WorldWideScience

Sample records for nutrition issues effective

  1. Medical Issues: Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... support & care > living with sma > medical issues > nutrition Nutrition Good nutrition is essential to health and growth. ... must make decisions based on their own needs. Nutrition Considerations Since we are still waiting for clinical ...

  2. Management issues related to effectively implementing a nutrition education program using peer educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, T; Serrano, E; Anderson, J

    2001-01-01

    To explore the influence of administrative aspects of a nutrition education program with peer educators delivering the program. Telephone interviews with peer educators trained to deliver La Cocina Saludable, a nutrition education program for Hispanics. Open- and closed-ended questions. Abuelas (grandmothers) recruited and trained as peer educators for the program. The sample included peer educators no longer teaching (22%), currently teaching (30%), and who never taught after training. Motives and incentives for becoming peer educators, challenges for peer educators, and reasons peer educators withdrew from the program. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze quantitative data from the closed-ended questions. Qualitative analysis was applied to data from open-ended questions. Working with community and learning about nutrition were prime motivators. Recruiting participants and coordination of classes appeared to be major challenges. Personal issues and traveling in a large geographic area were cited as the main reasons for quitting. The effectiveness of using peer educators for La Cocina Saludable may be improved through empowerment, additional training, a structured and equitable reimbursement system, and assistance to carry out administrative tasks.

  3. Issues in Nutrition: Carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Margaret E; Noel, Mary Barth

    2017-01-01

    Carbohydrates include sugars, starches, and dietary fibers. Resistant starches resemble fiber in their behavior in the intestinal tract, and may have positive effects on blood glucose levels and the gut microbiome. Fibers are classified as soluble and insoluble, but most fiber-containing foods contain a mixture of soluble and insoluble fiber. Soluble fiber has been shown to lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Many artificial sweeteners and other sugar substitutes are available. Most natural sources of sweeteners also are energy sources. Many artificial sweeteners contain no kilocalories in the amounts typically used. Sugar alcohols may have a laxative effect when consumed in large amounts. Glycemic index and glycemic load are measurements that help quantify serum glucose response after ingestion of particular foods. These measurements may be affected by the combination of foods consumed in a given meal, and the glycemic index may vary among individuals eating the same meal. Eating foods with a low glycemic index may help prevent development of type 2 diabetes. There is no definitive evidence to recommend low-carbohydrate diets over low-fat diets for long-term weight loss; they are equally effective. Written permission from the American Academy of Family Physicians is required for reproduction of this material in whole or in part in any form or medium.

  4. Issues in Nutrition: Dietary Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Margaret E; Noel, Mary Barth

    2017-01-01

    The majority of American adults report use of one or more dietary supplements every day or occasionally. The Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994 defines dietary supplements and regulates their manufacture and distribution. One of the most commonly used supplements is vitamin D. Measurement of serum levels of vitamin D must be undertaken with the caveats that different laboratories define normal levels differently, and that there is rarely a clinical correlation with the actual level. Patients should understand that supplements should not be used to excess, as there are toxicities and other adverse effects associated with most of them. There currently is considerable research being performed on probiotics and how the gut microbiome affects health and disease states. Protein supplements may be useful in reducing mortality rates in elderly patients but they do not appear to increase quality of life. If used, protein supplements should contain essential amino acids. Casein and whey supplements, derived from dairy sources, help transport essential amino acids to tissues. Although there have been many studies investigating the role of vitamin supplements in disease prevention, there have been few conclusive positive results. Written permission from the American Academy of Family Physicians is required for reproduction of this material in whole or in part in any form or medium.

  5. Expert Opinions on Nutrition Issues in Clinical Dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Carole A.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    A survey of 79 experts in dental nutrition sought consensus on the appropriate scope of nutrition in clinical dentistry. Results support the need for greater attention to nutrition issues in dental schools and better models for nutrition interventions in dental practice. (Author/MSE)

  6. Bariatric surgery and long-term nutritional issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupoli, Roberta; Lembo, Erminia; Saldalamacchia, Gennaro; Avola, Claudia Kesia; Angrisani, Luigi; Capaldo, Brunella

    2017-01-01

    Bariatric surgery is recognized as a highly effective therapy for obesity since it accomplishes sustained weight loss, reduction of obesity-related comorbidities and mortality, and improvement of quality of life. Overall, bariatric surgery is associated with a 42% reduction of the cardiovascular risk and 30% reduction of all-cause mortality. This review focuses on some nutritional consequences that can occur in bariatric patients that could potentially hinder the clinical benefits of this therapeutic option. All bariatric procedures, to variable degrees, alter the anatomy and physiology of the gastrointestinal tract; this alteration makes these patients more susceptible to developing nutritional complications, namely, deficiencies of macro- and micro-nutrients, which could lead to disabling diseases such as anemia, osteoporosis, protein malnutrition. Of note is the evidence that most obese patients present a number of nutritional deficits already prior to surgery, the most important being vitamin D and iron deficiencies. This finding prompts the need for a complete nutritional assessment and, eventually, an adequate correction of pre-existing deficits before surgery. Another critical issue that follows bariatric surgery is post-operative weight regain, which is commonly associated with the relapse of obesity-related co-morbidities. Nu-tritional complications associated with bariatric surgery can be prevented by life-long nutritional monitoring with the administration of multi-vitamins and mineral supplements according to the patient’s needs. PMID:29204255

  7. Global issues in pediatric nutrition: AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, C S

    1998-10-01

    Nutrition is a final common pathway in chronic disease, and weight loss is a major manifestation of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). In sub-Saharan Africa, studies have shown that 25% of children with malnutrition have human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, although patterns of malnutrition are indistinguishable from those who are HIV negative. Breast-feeding increases the risk of vertical transmission, and the overall risk versus benefit needs continuing careful consideration in relation to local mortality from gastroenteritis and malnutrition. Chronic diarrhea is much more common in HIV-infected children in Africa and may have a multiplicity of causes, including infection with adherent forms of Escherichia coli, protozoa, and even direct HIV infection of intestinal mucosal cells. The HIV wasting syndrome produces reduction in bioelectrical impedence, fat, lean body mass, and body cell mass, but the changes can be predicted from equations used in starvation states. Micronutrients may be important, but observed changes may be due to immune mediator activation, rather than malnutrition. Calorie supplementation is beneficial when delivered by any route, but is likely to produce the greatest positive change when CD4 counts are highest in relation to calorie intake. Paradoxically, HIV-infected children may be obese early in the disease until AIDS develops. There is an inextricable link between disease and nutritional status. In children with AIDS wasting syndrome, a low CD4 count and high viral load are likely so that effective antiviral treatment may ultimately produce the greatest improvement in health, including nutritional status.

  8. War in former Yugoslavia: Coping with Nutritional Issues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robertson, Aileen; James, W. Philip. T.

    1998-01-01

    of food supply; anthropometric measures; in search of the most vulnerable; assessing food security; assessing nutritional deficiencies-protein and micronutrient issues; public health issues in former Yugoslavia-infant feeding practices, developing nutrition expertise in modern public health......This chapter in the text book "Essentials of Human Nutrition" published by OUP explores war in former Yugoslavia and the accompanying nutritional issues. Areas of focus include: emergency food aid; how much energy?; nutritional surveillance-a re-evaluation of its role in wartime; the quality...

  9. Nutrition for sports performance: issues and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maughan, Ronald J; Shirreffs, Susan M

    2012-02-01

    Diet can significantly influence athletic performance, but recent research developments have substantially changed our understanding of sport and exercise nutrition. Athletes adopt various nutritional strategies in training and competition in the pursuit of success. The aim of training is to promote changes in the structure and function of muscle and other tissues by selective modulation of protein synthesis and breakdown in response to the training stimulus. This process is affected by the availability of essential amino acids in the post-exercise period. Athletes have been encouraged to eat diets high in carbohydrate, but low-carbohydrate diets up-regulate the capacity of muscle for fat oxidation, potentially sparing the limited carbohydrate stores. Such diets, however, do not enhance endurance performance. It is not yet known whether the increased capacity for fat oxidation that results from training in a carbohydrate-deficient state can promote loss of body fat. Preventing excessive fluid deficits will maintain exercise capacity, and ensuring adequate hydration status can also reduce subjective perception of effort. This latter effect may be important in encouraging exercise participation and promoting adherence to exercise programmes. Dietary supplement use is popular in sport, and a few supplements may improve performance in specific exercise tasks. Athletes must be cautious, however, not to contravene the doping regulations. There is an increasing recognition of the role of the brain in determining exercise performance: various nutritional strategies have been proposed, but with limited success. Nutrition strategies developed for use by athletes can also be used to achieve functional benefits in other populations.

  10. Innovative solutions to nutritional issues in Asia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nicky

    Department of Tropical Nutrition and Food Science, Mahidol University, and Nutrition. Association of Thailand ... Food-borne parasitic infections, some of which are very dangerous, are also .... Food patterns and habits of people in an endemic ...

  11. Nutrition therapy issues in esophageal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Keith R; Bozeman, Matthew C

    2012-08-01

    Esophageal cancer has traditionally been a disease with poor long term outcomes in terms of both survival and quality of life. In combination with surgical and pharmacologic therapy, nutrition support has been demonstrated to improve patient tolerance of treatment, quality of life, and longterm outcomes. An aggressive multi-disciplinary approach is warranted with nutrition support remaining a cornerstone in management. Historically, nutrition support has focused on adequate caloric provision to prevent weight loss and allow for tolerance of treatment regimens. Alterations in metabolism occur in these patients making their use of available calories inefficient and the future of nutritional support may lie in the ability to alter this deranged metabolism. The purpose of this article is to review the current literature surrounding the etiology, treatment, and role of nutrition support in improving outcomes in esophageal cancer.

  12. Dietary Intakes and Nutritional Issues in Neurologically Impaired Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Penagini

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Neurologically impaired (NI children are at increased risk of malnutrition due to several nutritional and non-nutritional factors. Among the nutritional factors, insufficient dietary intake as a consequence of feeding difficulties is one of the main issues. Feeding problems are frequently secondary to oropharyngeal dysphagia, which usually correlates with the severity of motor impairment and presents in around 90% of preschool children with cerebral palsy (CP during the first year of life. Other nutritional factors are represented by excessive nutrient losses, often subsequent to gastroesophageal reflux and altered energy metabolism. Among the non-nutritional factors, the type and severity of neurological impairment, ambulatory status, the degree of cognitive impairment, and use of entiepileptic medication altogether concur to determination of nutritional status. With the present review, the current literature is discussed and a practical approach for nutritional assessment in NI children is proposed. Early identification and intervention of nutritional issues of NI children with a multidisciplinary approach is crucial to improve the overall health and quality of life of these complex children.

  13. Dietary Intakes and Nutritional Issues in Neurologically Impaired Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penagini, Francesca; Mameli, Chiara; Fabiano, Valentina; Brunetti, Domenica; Dilillo, Dario; Zuccotti, Gian Vincenzo

    2015-11-13

    Neurologically impaired (NI) children are at increased risk of malnutrition due to several nutritional and non-nutritional factors. Among the nutritional factors, insufficient dietary intake as a consequence of feeding difficulties is one of the main issues. Feeding problems are frequently secondary to oropharyngeal dysphagia, which usually correlates with the severity of motor impairment and presents in around 90% of preschool children with cerebral palsy (CP) during the first year of life. Other nutritional factors are represented by excessive nutrient losses, often subsequent to gastroesophageal reflux and altered energy metabolism. Among the non-nutritional factors, the type and severity of neurological impairment, ambulatory status, the degree of cognitive impairment, and use of entiepileptic medication altogether concur to determination of nutritional status. With the present review, the current literature is discussed and a practical approach for nutritional assessment in NI children is proposed. Early identification and intervention of nutritional issues of NI children with a multidisciplinary approach is crucial to improve the overall health and quality of life of these complex children.

  14. Current issues and perspectives in prenatal nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morrison JC

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available John C Morrison1, John Elliott2, Robert A Knuppel3, Baha Sibai4, Michael W Pill51Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS, USA; 2Saddleback Memorial Medical Center, Women's Hospital, Laguna Hills, CA, USA; 3DuBois Regional Medical Center, DuBois, PA, USA; 4University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH, USA; 5Gemini Healthcare, Westbrook, CT, USAAbstract: The typical American diet, characterized by energy-dense foods rich in starches, sugars, and saturated fats, and low in fruits and vegetables, is relatively unhealthy and is associated with nutritional deficiencies. Suboptimal diets for pregnant women have been associated with serious maternal medical complications (eg, iron deficiency anemia, high blood pressure, gestational diabetes, and morning sickness, as well as an increased risk of intrauterine growth restriction, birth defects, developmental delays after birth, and future chronic health problems, (eg, heart disease, type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure, and high cholesterol during childhood, as well as later in life. Folic acid deficiency is one of the most common problems among pregnant women, and supplementation with folic acid during pregnancy has been reported to decrease the occurrence and recurrence of fetal neural tube defects. Folate supplementation beginning preconception, along with a multivitamin, at least 12 weeks prior to conception is recommended to achieve maximal risk reduction. The reported benefits of supplementing docosahexaenoic acid, an unsaturated omega-3 essential fatty acid, during pregnancy include promoting proper neurodevelopment in fetuses and infants that extends into childhood. Pregnancy is also associated with an increased susceptibility to oxidative stress, resulting from the imbalance between oxygen free radicals and the essential antioxidants that maintain homeostasis. Associated complications include preeclampsia, preterm labor, and

  15. Effective Nutritional Supplement Combinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Matt; Cribb, Paul J.

    Few supplement combinations that are marketed to athletes are supported by scientific evidence of their effectiveness. Quite often, under the rigor of scientific investigation, the patented combination fails to provide any greater benefit than a group given the active (generic) ingredient. The focus of this chapter is supplement combinations and dosing strategies that are effective at promoting an acute physiological response that may improve/enhance exercise performance or influence chronic adaptations desired from training. In recent years, there has been a particular focus on two nutritional ergogenic aids—creatine monohydrate and protein/amino acids—in combination with specific nutrients in an effort to augment or add to their already established independent ergogenic effects. These combinations and others are discussed in this chapter.

  16. Establishment and issues of new educational system by nutrition teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruya, Nobuko; Kaneda, Masayo; Namikawa, Shintaro; Nakajima, Tomoko; Tamon, Takako; Murai, Yoko

    2005-08-01

    The Japanese school lunch system, which has over 100 y of history, has gained world attention for its well-developed and steady system, healthy Japanese-style menus including rice, and educational programs utilizing the school lunch system. Meanwhile, risk factors of health among students have been continuously worsening for the past dozen years or so. Therefore, Japan had hastened to develop better educational programs utilizing the school lunch and nutritional teachers. Under such circumstances, the Japanese Diet passed a bill to amend the School Education Law (hereinafter called the Amendment) which includes the establishment of an educational system by nutrition teachers in May, 2004. This system will be enforced in April, 2005. This system by nutrition teachers in Japan is well organized in both the legal and administrative senses and is attracting domestic and international attention as an example of an educational measure to improve the dietary life of students. The reason for this article in English is the additional intention of enlightening other countries by showing the political promotion problems of educational administration agencies, educational contents of nutrition teachers and some issues of the new educational system by nutrition teachers.

  17. Women's nutrition -- convergence of programmes -- a critical issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vir, S

    1990-01-01

    Many factors are responsible for malnutrition among women. Malnutrition is mainly caused by inadequate energy intake and nutritional anemia. Social factors affecting the energy balance include inappropriate intra family distribution, inadequate food intake during pregnancy, conception when younger than 18 years old, and continued high physical activity during pregnancy. Discrimination against girls in the form of insufficient food intake affects girls throughout their lives and contributes to poor adolescent growth and poor maternal stature (height and weight). Poor maternal stature has been linked with adverse effects on pregnancy outcomes: low birth weight infants and infant mortality. About 66% of infants were found to be of low birth weight among mothers weighing less than 40 kg and with a pregnancy weight gain of less than 5 kg. The recommended weight gain during pregnancy is 10-12 kg. Maternal weight has been found to be closely linked with negative effects on fetal growth and birth weight. Nutrition programs must contend with a variety of social, economic, health, and legislative approaches for improving women's status. Food supplementation during pregnancy and adolescence are as important as raising the marriage and conception age. Energy deficits of iron, vitamin A, and iodine need to be fulfilled. Energy saving devices would help to reduce the physical demands on women during pregnancy. Nutrition education for promoting adequate nutritional and energy intake and prevention of nutrient deficiencies needs to be implemented. Health workers have been known for inadequate attention to nutrition. The opportunity for nutritional supplementation and education is available during women's contacts with immunization interventions. A complex prescription applied continuously and in harmony with other health efforts will assure maternal nutritional support.

  18. Nutrition notes for quick reference. Issues and perspectives reflecting the UN thinking on the global nutritional scenario and its relevance to the activities of NAHRES/NAHU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyengar, V.

    2000-01-01

    Nutritional sciences are both complex and multidisciplinary in nature and will be more so in the coming years. Recent developments in nutrition extending into areas such as nutrient gene interactions, nutrient-pollutant interactions, nutritional physiology and preventive medicine among others, are emerging as new dimensions for our understanding the many relationships between nutrition and health on one hand. and nutrition and disease on the other. The future nutritional researcher should be prepared to address a range of scientific and clinical disciplines together. Food safety issues and factors that contribute to nutrient compositional changes are critical to several aspects surrounding the nutrition-health-disease domain, and will continue to attract much attention in the future. Nutritional toxicology too will become a major challenge in this context. New strategies are being sought to address micronutrient malnutrition (vitamin A and iron deficiencies in particular). The UN agencies are supporting several initiatives to alleviate micronutrient deficiencies as major public health problems in nutrition. The IAEA is contributing to these efforts by facilitating the development of a variety of isotope based techniques to improve nutrition monitoring techniques and to identify effective strategies in nutrition intervention schemes particularly among vulnerable groups in developing regions around the world

  19. Nutrition notes for quick reference. Issues and perspectives reflecting the UN thinking on the global nutritional scenario and its relevance to the activities of NAHRES/NAHU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iyengar, V [comp.

    2000-01-01

    Nutritional sciences are both complex and multidisciplinary in nature and will be more so in the coming years. Recent developments in nutrition extending into areas such as nutrient gene interactions, nutrient-pollutant interactions, nutritional physiology and preventive medicine among others, are emerging as new dimensions for our understanding the many relationships between nutrition and health on one hand. and nutrition and disease on the other. The future nutritional researcher should be prepared to address a range of scientific and clinical disciplines together. Food safety issues and factors that contribute to nutrient compositional changes are critical to several aspects surrounding the nutrition-health-disease domain, and will continue to attract much attention in the future. Nutritional toxicology too will become a major challenge in this context. New strategies are being sought to address micronutrient malnutrition (vitamin A and iron deficiencies in particular). The UN agencies are supporting several initiatives to alleviate micronutrient deficiencies as major public health problems in nutrition. The IAEA is contributing to these efforts by facilitating the development of a variety of isotope based techniques to improve nutrition monitoring techniques and to identify effective strategies in nutrition intervention schemes particularly among vulnerable groups in developing regions around the world.

  20. Effects of nutrition on oral health

    OpenAIRE

    G A Agbelusi

    2010-01-01

    Nutrition represents a summation of intake, absorption, storage and utilization of foods by the tissues. Oral tissues are one of the most sensitive indicators of nutritional state of the body. Nutritional deficiencies are associated with changes in the integrity (health and appearance) of the oral structures/ tissues and these changes are frequently the first clinical signs of deficiency. Nutrition affects oral health and oral health affects nutrition. The effects of malnutrition can be s...

  1. Product development for catering - how to integrate issues on nutrition, quality and environment in the products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    1996-01-01

    Overview of the experience with integration of issues on nutrition, quality and environment from a development and technology assessment project about product development for the catering sector......Overview of the experience with integration of issues on nutrition, quality and environment from a development and technology assessment project about product development for the catering sector...

  2. Priority issues, study designs and geographical distribution in nutrition journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Moncada, R; González-Zapata, L; Ruiz-Cantero, M T; Clemente-Gómez, V

    2011-01-01

    The increased number of articles published in nutrition is a reflection of the relevance to scientific community. The characteristics and quality of nutritional studies determine whether readers can obtain valid conclusions from them, as well as their usefulness for evidence-based strategic policies. To determine the characteristics of papers published in nutrition journals. Descriptive study design. We reviewed 330 original papers published between January-June 2007. From: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition (AJCN), Journal of Nutrition, European Journal Nutrition, European Journal of Clinical Nutrition and Public Health Nutrition. We classified them according to the subjects studied; risk factors, study design and country of origin. Almost half the papers studied healthy people (53.3%). The most frequent illness was obesity (13.9%). Food consumption is the most frequent risk factor (63.3%). Social factors appear exclusively only in 3.6% of the papers. Clinical trials were the most common analytical design (31.8%), mainly in the AJCN (45.6%). Cross-sectional studies were the most frequent type of observational design (37.9%). Ten countries produced over half of the papers (51.3%). The US publishes the highest number of papers (20.6%), whilst developing countries make only scarce contributions to scientific literature on nutrition. Most of the papers had inferential power. They generally studied both healthy and sick subjects, coinciding with the aims of international scientific policies. However, the topics covered reflect a clear bias, prioritizing problems pertaining to developed countries. Social determinants of health should also be considered, along with behavioral and biological risk factors.

  3. Ethical issues in nutritional support nursing. Withholding and withdrawing nutritional support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, L S

    1989-06-01

    A new and controversial debate in bioethics concerns the question, "Is it ever acceptable to withhold or withdraw specialized nutritional support from the dying adult patient?" In the opinion of many, the answer to this question is yes, but for only a very small number of patients. Provision of nutrition through artificial means is an invasive medical intervention. As such, procedures for supplying nutritional support impose burdens as well as provide benefits and may, under certain circumstances, be foregone. However, the needs of the vast majority of dying patients will best be served by providing specialized nutritional support.

  4. Nutrition Labelling: Applying Biological Concepts and Reasoning to Socio-Scientific Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yeung Chung

    2016-01-01

    Nutrition labelling, which helps consumers to make informed choices, can be used as both a context and a vehicle for students to consolidate and apply their knowledge of food and nutrition to improve health. It also facilitates students' ability to negotiate socio-scientific issues from scientific and other perspectives. This article reports a…

  5. Nutritional Issues and Nutrition Support in Older Home Care Patients in the City of Zagreb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vranešić Bender, Darija; Kovačević, Marta; Hanževački, Miro; Vrabec, Božena; Benković, Vanesa; Domislović, Viktor; Krznarić, Željko

    2017-12-01

    Population aging is a global demographic trend showing continuous growth and among its consequences is a rise in malnutrition that is characteristic for the elderly. The objective of this study was to evaluate nutritional status of elderly home care patients immediately after hospital discharge and to determine factors that affect nutritional status using questionnaires based on validated tools (NRS-2002, DETERMINE checklist) and basic medical history data. The study involved 76 elderly individuals (51.3% of them older than 70) living in the City of Zagreb. The nutritional status assessment using the NRS-2002 tool showed that 57.6% of the subjects were at nutritional risk. The findings of the assessment by use of the DETERMINE tool were also unfavorable, indicating that 82.1% of persons older than 70 were categorized as being at a high nutritional risk, while 17.9% were at moderate risk. The DETERMINE checklist elements (illness; reduced intake of fruits, vegetables or dairy products; alcohol consumption; oral health problems; and weight loss) were linked to a higher NRS score. The mean number of hospital days in subjects at nutritional risk was 14.27 (the mean number in the Republic of Croatia is 8.56 days). Although the study involved a small number of subjects, the results showed a substantial presence of malnutrition among the elderly. A timely -intervention by the healthcare system and training of healthcare personnel can be a step towards achieving a better nutritional status.

  6. Nutritional contributions to dementia prevention: main issues on antioxidant micronutrients

    OpenAIRE

    Polidori, Maria Cristina; Schulz, Ralf-Joachim

    2014-01-01

    There is an impressing body of evidence supporting the beneficial role of balanced nutrition in lowering the risk of dementia and its commonest form, Alzheimer’s disease. Nevertheless, and despite worldwide dementia epidemic, there is much unfounded skepticism and lack of information among physicians. As a result, the diagnosis of cognitive impairment occurs still far too late, at best symptomatic drugs keep being prescribed and patients and caregivers are left with little concrete support in...

  7. Qualitative research in nutrition and dietetics: data analysis issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fade, S A; Swift, J A

    2011-04-01

    Although much of the analysis conducted in qualitative research falls within the broad church of thematic analysis, the wide scope of qualitative enquiry presents the researcher with a number of choices regarding data analysis techniques. This review, the third in the series, provides an overview of a number of techniques and practical steps that can be taken to provide some structure and focus to the intellectual work of thematic analysis in nutrition and dietetics. Because appropriate research methods are crucial to ensure high-quality research, it also describes a process for choosing appropriate analytical methods that considers the extent to which they help answer the research question(s) and are compatible with the philosophical assumptions about ontology, epistemology and methodology that underpin the overall design of a study. Other reviews in this series provide a model for embarking on a qualitative research project in nutrition and dietetics, an overview of the principal techniques of data collection, sampling and quality assessment of this kind of research and some practical advice relevant to nutrition and dietetics, along with glossaries of key terms. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  8. Key issues in nutrition. Supplementation through adulthood and old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahey, P J; Boltri, J M; Monk, J S

    1987-05-01

    A varied and balanced diet is usually adequate to meet the energy, protein, vitamin, and mineral requirements of adults and the elderly. However, some high-risk groups may require supplementation or special dietary recommendations. Some examples are persons on a weight-loss diet, alcoholics, premenopausal women, women taking oral contraceptives, postmenopausal women not taking estrogen, and patients with diminished immunity or cancer. An understanding of the nutritional needs of adult and elderly patients is vital if the primary care physician is to answer their questions and help them maintain good health through dietary adjustment or supplementation.

  9. Nutrition issues in Codex: health claims, nutrient reference values and WTO agreements: a conference report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggett, Peter J; Hathcock, John; Jukes, David; Richardson, David P; Calder, Philip C; Bischoff-Ferrari, Heike; Nicklas, Theresa; Mühlebach, Stefan; Kwon, Oran; Lewis, Janine; Lugard, Maurits J F; Prock, Peter

    2012-03-01

    Codex documents may be used as educational and consensus materials for member governments. Also, the WTO SPS Agreement recognizes Codex as the presumptive international authority on food issues. Nutrient bioavailability is a critical factor in determining the ability of nutrients to provide beneficial effects. Bioavailability also influences the quantitative dietary requirements that are the basis of nutrient intake recommendations and NRVs. Codex, EFSA and some national regulatory authorities have established guidelines or regulations that will permit several types of health claims. The scientific basis for claims has been established by the US FDA and EFSA, but not yet by Codex. Evidence-based nutrition differs from evidence-based medicine, but the differences are only recently gaining recognition. Health claims on foods may provide useful information to consumers, but many will interpret the information to mean that they can rely upon the food or nutrient to eliminate a disease risk. NRVs are designed to provide a quantitative basis for comparing the nutritive values of foods, helping to illustrate how specific foods fit into the overall diet. The INL-98 and the mean of adult male and female values provide NRVs that are sufficient when used as targets for individual intakes by most adults. WTO recognizes Codex as the primary international authority on food issues. Current regulatory schemes based on recommended dietary allowances are trade restrictive. A substantial number of decisions by the EFSA could lead to violation of WTO agreements.

  10. The effects of drugs on nutrition

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Drug treatment can have a detrimental effect on nutritional status and drugs ... non-prescription medication dispensed due to chronic diseases such ... and cytochrome P450 in the liver, lungs and small intestine and ... Alcoholic beverages.

  11. Tailored nutrition education: is it really effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyles, Helen; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona

    2012-03-01

    There has been a growing interest in tailored nutrition education over the previous decade, with a number of literature reviews suggesting this intervention strategy holds considerable potential. Nevertheless, the majority of intervention trials undertaken to date have employed subjective self-report outcome measures (such as dietary recalls). The aim of the present review is to further consider the likely true effect of tailored nutrition education by assessing the findings of tailored nutrition education intervention trials where objective outcome measures (such as sales data) have been employed. Four trials of tailored nutrition education employing objective outcome measures were identified: one was undertaken in eight low-cost supermarkets in New Zealand (2010; n 1104); one was an online intervention trial in Australia (2006; n 497); and two were undertaken in US supermarkets (1997 and 2001; n 105 and 296, respectively). Findings from the high-quality New Zealand trial were negative. Findings from the US trials were also generally negative, although reporting was poor making it difficult to assess quality. Findings from the high-quality online trial were positive, although have limited generalisability for public health. Trials employing objective outcome measures strongly suggest tailored nutrition education is not effective as a stand-alone strategy. However, further large, high-quality trials employing objective outcome measures are needed to determine the true effectiveness of this popular nutrition intervention strategy. Regardless, education plays an important role in generating social understanding and acceptance of broader interventions to improve nutrition.

  12. Prevalence of hypoalbuminemia and nutritional issues in hospitalized elders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Felipe; Bettinelli, Luiz Antonio; Dobner, Taise; Stobbe, Júlio César; Pomatti, Gabriela; Telles, Cristina Trevizan

    2016-08-08

    to estimate the prevalence of hypoalbuminemia in hospitalized elders, related to socio-demographic variables, nutritional status and length of stay. crosscutting study with 200 patients hospitalized in a large hospital in the South of Brazil during three months. Evaluations, lab tests and interviews through questionnaires were performed. the average albuminemia was 2,9 ± 0,5g/dL. Hypoalbuminemia was diagnosed in 173 subjects (87%) and was absent in 27 (13%) that have normal albuminemia (p=0,000). After six days of hospitalization, the prevalence of low levels grew significantly to 90% (p=0,002), average 2,7 ± 0,5g/dL. Using the Mini Nutritional Assessment, it was observed that 41 patients were malnourished and from those, 40 had hypoalbuminemia. the prevalence of hypoalbuminemia proved to be high, in approx. nine in ten elders, and the nutritional status and the length of stay proved to be related to the decrease of serum albumin levels. Thus, it is suggested that monitoring albumin levels should be done to evaluate the risk that the patient has to develop malnutrition and other complications during hospital stays. estimar a prevalência de hipoalbuminemia em idosos hospitalizados, em relação às variáveis sociodemográficas, estado nutricional e tempo de internação. estudo transversal, com 200 pacientes internados em hospital de grande porte do sul do Brasil, durante o período de três meses. Foram realizadas avaliações, análise de exames laboratoriais e entrevista através de questionário. a média de albuminemia foi 2,9 ± 0,5g/dL. O diagnóstico de hipoalbuminemia, foi encontrado em 173 sujeitos (87%), e não revelado em 27 (13%), que apresentaram albuminemia normal (p=0,000). Constatou-se que após seis dias de internação a prevalência de níveis baixos aumentou significativamente para 90% (p=0,002), com média de 2,7 ± 0,5g/dL. Utilizando-se a Mini Avaliação Nutricional, observou-se que 41 pacientes estavam desnutridos, e que destes, 40

  13. Nutrition labelling is a trade policy issue: lessons from an analysis of specific trade concerns at the World Trade Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thow, Anne Marie; Jones, Alexandra; Hawkes, Corinna; Ali, Iqra; Labonté, Ronald

    2017-01-12

    Interpretive nutrition labels provide simplified nutrient-specific text and/or symbols on the front of pre-packaged foods, to encourage and enable consumers to make healthier choices. This type of labelling has been proposed as part of a comprehensive policy response to the global epidemic of non-communicable diseases. However, regulation of nutrition labelling falls under the remit of not just the health sector but also trade. Specific Trade Concerns have been raised at the World Trade Organization's Technical Barriers to Trade Committee regarding interpretive nutrition labelling initiatives in Thailand, Chile, Indonesia, Peru and Ecuador. This paper presents an analysis of the discussions of these concerns. Although nutrition labelling was identified as a legitimate policy objective, queries were raised regarding the justification of the specific labelling measures proposed, and the scientific evidence for effectiveness of such measures. Concerns were also raised regarding the consistency of the measures with international standards. Drawing on policy learning theory, we identified four lessons for public health policy makers, including: strategic framing of nutrition labelling policy objectives; pro-active policy engagement between trade and health to identify potential trade issues; identifying ways to minimize potential 'practical' trade concerns; and engagement with the Codex Alimentarius Commission to develop international guidance on interpretative labelling. This analysis indicates that while there is potential for trade sector concerns to stifle innovation in nutrition labelling policy, care in how interpretive nutrition labelling measures are crafted in light of trade commitments can minimize such a risk and help ensure that trade policy is coherent with nutrition action. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Effects of nutrition education on levels of nutritional awareness of pregnant women in Western iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallah, Farnoush; Pourabbas, Ahmad; Delpisheh, Ali; Veisani, Yousef; Shadnoush, Mahdi

    2013-01-01

    Maternal nutritional health, before and during pregnancy, influences the health status of herself and her developing fetus. Pregnancy is an important condition for improving nutritional knowledge. The present study aimed at determining effects of nutrition education on levels of nutritional awareness of a representative group of pregnant women in Western Iran. A quasi-experimental intervention was undertaken on a random sample of pregnant women (n = 100) attending urban health centers in Ilam city (western Iran) during the year 2011 for prenatal care. A nutritional education program containing two to four lessons was undertaken for small groups of between six to ten women. Nutritional knowledge was assessed before intervention (pretest) and followed by two posttests within three weeks interval. The awareness level of pregnant women about healthy nutrition was significantly increased from 3% before intervention to 31% after the nutritional education intervention (P nutritional education intervention will have a positive effect on nutritional awareness of pregnant women.

  15. Selected pharmacokinetic issues of the use of antiepileptic drugs and parenteral nutrition in critically ill patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd Arwa Y

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives To conduct a systematic review for the evidence supporting or disproving the reality of parenteral nutrition- antiepileptic drugs interaction, especially with respect to the plasma protein-binding of the drug. Methods The articles related to the topic were identified through Medline and PubMed search (1968-Feburary 2010 for English language on the interaction between parenteral nutrition and antiepileptic drugs; the search terms used were anti-epileptic drugs, parenteral nutrition, and/or interaction, and/or in vitro. The search looked for prospective randomized and nonrandomized controlled studies; prospective nonrandomized uncontrolled studies; retrospective studies; case reports; and in vitro studies. Full text of the articles were then traced from the Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM library subscribed databases, including Wiley-Blackwell Library, Cochrane Library, EBSCOHost, OVID, ScienceDirect, SAGE Premier, Scopus, SpringerLINK, and Wiley InterScience. The articles from journals not listed by USM library were traced through inter library loan. Results There were interactions between parenteral nutrition and drugs, including antiepileptics. Several guidelines were designed for the management of illnesses such as traumatic brain injuries or cancer patients, involving the use of parenteral nutrition and antiepileptics. Moreover, many studies demonstrated the in vitro and in vivo parenteral nutrition -drugs interactions, especially with antiepileptics. Conclusions There was no evidence supporting the existence of parenteral nutrition-antiepileptic drugs interaction. The issue has not been studied in formal researches, but several case reports and anecdotes demonstrate this drug-nutrition interaction. However, alteration in the drug-free fraction result from parenteral nutrition-drug (i.e. antiepileptics interactions may necessitate scrupulous reassessment of drug dosages in patients receiving these therapies. This

  16. Selected pharmacokinetic issues of the use of antiepileptic drugs and parenteral nutrition in critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salih, Muhannad R M; Bahari, Mohd Baidi; Abd, Arwa Y

    2010-12-31

    To conduct a systematic review for the evidence supporting or disproving the reality of parenteral nutrition- antiepileptic drugs interaction, especially with respect to the plasma protein-binding of the drug. The articles related to the topic were identified through Medline and PubMed search (1968-Feburary 2010) for English language on the interaction between parenteral nutrition and antiepileptic drugs; the search terms used were anti-epileptic drugs, parenteral nutrition, and/or interaction, and/or in vitro. The search looked for prospective randomized and nonrandomized controlled studies; prospective nonrandomized uncontrolled studies; retrospective studies; case reports; and in vitro studies. Full text of the articles were then traced from the Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM) library subscribed databases, including Wiley-Blackwell Library, Cochrane Library, EBSCOHost, OVID, ScienceDirect, SAGE Premier, Scopus, SpringerLINK, and Wiley InterScience. The articles from journals not listed by USM library were traced through inter library loan. There were interactions between parenteral nutrition and drugs, including antiepileptics. Several guidelines were designed for the management of illnesses such as traumatic brain injuries or cancer patients, involving the use of parenteral nutrition and antiepileptics. Moreover, many studies demonstrated the in vitro and in vivo parenteral nutrition -drugs interactions, especially with antiepileptics. There was no evidence supporting the existence of parenteral nutrition-antiepileptic drugs interaction. The issue has not been studied in formal researches, but several case reports and anecdotes demonstrate this drug-nutrition interaction. However, alteration in the drug-free fraction result from parenteral nutrition-drug (i.e. antiepileptics) interactions may necessitate scrupulous reassessment of drug dosages in patients receiving these therapies. This reassessment may be particularly imperative in certain clinical situations

  17. The effects of drugs on nutrition | Van Zyl | South African Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 24, No 3 (2011) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. The effects of drugs on nutrition. M Van Zyl ...

  18. Effect of a nutrition education programme on nutritional status of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Globally, the prevalence of chronic and acute malnutrition and micronutrient deficiency is high in young children, especially in developing countries. Nutrition education is an important intervention to address these challenges. Objective. To determine the nutritional (anthropometric and micronutrient) status of ...

  19. The effect of Integrated nutrition care intervention on the nutritional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The right to adequate nutrition in children is essential for the attainment of high standards of health. The health and nutritional status of orphans and vulnerable children is important as it affects their growth, health and mental development. However, these children suffer from malnutrition as they have limited access to ...

  20. The effect of a nutrition education program on the nutritional knowledge, hemoglobin levels, and nutritional status of Nicaraguan adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jean Burley; Pawloski, Lisa; Rodriguez, Claudia; Lumbi, Laura; Ailinger, Rita

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a community-based nutrition education program on the nutritional knowledge, hemoglobin levels, and nutritional status of Nicaraguan adolescent girls and the nutritional knowledge of their mothers. Self-care deficit nursing theory was used in this study. This longitudinal study used a mixed quantitative/qualitative design to study the effect of the nutrition education program. The nonprobability sample consisted of 182 adolescent girls and 67 of their mothers. The setting for the study was a community (barrio) in Managua, Nicaragua. INTERVENTION/MEASUREMENT: A team of nurse and nutrition researchers created the nutrition education program designed to improve girls' and mother's nutrition-related self-care operations. Data collection was carried out for 4 years for girls and 2 years for mothers in Managua, Nicaragua, using questionnaires, a HemoCue, and anthropometric measures. The findings of this study were that girls' and mothers' nutritional knowledge scores significantly improved in most cases after participation in the nutrition intervention program. Girls' hemoglobin levels did not significantly improve and their nutritional status findings were mixed. Girls and mothers described what dietary changes girls made and why.

  1. The Interplay between Maternal Nutrition and Stress during Pregnancy: Issues and Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Karen L; Buss, Claudia; Wadhwa, Pathik D; Entringer, Sonja

    2017-01-01

    Several studies about humans and animals have separately examined the effects of prenatal nutrition and stress on fetal development, pregnancy, and birth outcomes, and subsequent child health and disease risk. Although substantial evidence from non-pregnant literature supports the presence of bidirectional interactions between nutrition and stress at various psychological, behavioral, and physiological levels, such interaction effects have not yet been systematically examined in the context of pregnancy. This paper discusses the multifaceted and multilevel relationship between nutrition and stress. It then reviews the currently available observational and experimental evidence in animals and humans regarding the interplay between maternal psychosocial stress, dietary intake, and nutritional state during pregnancy, and implications for maternal and child health-related outcomes. Key Messages: During pregnancy, maternal psychosocial stress, dietary behavior, and nutritional state likely regulate and counter-regulate one another. Emerging evidence suggests that omega-3 fatty acids may attenuate maternal psychosocial stress, and that high maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index exacerbates unhealthy dietary behaviors under high-stress conditions. Longitudinal studies are warranted in order to understand the interplay between prenatal psychosocial stress, diet, and stress- and nutrition-related biomarkers to obtain further insight and inform the development and design of future, more effective intervention trials for improved maternal and child health outcomes. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Effects of nutritional supplementation and genotype on milk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of nutritional supplementation and genotype on milk production and fertility of lactating dairy ... Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa ... The objective of this study was to determine effects of nutrition on milk production and ...

  3. Documentation of functional and clinical effects of infant nutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koletzko, Berthold; Szajewska, Hania; Ashwell, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    The Early Nutrition Academy and the Child Health Foundation, in collaboration with the Committee on Nutrition, European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, held a workshop in March 2011 to explore guidance on acquiring evidence on the effects of nutritional interven......The Early Nutrition Academy and the Child Health Foundation, in collaboration with the Committee on Nutrition, European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, held a workshop in March 2011 to explore guidance on acquiring evidence on the effects of nutritional...... interventions in infants and young children. The four objectives were to (1) provide guidance on the quality and quantity of evidence needed to justify conclusions on functional and clinical effects of nutrition in infants and young children aged...

  4. Effect of a nutrition education programme on nutritional status of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Therefore, the indigenous and traditional food systems of poor and ... practices at the household level and by protecting the nutritional. Background. Globally, the .... be eaten daily; using salt sparingly; eating fats sparingly; and using food and ... Some of the households used more than one source of water, as communal tap ...

  5. Cost-effective design of economic instruments in nutrition policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smed Sinne

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper addresses the potential for using economic regulation, e.g. taxes or subsidies, as instruments to combat the increasing problems of inappropriate diets, leading to health problems such as obesity, diabetes 2, cardiovascular diseases etc. in most countries. Such policy measures may be considered as alternatives or supplements to other regulation instruments, including information campaigns, bans or enhancement of technological solutions to the problems of obesity or related diseases. 7 different food tax and subsidy instruments or combinations of instruments are analysed quantitatively. The analyses demonstrate that the average cost-effectiveness with regard to changing the intake of selected nutritional variables can be improved by 10–30 per cent if taxes/subsidies are targeted against these nutrients, compared with targeting selected food categories. Finally, the paper raises a range of issues, which need to be investigated further, before firm conclusions about the suitability of economic instruments in nutrition policy can be drawn.

  6. Cost-effective design of economic instruments in nutrition policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård; Smed, Sinne

    2007-01-01

    This paper addresses the potential for using economic regulation, e.g. taxes or subsidies, as instruments to combat the increasing problems of inappropriate diets, leading to health problems such as obesity, diabetes 2, cardiovascular diseases etc. in most countries. Such policy measures may....... The analyses demonstrate that the average cost-effectiveness with regard to changing the intake of selected nutritional variables can be improved by 10–30 per cent if taxes/subsidies are targeted against these nutrients, compared with targeting selected food categories. Finally, the paper raises a range...... of issues, which need to be investigated further, before firm conclusions about the suitability of economic instruments in nutrition policy can be drawn....

  7. Effects of processing on nutritional composition and quality

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The effects of processing on the nutritional composition and quality evaluation of ... P ≤ 0.01 ) differences in total dry matter and total sugar content between samples, ... Faculty of Tourism and Hospitality Management, Department of Nutrition, ...

  8. Effects of Nutritional Status and Supplementation on Resumption of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Context: Breastfeeding patterns, ethnic variation and nutrition have been shown to influence the return of menstruation after childbirth, but the role played by nutritional status requires further elucidation, particularly in a place like Nigeria where undernutrition is common. Objectives: To determine the effects of nutrition and ...

  9. Effects of Nutrition Health Intervention on Pupils' Nutrition Knowledge and Eating Habits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raiha, Teija; Tossavainen, Kerttu; Turunen, Hannele; Enkenberg, Jorma; Kiviniemi, Vesa

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the effects of nutrition health intervention on pupils' nutrition knowledge and eating habits from grade seven to grade nine. The study was part of the ENHPS (since 2008, Schools for Health in Europe (SHE)) program in Finland, and more specifically its sub-project titled "From Puijo to the…

  10. Practice paper of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics abstract: ethical and legal issues of feeding and hydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Denise Baird; Posthauer, Mary Ellen; O'Sullivan Maillet, Julie

    2013-07-01

    It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics that individuals have the right to request or refuse nutrition and hydration as medical treatment. Registered dietitians should work collaboratively as part of an interprofessional team to make recommendations on providing, withdrawing, or withholding nutrition and hydration in individual cases and serve as active members of institutional ethics committees. This practice paper provides a proactive, integrated, systematic process to implement the Academy's position. The position and practice papers should be used together to address the history and supporting information of ethical and legal issues of feeding and hydration identified by the Academy. Elements of collaborative ethical deliberation are provided for pediatrics and adults and in different conditions. The process of ethical deliberation is presented with the roles and responsibilities of the registered dietitian and the dietetic technician, registered. Understanding the importance and applying concepts dealing with cultural values and religious diversity is necessary to integrate clinical ethics into nutrition care. Incorporating screening for quality-of-life goals is essential before implementing the Nutrition Care Process and improving health literacy with individual interactions. Developing institution-specific policies and procedures is necessary to accelerate the practice change with artificial nutrition, clinical ethics, and quality improvement projects to determine best practice. This paper supports the "Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: Ethical and Legal Issues of Feeding and Hydration" published in the June 2013 issue of the Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Hunger in America: Hearings on Hunger and Related Nutritional Issues, before the Subcommittee on Nutrition and Investigations of the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry, United States Senate, and the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry, United States Senate. One Hundredth Congress, Second Session (Cedar Rapids, Iowa, January 30, 1988; Washington, D.C., March 1 and 28, 1988).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry.

    This report presents the testimony of numerous expert witnesses who appeared at three hearings on the following topics: (1) Hunger and Related Nutritional Issues; (2) U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food Assistance Programs; and (3) Domestic Hunger and Related Nutritional Issues. The following major issues were discussed: (1) the number of…

  12. Marketing nutrition & health-related benefits of food & beverage products: enforcement, litigation & liability issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roller, Sarah; Pippins, Raqiyyah

    2010-01-01

    Over the past decade, the liability risks associated with food and beverage product marketing have increased significantly, particularly with respect to nutrition and health-related product benefit claims. FDA and FTC enforcement priorities appear to have contributed to the increasing liability trends that are associated with these nutrition and health-related claims. This article examines key enforcement and litigation developments involving conventional food and beverage product marketing claims during the first 18 months of President Obama's administration: Part I considers FDA enforcement priorities and recent warning letters; Part II considers FTC enforcement priorities, warning letters, and consent orders; and Part III considers the relationship between FDA and FTC enforcement priorities and recent false advertising cases brought by private parties challenging nutrition and health-related marketing claims for food and beverage products. The article makes recommendations concerning ways in which food and beverage companies can help minimize liability risks associated with health-related marketing claims. In addition, the article suggests that federal policy reforms may be required to counter the perverse chilling effects current food liability trends appear to be having on health-related marketing claims for food and beverage products, and proposes a number of specific reforms that would help encourage the responsible use of well-substantiated marketing claims that can help foster healthy dietary practices. In view of the obesity prevention and other diet-related public health priorities of the Obama administration, the article suggests that this is an opportune time to address the apparent chilling effects increasing food liability risks are having on nutrition and health-related marketing claims for healthy food and beverage products, and potential adverse consequences for public health.

  13. New Nutrition Standards for Idaho School Meals. Nourishing News. Volume 4, Issue 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idaho State Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Idaho Child Nutrition Programs (CNP) released the New Nutrition Standards for Idaho School Meals in January 2009 with the recommendation that all School Food Authorities fully implement the New Nutrition Standards for Idaho School Meals into their programs starting August 2009. Along with the release of the New Nutrition Standards for Idaho School…

  14. Combining nutrition and exercise to optimize survival and recovery from critical illness: Conceptual and methodological issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyland, Daren K; Stapleton, Renee D; Mourtzakis, Marina; Hough, Catherine L; Morris, Peter; Deutz, Nicolaas E; Colantuoni, Elizabeth; Day, Andrew; Prado, Carla M; Needham, Dale M

    2016-10-01

    Survivors of critical illness commonly experience neuromuscular abnormalities, including muscle weakness known as ICU-acquired weakness (ICU-AW). ICU-AW is associated with delayed weaning from mechanical ventilation, extended ICU and hospital stays, more healthcare-related hospital costs, a higher risk of death, and impaired physical functioning and quality of life in the months after ICU admission. These observations speak to the importance of developing new strategies to aid in the physical recovery of acute respiratory failure patients. We posit that to maintain optimal muscle mass, strength and physical function, the combination of nutrition and exercise may have the greatest impact on physical recovery of survivors of critical illness. Randomized trials testing this and related hypotheses are needed. We discussed key methodological issues and proposed a common evaluation framework to stimulate work in this area and standardize our approach to outcome assessments across future studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of an individualised nutritional education and support programme on dietary habits, nutritional knowledge and nutritional status of older adults living alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Jeong-Ah; Park, JeeWon; Kim, Chun-Ja

    2017-09-07

    The effects of an individualised nutritional education and support programme on dietary habits, nutritional knowledge and nutritional status of 71 older adults living alone were examined. Although a regular dietary meal plan is recommended for improving nutritional status of older adults living alone, little research is done in this field in Korea. A pre- and post-test controlled quasi-experimental design was used at public health centres. The intervention group participated in an intensive nutritional education and support programme once a week for 8 weeks with dietary menus provided by home visiting nurses/dieticians; control group received usual care. Dietary habits and nutritional knowledge were assessed using structured questionnaires; nutritional intake status was analysed using Computer Aided Nutritional Analysis Program 5.0. The mean age of participants was 77.6 years, and 81.7% of the participants were women. At 8 weeks, there were significant interactions of group by time for dietary habits, nutritional knowledge and selected nutritional status of protein, iron and vitamins of B 2 and C. Changes over time in the mean score of dietary habits and nutritional knowledge were significantly improved in the intervention group compared to the control group. The percentages of normal nutrition intake of protein, iron and vitamins A and C in the intervention group were significantly higher than the control group at 8 weeks. Nutritional education and support programme positively impacted dietary habits, nutritional knowledge and selected nutritional status in older adults living alone, and we highlight the need for community-based nutritional education and counselling programmes. Older adults living alone in a community have relatively poor nutritional status and thus require tailored nutritional intervention according to objective nutritional analysis. It is necessary to link visiting nurses with dieticians in the community to manage effective nutritional

  16. Thermogenic Effect from Nutritionally Enriched Coffee Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennings Peter F

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of nutritionally enriched JavaFit™ (JF coffee (450 mg of caffeine, 1200 mg of garcinia cambogia, 360 mg of citrus aurantium extract, and 225 mcg of chromium polynicotinate on resting oxygen uptake (VO2, respiratory exchange ratio (RER, heart rate (HR, and blood pressure (BP in healthy and physically active individuals. Method Ten subjects (8 male, 2 female; 20.9 ± 1.7 y; 178.1 ± 10.4 cm; 71.8 ± 12.1 kg underwent two testing sessions administered in a randomized and double-blind fashion. During each session, subjects reported to the Human Performance Laboratory after at least 3-h post-absorptive state and were provided either 354 ml (1.5 cups of freshly brewed JF or commercially available caffeinated coffee (P. Subjects then rested in a semi-recumbent position for three hours. VO2 and HR were determined every 5 min during the first 30 min and every 10 min during the next 150 min. BP was determined every 15 min during the first 30 min and every 30 min thereafter. Area under the curve (AUC analysis was computed for VO2, whereas a session-average was calculated for RER, HR and BP. Results Initial analysis revealed no significant differences. However, seven of the ten subjects were considered responders to JF (had a higher AUC for VO2during JF than P. Statistical analysis showed the difference between JF and P (12% to be significantly different in these responders. In addition, the average systolic BP was higher (p Conclusion It appears that consuming a nutritionally-enriched coffee beverage may increase resting energy expenditure in individuals that are sensitive to the caffeine and herbal coffee supplement. In addition, this supplement also appears to affect cardiovascular dynamics by augmenting systolic arterial blood pressure.

  17. Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of States, Districts, and Schools That Required Teaching Nutrition and Dietary Behavior, by School Level 100 80 60 40 20 0 72. ... no comparable variable existed in both survey years. Nutrition Services • 68.6% of schools offered breakfast to students and 63.0% participated ...

  18. Assessment of Nutritional Status in Children With Cancer and Effectiveness of Oral Nutritional Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürlek Gökçebay, Dilek; Emir, Suna; Bayhan, Turan; Demir, Hacı Ahmet; Gunduz, Mehmet; Tunc, Bahattin

    2015-01-01

    Malnutrition is a common consequence of cancer in children, but the most effective methods of nutrition intervention are under debate. We aimed to evaluate the nutritional status of children diagnosed with cancer, and to investigate the effect of oral nutritional supplements on anthropometric measurements, biochemical parameters, and outcome. A randomized clinical study of 45 newly diagnosed cancer patients was performed. Anthropometric and biochemical data and related factors were assessed at 0, 3, and 6 months after diagnosis. On initial anthropometric assessment, prevalence of malnutrition by weight or height was found to be lower as compared with body mass index (BMI), or weight for height (WFH), or arm anthropometry. Twenty-six of the patients (55%) received oral nutritional supplement. During the second 3 months after diagnosis, there was a statistically significant decrease in number of the patients with WFH Nutritional intervention is necessary to promote normal development and increase functional status as a child receives intensive treatment. Protein- and energy-dense oral nutritional supplements are effective for preventing weight loss in malnourished children.

  19. Nutritional Issues of HIV/AIDS Orphans in Sagamu South Western ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Little is known about the health and nutrition of those HIV/AIDS orphans and inconsistent findings make it difficult to assess if orphans and other vulnerable children have specific nutritional needs. This study investigated nutritional status HIV/AIDS orphans in Sagamu. The study population consisted of fifty seronegative ...

  20. Interactive Distance Learning Effectively Provides Winning Sports Nutrition Workshops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricketts, Jennifer; Hoelscher-Day, Sharon; Begeman, Gale; Houtkooper, Linda

    2001-01-01

    Interactive distance-education (n=226) and face-to-face (n=129) continuing education workshops for health care and education professionals on sports nutrition were evaluated immediately and after 6 months. The well-designed distance-education format was as effective and acceptable as face to face and increased sports nutrition knowledge. (SK)

  1. Similarities in functional attributes and nutritional effects of magadi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-02-14

    Feb 14, 2011 ... effects of magadi soda and bean debris-ash used in cooking ... observed, communities should be informed of the negative nutritional effects of these condiments so as .... Sodium levels were significantly (P 三 0.05) lower.

  2. Effectiveness of multidisciplinary nutritional care on nutritional intake, nutritional status and quality of life in patients with hip fractures: a controlled prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Jellie C.; Goosen, Jon H. M.; de Wolf, G. Sander; Verheyen, Cees C. P. M.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a multidisciplinary intervention program on nutritional intake and of nutritional intake on nutritional status and quality of life in older patients treated for a hip fracture. A controlled prospective cohort study included 66 patients

  3. Evaluation of the Effect of Knowledge Concerning Healthy Nutrition and Nutrition Science on the Knowledge Development Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asghari

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Nutrition can be regarded as an important part of any preparation program, as well as an important part of life. It seems essential to develop nutritional science and improve eating habits with the purpose of developing a healthy diet and avoiding the outcomes that arise from a lack of nutrition. Proper nutrition is one of the important factors for the development of health. Lack of sufficient awareness about nutrition can result in improper eating habits. Objectives The present study evaluated the effect of knowledge about healthy nutrition and nutrition science on the knowledge development approach. Materials and Methods In this cross-sectional descriptive study, the statistical population consisted of 190 experts and other scholars in the area of nutritional science. A questionnaire based on demographic details, nutritional science, nutrition education, research, proper solutions to individuals’ nutritional problems, and a culture of nutrition was used for data collection. Results A relatively strong positive correlation was found between the knowledge development approach, nutritional science, nutrition education and research, and proper solutions for individual nutritional problems and a culture of nutrition (P < 0.001. Conclusions 1 Effective enhancement and participation in an academic community will be important in the future of food and nutrition security; however, major gaps and weaknesses also exist in this context; 2 The main weaknesses in relation to the lack of clear policies and procedures include focusing on only Tehran, Iran; the need to overcome bureaucracy; and problems related to motivation, capital, and international communications; 3 Qualitative and quantitative improvement of research is not possible without access to skilled experts and researchers; 4 To solve these problems, it will be beneficial to pay more attention to the role of universities, facilitate intellectual communication among professors in

  4. Effect of Processing and Subsequent Storage on Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perchonok, Michele H.

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation includes the following objectives: 1) To determine the effects of thermal processing, freeze drying, irradiation, and storage time on the nutritional content of food; 2) To evaluate the nutritional content of the food items currently used on the International Space Station and Shuttle; and 3) To determine if there is a need to institute countermeasures. (This study does not seek to address the effect of processing on nutrients in detail, but rather aims to place in context the overall nutritional status at the time of consumption).

  5. Chemical and nutritional features of the meat issued from two chicken broiler genotypes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radu-Rusu, R M; Vacaru-Opris, I; Usturoi, M G; Radu-Rusu, C.G. [Animal Science Faculty, University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Iasi (Romania)], E-mail: rprobios@gmail.com

    2009-07-01

    Full text: Nutrition quality, consequently the nutrients level and quality in food, is a main factor influencing the consumers' health status. The food industry should consider all possible ways to improve nutritional value of aliments. Despite this, the data related to some quality indexes of the poultry meat, that could contribute to establish an overall image of the nutritional and dietetic facts of this product are poorly represented in the scientific literature, mainly when the consumer might be interested by the meat produced and commercialised nowadays in Romania. It imposed to organise some studies related to certain qualitative features of the skeletal muscles issued from chicken broilers, knowing that the technical specifications of the companies producing hybrids do not issue about them, mainly focusing on the meat yield parameters. The original researches have been organised in two experimental series, which had as main goal the analysis of the qualitative meat production at two of the most used commercial chicken hybrids in our country - 'COBB-500' (60 chickens, sex ratio 1:1) and 'ROSS-308' (60 chickens, sex ratio 1:1), reared in similar technological conditions. This paper emphasises on those results dealing with meat chemical composition and caloricity. There has been sampled five pair of skeletal muscles, from those carcass areas with market importance: Pectoralis superficialis (PS) and Pectoralis profundis (PP) - breast, Biceps brachialis (BB) - wings, Semimembranosu (SM) - thighs and Gastrocnemius medialis (GM) - drumsticks. They were processed in accordance with the analytical chemistry laboratory methods in order to assess dry mater and water content, proteins and amino acids content, lipids and fatty acids content, these values leading to caloricity computation. The achieved results are briefly listed below: - for both studied hybrids, it was observed that the males pectoral muscles comprise a higher quantity of dry matter, compared to the

  6. Elements of effective nutrition education for adults with Diabetes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elements of effective nutrition education for adults with Diabetes mellitus in resource poor settings: A review. ... Journal Home > Vol 14, No 1 (2009) >. Log in or Register to get access ... Type 2 diabetes is increasing to epidemic levels globally.

  7. Pharmacological and other beneficial effects of anti- nutritional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-29

    Dec 29, 2008 ... Key words: Pharmacological, beneficial effects, anti-nutritional factors, plants. INTRODUCTION ...... Rankin SM, DeWhalley CV, Hoult S, Jessup W, Willins GM, Collard J, .... saponins from alfalfa on weeds and wheat. Bot. Bull ...

  8. Effect of Biological and Chemical Ripening Agents on the Nutritional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of Biological and Chemical Ripening Agents on the Nutritional and Metal Composition of Banana ( Musa spp ) ... Journal Home > Vol 18, No 2 (2014) > ... curcas leaf were used and compared with a control with no ripening agent.

  9. Effect of hospital nutrition support on growth velocity and nutritional status of low birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzeh, Firas S; Alazzeh, Awfa Y; Dabbour, Ibrahim R; Jazar, Abdelelah S; Obeidat, Ahmed A

    2014-10-01

    Infants with low birth weights are provided with hospital nutrition support to enhance their survivability and body weights. However, different hospitals have different nutrition support formulas. Therefore, the effectiveness of these nutrition support formulas should be investigated. To assess the effect of hospital nutrition support on growth velocity and nutritional status of low birth weight infants at Al-Noor hospital, Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional study was conducted between October, 2010 and December, 2012. Three hundred newborns were recruited from Al-Noor Hospital in Makkah city, Saudi Arabia. Infants were selected according to their birth weights and were divided equally into three groups; (i) Low Birth Weight (LBW) infants (1501- 2500 g birth weight), (ii) Very Low Birth Weight (VLBW) infants (1001-1500 g birth weight) and (iii) Extremely Low Birth Weight (ELBW) infants ( 0.05) were observed among groups. Serum calcium, phosphorus and potassium levels at discharge were higher (p < 0.05) than that at birth for ELBW and VLBW groups; while sodium level decreased in ELBW group to be within normal ranges. Albumin level was improved (p < 0.05) in ELBW group. Health care management for low birth weight infants in Al-Noor Hospital was not sufficient to achieve normal growth rate for low birth weight infants, while biochemical indicators were remarkably improved in all groups. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  10. Issues of effective field theories with resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gegelia, J.; Japaridze, G.

    2014-01-01

    We address some issues of renormalization and symmetries of effective field theories with unstable particles - resonances. We also calculate anomalous contributions in the divergence of the singlet axial current in an effective field theory of massive SU(N) Yang-Mills fields interacting with fermions and discuss their possible relevance to the strong CP problem. (author)

  11. Ethical issues in the development and implementation of nutrition-related public health policies and interventions: A scoping review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña-Rosas, Juan Pablo; Saxena, Abha; Zamora, Gerardo

    2017-01-01

    Background The limited integration of ethics in nutrition-related public health policies and interventions is one major concern for those who have the task of implementing them. Ethical challenges that are overlooked during the development of such interventions could raise serious ethical issues during their implementation and even after. As a result, these decision makers need technical support and ethical guidance for adaptation of interventions to local (cultural, social, economic, etc.) contexts. Aim The goal of this scoping review is to delineate and “map” the range of ethical issues in nutrition-related public health interventions, as well as the range of the various fields in which they may arise. Methods A scoping review of empirical research and conceptual literature was conducted following the framework of Arksey and O’Malley. Searches using PubMed with Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) categories and Advanced Search Builder as well as in the Global Health Library were performed. The final sample consists of 169 publications. Results The ethics of public health prevention or treatment of obesity and non-communicable diseases is the most explicitly and frequently discussed subject. In comparison, ethical issues raised by public health interventions in the fields of undernutrition, breastfeeding, vitamin/mineral supplementation and food fortification, food security, food sustainability and food safety are addressed in a lower proportion of the sample. The results illustrate the various natures, types, and scopes of existing public health nutrition-related interventions, and the various ethical issues that may be raised by these interventions, in addition to the numerous and different contexts in which they may be implemented. Discussion The ethical issues faced in the development and implementation of nutrition-related public health interventions are varied and cannot be equated with, nor generalized about, when dealing with specific activities in this

  12. Ethical issues in the development and implementation of nutrition-related public health policies and interventions: A scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurlimann, Thierry; Peña-Rosas, Juan Pablo; Saxena, Abha; Zamora, Gerardo; Godard, Béatrice

    2017-01-01

    The limited integration of ethics in nutrition-related public health policies and interventions is one major concern for those who have the task of implementing them. Ethical challenges that are overlooked during the development of such interventions could raise serious ethical issues during their implementation and even after. As a result, these decision makers need technical support and ethical guidance for adaptation of interventions to local (cultural, social, economic, etc.) contexts. The goal of this scoping review is to delineate and "map" the range of ethical issues in nutrition-related public health interventions, as well as the range of the various fields in which they may arise. A scoping review of empirical research and conceptual literature was conducted following the framework of Arksey and O'Malley. Searches using PubMed with Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) categories and Advanced Search Builder as well as in the Global Health Library were performed. The final sample consists of 169 publications. The ethics of public health prevention or treatment of obesity and non-communicable diseases is the most explicitly and frequently discussed subject. In comparison, ethical issues raised by public health interventions in the fields of undernutrition, breastfeeding, vitamin/mineral supplementation and food fortification, food security, food sustainability and food safety are addressed in a lower proportion of the sample. The results illustrate the various natures, types, and scopes of existing public health nutrition-related interventions, and the various ethical issues that may be raised by these interventions, in addition to the numerous and different contexts in which they may be implemented. The ethical issues faced in the development and implementation of nutrition-related public health interventions are varied and cannot be equated with, nor generalized about, when dealing with specific activities in this field. More importantly, these ethical issues

  13. Ethical issues in the development and implementation of nutrition-related public health policies and interventions: A scoping review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Hurlimann

    Full Text Available The limited integration of ethics in nutrition-related public health policies and interventions is one major concern for those who have the task of implementing them. Ethical challenges that are overlooked during the development of such interventions could raise serious ethical issues during their implementation and even after. As a result, these decision makers need technical support and ethical guidance for adaptation of interventions to local (cultural, social, economic, etc. contexts.The goal of this scoping review is to delineate and "map" the range of ethical issues in nutrition-related public health interventions, as well as the range of the various fields in which they may arise.A scoping review of empirical research and conceptual literature was conducted following the framework of Arksey and O'Malley. Searches using PubMed with Medical Subject Headings (MeSH categories and Advanced Search Builder as well as in the Global Health Library were performed. The final sample consists of 169 publications.The ethics of public health prevention or treatment of obesity and non-communicable diseases is the most explicitly and frequently discussed subject. In comparison, ethical issues raised by public health interventions in the fields of undernutrition, breastfeeding, vitamin/mineral supplementation and food fortification, food security, food sustainability and food safety are addressed in a lower proportion of the sample. The results illustrate the various natures, types, and scopes of existing public health nutrition-related interventions, and the various ethical issues that may be raised by these interventions, in addition to the numerous and different contexts in which they may be implemented.The ethical issues faced in the development and implementation of nutrition-related public health interventions are varied and cannot be equated with, nor generalized about, when dealing with specific activities in this field. More importantly, these

  14. An audit of local government planning tools for their potential use in addressing community food and nutrition issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Elizabeth; Hammond, Melinda; Martin, Caroline; Burns, Catherine; Groos, Anita

    2010-04-01

    This project aimed to identify how local government planning tools could be used to influence physical and policy environments to support healthy eating behaviours in communities. An audit of Queensland's legislative and non-legislative local government planning tools was conducted by a public health nutritionist to assess their potential use in addressing strategies to achieve positive nutrition outcomes. Ten strategies were identified and covered the following themes: improving access to healthy foods and drinks; increasing access to breastfeeding facilities; decreasing fast food outlet density; and unhealthy food advertising. The audit found that all of the 10 strategies to achieve positive nutrition outcomes could be considered through three or more of the planning tools. Based on the findings of this audit, local government planning tools provide opportunities to address food and nutrition issues and contribute toward creating physical and policy environments that support healthy eating behaviours.

  15. Issues of work intensity, pace, and sustainability in relation to work context and nutritional status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panter-Brick, Catherine

    2003-01-01

    This article raises issues about work intensity, pace, and sustainability during physical activity, focusing attention on the nature of work in labor-intensive societies, the management of exertion in habitual tasks, and the health and broad socioeconomic correlates of alternative ways to regulate work patterns. At the heart of this review are concerns to document human adaptability (in terms of the physical and behavioral management of heavy work) and to renew debate regarding the conceptualization and measurement of work intensity (variously evaluated in absolute or relative terms, as indexed by oxygen consumption, energy expenditure, percentage maximal work capacity, heart rate elevation, time and motion indicators, or physiological cost). Three questions are examined: Is heavy work primarily a matter of time or energy intensity? How is heavy work habitually sustained? What is the bigger picture relating work performance to work context and to nutritional or health status? It is argued that many arduous activities, such as carrying loads, demand endurance over time rather than intensive effort per unit time, and that work pace management lies in regulating both the rate of work and the time in rest during physical activity. Furthermore, strategies that maximize long-term endurance (adopted by "tortoises") and those that maximize short-term productivity (adopted by "hares") are appropriate to different work contexts (e.g., a subsistence or wage-labor economy) and suit individuals with different health status and ability. Thus, work intensity is an important aspect of the links between physical activity, health, productivity, and society, as noted in literature reviewing objectives for sustainable development and public health messages for disease risk management. These areas of scholarship are underresearched, partly because consensus has been slow in agreeing on which are the best measures of work pace and work intensity for use in field situations, and which

  16. Effect of infection on nutritional status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scrimshaw, N.S.

    1994-01-01

    All infections no matter how mild decrease nutrient intakes and increase nutrient losses even when subclinical. The losses include decreased intestinal absorption, direct loss of nutrient in the gut, internal diversion for metabolic responses to infection and increased BMR when fever is present. Infection influences in this way not only protein and energy status but also that of most other nutrients. The clinical importance of these consequences of infection depends on the prior state of the individual, the nature and duration of the infection and the diet of the individual during the infection, particularly dietary intake during the convalescent period and whether full recovery takes place before another infection occurs. In industrialized countries particular attention must be paid to the nutrition of hospitalized patients since they are frequently debilitated by their primary disease, morbidity, and their nutritional status. Morbidity and mortality are increased by nosocomial infections to which the poorly nourished individual is more susceptible. (author). Refs, 9 figs, 4 tabs

  17. Researching the impact of oral health on diet and nutritional status: methodological issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moynihan, Paula; Thomason, Mark; Walls, Angus; Gray-Donald, Katherine; Morais, Jose A; Ghanem, Henry; Wollin, Stephanie; Ellis, Janice; Steele, Jimmy; Lund, James; Feine, Jocelyne

    2009-04-01

    Assessment of the impact of dental function on diet and nutritional status requires robust methodologies and a standardised approach to increase accuracy of results and to facilitate cross study comparisons. The objectives of this paper are: to report the outcomes of a consensus workshop that critically reviewed publications reporting on dietary methodologies in relation to the impact of oral health on nutrition; to highlight future directions for research and; to make recommendations for appropriate use of methodologies for future research. Data relevant to nutrition and dental status published from 1980 to 2005 in English were presented at the consensus workshop for discussion and appraisal. Relevant papers were retrieved through PubMed. Relevant texts were obtained from the library at Newcastle University, UK. A purposive sample of original articles that illustrated the application of a range of nutritional methodologies to the study of oral health impacts was identified. Original flagship texts on nutritional methodologies were reviewed. Numerous studies have shown an association between loss of teeth and inferior diet. Further research is required to elucidate the impact of novel approaches to prosthetic rehabilitation and the impact of contemporaneous dietary and dental intervention on diet, nutritional status, disease progression and quality of life. The recommendation of the consensus workshop was that future studies should adopt a comprehensive approach to the assessment of nutrition that encompasses measurement of diet, body composition, biochemical indices of intake and levels of nutrients, and functional biomarkers of disease.

  18. University-level nutrition training in West Africa: cost and financing issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodjinou, Roger; Bosu, William; Fanou, Nadia; Zagre, Noel; Tchibindat, Félicité; Baker, Shawn; Delisle, Helene

    2015-01-01

    There is a serious shortage of skilled nutrition professionals in West Africa. Investing in nutrition training is one of the strategies for strengthening the human resource base in nutrition. However, little is known about how nutrition training in the region is financed and the levels of tuition fees charged. The purpose of this study was to provide a comprehensive assessment about the levels of tuition fees charged for nutrition training in the West Africa region and to determine to what extent this is of reach to the average student. The data for this study were obtained from 74 nutrition degree programs operating in nine West African countries in 2013 through semi-structured interviews during on-site visits or through self-administered questionnaires. They included the age of the programs, school ownership, tuition fees, financial assistance, and main sources of funding. Tuition fees (in 2013 US$) were expressed per program to enable uniformity and comparability. Simple descriptive and bivariate analyses were performed. Results from 74 nutrition training programs in nine countries showed a wide variation in tuition fees within and between countries. The tuition fees for bachelor's, master's, and doctoral programs, respectively, ranged from 372 to 4,325 (mean: 2,353); 162 to 7,678 (mean: 2,232); and 369 to 5,600 (mean: 2,208). The tuition fees were significantly higher (pstudent. Recent master's programs appeared to charge higher fees than older ones. We found a significant negative correlation between tuition fees and the age of the program, after controlling for school ownership (r=-0.33, pstudents from poor background to nutrition training. Governments should institute financing mechanisms such as scholarships, public-private partnerships, credit facilities, and donor funding to facilitate access to tertiary-level nutrition training in the region.

  19. Report on Nutrition and Teenage Pregnancy Hearings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narins, Dorice M.; Hill, Virginia R.

    Because of the importance of nutrition during teenage pregnancies, the Illinois State Council on Nutrition held public hearings in Chicago and in Carbondale, areas having a high incidence of infant mortality. Several issues were identified: (1) effects on nutrition of low income, poor nutrition habits, and lack of understanding of the increased…

  20. Ceramics radiation effects issues for ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinkle, S.J.

    1993-01-01

    The key radiation effects issues associated with the successful operation of ceramic materials in components of the planned International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) are discussed. Radiation-induced volume changes and degradation of the mechanical properties should not be a serious issue for the fluences planned for ITER. On the other hand, radiation-induced electrical degradation effects may severely limit the allowable exposure of ceramic insulators. Degradation of the loss tangent and thermal conductivity may also restrict the location of some components such as ICRH feedthrough insulators to positions far away from the first wall. In-situ measurements suggest that the degradation of physical properties in ceramics during irradiation is greater than that measured in postirradiation tests. Additional in-situ data during neutron irradiation are needed before engineering designs for ITER can be finalized

  1. Effect of nutrition education on knowledge of nutrition in relation to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ... be due to lack of nutritional knowledge on the health consequences of their eating habits. ... university undergraduates in order to create awareness about nutrition with a view ...

  2. [Nutritional epigenetics and epigenetic effects of human breast milk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukoyanova, O L; Borovik, T E

    The article provides an overview of the current literature on nutritional epigenetics. There are currently actively studied hypothesis that nutrition especially in early life or in critical periods of the development, may have a role in modulating gene expression, and, therefore, have later effects on health in adults. Nutritional epigenetics concerns knowledge about the possible effects of nutrients on gene expression. Human breast milk is well-known for its ability in preventing necrotizing enterocolitis, infectious diseases, and also non-communicable diseases, such as obesity and related disorders. This paper discusses about presumed epigenetic effects of human breast milk and some its components. While evidence suggests that a direct relationship may exist of some components of human breast milk with epigenetic changes, the mechanisms involved are stillunclear.

  3. The Effects of a Nutritional Intervention on the Nutritional Knowledge of Children and Adolescents with Visual Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celeste-Williams, Lyndsey; Lieberman, Lauren J.; Banerjee, Priya; Boyle, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a nutritional program on the nutritional knowledge of children and adolescents with visual impairments. The results indicated that there was a significant difference between the scores of the experimental and control groups and that age and vision had no effect on the acquisition of…

  4. Nutritional conditioning : The effect of fasting on drug metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammers, L.A.

    2018-01-01

    The studies described in this thesis focus on the effect of fasting, as nutritional modulator, on drug metabolism. Drug metabolism varies considerably between and within patients, which may result in treatment failure or, conversely, in untoward side effects. Many factors contribute to the

  5. Issues for effective implementation of burnup credit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parks, C.V.; Wagner, J.C.

    2001-01-01

    In the United States, burnup credit has been used in the criticality safety evaluation for storage pools at pressurized water reactors (PWRs) and considerable work has been performed to lay the foundation for use of burnup credit in dry storage and transport cask applications and permanent disposal applications. Many of the technical issues related to the basic physics phenomena and parameters of importance are similar in each of these applications. However, the nuclear fuel cycle in the United States has never been fully integrated and the implementation of burnup credit to each of these applications is dependent somewhat on the specific safety bases developed over the history of each operational area. This paper will briefly review the implementation status of burnup credit for each application area and explore some of the remaining issues associated with effective implementation of burnup credit. (author)

  6. Review of the School Meals Service and Other School Nutritional Issues in Wales. Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, J.; Powell, R.; Smith, R.

    2006-01-01

    In 2005 the Welsh Local Government Association (WLGA) commissioned the National Foundation for Educational Research (NFER) to gather evidence on local authority (LA) and school approaches to nutrition in schools in order to inform the work of the WLGA Schools Food Task and Finish Group. This report presents the findings of that research.…

  7. Web-Site as an Educational Tool in Biology Education: A Case of Nutrition Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fancovicova, Jana; Prokop, Pavol; Usak, Muhammet

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the efficacy and feasibility of using website in biology education. We have explored the World Wide Web as a possible tool for education about health and nutrition. The websites were teaching tools for primary school students. Control groups used the traditional educational materials as books or worksheets,…

  8. University-level nutrition training in West Africa: cost and financing issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Sodjinou

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is a serious shortage of skilled nutrition professionals in West Africa. Investing in nutrition training is one of the strategies for strengthening the human resource base in nutrition. However, little is known about how nutrition training in the region is financed and the levels of tuition fees charged. The purpose of this study was to provide a comprehensive assessment about the levels of tuition fees charged for nutrition training in the West Africa region and to determine to what extent this is of reach to the average student. Methodology: The data for this study were obtained from 74 nutrition degree programs operating in nine West African countries in 2013 through semi-structured interviews during on-site visits or through self-administered questionnaires. They included the age of the programs, school ownership, tuition fees, financial assistance, and main sources of funding. Tuition fees (in 2013 US$ were expressed per program to enable uniformity and comparability. Simple descriptive and bivariate analyses were performed. Results: Results from 74 nutrition training programs in nine countries showed a wide variation in tuition fees within and between countries. The tuition fees for bachelor's, master's, and doctoral programs, respectively, ranged from 372 to 4,325 (mean: 2,353; 162 to 7,678 (mean: 2,232; and 369 to 5,600 (mean: 2,208. The tuition fees were significantly higher (p<0.05 in private institutions than in public institutions (mean: US$3,079 vs. US$2,029 for bachelor's programs; US$5,118 vs. US$1,820 for master's programs; and US$3,076 vs. US$1,815 for doctoral programs. The difference in the tuition fees between Francophone and Anglophone countries was not statistically significant (mean: US$2,570 vs. US$2,216 for bachelor's programs; US$2,417 vs. US$2,147 for master's programs; US$3,285 vs. US$2,055 for doctoral programs. In most countries, the tuition fees appeared to be out of reach of the average student

  9. Effect of counseling on nutritional status during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Aashima; Kashyap, Sushma

    2006-08-01

    To assess the nutritional status and dietary practices among underprivileged pregnant women, identify the lacune, outline implement and assess the effect of nutritional counseling on their dietary intake, anthropometric status and anemia status. Hundred pregnant women belonging to low socio-economic status were interviewed. Based on lacune, nutrition education (NE) was given in the form of simple messages to 50 subjects (NE-group) over 10-16 weeks period, while the remaining 50 formed the comparison group (Non-NE group). Tools used were individual counseling, weekly home visits and group meetings. Anthropometric measurements taken were height and weight. Dietary data was collected using 24-hour recall and food frequency questionnaire. Hemoglobin estimation was done. Effect of intervention was assessed by monitoring changes in dietary practices, weight gain, and nutritional status of the subjects. Baseline findings--low mean maternal body weight (51.05 +/- 7.26 kg), 96.3% anemia prevalence and severely sub-optimal dietary intakes. Post-NE results revealed a significant increase in quality and quantity of the diets consumed. Mean hemoglobin levels significantly increased (Post-NE vs Non-NE = 9.65 +/- 0.97 vs 7.85 +/- 1.58, p nutritional status during pregnancy.

  10. Nutritional status and body composition of inpatients: the effects of nutritional transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia Cristina Portero-McLellan

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To investigate the effects of nutritional transition on the nutritional status and body composition of inpatients. Methods: We assessed 819 inpatients (435 men and 384women regarding clinical, anthropometric and dietary aspects. The anthropometric variables studied were: current weight (CW, height (H, waist circumference (WC, hip circumference (HC, arm circumference (AC, triceps skinfold (TSF and subscapular skinfold thickness (SST. From these measures were determined: the body mass index (BMI, the waist and hip ratio (WHR, the waist and height ratio (RCA, the arm muscle circumference (AMC, the arm muscle area (AMA and arm fat area (AFA. For the diagnosis of central adiposity, we used the relationship between waist and hip circumferences. Results: The mean age was 53.7 ± 16.0 years, with hospital stay of 8 days, being higher among the elderly (p <0.01. Most patients (47.8% were overweight or obese, 48.6% presented altered values of waist circumference and 76.4% had central adiposity. Cardiovascular disease accounted for 45.4% of total admissions, and 60.4% among the elderly. Conclusion: This study showed high prevalence of obesity and central adiposity among inpatients regardless of gender, age, and the reason for admission, evidencing the effects of nutritional transition in the studied population.

  11. Effects of 12 weeks nutrition education on nutritional status in hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harin Rhee

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Protein-energy malnutrition is present in a large proportion of patients with end stage renal disease and, is a strong risk factor for mortality in these patients. This study was aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of 12-weeks nutrition education during the hemodialysis session for the improvement of nutritional status. From the June 2011 to the September 2011, patients who were on regular hemodialysis in Pusan National University Hospital were enrolled in this study. In education group, intensive nutrition education was performed by the hemodialysis nurse, for fifty to sixty minutes during the hemodialysis session, once a week. Curriculum for renal nutrition includes regular taking of their medication, intake of moderate amount of protein and sufficient calories, reduction of water, salt, potassium and phosphate intake. Otherwise, any education program was not performed in patients of control group. Nutrition status was assessed by the subjective global assessment (SGA,body mass index (BMI, triceps skinfold thickness (TSF, arm muscle area(AMC and laboratory markers such as serum albumin, serum blood urea nitrogen(BUN and hemoglobin(Hb level before and after the education. Effect of nutrition education was analyzed using ANCOVA test. A total of 49 patients were enrolled in this study and nutrition education was provided to 25 hemodialysis patients. Their mean age was 57.20±15.49 in education group and 55.13±14.42 in control groupand male was 56.0% in education group and 50.0% in control group and, other baseline characteristics were not significantly different between two groups. After the 12-week education, significant improvement was found in SGA, serum albumin, BUN and Hb level. SGA score was improved from 6.36±0.99 to 6.72±0.61 in education group, compared to control group(6.38±0.88 to 6.42±0.88, p=0.029 . Improvement of serum albumin level, BUN and Hb was as follows: serum albumin(4.23±0.28 to 4.30±0.25 in education group, 4.28±0

  12. A nutritionally mediated risk effect of wolves on elk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christianson, David; Creel, Scott

    2010-04-01

    Though it is widely argued that antipredator responses carry nutritional costs, or risk effects, these costs are rarely measured in wild populations. To quantify risk effects in elk, a species that strongly responds to the presence of wolves, we noninvasively monitored diet selection and nutrient balance in wintering elk in the Upper Gallatin, Montana, USA, over three winters while quantifying the local presence of wolves at a fine spatiotemporal scale. Standard nutritional indices based on the botanical and chemical composition of 786 fecal samples, 606 snow urine samples, and 224 forage samples showed that elk were generally malnourished throughout winter. Increased selection for dietary nitrogen within forage types (e.g., grasses) led to approximately 8% higher fecal nitrogen in the presence of wolves. However, urinary allantoin : creatinine and potassium : creatinine ratios decreased in the presence of wolves, suggesting large declines in energy intake, equal to 27% of maintenance requirements. Urinary nitrogen : creatinine ratios confirmed that deficiencies in nitrogen and/or energy were exacerbated in the presence of wolves, leading to increased endogenous protein catabolism. Overall, the nutritional effects of wolf presence may be of sufficient magnitude to reduce survival and reproduction in wintering elk. Nutritionally mediated risk effects may be important for understanding predator-prey dynamics in wild populations, but such effects could be masked as bottom-up forces if antipredator responses are not considered.

  13. The effect of aging, nutrition, and exercise during HIV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Somarriba

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Gabriel Somarriba, Daniela Neri, Natasha Schaefer, Tracie L MillerDivision of Pediatric Clinical Research, Department of Pediatrics, Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami, Florida, USAAbstract: Medical advances continue to change the face of human immunodeficiency virus–acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS. As life expectancy increases, the number of people living with HIV rises, presenting new challenges for the management of a chronic condition. Aging, nutrition, and physical activity can influence outcomes in other chronic conditions, and emerging data show that each of these factors can impact viral replication and the immune system in HIV. HIV infection results in a decline of the immune system through the depletion of CD4+ T cells. From initial infection, viral replication is a continuous phenomenon. Immunosenescence, a hallmark of aging, results in an increased susceptibility to infections secondary to a delayed immune response, and this phenomenon may be increased in HIV-infected patients. Optimal nutrition is an important adjunct in the clinical care of patients with HIV. Nutritional interventions may improve the quality and span of life and symptom management, support the effectiveness of medications, and improve the patient’s resistance to infections and other disease complications by altering immunity. Moderate physical activity can improve many immune parameters, reduce the risk of acute infection, and combat metabolic abnormalities. As people with HIV age, alternative therapies such as nutrition and physical activity may complement medical management.Keywords: HIV replication, aging, diet, nutrition, exercise, immunity

  14. Species-Specific Effects of Ant Inhabitants on Bromeliad Nutrition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Z Gonçalves

    Full Text Available Predator activities may lead to the accumulation of nutrients in specific areas of terrestrial habitats where they dispose of prey carcasses. In their feeding sites, predators may increase nutrient availability in the soil and favor plant nutrition and growth. However, the translocation of nutrients from one habitat to another may depend on predator identity and diet, as well as on the amount of prey intake. Here we used isotopic (15N and physiological methods in greenhouse experiments to evaluate the effects of the identity of predatory ants (i.e., the consumption of prey and nest sites on the nutrition and growth of the bromeliad Quesnelia arvensis. We showed that predatory ants with protein-based nutrition (i.e., Odontomachus hastatus, Gnamptogenys moelleri improved the performance of their host bromeliads (i.e., increased foliar N, production of soluble proteins and growth. On the other hand, the contribution of Camponotus crassus for the nutritional status of bromeliads did not differ from bromeliads without ants, possibly because this ant does not have arthropod prey as a preferred food source. Our results show, for the first time, that predatory ants can translocate nutrients from one habitat to another within forests, accumulating nutrients in their feeding sites that become available to bromeliads. Additionally, we highlight that ant contribution to plant nutrition may depend on predator identity and its dietary requirements. Nest debris may be especially important for epiphytic and terrestrial bromeliads in nutrient-poor environments.

  15. Documentation of functional and clinical effects of infant nutrition: setting the scene for COMMENT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koletzko, Berthold; Szajewska, Hania; Ashwell, Margaret; Shamir, Raanan; Aggett, Peter; Baerlocher, Kurt; Noakes, Paul; Braegger, Christian; Calder, Philip; Campoy Folgoso, Cristina; Colomb, Virginie; Decsi, Tamás; Domellöf, Magnus; Dupont, Christophe; Fewtrell, Mary; van Goudoever, Johannes B.; Michaelsen, Kim F.; Mihatsch, Walter; Guarino, Alfredo; Koletzko, Sibylle; Rigo, Jacques; Turck, Dominique; Taminiau, Jan

    2012-01-01

    The Early Nutrition Academy and the Child Health Foundation, in collaboration with the Committee on Nutrition, European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, held a workshop in March 2011 to explore guidance on acquiring evidence on the effects of nutritional

  16. Feed the Alien! The Effects of a Nutrition Instruction Game on Children's Nutritional Knowledge and Food Intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermans, Roel C. J.; van den Broek, Nina; Nederkoorn, Chantal; Otten, Roy; Ruiter, Emilie L. M.; Johnson-Glenberg, Mina C.

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Serious games are a promising venue to increase children's nutritional knowledge in an entertaining format. The aim of this study was to test the short-term effectiveness of the Alien Health Game, a videogame designed to teach elementary school children about nutrition and healthy food

  17. Evaluation of nutritional properties and effect of storage conditions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soy-coconut blends were formulated from extracts of soybeans and coconut using different blends or ratios of 90:10; 85:15; 80:20; and 70:30, while 100% Soymilk served as control. The blends were analyzed for nutritional and sensory qualities. The sample blend with the highest sensory scores was used to study the effect ...

  18. Effects of storage conditions and storage period on nutritional and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this work, the effects of storage conditions and storage period on the nutritional and other qualities of stored yam tubers were investigated. ... environment, signs of deterioration of the tuber such as sprouting, weight loss and rotting and some ...

  19. Effect of Dermestes maculatus on the nutritional qualities of two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed to assess the effect on nutritional composition of two 'Edible Insects' (Larva of Oryctes boas and Rhynchophorus phoenicis) after infestation by Dermestes maculatus. The study was done over a period of six weeks by subjecting these edible insects to different conditions of storage (using pepper and salt).

  20. The Effect Of Agricultural Commercialization On The Nutritional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of agricultural commercialization on nutritional status of children in cocoa growing households in Ikwuano Local Government Area of Abia State. A total of 120 cocoa growing households were randomly selected for the study. Anthropometric measures of 169 children were ...

  1. Effect of Body Condition Score and Nutritional Flushing on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pasture or by feeding energy-rich supplements (Johnson, 2001). Nutritional .... Vitamin A,D,E premix. 26.2 ..... Effect of flushing hair sheep ewes during the dry and ... ADSA Foundation Scholar Award, Reproduction loss in high-producing dairy.

  2. Effect of winter nutritional levels on subsequent growth of beef ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of winter nutritional levels on subsequent growth of beef heifers in the Highland Sourveld of Natal. ... Teen 'n lae veebelading van 0,75 GVE/ha (vir die weiperiode) op somerveld, het verse betekenisvol (P < 0,01) meer in massa toegeneem vergeleke met 'n hoë veebelading (1,25 GVE/ha). Binne elk van die ...

  3. Effective time management – selected issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Olejniczak

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Deliberations included in this article contain the basic issues related to the subject of time management. As we know, people who waste their time the most, most complain about the lack of the time. We should treat our time, time of our co-workers, and friends as a valuable, but limited wealth. Principles of effective time management can be applied in any scientific and research institutions, companies or corporations. The benefits of a good and effective time management will be felt not only by ourselves but also by our friends and family. Detailed formulation of objectives, identification and elimination of time wasters and postponing work on later (Procrastination, using methods of time management and systematic control will allow for efficient use of time. A good plan is the basis for optimal and meaningful use of time.

  4. Design Issues for Producing Effective Multimedia Presentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Lisa D.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses design issues for interactive multimedia. Notes that technical communication instructors must consider navigational aids, the degree of control a user should have, audio cues, color and typographical elements, visual elements, and copyright issues. (RS)

  5. Effectiveness of Nutrition Education vs. Non-Nutrition Education Intervention in Improving Awareness Pertaining Iron Deficiency among Anemic Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusoff, Hafzan; Wan Daud, Wan Nudri; Ahmad, Zulkifli

    2013-01-01

    This study was carried out to compare the effect between nutrition education intervention and non-nutrition education intervention on awareness regarding iron deficiency among schooling adolescents in Tanah Merah, one of rural district in Kelantan, Malaysia. This study which was started in year 2010 involved 280 respondents (223 girls, 57 boys, age: 16 yr) from schools in Tanah Merah. The selection criteria were based on hemoglobin level (Hb = 7 - 11.9 g/dL for girls; Hb = 7 - 12.9 g/dL for boys). They were divided into 2 groups. The first group received nutrition education package (Nutrition education, NE), whereas another group was entitled to receive non-nutrition education intervention (Non-Nutrition Education, NNE) (supplement only). Both interventions were implemented for 3 months. The changes in awareness among respondents of both groups were evaluated using multi-choices questionnaire. Nutrition education receiver group (NE) demonstrated improvement in awareness at post-intervention. No substantial improvement was demonstrated by the counterpart group (NNE). Multimedia nutrition education program conducted at school setting was in fact practical and effective in improving awareness on iron deficiency among anemic adolescents.

  6. Effects of nutritional supplementation for HIV patients starting antiretroviral treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Mette Frahm; Abdissa, Alemseged; Kæstel, Pernille

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the effects of lipid based nutritional supplements with either whey or soy protein in patients with HIV during the first three months of antiretroviral treatment (ART) and to explore effects of timing by comparing supplementation at the start of ART and after three months....../µL (−2 to 53 cells/µL) were CD4. Effects of the soy containing supplement on immune recovery were not significant. The effects of the two supplements, however, were not significantly different in direct comparison. Exploratory analysis showed that relatively more lean body mass was gained by patients...... with undetectable viral load at three months. Patients receiving delayed supplementation had higher weight gain but lower gains in functional outcomes. Conclusions: Lipid based nutritional supplements improved gain of weight, lean body mass, and grip strength in patients with HIV starting ART. Supplements...

  7. Single-event effect ground test issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koga, R.

    1996-01-01

    Ground-based single event effect (SEE) testing of microcircuits permits characterization of device susceptibility to various radiation induced disturbances, including: (1) single event upset (SEU) and single event latchup (SEL) in digital microcircuits; (2) single event gate rupture (SEGR), and single event burnout (SEB) in power transistors; and (3) bit errors in photonic devices. These characterizations can then be used to generate predictions of device performance in the space radiation environment. This paper provides a general overview of ground-based SEE testing and examines in critical depth several underlying conceptual constructs relevant to the conduct of such tests and to the proper interpretation of results. These more traditional issues are contrasted with emerging concerns related to the testing of modern, advanced microcircuits

  8. NUTRITIVE EFFECT OF CABBAGE (Brassica oleracea) ON ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF EKWUEME

    Pullets) were randomly assigned to groups of eight genotype-matched birds in a 2-factor layout within a Completely ... cause health problems to the human consumers (Stoker, .... Effects of Genotype, Diet, and their Interaction GxED were.

  9. Nutritional support teams: the cooperation among physicians and pharmacists helps improve cost-effectiveness of home parenteral nutrition (HPN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietka, Magdalena; Watrobska-Swietlikowska, Dorota; Szczepanek, Kinga; Szybinski, Piotr; Sznitowska, Małgorzata; Kłęk, Stanisław

    2014-09-12

    Modern home parenteral nutrition (HPN) requires the preparation of tailored admixtures. The physicians' demands for their composition are often at the variance with pharmaceutical principles, which causes the necessity of either the preparation of ex tempore admixtures or stability testing ensuring long shelf life. Both approaches are not cost-effective. The aim of the study was to use the cooperation among physicians and pharmacists to assure both: cost-effectiveness and patient-tailored HPN admixtures. The first part of the study consisted of the thorough analysis of prescriptions for the most demanding 47 HPN patients (27 females and 20 males, mean age 53.1 year) treated at one HPN center to create few as possible long-shelf life admixtures. The second part of the study consisted of stability testing and modifications. The analysis showed over 137 variations needed to cover all macro- and micronutrients requirements. Their cost as ex-tempore solutions was extremely high (over 110 000 EURO/month) due to logistics and similarly high if stability test for variation were to be performed (68 500 EURO). Therefore prescription was prepared de novo within team of physicians and pharmacists and four base models were designed. Water and electrolytes, particularly magnesium and calcium showed to be the major issues. Stability tests failed in one admixture due to high electrolytes concentration. It was corrected, and the new formula passes the test. Five basic models were then used for creation of new bags. Cost of such an activity were 3 700 EURO (pcooperation within the members of nutritional support team could improve the cost-effectiveness and quality of HPN. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of nutrition education during puberty on nutritional knowledge and behavior of secondary School female students in Birjand in 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Vafaee-Najar

    2014-08-01

    Conclusion: Education through lecture and asking/answering questions can significantly increase adolescents’ awareness and to some extent, their nutritional performance, although more effective methods are advised to promote the situation.

  11. Diabetes Nutrition Therapy: Effectiveness, Macronutrients, Eating Patterns and Weight Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Marion J

    2016-04-01

    Diabetes nutrition therapy provided for individuals with diabetes must be based on research documenting effectiveness. The roles of differing macronutrient percentages, eating patterns and weight loss interventions are controversial. A review of research related to these topics is summarized. Clinical trials as well as systematic reviews and Cochrane reviews report an approximately 1-2% lowering of hemoglobin A1c as well as other beneficial outcomes from nutrition therapy interventions, depending on the type and duration of diabetes and level of glycemic control. There are no ideal percentages of macronutrients or eating patterns or both that apply to all persons with diabetes. Clinical trials demonstrate the effectiveness of modest weight loss and physical activity for the prevention or delay of type 2 diabetes. However, as the disease progresses, weight loss interventions may or may not result in beneficial glycemic and other metabolic outcomes. To be effective, diabetes nutrition therapy must be individualized. Treatment goals, personal preferences (eg, tradition, culture, religion, health beliefs and economics) and the individual׳s ability and willingness to make lifestyle changes all must be considered when educating or counseling individuals with diabetes. A healthy eating pattern emphasizing nutrient-dense foods in appropriate portion sizes, regular physical activity and support are important. A reduced energy intake for persons with prediabetes or type 2 diabetes and matching insulin to planned carbohydrate intake for insulin users is nutrition therapy interventions shown to be effective in achieving glycemic and other metabolic outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of a nutrient-enriched drink on dietary intake and nutritional status in institutionalised elderly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manders, M.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Blauw, Y.H.; Dhonukshe-Rutten, R.A.M.; Hoeckel-Prüst, van L.; Bindels, J.G.; Siebelink, E.; Staveren, van W.A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: (1) To determine whether nutritional supplementation (energy and micronutrients) in institutionalised elderly has a positive effect on dietary intake and nutritional status. (2) To investigate whether individuals tend to compensate for the energy content of the intervention product by

  13. Effectiveness of nutritional supplements on cognitive functioning in elderly persons: a systematic review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manders, M.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Staveren, van W.A.; Wouters-Wesseling, W.; Mulders, A.J.M.J.; Schols, J.M.G.A.; Hoefnagels, W.H.L.

    2004-01-01

    Background. The effectiveness of nutritional supplementation in improving cognitive functioning is evaluated in elderly people. Methods. The authors systematically reviewed randomized controlled trials that compared nutritional supplementation with a placebo treatment. Trials were identified from a

  14. Effectiveness of nutritional supplements on cognitive functioning in elderly persons: a systematic review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manders, M.; Groot, L.C.P.G.M. de; Staveren, W.A. van; Wouters-Wesseling, W.; Mulders, A.; Schols, J.M.G.A.; Hoefnagels, W.H.L.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The effectiveness of nutritional supplementation in improving cognitive functioning is evaluated in elderly people. METHODS: The authors systematically reviewed randomized controlled trials that compared nutritional supplementation with a placebo treatment. Trials were identified from a

  15. Effect of some Socio-economic Factors on the Nutritional Status of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of some Socio-economic Factors on the Nutritional Status of Pregnant ... Conclusion: The need for nutrition education, women empowerment, health support and ... in reducing prevalence of malnutrition among these vulnerable groups.

  16. Effectiveness of Nutrition Education vs. Non-Nutrition Education Intervention in Improving Awareness Pertaining Iron Deficiency among Anemic Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Hafzan Yusoff; Wan Nudri Wan Daud; Zulkifli Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    Background This study was carried out to compare the effect between nutrition education intervention and non-nutrition education intervention on awareness regarding iron deficiency among schooling adolescents in Tanah Merah, one of rural district in Kelantan, Malaysia. Methods: This study which was started in year 2010 involved 280 respondents (223 girls, 57 boys, age: 16 yr) from schools in Tanah Merah. The selection criteria were based on hemoglobin level (Hb = 7 ? 11.9 g/dL for girls; Hb =...

  17. Environmental, Nutrition and Health Issues in a US Refugee Resettlement Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sastre, Lauren; Haldeman, Lauren

    2015-10-01

    INTRODUCTION In 2012, North Carolina ranked in the top ten states in refugee resettlement, with central Guilford County one of the most diverse in the southeast. OBJECTIVE Examine the local resettlement environmental, nutrition and health barriers and needs of refugees in Guilford County, as perceived by individuals providing services to them. METHODS Participants (n = 40) included: medical and social service providers, educators, faith-based volunteers, resettlement agency caseworkers and liaisons to a variety of refugee communities. Guided semistructured interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Themes were identified using deductive content analysis and categorized by frequency of reporting by participants. RESULTS Perceptions were consistent across participants regarding a diverse local refugee population. Resettlement housing was observed to be in poor condition, located in areas of poverty with transportation barriers. However, refugees rarely relocated, due to strong community relationships and support. Perceived dietary risks included: difficulties budgeting and maintaining food assistance, hoarding food, high consumption of sodas and sweets, misperceptions regarding US products (e.g., perceived need for infant formula), and limited health knowledge. Respondents observed that most refugees preferred "fresh" foods, and had strong agricultural skills but lacked green space. Major barriers to health care reported were: poverty, short duration of initial Medicaid coverage, and language (both lack of interpretation services and translated materials). Providers consistently observed type 2 diabetes, weight gain and dental problems across refugee groups. CONCLUSIONS Direct service providers' experiences and observations working with a diverse resettlement population provide unique insight into consistent barriers to achieving good health that confront refugees. While refugees face many barriers, groups often have impressive strengths, such as

  18. Nutritional and environmental effects on reproduction in small ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, G B; Rodger, J; Blache, D

    2004-01-01

    Animals live in environments that are both complex and continually changing, so they have to respond to short- and long-term variations in a wide range of factors, such as photoperiod, nutrition and sociosexual signals. Before they were domesticated, animals developed reproductive strategies that coped with these changes and often took advantage of them. The physiological processes that implement these strategies have been modified to some extent during several millennia of controlled breeding, but most persist. Thus, many genotypes still exhibit profound responses to external inputs, such as the induction of ovulation by sociosexual signals and the doubling of litter size by a change in nutrition. The complexity in these responses is now becoming clearer. For example, with sociosexual signals, we now need to consider the stimulatory effects of males on females, of females on males and of females on females. Similarly, the impact of nutrition has been extended beyond the control of puberty and the production of gametes to include phenomena such as 'fetal programming', with its potentially profound effects on the life-long performance of the animals. Fortunately, our capacity to research these phenomena has been greatly enhanced by technical improvements in hormone assays, molecular and cellular biology, and real-time ultrasound. This has brought us a better understanding of several of the environmental influences on reproduction, including: the cellular processes within ovarian follicles that mediate the effect of nutrition on ovulation rate; the neuroendocrine pathways through which nutritional inputs affect the brain centres that control appetite and reproduction; and the intracerebral pathways through which sociosexual signals (olfactory and non-olfactory) stimulate the reproductive axis. Importantly, we are now beginning to realise that, as well as considering interactions between environmental inputs and genotype, we need to take into account interactions

  19. Effect of nutritional support in children with spastic quadriplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soylu, Ozlem Bekem; Unalp, Aycan; Uran, Nedret; Dizdarer, Gülsen; Ozgonul, Figen Oksel; Conku, Aliye; Ataman, Hamide; Ozturk, Aysel Aydogan

    2008-11-01

    Malnutrition is a common problem in patients with cerebral palsy. We evaluated the effect of nutritional support on clinical findings in children with spastic quadriplegia. Feeding history, numbers of lower respiratory tract infections, and gastrointestinal and neurologic findings were evaluated via questionnaire. Weight, height, head circumference, midarm circumference, and triceps skinfold thickness were measured. Height for age, weight for age, weight for height, body mass index, and weight and height z-scores were calculated. Clinical findings and anthropometric parameters were re-evaluated after nutritional support for 6 months. Forty-five patients were enrolled. No difference was evident between the first and the last height z-scores of 31 patients who completed the follow-up. Weight, height, weight z-scores, weight for age, weight for height, body mass index, midarm circumference, and triceps skinfold thickness exhibited improvement. Moreover, a significant decrease in number of infections was evident. Frequency of seizures and Gross Motor Function Classification System status did not change. Constipation decreased significantly. Nutritional therapy revealed improvements in some anthropometric findings and a decrease in number of infections. Although there was no difference regarding motor development or seizure frequency, further studies with a longer follow-up are required.

  20. Effect of Ultrasound Technology on Food and Nutritional Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojha, Kumari S; Tiwari, Brijesh K; O'Donnell, Colm P

    2018-01-01

    Ultrasound technology has been successfully demonstrated for several food processing and preservation applications. The majority of food processing applications reported refer to liquid foods. Ultrasound has been applied to solid foods in some niche applications, e.g., tenderization of meat, mass transfer applications, and drying. Similar to any other technology, ultrasound also has some positive and negative effects on food quality depending on the application and processing conditions employed. This chapter outlines various applications of ultrasound to food and its effect on food and nutritional quality. © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The effects of drugs on nutrition | Van Zyl | South African Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 24, No 3 (2011) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  2. Evidence-based diabetes nutrition therapy recommendations are effective: the key is individualization

    OpenAIRE

    Franz, Marion J; Boucher, Jackie L; Evert, Alison B

    2014-01-01

    Marion J Franz,1 Jackie L Boucher,2 Alison B Evert3 1Nutrition Concepts by Franz, Inc., Minneapolis, MN, 2Minneapolis Heart Institute Foundation, Minneapolis, MN, 3Diabetes Care Center, University of Washington Medical Center, Seattle, WA, USA Abstract: Current nutrition therapy recommendations for the prevention and treatment of diabetes are based on a systematic review of evidence and answer important nutrition care questions. First, is diabetes nutrition therapy effective? Clinical trials...

  3. Early Enteral Combined with Parenteral Nutrition Treatment for Severe Traumatic Brain Injury: Effects on Immune Function, Nutritional Status and Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Mingchao; Wang, Qiaoling; Fang, Wei; Jiang, Yunxia; Li, Liandi; Sun, Peng; Wang, Zhihong

    2016-11-20

    Objective To compare the conjoint effect of enteral nutrition (EN) and parenteral nutrition (PN) with single EN or PN on immune function, nutritional status, complications and clinical outcomes of patients with severe traumatic brain injury (STBI). Methods A prospective randomized control trial was carried out from January 2009 to May 2012 in Neurological Intensive Care Unit (NICU). Patients of STBI who met the enrolment criteria (Glasgow Coma Scale score 6~8; Nutritional Risk Screening ≥3) were randomly divided into 3 groups and were admi- nistrated EN, PN or EN+PN treatments respectively. The indexes of nutritional status, immune function, complications and clinical outcomes were examined and compared statistically. Results There were 120 patients enrolled in the study, with 40 pationts in each group. In EN+PN group, T lymthocyte subsets CD3+%, CD4+%, ratio of CD3+/CD25+, ratio of CD4+/CD8+, the plasma levels of IgA, IgM, and IgG at 20 days after nutritional treatment were significantly increased compared to the baseline(t=4.32-30.00, Pnutritional status, the serum total protein, albumin, prealbumin and hemoglobin were significantly higher in the EN (t=5.87-11.91; Pnutrition treatment. The serum prealbumin was higher in EN+PN group than that in EN group (t=2.08; Pnutritional status, decrease complications and improve the clinical outcomes in patients with severe traumatic brain injury.

  4. Effect of a School-based Nutrition Education Program on the Nutritional Status of Primary School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parisa Keshani

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Regarding the high prevalence of unhealthy food habits among Iranian children, we aimed to assess the effect of a school-based nutrition education program on nutritional status of primary school students in Shiraz. Materials and Methods: This randomized educational controlled trial was carried out on 221 primary school age children selected by cluster sampling in the elementary schools of Shiraz-Iran. The intervention consisted of 6 nutrition education sessions carried out through one year for children, using active learning methods. Mothers’ education was carried out in person in both lecture and question-answer sessions also via sending text messages and pamphlets. Weight, height and waist circumference (WC of children were measured before and after the intervention. Also a 168-item food frequency questionnaire was completed. Two separate nutrition knowledge questionnaires were filled up by children and their mothers. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 16. Results: 171 children (83 in the case and 88 in the control group, aged 9.5-10.5 years, completed the study. Anthropometric and nutritional knowledge of the participants in both the intervention and control groups was significantly increased. Weight, height, WC and nutritional knowledge increased significantly more in the intervention group compared to the controls. Consumption of fruits and vegetables decreased in the intervention group while plain sugar and fast foods intake increased among the controls. There were no significant differences between the changes in the intake of any of the food groups in the two groups. Conclusions: In conclusion, the designed nutrition education program could increase students’ nutritional knowledge, and lead to a non-significant change towards reducing the consumption of unhealthy foods such as fast foods, sweets and salty snacks.

  5. Effects of combination processes on the nutritive value of food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diehl, J.F.

    1981-01-01

    Treatment with ionizing radiation can reduce the nutritive value of foodstuffs, particularly the levels of certain vitamins. Combination treatments can either aggravate or ameliorate these effects. Considerable losses can occur when irradiation is combined with heating. On the other hand, if irradiation is carried out at low temperature, or with oxygen-free packing, or in the presence of added antioxidants, radiation-induced changes can be minimized. A review of the literature and of the author's work in this field is presented, and some areas of uncertainty which demand further research are mentioned. (author)

  6. Eating disordes and the importance of nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Kučírková, Hana

    2015-01-01

    This thesis deals with nutritional therapy for eating disorders. It explores whether nutritional therapy has an irreplaceable role in treatment of these disorders or whether nutritional therapy has a marginal effect. I describe general issues of eating disorders in a theoretical part of my thesis such as etiology, epidemiology, therapy and nutrition therapy. I composed educational handout about eating in a practical part of my thesis containing fundamental dietary recommendations, menu for un...

  7. Paradigm shift: efficient and cost effective real-time nutritional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ... the assessment of nutritional status and growth monitoring for individuals and at population level. ... water, sanitation, maternal and child health data in the smartphone platform.

  8. Effects of a Nutrition Education Program on the Dietary Behavior and Nutrition Knowledge of Second-Grade and Third-Grade Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Alicia Raby; Struempler, Barbara J.; Guarino, Anthony; Parmer, Sondra M.

    2005-01-01

    This research investigated the effects of a nutrition education program on dietary behavior and nutrition knowledge among elementary school-aged children participating in a Social Cognitive Theory-based nutrition education program. Participants included 1100 second-grade and third-grade students selected by convenience-type sampling from public…

  9. Effectiveness of nutrition education in Dutch primary schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fries, M.C.E.

    2016-01-01

    Nutrition education in Dutch primary schools”

    School-based nutrition education programmes have increasingly been used to teach children about nutrition and to provide them with the skills to make healthy food choices. As these programmes differ in content and delivery, it

  10. Effect of Digital Nutrition Education Intervention on the Nutritional Knowledge Levels of Information Technology Professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Priya; Rani, M Usha

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the changes in knowledge of information technology (IT) professionals after receiving a nutrition education intervention for a month. The sample comprised of 40 IT professionals (29 males and 11 females). The sample was drawn from four IT companies of Hyderabad city using random sampling techniques. The data on the general information of the subjects was collected. The data regarding the commonly accessed sources of nutrition and health information by the subjects was also obtained from the study. The intervention study group received nutrition education by distribution of the developed CD-ROMs to them followed by interactive sessions. To assess the impact of nutrition education intervention, the knowledge assessment questionnaire (KAQ) was developed and administered before and after the education programme. A significant improvement in the mean nutritional knowledge scores was observed among the total study subjects from 22.30 to 40.55 after the intervention (p educated groups on nutrition, physical activity and overall health education to improve their health, lifestyle and eating habits.

  11. Tax issues in structuring effective cogeneration vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yukich, J.M.

    1999-01-01

    A general overview of the Canadian income tax laws under which cogeneration plants will operate was presented. Highlights of some of the more important tax issues associated with cogeneration operations were included. This includes some of the specific rules dealing with the availability of the Manufacturing and Processing tax, credit, capital cost allowance, the Specified Energy Property rules and the tax treatment of Canadian Renewable and Conservation Expenses including the ability of a company to transfer such expenses to shareholders. Since it is expected that future cogeneration plants will have more than one owner, this paper reviewed the various legal structures through which multiple owners can own and run their cogeneration operations. Tax considerations related to the scale of a cogeneration plant were also reviewed

  12. The centenary of the British Food Journal, 1899-1999 - changing issues in food safety regulation and nutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, E.; Oddy, D.J.

    1998-01-01

    Describes the life history of the British Food Journal, its changing editorial team, ownership and editorial focus. The authors have used much wider source material than the archives of the journal, now in its 100th year. The journal was always closely identified with the safety of food, its adulteration and the government’s duty to safeguard the public. The second section reviews the profession and role of the public analyst, in particular the history and development of the Society of Public Analysts. The next and longest section of the monograph is devoted to an interesting examination of food safety, nutrition and food manufacturing issues over the last 100 years. Many of the points raised are illustrated by excerpts from papers written in BFJ and included as Appendices to the monograph. Food irradiation was first raised as a subject in the journal in 1928! Bread and milk as staples in the British diet are looked at in some detail in terms of their ingredients and health properties

  13. Empowering Esrd Patients For Assisted Self Nutritional Care: A Simple But Effective Intervention For Improving Nutritional Status Of Hemodialysis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratim Sengupta

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Protein energy wasting (PEW is a prevalent problem among hemodialysis patients. Lack of adherence to dietary principle based conventional diet charts often fail to satisfy the nutritional requirements of the patients. We studied the effect of simple nutritional training and empowerment of the patients to formulate their own dietary menu in nutritional parameters of hemodialysis patients in 68 stable non diabetic End stage renal disease (ESRD patients who are on maintenance hemodialysis. The factors which otherwise can affect the nutritional status like sepsis, malignancy,tuberculosis were excluded. At the beginning patient's baseline nutritional status was assessed by anthropometric measurements, Subjective Global Assessment and serum albumin level. Body composition was assessed by linear regression equation (Durin-Womersley and Siri equation. The patients were divided in two comparable groups (Group-A&B. In group A patients were prescribed individualized dietary prescription; based on their nutritional allowance as per KDOQI guideline. In Group-B the patients were initially made familiar with the dietary principals of the commonly consumed food. Then they were trained by renal nutritionist by study material, visual aid, and proportional food models and one to one discussion to formulate a dietary menu, by these they were empowered to formulate their own dietary menu. They were constantly assisted when faced any problem. In both the group the nutritional parameters were reassessed after three months of intervention. The results were analyzed statistically. There was statistically significant mean increment in the fat free mass index in GroupB[0.8%(Gr.-AVs1.0%(Gr.-B,(p<0.05], the mean increment in the serum albumin in the GroupB was also significantly higher than GroupA[(0.6gm/dl(Gr.A Vs 0.9 gm/dl(Gr.B, p<0.0].Compared to Group-A there was statistically favorable anthropometric changes in Group-B. In conclusion patient empowerment and self

  14. Key issues in nutrition. Disease prevention through adulthood and old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahey, P J; Boltri, J M; Monk, J S

    1987-07-01

    Certain dietary practices are valid methods of lowering the risk of disease. Others, while popular, have unproven benefits or may even be associated with risks of their own. Careful evaluation of hypercholesterolemia is necessary. Persons with a high level of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and a low level of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol need diet therapy, because they are at increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Weight reduction and fat restriction can lower blood pressure, help control hyperglycemia, and improve the LDL cholesterol-HDL cholesterol ratio. Some evidence indicates a protective role of beta carotene against cancer in animals. However, hypervitaminosis A is dangerous and relatively easy to accomplish, so supplementation beyond a multivitamin tablet is discouraged. Data about inhibition of cancer in humans through use of high doses of vitamin E or C or selenium are inconclusive, and studies of effects of long-term ingestion are not available. In general, megadoses of even healthy substances are thought to be dangerous. Decreased consumption of fat, increased consumption of foods high in fiber, and elimination of alcohol and tobacco are sensible recommendations. Consumption of cruciferous vegetables has not been proven to reduce the incidence of cancer, but a moderate amount of them in the diet would seem reasonable.

  15. Effects of selenium biofortification on crop nutritional quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario eMalagoli

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Selenium (Se at very low doses has crucial functions in humans and animals. Since plants represent the main dietary source of this element, Se-containing crops may be used as a means to deliver Se to consumers (biofortification. Several strategies have been exploited to increase plant Se content. Selenium assimilation in plants affects both sulphur (S and nitrogen (N metabolic pathways, which is why recent research has also focused on the effect of Se fertilization on the production of S- and N- secondary metabolites with putative health benefits. In this review we discuss the function of Se in plant and human nutrition and the progress in the genetic engineering of Se metabolism to increase the levels and bioavailability of this element in food crops. Particular attention is paid to Se biofortification and the synthesis of compounds with beneficial effects on health.

  16. Nutritional issues and self-care measures adopted by cancer patients attending a university hospital in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevgisun Kapucu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to assess the nutritional status of cancer patients and the self-care measures they adopted as a response to nutritional problems. Methods: This descriptive study included seventy cancer patients staying in the oncology and internal disease clinics of a university hospital in Turkey. Data were collected using a questionnaire with 29 questions. Results: The mean age of participants was 40.2 ΁ 1.82 years. Approximately, 62.9% of the patients ate only half of the meals offered to them, 65.7% experienced weight loss, and 45.7% had difficulty eating their meals on their own. Moreover, 47.1% of the patients received nutritional support and nutritional problems were observed in 71.4% of the patients; 80% were unable to eat hospital food, 54.3% had an eating disorder related to a special diet, 30% suffered from loss of appetite, 27% had nausea, and 14.3% had difficulty swallowing. Furthermore, 48.5% of patients responded that they ate home-cooked food or ordered food from outside when questioned about the self-care measures taken to avoid the aforementioned nutritional problems. Conclusions: Most of the cancer patients had serious nutritional problems and ate home-cooked food and used nutritional supplements to overcome these problems. Oncology nurses are responsible for evaluating the nutritional status of cancer patients and eliminating nutritional problems.

  17. Effectiveness and efficacy of nutritional therapy: A systematic review following Cochrane methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscaritoli, Maurizio; Krznarić, Zeljko; Singer, Pierre; Barazzoni, Rocco; Cederholm, Tommy; Golay, Alain; Van Gossum, André; Kennedy, Nicholas; Kreymann, Georg; Laviano, Alessandro; Pavić, Tajana; Puljak, Livia; Sambunjak, Dario; Utrobičić, Ana; Schneider, Stéphane M

    2017-08-01

    Disease-related malnutrition has deleterious consequences on patients' outcome and healthcare costs. The demonstration of improved outcome by appropriate nutritional management is on occasion difficult. The European Society of Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism (ESPEN) appointed the Nutrition Education Study Group (ESPEN-NESG) to increase recognition of nutritional knowledge and support in health services. To obtain the best available evidence on the potential effects of malnutrition on morbidity, mortality and hospital stay; cost of malnutrition; effect of nutritional treatment on outcome parameters and pharmaco-economics of nutritional therapy, a systematic review of the literature was performed following Cochrane methodology, to answer the following key questions: Q1) Is malnutrition an independent predictive factor for readmission within 30 days from hospital discharge? Q2) Does nutritional therapy reduce the risk of readmission within 30 days from hospital discharge? Q3) Is nutritional therapy cost-effective/does it reduce costs in hospitalized patients? and Q4) Is nutritional therapy cost effective/does it reduce costs in outpatients? For Q1 six of 15 identified observational studies indicated that malnutrition was predictive of re-admissions, whereas the remainder did not. For Q2 nine randomized controlled trials and two meta-analyses gave non-conclusive results whether re-admissions could be reduced by nutritional therapy. Economic benefit and cost-effectiveness of nutritional therapy was consistently reported in 16 identified studies for hospitalized patients (Q3), whereas the heterogeneous and limited corresponding data on out-patients (Q4) indicated cost-benefits in some selected sub-groups. This result of this review supports the use of nutritional therapy to reduce healthcare costs, most evident from large, homogeneous studies. In general, reports are too heterogeneous and overall of limited quality for conclusions on impact of malnutrition and its

  18. [Eye contact effects: A therapeutic issue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltazar, M; Conty, L

    2016-12-01

    The perception of a direct gaze - that is, of another individual's gaze directed at the observer that leads to eye contact - is known to influence a wide range of cognitive processes and behaviors. We stress that these effects mainly reflect positive impacts on human cognition and may thus be used as relevant tools for therapeutic purposes. In this review, we aim (1) to provide an exhaustive review of eye contact effects while discussing the limits of the dominant models used to explain these effects, (2) to illustrate the therapeutic potential of eye contact by targeting those pathologies that show both preserved gaze processing and deficits in one or several functions that are targeted by the eye contact effects, and (3) to propose concrete ways in which eye contact could be employed as a therapeutic tool. (1) We regroup the variety of eye contact effects into four categories, including memory effects, activation of prosocial behavior, positive appraisals of self and others and the enhancement of self-awareness. We emphasize that the models proposed to account for these effects have a poor predictive value and that further descriptions of these effects is needed. (2) We then emphasize that people with pathologies that affect memory, social behavior, and self and/or other appraisal, and self-awareness could benefit from eye contact effects. We focus on depression, autism and Alzheimer's disease to illustrate our proposal. To our knowledge, no anomaly of eye contact has been reported in depression. Patients suffering from Alzheimer disease, at the early and moderate stage, have been shown to maintain a normal amount of eye contact with their interlocutor. We take into account that autism is controversial regarding whether gaze processing is preserved or altered. In the first view, individuals are thought to elude or omit gazing at another's eyes while in the second, individuals are considered to not be able to process the gaze of others. We adopt the first stance

  19. Daddy issues: paternal effects on phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rando, Oliver J

    2012-11-09

    The once popular and then heretical idea that ancestral environment can affect the phenotype of future generations is coming back into vogue due to advances in the field of epigenetic inheritance. How paternal environmental conditions influence the phenotype of progeny is now a tractable question, and researchers are exploring potential mechanisms underlying such effects. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The Effects of a Sports Nutrition Education Intervention on Nutritional Status, Sport Nutrition Knowledge, Body Composition, and Performance during Off Season Training in NCAA Division I Baseball Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício Eduardo Rossi, Andrew Landreth, Stacey Beam, Taylor Jones, Layne Norton, Jason Michael Cholewa

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of a sport nutrition education intervention (SNEI on dietary intake, knowledge, body composition, and performance in NCAA Division I baseball players. Resistance trained NCAA Division I baseball players (82.4 ± 8.2 kg; 1.83 ± 0.06 m; 13.7 ± 5 % body fat participated in the study during 12 weeks of off-season training. Fifteen players volunteered for SNEI while 15 players matched for position served as controls (C for body composition and performance. The nutrition intervention group (NI received a 90 min SNEI encompassing energy intake (Kcal, carbohydrate (CHO, protein (PRO, fat, food sources, and hydration. Sport nutrition knowledge questionnaires were administered to NI pre and post. Nutritional status was determined by three-day dietary logs administered to NI pre and post. Body composition and performance (5-10-5 shuttle test, vertical jump, broad jump, 1 RM squat were measured pre and post for C and NI. Knowledge increased in NI. Pro and fat, but not CHO intake increased in NI. FM decreased pre to post in NI (11.5 ± 4.8 vs. 10.5 ± 5.4 kg but not C (11.3 ± 4.7 vs. 11.9 ± 4.5 kg. FFM increased pre to post with no differences between groups. The 5-10-5 shuttle times decreased significantly more in NI (4.58 ± 0.15 vs. 4.43 ± 0.13 sec compared to C (4.56 ± 0.18 vs. 4.50 ± 0.16 sec. Jump and squat performance increased pre to post with no differences between groups. Our findings indicate that an off season SNEI is effective at improving sport nutrition knowledge and some, but not all, nutrient intakes and performance measures in Division I baseball players.

  1. The Effects of a Sports Nutrition Education Intervention on Nutritional Status, Sport Nutrition Knowledge, Body Composition, and Performance during Off Season Training in NCAA Division I Baseball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Fabrício Eduardo; Landreth, Andrew; Beam, Stacey; Jones, Taylor; Norton, Layne; Cholewa, Jason Michael

    2017-03-01

    This study investigated the effects of a sport nutrition education intervention (SNEI) on dietary intake, knowledge, body composition, and performance in NCAA Division I baseball players. Resistance trained NCAA Division I baseball players (82.4 ± 8.2 kg; 1.83 ± 0.06 m; 13.7 ± 5 % body fat) participated in the study during 12 weeks of off-season training. Fifteen players volunteered for SNEI while 15 players matched for position served as controls (C) for body composition and performance. The nutrition intervention group (NI) received a 90 min SNEI encompassing energy intake (Kcal), carbohydrate (CHO), protein (PRO), fat, food sources, and hydration. Sport nutrition knowledge questionnaires were administered to NI pre and post. Nutritional status was determined by three-day dietary logs administered to NI pre and post. Body composition and performance (5-10-5 shuttle test, vertical jump, broad jump, 1 RM squat) were measured pre and post for C and NI. Knowledge increased in NI. Pro and fat, but not CHO intake increased in NI. FM decreased pre to post in NI (11.5 ± 4.8 vs. 10.5 ± 5.4 kg) but not C (11.3 ± 4.7 vs. 11.9 ± 4.5 kg). FFM increased pre to post with no differences between groups. The 5-10-5 shuttle times decreased significantly more in NI (4.58 ± 0.15 vs. 4.43 ± 0.13 sec) compared to C (4.56 ± 0.18 vs. 4.50 ± 0.16 sec). Jump and squat performance increased pre to post with no differences between groups. Our findings indicate that an off season SNEI is effective at improving sport nutrition knowledge and some, but not all, nutrient intakes and performance measures in Division I baseball players.

  2. Effect of weaning period on nutritional status children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamim, S.; Naz, F.; Jamalvi, S.W.; Ali, S.

    2006-01-01

    To determine the effect of age of introduction and the type of weaning foods used, on the nutritional status of children under three years of age. Three hundred and fifty-nine children under 3 years were included in the study. Based on the age of commencement of weaning, the children were categorized as children weaned at appropriate and inappropriate age. For the type of weaning foods, the children were grouped into two categories based on the nature of food items. Children for whom weaning was started at the recommended age of 4-6 months were found to be significantly less malnourished on anthropometric measurements as compared to the other set in which weaning was started at an earlier or later age. Significant statistical difference was noted in the children weaned on nutritious home-made items compared to children having commercial foods. (author)

  3. Effective promotion of healthy nutrition and physical activity in Europe requires skilled and competent people; European Master's Programme in Public Health Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yngve, A; Sjöström, M; Warm, D; Margetts, B; Rodrigo, C P; Nissinen, A

    1999-09-01

    Scientists in basic research and epidemiology deliver messages to policy makers. Effective population based strategies then require people trained and competent in the discipline of Public Health Nutrition (PHN). Since 1997, a European Master's Programme in PHN has been undergoing planning and implementation with the aid of funding from the European Commission (DGV). PHN is used as a broad term covering Nutrition and Physical Activity as well as Health Promotion and Disease Prevention. The partners in this project are academic departments from 17 countries. The students will undertake core modules and electives for a year and a half, followed by a research project for six months. In order to set up formalised procedures for the evaluation of the quality assurance of individual modules from across Europe, a quality assurance system has been set up. The academic year 1999-2000 will allow an opportunity for Universities and Institutes to start new modules, to develop other modules, assess the movement of students between modules, tackle funding issues and allow further marketing of the programme. Future activities include strengthening of the European Network for Public Health Nutrition (ENPHN), the establishment of a consortium with universities, the co-ordination of programme activities with other European Master's Programmes in Public Health, and the incorporation of new Member States from Eastern Europe. We can look forward to a new brand of professionals, who are truly European in their training, but who also have an integrated view of nutrition and physical activity, health promotion and disease prevention and who are prepared for policy making, action planning, implementation and evaluation.

  4. Nutritional decline in cystic fibrosis related diabetes: the effect of intensive nutritional intervention.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    White, H

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Reports indicate that nutritional and respiratory decline occur up to four years prior to diagnosis of cystic fibrosis related diabetes (CFRD). Our aim was to establish whether intensive nutritional intervention prevents pre-diabetic nutritional decline in an adult population with CFRD. METHODS: 48 adult patients with CFRD were matched to 48 controls with CF, for age, gender and lung pathogen status. Nutritional and other clinical indices were recorded at annual intervals from six years before until two years after diagnosis. Data were also analysed to examine the impact of early and late acquisition of CFRD. RESULTS: No important differences in weight, height, body mass index (BMI), lung function or intravenous treatment were found between groups in the six years prior to diagnosis, nor any significant deviation over time. In those who developed diabetes, use of overnight enteral tube feeding (ETF) was four times as likely at the time of diagnosis, compared to controls [ETF 43.8% (CFRD) v 18.8% (CF Controls), OR 4.0, CI 1.3 to 16.4, p=0.01]. Age at onset of CFRD played a significant role in determining the pre-diabetic clinical course. Younger diabetics with continued growth at study onset (n=17) had a lower BMI from 2 years prior to diagnosis compared to controls [BMI 18.9 kg\\/m(2) (CFRD) v 20.8 kg\\/m(2) (CF Controls), diff=1.9, CI -0.1 to 3.7 p=0.04]. The BMI of older diabetics (completed growth at study onset) was equal to that of controls throughout. CONCLUSION: Pre-diabetic nutritional decline is not inevitable in adults with CFRD, but is influenced by age of onset. In the group overall, those with CFRD are more likely to require ETF from 2 years prior to diagnosis. Despite intensive nutritional intervention, patients who continue to grow throughout the pre-diabetic years, show a level of nutritional decline absent in older adults.

  5. Effectiveness of Mentoring Program Practices. Research in Action. Issue 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuBois, David L.

    2007-01-01

    This article focuses on mentoring program practices in relation to issues of effectiveness, while recognizing that implications for program quality conceptualized more broadly is a key concern in need of greater investigation. The author provides an overview of selected conceptual and methodological issues involved with identification of…

  6. Childhood Obesity Study: A Pilot Study of the Effect of the Nutrition Education Program "Color My Pyramid"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jean Burley; Pawloski, Lisa Renee; Goldberg, Patricia; Oh, Kyeung Mi; Stoehr, Ana; Baghi, Heibatollah

    2009-01-01

    The need for successful nutrition interventions is critical as the prevalence of childhood obesity increases. Thus, this pilot project examines the effect of a nutrition education program, "Color My Pyramid", on children's nutrition knowledge, self-care practices, activity levels, and nutrition status. Using a pretest-posttest,…

  7. The effect of nutritional rickets on bone mineral density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacher, Tom D; Fischer, Philip R; Pettifor, John M

    2014-11-01

    Nutritional rickets is caused by impaired mineralization of growing bone. The effect of nutritional rickets on areal bone mineral density (aBMD) has not been established. Our objective was to determine if aBMD is lower in children with active rickets than in healthy control children. We expected that the reduction in aBMD would vary between the radial and ulnar metaphyses near the growth plates and the proximal diaphyses. Case-control study. Primary care outpatient department of a teaching hospital in Jos, Nigeria. Nigerian children with radiographically-confirmed rickets were compared with a reference group of control children without rickets from the same community. Forearm bone density measurements were performed in all children with pDXA. Age, sex, and height-adjusted bone density parameters were compared between children with rickets and control subjects. A total of 264 children with active rickets (ages 13-120 months) and 660 control children (ages 11-123 months) were included. In multivariate analyses controlling for height, age, and gender, rickets was associated with a 4% greater bone area and 7% lower aBMD of the radial and ulnar metaphyses compared with controls (P rickets on the diaphyses of the radius and ulna were more pronounced with an 11% greater bone area, 21% lower aBMD, and 24% lower bone mineral apparent density than controls (P rickets, aBMD values were unrelated to dairy product intake or serum calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, or 25-hydroxyvitamin D. Metaphyseal aBMD was positively associated with radiographic severity score, attributed to bone edge detection artifact by densitometry in active rickets. Rickets results in increased bone area and reduced aBMD, which are more pronounced in the diaphyseal than in the metaphyseal regions of the radius and ulna, consistent with secondary hyperparathyroidism, generalized osteoid expansion and impaired mineralization.

  8. Measuring the Effects of Nutrition on Human Development and Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadeh, Ibrahim Q.

    1974-01-01

    Food and nutrition affect the course in physical development that our bodies will follow. Our emotional make-up and mental behavior may be influenced by diet, but the direct relationship between these aspects of development and nutrition needs further study. A new research approach is described. (Author/RH)

  9. Nutritional Composition of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni Leaf: Effect of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: The results obtained indicate that Stevia leaves is a good source of carbohydrate and other nutrients and hence a substitute for sugar in processed drinks. Furthermore, drying reduces nutritional values with the exception to fiber content. Keywords: Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni , Nutritional composition, Protein, ...

  10. The Effect of Nutritional Therapy on Rehabilitation of Alcoholics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenther, Ruth M.

    In this study, nutrition therapy was found to be an important variable in the successful treatment of alcoholism. Traditional treatment methods, such as psychological and institutional approaches, social and group therapy, and chemotherapy, are noted. Research on nutritional needs of individuals has led to an orthomolecular concept which holds…

  11. Effectiveness of nutrition education, iron supplementation or both on iron status in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapur, D; Sharma, S; Agarwal, K N

    2003-12-01

    A community-based, randomized trial was designed to compare the effect of nutrition education and/or iron supplementation (weekly) on iron status of children in an urban slum in Delhi. Four hundred and fifty one children, 9-36 months of age and their caretakers (mothers), assigned to one of the following groups were included in the cohort. Group 1, nutrition education. Group 2, supplementation (with 20 mg elemental iron). Group 3, nutrition education with supplementation (with 20 mg elemental iron) and Group 4, control given placebo. The intervention program was of four months duration, with a treatment phase of 8 wk followed by 8 wk of no treatment. Post intervention, at 8 wk and at 16 wk, the hemoglobin change in the nutrition education, supplementation, nutrition education with supplementation and control groups was 2.9, 1.9, 3.8 and -5.9%, respectively and 2.1, -1.9, 0 and -9.3%, respectively (as compared to initial values). There was no significant effect of any of the intervention at 8 weeks. At 16 wk, there was significant positive effect of nutrition education group (p less than 0.05). The percent change in serum ferritin value at 16 wk in the nutrition education, supplementation, nutrition education with supplementation and control groups was 5.7, -2.3, -3.4 and -40%, respectively. Serum ferritin values were significantly higher for the nutrition education group (p nutrition education group mothers showed significantly higher nutrition knowledge and the dietary iron intake of children was significantly higher than their control group counterparts (p nutrition education did have a positive effect on the iron status possibly by improving the dietary iron intake.

  12. [Effect of student knowledge in gastronomy schools and origin of residence on their nutritional habits and nutritional status].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalcarz, W; Klemczak, L; Krajewski, P

    1991-01-01

    Nutritional habits and nutritional status of 142 pupils of a Gastronomic School Complex were examined from the standpoint of the year of school, school marks and place of residence. It was found that the year of school and place of residence exerted an effect on the nutritional habits of pupils. These young people failed to prefer dishes and food products recommended in the prophylaxis of civilization diseases. In all subjects the levels of total lipids and beta-lipoproteins exceeded the upper range of the norm. Hemoglobin concentration fluctuated within the lower range of the norm, and that of glucose--within the upper range of the norm. When completing school, the pupils displayed a lowered protein level and elevated glucose level. Pupils inhabiting the school boarding house ought to take part in the decisions on the menu and on food purchases. Recommendations concerning nutrition in the prophylaxis of civilization diseases ought to be as soon as possible introduced into the teaching program of the Gastronomic School Complex.

  13. Effect of ultraviolet radiation, smoking and nutrition on hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trüeb, Ralph M

    2015-01-01

    Similar to the rest of the skin, the hair is exposed to noxious environmental factors. While ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and smoking are well appreciated as major factors contributing to the extrinsic aging of the skin, their effects on the condition of hair have only lately attracted the attention of the medical community. Terrestrial solar UVR ranges from approximately 290 to 400 nm; UV-B (290-315 nm) reaches only the upper dermis, while the penetration of UV-A (315-400 nm) into the dermis increases with wavelength. The two most important chronic effects of UVR on the skin and bald scalp are photocarcinogenesis and solar elastosis; however, the effects of UVR on hair have largely been ignored. As a consequence of increased leisure time and a growing popularity of outdoor activities and holidays in the sun, the awareness of sun protection of the skin has become important and should also apply to the hair. Besides being the single-most preventable cause of significant cardiovascular and pulmonary morbidity and an important cause of death, the association of tobacco smoking with various adverse effects on the skin and hair has also been recognized. Increasing public awareness of the association between smoking and hair loss seems to offer a good opportunity for the prevention or cessation of smoking, since the appearance of hair plays an important role in the overall physical appearance and self-perception of people. Finally, the quantity and quality of hair are closely related to the nutritional state of an individual. Normal supply, uptake, and transport of proteins, calories, trace elements, and vitamins are of fundamental importance in tissues with high biosynthetic activity, such as the hair follicle. In instances of protein and calorie malnutrition as well as essential amino acid, trace element, and vitamin deficiencies, hair growth and pigmentation may be impaired. Ultimately, important commercial interest lies in the question of whether increasing the

  14. Stable isotope aided evaluation of Community Nutrition Program: effect of food supplementation schemes on maternal and infant nutritional status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarr Cisse, Aita; Dossou, Nicole; Ndiaye, Mamadou

    2002-01-01

    The supplementation program of the community nutrition project (PNC) launched by the Senegalese Government in order to protect the most vulnerable groups (children and women) was evaluated. Using a stable isotope (deuterium), we assessed the effect of the PNC on breastmilk output, mother's body composition, and baby's growth at three months of lactation. Breastmilk triglycerides, lactose, protein, and zinc were also determined. Mothers who were supplemented more than 60 days during pregnancy showed a significant increase in fot- free mass as compared to those who were supplemented for less than 30 days (p= .03). Breastmilk output was not influenced by the supplementation, but breastmilk lactose, total protein, and zinc contents increased significantly (p < .01) in the supplemented mothers. Growth of the babies of the supplemented mothers was better than that of those whose mothers were not supplemented. It was concluded that the food supplementation had beneficial effects on both mothers' and babies' nutritional status depending on the onset of the supplementation.

  15. Effect of nutritional interventions on nutritional status, quality of life and mortality in patients with head and neck cancer receiving (chemo)radiotherapy: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langius, Jacqueline A E; Zandbergen, Myrna C; Eerenstein, Simone E J; van Tulder, Maurits W; Leemans, C René; Kramer, Mark H H; Weijs, Peter J M

    2013-10-01

    We performed a systematic review to examine the effect of nutritional interventions on nutritional status, quality of life (QoL) and mortality in patients with head and neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC) receiving radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy. We searched Pubmed, EMBASE, CENTRAL and Cinahl from inception through January 3rd, 2012 to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) from a broad range of nutritional interventions in patients with HNSCC during (chemo)radiotherapy. Two reviewers independently assessed study eligibility and risk of bias, and extracted data. Of 1141 titles identified, 12 study reports were finally included, describing 10 different studies with 11 interventions. Four out of 10 studies examined the effects of individualized dietary counseling, and showed significant benefits on nutritional status and QOL compared to no counseling or general nutritional advice by a nurse (p gastronomy (PEG) feeding on nutritional status shortly after RT compared with nasogastric feeding (p = 0.001). Two studies showed that prophylactic PEG feeding was not superior over tube feeding if required. This review shows beneficial effects of individualized dietary counseling on nutritional status and QoL, compared to no counseling or standard nutritional advice. Effects of ONS and tube feeding were inconsistent. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  16. Soy Isoflavones in Nutritionally Relevant Amounts Have Varied Nutrigenomic Effects on Adipose Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Giordano

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Soy consumption has been suggested to afford protection from cardiovascular disease (CVD. Indeed, accumulated albeit controversial evidence suggests that daily consumption of ≥25 g of soy protein with its associated phytochemicals intact can improve lipid profiles in hypercholesterolemic humans. However, the belief that soy foods and supplements positively impact human health has become increasingly controversial among the general public because of the reported estrogenic activities of soy isoflavones. In this study, we investigated the nutrigenomic actions of soy isoflavones (in nutritionally-relevant amounts with a specific focus on the adipose tissue, due to its pivotal role in cardiometabolism. Young C57BL/6 mice were maintained for eight weeks under two different diet regimes: (1 purified control diet; or (2 purified control diet supplemented with 0.45 g% soybean dry purified extract (a genistein/daidzein mix. Soy isoflavones increased plasma total cholesterol concentrations and decreased triglyceride ones. Circulating leptin levels was also increased by soy consumption. Differentially expressed genes in adipose tissue were classified according to their role(s in cellular or metabolic pathways. Our data show that soy isoflavones, administered in nutritionally-relevant amounts, have diverse nutrigenomic effects on adipose tissue. Taking into account the moderate average exposure to such molecules, their impact on cardiovascular health needs to be further investigated to resolve the issue of whether soy consumption does indeed increase or decrease cardiovascular risk.

  17. Soy isoflavones in nutritionally relevant amounts have varied nutrigenomic effects on adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, Elena; Dávalos, Alberto; Crespo, Maria Carmen; Tomé-Carneiro, Joao; Gómez-Coronado, Diego; Visioli, Francesco

    2015-01-30

    Soy consumption has been suggested to afford protection from cardiovascular disease (CVD). Indeed, accumulated albeit controversial evidence suggests that daily consumption of ≥25 g of soy protein with its associated phytochemicals intact can improve lipid profiles in hypercholesterolemic humans. However, the belief that soy foods and supplements positively impact human health has become increasingly controversial among the general public because of the reported estrogenic activities of soy isoflavones. In this study, we investigated the nutrigenomic actions of soy isoflavones (in nutritionally-relevant amounts) with a specific focus on the adipose tissue, due to its pivotal role in cardiometabolism. Young C57BL/6 mice were maintained for eight weeks under two different diet regimes: (1) purified control diet; or (2) purified control diet supplemented with 0.45 g% soybean dry purified extract (a genistein/daidzein mix). Soy isoflavones increased plasma total cholesterol concentrations and decreased triglyceride ones. Circulating leptin levels was also increased by soy consumption. Differentially expressed genes in adipose tissue were classified according to their role(s) in cellular or metabolic pathways. Our data show that soy isoflavones, administered in nutritionally-relevant amounts, have diverse nutrigenomic effects on adipose tissue. Taking into account the moderate average exposure to such molecules, their impact on cardiovascular health needs to be further investigated to resolve the issue of whether soy consumption does indeed increase or decrease cardiovascular risk.

  18. EFFECTS OF INTRAUTERINE NUTRITION ON FETAL PROGRAMMING OF REPRODUCTIVE ORGANS AND THE FUTURE REPRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE IN SHEEP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez-Clariget R

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of uterine undernutrition during the embryonic and fetal development has been of concern in human medicine due to the consequences on the health and welfare of the people it causes. However, in animal production it is in just the past two decades that the issue has gained interest from researchers. Animal production based on native pasture grazing systems often presets periods of under nutrition during gestation, so the topic is of particular interest to our region. The aim of this paper is to review the literature on the effects of nutrition, with special emphasis on undernutrition of the pregnant ewe on the intrauterine development of the reproductive tract of both male and female offspring, and the reproductive performance of the adult ewe and ram.

  19. Effect of different processing methods on nutritional composition of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    their rich contents of essential amino acids, vitamins and minerals (Aye ... inherent toxic factors or anti-nutritional components in plants has been .... protein, crude fat, crude fibre and ash from 100. .... soluble in water, leaving insoluble fibre.

  20. The Effectiveness of Community-Based Nutrition Education on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the nutrition status of under five children in developing countries. Methods. A systematic search ... factors provide a threat to the attainment of health-related millennium ... After reading the topic and abstract, 38 articles were identified. Full text.

  1. Effect of mother support groups on nutritional status in children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This study aimed at determining how mother support groups affect the nutrition status of children under 2 years of age ... fants should be fed exclusively on breast milk from birth ... an intervention provides long-term health benefits for.

  2. Facebook Is an Effective Strategy to Recruit Low-Income Women to Online Nutrition Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohse, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Nutrition education research recruitment expense and effort are substantial; sample selection is crucial for intervention assessment. Effectiveness and cost of Facebook to recruit low-income women to an online nutrition program were examined, including biopsychosocial characteristics of Facebook responders. Methods: An ad appeared on…

  3. Reassessing the WIC Effect: Evidence from the Pregnancy Nutrition Surveillance System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Ted; Racine, Andrew; Yunzal-Butler, Cristina

    2008-01-01

    Recent analyses differ on how effective the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) is at improving infant health. We use data from nine states that participate in the Pregnancy Nutrition Surveillance System to address limitations in previous work. With information on the mother's timing of WIC enrollment, we…

  4. [Effect of postoperative precision nutrition therapy on postoperative recovery for advanced gastric cancer after neoadjuvant chemotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Q; Li, Y; Yu, B; Yang, P G; Fan, L Q; Tan, B B; Tian, Y; Yang, A B

    2018-02-23

    Objective: To investigate the effect of postoperative precision nutrition therapy on postoperative recovery (PR) of patients with advanced gastric cancer (AGC) after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NC). Methods: 71 subjects were randomly divided into 2 groups. The 34 patients of research group were treated with postoperative precision nutrition treatment according to the indirect energy measurement method. The 31 patients of control group were treated with traditional postoperative nutrition treatment. All participants were measured for body mass index (BMI), NRS2002, PG-SGA and relevant laboratory test within the 1st day before surgery and 7th day after surgery. Moreover, the difference between two groups in short-term effects were evaluated. Results: The daily energy supply of control group was 30.1%-43.74% higher than that of the experimental group ( P nutritional risk became lower in the research group ( P recovery of patients in the research group was comparable to that of the control group ( P >0.05). Moreover, the complication rate and hospitalization costs of in research group were significantly lower than that of in control group ( P nutritional risks before surgery, the nutritional index and inflammatory index in the research group were better than those in the control group. Conclusion: Postoperative precision nutrition therapy may improve the postoperative nutritional status and short-term effects of patients with AGC after NC.

  5. Examining the Effectiveness of Nutrition Information in a Simulated Shopping Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Berning, Joshua P.; Sprott, David E.

    2011-01-01

    We conduct an experiment with grocery store shoppers using an onsite survey to examine the effectiveness of nutrition labels provided on grocery store shelves. We measure effectiveness of the nutrition labels in terms of how well the labels attract attention and if they affect shopper behavior. Based on our sample, we find that shelf label nutrition information not only attracts shopper attention but affects shopper behavior as well. Further, we find the effect is moderated by a shopper’s p...

  6. Collective effects and impedance issues for the SOLEIL project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flynn, G [Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France). Lab. pour l` Utilisation du Rayonnement Electromagnetique (LURE)

    1996-08-01

    Various issues related to collective effects in the SOLEIL project are addressed. Particular attention is paid to the effects of longitudinal oscillations on undulator brilliance. Preliminary estimates of turbulent bunch lengthening and of the transverse mode coupling threshold are presented. (author)

  7. Effects of preoperative and postoperative enteral nutrition on postoperative nutritional status and immune function of gastric cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Dayong; Feng, Ye; Song, Bin; Gao, Shuohui; Zhao, Jisheng

    2015-03-01

    Effects of preoperative one week enteral nutrition (EN) support on the postoperative nutritional status, immune function and inflammatory response of gastric cancer patients were investigated. 106 cases of gastric cancer patients were randomly divided into preoperative one week EN group (trial group) and early postoperative EN group (control group), which were continuously treated with EN support until the postoperative 9th day according to different treatment protocols. All the patients were checked for their body weight, skinfold thickness, upper arm circumference, white blood cell count (WBC), albumin (ALB), prealbumin (PA), C-reactive protein (CRP), humoral immunity (IgA, IgG), T cell subsets (CD4, CD8 and CD4/CD8), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), etc. on the preoperative and the postoperative 1st and 10th day, respectively. PA and IgG levels of the experimental group were higher than those of the control group on the postoperative 10th day, whereas IL-6 level of the experimental group was lower than that of the control group. EN support for preoperative gastric cancer patients will improve the postoperative nutritional status and immune function, alleviate inflammatory response, and facilitate the recovery of patients.

  8. Effect of nutritional interventions on nutritional status, quality of life and mortality in patients with head and neck cancer receiving (chemo) radiotherapy: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langius, J.A.E.; Zandbergen, M.C.; Eerenstein, S.E.J.; van Tulder, M.W.; Leemans, C.R.; Kramer, M.H.H.; Weijs, P.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Background and aims: We performed a systematic review to examine the effect of nutritional interventions on nutritional status, quality of life (QoL) and mortality in patients with head and neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC) receiving radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy. Methods: We searched Pubmed,

  9. Physical attractiveness, issue agreement, and assimilation effects in candidate appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, James N; Curran, Margaret Ann; Strungaru, Carmen

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the cognitive and affective factors of candidate appraisal by manipulating candidate attractiveness and levels of issue agreement with voters. Drawing upon research in evolutionary psychology and cognitive neuroscience, this analysis proposes that automatic processing of physical appearance predisposes affective disposition toward more attractive candidates, thereby influencing cognitive processing of issue information. An experimental design presented attractive and unattractive candidates who were either liberal or conservative in a mock primary election. The data show strong partial effects for appearance on vote intention, an interaction between appearance and issue agreement, and a tendency for voters to assimilate the dissimilar views of attractive candidates. We argue that physical appearance is important in primary elections when the differences in issue positions and ideology between candidates is small.

  10. [Effect of balanced diet on the nutrition status of schoolchildren in the mountain area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lei; Wang, Yin; Wu, Jie-Shu; Zhu, Ran-Feng; Zhao, Xian-feng; Wang, Zhi-xu; Yin, Shi-an

    2006-09-01

    To study the effect of balanced diet on the nutrition status of primary schoolchildren in the mountain area in November 2004. All the subjects aged 7-9 years old were divided into intervention group and control group. The balanced diet was provided for the intervention group and the control group was maintained on their usual diet for 30 days in December. The anthropometric and nutritional status of the subjects were checked before and after the study. The growth and nutritional status of the intervention group improved significantly. However the unbalanced diet in the control group affects the normal growth of the children because the usual diet can not meet the nutrient requirement. The nutrition intervention can improve the growth and nutritional status of the primary schoolchildren in the mountain area.

  11. Effect of a Nutritional Intervention in Athlete’s Body Composition, Eating Behaviour and Nutritional Knowledge: A Comparison between Adults and Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Nascimento

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study is to evaluate and compare the effect of a nutritional intervention between adolescent and adult. In a before and after quasi-experimental clinical study, 32 athletes (21 adults, age range 20–32 years; 11 adolescents, age range: 12–19 years participated in a nutritional counselling consisting of four consultations separated by an interval of 45 to 60 days. The athlete’s eating behaviour, body composition and nutrition knowledge were evaluated at the beginning and at the end of the protocol. Both groups increased lean body mass and nutritional knowledge. Adolescents increased their mid-arm muscle circumference and improved meal frequency, and daily water intake. Athletes of both groups improved their ingestion of vegetables and fruits and decreased the ingestion of sweets and oils. Adolescents showed a higher prevalence of individuals that remained within or approached to the recommendations of sweets. This is the first study to evaluate and compare the effect of a nutritional intervention between adolescent and adult athletes body composition, eating behaviour and nutritional knowledge. The nutritional counselling has been effective in promoting beneficial changes on the athlete’s eating behaviour, nutritional knowledge and body composition, however, some healthy changes were only experienced by adolescents, especially in the frequency of meals and the intake of sweets.

  12. The effect of artisanal preservation methods on nutritional security of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To establish the magnitude of nutritional loss, duplicate samples of Mukene Rastrineobola argentea were collected from Kiyindi landing site on L. Victoria and Moone landing site on L. Kyoga. Each set of duplicate samples was divided into five portions and kept on ice. For each preservation method a portion was processed ...

  13. Effect of enzyme supplementation on the nutritive value of malted ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The composition of malted sorghum sprout (MSP) and its nutritive value when supplemented with an exogenous enzyme was investigated using weanling albino rats. A nitrogen free basal diet was formulated along with a soya bean meal (SBM) reference diet (10% CP) and two test diets each containing 10% CP supplied ...

  14. Effects of processing on the nutritional composition of fluted pumpkin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fluted pumpkin seeds were processed into the raw, boiled, fermented, germinated and roasted seeds, dried at 500C, milled and sieved. The seed flours were analyzed for nutritional composition, energy, amino acids and fatty acids of the oils. Processing affected the levels of nutrients in the seed. The energy values ranged ...

  15. Effect of substrate on the growth, nutritional and bioactive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rosemary

    2016-07-06

    Jul 6, 2016 ... growth, determining nutritional and bioactive components of two oyster mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus and. Pleurotus ... and the method of cultivation are of major importance ..... rendered alkaline with a few drops of ammonia solution. 5 ..... production and non-enzymatic antioxidant activity of Pleurotus.

  16. Effect of Natural Fermentation on the Chemical and Nutritional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Changes in the chemical and nutritional composition of naturally fermented soy nono were studied at ambient temperature (27 ± 2oC) for 72 h. The differently fermented soy nono samples were collected at 6 h intervals and analysed for chemical, proximate and mineral composition using standard laboratory procedures.

  17. Effect of Traditional smoking Method on Nutritive Values and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SH

    smoking method is an important preservation method which could enhance the nutritive values of fishes and possibly reduce post-harvest losses. Keywords: ... Fishery Laboratory of College of. Agricultural Sciences, Olabisi Onabanjo .... colour helps to determine quality, degree of processing or spoilage level (Clifford et al.,.

  18. Effects of nutritional supplementation on periodontal parameters, carotenoid antioxidant levels, and serum C-reactive protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harpenau, Lisa A; Cheema, Abida T; Zingale, Joseph A; Chambers, David W; Lundergan, William P

    2011-05-01

    Few studies have focused on the role of nutrition in periodontal disease. The purpose of this trial was to determine the effect of a nutritional supplement on gingival inflammation, bleeding, probing depth, clinical attachment level, carotenoid antioxidant level, and C-reactive protein. The test supplement, consisting of a standard multivitamin formula, as well as several phytonutrients associated with antiinflammatory/antioxidant effects, provided modest benefits in reducing inflammation; however, further studies with larger populations and longer intervention are warranted.

  19. EVALUATING THE EFFECT OF AN EDUCATIONAL INTERVENTION ON PARENTS' NUTRITIONAL SOCIAL SUPPORT

    OpenAIRE

    Fatemeh Mokhtari1 , Soheila Ehsanpour2 and Ashraf Kazemi 3*

    2017-01-01

    Background: Social support is one of the important effective factors on health-related behaviors in different groups. The present study has evaluated the effect of an educational intervention on parents’ nutritional social support for having a healthy diet by teenagers. Methods: This field trial was conducted in two groups on the parents of 63 female early adolescent.The level of parents’ nutritional social support for having a healthy diet were measured using a questionnaire. One month after...

  20. A review of the nutritional needs of Meals on Wheels consumers and factors associated with the provision of an effective meals on wheels service-an Australian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krassie, J; Smart, C; Roberts, D C

    2000-04-01

    A review of the literature was undertaken to identify the nutritional needs of elderly MOW consumers and factors affecting the ability of existing programs to meet those needs. The focus was on the Australian experience but drawing on the world literature. Keyword search of English language based computer databases of the medical and health literature. Several studies suggest the nutritional intake of MOW consumers is below recommended levels, although the risk of nutritional deficiency has not always been identified. The literature indicates the effectiveness of Meals on Wheels programs are affected by a range of issues including the appropriateness of nutritional standards, menu selection, portion control, level of consumption and customer satisfaction. The literature recommends control of time and temperatures associated with food handling procedures, along with education of providers and customers, to assist in the provision of a safe food supply. Meals on Wheels is an important service, providing meals to housebound consumers. While the effectiveness of such programs is dependent on a range of variables, the nutritional impact of the service and the standard of food hygiene are fundamental assessment criteria. This work was supported by a grant from the NSW Meals on Wheels Association, Australia. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition (2000) 54, 275-280

  1. Effective Organizational Structures and Processes: Addressing Issues of Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Maureen Snow

    2016-01-01

    This chapter describes organizational structures and processes at the institutional and project levels for the development and support of distance learning initiatives. It addresses environmental and stakeholder issues and explores principles and strategies of effective leadership for change creation and management.

  2. The Effects of Intensive Nutrition Education on Late Middle-Aged Adults with Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ye; Xu, Meihong; Fan, Rui; Ma, Xiaotao; Gu, Jiaojiao; Cai, Xiaxia; Liu, Rui; Chen, Qihe; Ren, Jinwei; Mao, Ruixue; Bao, Lei; Zhang, Zhaofeng; Wang, Junbo; Li, Yong

    2016-09-08

    Many patients with type 2 diabetes find it difficult to maintain good glycemic control. Undesirable glycemic control occurs greatly due to deficiencies of nutritional knowledge and difficulty in obtaining dietary prescriptions. The late middle-aged and elder individuals are the main populations that are affected by type 2 diabetes. The main purpose of this study was to investigate whether intensive nutrition education would make benefits for late middle-aged patients with type 2 diabetes. 196 patients between 50 to 65 years old meeting type 2 diabetes criteria and eligible for the program were included in a single-blinded, 30-day centralized management of an education program in China. Participants in the program were randomly divided into a usual nutrition education group or an intensive nutrition education group. The usual nutrition education group was used as a control group and received only basic health advice and principles of diabetic diets at the beginning and the end of the study. Participants in the intensive nutrition education group were arranged to receive intensive nutritional lectures about diabetes for 30 days. The primary outcomes were the changes in weight, body mass index (BMI), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2-h postprandial plasma glucose (PG), glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), total glycerin (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c). After 30 days of intervention, FPG, PG, and HbA1c in the treatment group decreased significantly than the control group (p nutrition education group. However, there was no statistical significance between groups. Intensive nutrition education has significant effects on blood glucose control in late middle-aged adults with type 2 diabetes. Intensive education can cultivate good diet habits and increase physical activity, which are important for diabetes patients in the short and long terms. These findings may contribute to improving

  3. Prejudice and the Plate: Effects of Weight Bias in Nutrition Judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuldt, Jonathon P; Guillory, Jamie E; Gay, Geri K

    2016-01-01

    As millions of people turn to social media for health information, better understanding the factors that guide health-related judgments and perceptions in this context is imperative. We report on two Web experiments (n>400 total) examining the power of society's widespread weight bias and related stereotypes to influence nutrition judgments in social media spaces. In Experiment 1, meals were judged as lower in nutritional quality when the person who recommended them (the source) was depicted as obese rather than of normal weight, an effect mediated by stereotypic beliefs about the source as a generally unhealthy person. Experiment 2 replicated this effect, which--notably--remained significant when controlling for objective nutritional information (calories and fat content). Results highlight spillover effects of weight bias that extend beyond person perception to color impressions of objects (here, food) that are associated with stigmatized attributes. Implications for everyday nutrition judgments and public health are considered.

  4. Nutrition and Myasthenia Gravis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good nutrition is important for everyone. This is especially true when you have a chronic disorder like myasthenia gravis ( ... difficulty with chewing and swallowing may interfere with nutrition and create safety issues. Diet modifications may be ...

  5. Effects of Lipid Emulsions in Parenteral Nutrition of Esophageal Cancer Surgical Patients Receiving Enteral Nutrition: A Comparative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu-Ping Wang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Olive oil-based lipid emulsion (LE and medium chain triglyceride/long chain triglyceride (MCT/LCT emulsion are both LEs with low ω-6 polyunsaturated fat acids (PUFAs content. However, which one of these LEs is associated with a lower infection risk in patients receiving parenteral nutrition (PN remains unclear. The aim of the study was to compare the effects of the two LEs in PN in esophageal cancer patients undergoing surgery. Methods: Patients with resectable esophageal carcinoma were recruited and allocated randomly to two groups. The test group was given enteral nutrition (EN with PN containing olive oil-based LE after tumor resection for ≥7 days, and the patients in the control group were supported by EN with MCT/LCT emulsion-based PN after surgery for the same time period. Immunological markers and inflammatory indicators were tested and perioperative clinical outcomes were determined. The trial was registered in the Chinese Clinical Trial Register, number ChiCTR-TRC-13003562. 94 Patients were recruited, and grouped (olive oil-based LE, n = 46 and MCT/LCT, n = 48, matched for sex, age, body mass index, histological type, TNM stage, and nutrition risk screening (NRS 2002 score. Results: There were no differences in perioperative fever (>38 °C, infectious complications, length of hospital stay (>14 days, length of critical care stay (>2 days, time for oral food intake, and in-hospital mortality between the two groups. The test group showed a higher increase in IgG level compared with the MCT/LCT group (p = 0.028. There was no difference in other immunological markers and inflammatory indicators between the two groups. Conclusion: PN containing olive oil-based or MCT/LCT LEs had similar effects on perioperative outcome, cell-mediated immune function and inflammatory response in esophageal cancer patients who had undergone surgery and were receiving EN.

  6. Introduction to the special issue 'unintended effects of international cooperation'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Dirk-Jan; Schulpen, Lau

    2018-06-01

    The 'Evaluation and Program Planning' journal has contributed to the launch of an academic discussion of unintended effects of international cooperation, notably by publishing in 2016 articles by Bamberger, Tarsilla, & Hesse-Biber and by Jabeen. This special issue aims to take up the academic challenges as laid down by those authors, by providing among others a clear typology and applying it, by outlining various methodological options and testing them, and elaborating on suggestions on how to deal with the barriers that prevent unintended effects being taken into account. This special issue makes clear that it is possible to reduce the share of unforeseen effects of international cooperation. Turning the spotlight on unintended effects that can be anticipated, and aiming to make progress on uncovering those that are particularly difficult to detect and debunking those that are exaggerated is the task that lies ahead of us. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of nutrition on the fertility of lactating dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodney, R M; Celi, P; Scott, W; Breinhild, K; Santos, J E P; Lean, I J

    2018-03-28

    production was associated with longer time to pregnancy. Increased intake of some AA, particularly threonine and lysine, were associated with a longer calving to pregnancy interval. It is clear nutritional management around calving can influence reproductive success. The importance of dietary fats and increased energy and protein balances in early lactation for improved fertility outcomes is supported and suggests that starch and sugars may have different effects on the proportion of cows that are pregnant to AI. This work also highlighted a need for further focused field studies exploring the roles of specific fatty acids, AA, phosphorus, and carbohydrates on reproduction. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The effect of potassium quercetin phosphate on the nutritional blood flow of mouse heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Yunzhao; Tao Ran; Hao Yibin; Wang Zhiping; Fan Guangcan; Gao Zhou

    1991-01-01

    The effect of potassium quercetin phosphate (PQP) on the nutritional blood flow of mouse heart was evaluated with the radioactive tracer 99m Tc-hexakis-2-methoxyisobutyl isonitrile (MIBI). The result showed that the uptake of 99m Tc-MIBI by mouse heart (per gram) in the PQP-treated group (ip 200 mg/kg) was increased by 55.36% as compared with control group. This suggests that PQP can increase the nutritional blood flow of mouse heart. 99m Tc-MIBI may take the place of 86 Rb in evaluating nutritional blood flow of myocardium in animals and men

  9. The Effects of Nutrition Education on 6th Graders Knowledge of Nutrition in Nine-Year Primary Schools in Slovenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostanjevec, Stojan; Jerman, Janez; Koch, Verena

    2011-01-01

    Incorporating nutrition topics in the primary school curricula should support the acquisition of nutrition knowledge in different ways and indirectly the development of healthy eating habits in children and teenagers. In Slovenia, nutrition education is part of all primary school education levels and may take the form of compulsory and/or elective…

  10. Nutrition support in hospitals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kondrup, Jens

    2005-01-01

    Nutrition support in hospitals is becoming an area of focus because of the evidence showing improved clinical outcome with nutrition support, its status as a human rights issue and its integration into quality assurance.......Nutrition support in hospitals is becoming an area of focus because of the evidence showing improved clinical outcome with nutrition support, its status as a human rights issue and its integration into quality assurance....

  11. The effects of implementing a nutritional support algorithm in critically ill medical patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sungur, Gonul; Sahin, Habibe; Tasci, Sultan

    2015-08-01

    To determine the effect of the enteral nutrition algorithm on nutritional support in critically ill medical patients. The quasi-experimental study was conducted at a medical Intensive Care Unit of a university hospital in central Anatolia region in Turkey from June to December 2008. The patients were divided into two equal groups: the historical group was fed in routine clinical applications, while the study group was fed according to the enteral nutritional algorithm. Prior to collecting data, nurses were trained interactively about enteral nutrition and the nutritional support algorithm. The nutrition of the study group was directed by the nurses. Data were recorded during 3 days of care. SPSS 22 was used for statistical analysis. The 40 patients in the study were divided into two equal groups of 20(50%) each. The energy intake of study group was 62% of the prescribed energy requirement on the 1st, 68.5% on the 2nd and 63% on the 3rd day, whereas in the historical group 38%, 56.5% and 60% of the prescribed energy requirement were met. The consumed energy of the historical group on the 1st 2nd and 3rd day was significantly different (p=0.020). In the study group, serum total protein and albumin levels decreased significantly (pgroup, any of the serum parameters did not change. Enteral nutrition-induced complications, duration of stay in intensive care unit were not significantly different between the groups (p>0.05). The use of standard algorithms for enteral nutrition may be an effective way to meet the nutritional requirements of patients.

  12. Effect of Government Regulation on the Evolution of Sports Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Rick; Kalman, Douglas

    The sports nutrition segment of the dietary supplement industry enjoyed nearly a decade of unfettered growth under federal legislation passed in 1994. A series of breakthroughs in the dietary supplement field led to the development and marketing of innovative products designed to enhance performance, build muscle, or lose excess fat. As the popularity of these products soared and evolved into a multi-billion dollar industry, the sports nutrition supplement market drew the attention of federal and state regulatory bodies and sports antidoping authorities. Growing concerns over potential health risks and unfair athletic advantages have spurred government regulators and legislators to heighten the scrutiny of this market, leading to recent legislative amendments and increased government enforcement action.

  13. The effect of developmental nutrition on life span and fecundity depends on the adult reproductive environment in Drosophila melanogaster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    May, C.M.; Doroszuk, A.; Zwaan, B.J.

    2015-01-01

    Both developmental nutrition and adult nutrition affect life-history traits; however, little is known about whether the effect of developmental nutrition depends on the adult environment experienced. We used the fruit fly to determine whether life-history traits, particularly life span and

  14. Front-of-Pack Nutrition Labels: Their Effect on Attention and Choices when Consumers have Varying Goals and Time Constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herpen, van E.; Trijp, van J.C.M.

    2011-01-01

    Although front-of-pack nutrition labeling can help consumers make healthier food choices, lack of attention to these labels limits their effectiveness. This study examines consumer attention to and use of three different nutrition labeling schemes (logo, multiple traffic-light label, and nutrition

  15. Cost-effectiveness of nutritional intervention on healing of pressure ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisashige, Akinori; Ohura, Takehiko

    2012-12-01

    Pressure ulcers not only affect quality of life among the elderly, but also bring a large economic burden. There is limited evidence available for the effectiveness of nutritional interventions for treatment of pressure ulcers. In Japan, recently, a 60-patient randomized controlled trial of nutritional intervention on pressure ulcers demonstrated improvement in healing of pressure ulcers, compared with conventional management. To evaluate value for money of nutritional intervention on healing of pressure ulcers, cost-effective analysis was carried out using these trial results. The analysis was carried out from a societal perspective. As effectiveness measures, pressure ulcer days (PUDs) and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) were estimated. Prevalence of pressure ulcers was estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method. Utility score for pressure ulcers is derived from a cross-sectional survey among health professionals related to pressure ulcers. Costs (e.g., nutritional interventions and management of pressure ulcers) were estimated from trial data during observation and follow-up. Stochastic and qualitative sensitivity analyses were performed to examine the robustness of results. For observation (12 weeks) and follow-up (12-week observation plus 4-week follow-up), nutritional intervention reduced PUDs by 9.6 and 16.2 per person, and gained 0.226 × 10(-2) QALYs and 0.382 × 10(-2) QALYs per person, respectively. In addition, costs were reduced by $542 and $881 per person, respectively. This means nutritional intervention is dominant (cost savings and greater effectiveness). The sensitivity analyses showed the robustness of these results. Economic evaluation of nutritional intervention on healing pressure ulcers from a small randomized controlled trial showed that this intervention is cost saving with health improvement. Further studies are required to determine whether this is a cost-effective intervention for widespread use. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and

  16. Fertility in female reindeer: the effects of nutrition and growth

    OpenAIRE

    N. J.C. Tyler

    1987-01-01

    Pregnancy rates in juvenile reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) vary considerably both within and between flocks. This potentially has considerable economic significance for reindeer husbandry. This paper discusses the influence of nutrition and growth on fertility in female reindeer using examples taken from the literature. Fertility in reindeer is related to body weight, like in many other mammals, but the relationship is not invariant. Weight-specific pregnancy rates appear to be density dependen...

  17. Beneficial Effect of Educational and Nutritional Intervention on the Nutritional Status and Compliance of Gastric Cancer Patients Undergoing Chemotherapy: A Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Feng-Lan; Wang, Yong-Qian; Peng, Li-Fen; Lin, Fang-Yu; He, Yu-Long; Jiang, Zhuo-Qin

    2017-07-01

    Surgery combined with chemotherapy is the standard treatment for gastric cancer (GC); however, chemotherapy-relative adverse effects are common and result in malnutrition and a poor prognosis. In addition, compliance to postoperative chemotherapy remains a problem. This study aimed to prospectively investigate the effect of educational and nutritional interventions on the nutritional status and compliance of GC patients undergoing postoperative chemotherapy. A total of 144 GC patients were randomized into an intervention group that received intensive individualized nutritional and educational interventions during the entire course of chemotherapy and control group that received basic nutrition care and health education during hospitalization. The nutritional status and compliance between the two groups were compared. The interventions significantly improved calorie and iron intake within 24 h after the first chemotherapy session, and improved patients' weight, hemoglobin, total serum protein, and albumin levels during the entire course of chemotherapy. The compliance rate with chemotherapy was significantly higher in the intervention group than in the control group (73.61% vs. 55.56%, P = 0.024). A combination of nutritional and educational interventions provided beneficial effect on the nutrition status and compliance of gastric patients undergoing postoperative chemotherapy, which is worthy of clinical application.

  18. [Effects of individualized nutritional education programs on the level of nutrient intake and nutritional status of colorectal cancer patients undergoing palliative chemotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kwi Ock; Choi-Kwon, Smi

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of an individualized nutritional education programs on nutrient intake and nutritional status of patients with colorectal cancer who are undergoing palliative chemotherapy. Forty patients with colorectal cancer (19 experimental and 21 control patients) were recruited from a chemotherapy ward at S University Hospital in Seoul, Korea. The experimental group received two individualized nutritional counseling sessions and two telephone counseling sessions over 6 weeks. The control group received nutritional counseling after completion of data collection. Nutritional education included general guidelines for food intake while receiving chemotherapy, dietary guidelines for patients with colorectal cancer, daily meal schedules to overcome cancer, and dietary guideline for each chemotherapy side effect. Data were analyzed using χ²-test and t-test with the SPSS program 17.0. Two group comparison revealed that the experimental group had significantly improved calorie (p=.038) and total protein intake (p=.001), and serum albumin percentage change (p=.040). Body weight did not increase but remained the same as the baseline in both groups. Study results indicate that this individualized nutritional education programs are effective in enhancing nutrient intake and nutritional status of patients with colorectal cancer who are undergoing palliative chemotherapy.

  19. Effect of white striping on chemical composition and nutritional value of chicken breast meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Petracci

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available White striping defect (appearance of white striations parallel to muscle fiber on surface of breast is considered an emerging issue in chicken breast meat which is related to increasing growth rate of modern hybrid birds. This study was aimed at evaluating the effect of white striping on chemical composition and nutritional value of chicken breast meat. During three replications, a total of 108 Pectoralis major muscles representing three degrees of white striping (absence=normal; presence classified in 2 levels as moderate or severe were selected to determine proximate composition (moisture, protein, lipid and collagen as well as sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar protein profile by sodium dodecyl sulphatepolyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis. The results showed that both severe and moderate white-striped fillets had higher fat content (2.53 vs 1.46 vs 0.78%; P<0.001, lower protein level (20.9 vs 22.2 vs 22.9%; P<0.001, decreased quality of protein as proven by higher collagen content (1.30 vs 1.37 vs 1.43%; P<0.001, and different pattern on myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic fractions when compared to normal fillets. Moreover, severe white-striped fillets exhibited higher energy content (450.7 vs 421.1 kJ/100g; P<0.01 with respect to normal meat. In conclusion, there was a large worsening of nutritional value of chicken breast meat following occurrence of white striping and this might impair consumer attitude towards poultry meat.

  20. Effect of educational intervention program for parents on adolescents'nutritional behaviors in Isfahan in 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtari, Fatemeh; Kazemi, Ashraf; Ehsanpour, Soheila

    2017-01-01

    Family participation is an important element on nutritional education especially for students. Parents have a key role in instilling and understanding healthy eating habits, but yet the use of family participation strategies in the nutrition education was low. The aim of this study is determining the effect of parental educational intervention program for parents on adolescents' nutritional behaviors in Isfahan, Iran in 2016. This study was a kind of field trial that conducted on 63 girl teenagers from junior high schools of Isfahan in 2016 that were randomly divided into two groups of intervention and control. The data collection tool which was a researcher made questionnaire was completed in both groups before and 1 month after the intervention. The intervention included three training sessions for parents and giving educational compact disc and forwarding SMS. To analysis of data independent t -test and paired t -test were used. Paired t -test showed that in intervention group the average score of fruit ( P = 0.03) and in control group the average score of vegetables ( P < 0.05) were significant statistical difference, but in other aspects of nutritional behaviors was not a significant difference. Independent t -test showed that after intervention, mean scores nutritional behavior of adolescent girls in both groups had no significant differences. No significant difference was in the nutritional behaviors before and after the intervention. Hence, just educating the parents is not enough for achieving appropriate nutritional behaviors in the adolescents.

  1. Effect of changed organisation of nutritional care of Danish medical inpatients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyholm Ruth

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many patients are undernourished during hospitalisation. The clinical consequences of this include lassitude, an increased risk of complications and prolonged convalescence. The aim of the study is 1 to implement a new organisation with a focus on improving the quality of the nutritional care of medical inpatients at risk of undernutrition, and 2 to investigate the effect of the intervention. Methods Social and healthcare assistants are educated to the higher level of nutritional and healthcare assistants to provide nutritional care in daily practice to undernourished medical inpatients. The effect of the intervention is investigated before and five months after the employment of the nutritional and healthcare assistants. Data are obtained from structured interviews with patients and staff, and the amount of ordered and wasted food is recorded. Results Patients regard the work of the nutritional and healthcare assistant as very important for their recovery and weight gain: the assistant takes care of the individual patient's nutritional requirements and wishes, and she imparts knowledge to the patient about optimum nutrition. Staff members benefit from the knowledge and dedication of the nutritional and healthcare assistant and from her work; the staff is often too busy with other nursing tasks to make it a priority to ensure that patients who are nibblers get sufficient nutrition. The choices of food from the production kitchen are utilised to a higher degree, and more of the food is eaten by the patients. Before the intervention, a 20% increase in ordered food in relation to the food budget is found. During the intervention a 20% decrease in ordered food in relation to the food budget is found, and food wastage decreases from 55% to 18% owing to the intervention. Conclusion The job function of the nutritional and healthcare assistants on the medical wards is of great value to patients, nursing staff members and the

  2. Effects of peridialytic oral supplements on nutritional status and quality of life in chronic hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Meri Kay; Shah, Niyati A; Vilay, A Mary; Thomas, Joseph; Kraus, Michael A; Mueller, Bruce A

    2009-03-01

    Our objective was to determine the effects of peridialytic oral supplements on nutritional markers and quality of life (QOL) in patients receiving maintenance hemodialysis. This trial was open, prospective, nonrandomized, and comparative. This study was performed at an outpatient hemodialysis unit in a teaching hospital. This study included 88 adults with chronic kidney disease at stage 5. This study involved directly observed nutrition therapy with >or=1 can of enteral nutrition (Nepro) with each hemodialysis session thrice weekly for 3 months, or standard care. Changes in biochemical markers of nutritional status and QOL, as measured by the Kidney Disease Quality of Life-Short Form, were determined. Peridialytic oral nutrition resulted in a significant difference between the nutrition and comparison groups in serum albumin change over time (P = .03; repeated-measures analysis of variance with covariates). Mean (+/-SD) serum albumin concentration did not differ between baseline and month 3 in the nutrition group (3.68 +/- 0.33 g/dL vs. 3.75 +/- 0.40 g/dL; P = .12), but in the comparison group, serum albumin levels declined significantly (3.93 +/- 0.34 g/dL at baseline versus 3.81 +/- 0.37 g/dL at month 3; P = .04). The "role-physical" domain score of the Kidney Disease Quality of Life-Short Form significantly changed over time in the nutrition group versus the comparison group (P = .02; repeated-measures analysis of variance with covariates). Nepro was well-tolerated, and greater than 80% of the prescribed therapy was consumed. Oral nutrition, as part of structured, directly observed peridialytic therapy in chronic hemodialysis patients, was well-accepted, and resulted in the maintenance of serum albumin levels and QOL with respect to impact of physical health on daily activities. These findings need to be confirmed in a randomized, controlled trial.

  3. Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD): Implications for health and nutritional issues among rural children in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Aihua; Wang, Lijie; Chen, Xiang; Liu, Xiaoyan; Li, Ling; Wang, Baozhen; Luo, Huiwen; Mo, Xiuting; Tobe, Ruoyan Gai

    2015-04-01

    In China, with fast economic growth, health and nutrition status among the rural population has shown significant improvement in the past decades. On the other hand, burden of non-communicable diseases and prevalence of related risk factors such as overweight and obesity has also increased. Among rural children, the double burden of malnutrition and emerging overweight and obesity has been neglected so far. According to the theory of Developmental Origin of Health and Diseases (DOHaD), malnutrition, including both undernutrition (stunting and wasting) and over-nutrition (overweight and obesity) during childhood is closely related to worsened health outcomes during adulthood. Such a neglected problem is attributable to a complicated synergy of social and environmental factors such as parental migration, financial situation of the household, child-rearing knowledge and practices of the primary caregivers, and has implications for public health. Based on literature review of lessons from the field, intervention to address malnutrition among rural children should be a comprehensive package, with consideration of their developmental environment and geographical and socioeconomic diversity. The scientific evidence on DOHaD indicates the probability and necessity of prevention of adult disease by promotion of maternal and child health and reducing malnutrition by provision of high-quality complementary foods, promotion of a well-balanced dietary pattern, and promotion of health literacy in the public would bring a potential benefit to reduce potential risk of diseases.

  4. Prenatal nutrition, epigenetics and schizophrenia risk: can we test causal effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkbride, James B; Susser, Ezra; Kundakovic, Marija; Kresovich, Jacob K; Davey Smith, George; Relton, Caroline L

    2012-06-01

    We posit that maternal prenatal nutrition can influence offspring schizophrenia risk via epigenetic effects. In this article, we consider evidence that prenatal nutrition is linked to epigenetic outcomes in offspring and schizophrenia in offspring, and that schizophrenia is associated with epigenetic changes. We focus upon one-carbon metabolism as a mediator of the pathway between perturbed prenatal nutrition and the subsequent risk of schizophrenia. Although post-mortem human studies demonstrate DNA methylation changes in brains of people with schizophrenia, such studies cannot establish causality. We suggest a testable hypothesis that utilizes a novel two-step Mendelian randomization approach, to test the component parts of the proposed causal pathway leading from prenatal nutritional exposure to schizophrenia. Applied here to a specific example, such an approach is applicable for wider use to strengthen causal inference of the mediating role of epigenetic factors linking exposures to health outcomes in population-based studies.

  5. Effect of nutritional state on Hsp60 levels in the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis following toxicant exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheelock, C E; Baumgartner, T A; Newman, J W; Wolfe, M F; Tjeerdema, R S

    2002-11-13

    The nutritional state of an organism can affect the results of toxicity testing. Here we exemplified this fact by examining the effect of nutritional deprivation on heat shock protein 60 (hsp60) production in the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis following exposure to two proven inducers of hsp60, a water-accommodated fraction of crude oil (WAF) and a dispersed oil preparation (DO). Both DO and WAF exposures of unfed rotifers resulted in significantly greater hsp60 levels than that of fed DO and WAF exposed rotifers at 8 h: 870 and 3100% of control, respectively. Results clearly demonstrate that a poor nutritional state potentiates stress protein induction upon exposure to water-soluble petroleum products. It is therefore critical to define the organismal nutritional status when reporting toxic responses. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science B.V.

  6. Effects of undetected data quality issues on climatological analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Hunziker

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Systematic data quality issues may occur at various stages of the data generation process. They may affect large fractions of observational datasets and remain largely undetected with standard data quality control. This study investigates the effects of such undetected data quality issues on the results of climatological analyses. For this purpose, we quality controlled daily observations of manned weather stations from the Central Andean area with a standard and an enhanced approach. The climate variables analysed are minimum and maximum temperature and precipitation. About 40 % of the observations are inappropriate for the calculation of monthly temperature means and precipitation sums due to data quality issues. These quality problems undetected with the standard quality control approach strongly affect climatological analyses, since they reduce the correlation coefficients of station pairs, deteriorate the performance of data homogenization methods, increase the spread of individual station trends, and significantly bias regional temperature trends. Our findings indicate that undetected data quality issues are included in important and frequently used observational datasets and hence may affect a high number of climatological studies. It is of utmost importance to apply comprehensive and adequate data quality control approaches on manned weather station records in order to avoid biased results and large uncertainties.

  7. THE EFFECT OF EDUCATION USING MODIFICATION MODULE TOWARDS NUTRITIONAL INTAKE DURING PREGNANCY IN KENDARI, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kartini

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Energy metabolism speeds up during pregnancy that requires pregnant women to have extra amount of nutritions. Provision of education on nutrition during pregnancy is an effort to prevent and tackle malnutrition. Aim: This study aimed to determine the effect of education using modification module towards nutritional intake during pregnancy in Kendari, Indonesia Methods: This was Quasi Experimental study with pre-post design. There were 4 groups in this study, which were: 1 The group that received educational intervention using a modification module from the MHC book of the Department of Health, 2 The group that received educational intervention using MHC book of the Department of Health, 3 The group that only used modification modules from MHC book of the Department of Health, and 4 The group that only used the MHC book of Department of Health. The intervention was given for 6 months. Seventy eight of 4-months pregnant women were selected in this study. Data were collected by using 24 hours food recall instrument, and questionnaire adopted from Child and Maternal Nutrition Survey’s Questionnaire of Faculty of Public Health, Hasanuddin University. Data were analyzed by using Wilcoxon test and Kruskal Wallis test. Results: Results showed there was an effect of education by using the module modifications to the intake of nutritions during pregnancy. Increased nutrient intake was higher in pregnant women using a module class modifications. Conclusion: Education affects nutritional intake of pregnant women. Changes in nutritional intake was higher in group 1 (education modules with modifications, compared with the education group MCH handbook. It is suggested that mothers should improve the nutrition during pregnancy for the better growth of the fetus, composition and metabolic changes in the mother's body.

  8. Evaluation of format preference and effectiveness of vodcasts for recipe demonstrations and nutrition education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danforth SK

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Stephanie K Danforth,1 Julie Raeder Schumacher,2 Robert W Cullen,2 Yoon Jin Ma2 1University of Iowa Hospital, Iowa City, IA, USA; 2Department of Family and Consumer Sciences, Illinois State University, Normal, IL, USA Abstract: Video podcasts, termed “vodcasts”, offer viewers a visual aid when learning about health and nutrition. Although there are many vodcasts featuring cooking demonstrations, little is known about their effectiveness in the field of nutrition or which format of communication technology is preferred. The purpose of this study was to determine which vodcast format was best suited to increase nutrition knowledge and interest as well as intention to use a cancer-preventing food. Participants were recruited from a community cancer center in the Midwest region of the United States. The convenience sample received either an email or an information card from the center that contained a link to the online survey instrument. The survey consisted of initial questions, the vodcast link, and access to final survey questions after viewing the vodcast. Participants (n=120 viewed one of three vodcast formats and evaluated length, nutrition information, and cooking instruction. Nutrition knowledge and the effect each video had on participants' interest and intention to use the food were also measured. A vodcast containing four to six nutrition facts and demonstrating a recipe was preferred by most individuals (X2=10.954, df =4, P=0.027. Participants were indifferent regarding length preference. All formats were successful in increasing interest in cancer-preventing foods and delivering nutrition information to participants. Vodcasts containing a recipe demonstration may offer a convenient method of delivering nutrition information to community members. Keywords: community, dietetics, podcasts

  9. [Effect of positive nutritional support strategy on extrauterine growth restriction in preterm infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xue-Min; Zhu, Yan-Ping; Wang, Li

    2013-12-01

    To investigate the effects of positive nutritional support in the early stage after birth on the nutritional status during hospitalization and extrauterine growth restriction (EUGR) in preterm infants. There were two groups of preterm infants. Group A (n=99) was given the previous nutritional program, while group B (n=101) was given positive nutritional support. The nutritional intake, growth rate and EUGR incidence were compared between the two groups. Compared with group A, group B had significantly higher enteral calorie intake and total calorie intake within one week after birth. Additionally, the age of first feeding, time of regaining birth weight, duration of intravenous nutrition, time to full enteral feeding, and length of hospital stay in group B were all shorter than in group A. Group B also had less physiological weight loss than group A. Among the preterm infants with a gestational age less than 32 weeks, group B had faster increases in body weight, head circumference, and body length and a lower incidence of EUGR compared with group A. Among the preterm infants with a gestational age not less than 32 weeks, group B had faster increases in body weight and a lower incidence of EUGR (evaluated based on body weight and head circumference) compared with group A. During hospitalization, group B had significantly lower incidence of feeding intolerance, necrotizing enterocolitis, and sepsis than group A. Positive nutritional support strategy, applied in preterm infants early after birth, can effectively improve their nutritional status during hospitalization and reduce the incidence of EUGR without increasing the incidence of related complications during hospitalization.

  10. Effect of nutritional intake towards Angular cheilitis of orphanage children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurdiani Rakhmayanthie

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Angular cheilitis is one of the oral manifestations of iron, vitamin B12, and folate deficiency. This manifestation frequently seen in people at first and second decade. The purpose of this study was to obtain the prevalence of angular cheilitis and its classifications related to the nutritional intake level in 6-18 years old children. Methods: This research was a descriptive study with 53 children between 6-18 years old from Muhammadiyah Orphanage Bandung as the samples. The oral cavity was examined clinically and their food consumption in a week was noted in Food Recall 24 hours and Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ in order to measure their nutritional intake level. Results: There are 23 children with angular cheilitis. 13% has iron and folate deficiencies, and 87% has iron, vitamin B12, and folate deficiencies. Angular cheilitis types that has been found are Type I (39%, Type II (48% and Type III (13%. Conclusion: The prevalence of angular cheilitis in 6-18 years old children in Muhammadiyah Orphanage Bandung was moderately high, most of them were having iron, vitamin B12, and folate deficiencies. Type II angular cheilitis was the most frequently seen.

  11. Elements of effective nutrition education for adults with Diabetes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Health SA Gesondheid. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 14, No 1 (2009) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  12. Effect of phosphorus nutrition on growth of potato genotypes with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Crop Science Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 17, No 4 (2009) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  13. Effective surveillance for homeland security balancing technology and social issues

    CERN Document Server

    Flammini, Francesco; Franceschetti, Giorgio

    2013-01-01

    Effective Surveillance for Homeland Security: Balancing Technology and Social Issues provides a comprehensive survey of state-of-the-art methods and tools for the surveillance and protection of citizens and critical infrastructures against natural and deliberate threats. Focusing on current technological challenges involving multi-disciplinary problem analysis and systems engineering approaches, it provides an overview of the most relevant aspects of surveillance systems in the framework of homeland security. Addressing both advanced surveillance technologies and the related socio-ethical issues, the book consists of 21 chapters written by international experts from the various sectors of homeland security. Part I, Surveillance and Society, focuses on the societal dimension of surveillance-stressing the importance of societal acceptability as a precondition to any surveillance system. Part II, Physical and Cyber Surveillance, presents advanced technologies for surveillance. It considers developing technologie...

  14. [Effects of nutritional status on the multiple sclerosis disease: systematic review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ródenas Esteve, Irene; Wanden-Berghe, Carmina; Sanz-Valero, Javier

    2018-01-19

    To review the available scientific literature about the effects of nutritional status on the multiple sclerosis disease. A systematic review of the scientific literature in the Medline (PubMed), Scopus, Cochrane Library and Web of Science databases through November 2016. Search equation: ("Multiple Sclerosis"[Mesh] OR "Multiple Sclerosis"[Title/Abstract] OR "Disseminated Sclerosis"[Title/Abstract] OR "Multiple Sclerosis Acute Fulminating"[Title/Abstract]) AND ("Nutritional Status"[Mesh] OR "Nutritional Status"[Title/Abstract] OR "Nutrition Status"[Title/Abstract]). The quality of the selected articles was discussed using the STROBE questionnaire. The search was completed through experts inquiry and additional review of the bibliographic references included in the selected papers. The concordance between authors (Kappa index) had to be higher than 80% for inclusion in this review. Of the 160 references recovered, after applying inclusion and exclusion criteria, 29 articles were selected for review. Concordance between evaluators was 100.00%. The most studies established vitamin D levels. Others focused their research on finding out which nutrient deficits might be related to the multiple sclerosis development. Vitamin D may influence multiple sclerosis improvement. Sunlight and physical activity would be important factors, with nutritional status, in the course of this disease. It is necessary to produce new specific works that will delve into the subject to find out more about the relationship between nutritional status and multiple sclerosis.

  15. [Effects of calorie information and nutrition traffic light on alimentation behaviour in public catering].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruder, A; Honekamp, W; Hackl, J M

    2013-08-01

    Due to the significant increase in overweight and obese people, action is needed to raise eating behaviour awareness. A significant main meal (lunch) is witnessing a growing trend in the catering (part of the out-of-home nutrition). The aim of this study is to determine whether the selection of lunch menus is affected through the display of nutritional information in the form of number of calories or a traffic light model. In this exploratory study, quantitative data were collected in a cross-sectional design. In addition to the established measurement instruments, socio-demographic and socio-economic information of the subjects based on the study were evaluated. The survey took place in 2008 in 2 passes (time t A/t B). The identical lunch menu of a catering company was applied twice respectively for 4 weeks. In the second run (t B) the lunch menu contained additional nutritional information (big 4 instructions) in the form of calories or a traffic light nutrition. The test of group differences was based on scientific statistical analysis in SPSS. The overall results for the illustration of kilocalories or traffic light do not have a unique significance in the direction of a low average number of calories at the time t B in comparison to the time t A. The food participants, on average, choose a lower calorie-containing menu, when a combination of traffic light and calories is given. The nutrition behaviour is accompanied by an oversupply of unhealthy foods. Lunch participants are sensitised for the selection of healthier lunch menus by a traffic light nutrition information or calories information. Nutrition labelling for lunch menus in the form of calories nutrition information or a coloured traffic light could trigger preventive effects. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. [The effect of nutritional therapy in the treatment of laryngeal cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botella Romero, F; Simal Antón, A; Motilla Valeriano, T; Martínez Montero, P; Mata Castro, N; González Martí, F

    1995-01-01

    Laryngeal cancer constitutes and important problem from the nutritional point of view, both due to the effect of the tumor itself as due to the aggressive treatment to which the majority of these patients are subjected. To evaluate the incidence of nutritional support on the morbid-mortality and on the number of hospitalization days, we compare a group A of 61 patients diagnosed with laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma, who received treatment from the Department of Nutrition, with another, similar group B, who received a standard diet. a complete evaluation of the nutritional status was done (anthropometric biochemical and immunological parameters) one day prior to the surgery and two weeks after. The differences of age (61 vs 63 years), cigarette smoking (31 vs 34), excessive alcohol ingestion (34 vs 29), location of the tumor and type of surgery, were not significant. The nutritional treatment used in group A was enteral nutrition by means of a 12-F polyurethane naso-gastric tube, while in group B it was the ground up culinary diet through a large caliber naso-gastric tube. There were no significant differences in the mortality (1/0) or in the surgical complications (9/10); nevertheless, the average number of hospital days was clearly lower in group A (18 days) compared to group B (24 days) (p < 0.005). The evolution of the evaluation parameters of the nutritional status was analyzed, as well as the administered dietary formulae, added medication, and the complications of the technique. Regulated nutritional support may contribute to the decrease of the hospitalization period of patients operated on for laryngeal cancer.

  17. Effects of gamma radiation on raspberries: safety and quality issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verde, S Cabo; Trigo, M J; Sousa, M B; Ferreira, A; Ramos, A C; Nunes, I; Junqueira, C; Melo, R; Santos, P M P; Botelho, M L

    2013-01-01

    There is an ever-increasing global demand from consumers for high-quality foods with major emphasis placed on quality and safety attributes. One of the main demands that consumers display is for minimally processed, high-nutrition/low-energy natural foods with no or minimal chemical preservatives. The nutritional value of raspberry fruit is widely recognized. In particular, red raspberries are known to demonstrate a strong antioxidant capacity that might prove beneficial to human health by preventing free radical-induced oxidative stress. However, food products that are consumed raw, are increasingly being recognized as important vehicles for transmission of human pathogens. Food irradiation is one of the few technologies that address both food quality and safety by virtue of its ability to control spoilage and foodborne pathogenic microorganisms without significantly affecting sensory or other organoleptic attributes of the food. Food irradiation is well established as a physical, nonthermal treatment (cold pasteurization) that processes foods at or nearly at ambient temperature in the final packaging, reducing the possibility of cross contamination until the food is actually used by the consumer. The aim of this study was to evaluate effects of gamma radiation on raspberries in order to assess consequences of irradiation. Freshly packed raspberries (Rubus idaeus L.) were irradiated in a (60)Co source at several doses (0.5, 1, or 1.5 kGy). Bioburden, total phenolic content, antioxidant activity, physicochemical properties such as texture, color, pH, soluble solids content, and acidity, and sensorial parameters were assessed before and after irradiation and during storage time up to 14 d at 4°C. Characterization of raspberries microbiota showed an average bioburden value of 10(4) colony-forming units (CFU)/g and a diverse microbial population predominantly composed of two morphological types (gram-negative, oxidase-negative rods, 35%, and filamentous fungi, 41

  18. The Boss’ Healthy Buddies Nutrition Resource Is Effective for Elementary School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W. Pittman

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Previously we have shown that our Healthy Eating Decisions school-based intervention can influence students’ selections of the healthiest foods available in their elementary school cafeterias through positive reinforcement techniques. Although effective, we recognized that students were missing fundamental nutrition knowledge necessary to understand why the Healthy Eating Decisions program identified particular beverages and foods as the healthiest in the cafeteria. Therefore, we developed the Boss’ Healthy Buddies nutrition education resource as a freely available curriculum matched with South Carolina education standards and designed for elementary school students from kindergarten through fourth grade. The current study implemented Boss’ Healthy Buddies and compared its efficacy to a commercially available nutrition program, CATCH. Elementary school students in Spartanburg, South Carolina, received weekly twenty-minute Boss’ Healthy Buddies lessons for eight weeks. Results from preassessment and postassessment surveys were compared with a positive control elementary school using the CATCH program and a negative control school receiving no nutrition education. Results show that Boss’ Healthy Buddies was equally effective as the CATCH program in improving the nutrition attitudes regarding healthiest beverages and food selections with the advantage of being freely available and minimizing the impact on classroom instruction time. In order to reduce most effectively the high prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity, it is crucial that children are taught nutrition education to support healthy eating habits at an early age. Both the Healthy Eating Decisions school-based intervention and the Boss’ Healthy Buddies nutrition education program are available online for use as free resources to aid in reducing childhood overweight and obesity within elementary schools.

  19. Strategies for selecting effective patient nutrition education materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Laura H

    2010-10-01

    Nutrition and diet therapy are at the center of health promotion activities and self-management of chronic diseases. To assist an individual in making informed decisions regarding his or her diet and increase adherence to dietary recommendations or treatments, healthcare professionals must select health information that is appropriate to the client's level of understanding. A systematic approach in the evaluation of patient education material, whether in print or on the World Wide Web, must focus on the information's content, literacy level, graphical displays, layout and typography, motivating principles, cultural relevance, and feasibility. Additional criteria should be evaluated when accessing Web sites and include source, site credibility, conflict of interest, disclaimer, disclosure, navigation, and interactivity information.

  20. EFFECTS OF PLANT NUTRITION ON CANOLA (Brassica napus L. GROWTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami Süzer

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Canola (Brassica napus L. is an important edible oilseed crop in the World and in Turkey. It has a healthy vegetable oil because of its balance with omega 3-6-9 essential fatty acids, making canola oil a healthy vegetable oil throughout the World for cooking and processed food industry. Canola production of high yield and good quality usually depends on well-balanced plant nutrition and growing conditions. A well-balanced soil condition also affects canola plants responses to stress factors such as disease and bad weather conditions. Nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (NPK are some of the major nutrients required to significantly increase canola yield. Fertilizer application dosages in canola production vary because of the variable occurrence of NPK in the soil. A high yielding canola production needs a well-balanced fertilization program.

  1. Early nutrition and its effect on growth, body composition, and later obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Mads Vendelbo; Larnkjær, Anni; Mølgaard, Christian

    2017-01-01

    , intervention studies, and studies focusing on the potential mechanisms behind associations between early nutrition and different aspects of growth. There has been a special interest in factors with potential mediating effects between early nutrition and later growth such as growth factors and growth-related......Early nutrition is an important factor regulating both early and long-term growth and body composition, and therefore has important effects on the risk of later overweight and obesity. There is a lot of activity within this research area with a wealth of publications including observational studies...... hormones, appetite-related hormones, and factors with a potential programming effect, e.g., epigenetic programming. For this short review we have included 11 papers which we found of special interest published during the period from July 1, 2015 to June 30, 2016. We have chosen to focus mainly on 2 areas...

  2. The Effectiveness of Community-Based Nutrition Education on the Nutrition Status of Under-five Children in Developing Countries. A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majamanda, J; Maureen, D; Munkhondia, T M; Carrier, J

    2014-12-01

    This systematic review aimed at examining the best available evidence on the effectiveness of community-based nutrition education in improving the nutrition status of under five children in developing countries. A systematic search of the literature was conducted utilising the following data bases: Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), EMBASE, Medline, and Web of Knowledge. 9 studies were identified for the critical appraisal process. The Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) critical appraisal check-list for experimental studies was utilised and two reviewers conducted the appraisal process independently. 7 studies were included for this review and data was extracted using the JBI data extraction form for experimental studies. The extracted data was heterogeneous as such narrative synthesis was conducted. The nutritional status of children in all studies improved and this was evidenced by increases in weight, height, mid upper arm circumference and reduced morbidity. Key messages about education were age at introduction of complementary foods, nutrition value on different types of feeds found locally and frequency of feeding the children. However, there were varied results regarding the effects of the intervention on the nutrition status of children. This was attributed by differences in implementers' characteristics, different intervention strategy and intensity, difference in age of the children at enrolment, pre-existing children's growth and nutritional status and follow-up periods. In addition to home visiting, conducting group meetings of care givers and community leaders, providing education twice a week and use of cooking demonstrations have shown that they produce highly significant findings. The evidence from the identified studies suggests that community- based nutrition education improves the nutrition status of under-five children in developing countries.

  3. Cost-effectiveness of a disease-specific oral nutritional support for pressure ulcer healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cereda, Emanuele; Klersy, Catherine; Andreola, Manuela; Pisati, Roberto; Schols, Jos M G A; Caccialanza, Riccardo; D'Andrea, Federico

    2017-02-01

    The Oligo Element Sore Trial has shown that supplementation with a disease-specific nutritional formula enriched with arginine, zinc, and antioxidants improves pressure ulcer (PU) healing in malnourished patients compared to an isocaloric-isonitrogenous support. However, the use of such a nutritional formula needs to be supported also by a cost-effectiveness evaluation. This economic evaluation - from a local healthcare system perspective - was conducted alongside a multicenter, randomized, controlled trial following a piggy-back approach. The primary efficacy endpoint was the percentage of change in PU area at 8 weeks. The cost analysis focused on: the difference in direct medical costs of local PU care between groups and incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of nutritional therapy related to significant study endpoints (percentage of change in PU area and ≥40% reduction in PU area at 8 weeks). Although the experimental formula was more expensive (mean difference: 39.4 Euros; P costs of local PU care (difference, -74.3 Euros; P = 0.013). Therefore, given its efficacy it proved to be a cost-effective intervention. The robustness of these results was confirmed by the sensitivity analyses. The use of a disease-specific oral nutritional formula not only results in better healing of PUs, but also reduces the costs of local PU care from a local healthcare system perspective. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of a Self-Directed Nutrition Intervention among Adults with Chronic Health Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baruth, Meghan; Wilcox, Sara; Jake-Schoffman, Danielle E.; Schlaff, Rebecca A.; Goldufsky, Tatum M.

    2018-01-01

    Chronic diseases are common among adults. A healthy diet may be beneficial for managing the consequences of such conditions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a self-directed nutrition program on dietary behaviors among adults with chronic health conditions. As part of a larger trial examining the effects of a self-directed…

  5. Effect of supplemental sericea lespedeza pellets on internal parasite infection and nutritional status of grazing goats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeding supplemental Sericea lespedeza (SL; Lespedeza cuneata) leaf meal pellets has been shown to reduce the effects of infection with gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) and coccidia (Eimeria spp.) in sheep and goats, but effects on nutritional status of parasitized small ruminants are unclear. A 14...

  6. Nutritional effects of the serial transverse enteroplasty procedure in experimental short bowel syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaji, Tatsuru; Tanaka, Hiroaki; Wallace, Laurie E

    2009-01-01

    The serial transverse enteroplasty (STEP) procedure appears beneficial clinically, but the mechanism(s) underlying these effects remains unclear. The present study evaluated the nutritional, hormonal, and morphologic effects of the STEP procedure in a rodent model of short bowel syndrome....

  7. Assessing ecological effects of radionuclides: data gaps and extrapolation issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garnier-Laplace, Jacqueline; Gilek, Michael; Sundell-Bergman, Synnoeve; Larsson, Carl-Magnus

    2004-01-01

    By inspection of the FASSET database on radiation effects on non-human biota, one of the major difficulties in the implementation of ecological risk assessments for radioactive pollutants is found to be the lack of data for chronic low-level exposure. A critical review is provided of a number of extrapolation issues that arise in undertaking an ecological risk assessment: acute versus chronic exposure regime; radiation quality including relative biological effectiveness and radiation weighting factors; biological effects from an individual to a population level, including radiosensitivity and lifestyle variations throughout the life cycle; single radionuclide versus multi-contaminants. The specificities of the environmental situations of interest (mainly chronic low-level exposure regimes) emphasise the importance of reproductive parameters governing the demography of the population within a given ecosystem and, as a consequence, the structure and functioning of that ecosystem. As an operational conclusion to keep in mind for any site-specific risk assessment, the present state-of-the-art on extrapolation issues allows us to grade the magnitude of the uncertainties as follows: one species to another > acute to chronic = external to internal = mixture of stressors> individual to population> ecosystem structure to function

  8. Nutritional therapy and effect assessment of infants with primary intestinal lymphangiectasia: Case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Suyun; Liu, Xiaoqian; He, Yuan; Li, Qianyu; Ji, Linlin; Shen, Wenbin; Tong, Guansheng

    2017-12-01

    Intestinal lymphangiectasia (IL) is a rare enteropathy involving the expansion and rupture of intestinal lymphatic channels. Although several reports have studied cases of primary IL (PIL), this condition is very rare, and is even less commonly encountered in infants. This study aimed to investigate the nutritional therapy and effect assessment of chylous reflux disorder caused by PIL in infants. Infantile patients were enrolled in the Affiliated Beijing Shijitan Hospital of the Capital Medical University between January 2012 and March 2014. The minimum age of onset was 4 months and the maximum age of onset was 16 months, with an average age of 4.9 months. All children were inpatient who had been diagnosed with chylous reflux syndrome (chylothorax and/or chylic abdomen) caused by PIL. Retrospective analysis and individualized nutrition therapy of these cases were carried out. Finally, nutritional therapy and prognosis of PIL were assessed and summarized. All the children survived, showed improvement in the serum total protein, albumin, and HGB levels after nutritional therapy. After comprehensive nutritional therapy, we were able to achieve diarrhea control for all the 9 patients, and after treatment, the children passed soft, yellow stools 1 to 2 times/d. After treatment, the height and weight of all patients increased to within the normal ranges of the World Health Organization standard chart. The mean serum albumin level reached 41.3 g/L. All nutrition-related indicators were found to have significant improvement compared with the baseline levels. The results revealed that nutritional therapy for the 9 children with PIL was effective, and it may be able to improve the clinical syndromes and symptoms of children with PIL and promote recovery. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Nutritional therapy and effect assessment of infants with primary intestinal lymphangiectasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Suyun; Liu, Xiaoqian; He, Yuan; Li, Qianyu; Ji, Linlin; Shen, Wenbin; Tong, Guansheng

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Intestinal lymphangiectasia (IL) is a rare enteropathy involving the expansion and rupture of intestinal lymphatic channels. Although several reports have studied cases of primary IL (PIL), this condition is very rare, and is even less commonly encountered in infants. This study aimed to investigate the nutritional therapy and effect assessment of chylous reflux disorder caused by PIL in infants. Patient concerns: Infantile patients were enrolled in the Affiliated Beijing Shijitan Hospital of the Capital Medical University between January 2012 and March 2014. The minimum age of onset was 4 months and the maximum age of onset was 16 months, with an average age of 4.9 months. Diagnoses: All children were inpatient who had been diagnosed with chylous reflux syndrome (chylothorax and/or chylic abdomen) caused by PIL. Interventions: Retrospective analysis and individualized nutrition therapy of these cases were carried out. Finally, nutritional therapy and prognosis of PIL were assessed and summarized. Outcomes: All the children survived, showed improvement in the serum total protein, albumin, and HGB levels after nutritional therapy. After comprehensive nutritional therapy, we were able to achieve diarrhea control for all the 9 patients, and after treatment, the children passed soft, yellow stools 1 to 2 times/d. After treatment, the height and weight of all patients increased to within the normal ranges of the World Health Organization standard chart. The mean serum albumin level reached 41.3 g/L. All nutrition-related indicators were found to have significant improvement compared with the baseline levels. Lessons: The results revealed that nutritional therapy for the 9 children with PIL was effective, and it may be able to improve the clinical syndromes and symptoms of children with PIL and promote recovery. PMID:29390480

  10. Effect of early nutrition support on postoperative rehabilitation in patients with oral cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing-An Zhang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the effect of early nutrition support on the postoperative nutrition metabolism and rehabilitation in patients with oral cancer. Methods: A total of 80 patients with oral cancer who were admitted in our hospital from January, 2013 to January, 2015 were included in the study, and divided into the observation group (early nutrition support and control group (routine treatments with 40 cases in each group. The postoperative basic nutrition requirement amount in the observation group was calculated according to HarrisNenedict formula. The appropriate pharmaceutics and nutritional pathway were selected. The patients in the control group were given routine diets after operation. The levels of ALB, PAB, TRF, TCL, IgM, IgG, and IgA before and after operation in the two groups were compared. The body mass and wound healing in the two groups were recorded and compared. Results: The body mass and serum TRF level after operation in the observation group were slightly reduced, but were not significantly different from those before operation (P>0.05. The serum ALB, PAB, and TLC levels after operation in the observation group were significantly reduced when compared with before operation (P0.05, but the above indicators were significantly elevated after operation (P<0.05. The peripheral blood IgM, IgG, and IgA levels 1 week after operation in the observation group were significantly higher than those in the control group (P<0.05. The stage I healing rate of the surgical wound in the observation group was significantly higher than that in the control group (P<0.05. Conclusions: The early nutrition support can effectively enhance the postoperative nutrition status and immunological function in patients with oral cancer, and is beneficial for the postoperative rehabilitation.

  11. [Transdisciplinary Approach for Sarcopenia. Effect of nutritional support for the prevention of sarcopenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishioka, Hiroaki

    2014-10-01

    Sarcopenia is defined as the age-related loss of muscle mass and function. Sarcopenia is closely related with decreased physical function, fall, bone fracture, osteoporosis, and insulin resistance, which lead to increased morbidity and mortality in elderly people. The pathogenesis of sarcopenia is complex and multifactorial, which remains not to be fully understood. Inappropriate food intake and reduced physical activity are known to increase the risk of developing sarcopenia. Resistance training and nutritional support have been shown to be an effective intervention for prevention of sarcopenia. Protein, especially branched chain amino acid, and vitamin D have been reported to improve sarcopenia. The intervention together with nutrition and exercise are more effective.

  12. Student Nutrition, Learning and Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royster, Martha

    This discussion addresses several nutrition issues considered important to schools, students, and educators in the United States. Contents consist of a review of malnutrition and learning research and discussions of food additives and allergies, diet and hyperkinesia, the effects of caffeine and sugar on children's behavior, and the National…

  13. A Worksite Nutrition Intervention is Effective at Improving Employee Well-Being: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutliffe, Jay T; Carnot, Mary Jo; Fuhrman, Joel H; Sutliffe, Chloe A; Scheid, Julia C

    2018-01-01

    Worksite dietary interventions show substantial potential for improving employee health and well-being. The aim of this pilot study was to determine the effect of a worksite nutrition intervention on improving well-being. Thirty-five university employees participated in a 6-week nutrition intervention. The dietary protocol emphasized the daily consumption of greens, beans/legumes, a variety of other vegetables, fruits, nuts, seeds, and whole grains, referred to as a micronutrient-dense, plant-rich diet. Participants were encouraged to minimize the consumption of refined foods and animal products. Significant improvements in sleep quality, quality of life, and depressive symptoms were found. Findings reveal that a worksite nutrition intervention is effective at improving sleep quality, quality of life, and depressive symptoms with a projected improvement in work productivity and attendance.

  14. A Worksite Nutrition Intervention is Effective at Improving Employee Well-Being: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay T. Sutliffe

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Worksite dietary interventions show substantial potential for improving employee health and well-being. The aim of this pilot study was to determine the effect of a worksite nutrition intervention on improving well-being. Methods. Thirty-five university employees participated in a 6-week nutrition intervention. The dietary protocol emphasized the daily consumption of greens, beans/legumes, a variety of other vegetables, fruits, nuts, seeds, and whole grains, referred to as a micronutrient-dense, plant-rich diet. Participants were encouraged to minimize the consumption of refined foods and animal products. Results. Significant improvements in sleep quality, quality of life, and depressive symptoms were found. Conclusions. Findings reveal that a worksite nutrition intervention is effective at improving sleep quality, quality of life, and depressive symptoms with a projected improvement in work productivity and attendance.

  15. The effects of using a nutrition logo on consumption and product evaluation of a sweet pastry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenhuis, I H M; Kroeze, W; Vyth, E L; Valk, S; Verbauwen, R; Seidell, J C

    2010-12-01

    Nutrition logos have received a great deal of attention to stimulate people to eat a healthier diet. However, very little is known neither about actual consumption behavior related to nutrition logos nor about potential compensatory eating behaviors due to nutrition logos. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of using an existing nutrition logo on consumption and product evaluation of a chocolate mousse cake. A cross-over design was applied with two conditions: a condition with a logo and a condition without a logo. Participants were females recruited in the university community (n = 36, mean age 22.6 ± 6.3). Data on consumption, tastefulness, perceived healthiness, dietary restraint and Body Mass Index were collected. No significant differences between conditions were found on consumption and tastefulness. The cake was rated as significantly less unhealthy in the logo condition. In conclusion, results cannot be extrapolated to other products, especially not to products that are perceived as healthy. In this study, the use of a nutrition logo did not result in an increased consumption and had no effect on the rating of taste of a sweet pastry among females from the university community. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Cost effectiveness of nutrition support in the prevention of pressure ulcer in hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, M D; Graves, N; Bauer, J D; Ash, S

    2013-01-01

    This study estimates the economic outcomes of a nutrition intervention to at-risk patients compared with standard care in the prevention of pressure ulcer. Statistical models were developed to predict 'cases of pressure ulcer avoided', 'number of bed days gained' and 'change to economic costs' in public hospitals in 2002-2003 in Queensland, Australia. Input parameters were specified and appropriate probability distributions fitted for: number of discharges per annum; incidence rate for pressure ulcer; independent effect of pressure ulcer on length of stay; cost of a bed day; change in risk in developing a pressure ulcer associated with nutrition support; annual cost of the provision of a nutrition support intervention for at-risk patients. A total of 1000 random re-samples were made and the results expressed as output probability distributions. The model predicts a mean 2896 (s.d. 632) cases of pressure ulcer avoided; 12, 397 (s.d. 4491) bed days released and corresponding mean economic cost saving of euros 2 869 526 (s.d. 2 078 715) with a nutrition support intervention, compared with standard care. Nutrition intervention is predicted to be a cost-effective approach in the prevention of pressure ulcer in at-risk patients.

  17. Beneficial immune modulatory effects of a specific nutritional combination in a murine model for cancer cachexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, J; Vos, P; Kegler, D; van Norren, K; Argilés, J M; Laviano, A; Garssen, J; van Helvoort, A

    2008-01-01

    The majority of patients with advanced cancer are recognised by impaired immune competence influenced by several factors, including the type and stage of the tumour and the presence of cachexia. Recently, a specific nutritional combination containing fish oil, specific oligosaccharide mixture, high protein content and leucine has been developed aimed to support the immune system of cancer patients in order to reduce the frequency and severity of (infectious) complications. In a recently modified animal model cachexia is induced by inoculation of C26 tumour cells in mice. In a pre-cachectic state, no effect was observed on contact hypersensitivity, a validated in vivo method to measure Th1-mediated immune function, after adding the individual nutritional ingredients to the diet of tumour-bearing mice. However, the complete mixture resulted in significantly improved Th1 immunity. Moreover, in a cachectic state, the complete mixture reduced plasma levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and beneficially affected ex vivo immune function. Accordingly, the combination of the nutritional ingredients is required to obtain a synergistic effect, leading to a reduced inflammatory state and improved immune competence. From this, it can be concluded that the specific nutritional combination has potential as immune-supporting nutritional intervention to reduce the risk of (infectious) complications in cancer patients. PMID:19018259

  18. The Effects of Intensive Nutrition Education on Late Middle-Aged Adults with Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Li

    2016-09-01

    , there was no statistical significance between groups. Conclusions: Intensive nutrition education has significant effects on blood glucose control in late middle-aged adults with type 2 diabetes. Intensive education can cultivate good diet habits and increase physical activity, which are important for diabetes patients in the short and long terms. These findings may contribute to improving education methodology and nutrition therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes.

  19. A pilot study to examine the effects of a nutrition intervention on nutrition knowledge, behaviors, and efficacy expectations in middle school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahlman, Mariane M; Dake, Joseph A; McCaughtry, Nate; Martin, Jeffrey

    2008-04-01

    This was a pilot study to determine the impact of the Michigan Model (MM) Nutrition Curriculum on nutrition knowledge, efficacy expectations, and eating behaviors in middle school students. The study was conducted in a large metropolitan setting and approved by the Institutional Review Board. The participants for this study were divided into an intervention group (n = 407) and a control group (n = 169). An MM instructor trained health teachers in the use of the curriculum, and the teacher subsequently taught the curriculum to students in the intervention group. A valid and reliable questionnaire was used to determine pre-post differences. It consisted of 3 subscales assessing eating habits, nutrition knowledge, and efficacy expectations toward healthy eating. Subscale scores were analyzed using a 2 groups (intervention vs control) x 2 times (pre vs post) analysis of variance. The intervention group increased their nutrition knowledge at post. There was also a significant main effect for groups in the subscales "Eating Behaviors" and "Efficacy Expectations Regarding Healthy Eating." Subsequent post hoc analysis revealed that the intervention group was significantly more likely to eat fruits and vegetables and less likely to eat junk food than the control group. Students in the intervention group also felt more confident that they could eat healthy. The results of this pilot study suggest that the MM Nutrition Curriculum delivered by trained professionals resulted in significant positive changes in both nutrition knowledge and behaviors in middle school children. Further research needs to be conducted to determine the long-term impact.

  20. Space Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.

    2009-01-01

    Optimal nutrition will be critical for crew members who embark on space exploration missions. Nutritional assessment provides an opportunity to ensure that crewmembers begin their missions in optimal nutritional status, to document changes during a mission and, if necessary, to provide intervention to maintain that status throughout the mission, and to assesses changes after landing in order to facilitate the return to their normal status as soon as possible after landing. We report here the findings from our nutritional assessment of astronauts who participated in the International Space Station (ISS) missions, along with flight and ground-based research findings. We also present ongoing and planned nutrition research activities. These studies provide evidence that bone loss, compromised vitamin status, and oxidative damage are the critical nutritional concerns for space travelers. Other nutrient issues exist, including concerns about the stability of nutrients in the food system, which are exposed to longterm storage and radiation during flight. Defining nutrient requirements, and being able to provide and maintain those nutrients on exploration missions, will be critical for maintaining crew member health.

  1. Elderly nutritional status effection salivary anticandidal capacity against Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ria Puspitawati

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Elderly often suffer malnutrition and oral candidiasis. Candida albicans (C. albicans which is the most prominent cause of oral candidiasis, is one of commensal oral micro-flora. Nutritional status affect the characteristic of saliva. Saliva is the regulator in the development of C. albicans from comensal into pathogen. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determining the correlation between elderly nutritional status with salivary total protein and its activity in inhibiting C. albicans growth and biofilm formation. Methods: Using mini nutritional assessment 30 elderly were classified into normal and malnutrition groups. Total protein of unstimulated saliva was measured using Bradford protein assay. The colony forming unit (CFU of C. albicans was counted on 72 hours on SDA cultures without (control or with 2 hour saliva exposure. Biofilm formation was analyzed from the optical density of 10–5 C. albicans suspension without saliva exposure (control or with exposure of 10.000 μg/ml saliva and incubated in 37° C for 2 days. The suspension was put into 96 well plates, stained with crystal-violet dye, and analyzed using microplate reader. Differences between groups were analyzed using independent t-test or Kruskall-Wallis. Correlation between variables was analyzed using Spearman test. Results: Salivary total protein of normal elderly (1.113.5 ± 1.1143.3 was higher than those of malnutrition (613.6 ± 253.6 but not statistically significant (p > 0.05. The CFU of C. albicans exposed to saliva of normal samples (2.060 cfu/ml was significantly lower than control (24.100 cfu/ml and those exposed to malnutrition saliva (5.513.3 cfu/ml. C. albicans biofilm formation is highest in controls (0.177, lower in those exposed to malnourished saliva (0.151 and lowest in those exposed to saliva of good nourished elderly (0.133. Conclusion: Although does not cause significant decrease of salivary total protein, malnutrition in elderly results

  2. The potential effectiveness of the nutrition improvement program on infant and young child feeding and nutritional status in the Northwest and Southwest regions of Cameroon, Central Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinsma, Kate; Nkuoh, Godlove; Nshom, Emmanuel

    2016-11-15

    Despite the recent international focus on maternal and child nutrition, little attention is paid to nutrition capacity development. Although infant feeding counselling by health workers increases caregivers' knowledge, and improves breastfeeding, complementary feeding, and children's linear growth, most of the counselling in sub-Saharan Africa is primarily conducted by nurses or volunteers, and little is done to develop capacity for nutrition at the professional, organizational, or systemic levels. The Cameroon Baptist Convention Health Services Nutrition Improvement Program (NIP) has integrated a cadre of nutrition counselors into prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV programs, infant welfare clinics, and antenatal clinics to improve infant and young child feeding practices (IYCF). The study objective was to evaluate the effects of NIP's infant feeding counselors on exclusive breastfeeding (EBF), complementary feeding (CF), and children's linear growth. A cross-sectional evaluation design was used. Using systematic random sampling, caregivers were recruited from NIP sites (n = 359) and non-NIP sites (n = 415) from Infant Welfare Clinics (IWCs) in the Northwest (NWR) and Southwest Regions (SWR) of Cameroon between October 2014 and April 2015. Differences in EBF and CF practices and children's linear growth between NIP and non-NIP sites were determined using chi-square and multiple logistic regression. After adjusting for differences in religion, occupation, and number of months planning to breastfeed, children were almost seven times (Odds Ratio [OR]: 6.9; 95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 2.30, 21.09; β = 1.94) more likely to be exclusively breastfed at NIP sites compared to non-NIP sites. After adjusting for differences in occupation, religion, number of months planning to breastfeed, rural environment, economic status, attending other Infant Welfare Clinics, and non-biological caregiver, children were five times more likely to be stunted at

  3. The potential effectiveness of the nutrition improvement program on infant and young child feeding and nutritional status in the Northwest and Southwest regions of Cameroon, Central Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Reinsma

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the recent international focus on maternal and child nutrition, little attention is paid to nutrition capacity development. Although infant feeding counselling by health workers increases caregivers’ knowledge, and improves breastfeeding, complementary feeding, and children’s linear growth, most of the counselling in sub-Saharan Africa is primarily conducted by nurses or volunteers, and little is done to develop capacity for nutrition at the professional, organizational, or systemic levels. The Cameroon Baptist Convention Health Services Nutrition Improvement Program (NIP has integrated a cadre of nutrition counselors into prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV programs, infant welfare clinics, and antenatal clinics to improve infant and young child feeding practices (IYCF. The study objective was to evaluate the effects of NIP’s infant feeding counselors on exclusive breastfeeding (EBF, complementary feeding (CF, and children’s linear growth. Methods A cross-sectional evaluation design was used. Using systematic random sampling, caregivers were recruited from NIP sites (n = 359 and non-NIP sites (n = 415 from Infant Welfare Clinics (IWCs in the Northwest (NWR and Southwest Regions (SWR of Cameroon between October 2014 and April 2015. Differences in EBF and CF practices and children’s linear growth between NIP and non-NIP sites were determined using chi-square and multiple logistic regression. Results After adjusting for differences in religion, occupation, and number of months planning to breastfeed, children were almost seven times (Odds Ratio [OR]: 6.9; 95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 2.30, 21.09; β = 1.94 more likely to be exclusively breastfed at NIP sites compared to non-NIP sites. After adjusting for differences in occupation, religion, number of months planning to breastfeed, rural environment, economic status, attending other Infant Welfare Clinics, and non-biological caregiver

  4. The effect of a recessionary economy on food choice: implications for nutrition education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Carla K; Branscum, Paul

    2012-01-01

    To determine the effect of an economic recession on food choice behaviors. A qualitative study using semistructured, in-depth interviews followed by completion of a nutrition knowledge questionnaire and the Food Choice Questionnaire was conducted. A convenience sample from a metropolitan city in the Midwest. Women with children younger than 18 years in the household who had experienced unemployment, underemployment, or loss of a house because of foreclosure in the previous year participated (n = 25). Reported behaviors for food choices when grocery shopping and dining out and educational resources requested to inform nutrition education programs. Interviews were coded with a matrix derived from participant statements. Common behaviors were grouped and broad themes were identified. Numerous shopping strategies were recently used to save money (eg, buying only sale items, using coupons). Participants believed a healthful diet included a variety of foods with less sugar, salt, and fat. Recipes and menus that required little cost or preparation time and resources to track food expenditures were desired. Nutrition education should include money-saving shopping strategies, facilitate menu planning and cooking skills, and address food resource management to enable participants to acquire sufficient, acceptable, and nutritionally adequate food. Copyright © 2012 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The effect of educational program based on BASNEF model on the nutritional behavior of students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mohammad M. Hazavehei

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Concerning the importance of improving nutrition in teen girls, the purpose of this study was to determine the effects of educational program on the nutritional behavior among second-grade middle school female students based on BASNEF model. Materials and Method: This experimental study were done on 72 students who was selected randomly in two equal groups of 36 students (experimental and control groups. The instruments for data collection were the BASNEF model and 24-recall questionnaires (before and 1 month after intervention. Educational interventions were performed in 3 sessions and data were collected and analyzed by repeated measures of ANOVA, Friedman, Mann-Whitney U, independent and paired t-tests using SPSS-17 software.Results: Our findings indicated that mean scores of knowledge and BASNEF Model variables were significantly increased in the experimental group compared to the controls after intervention. Also, nutritional behavior improved significantly among the experimental group, compared to control group. Conclusion: Our finding shows the importance of nutritional education based on BASNEF model on improving nutritional behaviors in students

  6. Effect of nutritive level on carcass traits and meat quality of IHDH foals

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Palo, Pasquale; Tateo, Alessandra; Maggiolino, Aristide; Centoducati, Pasquale

    2014-01-01

    The present work describes the effect of nutritive level on horse carcass traits and on meat quality. Eighteen male Italian Heavy Draught Horse (IHDH) breed foals were employed in the study. Soon after foaling they were randomly subdivided into three groups according to three nutritive level classes: 150%, 180% and 200% of maintenance requirements. Live weight, hot carcass weight and dressing percentage of each animal were recorded. After slaughtering, meat samples were collected from Longissimus dorsi muscle. The right half carcass of each animal was then divided into cuts. Each one was subdivided into lean, fat and bones. Live weight, carcass weight and dressing percentage were not affected by nutritive level (P > 0.05). Horses fed with the lower nutritive level showed a higher incidence of lean and a lower incidence of fat (P 0.05). Probably the tendency of IHDH foals to concentrate adipogenesis in the subcutaneous district could explain the lack of influence of nutritive level on meat quality parameters and its influence on carcass and cut composition, which tend to be richer in fat. PMID:24961285

  7. Fertility in female reindeer: the effects of nutrition and growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. J.C. Tyler

    1987-06-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy rates in juvenile reindeer (Rangifer tarandus vary considerably both within and between flocks. This potentially has considerable economic significance for reindeer husbandry. This paper discusses the influence of nutrition and growth on fertility in female reindeer using examples taken from the literature. Fertility in reindeer is related to body weight, like in many other mammals, but the relationship is not invariant. Weight-specific pregnancy rates appear to be density dependent in juvenile reindeer although not in adults. This strongly suggests that nutrition has an important influence on fertility in juveniles.Fruktbarhet hos simler: effekter av ernæring og vekst.Abstract in Norwegian / Sammendrag: Drektighetsprosenten i ungrein varierer sterkt fra individ til individ og fra flokk til flokk. En høy fruktbarhet i reinflokken er selve grunnlaget for en vellykket reindrift. Overraskende er det derfor at man vet lite om hvilke faktorer som bestemmer om rein skal bli drektig eller ikke. I denne artikkelen blir effekten av ernæring på reinsimlenes fruktbarhet diskutert. Undersøkelser indikerer at rein er som andre pattedyr, der fruktbarheten er relatert til kroppsvekten. Forholdet mellom reinens kroppsvekt og fruktbarhet varierer likevel sterkt. Mye tyder på at drektighetsprosenten i ungrein er avhengig av reintettheten. Dette indikerer at ernæringen er en viktig faktor når det gjelder fruktbarhet i ungrein. Vekt-spesifikk fruktbarhet kan derfor være en brukbar indikator for reinflokkens fortilgang. I prinsippet vil slike fruktbarhetsundersøkelser gi et en brukbar indikator for reinflokkens fortilgang. I prinsippet vil slike fruktbarhetsundersøkelser gi et tidlig varsel om reintallet er for høyt i forhold til beitegrunnlaget før en markert nedgang i slaktevekten observeres.Ravitsemustilan ja kasvun vaikutus vaatimien hedelmållisyyteen.Abstract in Finnish / Yhteenveto: Nuorten porojen hedelmåliisyys vaihtelee suuresti

  8. Effects of gamma-irradiation on the main nutritional composition of rape pollen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Yuan; Wang Darui; Han Denbao; Liu Deshen

    1990-01-01

    Storaged pollen is easy to be destroyed by bacterium, moulds and insects. In order to solve this problem we tried to irradiate pollen with doses of 1.5 kGy and 2.5 kGy of γ-rays and then analyse its main nutritional compositions so to find out the effects of gamma-irradiation on amino acids, protein, carbohydrate, fat, vitamines etc. The results have been showed that the above doses gamma-irradiation doesn't notably influence the main nutritional compositions of rape pollen, even if they are storaged for three or six months at 4 deg C

  9. Effect of non-nutritive sugars to decrease the survivorship of spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, we investigated the effects of non-nutritive sugars and sugar alcohols on the survivorship of spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii, and found erythritol and erythrose as potentially toxic to the fly. In a dose-dependent study, erythritol and erythrose significantly reduced fly ...

  10. Comparing the Effectiveness of a Supplemental Online Tutorial to Traditional Instruction with Nutritional Science Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubas, Patrice; Heiss, Cindy; Pedersen, Mary

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain if an online computer tutorial on diabetes mellitus, supplemented to traditional classroom lecture, is an effective tool in the education of nutrition students. Students completing a web-based tutorial as a supplement to classroom lecture displayed greater improvement in pre- vs. post-test scores compared…

  11. Effects of a Co-operative Learning Strategy on Ninth-Graders' Understanding of Human Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soyibo, Kola; Evans, Hermel G.

    2002-01-01

    Looks at the effect of teaching strategies on a group's attitude toward biology and understanding human nutrition. Used an experimental group that participated in co-operative learning and a control group taught using the lecture method. Involves ninth graders (n=156) from two high schools in Jamaica. (Author/YDS)

  12. The Effect of a Recessionary Economy on Food Choice: Implications for Nutrition Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Carla K.; Branscum, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effect of an economic recession on food choice behaviors. Design: A qualitative study using semistructured, in-depth interviews followed by completion of a nutrition knowledge questionnaire and the Food Choice Questionnaire was conducted. Setting and Participants: A convenience sample from a metropolitan city in the…

  13. Effective Nutrition Education for Aboriginal Australians: Lessons from a Diabetes Cooking Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Penelope A.; Davison, Joyce E.; Moore, Louise F.; Rubinstein, Raechelle

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the experiences of Aboriginal Australians with or at risk of diabetes who attended urban community cooking courses in 2002-2007; and to develop recommendations for increasing the uptake and effectiveness of nutrition education in Aboriginal communities. Methods: Descriptive qualitative approach using semistructured…

  14. Net effects of nitrogen fertilization on the nutritive value and digestibility of oat forages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applications of soil amendments containing N are part of routine forage management strategies for grasses, with a primary goal of increasing forage yield. However, the effects of N fertilization on forage nutritive value, estimates of energy density, and in-vitro DM or NDF disappearance often have b...

  15. The effect of storage on the nutritional quality of meat and bone meal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, W.H.; Cottam, Y.H.; Thomas, D.V.

    2006-01-01

    The effect of storage on the nutritional quality of meat and bone meal was investigated. Three meat and bone meal samples were stored for 1, 2, 3, 6 and 9 months, with or without the addition of the antioxidants (butylatedhydroxytoluene and butylatedhydroxyanisole). Gross composition, thiobarbituric

  16. Amelioration of Anti-Nutritive Effects of Castor Oil Seed ( Ricinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three hundred and twenty (320) day old male broilers were used to investigate the amelioration of anti-nutritive effects of castor oil seed (Ricinus communis) meal in broilers' ration using natural fermentation and DL-Methionine supplementation. The experimental designed was a 4 × 2 factorial arrangement of dietary ...

  17. The influence of survey duration on estimates of food intakes and its relevance for public health nutrition and food safety issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambe, J; Kearney, J; Leclercq, C; Zunft, H F; De Henauw, S; Lamberg-Allardt, C J; Dunne, A; Gibney, M J

    2000-02-01

    To examine the influence of food consumption survey duration on estimates of percentage consumers, mean total population intakes and intakes among consumers only and to consider its relevance for public health nutrition and food safety issues. Prospective food consumption survey. A multicentre study in five centres in the European Union-Dublin, Ghent, Helsinki, Potsdam and Rome. Teenage subjects were recruited through schools; 948 (80%) out of 1180 subjects completed the survey. 14-day food diaries were used to collect the food consumption data. For mean total population intakes, 53% of the foods had slopes significantly different to 0 (Pday), these differences were small, with 41% of foods having differences of day and a further 35% having differences of 1-5 g/day. Estimates of percentage consumers based on 3 days and 14 days were 1.9 and 3.6 times the 1-day estimate, respectively. For 72% of foods, at least 50% of non-consumers on day 1 became consumers over the subsequent 13 days. Estimates of mean consumer only intakes based on 3 days and 14 days were 53% and 32% of the 1 day value. In practical terms, survey duration influences estimates of percentage consumers and intakes among consumers only but not mean total population intakes. Awareness of this influence is important for improved interpretation of dietary data for epidemiological studies, development of food-based dietary guidelines and food chemical intakes. The Institute of European Food Studies, a non-profit research organization based in Trinity College Dublin. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition (2000) 54, 166-173

  18. Effect of splenectomy on liver cirrhosis and related surgical issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KONG Degang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Patients with liver fibrosis and cirrhosis experience certain changes in spleen morphology and function, and there is always a controversy over whether to perform splenectomy in patients with liver cirrhosis. As a surgical treatment of recurrent portal hypertension complicated by esophagogastric variceal bleeding, splenectomy can reduce portal venous pressure, reduce the possibility of gastrointestinal bleeding, and correct the reduced white blood cell count and platelet count. It can also protect the liver by improving liver function, promoting regeneration of hepatocytes, and inhibiting the progression of liver fibrosis. With reference to available clinical and laboratory data, this article reviews the effect of splenectomy on the cirrhotic liver and related issues such as selection of surgical procedures and prevention and treatment of postoperative complications, in order to promote splenectomy in patients with liver cirrhosis.

  19. Effect Of Socio- Economic Status On The Efficacy Of Nutrition Education In Promoting The Nutritional Knowledge, Attitude And Practice In First-Grade Guidance School Girls In Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taslimi Taleghani M

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adolescence (10-19 years is one of the most challenging periods in human development. A second period of rapid growth occurs during the teen years. Not much information is available on the effect of the socio-economic status on the outcome of nutrition education in teenage girls. Objective : The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of socio- economic status on the efficacy of nutrition education in promoting the nutritional knowledge, attitude and practice in first-grade guidance school girls in Tehran. Material & Methods: A total of 300 students were selected from 11 guidance schools by simple sampling and divided into three groups: 1- guide-book, 2- group discussion, 3- control. The knowledge and attitude data were collected using pre-test and post-test questionnaires and the personal-socioeconomic data were collected using general questionnaires. The students in group 1 were given the guide-book and required to study it at home, while group 2 students were told to discuss among themselves the contents of the guide-book. The control group was given nothing to study or to do. Results: Nutrition education did not have a significant effect on the increase in the attitude score in the students whose grade-point average and their mother’s education level were high. (p= 0.13, p=0.29. Only mother’s education level independently from the type of education was associated with the difference of knowledge score means (p =0.07.There was interaction between nutritional education and monthly pocket- money with regard to the increase in the knowledge score (p =0.03. Conclusion: Overall, exception of monthly pocket money, the effect of education on the nutritional knowledge and attitude was independent from other variables. Only mother’s education associate with the difference of knowledge score means.

  20. The effects of market integration on childhood growth and nutritional status: the dual burden of under- and over-nutrition in the Northern Ecuadorian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houck, Kelly; Sorensen, Mark V; Lu, Flora; Alban, Dayuma; Alvarez, Kati; Hidobro, David; Doljanin, Citlali; Ona, Ana Isabel

    2013-01-01

    Market integration is an important source of cultural change exposing indigenous populations to epidemiologic and nutrition transitions. As children and adolescents are biologically sensitive to the health effects of market integration, we examine community variation of anthropometric indicators of nutritional status and growth among a cross-cultural sample of Kichwa, Shuar, Huaorani, and Cofán indigenous groups in the northern Ecuadorian Amazon. We measured height, weight, body mass index (BMI), upper arm circumference, and triceps skinfolds of 186 children and adolescents aged 2 to 18 years from seven communities. Anthropometric z-scores were calculated based on the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey. Comparisons were made with this US reference group, along with between community differences to contextually explore the impacts of varying degrees of market integration. We found a high prevalence of stunting in both boys (40%) and girls (34%). Adiposity increased with age and 40% of girls between 15 and 18 years old were overweight. There were large sex differences in body composition with higher BMI, arm circumference, and triceps skinfolds in adolescent girls. The Kichwa demonstrated the poorest growth outcomes and nutritional stress followed by the Huaorani and Shuar; yet distinctions in under- and over-nutrition were evident within groups. Market integration is a major factor influencing the developmental and lifestyle mismatch associated with the epidemiologic and nutrition transition in general, and the dual burden pattern of high rates of stunting yet adequate to above average short-term nutritional status indicators found among indigenous Amazonian populations. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Effect of a nutrient-enriched drink on dietary intake and nutritional status in institutionalised elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manders, M; de Groot, C P G M; Blauw, Y H; Dhonukshe-Rutten, R A M; van Hoeckel-Prüst, L; Bindels, J G; Siebelink, E; van Staveren, W A

    2009-10-01

    (1) To determine whether nutritional supplementation (energy and micronutrients) in institutionalised elderly has a positive effect on dietary intake and nutritional status. (2) To investigate whether individuals tend to compensate for the energy content of the intervention product by decreasing their habitual food consumption. A 24-week, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, intervention trial in homes for the elderly (n=3), in nursing homes (n=3) and 'mixed' homes (n=3) in The Netherlands. Institutionalised elderly people (n=176) older than 60 years of age, with a body mass index nutrition-related analyses in fasting blood samples were measured in all participants. Data on dietary intake were collected in a subsample (n=66). A significantly favourable effect (Pfood decreased in both groups to the same extent (-0.5 MJ/day). Therefore, this decrease cannot be considered as compensation for the energy content of the product. This group of institutionalised elderly people does not compensate for the energy content of a concentrated nutritional supplement. Therefore, this supplement is effective for counteracting the development of malnutrition in this population.

  2. [Effect of nutrition on growth and neurodevelopment in the preterm infant: a systematic review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar Cordero, María José; Sánchez López, A M; Mur Villar, N; Hermoso Rodríguez, E; Latorre García, J

    2014-10-31

    The energy needs of preterm infants are high and more so when the body weight is lower; for this reason, and to safeguard the infant's future development, it is important to ensure an optimal caloric intake is obtained. To analyse leading research papers related to nutrition in the preterm newborn and its effects on growth and development. Systematic review of relevant studies, based on the application of a search strategy, from March to September 2014. The literature search was conducted using document analysis and information synthesis to classify and compile the information extracted, followed by a comparative evaluation. The validity of the articles obtained was corroborated by the weight of findings obtained, by the citations received by the articles and by their applicability to our healthcare environment. The search process produced 61 studies that met the selection criteria. The research question addressed has been widely examined and many studies have reported findings related to the nutrition of preterm infants. The direct relationship between nutritional intake and the growth rate of preterm infants is well documented. Proper nutrition in the preterm infant has positive effects on its growth and neurodevelopment. It has been reported that a greater intake of proteins and lipids favours the growth of preterm infants, but not weight gain. Studies have demonstrated the beneficial effect of breast milk on the brain, the retina and the blood vessels; however, there is a negative correlation between adiposity and brain volume. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  3. Nutritional effects on male calling behaviour in the variable field cricket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner; Hoback

    1999-01-01

    In the variable field cricket, Gryllus lineaticeps, females prefer higher chirp rates and longer chirp durations in male calling song. Higher chirp rates are energetically more expensive to produce, but the energetic cost of calling does not vary with chirp duration. We tested the hypothesis that nutrition affects male chirp rate and chirp duration. Full-sibling brothers of similar age were placed on high- and low-nutrition feeding regimes. There was no effect of feeding regime on male weight; neither group showed a significant change in weight, and the two groups did not differ from each other in weight change. However, males on the high-nutrition feeding regime both called more frequently and called at higher chirp rates when they did call. The two groups did not differ in chirp duration, the duration of pulses within chirps or chirp dominant frequency. These results suggest that females select mates based on one nutrition-dependent call character (chirp rate) and one nutrition-independent call character (chirp duration). In addition, because males in the two groups did not show significant differences in weight change, and because males on the high-nutrition feeding regime engaged in energetically more expensive calling, these results suggest that males invest any excess energy above their basic maintenance requirements in the production of call types that increase their attractiveness to females. The absence of a relationship between body condition and calling song structure for males in the field may be a consequence of this pattern of energy allocation. Copyright 1999 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

  4. The effect of nutrition knowledge and dietary iron intake on iron status in young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Alecia J; Chalmers, Kerry A; Collins, Clare E; Patterson, Amanda J

    2014-10-01

    Previous research on the relationships between general nutrition knowledge and dietary intake, and dietary iron intake and iron status has produced inconsistent results. Currently, no study has focused on knowledge of dietary iron and its effect on dietary iron intake. This study aimed to determine whether nutrition knowledge of iron is related to dietary iron intake in young women, and subsequently whether greater knowledge and intake translates into better iron status. A cross-sectional assessment of nutrition knowledge of iron, dietary iron intake and iron status was conducted in women aged 18-35 years living in Newcastle, NSW, Australia. Iron status was assessed by serum ferritin, haemoglobin, soluble transferrin receptor and alpha-1-glycoprotein. One hundred and seven women (27.8 ± 4.7 years) completed the nutrition knowledge questionnaire and FFQ. Of these, 74 (70%) also had biomarkers of iron status measured. Mean iron intake was 11.2 ± 3.8 mg/day. There was no association between nutrition knowledge score and whether the women met the RDI for iron (F (1, 102) = .40, P = .53). A positive correlation was shown between nutrition knowledge score and iron intake (mg/day) (r = 0.25, P = .01). Serum ferritin was positively associated with the frequency of flesh food intake (r = .27 P = .02). Vegetarians (including partial vegetarians) had significantly lower serum ferritin levels than non-vegetarians (F (1, 71) = 7.44, P = .01). Significant positive correlations found between higher flesh food intake and biomarkers of iron status suggest that educating non-vegetarians about the benefits of increased flesh food consumption and vegetarians about dietary iron enhancers and inhibitors may have potential for addressing the high rates of iron deficiency among young women. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The effects of different nutritional measurements on delayed wound healing after hip fracture in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jiong Jiong; Yang, Huilin; Qian, Haixin; Huang, Lixin; Guo, Zhongxing; Tang, Tiansi

    2010-03-01

    It has been well recognized that malnutrition causes wounds to heal inadequately and incompletely. Malnutrition is often observed in the elderly, and it appears to be more severe in patients with hip fracture than in the general aging population. Few prospective studies give a detailed account of the identification and classification of nutritional status in the elderly. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of different nutritional measurements on wound healing status after hip fracture in the elderly. From September 2002 to December 2007, 207 hip fracture patients older than 60 y treated surgically were reviewed for preoperative nutritional status. There were 81 males and 126 females with an average age of 75.93 y (62-91 y); 131 cases with femoral neck fractures, 76 cases with intertrochanteric fractures. Parameters indicative of nutritional status (serum albumin, serum transferrin, serum pre-albumin, and total lymphocyte count levels) at the time of admission were assessed, along with anthropometric measurements, Rainey MacDonald nutritional index, and MNA tool. Suture removal was performed on postoperative day 14. Delayed wound healing complicated 46 (22.2%) of the 207 cases. The preoperative serum transferring total lymphocyte count levels, MNA total score, and Rainey MacDonald nutritional index were significantly lower for patients who subsequently had delayed wound healing. When all variables were subjected to multivariate analysis, only total lymphocyte count levels and MNA total score showed significant value in predicting which patients would have delayed wound healing. Through prophylactic antibiotics and adherence to strict aseptic precautions, on follow-up, wound healing was normal in all patients. Patients at risk for delayed wound healing problems after hip fracture can be identified using relatively inexpensive laboratory test such as TLC and MNA tool. The clinician must be aware of the risk values of both measurements. We believe

  6. Medium-chain triglyceride-rich enteral nutrition is more effective than low-fat enteral nutrition in rat colitis, but is equal in enteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujikawa, T; Ohta, N; Nakamura, T; Yasuoka, T; Satoh, J; Fukunaga, T; Itohi, A; Uda, K; Ihara, T; Andoh, A; Sasaki, M; Fujiyama, Y; Bamba, T

    2001-10-01

    Although enteral nutrition (EN) therapy for Crohn's disease has been confirmed to be as effective as steroid therapy, the precise mechanism responsible for the effects of EN remains unclear, although some of the therapeutic effects of EN are believed to be due to a low dietary fat content. In order to elucidate the influence of fat in EN, it is important to investigate not only the quantity of fat, but also the source of the fat. We compared two enteral nutritional formulae: Elental (Ajinomoto) (elemental diet; ED), which contains only 1.5% fat, provided as long-chain triglycerides (LCT), versus Twinline (Snow Brand Milk Products) (TL), which contains a high percentage of fat (20.4%), provided mainly as medium-chain triglycerides (MCT). These formulae were tested on rat enteritis and rat colitis induced by trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS). Both ED and TL reduced the manifestations of enteritis. TL had a stronger anti-inflammatory effect than ED for colitis. TL also had nutritional advantages as compared with ED, as shown by the total serum protein in the TL group being significantly higher than that in the ED group. The results indicate that intraluminal MCT is suitable as a fat energy source during intestinal inflammation in rats. We suggest that Twinline may be more useful to improve nutritional status and to reduce the mucosal inflammation in rat colitis, but that Twinline is equal in effect to Elental for rat enteritis.

  7. [Effects of modified bazhen decoction in assistant with enteral nutrition on the growth hormone, the nutritional state, and the immune function in patients with gastric cancer after operation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong-xing; Li, Jian-ping

    2011-10-01

    To observe the effects of modified Bazhen Decoction (BZD) in assistant with enteral nutrition (EN) on the growth hormone, the nutritional state, and the immune function in patients with gastric cancer after operation. The prospective, random, single-blinded, controlled clinical trial was adopted. 88 patients receiving gastric cancer operation were randomly assigned to the parenteral nutrition group (Group A, 27 cases), the EN group (Group B, 30 cases), and the comprehensive group (Group C, BZD in assistant with EN, 31 cases). Isocaloric and isonitrogenous parenteral nutritional support was given to patients in Group A from the operation day to the ninth day. Isocaloric and isonitrogenous EN was given to patients in Group B and C from the second day of operation till the ninth day. 100 mL BZD was nasal fed to patients in Group C during the second day to the ninth day after operation. The levels of the growth hormone, immune indices such as IgA, IgG, CD4+, CD8+, and CD4+/CD8+, etc., and nutritional indices such as serum albumin, prealbumin, transferrin, etc. were detected in the three groups one day before operation, on the 1st day after operation, and on the tenth day after operation. The levels of IgA, IgG, CD4+, and CD4+/CD8+, serum albumin, prealbumin, transferrin decreased more than before operation in the three groups, with statistical difference (Pnutrition state and the immune function.

  8. Human Health Effects of Trichloroethylene: Key Findings and Scientific Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinot, Jennifer; Scott, Cheryl Siegel; Makris, Susan L.; Cooper, Glinda S.; Dzubow, Rebecca C.; Bale, Ambuja S.; Evans, Marina V.; Guyton, Kathryn Z.; Keshava, Nagalakshmi; Lipscomb, John C.; Barone, Stanley; Fox, John F.; Gwinn, Maureen R.; Schaum, John; Caldwell, Jane C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: In support of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) completed a toxicological review of trichloroethylene (TCE) in September 2011, which was the result of an effort spanning > 20 years. Objectives: We summarized the key findings and scientific issues regarding the human health effects of TCE in the U.S. EPA’s toxicological review. Methods: In this assessment we synthesized and characterized thousands of epidemiologic, experimental animal, and mechanistic studies, and addressed several key scientific issues through modeling of TCE toxicokinetics, meta-analyses of epidemiologic studies, and analyses of mechanistic data. Discussion: Toxicokinetic modeling aided in characterizing the toxicological role of the complex metabolism and multiple metabolites of TCE. Meta-analyses of the epidemiologic data strongly supported the conclusions that TCE causes kidney cancer in humans and that TCE may also cause liver cancer and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Mechanistic analyses support a key role for mutagenicity in TCE-induced kidney carcinogenicity. Recent evidence from studies in both humans and experimental animals point to the involvement of TCE exposure in autoimmune disease and hypersensitivity. Recent avian and in vitro mechanistic studies provided biological plausibility that TCE plays a role in developmental cardiac toxicity, the subject of substantial debate due to mixed results from epidemiologic and rodent studies. Conclusions: TCE is carcinogenic to humans by all routes of exposure and poses a potential human health hazard for noncancer toxicity to the central nervous system, kidney, liver, immune system, male reproductive system, and the developing embryo/fetus. PMID:23249866

  9. Effects of combined traditional processing methods on the nutritional quality of beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakitto, Aisha M; Muyonga, John H; Nakimbugwe, Dorothy

    2015-05-01

    Consumption of dry beans is limited by long cooking times thus high fuel requirement. The bioavailability of nutrients in beans is also limited due to presence of antinutrients such as phytates and tannins. Little research has been done on combined processing methods for production of nutritious fast cooking bean flour and the effect of combined treatments on nutritional quality of beans has not previously determined. The aim of this study was to reduce cooking time and enhance the nutritional value of dry beans. Specifically to: develop protocols for production of fast cooking bean flours and assess the effect of processing on the nutritional characteristics of the flours. Dry beans (K131 variety) were soaked for 12 h; sprouted for 48 h; dehulled and steamed for 25 and 15 min for whole and dehulled beans respectively or roasted at 170°C for 45 and 15 min for whole and dehulled beans respectively. Dehulling eliminated phytates and tannins and increased protein digestibility. In vitro protein digestibility and mineral (iron and zinc) extractability were negatively correlated with tannin and phytate content. Total available carbohydrates were highest in moist heat-treated bean flours. Overall, combined processing of beans improved the nutritional quality of dry beans and the resulting precooked flours need less cooking time compared to whole dry beans.

  10. Effect of behavioral stage-based nutrition education on management of osteodystrophy among hemodialysis patients, Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karavetian, Mirey; de Vries, Nanne; Elzein, Hafez; Rizk, Rana; Bechwaty, Fida

    2015-09-01

    Assess the effect of intensive nutrition education by trained dedicated dietitians on osteodystrophy management among hemodialysis patients. Randomized controlled trial in 12 hospital-based hemodialysis units equally distributed over clusters 1 and 2. Cluster 1 patients were either assigned to usual care (n=96) or to individualized intensive staged-based nutrition education by a dedicated renal dietitian (n=88). Cluster 2 patients (n=210) received nutrition education from general hospital dietitians, educating their patients at their spare time from hospital duties. Main outcomes were: (1) dietary knowledge(%), (2) behavioral change, (3) serum phosphorus (mmol/L), each measured at T0 (baseline), T1 (post 6 month intervention) and T2 (post 6 month follow up). Significant improvement was found only among patients receiving intensive education from a dedicated dietitian at T1; the change regressed at T2 without statistical significance: knowledge (T0: 40.3; T1: 64; T2: 63) and serum phosphorus (T0: 1.79; T1: 1.65; T2: 1.70); behavioral stages changed significantly throughout the study (T0: Preparation, T1: Action, T2: Preparation). The intensive protocol showed to be the most effective. Integrating dedicated dietitians and stage-based education in hemodialysis units may improve the nutritional management of patients in Lebanon and countries with similar health care systems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Nutritional status and social behavior in preschool children: the mediating effects of neurocognitive functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianghong; Raine, Adrian

    2017-01-01

    Early malnutritional status has been associated with reduced cognitive ability in childhood. However, there are almost no studies on the effect of malnutrition on positive social behavior, and no tests of possible mediating mechanisms. This study tests the hypothesis that poor nutritional status is associated with impaired social functioning in childhood, and that neurocognitive ability mediates this relationship. We assessed 1553 male and female 3-year-olds from a birth cohort on measures of malnutrition, social behavior and verbal and spatial neurocognitive functions. Children with indicators of malnutrition showed impaired social behavior (p malnutrition and degree of social behavior, with increased malnutrition associated with more impaired social behavior. Neurocognitive ability was found to mediate the nutrition–social behavior relationship. The mediation effect of neurocognitive functioning suggests that poor nutrition negatively impacts brain areas that play important roles in developing positive social behavior. Findings suggest that reducing poor nutrition, alternatively promoting good nutrition, may help promote positive social behavior in early childhood during a critical period for social and neurocognitive development, with implications for improving positive health in adulthood. PMID:27133006

  12. Genotype and environment effects on sensory, nutritional, and physical traits in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria J. Cobos

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of chickpea cultivars with high quality grains for human consumption is an important objective in breeding programs. Genotype and environment effects on seed quality traits (sensorial, nutritional and physical were studied in chickpea dry grain. Twenty genotypes were grown in winter and spring sowings over two campaigns in four different locations in southern Spain. Significant differences were observed in oil, acid detergent fiber (ADF and protein content between sowing times (S. In winter, oil and ADF content were higher, while protein content was lower. Although, in general, highly significant variation was detected for genotype (G, environment (E and single interactions (GE, GS and ES, the genotype effect was stronger for ADF, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, oil, starch and protein content, and for physical and sensory traits (r2>27%. In contrast, environment played an important role in variation in the content of amylose and amylopectin (r2=71.7%. No high relationships were found between the sensory and nutritional or physical characteristics studied. In general, our results suggest a high genetic gain for seed quality in nutritional, physical and sensory traits in chickpea. Genotypes with good seed sensory quality should be selected in the final stages of the breeding program, because it is not feasible to evaluate very large numbers of samples. However, in some cases, moderate correlations were found between sensory and either nutritional or physical traits. Therefore, indirect selection to increase the frequency of genes for sensory traits in an early stage should be considered.

  13. Genotype and environment effects on sensory, nutritional, and physical traits in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cobos, M.J.; Izquierdo, M. A.; Sanz, A.T.; Gil, J.; Flores, F.; Rubio, J.

    2016-01-01

    The development of chickpea cultivars with high quality grains for human consumption is an important objective in breeding programs. Genotype and environment effects on seed quality traits (sensorial, nutritional and physical) were studied in chickpea dry grain. Twenty genotypes were grown in winter and spring sowings over two campaigns in four different locations in southern Spain. Significant differences were observed in oil, acid detergent fiber (ADF) and protein content between sowing times (S). In winter, oil and ADF content were higher, while protein content was lower. Although, in general, highly significant variation was detected for genotype (G), environment (E) and single interactions (GE, GS and ES), the genotype effect was stronger for ADF, neutral detergent fiber (NDF), oil, starch and protein content, and for physical and sensory traits (r2>27%). In contrast, environment played an important role in variation in the content of amylose and amylopectin (r2=71.7%). No high relationships were found between the sensory and nutritional or physical characteristics studied. In general, our results suggest a high genetic gain for seed quality in nutritional, physical and sensory traits in chickpea. Genotypes with good seed sensory quality should be selected in the final stages of the breeding program, because it is not feasible to evaluate very large numbers of samples. However, in some cases, moderate correlations were found between sensory and either nutritional or physical traits. Therefore, indirect selection to increase the frequency of genes for sensory traits in an early stage should be considered.

  14. Effects of preoperative nutritional support on colonic anastomotic healing in malnourished rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gündoğdu, Rıza Haldun; Yaşar, Uğur; Ersoy, Pamir Eren; Ergül, Emre; Işıkoğlu, Semra; Erhan, Atilla

    2015-01-01

    It has been proven that malnutrition increases postoperative morbidity and mortality, and it may also negatively affect wound healing in the gastrointestinal tract. In the literature, there is only one study evaluating the effects of preoperative nutritional support on colonic anastomotic healing under malnourished conditions. In order to improve the data on this topic, an experimental study was planned to evaluate the effects of preoperative nutritional support on colonic anastomotic healing in malnourished rats. The study included 18 male Wistar albino rats divided into 3 groups. The control (C) group was fed ad libitum for 21 days. The malnutrition (M) group and preoperative nutrition (P) group were given 50% of the daily food consumed by the rats in Group C for 21 days to induce malnutrition. At the end of 21 days, Group P was fed ad libitum for 7 days (preoperative nutritional support). Colonic transection and end-to-end anastomosis was performed at 21 days in Group C and Group M and at 28 days in Group P. The rats were sacrificed at postoperative 4 days, anastomotic bursting pressure was measured, and samples were taken to analyze tissue hydroxyproline levels. Anastomotic bursting pressure was significantly higher in Group C than in Group M and Group P (pGroup P than in Group M (pGroup P were found to be significantly higher than those in Group M and Group C (pnutritional support increases collagen synthesis in the colon and positively affects anastomotic healing under malnourished conditions.

  15. Genotype and environment effects on sensory, nutritional, and physical traits in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cobos, M.J.; Izquierdo, M. A.; Sanz, A.T.; Gil, J.; Flores, F.; Rubio, J.

    2016-07-01

    The development of chickpea cultivars with high quality grains for human consumption is an important objective in breeding programs. Genotype and environment effects on seed quality traits (sensorial, nutritional and physical) were studied in chickpea dry grain. Twenty genotypes were grown in winter and spring sowings over two campaigns in four different locations in southern Spain. Significant differences were observed in oil, acid detergent fiber (ADF) and protein content between sowing times (S). In winter, oil and ADF content were higher, while protein content was lower. Although, in general, highly significant variation was detected for genotype (G), environment (E) and single interactions (GE, GS and ES), the genotype effect was stronger for ADF, neutral detergent fiber (NDF), oil, starch and protein content, and for physical and sensory traits (r2>27%). In contrast, environment played an important role in variation in the content of amylose and amylopectin (r2=71.7%). No high relationships were found between the sensory and nutritional or physical characteristics studied. In general, our results suggest a high genetic gain for seed quality in nutritional, physical and sensory traits in chickpea. Genotypes with good seed sensory quality should be selected in the final stages of the breeding program, because it is not feasible to evaluate very large numbers of samples. However, in some cases, moderate correlations were found between sensory and either nutritional or physical traits. Therefore, indirect selection to increase the frequency of genes for sensory traits in an early stage should be considered.

  16. Purposive facebook recruitment endows cost-effective nutrition education program evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohse, Barbara; Wamboldt, Patricia

    2013-08-15

    Recent legislation established a requirement for nutrition education in federal assistance programs to be evidence-based. Recruitment of low-income persons to participate and evaluate nutrition education activities can be challenging and costly. Facebook has been shown to be a cost-effective strategy to recruit this target audience to a nutrition program. The purpose of our study was to examine Facebook as a strategy to recruit participants, especially Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Education (SNAP-Ed) eligible persons, to view and evaluate an online nutrition education program intended to be offered as having some evidence base for SNAP-Ed programming. English-speaking, low-income Pennsylvania residents, 18-55 years with key profile words (eg, Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program, Food bank), responded to a Facebook ad inviting participation in either Eating Together as a Family is Worth It (WI) or Everyone Needs Folic Acid (FA). Participants completed an online survey on food-related behaviors, viewed a nutrition education program, and completed a program evaluation. Facebook set-up functions considered were costing action, daily spending cap, and population reach. Respondents for both WI and FA evaluations were similar; the majority were white, Cost per completed evaluation was US $25.48; cost per low-income completer was US $39.92. Results were similar for the FA evaluation; 795 Facebook users clicked on the ad with 110 unique site visitors, and 73 completing the evaluation (ie, 73/795, 9.2% of ad clickers and 73/110, 66% of site visitors completed the evaluation). Cost per valid completed survey with program evaluation was US $18.88; cost per low-income completer was US $27.53. With Facebook we successfully recruited low-income Pennsylvanians to online nutrition program evaluations. Benefits using Facebook as a recruitment strategy included real-time recruitment management with lower costs and more efficiency compared to previous data from

  17. [Influence of clinical nutritional support on the effects of mechanical ventilation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiujuan; Zhang, Geng; Hu, Mahong; Ji, Chunlian; Meng, Jianbiao; Lai, Zhizhen; Dai, Muhua; Pang, Lisha; Zhang, Wei

    2018-03-01

    To study the influence of clinical nutritional support on the effects of mechanical ventilation (MV), and to find the factors affecting the outcome of patients undergoing MV. A case-control study was conducted. The clinical data of 235 patients undergoing MV admitted to intensive care unit (ICU) of Tongde Hospital of Zhejiang Province from January 2015 to June 2017 were retrospectively analyzed. The patients were divided into two groups according to whether weaning successfully within 7 days. The clinical data of patients in the two groups were collected including gender, age, acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II (APACHE II) score, underlying disease, nutritional indicators, nutritional support, and complications. The outcome of withdrawal within 7 days was served as a dependent variable, all observed indicators were served as independent variables, and Logistic regression analysis was carried out to screen the influencing factors of the weaning results within 7 days. 235 patients undergoing MV were enrolled, 128 patients were successfully withdrawn within 7 days, and 107 were unsuccessfully withdrawn. Compared with the successful weaning group, the patients of weaning failure group were older, and had higher APACHE II score and lower albumin (Alb) and hemoglobin (Hb), more patients with internal medical underlying diseases and receiving parenteral nutrition (PN) and mixed nutrition, and the incidences of secondary infection, vomiting, abdominal distension, abnormal bowel sound, gastric retention, and diarrhea were higher. However, there was no statistical significance in gender between the two groups. The variables of statistical significance in univariate analysis were enrolled in the multifactor analysis model showing that age [odds ratio (OR) = 1.269, 95% confidence interval (95%CI) = 1.119-1.439, P nutrition (EN; OR = 0.191, 95%CI = 0.098-0.372, P nutrition (OR = 0.375, 95%CI = 0.150-0.938, P = 0.037) were protective factors of successful weaning

  18. Beneficial effects of protein hydrolysates in exercise and sports nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, J; Jiang, B; Li, K; Shen, W; Tang, J L

    2017-01-01

    Protein hydrolysates (PH) are rich sources of proteins that supply the need of exercising muscles. PHs are enriched in di- and tripeptides and are better than free amino acids or intact proteins when muscle anabolic effect is considered. Digestion, absorption and muscle uptake of amino acids are faster and more efficient when PH is ingested in comparison to the respective intact protein. PHs not only enhance endurance in high intensity exercise regimen, but also help in faster post-exercise recovery of muscle by promoting glycogen synthesis, although the latter effect requires more convincing evidence. PHs have been shown to exhibit insulinotrophic effect as it enhances the secretion of insulin and the hormone, in turn, exerts muscle anabolic effect.

  19. Development of a dietary environmental index to assess nutritional quality versus environmental effect of foods and dietary patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Anthropogenic environmental effects of food production and processing, alongside diets that fail to meet nutritional requirements, are contributing to an unhealthy as well as unsustainable food system. Going forward it is crucial that nutritional health be considered alongside the ecolog...

  20. Effect of personalized nutrition on health-related behavior change: evidence from the Food4Me randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background - Optimal nutritional choices are linked with better health but most current interventions to improve diet have limited effect. We tested the hypothesis that providing personalized nutrition (PN) advice based on collected information on individual diet and lifestyle, phenotype or genotype...

  1. Systematic Literature Review of Randomized Control Trials Assessing the Effectiveness of Nutrition Interventions in Community-Dwelling Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandayrel, Kristofer; Wong, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Nutrition interventions may play an important role in maintaining the health and quality of life in community-dwelling older adults. To the authors' knowledge, no systematic literature review has been conducted on the effectiveness of nutrition interventions in the community-dwelling older adult population. Design: Systematic literature…

  2. Riesgo nutricional en pacientes con tuberculosis pulmonar: ¿cuestión del paciente o de los servicios de salud? Nutritional risk in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. A patient or a health services issue?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgina Mayela Núñez-Rocha

    2000-04-01

    -hundred and eighty-five patients with PT were chosen at random from two health institutions in Monterrey, Nuevo León, México. Variables analyzed were: anthropometric measures, socioeconomic status, utilization of the nutrition clinic, access to foodstuffs, adverse reactions to drugs, and disease attributable to malnutrition. Statistical analysis consisted of descriptive, bivariate, and multivariate logistic regression, in addition to prevalence ratios and 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: The mean age was 42.4±19.9 years. The mean body mass index was 19.8± 3.2; 57% of patients presented malnutrition; 26% of them were referred to the nutrition clinic, 24.3% of whom actually attended it. Multivariate analysis showed that adverse reactions of tuberculosis drugs were risk factors for malnutrition, independent of age, gender, education, occupation, year of diagnosis and access to foodstuffs, disease atributable, and utilization of the nutrition clinic. (chi²=10.58; p=0.051, R²=0.42. CONCLUSIONS: Nutritional risk in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis is both a patient and a health services issue. The high prevalence of malnutrition, the low utilization rate of nutritional services, and the effect of adverse reactions to therapeutic drugs, justify the need to focus attention on this particular group of patients.

  3. Fructose use in clinical nutrition: metabolic effects and potential consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulin, Sandra; Seematter, Gérald; Seyssel, Kevin

    2017-07-01

    The current article presents recent findings on the metabolic effects of fructose. Fructose has always been considered as a simple 'caloric' hexose only metabolized by splanchnic tissues. Nevertheless, there is growing evidence that fructose acts as a second messenger and induces effects throughout the human body. Recent discoveries made possible with the evolution of technology have highlighted that fructose induces pleiotropic effects on different tissues. The fact that all these tissues express the specific fructose carrier GLUT5 let us reconsider that fructose is not only a caloric hexose, but could also be a potential actor of some behaviors and metabolic pathways. The physiological relevance of fructose as a metabolic driver is pertinent regarding recent scientific literature.

  4. Effects of sulfur nutrition on phytotoxicity and growth responses of bean plants to ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adedipe, N O; Hofstra, G; Ormrod, D P

    1972-01-01

    Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Blue Lake plants were grown in sand culture at three temperatures, and fed with nutrient solution containing 1.3 or 32 mg/liter sulfur (S). Plants were fumigated twice with ozone at 50 parts per hundred million (pphm) for 2 h. Intensity of phytotoxicity was markedly lower in plants grown at the high S rate. Ozone reduced chlorophyll content of plants grown in low S at 25/20 and 30/25/sup 0/. With the high S treatment, however, ozone had no significant effect on chlorophyll content particularly at the lower temperatures. Irrespective of S nutrition, ozone had no effect on total soluble carbohydrate content. Ozone effects on plant growth depended on plant part, growth temperature, and S nutrition.

  5. The Effects of Nutrition Awareness and Knowledge on Health Habits and Performance Among Pharmacy Students in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Ahmady, Sherweit; El-Wakeel, Lamia

    2017-04-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted on a group of pharmacy students to assess the relation between nutritional knowledge and awareness of university students and their nutrition habits and health related performance and indicators. The students were subjected to a questionnaire designed to approach four health related topics including nutrition literacy, health awareness, nutritional habits and health related performance. Answers on each topic were collected and statistical analysis was performed using GraphPad Prism 5 software including a measure of gender differences and correlative studies. No significant difference between genders in the overall responses but discrepancies in certain questions were observed. Female students showed higher awareness of nutrition concepts and practices but poor implementation from their side was observed. The study revealed that a positive and significant correlation existed between health related performance and nutrition literacy (r = 0.32). Healthier eating habits and lifestyle were associated more with nutrition conscious students (r = 0.73) than knowledgeable students (r = 0.56). It was concluded that knowledge alone is not enough to stimulate individuals to practice healthy habits. Other implementations are required to raise awareness of the issues at hand.

  6. Effect Of Oligomeric Enteral Nutrition On Symptoms Of Acute Radiation Enteritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubinsky, P.

    2008-01-01

    Radiotherapy of abdominal and pelvic tumours is frequently associated with acute radiation enteritis. Predominant symptoms include diarrhea, watery stools, abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting. There are very few effective interventions available for this condition. Enteral oligomeric nutrition has been used in bowel diseases with functional failure similar to radiation enteritis. The aim of presented work was to observe occurrence of symptoms of radiation enteritis in patients undergoing abdominal or pelvic radiotherapy. Apart from diet and pharmacological therapy, oral oligomeric enteral nutrition (Peptisorb Powder Nutricia) at the dose of 1000 - 2000 ml per day was administered for minimum of 4 days. Planned period of administration was 14 days and longer. Symptoms of radiation enteritis were evaluated at the beginning and in the end of administration. Prevalence of all evaluated symptoms of radiation enteritis was decreased and difference was statistically significant for diarrhea, watery stools, abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting. The use of evaluated oligomeric nutritional support might, in conjunction with pharmacotherapy and diet, alleviate symptoms of acute radiation enteritis and maintain nutritional status of patients. (author)

  7. Comparative Circadian Metabolomics Reveal Differential Effects of Nutritional Challenge in the Serum and Liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbondante, Serena; Eckel-Mahan, Kristin L; Ceglia, Nicholas J; Baldi, Pierre; Sassone-Corsi, Paolo

    2016-02-05

    Diagnosis and therapeutic interventions in pathological conditions rely upon clinical monitoring of key metabolites in the serum. Recent studies show that a wide range of metabolic pathways are controlled by circadian rhythms whose oscillation is affected by nutritional challenges, underscoring the importance of assessing a temporal window for clinical testing and thereby questioning the accuracy of the reading of critical pathological markers in circulation. We have been interested in studying the communication between peripheral tissues under metabolic homeostasis perturbation. Here we present a comparative circadian metabolomic analysis on serum and liver in mice under high fat diet. Our data reveal that the nutritional challenge induces a loss of serum metabolite rhythmicity compared with liver, indicating a circadian misalignment between the tissues analyzed. Importantly, our results show that the levels of serum metabolites do not reflect the circadian liver metabolic signature or the effect of nutritional challenge. This notion reveals the possibility that misleading reads of metabolites in circulation may result in misdiagnosis and improper treatments. Our findings also demonstrate a tissue-specific and time-dependent disruption of metabolic homeostasis in response to altered nutrition. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  8. Effectiveness of Enteral Nutritional Therapy in the Healing Process of Pressure Ulcers: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisely Blanc

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effectiveness of enteral nutritional therapy (ENT in the healing process of pressure ulcers (PU in adults and the elderly. METHOD A systematic review whose studies were identified through the databases of Cochrane, MEDLINE/PubMed, SciELO, LILACS, EMBASE, CINAHL, Web of Science, and manual searches. It included randomized clinical trials (RCTs without delimiting the period or language of publication, which addressed adults and elderly patients with pressure ulcers in a comparative treatment of enteral nutritional therapy and placebo or between enteral nutritional therapy with different compositions and dosages. RESULTS We included ten studies that considered different interventions. It resulted in more pressure ulcers healed in the groups that received the intervention. The included studies were heterogeneous with regard to patients, the type of intervention, the sample and the follow-up period, all of which made meta-analysis impossible. CONCLUSION Although the enteral nutritional therapy demonstrates a promotion of pressure ulcer healing, sufficient evidence to confirm the hypothesis was not found.

  9. The effectiveness of nutrition interventions on dietary outcomes by relative social disadvantage: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldroyd, J; Burns, C; Lucas, P; Haikerwal, A; Waters, E

    2008-07-01

    To determine whether nutrition interventions widen dietary inequalities across socioeconomic status groups. Systematic review of interventions that aim to promote healthy eating. CINAHL and MEDLINE were searched between 1990 and 2007. Studies were included if they were randomised controlled trials or concurrent controlled trials of interventions to promote healthy eating delivered at a group level to low socioeconomic status groups or studies where it was possible to disaggregate data by socioeconomic status. Six studies met the inclusion criteria. Four were set in educational setting (three elementary schools, one vocational training). The first found greater increases in fruit and vegetable consumption in children from high-income families after 1 year (mean difference 2.4 portions per day, pdisadvantaged areas (pprimary care settings. The first found that, as a result of the intervention, the difference in consumption of added fat between the intervention and the control group was -8.9 g/day for blacks and -12.0 g/day for whites (p<0.05). In the second study, there was greater attrition among the ethnic minority participants than among the white participants (p<0.04). Nutrition interventions have differential effects by socioeconomic status, although in this review we found only limited evidence that nutrition interventions widen dietary inequalities. Due to small numbers of included studies, the possibility that nutrition interventions widen inequalities cannot be excluded. This needs to be considered when formulating public health policy.

  10. Deleterious Effects of Chronic Under-Nutrition on Cognitive Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashem, Beatrice; Janes, Margaret D.

    1978-01-01

    In order to determine the effects of malnutrition on children's cognitive abilities, the McCarthy Scale of Abilities was administered to 118 Nigerian children between the ages of 2 1/2 and 6 years who came from "well-to-do" urban and "poor" urban and rural environments. Scores of malnourished children were lower than those of…

  11. Studies on the Effects of Media on Growth and Nutritional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of different solutions and media on growth and nutrient composition of Pleurotus tuber-regium were investigated. The different solutions used are glucose, fructose, sucrose and Knop\\'s solutions. The media used are cassava agar, cocoyam agar, corn agar, potato agar and yam agar. Glucose solution produced ...

  12. Transgenerational effects of nutrition are different for sons and daughters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zizzari, Z V; van Straalen, N M; Ellers, J

    2016-07-01

    Food shortage is an important selective factor shaping animal life-history trajectories. Yet, despite its role, many aspects of the interaction between parental and offspring food environments remain unclear. In this study, we measured developmental plasticity in response to food availability over two generations and tested the relative contribution of paternal and maternal food availability to the performance of offspring reared under matched and mismatched food environments. We applied a cross-generational split-brood design using the springtail Orchesella cincta, which is found in the litter layer of temperate forests. The results show adverse effects of food limitation on several life-history traits and reproductive performance of both parental sexes. Food conditions of both parents contributed to the offspring phenotypic variation, providing evidence for transgenerational effects of diet. Parental diet influenced sons' age at maturity and daughters' weight at maturity. Specifically, being born to food-restricted parents allowed offspring to alleviate the adverse effects of food limitation, without reducing their performance under well-fed conditions. Thus, parents raised on a poor diet primed their offspring for a more efficient resource use. However, a mismatch between maternal and offspring food environments generated sex-specific adverse effects: female offspring born to well-fed mothers showed a decreased flexibility to deal with low-food conditions. Notably, these maternal effects of food availability were not observed in the sons. Finally, we found that the relationship between age and size at maturity differed between males and females and showed that offspring life-history strategies in O. cincta are primed differently by the parents. © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  13. Changing disease profile and preventive health care in India: Issues of economy, equity and effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salma Kaneez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of preventive health care practices has increasingly been recognized in the wake of changing disease profile in India. The disease burden has been shifting from communicable to non-communicable diseases as a result of greater focus on achieving competitiveness in a fast globalizing economy. The rapid pace of social and technological changes has led to adverse life style choices resulting in higher incidence of heart diseases, diabetes, obesity, cancer, and deteriorating inter-personal relations and psychological well-being among individuals. Most of these health risks can considerably be reduced through disseminating science-based information on health promotion and disease prevention including exercise, nutrition, smoking and tobacco cessation, immunization, counseling, fostering good habits of health and hygiene, disease screening and preventive medicine. Prior evidences indicate that preventive health interventions can improve health outcomes in a great deal. In a regressive health delivery system of India where major health expenses on curative health is met by out-of-pocket money, preventive health services hold promise to be cost efficient, clinically effective and equity promoting. This article, therefore, examines in depth the issues and prospects of preventive and promotive health care services in realizing optimum health care needs of the people.

  14. Perceived Cause and Effect Relationship for Nutritional Anemia Among Adolescent Girls in Rural Puducherry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayura S

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: The prevalence of nutritional anemia among adolescent girls is high (47.6% to 90% as previously reported in the different parts of North India. Since there are limited studies on nutritional anemia at the sub-district level in the Southern part of India, there is a need to know the extent of the problem among adolescent girls to plan context specific interventions. With this background, the present study was done with the objectives 1 To find the prevalence of nutritional anemia among adolescent girls 2 To ‘qualitatively’ explore their perceptions of the causes and effects of nutritional anemia. Methods: The study was undertaken in two wards of Kallitheerthalkuppam village, the field practice area of the Department of Community Medicine, SMVMCH, Puducherry. Mixed-methods design which includes quantitative (survey and qualitative (cause-effect diagram methods was used. A representative sample of 100 adolescent girls aged 12-19 years were the study participants. Data for quantitative (survey using a questionnaire and qualitative (cause-effect diagram methods were collected over the period of two months. Result: The prevalence of anemia among the study population was 58 per cent. In The cause and effect diagram exercise, girls linked deficiency of iron as the cause for tiredness, irregular menstrual cycles and low birth weight. They also linked deficiency of iron and the habit of not wearing footwear to tiredness, reduced intake of green leafy vegetables, and intestinal worm infections to giddiness and hookworm infections to peptic ulcer. Interpretation & Conclusions: The study found a gap between knowledge and practice as reflected in the cause and effect diagram. This result indicates the need to initiate an effective behavior change communication for improving the hemoglobin status of adolescent girls.

  15. [Effect of Sijunzi Decoction and enteral nutrition on T-cell subsets and nutritional status in patients with gastric cancer after operation: a randomized controlled trial].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jun; Wang, Hua; Zhou, Sheng; Wu, Bin; Song, Hua-Rong; Xuan, Zheng-Rong

    2008-01-01

    To observe the effect of perioperative application of Sijunzi Decoction and enteral nutrition on T-cell subsets and nutritional status in patients with gastric cancer after operation. In this prospective, single-blinded, controlled clinical trial, fifty-nine patients with gastric cancer were randomly divided into three groups: control group (n=20) and two study groups (group A, n=21; group B, n=18). Sjunzi Decoction (100 ml) was administered via nasogastric tube to the patients in the study group B from the second postoperation day to the 9th postoperation day. Patients in the two study groups were given an isocaloric and isonitrogonous enteral diet, which was started on the second day after operation, and continued for eight days. Patients in the control group were given an isocaloric and isonitrogonous parenteral diet for 9 days. All variables of nutritional status such as serum albumin (ALB), prealbumin (PA), transferrin (TRF) and T-cell subsets were measured one day before operation, and one day and 10 days after operation. All the nutritional variables and the levels of CD3(+), CD4(+), CD4(+)/CD8(+) were decreased significantly after operation. Ten days after operation, T-cell subsets and nutritional variables in the two study groups were increased as compare with the control group. The levels of ALB, TRF and T-cell subsets in the study group B were increased significantly as compared with the study group A (Pnutrition assisted with Sijunzi Decoction can positively improve and optimize cellular immune function and nutritional status in the patients with gastric cancer after operation.

  16. Iodine nutritional status and thyroid effects of exposure to ethylenebisdithiocarbamates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medda, Emanuela [National Centre for Epidemiology Surveillance and Health Promotion, Italian National Institute of Health, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome (Italy); Santini, Ferruccio [Endocrinology Unit, Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria Pisana, Pisa (Italy); De Angelis, Simona [Department of Cell Biology and Neuroscience, Italian National Institute of Health, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome (Italy); Franzellin, Fabrizio [Nuclear Medicine of Bolzano Hospital, Bolzano (Italy); Fiumalbi, Carla [Department of Prevention, ASL Firenze (Italy); Perico, Andrea [Public Health Laboratory, ASL Firenze (Italy); Gilardi, Enzo [Department of Cell Biology and Neuroscience, Italian National Institute of Health, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome (Italy); Mechi, Maria Teresa [Department of Prevention, ASL Firenze (Italy); Marsili, Alessandro [Endocrinology Unit, Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria Pisana, Pisa (Italy); Citroni, Angela [Department of Prevention, ASL Firenze (Italy); Leandri, Adaniele [Public Health Laboratory, ASL Firenze (Italy); Mantovani, Alberto [Department of Food Safety and Veterinary Public Health, Italian National Institute of Health, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome (Italy); Vitti, Paolo [Endocrinology Unit, Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria Pisana, Pisa (Italy); Olivieri, Antonella, E-mail: antonella.olivieri@iss.it [Department of Cell Biology and Neuroscience, Italian National Institute of Health, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome (Italy)

    2017-04-15

    Introduction: Italy is still characterized by a mild iodine deficiency and is among the most intensive users of chemical products for agriculture in Europe. The aim of this study was i) to evaluate thyroid effects of exposure to mancozeb, a fungicide widely used in agriculture, in a sample of Italian grapevine workers, and ii) to verify whether the iodine intake may modulate the risk of thyroid disruption due to the mancozeb metabolite ethylenthiourea (ETU). Methods: One hundred seventy-seven occupationally exposed male workers (29 from Chianti, a mild iodine deficient area, and 148 from Bolzano an iodine sufficient province) and 74 non-occupationally exposed male controls (34 from Chianti and 40 from Bolzano) were enrolled in the study. Serum biomarkers of thyroid function, as well as urinary iodine and ETU concentrations were assessed. Moreover all the recruited subjects underwent clinical examination and thyroid ultrasound. Results: Multivariate comparisons showed lower mean serum levels of FT4 in Chianti-workers as compared to Bolzano-workers. Moreover, an increased urinary iodine excretion (>250 µg/L) was more frequently found among more exposed workers (ETU>20 µg/L) than among less exposed ones and this effect was more pronounced in Chianti- than in Bolzano-workers. Chianti-workers also showed a significantly higher frequency of very low thyroid volume (≤6.0 ml) as compared to controls. Conclusions: These findings showed a mild thyroid disrupting effect due to occupational exposure to mancozeb, more pronounced in workers residing in an area characterized by a mild to moderate iodine deficiency as compared to workers residing in an area covered by a long-lasting iodine prophylaxis program. - Highlights: • Thyroid is vulnerable to endocrine disrupting effects due to environmental exposures. • Mancozeb is a fungicide widely used in agriculture worldwide. • Mancozeb is broken down into ethylenthiourea (ETU) which has anti-thyroid activity. • Iodine

  17. Iodine nutritional status and thyroid effects of exposure to ethylenebisdithiocarbamates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medda, Emanuela; Santini, Ferruccio; De Angelis, Simona; Franzellin, Fabrizio; Fiumalbi, Carla; Perico, Andrea; Gilardi, Enzo; Mechi, Maria Teresa; Marsili, Alessandro; Citroni, Angela; Leandri, Adaniele; Mantovani, Alberto; Vitti, Paolo; Olivieri, Antonella

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Italy is still characterized by a mild iodine deficiency and is among the most intensive users of chemical products for agriculture in Europe. The aim of this study was i) to evaluate thyroid effects of exposure to mancozeb, a fungicide widely used in agriculture, in a sample of Italian grapevine workers, and ii) to verify whether the iodine intake may modulate the risk of thyroid disruption due to the mancozeb metabolite ethylenthiourea (ETU). Methods: One hundred seventy-seven occupationally exposed male workers (29 from Chianti, a mild iodine deficient area, and 148 from Bolzano an iodine sufficient province) and 74 non-occupationally exposed male controls (34 from Chianti and 40 from Bolzano) were enrolled in the study. Serum biomarkers of thyroid function, as well as urinary iodine and ETU concentrations were assessed. Moreover all the recruited subjects underwent clinical examination and thyroid ultrasound. Results: Multivariate comparisons showed lower mean serum levels of FT4 in Chianti-workers as compared to Bolzano-workers. Moreover, an increased urinary iodine excretion (>250 µg/L) was more frequently found among more exposed workers (ETU>20 µg/L) than among less exposed ones and this effect was more pronounced in Chianti- than in Bolzano-workers. Chianti-workers also showed a significantly higher frequency of very low thyroid volume (≤6.0 ml) as compared to controls. Conclusions: These findings showed a mild thyroid disrupting effect due to occupational exposure to mancozeb, more pronounced in workers residing in an area characterized by a mild to moderate iodine deficiency as compared to workers residing in an area covered by a long-lasting iodine prophylaxis program. - Highlights: • Thyroid is vulnerable to endocrine disrupting effects due to environmental exposures. • Mancozeb is a fungicide widely used in agriculture worldwide. • Mancozeb is broken down into ethylenthiourea (ETU) which has anti-thyroid activity. • Iodine

  18. Permissive or Trophic Enteral Nutrition and Full Enteral Nutrition Had Similar Effects on Clinical Outcomes in Intensive Care: A Systematic Review of Randomized Clinical Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Camila F A; de Vasconcelos, Simone G; da Silva, Thales A; Silva, Flávia M

    2018-01-26

    The aim of this study was to systematically review the effect of permissive underfeeding/trophic feeding on the clinical outcomes of critically ill patients. A systematic review of randomized clinical trials to evaluate the mortality, length of stay, and mechanical ventilation duration in patients randomized to either hypocaloric or full-energy enteral nutrition was performed. Data sources included PubMed and Scopus and the reference lists of the articles retrieved. Two independent reviewers participated in all phases of this systematic review as proposed by the Cochrane Handbook, and the review was reported according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. A total of 7 randomized clinical trials that included a total of 1,717 patients were reviewed. Intensive care unit length of stay and mechanical ventilation duration were not statistically different between the intervention and control groups in all randomized clinical trials, and mortality rate was also not different between the groups. In conclusion, hypocaloric enteral nutrition had no significantly different effects on morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients when compared with full-energy nutrition. It is still necessary to determine the safety of this intervention in this group of patients, the optimal amount of energy provided, and the duration of this therapy. © 2018 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  19. Effect of gamma irradiation on some nutritional factors of rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad Khan Ayob; Osman Hassan.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation and types of packaging material used (namely: gunny sack, heavy duty polyethylene, woven laminated bags) on moisture content, gel viscosity and reducing sugar of rice was observed. Moisture content, gel viscosity and reducing sugar were determined by drying method, brookfield viscometer and Nelson method, respectively. The results showed that moisture and reducing sugar content were not significantly affected by types of material and irradiation doses. On the other hand gel viscosity was greatly influenced by irradiation doses and storage time. (A.J.)

  20. Effect of early enteral combined with parenteral nutrition in patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xin-Hua; Wu, Ya-Fu; Qiu, Yu-Dong; Jiang, Chun-Ping; Ding, Yi-Tao

    2013-09-21

    To investigate the effect of early enteral nutrition (EEN) combined with parenteral nutritional support in patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD). From January 2006, all patients were given EEN combined with parenteral nutrition (PN) (EEN/PN group, n = 107), while patients prior to this date were given total parenteral nutrition (TPN) (TPN group, n = 67). Venous blood samples were obtained for a nutrition-associated assessment and liver function tests on the day before surgery and 6 d after surgery. The assessment of clinical outcome was based on postoperative complications. Follow-up for infectious and noninfectious complications was carried out for 30 d after hospital discharge. Readmission within 30 d after discharge was also recorded. Compared with the TPN group, a significant decrease in prealbumin (PAB) (P = 0.023) was seen in the EEN/PN group. Total bilirubin (TB), direct bilirubin (DB) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were significantly decreased on day 6 in the EEN/PN group (P = 0.006, 0.004 and 0.032, respectively). The rate of grade I complications, grade II complications and the length of postoperative hospital stay in the EEN/PN group were significantly decreased (P = 0.036, 0.028 and 0.021, respectively), and no hospital mortality was observed in our study. Compared with the TPN group (58.2%), the rate of infectious complications in the EEN/PN group (39.3%) was significantly decreased (P = 0.042). Eleven cases of delayed gastric emptying were noted in the TPN group, and 6 cases in the EEN/PN group. The rate of delayed gastric emptying and hyperglycemia was significantly reduced in the EEN/PN group (P = 0.031 and P = 0.040, respectively). Early enteral combined with PN can greatly improve liver function, reduce infectious complications and delayed gastric emptying, and shorten postoperative hospital stay in patients undergoing PD.

  1. Effects of enteral nutritional support on malnourished patients with inflammatory bowel disease by subjective global assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sökülmez, Pınar; Demirbağ, Ali Eba; Arslan, Perihan; Dişibeyaz, Selçuk

    2014-10-01

    To investigate the prevalence of malnutrition in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) by subjective global assessment (SGA) and the effects of oral nutritional support on the clinical parameters, consumption of energy, macronutrients and fiber intake in the Study and Control groups, prospectively. A total of 38 (28 Male; 10 Female) hospitalized patients with moderate or severe IBD (13 with Crohn's disease (CD); 25 with Ulcerative colitis (UC)) were included. At stage 1, the disease severity, clinical symptoms and, signs, food consumption and nutritional status by using subjective global assessment (SGA) were recorded. At stage 2, the patients were blindly randomized into a Study Group and Controls. In the Study Group, a standard enteral product was added into the regulated hospital diets, but for the Controls, deficits were regulated by only hospital diets for 3 weeks. the independent variables were the group, the disease and its activity, age, Body body mass index (BMI), weight loss history, the hospitalization period; the dependent variables were SGA, bowel movements, change in nutritional status, disease severity, clinical findings, and also consumption of macronutrients. Prevalance of malnutrition (SGA-B or SGA-C) for all the patients was 92.1% at the beginning and 71.1% at the end of study. Improvements in disease activity score for the patients with UC were statistically significant in both the Study Group and the Controls (p=0.006 for the Study Group and p=0.001 for the Controls, respectively). Macronutrients, total and water soluble fiber consumption levels improved, with statistically significant differences for all the groups. The prevalence of malnutrition is a major problem in patients with IBD. Not only the regulation of hospital food, but also enteral nutritional support, improved their levels of malnutrition, as well as their energy, macronutrients, and fiber consumption, and SGA is an easy method for nutritional monitoring.

  2. Biliopancreatic Diversion for Severe Obesity: Long-Term Effectiveness and Nutritional Complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros-Pomar, María D; González de Francisco, Tomás; Urioste-Fondo, Ana; González-Herraez, Luis; Calleja-Fernández, Alicia; Vidal-Casariego, Alfonso; Simó-Fernández, Vicente; Cano-Rodríguez, Isidoro

    2016-01-01

    Bariatric surgery is currently the treatment of choice for those patients with severe obesity, but the procedure of choice is not clearly established. We describe weight loss and nutritional parameters in severely obese patients after biliopancreatic diversion for 10 years of follow-up. Patients were followed by the same multidisciplinary team, and data are shown for 10 years. Bariatric Analysis and Reporting Outcome System (BAROS) questionnaire, data regarding the evolution of obesity-related diseases, and nutritional parameters are reported. Two hundred ninety-nine patients underwent biliopancreatic diversion, 76.1 % women, initial BMI 50.1 kg/m(2) (7.2). Weight loss was maintained throughout 10 years with EWL% around 65 % and EBMIL% around 70 %. More than 80 % of the patients showed EWL higher than 50 %. Blood pressure, glucose metabolism, and lipid profile clearly improved after surgery. Mean nutritional parameters remained within the normal range during follow-up. Protein malnutrition affected less than 4 % and anemia up to 16 %. Fat-soluble vitamin levels decreased along the time, with vitamin D deficiency in 61.5 % of patients. No significant differences were found either in nutritional parameters or weight loss regarding gastrectomy or gastric preservation, or common limb length longer or shorter than 55 cm Biliopancreatic diversion is an effective surgical procedure in terms of weight loss, quality of life, and evolution of obesity-related diseases. Nutritional deficiencies are less frequent than feared for a malabsorptive procedure, but must be taken into account, especially for fat-soluble vitamins.

  3. Iron nutrition and premenopausal women: effects of poor iron status on physical and neuropsychological performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClung, James P; Murray-Kolb, Laura E

    2013-01-01

    Iron is a nutritionally essential trace element that functions through incorporation into proteins and enzymes, many of which contribute to physical and neuropsychological performance. Poor iron status, including iron deficiency (ID; diminished iron stores) and iron deficiency anemia (IDA; poor iron stores and diminished hemoglobin), affects billions of people worldwide. This review focuses on physical and neuropsychological outcomes associated with ID and IDA in premenopausal women, as the prevalence of ID and IDA is often greater in premenopausal women than other population demographics. Recent studies addressing the physiological effects of poor iron status on physical performance, including work productivity, voluntary activity, and athletic performance, are addressed. Similarly, the effects of iron status on neurological performance, including cognition, affect, and behavior, are summarized. Nutritional countermeasures for the prevention of poor iron status and the restoration of decrements in performance outcomes are described.

  4. Effect of irradiation on nutritional quality of chicken feet with pickled peppers in shelf life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shurong; Zhou Linyan; Yi Jianyong; Feng Min; Li Li; Yang Ping; Wang Dening; Gu Guiqiang; Zhu Jiating

    2013-01-01

    The effect of irradiation on nutritional quality of soft packaged chicken feet with pickled peppers within shelf life were investigated. Chicken feet were irradiated by E-beam which max dose was 10 kGy, and all the samples were stored at 0 ∼ 10℃ and analyzed one month after irradiation treatment. Significant sterilizing effect was got for soft packaged chicken feet with pickled peppers by irradiation; The contents of protein and fat were changed after irradiation treatment; the contents of V_A, V_E and V_B_3 in irradiated chicken feet were increased; The total contents of amino acids increased when irradiation dose were more than 4 kGy; The contents of total acids decreased after irradiation treatment, but the contents of cholesterol and nitrite increased. Above all, irradiation treatment can be used to improve nutritional quality of chicken feet with pickled peppers in shelf life. (authors)

  5. Effect of sex and genotype on carcase composition and nutritional characteristics of chicken meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeza, E; Chartrin, P; Meteau, K; Bordeau, T; Juin, H; Le Bihan-Duval, E; Lessire, M; Berri, C

    2010-06-01

    1. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of sex and genotype on carcase composition and nutritional and sensory characteristics of chicken meat. The "Geline de Touraine" (GT) characterised by high carcase fatness was compared with an experimental crossbreed (EC) and "Label rouge" (LR) genotype. 2. Females compared with males, and GT chickens compared with LR and EC chickens were characterised by increased carcase fatness and an increased lipid level in thigh meat. 3. In both breast and thigh meat, the percentage of monounsaturated fatty acids was increased and the percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids was decreased. However, these effects did not affect sensory characteristics of meat particularly those of roasted breast fillets containing very low lipid level by comparison with thigh meat. 4. Finally, in our study, high carcase fatness was related to high intermuscular fatness affecting the nutritional characteristics of meat but not its sensory attributes.

  6. The treatment of cholesterol: issues, effects and targets | Ker | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Family Practice. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 52, No 6 (2010) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  7. Effect of intramuscular cholecalciferol megadose in children with nutritional rickets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bothra, Meenakshi; Gupta, Nandita; Jain, Vandana

    2016-06-01

    The treatment practices for vitamin D deficiency rickets are highly variable. Though a single intramuscular (IM) megadose of vitamin D is economical, and ensures good compliance, it poses the risk of hypervitaminosis D. This observational study was conducted to assess the duration of effect and safety of single IM megadose of cholecalciferol in the treatment of vitamin D deficiency rickets. Children younger than 14 years with rickets were enrolled. Baseline investigations included radiograph of wrists and estimation of serum calcium, phosphate, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), 25(OH) vitamin D and parathormone (PTH) levels. All children received a single IM megadose of vitamin D3. Biochemical parameters were re-evaluated at 1.5, 3 and 6 months after the megadose and the values were compared to the baseline. We enrolled 21 children, out of which nine remained under active follow-up till 6 months. Radiological evidence of rickets was present in all 21 children, 14 had hypocalcemia at the time of presentation. After IM cholecalciferol megadose, median 25 hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH)D] level remained significantly more than the baseline till 6 months after the megadose. At 1.5 months after the vitamin D megadose, three (30%) of the children were found to develop toxic levels of vitamin D (>150 ng/mL), although none had hypercalcemia or any clinical manifestation of vitamin D toxicity. At 3 months and 6 months after the megadose, 25(OH)D levels remained in the sufficient range (20-100 ng/mL) in seven out of the eight children who came for follow-up. A single IM megadose of vitamin D may be effective in significantly increasing the 25(OH)D levels for at least 6 months in children with rickets, but elevation of 25(OH)D to toxic range raises concern regarding its safety.

  8. A comparison of the effectiveness of an adult nutrition education program for Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettigrew, Simone; Jongenelis, Michelle I; Moore, Sarah; Pratt, Iain S

    2015-11-01

    Adult nutrition education is an important component of broader societal efforts to address the high prevalence of nutrition-related diseases. In Australia, Aboriginal people are a critical target group for such programs because of their substantially higher rates of these diseases. The aim of this study was to assess the relative effectiveness of an adult nutrition education program for Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal participants. Pre-and post-course evaluation data were used to assess changes in confidence in ability to buy healthy foods on a budget, nutrition knowledge, and dietary behaviours among individuals attending FOODcents nutrition education courses. The total sample of 875 Western Australians included 169 who self-identified as Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander. Perceptions of course usefulness were very high and comparable between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal participants. Significantly larger improvements in confidence, nutrition knowledge, and reported consumption behaviours were evident among Aboriginal participants. The findings suggest that adult nutrition education programs that address specific knowledge and skill deficits that are common among disadvantaged groups can be effective for multiple target groups, and may also assist in reducing nutrition-related inequalities. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparison of the effects of enteral feeding with continuous and intermittent parenteral nutrition on hepatic triglyceride secretion in human beings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isabel-Martinez, L.; Skinner, C.; Parkin, A.; Hall, R.I.

    1989-01-01

    Plasma triglyceride turnover was measured during steady-state conditions in 22 postoperative patients. Nine had received nutritional support with an enteral regimen, seven had received an equivalent regimen as continuous parenteral nutrition, and six received the same parenteral regimen as a cyclical infusion. After 5 days of nutritional support, each patient received an intravenous bolus of tritiated glycerol. Plasma radiolabeled triglyceride content was measured during the subsequent 24 hours. The data were analyzed by means of a simple deterministic model of plasma triglyceride kinetics and compared with the results obtained by stochastic analysis. The rates of hepatic triglyceride secretion obtained by deterministic analysis were higher than those obtained by the stochastic approach. However, the mode of delivery of the nutritional regimen did not affect the rate of hepatic triglyceride secretion regardless of the method of analysis. The results suggest that neither complete nutritional bypass of the gastrointestinal tract nor interruption of parenteral nutrition in an attempt to mimic normal eating has any effect on hepatic triglyceride secretion. Any beneficial effect that enteral feeding or cyclical parenteral nutrition may have on liver dysfunction associated with standard parenteral nutrition appears to be unrelated to changes in hepatic triglyceride secretion

  10. Effect of generic issues program on improving safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fard, M. R.; Kauffman, J. V.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) identifies (by its assessment of plant operation) certain issues involving public health and safety, the common defense and security, or the environment that could affect multiple entities under NRC jurisdiction. The Generic Issues Program (GIP) addresses the resolution of these Generic Issues (GIs). The resolution of these issues may involve new or revised rules, new or revised guidance, or revised interpretation of rules or guidance that affect nuclear power plant licensees, nuclear material certificate holders, or holders of other regulatory approvals. U.S. NRC provides information related to the past and ongoing GIP activities to the general public by the use of three main resources, namely NUREG-0933, 'Resolution of Generic Safety Issues, ' Generic Issues Management Control System (GIMCS), and GIP public web page. GIP information resources provide information such as historical information on resolved GIs, current status of the open GIs, policy documents, program procedures, GIP annual and quarterly reports and the process to contact GIP and propose a GI This paper provides an overview of the GIP and several examples of safety improvements resulting from the resolution of GIs. In addition, the paper provides a brief discussion of a few recent GIs to illustrate how the program functions to improve safety. (authors)

  11. The Effect of Demographic, Economic, and Nutrition Factors on the Frequency of Food Away from Home

    OpenAIRE

    Binkley, James K.

    2005-01-01

    Food away from home, especially fast food, is often cited as contributing to rising obesity. This negative publicity can affect the demand for restaurant meals. In this study econometric models explaining visits to table service and fast food restaurants are estimated. The explanatory variables include not only standard demographic and economic measures but also measures of nutrition knowledge, attitudes, and concerns. Effects for the former are similar to those found in past studies. For nut...

  12. Stress Effects of Chlorate on Longan (Dimocarpus longan Lour.) Trees: Changes in Nitrogen and Carbon Nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Jiemei LU; Ruitao YANG; Huicong WANG; Xuming HUANG

    2017-01-01

    Three-year-old potted longan (Dimocarpus longan Lour. cv. Shixia) trees were treated with potassium chlorate and effects on nitrogen and carbon nutrition were examined. The results showed that potassium chlorate at 10 and 20 g per pot failed to induce flower but suppressed shoot growth and caused leaf chlorosis and drop. The treatment significantly inhibited nitrate reductase but increased nitrogen concentration in the leaves and buds. Concentration of soluble amino acids in the leaves of tre...

  13. Effects of cladode age on biomass yield and nutritional value of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of cladode age on biomass yield and nutritional value of intensively produced spineless cactus for ruminants. J.M Pinos-Rodríguez, J.C Velázquez, S.S González, S.S González, J.R Aguirre, J.C García, J.C García, G Álvarez, Y Jasso ...

  14. Octanol-water partition coefficients for predicting the effects of tannins in ruminant nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller-Harvey, Irene; Mlambo, Victor; Sikosana, Joe L N; Smith, Tim; Owen, Emyr; Brown, Ron H

    2007-07-11

    Tannins can cause beneficial or harmful nutritional effects, but their great diversity has until now prevented a rational distinction between tannin structures and their nutritional responses. An attempt has been made to study this problem by examining the octanol-water solubilities of tannins. A relatively simple HPLC method has been developed for screening mixtures of plant tannins for their octanol-water partition coefficients (Kow coefficients). Tannins were isolated from the fruits and leaves of different Acacia, Calliandra, Dichrostachys, and Piliostigma species, which are known to produce beneficial or harmful effects. The Kow coefficients of these tannins ranged from 0.061 to 13.9, average coefficients of variation were 9.2% and recoveries were 107%. Acacia nilotica fruits and leaves had the highest Kow coefficients, that is, 2.0 and 13.9, respectively. These A. nilotica products also have high concentrations of tannins. The combined effects of high octanol solubilities and high tannin concentrations may explain their negative effects on animal nutrition and health. It is known that compounds with high octanol solubilities are more easily absorbed into tissues, and it is, therefore, proposed that such compounds are more likely to cause toxicity problems especially if consumed in large quantities. According to the literature, tannins in human foods tend to have low Kow coefficients, and this was confirmed for the tannins in Piliostigma thonningii fruits. Therefore, unconventional feeds or browse products should be screened not only for their tannin concentrations but also for low octanol-water partition coefficients in order to identify nutritionally safe feeds and to avoid potentially toxic feeds.

  15. Effect of a nutritional supplement on hair loss in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Floc'h, Caroline; Cheniti, Ahsène; Connétable, Sophie; Piccardi, Nathalie; Vincenzi, Colombina; Tosti, Antonella

    2015-03-01

    Female pattern hair loss is a frequent and distressing condition. To evaluate vs. control, the effects on hair loss of a 6-month supplementation with specific omega 3&6 and antioxidants. One hundred and twenty healthy female subjects participated in this 6-month, randomized, comparative study. The primary endpoint was the change in hair density evaluated on standardized photographs. Secondary endpoints included changes in telogen hair percentage and diameter distribution of anagen hair (>40 µm vs. ≤40 µm) measured by trichogram. Overall changes in hair density and diameter were also measured by trichometer and by subjects' self-assessment. After 6 months of treatment, photograph assessment demonstrated a superior improvement in the supplemented group (P hair percentage was significantly (P hair (>40 µm) increased compared to the control group. The trichometer index increased in the supplemented group, while it decreased in the control group. A large majority of supplemented subjects reported a reduction in hair loss (89.9% of subjects at 6 months), as well as an improvement in hair diameter (86.1%) and hair density (87.3%). A 6-month supplementation with omega 3&6 and antioxidants acts efficiently against hair loss in improving hair density and reducing the telogen percentage and the proportion of miniaturized anagen hair. Objectively measured improvements were confirmed by the subjects' perception of efficacy. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Effects of nutritional conditions on lipid production by cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, Raquel S; Vaz, Izabela C D; Magalhães, Sérgia M S; Barbosa, Francisco A R

    2017-01-01

    The present study evaluated the effects of the culturing media and the levels of nitrogen and phosphorus on the growth, biomass productivity and lipid production of four species of Microcystis (M. novacekii, M. aeruginosa, M panniformis and M. protocystis). The lipid extract was obtained by refluxing with dichloromethane (Soxhlet). The biomass and biomass productivity yields were maximized with ASM-1 medium treatment enriched with nitrogen and/or phosphorus (0.25-0.65 g/L and 25-50.7 mg/L d-1, respectively). The lipid extract yields from M. panniformis and M. novacekii were inversely correlated with the concentration of nitrogen and directly correlated with the concentration of phosphorus (35.8 % and 31.7 %). The lipid extract yield from M. aeruginosa was inversely correlated with the nutrient concentration (23.3 %). M. protocystis exhibited a higher lipid content in the control medium (41.5 %) than in the nitrogen-enriched media. The recorded results show that a nutrient-poor culture medium favours cell growth and stimulates lipid accumulation, which directly affects the cost of cultivation by reducing nutrient consumption. All studied species may serve as biomass sources for biodiesel production, although M. protocystis exhibited the highest lipid production. Further studies are necessary to determine the composition of the recorded lipid extract.

  17. Effects of nutritional conditions on lipid production by cyanobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAQUEL S. CORDEIRO

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The present study evaluated the effects of the culturing media and the levels of nitrogen and phosphorus on the growth, biomass productivity and lipid production of four species of Microcystis (M. novacekii, M. aeruginosa, M panniformis and M. protocystis. The lipid extract was obtained by refluxing with dichloromethane (Soxhlet. The biomass and biomass productivity yields were maximized with ASM-1 medium treatment enriched with nitrogen and/or phosphorus (0.25-0.65 g/L and 25-50.7 mg/L d-1, respectively. The lipid extract yields from M. panniformis and M. novacekii were inversely correlated with the concentration of nitrogen and directly correlated with the concentration of phosphorus (35.8 % and 31.7 %. The lipid extract yield from M. aeruginosa was inversely correlated with the nutrient concentration (23.3 %. M. protocystis exhibited a higher lipid content in the control medium (41.5 % than in the nitrogen-enriched media. The recorded results show that a nutrient-poor culture medium favours cell growth and stimulates lipid accumulation, which directly affects the cost of cultivation by reducing nutrient consumption. All studied species may serve as biomass sources for biodiesel production, although M. protocystis exhibited the highest lipid production. Further studies are necessary to determine the composition of the recorded lipid extract.

  18. Effectiveness of nutritional intervention in overweight women in Primary Health Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathália Luíza Ferreira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the effectiveness of nutritional intervention in overweight women undergoing Primary Health Care.Methods: An intervention study was conducted with overweight adult and elderly women aged 20 years or older (body mass index ≥25.0 kg/m² and ≥27.0 kg/m², respectively who were subjected to 12 months of individual nutritional monitoring. The effectiveness of the intervention was assessed by dietary, health, and anthropometric indicators.Results: Most of the 71 individuals were adults with a low income and poor level of education. After the intervention, there was an increase in number of meals and in the frequency of breakfasting. Moreover, there were more fruits and vegetables consumed, in addition to a decrease in household availability of salt, sugar, oil, and fried foods consumption. An improvement in health and weight self-perception was observed, as well as a decrease in body mass and abdominal adiposity, in particular among those participating in several consultations (n >9.Conclusion: The proposed nutritional intervention was effective and viable for improving the care of overweight individuals and those suffering from destabilized comorbidities, and may be extended to other contexts.

  19. Effect of educational training on nutrition and weight control in under-18 Spanish wrestlers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Visiedo

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a formative program concerning nutrition, weight control, and its risks wrestlers under the age of 18 (under-18 at the Spanish national level. The sample comprised 36 under-18 wrestlers that were pre-selected for the Spanish national team. A quasi-experimental design with a pre-test and post-test was used. The dependent variableswere the knowledge of nutrition and weight control and its risks. The independent variable was the educational program. The program had three 30-minute sessions that combined talks, videos, and tasks to complete. Descriptive and inferential analyses were done (t-test, Wilcoxon test. Results indicate that the educational program was effective at increasing under-18 wrestlers’ knowledge about weight control and its risks,but was ineffective with regard to nutrition knowledge. The paper concludes with a discussion regarding the effect of the intervention program, the difficulties with including this type of knowledge and skill in the preparation of combat sport athletes, and the need for further research in this area.

  20. Not all nutrition claims are perceived equal: anchoring effects and moderating mechanisms in food advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paek, Hye-Jin; Yoon, Hye Jin; Hove, Thomas

    2011-03-01

    Despite the increased use of health claims in food advertising, few studies have investigated how specific nutrition claims have differential effects depending on how they are presented. In this context, the current study tests the anchoring hypothesis. Anchoring refers to a common human tendency to evaluate information differently depending on the presence or absence of a numerical "anchor" or reference point. Two (pilot and main) experimental studies explore anchoring effects on audience response to food advertising both directly and moderated by cognitive, motivational, and message factors. The pilot study finds that food product ads employing nutrition claims with an anchor rather than without an anchor generate two results: First, participants perceive the product to have lower fat/lower calorie contents (anchoring hypothesis); second, they prefer the messages with an anchor over those without an anchor. The main study reports that when anchoring is successfully evoked, it produces favorable attitudes toward the ad, favorable attitudes toward the brand, and purchase intention-but only when moderated by health orientation, claim believability, and nutrition knowledge. Practical implications are provided with respect to regulatory guidelines and effective communication strategies for promoting low-fat and low-calorie products in food advertising.

  1. Cooking utensils and nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002461.htm Cooking utensils and nutrition To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Cooking utensils can have an effect on your nutrition. ...

  2. Medical Issues: Orthopedics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information Packets Equipment Pool Living With SMA Medical Issues Palliative Breathing Orthopedics Nutrition Equipment Daily Life At ... curesma.org > support & care > living with sma > medical issues > orthopedics Orthopedics In SMA, muscle weakness can cause ...

  3. Medical Issues: Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information Packets Equipment Pool Living With SMA Medical Issues Palliative Breathing Orthopedics Nutrition Equipment Daily Life At ... curesma.org > support & care > living with sma > medical issues > equipment Equipment Individuals with SMA often require a ...

  4. Medical Issues: Breathing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information Packets Equipment Pool Living With SMA Medical Issues Palliative Breathing Orthopedics Nutrition Equipment Daily Life At ... curesma.org > support & care > living with sma > medical issues > breathing Breathing Breathing problems are the most common ...

  5. Effect of Fortification with Fish (Pseudophycis bachus) Powder on Nutritional Quality of Durum Wheat Pasta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Ajay S; Brennan, Margaret A; Brennan, Charles S

    2018-04-17

    This paper investigates the nutraceutical (phenolic content and antioxidant activity) and nutritional potential (protein and starch digestibility) of supplementation of durum wheat semolina with 5–20% fish powder ( Pseudophycis bachus ). In general, all enriched pasta with fish powder showed a significant decrease ( p pasta. The potentially bioaccessible fraction of pasta enriched with 20% fish powder (FP) was characterized as having a 177–191% increase in phenolic content and a 145–556% higher antiradical activity. Elevation of these parameters in fortified pasta was accompanied by interaction of wheat starch, protein, and fish powder protein. Supplementation of fish powder also influenced protein digestibility (a reduction from 84.60% for control pasta to 80.80% for pasta with 20% fish powder). Fortification improved the nutraceutical and nutritional potential of the studied pasta with the effects depending on factors including protein-starch-phenolic interactions.

  6. Early nutrition and its effect on growth, body composition and later obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Kamilla Gehrt; Lind, Mads Vendelbo; Larnkjær, Anni

    2018-01-01

    and body composition as outcome measures in countries where obesity and related diseases in later life is a large public health problem. For this short review, we have included 10 publications on the topic of early nutrition and its effect on growth, body composition, and later obesity. We think these 10......Adequate nutrition in the first 2 years of life is essential for both short- and long-term health. Malnutrition in the early years of life increases the risk of later chronic diseases. There is a wealth of studies available within this area of research, and this chapter specifically looks at growth...... included publications, published during the period of July 1, 2016 to June 30, 2017, are of special interest and all present findings can shape future research on this topic. We have chosen to focus on 3 key areas in this review; (i) human milk composition, including studies on breast milk minerals...

  7. Composition, nutritional aspects and effect on serum parameters of marine algae Ulva rigida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taboada, Cristina; Millán, Rosendo; Míguez, Isabel

    2010-02-01

    Algae are commonly consumed in Asia and have also gained popularity in Europe. However, data on the bioavailability of their components are limited. The present study was designed to determine the composition of Ulva rigida and the effects of inclusion of 10% of the algae in a standard diet for 4 weeks on nutritive value and serum parameters in order to consider the usefulness of Ulva as a dietary supplement. Ulva rigida is rich in protein, carbohydrates, fibre, vitamins and minerals and has a low lipid content. Analysis of the amino acid composition revealed good-quality protein. The algae were well accepted by experimental animals and did not significantly change nutritional parameters but reduced LDL cholesterol. Ulva rigida is an excellent source of nutrients and could improve a balanced diet. Further studies are required to research the potential of the seaweed as a natural source of bioactive compounds.

  8. Effect of harvest date on the nutritional quality and antioxidant capacity in 'Hass' avocado during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meng; Zheng, Yusheng; Khuong, Toan; Lovatt, Carol J

    2012-11-15

    The effect of harvest date on nutritional compounds and antioxidant activity (AOC) in avocado (Persea americana Mill. cv Hass) fruit during storage was determined. The fruits were harvested at seven different dates and ripened at 25 °C following 21 or 35 days of cold storage. The results indicated that the phenolic and glutathione contents were increased and the ascorbic acid content was not significantly different in early harvested fruit (January to March), and the phenolic, ascorbic acid and glutathione contents were increased slightly and then decreased on late harvested fruit (April to June). Similar trends were observed in the changes of AOC. Furthermore, AOC in early harvested fruit after storage for 35 days was much higher than that in late harvested fruit after storage for 21 days. Therefore, avocado can be harvested earlier for economic benefits according to the market and can keep high nutritional value for human health benefits. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Cost-effectiveness of a Nutrition Education Curriculum Intervention in Elementary Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziose, Matthew M; Koch, Pamela A; Wang, Y Claire; Lee Gray, Heewon; Contento, Isobel R

    2017-09-01

    To estimate the long-term cost-effectiveness of an obesity prevention nutrition education curriculum (Food, Health, & Choices) as delivered to all New York City fifth-grade public school students over 1 year. This study is a standard cost-effectiveness analysis from a societal perspective, with a 3% discount rate and a no-intervention comparator, as recommended by the US Panel on Cost-effectiveness in Health and Medicine. Costs of implementation, administration, and future obesity-related medical costs were included. Effectiveness was based on a cluster-randomized, controlled trial in 20 public schools during the 2012-2013 school year and linked to published estimates of childhood-to-adulthood body mass index trajectories using a decision analytic model. The Food, Health, & Choices intervention was estimated to cost $8,537,900 and result in 289 fewer males and 350 fewer females becoming obese (0.8% of New York City fifth-grade public school students), saving 1,599 quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) and $8,098,600 in direct medical costs. Food, Health, & Choices is predicted to be cost-effective at $275/QALY (95% confidence interval, -$2,576/QALY to $2,084/QALY) with estimates up to $6,029/QALY in sensitivity analyses. This cost-effectiveness model suggests that a nutrition education curriculum in public schools is effective and cost-effective in reducing childhood obesity, consistent with the authors' hypothesis and previous literature. Future research should assess the feasibility and sustainability of scale-up. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of Oral Breathing on the Nutritional Status: Why does it Happen?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cunha, Daniele Andrade da

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Some children who breathe through the mouth and present nocturnal obstructive apnea can present a delay in the pondero-statural growth. Objective: The objective of this article is to analyze the orofacial myofunctional alterations found in oral breathers and the effects on their nutritional status. It focuses on the importance of the interdisciplinary team following up with the overall oral breathing alterations. Method: The used method was a literature's revision based on articles published in indexed scientific magazines, books and post-graduation works. Most articles were identified on LILACS, MEDLINE, and SCIELO databases. Results: A relation between oral breathing and an alteration in the general feeding process is noticeable and associated with difficulties in smelling, tasting, and orofacial myofunctional disorders, what comes to have an effect on the nutritional status. Final commentaries: The wide range of causes involved in oral breathing requires an interdisciplinary team trained to identify such alterations, enabling preventive measures to be undertaken, in order to avoid alterations in the general health, regular development of the face, as well as in the nutritional status in these individuals' relevant growth stages.

  11. Effect of PDCA model on nutritional status in patients after laparoscopic repair of perforated peptic ulcer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Jing Hu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the effect of PDCA model on the nutritional status in patients after laparoscopic repair of perforated peptic ulcer. Methods: A total of 83 patients with gastric perforation who were admitted in our hospital from October, 2014 to December, 2015 for laparoscopic repair of perforated peptic ulcer were included in the study and randomized into the observation group (n=42 and the control group (n=41. The patients in the two groups were given routine treatments after operation. On this basis, the patients in the observation group were given additional PCDA model nursing. The gastrointestinal hormone levels and nutritional indicators after operation in the two groups were compared. Results: The difference of VIP, CCK, and GAS levels before operation between the two groups was not statistically significant (P>0.05. VIP, CCK, and GAS levels 3 d after operation were significantly reduced when compared with before operation (P0.05. WBC 1 d after operation in the observation group was significantly reduced, while TP, Hb, Alb, TRF, and BMI were significantly elevated (P0.05. Conclusions: PDCA nursing intervention can effectively improve the early nutritional status in patients after laparoscopic repair of perforated peptic ulcer and contribute to the postoperative rehabilitation.

  12. Effects of Heat Stress on Metabolite Accumulation and Composition, and Nutritional Properties of Durum Wheat Grain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria de Leonardis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Durum wheat (Triticum turgidum (L. subsp. turgidum (L. convar. durum (Desf. is momentous for human nutrition, and environmental stresses can strongly limit the expression of yield potential and affect the qualitative characteristics of the grain. The aim of this study was to determine how heat stress (five days at 37 °C applied five days after flowering affects the nutritional composition, antioxidant capacity and metabolic profile of the grain of two durum wheat genotypes: “Primadur”, an elite cultivar with high yellow index, and “T1303”, an anthocyanin-rich purple cultivar. Qualitative traits and metabolite evaluation (by gas chromatography linked to mass spectrometry were carried out on immature (14 days after flowering and mature seeds. The effects of heat stress were genotype-dependent. Although some metabolites (e.g., sucrose, glycerol increased in response to heat stress in both genotypes, clear differences were observed. Following the heat stress, there was a general increase in most of the analyzed metabolites in “Primadur”, with a general decrease in “T1303”. Heat shock applied early during seed development produced changes that were observed in immature seeds and also long-term effects that changed the qualitative and quantitative parameters of the mature grain. Therefore, short heat-stress treatments can affect the nutritional value of grain of different genotypes of durum wheat in different ways.

  13. Enhancing regulatory effectiveness by improving the process for identifying and resolving generic issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vander Molen, Harold J.

    2001-01-01

    The Generic Issues Program first began formally in response to a Commission directive in October of 1976. In 1983, it became one of the first programs to make successful use of probabilistic risk information to aid in regulatory decision-making. In the 16 years since the program became quantitative, 836 issues have been processed. Of these, 106 reactor safety issues were prioritized as requiring further evaluation to determine the final resolution. Approximately a dozen generic issues remain unresolved. Although there is far less reactor licensing activity than in the 1970s, new issues continue to be identified from research and operational experience. These issues often involve complex and controversial questions of safety and regulation, and an efficient and effective means of addressing these issues is essential for regulatory effectiveness. Issues that involve a significant safety question require swift, effective, enforceable, and cost-effective regulatory actions. Issues that are of little safety significance must be quickly shown to be so and dismissed in an expeditious manner so as to avoid unnecessary expenditure of limited resources and to reduce regulatory uncertainty. Additionally, in the time since the generic issue program began, probabilistic risk assessment techniques have advanced significantly while agency resources have continued to diminish. Accordingly, the paper discusses the steps that have been taken to enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of the generic issue resolution process. Additionally, four resolved issues are discussed, along with key elements of a proposed new procedure for resolving potential generic issues

  14. Nutrition Frontiers - Summer 2016 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volume 7, Issue 3 The summer issue of Nutrition Frontiers showcases the combined effects of ursolic acid and resveratrol for skin cancer, the potential chemopreventive effects of the dietary supplement 4-MU, and a method to monitor a heterocyclic aromatic amine in dyed hair. Learn about our spotlight investigators, Drs. Michael Caligiuri and Jianhua Yu, and their research on

  15. Effect of pretreatments and processing conditions on anti-nutritional factors in climbing bean flours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Mugabo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available It is difficult for many Rwandans to utilize climbing bean seeds (Phaseolus vulgaris. L mainly because of longer cooking time (2 hours and the high consumption of basic fuel. Climbing beans also contain anti-nutritional factors such tannins, phytates, trypsin inhibitors and phytohemagglutinins that limit nutrient absorption. One way to solve this problem is to utilize the flour of climbing beans made from different treatments and processing methods. In this study, climbing beans were pre-treated by soaking them in water for 24 hours, soaking in 2% sodium bicarbonate solution and steam blanching for 10 minutes. After that, pre-treated climbing beans were processed into flours by processing methods such as roasting, cooking and germination where anti-nutritional factors were reduced. The pretreatments did not significantly (p>0.05 affect phytates in climbing bean flours but processing conditions significantly (p<0.05 reduced it. Pretreatments and processing conditions significantly (p<0.05 reduced tannin content. The pretreatments followed by different processing conditions significantly (p<0.05 decreased trypsin inhibitors content. The great significant decrease in phytohemagglutinins content was observed in pretreatment followed by different processing methods. All pretreatments and processing conditions effectively decreased anti-nutritional factors at low level. However, pretreatments or untreated followed by germination and roasting were found to be the most and the least effective respectively.  Making flour from germinated climbing bean seeds is a good option for sustainable food processing as it reduces anti-nutritional factors. It is an inexpensive method in terms of time, energy and fuel for Rwandan households, restaurants and industries where climbing bean seeds are integral part of daily meal.

  16. The Effect of Nutrition Education on Eating Disorders Attitude in Girls High School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahiminia

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Adolescence is one of the important period in growth and evolution process, Also, eating disorders in adolescences, especially girls is one of the major problems in communities. Therefore, an effective education is of special priority for prevention of eating disorders. The current study was performed with the goal of assessment of the effect of nutrition education on eating disorders attitude in girls high school students. Methods: This non-experimental study with a single group pre- and post-test design, was performed using purposive sampling method on 97 students of the first year of high school, in 2015. Data collection tool was EAT-26 standardized questionnaire, which was completed by the participants using self-report method before and 3 months after the education. Data were analyzed using paired t-test. The significance level was set at p<0.05. Results: The mean score of abnormal eating attitude decreased from 1.7±0.04 (before education to 1.4±0.06 (after education. Also, there was a significant statistical difference between the results of before and after education (p=0.0001. Conclusion: The results of this study revealed that nutrition education has brought about desired changes in the attitude. However, the increase of nutrition awareness and attitude change can gradually lead to behavior change. Therefore, the current study can help the authorities to include a wider range of nutritional education in the curriculum of students in dorder to prevent eating disorder.

  17. Effects of Social Network Exposure on Nutritional Learning: Development of an Online Educational Platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagan, Noa; Beskin, Daniel; Brezis, Mayer; Reis, Ben Y

    2015-10-05

    Social networking sites (SNSs) such as Facebook have the potential to enhance online public health interventions, in part, as they provide social exposure and reinforcement. The objective of the study was to evaluate whether social exposure provided by SNSs enhances the effects of online public health interventions. As a sample intervention, we developed Food Hero, an online platform for nutritional education in which players feed a virtual character according to their own nutritional needs and complete a set of virtual sport challenges. The platform was developed in 2 versions: a "private version" in which a user can see only his or her own score, and a "social version" in which a user can see other players' scores, including preexisting Facebook friends. We assessed changes in participants' nutritional knowledge using 4 quiz scores and 3 menu-assembly scores. Monitoring feeding and exercising attempts assessed engagement with the platform. The 2 versions of the platform were randomly assigned between a study group (30 members receiving the social version) and a control group (33 members, private version). The study group's performance on the quizzes gradually increased over time, relative to that of the control group, becoming significantly higher by the fourth quiz (P=.02). Furthermore, the study group's menu-assembly scores improved over time compared to the first score, whereas the control group's performance deteriorated. Study group members spent an average of 3:40 minutes assembling each menu compared to 2:50 minutes in the control group, and performed an average of 1.58 daily sport challenges, compared to 1.21 in the control group (P=.03). This work focused on isolating the SNSs' social effects in order to help guide future online interventions. Our results indicate that the social exposure provided by SNSs is associated with increased engagement and learning in an online nutritional educational platform.

  18. Effect of mother's education on child's nutritional status in the slums of Nairobi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuya, Benta A; Ciera, James; Kimani-Murage, Elizabeth

    2012-06-21

    Malnutrition continues to be a critical public health problem in sub-Saharan Africa. For example, in East Africa, 48 % of children under-five are stunted while 36 % are underweight. Poor health and poor nutrition are now more a characteristic of children living in the urban areas than of children in the rural areas. This is because the protective mechanism offered by the urban advantage in the past; that is, the health benefits that historically accrued to residents of cities as compared to residents in rural settings is being eroded due to increasing proportion of urban residents living in slum settings. This study sought to determine effect of mother's education on child nutritional status of children living in slum settings. Data are from a maternal and child health project nested within the Nairobi Urban Health and Demographic Surveillance System (NUHDSS). The study involves 5156 children aged 0-42 months. Data on nutritional status used were collected between October 2009 and January 2010. We used binomial and multiple logistic regression to estimate the effect of education in the univariable and multivariable models respectively. Results show that close to 40 % of children in the study are stunted. Maternal education is a strong predictor of child stunting with some minimal attenuation of the association by other factors at maternal, household and community level. Other factors including at child level: child birth weight and gender; maternal level: marital status, parity, pregnancy intentions, and health seeking behaviour; and household level: social economic status are also independently significantly associated with stunting. Overall, mothers' education persists as a strong predictor of child's nutritional status in urban slum settings, even after controlling for other factors. Given that stunting is a strong predictor of human capital, emphasis on girl-child education may contribute to breaking the poverty cycle in urban poor settings.

  19. [Curative effect analysis of bile reinfusion combined with enteral nutrition support before surgery of hilar cholangiocarcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, P; Mao, L; Bian, X J; Zhou, T; Fan, Y Y; Zhang, J; Xie, M; Qiu, Y D

    2018-05-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical effect of bile reinfusion combined with enteral nutrition support before surgery for hilar cholangiocarcinoma. Methods: A retrospective analysis of patients with hilar cholangiocarcinoma who underwent surgical treatment at Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital Hepato-biliary-pancreatic Surgery Department from July 2010 to August 2017 was completed.A total of 52 cases were finally enrolled in our study.All the patients included, on the basis of whether they received preoperative drainage and bile reinfusion, were divided into non-drainage group( n =15) and drainage group( n =37). Differences of clinical indicators, including operation time, intraoperative bleeding and serum liver function index levels at day 1, 3, 7 postoperative, postoperative complications(liver failure, biliary fistula, pleural effusion, peritoneal effusion, abdominal cavity infection, death in hospital), tumor classification, R0 resection, postoperative hospitalization time between the 2 groups were analyzed. At the same time, in the drainage group, patients were divided into non-enteral nutrition subgroup( n =13) and enteral nutrition subgroup( n =24) according to whether they received enteral nutrition before operation. The normal distribution data of the group was statistically analyzed by independent sample t test, the non-normal distribution data of the group was statistically analyzed by rank-sum test. The count data was statistically analyzed by non-calibration and correction of the square test. Results: There was no statistically significant difference in general infomation such as age, gender, and serum liver function between non-drainage group and drainage group( P >0.05). There was no statistically significant difference in general information such as age, gender, and serum liver function between non-enteral nutrition group and enteral nutrition group( P >0.05). The rate of vascular resection and reconstruction(33.3%) and operating time(10.8(2.2)h) in

  20. Factors Associated with Effective Nutrition Interventions for Pregnant Indigenous Women: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashman, Amy M; Brown, Leanne J; Collins, Clare E; Rollo, Megan E; Rae, Kym M

    2017-08-01

    Indigenous people continue to experience health disparities relative to non-Indigenous populations. Interventions to improve nutrition during pregnancy in these groups may improve health outcomes for mothers and their infants. The effectiveness of existing nutrition intervention programs has not been reviewed previously. The objective was to identify interventions targeting improving nutrition-related outcomes for pregnant Indigenous women residing in Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development countries, and to identify positive factors contributing to successful programs. Thirteen electronic databases were searched up until October 2015. Key words identified studies intervening to improve nutrition-related outcomes for pregnant Indigenous women. Two reviewers assessed articles for inclusion and study quality and extracted data. Only studies published in English were included. Data were summarized narratively. Abstracts and titles were screened (n=2,566) and 315 full texts were reviewed for eligibility. This review included 27 articles from 20 intervention programs from Australia, Canada, and the United States. The most prevalent measurable outcomes were birth weight (n=9) and breastfeeding initiation/duration (n=11). Programs with statistically significant results for these outcomes employed the following nutrition activities: individual counseling/education (n=8); delivery by senior Indigenous woman (n=2), peer counselor (n=3), or other Indigenous health worker (n=4); community-wide interventions (n=2); media campaigns (n=2); delivery by non-Indigenous health professional (n=3); and home visits (n=3). Heterogeneity of included studies made it challenging to make firm recommendations regarding program success. Authors of included studies recommended community consultation be included when designing studies and working with communities at all stages of the research process. Individualized counseling/education can contribute to successful program

  1. Effect of Religious Belief on Informal Reasoning about Biotechnology Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Timothy; Dawson, Vaille; Koul, Rekha

    2017-01-01

    The advances of modern biotechnology provide teachers with a number of opportunities to explore socioscientific issues, and in doing so to enhance students' reasoning skills. Although some attempt has been made to understand cultural differences in students' informal reasoning across international and regional boundaries, there is limited research…

  2. Consumer and product-specific characteristics influencing the effect of nutrition, health and risk reduction claims on preferences and purchase behavior - A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhauser, Johann; Hamm, Ulrich

    2018-08-01

    The research on nutrition, health, and risk reduction claims (NHR claims) shows a lack of consensus as to whether these claims have a positive or negative effect on consumer's preferences and purchase behavior. This issue has been highlighted by many authors. Therefore, a comprehensive literature review was performed to find reasons for contradictory results. First, a theoretical framework was developed which divided the determinants of the effects of NHR claims on consumers' preferences and purchase behavior into consumer and product-specific characteristics. Additionally, a categorization for the different NHR claim types was constructed to make the studies comparable. Afterwards, the scientific literature from the 1980s until May 2017 was scanned and 66 articles were found to be relevant. Consumer-specific characteristics such as nutrition knowledge, health motivation, familiarity, and socio-demographic characteristics were found to influence the NHR claim effect. Important product-specific characteristics were the perceived healthiness of the food product, the interaction between the product and the nutrient in the NHR claim, and the interaction between the claimed benefit and the NHR claim type. The consumer's nutrition knowledge and the product's perceived healthiness were deemed to be the most promising determinants for further investigation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of Nutritional Support in Patients with Colorectal Cancer during Chemotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Dobrila Dintinjana, Renata; Guina, Tina; Krznarić, Željko; Radić, Mladen; Dintinjana, Marijan

    2008-01-01

    Nutritional support, addressing the specific needs of this patient group, is required to help improve prognosis, and reduce the consequences of cancer-associated nutritional decline. Early intervention with nutritional supplementation has been shown to halt malnutrition, and may improve outcome in some patients. In our study we tried to assess the influence of nutritional support (counseling, oral liquids, megestrol acetate) on nutritional status and symptoms prevalence in patients ...

  4. Effects of food processing on the thermodynamic and nutritive value of foods: literature and database survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochaska, L J; Nguyen, X T; Donat, N; Piekutowski, W V

    2000-02-01

    One of the goals of our society is to provide adequate nourishment for the general population of humans. In the strictness sense, the foodstuffs which we ingest are bundles of thermodynamic energy. In our post-industrial society, food producers provide society with the bioenergetic content of foods, while stabilizing the food in a non-perishable form that enables the consumer to access foods that are convenient and nutritious. As our modern society developed, the processing of foodstuffs increased to allow consumers flexibility in their choice in which foods to eat (based on nutritional content and amount of post-harvest processing). The thermodynamic energy content of foodstuffs is well documented in the literature by the use of bomb calorimetry measurements. Here, we determine the effects of processing (in most cases by the application of heat) on the thermodynamic energy content of foods in order to investigate the role of processing in daily nutritional needs. We also examine which processing procedures affect the nutritive quality (vitamin and mineral content) and critically assess the rational, advantages and disadvantages of additives to food. Finally, we discuss the role of endogenous enzymes in foods not only on the nutritive quality of the food but also on the freshness and flavor of the food. Our results show that a significant decrease in thermodynamic energy content occurs in fruits, vegetables, and meat products upon processing that is independent of water content. No significant change in energy content was observed in cereals, sugars, grains, fats and oils, and nuts. The vitamin content of most foods was most dramatically decreased by canning while smaller effects were observed upon blanching and freezing. We found that most food additives had very little effect on thermodynamic energy content due to their presence in minute quantities and that most were added to preserve the foodstuff or supplement its vitamin content. The endogenous food enzymes

  5. The effects of nutrition labeling on consumer food choice: a psychological experiment and computational model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfer, Peter; Shultz, Thomas R

    2014-12-01

    The widespread availability of calorie-dense food is believed to be a contributing cause of an epidemic of obesity and associated diseases throughout the world. One possible countermeasure is to empower consumers to make healthier food choices with useful nutrition labeling. An important part of this endeavor is to determine the usability of existing and proposed labeling schemes. Here, we report an experiment on how four different labeling schemes affect the speed and nutritional value of food choices. We then apply decision field theory, a leading computational model of human decision making, to simulate the experimental results. The psychology experiment shows that quantitative, single-attribute labeling schemes have greater usability than multiattribute and binary ones, and that they remain effective under moderate time pressure. The computational model simulates these psychological results and provides explanatory insights into them. This work shows how experimental psychology and computational modeling can contribute to the evaluation and improvement of nutrition-labeling schemes. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.

  6. Effect of parenteral nutrition on the bone marrow recovery under exsperimental conditions of uneven irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moroz, B.B.; Fedorovskij, L.L.; Deshevoj, Yu.B.

    1986-01-01

    Using white rats-males the effect of parenteral nutrition (PN) on blood formation (hemopoiesis) recovery under the conditions of total (control), subtotal (shielding of animal hind limb) with 7.5 Gy and X-ray partial irradiation of abdomen region with the 13.5 Gy has been studied. It has been found that bone marrow recovery increases either at subtotal or partial irradiation under the conditions of PN. Mechanisms of PN favourable effect are discussed. The advisability of using PN under uneven irradiations of organism is indicated

  7. The Effect of BCAA and ISO-WHEY Oral Nutritional Supplements on Dialysis Adequacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afaghi, Effat; Tayebi, Ali; Ebadi, Abbas; Sobhani, Vahid; Einollahi, Behzad; Tayebi, Mehdi

    2016-11-01

    Protein-energy malnutrition is a common problem in hemodialysis patients and has different outcomes such as reduced quality of life, longer hospitalization time, lower dialysis adequacy, and higher mortality rate. Investigation of dialysis adequacy is an important method for assessing hemodialysis patients, and improving the dialysis adequacy is an important healthcare team goal. The present study aims to investigate and compare the effects of BCAA and ISO-WHEY oral nutritional supplements on dialysis adequacy. In a clinical trial study, 66 hemodialysis patients were randomly divided into three groups: Group A (n = 22), Group B (n = 22), and Group C or the control group (n = 22). In Groups A and B, as prescribed and controlled by nutritionists and nephrologists, respectively, ISO-WHEY and BCAA protein powder were used for 2 months on a daily basis. For all groups, before intervention and 1 and 2 months after intervention, the dialysis adequacy was measured using URR and Kt/V. Finally, the data were analyzed using IBM SPSS Statistics Base 21.0 software. Out of 66 patients, 61 (19 in Group A, 20 in Group B, and 22 in Group C) completed the study period, and before intervention, all groups were equal in terms of quality and quantity variables (P > 0.05). After intervention, there was a significant difference between the three groups with regard to the variables of dialysis adequacy based on Kt/V and URR to independent-t test and repeated measures ANOVA (P < 0.05). Results show that the intake of oral nutritional supplements leads to an improvement in the dialysis adequacy of hemodialysis patients. Therefore, the use of nutritional supplements along with patients' training and regular consultation will be helpful in improving the nutritional status, dialysis adequacy, and eventually the quality of life.

  8. The enteral probe nutrition with Cosilat in complex therapy of patients with radiotherapeutic late effects of the colon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sloventantor, V.Yu.; Chmelevskij, Ya.M.; Bradycev, M.S.; Kurpeseva, A.K.; Artamonov, Yu.I.; Kaplan, M.A.; Sokol, N.I.; Vakulovskaja, E.G.

    1990-01-01

    Results are presented applying an enteral nutrition by means of probes with Cosilat in complex therapy of patients with radiotherapeutic late effects of the colon. This nutrition was prescribed with the intention to gave the colon a functional recovery and to guarantee optimal conditions for repair of radiation injuries. Good results were seen in 27 of 28 patients (96.7%), the situation of one patient (3.3%) continued without any change. Cosilat has a high nutritive value, good organoleptic qualities and is well digested without any complications. (author)

  9. The remarkable robustness of the first-offer effect: across culture, power, and issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunia, Brian C; Swaab, Roderick I; Sivanathan, Niro; Galinsky, Adam D

    2013-12-01

    The first-offer effect demonstrates that negotiators achieve better outcomes when making the first offer than when receiving it. The evidence, however, primarily derives from studies of Westerners without systematic power differences negotiating over one issue-contexts that may amplify the first-offer effect. Thus, the present research explored the effect across cultures, among negotiators varying in power, and in negotiations involving single and multiple issues. The first two studies showed that the first-offer effect remains remarkably robust across cultures and multi-issue negotiations. The final two studies demonstrated that low-power negotiators benefit from making the first offer across single- and multi-issue negotiations. The second and fourth studies used multi-issue negotiations with distributive, integrative, and compatible issues, allowing us to show that first offers operate through the distributive, not the integrative or compatible issues. Overall, these results reveal that moving first can benefit negotiators across many organizational and personal situations.

  10. Bringing physician nutrition specialists into the mainstream: rationale for the Intersociety Professional Nutrition Education Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-10-01

    Given the prevalence of nutritionally related chronic diseases in American society, the training of physicians should include a focus on the relations of diet to disease. Yet, despite scientific data, public interest, US government reports, society studies, and congressional mandates, the teaching of nutrition in medical schools and residency programs remains inadequate. The authority whom patients most wish to consult for information on health-their physician-thus remains insufficiently informed about the role of diet in the prevention and treatment of disease. New efforts must be initiated to train nutrition-literate physicians. The principal obstacle to nutrition literacy among physicians is the paucity of physician nutrition specialists (PNSs) on medical school faculties who can effectively advocate for change in medical school and residency curricula and who can serve as role models for incorporating nutrition into patient care. To encourage nutrition societies to unite in addressing these issues, the Intersociety Professional Nutrition Education Consortium was founded in 1997. The Consortium aims to establish educational standards for fellowship training and a unified mechanism for posttraining certification of PNSs, and to develop a long-term plan to increase the pool of PNSs and surmount obstacles that currently impede the incorporation of nutrition education into the curricula of medical schools and primary-care residency programs.

  11. "If it's issues to do with nutrition…I can decide…": gendered decision-making in joining community-based child nutrition interventions within rural coastal Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraya, Kelly W; Jones, Caroline; Berkley, James A; Molyneux, Sassy

    2017-12-01

    Gender roles and relations play an important role in child health and nutritional status. While there is increasing recognition of the need to incorporate gender analysis in health planning and programme development, there has been relatively little attention paid to the gendered nature of child nutrition interventions. This qualitative study undertaken in rural Coastal Kenya aimed to explore the interaction between household gender relations and a community-based child nutrition programme, with a focus on household decision-making dynamics related to joining the intervention. Fifteen households whose children were enrolled in the programme were followed up over a period of 12 months. Over a total of 60 household visits, group and individual in-depth interviews were conducted with a range of respondents, supplemented by non-participant observations. Data were analysed using a framework analysis approach. Engagement with the intervention was highly gendered with women being the primary decision-makers and engagers. Women were responsible for managing child feeding and minor child illnesses in households. As such, involvement in community-based nutrition interventions and particularly one that targeted a condition perceived as non-serious, fell within women's domain. Despite this, the nutrition programme of interest could be categorized as gender-blind. Gender was not explicitly considered in the design and implementation of the intervention, and the gender roles and norms in the community with regards to child nutrition were not critically examined or challenged. In fact, the intervention might have inadvertently reinforced existing gender divisions and practices in relation to child nutrition, by (unintentionally) excluding men from the nutrition discussions and activities, and thereby supporting the notion of child feeding and nutrition as "women's business". To improve outcomes, community-based nutrition interventions need to understand and take into account

  12. [Effects of early enteral nutrition in the treatment of patients with severe burns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Y W; Liu, J; Jin, J; Liu, L J; Wu, Y F

    2018-01-20

    Objective: To investigate the effects of early enteral nutrition (EEN) in the treatment of patients with severe burns. Methods: Medical records of 52 patients with severe burns hospitalized in the three affiliations of authors from August to September in 2014 were retrospectively analyzed and divided into EEN group ( n =28) and non-early enteral nutrition (NEEN) group ( n =24) according to the initiation time of enteral nutrition. On the basis of routine treatment, enteral nutrition was given to patients in group EEN within post injury day (POD) 3, while enteral nutrition was given to patients in group NEEN after POD 3. The following items were compared between patients of the two groups, such as the ratio of enteral nutrition intake to total energy intake, the ratio of parenteral nutrition intake to total energy intake, the ratio of total energy intake to energy target on POD 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 14, 21, and 28, the levels of prealbumin, serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation Ⅱ (APACHE Ⅱ) score on POD 1, 3, 7, 14, and 28, the first operation time, the number of operations, and the frequencies of abdominal distension, diarrhea, vomiting, aspiration, catheter blockage, and low blood sugar within POD 28. Data were processed with χ (2)test, t test, Wilcoxon rank sum test, and Bonferroni correction. Results: (1) The ratio of parenteral nutrition intake to total energy intake of patients in group EEN on POD 1 was obviously lower than that in group NEEN ( Z =2.078, P 0.05). On POD 28, the prealbumin level of patients in group EEN was obviously higher than that in group NEEN ( t =3.163, P 0.05). (3) The APACHE Ⅱ scores of patients in group EEN were (22.5±3.1) and (15.6±3.8) points respectively on POD 1 and 3, which were close to (23.6±3.0) and (17.6±4.2) points of patients in group NEEN ( t =1.352, 1.733, P >0.05). The APACHE Ⅱ scores of patients in group EEN on POD 7, 14

  13. Special Food and Nutrition Needs in School Nutrition Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molaison, Elaine Fontenot; Nettles, Mary Frances

    2010-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this research was to determine the prevalence of special food and/or nutrition needs in school nutrition programs. In addition, researchers focused on the issues surrounding these needs and the role of the school nutrition (SN) directors and managers in meeting these needs. Methods: An expert panel was used to…

  14. Interactive Effects of Endogenous and Exogenous Nutrition on Larval Development for Crown-Of-Thorns Starfish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciemon Frank Caballes

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Outbreaks of crown-of-thorns starfish are often attributed to step-changes in larval survivorship following anomalous increases in nutrients and food availability. However, larval growth and development is also influenced by the nutritional condition of spawning females, such that maternal provisioning may offset limitations imposed by limited access to exogenous sources of nutrients during the formative stages of larval development. This study examined the individual, additive, and interactive effects of endogenous (maternal diet: Acropora, Porites, mixed, and starved and exogenous (larval diet: high concentration at 104 cells·mL−1, low concentration at 103 algal cells·mL−1, and starved nutrition on the survival, growth, morphology, and development of larvae of the crown-of-thorns starfish. Female starfish on Acropora and mixed diet produced bigger oocytes compared to Porites-fed and starved treatments. Using oocyte size as a proxy for maternal provisioning, endogenous reserves in the oocyte had a strong influence on initial larval survival and development. This suggests that maternal reserves can delay the onset of obligate exogenous food acquisition and allow larvae to endure prolonged periods of poor environmental nutritive conditions or starvation. The influence of exogenous nutrition became more prominent in later stages, whereby none of the starved larvae reached the mid-to-late brachiolaria stage 16 days after the onset of the ability to feed. There was no significant difference in the survival, development, and competency of larvae between high and low food treatments. Under low algal food conditions, larvae compensate by increasing the length of ciliated feeding bands in relation to the maximum length and width, which improve food capture and feeding efficiency. However, the effects of endogenous nutrition persisted in the later developmental stages, as larvae from starved females were unable to develop larger feeding structures

  15. The role of cost-effectiveness analysis in developing nutrition policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobiac, Linda J; Veerman, Lennert; Vos, Theo

    2013-01-01

    Concern about the overconsumption of unhealthy foods is growing worldwide. With high global rates of noncommunicable diseases related to poor nutrition and projections of more rapid increases of rates in low- and middle-income countries, it is vital to identify effective but low-cost interventions. Cost-effectiveness studies show that individually targeted dietary interventions can be effective and cost-effective, but a growing number of modeling studies suggest that population-wide approaches may bring larger and more sustained benefits for population health at a lower cost to society. Mandatory regulation of salt in processed foods, in particular, is highly recommended. Future research should focus on lacunae in the current evidence base: effectiveness of interventions addressing the marketing, availability, and price of healthy and unhealthy foods; modeling health impacts of complex dietary changes and multi-intervention strategies; and modeling health implications in diverse subpopulations to identify interventions that will most efficiently and effectively reduce health inequalities.

  16. Nutritional evaluation and effect of sesbania aculeata on the reproductive performance of Damascus does

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarkawi, M.; Al-Masri, R.; Khalifa, K.

    2002-01-01

    Nutritional evaluation and effect of sesbania aculeata, a salt-tolerant plant was evaluated by estimating the nutritive components (crude ash CA, crude protein CP, crude fiber CF, crude lipid CL, neutral-detergent fiber NDF, acid-detergent fiber ADF and crude lignin acid-detergent lignin ADL); and the in vitro organic matter digestibility (IVOMD), metabolizable energy (ME), net energy lactation (NEL) and gross energy (GE). The effects of feeding Sesbania aculeata hay (whole plant) on live-weight, reproductive performance during several reproductive stages and on the serum progesterone levels in the blood of Damascus does were also determined. Results showed that nutritive components of Sesbania aculeata (whole plant) were (g/kg dry matter): CA 76, CP 144, CF 341, CL 23, NDF 562, ADF 435 and ADL 72. IVOMD was 50.7%, and values (MJ/kg dry matter) were: GE 28.27, ME 6.84 and NEL 3.50. Dry matter and crude protein yields of Sesbania hay were 8269 and 1190 kg/ha, respectively; and the energy produced (MJ/ha) was: GE 2338, ME 799 and NEL 607. Sesbania had no effects on mating rate (100%), duration of pregnancy (148.8 ±1.5 days), birth weight (4.6±1.1 kg) or weaning weight (18.8±5.0 kg) of kids. There was a pronounced effect of Sesbania on fertility rate since percentage of does that were mated but failed to conceive reached 50%. - Progesterone pattern in serum was normal in all does from feeding on Sesbania supplement until mating, and likewise was in does that had fertile matings; whereas, the pattern was abnormal in those in which they were mated, but failed to conceive. (author)

  17. Self-Efficacy and Nutrition Education: A Study of the Effect of an Intervention with Faith Community Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotwals, Beth

    2018-02-01

    The faith community provides an important access point for practice focused on population health at a time when health issues such as obesity and overweight are affecting large number of Americans. The purpose of this study was to examine faith community nurses' self-efficacy perceptions following a nutrition educational intervention. A convenience sample of 92 faith community nurses were randomly assigned to experimental and control groups. The t-distribution analysis revealed significant differences between the nutrition knowledge self-efficacy (p = .016) and nutrition counseling self-efficacy (p = .010) post-test scores for the experimental and control groups. This type of educational intervention provides a model to be used with faith community nurses as they integrate faith and health in this setting.

  18. Nutrition management methods effective in increasing weight, survival time and functional status in ALS patients: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, Jaylin; Bottman, Lindsey; Arra, Erin J; Selkirk, Stephen M; Kozlowski, Frances

    2018-02-01

    Poor prognosis and decreased survival time correlate with the nutritional status of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Various studies were reviewed which assessed weight, body mass index (BMI), survival time and ALS functional rating scale revised (ALSFRS-R) in order to determine the best nutrition management methods for this patient population. A systematic review was conducted using CINAHL, Medline, and PubMed, and various search terms in order to determine the most recent clinical trials and observational studies that have been conducted concerning nutrition and ALS. Four articles met criteria to be included in the review. Data were extracted from these articles and were inputted into the Data Extraction Tool (DET) provided by the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (AND). Results showed that nutrition supplementation does promote weight stabilisation or weight gain in individuals with ALS. Given the low risk and low cost associated with intervention, early and aggressive nutrition intervention is recommended. This systematic review shows that there is a lack of high quality evidence regarding the efficacy of any dietary interventions for promoting survival in ALS or slowing disease progression; therefore more research is necessary related to effects of nutrition interventions.

  19. Home parenteral nutrition in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalousova, J.; Rouskova, B.; Styblova, J.

    2011-01-01

    Parenteral nutrition delivered at home presents a major improvement in the quality of life of children dependent on long term parenteral nutrition. Indications, technical conditions, logistics, complications, prognosis of home parenteral nutrition as well as some health-care issues to be addressed by pediatric practitioner are summarized. (author)

  20. Cost-effectiveness Analysis of Nutritional Support for the Prevention of Pressure Ulcers in High-Risk Hospitalized Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuffaha, Haitham W; Roberts, Shelley; Chaboyer, Wendy; Gordon, Louisa G; Scuffham, Paul A

    2016-06-01

    To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of nutritional support compared with standard care in preventing pressure ulcers (PrUs) in high-risk hospitalized patients. An economic model using data from a systematic literature review. A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials on the efficacy of nutritional support in reducing the incidence of PrUs was conducted. Modeled cohort of hospitalized patients at high risk of developing PrUs and malnutrition simulated during their hospital stay and up to 1 year. Standard care included PrU prevention strategies, such as redistribution surfaces, repositioning, and skin protection strategies, along with standard hospital diet. In addition to the standard care, the intervention group received nutritional support comprising patient education, nutrition goal setting, and the consumption of high-protein supplements. The analysis was from a healthcare payer perspective. Key outcomes of the model included the average costs and quality-adjusted life years. Model results were tested in univariate sensitivity analyses, and decision uncertainty was characterized using a probabilistic sensitivity analysis. Compared with standard care, nutritional support was cost saving at AU $425 per patient and marginally more effective with an average 0.005 quality-adjusted life years gained. The probability of nutritional support being cost-effective was 87%. Nutritional support to prevent PrUs in high-risk hospitalized patients is cost-effective with substantial cost savings predicted. Hospitals should implement the recommendations from the current PrU practice guidelines and offer nutritional support to high-risk patients.

  1. The effect of complex workplace dietary interventions on employees' dietary intakes, nutrition knowledge and health status: a cluster controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geaney, Fiona; Kelly, Clare; Di Marrazzo, Jessica Scotto; Harrington, Janas M; Fitzgerald, Anthony P; Greiner, Birgit A; Perry, Ivan J

    2016-08-01

    Evidence on effective workplace dietary interventions is limited. The comparative effectiveness of a workplace environmental dietary modification and an educational intervention both alone and in combination was assessed versus a control workplace on employees' dietary intakes, nutrition knowledge and health status. In the Food Choice at Work cluster controlled trial, four large, purposively selected manufacturing workplaces in Ireland were allocated to control (N=111), nutrition education (Education) (N=226), environmental dietary modification (Environment) (N=113) and nutrition education and environmental dietary modification (Combined) (N=400) in 2013. Nutrition education included group presentations, individual consultations and detailed nutrition information. Environmental dietary modification included menu modification, fruit price discounts, strategic positioning of healthier alternatives and portion size control. Data on dietary intakes, nutrition knowledge and health status were obtained at baseline and follow-up at 7-9months. Multivariate analysis of covariance compared changes across the four groups with adjustment for age, gender, educational status and other baseline characteristics. Follow-up data at 7-9months were obtained for 541 employees (64% of 850 recruited) aged 18-64years: control: 70 (63%), Education: 113 (50%), 74 (65%) and Combined: 284 (71%). There were significant positive changes in intakes of saturated fat (p=0.013), salt (p=0.010) and nutrition knowledge (p=0.034) between baseline and follow-up in the combined intervention versus the control. Small but significant changes in BMI (-1.2kg/m(2) (95% CI -2.385, -0.018, p=0.047) were observed in the combined intervention. Effects in the education and environment alone workplaces were smaller and generally non-significant. Combining nutrition education and environmental dietary modification may be an effective approach for promoting a healthy diet and weight loss at work. Copyright © 2016

  2. Effectiveness of recruitment to a smartphone-delivered nutrition intervention in New Zealand: analysis of a randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Volkova, Ekaterina; Michie, Jo; Corrigan, Callie; Sundborn, Gerhard; Eyles, Helen; Jiang, Yannan; Mhurchu, Cliona Ni

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Delivery of interventions via smartphone is a relatively new initiative in public health, and limited evidence exists regarding optimal strategies for recruitment. We describe the effectiveness of approaches used to recruit participants to a smartphone-enabled nutrition intervention trial. Methods Internet and social media advertising, mainstream media advertising and research team networks were used to recruit New Zealand adults to a fully automated smartphone-delivered nutrition ...

  3. The cumulative effect of small dietary changes may significantly improve nutritional intakes in free-living children and adults

    OpenAIRE

    Bornet , Francis; Paineau , Damien; Beaufils , François; Boulier , Alain; Cassuto , Dominique-Adèle; Chwalow , Judith; Combris , Pierre; Couet , Charles; Jouret , Béatrice; Lafay , Lionel; Laville , Martine; Mahé , Sylvain; Ricour , Claude; Romon , Monique; Simon , Chantal

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background/Objectives: The ELPAS study was an 8-month randomized controlled dietary modification trial designed to test the hypothesis that family dietary coaching would improve nutritional intakes and weight control in 2026 free-living children and parents (Paineau et al., 2008). It resulted in significant nutritional changes, with beneficial effects on body mass index in adults. In these ancillary analyses, we investigated dietary changes throughout the intervention. ...

  4. Effect of mother support groups on nutritional status in children under two years of age in Laisamis village, Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Undlien, Mattias; Viervoll, Håvard-Amund

    2016-01-01

    Background: To deal with the ongoing malnutrition problem in many parts of Kenya, the government has initialized preventive actions such as mother support groups to improve health and nutrition among children. Few studies have evaluated the effectiveness of such interventions as mother support groups. Objective: This study aimed at determining how mother support groups affect the nutrition status of children under 2 years of age. Methods: A total of 41 children participated. Anthropometric me...

  5. Long-term effects of nutritional programming of the embryo and fetus: mechanisms and critical windows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symonds, Michael E; Stephenson, Terence; Gardner, David S; Budge, Helen

    2007-01-01

    The maternal nutritional and metabolic environment is critical in determining not only reproduction, but also long-term health and viability. In the present review, the effects of maternal nutritional manipulation at defined stages of gestation coinciding with embryogenesis, maximal placental or fetal growth will be discussed. Long-term outcomes from these three developmental windows appear to be very different, with brain and cardiovascular function being most sensitive to influences in the embryonic period, the kidney during placental development and adipose tissue in the fetal phase. In view of the similarities in fetal development, number and maturity at birth, there are close similarities in these outcomes between findings from epidemiological studies in historical human cohorts and nutritional manipulation of large animals, such as sheep. One key nutrient that may modulate the long-term metabolic effects is the supply of glucose from the mother to the fetus, because this is sensitive to both global changes in food intake, maternal glucocorticoid status and an increase in the carbohydrate content of the diet. The extent to which these dietary-induced changes may reflect epigenetic changes remains to be established, especially when considering the very artificial diets used to induce these types of effects. In summary, the maintenance of a balanced and appropriate supply of glucose from the mother to the fetus may be pivotal in ensuring optimal embryonic, placental and fetal growth. Increased or decreased maternal plasma glucose alone, or in conjunction with other macro- or micronutrients, may result in offspring at increased risk of adult diseases.

  6. Effects of Oral Exposure to Fungicides on Honey Bee Nutrition and Virus Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degrandi-Hoffman, Gloria; Chen, Yanping; Watkins Dejong, Emily; Chambers, Mona L; Hidalgo, Geoffrey

    2015-12-01

    Sublethal exposure to fungicides can affect honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) in ways that resemble malnutrition. These include reduced brood rearing, queen loss, and increased pathogen levels. We examined the effects of oral exposure to the fungicides boscalid and pyraclostrobin on factors affecting colony nutrition and immune function including pollen consumption, protein digestion, hemolymph protein titers, and changes in virus levels. Because the fungicides are respiratory inhibitors, we also measured ATP concentrations in flight muscle. The effects were evaluated in 3- and 7-d-old worker bees at high fungicide concentrations in cage studies, and at field-relevant concentrations in colony studies. Though fungicide levels differed greatly between the cage and colony studies, similar effects were observed. Hemolymph protein concentrations were comparable between bees feeding on pollen with and without added fungicides. However, in both cage and colony studies, bees consumed less pollen containing fungicides and digested less of the protein. Bees fed fungicide-treated pollen also had lower ATP concentrations and higher virus titers. The combination of effects we detected could produce symptoms that are similar to those from poor nutrition and weaken colonies making them more vulnerable to loss from additional stressors such as parasites and pathogens. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2015. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  7. Intergenerational effects of nutrition on immunity: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grueber, Catherine E; Gray, Lindsey J; Morris, Katrina M; Simpson, Stephen J; Senior, Alistair M

    2018-05-01

    Diet and immunity are both highly complex processes through which organisms interact with their environment and adapt to variable conditions. Parents that are able to transmit information to their offspring about prevailing environmental conditions have a selective advantage by 'priming' the physiology of their offspring. We used a meta-analytic approach to test the effect of parental diet on offspring immune responses. Using the geometric framework for nutrition (a method for analysing diet compositions wherein food nutrient components are expressed as axes in a Cartesian coordinate space) to define dietary manipulations in terms of their energy and macronutrient compositions, we compiled the results of 226 experiments from 38 published papers on the intergenerational effects of diet on immunity, across a range of study species and immunological responses. We observed intergenerational impacts of parental nutrition on a number of offspring immunological processes, including expression of pro-inflammatory biomarkers as well as decreases in anti-inflammatory markers in response to certain parental diets. For example, across our data set as a whole (encompassing several types of dietary manipulation), dietary stress in parents was seen to significantly increase pro-inflammatory cytokine levels measured in offspring (overall d = 0.575). All studies included in our analysis were from experiments in which the offspring were raised on a normal or control diet, so our findings suggest that a nutrition-dependent immune state can be inherited, and that this immune state is maintained in the short term, despite offspring returning to an 'optimal' diet. We demonstrate how the geometric framework for nutrition can be used to disentangle the role that different forms of dietary manipulation can have on intergenerational immunity. For example, offspring B-cell responses were significantly decreased when parents were raised on a range of different diets. Similarly, our approach

  8. Attention mediates the effect of nutrition label information on consumers' choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bialkova, Svetlana; Grunert, Klaus G; Juhl, Hans Jørn

    2014-01-01

    , or colorcoded GDA label) communicated the product’s nutrient profile. In study 1, participants had to select from 4 products differentiated, in addition to the nutrition information, by flavor (strawberry, muesli, apple, chocolate; varied within participants) and brand (local vs. global, varied between...... participants). Study 2 further explored brand effect within-participants, and thus only 2 flavors (strawberry, chocolate) were presented within an assortment. Actual choice made, response time and eye movements were recorded. Respondents fixated longer and more often on products with color-coded GDAs label...

  9. Grocery Store (or Supermarket) Tours as an Effective Nutrition Education Medium: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaus, Cassandra J; Muzaffar, Henna; Nickols-Richardson, Sharon M

    2016-09-01

    To evaluate evidence regarding grocery store tours as an effective nutrition education medium for improving nutrition knowledge and food-related behaviors. A systematic literature review of studies published from 1984 to 2015 concerning grocery store (or supermarket) tours and impact on nutrition knowledge and behaviors. Three investigators independently reviewed articles, extracted details, and assessed the quality of each study. Of 307 citations identified, 8 were reviewed and 6 were of neutral quality. Increases in nutrition knowledge were reported in 4 studies, as evaluated by investigator-designed quizzes, with short intervals between tours and assessments. Six programs assessed behavior change using subjective reports or objective purchasing behavior measures; 2 studies did not perform statistical analyses. The 6 studies that reported positive health-related outcomes had varying topics, tour lengths, and target audiences. Grocery store tours are increasingly used as an avenue for nutrition education to improve knowledge and/or alter food selection behaviors and may result in positive outcomes, but it is unknown whether these outcomes persist for longer than 3 months after the tour and whether there are common attributes of effective grocery store tours. More rigorous studies with uniform methodology in study design and outcome measures are needed to confirm the effectiveness of supermarket tours. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Nutritional Proteomics: Investigating molecular mechanisms underlying the health beneficial effect of functional foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Kawashima

    2013-07-01

    illustrate that the dietary influence of omega-3 and omega-6 on protein expression is eminent with the proteins directly responsible for catalytic activity in the “Molecular Function” category, totaling 192 proteins, of Gene Ontology designation. In a similar analysis with regard to the “Cellular Localization” category, protein expression changed the most in the sub-categories of “Cytoplasm”, “Membrane”, “Nucleus”, and “Mitochondrion”, totaling 221 proteins. The same analysis with regard to “Biological Process”considering the top four categories, i.e., “Metabolic process”, “Regulation of biological (process”, “Response to stimulus”, and “Transport” also indicated significant alteration of 182 proteins. These results illustrate a robust influence of dietary elements, omega-3 or omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, on the protein expression in mouse liver.Conclusions: Application of nutritional proteomics to the dietary effect of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids compared to that of omega-6 on mouse liver revealed; 1 significant number of proteins are altered between the two diets dependent on the classes of polyunsaturated fatty acids, omega-3 or omega-6, in the diet. The change of protein expression is likely to carry the molecular information that we could possibly decipher, leading to a better understanding of the role of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in inflammatory/anti-inflammatory process. The results corroborate the concept and utility of nutritional proteomics that should be developed as a part of functional food studies with regard to other dietary types.Keywords: Nutritional proteomics, functional foods, mass spectrometry, genome database, cellular signaling, omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids

  11. The Effect of Health - Nutrition Education on Health Promotion in Resident Elderly in KAHRIZAK in TEHRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sima Ghasemi

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Aging is natural course of life which accompanied by changes of metabolism. The exchanges susceptible elderly to malnutrition in researched was do in this back ground about 3-13% of aged population involved to malnutrition that this rate increased to 30-60% in initialized elderly. In this study, we assessed the effects of medical care staff's education on nutritional situation of elderly livid in KAHRIZAK charity Foundation in TEHRAN during 4 months. Methods & Material: 192 elderlies which lived in KCF and equal or older than 65 satisfied in including to this study randomly. (50 males and 142 females although for inclusion they had not involved to an staged liver and renal disease and had not history of surgery during one months before initiated of study. We checked HB, HCT, LDL, HDL, FBS, CRP, ALB, although assessed MNA, MMSE, ADL, Norton sore before and after educational intervention. Educational workshop operated for medical and nursing staffs of KCF during 3 days. Clinical and Para clinical assessments did 4 months, again, after that, and collected data entered to EXEL and analyzed by SPSS soft wares. Results: Before educational intervention 35.9% of elderly had very sever or severe malnutrition that after intervention decreased to 18.3% mean of ALB, HB, HCT, LDL, F.B.S increased after intervention and significant (p<0/05. Nutritional situation correlated to age, mouth and swallowing disorders, poly pharmacy, cognitive condition, ADL score in eating and Norton scores significant. Conclusion: Base of this findings is concluded medical and nursing staffs nursing homes has significant effects on decrease of moderate and severe malnutrition in elderly. Education in this instated have to continues and not cross over like this study for significant Paraclinical improvements of nutritional indicators.

  12. Effect of nutritional status on mortality in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Muhammed; İpek, Göktük; Aldağ, Mustafa; Altay, Servet; Hayıroğlu, Mert İlker; Börklü, Edibe Betül; İnan, Duygu; Kozan, Ömer

    2018-04-01

    The prognostic effects of poor nutritional status and cardiac cachexia on coronary artery disease (CAD) are not clearly understood. A well-accepted nutritional status parameter, the prognostic nutritional index (PNI), which was first demonstrated to be valuable in patients with cancer and those undergoing gastrointestinal surgery, was introduced to patients requiring coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prognostic value of PNI in patients with CAD undergoing CABG. We evaluated the in-hospital and long-term (3-y) prognostic effect of PNI on 644 patients with CAD undergoing CABG. Baseline characteristics and outcomes were compared among the patients by PNI and categorized accordingly: Q1, Q2, Q3, and Q4. Patients with lower PNI had significantly higher in-hospital and long-term mortality. Patients with lower PNI levels (Q1) had higher in-hospital mortality and had 12 times higher mortality rates than those with higher PNI levels (Q4). The higher PNI group had the lower rates and was used as the reference. Long-term mortality was higher in patients with lower PNI (Q1)-4.9 times higher than in the higher PNI group (Q4). In-hospital and long-term mortality rates were similar in the non-lower PNI groups (Q2-4). The present study demonstrated that PNI, calculated based on serum albumin level and lymphocyte count, is an independent prognostic factor for mortality in patients undergoing CABG. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. [Effects of high-intensity interval training and nutritional education in patients with type 2 diabetes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangiamarchi, Pedro; Caniuqueo, Alexis; Ramírez-Campillo, Rodrigo; Cárdenas, Patricio; Morales, Sylvana; Cano-Montoya, Johnattan; Bresciani, Guilherme; Álvarez, Cristian

    2017-07-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) improves cardiometabolic markers, but its effects on the quality of life of patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) is not well known. To determine the effects of a 12-week HIIT exercise program on cardiometabolic and quality of life variables of T2D patients. Nine T2D women were assigned to a HIIT + nutritional education (GE) and 10, to a nutritional education alone group (GC). At baseline and after each intervention, anthropometric and body composition parameters using bio-impedance were assessed, and a blood sample was obtained to measure serum lipid levels, blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin. Quality of life was assessed using the SF-12 questionnaire adapted for the Chilean population. There were no significant changes on the lipid profile variables in the GE group, although HDL cholesterol was increased significantly (p < 0.05) in the GC group. Total fat mass was decreased in the GE group from 43.5 ± 1.5 to 41.9 ± 1.5%, p < 0.01. Fasting glucose and glycated hemoglobin decreased in the GE group. There was a significant correlation between the decrease in total fat mass and that of glycated hemoglobin. There were significant increases in quality of life parameters; physical function, physical role, pain, general health, vitality, emotional role, mental health, and social function in the GE but not in the GC group. A 12-week program of HIIT plus nutritional education improves cardiometabolic and quality of life parameters on type 2 diabetics.

  14. The Effects of a Nutrition Media Literacy Intervention on Parents' and Youths' Communication about Food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Erica Weintraub; Austin, Bruce W; French, Brian F; Cohen, Marilyn A

    2018-01-01

    Interventions addressing links between media exposure and obesity risk for school-age youth have not explicitly addressed the role of family communication about media. Youths' influence attempts on parents to purchase advertised foods can create conflict and negatively affect parental food choices. This study tested whether a family-based media literacy curriculum improves parents' media management skills and decreases youths' susceptibility to appealing but unrealistic food marketing. A matched-group pretest/posttest field experiment of parent-youth dyads with control group (N = 100 dyads, youth M = 11 years of age) tested the six-session curriculum. Hypotheses were analyzed using a Bayesian structural equation model. The curriculum increased parents' active negative mediation to foster youths' critical thinking about food marketing, b* = 0.35, 95% CCI [0.17, 0.50], increased parent Efficacy for making healthy dietary changes for their families, b* = 0.59, 95% CCI [0.41, 0.75], and fostered family discussion about nutrition labels (total effect = 0.22). Additionally, cumulative influences of Perceived Desirability and Wishful Identification on youths' requests for marketed foods were reduced (total effect = 0.04). Media literacy education can empower parents and improve youths' critical thinking to reduce effects of food marketing on families and improve use of media to obtain nutrition information.

  15. Sleep duration and its effect on nutritional status in adolescents of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sleep duration and the nutritional status of these adolescents, whether overweight/obese. ..... nutrition/topics/obesity/en/ (accessed 28 September 2013). 2. Gupta DK ... associated with health status and health-related behaviors. BMC Public.

  16. Effect of Baseline Nutritional Status on Long-term Multivitamin Use and Cardiovascular Disease Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rautiainen, Susanne; Gaziano, J. Michael; Christen, William G.; Bubes, Vadim; Kotler, Gregory; Glynn, Robert J.; Manson, JoAnn E.; Buring, Julie E.

    2017-01-01

    Importance Long-term multivitamin use had no effect on risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the Physicians’ Health Study II. Baseline nutritional status may have modified the lack of effect. Objective To investigate effect modification by various baseline dietary factors on CVD risk in the Physicians’ Health Study II. Design, Setting, and Participants The Physicians’ Health Study II was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial testing multivitamin use (multivitamin [Centrum Silver] or placebo daily) among US male physicians. The Physicians’ Health Study II included 14 641 male physicians 50 years or older, 13 316 of whom (91.0%) completed a baseline 116-item semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire and were included in the analyses. This study examined effect modification by baseline intake of key foods, individual nutrients, dietary patterns (Alternate Healthy Eating Index and Alternate Mediterranean Diet Score), and dietary supplement use. The study began in 1997, with continued treatment and follow-up through June 1, 2011. Interventions Multivitamin or placebo daily. Main Outcomes and Measures Major cardiovascular events, including nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke, and CVD mortality. Secondary outcomes included myocardial infarction, total stroke, CVD mortality, and total mortality individually. Results In total, 13 316 male physicians (mean [SD] age at randomization, 64.0 [9.0] years in those receiving the active multivitamin and 64.0 [9.1] years in those receiving the placebo) were observed for a mean (SD) follow-up of 11.4 (2.3) years. There was no consistent evidence of effect modification by various foods, nutrients, dietary patterns, or baseline supplement use on the effect of multivitamin use on CVD end points. Statistically significant interaction effects were observed between multivitamin use and vitamin B6 intake on myocardial infarction, between multivitamin use and vitamin D intake on CVD mortality

  17. Effect of photobiomodulation on viability and proliferation of stem cells from exfoliated deciduous teeth under different nutritional conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morato de Souza, Letícia; Guilherme Roque Rinco, Ugo; Aparecida Tavares Aguiar, Daniela; Aparecido de Almeida Junior, Luciano; Cosme-Silva, Leopoldo; Marchini Oliveira, Thais; Teixeira Marques, Nádia Carolina; Thiemy Sakai, Vivien

    2018-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of different doses of low-level laser irradiation on the viability and proliferation of stem cells from exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED) cultured under nutritional deficit (cellular stress) or regular nutritional conditions. SHED underwent irradiation by a red laser between 1.2 and 6.2 J cm-2. Prior to the irradiation, all groups received culture medium (MEMα, Eagle’s minimum essential medium alpha modification) supplemented with 1% of fetal bovine serum (FBS) for 1 h. After the irradiation, cells received MEMα supplemented with 10% of FBS (regular nutrition) or 1% of FBS (nutritional deficit). Cell viability and proliferation were respectively determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and crystal violet assays 6 and 24 h after irradiation (P  cell viability and proliferation of SHED after laser irradiation, except for 1.2 J cm-2.

  18. Nutritional Biochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews some of the effects that space flight has on humans nutritional biochemistry. Particular attention is devoted to the study of protein breakdown, inflammation, hypercatabolism, omega 3 fatty acids, vitamin D, calcium, urine, folate and nutrient stability of certain vitamins, the fluid shift and renal stone risk, acidosis, iron/hematology, and the effects on bone of dietary protein, potassium. inflammation, and omega-3 fatty acids

  19. Nutrition Frontiers - Winter 2017 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volume 8, Issue 1 Dear Colleague, The winter issue of Nutrition Frontiers showcases gut permeability and calcium supplementation, potential chemopreventive effects of dietary DHM for lung tumorigenesis, and the role of the MCP-1 chemokine on adiposity and inflammation. Learn about our spotlight investigator, Dr. Gregory Lesinski, and his research on dietary interventions to

  20. Nutrition Frontiers - Spring 2017 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volume 8, Issue 2 Dear Colleague, The spring issue of Nutrition Frontiers showcases the calcium/magnesium intake ratio in colorectal adenoma, the role of PPARγ in metabolism and reproduction, and the effects of time-restricted feeding on metabolic parameters. Meet our spotlight investigator, Dr. Maria Cruz-Correa, and her research on gut bacterial genes, diet, and colorectal

  1. Nutrition Frontiers - Spring 2016 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volume 7, Issue 2 The spring issue of Nutrition Frontiers showcases green tea's effect on human metabolism, fish oil — as a chemopreventive agent in myeloid leukemia and, with pectin, how they affect microRNA expression in the colon. Learn about our spotlight investigator, Dr. Richard Eckert, and his research on skin cancer prevention, upcoming announcements and more. |

  2. [Effects of Early Enteral Immunonutrition on Postoperative Immune Function and Rehabilitation of Patients with Gastric Cancer and Nutritional Risk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Chang-Bing; Li, Wen-Zhong; Xu, Rui; Zhuang, Wen

    2017-05-01

    To investigate the effects of early enteral immunonutrition on postoperative immune function and rehabilitation of gastric cancer patients with nutritional risk. New hospitalized patients with gastric cancer were evaluated the nutrient status based on NRS 2002. The patients who scored between 3 to 5 points were randomized into two groups(30 cases for each group), and those in experimental group were given 7-d early postoperative enteral immune nutrition, those in control group were given normal nutrition. The immune indexes (CD3 + , CD4 + , CD8 + and CD4 + /CD8 + ) and nutritional indexes(transferrin, pre-albumin, albumin) were measured before operation and at the 3 rd and 7 th day postoperatively. In addition, the first flatus time, gastrointestinal adverse reactions and complications, length of hospital stays were compared between the two groups. The level of CD4 + /CD8 + and transferrin, pre-albumin, albumin in experimental group were significantly higher than those in control group at the third and seventh day postoperatively ( P 0.05). Early enteral immunonutrition can effectively promote the recovery of nutritional status and immune function in gastric cancer patients with nutrition risk.

  3. The effect of drying on the nutritional composition of fresh and dried ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out to identify some nutritional properties of Moringa Oeifera leaf and to compare the nutritional qualities of fresh and dried leaves of Moringa Oleifera.Two samples each of fresh and dried Moringa Oeifera leaves were used for the experiment and the mean values in their nutritional qualities compared.

  4. [Effect of nutritional support on survival in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Gómez, J J; Ballesteros Pomar, Ma D; Vázquez Sánchez, F; Vidal Casariego, A; Calleja Fernández, A; Cano Rodríguez, I

    2011-01-01

    Malnutrition affects morbidity and mortality of patients with ALS. The nutrition unit should evaluate these patients early and regularly providing the necessary steps in the evolution of the disease. A retrospective cohort study in which we analyzed 46 patients diagnosed with ALS, 21 of them received nutritional therapy. We studied age, mode of onset, date of entry into a nutritional protocol, placement of PEG and survival. We performed a test of Breslow comparing patients who were at nutritional protocol with those not receiving nutritional support, and those who received early nutritional therapy with those with delayed nutrition. There was an increase in median survival for patients in nutritional therapy in bulbar ALS (452 vs 55 days) and in spinal ALS (1,798 vs 357 days) (p = 0.002). The median delay in the initiation of nutritional therapy in spinal ALS was 557 days while in bulbar ALS was 230 days. The survival in the spinal ALS of those who entered into nutritional protocol before the median survival was 325 days to 181 days (p = 0.09) while in bulbar ALS those who entered before had a median survival of 435 days to 177 days (p = 0.38). The entry of patients with ALS in a nutritional protocol increases survival. There is an advantage in the evolution of patients with early nutritional treatment.

  5. Impact of preoperative nutritional support on clinical outcome in abdominal surgical patients at nutritional risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jie, Bin; Jiang, Zhu-Ming; Nolan, Marie T

    2012-01-01

    This multicenter, prospective cohort study evaluated the effect of preoperative nutritional support in abdominal surgical patients at nutritional risk as defined by the Nutritional Risk Screening Tool 2002 (NRS-2002).......This multicenter, prospective cohort study evaluated the effect of preoperative nutritional support in abdominal surgical patients at nutritional risk as defined by the Nutritional Risk Screening Tool 2002 (NRS-2002)....

  6. The effect of conjugated linoleic acid supplementation on the nutritional status of COPD patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghobadi H

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Hassan Ghobadi,1 Somaieh Matin,2 Ali Nemati,3 Abbas Naghizadeh-baghi4 1Pulmonary Division, 2Internal Medicine Department, 3Biochemistry and Nutrition Department, 4Basic Sciences Department, Ardabil University of Medical Sciences, Ardabil, Iran Background: COPD patients are susceptible to anorexia, reduction of caloric intake, weight loss, and malnutrition. One of the possible mechanisms is the increase of inflammatory markers such as interleukin 1β (IL1β, is highly correlated with anorexia. Considering the anti-inflammatory role of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, this study aimed to investigate the effect of CLA supplementation on the nutritional status of COPD patients.Patients and methods: In a double-blind clinical trial, 93 COPD patients who volunteered to participate in the study and who filled out a written consent form, were randomly assigned to control or supplementation groups. The patients in the supplementation group received 3.2 g of CLA on a daily basis for 6 weeks, while those in the control group received placebo on a daily basis for 6 weeks. For IL1β assessment, the patients’ anthropometric indices and appetite score were checked and their blood samples were collected both before and after the treatment. Moreover, in order to investigate the changes in the caloric intake trend during the study, their dietary intake levels were assessed using 24-hour dietary recall, 3 days a week at the onset, in the 4th week, and at the end of the study. Eventually, 90 patients completed the study.Results: The results demonstrated a significant increase in appetite score (P=0.001, average caloric intake (P=0.01, and macronutrient intake (P<0.05, while a significant decrease was observed in the serum level of IL1β among the patients of the supplementation group (P=0.008. Meanwhile, although the supplementation group’s body mass index was also higher on completion, compared to their own initial state as well as to that in the control

  7. Addressing Issues of Malnutrition in Children through Public Nutrition using Local Resources of Agriculture and Land Use: Evidence from the Field Based Evaluation Study in Uttar Pradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemthianngai Guite

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Public Nutrition refers to work in the interest of the public; with the participation of the public; and with all sectors involved in society, not just the health sector, nor mainly the health sector, though for the benefit of population health and nutrition. Action outside of the health sector, particularly with regard to food systems is required, such as capacitating women in agriculture and land use for increased vegetable production. Rationale: Adopting public health approach, an evidence from a field project wherein the evaluation study was conducted by Oxfam India (a leading non-profit organization, and where the authors coordinated and documented field evidence through conducting end line evaluation study is discussed in this paper, in order to highlight the achievement of women farmers in ensuring food and nutrition security by strengthening low cost vegetable production in Shaharanpur and Pilibhit, Uttar Pradesh. Objective of the study: To assess the success and impact of measures adopted under the project in order to enhance the capacity and skills of women vegetable farmers in sustainable farming practices. Materials and Methods: Purposive Non Probability Sampling adopted to include key set of stakeholders, which includes 100 women vegetable farmers, 8 NGO and 5 government officials respectively drawn from Shahjahanpur and Pilibhit district of Uttar Pradesh.  The methods which were used to gather quantitative and qualitative data for the study were: In-depth Interview, Focused Group Discussion (FGD, Case Studies. Results: Child nutrition is positively and independently associated with increased vegetable production through agriculture and land use by women in the villages. It enhanced the nutritional status of women and improved the health status of their family members as well. Conclusion: The public nutrition approach will make it possible to increase the impact of current initiatives which aim to reverse

  8. Nutritional Metabolomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gürdeniz, Gözde

    strategy influences the patterns identified as important for the nutritional question under study. Therefore, in depth understanding of the study design and the specific effects of the analytical technology on the produced data is extremely important to achieve high quality data handling. Besides data......Metabolomics provides a holistic approach to investigate the perturbations in human metabolism with respect to a specific exposure. In nutritional metabolomics, the research question is generally related to the effect of a specific food intake on metabolic profiles commonly of plasma or urine....... Application of multiple analytical strategies may provide comprehensive information to reach a valid answer to these research questions. In this thesis, I investigated several analytical technologies and data handling strategies in order to evaluate their effects on the biological answer. In metabolomics, one...

  9. Study protocol: cost-effectiveness of transmural nutritional support in malnourished elderly patients in comparison with usual care.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neelemaat, F.; Thijs, A.; Seidell, J.C.; Bosmans, J.E.; van Bokhorst-de van der Schueren, M.A.E.

    2010-01-01

    Background. Malnutrition is a common consequence of disease in older patients. Both in hospital setting and in community setting oral nutritional support has proven to be effective. However, cost-effectiveness studies are scarce. Therefore, the aim of our study is to investigate the effectiveness

  10. Study protocol : cost-effectiveness of transmural nutritional support in malnourished elderly patients in comparison with usual care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neelemaat, Floor; Thijs, Abel; Seidell, Jaap C; Bosmans, Judith E; van Bokhorst-de van der Schueren, Marian A E

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Malnutrition is a common consequence of disease in older patients. Both in hospital setting and in community setting oral nutritional support has proven to be effective. However, cost-effectiveness studies are scarce. Therefore, the aim of our study is to investigate the effectiveness

  11. Fertility-dependent effects of ectomycorrhizal fungal communities on white spruce seedling nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Alistair J H; Potvin, Lynette R; Lilleskov, Erik A

    2015-11-01

    Ectomycorrhizal fungi (EcMF) typically colonize nursery seedlings, but nutritional and growth effects of these communities are only partly understood. To examine these effects, Picea glauca seedlings collected from a tree nursery naturally colonized by three dominant EcMF were divided between fertilized and unfertilized treatments. After one growing season seedlings were harvested, ectomycorrhizas identified using DNA sequencing, and seedlings analyzed for leaf nutrient concentration and content, and biomass parameters. EcMF community structure-nutrient interactions were tested using nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) combined with vector analysis of foliar nutrients and biomass. We identified three dominant species: Amphinema sp., Atheliaceae sp., and Thelephora terrestris. NMDS + envfit revealed significant community effects on seedling nutrition that differed with fertilization treatment. PERMANOVA and regression analyses uncovered significant species effects on host nutrient concentration, content, and stoichiometry. Amphinema sp. had a significant positive effect on phosphorus (P), calcium and zinc concentration, and P content; in contrast, T. terrestris had a negative effect on P concentration. In the unfertilized treatment, percent abundance of the Amphinema sp. negatively affected foliar nitrogen (N) concentration but not content, and reduced foliar N/P. In fertilized seedlings, Amphinema sp. was positively related to foliar concentrations of N, magnesium, and boron, and both concentration and content of manganese, and Atheliaceae sp. had a negative relationship with P content. Findings shed light on the community and species effects on seedling condition, revealing clear functional differences among dominants. The approach used should be scalable to explore function in more complex communities composed of unculturable EcMF.

  12. Nutritional effects on reproductive performance of captive adult female coyotes (Canis latrans).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gese, Eric M; Roberts, Beth M; Knowlton, Frederick F

    2016-02-01

    Interactions between animals and their environment are fundamental to ecological research. Field studies of coyote (Canis latrans) reproductive performance suggest mean litter size changes in response to prey abundance. However, this relationship has been assessed primarily by using carcasses collected from trappers. The objective of this study was to assess whether nutritional manipulation prior to mating affected reproduction in adult female coyotes. We examined the effects of caloric restriction during the 7 months prior to estrus on the reproductive rates of 11 captive female coyotes and the subsequent initial survival of pups through two reproductive cycles. This was a 2-year study with a cross-over design so each female was monitored for reproductive performance on each of the two diet treatments. We assessed the number of implantation scars, number of pups born, sex ratios of pups, average pup weight at birth and 2- and 6-weeks of age, and the survival rates between implantation and 2-weeks of age for two diet treatments. We found the mean number of implantation sites and pups whelped during a reproductive cycle was influenced by food-intake prior to conception. Additionally, we found evidence suggesting the effects of nutritional stress may persist for additional breeding cycles. We also provided evidence suggesting well-fed females tended to have more male pups. Understanding how environmental factors influence reproductive output may improve model predictions of coyote population dynamics. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Cost-Effectiveness of a Community Exercise and Nutrition Program for Older Adults: Texercise Select.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akanni, Olufolake Odufuwa; Smith, Matthew Lee; Ory, Marcia G

    2017-05-20

    The wide-spread dissemination of evidence-based programs that can improve health outcomes among older populations often requires an understanding of factors influencing community adoption of such programs. One such program is Texercise Select , a community-based health promotion program previously shown to improve functional health, physical activity, nutritional habits and quality of the life among older adults. This paper assesses the cost-effectiveness of Texercise Select in the context of supportive environments to facilitate its delivery and statewide sustainability. Participants were surveyed using self-reported instruments distributed at program baseline and conclusion. Program costs were based on actual direct costs of program implementation and included costs of recruitment and outreach, personnel costs and participant incentives. Program effectiveness was measured using quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained, as well as health outcomes, such as healthy days, weekly physical activity and Timed Up-and-Go (TUG) test scores. Preference-based EuroQol (EQ-5D) scores were estimated from the number of healthy days reported by participants and converted into QALYs. There was a significant increase in the number of healthy days ( p nutrition-related outcomes among participants, this study supports the use of Texercise Select as an intervention with substantial health and cost benefits.

  14. Fetal and Neonatal Levels of Omega-3: Effects on Neurodevelopment, Nutrition, and Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Rombaldi Bernardi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nutrition in pregnancy, during lactation, childhood, and later stages has a fundamental influence on overall development. There is a growing research interest on the role of key dietary nutrients in fetal health. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFAs play an important role in brain development and function. Evidence from animal models of dietary n-3 LCPUFAs deficiency suggests that these fatty acids promote early brain development and regulate behavioral and neurochemical aspects related to mood disorders (stress responses, depression, and aggression and growth, memory, and cognitive functions. Preclinical and clinical studies suggest the role of n-3 LCPUFAs on neurodevelopment and growth. n-3 LCPUFAs may be an effective adjunctive factor for neural development, growth, and cognitive development, but further large-scale, well-controlled trials and preclinical studies are needed to examine its clinical mechanisms and possible benefits. The present paper discusses the use of n-3 LCPUFAs during different developmental stages and the investigation of different sources of consumption. The paper summarizes the role of n-3 LCPUFAs levels during critical periods and their effects on the children’s neurodevelopment, nutrition, and growth.

  15. A reliable and cost effective approach for radiographic monitoring in nutritional rickets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, D; Gupta, V; Sharma, V; Sinha, B; Samanta, S

    2014-04-01

    Radiological scoring is particularly useful in rickets, where pre-treatment radiographical findings can reflect the disease severity and can be used to monitor the improvement. However, there is only a single radiographic scoring system for rickets developed by Thacher and, to the best of our knowledge, no study has evaluated radiographic changes in rickets based on this scoring system apart from the one done by Thacher himself. The main objective of this study is to compare and analyse the pre-treatment and post-treatment radiographic parameters in nutritional rickets with the help of Thacher's scoring technique. 176 patients with nutritional rickets were given a single intramuscular injection of vitamin D (600 000 IU) along with oral calcium (50 mg kg(-1)) and vitamin D (400 IU per day) until radiological resolution and followed for 1 year. Pre- and post-treatment radiological parameters were compared and analysed statistically based on Thacher's scoring system. Radiological resolution was complete by 6 months. Time for radiological resolution and initial radiological score were linearly associated on regression analysis. The distal ulna was the last to heal in most cases except when the initial score was 10, when distal femur was the last to heal. Thacher's scoring system can effectively monitor nutritional rickets. The formula derived through linear regression has prognostic significance. The distal femur is a better indicator in radiologically severe rickets and when resolution is delayed. Thacher's scoring is very useful for monitoring of rickets. The formula derived through linear regression can predict the expected time for radiological resolution.

  16. Preventive effect of ursodeoxycholic acid on parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simić Dušica

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Parenteral nutrition-associated cholestasis is well recognized phenomenon in the term and preterm infant receiving long-term parenteral nutrition. Objectives. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA use on cholestasis in newborns on prolonged TPN. Methods. A total of 56 infants were enrolled in this retrospective study: control group consisted of lower (1500 g birth weight infants (n=30, as well as the group of pediatric (n=11 and surgical patients (n=15 treated with UDCA. Blood chemistries were obtained two times weekly. Results. All of 56 newborns developed cholestasis but duration of parenteral nutrition (PN before onset of cholestasis was significantly longer in UDCA treated patients. Average duration of PN before the onset of cholestasis in control group of patients was 25 days in distinction from treated pediatric and surgical patients (39 and 34 days, respectively. The peak serum conjugated bilirubin (CB, AST, ALT and alkaline phosphatase (AP levels were significantly lower in the treated groups. There was no significant difference among treated pediatric and surgical patients and between lower and higher birth weight infants considering the CB, ALT, AST and AP peak. Duration of cholestasis was significantly decreased in all treated groups. There was a significant difference in time needed to achieve complete enteral intake between pediatric and surgical patient group. Conclusion. Cholestasis developed significantly later in treated groups than in the controls. UDCA appears to be very successful in reducing the symptoms of cholestasis. The difference in efficacy of UDCA treatment between lower and higher birth weight infants could not be proven.

  17. The effect of coix seed on the nutritional status of peritoneal dialysis patients: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yifan; Li, Yin; Tong, Xiaozhen; Lu, Fuhua; Mao, Wei; Fu, Lizhe; Deng, Lili; Liu, Xi; Li, Chuang; Zhang, Lei; Liu, Xusheng

    2014-02-01

    To observe the effect of coix seed diet therapy on the nutritional status of peritoneal dialysis patients and to discuss the potential reasons. 30 dialysis patients with regular return visit to peritoneal dialysis center of Guangdong Provincial Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine were recruited and divided into two groups according to their willingness. 13 patients in control group continued their usual dialysis prescriptions and medications, whereas 30g of coix seed per day was added to the usual therapies of 17 patients in coix seed group. Changes in nutritional status of dialysis patients in two groups were evaluated after a 12-week treatment. Two patients (one in each group) quitted the study because of pulmonary infection. After treatment, the nutritional parameters of serum albumin level (P=0.004), total protein level (P=0.008), and body mass index (P=0.023) were increased significantly in coix seed group. And the statistical differences of serum albumin level and body mass index were significantly compared to control group (P=0.008 and P=0.032, respectively). Moreover, the C-reactive protein level had a significant decrease (P=0.001) and the clinical symptoms of dialysis patients including tiredness, anorexia, xerostomia, and abdominal distension showed a significant improvement (Pnutritional status of peritoneal dialysis patients by relieving digestive tract symptoms, increasing urinary volume, and meliorating micro-inflammatory state. But as a pilot study, the results still need to be validated by further large-scale researches. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of Parental Migration Background on Childhood Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Body Mass Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Besharat Pour

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Poor nutrition, lack of physical activity, and obesity in children have important public health implications but, to date, their effects have not been studied in the growing population of children in Sweden with immigrant parents. Methods. We estimated the association between parental migration background and nutrition, physical activity, and weight in 8-year-old children born in Stockholm between 1994 and 1996 of immigrants and Swedish parents (n=2589. Data were collected through clinical examination and questionnaires filled out by parents. Odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs were calculated using multivariable logistic regression. Results. Children of immigrants complied more closely with Nordic Nutrition Recommendations compared with those of Swedes (OR = 1.35, 95% CI 1.11–1.64. They had higher intake of dietary fibre, vitamins C, B6, and E, folic acid, and polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3 and omega-6 reflecting higher consumption of foods of plant origin, but lower intake of vitamins A and D, calcium, and iron reflecting lower consumption of dairy products. Children of immigrants had higher intake of sucrose reflecting higher consumption of sugar and sweets. Furthermore, these children had a higher risk of having low physical activity (OR = 1.31, 95% CI 1.06–1.62 and being overweight (OR = 1.33, 95% CI 1.06–1.65 compared with children of Swedish parents. The odds of having low physical activity and being overweight were even higher in children whose parents were both immigrants. A low level of parental education was associated with increased risk of low physical activity regardless of immigration background. Conclusions. Culturally appropriate tools to capture the diverse range of ethnic foods and other lifestyle habits are needed. Healthcare professionals should be aware of the low levels of physical activity, increased weight, and lack of consumption of some important vitamins among children of

  19. Effect of nutrition label format and product assortment on healthfulness of food choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Grunert, Klaus G; van Trijp, Hans

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to find out whether front-of-pack nutrition label formats influence the healthfulness of consumers’ food choices and important predictors of healthful choices, depending on the size of the choice set that is made available to consumers. The predictors explored were health motivati...... the results revealed no consistent differences in the effects between the formats, they indicate that manipulating choice sets by including healthier options is an effective strategy to increase the healthfulness of food choices........ The results showed that food choices were more healthful in the extended 20-product (vs. 10-product) choice set and that this effect is stronger than a random choice would produce. The formats colour coding and texts, particularly colour coding in Germany, increased the healthfulness of product choices when...

  20. Diet & Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Nutrition Share this page Facebook Twitter Email Diet & Nutrition Eating healthy to take charge of your health. Shelly Diagnosed in 2006 Diet & Nutrition Take Control of Your Weight Portion Control Low ...

  1. Effects of Delayed Enteral Nutrition on Inflammatory Responses and Immune Function Competence in Critically Ill Patients with Prolonged Fasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Fengchan; Li, Ning; Geng, Yanxia; Gao, Tao; Zhang, Juanjuan; Jun, Tanshan; Lin, Zhiliang; Li, Weiqin; Zhu, Weiming; Yu, Wenkui; Li, Jieshou

    2014-05-01

    Although different studies suggest that early enteral nutrition (EEN) has benefits in reducing infectious complications, there is no data that addresses whether delayed enteral nutrition (EN) is detrimental and if it may have effects on inflammatory responses and immune function. Forty-five critically ill patients with long fasting were randomly allocated in two groups according to the type of nutritional support. The first group included patients assuming a standard enteral nutrition (EN, n = 22) and the second group assuming a parenteral nutrition (PN, n = 23). The daily nutritional amount was 25 kcal (105 kJ)/kg for all patients. The inflammatory markers white blood cells (WBC), C-reactive protein (CRP), TNF-α, IL-1-β, IL-6, IL-4, IL- 10 and the immune T-lymphocyte sub-populations CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, and HLA-DR+ were evaluated at day 1, and after 2, 3 and 7 days. IL-4, IL-10, CD3+, CD4+, CD8+ and the CD4+/CD8+ ratio were not statistically different between the two groups. WBC and TNF-α in EN patients were higher than those in PN after 3 and 7 days (P fasting increased systemic inflammatory responses, whereas EN could modify immune function, therefore reducing hospital stay and costs.

  2. The effect of providing nutritional information about fast-food restaurant menus on parents' meal choices for their children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Jae-Young; Park, Hae-Ryun; Lee, Kiwon; Kwon, Sooyoun; Kim, Soyeong; Yang, Jihye; Song, Kyung-Hee

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES To encourage healthier food choices for children in fast-food restaurants, many initiatives have been proposed. This study aimed to examine the effect of disclosing nutritional information on parents' meal choices for their children at fast-food restaurants in South Korea. SUBJECTS/METHODS An online experimental survey using a menu board was conducted with 242 parents of children aged 2-12 years who dined with them at fast-food restaurants at least once a month. Participants were classified into two groups: the low-calorie group (n = 41) who chose at least one of the lowest calorie meals in each menu category, and the high-calorie group (n = 201) who did not. The attributes including perceived empowerment, use of provided nutritional information, and perceived difficulties were compared between the two groups. RESULTS The low-calorie group perceived significantly higher empowerment with the nutritional information provided than did the high-calorie group (P = 0.020). Additionally, the low-calorie group was more interested in nutrition labeling (P nutritional value of menus when selecting restaurants for their children more than did the high-calorie group (P = 0.017). The low-calorie group used the nutritional information provided when choosing meals for their children significantly more than did the high-calorie group (P nutritional information provided (P = 0.012). CONCLUSIONS The results suggest that improving the empowerment of parents using nutritional information could be a strategy for promoting healthier parental food choices for their children at fast-food restaurants. PMID:26634057

  3. Concerns, attitudes, beliefs and information seeking practices with respect to nutrition-related issues: a qualitative study in French pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Clélia M; Huneau, Jean-François; Le Goff, Gaëlle; Verger, Eric O; Mariotti, François; Gurviez, Patricia

    2016-10-12

    From a life course perspective, pregnancy leads to a rise in nutrition awareness and an increase in information flow in favour of adopting healthier eating behaviours. This qualitative study was designed to better understand the determinants of eating behaviours in French pregnant women by focusing on their concerns, attitudes and beliefs and their nutrition-related information seeking practices. Seven focus groups were conducted, involving a total of 40 French pregnant women. An inductive thematic approach, adapted from the grounded theory, was adopted to analyse the data. Two major themes were identified: eating behaviour and nutrition-related information behaviour. The eating behaviour theme was divided into four sub-themes using the attribution theory. Three external causes affected the eating behaviour of pregnant women (food restrictions, physiological changes and weight gain), and led to frustration and a perceived loss of control. By contrast the adoption of a healthier diet was perceived as internal by pregnant women, and resulted in self-fulfilment and empowerment regarding the health and the well-being of their baby and themselves, and their weight gain management. Greater attention was paid to nutrition-related information obtained from healthcare providers, the social environment and the mass media. Information was passively absorbed or actively sought by pregnant women, but most was perceived as contradictory, which led to confusion. Pregnancy is accompanied by a rise in nutrition awareness, substantiated by eating behaviour modifications due to external and internal causes. However, conflicts between and within information sources result in confusion that can limit the adoption of healthier eating behaviour.

  4. The relationship between nutrition and frailty: Effects of protein intake, nutritional supplementation, vitamin D and exercise on muscle metabolism in the elderly. A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artaza-Artabe, Iñaki; Sáez-López, Pilar; Sánchez-Hernández, Natalia; Fernández-Gutierrez, Naiara; Malafarina, Vincenzo

    2016-11-01

    Frailty is a geriatric syndrome that predicts the onset of disability, morbidity and mortality in elderly people; it is a state of pre-disability and is reversible. The aim of this review is to assess how nutrition influences both the risk of developing frailty and its treatment. We searched two databases, PubMed and Web of Science. We included epidemiologic studies and clinical trials carried out on people aged over 65 years. We included 32 studies with a total of over 50,000 participants. The prevalence of frailty is ranges from 15% among elderly people living in the community to 54% among those hospitalized. Furthermore, the prevalence of frailty is disproportionately high among elderly people who are malnourished. Malnutrition, which is very prevalent in geriatric populations, is one of the main risk factors for the onset of frailty. A good nutritional status and, wherever necessary, supplementation with macronutrients and micronutrients reduce the risk of developing frailty. Physical exercise has been shown to improve functional status, helps to prevent frailty and is an effective treatment to reverse it. Despite the relatively large number of studies included, this review has some limitations. Firstly, variability in the design of the studies and their different aims reduce their comparability. Secondly, several of the studies did not adequately define frailty. Poor nutritional status is associated with the onset of frailty. Screening and early diagnosis of malnutrition and frailty in elderly people will help to prevent the onset of disability. Effective treatment is based on correction of the macro- and micronutrient deficit and physical exercise. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of integrated school-based nutrition education on optimal dietary practices and nutritional status of school adolescents in Southwest of Ethiopia: a quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamiru, Dessalegn; Argaw, Alemayehu; Gerbaba, Mulusew; Ayana, Girmay; Nigussie, Aderajew; Belachew, Tefera

    2016-12-15

    Malnutrition and infection are major barriers to educational access and achievement in low-income countries and also work in conjunction with each other in deteriorating wellness and productivity of school adolescents. A quasi-experimental design was used to evaluate the effectiveness of school-based nutrition education using a peer-led approach, health promotion through school media and health clubs. Data were collected at baseline, midline and end line from sampled participants. To account for the effect of time trend, the difference was measured using a repeated measure analysis. Variables that have p≤0.25 in the bivariate analyses were entered into multivariables to determine the independent effect of interventions. There is a significant difference in food variety between food secure and insecure households (pschools (pschools, which positively associated with male gender (AOR=4.13, CI: 2.38, 7.15) and having a middle-income family (AOR=2.93, CI: 1.92, 6.15). This study showed that by integrating a dietary intervention into school-based activities, there might be significant improvements in dietary intake of primary school adolescents. Therefore, school-based nutrition education programs should be a part of comprehensive school health programs to reach the students and potentially their families.

  6. Students with Cancer: Presenting Issues and Effective Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root, Melissa M.; Bray, Melissa A.; Maykel, Cheryl; Cross, Karen; Shankar, Nilani L.; Theodore, Lea A.

    2016-01-01

    Practitioners working with children diagnosed with cancer in the school environment must consider several facets in order to effectively work with the child and family. The remission rate for children with cancer is relatively high, so one must consider whether the child is anticipating treatment, actively in treatment, or posttreatment when one…

  7. Effects of Land Degradation on Agriculture in Anambra State: Issue ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the effects of land degradation on agriculture in Anambra state. Two Local Government Areas were purposively selected from the state while a town community was purposively selected from each of the Local Government Areas. Proportionate sampling technique was used to select 50% of the villages ...

  8. Faraday effect revisited: sum rules and convergence issues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornean, Horia; Nenciu, Gheorghe

    2010-01-01

    This is the third paper of a series revisiting the Faraday effect. The question of the absolute convergence of the sums over the band indices entering the Verdet constant is considered. In general, sum rules and traces per unit volume play an important role in solid-state physics, and they give...

  9. Comparing the Effect of Non-nutritive Sucking and Abdominal Massage on Feeding Tolerance in Preterm Newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saideh Marzieh Fazli

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background:Enteral feeding intolerance is a major problem in the preterm neonates. Non-nutritive sucking and abdominal massage are among the most important nutritional interventions in this regard. Aim: This study aimed to compare the effect of non-nutritive sucking and abdominal massage on feeding tolerance in the preterm newborns. Method: This clinical trial was conducted on 52 preterm neonates in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of Imam Reza Hospital in Mashhad, Iran. The subjects were randomly divided into three groups, namely abdominal massage (17 newborns, non-nutritive sucking (18 newborns, and control groups (17 newborns. In the abdominal massage group, the intervention was fulfilled for 15 min twice a day, and in the non-nutritive sucking group, the intervention was performed for 10 min three times a day within 7 days. The control group only received tube feeding every two h without any intervention. Feeding tolerance was examined in terms of gastric residuals, vomiting, and abdominal distention. The data were collected through the recording daily information form. The data were analyzed through SPSS version 23, using ANOVA test and marginal models. Results: The mean gestational age of the abdominal massage group was 32.8±1.0 weeks. This value was 32.5±1.3 weeks in both sucking and control groups. Generalized estimating equation revealed that non-nutritive sucking was effective in the absence of distention (P=0.01 and vomiting (P=0.01. However, abdominal massage was effective only in the absence of vomiting (P=0.01. Implications for Practice: The use of non-nutritive sucking can increase the feeding tolerance in the preterm newborns.

  10. To ignite the passion in children's hearts - Role and effect of space education, issues and consideration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Ayami

    2016-10-01

    It is obvious that Space Education is very important for sustainable space development as children are going to lead the new era of space development. The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (thereafter called ;JAXA;) believes that all children hold 3 spirits which are ;Curiosity;, ;Adventure; and ;Craftsmanship;. We have been trying to ignite children's spirits toward nature, life and the universe with the effective use of space subjects and materials since the establishment of the JAXA Space Education Center in 2005. Studying about space is not limited to STEM, but can be applied to all subjects including social studies, music, and home economics. JAXA successfully coordinates more than 100 school classes in various subjects all over Japan each year. In geography, students learned geographical features of mountain ranges from images taken by JAXA's land observing satellite, while wearing 3D glasses so that they felt as if they were watching it from space. In home economics, students discussed and came up with ideas for new space food menu items considering nutrition and preservability. One of the ideas has been selected as Japanese Space Food. Nowadays, the numbers of school collaborations are stable and cover various subjects. Therefore JAXA cooperated with SHINSEI elementary school as a model school of space education. This elementary school introduced space studies in all grade's education guidelines in this school year. JAXA and SHINSEI elementary school are going to revise and analyze how students have been changed through this effort in March. We also focus on ;Teacher Training; by holding JAXA-Teachers seminars all over Japan and more than 1000 teachers take this seminar every year. By studying a questionnaire survey taken from teacher seminars, it has been clarified that most of teachers realized space can be applied not only for astronomy but also in various subjects. They evaluate JAXA's effort for broadening their horizons. However most of teachers do

  11. Effect of gamma irradiation on the nutritional quality of Agaricus bisporus strains cultivated in different composts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, Meire Cristina Nogueira; Jesus, Joao P.F.; Vieira, Fabricio R.; Viana, Sthefany R.F.; Minhoni, Marli T.A.; Spoto, Marta H.F.

    2014-01-01

    The effect of irradiation doses (0, 125, 250 and 500 Gy) on the nutritional quality of A. bisporus mushrooms (strains ABI-07/06, ABI-05/03 and PB-1) cultivated in composts based on oat straw (Avena sativa) and brachiaria (Brachiaria sp.) was evaluated. The experimental design was 4 x 3 x 2 factorial scheme (irradiation doses x strains x composts), with 24 treatments, consisting of two repetitions each, totaling 48 experimental units (samples of mushrooms). The samples were irradiated in Cobalt-60 irradiator, model Gammacell 220 kGy, with dose rate of 0.740 kGy h -1 , according to the treatments proposed. Subsequently, the control (unirradiated) and the other treatments were maintained at 4±1°C and 90% RH in a climatic chamber for carrying out the chemical analysis of the mushrooms on the 1st and 14th day of storage. It was found that all A. bisporus strains evaluated were food with excellent nutritional value, because they presented high protein and fiber contents and low ethereal extract content; the chemical characterization of the mushrooms was influenced by the compost type in which they were cultivated; gamma irradiation influenced the chemical composition of mushrooms. (author)

  12. The effect of conjugated linoleic acid supplementation on the nutritional status of COPD patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghobadi, Hassan; Matin, Somaieh; Nemati, Ali; Naghizadeh-Baghi, Abbas

    2016-01-01

    COPD patients are susceptible to anorexia, reduction of caloric intake, weight loss, and malnutrition. One of the possible mechanisms is the increase of inflammatory markers such as interleukin 1β (IL 1β ), is highly correlated with anorexia. Considering the anti-inflammatory role of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), this study aimed to investigate the effect of CLA supplementation on the nutritional status of COPD patients. In a double-blind clinical trial, 93 COPD patients who volunteered to participate in the study and who filled out a written consent form, were randomly assigned to control or supplementation groups. The patients in the supplementation group received 3.2 g of CLA on a daily basis for 6 weeks, while those in the control group received placebo on a daily basis for 6 weeks. For IL 1β assessment, the patients' anthropometric indices and appetite score were checked and their blood samples were collected both before and after the treatment. Moreover, in order to investigate the changes in the caloric intake trend during the study, their dietary intake levels were assessed using 24-hour dietary recall, 3 days a week at the onset, in the 4th week, and at the end of the study. Eventually, 90 patients completed the study. The results demonstrated a significant increase in appetite score ( P =0.001), average caloric intake ( P =0.01), and macronutrient intake ( P nutritional status of patients suffering from COPD through adjusting the serum level of IL 1β .

  13. Effect of incorporation of amaranth on the physical properties and nutritional value of cheese bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa dos Reis Lemos

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available At the present celiac disease has no known cure, and its only treatment is a strict lifelong adherence to a gluten-free diet. Cheese bread is a traditional Brazilian product and a safe option for celiacs. However, like other gluten-free breads, it has inherent low levels of fibers and minerals. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of incorporation of whole amaranth flour on the physical properties and nutritional value of cheese bread. Amaranth flour was incorporated at 10, 15, and 20% proportions in different formulations. The increasing amaranth levels darkened the product, reduced specific volume, and increased compression force. Ten percent amaranth-content cheese breads exhibited slight differences in physical properties compared with the controls. These results demonstrated the possibility of incorporating 10% of whole amaranth flour in the formulation of cheese bread resulting in a product with higher dietary fiber and iron contents and the same level of acceptance as that of the conventional formulation. The aim of this approach is to increase the availability of gluten-free bakery products with added nutritional value contributing to increase the variety of the diet of celiac patients.

  14. Effect of gamma irradiation on the nutritional quality of Agaricus bisporus strains cultivated in different composts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Meire Cristina Nogueira, E-mail: mcnandrade@hotmail.com [Universidade do Sagrado Coracao (USC), Bauru, SP (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Exatas e Sociais Aplicadas; Jesus, Joao P.F.; Vieira, Fabricio R.; Viana, Sthefany R.F.; Minhoni, Marli T.A. [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (FCA/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas. Dept. de Producao Vegetal/Defesa Fitossanitaria, Modulo de Cogumelos; Spoto, Marta H.F. [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Departamento de Agroindustria, Alimentos e Nutricao

    2014-05-15

    The effect of irradiation doses (0, 125, 250 and 500 Gy) on the nutritional quality of A. bisporus mushrooms (strains ABI-07/06, ABI-05/03 and PB-1) cultivated in composts based on oat straw (Avena sativa) and brachiaria (Brachiaria sp.) was evaluated. The experimental design was 4 x 3 x 2 factorial scheme (irradiation doses x strains x composts), with 24 treatments, consisting of two repetitions each, totaling 48 experimental units (samples of mushrooms). The samples were irradiated in Cobalt-60 irradiator, model Gammacell 220 kGy, with dose rate of 0.740 kGy h{sup -1}, according to the treatments proposed. Subsequently, the control (unirradiated) and the other treatments were maintained at 4±1°C and 90% RH in a climatic chamber for carrying out the chemical analysis of the mushrooms on the 1st and 14th day of storage. It was found that all A. bisporus strains evaluated were food with excellent nutritional value, because they presented high protein and fiber contents and low ethereal extract content; the chemical characterization of the mushrooms was influenced by the compost type in which they were cultivated; gamma irradiation influenced the chemical composition of mushrooms. (author)

  15. Effect of continued oral feeding on clinical and nutritional outcomes of acute diarrhea in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, K H; Gastañaduy, A S; Saavedra, J M; Lembcke, J; Rivas, D; Robertson, A D; Yolken, R; Sack, R B

    1988-02-01

    One hundred twenty-eight nonmalnourished male patients between 3 and 36 months of age were randomly assigned to receive one of four lactose-free dietary treatments to determine the effect of dietary therapy on the severity and nutritional outcome of diarrheal illness. Group 1 received a formula diet composed of casein, sucrose, dextrin with maltose (Dextri-Maltose), and vegetable oil to provide 110 kcal/kg body weight/d (CSO-110). Group 2 received CSO to provide 55 kcal/kg/d (CSO-55) for 2 days and then CSO-110. Group 3 received only oral glucose-electrolyte solution (GES) for 2 days, CSO-55 for the next 2 days, and then CSO-110. Group 4 received the same diets as Group 3 except that only intravenous GES was used for the first 2 days. The GES maintenance solutions provided 24 to 30 kcal/kg/d. Therapeutic success rates were similar among dietary groups, ranging from 90% to 97%. Fecal excretion was initially lower in group 4 (P less than 0.05) but was similar initially among groups treated orally and among all four groups beginning on day 3. Net apparent absorption of nitrogen, fat, carbohydrate, and total energy; retention of nitrogen; and increments in body weight, arm circumference, and skin-fold thickness were positively related to the amounts of dietary energy consumed. Thus continued oral feeding with the CSO diets during the early phase of therapy yielded improved nutritional results.

  16. Potassium fertilization for pineapple: effects on soil chemical properties and plant nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Antonio Junqueira Teixeira

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was carried out on an Ultisol located at the city of Agudos (22º30'S; 49º03'W, in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, in order to determine the effects of rates and sources of potassium fertilizer on nutritional status of 'Smooth Cayenne' pineapple and on some soil chemical properties. The experiment was a complete factorial design with four rates (0, 175, 350, and 700 kg ha-1 of K2O and three combinations of K sources (100% KCl, 100% K2SO4 and 40% K2SO4 + 60% KCl. Soil samples were taken from the depths 0-20 cm, 20-40 cm and 40-60 cm at planting and 14 months after. Nutritional status of pineapple plants was assessed by means of tissue analysis. Soil K availability increased with application of K fertilizer, regardless of K sources. Soil chlorine and Cl concentration in pineapple leaves increased with application of KCl or K2SO4+KCl. Plant uptake of potassium was shaped by soil K availability and by the application rates of K fertilizer, independently of K sources.

  17. Program adherence and effectiveness of a commercial nutrition program: the metabolic balance study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meffert, Cornelia; Gerdes, Nikolaus

    2010-01-01

    Objective. To assess the effectiveness of a commercial nutrition program in improving weight, blood lipids, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Methods. Prospective observational study with followup after 1, 3, 6, and 12 months with data from questionnaires and blood samples. Subjects. After 12 months, we had data from 524 subjects (= 60.6% of the initial samples). 84.1% of the subjects were women. The average BMI at baseline was 30.3 (SD = 5.7). Results. After 12 months, the average weight loss was 6.8 kg (SD = 7.1 kg). Program adherence declined over time but was still high after 12 months and showed a positive linear correlation with weight loss. Relevant blood parameters as well as HRQOL improved significantly. Conclusion. After 12 months, nearly two thirds of the samples had achieved >5% reduction of their initial weights. The high degree of program adherence is probably due to personal counseling and individually designed nutrition plans provided by the program.

  18. Effects of Organic and Conventional Crop Nutrition on Profiles of Polar Metabolites in Grain of Wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shewry, Peter; Rakszegi, Marianna; Lovegrove, Alison; Amos, Dominic; Corol, Delia-Irina; Tawfike, Ahmed; Mikó, Péter; Ward, Jane L

    2018-05-16

    The profiles of polar metabolites were determined in wholemeal flours of grain from the Broadbalk wheat experiment and from plants grown under organic and low-input systems to study the effects of nutrition on composition. The Broadbalk samples showed increased amino acids, acetate, and choline and decreased fructose and succinate with increasing nitrogen fertilization. Samples receiving farm yard manure had similar grain nitrogen to those receiving 96 kg of N/ha but had higher contents of amino acids, sugars, and organic acids. A comparison of the profiles of grain from organic and low-input systems showed only partial separation, with clear effects of climate and agronomy. However, supervised multivariate analysis showed that the low-input samples had higher contents of many amino acids, raffinose, glucose, organic acids, and choline and lower sucrose, fructose, and glycine. Consequently, although differences between organic and conventional grain occur, these cannot be used to confirm sample identity.

  19. Global climate change and tree nutrition : effects of elevated CO2 and temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukac, M.; Calfapietra, C.; Lagomarsino, A.; Loreto, F.

    2010-01-01

    The availability of nutrients for plant uptake can limit the productivity and survival of forest ecosystems. Information about multiple interacting factors regarding the availability of essential nutrients and their roles in plant metabolism is needed in order to understand the full impact of climate change. This paper presented the known effects of elevated carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and temperature on tree nutrition, with particular reference to the mobilization and immobilization processes instead of pools. Existing gaps in knowledge were identified and future research priorities were suggested. This review focused on the major nutrients, notably nitrogen (N) and phosphorous (P) and how the processes that alter their cycling and availability are influenced by the effects of climate change. 143 refs., 3 figs.

  20. Effect of gamma irradiation on the nutritive value of some Syrian agricultural residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M.R.; Zarkawi, Moutaz

    1992-03-01

    An experiment was carried out to study the effects of doses of gamma irradiation on the nutritive value of cottonwood, wheat straw, barley straw, lentils straw, maize straw, and maize cobs, as an attempt to improve the nutritive value of these residues in order to utilize theme in animal diets. Ground samples of six residues were irradiated by 137 Cs gamma source (Gammator) at doses of 0, 1, 10, 40, 50, and 100 kilo gray (KGy) under identical conditions of temperature and humidity, and analysed for dry matter, crude ash, crude protein, crude fat, crude fibre, Neutral Detergent Fibre (NDF), Acid Detergent Fibre (ADF), and Acid detergent Lignin (ADL). The results indicate that gamma irradiation has no effect on crude protein whereas decreased crude fat content. Gamma irradiation has a pronounced effect on decreasing crude fibre contents especially at the highest dose (100 KGy) reaching (%): 30, 21, 15, 17, 21 and 16 for cottonwood, wheat straw, barley straw, lentils straw, maize straw, and maize cobs respectively with increases in NFE values. NDF decreased by 19.7%, 13%, and 11.5% for wheat straw and maize straw respectively, by 9.3% for maize cobs and barley straw and by 6.6% for cottonwood. The reductions in ADF values were: 8% for cottonwood, 7.3% for maize straw and maize cobs, and 5.7% for wheat straw and barley straw. Gamma irradiation lowered ADL content by 29% for maize cobs, 17.2% for barley straw and by 20.8% and 7.4 for wheat straw and cottonwood respectively. Gamma irradiation (100 KGy) has no effect on ADF, ADL, and cellulose for lentils straw and on hemicellulose for cottonwood. (author). 24 refs., 20 tabs., 2 figs

  1. Pedagogical issues for effective teaching of biosignal processing and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandham, William A; Hamilton, David J

    2010-01-01

    Biosignal processing and analysis is generally perceived by many students to be a challenging topic to understand, and to become adept with the necessary analytical skills. This is a direct consequence of the high mathematical content involved, and the many abstract features of the topic. The MATLAB and Mathcad software packages offer an excellent algorithm development environment for teaching biosignal processing and analysis modules, and can also be used effectively in many biosignal, and indeed bioengineering, research areas. In this paper, traditional introductory and advanced biosignal processing (and analysis) syllabi are reviewed, and the use of MATLAB and Mathcad for teaching and research is illustrated with a number of examples.

  2. Effectiveness of a nutrition education program for the prevention and treatment of malnutrition in end-stage renal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández Morante, Juan José; Sánchez-Villazala, Almudena; Cutillas, Ruben Cañavate; Fuentes, Mari Carmen Conesa

    2014-01-01

    In end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients, malnutrition is mainly addressed from a pharmacological but not educational point of view. Therefore, the objective of this study was to implement a nutritional education program (NEP) and to evaluate and compare its effectiveness in the treatment and prevention of malnutrition with oral supplementation (OS)-the standard treatment in these patients. This study was a longitudinal, 4-month prospective study. The study was conducted from January to May 2012 in the Hemodialysis Fresenius Medical Care Clinic of Murcia. One hundred twenty patients with ESRD undergoing hemodialysis were randomly assigned to a NEP or to OS. Patients assigned to the NEP group followed an educational program for 4 months that aimed to improve general nutritional knowledge and included culinary recommendations and an elaboration of balanced menus. The OS group received a nutritional supplement during the hemodialysis procedure. The main outcome measure was certain biochemical markers of nutritional and metabolic status. Nutrition knowledge was also evaluated. After 4 months of intervention, nutritional knowledge was increased in all patients (P values, and other biochemical parameters improved significantly in both groups (P < .050 in all cases), although other parameters such as C-reactive protein were impaired only in the NEP group. The NEP was at least as effective as OS for preventing and even treating malnutrition in patients with chronic renal failure on hemodialysis, improving their nutritional status, which may result in a long-term decrease in the mortality and morbidity of these patients. Copyright © 2014 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Evaluation of a residential nutrition rehabilitation center in rural Bolivia: short-term effectiveness and follow-up results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forney, Kristen M; Polansky, Lauren S; Rebolledo, Paulina A; Huamani, Katherine Foy; Mues, Katherine E; Ramakrishnan, Usha; Leon, Juan S

    2014-06-01

    Nutrition rehabilitation centers (NRCs) have shown mixed results in reducing morbidity and mortality among undernourished children in the developing world. Follow-up on children after leaving these programs remains undocumented. To assess the nutritional improvement of children attending the Centro de Rehabilitación Infantil Nutricional (CRIN), a residential NRC in rural Bolivia, from entrance to exit and to a household follow-up visit 1 month to 6 years later, and to identify factors associated with nutritional improvement. A retrospective analysis was conducted of clinical records collected by CRIN staff from 135 children under 3 years of age attending CRIN in rural Cochabamba, Bolivia, from 2003 to 2009, and of clinical records of household follow-up measurements on a subset of 26 children that were taken between 1 month and 6 years postexit. Nutritional status was evaluated by calculating z-scores for weight-for-height (WHZ), weight-for-age (WAZ), and height-for-age (HAZ). Children with z-scores < -2 were considered to be wasted, underweight, or stunted, respectively. The prevalence of wasting decreased significantly, while the prevalence of stunting did not change significantly between entrance and exit from the program. From entrance to exit, the mean changes in WHZ (0.79) and WAZ (1.08) were statistically significant, while the mean change in HAZ (-0.02) was not significant. Linear regression analysis suggested that nutritional status and diarrhea at entrance had the greatest effect on WHZ and HAZ changes between entrance and exit. Children maintained their nutritional gains from the program between exit and follow-up and showed statistically significant improvement in WAZ (but not HAZ). CRIN is effective at rehabilitating nutritional deficits associated with wasting, but not those associated with stunting.

  4. Nutrigenomic and Nutritional Analyses Reveal the Effects of Pelleted Feeds on Asian Seabass (Lates calcarifer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si Yan Ngoh

    Full Text Available As nutrition-related expenses constitute the majority of the costs for aquaculture farms, it is essential for them to use feeds that provide an ideal combination of nutrients for the species of choice. In this study, the relative effect of consuming three different pelleted feeds (B, C and D in comparison to frozen baitfish (A; control were compared on juvenile Asian seabass (77.3 ± 22.4g that were selected for increased growth rate over two generations. Our objectives were: 1 to evaluate the effects of different pelleted feeds based on overall physiological changes and nutritional quality of fillets; 2 improve our understanding of the underlying mechanisms with transcriptomic analysis; 3 if possible, identify the feed type that supports the growth of these fishes without substantially reducing the nutritional quality of fillet. The growth performance, fatty acid composition of fillet, hepatic histology and transcriptome of the fishes (Groups A-D were analyzed. The majority of fatty acids of the fillets, except γ-linolenic acid (GLA, C18:3n6, correlated significantly with the respective diets. Asian seabass fed Feed C showed highest specific growth rate (SGR and feed conversion efficiency (FCE with closest histology and transcriptomic profile to control, but their fillet contained the highest n6/n3 ratio. When the liver-based transcriptomes were analyzed, a complex set of differentially expressed genes were detected between groups fed pelleted feeds and controls as well as among the pellet-fed groups themselves. Significant enrichment of genes with growth-related function tallied with the morphological data measured. When compared with control (Group A, 'Biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids' and 'Steroid biosynthesis' pathways were significantly enriched in pellet-fed groups. Reduced goblet cell numbers were observed in the gut of pellet-fed fish compared to controls and fads6 was found to be a suitable candidate gene to separate wild

  5. Labor and women's nutrition : a study of energy expenditure, fertility, and nutritional status in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Higgins, Paul A; Alderman, Harold; DEC

    1992-01-01

    Economic approaches to health and nutrition have focused largely on measures of child nutrition and related variables (such as birth weight) as indicators of household production of nutritional outcomes. But when dealing with adult nutrition, economists have to address an issue that has generated tremendous controversy in the clinical nutrition literature. That issue is heterogeneity in an individual's energy expenditures. Preschoolers'energy expenditure also differs, but the differences are ...

  6. Effects of nutrition label format and product assortment on the healthfulness of food choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Grunert, Klaus G; van Trijp, Hans C M; Bialkova, Svetlana; Raats, Monique M; Hodgkins, Charo; Wasowicz-Kirylo, Grazyna; Koenigstorfer, Joerg

    2013-12-01

    This study aims to find out whether front-of-pack nutrition label formats influence the healthfulness of consumers' food choices and important predictors of healthful choices, depending on the size of the choice set that is made available to consumers. The predictors explored were health motivation and perceived capability of making healthful choices. One thousand German and Polish consumers participated in the study that manipulated the format of nutrition labels. All labels referred to the content of calories and four negative nutrients and were presented on savoury and sweet snacks. The different formats included the percentage of guideline daily amount, colour coding schemes, and text describing low, medium and high content of each nutrient. Participants first chose from a set of 10 products and then from a set of 20 products, which was, on average, more healthful than the first choice set. The results showed that food choices were more healthful in the extended 20-product (vs. 10-product) choice set and that this effect is stronger than a random choice would produce. The formats colour coding and texts, particularly colour coding in Germany, increased the healthfulness of product choices when consumers were asked to choose a healthful product, but not when they were asked to choose according to their preferences. The formats did not influence consumers' motivation to choose healthful foods. Colour coding, however, increased consumers' perceived capability of making healthful choices. While the results revealed no consistent differences in the effects between the formats, they indicate that manipulating choice sets by including healthier options is an effective strategy to increase the healthfulness of food choices. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation of the effectiveness of a nutrition education intervention performed by primary school teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erminia Agozzino

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: Long-term interventions based on the active involvement of students, carried out by properly prepared staff using didactic support material (brochures, games etc. including the participation/involvement of mothers or associates in community interventions; seem to be the most effective ones. This study evaluates the effectiveness of nutrition education interventions carried out by teachers with active didactic methodologies.

    Methods: The research was carried out by administering a frequency of food intake questionnaire, before and after the intervention. To compare the answers given before and after the educational intervention the Wilcoxon-test was applied to dependent data discriminating the group with “sufficient implementation” of the project versus “insufficient implementation”.

    Results: Our data demonstrates that a substantial percentage of children do not report an adequate nutritional intake, making education interventions not only opportune but necessary. In both groups there was an increase in the number of subjects having breakfast, particularly in terms of bread and biscuits intake. In the group with “sufficient implementation” there was an increase in the intake of all kinds of food with respect to the previous day’s intake and a decrease in the intake of meat, fish and legumes consumed during the previous week; in the group with “insufficient implementation” only fish intake increased significantly while vegetable intake decreased in a non-significant way. So this educational intervention appears to have been particularly effective in modifying breakfast habits and reducing snack.

  8. Effect of mother support groups on nutritional status in children under two years of age in Laisamis village, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Undlien, Mattias; Viervoll, Håvard-Amund; Rostad, Berit

    2016-12-01

    In tackling the ongoing malnutrition problem in many parts of Kenya, the government has initialized preventive actions such as mother support groups in order to improve health and nutrition among children. Few studies have evaluated the effectiveness of such intervention. This study aimed at determining how mother support groups affect the nutrition status of children under 2 years of age. 41 children participated. Anthropometric measurements were taken of the children once a month during 12 months. Medical history, nutrition status and socioeconomic factors were collected by interviews with the mothers. The children were divided into two groups depending on their mother's assigned group; mother support group or not. Nutritional status was significantly better among children in the mother support group (P=0.001). There were significantly more children with severe acute malnutrition among the children not in support group (P=0.040). The mean height (P=0.001) and mean weight (P=0.0281) were significantly higher among children in the non-support group. Mother support groups may have a beneficial effect on the nutritional status of children under 2 years of age. Cases of severe acute malnutrition seemed to be less prevalent in children whose mothers attend mother support groups.

  9. [Effect of neoadjuvant chemotherapy on nutritional status of locally advanced gastric cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Guopeng; Qu, Jianjun; Zhai, Shengyong; Shi, Yiran; Wang, Xinbo

    2018-03-25

    To study the effect of neoadjuvant chemotherapy on nutritional status in patients with locally advanced gastric cancer. Cases inclusion criteria: (1)18-65 years old; (2) Gastric cancer confirmed by gastroscopic biopsy; (3) Preoperative TNM stage III( according to the AJCC stage 2000 standard; (4) Kamosfsky functional status score> 60 points; (5)Receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy voluntarily and signing the informed consent form. Case exclusion criteria: (1)Having contraindications of chemotherapy and surgery; (2) Suffering from heart, liver and kidney and other underlying diseases; (3) Concurrent with malignant diseases, wasting disease or other digestive diseases. According to the above criteria, clinical data of 73 patients of stage III( gastric cancer receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy at Weifang People's Hospital from May 2015 to March 2017 were prospectively collected. The cohort study was adopted. After removing 3 patients who did not complete the chemotherapy, a total of 70 patients who completed the chemotherapy were included in the study. All the patients received SOX chemotherapy without nutritional support during chemotherapy. Changes of body composition and nutritional indicators were analyzed before and after chemotherapy, and according to the tumor regression after chemotherapy, patients were divided into response group (complete or sub-total tumor regression) and non-response group (tumor part, with or without a small amount of retreat) for stratified analysis. Of 70 gastric cancer patients, 40 were male and 30 were female with a age of (53.8±6.4) (28 to 64) years. There were 26 cases (37.1%) of stage III(a, 35 cases (50.0%) of stage III(b and 9 cases (12.9%) of stage III(c. There were 41 cases in response group and 29 cases in non-response group. Three patients (4.3%) were complete remission (CR) and 38 patients (54.3%) were partial remission (PR) in response group, while 23 cases (32.9%) were stable disease (SD) and 6 cases (8.6%) were progressive

  10. Effects of Playing a Serious Computer Game on Body Mass Index and Nutrition Knowledge in Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiyko, Mariya; Hallinan, Sean; Seif El-Nasr, Magy; Subramanian, Shree; Castaneda-Sceppa, Carmen

    2016-06-02

    Obesity and weight gain is a critical public health concern. Serious digital games are gaining popularity in the context of health interventions. They use persuasive and fun design features to engage users in health-related behaviors in a non-game context. As a young field, research about effectiveness and acceptability of such games for weight loss is sparse. The goal of this study was to evaluate real-world play patterns of SpaPlay and its impact on body mass index (BMI) and nutritional knowledge. SpaPlay is a computer game designed to help women adopt healthier dietary and exercise behaviors, developed based on Self-Determination theory and the Player Experience of Need Satisfaction (PENS) model. Progress in the game is tied to real-life activities (e.g., eating a healthy snack, taking a flight of stairs). We recruited 47 women to partake in a within-subject 90-day longitudinal study, with assessments taken at baseline, 1-, 2-, and 3- months. Women were on average, 29.8 years old (±7.3), highly educated (80.9% had BA or higher), 39% non-White, baseline BMI 26.98 (±5.6), who reported at least contemplating making changes in their diet and exercise routine based on the Stages of Change Model. We computed 9 indices from game utilization data to evaluate game play. We used general linear models to examine inter-individual differences between levels of play, and multilevel models to assess temporal changes in BMI and nutritional knowledge. Patterns of game play were mixed. Participants who reported being in the preparation or action stages of behavior change exhibited more days of play and more play regularity compared to those who were in the contemplation stage. Additionally, women who reported playing video games 1-2 hours per session demonstrated more sparse game play. Brief activities, such as one-time actions related to physical activity or healthy food, were preferred over activities that require a longer commitment (e.g., taking stairs every day for a week

  11. Epidural anaesthesia and analgesia - effects on surgical stress responses and implications for postoperative nutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holte, Kathrine; Kehlet, H

    2002-01-01

    for improved mobilization and oral nutrition, and preservation of body composition and muscle function. Studies integrating continuous epidural local anaesthetics with enforced early nutrition and mobilization uniformly suggest an improved recovery, decreased hospital stay and convalescence. CONCLUSIONS......: Epidural local anaesthetics should be included in a multi-modal rehabilitation programme after major surgical procedures in order to facilitate oral nutrition, improve recovery and reduce morbidity....

  12. Older Adults' Perceptions of Nutrition as Protective Against Detrimental Effects of Environmental Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Kristina; Gaetke, Lisa; Stephenson, Tammy; Brewer, Dawn

    2017-08-01

    The aging process makes older adults vulnerable to the detrimental health effects of environmental contaminants. Our study assessed older adults' perceptions regarding diet being protective against environmental contaminants, their levels of concern about exposure, and their interest in learning about protective food-related strategies. A needs assessment to collect such information has not been conducted among older adults. Health fair survey results showed that they perceived diet as beneficial against contaminants, were concerned about health implications of exposure, and were interested in learning how to protect health through diet-related strategies. Results suggest that a nutrition-focused curriculum addressing how dietary strategies can help protect against environmental contaminants is needed for Extension professionals.

  13. Biological and Nutritional Properties of Palm Oil and Palmitic Acid: Effects on Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, Annamaria; Imperlini, Esther; Nigro, Ersilia; Montagnese, Concetta; Daniele, Aurora; Orrù, Stefania; Buono, Pasqualina

    2015-09-18

    A growing body of evidence highlights the close association between nutrition and human health. Fat is an essential macronutrient, and vegetable oils, such as palm oil, are widely used in the food industry and highly represented in the human diet. Palmitic acid, a saturated fatty acid, is the principal constituent of refined palm oil. In the last few decades, controversial studies have reported potential unhealthy effects of palm oil due to the high palmitic acid content. In this review we provide a concise and comprehensive update on the functional role of palm oil and palmitic acid in the development of obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases and cancer. The atherogenic potential of palmitic acid and its stereospecific position in triacylglycerols are also discussed.

  14. The effects of a nutrition education intervention on vending machine sales on a university campus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Mary V; Flint, Matthew; Fuqua, James

    2014-01-01

    To determine the effects of a nutrition information intervention on the vending machine purchases on a college campus. Five high-use vending machines were selected for the intervention, which was conducted in the fall of 2011. Baseline sales data were collected in the 5 machines prior to the intervention. At the time of the intervention, color-coded stickers were placed near each item selection to identify less healthy (red), moderately healthy (yellow), and more healthy (green) snack items. Sales data were collected during the 2-week intervention. Purchases of red- and yellow-stickered foods were reduced in most of the machines; moreover, sales of the green-stickered items increased in all of the machines. The increased purchases of healthier snack options demonstrate encouraging patterns that support more nutritious and healthy alternatives in vending machines.

  15. The Effect of Educational Package on Nutritional Knowledge and Behavior toward the Coping with Complication and Supplement Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Mohammad Alizadeh chrnabi

    2013-07-01

    Background & aim: Proper nutrition is essential in the prevention and improvement of maternal problems and fetal health during pregnancy. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of nutrition education package on knowledge and nutritional behavior of pregnant women coping with problems and taking supplements during pregnancy. Methods: In the present clinical trial, a number of 88 pregnant women referred to health centers in Karaj, Iran, were selected and randomly divided into two groups (Intervention and control group. Two sessions of approximately 60 minutes including classes on nutrition during pregnancy was held for the intervention group using presentation, booklets, and educational film sex education with similar method was held for the control group. Data were collected through a questionnaire. The collected data was analyzed by analysis of variance with repeated measures analysis of covariance and logistic regression analyzes. Results: In the intervention group, in the field of knowledge dealing with problems during pregnancy and after the intervention supplements in two stages were significantly higher than the control group (p˂001. Scores in the intervention group in the field of nutritional problems during pregnancy included constipation, heartburn, swollen hands and feet, anemia and urinary tract infections during both stages of the intervention were better than the control group (p˂005. Iron and multivitamin supplementation in the intervention group during two phases after the intervention phase was better than the control group (p˂005. Conclusion: The content of educational package was evaluated as an appropriate policy in promoting nutritional knowledge and behavior among pregnant women. Key words: Education, knowledge behavior, nutritional supplements, pregnancy

  16. The Effect of Using Socio-Scientific Issues Approach in Teaching Environmental Issues on Improving the Students' Ability of Making Appropriate Decisions towards These Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zo'bi, Abdallah Salim

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to identify nature of students' decisions patterns towards environmental issues and the possibility to improve these decisions during teaching process using Socio-Scientific Issues Approach. And to achieve this, the researcher prepared and developed tools of the study represented by a test of open questions focused on…

  17. Effects of previous grazing nutrition and management on feedlot performance of cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drouillard, J S; Kuhl, G L

    1999-01-01

    Management strategies designed to improve grazing animal performance can influence feedlot performance and carcass traits both positively and negatively. In spite of the economic relevance of potential interactions between grazing and finishing performance, controlled experiments evaluating integrated production systems are limited in number. Effects of grazing treatments can result from, or be overshadowed by, changes in gut fill, thus making it difficult to assign precise costs to different phases of production. Published reports have considered the effects of stocking rate, duration of grazing, forage characteristics, supplementation, and growth-promoting implants on subsequent finishing performance. Improvements in cattle performance attributed to changes in stocking rate generally have been neutral to positive with respect to effects on finishing performance. Comparisons among forages have led to the suggestion that forage species may contribute to differences in gastrointestinal fill of grazing cattle, thereby influencing gain and efficiency during the subsequent finishing phase. Creep-feeding suckling calves generally has increased preweaning performance but has had relatively little influence on performance during the subsequent finishing phase. Grain supplementation of stocker cattle during the grazing period has improved grazing performance, but effects on subsequent feedlot performance have been inconsistent. Potential carryover effects from protein and mineral supplementation also have been inconclusive. Lack of congruence among studies is puzzling but may be the consequence of highly varied production systems, differences in experimental procedures, and changes in gut fill or mass of internal organs. Based on the studies reviewed, the expression or absence of compensatory growth during the finishing phase appears to be related to the nutritional quality of forages utilized in the grazing period, with higher quality forages tending to yield greater

  18. Evaluation of effectiveness of class-based nutrition intervention on changes in soft drink and milk consumption among young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Eun-Jeong; Caine-Bish, Natalie; Holloman, Christopher; Lowry-Gordon, Karen

    2009-10-26

    During last few decades, soft drink consumption has steadily increased while milk intake has decreased. Excess consumption of soft drinks and low milk intake may pose risks of several diseases such as dental caries, obesity, and osteoporosis. Although beverage consumption habits form during young adulthood, which has a strong impact on beverage choices in later life, nutrition education programs on beverages are scarce in this population. The purpose of this investigation was 1) to assess soft drink and milk consumption and 2) to evaluate the effectiveness of 15-week class-based nutrition intervention in changing beverage choices among college students. A total of 80 college students aged 18 to 24 years who were enrolled in basic nutrition class participated in the study. Three-day dietary records were collected, verified, and analyzed before and after the intervention. Class lectures focused on healthful dietary choices related to prevention of chronic diseases and were combined with interactive hands on activities and dietary feedback. Class-based nutrition intervention combining traditional lecture and interactive activities was successful in decreasing soft drink consumption. Total milk consumption, specifically fat free milk, increased in females and male students changed milk choice favoring skim milk over low fat milk. (1% and 2%). Class-based nutrition education focusing on prevention of chronic diseases can be an effective strategy in improving both male and female college students' beverage choices. Using this type of intervention in a general nutrition course may be an effective approach to motivate changes in eating behaviors in a college setting.

  19. Evaluation of effectiveness of class-based nutrition intervention on changes in soft drink and milk consumption among young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holloman Christopher

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During last few decades, soft drink consumption has steadily increased while milk intake has decreased. Excess consumption of soft drinks and low milk intake may pose risks of several diseases such as dental caries, obesity, and osteoporosis. Although beverage consumption habits form during young adulthood, which has a strong impact on beverage choices in later life, nutrition education programs on beverages are scarce in this population. The purpose of this investigation was 1 to assess soft drink and milk consumption and 2 to evaluate the effectiveness of 15-week class-based nutrition intervention in changing beverage choices among college students. Methods A total of 80 college students aged 18 to 24 years who were enrolled in basic nutrition class participated in the study. Three-day dietary records were collected, verified, and analyzed before and after the intervention. Class lectures focused on healthful dietary choices related to prevention of chronic diseases and were combined with interactive hands on activities and dietary feedback. Results Class-based nutrition intervention combining traditional lecture and interactive activities was successful in decreasing soft drink consumption. Total milk consumption, specifically fat free milk, increased in females and male students changed milk choice favoring skim milk over low fat milk. (1% and 2%. Conclusion Class-based nutrition education focusing on prevention of chronic diseases can be an effective strategy in improving both male and female college students' beverage choices. Using this type of intervention in a general nutrition course may be an effective approach to motivate changes in eating behaviors in a college setting.

  20. Effect of Canning and Freezing on the Nutritional Content of Apricots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkison, Erin Claire; Biasi, William B; Bikoba, Veronique; Holstege, Dirk M; Mitcham, Elizabeth J

    2018-05-22

    The effect of commercial canning and freezing on the nutritional content of fresh apricots was investigated. Processed samples were analyzed post-processing and after 3 months of storage and compared directly to fresh apricots from the same source. Vitamin C, beta-carotene, total phenols, and antioxidants were quantified. Compared to fresh, canned apricots initially exhibited similar levels of antioxidants, a 17% increase in beta-carotene, and a 48% increase in phenols, while vitamin C was reduced by 37%. After 3 months of storage, antioxidant levels were 47% higher than fresh. Vitamin C did not change significantly following storage and beta-carotene decreased by 15%. The canned apricot fruit packed in light syrup did not have higher total soluble solids (TSS) levels indicating no increase in fruit sugar content. Frozen apricots exhibited large increases in antioxidants (529%), beta-carotene (35%), vitamin C (3,370%), and phenols (406%) compared to fresh. After 3 months of storage, frozen apricots decreased in vitamin C (29%) and phenols (17%), but remained 2,375% and 318% higher than fresh, respectively. Beta-carotene increased during storage, reaching levels 56% higher than fresh while antioxidant activity was unchanged. This study demonstrates that key nutrients in canned and frozen apricots are retained or amplified upon processing, with the exception of vitamin C in canned apricots. The routine addition of citric and ascorbic acid to fruit prior to freezing resulted in significantly higher antioxidants, vitamin C, and phenols. Consumers eating canned or frozen apricots can feel confident of similar or superior nutritional content as compared to fresh apricots. The apricot industry is limited by the short shelf life of the fruit and consumer belief that processed produce is not as nutritious as fresh. Assessing the nutritional content of canned and frozen apricots and determining that processed apricots can deliver nearly comparable nutrient levels to fresh

  1. Effect of Free Fatty Acids Supplementation on Digestibility, Nutritive Value and Rumen Fermentation in Local Sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Foly, H.A.; Mohamed, A.K.; Mustafa, M.M.M.

    2014-01-01

    Twelve mature local sheep, with a mean body weight of 49.2±3 kg were randomly distributed into three digestibility trail groups to evaluate the effects of inclusion some oils industry by-products, soft fatty acid (SFA) and hard fatty acid (HFA) on dry matter intake, digestibility coefficients, nutritive values, nitrogen and energy utilization and some rumen and blood parameters. The experimental diets were basal diet un-supplemented (control) or supplemented 3% SFA (T1) and 3% HFA (T2). The results showed that non-significant differences in total dry matter intake and water consumption among the tested diets were observed.The digestibility of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM) and nitrogen free extract (NFE) were significantly increased (P<0.05) by addition of SFA while digestibility of crude protein (CP) and ether extract (EE) was significantly increased (P<0.05) by addition of HFA as compared with control. However, digestibility of crude fiber (CF) was significantly decreased (P<0.05) in T2 as compared with control and T1. Fatty acids supplementation significantly increased (P<0.05) the nutritive values such as TDN, SV and DCP as compared with control.The nitrogen utilization was significantly improved (P<0.05) by the addition of both additives. The values of total volatile fatty acid concentrations (TVFA) and pH values after feeding were significantly increased (P<0.05) with HFA supplementation as compared with the values of other groups. However, the rumina l ammonia-N concentrations after feeding significantly decreased (P<0.05) with fatty acids supplementation as compared with control. The results of digestible and metabolizable energy showed non-significant differences between the tested groups. Blood serum urea, albumen, cholesterol, triglycerides and phosphorus values were significantly increased (P<0.05) with HFA as compared with the values of other groups.The mean values of serum alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST

  2. Effectiveness Of A School-Based Multicomponent Intervention On Nutritional Status Among Primary School Children In Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawla, Nattapon; Panza, Alessio; Sirikulchayanonta, Chutima; Kumar, Ramesh; Taneepanichskul, Surasak

    2017-01-01

    Childhood obesity has become a major public health issue today. The prevalence of obesity and overweight is increasing in both adults and children. Childhood obesity in Thailand has more than doubled since the 1960s and a recent study reported that overweight and obesity in Thais is the 5th highest in Asia. The present study objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of a life-skills, multicomponent, school-based intervention on child nutritional status. A quasi-experimental design was conducted in two-groups (control and intervention schools) on 453 students attending grade levels 4-5 in Bangkok. Two schools were selected for control, and two schools for intervention groups. The interventions included education, diet, physical activity (PA), food-environment, school builtenvironment, and life-skills components. Subjects were measured at baseline and at 6 months post-treatment. The intervention group had significant differences in overall healthy practices (+1.5 mean difference, p=0.048), dietary habits, physical activity, lower total cholesterol (TC) levels (-2.43 mean, p=0.019) and higher high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels (+4.06 p=0.028) as compared to the control. A higher reduction of overweight individuals among the intervention group over the intervention period was observed. Physical activity and consumption of vegetables increased while consumption of high-caloric snacks and fast foods decreased in children after the intervention. This study indicated that a multidisciplinary approach in school-based interventions is most likely to be effective in preventing children from becoming overweight in the long term. More research should be conducted on school-based interventions with longer intervention periods and higher sustainability.

  3. Effectiveness of a school-based multicomponent intervention on children nutritional status among primary school children in bangkok, thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chawla, N.; Panza, A.; Kumar, R.

    2017-01-01

    Childhood obesity has become a major public health issue today. The prevalence of obesity and overweight is increasing in both adult and children. Childhood obesity in Thailand has more than doubled since the 1960s and a recent study reported that overweight and obesity in Thai is the 5th highest in Asia. The present study objective is to evaluate the effectiveness of a life skills multicomponent school-based intervention on children's nutritional status. Methods: A quasi-experimental design was conducted in two-groups (control and intervention schools) on 453 students attending grade levels 4-5 in Bangkok. Two schools were selected for control, and two schools for intervention groups. The intervention included education, dietary, physical activity, food-environment, school built-environment, and life skills components. Outcomes were measured at baseline and post-treatment measured after 6 months. Results: The intervention group had significant improvements in healthier practice (+1.5 mean difference, p=0.048) on dietary habits and physical activity, lowered cholesterol levels (-2.43 mean, p=0.019), and higher HDL levels (+4.06 p=0.028) as compared to control. A higher reduction of overweight individuals among the intervention group over the intervention period was observed. Physical activity and consumption of vegetable increased while consumption of high-caloric snacks and fasts food decreased in children after the intervention. Conclusion: Childhood overweight and obesity is a serious public health problem based on its increasing rates and the associated health risks. This study indicated that multidisciplinary approach on school-based interventions is likely most effective to prevent children becoming overweight in long term. More research should be conducted on school-based intervention with longer intervention periods with higher sustainability. (author)

  4. Nutrition training in medical and other health professional schools in West Africa: the need to improve current approaches and enhance training effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Sodjinou

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Health professionals play a key role in the delivery of nutrition interventions. Improving the quality of nutrition training in health professional schools is vital for building the necessary human resource capacity to implement effective interventions for reducing malnutrition in West Africa. This study was undertaken to assess the current status of nutrition training in medical, nursing and midwifery schools in West Africa. Design: Data were collected from 127 training programs organized by 52 medical, nursing, and midwifery schools. Using a semi-structured questionnaire, we collected information on the content and distribution of nutrition instruction throughout the curriculum, the number of hours devoted to nutrition, the years of the curriculum in which nutrition was taught, and the prevailing teaching methods. Simple descriptive and bivariate analyses were performed. Results: Nutrition instruction occurred mostly during the first 2 years for the nursing (84%, midwifery (87%, and nursing assistant (77% programs and clinical years in medical schools (64%. The total amount of time devoted to nutrition was on average 57, 56, 48, and 28 hours in the medical, nursing, midwifery, and nursing assistant programs, respectively. Nutrition instruction was mostly provided within the framework of a dedicated nutrition course in nursing (78%, midwifery (87%, and nursing assistant programs (100%, whereas it was mainly embedded in other courses in medical schools (46%. Training content was heavily weighted to basic nutrition in the nursing (69%, midwifery (77%, and nursing assistant (100% programs, while it was oriented toward clinical practice in the medical programs (64%. For all the programs, there was little focus (<6 hours contact time on public health nutrition. The teaching methods on nutrition training were mostly didactic in all the surveyed schools; however, we found an integrated model in some medical schools (12%. None of the

  5. The effect of postoperative radiotherapy on leukocyte zinc, serum trace elements and nutritional status of breast cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antila, H.M.J.; Salo, M.S.; Kirvelae, O.; Nikkanen, V.

    1992-01-01

    Mononuclear (MNC) and polymorphonuclear cell (PMNC) zinc content was determined together with serum zinc, copper, selenium and iron concentrations in 24 operable breast cancer patients during and after postoperative radiotherapy. Anthropometric and biochemical indices of nutritional status were measured as background data. The measurements were carried out in the years 1987-1988. Nine patients used unconventional multivitamin or trace element preparations. A steady but statistically insignificant decrease in PMNC zinc was seen during treatment. No changes occurred in MNC zinc. Serum copper levels increased in five patients possibly due to tamoxifen treatment, but no other alterations occurred in serum trace element levels. Appetite was well maintained and nutritional status remained unaltered. Postoperative radiotherapy for breast carcinoma had thus no effect on either trace element or nutritional status. Patient-initiated alternative treatments did not significantly affect their trace element levels. This was probably due to small supplementation doses or irregular use of the preparations. (orig.)

  6. Glyphosate Effects on Plant Mineral Nutrition, Crop Rhizosphere Microbiota, and Plant Disease in Glyphosate-Resistant Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Claims have been made recently that glyphosate-resistant (GR) crops sometimes have mineral deficiencies and increased plant disease. This review evaluates the literature that is germane to these claims. Our conclusions are: (1) although there is conflicting literature on the effects of glyphosate on mineral nutrition on GR crops, most of the literature indicates that mineral nutrition in GR crops is not affected by either the GR trait or by application of glyphosate; (2) most of the available data support the view that neither the GR transgenes nor glyphosate use in GR crops increases crop disease; and (3) yield data on GR crops do not support the hypotheses that there are substantive mineral nutrition or disease problems that are specific to GR crops. PMID:23013354

  7. Diet-Dependent Effects of Minimal Enteral Nutrition on Intestinal Function and Necrotizing Enterocolitis in Preterm Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cilieborg, Malene Skovsted; Boye, Mette; Thymann, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Background: A rapid advance in enteral feeding is associated with necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm infants. Therefore, minimal enteral nutrition (MEN) combined with parenteral nutrition (PN) is common clinical practice, but the effects on NEC and intestinal function remain poorly...... characterized. It was hypothesized that a commonly used MEN feeding volume (16-24 mL/kg/d) prevents NEC and improves intestinal structure, function, and microbiology in preterm pigs. Methods: After preterm birth pigs were stratified into 4 nutrition intervention groups that received the following treatments: (1...... later formula-induced gut dysfunction and NEC. However, in CF pigs, intestinal lesions were restricted to the colon, compared with all regions in OF and FF pigs, which indicated proximal protection of colostrum MEN. Bacterial composition was not affected by MEN, diet, or NEC outcomes, but bacterial load...

  8. Effect of different cooking methods on minerals, vitamins and nutritional quality indices of kutum roach (Rutilus frisii kutum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Hedayat; Mahmoudzadeh, Maryam; Rezaei, Masoud; Mahmoudzadeh, Leila; Khaksar, Ramin; Khosroshahi, Nader Karimian; Babakhani, Aria

    2014-04-01

    In this study, the influence of four cooking methods (baking, boiling, microwaving and frying) was evaluated on the nutritional value of kutum roach. Proximate, fatty acid composition, vitamin and mineral contents and also nutritional quality indices (NQI) of kutum roach were investigated before and after cooking treatment. All treated samples showed increase in protein, ash and lipid contents and decrease in the content of total omega-3 fatty acids (n-3) in comparison to raw fish fillets (control group). Cooking methods had no significant effect on omega-6 fatty acids (n-6) except for frying that increased it. Nonetheless, all of the cooking methods reduced vitamin B1, A and D contents. Boiling significantly decreased mineral contents including Na, K, P and Zn. Considering the overall nutritional quality indices, vitamin and mineral contents, baking is the best cooking method among other applied methods. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The effectiveness of nutritional education on the knowledge of diabetic patients using the health belief model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Sharifirad

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available

    • BACKGROUND: Patients have a major role in the control and treatment of type 2 diabetes. So, knowledge of different aspects of this disease especially diet therapy is very important for these patients. This study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of the Health Belief Model (HBM on nutrition education in type 2 diabetic patients.
    • METHOD: Eighty eight type 2 diabetic patients attending Iranian Diabetes Association seminars were randomly selected to participate in the study (44 in intervention group and 44 in control group. The intervention was consisted of two educational sessions each one for 80 minutes. Data were collected by a validated and reliable questionnaire (58 questions before intervention and one month after intervention.
    • RESULTS: After intervention, knowledge scores increased in the intervention group compared to the control group (Mean differences in the intervention and test group: 22.68 ± 15.90 vs - 2.27 ± 17.30, P < 0.001. Perceived susceptibility increased significantly in the intervention group compared to the control group (27.5 ± 18.5 vs 3.9 ± 17.2, P < 0.001. The result was the same for perceived severity, perceived threatened and perceived benefits (P < 0.001. In contrast perceived barriers reduced in the intervention group compared to the control diet (-14.7 ± 13.3 vs 0.9 ± 13.9, P < 0.001. In the intervention group, behavior grades increased more than control group (34.61 ± 14.93 vs -0.23 ± 8.52, P < 0.001.
    • CONCLUSION: The efficacy of the health belief model in nutritional education to the diabetic patients was confirmed in the present study.

  10. Effects of cutting height and maturity on the nutritive value of corn silage for lactating cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neylon, J M; Kung, L

    2003-06-01

    We studied the effect of increasing the cutting height of whole-plant corn at the time of harvest from 12.7 (NC) to 45.7 (HC) cm on yield and nutritive value of silage for dairy cows. Three leafy corn silage hybrids were harvested at NC and HC at about 34% dry matter (E) and 41% DM (L) and ensiled in laboratory silos. Increasing the height of cutting lowered yields of harvested DM/ha. In addition, the concentrations of DM and starch were higher but the concentrations of lactic acid, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and acid detergent fiber were lower in HC than in NC. The concentration of acid detergent lignin was also lower in HC, but only in corn harvested at E. In vitro digestion (30 h) of NDF was greater in HC (50.7%) than NC (48.3%). Calculated yield of milk per tonne of forage DM was greater for HC than for NC at E but not at L. In a lactation experiment, increasing the height of cutting of another leafy corn silage hybrid, TMF29400, in general also resulted in similar changes in nutrient composition as just described. When fed to lactating dairy cows, HC corn silage resulted in tendencies for greater NDF digestion in the total tract, higher milk production and improved feed efficiency, but there were no differences in 3.5% fat corrected milk between treatments. Results of this study suggest that increasing the cutting height of whole plant corn at harvest can improve the nutritive value of corn silage for lactating dairy cows.

  11. Technological and nutritional aspect of different hemp types addition: Comparison of flour and wholemeal effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Hrušková

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Addition of non-traditional raw-materials and flours into wheat flour follows contemporary trend of manufacturing nutritionally healthier fermented bakery products. Aim of the study follows this tendency, evaluating nutritional improvement of composite flour and baking potential of prepared wheat-hemp flour composites. Hemp products addition significantly increased both protein and dietary fibre contents. Between five types of hemp flour, differences were observed according to incorporated amount (wheat flour substitution from 5% to 20%. In composites containing 20% of hemp flour and dehulled hemp wholemeal, protein content increased to 14.9% and to 15.7%, respectively (compared to 12.5% proteins in control wheat flour. Dietary fibre content change was governed unequivocally by addition level for both hemp flour and hemp wholemeal. Hemp wholemeal affected the solvent retention capacity (SRC profile of the wheat flour used in a broader extent than hemp flour done, interacting moreover with addition level applied. Significant diminishing was measured for the sucrose and the lactic acid SRC, which describe physicochemical stage of starch and proteins in prepared composites. Addition of 5% and 20% of dehulled hemp wholemeal decreased the formed SRC from 112.0% to 102.3% and to 64.1%, and the latter SRC from 182.6% to 108.0 and to 78.3%, respectively. Smaller bread volume and worse shape were evaluated as the amount of hemp flour gradually increased; wholemeal form had more or less a positive effect. Correspondingly to that, crumb firmness measured by penetration test was found approximately half for hemp flour composite bread than for the hemp wholemeal ones.

  12. Cost and effectiveness of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in Chinese ICU patients receiving parenteral nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu GH

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Guo Hao Wu,1 Jian Gao,2 Chun Yan Ji,2 Lorenzo Pradelli,3 Qiu Lei Xi,1 Qiu Lin Zhuang1 1Department of General Surgery, 2Department of Nutrition, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, People's Republic of China; 3AdRes Health Economics and Outcomes Research, Piazza Carlo Emanuele II, Torino, Italy Background and objectives: Clinical evidence supports the use of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA-enriched lipid emulsions in place of standard lipid emulsions in parenteral nutrition (PN for intensive care unit (ICU patients, but uptake may be limited by higher costs. We compared clinical and economic outcomes for these two types of lipid emulsion in the Chinese ICU setting. Methods: We developed a pharmacoeconomic discrete event simulation model, based on efficacy data from an international meta-analysis and patient characteristics, resource consumption, and unit costs from a Chinese institutional setting. Probabilistic sensitivity analyses were undertaken to assess the effects of uncertainty around input parameters. Model predictive validity was assessed by comparing results with data observed in a patient subset not used in the modeling. Results: The model predicted that omega-3 PUFA-enriched emulsion (Omegaven® 10% fish oil emulsion would dominate standard lipid emulsions, with better clinical outcomes and lower overall health care costs (mean savings ~10,000 RMB, mainly as a result of faster recovery and shorter hospital stay (by ~6.5 days. The external validation process confirmed the reliability of the model predictions. Conclusion: Omega-3 PUFA-enriched lipid emulsions improved clinical outcome and decreased overall costs in Chinese ICU patients requiring PN. Keywords: omega-3 PUFA-enriched lipids, ICU patients, total costs, microsimulation, external validation, length of hospital stay

  13. Effect of Moringa oleifera flower fortification on the nutritional quality and sensory properties of weaning food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. O. Arise

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Moringa oleifera is a nutrient rich plant that has the potential to combat malnutrition problems in Africa. This study aims to investigate the effect of fortification using Moringa oleifera flower powder on the sensory and proximate attributes of fermented yellow maize and millet blend (Ogi. The formulation was grouped into seven blends in ratio 100:0:0, 70:30:0, 70:25:5, 70:20:10, 70:15:15, 70:10:20, 70:5:25 for maize, millet and Moringa oleifera flower powder (MOFP respectively. Moringa oleifera flower was air-dried for 5days, milled and sieved to obtained fine powder. The fine powder was mixed thoroughly with fermented maize and millet, wet milled and sieved. The proximate composition of fermented yellow maize and millet (Ogi fortified with Moringa oleifera flower powder showed an increase in crude protein, crude fibre, ash and fat with increase in the levels of Moringa oleifera flower powder and decrease in carbohydrate and moisture content. Moisture, protein, fibre, fat, ash and carbohydrate contents varied in the range 7.92-9.74%, 10.46_16.06%, 2.31-4.13%, 2.90-4.07%, 1.23-1.93% and 66.45-73.25% respectively. Sensory evaluation shows that blend 6 (20% MOFP compared favourably with the control. Also, nutritional analysis shows that blend 6 is favourable as weaning food. Therefore, blend 6 formulation can be used as alternative to the weaning foods to improve the nutritional status of children and help to curb protein malnutrition.

  14. Effect of variety and harvest date on nutritive value and ruminal degradability of ensiled maize ears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terler, Georg; Gruber, Leonhard; Knaus, Wilhelm Friedrich

    2017-10-01

    The nutritive value of whole crop forage maize is influenced by the proportion of ears and stover in the whole crop and by the nutrient composition and digestibility characteristics of the plant parts. An experiment investigating the impact of variety, harvest date and year on the nutritive value of ensiled maize ears was carried out in three consecutive years (2007, 2008 and 2010). Nine different maize varieties were harvested at three different maturity stages (50, 55 and 60% dry matter (DM) content in the ears). After harvest, ears and stover were ensiled separately and afterwards nutrient composition and ruminal nutrient degradability (organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP) and non-fibre carbohydrates (NFC)) were analysed. Variety had a significant influence on content of CP and effective ruminal degradability (ED) of OM at low passage rates, whereas ED of CP and NFC was not affected by variety. In contrast, harvest date and year significantly influenced nutrient composition and ruminal degradability of ensiled maize ears. The content of NFC increased and the content of fibre components as well as ED of OM, CP and NFC declined with processing maturity of the maize plants. At a passage rate of 5% h -1 , ED of OM declined from 75.9% to 68.4%, ED of CP from 82.5% to 73.8% and ED of NFC from 88.0% to 82.3% between the early and late harvest date. The results of this study indicate that the nutrient composition and ruminal degradability of ensiled maize ears are affected mainly by maturity stage at harvest and by year, whereas variety has only little influence.

  15. Effect of different lignocellulosic wastes on Hericium americanum yield and nutritional characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atila, Funda; Tüzel, Yuksel; Faz Cano, Angel; Fernandez, Juan A

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of using cottonseed hulls (CSH) and olive press cake (OPC) as new supplement materials for substrate preparation in Hericium americanum cultivation. Some chemical properties of the substrates prepared by mixtures of oak sawdust (OS) with wheat bran (WB), CSH and OPC in different ratios were determined. In addition, the effect of mixtures of OS:CSH and OS:OPC on spawn run time, yield and biological efficiency (BE), average mushroom weight and nutrition content of the fruiting body were compared with the control substrate (8OS:2WB). The yield, BE and average mushroom weight of substrates containing CSH and OPC were higher than the control substrate and increased with an increase in the rate of CSH and OPC in the mixtures. Hericium americanum showed (on a dry weight basis) 8.5-23.7% protein, 9.9-21.2 g kg -1 P, 26.6-35.8 g kg -1 K, 0.63 - 1.33 g kg -1 Mg, 0.19 - 0.23 g kg -1 Ca, 1.34-1.78 g kg -1 Na, 49.5-72.2 mg kg -1 Fe, 6.22-10.11 mg kg -1 Mn, 32.8-82.8 mg kg -1 Zn and 8.6-11.2 mg kg -1 Cu on different growing substrates. The nutritional value of mushrooms was greatly affected by the growing media. The results revealed that CSH and OPC could be used as new supplement materials for substrate preparation in H. americanum cultivation. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. The effect of nutritional quality on comparing environmental impacts of human diets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kernebeek, van H.R.J.; Oosting, S.J.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Gerber, P.J.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Several studies support the general conclusion that plant-based diets have a lower environmental impact than animal-based diets. These studies, however, do not account for the nutritional quality of diets. The main objective of our study, therefore, was to explore if accounting for nutritional

  17. A systematic review of the cost-effectiveness of worksite physical activity and/or nutrition programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dongen, J.M. van; Proper, K.I.; Wier, M.F. van; Beek, A.J. van der; Bongers, P.M.; Mechelen, W. van; Tulder, M.W. van

    2012-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to appraise and summarize the evidence on the cost-effectiveness of worksite physical activity and/or nutrition programs. Methods We searched EMBASE, MEDLINE, SportDiscus, PsycInfo, NIOSHTIC-2, NHSEED, HTA, and Econlit for studies published up to 14 January 2011.

  18. Limited effects of preterm birth and the first enteral nutrition on cerebellum morphology and gene expression in piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergström, Anders; Kaalund, Sanne S.; Skovgaard, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    three ages but the proportion of white matter increased postnatally, relative to term pigs. Early initiation of enteral nutrition had limited structural or molecular effects. The Sonic Hedgehog pathway was unaffected by preterm birth. Few differences in expression of the selected genes were found...

  19. An efficient methodology for assessing attention to and effect of nutrition information displayed front-of-pack

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bialkova, S.E.; Trijp, van H.C.M.

    2011-01-01

    A methodology for assessing attention to and effect of nutrition information displayed front-of-pack is presented. The methodology is based on an integration of the visual search paradigm, the choice paradigm and eye-tracking measures, and moves beyond reliance on self-report measures for attention

  20. Effects of a Food and Nutrition Course on the Self-Reported Knowledge and Behavior of Preschool Teacher Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unusan, Nurhan

    2007-01-01

    This study examined effects of food and nutrition knowledge on the self-reported behaviors of preschool teacher candidates who completed a 10-week course. Self-reported information was gathered at entry, after completion of the course, and follow up 4 months after completion of the course. A paired t-test compared responses at pre, post and follow…

  1. The effect of extrusion on the nutritional value of canine diets as assessed by in vitro indicators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lankhorst, C.; Tran, Q.D.; Havenaar, R.; Hendriks, W.H.; Poel, A.F.B. van der

    2007-01-01

    A 3 × 2 × 2 factorial trial was designed to investigate the effect of different extrusion conditions and product parameters on the nutritional quality as determined by a number of in vitro measurements (e.g. reactive lysine, and starch gelatinization degree) as well as physical quality of the kibble

  2. No effect of 16 weeks flavor enhancement on dietary intake and nutritional status of nursing home eldery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Essed, N.H.; Staveren, van W.A.; Kok, F.J.; Graaf, de C.

    2007-01-01

    There is a lack of data to support the long-term effect of flavor enhancement on food intake and nutritional status. Our aim was to determine if daily addition of 700 mg flavor and/or 300 mg monosodium glutamate (MSG) to the animal protein part of the cooked meal for 16 weeks leads to an increase in

  3. Effect of electron beam irradiation on the nutritional ingredient of Sciaenops ocellatus meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Chunfang; Yang Wenge; Xu Dalun; Shi Huidong

    2011-01-01

    The influences of electron beam irradiation and package pattern (vacuum or ordinary) on the nutritional ingredient of Sciaenops ocellatus meat were investigated. The results were summarized as follows: (1) Electron-beam irradiation dose had notable effect on the moisture content, but no significant impact on the content of ash, protein, lipid and total carbohydrate. Teh package pattern had no significant effect on the common nutrional composition of Sciaenops ocellatus meat. (2) Either package pattern or irradiation dose showed little influence on the total amino acids, delicious amino acid, EAA/TAA and EAA/NEAA of Sciaenops ocellatus meat. The first limiting amino acid of Sciaenops ocellatus meat changed from Met plus Cys to Val in virtue of electron beam irradiation. (3) Both irradiation dose and package pattern showed no difference to the total fatty acid content. But the irradiation dose had notable effect on the relative content of unsaturated fatty acid, polyunsaturated fatty acid and DHA. The vacuum-packaged group had less DHA loss than the ordinary-packaged group with the same absorbed dose, and low dose groups had less DHA loss than the high groups. As conclusion, combining with the bactericidal effect of electron beam irradiation to Sciaenops ocellatus meat, the recommended dose has been proposed to be 3-5 kGy. (authors)

  4. Effect of ethanolic flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) extracts on lipid oxidation and changes in nutritive value of frozen-stored meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waszkowiak, Katarzyna; Szymandera-Buszka, Krystyna; Hęś, Marzanna

    2014-01-01

    Flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) is an important source of phenolic compounds, mainly lignans. Antioxidant capacities of flaxseed extracts that contain the compounds have been reported earlier. However, there is a lack of accessible information about their activity against lipid oxidation in meat products. Therefore, the effect of ethanolic flaxseed extracts (EFEs) on lipid stability and changes in nutritive value of frozen-stored meat products (pork meatballs and burgers) was determined. EFEs from three Polish flax varieties (Szafir, Oliwin, Jantarol) were applied in the study. During 150-day storage of meat products, the lipid oxidation (peroxide and TBARS value) and thiamine retention were periodically monitored, alongside with methionine and lysine availability and protein digestibility. The addition of EFEs significantly limited lipid oxidation in stored meatballs and burgers. EFE from brown seeds of Szafir var. was superior to the others from golden seeds of Jantarol and Oliwin. Moreover, the extracts reduced changes in thiamine and available lysine content, as well as protein digestibility, during storage time. The effect of EFE addition on available methionine retention was limited. The ethanolic flaxseed extracts exhibit antioxidant activity during frozen storage of meat products. They can be utilized to prolong shelf-life of the products by protecting them against lipid oxidation and deterioration of their nutritional quality. However, antioxidant efficiency of the extracts seems to depend on chemical composition of raw material (flax variety). Further investigations should be carried on to explain the issue.

  5. Highlighting the evidence gap: how cost-effective are interventions to improve early childhood nutrition and development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batura, Neha; Hill, Zelee; Haghparast-Bidgoli, Hassan; Lingam, Raghu; Colbourn, Timothy; Kim, Sungwook; Sikander, Siham; Pulkki-Brannstrom, Anni-Maria; Rahman, Atif; Kirkwood, Betty; Skordis-Worrall, Jolene

    2015-07-01

    There is growing evidence of the effectiveness of early childhood interventions to improve the growth and development of children. Although, historically, nutrition and stimulation interventions may have been delivered separately, they are increasingly being tested as a package of early childhood interventions that synergistically improve outcomes over the life course. However, implementation at scale is seldom possible without first considering the relative cost and cost-effectiveness of these interventions. An evidence gap in this area may deter large-scale implementation, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. We conduct a literature review to establish what is known about the cost-effectiveness of early childhood nutrition and development interventions. A set of predefined search terms and exclusion criteria standardized the search across five databases. The search identified 15 relevant articles. Of these, nine were from studies set in high-income countries and six in low- and middle-income countries. The articles either calculated the cost-effectiveness of nutrition-specific interventions (n = 8) aimed at improving child growth, or parenting interventions (stimulation) to improve early childhood development (n = 7). No articles estimated the cost-effectiveness of combined interventions. Comparing results within nutrition or stimulation interventions, or between nutrition and stimulation interventions was largely prevented by the variety of outcome measures used in these analyses. This article highlights the need for further evidence relevant to low- and middle-income countries. To facilitate comparison of cost-effectiveness between studies, and between contexts where appropriate, a move towards a common outcome measure such as the cost per disability-adjusted life years averted is advocated. Finally, given the increasing number of combined nutrition and stimulation interventions being tested, there is a significant need for evidence of cost-effectiveness

  6. REACH: an effective catalyst for scaling up priority nutrition interventions at the country level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Brenda L; Ljungqvist, Björn

    2011-06-01

    Renewed Efforts Against Child Hunger (REACH) is the joint United Nations initiative to address Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 10, Target 3, i.e., to halve the proportion of underweight children under 5 years old by 2015. The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the World Health Organization (WHO), the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), the World Food Programme (WFP), and the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) developed and tested a facilitation mechanism to act as a catalyst for scaling up multisectoral nutrition activities. The UN-REACH partners developed pilot projects in Mauritania and Lao PDR from 2008 to 2010 and deployed facilitators to improve nutrition governance and coordination. Review missions were conducted in February 2011 to assess the REACH approach and what it achieved. The UN review mission members reviewed documents, assessed policy and management indicators, conducted qualitative interviews, and discussed findings with key stakeholders, including the most senior UN nutrition directors from all agencies. Among other UN-REACH achievements, the Prime Minister of Mauritania agreed to preside over a new National Nutrition Development Council responsible for high-level decision-making and setting national policy objectives. REACH facilitated the completion of Lao's first national Nutrition Strategy and Plan of Action and formation of the multistakeholder Nutrition Task Force. During the REACH engagement, coordination, joint advocacy, situation analysis, policy development, and joint UN programming for nutrition were strengthened in Lao PDR and Mauritania. Improvements in the nutrition governance and management mechanisms in Mauritania and Lao PDR were observed during the period of REACH support through increased awareness of nutrition as a key development objective, establishment of governmental multisectoral coordinating mechanisms, improved government capacity, and new joint UN-government nutrition

  7. Explaining the effects of a point-of-purchase nutrition-information intervention in university canteens: a structural equation modelling analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoefkens, Christine; Pieniak, Zuzanna; Van Camp, John; Verbeke, Wim

    2012-09-11

    The importance of canteen meals in the diet of many university students makes the provision of simple point-of-purchase (POP) nutrition information in university canteens a potentially effective way to promote healthier diets in an important group of young adults. However, modifications to environments such as the posting of POP nutrition information in canteens may not cause an immediate change in meal choices and nutrient intakes. The present study aimed at understanding the process by which the POP nutrition information achieved its effects on the meal choice and energy intake, and whether the information was more effective in changing the meal choice of subgroups of university canteen customers. The POP nutrition-information intervention used a one-group pretest-posttest design. A sample of 224 customers of two university canteens completed the baseline and 6-months follow-up surveys. A multi-group structural equation modelling analysis was used to test mediation effects of individual difference variables (liking, understanding and use of the information, subjective knowledge and attitude) on the energy intake from canteen meals, moderated by the objective nutrition knowledge and motivation to change diet. Significant relations were identified between liking of the information and its use on one hand and a positive effect in attitude towards healthy canteen meals on the other hand. Motivation to change diet and sufficient objective nutrition knowledge were required to maintain a recommended energy intake from canteen meals or to lead to a decrease in energy intake. Participants with greater objective nutrition knowledge had a greater understanding of the POP nutrition information which also resulted in a more effective use of the information. The results suggest that nutrition-information interventions may be more effective when using nutrition information that is generally liked by the target population in combination with an educational intervention to

  8. Explaining the effects of a point-of-purchase nutrition-information intervention in university canteens: a structural equation modelling analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoefkens Christine

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The importance of canteen meals in the diet of many university students makes the provision of simple point-of-purchase (POP nutrition information in university canteens a potentially effective way to promote healthier diets in an important group of young adults. However, modifications to environments such as the posting of POP nutrition information in canteens may not cause an immediate change in meal choices and nutrient intakes. The present study aimed at understanding the process by which the POP nutrition information achieved its effects on the meal choice and energy intake, and whether the information was more effective in changing the meal choice of subgroups of university canteen customers. Methods The POP nutrition-information intervention used a one-group pretest-posttest design. A sample of 224 customers of two university canteens completed the baseline and 6-months follow-up surveys. A multi-group structural equation modelling analysis was used to test mediation effects of individual difference variables (liking, understanding and use of the information, subjective knowledge and attitude on the energy intake from canteen meals, moderated by the objective nutrition knowledge and motivation to change diet. Results Significant relations were identified between liking of the information and its use on one hand and a positive effect in attitude towards healthy canteen meals on the other hand. Motivation to change diet and sufficient objective nutrition knowledge were required to maintain a recommended energy intake from canteen meals or to lead to a decrease in energy intake. Participants with greater objective nutrition knowledge had a greater understanding of the POP nutrition information which also resulted in a more effective use of the information. Conclusions The results suggest that nutrition-information interventions may be more effective when using nutrition information that is generally liked by the target

  9. Nutritional status of patients with ataxia-telangiectasia: A case for early and ongoing nutrition support and intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Lynda J; Capra, Sandra; Baguley, Brenton; Sinclair, Kate; Munro, Kate; Lewindon, Peter; Lavin, Martin

    2015-08-01

    Ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) is a rare genomic syndrome resulting in severe disability. Chronic childhood disorders can profoundly influence growth and development. Nutrition-related issues in A-T are not well described, and there are no nutritional guidelines. This study investigated the nutrition-related characteristics and behaviours of Australian A-T patients attending a national clinic. A cross-sectional analysis of 13 A-T patients (nine females; aged: 4-23 years): nutritional status was assessed by anthropometric and body cell mass (BCM) calculations. Parents reported their child's diet history and physical and behavioural factors that affect nutrition including fatigue and need for assistance. Ten (77%) had short stature (height for age z scores nutritional barriers as chronic tiredness and the need for care giver assistance with meals. This study confirms profound malnutrition in Australian A-T patients. Poor intakes and diet quality suggest the need for early nutrition intervention. Ongoing support for families and early discussions on tube feeding are required to address changing needs in childhood and likely nutritional decline into adulthood. A prospective study is required to assess feasibility and effectiveness of nutrition interventions in young people with A-T. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2015 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  10. Effects of Zn, macronutrients, and their interactions through foliar applications on winter wheat grain nutritional quality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaoxia Wang

    Full Text Available Although application of Zn combined with macronutrients (K, P, and N can be used to fortify wheat grain with Zn, little is known about their interactions when foliar application is employed or the influences of common soil fertility management practices (e.g. N and straw management on their efficiency. Therefore, the effects of foliar-applied Zn and N, P, or K on grain nutritional quality (especially Zn were investigated in wheat grown under different soil N rates at two sites with (Sanyuan or without (Yangling employing straw return. A 4-year-long field experiment was also conducted to evaluate the environmental stability of the foliar formulations. Across 6 site-years, foliar Zn application alone or combined with N, P, or K fertilizers resulted in 95.7%, 101%, 67.9% and 121% increases in grain Zn concentration, respectively. In terms of increasing grain Zn concentration, foliar-applied Zn positively interacted with N (at Sanyuan and K (at Yangling, but negatively interacted with P at any condition tested, suggesting depressive effects of foliarly-applied P on physiological availability of Zn. Although these interaction effects were the major factor that governing the efficiency of foliar-applied Zn combined with N, P, or K on grain Zn concentration, the magnitude of the increase/decrease in grain Zn (-3.96~5.71 mg kg-1 due to these interactions was much less than the average increases following Zn+K (31.3, Zn+P (18.7, and Zn+N (26.5 mg kg-1 treatments relative to that observed in foliar Zn-only treatment. The combined foliar application of Zn with N, P, or K did not cause any adverse impact on grain yield and other nutritional quality and in some cases slightly increased grain yield and macronutrient concentrations. Grain phytic acid:Zn molar ratios were respectively 52.0%, 53.1%, 43.4% and 63.5% lower in the foliar Zn, Zn+N, Zn+P and Zn+K treatments than in the control treatment. These effects were consistent over four years and across three

  11. Effects of Zn, macronutrients, and their interactions through foliar applications on winter wheat grain nutritional quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shaoxia; Li, Meng; Liu, Ke; Tian, Xiaohong; Li, Shuo; Chen, Yanlong; Jia, Zhou

    2017-01-01

    Although application of Zn combined with macronutrients (K, P, and N) can be used to fortify wheat grain with Zn, little is known about their interactions when foliar application is employed or the influences of common soil fertility management practices (e.g. N and straw management) on their efficiency. Therefore, the effects of foliar-applied Zn and N, P, or K on grain nutritional quality (especially Zn) were investigated in wheat grown under different soil N rates at two sites with (Sanyuan) or without (Yangling) employing straw return. A 4-year-long field experiment was also conducted to evaluate the environmental stability of the foliar formulations. Across 6 site-years, foliar Zn application alone or combined with N, P, or K fertilizers resulted in 95.7%, 101%, 67.9% and 121% increases in grain Zn concentration, respectively. In terms of increasing grain Zn concentration, foliar-applied Zn positively interacted with N (at Sanyuan) and K (at Yangling), but negatively interacted with P at any condition tested, suggesting depressive effects of foliarly-applied P on physiological availability of Zn. Although these interaction effects were the major factor that governing the efficiency of foliar-applied Zn combined with N, P, or K on grain Zn concentration, the magnitude of the increase/decrease in grain Zn (-3.96~5.71 mg kg-1) due to these interactions was much less than the average increases following Zn+K (31.3), Zn+P (18.7), and Zn+N (26.5 mg kg-1) treatments relative to that observed in foliar Zn-only treatment. The combined foliar application of Zn with N, P, or K did not cause any adverse impact on grain yield and other nutritional quality and in some cases slightly increased grain yield and macronutrient concentrations. Grain phytic acid:Zn molar ratios were respectively 52.0%, 53.1%, 43.4% and 63.5% lower in the foliar Zn, Zn+N, Zn+P and Zn+K treatments than in the control treatment. These effects were consistent over four years and across three soil N

  12. Nutrition in cachexia: from bench to bedside.

    OpenAIRE

    Konishi, Masaaki; Ishida, Junichi; von Haehling, Stephan; Anker, Stefan D.; Springer, Jochen

    2016-01-01

    As malnutrition is often present in cachexia, nutritional intervention has been one of the widely accepted strategies. A literature review of cachexia models with dietary interventions in the present issue of this journal pointed out that the majority of nutrient intervention studies were of n-3 fatty acid, mainly eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. Effect on protein catabolism and anti-inflammation are most pronounced benefits of n-3 fatty acid. The effectiveness of n-3 fatty aci...

  13. Evaluation of the effect of processing methods on the nutritional and anti-nutritional compositions of two under-utilized Nigerian grain legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oke, M O; Sobowale, S S; Ogunlakin, G O

    2013-12-15

    The nutritional and anti-nutritional compositions of African Yam Bean (AYB) and Lima bean flours under different processing methods were determined. Nutritional and anti-nutritional properties studied include moisture content, crude protein, crude fibre, ash content, ether extract, carbohydrate, tannin, protease inhibitor and phytate. The moisture content of AYB flours ranged from 9.31 to 9.61% while that of lima beans ranged from 9.32 to 9.56%. There is a significant different among the samples when the unprocessed AYB (control) and the processed AYB were compared. The same trend was also observed with lima bean flours. However, some nutrient did not show significant variations with processing. It was observed that samples of soaked/de-hulled AYB have the least protease inhibitor of 0.73 mg/100 g and it is significantly different from the unprocessed samples. Soaked/de-hulled flours of both AYB and lima beans have the most percentage decrease in anti-nutritional content. Lima bean flours were observed to have higher anti-nutritional content than AYB. The percentage decrease of anti-nutritional factors in the samples is proportionally higher than that of the nutrients. The nutritional and anti-nutritional compositions of the samples suggest that processed African Yam Bean (AYB) and Lima bean flours would have useful application in fabricated foods.

  14. Absence of effect of nasal continuous positive airway pressure on the esophageal phase of nutritive swallowing in newborn lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djeddi, Djamal; Cantin, Danny; Samson, Nathalie; Tian, Hao; Praud, Jean-Paul

    2013-08-01

    It is presently recommended that oral feeding be started in premature infants as soon as possible, often at an age at which nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) is still required for ventilatory support. Our previous data showed that application of nCPAP up to 10 cmH2O in full-term lambs had no deleterious effect on cardiorespiratory safety, feeding efficiency, or on nutritive swallowing-breathing coordination. Besides fear of swallowing-breathing coordination disturbances, esophageal motility disruption by nCPAP could be a reason to delay oral feeding. To our knowledge, no study has focused on the effects of nCPAP on esophageal motility in the neonatal period. The aim of the present study was therefore to further assess the effects of nCPAP on oral feeding by assessing its effects on the esophageal phase of nutritive swallowing (nutritive esophagodeglutition). Six full-term lambs, ages 2 to 3 days, underwent esophageal multichannel intraluminal impedance-pH monitoring. Lambs were bottle-fed under 2 randomized conditions, namely spontaneous breathing and nCPAP 6 cmH(2)O. Beyond confirmation of unaltered feeding efficiency, analysis of multiple variables measured by impedance monitoring revealed that nCPAP 6 does not alter nutritive esophagodeglutition in any way (nCPAP vs spontaneous breathing, P > 0.1 for all variables). offering further support to neonatologists pleading for initiation of oral feeding in infants still on nCPAP, the present results set the foundations for similar clinical studies in preterm human infants to confirm the absence of effects of nCPAP on nutritive swallowing.

  15. Nutritional status in patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis and a study of the effects of zinc supplementation together with antimony treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Guzman-Rivero

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The role of micronutrient status for the incidence and clinical course of cutaneous leishmaniasis is not much studied. Still zinc supplementation in leishmaniasis has shown some effect on the clinical recovery, but the evidence in humans is limited. Objective: To compare biochemical nutritional status in cutaneous leishmaniasis patients with that in controls and to study the effects of zinc supplementation for 60 days. Design: Twenty-nine patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis were treated with antimony for 20 days. Fourteen of them got 45 mg zinc daily and 15 of them got placebo. Biomarkers of nutritional and inflammatory status and changes in size and characteristics of skin lesions were measured. Results: The level of transferrin receptor was higher in patients than in controls but otherwise no differences in nutritional status were found between patients and controls. No significant effects of zinc supplementation on the clinical recovery were observed as assessed by lesion area reduction and characteristics or on biochemical parameters. Conclusions: It is concluded that nutritional status was essentially unaffected in cutaneous leishmaniasis and that oral zinc supplementation administered together with intramuscular injection of antimony had no additional clinical benefit.

  16. Effects of Larval Nutrition on Wolbachia-Based Dengue Virus Interference in Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kho, Elise A; Hugo, Leon E; Lu, Guangjin; Smith, David D; Kay, Brian H

    2016-07-01

    In order to assess the broad-scale applicability of field releases of Wolbachia for the biological control of insect-transmitted diseases, we determined the relationship between the larval diet of Aedes aegypti L. mosquitoes infected with Wolbachia strains and their susceptibility to dengue virus (DENV) infection via intrathoracic injection and oral inoculation. Larvae were reared on diets that varied in the quantity of food which had the effect of modifying development time and adult body size. Wolbachia wMel infection was associated with highly significant reductions in dengue serotype 2 (DENV-2) infection rates of between 80 and 97.5% following intrathoracic injection of adults emerging from three diet levels. Reductions were 100% in two diet level treatments following oral inoculation. Similarly, wMelPop infection was associated with highly significant reductions in DENV-2 infection rates of between 95 and 100% for intrathoracic injection and 97.5 and 100% for oral inoculation across diet level treatments. Larval diet level had no significant effect on DENV-2 infection rates in the presence of Wolbachia infection in mosquitoes that were intrathoracically injected with the virus. This indicates that the effectiveness of Wolbachia on vector competence disruption within Ae. aegypti is unlikely to be compromised by variable larval nutrition in field settings. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Effectiveness of nutrition centers in Ceará state, northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monte Cristina Maria Gomes do

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Childhood malnutrition has been a major, long-standing health concern in northeastern Brazil. In response, during 1992_1994, the state government of Ceará, with financial support from the World Bank, established 34 new nutrition centers. During 1996 an evaluation of the centers was conducted to determine their effectiveness in treating children with malnutrition and to identify weaknesses in the system and possible solutions. Also evaluated were the adequacy of resources, admission and discharge criteria, staff training, and community satisfaction. Effectiveness was found to be low. Treatment procedures did not conform with World Health Organization recommendations. Rates of weight gain were inadequate, and the mean duration of rehabilitation-8.7 months-was too long. Case fatality in two centers was unacceptably high, 40% and more. Entry and exit criteria for rehabilitation were ill defined, resulting in some nonmalnourished children being enrolled. Few staff were adequately trained; knowledge was weak, especially about case management; and mothers were not effectively instructed. Recommendations include setting objectives for the centers, improving referral systems, standardizing entry criteria, improving case management, and establishing performance indicators.

  18. Cost-effectiveness of Nutritional Counseling for Obese Patients and Patients at Risk of Ischemic Heart Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jens; Willain, I.; Ladelund, S.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Obesity and dyslipidemia are risk factors for ischemic heart disease, and prevention and treatment in primary care can reduce these risks. The objective of this cost-effectiveness analysis was to compare the costs and effects (in terms of life years gained) of providing nutritional...... counseling by a general practitioner (GP) or a dietician. METHODS: A total of 60 GPs, who accepted to participate, were randomized either to give nutritional counseling or to refer patients to a dietician for counseling. The life years gained was estimated using a Cox regression model. Costs were estimated...... proven that the GP group was the most cost-effective-the cost of gaining 1 extra life year was estimated to be 8213 DKK compared with the dietician group, for which the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was estimated to be 59,987 DKK. CONCLUSIONS: The effects were moderate, but other studies of other...

  19. Nutritional care of Danish medical inpatients: Effect on dietary intake and the occupational groups' perspectives of intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jensen Lillian

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many patients do not eat and drink sufficiently during hospitalisation. The clinical consequences of this under nutrition include lassitude, an increased risk of complications and prolonged convalescence. The aim of the study was 1 to introduce intervention targeting nutritional care for medical inpatients, 2 to investigate the effect of this intervention, and 3 to investigate the occupational groups' attitudes towards nutritional intervention and nutritional care in general. Methods The design was to determinate the extent to which the protein and energy requirements of medical inpatients were met before and after intervention. Dietary protein and energy intakes were assessed by 72-hour weighed food records. A total number of 108 medical patients at four bed sections and occupational groups in the two intervention bed sections, Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark participated. The intervention included introduction and implementation of nursing procedures targeting nutritional care during a five-month investigation period using standard food produced at the hospital. The effect of intervention for independent groups of patients were tested by one-way analysis of variance. After the intervention occupational groups were interviewed in focus groups. Results Before the intervention hospital food on average met 72% of the patients' protein requirement and 85% of their energy requirement. After intervention hospital food satisfied 85% of the protein and 103% of the energy requirements of 14 patients in one intervention section and 56% of the protein and 76% of the energy requirement of 17 patients in the other intervention section. Hospital food satisfied 61% of the protein and 75% of the energy requirement in a total of 29 controls. From the occupational groups' point of view lack of time, lack of access to food, and lack of knowledge of nutritional care for patients were identified as barriers to better integration of

  20. Shifting frames : Conditional indirect effects of contested issues on perceived effectiveness through multiple emotions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feinholdt, A.; Schuck, A.R.T.; Lecheler, S.K.; de Vreese, C.H.

    2017-01-01

    Prior research has found that exposure to news frames can cause emotional responses to political issues. Yet, little is known about how different combinations of news frames and issues relate to discrete emotions and whether these emotions, in turn, affect issue perceptions. The present study

  1. The effect of testosterone and a nutritional supplement on hospital admissions in under-nourished, older people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron Ian D

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Weight loss and under-nutrition are relatively common in older people, and are associated with poor outcomes including increased rates of hospital admissions and death. In a pilot study of 49 undernourished older, community dwelling people we found that daily treatment for one year with a combination of testosterone tablets and a nutritional supplement produced a significant reduction in hospitalizations. We propose a larger, multicentre study to explore and hopefully confirm this exciting, potentially important finding (NHMRC project grant number 627178. Methods/Design One year randomized control trial where subjects are allocated to either oral testosterone undecanoate and high calorie oral nutritional supplement or placebo medication and low calorie oral nutritional supplementation. 200 older community-dwelling, undernourished people [Mini Nutritional Assessment score 2: 7.5% over 3 months]. Hospital admissions, quality-adjusted life years, functional status, nutritional health, muscle strength, body composition and other variables will be assessed. Discussion The pilot study showed that combined treatment with an oral testosterone and a supplement drink was well tolerated and safe, and reduced the number of people hospitalised and duration of hospital admissions in undernourished, community dwelling older people. This is an exciting finding, as it identifies a treatment which may be of substantial benefit to many older people in our community. We now propose to conduct a multi-centre study to test these findings in a substantially larger subject group, and to determine the cost effectiveness of this treatment. Trial registration Australian Clinical Trial Registry: ACTRN 12610000356066

  2. The Effect of Pender’s Health Promotion Model in Improving the Nutritional Behavior of Overweight and Obese Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Khodaveisi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Changes in lifestyle and eating habits have put women at risk of obesity and overweight more than ever. This aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Pender’s Health Promotion Model (HPM to improve the nutritional behavior of overweight and obese women admitted to Fatemiyeh Hospital clinics in Hamadan, west Iran in 2015. Methods: n this quasi-experimental study, 108 eligible women were selected and randomly assigned to two groups: one experimental and one control. Data were gathered using three questionnaires: demographics, Pender’s HPM constructs, and nutritional behavior. The questionnaires were filled out by both groups as pre-test and two months later. A Pender’s HPM-based intervention was conducted for the experimental group. The data were analyzed by paired and independent t-tests, ANCOVA, and Spearmans’ correlation coefficient in SPSS/16. The level of significance was considered to be <0.05. Results: The mean score of nutritional behavior was 41.75±3.28 and 42.36±3.69 before the intervention and 79.09±5.27 and 49.72±9.49 after it in the experimental and control groups, respectively. The difference was significant only between before and after the intervention in the experimental group (P<0.001. Furthermore, the mean scores of the following variables were significantly different between before and after the intervention in the experimental group: nutritional behavior, perceived benefits, perceived self-efficacy, commitment to action, interpersonal and situational influences, behavior-related affect, and perceived barriers (P<0.001. Conclusion: The results showed that Pender’s HPM-based training improved nutritional behavior and some constructs of the model. Therefore, this educative model can be used by healthcare providers to improve the nutritional and other health promoting behaviors.

  3. Optimizing patient nutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geiker, Nina Rica Wium

    (Paper I). The present study is, to my knowledge, the only study investigating the validity of performed nutritional risk screenings by comparing them with medical records. Eight per cent of patients were correctly screened for nutritional risk. A total of 24% of 2393 patients were nutritionally screened......Malnutrition, under-nutrition and/or obesity, may develop due to disease but may also cause disease. The prevalence of under-nutrition among hospitalized patients is high: 40-60% are either already under-nourished on admittance or at-risk of becoming malnourished. As in the general population...... of prescription medication, and take longer to recover. Acknowledging the adverse effects of malnutrition on health, since 2006 it has been mandatory to screen all patients for nutritional risk within 24 hours of admittance at all hospitals in the Capital Region, Denmark. The compliance to and the validity...

  4. Beneficial Effect of the Nutritional Support in Children Who Underwent Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koç, Nevra; Gündüz, Mehmet; Tavil, Betül; Azik, M Fatih; Coşkun, Zeynep; Yardımcı, Hülya; Uçkan, Duygu; Tunç, Bahattin

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate nutritional status in children who underwent hematopoietic stem cell transplant compared with a healthy control group. A secondary aim was to utilize mid-upper arm circumference as a measure of nutritional status in these groups of children. Our study group included 40 children (18 girls, 22 boys) with mean age of 9.2 ± 4.6 years (range, 2-17 y) who underwent hematopoietic stem cell transplant. Our control group consisted of 20 healthy children (9 girls, 11 boys). The children were evaluated at admission to the hospital and followed regularly 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after discharge from the hospital. In the study group, 27 of 40 patients (67.5%) received nutritional support during hematopoietic stem cell transplant, with 15 patients (56%) receiving enteral nutrition, 6 (22%) receiving total parenteral nutrition, and 6 (22%) receiving enteral and total parenteral nutrition. Chronic malnutrition rate in the study group was 47.5% on admission to the hospital, with the control group having a rate of 20%. One year after transplant, the rate decreased to 20% in the study group and 5% in the control group. The mid-upper arm circumference was lower in children in the study group versus the control group at the beginning of the study (P groups at follow-up examinations (P > .05). During follow-up, all anthropometric measurements increased significantly in both groups. Monitoring nutritional status and initiating appropriate nutritional support improved the success of hematopoietic stem cell transplant and provided a more comfortable process during the transplant period. Furthermore, mid-upper arm circumference is a more sensitive, useful, and safer parameter that can be used to measure nutritional status of children who undergo hematopoietic stem cell transplant.

  5. Deworming drugs for soil-transmitted intestinal worms in children: effects on nutritional indicators, haemoglobin, and school performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor-Robinson, David C; Maayan, Nicola; Soares-Weiser, Karla; Donegan, Sarah; Garner, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Background The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends treating all school children at regular intervals with deworming drugs in areas where helminth infection is common. As the intervention is often claimed to have important health, nutrition, and societal effects beyond the removal of worms, we critically evaluated the evidence on benefits. Objectives To summarize the effects of giving deworming drugs to children to treat soil-transmitted helminths on weight, haemoglobin, and cognition; and the evidence of impact on physical well-being, school attendance, school performance, and mortality. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register (14 April 2015); Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), published in the Cochrane Library (2015, Issue 4); MEDLINE (2000 to 14 April 2015); EMBASE (2000 to 14 April 2015); LILACS (2000 to 14 April 2015); the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT); and reference lists, and registers of ongoing and completed trials up to 14 April 2015. Selection criteria We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs comparing deworming drugs for soil-transmitted helminths with placebo or no treatment in children aged 16 years or less, reporting on weight, haemoglobin, and formal tests of intellectual development. We also sought data on school attendance, school performance, and mortality. We included trials that combined health education with deworming programmes. Data collection and analysis At least two review authors independently assessed the trials, evaluated risk of bias, and extracted data. We analysed continuous data using the mean difference (MD) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Where data were missing, we contacted trial authors. We used outcomes at time of longest follow-up. The evidence quality was assessed using GRADE. This edition of the Cochrane Review adds the DEVTA trial from India, and draws on an independent analytical replication of a trial from

  6. [Effects of Lifestyle Intervention on Fatigue, Nutritional Status and Quality of Life in Patients with Gynecologic Cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Hyunjin; Nho, Ju Hee; Yoo, Sunyoung; Kim, Hyunmin; Nho, Minji; Yoo, Hojeong

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of lifestyle intervention on the development of fatigue, nutritional status and quality of life of patients with gynecologic cancer. A nonequivalent control group quasi-experimental design was used. Participants were 49 patients with gynecologic cancer. They were assigned to the experiment group (n=24) or the control group (n=25). The lifestyle intervention for this study consisted of physical activity, nutritional education, telephone call counseling, health counseling, monitoring for lifestyle, and affective support based on Cox's Interaction Model of Client Health Behavior and was implemented for six weeks. Significant group differences were found for fatigue (p =.037), nutritional status (p =.034) and social/family well-being (p =.035) in these patients with gynecologic cancer. Results indicate that this lifestyle intervention is effective in lessening fatigue, and improving nutritional status and social/family well-being. Therefore, nurses in hospitals should develop strategies to expand and provide lifestyle interventions for patients with cancer.

  7. [Effect of Supportan on nutritional status and immune function of late-staged gastric cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Hai-jun; Ying, Jie-er; Ma, Sheng-lin

    2006-09-01

    To evaluate the effect of Supportan, an enteral nutrition (EN) specific for tumor patients, on the nutritional status and immune function of late-staged gastric cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. Sixty-six late-staged gastric cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy were randomly divided into EN group (n=33) and control group (n=33). During chemotherapy, the patients in EN group received Supportan and the patients in the control group received basic diet. On the 14th day before chemotherapy and after chemotherapy, nutritional status and cell immune indicators were evaluated. As for nutrition indicators, there were no significant differences in EN group before and after chemotherapy (P > 0.05). Total protein, hemoglobin, prealbumin and transferrin significantly decreased after chemotherapy compared with those before chemotherapy in the control group (Pnutrition in EN group were superior to that in the control group, however, the differences were not statistically significant. The incidences of nausea, vomiting and marrow inhibition in Supportan group was lower compared with those in the control group, but with no significant difference. Supportan can prevent malnutrition of the late-staged gastric cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy, and improve immune function and alleviate adverse effects of chemotherapy.

  8. The effect of fermented milk on interferon production in malnourished children and in anorexia nervosa patients undergoing nutritional care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solis, B; Nova, E; Gómez, S; Samartín, S; Mouane, N; Lemtouni, A; Belaoui, H; Marcos, A

    2002-12-01

    For several years cytokine production has been associated with infections but it was not suspected that some types of food could also induce cytokines, even in a state of non-infection. Lactic bacteria can induce interferon (IFN) production in human healthy subjects, thus, a better protection against infections would be expected. Therefore, we planned to evaluate the effect of two diets including yoghurt or milk on IFN-gamma production during nutritional recovery in two different situations of malnutrition: (1) children with diarrhoea; and (2) patients with anorexia nervosa (AN). Both the diet including yoghurt of that including milk seemed to increase IFN-gamma production at the end of nutritional recovery in the malnourished children with diarrhoea. The significance of interferon production and the lymphocyte subset increase should be explored to know if a better resistance against pathogens is related to them. Regulation of intestinal absorption and moderate stimulation of interferon production make the yoghurt-based diet a good choice in the nutritional care of children. In the same way, an increase in the IFN-gamma production was observed in AN patients consuming yoghurt. This increase of IFN-gamma production could be considered a biological marker to detect the effect of probiotics on the immune response, especially in the improvement of a deficient nutritional status.

  9. Determining the Use and Perceived Effectiveness of a Point-of-Purchase Cafeteria Nutrition Education Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzansky, ANITA S.; Whiting, Susan; Dobson, JOANNE DESMARAIS

    1998-01-01

    The Eat Smart Heart Beat Cafeteria Program (ESCP) is a point-of-purchase nutrition education program (PPNEP), which was developed by the Ottawa-Carleton Health Department (OCHD). The intent of this program was to increase the awareness and availability of lower-fat, higher-fibre foods in cafeterias. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ESCP using a Feedback Questionnaire. The questionnaire was developed primarily to determine the use of the ESCP manual and to evaluate the users' perceived effectiveness of this program. Purchasers of the ESCP were asked to complete the questionnaire one year after they received the program resources. Forty of the 88 program recipients (45%) returned the questionnaire. Most responses were from nutritionists or dietitians, health service managers and occupational health workers. Most respondents represented large workplaces (more than 250 employees) such as hospitals, government, health units and educational institutions. Of the 40 respondents, 10 implemented the program and indicated that they were moderately to very satisfied with all of the resources and that they would continue using the program. The 30 respondents who reported not using the program indicated that this was mainly due to time constraints. The ESCP has the potential to increase the awareness and availability of lower-fat, higher-fibre foods. Therefore, it is recommended that the program be continued in a ready-to-use format to increase its usability. Further research is needed to clarify the effects of the ESCP on behaviour change.

  10. Nutritional Genomics and the Mediterranean Diet’s Effects on Human Cardiovascular Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat Fitó

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The synergies and cumulative effects among different foods and nutrients are what produce the benefits of a healthy dietary pattern. Diets and dietary patterns are a major environmental factor that we are exposed to several times a day. People can learn how to control this behavior in order to promote healthy living and aging, and to prevent diet-related diseases. To date, the traditional Mediterranean diet has been the only well-studied pattern. Stroke incidence, a number of classical risk factors including lipid profile and glycaemia, emergent risk factors such as the length of telomeres, and emotional eating behavior can be affected by genetic predisposition. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet could exert beneficial effects on these risk factors. Our individual genetic make-up should be taken into account to better prevent these traits and their subsequent consequences in cardiovascular disease development. In the present work, we review the results of nutritional genomics explaining the role of the Mediterranean diet in human cardiovascular disease. A multidisciplinary approach is necessary to extract knowledge from large-scale data.

  11. Effect of poverty reduction program on nutritional status of the extreme poor in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalal, Chowdhury S B; Frongillo, Edward A

    2013-12-01

    Poverty alleviation programs for the extreme poor improve participants' economic status and may impact other important outcomes that are seldom evaluated. A program targeted to the extreme poor by BRAG, a development organization in Bangladesh, has been successful in significantly alleviating extreme poverty. We hypothesized that the program also improved the nutritional status of women and preschool children. A nonequivalent control, pre- and posttest quasi-experimental design that was longitudinal at the village level was used to test the hypotheses. Data were collected from a random sample of 4,131 children and 3,551 women from 3,409 households in 159 villages of 3 northern districts of Bangladesh in 2002 and 2006. Linear mixed random-intercept models accounted for clustering effects and potential confounders. The weight-for-height of children between 24 and 35 months of age from program households was significantly higher (p growth and body-composition indicators in three other age categories of preschool children or in women. These results are important, as this is a large-scale program that has already been extended to more than half the country. The findings will contribute to judging the cost-benefit and cost-effectiveness of the program and in garnering support for the expansion of such programs.

  12. Effects of pediatric cancer and its treatment on nutritional status: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iniesta, Raquel Revuelta; Paciarotti, Ilenia; Brougham, Mark F H; McKenzie, Jane M; Wilson, David C

    2015-05-01

    Malnutrition in pediatric cancer is common worldwide, yet its prevalence and effects on clinical outcomes remain unclear. The aim of this review was to evaluate primary research reporting the prevalence of malnutrition in pediatric cancer patients and to assess the effects of pediatric cancer and its treatment on nutritional status. Electronic databases of MEDLINE, CINHAL, and PubMed were searched (January 1990-February 2013). Studies of patients aged children diagnosed with and treated for cancer. Evidence was appraised critically by employing the Critical Appraisal Skills Program tool, and data was extracted from original articles. A total of 46 studies were included, most of which were considered to be of low quality on the basis of heterogeneity in both the criteria and the measurements used to define malnutrition. Undernutrition was identified by measuring BMI, weight loss, mid-upper arm circumference, and triceps skinfold thickness, while overnutrition was assessed using BMI. Overall, the prevalence of undernutrition ranged from 0% to 65% and overnutrition from 8% to 78%. Finally, undernutrition in pediatric cancer at diagnosis was associated with poor clinical outcomes in 6 of 9 studies. The possibility of a high prevalence of malnutrition in childhood cancer, indicated by the studies reviewed, highlights the need for high-quality, population-based, longitudinal studies using standard criteria to identify malnutrition. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Effect of fasting in Ramadan on body composition and nutritional intake: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norouzy, A; Salehi, M; Philippou, E; Arabi, H; Shiva, F; Mehrnoosh, S; Mohajeri, S M R; Mohajeri, S A Reza; Motaghedi Larijani, A; Nematy, M

    2013-07-01

    The present study aimed to assess the effects of Ramadan intermittent fasting on body weight and composition and the effects of age and sex. Body weight, height, waist and hip circumferences were measured, body mass index (BMI) was calculated and fat mass, fat-free mass and percentage body fat were assessed by bioelectrical impedance on 240 adult subjects (male: 158) who fasted between sunrise and sunset for at least 20 days. Measurements were taken 1 week before and 1 week after Ramadan. Energy and macronutrient intakes were assessed using a 3-day food frequency questionnaire on a sub-sample of subjects before and during Ramadan. Subjects were grouped according to age and sex: ≤35 years (n = 82, males: 31) and 36-70 years (n = 158, males: 127). There were significant reductions in weight and BMI (P Ramadan, except in males whose protein intake fell during Ramadan (P = 0.032). Ramadan fasting leads to weight loss and fat-free mass reductions. Body composition changes vary depending on age and sex. © 2013 The Authors Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  14. Effect of application of fertilizer nitrogen, zinc and selenium on zinc nutrition of ryegrass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Dongpu; Bai Lingyu; Yao Yunyin; Hua Luo

    2001-01-01

    A pot experiment was carried out to study the effect of zinc or selenium fertilizer applied alone, combined application of nitrogen, zinc and selenium fertilizer on zinc nutrition of ryegrass in mono culture or in mixed culture in mountain yellow-brown earth of Hubei province. The results showed that: 1) Zn content was enhanced by mixed culture (white clover: ryegrass = 1:4), at the same time, Zn content of ryegrass in mixed culture was increased with increasing of Zn fertilizer. 2) The main reason of Zn content of ryegrass decreased in mixed culture was dilution effect due to the increase of dry weight. 3) In mono-Se treatment, Zn content of ryegrass in mixed culture was decreased with increasing of Se fertilizer. 4) In 9 treatment of combined applications of N, Zn and Se fertilizer, treatment of the highest Zn content of ryegrass in mixed culture was N46Zn25Se1; treatment of the highest Zn content of ryegrass in mono culture was N30Zn25Se5

  15. Sesame and flaxseed oil: nutritional quality and effects on serum lipids and glucose in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia Avellaneda Guimarães

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the nutritional value of sesame and flaxseed oils and their effects on the lipid and glucose profile of rats fed diets containing different fat combinations. Fatty acid composition, refractive index, and iodine and saponification values were analyzed to characterize the oils. In the biological assay, Wistar rats were fed different diets, whose fat composition consisted of varying combinations of flaxseed oil, sesame oil, and animal fat. The primary constituents of the sesame oil were oleic (28.6%, linoleic (28.4%, and lauric acid (14.6%; for the flaxseed oil they were alpha-linolenic (39.90%, oleic (17.97% and linoleic acid (12.25%. The iodine and saponification values of the oils were within the reference range. Rats fed flaxseed oil-based diets had the lowest serum cholesterol values, whereas rats fed diets with flaxseed oil + sesame oil + animal fat had the highest glucose levels. HDL levels decreased significantly with flaxseed oil. Sesame and flaxseed oils are sources of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, and the flaxseed oil-based diet had a hypocholesterolemic effect, whereas sesame oil showed oxidative stability since it contains high levels of monounsaturated and saturated fatty acids.

  16. [Effect of quinua (Chenopodium quinoa)consumption as a coadjuvant in nutritional intervention in prediabetic subjects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abellán Ruiz, María Salud; Barnuevo Espinosa, María Dolores; García Santamaría, Carlos; Contreras Fernández, Carlos Javier; Aldeguer García, Miriam; Soto Méndez, Fulgencio; Guillén Guillén, Isabel; Luque Rubia, Antonio Jesús; Quinde Ràzuri, Francisco Javier; Martínez Garrido, Antonio; López Román, Francisco Javier

    2017-10-24

    Quinoa is a pseudocereal containing low glycemic index carbohydrates, dietary fiber, high biological value protein, phytosterols, and n-3 and n-6 fatty acids, which has generated interest in prediabetes nutritional interventions. This randomized (2:1), placebo-controlled, double-blind study evaluated the effects of processed quinoa on body mass index (BMI), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and the satiation and fullness (complete) degree in prediabetic patients. Thirty patients were randomized (2:1) in two study arms: Kuska Active product (processed quinoa) and placebo (maltodextrin), with an intake period of 28 days. BMI, HbA1c and FPG were determined before starting treatment and at 28-day intake. Satiety and fullness sensation were just assessed by visual analog scale (VAS) at the day 28. ANOVA was performed for repeated measures with two factors to study (within-subject factor: time; intersubject factor: product consumed) to demonstrate the effectiveness of processed quinoa on the study variables. Twenty-nine patients (placebo, n = 10; quinoa, n = 19) completed the study, and the quinoa group shows a significant decrease in BMI (p quinoa intake during 28 days decreases BMI and HbA1c levels, maintains FPG levels, and incr eases the satiation and fullness (complete) degree in prediabetic patients.

  17. A Pilot Study to Examine the Effects of a Nutrition Intervention on Nutrition Knowledge, Behaviors, and Efficacy Expectations in Middle School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahlman, Mariane M.; Dake, Joseph A.; McCaughtry, Nate; Martin, Jeffrey

    2008-01-01

    Background: This was a pilot study to determine the impact of the Michigan Model (MM) Nutrition Curriculum on nutrition knowledge, efficacy expectations, and eating behaviors in middle school students. Methods: The study was conducted in a large metropolitan setting and approved by the Institutional Review Board. The participants for this study…

  18. The Effect of Differentiated Nutrition on the Content of Antioxidants in Broccoli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Uher

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to determine the impact of differentiated nutrition, using different rates of nitrogen and sulphur, on the level of antioxidants, particularly vitamin E1 (α-tocopherol, vitamin C and β-carotene in the broccoli rosette. The experimental broccoli variety was Tiburon F1. It is a strong medium-late variety with a vegetation period of 82 days. In the 3-year field trial we observed the effects of different rates of nitrogen and sulphur on the amount of antioxidant compounds in broccoli. The experiment consisted of four fertilisation treatments: 1 unfertilised control, 2 fertilised with 200 kg N.ha−1, 3 also fertilized with 200 kg N.ha−1 and supplemented with 50 kg S.ha−1, 4 200 kg.ha−1 and 60 kg S.ha−1 was applied. To determine the amount of β-carotene and vitamin E1, the slightly modified method of Olives Barb et al. (2006 was used. The vitamin C content was determined by titration. Nitrogen nutrition has a significant impact not only on the amount of harvested broccoli, but also on the content of β-carotene, vitamin C and vitamin E1. The average content of β-carotene for the entire experimental period ranged from 24.84 mg.kg−1 to 30.13 mg.kg−1 of fresh mass. The content of β-carotene in broccoli rosettes increased as per the following order of treatments: control > N:S (200:50 kg.ha−1 > N:S (200:60 kg.ha−1 > N (kg.ha−1. The β-carotene content increased significantly only in treatment 2 (30.13 mg.kg−1 as compared to all the other treatments. The level of vitamin C revealed the significant effect of fertilisation in all the treatments (567.9–614.2 mg.kg−1 in contrast to the control variant (528.4 mg.kg−1. What is more, in treatment 4 the content of vitamin C increased significantly in contrast to fertilised treatments 2 and 3. The average content of vitamin E1 ranged from 4.33 mg.kg−1 to 4.88 mg.kg−1 of fresh mass. There were no significant differences among the untreated control

  19. Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Nutritional Education based on Health Belief Model on Self-Esteem and BMI of Overweight and at Risk of Overweight Adolescent Girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leili Rabiei

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Due to significant increases in the prevalence of overweight and obesity in adolescents in developed countries, much attention has been focused on this issue. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of nutritional education based on Health Belief Model (HBM on self-esteem and body mass index (BMI of overweight and at risk of overweight adolescent girls. Materials and Methods: The study subjects consist of 140 female students recruited from two high schools, who were randomly allocated to the intervention (n=70 and control (n=70 groups. The data collection instrument included sections on socio-demographic status, transportation method, physical status, and knowledge and attitudes of the students towards nutrition, which was designed according to HBM. As the intervention, model-based educational program was implemented through six 60-minute sessions, focusing on the overweight and at-risk students. Results were compared in the beginning, and three months after the intervention to find the possible impacts. Results: Average score of model structures and self-esteem of students in both groups had no significant difference at baseline, but immediately after the intervention and 3 months after treatment, the mean component scores were significantly higher in intervention group than controls (P

  20. Nutrition Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Shareables Autoimmune Diseases Breastfeeding Cancer Fitness and Nutrition Heart Disease and Stroke HIV and AIDS Mental ... health topic Autoimmune Diseases Breastfeeding Cancer Fitness and Nutrition Heart Disease and Stroke HIV and AIDS Mental ...