Research and the American Society of Clinical Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandon, Thomas H; Goniewicz, Maciej L; Hanna, Nasser H; Hatsukami, Dorothy K; Herbst, Roy S; Hobin, Jennifer A; Ostroff, Jamie S; Shields, Peter G; Toll, Benjamin A; Tyne, Courtney A; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula; Warren, Graham W

    2015-02-01

    Combustible tobacco use remains the number one preventable cause of disease, disability, and death in the United States. Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), which include e-cigarettes, are devices capable of delivering nicotine in an aerosolized form. ENDS use by both adults and youth has increased rapidly, and some have advocated these products could serve as harm-reduction devices and smoking cessation aids. ENDS may be beneficial if they reduce smoking rates or prevent or reduce the known adverse health effects of smoking. However, ENDS may also be harmful, particularly to youth, if they increase the likelihood that nonsmokers or formers smokers will use combustible tobacco products or if they discourage smokers from quitting. The American Association for Cancer Research (AACR) and the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) recognize the potential ENDS have to alter patterns of tobacco use and affect the public's health; however, definitive data are lacking. AACR and ASCO recommend additional research on these devices, including assessing the health impacts of ENDS, understanding patterns of ENDS use, and determining what role ENDS have in cessation. Key policy recommendations include supporting federal, state, and local regulation of ENDS; requiring manufacturers to register with the FDA and report all product ingredients, requiring childproof caps on ENDS liquids, and including warning labels on products and their advertisements; prohibiting youth-oriented marketing and sales; prohibiting child-friendly ENDS flavors; and prohibiting ENDS use in places where cigarette smoking is prohibited. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research and American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  13. Association between Nutrition Label Reading and Nutrient Intake in Korean Adults: Korea National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey, 2007-2009 (KNHANES IV)

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Min-Gyou; Oh, Seung-Won; Han, Na-Rae; Song, Dong-Ju; Um, Jae-Yean; Bae, Su-Hyun; Kwon, Hyuktae; Lee, Cheol-Min; Joh, Hee-Kyung; Hong, Sung-woo

    2014-01-01

    Background Nutrition labels provide various information on the nutrient contents of food. However, despite the recent increase in the interest in dietary intake and expansion of related policies, studies on the association between nutrition label reading and dietary intake are lacking in Korea. Methods This study analyzed the 2007-2009 KNHANES (Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey) data. To examine macronutrients and micronutrients intake according to nutrition label readin...

  14. Nutrition Information at the Point of Selection in High Schools Does Not Affect Purchases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainville, Alice Jo; Choi, Kyunghee; Ragg, Mark; King, Amber; Carr, Deborah H.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: Nutrition information can be an important component of local wellness policies. There are very few studies regarding nutrition information at the point of selection (POS) in high schools. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of posting entree nutrition information at the POS in high schools nationwide.…

  15. The Evolution of Research in Family and Consumer Sciences: Food, Nutrition, and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlenker, Eleanor D.

    2001-01-01

    Analysis of research on food, nutrition, and health in the Journal of Family and Consumer Sciences and Family and Consumer Sciences Research Journal 1985-2000 (n=172) identified four categories: (1) changes in dietary standards and nutrient requirements; (2) public policy and guidance on nutrition; (3) food behavior and nutrition intervention; and…

  16. Políticas nacionais e o campo da Alimentação e Nutrição em Saúde Coletiva: cenário atual National policies and the field of Food and Nutrition in Collective Health: the current scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Recine

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available É apresentado um balanço da implementação das diretrizes da Política Nacional de Alimentação e Nutrição (PNAN contextualizando as ações no cenário do Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS. Aos dez anos de sua publicação, a PNAN se defronta com desafios tanto para expandir como para qualificar as ações de alimentação e nutrição na saúde, e também para se apresentar como interlocutora e representante legítima da área da saúde, no contexto político e institucional da segurança alimentar e nutricional. Questões relacionadas à articulação da PNAN e da futura Política Nacional de Segurança Alimentar e Nutricional são analisadas para demonstrar a confluência de agendas entre as prioridades para a garantia da SAN. São apontadas as potencialidades desse campo de ação, a partir do atual cenário institucional, e a necessidade de soluções abrangentes que atendam à complexidade da alimentação e nutrição em Saúde Coletiva.It is presented a review of the guidelines implementation of the National Food and Nutrition Policy (PNAN contextualizing the actions in the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS scenario. At ten years of its publication, PNAN faces challenges both to expand and qualify the shares of food and nutrition on health. It is challenging to stand as interlocutor and legitimate representative of the area of health, political and institutional context of food security and nutrition. Issues related to the articulation of PNAN and future National Policy on Food and Nutrition Security will be analyzed to demonstrate the convergence of agendas among the priorities for the guarantee of the SAN. The authors identify the potential of this field of action, from the current institutional setting, and the need for comprehensive solutions that address the complexity of food and nutrition in health.

  17. A Survey of Home Enteral Nutrition Practices and Reimbursement in the Asia Pacific Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvin Wong

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Literature regarding the use of home enteral nutrition (HEN and how it is reimbursed in the Asia Pacific region is limited. This research survey aims to determine the availability of HEN, the type of feeds and enteral access used, national reimbursement policies, the presence of nutrition support teams (NSTs, and clinical nutrition education in this region. An electronic questionnaire was sent to 20 clinical nutrition societies and leaders in the Asia Pacific region in August 2017, where thirteen countries responded. Comparison of HEN reimbursement and practice between countries of different income groups based on the World Bank’s data was investigated. Financial support for HEN is only available in 40% of the countries. An association was found between availability of financial support for HEN and health expenditure (r = 0.63, p = 0.021. High and middle-upper income countries use mainly commercial supplements for HEN, while lower-middle income countries use mainly blenderized diet. The presence of NSTs is limited, and only present mainly in acute settings. Sixty percent of the countries indicated an urgent need for funding and reimbursement of HEN. This survey demonstrates the varied clinical and economic situation in the Asia Pacific region. There is a lack of reimbursement, clinical support, and inadequate educational opportunities, especially for the lower-middle income countries.

  18. ["Care" and public nutrition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Prével, Yves

    2002-01-01

    In 1990, the Unicef conceptual framework for nutrition recognised the role of care, along with household food security and health services and environment, as one of the three underlying factors of child survival, growth, and development. This model has been adopted at a policy level at the International Conference on Nutrition (Rome, 1992) and over the past ten years the concept of care has been refined through literature reviews, consultative meetings and empirical works. "Care is the provision in the household and the community of time, attention, and support to meet the physical, mental, and social needs of the growing child and other household members". Basically, care refers to the actions of caregivers (mainly, but not only mothers) that translate food and health resources into positive outcomes for the child's nutrition. Even under circumstances of poverty, enhanced caregiving can optimise the use of resources to promote good nutrition. Care practices have been grouped into six categories: care for women, breastfeeding and child feeding practices, psychosocial care, food preparation, hygiene practices, household health practices. They cover a wide range of behaviours, are often culturally specific and are daily, repetitive, and time-consuming activities. It must be underlined that the way care practices are performed (i.e., quality of care) is as important as the practices themselves. It has also been emphasised that children play a significant role in determining the quality of care that they receive, through an interactive process: an active child elicits more care from the caregiver, who is in turn more responsive. Care resources at household level have been described according to three categories: human (knowledge, beliefs, education, physical and mental health of the caregiver), economic (control on income, workload and time), and organisational (alternate caregivers, community support). But the availability of care also depends on support at the

  19. To See or Not to See: Do Front of Pack Nutrition Labels Affect Attention to Overall Nutrition Information?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Bix

    Full Text Available Front of pack (FOP nutrition labels are concise labels located on the front of food packages that provide truncated nutrition information. These labels are rapidly gaining prominence worldwide, presumably because they attract attention and their simplified formats enable rapid comparisons of nutritional value.Eye tracking was conducted as US consumers interacted with actual packages with and without FOP labels to (1 assess if the presence of an FOP label increases attention to nutrition information when viewers are not specifically tasked with nutrition-related goals; and (2 study the effect of FOP presence on consumer use of more comprehensive, traditional nutrition information presented in the Nutritional Facts Panel (NFP, a mandatory label for most packaged foods in the US.Our results indicate that colored FOP labels enhanced the probability that any nutrition information was attended, and resulted in faster detection and longer viewing of nutrition information. However, for cereal packages, these benefits were at the expense of attention to the more comprehensive NFP. Our results are consistent with a potential short cut effect of FOP labels, such that if an FOP was present, participants spent less time attending the more comprehensive NFP. For crackers, FOP labels increased time spent attending to nutrition information, but we found no evidence that their presence reduced the time spent on the nutrition information in the NFP.The finding that FOP labels increased attention to overall nutrition information by people who did not have an explicit nutritional goal suggests that these labels may have an advantage in conveying nutrition information to a wide segment of the population. However, for some food types this benefit may come with a short-cut effect; that is, decreased attention to more comprehensive nutrition information. These results have implications for policy and warrant further research into the mechanisms by which FOP labels

  20. Nutrition knowledge and nutritional status of primary school children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-01-04

    Jan 4, 2010 ... b Research Fellow, CSL, Vaal University of Technology, South Africa ... Keywords: primary school children; nutrition knowledge; nutritional status. Nutrition ... research on basic nutrition education focusing on adolescents has.

  1. Nutrition and athletic performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exercise - nutrition; Exercise - fluids; Exercise - hydration ... Bird R. Nutrition. In: Miller MD, Thompson SR, eds. DeLee and Drez's Orthopaedic Sports Medicine . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; ...

  2. Nutrition and OI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutrition and OI Introduction To promote bone development and optimal health, children and adults with osteogenesis imperfecta ( ... no foods or supplements that will cure OI. Nutrition Related Problems Difficulties eating solid food have been ...

  3. Nutrition.gov

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Gov Sites FAQ Contact Us En Español Search Nutrition.Gov Search all USDA Advanced Search Browse by ... FAQs USDA Research, Education, and Economics Resources Welcome Nutrition.gov is a USDA-sponsored website that offers ...

  4. Total parenteral nutrition - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007239.htm Total parenteral nutrition - infants To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is a method of feeding that bypasses ...

  5. Total parenteral nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000177.htm Total parenteral nutrition To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is a method of feeding that bypasses ...

  6. Living with COPD: Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diseases > Lung Disease Lookup > COPD > Living With COPD Nutrition and COPD Most people are surprised to learn ... asking your doctor or visiting the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics at EatRight.org . Be sure to ...

  7. Cooking utensils and nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002461.htm Cooking utensils and nutrition To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Cooking utensils can have an effect on your nutrition. ...

  8. Nutrition and Myasthenia Gravis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good nutrition is important for everyone. This is especially true when you have a chronic disorder like myasthenia gravis ( ... difficulty with chewing and swallowing may interfere with nutrition and create safety issues. Diet modifications may be ...

  9. The Impact of Cricket Farming on Rural Livelihoods, Nutrition and the Environment in Thailand and Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halloran, Afton Marina Szasz

    a positive impact on food and nutrition security. The findings presented in this thesis have relevance for non-governmental organizations, civil society, policy makers, intergovernmental organizations and governmental agencies seeking to implement policies and interventions to improve access to a nutritional...

  10. Engaging Parents to Promote Children's Nutrition and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dev, Dipti A; Byrd-Williams, Courtney; Ramsay, Samantha; McBride, Brent; Srivastava, Deepa; Murriel, Ashleigh; Arcan, Chrisa; Adachi-Mejia, Anna M

    2017-03-01

    Using the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics benchmarks as a framework, this study examined childcare providers' (Head Start [HS], Child and Adult Care Food Program [CACFP] funded, and non-CACFP) perspectives regarding communicating with parents about nutrition to promote children's health. Qualitative. State-licensed center-based childcare programs. Full-time childcare providers (n = 18) caring for children 2 to 5 years old from varying childcare contexts (HS, CACFP funded, and non-CACFP), race, education, and years of experience. In-person interviews using semi-structured interview protocol until saturation were achieved. Thematic analysis was conducted. Two overarching themes were barriers and strategies to communicate with parents about children's nutrition. Barriers to communication included-(a) parents are too busy to talk with providers, (b) parents offer unhealthy foods, (c) parents prioritize talking about child food issues over nutrition, (d) providers are unsure of how to communicate about nutrition without offending parents, and (e) providers are concerned if parents are receptive to nutrition education materials. Strategies for communication included-(a) recognize the benefits of communicating with parents about nutrition to support child health, (b) build a partnership with parents through education, (c) leverage policy (federal and state) to communicate positively and avoid conflict, (d) implement center-level practices to reinforce policy, and (e) foster a respectful relationship between providers and parents. Policy and environmental changes were recommended for fostering a respectful relationship and building a bridge between providers and parents to improve communication about children's nutrition and health.

  11. Exploring culture in the world of international nutrition and nutrition sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centrone Stefani, Monique; Humphries, Debbie L

    2013-09-01

    This symposium was organized to bring insights from the social sciences into the awareness of nutrition scientists committed to developing and implementing effective nutrition interventions internationally. The symposium explored three different areas in the field where a more precise analysis of culture could enhance the effectiveness of nutrition science: 1) in the implementation of nutrition science research in the field; 2) in the collaboration of multiple stakeholders working to enhance nutrition in a national setting; and 3) in the language and discussions used to frame proposed changes in large scale food and nutrition security policy transnationally. Three social scientists, Monique Centrone Stefani, Lucy Jarosz, and David Pelletier were invited to share insights from their respective disciplines and respondents from within the field of nutrition provided initial reflections to better understand such perspectives. The symposium's interdisciplinary nature was designed to illustrate the challenge of multiple perspectives and methodologies and to advance understanding that could derive from such an exchange for those in the field of international nutrition seeking to decrease global hunger and malnutrition.

  12. Nutrition economics – characterising the economic and health impact of nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenoir-Wijnkoop, I.; Dapoigny, M.; Dubois, D.; van Ganse, E.; Gutiérrez-Ibarluzea, I.; Hutton, J.; Jones, P.; Mittendorf, T.; Poley, M. J.; Salminen, S.; Nuijten, M. J. C.

    2011-01-01

    There is a new merging of health economics and nutrition disciplines to assess the impact of diet on health and disease prevention and to characterise the health and economic aspects of specific changes in nutritional behaviour and nutrition recommendations. A rationale exists for developing the field of nutrition economics which could offer a better understanding of both nutrition, in the context of having a significant influence on health outcomes, and economics, in order to estimate the absolute and relative monetary impact of health measures. For this purpose, an expert meeting assessed questions aimed at clarifying the scope and identifying the key issues that should be taken into consideration in developing nutrition economics as a discipline that could potentially address important questions. We propose a first multidisciplinary outline for understanding the principles and particular characteristics of this emerging field. We summarise here the concepts and the observations of workshop participants and propose a basic setting for nutrition economics and health outcomes research as a novel discipline to support nutrition, health economics and health policy development in an evidence and health-benefit-based manner. PMID:20797310

  13. Stroke Prevention & Treatment: Diet & Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevention & Treatment: Diet & Nutrition Stroke Prevention & Treatment: Diet & Nutrition A healthy diet can reduce your risk for ... Treatment How does a stroke affect eating and nutrition? Stroke can devastate a person's nutritional health because ...

  14. Nutrition support in hospitals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kondrup, Jens

    2005-01-01

    Nutrition support in hospitals is becoming an area of focus because of the evidence showing improved clinical outcome with nutrition support, its status as a human rights issue and its integration into quality assurance.......Nutrition support in hospitals is becoming an area of focus because of the evidence showing improved clinical outcome with nutrition support, its status as a human rights issue and its integration into quality assurance....

  15. Diet and Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stories Español Eye Health / Tips & Prevention Food and Nutrition Sections Diet and Nutrition Can Fish Oil Help ... Cataract Prevention in the Produce Aisle Diet and Nutrition Leer en Español: Dieta y nutrición May. 24, ...

  16. Nutrition Guide for Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Nutrition Guide for Toddlers KidsHealth / For Parents / Nutrition Guide ... español Guía de nutrición para sus hijos pequeños Nutrition Through Variety Growth slows somewhat during the toddler ...

  17. Public Health Nutrition Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torheim, Liv Elin; Birgisdottir, Bryndis Eva; Robertson, Aileen

    2016-01-01

    , Oslo, Norway, 2Unit for Nutrition Research, Landspitali University Hospital , 3Department of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland, 4Global Nutrition and Health, Metropolitan University College, Copenhagen, Denmark, 5School of Hospitality, culinary arts and meal science...

  18. Nutrition for Sport Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutrition Foundation, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This guidebook presents basic facts about nutrition, focusing upon the nutritional needs of athletes. Information is given on: (1) the importance of water, salt and other electrolytes, and treating and preventing heat disorders; (2) nutrition for training and performance, the best diet, caloric and energy requirements for various and specific…

  19. Enteral Nutrition in Dementia: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne Brooke

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this systematic review is to evaluate the role of enteral nutrition in dementia. The prevalence of dementia is predicted to rise worldwide partly due to an aging population. People with dementia may experience both cognitive and physical complications that impact on their nutritional intake. Malnutrition and weight loss in dementia correlates with cognitive decline and the progress of the disease. An intervention for long term eating difficulties is the provision of enteral nutrition through a Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy tube to improve both nutritional parameters and quality of life. Enteral nutrition in dementia has traditionally been discouraged, although further understanding of physical, nutritional and quality of life outcomes are required. The following electronic databases were searched: EBSCO Host, MEDLINE, PubMed, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and Google Scholar for publications from 1st January 2008 and up to and including 1st January 2014. Inclusion criteria included the following outcomes: mortality, aspiration pneumonia, pressure sores, nutritional parameters and quality of life. Each study included separate analysis for patients with a diagnosis of dementia and/or neurological disease. Retrospective and prospective observational studies were included. No differences in mortality were found for patients with dementia, without dementia or other neurological disorders. Risk factors for poor survival included decreased or decreasing serum albumin levels, increasing age or over 80 years and male gender. Evidence regarding pneumonia was limited, although did not impact on mortality. No studies explored pressure sores or quality of life.

  20. Position of the American Dietetic Association: local support for nutrition integrity in schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Ethan A; Gordon, Ruth W

    2010-08-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association (ADA) that schools and communities have a shared responsibility to provide students with access to high-quality, affordable, nutritious foods and beverages. School-based nutrition services, including the provision of meals through the National School Lunch Program and the School Breakfast Program, are an integral part of the total education program. Strong wellness policies promote environments that enhance nutrition integrity and help students to develop lifelong healthy behaviors. ADA actively supported the 2004 and proposed 2010 Child Nutrition reauthorization which determines school nutrition policy. ADA believes that the Dietary Guidelines for Americans should serve as the foundation for all food and nutrition assistance programs and should apply to all foods and beverages sold or served to students during the school day. Local wellness policies are mandated by federal legislation for all school districts participating in the National School Lunch Program. These policies support nutrition integrity,including a healthy school environment. Nutrition integrity also requires coordinating nutrition education and promotion and funding research on program outcomes. Registered dietitians and dietetic technicians, registered, and other credentialed staff, are essential for nutrition integrity in schools to perform in policy-making, management, education, and community building roles. A healthy school environment can be achieved through adequate funding of school meals programs and through implementation and evaluation of strong local wellness policies.

  1. Enteral nutrition in surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sucha, R.; Lichvarova, I.; Duchon, R.; Dolnik, J.; Pindak, D.

    2011-01-01

    Enteral feeding provides physiologic, metabolic, safety, and cost benefits over parenteral nutrition. There are various ways enteral nutritional is administered and scheduled. The method of administration must be individualized to each patient's specific needs. Enteral nutrition is not only the supply of exogenous substrates and to prevent depletion of endogenous sources. Today the enteral nutrition becomes part of a therapeutic strategy to influence the severity of the disease to affect the function of GIT, and to modulate immune responses of the gut and the whole organism. Early enteral nutrition in the postoperative period reduces the risk of infectious complications. (author)

  2. Nutrition transition and food sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belahsen, Rekia

    2014-08-01

    The aim of the present paper is to review nutrition transition (NT) ongoing in low and middle income countries and the associated dietary changes. NT is accompanied by demographic and epidemiological transition associated with economic development and urbanisation. In these countries, while the problems of hunger and undernourishment persist, there is an escalation of diet-related non-communicable diseases; making them face both problems of malnutrition, under and overnutrition. Indeed, in addition to protein energy malnutrition underweight and micronutrient deficiencies affect a high proportion of children and women. Conversely, changes in dietary habits and physical activity patterns have led to emergence of chronic diseases such as obesity, diabetes, hypertension, stroke, hyperlipidaemia, CHD and cancer. One possible explanation of weight gain and its associated health consequences is the trend of the consumption of already prepared meals and the restaurants that are in continuous development leading to high consumption of foods rich in sugar and fat. The health problems associated with NT have not spared populations in the Mediterranean area where the type of diet is reported to be healthy and to protect against cardiovascular risks. This is seen in North Africa that belongs also to the Mediterranean basin, where the nutritional situation raises the problem of traditional foods sustainability. Accurate nutritional policy and education are needed to redress the effects of malnutrition related to NT on health.

  3. Nutrition Frontiers E-Newsletter | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Nutritional Science Research Group, Division of Cancer Prevention at NCI issues a quarterly electronic newsletter, Nutrition Frontiers, that highlights emerging evidence linking diet to cancer prevention and showcases recent findings about who will likely benefit most from dietary change. |

  4. [Development of integrated support software for clinical nutrition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siquier Homar, Pedro; Pinteño Blanco, Manel; Calleja Hernández, Miguel Ángel; Fernández Cortés, Francisco; Martínez Sotelo, Jesús

    2015-09-01

    to develop an integrated computer software application for specialized nutritional support, integrated in the electronic clinical record, which detects automatically and early those undernourished patients or at risk of developing undernourishment, determining points of opportunity for improvement and evaluation of the results. the quality standards published by the Nutrition Work Group of the Spanish Society of Hospital Pharmacy (SEFH) and the recommendations by the Pharmacy Group of the Spanish Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (SENPE) have been taken into account. According to these quality standards, the nutritional support has to include the following healthcare stages or sub-processes: nutritional screening, nutritional assessment, plan for nutritional care, prescription, preparation and administration. this software allows to conduct, in an automated way, a specific nutritional assessment for those patients with nutritional risk, implementing, if necessary, a nutritional treatment plan, conducting follow-up and traceability of outcomes derived from the implementation of improvement actions, and quantifying to what extent our practice is close to the established standard. this software allows to standardize the specialized nutritional support from a multidisciplinary point of view, introducing the concept of quality control per processes, and including patient as the main customer. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  5. Development of integrated support software for clinical nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Siquier Homar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: to develop an integrated computer software application for specialized nutritional support, integrated in the electronic clinical record, which detects automatically and early those undernourished patients or at risk of developing undernourishment, determining points of opportunity for improvement and evaluation of the results. Methods: the quality standards published by the Nutrition Work Group of the Spanish Society of Hospital Pharmacy (SEFH and the recommendations by the Pharmacy Group of the Spanish Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (SENPE have been taken into account. According to these quality standards, the nutritional support has to include the following healthcare stages or sub-processes: nutritional screening, nutritional assessment, plan for nutritional care, prescription, preparation and administration. Results: this software allows to conduct, in an automated way, a specific nutritional assessment for those patients with nutritional risk, implementing, if necessary, a nutritional treatment plan, conducting follow-up and traceability of outcomes derived from the implementation of improvement actions, and quantifying to what extent our practice is close to the established standard. Conclusions: this software allows to standardize the specialized nutritional support from a multidisciplinary point of view, introducing the concept of quality control per processes, and including patient as the main customer

  6. Graduate level training in nutrition: an integrated model for capacity building- a national report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikholeslam, Robabeh; Ghassemi, Hossein; Galal, Osman; Djazayery, Abolghassem; Omidvar, Nasrin; Nourmohammadi, Issa; Tuazon, Ma Antonia G

    2015-03-01

    Iran has been active in human nutrition training for the past five decades, but the existing curricular programs do not equip the graduates with the knowledge and skills required for solving food security and nutritional problems of the country. Given this, the Nutrition Department (ND) of Iran's Ministry of Health and Medical Education (MOHME) initiated a curricular reform to develop responsive graduate programs in key areas of nutrition that fill the existing gaps in nutrition training with the goal of improving nutrition policy-making and program development, implementation and evaluation. ND called for a request for proposals for a project entitled "Graduate Level Training in Nutrition". Specifically, with technical assistance from leading academic institutions in Asia, North America and UK, seven new graduate programs were housed in three separate institutions, but coordinated so that together they form a broad multidisciplinary resource for graduate education and research. These seven-degree programs are MSc and PhD in Molecular/Cellular Nutrition, MSc and PhD in Nutritional Epidemiology, MSc and PhD in Food Policy and Nutrition Intervention, and MSc in Community Nutrition. The programs were prepared in collaboration and active participation of selected faculty members of the three Iranian universities, International Union of Nutritional Sciences and the University of Philippines at Los Baños. The development of these programs was made possible through a loan from the World Bank, under the Second Primary Health and Nutrition Project in the MOHME.

  7. Nuclear electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucero B, E.

    1989-01-01

    The rapid technical development of Colombia over the past years, resulted among others, a considerable increase in the number of measuring instrumentation and testing laboratories, scientific research and metrology centers, in industry, agriculture, public health, education on the nuclear field, etc. IAN is a well organized institution with qualified management, trained staff and reasonably equipped laboratories to carry out tasks as: Metrology, standardization, quality control and maintenance and repair of nuclear instruments. The government of Colombia has adopted a policy to establish and operate through the country maintenance and repair facilities for nuclear instrumentation. This policy is reflected in the organization of electronic laboratories in Bogota-IAN

  8. The global context for public health nutrition taxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thow, Anne Marie; Heywood, Peter; Leeder, Stephen; Burns, Lee

    2011-01-01

    To assess critically the scope for public health nutrition taxation within the framework of the global tax reform agenda. Review of the tax policy literature for global policy priorities relevant to public health nutrition taxation; critical analysis of proposals for public health nutrition taxation judged against the global agenda for tax reform. The global tax reform agenda shapes decisions of tax policy makers in all countries. By understanding this agenda, public health nutritionists can make feasible taxation proposals and thus improve the development, uptake and implementation of recommendations for nutrition-related taxation. The priorities of the global tax reform agenda relevant to public health nutrition taxation are streamlining of taxes, adoption of value-added tax (VAT), minimisation of excise taxes (except to correct for externalities) and removal of import taxes in line with trade liberalisation policies. Proposals consistent with the global tax reform agenda have included excise taxes, extension of VAT to currently exempted (unhealthy) foods and tariff reductions for healthy foods. Proposals for public health nutrition taxation should (i) use existing types and rates of taxes where possible, (ii) use excise taxes that specifically address externalities, (iii) avoid differential VAT on foods and (iv) use import taxes in ways that comply with trade liberalisation priorities.

  9. Workshop Report: concepts and methods in the economics of nutrition--gateways to better economic evaluation of nutrition interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenoir-Wijnkoop, I; Nuijten, M J C; Gutiérrez-Ibarluzea, I; Hutton, J; Poley, M J; Segal, L; Bresson, J L; van Ganse, E; Jones, P; Moreno, L; Salminen, S; Dubois, D

    2012-11-14

    Improving health through better nutrition of the population may contribute to enhanced efficiency and sustainability of healthcare systems. A recent expert meeting investigated in detail a number of methodological aspects related to the discipline of nutrition economics. The role of nutrition in health maintenance and in the prevention of non-communicable diseases is now generally recognised. However, the main scope of those seeking to contain healthcare expenditures tends to focus on the management of existing chronic diseases. Identifying additional relevant dimensions to measure and the context of use will become increasingly important in selecting and developing outcome measurements for nutrition interventions. The translation of nutrition-related research data into public health guidance raises the challenging issue of carrying out more pragmatic trials in many areas where these would generate the most useful evidence for health policy decision-making. Nutrition exemplifies all the types of interventions and policy which need evaluating across the health field. There is a need to start actively engaging key stakeholders in order to collect data and to widen health technology assessment approaches for achieving a policy shift from evidence-based medicine to evidence-based decision-making in the field of nutrition.

  10. Optimizing patient nutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geiker, Nina Rica Wium

    (Paper I). The present study is, to my knowledge, the only study investigating the validity of performed nutritional risk screenings by comparing them with medical records. Eight per cent of patients were correctly screened for nutritional risk. A total of 24% of 2393 patients were nutritionally screened......Malnutrition, under-nutrition and/or obesity, may develop due to disease but may also cause disease. The prevalence of under-nutrition among hospitalized patients is high: 40-60% are either already under-nourished on admittance or at-risk of becoming malnourished. As in the general population...... of prescription medication, and take longer to recover. Acknowledging the adverse effects of malnutrition on health, since 2006 it has been mandatory to screen all patients for nutritional risk within 24 hours of admittance at all hospitals in the Capital Region, Denmark. The compliance to and the validity...

  11. Nutritional assessment of athletes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Driskell, Judy A; Wolinsky, Ira

    2011-01-01

    "Evaluating dietary intake, determining energy metabolism, and conducting other nutritional assessments are essential in understanding the relationships between diet, exercise, health, and physical...

  12. Introduction to clinical nutrition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sardesai, Vishwanath M

    2012-01-01

    .... Introduction to Clinical Nutrition, Third edition discusses the physiologic and metabolic interrelationships of all nutrients and their roles in health maintenance and the prevention of various...

  13. What Is Enteral Nutrition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Solution Center NOVEL Project Parenteral Nutrition Resources Intravenous Lipid Emulsions (ILE) Video Series SmartPN Practice and Research Toolkits Publications & ASPEN Journals Journal of Parenteral and ...

  14. European consumers and nutrition labelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wills, Josephine M.; Grunert, Klaus G.; Celemín, Laura Fernández

    2009-01-01

    Nutrition labelling of food in Europe is not compulsory, unless a nutrition or health claim is made for the product. The European Commission is proposing mandatory nutrition labelling, even front of pack labelling with nutrition information. Yet, how widespread is nutrition labelling in the EU...

  15. Food & Nutrition: Nourish Your Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food & Nutrition: Nourish Your Body; food & nutrition; food and nutrition; food and nutrition articles; information about nutrition; health & nutrition; health and nutrition; health and nutrition articles; health and nutrition facts; health nutrition; nutrition and health; nutrition health; nutrition health articles; healthy; a healthy diet; diet healthy; eating healthy; healthy diet; healthy diets; nutrition diet; diet and nutrition; diet and nutrition articles; diet and nutrition article; diet nutrition; nutrition and diet; article on nutrition; article about nutrition; articles on nutrition; facts about nutrition; good nutrition; nutrition article; nutrition articles; healthy tips; eat healthy tips; eating healthy tips; healthy diet tips; healthy eating tip; healthy eating tips; healthy food tips; should eat; reasons why you should eat healthy; why people should eat healthy; why should I eat healthy; why should people eat healthy; why should we eat healthy; why should you eat healthy; why we should eat healthy; why you should eat healthy; healthy diet; a healthy diet; diets healthy eating; eat a healthy diet; eat healthy diet; eating a healthy diet; eating healthy diet; eating healthy diets; healthy diet; way to eat; best way to eat healthy; easy way to eat healthy; easy ways to eat healthy; healthy way of eating; healthy way to eat; healthy ways of eating; healthy ways to eat; ways to eat healthy; benefits; benefits eating healthy; benefits for eating healthy; benefits from eating healthy; benefits of eating healthy; benefits of healthy eating; benefits on eating healthy; benefits to eating healthy; eating healthy benefits; health benefits of eating healthy; eat healthier; eat healthier; eating healthier; healthier eating; healthier ways to eat; how can I eat healthier; how do I eat healthier; how to eat healthier; how to start eating healthier; tips to eat healthier; ways to start eating healthier

  16. Immediate preoperative enteral nutrition (preoperative enteral nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lađević Nebojša

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nutritional support of surgical patients is a necessary part of the treatment. It alone cannot cure the disease but it significantly affects the recovery of patients and supports surgical interventions. Patients in malnutrition have shown to have significantly more postoperative infectious and non-infectious complications. This significantly prolongs treatment time and increases costs. However, there is one fact that cannot be expressed in money, which is the patient's impression of the surgical intervention. Adequate preoperative patient support, based on the intake of liquid nutritive solutions, reduces preoperative stress and deflects the metabolic response. Now, it is recommended for adults and children older than one year to drink clear liquid up to 2 hours before induction in anesthesia. Appropriate enteral nutrition has a significant place in the postoperative recovery of patients. Enteral nutrition is reducing complications, mainly infectious complications because the function of the digestive system as one large immune system is preserved. Perioperative enteral nutrition is a necessary part of the modern treatment of surgical patients. In addition to the significant effect on the occurrence of postoperative complications, it is also important that this type of diet improves the psychological status of patients.

  17. The eNutrition Academy: Supporting a New Generation of Nutritional Scientists around the World12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geissler, Catherine; Amuna, Paul; Kattelmann, Kendra K; Zotor, Francis B; Donovan, Sharon M

    2016-01-01

    Nutrition training and building capacity to provide a competent workforce to support national and regional efforts to combat malnutrition remain a major challenge in Africa and other developing regions of the world. The capacity to provide the necessary intellectual drive for nutrition research, policy, and practice in countries lacking in readiness for nutrition actions is imperative to improve the health of their people. To help address this need, the eNutrition Academy (eNA) was formed as a global partnership organization by the African Nutrition Society, the Federation of African Nutrition Societies, the Nutrition Society of the United Kingdom and Ireland, the ASN, and the International Union of Nutritional Sciences, supported by Cambridge University Press. The primary objective of this partnership is to provide an online learning platform that is free to access, enabling users to benefit from a wide range of learning materials from basic tools to more-advanced learning materials for teachers and researchers in developing countries. The goal of this article was to summarize the findings of a symposium held at the ASN Scientific Sessions and Annual Meeting at Experimental Biology 2015, which explored the themes of international capacity development, with a particular focus on the African continent, online learning, and the eNA e-learning platform. Given the vast human capacity present in Africa that is poised to create new solutions to address the public health needs of the continent, now is an opportune time to establish South-North and South-South partnerships to develop the next generation of African nutritional scientists. PMID:27180382

  18. A brief nutritional approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narvaiz, Patricia

    2006-01-01

    Food irradiation is a preservation method comparable to others that use heat. Some advantages and disadvantages are discussed. Ionizing radiations provided by specific radioactive substances: Cobalt-60 and Cesium-137, or by machines (electron accelerators and X-ray devices), are employed to eliminate living organisms which are harmful to human health or cause food spoilage. Several applications are listed. As any other food preservation method, it does not substitute good manufacturing practices but complements them. Being perhaps the most studied food preservation method, its wholesomeness is guaranteed by the World Health Organization (WHO), the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the American Medical Association, The American Dietists Association, among others. Like in any other food preservation method, some nutritional and sensory losses can occur after an irradiation treatment; so, processing conditions are chosen to minimize these changes. Generally, nutrients are well protected within the food because there are many different molecules able to react with radiation. Some significant nutrient losses referred to in literature are usually found only when irradiating experimental mixtures of an isolated diluted food component and water. The evaluation concludes that macro nutrients like proteins, lipids and carbohydrates are scarcely altered in their nutritional value after a treatment carried out under good irradiation practices. Regarding micro nutrients, minerals are stable, and some vitamins are slightly sensitive, mainly thiamine, ascorbic acid, and tocopherols, being their losses smaller than 15 - 20% which are comparable with those found in foods preserved by other methods. Besides, the impact that food irradiation would have on consumers' vitamins intake should be assessed considering the whole diet contribution, as many products are not likely to be irradiated. Confidence in food irradiation is such

  19. A segurança alimentar e nutricional e o uso da abordagem de direitos humanos no desenho das políticas públicas para combater a fome e a pobreza Food and nutritional security and the use of a human rights-based approach on the development of public policies to fight hunger and poverty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Fátima Machado de Albuquerque

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Este ensaio tem como objetivo enfatizar a importância da utilização da abordagem de direitos humanos no desenho das políticas públicas para combater a fome e a pobreza no Brasil. Inicialmente foi apresentado um marco teórico sobre o conceito de segurança alimentar e nutricional e o direito humano à alimentação adequada. Também foram identificadas as obrigações do Estado para a realização do direito humano à alimentação adequada, bem como o que se identifica como potenciais violações deste direito. Depois se buscou discutir o significado de uma abordagem baseada nos direitos e como esta abordagem pode contribuir para a promoção do direito à alimentação adequada. Foi realizada uma breve reflexão sobre a questão da (insegurança alimentar, suas diversas formas de avaliação e sobre a importância de investigar mais detalhadamente as repercussões desta questão sobre o indivíduo e a família, inclusive daquelas que participam de programas sociais.This essay aims to discuss the meaning of a human rights-based approach in the context of the public policies used in the fight against hunger and poverty in Brazil. Some aspects were presented such as the accepted concepts of food and nutritional security and the human right to appropriate nutrition. The obligations of the State to fulfill the human right to appropriate nutrition were also identified as well as that which is seen as potential violations of this right. Then, the meaning of a rights-based approach and how this approach can contribute to promote the right to appropriate nutrition were discussed. A concise reflection was done on the food (insecurity issue, its many ways of assessment and the importance of investigating in a more detailed manner the repercussions of this issue on individuals and families, including those who are benefited by social programs.

  20. Graduate Level Training in Nutrition: An Integrated Model for Capacity Building- A National Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    SHEIKHOLESLAM, Robabeh; GHASSEMI, Hossein; GALAL, Osman; DJAZAYERY, Abolghassem; OMIDVAR, Nasrin; NOURMOHAMMADI, Issa; TUAZON, Ma. Antonia G.

    2015-01-01

    Iran has been active in human nutrition training for the past five decades, but the existing curricular programs do not equip the graduates with the knowledge and skills required for solving food security and nutritional problems of the country. Given this, the Nutrition Department (ND) of Iran’s Ministry of Health and Medical Education (MOHME) initiated a curricular reform to develop responsive graduate programs in key areas of nutrition that fill the existing gaps in nutrition training with the goal of improving nutrition policy-making and program development, implementation and evaluation. ND called for a request for proposals for a project entitled “Graduate Level Training in Nutrition”. Specifically, with technical assistance from leading academic institutions in Asia, North America and UK, seven new graduate programs were housed in three separate institutions, but coordinated so that together they form a broad multidisciplinary resource for graduate education and research. These seven-degree programs are MSc and PhD in Molecular/Cellular Nutrition, MSc and PhD in Nutritional Epidemiology, MSc and PhD in Food Policy and Nutrition Intervention, and MSc in Community Nutrition. The programs were prepared in collaboration and active participation of selected faculty members of the three Iranian universities, International Union of Nutritional Sciences and the University of Philippines at Los Baños. The development of these programs was made possible through a loan from the World Bank, under the Second Primary Health and Nutrition Project in the MOHME. PMID:25905083

  1. [Continuity of nutritional care at discharge in the era of ICT].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Olmos, Miguel Ángel

    2015-05-07

    Telemedicine represents the union of information technology and telecommunication services in health. This allows the improvement of health care, especially in underserved areas, bringing professionals working in continuing education and improving patient care at home. The application of telemedicine in various hospital complexes, clinics and health centers, has helped to provide a better service, within the parameters of efficiency, effectiveness, cost-benefit, with increasing satisfaction of medical staff and patients. The development and application of various types of telemedicine, the technological development of audio, text, video and data, and constant improvement of infrastructure in telecommunications, have favored the expansion and development of telemedicine in various medical specialties. The use of electronic health records by different health professionals can have a positive impact on the care provided to patients. This should also be supported by the development of better health policies, legal security and greater awareness in health professionals and patients regarding the potential benefits. Regarding the clinical activity in Nutrition, new technologies also provide an opportunity to improve in various educational, preventive, diagnostic and treatment aspects, including shared track between Nutrition Units and Primary Care Teams, for patients who need home nutritional care at, with shared protocols, providing teleconsultation in required cases and avoiding unnecessary travel to hospital.

  2. Diet and Nutrition (Parkinson's Disease)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Living With Parkinson's › Managing Parkinson's › Diet & Nutrition Diet & Nutrition 1. Maintain Health 2. Ease PD Symptoms 3. ... your team Seek reliable information about diet and nutrition from your medical team and local resources. Please ...

  3. Systems biology of personalized nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ommen, B. van; Broek, T. van den; Hoogh, I. de; Erk, M. van; Someren, E. van; Rouhani-Rankouhi, T.; Anthony, J.C.; Hogenelst, K.; Pasman, W.; Boorsma, A.; Wopereis, S.

    2017-01-01

    Personalized nutrition is fast becoming a reality due to a number of technological, scientific, and societal developments that complement and extend current public health nutrition recommendations. Personalized nutrition tailors dietary recommendations to specific biological requirements on the

  4. [Nutrition and oropharyngeal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampman, E.

    2008-01-01

    The conclusion of a recent systematic review of the literature on the relation between nutrition, physical activity and cancer is that more than 30% of all cases of cancer can be prevented by improving nutrition and increasing physical activity. In The Netherlands, 1 out of 100 men and 1 out of 160

  5. Nutrition and allergic diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neerven, van R.J.J.; Savelkoul, Huub

    2017-01-01

    The development of IgE-mediated allergic diseases is influenced by many factors, including genetic and environmental factors such as pollution and farming, but also by nutrition. In the last decade, substantial progress has been made in our understanding of the impact that nutrition can have on

  6. Geological impacts on nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter reviews the nutritional roles of mineral elements, as part of a volume on health implications of geology. The chapter addresses the absorption and post-absorptive utilization of the nutritionally essential minerals, including their physiological functions and quantitative requirements....

  7. Insects and human nutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roos, Nanna

    2018-01-01

    Despite high diversity in species as well as metamorphological life-­stages, edible insects are essentially an animal-source food contributing high quality protein and fat when viewed in the context of human nutrition. The nutritional contribution of insects to diets in populations where insects ...

  8. You Score With Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dow, Ruth McNabb

    1976-01-01

    The leader's guide and student activity booklet contain learning activities, ideas, information, games, and resources for nutrition instruction designed to appeal to the interests of teens and pre-teens and to improve their knowledge of nutrition and their eating habits. (MS)

  9. 48 CFR 4.502 - Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... MATTERS Electronic Commerce in Contracting 4.502 Policy. (a) The Federal Government shall use electronic... interpreted to restrict the use of electronic commerce. Contracting officers may supplement electronic... software that will be used in conducting electronic commerce. However, as required by Section 30 of the...

  10. Nutrition in adolescent pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenders, C M; McElrath, T F; Scholl, T O

    2000-06-01

    Prevention of unintended adolescent pregnancy is a primary goal of the American Academy of Pediatrics and of many health providers. Nevertheless, many adolescents become pregnant every year in America. Pediatricians therefore should be aware of nutritional recommendations for pregnant adolescents to provide optimal care. The importance of nutrition during pregnancy is here reviewed from a pediatric perspective. Pregnancy, particularly during adolescence, is a time of extreme nutritional risk. The adolescents most likely to become pregnant are often those with inadequate nutritional status and unfavorable socio-economic background. There is increasing evidence of competition for nutrients between the growing pregnant adolescent and her fetus. Also, the prenatal environment has been implicated in the development of obesity, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes in both the mother and her offspring. Many adolescents have poor diet quality and poor knowledge of appropriate nutrition; these habits may not change during pregnancy. Current knowledge and recommendations regarding the intake of energy, calcium, and folate are discussed in detail.

  11. Good maternal nutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breda, Joao; Robertson, Aileen

    This publication has three parts: •a summary of the results of a systematic review of the most recent evidence on maternal nutrition, the prevention of obesity and noncommunicable diseases; •a review of existing recommendations for nutrition, physical activity and weight gain during pregnancy...... in European countries; and •lists of possible opportunities for action in European countries. The overview and exploration of the national recommendations for nutrition, physical activity and weight gain during pregnancy are based on the results of a survey in which 51 of the 53 Member States in the WHO....... These are opportunities to promote nutrition and health throughout the life-course, ensure optimal diet-related fetal development and reduce the impact of morbidity and risk factors for noncommunicable diseases by improving maternal nutrition....

  12. Nutrition research to affect food and a healthy lifespan12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlhorst, Sarah D.; Russell, Robert; Bier, Dennis; Klurfeld, David M.; Li, Zhaoping; Mein, Jonathan R.; Milner, John; Ross, A. Catharine; Stover, Patrick; Konopka, Emily

    2013-01-01

    Proper nutrition offers one of the most effective and least costly ways to decrease the burden of many diseases and their associated risk factors, including obesity. Nutrition research holds the key to increasing our understanding of the causes of obesity and its related comorbidities and thus holds promise to markedly influence global health and economies. After outreach to 75 thought leaders, the American Society for Nutrition (ASN) convened a Working Group to identify the nutrition research needs whose advancement will have the greatest projected impact on the future health and well-being of global populations. ASN’s Nutrition Research Needs focus on the following high priority areas: 1) variability in individual responses to diet and foods; 2) healthy growth, development, and reproduction; 3) health maintenance; 4) medical management; 5) nutrition-related behaviors; and 6) food supply/environment. ASN hopes the Nutrition Research Needs will prompt collaboration among scientists across all disciplines to advance this challenging research agenda given the high potential for translation and impact on public health. Furthermore, ASN hopes the findings from the Nutrition Research Needs will stimulate the development and adoption of new and innovative strategies that can be applied toward the prevention and treatment of nutrition-related diseases. The multidisciplinary nature of nutrition research requires stakeholders with differing areas of expertise to collaborate on multifaceted approaches to establish the evidence-based nutrition guidance and policies that will lead to better health for the global population. In addition to the identified research needs, ASN also identified 5 tools that are critical to the advancement of the Nutrition Research Needs: 1) omics, 2) bioinformatics, 3) databases, 4) biomarkers, and 5) cost-effectiveness analysis. PMID:24038264

  13. Sustainability Policy and Environmental Policy

    OpenAIRE

    John C. V. Pezzey

    2001-01-01

    A theoretical, representative agent economy with a depletable resource stock, polluting emissions and productive capital is used to contrast environmental policy, which internalises externalised environmental values, with sustainability policy, which achieves some form of intergenerational equity. The obvious environmental policy comprises an emissions tax and a resource stock subsidy, each equal to the respective external cost or benefit. Sustainability policy comprises an incentive affectin...

  14. Innovations in nutrition education and global health: the Bangalore Boston nutrition collaborative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background India has a wide range of nutrition and health problems which require professionals with appropriate skills, knowledge and trans-disciplinary collaborative abilities to influence policy making at the national and global level. Methods The Bangalore Boston Nutrition Collaborative (BBNC) was established as collaboration between St. John’s Research Institute (SJRI), Harvard School of Public Health and Tufts University, with a focus on nutrition research and training. The goals of the BBNC were to conduct an interdisciplinary course, develop web-based courses and identify promising Indian students and junior faculty for graduate training in Boston. Results From 2010, an annual two-week short course in nutrition research methods was conducted on the SJRI campus taught by international faculty from Indian and US universities. More than 100 students applied yearly for approximately 30 positions. The course had didactic lectures in the morning and practical hands-on sessions in the afternoon. Student rating of the course was excellent and consistent across the years. The ratings on the design and conduct of the course significantly improved (p nutrition and global health. Efforts are ongoing to secure long term funding to sustain and expand this collaboration to deliver high quality nutrition and global health education enabled by information and communication technologies. PMID:24400811

  15. Making public health nutrition relevant to evidence-based action.

    OpenAIRE

    Brunner, E.; Rayner, M.; Thorogood, M.; Margetts, B.; Hooper, L.; Summerbell, C.D.; Dowler, E.; Hewitt, G.; Robertson, A.; Wiseman, M.

    2001-01-01

    Public health nutrition enjoyed many breakthroughs in the\\ud 20th century – from the discovery of vitamins and the\\ud metabolic roles of some 60 macro- and micronutrients, to\\ud the effects of maternal and childhood diet on health over\\ud the life course. Moreover, the food shortages in the UK that\\ud were experienced during World War II gave the first\\ud opportunity to show that nutritional science could make a\\ud valuable contribution to public policy. However, public\\ud health nutrition is...

  16. Central line associated sepsis in children receiving parenteral nutrition in Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Lawati, Tawfiq T; Al Jamie, Adawaiya; Al Mufarraji, Nasra

    Parenteral Nutrition (PN) is used when gut fails to provide complete nutrition. Central line Associate Blood Stream Infection (CLABSI) a major complication of this therapy. The objective of the study was to report the incidence of CLABSI and associated mortality in children receiving PN in the Royal Hospital and study the indication and duration of PN use. All children from the age of 0-48 months who received TPN outside NICU from the period between 1/1/2011 till 31/12/2014 were included. Data were retrieved from the hospital electronic data base. There were 42 children 27 males and 15 females who used PN through a central line for a total duration of 569 days. The incidence of CLABSI was 14 days per 1000 days catheter and mortality of 556 per 10000. The average duration of TPN was 14.5 days. Most of the patient had CLABSI in the PICU and cardiac related illness or surgery was the most common indication of PN use. The average duration of use was 14 days. Inspite of that short duration use of PN, there is a very high incidence of CLABSI and its related mortality. Bundle policy for central line care is not used in the Royal Hospital and this study calls for urgent implementation of central line care bundle policy in the Royal Hospital. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Nutritional Psychiatry: Where to Next?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felice N. Jacka

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The nascent field of ‘Nutritional Psychiatry’ offers much promise for addressing the large disease burden associated with mental disorders. A consistent evidence base from the observational literature confirms that the quality of individuals' diets is related to their risk for common mental disorders, such as depression. This is the case across countries and age groups. Moreover, new intervention studies implementing dietary changes suggest promise for the prevention and treatment of depression. Concurrently, data point to the utility of selected nutraceuticals as adjunctive treatments for mental disorders and as monotherapies for conditions such as ADHD. Finally, new studies focused on understanding the biological pathways that mediate the observed relationships between diet, nutrition and mental health are pointing to the immune system, oxidative biology, brain plasticity and the microbiome-gut-brain axis as key targets for nutritional interventions. On the other hand, the field is currently limited by a lack of data and methodological issues such as heterogeneity, residual confounding, measurement error, and challenges in measuring and ensuring dietary adherence in intervention studies. Key challenges for the field are to now: replicate, refine and scale up promising clinical and population level dietary strategies; identify a clear set of biological pathways and targets that mediate the identified associations; conduct scientifically rigorous nutraceutical and ‘psychobiotic’ interventions that also examine predictors of treatment response; conduct observational and experimental studies in psychosis focused on dietary and related risk factors and treatments; and continue to advocate for policy change to improve the food environment at the population level.

  18. Good Work--But Not Enough of It : A Review of the World Bank's Experience in Nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Heaver, Richard

    2006-01-01

    The World Bank has been a leader in nutrition policy analysis, and many of the nutrition projects it has supported have been innovative and successful. But though the Bank has developed the economic justification for large-scale investment in nutrition, and has the experience needed to scale up, it has failed to do so. Nutrition lending is an insignificant proportion of the Bank's business...

  19. Nutrition and Hyperglycemia Management in the Inpatient Setting (Meals on Demand, Parenteral, or Enteral Nutrition).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drincic, Andjela T; Knezevich, Jon T; Akkireddy, Padmaja

    2017-08-01

    The goal of this paper is to provide the latest evidence and expert recommendations for management of hospitalized patients with diabetes or hyperglycemia receiving enteral (EN), parenteral (PN) nutrition support or, those with unrestricted oral diet, consuming meals on demand. Patients with and without diabetes mellitus commonly develop hyperglycemia while receiving EN or PN support, placing them at increased risk of adverse outcomes, including in-hospital mortality. Very little new evidence is available in the form of randomized controlled trials (RCT) to guide the glycemic management of these patients. Reduction in the dextrose concentration within parenteral nutrition as well as selection of an enteral formula that diminishes the carbohydrate exposure to a patient receiving enteral nutrition are common strategies utilized in practice. No specific insulin regimen has been shown to be superior in the management of patients receiving EN or PN nutrition support. For those receiving oral nutrition, new challenges have been introduced with the most recent practice allowing patients to eat meals on demand, leading to extreme variability in carbohydrate exposure and risk of hypo and hyperglycemia. Synchronization of nutrition delivery with the astute use of intravenous or subcutaneous insulin therapy to match the physiologic action of insulin in patients receiving nutritional support should be implemented to improve glycemic control in hospitalized patients. Further RCTs are needed to evaluate glycemic and other clinical outcomes of patients receiving nutritional support. For patients eating meals on demand, development of hospital guidelines and policies are needed, ensuring optimization and coordination of meal insulin delivery in order to facilitate patient safety.

  20. Evaluación de un programa de política social: Programa Materno Infantil y Nutrición Evaluation of a social policy program: the Maternal and Child Health and Nutrition Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Aronna

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta la evaluación del Programa Materno Infantil y Nutrición (PROMIN, dirigido a embarazadas y niños menores de cinco años, ejecutado en el Municipio de Rosario, Argentina. El objetivo es identificar los condicionantes que operaron en la puesta en la marcha según: el ambiente organizacional percibido por los jefes de los Centros de Salud y Desarrollo Infantil; la gestión de las actividades de los equipos de salud y las representaciones de la población en torno a la accesibilidad y aceptabilidad con el programa. Se seleccionaron como casos, dos servicios de salud bajo programa durante 1998. Se utilizaron estrategias cuantitativas y cualitativas. Los resultados indican que el ambiente organizacional condicionó diferencialmente las estrategias de intervención en ambos centros. Las coberturas alcanzadas fueron diferentes en ambos centros, con una meta del 80%. El registro de las actividades por parte de los equipos da cuenta de un cumplimiento parcial y heterogéneo en ambos espacios. Las madres reconocen las instituciones por su prestigio, conocen el alcance de las prestaciones y de los servicios más allá de PROMIN. La aceptabilidad se expresó como la provisión de complementación alimenicia.This study is based on an evaluation of the Maternal and Child Health and Nutrition Program (PROMIN targeting pregnant women and their children under five years of age. The objective was to identify the conditioning factors for the Program's implementation in Rosario, Argentina. There were three levels of analysis: the organizational environment as perceived by the Executive Directors of the Health and Child Development Centers; management of interventions by the health teams; and the community's perception of the program's accessibility and acceptability. Two centers were chosen for the year 1998. Empirical evidence was obtained through quantitative and qualitative procedures. The results suggest that the two centers' respective

  1. Nutrition and Imagenology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Allende, Miguel Angel

    2003-01-01

    In this article we present the close, although little explored, relationship between Nutrition and Imagenology, relying mainly on an important number of images which will allow us to explain all the ways an Imagenology can influence upon the nutritional support of a patient.We primarily emphasize the diagnostic aspects of non-operated patients, as well as of those who have undergone surgical treatment, by showing both normality and the resulting surgical complications. We finally describe several interventionist Imagenology techniques used to achieve an adequate enteral nutrition

  2. The Nutrition Transition in Africa: Can It Be Steered into a More Positive Direction?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barrie M. Margetts

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this narrative review is to examine the nutrition transition and its consequences when populations in Africa modernize as a result of socio-economic development, urbanization, and acculturation. The focus is on the changes in dietary patterns and nutrient intakes during the nutrition transition, the determinants and consequences of these changes as well as possible new approaches in public health nutrition policies, interventions and research needed to steer the nutrition transition into a more positive direction in Africa. The review indicates that non-communicable, nutrition-related diseases have emerged in sub-Saharan Africa at a faster rate and at a lower economic level than in industrialized countries, before the battle against under-nutrition has been won. There is a putative epigenetic link between under- and over-nutrition, explaining the double burden of nutrition-related diseases in Africa. It is concluded that it is possible to steer the nutrition transition into a more positive direction, provided that some basic principles in planning public health promotion strategies, policies and interventions are followed. It is suggested that sub-Saharan African countries join forces to study the nutrition transition and implemented interventions on epidemiological, clinical and molecular (genetic level for better prevention of both under- and over-nutrition.

  3. Opportunities and barriers to public health nutrition education in Vietnamese universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Quynh Th; Worsley, Anthony; Lawrence, Mark; Marshall, Bernie

    2017-05-01

    A core challenge for low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) in combating the negative effects of the nutrition transition is to implement appropriate prevention strategies to halt the increasing prevalence of obesity and non-communicable diseases (NCDs), against a background of prevailing under nutrition. There have been several proposals for the enhancement of university nutrition education for future health and related professionals who are expected to communicate knowledge of health risks to the broad community. However, little is known about university nutrition education in LMICs. The present study aimed to investigate professional development opportunities and barriers for university nutrition lecturers to teach public health nutrition (PHN). An online survey was conducted among 242 Vietnamese health and education professionals and university nutrition lecturers across Vietnam. Purposive sampling was used to recruit participants. Comparisons of between the groups' responses were examined via SPSS Crosstabs. The structures of the perceived barriers and desired PHN training topics were examined via factor analyses. Multiple linear regression examined the influences on lecturers' learning interests in nutrition areas. The lecturers' learning interests spanned four areas: basic nutrition, basic food, food policy and 'new' trends (e.g. food policy, marketing). Major impediments to nutrition teaching in universities divided into two groups: resource limitations and professional constraints (e.g. lack of relevant training opportunities). The lecturers' perceptions of professional constraints influenced their interest in learning about 'new' trends. The results highlighted the need and opportunities to enhance PHN professional development for nutrition lecturers in Vietnam.

  4. Nutritional support in the treatment of aplastic anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Li; Yu, Jingda; He, Ling; Wang, Huaxin; Jiang, Lili; Miao, Xiaoyan; Wu, Wenguo; Yang, Peiman

    2011-01-01

    Whether a specific nutritional support promotes healing of aplastic anemia (AA) patients is still unclear. Therefore, we explored the potential of a high-nucleotide, arginine, and micronutrient nutritional supplement on the nutritional rehabilitation of AA mice. The BALB/c AA mice model was treated with hypodermic injections of acetylphenylhydrazine (100 mg/kg), x-ray (2.0 Gy), and intraperitoneal injections of a cyclophosphamide (80 mg/kg) combination. Then AA mice were fed with nutritional supplements in a dose-dependent manner (1445.55, 963.7, 674.59 mg/kg/d) for 7 wk. At the end of the experimental period, mice were autopsied. A full blood count was performed, and femoral marrow cell suspensions were prepared to assess the total femoral nucleated cell count and the number of committed hemopoietic progenitor cells (colony-forming units). The pathologic changes of liver and spleen were analyzed. The significant increases of nutrient mixture groups were evident in many peripheral blood parameters. The femoral nucleated cell count and colony-forming units of nutritional supplements groups were markedly increased, compared with the AA group. Transmission electron microscopy showed that the number of mitochondria in similar bone marrow cells was increased in nutritional supplements groups. The nutritional supplements also affected the recovery of livers and spleens of AA mice. Specific nutritional supplements accelerated rehabilitation of AA mice and can be used as nutritional support in the treatment of AA. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Privacy Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home → NLM Privacy Policy URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/privacy.html NLM Privacy Policy To ... out of cookies in the most popular browsers, http://www.usa.gov/optout_instructions.shtml. Please note ...

  6. The policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laruelle, Ph.; Snegaroff, Th.; Moreau, S.; Tellenne, C.; Brunel, S.

    2005-01-01

    Fourth chapter of the book on the geo-policy of the sustainable development, this chapter deal with the different and international policies concerned by the problem. The authors analyze the american energy attitude and policy, the economical equilibrium facing the environmental equilibrium for the european policy, the sanctified and sacrificed nature and the japanese attitude, India and China, the great fear of the 21 century and the sustainable development in Africa. (A.L.B.)

  7. Trade Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Murray Gibbs

    2007-01-01

    In an otherwise insightful and thoughtful article, Sebastian Pfotenhauer (Trade Policy Is Science Policy,” Issues, Fall 2013) might better have entitled his contribution “Trade Policy Needs to Be Reconciled with Science Policy.” The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and the agreements administered by the World Trade Organization, particularly the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), were adopted to promote international trade and i...

  8. Nutritional challenges for children in societies in transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Wei

    2014-05-01

    This review is to explore the childhood nutrition and health in relation to socioeconomic changes in transitional countries, and to describe the good experiences and policies in these countries to combat childhood nutritional challenges. Double burden of malnutrition - the coexistence of under-nutrition and over-nutrition in the same population - is a prominent public health concern in transitional countries. With rapid industrialization, these countries are facing a growing epidemic of overweight/obesity in children and adolescents. The increasing prevalence of childhood overweight/obesity is a likely consequence of behavioral changes, and accompanied with an increasing incidence of noncommunicable chronic diseases. Although remarkable improvement of childhood nutrition was achieved, the stunting growth and micronutrient deficiency remain to be child health issues in transitional countries. The social transition caused a broad range of nutrition-associated problems. Previous successful experiences indicated that if appropriate action is undertaken, the child nutritional problems accompanied with economic transition could be controlled to some extent. However, greater efforts are needed to improve the status of childhood nutrition in transitional countries.

  9. How is nutrition linked to agriculture and education?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed Mohammad Naim Khalid

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural development is now expected to proceed in a way that maximizes opportunities to improve health and nutrition. Accordingly, the term “nutrition-education-agriculture linkages” describes the set of relationships that shows the mutual dependence of nutrition, education and agriculture. Changes in nutrition or education status are expected to affect agricultural production; conversely changes in the agricultural sector can have significant effects on individual health and nutritional status. Professionals in are trained in nutrition or agriculture, but very few will be trained in both. It is therefore difficult to begin discussions on nutrition-focused agricultural programs and policies. How do we begin to identify these linked outcomes? And how do we begin to think about ways to impact factors that are outside of our sector of expertise? This paper provides a simple framework for thinking critically about nutrition, education and agriculture linkages. The purpose is to help readers identify the linkages of greatest importance to their goals and to begin thinking about how to take steps toward integrating programs more effectively.

  10. International Competitiveness in Electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Office of Technology Assessment.

    This assessment continues the Office of Technology Assessment's (OTA) exploration of the meaning of industrial policy in the United States context, while also examining the industrial policies of several U.S. economic rivals. The major focus is on electronics, an area which virtually defines "high technology" of the 1980's. The…

  11. [Modular enteral nutrition in pediatrics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo Sanchís, S; Prenafeta Ferré, M T; Sempere Luque, M D

    1991-01-01

    Modular Enteral Nutrition may be a substitute for Parenteral Nutrition in children with different pathologies. Study of 4 children with different pathologies selected from a group of 40 admitted to the Maternal-Childrens Hospital "Valle de Hebrón" in Barcelona, who received modular enteral nutrition. They were monitored on a daily basis by the Dietician Service. Modular enteral nutrition consists of modules of proteins, peptides, lipids, glucids and mineral salts-vitamins. 1.--Craneo-encephalic traumatisms with loss of consciousness, Feeding with a combination of parenteral nutrition and modular enteral nutrition for 7 days. In view of the tolerance and good results of the modular enteral nutrition, the parenteral nutrition was suspended and modular enteral nutrition alone used up to a total of 43 days. 2.--55% burns with 36 days of hyperproteic modular enteral nutrition together with normal feeding. A more rapid recovery was achieved with an increase in total proteins and albumin. 3.--Persistent diarrhoea with 31 days of modular enteral nutrition, 5 days on parenteral nutrition alone and 8 days on combined parenteral nutrition and modular enteral nutrition. In view of the tolerance and good results of the modular enteral nutrition, the parenteral nutrition was suspended. 4.--Mucoviscidosis with a total of 19 days on modular enteral nutrition, 12 of which were exclusively on modular enteral nutrition and 7 as a night supplement to normal feeding. We administered proteic intakes of up to 20% of the total calorific intake and in concentrations of up to 1.2 calories/ml of the final preparation, always with a good tolerance. Modular enteral nutrition can and should be used as a substitute for parenteral nutrition in children with different pathologies, thus preventing the complications inherent in parenteral nutrition.

  12. Undernourishment and Public Policy in India | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... underlying the development of India's proposed National Food Security Act. As ... the delivery of social welfare programs that affect food and nutritional security. ... 2017 call for proposals to establish Cyber Policy Centres in the Global South.

  13. Nutrition screening: science behind simplicity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutrition screening triggers entry into the nutrition care process.1 Screening has informally been described as simple, quick or low-intensity proxy for more complex procedures. More formal definitions for the nutrition setting have been proposed, describing nutrition screening as a process of identifying patients, clients, or ...

  14. Food and Nutrition Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Perdue Pledges Support on the Long Road to Recovery 4/5 USDA Continues Disaster Assistance in Puerto Rico USDA is continuing its efforts to address the nutrition needs of Puerto Rican residents affected by Hurricanes ...

  15. Nutrition in children posttransplantation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    status and to detect, prevent and treat late-onset complications such as obesity ... potential, prevent further liver injury, promote liver regeneration, minimise risk of infection and .... Campos ACL, Matias JEF and Coelho JCU. Nutritional Aspects ...

  16. Dairy goat nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Ronchi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Good goat nutrition is fundamental to the success and sustainability of dairy goat farming in terms of economics, goat health, high quality products, and minimizing environmental impact.

  17. Liver Transplant: Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Liver Transplant: Nutrition Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For Veterans and the Public Veterans and the Public Home Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Hepatitis C Home Getting ...

  18. An Interview with Food Policy Researcher Caitlin Boon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Megan

    2010-01-01

    From safety to nutrition, food policy researchers work to improve what we eat. They examine evidence found by experts in food science, consumer behavior, taste perception, nutrition, and many other related fields. Using this information, these scientists help the food industry, government, and public improve the quality, safety, and sustainability…

  19. Youth Education - Health / Nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    Deborah L. Angell: The Bug Stops Here! Cheryl L. Barber: Successful Snacks - Food, Fitness and Food Safety Learning Activities. Darcy Batura: At-Risk Youth and Household Hazardous Waste Education. Katherine L. Cason: Nutrition Mission – A Multimedia Educational Tool for Youth . Patsy A. Ezell: An Interactive Food and Nutrition Education Program for Youth. Rhea Lanting: Got Calcium? Sandy McCurdy: Reaching Teens through a Food Safety Education Partnership. Patricia Mulkeen: Choosing 4-H Fitnes...

  20. Nutrition for Sarcopenia

    OpenAIRE

    Yanai, Hidekatsu

    2015-01-01

    Aging-related sarcopenia means that muscle mass, strength, and physical performance tend to decline with age, and malnutrition is associated with sarcopenia. Therefore, nutritional interventions may make an important contribution to prevent the development of sarcopenia. Here I reviewed published articles about the effects of nutritional factors on sarcopenia in elderly people. A growing body of evidence suggests that metabolic factors associated with obesity and diabetes induce the progressi...

  1. Communicating healthier food choice : food composition data, front-of-pack nutrition labelling and health claims.

    OpenAIRE

    Hodgkins, Charo E.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Food composition data, front-of-pack nutrition labelling and nutrition and health claims have an important role to play in the development of appropriate policy, regulation and public health interventions ultimately aimed at reducing the burden of diet-related chronic disease. The overarching aim of this thesis is to explore whether the communication of healthier food choice through front-of-pack (FOP) nutrition labelling and health claims can be enhanced by the development of con...

  2. How to engage across sectors: lessons from agriculture and nutrition in the Brazilian School Feeding Program

    OpenAIRE

    Hawkes, Corinna; Brazil, Bettina Gerken; Castro, Inês Rugani Ribeiro de; Jaime, Patricia Constante

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To provide insights for nutrition and public health practitioners on how to engage with other sectors to achieve public health goals. Specifically, this study provides lessons from the example of integrating family farming and a nutrition into a legal framework in Brazil on how to successfully shift other sectors toward nutrition goals.\\ud \\ud METHODS: The study analyzed policy processes that led to a Brazilian law linking family farming with the National School Feeding Program. Ma...

  3. Position of the academy of nutrition and dietetics: nutrition security in developing nations: sustainable food, water, and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordin, Stacia M; Boyle, Marie; Kemmer, Teresa M

    2013-04-01

    It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics that all people should have consistent access to an appropriately nutritious diet of food and water, coupled with a sanitary environment, adequate health services, and care that ensure a healthy and active life for all household members. The Academy supports policies, systems, programs, and practices that work with developing nations to achieve nutrition security and self-sufficiency while being environmentally and economically sustainable. For nations to achieve nutrition security, all people must have access to a variety of nutritious foods and potable drinking water; knowledge, resources, and skills for healthy living; prevention, treatment, and care for diseases affecting nutrition status; and safety-net systems during crisis situations, such as natural disasters or deleterious social and political systems. More than 2 billion people are micronutrient deficient; 1.5 billion people are overweight or obese; 870 million people have inadequate food energy intake; and 783 million people lack potable drinking water. Adequate nutrient intake is a concern, independent of weight status. Although this article focuses on nutritional deficiencies in developing nations, global solutions for excesses and deficiencies need to be addressed. In an effort to achieve nutrition security, lifestyles, policies, and systems (eg, food, water, health, energy, education/knowledge, and economic) contributing to sustainable resource use, environmental management, health promotion, economic stability, and positive social environments are required. Food and nutrition practitioners can get involved in promoting and implementing effective and sustainable policies, systems, programs, and practices that support individual, community, and national efforts. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Priority issues, study designs and geographical distribution in nutrition journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Moncada, R; González-Zapata, L; Ruiz-Cantero, M T; Clemente-Gómez, V

    2011-01-01

    The increased number of articles published in nutrition is a reflection of the relevance to scientific community. The characteristics and quality of nutritional studies determine whether readers can obtain valid conclusions from them, as well as their usefulness for evidence-based strategic policies. To determine the characteristics of papers published in nutrition journals. Descriptive study design. We reviewed 330 original papers published between January-June 2007. From: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition (AJCN), Journal of Nutrition, European Journal Nutrition, European Journal of Clinical Nutrition and Public Health Nutrition. We classified them according to the subjects studied; risk factors, study design and country of origin. Almost half the papers studied healthy people (53.3%). The most frequent illness was obesity (13.9%). Food consumption is the most frequent risk factor (63.3%). Social factors appear exclusively only in 3.6% of the papers. Clinical trials were the most common analytical design (31.8%), mainly in the AJCN (45.6%). Cross-sectional studies were the most frequent type of observational design (37.9%). Ten countries produced over half of the papers (51.3%). The US publishes the highest number of papers (20.6%), whilst developing countries make only scarce contributions to scientific literature on nutrition. Most of the papers had inferential power. They generally studied both healthy and sick subjects, coinciding with the aims of international scientific policies. However, the topics covered reflect a clear bias, prioritizing problems pertaining to developed countries. Social determinants of health should also be considered, along with behavioral and biological risk factors.

  5. Nutrition and fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, G; Tagliabue, A

    2007-12-01

    The first studies about fertility and nutrition date back to the 70ies and already showed a strict relation among female fertility, weight and body composition. However, the mechanisms of this connection started to be explained only after leptin's discovery. According to some authors' opinion, leptin could interact with reproductive axis at multiple sites with stimulatory effects at the hypothalamus and pituitary and stimulatory or inhibitory actions at the gonads. Leptin could play a role in other physiologic processes such as menstruation and pregnancy, and could initiate the complex process of puberty. It has been showed that conditions in which nutritional status is suboptimal, such as eating disorders, exercise induced amenhorrea, functional hypothalamic amenhorrea and polycystic ovarian syndrome, are associated with abnormal leptin levels. These conditions, are characterized by severe changes in body composition and dietary habits. Since leptin is regulated by body composition and dietary factors, (such as energy intake and macronutrient composition), a strict connection between nutritional intake and fertility regulated by leptin is confirmed. This review focuses on the current knowledge about nutritional factors that influence leptin levels. Since clinical and subclinical nutritional imbalance can determine the development and the maintenance of neuroendocrine and metabolic aberrations, studies on fertility need a deeper attention about dietary habits and nutritional status.

  6. A hedonic analysis of nutrition labels across product types and countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edenbrandt, Anna Kristina; Smed, Sinne; Jansen, Leon

    2018-01-01

    show positive values attached to the label across countries and most product categories, suggesting that consumers do value the guidance that the nutrition labels provide. Policy implications from these results indicate that credible nutrition labels are relevant tools in the effort to combat diet...

  7. Roles of isotopic techniques in human nutrition evaluations. Report of an IAEA consultants' meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    A nutrition consultants' meeting was convened by the IAEA for an advice on technical and programmatic issues related to isotope based nutritional evaluations. The salient recommendation from the consultants was for the IAEA to try to inaugurate a multi-national programme for using isotopes in evaluations that would have substantial practical relevance to public health policy. 6 refs

  8. Roles of isotopic techniques in human nutrition evaluations. Report of an IAEA consultants` meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    A nutrition consultants` meeting was convened by the IAEA for an advice on technical and programmatic issues related to isotope based nutritional evaluations. The salient recommendation from the consultants was for the IAEA to try to inaugurate a multi-national programme for using isotopes in evaluations that would have substantial practical relevance to public health policy. 6 refs.

  9. Life cycle thinking and assessment tools on environmentally-benign electronics: Convergent optimization of materials use, end-of-life strategy and environmental policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaoying

    The purpose of this study is to integrate the quantitative environmental performance assessment tools and the theory of multi-objective optimization within the boundary of electronic product systems to support the selection among design alternatives in terms of environmental impact, technical criteria, and economic feasibility. To meet with the requirements that result from emerging environmental legislation targeting electronics products, the research addresses an important analytical methodological approach to facilitate environmentally conscious design and end-of-life management with a life cycle viewpoint. A synthesis of diverse assessment tools is applied on a set of case studies: lead-free solder materials selection, cellular phone design, and desktop display technology assessment. In the first part of this work, an in-depth industrial survey of the status and concerns of the U.S. electronics industry on the elimination of lead (Pb) in solders is described. The results show that the trade-offs among environmental consequences, technology challenges, business risks, legislative compliance and stakeholders' preferences must be explicitly, simultaneously, and systematically addressed in the decision-making process used to guide multi-faceted planning of environmental solutions. In the second part of this work, the convergent optimization of the technical cycle, economic cycle and environmental cycle is addressed in a coherent and systematic way using the application of environmentally conscious design of cellular phones. The technical understanding of product structure, components analysis, and materials flow facilitates the development of "Design for Disassembly" guidelines. A bottom-up disassembly analysis on a "bill of materials" based structure at a micro-operational level is utilized to select optimal end-of-life strategies on the basis of economic feasibility. A macro-operational level life cycle model is used to investigate the environmental consequences

  10. Globalisation of agrifood systems and sustainable nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qaim, Matin

    2017-02-01

    The globalisation of agrifood systems is a mega-trend with potentially profound nutritional implications. This paper describes various facets of this globalisation process and reviews studies on nutritional effects with a particular focus on developing countries. Results show that global trade and technological change in agriculture have substantially improved food security in recent decades, although intensified production systems have also contributed to environmental problems in some regions. New agricultural technologies and policies need to place more emphasis on promoting dietary diversity and reducing environmental externalities. Globalising agrifood systems also involve changing supply-chain structures, with a rapid rise of modern retailing, new food safety and food quality standards, and higher levels of vertical integration. Studies show that emerging high-value supply chains can contribute to income growth in the small farm sector and improved access to food for rural and urban populations. However, there is also evidence that the retail revolution in developing countries, with its growing role of supermarkets and processed foods, can contribute to overweight and obesity among consumers. The multi-faceted linkages between changing agrifood systems and nutrition are a new field of interdisciplinary research, combining agricultural, nutritional, economics and social sciences perspectives. The number of studies on specific aspects is still limited, so the evidence is not yet conclusive. A review at this early stage can help to better understand important relationships and encourage follow-up work.

  11. Nutritional Sustainability of Pet Foods12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Kelly S.; Carter, Rebecca A.; Yount, Tracy P.; Aretz, Jan; Buff, Preston R.

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable practices meet the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs. Applying these concepts to food and feed production, nutritional sustainability is the ability of a food system to provide sufficient energy and essential nutrients required to maintain good health in a population without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their nutritional needs. Ecological, social, and economic aspects must be balanced to support the sustainability of the overall food system. The nutritional sustainability of a food system can be influenced by several factors, including the ingredient selection, nutrient composition, digestibility, and consumption rates of a diet. Carbon and water footprints vary greatly among plant- and animal-based ingredients, production strategy, and geographical location. Because the pet food industry is based largely on by-products and is tightly interlinked with livestock production and the human food system, however, it is quite unique with regard to sustainability. Often based on consumer demand rather than nutritional requirements, many commercial pet foods are formulated to provide nutrients in excess of current minimum recommendations, use ingredients that compete directly with the human food system, or are overconsumed by pets, resulting in food wastage and obesity. Pet food professionals have the opportunity to address these challenges and influence the sustainability of pet ownership through product design, manufacturing processes, public education, and policy change. A coordinated effort across the industry that includes ingredient buyers, formulators, and nutritionists may result in a more sustainable pet food system. PMID:23493530

  12. Nutrition claims in British women's magazines from 1940 to 1955.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, M E; Burridge, J D

    2014-04-01

    The present study examined dietary messages conveyed in articles and advertising in two popular British women's magazines, Woman and Home and Woman's Own, between 1940 and 1954. A qualitative analysis of written content was performed, focusing on regularities evident in content, and addressing the construction of the role of women in relation to food provision, as well as assertions for nutritional health. The setting comprised a desk-based study. The study sample encompassed 37 magazines, and yielded a corpus of 569 articles concerned with food or dietary supplements, of which 80.1% were advertisements. Ministry of Food dietary advice featured prominently up to 1945 and advocated food consumption according to a simple nutrient classification. Advertising and article content also used this classification; advocating consumption of food and supplements on the grounds of energy, growth and protection of health was customary. Providing food to meet nutritional needs was depicted as fundamental to women's war effort and their role as dutiful housewives. Advertising in 1950s magazines also focused on nutritional claims, with a particular emphasis on energy provision. These claims reflected the prevailing food policy and scientific understanding of nutritional health. This analysis of food messages in women's magazines provides lessons for contemporary nutrition policy. © 2013 The Authors Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  13. Socio-demographic and attitudinal determinants of nutrition knowledge of food shoppers in six European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G; Wills, Josephine; Fernandez-Celemin, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Nutrition knowledge is a prerequisite for processing nutrition-related information when making food choices. Insight into determinants of nutrition knowledge is important both for designing measures aimed at increasing levels of nutrition knowledge and for food industry attempting to position food...... products based on their nutritional properties. Shoppers recruited in the UK, Sweden, France, Germany, Poland and Hungary (total n = 5967) filled out a questionnaire measuring their nutrition knowledge with regard to dietary recommendations, sources of nutrients, and calorie content of food and drink......, suggesting that the history of health policies and nutrition-related initiatives taken by retailers and manufacturers, together with cultural differences, are a major factor affecting how people acquire knowledge about food and health....

  14. Nutrition and dementia care: developing an evidence-based model for nutritional care in nursing homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Jane L; Holmes, Joanne; Brooks, Cindy

    2017-02-14

    There is a growing volume of research to offer improvements in nutritional care for people with dementia living in nursing homes. Whilst a number of interventions have been identified to support food and drink intake, there has been no systematic research to understand the factors for improving nutritional care from the perspectives of all those delivering care in nursing homes. The aim of this study was to develop a research informed model for understanding the complex nutritional problems associated with eating and drinking for people with dementia. We conducted nine focus groups and five semi-structured interviews with those involved or who have a level of responsibility for providing food and drink and nutritional care in nursing homes (nurses, care workers, catering assistants, dietitians, speech and language therapists) and family carers. The resulting conceptual model was developed by eliciting care-related processes, thus supporting credibility from the perspective of the end-users. The seven identified domain areas were person-centred nutritional care (the overarching theme); availability of food and drink; tools, resources and environment; relationship to others when eating and drinking; participation in activities; consistency of care and provision of information. This collaboratively developed, person-centred model can support the design of new education and training tools and be readily translated into existing programmes. Further research is needed to evaluate whether these evidence-informed approaches have been implemented successfully and adopted into practice and policy contexts and can demonstrate effectiveness for people living with dementia.

  15. Multimineral nutritional supplements in a nano-CaO matrix

    OpenAIRE

    Knijnenburg, Jesper T.N.; Hilty, Florentine M.; Krumeich, Frank; Zimmermann, Michael B.; Pratsinis, Sotiris E.

    2017-01-01

    The fast dissolution of certain calcium-containing compounds makes them attractive carriers for trace minerals in nutritional applications, e.g., iron and zinc to alleviate mineral deficiencies in affected people. Here, CaO-based nanostructured mixed oxides containing nutritionally relevant amounts of Fe, Zn, Cu, and Mn were produced by one-step flame spray pyrolysis. The compounds were characterized by nitrogen adsorption, x-ray diffraction, (scanning) transmission electron microscopy, and t...

  16. Las políticas sociales en el caso de la satisfacción de necesidades alimentarias: Algunos elementos conceptuales para su determinación Social Policies and nutritional needs: Some conceptual elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Hernán Santarsiero

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available En el trabajo se intentan articular diferentes miradas sobre las políticas sociales y las necesidades alimentarias a fin de rescatar el contexto en que fueron surgiendo en la matriz estatal la atención del problema alimentario tomando algunos casos de la región y centralmente de nuestro país. Para ello se caracterizarán las diferentes modalidades por las que fueron pasando los programas de asistencia alimentaria en la atención de poblaciones vulnerables y la respuesta del Estado a las garantías y derechos sociales con respecto al acceso al alimento.The aime of this article is describe differents perspectives on social policies and the food needs to rescue the context in which they were emerging in the the state matrix by taking some regional examples, centrally in Argentina. This will characterize the different modalities for which they were passing the food assistance programs in the care of vulnerable populations and the state's response to security and social rights with respect to access to food.

  17. Research on consumer reactions to nutrition labelling (FLABEL)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.

    and the evaluation of existing ones difficult. Recent and ongoing research, including research in the European Union (EU)-funded FP7 project FLABEL (Food Labelling to Advance Better Education for Life), is accumulating evidence not only on consumer liking of labels and on self-reported use, but also on labels......Nutrition labels are potentially a major instrument for enabling consumers to make healthier food choices, but current insights into how nutrition labels are used by consumers in real-world shopping situations are limited, making the science-based formulation of new labelling policies......' attention-getting potential, on the way consumers draw inferences on product healthiness from them, and on how they actually affect choices. Based on the findings from this project, best practice guidelines will be developed for use of nutrition labelling in EU policy and the food industry, especially SMEs...

  18. [School nutrition and autonomy - challenges and opportunities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Najla Veloso Sampaio; Machado, Neila Maria Viçosa; Soares, Maria Cláudia Veiga; Pinto, Anelise Regina Royer

    2013-04-01

    This study seeks to emphasize school food as an important policy to promote student autonomy by means of food and nutrition education included in the curriculum, integrated with different actors and based on the standpoint of citizenship. It seeks to return to fundamental concepts in the context of school food reflecting on them through theoretical assumptions to identify possible strategies to promote citizenship and autonomy in school. The strategies involved food and nutrition education with the daily presence of quality and suitability in school meals, discussions on the various dimensions of food in the curriculum and integrating food in the pedagogical project extended to various areas of the education system. School food fosters the need for integration of actions, actors and the various social spaces interested in the food issue, such as ministries, education systems, departments and schools, so that they may tackle the demands of contemporary reality in an integrated, systematic, consistent and efficient manner.

  19. Combined enteral and parenteral nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernerman, Jan

    2012-03-01

    To review and discuss the evidence and arguments to combine enteral nutrition and parenteral nutrition in the ICU, in particular with reference to the Early Parenteral Nutrition Completing Enteral Nutrition in Adult Critically Ill Patients (EPaNIC) study. The EPaNIC study shows an advantage in terms of discharges alive from the ICU when parenteral nutrition is delayed to day 8 as compared with combining enteral nutrition and parenteral nutrition from day 3 of ICU stay. The difference between the guidelines from the European Society of Enteral and Parenteral Nutrition in Europe and American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition/Society of Critical Care Medicine in North America concerning the combination of enteral nutrition and parenteral nutrition during the initial week of ICU stay was reviewed. The EPaNIC study clearly demonstrates that early parenteral nutrition in the ICU is not in the best interests of most patients. Exactly at what time point the combination of enteral nutrition and parenteral nutrition should be considered is still an open question.

  20. Nutritional Management of Acute Diarrhea in Infants and Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council, Washington, DC. Food and Nutrition Board.

    Written primarily for health professionals advising on programs and policy related to nutrition and diarrhea therapy, this report is aimed at management of diarrhea in less-developed countries, but its information and technical insights are relevant to an understanding of diarrhea and its management throughout the world. Technical in orientation…

  1. Executive summary: biomarkers of nutrition for development: building a consensus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ability to develop evidence-based clinical guidance and effective programs and policies to achieve global health promotion and disease prevention goals depends on the availability of valid and reliable data. With specific regard to the role of food and nutrition in achieving those goals, relevan...

  2. White House Conference on Food, Nutrition and Health. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1970

    To develop a national policy aimed at eliminating hunger and malnutrition due to poverty and improving the nutritional health of all Americans, 26 panels composed of concerned citizens and academic, medical, industrial, and agricultural experts and eight task forces representing social action groups, religious denominations, women's and…

  3. Annual Research Review: Improved nutrition--pathway to resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousafzai, Aisha K; Rasheed, Muneera A; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2013-04-01

    Early child nutritional deficiencies are prevalent in low- and middle-countries with consequences linked not only to poor survival and growth, but also to poor development outcomes. Children in disadvantaged communities face multiple risks for nutritional deficiencies, yet some children may be less susceptible or may recover more quickly from malnutrition. A greater understanding is needed about factors which moderate the effects of nutrition-related risks and foster resilience to protect against or ameliorate poor development outcomes. A literature review was undertaken from August to December 2011 and updated in August 2012. Key word searches using terms Nutrition, Malnutrition, Child Development, Responsive Care, Stimulation, Low and Middle Income Countries and Resilience were undertaken using PubMed and Psychinfo. Dietary adequacy is critical for growth and development, but current evidence indicates that nutrition supplementation alone is insufficient to foster resilience to protect against, mitigate, and recover from nutritional threats and to promote healthy development. The combination of nutrition interventions with stimulation and responsive care is necessary. Combined nutrition and psychosocial stimulation approaches can potentially work effectively together to promote protective factors and mitigate risks for poor cognitive, motor, social, and affective functioning helping children to adapt in times of adversity. However, there are gaps in our existing knowledge to combine nutrition and psychosocial stimulation interventions effectively and promote these interventions at scale. Research needs to address barriers at the level of family, community, programme, and policy which have prevented thus far the uptake of combined nutrition and psychosocial intervention strategies. Further investigations are needed on how to provide support to caregivers, enabling them to implement appropriate care for feeding and stimulation. Finally, the effect of combined

  4. Nutrition and pubertal development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Soliman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nutrition is one of the most important factors affecting pubertal development. Puberty entails a progressive nonlinear process starting from prepubescent to full sexual maturity through the interaction and cooperation of biological, physical, and psychological changes. Consuming an adequate and balanced healthy diet during all phases of growth (infancy, childhood and puberty appears necessary both for proper growth and normal pubertal development. Girls begin puberty at an earlier age compared to past decades. Excessive eating of many processed, high-fat foods, may be the cause of this phenomenon. Overweight or obese children are more likely to enter puberty early. Some evidence suggests that obesity can accelerate the onset of puberty in girls and may delay the onset of puberty in boys. Moreover, the progression of puberty is affected by nutrition. On the other hand, puberty triggers a growth spurt, which increases nutritional needs including macro and micronutrients. Increased caloric, protein, iron, calcium, zinc and folate needs have to be provided during this critical period of rapid growth. Severe primary or secondary malnutrition also can delay the onset and progression of puberty. The higher incidence of anorexia nervosa and bulimia in adolescents imposes a nutritional risk on pubertal development. Moreover, many environmental endocrine disruptors (EDs have been identified that can significantly impair the normal course of puberty. This mini-review sums up some important findings in this important complex that link nutrition and pubertal development.

  5. Nutritional Considerations for Bouldering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Edward J; Storey, Ryan; Ranchordas, Mayur K

    2017-08-01

    Bouldering competitions are held up to International level and governed by the International Federation of Sport Climbing. Bouldering has been selected to feature at the 2020 Olympic Games in Tokyo, however, physiological qualities and nutritional requirements to optimize performance remain inadequately defined due to large gaps in the literature. The primary goals of training include optimizing the capacity of the anaerobic energy systems and developing sport-specific strength, with emphasis on the isometric function of the forearm flexors responsible for grip. Bouldering athletes typically possess a lean physique, similar to the characteristics of sport climbers with reported body fat values of 6-12%. Athletes strive for a low body weight to improve power to weight ratio and limit the load on the extremities. Specialized nutritional support is uncommon and poor nutritional practices such as chronic carbohydrate restriction are prevalent, compromising the health of the athletes. The high intensity nature of bouldering demands a focus on adequate carbohydrate availability. Protein intake and timing should be structured to maximize muscle protein synthesis and recovery, with the literature suggesting 0.25-0.3 g/kg in 3-4 hr intervals. Supplementing with creatine and b-alanine may provide some benefit by augmenting the capacity of the anaerobic systems. Boulderers are encouraged to seek advice from nutrition experts to enhance performance, particularly important when weight loss is the desired outcome. Further research is warranted across all nutritional aspects of bouldering which is summarized in this review.

  6. The healthy afterschool activity and nutrition documentation instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajja, Rahma; Beets, Michael W; Huberty, Jennifer; Kaczynski, Andrew T; Ward, Dianne S

    2012-09-01

    Policies call on afterschool programs to improve the physical activity and nutrition habits of youth attending. No tool exists to assess the extent to which the afterschool program environment meets physical activity and nutrition policies. To describe the development of the Healthy Afterschool Activity and Nutrition Documentation (HAAND) instrument, which consists of two subscales: Healthy Afterschool Program Index for Physical Activity (HAPI-PA) and the HAPI-Nutrition (HAPI-N). Thirty-nine afterschool programs took part in the HAAND evaluation during fall/spring 2010-2011. Inter-rater reliability data were collected at 20 afterschool programs during a single site visit via direct observation, personal interview, and written document review. Validity of the HAPI-PA was established by comparing HAPI-PA scores to pedometer steps collected in a subsample of 934 children attending 25 of the afterschool programs. Validity of the HAPI-N scores was compared against the mean number of times/week that fruits and vegetables (FV) and whole grains were served in the program. Data were analyzed in June/July 2011. Inter-rater percent agreement was 85%-100% across all items. Increased pedometer steps were associated with the presence of a written policy related to physical activity, amount/quality of staff training, use of a physical activity curriculum, and offering activities that appeal to both genders. Higher servings of FV and whole grains per week were associated with the presence of a written policy regarding the nutritional quality of snacks. The HAAND instrument is a reliable and valid measurement tool that can be used to assess the physical activity and nutritional environment of afterschool programs. Copyright © 2012 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. [Nutritional management in geriatric traumatology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singler, K; Goisser, S; Volkert, D

    2016-08-01

    The prevalence of malnutrition or the risk of malnourishment is high among orthogeriatric patients and a poor nutritional status is associated with a negative outcome. A comprehensive management of preoperative and postoperative nutritional and fluid intake in these patients can help to improve the situation. The management includes identification of patients affected, a thorough assessment of the nutritional status, work-up of possible underlying causes, documentation of nutritional and fluid intake and, most importantly, procedures to improve the preoperative and postoperative nutritional situation. This article gives an overview of the recently updated recommendations on nutritional management in orthogeriatric patients as published by the orthogeriatric working group of the German Geriatric Society.

  8. Electronics and electronic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Olsen, George H

    1987-01-01

    Electronics and Electronic Systems explores the significant developments in the field of electronics and electronic devices. This book is organized into three parts encompassing 11 chapters that discuss the fundamental circuit theory and the principles of analog and digital electronics. This book deals first with the passive components of electronic systems, such as resistors, capacitors, and inductors. These topics are followed by a discussion on the analysis of electronic circuits, which involves three ways, namely, the actual circuit, graphical techniques, and rule of thumb. The remaining p

  9. Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: Revised 2017 Scope of Practice for the Nutrition and Dietetics Technician, Registered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-01

    The Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (Academy) is the world's largest organization of food and nutrition professionals and the association that represents credentialed nutrition and dietetics practitioners-nutrition and dietetics technicians, registered (NDTRs) and registered dietitian nutritionists (RDNs). An NDTR's scope of practice in nutrition and dietetics has flexible boundaries to capture the depth and breadth of the individual's practice. The NDTR's practice expands with advances in many areas, including nutrition, food production, food safety, food systems management, health care, public health, community health, and information and communication technology. The Revised 2017 Scope of Practice for the NDTR reflects the position of the Academy on the essential role of the NDTR in the management and delivery of food and nutrition services. The scope of practice for the NDTR is composed of education and credentialing, practice resources, Academy Standards of Practice and Standards of Professional Performance, codes of ethics, accreditation standards, state and federal regulations, national guidelines, and organizational policy and procedures. The Revised 2017 Scope of Practice for the NDTR is used in conjunction with the Revised 2017 Standards of Practice in Nutrition Care and the Standards of Professional Performance for NDTRs. The Standards of Practice address activities related to direct patient and client care. The Standards of Professional Performance address behaviors related to the technical role of NDTRs. These standards reflect the minimum competent level of nutrition and dietetics practice and professional performance for NDTRs. A companion document addresses the scope of practice for the RDN. Copyright © 2018 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. What is Nutrition & Metabolism?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feinman Richard D

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A new Open Access journal, Nutrition & Metabolism (N&M will publish articles that integrate nutrition with biochemistry and molecular biology. The open access process is chosen to provide rapid and accessible dissemination of new results and perspectives in a field that is of great current interest. Manuscripts in all areas of nutritional biochemistry will be considered but three areas of particular interest are lipoprotein metabolism, amino acids as metabolic signals, and the effect of macronutrient composition of diet on health. The need for the journal is identified in the epidemic of obesity, diabetes, dyslipidemias and related diseases, and a sudden increase in popular diets, as well as renewed interest in intermediary metabolism.

  11. Nutritional rickets in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck-Nielsen, Signe; Jensen, Tina Kold; Gram, Jeppe

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: This study describes clinical and biochemical characteristics of nutritional rickets and risk factors at diagnosis among children living in Denmark. All medical records from patients with rickets referred to or discharged from hospitals in Southern Denmark from 1985 to 2005 were...... identified by register search. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients included were younger than 15 years of age and fulfilled the diagnostic criteria of primary, nutritional rickets. A total of 112 patients with nutritional rickets were included: 29 were of ethnic Danish origin, and 83 were immigrants. RESULTS......: Patients diagnosed before the age of 4 (median 1.4) years displayed the classic clinical signs of rickets, whereas patients diagnosed after the age of 4 (median 12.5) years had few clinical signs and unspecific symptoms. Ethnic Danish patients were only diagnosed before age 24 months, and they accounted...

  12. Nutrition and the eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congdon, N G; West, K P

    1999-12-01

    The topic "nutrition and the eye" cannot adequately be covered in a single review article; indeed, dozens of books and hundreds of articles have been written on the subject. This review concentrates on three areas in which specific nutrients are known or theorized to have a major impact on vision and the visual system: vitamin A deficiency; antioxidants and their proposed role in the prevention of age-related cataract and macular degeneration; and nutritional optic neuropathies, including those of the recent Cuban epidemic. In addition, this article touches on nutritional treatments that have been suggested for several less common eye diseases and, finally, considers several less prevalent conditions in which deficiency of or excess exposure to a particular nutrient has been associated with ocular pathology.

  13. Nutrition and skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Apostolos; Liakou, Aikaterini; Zouboulis, Christos C

    2016-09-01

    Nutrition has long been associated with skin health, including all of its possible aspects from beauty to its integrity and even the aging process. Multiple pathways within skin biology are associated with the onset and clinical course of various common skin diseases, such as acne, atopic dermatitis, aging, or even photoprotection. These conditions have been shown to be critically affected by nutritional patterns and dietary interventions where well-documented studies have demonstrated beneficial effects of essential nutrients on impaired skin structural and functional integrity and have restored skin appearance and health. Although the subject could be vast, the intention of this review is to provide the most relevant and the most well-documented information on the role of nutrition in common skin conditions and its impact on skin biology.

  14. Nutrition in sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Nutrition is one of the fundamental factors that influence the effectiveness of physical activity, increase efficiency and replenishment of muscle mass, balances the ratio of energy consumed and restored. The diet of an athlete can and should be built on common foods available and prepared in accordance with generally accepted principles of healthy eating. The need for major macronutrients and micronutrients is determined by the need for energy, the intensity of sweating and the goals for building muscle mass. Depending on the intensity of the proposed load including competition, there are individual nutritional needs and, if necessary, various food supplements may be used. The basic principles of sport nutrition are described in this article

  15. CHALLENGES OF ELECTRONIC INFORMATION RESOURCES IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper discusses the role of policy for proper and efficient library services in the electronic era. It points out some of the possible dangers of embarking in electronic resources without a proper focus at hand. Thus, it calls for today's librarians and policy makers to brainstorm and come up with working policies suitable to ...

  16. The Impact of the 2009 Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children Food Package Revisions on Participants: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Daniel Joseph; Byker Shanks, Carmen; Houghtaling, Bailey

    2015-11-01

    For the first time since 1980, the US Department of Agriculture Food and Nutrition Service Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) food package policies were revised in 2009 to meet the Institute of Medicine's nutrition recommendations. These changes included increases in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and low-fat dairy to improve nutrition and health of WIC participants. Our systematic review of the literature assessed the influence that the 2009 WIC food package revisions have had on dietary intake, healthy food and beverage availability, and breastfeeding participation. The systematic review followed Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses recommendations. Four electronic databases were searched between April 1 and 30, 2014, for peer-reviewed research. Two reviewers screened the articles, extracted the data, and established inter-rater reliability by discussing and resolving discrepancies. Twenty articles were included that met our inclusion criteria. Nine of the studies analyzed changes in dietary intake, eight examined changes in healthy food and beverage availability, and three evaluated breastfeeding participation exclusively. The review demonstrated an improved dietary intake and an increase in the availability of healthier foods and beverages in authorized WIC stores. The revised food package was also associated with improved dietary intake of WIC participants. Mixed results were demonstrated in regard to improved breastfeeding outcomes. Further research is needed to assess the influence of WIC 2009 food package revisions on breastfeeding outcomes and to make conclusions about broad nutrition-related implications. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Nutrition in Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdy, Osama; Barakatun-Nisak, Mohd-Yusof

    2016-12-01

    Medical nutrition therapy (MNT) is a key component of diabetes management. The importance of balancing macronutrients, reducing carbohydrate load, lowering glycemic index, and implementing an overall healthy dietary pattern are emerging as better approaches for MNT in diabetes. Recent research points to improved glycemic control, reduction in body weight, and improvement in many cardiovascular risk factors when these approaches are provided by registered dietitians or health care providers. This review article discusses the current evidence about the role of sensible nutrition in diabetes management. Specific eating plans for weight reduction and for patients with type 1 diabetes are also discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Nutrition and HIV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Henrik; Olsen, Mette Frahm; Filteau, Suzanne

    2017-01-01

    , which is mainly synergistic and operating at different levels. HIV infection increases energy and nutrient requirements, yet it reduces food security. The result is nutritional deficiencies, which increase progression of HIV infection. Both undernutrition and food insecurity may also lead to increased...... risk of transmission. Nutritional intake and status may affect metabolism of antiretroviral drugs, some of which may affect body composition, and increase risk of the metabolic syndrome. In addition, HIV is transmitted through breastfeeding, causing a serious infant feeding dilemma for which...

  19. Clinical avian nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orosz, Susan E

    2014-09-01

    Psittacine birds eat plant-based foods. Birds in the wild seem to be able to balance their energy needs, amino acids, and calcium. Companion birds in captivity do not do as well when self-selecting, and balanced diets are needed to improve their general health. A nutritional history is important to determine whether the avian patient is in balance nutritionally. Understanding the various sources of the fat-soluble vitamins, calcium, and protein will help guide clients to provide nutritious foods for their birds. Owners need to learn to use foraging as a major source of their bird's diet and techniques. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Taking the Indonesian nutrition history to leap into betterment of the future generation: development of the Indonesian Nutrition Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soekirman

    2011-01-01

    Nutrition history in Indonesia began in 1887, when Christiann Eijkman discovered the relationship between vitamin B-1 deficiency and beri-beri. In the 1950's, the socialization of nutrition messages started with the introduction of "Healthy Four Perfect Five" (Empat Sehat Lima Sempurna-ESLS). For the next 25 years after that, ESLS became a favorite in nutrition education and was nationally known. Although the ESLS was never evaluated, food consumption pattern of Indonesians are never balanced. Undernutrition is rampant and overnutrition emerged. In 1995 the Indonesian food-based dietary guidelines was launched by the Ministry of Health, and formally incorporated into the nutrition policy. The Guide has 13 messages. Again, the guidelines were never evaluated; in 2010 undernutrition persists and the prevalence of degenerative diseases increased. Thus, it is urgent for Indonesia to have concrete Nutrition Guidelines (Gizi Seimbang) covering messages like: (1) consume a variety of foods; (2) keep clean; (3) be active, exercise regularly; and (4) monitor body weight. The guidelines shall be developed for all age groups. The guidelines were tested to over 300 audiences and the responses were promising. Dissemination of the messages widely within the formal channels is compulsory. The new Nutrition Guideline messages are an open concept ready to be revised accordingly. It is evident that nutrition sciences and its application had undergone rapid changes over time and Indonesia need to adopt accordingly and timely. Although, outcomes may not be seen in a short time, longer term output will benefit future generations.

  1. ENERGY POLICY

    OpenAIRE

    Avrupa Topluluğu Enstitüsü, Marmara Üniversitesi

    2015-01-01

    John Mitchell considers EU policies on energy supply security; Tera Allas on energy security of supply in the UK: the way forward; Peter Odell assesses public/private partnerships on the UKCS; Olivier Appert provides an overview of French energy policy.

  2. Energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forrester, J.W.

    1979-01-01

    The author places the energy problem in the context of world economy. The various obstacles encountered in the United States to spell out a viable national energy policy are cited. A certain number of practical proposals is given to lead to an 'effective policy' which would allow energy economy at the same time as energy development, that is, including nuclear energy [fr

  3. Nutritional and Anti – Nutritional Composition of the African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the nutritional and anti – nutritional composition of the African palmyrah palm (Borassus aethiopum). Subjects/ Materials and Methods: Studies were conducted on the proximate composition, vitamin C, total carotenoids and some anti-nutritional factors / toxins of the fresh seedling of the African ...

  4. Nutritional status of children on the National School Nutrition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. School feeding programmes are intended to alleviate short-term hunger, improve nutrition and cognition of children, and provide incomes to families. Objectives. To assess the nutritional status of children receiving meals provided by the National School Nutrition Programme (NSNP) in Capricorn Municipality, ...

  5. Special Food and Nutrition Needs in School Nutrition Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molaison, Elaine Fontenot; Nettles, Mary Frances

    2010-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this research was to determine the prevalence of special food and/or nutrition needs in school nutrition programs. In addition, researchers focused on the issues surrounding these needs and the role of the school nutrition (SN) directors and managers in meeting these needs. Methods: An expert panel was used to…

  6. The Importance of Appropriate Nutrition and Nutrition Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhr, Janet E.; Barclay, Kathy H.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses how nutrition education may be implemented in early childhood classrooms. Describes the incidence of malnutrition and obesity, and topics covered--the food pyramid, vegetable growth, and nutritional needs--through several integrated nutrition units including: (1) the bread basket; (2) potatoes; (3) vegetable soup; (4) fruit basket; (5)…

  7. Towards implementation of optimum nutrition and better clinical nutrition support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonkers, C. F.; Prins, F.; van Kempen, A.; Tepaske, R.; Sauerwein, H. P.

    2001-01-01

    Clinical Nutrition Support--defined as nutrition for hospitalized patients suffering from metabolic stress--plays a limited role in the therapeutic routine of the physician. This is not surprising as most research in the field of clinical nutrition is disappointing with regard to the objective

  8. Energy - environment - nutrition. Energie - Umwelt - Ernaehrung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    The special edition contains contributions made by different authors on the array of problems presented by the environment, energy, and nutrition, biosphere and man, economic growth and energy supplies for future security, new environmental awareness, - the end of market economy., power plant safety, conditions for the evolution of mankind, policy and criminal law demonstrated by means of environmental protection. The concept of ecology and the development of world energy supplies are documented. The bibliography report goes into detail as far as studies are concerned which deal with the hazards of nuclear power plants, related pros and cons, with the energy crisis in general, and with nuclear weapons.

  9. Enteral nutrition - child - managing problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000164.htm Enteral nutrition - child - managing problems To use the sharing features ... trouble breathing, call 911. References Mcclave SA. Enteral nutrition. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil ...

  10. What Is Nutrition Support Therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sponsored CE Programs Calendar of Events What Is Nutrition Support Therapy All people need food to live. ... patient populations from pediatrics to geriatrics. Key Terms: Nutrition Support Therapy The provision of enteral or parenteral ...

  11. Nutritional Lifestyles of College Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Harmon, Michelle

    2001-01-01

    ...., second only to smoking. The purpose of this study is to explore the nutritional lifestyle of college women, and to determine if there are differences in nutritional lifestyle, as well as, perception of health status...

  12. National nutrition surveys in Asian countries: surveillance and monitoring efforts to improve global health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, SuJin; Song, Won O

    2014-01-01

    Asian regions have been suffering from growing double burden of nutritional health problems, such as undernutrition and chronic diseases. National nutrition survey plays an essential role in helping to improve both national and global health and reduce health disparities. The aim of this review was to compile and present the information on current national nutrition surveys conducted in Asian countries and suggest relevant issues in implementation of national nutrition surveys. Fifteen countries in Asia have conducted national nutrition surveys to collect data on nutrition and health status of the population. The information on national nutrition survey of each country was obtained from government documents, international organizations, survey website of governmental agencies, and publications, including journal articles, books, reports, and brochures. The national nutrition survey of each country has different variables and procedures. Variables of the surveys include sociodemographic and lifestyle variables; foods and beverages intake, dietary habits, and food security of individual or household; and health indicators, such as anthropometric and biochemical variables. The surveys have focused on collecting data about nutritional health status in children aged under five years and women of reproductive ages, nutrition intake adequacy and prevalence of obesity and chronic diseases for all individuals. To measure nutrition and health status of Asian populations accurately, improvement of current dietary assessment methods with various diet evaluation tools is necessary. The information organized in this review is important for researchers, policy makers, public health program developers, educators, and consumers in improving national and global health.

  13. Nutrition of the transition cow

    OpenAIRE

    BEŇASOVÁ, Veronika

    2017-01-01

    This bachelor thesis titled Nutrition of the transition cow deals with nutrition of dairy cows in peripartum period with regard to prevention of development of metabolic diseases. Anatomy of digestive system and physiology of digestive processes are briefly described. Characteristic of nutrients and of the most common feeds used for nutrition of dairy cattle serves as introduction to formulation of dairy rations. Metabolic diseases caused by inadequate nutrition in transition period are the b...

  14. Nutritional rickets in immigrant and refugee children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacher, Tom D; Pludowski, Pawel; Shaw, Nick J; Mughal, M Zulf; Munns, Craig F; Högler, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Immigrant and refugee populations bring public health challenges to host nations. In the current global refugee crisis, children are the most vulnerable subpopulation. Diseases that were considered rare in the host nation may be highly prevalent among immigrant children. The prevalence of nutritional rickets is increasing in high-income countries, largely driven by an influx of immigrant populations. Nutritional rickets is a bone disease in early childhood resulting in bone pain, delayed motor development, and bending of the bones, caused by vitamin D deficiency and/or inadequate dietary calcium intake. The consequences of nutritional rickets include stunted growth, developmental delay, lifelong bone deformities, seizures, cardiomyopathy, and even death. Nutritional rickets is most commonly seen in children from the Middle East, Africa, and South Asia in high-income countries. Dark skin pigmentation, sun avoidance, covering the skin, and prolonged breast feeding without vitamin D supplementation, are important risk factors for vitamin D deficiency, and combined with a lack of dairy products in the diet, these deficiencies can result in insufficient calcium supply for bone mineralization. We recommend screening all immigrant and refugee children under 5 years of age from these ethnic groups for nutritional rickets, based on clinical features, and confirming the diagnosis with radiographs of the wrists and knees. Because nutritional rickets is entirely preventable, public health policies must address the need for universal vitamin D supplementation and adequate dietary calcium to protect children from this scourge. Vitamin D supplementation of all infants and children with 400 IU/d during the first year of life and dietary or supplemental intakes of at least 600 IU/d of vitamin D and 500 mg/d of calcium thereafter, will effectively prevent nutritional rickets. We call on national health authorities of host countries to implement health check lists and prevention

  15. Neonatal nutrition and metabolism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thureen, Patti J; Hay, William W

    2006-01-01

    ..., the volume highlights the important longterm effects of fetal and neonatal growth on health in later life. In addition, there are very practical chapters on methods and techniques for assessing nutritional status, body composition, and evaluating metabolic function. Written by an authoritative, international team of cont...

  16. Insects: A nutritional alternative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufour, P. A.

    1981-01-01

    Insects are considered as potential food sources in space. Types of insects consumed are discussed. Hazards of insect ingestion are considered. Insect reproduction, requirements, and raw materials conversion are discussed. Nutrition properties and composition of insects are considered. Preparation of insects as human food is discussed.

  17. Nutrition and Allergic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.J.J. van Neerven

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The development of IgE-mediated allergic diseases is influenced by many factors, including genetic and environmental factors such as pollution and farming, but also by nutrition. In the last decade, substantial progress has been made in our understanding of the impact that nutrition can have on allergic diseases. Many studies have addressed the effect of breastfeeding, pre-, pro- and synbiotics, vitamins and minerals, fiber, fruit and vegetables, cow’s milk, and n-3 fatty acids, on the development of allergies. In addition, nutrition can also have indirect effects on allergic sensitization. This includes the diet of pregnant and breastfeeding women, which influences intrauterine development, as well as breastmilk composition. These include the diet of pregnant and breastfeeding women that influences intrauterine development as well as breastmilk composition, effects of food processing that may enhance allergenicity of foods, and effects via modulation of the intestinal microbiota and their metabolites. This editorial review provides a brief overview of recent developments related to nutrition and the development and management of allergic diseases.

  18. Nutrition during lactation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Committee on Nutritional Status During Pregnancy and Lactation; Institute of Medicine

    ... and Nutrition Board Institute of Medicine National Academy of Sciences NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1991 Copyrightthe cannot be not from book, paper however, version for formatting, original authoritative the typesetting-specific the as from created publication files XML from other this and of recomposed styles, version ...

  19. Youth, Nutrition and Behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voordouw, J.; Snoek, H.M.; Broek, van den E.; Reinders, M.J.; Meeusen, M.J.G.; Veggel, van R.J.F.M.; Kooijman, V.M.; Stijnen, D.A.J.M.; Trentelman, I.

    2012-01-01

    Healthy nutrition is widely assumed to have a beneficial influence on educational performance and social behaviour. Yet research in developed countries about the effects of food intake on children's behaviour and school performance is limited. We propose a randomised controlled field experiment to

  20. Nutritional iron deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, M.B.; Hurrell, R.F.

    2007-01-01

    Iron deficiency is one of the leading risk factors for disability and death worldwide, affecting an estimated 2 billion people. Nutritional iron deficiency arises when physiological requirements cannot be met by iron absorption from diet. Dietary iron bioavailability is low in populations consuming

  1. Nutritional disorders in chrysanthemums

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roorda van Eysinga, J.P.N.L.; Smilde, K.W.

    1980-01-01

    This book is a guide to diagnosing nutritional disorders in chrysanthemums. Deficiencies and toxicities are included, fifteen in all. Colour plates and descriptions are given for nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, calcium, sulphur, boron, copper, manganese, iron and zinc deficiency and for

  2. Cystic fibrosis - nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and crackers, muffins, or trail mix. Try to eat regularly, even if it is only a few bites. Or, include a nutrition supplement or milkshake. Be flexible. If you aren't hungry at dinner time, make breakfast, mid-morning snacks, and lunch ...

  3. Food security and nutrition

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Efforts to improve one of the world's most resilient staples — cassava — have paid off, with lasting and, in some instances, dra- matic benefits. Plant breeding has increased this starchy root's nutritional value and dis- ease resistance, saving countless lives. IDRC has long recognized cassava, also known as manioc, as an ...

  4. [Nutritional support in sepsis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz Leyba, C; López Martínez, J; Blesa Malpica, A L

    2005-06-01

    Although it is considered that metabolic and nutritional support must be part of the management of septic patients, it has not been conclusively shown that nutritional support will improve survival or complications from sepsis. Specific data on this issue are scarce since there are few studies that have investigated specialized nutritional support in septic patients. Thus, most of the recommendations are based on outcomes obtained in severely ill patients with different pathologies. It is assumed that nutritional support should be carried out through the enteral route whenever possible, as in other critically ill patients. The energetic waste in these patients is highly variable, although in general terms the hypermetabolic situation may be classified as moderate. An adjustment factor of 1.25-1.30 is recommended for the Harris-Benedict's equation to calculate the caloric intake. Septic patients should receive a hyperproteic intake. The amount of glucose administered should not exceed 70% of non-protein calories, and lipids intake should not exceed 40%. With regards to micronutrients, it is recommended to increase the supply of those with antioxidant properties (vitamin E, carotenes, vitamin C, selenium). There are data to consider that the use of diets enriched with pharmaco-nutrients (both with parenteral and enteral routes) may be beneficial in septic patients, although there is some controversy when interpreting the outcomes.

  5. Tuberculosis and nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Krishna

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Malnutrition and tuberculosis are both problems of considerable magnitude in most of the underdeveloped regions of the world. These two problems tend to interact with each other. Tuberculosis mortality rates in different economic groups in a community tend to vary inversely with their economic levels. Similarly, nutritional status is significantly lower in patients with active tuberculosis compared with healthy controls. Malnutrition can lead to secondary immunodeficiency that increases the host′s susceptibility to infection. In patients with tuberculosis, it leads to reduction in appetite, nutrient malabsorption, micronutrient malabsorption, and altered metabolism leading to wasting. Both, protein-energy malnutrition and micronutrients deficiencies increase the risk of tuberculosis. It has been found that malnourished tuberculosis patients have delayed recovery and higher mortality rates than well-nourished patients. Nutritional status of patients improves during tuberculosis chemotherapy. High prevalence of human immunodeficiency (HIV infection in the underdeveloped countries further aggravates the problem of malnutrition and tuberculosis. Effect of malnutrition on childhood tuberculosis and tuberculin skin test are other important considerations. Nutritional supplementation may represent a novel approach for fast recovery in tuberculosis patients. In addition, raising nutritional status of population may prove to be an effective measure to control tuberculosis in underdeveloped areas of world.

  6. Nutrition in Children's Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Nathan J.

    Young athletes need to be aware of the importance of good nutrition to athletic performance. A basic diet plan, worked out with a physician to satisfy energy and weight needs, is essential. The best eating schedule and amount and type of food varies with different sports depending on the intensity and duration of physical activity. Weight control…

  7. Maternal nutrition in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-08-05

    Aug 5, 2017 ... Results: Undernutrition in women aged 15–49 years decreased from ... Food restrictions/taboos are common with proteins and vegetable. ... This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the ... economic resources—all critical toward good nutrition that ..... Indian J Pediatr 2004;71:1007-14. 23.

  8. Sleep, Exercise, and Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrelson, Orvis A.; And Others

    The first part of this booklet concerns why sleep and exercise are necessary. It includes a discussion of what occurs during sleep and what dreams are. It also deals with the benefits of exercise, fatigue, posture, and the correlation between exercise and personality. The second part concerns nutrition and the importance of food. This part covers…

  9. Nutritional disturbances by adolescent

    OpenAIRE

    Stassart, Martine

    2011-01-01

    The nutritional disturbances are frequent by adolescents. That is a psychological defense against dependance toward the mother but also a middle to remain in a childish position i.e. either as a fat baby - in the fall of obesity- or as the ideal pre- or bisexual great child - in the case of anorexia.

  10. Special Reports; Homeland Security and Information Management; The Development of Electronic Government in the United States: The Federal Policy Experience; Digital Rights Management: Why Libraries Should Be Major Players; The Current State and Future Promise of Portal Applications; Recruitment and Retention: A Professional Concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Relyea, Harold C.; Halchin, L. Elaine; Hogue, Henry B.; Agnew, Grace; Martin, Mairead; Schottlaender, Brian E. C.; Jackson, Mary E.

    2003-01-01

    Theses five reports address five special issues: the effects of the September 11 attacks on information management, including homeland security, Web site information removal, scientific and technical information, and privacy concerns; federal policy for electronic government information; digital rights management and libraries; library Web portal…

  11. Nutrition and Liver Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Alan A

    2017-01-01

    Good clinical practice is based on a secure and accurate diagnosis. Poor nutrition is frequently associated with disorders of the liver, and a specific nutrition diagnosis is needed for providing best care and experiencing successful outcome. There is opportunity for better-structured approaches to making secure and consistent nutritional diagnoses in patients with liver disease. Nutrition is the set of integrated processes by which cells, tissues, organs and the whole body acquire the energy and nutrients to retain normal structure and perform the required functions. At the level of the whole body, this is achieved through dietary supply and the capacity of the body to transform the substrates and cofactors necessary for metabolism. All of these domains (diet, metabolic capacity, activity of the microbiome, body composition and the level of demand for energy and nutrients) are influenced by levels of physical activity and can vary according to physiological and pathological disease states. The liver plays a central role in establishing and maintaining these regulated processes. Its capacity to achieve and maintain these functional capabilities is established during one's early life. When these capabilities are exceeded and the ability to maintain the milieu interieur is compromised, ill-health supervenes. Stress tests that assess flow through gateway pathways can be used to determine the maximal capacity and functional reserve for critical functions. The inability of the liver to reliably integrate body lipid metabolism and the accumulation of abnormal lipid are obvious manifestations of impaired regulation both in situations of weight loss, for example, the fatty liver of severe malnutrition, and in situations of energy excess, as in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. The use of stable isotopic probes and the more recent definition of the variability in the metabolome in different nutritional and pathological states indicate the great potential for clinical tools

  12. A qualitative study of nutrition-based initiatives at selected food banks in the feeding America network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handforth, Becky; Hennink, Monique; Schwartz, Marlene B

    2013-03-01

    Food banks are the foundation of the US emergency food system. Although their primary mission is to alleviate hunger, the rise in obesity and diet-related diseases among food-insecure individuals has led some food bank personnel to actively promote more nutritious products. A qualitative interview approach was used to assess nutrition-related policies and practices among a sample of 20 food banks from the national Feeding America network. Most food bank personnel reported efforts to provide more fresh produce to their communities. Several described nutrition-profiling systems to evaluate the quality of products. Some food banks had implemented nutrition policies to cease distributing low-nutrient products, such as soda and candy; however, these policies were more controversial than other strategies. The obstacles to implementing strong nutrition policies included fear of reducing the total amount of food distributed, discomfort choosing which foods should not be permitted, and concern about jeopardizing relationships with donors and community partners. Empirical research is needed to measure how food bank nutrition policies influence relationships with food donors, the amount of food distributed, the nutritional quality of food distributed, and the contribution of food bank products to the food security and nutritional status of the communities they serve. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Home parenteral nutrition in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalousova, J.; Rouskova, B.; Styblova, J.

    2011-01-01

    Parenteral nutrition delivered at home presents a major improvement in the quality of life of children dependent on long term parenteral nutrition. Indications, technical conditions, logistics, complications, prognosis of home parenteral nutrition as well as some health-care issues to be addressed by pediatric practitioner are summarized. (author)

  14. Personalised nutrition: Status and perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joost, H.G.; Gibney, M.J.; Cashman, K.D.; Görman, U.; Hesketh, J.E.; Mueller, M.; Ommen, B. van; Williams, C.M.; Mathers, J.C.

    2007-01-01

    Personalised, genotype-based nutrition is a concept that links genotyping with specific nutritional advice in order to improve the prevention of nutrition-associated, chronic diseases. This review describes the current scientific basis of the concept and discusses its problems. There is convincing

  15. Sports Nutrition for Young Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotugna, Nancy; Vickery, Connie E.; McBee, Sheldon

    2005-01-01

    Nutritional needs for peak athletic performance include sufficient calorie intake, adequate hydration, and attention to timing of meals. Student athletes and their advisors often are misinformed or have misconceptions about sports nutrition. This paper identifies nutritional needs of young athletes, reviews common misconceptions, and examines the…

  16. State of nutrition support teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLegge, Mark Henry; Kelly, Andrea True; Kelley, Andrea True

    2013-12-01

    The incidence of malnutrition in hospitalized patients is relatively high (up to 55%) despite breakthroughs in nutrition support therapies. These patients have increased morbidity and mortality, extended hospital stays, and care that is associated with higher costs. These patients are often poorly managed due to inadequate nutrition assessment and poor medical knowledge and practice in the field of nutrition. Nutrition support teams (NSTs) are interdisciplinary support teams with specialty training in nutrition that are often comprised of physicians, dietitians, nurses, and pharmacists. Their role includes nutrition assessment, determination of nutrition needs, recommendations for appropriate nutrition therapy, and management of nutrition support therapy. Studies have demonstrated significant improvements in patient nutrition status and improved clinical outcomes as well as reductions in costs when patients were appropriately managed by a multispecialty NST vs individual caregivers. Despite this, there has been steady decline in the number of formal NST in recent years (65% of hospitals in 1995 to 42% in 2008) as hospitals and other healthcare organizations look for ways to cut costs. Given the importance of nutrition status on clinical outcomes and overall healthcare costs, a number of institutions have introduced and sustained strong nutrition training and support programs and teams, demonstrating both clinical and economic benefit. The benefits of NST, training and implementation strategies, and tips for justifying these clinically and economically beneficial groups to healthcare organizations and governing bodies are discussed in this review.

  17. Nutrition communication in general practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dillen, van S.M.E.; Hiddink, G.J.; Koelen, M.A.; Graaf, de C.; Woerkum, van C.M.J.

    2006-01-01

    General practitioners (GPs) are frequently confronted with patients who suffer from obesity or other nutrition-related diseases, such as diabetes and coronary heart disease. There is increasing evidence that nutrition communication is effective in changing nutrition behaviour. Moreover, it is widely

  18. Data Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A Parsons

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The first purpose of data policy should be to serve the objectives of the organization or project sponsoring the collection of the data. With research data, data policy should also serve the broader goals of advancing scientific and scholarly inquiry and society at large. This is especially true with government-funded data, which likely comprise the vast majority of research data. Data policy should address multiple issues, depending on the nature and objectives of the data. These issues include data access requirements, data preservation and stewardship requirements, standards and compliance mechanisms, data security issues, privacy and ethical concerns, and potentially even specific collection protocols and defined data flows. The specifics of different policies can vary dramatically, but all data policies need to address data access and preservation. Research data gain value with use and must therefore be accessible and preserved for future access. This article focuses on data access. While policy might address multiple issues, at a first level it must address where the data stand on what Lyon (2009 calls the continuum of openness. Making data as openly accessible as possible provides the greatest societal benefit, and a central purpose of data policy is to work toward ethically open data access. An open data regime not only maximizes the benefit of the data, it also simplifies most of the other issues around effective research data stewardship and infrastructure development.

  19. Agriculture for improved nutrition: the current research landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Rachel; Hawkes, Corinna; Jeff, Waage; Ferguson, Elaine; Haseen, Farhana; Homans, Hilary; Hussein, Julia; Johnston, Deborah; Marais, Debbi; McNeill, Geraldine; Shankar, Bhavani

    2013-12-01

    Concern about food security and its effect on persistent undernutrition has increased interest in how agriculture could be used to improve nutritional outcomes in developing countries. Yet the evidence base for the impact of agricultural interventions targeted at improved nutrition is currently poor. To map the extent and nature of current and planned research on agriculture for improved nutrition in order to identify gaps where more research might be useful. The research, which was conducted from April to August 2012, involved developing a conceptual framework linking agriculture and nutrition, identifying relevant research projects and programs, devising and populating a "template" with details of the research projects in relation to the conceptual framework, classifying the projects, and conducting a gap analysis. The study identified a large number of research projects covering a broad range of themes and topics. There was a strong geographic focus on sub-Saharan Africa, and many studies were explicitly concerned with nutritional impacts on women and children. Although the study revealed a diverse and growing body of research, it also identified research gaps. Few projects consider the entire evidence chain linking agricultural input or practice to nutritional outcomes. There is comparatively little current research on indirect effects of agriculture on nutrition, or the effect of policies or governance, rather than technical interventions. Most research is focused on undernutrition and small farmer households, and few studies target consumers generally, urban populations, or nutrition-related non-communicable diseases. There is very little work on the cost-effectiveness of agricultural interventions. On the basis of these findings, we make suggestions for research investment and for broader engagement of researchers and disciplines in developing approaches to design and evaluate agricultural programs for improved nutrition.

  20. Nutrition and socio-economic development in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florentino, R F; Pedro, R A

    1992-05-01

    While most Third World countries, particularly in Africa and Latin America, have experienced a deterioration in child welfare as a result of the severe economic downturn in the 1980s, Southeast Asia in general managed to sustain improvements in the situation of its children because it has maintained satisfactory rates of economic growth. However, there were exceptions within Southeast Asia. The Philippines, Vietnam, Dem. Kampuchea and Laos had unsatisfactory growth rates and, consequently, unsustained nutritional gains from the 1970s through the 1980s. Economic factors exerted a big impact on the Philippine nutrition situation, particularly on the dietary status of the households and the nutritional status of children. As a result of the economic dislocation occurring in the country, the nutritional gains of 1978-82 were not maintained in succeeding years. Unlike the case of Thailand, it has been estimated that the solution to nutritional problems in the Philippines is far from being achieved in the immediate future (Villavieja et al. 1989). On the other hand, the nutrition improvements in Thailand have been as remarkable as the economic growth over the last decade. Long-term investments in health, nutrition and other social services in Thailand (as well as in Indonesia) have paid off according to the assessment by the United Nations (1990). It appears, therefore, that the nutrition situation in developing countries is highly dependent on the economic situation, globally and nationally (Cornia et al. 1987), as well as on investment in social services. Adjustment policies should, therefore, consider their implications on distribution and poverty in order that they could positively contribute to the improvement of the nutrition of the people.

  1. Nutrition in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray-lee, M

    1989-07-01

    Village women have adopted techniques set down by UNICEF in achieving higher food production and, ultimately, self sufficiency. Women's cooperatives integrate kitchen gardening and irrigated agriculture in an effort to combat the complex nutritional problems in Africa. Projects also offered training in a variety of areas including management of plots, labor-saving technology--diesel-driven grinding mills, rice husking, machines, wells with hand pumps, motor pumps for irrigation, all geared towards women benefitting themselves by growing their own food and furthering their children's health and development. Projects such as the one in Senegal were undertaken in other regions of Africa, like the Sahel and the Wadis--low-lying areas. From these projects, aid agencies and governments have suggested a number of recommendations in seeking a solution to Africa's nutritional problems. 1st, a balance between production of cash crops and food for consumption is called for. 2nd, research is necessary to improve the quality of locally grown food as much as livestock. 3rd, governments should extend surface area cultivation, 4th, more research on the advantage of indigenous food plants, 5th, women should be in on all levels of decision making in food production, 6th, governments should increase women farmer's efficiency, and further women's access to land and credit and 7th, women should be provided with increased educational opportunities. Nutrition in developing countries cannot be viewed as an isolated phenomenon--solutions to nutritional development should include all aspects of the problem including health and nutrition education, growth monitoring, water supply, literacy, technological know-how, and agricultural and plant and soil conservation.

  2. Policy Approaches to Offset Childhood Food Insecurity and Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broberg, Danielle M.; Broberg, Katharine A.; McGuire, Jenifer K.

    2009-01-01

    Policies originally designed to address food insecurity are in need of revision due to rising rates of obesity among those they serve. Within the context of national policies, this article uses an ecological perspective to consider the links between food insecurity and obesity. The recommendations include adjusting the nutritional standards of the…

  3. Do European consumers use nutrition labels?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wills, Josephine M.; Grunert, Klaus G.; Celemín, Laura Fernández

    2009-01-01

    Nutrition labelling on food packages becomes more and more widespread in the European Union. Such information is not compulsory, unless a nutrition or health claim is made. However, how do consumers use nutrition information? Two European studies are currently assessing whether nutrition...... knowledge about nutrition and are able to use nutrition labels to identify healthier products within a category....

  4. 7 CFR 249.9 - Nutrition education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nutrition education. 249.9 Section 249.9 Agriculture... Nutrition education. (a) Goal. Nutrition education shall emphasize the relationship of proper nutrition to... agency shall integrate nutrition education into SFMNP operations and may satisfy nutrition education...

  5. Occupational status and nutrition profile and health of public municipal employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Pinheiro de Freitas

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Unhealthy lifestyles occur more often in low-socioeconomic status (SES groups. The assessment of isolated factors reduces the understanding of the problem instead of clarifying the dynamic interaction of these factors in influencing the health. Objective: To study the relationship between nutrition habits and health, and the coexistence of dietary risk factors, according to the occupational status of public municipal employees. Materials and Methods: An electronic epidemiological survey was conducted from September to December 2009. In total, 5,646 public municipal employees (temporary and permanent of the municipality (14.7% answered the questionnaire. Sociodemographic information, health, physical activity, nutritional profile, and working conditions related to eating were investigated. Occupational status was defined by the International Socio-Economic Index. The coexistence of dietary risk factors (low consumption of fruits and vegetables, high consumption of chicken skin and meat fat, and insufficient time to eat at work were evaluated using Venn diagrams. Results: Arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus and overweight were more frequently reported in the low occupational status, and positive self-reported health was directly related to the occupational status of participants. Conclusion: Differences in health conditions and in the dietary habits of individuals according to occupational status indicate its relevance in the development of public and institutional policies that aim to promote health and reduce inequalities and the need for greater focus on those with lower occupational status.

  6. Nutrition for Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.

    2005-01-01

    Nutrition has proven to be critical throughout the history of human exploration, on both land and water. The importance of nutrition during long-duration space exploration is no different. Maintaining optimal nutritional status is critical for all bodily systems, especially in light of the fact that that many are also affected by space flight itself. Major systems of concern are bone, muscle, the cardiovascular system, the immune system, protection against radiation damage, and others. The task ahead includes defining the nutritional requirements for space travelers, ensuring adequacy of the food system, and assessing crew nutritional status before, during, and after flight. Accomplishing these tasks will provide significant contributions to ensuring crew health on long-duration missions. In addition, development and testing of nutritional countermeasures to effects of space flight is required, and assessment of the impact of other countermeasures (such as exercise and pharmaceuticals) on nutrition is also critical for maintaining overall crew health. Vitamin D stores of crew members are routinely low after long-duration space flight. This occurs even when crew members take vitamin D supplements, suggesting that vitamin D metabolism may be altered during space flight. Vitamin D is essential for efficient absorption of calcium, and has numerous other benefits for other tissues with vitamin D receptors. Protein is a macronutrient that requires additional study to define the optimal intake for space travelers. Administration of protein to bed rest subjects can effectively mitigate muscle loss associated with disuse, but too much or too little protein can also have negative effects on bone. In another bed rest study, we found that the ratio of protein to potassium was correlated with the level of bone resorption: the higher the ratio, the more bone resorption. These relationships warrant further study to optimize the beneficial effect of protein on both bone and muscle

  7. Nutrition and prevention of chronic diseases: a unifying eco-nutritional strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlqvist, M L

    2004-02-01

    Increasing efforts are being made to address, in public health policy (PHP), both the persistence of nutritional deprivation in economically disadvantaged communities, and the increase in so-called "chronic disease" (abdominal obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, certain cancers, osteoporosis, arthritides, and inflammatory disease) in communities at all stages of economic development. The problems in the "chronic disease" descriptor are that its origins may be as early as conception, rather than during the postnatal lifespan, or even in previous generations; it may appear abruptly or slowly; and it may be amenable to environmental and behavioural intervention well into its course and in older age groups. It is also not necessarily "non-communicable", a qualifier often used for "chronic disease" (chronic non-communicable disease or CNCD) and often has inflammatory features, for example the inflammatory marker C-reactive protein is a predictor of macrovascular disease and ischaemic events can, in part, be prevented in the affected by influenzal vaccination. The nexus between immunodeficiency, inflammatory processes and nutritional status which is characteristic of "infective" and food-borne illness, is also more and more evident in "chronic disease". It may be more helpful to consider "chronic disease" as "eco-disease" with its environmental and behavioural contributors, and to regard that which is clearly nutritionally dependent as "eco-nutritional disease".

  8. Nursery nutrition in Liverpool: an exploration of practice and nutritional analysis of food provided.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Mike; Lloyd-Williams, Ffion; Weston, Gemma; Macklin, Julie; McFadden, Kate

    2011-10-01

    To explore nutrition and food provision in pre-school nurseries in order to develop interventions to promote healthy eating in pre-school settings. Quantitative data were gathered using questionnaires and professional menu analysis. In the community, at pre-school nurseries. All 130 nurseries across Liverpool were a sent questionnaire (38 % response rate); thirty-four menus were returned for analysis (26 % response rate). Only 21 % of respondents stated they had adequate knowledge on nutrition for pre-school children. Sixty-one per cent of cooks reported having received only a 'little' advice on healthy eating and this was often not specific to under-5 s nutrition. Fifty-seven per cent of nurseries did not regularly assess their menus for nutritional quality. The menu analysis revealed that all menus were deficient in energy, carbohydrate, Fe and Zn. Eighty-five per cent of nurseries had Na/salt levels which exceed guidelines. Nurseries require support on healthy eating at policy, knowledge and training levels. This support should address concerns relating to both menu planning and ingredients used in food provision and meet current guidelines on food provision for the under-5 s.

  9. Improving nutrition through nuclear science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-06-01

    Good nutrition is essential to health and quality of life. As a United Nations agency dedicated to helping Member States achieve their social and economic goals, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) recognizes the importance of good nutrition and is working to address the problems underlying poor nutrition. In fact, many Agency activities serve basic human needs, by applying nuclear science to increase food production, improve health care, improve management of water resources, and assess sources of environmental pollution. Global progress in reducing malnutrition throughout the human life cycle has been slow and patchy. In its 2000 Report on the World Nutrition Situation, the United Nations Sub Committee on Nutrition estimated that in developing countries 182 million children under five years of age are chronically undernourished and 150 million are underweight. An estimated 30 million infants are born each year with impaired growth due to poor nutrition during pregnancy. Worldwide, renewed international commitments have been made to address this situation, and the IAEA is a vital partner in these efforts. Nuclear science provides valuable tools for monitoring factors that influence nutrition, such as micronutrients, body composition, and breast milk uptake. Through its sub-programme on nutrition, the Agency is helping countries to use isotope applications and other nuclear techniques to their nutritional problems and is supporting leading-edge research on the interaction between nutrition and environmental pollution and infection with the ultimate goal of improving human nutrition

  10. Nutritional Ecology and Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raubenheimer, David; Simpson, Stephen J

    2016-07-17

    In contrast to the spectacular advances in the first half of the twentieth century with micronutrient-related diseases, human nutrition science has failed to stem the more recent rise of obesity and associated cardiometabolic disease (OACD). This failure has triggered debate on the problems and limitations of the field and what change is needed to address these. We briefly review the two broad historical phases of human nutrition science and then provide an overview of the main problems that have been implicated in the poor progress of the field with solving OACD. We next introduce the field of nutritional ecology and show how its ecological-evolutionary foundations can enrich human nutrition science by providing the theory to help address its limitations. We end by introducing a modeling approach from nutritional ecology, termed nutritional geometry, and demonstrate how it can help to implement ecological and evolutionary theory in human nutrition to provide new direction and to better understand and manage OACD.

  11. Targeting malnutrition. Isotopic tools for evaluating nutrition worldwide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinley, D. III

    1996-07-01

    This booklet provides a brief description of pioneering IAEA-supported work to evaluate vitamin A and iron deficiencies, bone disease, undernutrition and obesity and the special nutritional requirements of pregnant and lactating women and their children. And while it shows that the role of the Agency remains highly specialized, to develop and transfer nuclear-based evaluation tools, each of these areas of applied research aims at improving the scientific foundations for broader national food and nutrition-related development policies and programmes

  12. Use of stable isotopes in human nutrition in Senegal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    In Senegal, the Laboratory of Nutrition of the Department of Animal Biology of the Faculty of Science and Technology of UCAD has been using stable isotopic techniques for nearly twenty years. Stable isotopes were applied to different target populations to measure milk production, exclusive breastfeeding, body composition, micronutrient bioavailability and total energy expenditure.The application of stable isotopic techniques in nutrition has contributed to advocacy for exclusive breastfeeding for up to 6 months in Senegal. It enabled government decision-makers to obtain essential information on the quality of foods needed for optimal effect during pregnancy and for infant growth and the results were reflected in the national policy on micronutrient supplementation.

  13. Targeting malnutrition. Isotopic tools for evaluating nutrition worldwide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinley, D III [ed.

    1996-07-01

    This booklet provides a brief description of pioneering IAEA-supported work to evaluate vitamin A and iron deficiencies, bone disease, undernutrition and obesity and the special nutritional requirements of pregnant and lactating women and their children. And while it shows that the role of the Agency remains highly specialized, to develop and transfer nuclear-based evaluation tools, each of these areas of applied research aims at improving the scientific foundations for broader national food and nutrition-related development policies and programmes.

  14. Public Policy and Health Informatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Katherine

    2018-04-05

    To provide an overview of the history of electronic health policy and identify significant laws that influence health informatics. US Department of Health and Human Services. The development of health information technology has influenced the process for delivering health care. Public policy and regulations are an important part of health informatics and establish the structure of electronic health systems. Regulatory bodies of the government initiate policies to ease the execution of electronic health record implementation. These same bureaucratic entities regulate the system to protect the rights of the patients and providers. Nurses should have an overall understanding of the system behind health informatics and be able to advocate for change. Nurses can utilize this information to optimize the use of health informatics and campaign for safe, effective, and efficient health information technology. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Agriculture and nutrition in India: mapping evidence to pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadiyala, Suneetha; Harris, Jody; Headey, Derek; Yosef, Sivan; Gillespie, Stuart

    2014-12-01

    In India, progress against undernutrition has been slow. Given its importance for income generation, improving diets, care practices, and maternal health, the agriculture sector is widely regarded as playing an important role in accelerating the reduction in undernutrition. This paper comprehensively maps existing evidence along agriculture-nutrition pathways in India and assesses both the quality and coverage of the existing literature. We present a conceptual framework delineating six key pathways between agriculture and nutrition. Three pathways pertain to the nutritional impacts of farm production, farm incomes, and food prices. The other three pertain to agriculture-gender linkages. After an extensive search, we found 78 research papers that provided evidence to populate these pathways. The literature suggests that Indian agriculture has a range of important influences on nutrition. Agriculture seems to influence diets even when controlling for income, and relative food prices could partly explain observed dietary changes in recent decades. The evidence on agriculture-gender linkages to nutrition is relatively weak. Sizeable knowledge gaps remain. The root causes of these gaps include an interdisciplinary disconnect between nutrition and economics/agriculture, a related problem of inadequate survey data, and limited policy-driven experimentation. Closing these gaps is essential to strengthening the agriculture sector's contribution to reducing undernutrition. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.

  16. Military nutrition: maintaining health and rebuilding injured tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Neil; Fallowfield, Joanne; Price, Susan; Wilson, Duncan

    2011-01-01

    Food and nutrition are fundamental to military capability. Historical examples demonstrate that a failure to supply adequate nutrition to armies inevitably leads to disaster; however, innovative measures to overcome difficulties in feeding reap benefits, and save lives. In barracks, UK Armed Forces are currently fed according to the relatively new Pay As You Dine policy, which has attracted criticism from some quarters. The recently introduced Multi-Climate Ration has been developed specifically to deal with issues arising from Iraq and the current conflict in Afghanistan. Severely wounded military personnel are likely to lose a significant amount of their muscle mass, in spite of the best medical care. Nutritional support is unable to prevent this, but can ameliorate the effects of the catabolic process. Measuring and quantifying nutritional status during critical illness is difficult. A consensus is beginning to emerge from studies investigating the effects of nutritional interventions on how, what and when to feed patients with critical illness. The Ministry of Defence is currently undertaking research to address specific concerns related to nutrition as well as seeking to promote healthy eating in military personnel. PMID:21149358

  17. The principles, definition and dimensions of the new nutrition science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauman, Christopher; Cannon, Geoffrey; Elmadfa, Ibrahim; Glasauer, Peter; Hoffmann, Ingrid; Keller, Markus; Krawinkel, Michael; Lang, Tim; Leitzmann, Claus; Lötsch, Bernd; Margetts, Barrie M; McMichael, Anthony J; Meyer-Abich, Klaus; Oltersdorf, Ulrich; Pettoello-Mantovani, Massimo; Sabaté, Joan; Shetty, Prakash; Sória, Marco; Spiekermann, Uwe; Tudge, Colin; Vorster, Hester H; Wahlqvist, Mark; Zerilli-Marimò, Mariuccia

    2005-09-01

    To specify the principles, definition and dimensions of the new nutrition science. To identify nutrition, with its application in food and nutrition policy, as a science with great width and breadth of vision and scope, in order that it can fully contribute to the preservation, maintenance, development and sustenance of life on Earth. A brief overview shows that current conventional nutrition is defined as a biological science, although its governing and guiding principles are implicit only, and no generally agreed definition is evident. Following are agreements on the principles, definition and dimensions of the new nutrition science, made by the authors as participants at a workshop on this theme held on 5-8 April 2005 at the Schloss Rauischholzhausen, Justus-Liebig University, Giessen, Germany. Nutrition science as here specified will retain its current 'classical' identity as a biological science, within a broader and integrated conceptual framework, and will also be confirmed as a social and environmental science. As such it will be concerned with personal and population health, and with planetary health--the welfare and future of the whole physical and living world of which humans are a part.

  18. Promoting equity through integrated early child development and nutrition interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Maureen M; Dewey, Kathryn G

    2014-01-01

    Sustainable development, a foundation of the post-2015 global agenda, depends on healthy and productive citizens. The origins of adult health begin early in life, stemming from genetic-environmental interactions that include adequate nutrition and opportunities for responsive learning. Inequities associated with inadequate nutrition and early learning opportunities can undermine children's health and development, thereby compromising their productivity and societal contributions. Transactional theory serves as a useful framework for examining the associations that link early child development and nutrition because it emphasizes the interplay that occurs between children and the environment, mediated through caregiver interactions. Although single interventions targeting early child development or nutrition can be effective, there is limited evidence on the development, implementation, evaluation, and scaling up of integrated interventions. This manuscript introduces a special edition of papers on six topics central to integrated child development/nutrition interventions: (1) review of integrated interventions; (2) methods and topics in designing integrated interventions; (3) economic considerations related to integrated interventions; (4) capacity-building considerations; (5) examples of integrated interventions; and (6) policy implications of integrated interventions. Ensuring the health and development of infants and young children through integrated child development/nutrition interventions promotes equity, a critical component of sustainable development. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.

  19. Perioperative nutritional support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morán López, Jesús Manuel; Piedra León, María; García Unzueta, María Teresa; Ortiz Espejo, María; Hernández González, Miriam; Morán López, Ruth; Amado Señaris, José Antonio

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between preoperative malnutrition and morbi-mortality has been documented for years. Despite the existence of tools that allow its detection, and therefore treat this entity, their introduction into clinical practice is not wide-spread. Both perioperative insulin resistance and hyperglycemia are associated with increased perioperative morbidity and length of hospital stay. The intake of carbohydrate-rich drinks 2-4h prior to surgery reduces insulin resistance. In the immediate postoperative period, the enteral route is safe and well tolerated and its early use reduces hospital stay and postoperative complications compared with parenteral nutritional support. Inmunonutrition has been proven effective to decrease postoperative complications and hospital stay. In view of these data we opted for the adoption of these measures replacing bowel rest and the indiscriminate use of postoperative parenteral nutrition. Copyright © 2013 AEC. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  20. Acute nutritional axonal neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamel, Johanna; Logigian, Eric L

    2018-01-01

    This study describes clinical, laboratory, and electrodiagnostic features of a severe acute axonal polyneuropathy common to patients with acute nutritional deficiency in the setting of alcoholism, bariatric surgery (BS), or anorexia. Retrospective analysis of clinical, electrodiagnostic, and laboratory data of patients with acute axonal neuropathy. Thirteen patients were identified with a severe, painful, sensory or sensorimotor axonal polyneuropathy that developed over 2-12 weeks with sensory ataxia, areflexia, variable muscle weakness, poor nutritional status, and weight loss, often with prolonged vomiting and normal cerebrospinal fluid protein. Vitamin B6 was low in half and thiamine was low in all patients when obtained before supplementation. Patients improved with weight gain and vitamin supplementation, with motor greater than sensory recovery. We suggest that acute or subacute axonal neuropathy in patients with weight loss or vomiting associated with alcohol abuse, BS, or dietary deficiency is one syndrome, caused by micronutrient deficiencies. Muscle Nerve 57: 33-39, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.