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Sample records for nutrient utilization pattern

  1. Patterns of nutrient utilization. Implications for nitrogen metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oldham, J.D.

    1983-01-01

    Nutrients react within both the rumen and the ruminant body, and the patterns of availability of different nutrients greatly influence their net utilization. In the rumen, microbial capture of N substrates, especially ammonia, depends on the degree of synchronization between rates of production of N substrates and of ATP to drive microbial protein synthesis. The form of dietary carbohydrate and of dietary N and the frequency of feeding can all affect the efficiency of microbial growth and digestion. The pattern of supply of nutrients to the body will also influence nutrient utilization. Disparities between diurnal patterns of supply of volatile fatty acids from the rumen and amino acids from the intestines will result in changes in balance of metabolic pathways. The balance between supply of glucogenic and lipogenic nutrients will influence efficiency of fattening. A major factor determining the pattern of utilization/metabolism of amino acids is the metabolic demand for protein synthesis, which varies with physiological state. (author)

  2. Performance, Nutrient Utilization and Intestinal Environment of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The performance, nutrient utilization and intestinal environment of weaned rabbits fed diets supplemented with organic acids (acetic acid, citric acid and formic acid) were investigated with 24 (6-week old) rabbits in a completely randomized design. The control diet was not supplemented while others were supplemented ...

  3. Periphytic biofilms: A promising nutrient utilization regulator in wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yonghong; Liu, Junzhuo; Rene, Eldon R

    2018-01-01

    Low nutrient utilization efficiency in agricultural ecosystems is the main cause of nonpoint source (NPS) pollution. Therefore, novel approaches should be explored to improve nutrient utilization in these ecosystems. Periphytic biofilms composed of microalgae, bacteria and other microbial organisms are ubiquitous and form a 'third phase' in artificial wetlands such as paddy fields. Periphytic biofilms play critical roles in nutrient transformation between the overlying water and soil/sediment, however, their contributions to nutrient utilization improvement and NPS pollution control have been largely underestimated. This mini review summarizes the contributions of periphytic biofilms to nutrient transformation processes, including assimilating and storing bioavailable nitrogen and phosphorus, fixing nitrogen, and activating occluded phosphorus. Future research should focus on augmenting the nitrogen fixing, phosphate solubilizing and phosphatase producing microorganisms in periphytic biofilms to improve nutrient utilization and thereby reduce NPS pollution production in artificial and natural wetland ecosystems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Dietary patterns and nutrient intakes of a South African population ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dietary patterns and nutrient intakes of a South African population and asymptomatic people infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus: The transition health and urbanisation in South Africa (Thusa) study.

  5. dietary patterns and nutrient intakes of a south african population ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alan Jackson

    1Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, College of Science, Kwame ... The pattern of diet is an important determinant of overall pattern of nutrient intake, ..... fibre. For the staple-based, dietary score showed significant positive linear ...

  6. Growth and nutrient utilization of Heteroclarias (H. Bidorsalis x c ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The experiment was carried out to determine the effect of dietary levels of Alchornia cordifolia leaf meal on the growth and nutrient utilization of Heteroclarias (H. bidorsalis x C. gariepinus) post fingerlings. 35% isonitrogenous dietary levels of 0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% Alchornia cordifolia leaf meal were formulated.

  7. Performance and nutrient utilization of cockerel finishers fed graded ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RMW) on performance and nutrient utilization of cockerel finishers. One hundred and fifty 9-week old Black Harco cockerels were raised on five experimental diets where RMW replaced maize at graded levels and designated diet 1 (0% RMW); diet ...

  8. Central nervous control of nutrient availability and utilization.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steffens, A.B; Benthem, L; van der Heide, D.; Huisman, E.A.; Kanis, E.; Osse, J.W.M.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    1999-01-01

    In resting animals (rats) fed ad libitum on carbohydrate-rich food, nutrient deposition in the reserves (glycogen in liver and fat in adipocytes) is in equilibrium with utilization. In this situation, metabolic needs are covered for 50% energy by glucose and 50% energy by free fatty acids (FFA). The

  9. dietary patterns and nutrient intakes of a south african population

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alan Jackson

    information on the patterns of habitual food consumption and nutrient intakes for ... the benefits of antiretroviral treatment and reducing side effects of the drugs, whilst ...... Scrimshaw NS, Taylor CE and JE Gordon Interactions of nutrition and.

  10. Plant species occurrence patterns in Eurasian grasslands reflect adaptation to nutrient ratios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roeling, Ineke S.; Ozinga, Wim A.; van Dijk, Jerry; Eppinga, Maarten B.; Wassen, Martin J.

    2018-01-01

    Previous studies of Eurasian grasslands have suggested that nutrient ratios, rather than absolute nutrient availabilities and associated productivity, may be driving plant species richness patterns. However, the underlying assumption that species occupy distinct niches along nutrient ratio gradients

  11. Recent advances in modeling nutrient utilization in ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebreab, E; Dijkstra, J; Bannink, A; France, J

    2009-04-01

    Mathematical modeling techniques have been applied to study various aspects of the ruminant, such as rumen function, postabsorptive metabolism, and product composition. This review focuses on advances made in modeling rumen fermentation and its associated rumen disorders, and energy and nutrient utilization and excretion with respect to environmental issues. Accurate prediction of fermentation stoichiometry has an impact on estimating the type of energy-yielding substrate available to the animal, and the ratio of lipogenic to glucogenic VFA is an important determinant of methanogenesis. Recent advances in modeling VFA stoichiometry offer ways for dietary manipulation to shift the fermentation in favor of glucogenic VFA. Increasing energy to the animal by supplementing with starch can lead to health problems such as subacute rumen acidosis caused by rumen pH depression. Mathematical models have been developed to describe changes in rumen pH and rumen fermentation. Models that relate rumen temperature to rumen pH have also been developed and have the potential to aid in the diagnosis of subacute rumen acidosis. The effect of pH has been studied mechanistically, and in such models, fractional passage rate has a large impact on substrate degradation and microbial efficiency in the rumen and should be an important theme in future studies. The efficiency with which energy is utilized by ruminants has been updated in recent studies. Mechanistic models of N utilization indicate that reducing dietary protein concentration, matching protein degradability to the microbial requirement, and increasing the energy status of the animal will reduce the output of N as waste. Recent mechanistic P models calculate the P requirement by taking into account P recycled through saliva and endogenous losses. Mechanistic P models suggest reducing current P amounts for lactating dairy cattle to at least 0.35% P in the diet, with a potential reduction of up to 1.3 kt/yr. A model that

  12. Eating patterns and energy and nutrient intakes of US women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, P S; Hungerford, D W; Popkin, B M; Guilkey, D K

    1992-06-01

    A longitudinal multivariate analysis was used to determine whether differences in energy and nutrient intakes were present for women classified into different eating patterns. Ten multidimensional eating patterns were created based on the proportion of energy consumed at home and at seven away-from-home locations. Data were from 1,120 women aged 19 through 50 years who were surveyed up to six times over a 1-year period as part of the 1985 Continuing Survey of Food Intake by Individuals, US Department of Agriculture. Data from 5,993 days were analyzed. To examine differences in energy and nutrient intakes, longitudinal multivariate analyses were used to control for eating pattern and factors such as demographics, season, and day of week. Younger women in the Fast Food eating pattern consumed the greatest intakes of energy, total fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, and sodium. Well-educated, higher-income women in the Restaurant pattern consumed diets with the highest overall fat density. Nutrient densities for dietary fiber, calcium, vitamin C, and folacin were particularly low in away-from-home eating patterns. In contrast, moderately educated, middle-aged and middle-income women in the Home Mixed eating pattern (70% at home, 30% away from home) consumed the most healthful diets. We conclude that knowledge of demographics such as income and education is not enough to target dietary interventions. Rather, educational efforts must consider both demographics and the location of away-from-home eating. This will allow development of behavioral change strategies that consider food choices dictated by the eating environment as well as personal knowledge and attitude factors related to adoption of healthful food choices.

  13. Eddy Mediated Nutrient Pattern in the North Eastern Arabian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thachaparambil, M.; Moolakkal Antony, R.; B R, S.; V N, S.; N, C.; M, S.

    2016-02-01

    A Cold Core Eddy (CCE) mediated nutrient pattern in the North Eastern Arabian Sea (NEAS) is explained based on in situ measurments during March 2013 onboard FORV Sagar Sampada which was not reported earlier in the area. Samples for physical, chemical and biological parameters were collected in 5 stations along the diameter of the eddy and following standard protocols. The core of the CCE is identified at 21°20.38'N; 66°30.68'E with a diameter of 120Km. Earlier studies explaining the process and the forcing mechanism of the particular eddy records that, the eddy is short term (1-3 months) and is regular during the season. Surface waters were well oxygenated (>4.8 ml L-1) in the core. Surface value of nutrients viz., Nitrate, Nitrite, Silicate and phosphate in the core regions was 0.9µM, 0.01 µM, 0.5 µM and 0.7 µM respectively indicating upwelling in the core. Spring intermonsoon (SIM) is generally termed as a transition period between the active winter and summer seasons and as per earlier studies, high biological production and the regularly occurring Noctilica bloom is supported by the nutrient loading due to convective mixing during winter as well as regenerated production. However, present observations shows that, nutrient pumping due to the upwelling associated with the CCE also contributes for sustaining high biological production and are evident in the Chl a and mesozooplankton biovolume which records values of 4.35mg/m3 and 1.09ml/m3 respectively in the core. An intense Noctiluca blooms observed in the western flank of the eddy (Chl a 13.25 mg/m3; cell density 5.8×106 cells/litre), where Nitrate concentration records 1.04µM explains the role of such mesoscale processes in the sustenance of the HAB events. While eastern flank of the CCE showed typical open ocean condition of the season showing Nitrate 0.08µM; Chl a 0.23mg/m3; and phytoplankton cell density as 421 cells/litre. Keywords: Cold core eddy, nutrients, NEAS, SIM, biological production

  14. Nutrient patterns and their food sources in an International Study Setting: report from the EPIC study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskal, Aurelie; Pisa, Pedro T; Ferrari, Pietro; Byrnes, Graham; Freisling, Heinz; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Cadeau, Claire; Nailler, Laura; Wendt, Andrea; Kühn, Tilman; Boeing, Heiner; Buijsse, Brian; Tjønneland, Anne; Halkjær, Jytte; Dahm, Christina C; Chiuve, Stephanie E; Quirós, Jose R; Buckland, Genevieve; Molina-Montes, Esther; Amiano, Pilar; Huerta Castaño, José M; Gurrea, Aurelio Barricarte; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Lentjes, Marleen A; Key, Timothy J; Romaguera, Dora; Vergnaud, Anne-Claire; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Bamia, Christina; Orfanos, Philippos; Palli, Domenico; Pala, Valeria; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; de Magistris, Maria Santucci; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Ocké, Marga C; Beulens, Joline W J; Ericson, Ulrika; Drake, Isabel; Nilsson, Lena M; Winkvist, Anna; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Hjartåker, Anette; Riboli, Elio; Slimani, Nadia

    2014-01-01

    Compared to food patterns, nutrient patterns have been rarely used particularly at international level. We studied, in the context of a multi-center study with heterogeneous data, the methodological challenges regarding pattern analyses. We identified nutrient patterns from food frequency questionnaires (FFQ) in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Study and used 24-hour dietary recall (24-HDR) data to validate and describe the nutrient patterns and their related food sources. Associations between lifestyle factors and the nutrient patterns were also examined. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied on 23 nutrients derived from country-specific FFQ combining data from all EPIC centers (N = 477,312). Harmonized 24-HDRs available for a representative sample of the EPIC populations (N = 34,436) provided accurate mean group estimates of nutrients and foods by quintiles of pattern scores, presented graphically. An overall PCA combining all data captured a good proportion of the variance explained in each EPIC center. Four nutrient patterns were identified explaining 67% of the total variance: Principle component (PC) 1 was characterized by a high contribution of nutrients from plant food sources and a low contribution of nutrients from animal food sources; PC2 by a high contribution of micro-nutrients and proteins; PC3 was characterized by polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin D; PC4 was characterized by calcium, proteins, riboflavin, and phosphorus. The nutrients with high loadings on a particular pattern as derived from country-specific FFQ also showed high deviations in their mean EPIC intakes by quintiles of pattern scores when estimated from 24-HDR. Center and energy intake explained most of the variability in pattern scores. The use of 24-HDR enabled internal validation and facilitated the interpretation of the nutrient patterns derived from FFQs in term of food sources. These outcomes open research opportunities and

  15. Nutrient patterns and their food sources in an International Study Setting: report from the EPIC study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelie Moskal

    Full Text Available Compared to food patterns, nutrient patterns have been rarely used particularly at international level. We studied, in the context of a multi-center study with heterogeneous data, the methodological challenges regarding pattern analyses.We identified nutrient patterns from food frequency questionnaires (FFQ in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC Study and used 24-hour dietary recall (24-HDR data to validate and describe the nutrient patterns and their related food sources. Associations between lifestyle factors and the nutrient patterns were also examined. Principal component analysis (PCA was applied on 23 nutrients derived from country-specific FFQ combining data from all EPIC centers (N = 477,312. Harmonized 24-HDRs available for a representative sample of the EPIC populations (N = 34,436 provided accurate mean group estimates of nutrients and foods by quintiles of pattern scores, presented graphically. An overall PCA combining all data captured a good proportion of the variance explained in each EPIC center. Four nutrient patterns were identified explaining 67% of the total variance: Principle component (PC 1 was characterized by a high contribution of nutrients from plant food sources and a low contribution of nutrients from animal food sources; PC2 by a high contribution of micro-nutrients and proteins; PC3 was characterized by polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin D; PC4 was characterized by calcium, proteins, riboflavin, and phosphorus. The nutrients with high loadings on a particular pattern as derived from country-specific FFQ also showed high deviations in their mean EPIC intakes by quintiles of pattern scores when estimated from 24-HDR. Center and energy intake explained most of the variability in pattern scores.The use of 24-HDR enabled internal validation and facilitated the interpretation of the nutrient patterns derived from FFQs in term of food sources. These outcomes open research

  16. Recent advances in modeling nutrient utilization in ruminants1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kebreab, E.; Dijkstra, J.; Bannink, A.; France, J.

    2009-01-01

    Mathematical modeling techniques have been applied to study various aspects of the ruminant, such as rumen function, post-absorptive metabolism and product composition. This review focuses on advances made in modeling rumen fermentation and its associated rumen disorders, and energy and nutrient

  17. [Health services' utilization patterns in Catalonia, Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Carmen; Salvador, Xavier; Faixedas, M Teresa; Gallo, Pedro

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this article is disclose services utilization patterns among the Catalan population with particular emphasis on primary care, specialised care, hospital care and emergency care. A number of logistic regression models were used to explain the utilization of the various types of services. Variables in the analysis included self-perceived need, lifestyles, and sociodemographic variables. Separate analyses were performed for male, female, adults, and children as well as for the general population. Women use all types of services more often than men. Children and people over 64 are more frequent users of primary care. Primary care is also associated to lower socioeconomic conditions. Young adults and the migrant population in general are found to be under users of services, except of emergency care services. The use of specialised care is associated to the better-off, to those with university level education attainment, individual private insurance, and those living in the city of Barcelona. Hospital care is largely associated to need variables. The use of health services is explained by self-perceived need as well as by demographic, socioeconomic and geographical factors. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España S.L. All rights reserved.

  18. Nutrient Patterns Associated with Fasting Glucose and Glycated Haemoglobin Levels in a Black South African Population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chikowore, T.; Pisa, P.T.; Zyl, van Tertia; Feskens, E.J.M.; Wentzel-Viljoen, E.; Conradie, K.R.

    2017-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) burden is increasing globally. However, evidence regarding nutrient patterns associated with the biomarkers of T2D is limited. This study set out to determine the nutrient patterns associated with fasting glucose and glycated haemoglobin the biomarkers of T2D. Factor analysis

  19. Dietary, Nutrient Patterns and Blood Essential Elements in Chinese Children with ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fankun Zhou

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Dietary or nutrient patterns represent the combined effects of foods or nutrients, and elucidate efficaciously the impact of diet on diseases. Because the pharmacotherapy on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD was reported be associated with certain side effects, and the etiology of ADHD is multifactorial, this study investigated the association of dietary and nutrient patterns with the risk of ADHD. We conducted a case-control study with 592 Chinese children including ADHD (n = 296 and non-ADHD (n = 296 aged 6–14 years old, matched by age and sex. Dietary and nutrient patterns were identified using factor analysis and a food frequency questionnaire. Blood essential elements levels were measured using atomic absorption spectrometry. A fish-white meat dietary pattern rich in shellfish, deep water fish, white meat, freshwater fish, organ meat and fungi and algae was inversely associated with ADHD (p = 0.006. Further analysis found that a mineral-protein nutrient pattern rich in zinc, protein, phosphorus, selenium, calcium and riboflavin was inversely associated with ADHD (p = 0.014. Additionally, the blood zinc was also negatively related to ADHD (p = 0.003. In conclusion, the fish-white meat dietary pattern and mineral-protein nutrient pattern may have beneficial effects on ADHD in Chinese children, and blood zinc may be helpful in distinguishing ADHD in Chinese children.

  20. Dietary, Nutrient Patterns and Blood Essential Elements in Chinese Children with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Fankun; Wu, Fengyun; Zou, Shipu; Chen, Ying; Feng, Chang; Fan, Guangqin

    2016-06-08

    Dietary or nutrient patterns represent the combined effects of foods or nutrients, and elucidate efficaciously the impact of diet on diseases. Because the pharmacotherapy on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was reported be associated with certain side effects, and the etiology of ADHD is multifactorial, this study investigated the association of dietary and nutrient patterns with the risk of ADHD. We conducted a case-control study with 592 Chinese children including ADHD (n = 296) and non-ADHD (n = 296) aged 6-14 years old, matched by age and sex. Dietary and nutrient patterns were identified using factor analysis and a food frequency questionnaire. Blood essential elements levels were measured using atomic absorption spectrometry. A fish-white meat dietary pattern rich in shellfish, deep water fish, white meat, freshwater fish, organ meat and fungi and algae was inversely associated with ADHD (p = 0.006). Further analysis found that a mineral-protein nutrient pattern rich in zinc, protein, phosphorus, selenium, calcium and riboflavin was inversely associated with ADHD (p = 0.014). Additionally, the blood zinc was also negatively related to ADHD (p = 0.003). In conclusion, the fish-white meat dietary pattern and mineral-protein nutrient pattern may have beneficial effects on ADHD in Chinese children, and blood zinc may be helpful in distinguishing ADHD in Chinese children.

  1. Vegetation patterns and nutrients in relation to grazing pressure and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A major challenge confronting managers of extensive grazing systems is uneven use of erbaceous forage plants by livestock. The concentration of grazing in preferred areas or around foci points (e.g. water points) eventually results in adverse impacts in soil nutrients, vegetation structure, production and composition.

  2. Effects of energy and protein levels on growth and nutrient utilization ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of energy and protein levels on growth and nutrient utilization of weaned rabbits. ML Egbo, TA Adegbola, EO Oyawoye, MM Abubakar. Abstract. No Abstract. Animal Production Research Advances Vol. 3 (4) 2007: pp. 306-310. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/apra.v3i4.36411 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE ...

  3. Nutrient patterns and risk of cataract: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Sedaghat

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To assess the relation between nutrient patterns and cataract risk. METHODS: This is a hospital-based case-control study with 97 cataract patients and 198 matched controls. Dietary consumption was collected through a valid food frequency questionnaire (FFQ. Nutrient patterns were detected by applying factor analysis. Unconditional logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratio (ORs and 95%CIs. RESULTS: We extracted 5 main nutrient patterns. Factor 1 included niacin, thiamin, carbohydrates, protein, zinc, vitamin B6 and sodium (sodium pattern. Factor 2 was characterized by oleic acid, monounsaturated fats, polyunsaturated fats, linoleic acid, trans fatty acid, linolenic acid, vitamin E and saturated fats (fatty acid pattern. The third factor represented high intake of vitamin B12, vitamin D, cholesterol and calcium (mixed pattern. The 4th pattern was high in intake of beta and alpha carotene, vitamin A and vitamin C (antioxidant pattern. Finally, the 5th pattern loaded heavily on docosahexaenoic acid (DHA and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA (omega-3 pattern. In crude and multivariate analysis, the sodium pattern was associated with increased risk of cataract (OR=1.97, 95%CI: 1.09-3.96. The fatty acid pattern elevated the risk of cataract (OR=1.94, 95%CI: 1.1-3.86. Antioxidant pattern was associated with a significant 79% reduced risk (2nd category compared with the 1st. Omega-3 pattern was significantly negatively associated with risk of cataract (P=0.04. CONCLUSION: These findings imply that nutrient patterns reflecting a combined consumption of nutrients might be important in the etiology of cataract. Additional studies with more efficient designs are warranted to confirm our findings.

  4. Investment in secreted enzymes during nutrient-limited growth is utility dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cezairliyan, Brent; Ausubel, Frederick M

    2017-09-12

    Pathogenic bacteria secrete toxins and degradative enzymes that facilitate their growth by liberating nutrients from the environment. To understand bacterial growth under nutrient-limited conditions, we studied resource allocation between cellular and secreted components by the pathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa during growth on a protein substrate that requires extracellular digestion by secreted proteases. We identified a quantitative relationship between the rate of increase of cellular biomass under nutrient-limiting growth conditions and the rate of increase in investment in secreted proteases. Production of secreted proteases is stimulated by secreted signals that convey information about the utility of secreted proteins during nutrient-limited growth. Growth modeling using this relationship recapitulated the observed kinetics of bacterial growth on a protein substrate. The proposed regulatory strategy suggests a rationale for quorum-sensing-dependent stimulation of the production of secreted enzymes whereby investment in secreted enzymes occurs in proportion to the utility they confer. Our model provides a framework that can be applied toward understanding bacterial growth in many environments where growth rate is limited by the availability of nutrients.

  5. Pleistocene atmospheric CO2 change linked to Southern Ocean nutrient utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, M.; Diz, P.; Hall, I. R.; Zahn, R.

    2011-12-01

    Biological uptake of CO2 by the ocean and its subsequent storage in the abyss is intimately linked with the global carbon cycle and constitutes a significant climatic force1. The Southern Ocean is a particularly important region because its wind-driven upwelling regime brings CO2 laden abyssal waters to the surface that exchange CO2 with the atmosphere. The Subantarctic Zone (SAZ) is a CO2 sink and also drives global primary productivity as unutilized nutrients, advected with surface waters from the south, are exported via Subantarctic Mode Water (SAMW) as preformed nutrients to the low latitudes where they fuel the biological pump in upwelling areas. Recent model estimates suggest that up to 40 ppm of the total 100 ppm atmospheric pCO2 reduction during the last ice age were driven by increased nutrient utilization in the SAZ and associated feedbacks on the deep ocean alkalinity. Micro-nutrient fertilization by iron (Fe), contained in the airborne dust flux to the SAZ, is considered to be the prime factor that stimulated this elevated photosynthetic activity thus enhancing nutrient utilization. We present a millennial-scale record of the vertical stable carbon isotope gradient between subsurface and deep water (Δδ13C) in the SAZ spanning the past 350,000 years. The Δδ13C gradient, derived from planktonic and benthic foraminifera, reflects the efficiency of biological pump and is highly correlated (rxy = -0.67 with 95% confidence interval [0.63; 0.71], n=874) with the record of dust flux preserved in Antarctic ice cores6. This strongly suggests that nutrient utilization in the SAZ was dynamically coupled to dust-induced Fe fertilization across both glacial-interglacial and faster millennial timescales. In concert with ventilation changes of the deep Southern Ocean this drove ocean-atmosphere CO2 exchange and, ultimately, atmospheric pCO2 variability during the late Pleistocene.

  6. Effect of feeding guar meal on nutrient utilization and growth performance in Mahbubnagar local kids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janampet, Razia Sultana; Malavath, Kishan Kumar; Neeradi, Rajanna; Chedurupalli, Satyanarayana; Thirunahari, Raghunandan

    2016-10-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the growth performance and nutrient digestibility of guar meal, an unconventional protein-rich feed ingredient in kids in comparison to conventional groundnut cake. A total of 18 kids were randomly allotted to three groups, and T1 group was fed on basal diet, T2 and T3 groups were offered diet replacing groundnut cake at 50% and 100% with guar meal, respectively, for a period of 120-day. At the end of the growth trial, a digestibility trial was conducted to evaluate the nutrient utilization. There was no significant difference in dry matter intake among three groups. Nutrient digestibilities were significantly higher (preplacement of groundnut cake with guar meal. It can be concluded that guar meal can be incorporated at 50% level in the concentrate mixture of goats replacing groundnut cake without any adverse effects.

  7. Main nutrient patterns and colorectal cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moskal, Aurélie; Freisling, Heinz; Byrnes, Graham; Assi, Nada; Fahey, Michael T.; Jenab, Mazda; Ferrari, Pietro; Tjønneland, Anne; Petersen, Kristina EN; Dahm, Christina C.; Hansen, Camilla Plambeck; Affret, Aurélie; Boutron-Ruault, Marie Christine; Cadeau, Claire; Kühn, Tilman; Katzke, Verena; Iqbal, Khalid; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Bamia, Christina; Naska, Androniki; Masala, Giovanna; de Magistris, Maria Santucci; Sieri, Sabina; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Peeters, Petra H.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas H.; Engeset, Dagrun; Licaj, Idlir; Skeie, Guri; Ardanaz, Eva; Buckland, Genevieve; Castaño, José M Huerta; Quirós, José R.; Amiano, Pilar; Molina-Portillo, Elena; Winkvist, Anna; Myte, Robin; Ericson, Ulrika; Sonestedt, Emily; Perez-Cornago, Aurora; Wareham, Nick; Khaw, Kay Tee; Huybrechts, Inge; Tsilidis, Konstantinos K.; Ward, Heather; Gunter, Marc J.; Slimani, Nadia

    2016-01-01

    Background:Much of the current literature on diet–colorectal cancer (CRC) associations focused on studies of single foods/nutrients, whereas less is known about nutrient patterns. We investigated the association between major nutrient patterns and CRC risk in participants of the European Prospective

  8. Patterns of Protein Food Intake Are Associated with Nutrient Adequacy in the General French Adult Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavelle, Erwan de; Huneau, Jean-François; Mariotti, François

    2018-02-17

    Protein food intake appears to partially structure dietary patterns, as most current emergent diets (e.g., vegetarian and flexitarian) can be described according to their levels of specific protein sources. However, few data are available on dietary protein patterns in the general population and their association with nutrient adequacy. Based on protein food intake data concerning 1678 adults from a representative French national dietary survey, and non-negative-matrix factorization followed by cluster analysis, we were able to identify distinctive dietary protein patterns and compare their nutrient adequacy (using PANDiet probabilistic scoring). The findings revealed eight patterns that clearly discriminate protein intakes and were characterized by the intakes of one or more specific protein foods: 'Processed meat', 'Poultry', 'Pork', 'Traditional', 'Milk', 'Take-away', 'Beef' and 'Fish'. 'Fish eaters' and 'Milk drinkers' had the highest overall nutrient adequacy, whereas that of 'Pork' and 'Take-away eaters' was the lowest. Nutrient adequacy could often be accounted for by the characteristics of the food contributing to protein intake: 'Meat eaters' had high probability of adequacy for iron and zinc, for example. We concluded that protein patterns constitute strong elements in the background structure of the dietary intake and are associated with the nutrient profile that they convey.

  9. Effects of thermal discharges on the seasonal patterns of nutrient concentrations in brackish water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitchals, D.

    1985-05-01

    Massiv quantities of water are used in power plant cooling systems, especially nuclear power plants, and are often returned to the donor ecosystem at significantly elevated temperatures. Few studies of the environmental effects of such a situation have looked extensively at the effects on nutrients in the water. The present study examined the effects of cooling water discharges from a nuclear power plant on the seasonal nutrient patterns within and outside a brackish water, research artificial lake, the 0.9 km 2 Biotest Basin on Sweden's east coast. The lack of ice cover in winter is the most apparent effect. In a portion of the lake with a relatively long water residence time, on the order of a few days, the vernal nutrient depletion of phosphate, nitrate, and nitrite apparently began sooner than outside the lake. Benthic influence on nutrient concentrations in the free water mass may be very significant in coastal areas receiving heat inputs. This study's data apparently support the conclusion by other researchers that phosphorus may be the nutrient limiting algal growth in the spring in this area of the central Baltic Sea. Determination of a nutrient budget for the Basin was unachievable because inlet and outlet nutrient concentrations were insufficiently different to override experimental variation. Implications for management of heat inputs to coastal ecosystems include avoidance of areas with high nutrient content, rich organic sediment, or poor flushing. (author)

  10. Speed over efficiency: locusts select body temperatures that favour growth rate over efficient nutrient utilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Gabriel A; Clissold, Fiona J; Mayntz, David

    2009-01-01

    to investigate relationships between growth/development and macronutrient utilization (conversion of ingesta to body mass) as a function of temperature. A range of macronutrient intake values for insects at 26, 32 and 38°C was achieved by offering individuals high-protein diets, high-carbohydrate diets......, but once digested both macronutrients were converted to growth most efficiently at the intermediate temperature (32°C). Body temperature preference thus yielded maximal growth rates at the expense of efficient nutrient utilization...

  11. Patterns of maternity care service utilization in Southern Ethiopia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Patterns of maternity care service utilization in Southern Ethiopia: Evidence from a community ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... Result: The study revealed that only 26.1 % and 3.3% of the women received antenatal and ...

  12. Evaluation of the utility of a glycemic pattern identification system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Erik A; Tannan, Vinay

    2014-07-01

    With the increasing prevalence of systems allowing automated, real-time transmission of blood glucose data there is a need for pattern recognition techniques that can inform of deleterious patterns in glycemic control when people test. We evaluated the utility of pattern identification with a novel pattern identification system named Vigilant™ and compared it to standard pattern identification methods in diabetes. To characterize the importance of an identified pattern we evaluated the relative risk of future hypoglycemic and hyperglycemic events in diurnal periods following identification of a pattern in a data set of 536 patients with diabetes. We evaluated events 2 days, 7 days, 30 days, and 61-90 days from pattern identification, across diabetes types and cohorts of glycemic control, and also compared the system to 6 pattern identification methods consisting of deleterious event counts and percentages over 5-, 14-, and 30-day windows. Episodes of hypoglycemia, hyperglycemia, severe hypoglycemia, and severe hyperglycemia were 120%, 46%, 123%, and 76% more likely after pattern identification, respectively, compared to periods when no pattern was identified. The system was also significantly more predictive of deleterious events than other pattern identification methods evaluated, and was persistently predictive up to 3 months after pattern identification. The system identified patterns that are significantly predictive of deleterious glycemic events, and more so relative to many pattern identification methods used in diabetes management today. Further study will inform how improved pattern identification can lead to improved glycemic control. © 2014 Diabetes Technology Society.

  13. Patterns in foliar nutrient resorption stoichiometry at multiple scales: controlling factors and ecosystem consequences (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, S.; Cleveland, C. C.; Davidson, E. A.; Townsend, A. R.

    2013-12-01

    During leaf senescence, nutrient rich compounds are transported to other parts of the plant and this 'resorption' recycles nutrients for future growth, reducing losses of potentially limiting nutrients. Variations in leaf chemistry resulting from nutrient resorption also directly affect litter quality, in turn, regulating decomposition rates and soil nutrient availability. Here we investigated stoichiometric patterns of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) resorption efficiency at multiple spatial scales. First, we assembled a global database to explore nutrient resorption among and within biomes and to examine potential relationships between resorption stoichiometry and ecosystem nutrient status. Next, we used a forest regeneration chronosequence in Brazil to assess how resorption stoichiometry linked with a suite of other nutrient cycling measures and with ideas of how nutrient limitation may change over secondary forest regrowth. Finally, we measured N:P resorption ratios of six canopy tree species in a Costa Rican tropical forest. We calculated species-specific resorption ratios and compared them with patterns in leaf litter and topsoil nutrient concentrations. At the global scale, N:P resorption ratios increased with latitude and decreased with mean annual temperature (MAT) and precipitation (MAP; P1 in latitudes >23°. Focusing on tropical sites in our global dataset we found that, despite fewer data and a restricted latitudinal range, a significant relationship between latitude and N:P resorption ratios persisted (PAmazon Basin chronosequence of regenerating forests, where previous work reported a transition from apparent N limitation in younger forests to P limitation in mature forests, we found N resorption was highest in the youngest forest, whereas P resorption was greatest in the mature forest. Over the course of succession, N resorption efficiency leveled off but P resorption continued to increase with forest age. In Costa Rica, though we found species

  14. Spatiotemporal patterns of livestock manure nutrient production in the conterminous United States from 1930 to 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Qichun, E-mail: qichun.yang@pnnl.gov [International Center for Climate and Global Change Research, School of Forestry and Wildlife Sciences, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States); Joint Global Change Research Institute, Pacific Northwest National Lab, College Park, MD 20740 (United States); Tian, Hanqin, E-mail: tianhan@auburn.edu [International Center for Climate and Global Change Research, School of Forestry and Wildlife Sciences, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States); Li, Xia [International Center for Climate and Global Change Research, School of Forestry and Wildlife Sciences, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States); Ren, Wei [International Center for Climate and Global Change Research, School of Forestry and Wildlife Sciences, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States); Department of Plant & Soil Sciences, College of Agriculture, Food and Environment, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States); Zhang, Bowen [International Center for Climate and Global Change Research, School of Forestry and Wildlife Sciences, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States); Zhang, Xuesong [Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Wolf, Julie [Joint Global Change Research Institute, Pacific Northwest National Lab, College Park, MD 20740 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    Manure nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) from livestock husbandry are important components of terrestrial biogeochemical cycling. Assessment of the impacts of livestock manure on terrestrial biogeochemistry requires a compilation and analysis of spatial and temporal patterns of manure nutrients. In this study, we reconstructed county-level manure nutrient data of the conterminous United States (U.S.) in 4- to 5-year increments from 1930 to 2012. Manure N and P were 5.89 ± 0.64 Tg N yr.{sup −1} (Mean ± Standard Deviation) and 1.73 ± 0.29 Tg P yr.{sup −1} (1 Tg = 10{sup 12} g), and increased by 46% and 92% from 1930 to 2012, respectively. Prior to 1970, manure provided more N to the U.S. lands than chemical fertilizer use. Since 1970, however, increasing chemical N fertilizer use has exceeded manure N production. Manure was the primary P source in the U.S. during 1930–1969 and 1987–2012, but was lower than P fertilizer use in 1974, 1978, and 1982. High-nutrient-production regions shifted towards eastern and western areas of the U.S. Decreasing small farms and increasing Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) induced concentrated spatial patterns in manure nutrient loads. Counties with cattle or poultry as the primary manure nutrient contributors expanded significantly from 1930 to 2012, whereas regions with sheep and hog as the primary contributors decreased. We identified regions facing environmental threats associated with livestock farming. Effective management of manure should consider the impacts of CAFOs in manure production, and changes in livestock population structure. The long-term county-level manure nutrient dataset provides improved spatial and temporal information on manure nutrients in the U.S. This dataset is expected to help advance research on nutrient cycling, ammonia volatilization, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from livestock husbandry, recovery and reuse of manure nutrients, and impacts of livestock feeding on human health in

  15. Spatiotemporal patterns of livestock manure nutrient production in the conterminous United States from 1930 to 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Qichun; Tian, Hanqin; Li, Xia; Ren, Wei; Zhang, Bowen; Zhang, Xuesong; Wolf, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Manure nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) from livestock husbandry are important components of terrestrial biogeochemical cycling. Assessment of the impacts of livestock manure on terrestrial biogeochemistry requires a compilation and analysis of spatial and temporal patterns of manure nutrients. In this study, we reconstructed county-level manure nutrient data of the conterminous United States (U.S.) in 4- to 5-year increments from 1930 to 2012. Manure N and P were 5.89 ± 0.64 Tg N yr. −1 (Mean ± Standard Deviation) and 1.73 ± 0.29 Tg P yr. −1 (1 Tg = 10 12 g), and increased by 46% and 92% from 1930 to 2012, respectively. Prior to 1970, manure provided more N to the U.S. lands than chemical fertilizer use. Since 1970, however, increasing chemical N fertilizer use has exceeded manure N production. Manure was the primary P source in the U.S. during 1930–1969 and 1987–2012, but was lower than P fertilizer use in 1974, 1978, and 1982. High-nutrient-production regions shifted towards eastern and western areas of the U.S. Decreasing small farms and increasing Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) induced concentrated spatial patterns in manure nutrient loads. Counties with cattle or poultry as the primary manure nutrient contributors expanded significantly from 1930 to 2012, whereas regions with sheep and hog as the primary contributors decreased. We identified regions facing environmental threats associated with livestock farming. Effective management of manure should consider the impacts of CAFOs in manure production, and changes in livestock population structure. The long-term county-level manure nutrient dataset provides improved spatial and temporal information on manure nutrients in the U.S. This dataset is expected to help advance research on nutrient cycling, ammonia volatilization, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from livestock husbandry, recovery and reuse of manure nutrients, and impacts of livestock feeding on human health in the context of

  16. Nutrient-based dietary patterns, family history, and colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turati, Federica; Edefonti, Valeria; Bravi, Francesca; Ferraroni, Monica; Franceschi, Silvia; La Vecchia, Carlo; Montella, Maurizio; Talamini, Renato; Decarli, Adriano

    2011-11-01

    The effect of dietary habits on colorectal cancer (CRC) risk may be modified by a family history of CRC. We analyzed data from an Italian case-control study, including 1953 CRC cases and 4154 controls. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for combined categories of family history and tertiles of two a posteriori dietary patterns were derived using multiple logistic regression models. Compared with individuals without family history and in the lowest tertile category of the 'starch-rich' pattern, the ORs of CRC were 1.38 (95% CI: 1.19-1.61) for the group without family history and in the highest tertile, 2.89 (95% CI: 2.30-3.64) for the one with family history and in the lowest tertile, and 4.00 (95% CI: 3.03-5.27) for the one with family history and in the highest tertile. Compared with individuals without family history and in the highest tertile of the 'vitamins and fiber' pattern, the ORs were 1.29 (95% CI: 1.12-1.48) for the group without family history and in the lowest tertile, 2.89 (95% CI: 2.30-3.64) for the one with family history and in the highest tertile, and 3.74 (95% CI: 2.85-4.91) for the one with family history and in the lowest tertile. Family history of CRC and 'starch-rich' or 'vitamins and fiber' patterns has an independent effect on CRC risk in our population. However, as having a family history plausibly implies shared environmental and/or genetic risk factors, our results could not exclude that dietary habits can modify genetic susceptibility to CRC.

  17. Evaluation of Drug Utilization Pattern for Patients of Bronchial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of Drug Utilization Pattern for Patients of Bronchial Asthma in a Government Hospital of Saudi Arabia. ... Background: Bronchial asthma is a social and economic healthcare burden. Drug utilization studies are ... Salbutamol and budesonide were the most common from each group, respectively. 89.5% of the ...

  18. Emerging Pattern in Utilizing Electronic Information Sources by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is a detailed comparative analysis of electronic information sources (EIS) utilized by pharmacy lecturers in South-South universities in Nigeria. The purpose of this study is to analyze the extent to which EIS are utilized among pharmacy lecturers in South-South Nigeria. The aim is to explore the emerging pattern of ...

  19. Ramadan major nutrient patterns are associated with anthropometric measurements and physical activity in Tehran, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdieh Akhoundan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available During Ramadan fasting quantity and quality of dietary intake may change. There was no data on nutrient patterns in Ramadan fasting. The purpose of this study was to identify Ramadan major nutrient patterns among those who fast in Tehran, Iran. 510 fasting people aged 18-65 years and BMI 18.5-40 Kg/m2 were recruited in our study by 2-stage cluster sampling method in June-July 2014. Data on the socio-demographic and physical activity level were collected by questionnaire. Usual diet during Ramadan was estimated by valid and reliable food frequency questionnaire. BMI was calculated based on measured height and weight. Three nutrient patterns derived by conducting principal component factor analysis on 30 major nutrients. Micronutrient and fiber pattern which characterized by high intake of vitamin K, total fiber, iron, manganese, magnesium, β-carotene, folate, vitamin B12, potassium and calcium was adversely associated with weight (b=-0.16, P= 0.004. High protein pattern had great loadings on protein, riboflavin, phosphorous and zinc which physical activity level was decreased by tertiles of this pattern (b=0.13, P=0.02. High carbohydrate pattern which presented high positive loadings on carbohydrate and thiamin and negative loading on total fat, poly unsaturated fatty acids and monounsaturated fatty acids was positively associated with BMI (b= 0.12, P=0.03. Adherence to different Ramadan nutrient patterns is associated with weight, BMI and physical activity level. People on high in carbohydrate may have a higher BMI and low micronutrient density diet that should be considered in Ramadan fasting nutrition educational programs.

  20. Hypothalamic AgRP-neurons control peripheral substrate utilization and nutrient partitioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joly-Amado, Aurélie; Denis, Raphaël G P; Castel, Julien; Lacombe, Amélie; Cansell, Céline; Rouch, Claude; Kassis, Nadim; Dairou, Julien; Cani, Patrice D; Ventura-Clapier, Renée; Prola, Alexandre; Flamment, Melissa; Foufelle, Fabienne; Magnan, Christophe; Luquet, Serge

    2012-01-01

    Obesity-related diseases such as diabetes and dyslipidemia result from metabolic alterations including the defective conversion, storage and utilization of nutrients, but the central mechanisms that regulate this process of nutrient partitioning remain elusive. As positive regulators of feeding behaviour, agouti-related protein (AgRP) producing neurons are indispensible for the hypothalamic integration of energy balance. Here, we demonstrate a role for AgRP-neurons in the control of nutrient partitioning. We report that ablation of AgRP-neurons leads to a change in autonomic output onto liver, muscle and pancreas affecting the relative balance between lipids and carbohydrates metabolism. As a consequence, mice lacking AgRP-neurons become obese and hyperinsulinemic on regular chow but display reduced body weight gain and paradoxical improvement in glucose tolerance on high-fat diet. These results provide a direct demonstration of a role for AgRP-neurons in the coordination of efferent organ activity and nutrient partitioning, providing a mechanistic link between obesity and obesity-related disorders. PMID:22990237

  1. Canopy and leaf composition drive patterns of nutrient release from pruning residues in a coffee agroforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tully, Katherine L; Lawrence, Deborah

    2012-06-01

    In a coffee agroforest, the crop is cultivated under the shade of fruit-bearing and nitrogen (N)-fixing trees. These trees are periodically pruned to promote flowering and fruiting as well as to make nutrients stored in tree biomass available to plants. We investigated the effect of canopy composition and substrate quality on decomposition rates and patterns of nutrient release from pruning residues in a coffee agroforest located in Costa Rica's Central Valley. Initial phosphorus (P) release was enhanced under a canopy composed solely of N-fixing, Erythrina poeppigiana compared to a mixed canopy of Erythrina and Musa acuminata (banana). Both initial and final N release were similar under the two canopy types. However, after five months of decomposition, a higher proportion of initial N had been released under the single canopy. Although patterns of decomposition and nutrient release were not predicted by initial substrate quality, mass loss in leaf mixtures rates were well predicted by mean mass loss of their component species. This study identifies specific pruning regimes that may regulate N and P release during crucial growth periods, and it suggests that strategic pruning can enhance nutrient availability. For example, during the onset of rapid fruit growth, a two-species mixture may release more P than a three-species mixture. However, by the time of the harvest, the two- and three-species mixtures have released roughly the same amount of N and P. These nutrients do not always follow the same pattern, as N release can be maximized in single-species substrates, while P release is often facilitated in species mixtures. Our study indicates the importance of management practices in mediating patterns of nutrient release. Future research should investigate how canopy composition and farm management can also mediate on-farm nutrient losses.

  2. Legacy nutrient dynamics and patterns of catchment response under changing land use and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attinger, S.; Van, M. K.; Basu, N. B.

    2017-12-01

    explain different patterns of nonlinearity in watershed nutrient dynamics? And finally, how does the accumulation of nutrient legacies within watersheds impact current and future water quality?

  3. Utilizing Dietary Micronutrient Ratios in Nutritional Research May be More Informative than Focusing on Single Nutrients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owen J. Kelly

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The 2015 US dietary guidelines advise the importance of good dietary patterns for health, which includes all nutrients. Micronutrients are rarely, if ever, consumed separately, they are not tissue specific in their actions and at the molecular level they are multitaskers. Metabolism functions within a seemingly random cellular milieu however ratios are important, for example, the ratio of adenosine triphosphate to adenosine monophosphate, or oxidized to reduced glutathione. Health status is determined by simple ratios, such as the waist hip ratio, or ratio of fat mass to lean mass. Some nutrient ratios exist and remain controversial such as the omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid ratio and the sodium/potassium ratio. Therefore, examining ratios of micronutrients may convey more information about how diet and health outcomes are related. Summarized micronutrient intake data, from food only, from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, were used to generate initial ratios. Overall, in this preliminary analysis dietary ratios of micronutrients showed some differences between intakes and recommendations. Principles outlined here could be used in nutritional epidemiology and in basic nutritional research, rather than focusing on individual nutrient intakes. This paper presents the concept of micronutrient ratios to encourage change in the way nutrients are regarded.

  4. Dietary patterns of adolescents in Germany - Associations with nutrient intake and other health related lifestyle characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to identify dietary patterns among a representative sample of German adolescents and their associations with energy and nutrient intake, socioeconomic and lifestyle characteristics, and overweight status. Methods In the analysis, data from the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents were used. The survey included a comprehensive dietary history interview conducted among 1272 adolescents aged 12 to 17 years. Dietary patterns were determined with principal component analysis (PCA) based on 48 food groups, for boys and girls separately. Results Three dietary patterns among boys and two among girls were identified. Among boys, high adherence to the 'western' pattern was associated with higher age, lower socioeconomic status (SES), and lower physical activity level (PA). High adherence to the 'healthy' pattern among boys, but not among girls, was associated with higher SES, and higher PA. Among boys, high adherence to the 'traditional' pattern was associated with higher age. Among girls, high adherence to the 'traditional and western' pattern was associated with lower age, lower SES and more hours watching TV per day. The nutrient density of several vitamins and minerals, particularly of B-vitamins and calcium, increased with increasing scores of the 'healthy' pattern among both sexes. Conversely, with increasing scores of the 'western' pattern among boys, most nutrient densities decreased, particularly of fibre, beta-carotene, vitamin D, biotin and calcium. Among girls with higher scores of the 'traditional and western' pattern, nutrient densities of vitamin A, C, E, K and folate decreased. Among boys, high adherence to the 'traditional' pattern was correlated with higher densities of vitamin B12 and vitamin D and lower densities of fibre, magnesium and iron. No significant associations between dietary patterns and overweight were found. Conclusions Higher scores for dietary patterns characterized

  5. Concerted diurnal patterns in riverine nutrient concentrations and physical conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholefield, David; Le Goff, Thierry; Braven, Jim; Ebdon, Les; Long, Terry; Butler, Mark

    2005-01-01

    Several long-term sets of hourly nitrate concentration data were obtained through deployment of a nitrate sensor in an upper reach of the River Taw, a small moorland-fed river in the South West of the UK. Examination of the data obtained during periods of low flow and the absence of rainfall in the catchment revealed the presence of marked diurnal cycles, which were in concert and negatively correlated with diurnal cycles in water temperature. After verifying that these cycles were natural, an intensive 90-h field monitoring campaign was conducted, in which river water was sampled hourly and immediately analysed in the laboratory for molybdate-reactive phosphorus (P), nitrate, nitrite, ammonium, and pH. Coincident measurements of water temperature, river discharge and solar energy were also taken at, or close to, the site. All measurements revealed diurnal patterns and all patterns were concerted. The cycles of P, nitrate, nitrite, and discharge had two maxima and minima per 24 h, while the cycle of water temperature had one, with a maximum at 20.00 and a minimum at 08.00. The amplitudes of the cycles of P and nitrate were each about 30% of the mean values, while the amplitude of the nitrite cycle was as great as 80% of the mean value on occasions. Both biological and physical mechanisms for the cycling could operate through water temperature and/or incident radiation to account for the observed phenomenon, but there remains uncertainty of which is the more important. The observations have important implications for both the accuracy of pollution assessment in rivers and the physiological rhythms of riverine organisms

  6. Concerted diurnal patterns in riverine nutrient concentrations and physical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholefield, David; Le Goff, Thierry; Braven, Jim; Ebdon, Les; Long, Terry; Butler, Mark

    2005-05-15

    Several long-term sets of hourly nitrate concentration data were obtained through deployment of a nitrate sensor in an upper reach of the River Taw, a small moorland-fed river in the South West of the UK. Examination of the data obtained during periods of low flow and the absence of rainfall in the catchment revealed the presence of marked diurnal cycles, which were in concert and negatively correlated with diurnal cycles in water temperature. After verifying that these cycles were natural, an intensive 90-h field monitoring campaign was conducted, in which river water was sampled hourly and immediately analysed in the laboratory for molybdate-reactive phosphorus (P), nitrate, nitrite, ammonium, and pH. Coincident measurements of water temperature, river discharge and solar energy were also taken at, or close to, the site. All measurements revealed diurnal patterns and all patterns were concerted. The cycles of P, nitrate, nitrite, and discharge had two maxima and minima per 24 h, while the cycle of water temperature had one, with a maximum at 20.00 and a minimum at 08.00. The amplitudes of the cycles of P and nitrate were each about 30% of the mean values, while the amplitude of the nitrite cycle was as great as 80% of the mean value on occasions. Both biological and physical mechanisms for the cycling could operate through water temperature and/or incident radiation to account for the observed phenomenon, but there remains uncertainty of which is the more important. The observations have important implications for both the accuracy of pollution assessment in rivers and the physiological rhythms of riverine organisms.

  7. Nutrient intake and nutrient patterns and risk of lung cancer among heavy smokers: results from the COSMOS screening study with annual low-dose CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gnagnarella, Patrizia; Maisonneuve, Patrick; Bellomi, Massimo; Rampinelli, Cristiano; Bertolotti, Raffaella; Spaggiari, Lorenzo; Palli, Domenico; Veronesi, Giulia

    2013-01-01

    The role of nutrients in lung cancer aetiology remains controversial and has never been evaluated in the context of screening. Our aim was to investigate the role of single nutrients and nutrient patterns in the aetiology of lung cancer in heavy smokers. Asymptomatic heavy smokers (≥20 pack-years) were invited to undergo annual low-dose computed tomography. We assessed diet using a self-administered food frequency questionnaire and collected information on multivitamin supplement use. We performed principal component analysis identifying four nutrient patterns and used Cox proportional Hazards regression to assess the association between nutrients and nutrients patterns and lung cancer risk. During a mean follow-up of 5.7 years, 178 of 4,336 participants were diagnosed with lung cancer by screening. We found a significant risk reduction of lung cancer with increasing vegetable fat consumption (HR for highest vs. lowest quartile = 0.50, 95 % CI = 0.31–0.80; P-trend = 0.02). Participants classified in the high “vitamins and fiber” pattern score had a significant risk reduction of lung cancer (HR = 0.57; 95 % CI = 0.36–0.90, P-trend = 0.01). Among heavy smokers enrolled in a screening trial, high vegetable fat intake and adherence to the “vitamin and fiber” nutrient pattern were associated with reduced lung cancer incidence.

  8. Roots bridge water to nutrients: a study of utilizing hydraulic redistribution through root systems to extract nutrients in the dry soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, J.; Ghezzehei, T. A.

    2017-12-01

    The rhizosphere is the region of soil that surrounds by individual plant roots. While its small volume and narrow region compared to bulk soil, the rhizosphere regulates numerous processes that determine physical structure, nutrient distribution, and biodiversity of soils. One of the most important and distinct functions of the rhizosphere is the capacity of roots to bridge and redistribute soil water from wet soil layers to drier layers. This process was identified and defined as hydraulic lift or hydraulic redistribution, a passive process driven by gradients in water potentials and it has attracted much research attention due to its important role in global water circulation and agriculture security. However, while previous studies mostly focused on the hydrological or physiological impacts of hydraulic redistribution, limited research has been conducted to elucidate its role in nutrient cycling and uptake. In this study, we aim to test the possibility of utilizing hydraulic redistribution to facilitate the nutrient movement and uptake from resource segregated zone. Our overarching hypothesis is that plants can extract nutrients from the drier but nutrient-rich regions by supplying sufficient amounts of water from the wet but nutrient-deficient regions. To test our hypothesis, we designed split-root systems of tomatoes with unequal supply of water and nutrients in different root compartments. More specifically, we transplanted tomato seedlings into sand or soil mediums, and grew them under conditions with alternate 12-h lightness and darkness. We continuously monitored the temperature, water and nutrient content of soils in these separated compartments. The above and below ground biomass were also quantified to evaluate the impacts on the plant growth. The results were compared to a control with evenly supply of water and nutrients to assess the plant growth, nutrient leaching and uptake without hydraulic redistribution.

  9. Foods, Nutrients, and Dietary Patterns: Interconnections and Implications for Dietary Guidelines12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satija, Ambika; Hu, Frank B

    2016-01-01

    Dietary guidelines provide evidence-based statements on food choices to meet nutritional requirements and reduce the risk of prevailing chronic disease. They involve a substantial amount of research translation, and their implementation has important health consequences. Foods, however, are complex combinations of nutrients and other compounds that act synergistically within the food and across food combinations. In addition, the evidence base underpinning dietary guidelines accesses research that reflects different study designs, with inherent strengths and limitations. We propose a systematic approach for the review of evidence that begins with research on dietary patterns. This research will identify the combinations of foods that best protect, or appear deleterious to, health. Next, we suggest that evidence be sought from research that focuses on the effects of individual foods. Finally, nutrient-based research should be considered to explain the mechanisms by which these foods and dietary patterns exert their effects, take into account the effects of ingredients added to the food supply, and enable assessments of dietary sufficiency. The consideration of individual nutrients and food components (e.g., upper limits for saturated fat, added sugar, and sodium) provides important benchmarks for evaluating overall diet quality. The concepts of core and discretionary foods (nutrient-rich and nutrient-poor foods, respectively) enable distinctions between foods, and this has implications for the relation between food policy and food manufacturing. In summary, evidence supporting healthy dietary patterns provides the foundation for the development of dietary guidelines. Further reference to individual foods and nutrients follows from the foundation of healthy dietary patterns. PMID:27184272

  10. Cooking Schools Improve Nutrient Intake Patterns of People with Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archuleta, Martha; VanLeeuwen, Dawn; Halderson, Karen; Jackson, K'Dawn; Bock, Margaret Ann; Eastman, Wanda; Powell, Jennifer; Titone, Michelle; Marr, Carol; Wells, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether cooking classes offered by the Cooperative Extension Service improved nutrient intake patterns in people with type 2 diabetes. Design: Quasi-experimental using pretest, posttest comparisons. Setting: Community locations including schools, churches, and senior centers. Participants: One hundred seventeen people with…

  11. Effect of Mineral Nutrients on the Kinetics of Methane Utilization by Methanotrophs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boiesen, Anette; Arvin, Erik; Broholm, Kim

    1993-01-01

    The effect of different mineral nutrients on the kinetics of methane biodegradation by a mixed culture of methanotrophic bacteria was studied. The substrate factors examined were ammonia, iron, copper, manganese, phosphate, and sulphide. The presence of iron in the growth medium had a strong effect...... was the only nitrogen source. The observed Monod constant for methane utilization increased with increasing concentration of ammonia. This shows that ammonia is a weak competitive inhibitor as observed by other researchers. Relatively high levels of both ammonia (70 mg/l) and copper (300 mu-g/l) inhibited...... the methane degradation, probably due to the toxic effect of copper-amine complexes....

  12. Effect of feeding guar meal on nutrient utilization and growth performance in Mahbubnagar local kids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razia Sultana Janampet

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was conducted to evaluate the growth performance and nutrient digestibility of guar meal, an unconventional protein-rich feed ingredient in kids in comparison to conventional groundnut cake. Materials and Methods: A total of 18 kids were randomly allotted to three groups, and T1 group was fed on basal diet, T2 and T3 groups were offered diet replacing groundnut cake at 50% and 100% with guar meal, respectively, for a period of 120-day. At the end of the growth trial, a digestibility trial was conducted to evaluate the nutrient utilization. Results: There was no significant difference in dry matter intake among three groups. Nutrient digestibilities were significantly higher (p<0.05 in kids fed T2 ration with 50% replacement of groundnut cake with guar meal. Conclusion: It can be concluded that guar meal can be incorporated at 50% level in the concentrate mixture of goats replacing groundnut cake without any adverse effects.

  13. Dietary pattern classifications with nutrient intake and health-risk factors in Korean men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji Eun; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Son, Say Jin; Ahn, Younjhin; Lee, Juyoung; Park, Chan; Lee, Lilha; Erickson, Kent L; Jung, In-Kyung

    2011-01-01

    This study was performed to identify dietary patterns in Korean men and to determine the associations among dietary patterns, nutrient intake, and health-risk factors. Using baseline data from the Korean Health and Genome Study, dietary patterns were identified using factor analysis of data from a validated food-frequency questionnaire, and associations between these dietary patterns and health-risk factors were analyzed. Three dietary patterns were identified: 1) the "animal-food" pattern (greater intake of meats, fish, and dairy products), 2) the "rice-vegetable" pattern (greater intake of rice, tofu, kimchi, soybean paste, vegetables, and seaweed), and 3) the "noodle-bread" pattern (greater intake of instant noodles, Chinese noodles, and bread). The animal-food pattern (preferred by younger people with higher income and education levels) had a positive correlation with obesity and hypercholesterolemia, whereas the rice-vegetable pattern (preferred by older people with lower income and educational levels) was positively associated with hypertension. The noodle-bread pattern (also preferred by younger people with higher income and education levels) had a positive association with abdominal obesity and hypercholesterolemia. This study identifies three unique dietary patterns in Korean men, which are independently associated with certain health-risk factors. The rice-vegetable dietary pattern, modified for a low sodium intake, might be a healthy dietary pattern for Korean men. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Main nutrient patterns and colorectal cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskal, Aurélie; Freisling, Heinz; Byrnes, Graham; Assi, Nada; Fahey, Michael T; Jenab, Mazda; Ferrari, Pietro; Tjønneland, Anne; Petersen, Kristina En; Dahm, Christina C; Hansen, Camilla Plambeck; Affret, Aurélie; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Cadeau, Claire; Kühn, Tilman; Katzke, Verena; Iqbal, Khalid; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Bamia, Christina; Naska, Androniki; Masala, Giovanna; de Magistris, Maria Santucci; Sieri, Sabina; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Peeters, Petra H; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas H; Engeset, Dagrun; Licaj, Idlir; Skeie, Guri; Ardanaz, Eva; Buckland, Genevieve; Castaño, José M Huerta; Quirós, José R; Amiano, Pilar; Molina-Portillo, Elena; Winkvist, Anna; Myte, Robin; Ericson, Ulrika; Sonestedt, Emily; Perez-Cornago, Aurora; Wareham, Nick; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Huybrechts, Inge; Tsilidis, Konstantinos K; Ward, Heather; Gunter, Marc J; Slimani, Nadia

    2016-11-22

    Much of the current literature on diet-colorectal cancer (CRC) associations focused on studies of single foods/nutrients, whereas less is known about nutrient patterns. We investigated the association between major nutrient patterns and CRC risk in participants of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Among 477 312 participants, intakes of 23 nutrients were estimated from validated dietary questionnaires. Using results from a previous principal component (PC) analysis, four major nutrient patterns were identified. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed for the association of each of the four patterns and CRC incidence using multivariate Cox proportional hazards models with adjustment for established CRC risk factors. During an average of 11 years of follow-up, 4517 incident cases of CRC were documented. A nutrient pattern characterised by high intakes of vitamins and minerals was inversely associated with CRC (HR per 1 s.d.=0.94, 95% CI: 0.92-0.98) as was a pattern characterised by total protein, riboflavin, phosphorus and calcium (HR (1 s.d.)=0.96, 95% CI: 0.93-0.99). The remaining two patterns were not significantly associated with CRC risk. Analysing nutrient patterns may improve our understanding of how groups of nutrients relate to CRC.

  15. Nutrient dietary patterns and the risk of colorectal cancer: a case-control study from Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravi, Francesca; Edefonti, Valeria; Bosetti, Cristina; Talamini, Renato; Montella, Maurizio; Giacosa, Attilio; Franceschi, Silvia; Negri, Eva; Ferraroni, Monica; La Vecchia, Carlo; Decarli, Adriano

    2010-11-01

    The role of diet on colorectal cancer has been considered in terms of single foods and nutrients, but less frequently in terms of dietary patterns. Data were derived from an Italian case-control study, including 1,225 subjects with cancer of the colon, 728 subjects with rectal cancer, and 4,154 hospital controls. We identified dietary patterns on a selected set of nutrients through principal component factor analysis. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals for both cancers were estimated using unconditional multiple logistic regression. We identified 5 major dietary patterns. Direct associations were observed between the Starch-rich pattern and both cancer of the colon (OR = 1.68) and of the rectum (OR = 1.74). Inverse relationships were found between the Vitamins and fiber pattern and rectal cancer (OR = 0.61), between the Unsaturated fats (animal source) and the Unsaturated fats (vegetable source) and cancer of the colon (OR = 0.80 and OR = 0.79, respectively). No other significant association was found. The Starch-rich pattern is potentially an unfavorable indicator of risk for both colon and rectal cancer, whereas the Vitamins and fiber pattern is associated with a reduced risk of rectal cancer and the Unsaturated fats patterns with a reduced risk of colon cancer.

  16. Nutrient utilization and rumen metabolism in sheep fed Prosopis juliflora pods and Cenchrus grass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Om Hari; Sahoo, Artabandhu

    2013-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of replacement of Prosopis juliflora pods (PJP) in the concentrate mixture fed to sheep along with Cenchrus grass (CG). Twenty four adult Malpura rams (3-5 years, 45.4 ± 4.26 kg) were randomly divided into three equal groups on the basis of age and live weight (LW). Mature green Prosopis juliflora pods were collected, dried and ground to replace concentrate mixture at 0 (G1), 30% (G2) or 40% (G3). Cenchrus grass was offered ad libitum whereas the concentrate mixture was fed at the rate of 1% LW. Nutrient digestibility did not differ among the groups while N balance data showed reduced utilization in G3. However, the animals in G1, G2 and G3 maintained LW and their nutritional profile indicated surplus of energy and protein with comparable feed value of all the three diets. Rumen pH decreased and volatile fatty acids increased (P Prosopis juliflora pods can replace concentrate mixture up to 40% in sheep feeding without any adverse effect on nutrient intake and utilization as well as rumen fermentation characteristics.

  17. Longitudinal stress fracture: patterns of edema and the importance of the nutrient foramen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craig, Joseph G.; Widman, David; Holsbeeck, Marnix van [Department of Radiology, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, MI 48202 (United States)

    2003-01-01

    We reviewed the MR appearances of six cases of longitudinal stress fracture of the lower extremity.Results. One fracture was in the femur and five were in the tibia. Four of the tibial fractures showed edema starting in the mid-tibia at the level of the nutrient foramen with the fracture on the anteromedial cortex. The other tibial fracture started at the nutrient foramen. Three fractures (two tibial and the femur fracture) showed eccentric marrow edema; all fractures showed either eccentric periosteal reaction or soft tissue edema.Conclusion. Primary diagnosis of longitudinal stress fracture is made by finding a vertical cleft on one or more axial images. Secondary signs of position of the nutrient foramen and patterns of edema may be useful. (orig.)

  18. Spatiotemporal patterns of livestock manure nutrient production in the conterminous United States from 1930 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qichun; Tian, Hanqin; Li, Xia; Ren, Wei; Zhang, Bowen; Zhang, Xuesong; Wolf, Julie

    2016-01-15

    Manure nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) from livestock husbandry are important components of terrestrial biogeochemical cycling. Assessment of the impacts of livestock manure on terrestrial biogeochemistry requires a compilation and analysis of spatial and temporal patterns of manure nutrients. In this study, we reconstructed county-level manure nutrient data of the conterminous United States (U.S.) in 4- to 5-year increments from 1930 to 2012. Manure N and P were 5.8 9 ± 0.64 Tg N yr.(-1) (Mean ± Standard Deviation) and 1.73 ± 0.29 Tg Pyr.(-1) (1 Tg = 10(12)g), and increased by 46% and 92% from 1930 to 2012, respectively. Prior to 1970, manure provided more N to the U.S. lands than chemical fertilizer use. Since 1970, however, increasing chemical N fertilizer use has exceeded manure N production. Manure was the primary P source in the U.S. during 1930-1969 and 1987-2012, but was lower than P fertilizer use in 1974, 1978, and 1982. High-nutrient-production regions shifted towards eastern and western areas of the U.S. Decreasing small farms and increasing Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) induced concentrated spatial patterns in manure nutrient loads. Counties with cattle or poultry as the primary manure nutrient contributors expanded significantly from 1930 to 2012, whereas regions with sheep and hog as the primary contributors decreased. We identified regions facing environmental threats associated with livestock farming. Effective management of manure should consider the impacts of CAFOs in manure production, and changes in livestock population structure. The long-term county-level manure nutrient dataset provides improved spatial and temporal information on manure nutrients in the U.S. This dataset is expected to help advance research on nutrient cycling, ammonia volatilization, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from livestock husbandry, recovery and reuse of manure nutrients, and impacts of livestock feeding on human health in the context of global

  19. Factors Affecting Loan Utilization And Repayment Patterns By Small ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study identified factors affecting loan utilization and repayment patterns by small holder farmers of the Nigerian Agricultural Co-operative and Rural Development Bank (NACRDB) Osogbo branch in Osun State. Two Local Government Areas with large number of loan beneficiaries from 2003 to 2008 in NACRDB were ...

  20. A holistic view of dietary carbohydrate utilization in lobster: digestion, postprandial nutrient flux, and metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Viera, Leandro; Perera, Erick; Casuso, Antonio; Perdomo-Morales, Rolando; Gutierrez, Odilia; Scull, Idania; Carrillo, Olimpia; Martos-Sitcha, Juan A; García-Galano, Tsai; Mancera, Juan Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Crustaceans exhibit a remarkable variation in their feeding habits and food type, but most knowledge on carbohydrate digestion and utilization in this group has come from research on few species. The aim of this study was to make an integrative analysis of dietary carbohydrate utilization in the spiny lobster Panulirus argus. We used complementary methodologies such as different assessments of digestibility, activity measurements of digestive and metabolic enzymes, and post-feeding flux of nutrients and metabolites. Several carbohydrates were well digested by the lobster, but maize starch was less digestible than all other starches studied, and its inclusion in diet affected protein digestibility. Most intense hydrolysis of carbohydrates in the gastric chamber of lobster occurred between 2-6 h after ingestion and afterwards free glucose increased in hemolymph. The inclusion of wheat in diet produced a slow clearance of glucose from the gastric fluid and a gradual increase in hemolymph glucose. More intense hydrolysis of protein in the gastric chamber occurred 6-12 h after ingestion and then amino acids tended to increase in hemolymph. Triglyceride concentration in hemolymph rose earlier in wheat-fed lobsters than in lobsters fed other carbohydrates, but it decreased the most 24 h later. Analyses of metabolite levels and activities of different metabolic enzymes revealed that intermolt lobsters had a low capacity to store and use glycogen, although it was slightly higher in wheat-fed lobsters. Lobsters fed maize and rice diets increased amino acid catabolism, while wheat-fed lobsters exhibited higher utilization of fatty acids. Multivariate analysis confirmed that the type of carbohydrate ingested had a profound effect on overall metabolism. Although we found no evidence of a protein-sparing effect of dietary carbohydrate, differences in the kinetics of their digestion and absorption impacted lobster metabolism determining the fate of other nutrients.

  1. A holistic view of dietary carbohydrate utilization in lobster: digestion, postprandial nutrient flux, and metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Rodríguez-Viera

    Full Text Available Crustaceans exhibit a remarkable variation in their feeding habits and food type, but most knowledge on carbohydrate digestion and utilization in this group has come from research on few species. The aim of this study was to make an integrative analysis of dietary carbohydrate utilization in the spiny lobster Panulirus argus. We used complementary methodologies such as different assessments of digestibility, activity measurements of digestive and metabolic enzymes, and post-feeding flux of nutrients and metabolites. Several carbohydrates were well digested by the lobster, but maize starch was less digestible than all other starches studied, and its inclusion in diet affected protein digestibility. Most intense hydrolysis of carbohydrates in the gastric chamber of lobster occurred between 2-6 h after ingestion and afterwards free glucose increased in hemolymph. The inclusion of wheat in diet produced a slow clearance of glucose from the gastric fluid and a gradual increase in hemolymph glucose. More intense hydrolysis of protein in the gastric chamber occurred 6-12 h after ingestion and then amino acids tended to increase in hemolymph. Triglyceride concentration in hemolymph rose earlier in wheat-fed lobsters than in lobsters fed other carbohydrates, but it decreased the most 24 h later. Analyses of metabolite levels and activities of different metabolic enzymes revealed that intermolt lobsters had a low capacity to store and use glycogen, although it was slightly higher in wheat-fed lobsters. Lobsters fed maize and rice diets increased amino acid catabolism, while wheat-fed lobsters exhibited higher utilization of fatty acids. Multivariate analysis confirmed that the type of carbohydrate ingested had a profound effect on overall metabolism. Although we found no evidence of a protein-sparing effect of dietary carbohydrate, differences in the kinetics of their digestion and absorption impacted lobster metabolism determining the fate of other

  2. Nutrient-derived dietary patterns and risk of colorectal cancer: a factor analysis in Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Stefani, Eduardo; Ronco, Alvaro L; Boffetta, Paolo; Deneo-Pellegrini, Hugo; Correa, Pelayo; Acosta, Gisele; Mendilaharsu, Maria

    2012-01-01

    In order to explore the role of nutrients and bioactive related substances in colorectal cancer, we conducted a case-control in Uruguay, which is the country with the highest production of beef in the world. Six hundred and eleven (611) cases afflicted with colorectal cancer and 1,362 controls drawn from the same hospitals in the same time period were analyzed through unconditional multiple logistic regression. This base population was submitted to a principal components factor analysis and three factors were retained. They were labeled as the meat-based, plant-based, and carbohydrates patterns. They were rotated using orthogonal varimax method. The highest risk was positively associated with the meat-based pattern (OR for the highest quartile versus the lowest one 1.63, 95 % CI 1.22-2.18, P value for trend = 0.001), whereas the plant-based pattern was strongly protective (OR 0.60, 95 % CI 0.45-0.81, P value for trend pattern was only positively associated with colon cancer risk (OR 1.46, 95 % CI 1.02-2.09). The meat-based pattern was rich in saturated fat, animal protein, cholesterol, and phosphorus, nutrients originated in red meat. Since herocyclic amines are formed in the well-done red meat through the action of amino acids and creatine, it is suggestive that this pattern could be an important etiologic agent for colorectal cancer.

  3. Effects of Maize Source and Complex Enzymes on Performance and Nutrient Utilization of Broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Defu Tang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of maize source and complex enzymes containing amylase, xylanase and protease on performance and nutrient utilization of broilers. The experiment was a 4×3 factorial design with diets containing four source maize samples (M1, M2, M3, and M4 and without or with two kinds of complex enzyme A (Axtra XAP and B (Avizyme 1502. Nine hundred and sixty day old Arbor Acres broiler chicks were used in the trial (12 treatments with 8 replicate pens of 10 chicks. Birds fed M1 diet had better body weight gain (BWG and lower feed/gain ratio compared with those fed M3 diet and M4 diet (p0.05, respectively. The fresh feces output was significantly decreased by the addition of enzyme B (p<0.05. Maize source affects the nutrients digestibility and performance of broilers, and a combination of amylase, xylanase and protease is effective in improving the growth profiles of broilers fed maize-soybean-rapeseed-cotton mixed diets.

  4. Nutrient patterns and risk of fracture in older subjects: results from the Three-City Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samieri, C; Ginder Coupez, V; Lorrain, S; Letenneur, L; Allès, B; Féart, C; Paineau, D; Barberger-Gateau, P

    2013-04-01

    We investigated the association between nutrient patterns and risk of fractures in 1,482 older subjects. Patterns associated with higher intakes of Ca, P, vitamin B12, proteins and unsaturated fats, and moderate alcohol intake, provided by diets rich in dairies and charcuteries, were related to a lower risk of wrist and hip fractures. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between patterns of nutrient intake and the risk of fractures in older subjects. Among 1,482 participants from the Bordeaux sample of the Three-City (3C) Study who completed a 24-h dietary recall and a food frequency questionnaire, we examined the association between patterns of nutrient intake derived from principal component analysis and 8-year incidence of self-reported fractures of the hip, the wrist, and the vertebrae. A "nutrient-dense" pattern rich in Ca and P, iron, vitamins B including B12, vitamins C and E, alcohol, proteins, and unsaturated fats, and characterized by a higher consumption of fruits and vegetables, meats and fish, cheese and milk, charcuteries, cereals, rice, pasta, and potatoes, was associated with a 19% (95% CI 2-34%, P=0.03) lower risk of wrist fractures. The same pattern was associated with a 14% (95% CI 2-25%) lower risk of fractures at any site. A "south-western French" pattern rich in Ca, P, vitamins D and B12, retinol, alcohol, proteins, and fats-including unsaturated fats; poor in vitamins C, E, and K, carotenes, folates, and fibers; and related to a higher consumption of cheese, milk, and charcuterie and a lower consumption of fruits and vegetables was related to a 33% lower risk of hip fractures (95% CI 3-39%, P=0.03). Higher intakes of Ca, P, vitamin B12, proteins, and unsaturated fats and moderate alcohol, provided by dietary patterns rich in cheese, milk, and charcuteries, were related to a lower risk of wrist and hip fractures in our cohort.

  5. Spatial accumulation pattern of citrulline and other nutrients in immature and mature watermelon fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akashi, Kinya; Mifune, Yuki; Morita, Kaori; Ishitsuka, Souichi; Tsujimoto, Hisashi; Ishihara, Toshiyuki

    2017-01-01

    Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus L.) originates from arid regions of southern Africa, and its fruit contains a large amount of the amino acid citrulline, an efficient hydroxyl radical scavenger. Citrulline is implicated in the production of nitric oxide in human endothelium, and potential health benefits including vasodilatation and antioxidant functions have been suggested. However, citrulline metabolism in watermelon fruits is poorly understood. This study examined the accumulation pattern of citrulline and other nutrients in immature and mature watermelon fruits. In mature fruits, highest citrulline concentration was observed in the outer peel, followed by the central portion of the flesh and inner rinds, whereas the level was lower in the peripheral portion of the flesh. Citrulline content was generally low in immature fruits. Spatial and developmental patterns of citrulline accumulation were largely different from those of the antioxidant lycopene, total proteins, and soluble sugars such as glucose, fructose, and sucrose. Principal component analysis suggested a clear distinction of the central flesh and outer peels in mature fruits from other tissues in terms of the levels of major nutrients. These observations suggested that citrulline accumulation may be regulated in a distinct manner from other nutrients during watermelon fruit maturation. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Effect of arsenic and cadmium on the growth rate and nutrient utilization rates of Asterionelia formosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conway, H.L.; Yaguchi, E.M.

    1975-01-01

    Many volatile trace elements are released during combustion of fossil fuels. They may eventually be transported to aquatic ecosystems by wet or dry deposition, and some of them may be toxic to aquatic organisms. We are investigating the effects of arsenic and cadmium on an algal species found in Lake Michigan. Little information is available on chronic effects of these elements. Cadmium is widely used in the plating, pigment, and plastics industries. Arsenic and cadmium also enter the lake as a result of their use in agricultural pesticides and insecticides. Increased fossil fuel utilization in this region may result in increased arsenic and cadmium levels in the lake water if the present levels are not under geochemical control. We are using continuous culture techniques to assess biological effects of arsenic and cadmium concentrations between 2 and 20 times ambient levels. Uptake of arsenic and cadmium and their effects on nutrient utilization and growth rate are being measured for Astrerionella formaso, an important diatom, in spring and fall in Lake Michigan. Continuous culture techniques permit evaluation of subtle pollutant effects, such as physiological impairment and decreased reproductive rates, over many generations

  7. Effects of dietary fermented spent coffee ground on nutrient digestibility and nitrogen utilization in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yongjun; Rim, Jong-Su; Na, Youngjun; Lee, Sang Rak

    2018-03-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the effect of fermented spent coffee ground (FSCG) on nutrient digestibility and nitrogen utilization in sheep. Fermentation of spent coffee ground (SCG) was conducted using Lactobacillus plantrum . Fermentation was performed at moisture content of 70% and temperature of 39°C with anaerobic air tension for 48 h. Four adult rams (initial body weight = 56.8±0.4 kg) were housed in a respiration-metabolism chamber and the treatments were: i) control (Basal diet; 0% SCG or FSCG), ii) 10% level of SCG, iii) 10% level of FSCG, and iv) 20% level of FSCG in 4×4 Latin square design. Each dietary experiment period lasted for 18-d with a 14-d of adaptation period and a 4-d of sample collection period. In SCG fermentation experimental result, acid detergent insoluble nitrogen (ADIN) concentration of FSCG (64.5% of total N) was lower than that of non-fermented SCG (78.8% of total N). Digestibility of dry matter and organic matter was similar among treatment groups. Although crude protein (CP) digestibility of the control was greater than FSCG groups (pdigestibility and nitrogen retention than non-fermented 10% SCG group (pdigestibility, thereby increasing CP digestibility and nitrogen utilization in sheep. Fermentation using microorganisms in feed ingredients with low digestibility could have a positive effect on improving the quality of raw feed.

  8. Dynamics of nutrient utilization, heat production, and body composition in broiler breeder hens during egg production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldas, Justina V; Hilton, Katie; Boonsinchai, Nirun; England, Judith A; Mauromoustakos, Andy; Coon, Craig N

    2018-04-24

    Changes in heat production (HP) and body composition (BC) in modern broiler breeders can provide means to understand nutrient utilization. Twelve Cobb 500 breeders were evaluated 10 times from 26 to 59 wk of age. The same wired caged breeders were moved to respiratory chambers connected to an indirect calorimetry to obtain oxygen consumption (VO2) and carbon dioxide production (VCO2), HP, and respiratory exchange ratio (RER). The same hens were evaluated for BC using a dual X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Data were analyzed during light (16 h) and dark (8 h) period using a mixed model to evaluate calorimetry parameters, a factorial design 2 × 10 for normalized calorimetry parameters, and Complete Randomized Design (CRD)-one way ANOVA for BC. Means were separated by Tukey-Honest Significant difference (HSD). HP increased with age (d) in 0.152 kcal/d, VO2 and VCO2 were 0.031 and 0.024 L/d per each increase in age (d), respectively. In the light period, hens consumed +17.4 L/d VO2 and produced +18.9 L/d VCO2 (P production. Lean body mass ranged from 642 to 783 g/kg during the whole study reaching the lowest at 37 and 50 wk and the highest at 26 to 33 wk (P production is reduced, and HP increased at 54 and 59 wk (P lean mass structure. Broiler breeders change nutrient fuel use during egg production. Indirect calorimetry and DEXA can be used to pursue further feed strategies to maximize egg production and maintain a healthy breeder.

  9. Relating land use patterns to stream nutrient levels in red soil agricultural catchments in subtropical central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Li, Yong; Liu, Xinliang; Liu, Feng; Li, Yuyuan; Song, Lifang; Li, Hang; Ma, Qiumei; Wu, Jinshui

    2014-09-01

    Land use has obvious influence on surface water quality; thus, it is important to understand the effects of land use patterns on surface water quality. This study explored the relationships between land use patterns and stream nutrient levels, including ammonium-N (NH4 (+)-N), nitrate-N (NO3 (-)-N), total N (TN), dissolved P (DP), and total P (TP) concentrations, in one forest and 12 agricultural catchments in subtropical central China. The results indicated that the TN concentrations ranged between 0.90 and 6.50 mg L(-1) and the TP concentrations ranged between 0.08 and 0.53 mg L(-1), showing that moderate nutrient pollution occurred in the catchments. The proportional areal coverages of forests, paddy fields, tea fields, residential areas, and water had distinct effects on stream nutrient levels. Except for the forest, all studied land use types had a potential to increase stream nutrient levels in the catchments. The land use pattern indices at the landscape level were significantly correlated to N nutrients but rarely correlated to P nutrients in stream water, whereas the influence of the land use pattern indices at the class level on stream water quality differentiated among the land use types and nutrient species. Multiple regression analysis suggested that land use pattern indices at the class level, including patch density (PD), largest patch index (LPI), mean shape index (SHMN), and mean Euclidian nearest neighbor distance (ENNMN), played an intrinsic role in influencing stream nutrient quality, and these four indices explained 35.08 % of the variability of stream nutrient levels in the catchments (pstream nutrient pollution in subtropical central China.

  10. Nutrient Patterns and Their Food Sources in Older Persons from France and Quebec: Dietary and Lifestyle Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Allès

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dietary and nutrient patterns have been linked to health outcomes related to aging. Food intake is influenced by environmental and genetic factors. The aim of the present study was to compare nutrient patterns across two elderly populations sharing a common ancestral cultural background, but living in different environments. Methods: The diet quality, lifestyle and socioeconomic characteristics of participants from the Three-City Study (3C, France, n = 1712 and the Québec Longitudinal Study on Nutrition and Successful Aging (NuAge, Quebec, Canada, n = 1596 were analyzed. Nutrient patterns and their food sources were identified in the two samples using principal component analysis. Diet quality was compared across sample-specific patterns by describing weekly food intake and associations with the Canadian Healthy Eating Index (C-HEI. Results: Three nutrient patterns were retained in each study: a healthy, a Western and a more traditional pattern. These patterns accounted for 50.1% and 53.5% of the total variance in 3C and NuAge, respectively. Higher education and non-physical occupations over lifetime were associated with healthy patterns in both studies. Other characteristics such as living alone, having a body mass index lower than 25 and being an ex-smoker were associated with the healthy pattern in NuAge. No association between these characteristics and the nutrient patterns was noted in 3C. The healthy and Western patterns from each sample also showed an inverse association with C-HEI. Conclusion: The two healthy patterns showed important similarities: adequate food variety, consumption of healthy foods and associations with common sociodemographic factors. This work highlights that nutrient patterns derived using a posteriori methods may be useful to compare the nutritional quality of the diet of distinct populations.

  11. Nutrient Patterns and Their Food Sources in Older Persons from France and Quebec: Dietary and Lifestyle Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allès, Benjamin; Samieri, Cécilia; Lorrain, Simon; Jutand, Marthe-Aline; Carmichael, Pierre-Hugues; Shatenstein, Bryna; Gaudreau, Pierrette; Payette, Hélène; Laurin, Danielle; Barberger-Gateau, Pascale

    2016-04-19

    Dietary and nutrient patterns have been linked to health outcomes related to aging. Food intake is influenced by environmental and genetic factors. The aim of the present study was to compare nutrient patterns across two elderly populations sharing a common ancestral cultural background, but living in different environments. The diet quality, lifestyle and socioeconomic characteristics of participants from the Three-City Study (3C, France, n = 1712) and the Québec Longitudinal Study on Nutrition and Successful Aging (NuAge, Quebec, Canada, n = 1596) were analyzed. Nutrient patterns and their food sources were identified in the two samples using principal component analysis. Diet quality was compared across sample-specific patterns by describing weekly food intake and associations with the Canadian Healthy Eating Index (C-HEI). Three nutrient patterns were retained in each study: a healthy, a Western and a more traditional pattern. These patterns accounted for 50.1% and 53.5% of the total variance in 3C and NuAge, respectively. Higher education and non-physical occupations over lifetime were associated with healthy patterns in both studies. Other characteristics such as living alone, having a body mass index lower than 25 and being an ex-smoker were associated with the healthy pattern in NuAge. No association between these characteristics and the nutrient patterns was noted in 3C. The healthy and Western patterns from each sample also showed an inverse association with C-HEI. The two healthy patterns showed important similarities: adequate food variety, consumption of healthy foods and associations with common sociodemographic factors. This work highlights that nutrient patterns derived using a posteriori methods may be useful to compare the nutritional quality of the diet of distinct populations.

  12. Predicting STEM Career Success by STI Knowledge Utilization Patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bozeman, B.; Youtie, J.; Bretschneider, S.

    2016-07-01

    As a part of discussion on knowledge utilization on science and technology, the mixed of papers presented in the panel discussion is designed to illustrate the patterns of collaboration, mobility, and diffusion of knowledge as well as those of labor force. In particular, the first two papers presented in the panel explore the potential of STEM career success through cosmopolitan collaboration and international community collaboration (focused on the relationships between China and Russia) in nanotechnology, which would provide implications on national and international benchmarking of innovation. For policy implications on graduate education and innovation, mobility pattern of non-U.S. Ph.D. degree holders is examined, and impact of a policy report on the target academic communities is investigated through development of credibility map. This panel is designed to highlight a recent effort of understanding geographical, cognitive or social spaces that are present in the scientific and technological activity as well as in doctoral education. The papers presented in this panel, therefore, will provide a rich set of significant and relevant insights drawn from examining STI knowledge utilization patterns to the STI-ENID community. The anticipated length of the event may be 90 minutes and there is no preferred number of attendees in particular although it is expected to be in between 35 and 60 at the minimum. (Author)

  13. The interplay of dietary nutrient level and varying calcium to phosphorus ratios on efficacy of a bacterial phytase: 2. Ileal and total tract nutrient utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olukosi, O A; Fru-Nji, F

    2014-12-01

    A 14-d broiler experiment was conducted to assess the effects of 2 dietary variables on efficacy of a bacterial 6-phytase from Citobacter braakii on nutrient and phytate P (PP) utilization. Diets were formulated with or without nutrient matrix values (matrix) for phytase as negative control (NC) or positive control (PC), respectively, and with 2 Ca:total P (tP) levels (2:1 or 2.5:1). The diets were supplemented with 0, 1,000, or 2,000 phytase units (FYT)/kg of diet, thus producing a 2 × 2 × 3 factorial arrangement. Excreta were collected on d 19 to 21 and ileal digesta on d 21. There was no 3-way interaction on digestibility of any nutrient. There was matrix × phytase (P phytase interaction (P phytase increased (P phytase supplementation in diets with 2:1 Ca:tP, whereas there was no effect of phytase supplementation on PP disappearance or Ca retention in diets with 2.5:1 Ca:tP. Total P and Ca retention were reduced (P phytase supplementation on P utilization is reduced when diets contain adequate P as exemplified in the PC diets and that the negative impact of wide Ca:tP is more pronounced in diets with phytase matrix allowance as exemplified in the NC diets. ©2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  14. Impact of typical rather than nutrient-dense food choices in the US Department of Agriculture Food Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britten, Patricia; Cleveland, Linda E; Koegel, Kristin L; Kuczynski, Kevin J; Nickols-Richardson, Sharon M

    2012-10-01

    The US Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food Patterns, released as part of the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans, are designed to meet nutrient needs without exceeding energy requirements. They identify amounts to consume from each food group and recommend that nutrient-dense forms-lean or low-fat, without added sugars or salt-be consumed. Americans fall short of most food group intake targets and do not consume foods in nutrient-dense forms. Intake of calories from solid fats and added sugars exceed maximum limits by large margins. Our aim was to determine the potential effect on meeting USDA Food Pattern nutrient adequacy and moderation goals if Americans consumed the recommended quantities from each food group, but did not implement the advice to select nutrient-dense forms of food and instead made more typical food choices. Food-pattern modeling analysis using the USDA Food Patterns, which are structured to allow modifications in one or more aspects of the patterns, was used. Nutrient profiles for each food group were modified by replacing each nutrient-dense representative food with a similar but typical choice. Typical nutrient profiles were used to determine the energy and nutrient content of the food patterns. Moderation goals are not met when amounts of food in the USDA Food Patterns are followed and typical rather than nutrient-dense food choices are made. Energy, total fat, saturated fat, and sodium exceed limits in all patterns, often by substantial margins. With typical choices, calories were 15% to 30% (ie, 350 to 450 kcal) above the target calorie level for each pattern. Adequacy goals were not substantially affected by the use of typical food choices. If consumers consume the recommended quantities from each food group and subgroup, but fail to choose foods in low-fat, no-added-sugars, and low-sodium forms, they will not meet the USDA Food Patterns moderation goals or the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Copyright © 2012 Academy of

  15. Utilization pattern of whole body computed tomography scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youn, Chul Ho; Lee, Sang Suk

    1986-01-01

    Computed tomography scanner (CT scanner) is one of the most expensive and sophisticated diagnostic tool and has already been utilized in many hospitals in Korea. The price as well as operating costs of CT scanner is so expensive as to regulate its installment by government even in the United States. In order to identify the efficient utilization of the CT scanner, the utilization pattern for CT scanning was analyzed at three general hospital in seoul. The results are as follows: 1. Five out of one thousand outpatients and five out of one hundred inpatients were CT scanned. 2. Eighty percent of patients who were scanned were those of inpatients of the hospitals where the scanned are installed. 3. Head standings constitute 45.6 percent of examinations, internal medicine 63.8 percent, and 38.5 percent neurosurgery respectively. 4. The rate of indication for CT scanning showed no statistically significant difference between insured and non-insured groups. 5. Computed tomography scanner units were operated 5.5 days a week in average and full operation rate was 79.5% in average. 6. The major diagnoses mode by head scanning were: hematoma (56.7%), infarction (12.6%), tumor (8.2%), and hydrocephalus (4.4%). 7. Number of patients taken CT Scanning was 43 persons a week in average for each whole body scanner unit

  16. Foliar Nutrient Distribution Patterns in Sympatric Maple Species Reflect Contrasting Sensitivity to Excess Manganese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Denise R; Marshall, Alan T; Lynch, Jonathan P

    2016-01-01

    Sugar maple and red maple are closely-related co-occurring tree species significant to the North American forest biome. Plant abiotic stress effects including nutritional imbalance and manganese (Mn) toxicity are well documented within this system, and are implicated in enhanced susceptibility to biotic stresses such as insect attack. Both tree species are known to overaccumulate foliar manganese (Mn) when growing on unbuffered acidified soils, however, sugar maple is Mn-sensitive, while red maple is not. Currently there is no knowledge about the cellular sequestration of Mn and other nutrients in these two species. Here, electron-probe x-ray microanalysis was employed to examine cellular and sub-cellular deposition of excessively accumulated foliar Mn and other mineral nutrients in vivo. For both species, excess foliar Mn was deposited in symplastic cellular compartments. There were striking between-species differences in Mn, magnesium (Mg), sulphur (S) and calcium (Ca) distribution patterns. Unusually, Mn was highly co-localised with Mg in mesophyll cells of red maple only. The known sensitivity of sugar maple to excess Mn is likely linked to Mg deficiency in the leaf mesophyll. There was strong evidence that Mn toxicity in sugar maple is primarily a symplastic process. For each species, leaf-surface damage due to biotic stress including insect herbivory was compared between sites with acidified and non-acidified soils. Although it was greatest overall in red maple, there was no difference in biotic stress damage to red maple leaves between acidified and non-acidified soils. Sugar maple trees on buffered non-acidified soil were less damaged by biotic stress compared to those on unbuffered acidified soil, where they are also affected by Mn toxicity abiotic stress. This study concluded that foliar nutrient distribution in symplastic compartments is a determinant of Mn sensitivity, and that Mn stress hinders plant resistance to biotic stress.

  17. Effect of feeding chayote (Sechium edule) meal on growth performance and nutrient utilization in indigenous pig (Zovawk) of Mizoram

    OpenAIRE

    Lalthansanga, James; Samanta, A. K.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: This study was planned to investigate the effect of feeding different levels of chayote (Sechium edule) meal by replacing standard concentrate mixture (CM) on the growth parameters such as feed intake, body weight gain, average daily gain (ADG) and feed conversion ratio (FCR), and nutrient utilization in indigenous pig of Mizoram. Materials and Methods: Twenty-four growing indigenous pigs (Zovawk) were used to study the effect of feeding chayote (Sechium edule) meal (fruits and leaves...

  18. Nutrient consumption pattern of male soccer players in Shiraz/Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Najafpour Bushehry

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Exercise and nutrition have a significant impact on health. To evaluate nutrient consumption pattern of soccer players in city of Shiraz, 323 players were selected by proportional multi-stage cluster random sampling from 11 clubs in Shiraz. Anthropometric indices, socioeconomic status, 24 hours dietary recall and food frequency data were collected. Protein, carbohydrate and fat intake of the players were 73.73 gr (10.8%, 493.3 gr (72.4% and 50.8 gr (16.7%, respectively. Calcium (689.6 mg, phosphorus (734.4 mg, iron (20.3 mg, vitamin B1 (2 mg, vitamin B2 (1.6 mg, vitamin C (107.5 mg and vitamin A (962.4 mcg RE intake were lower than the desirable levels. The mean energy consumption of the players was 2723 Kcal per day. In conclusion, protein and micronutrients intakes are not desirable in Iranian soccer players in Shiraz.

  19. Interactions between soil texture, water, and nutrients control patterns of biocrusts abundance and structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Kristina; Bowker, Matthew; Reed, Sasha; Howell, Armin

    2017-04-01

    . Soil shear resistance was highest on finer textured soil with the highest watering treatment, whereas compression resistance was highest on the coarsest textured soils with the highest watering amounts. Nutrient addition did not influence total cover or biocrust function, but did decrease lichen cover. Taken together, these results suggest that interactions between soil texture, water, and to a lesser degree nutrients, create predictable patterns in biocrust assemblage and offers a mechanistic understanding of edaphic controls over biocrust abundance and structure. These insights add to our increasing understanding of how edaphic gradients structure soil communities.

  20. [Control of Soil Nutrient Loss of Typical Reforestation Patterns Along the Three Gorges Reservoir Area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dong; Huang, Zhi-lin; Xiao, Wen-fa; Zeng, Li-xiong

    2015-10-01

    Annual soil nutrient loss characteristics on typical reforestation patterns in watershed along the Three Gorges Reservoir Area were studied based on runoff plot experiment. Runoff and sediment nutrition content from May to October 2014 of typical reforestation patterns including garden plot (tea garden), forest land (Chinese chestnut) and the original slope farmland were determined and then analyzed. The results showed that: (1) After the Returning Farmland to Forest Project the quantity of annual soil nutrient (nitrogen and phosphorus, the sum of them in sediment and runoff) loss decreased. The output of total nitrogen (TN) was in the order of slope farmland (2 444.27 g x hm(-2)) > tea garden (998.70 g x hm(-2)) > Chinese chestnut forest (532.61 g x hm(-2)), and for total phosphorus (TP) loss was slope farmland (1 690.48 g x hm(-2)) > tea garden (488.06 g x hm(-2)) > Chinese chestnut forest (129.00 g x hm(-2)) . Compared with slope farmland, the load of TN and TP output of reforestation patterns decreased 68.68% and 81.75%, respectively. (2) Compared with slope farmland, available nitrogen loss decreased in reforestation patterns. Total nitrate nitrogen (NO3(-)-N) loss ranked in the order of slope farmland (113.79 g x hm(-2)) > tea garden (73.75 g x hm(-2)) > Chinese chestnut forest (56.06 g x hm(-2)) The largest amount of ammonium nitrogen (NH4(+)-N) was found in tea garden (69.34 g x hm(-2)), then in farmland (52.45 g x hm(-2)), and the least in Chinese chestnut forest (47.23 g x hm(-2)). (3) The main route of NO3(-)-N and NH4(+)-N loss was both through runoff, the quantity of NO3(-)-N and NH4(+)-N output in which accounted for 91.4% and 92.2% of the total, respectively. The quantity of TN and TP in sediment accounted for 86.6% and 98.4% of the total. TN and TP loss showed an extremely significant correlation with sediments, which showed that sediment output was the main approach of TN and TP loss.

  1. [Aboveground biomass and nutrient distribution patterns of larch plantation in a montane region of eastern Liaoning Province, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Tao; Zhu, Jiao-Jun; Yang, Kai; Yu, Li-Zhong

    2014-10-01

    Larch is the main timber species of forest plantations in North China. Imbalance in nutrient cycling in soil emerged due to single species composition and mono system structure of plantation. Thus it is necessary to grasp its biomass and nutrients allocation for scientific management and nutrient cycling studies of larch plantation. We measured aboveground biomass (stem, branch, bark and leaf) and nutrient concentrations (C, N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn), and analyzed the patterns of accumulation and distribution of 19-year-old larch plantation with diameter at breast height of 12. 8 cm, tree height of 15. 3 m, and density of 2308 trees · hm(-2), in a montane region of eastern Liaoning Province, China. The results showed that aboveground biomass values were 70.26 kg and 162.16 t · hm(-2) for the individual tree of larch and the stand, respectively. There was a significant difference between biomass of the organs, and decreased in the order of stem > branch > bark > leaf. Nutrient accumulation was 749.94 g and 1730.86 kg · hm(-2) for the individual tree of larch and the stand, respectively. Nutrient accumulation of stem was significantly higher than that of branch, bark and leaf, whether it was macro-nutrient or micro-nutrient. Averagely, 749.94 g nutrient elements would be removed from the system when a 19-year-old larch tree was harvested. If only the stem part was removed from the system, the removal of nutrient elements could be reduced by 40.7%.

  2. Seasonal variation in food pattern but not in energy and nutrient intakes of rural Beninese school-aged children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mitchikpe, C.E.S.; Dossa, R.A.M.; Ategbo, E.A.D.; Raaij, van J.M.A.; Kok, F.J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Inadequate energy and nutrient intakes are a major nutritional problem in developing countries. A recent study in Beninese school-aged children in different seasons revealed a high prevalence of stunting and poor iron status that might be related to the food pattern. Objective: To

  3. Nutrient utilization and oxygen production by Chlorella Vulgaris in a hybrid membrane bioreactor and algal membrane photobioreactor system

    KAUST Repository

    Najm, Yasmeen Hani Kamal

    2017-02-17

    This work studied oxygen production and nutrient utilization by Chlorella Vulgaris at different organic/inorganic carbon (OC/IC) and ammonium/nitrate (NH4+-N/NO3--N) ratios to design a hybrid aerobic membrane bioreactor (MBR) and membrane photobioreactor (MPBR) system. Specific oxygen production by C. vulgaris was enough to support the MBR if high growth is accomplished. Nearly 100% removal (or utilization) of PO43--P and IC was achieved under all conditions tested. Optimal growth was achieved at mixotrophic carbon conditions (0.353 d-1) and the highest NH4+-N concentration (0.357 d-1), with preferable NH4+-N utilization rather than NO3--N. The results indicate the potential of alternative process designs to treat domestic wastewater by coupling the hybrid MBR - MPBR systems.

  4. Nutrient utilization and oxygen production by Chlorella Vulgaris in a hybrid membrane bioreactor and algal membrane photobioreactor system

    KAUST Repository

    Najm, Yasmeen Hani Kamal; Jeong, Sanghyun; Leiknes, TorOve

    2017-01-01

    This work studied oxygen production and nutrient utilization by Chlorella Vulgaris at different organic/inorganic carbon (OC/IC) and ammonium/nitrate (NH4+-N/NO3--N) ratios to design a hybrid aerobic membrane bioreactor (MBR) and membrane photobioreactor (MPBR) system. Specific oxygen production by C. vulgaris was enough to support the MBR if high growth is accomplished. Nearly 100% removal (or utilization) of PO43--P and IC was achieved under all conditions tested. Optimal growth was achieved at mixotrophic carbon conditions (0.353 d-1) and the highest NH4+-N concentration (0.357 d-1), with preferable NH4+-N utilization rather than NO3--N. The results indicate the potential of alternative process designs to treat domestic wastewater by coupling the hybrid MBR - MPBR systems.

  5. Drug utilization pattern during pregnancy in North India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Rashmi; Kapoor, Bhuvneshvar; Verma, Ujala

    2006-07-01

    Pregnancy is a special physiological condition, where drug treatment presents a special concern. To evaluate the drug utilization pattern during pregnancy and to evaluate the effect of the educational and economic status on it.. The retrospective cross-sectional study. The postgraduate Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics of a medical college. and the antenatal clinic of the institution. Medical students filled 405 questionnaires after interviewing pregnant women (243 primigravida and 152 multigravida). All the collected questionnaires were analysed for various study parameters. Inter-group comparison was done using chi-square test. P value drugs, with an average of 1.73, 2.89 and 2.49 drugs per pregnant women, were used during first, second and third trimester of pregnancy, respectively. A majority of the drugs used, were from category-A, followed by category-B and category-D. However, category C and X drugs constituted 2.90 (20) and 5.71% (40) of drugs used during the third trimester and first trimester, respectively. Herbal/homeopathic drugs constituted 6.42 (45), 3.68 (40) and 1.46% (10) of the drugs used in the first, second and third trimester of pregnancy, respectively (P=649). 33.33% (135) women believed that drug use during pregnancy is dangerous to both mother and child and 37.03% (150) believed that drugs are dangerous throughout pregnancy. 55.55% (225) females advocated the use of iron/folic acid during pregnancy. 24.69% (100) of women had knowledge about barrier contraceptives. Self-medication and homeopathic/ herbal drugs use was found more in graduates than in undergraduates; as well as, it was more in the higher socioeconomic group than the lower socioeconomic group. There is a need to educate and counsel women of child-bearing age, regarding the advantages and disadvantages of drug use during pregnancies, with special reference to alternative therapies and self-medication.

  6. Utilization of solid catfish manure waste as carbon and nutrient source for lactic acid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Suan; Li, Jing; Blersch, David M

    2018-04-19

    The aim of this work was to study the solid waste (manure) produced by catfish as a potential feedstock for the production of lactic acid (LA) via fermentation. The solid waste contains high levels of both carbohydrates and nutrients that are sufficient for LA bacteria. Simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation (SSCF) was applied using enzyme and Lactobacillus pentosus, and different loadings of enzyme and solid waste were tested. Results showed LA concentrations of 35.7 g/L were obtained at 15% solids content of catfish waste. Because of the high nutrient content in the fish waste, it could also be used as supplementary substrate for nitrogen and carbon sources with other lignocellulosic materials. A combined feedstock of catfish waste and paper mill sludge was tested, increasing the final LA concentration to 43.1 g/L at 12% solids loading. The catfish waste was shown to be a potential feedstock to provide both carbon and nutrients for LA production, suggesting its use as a sole substrate or in combination with other lignocellulosic materials.

  7. Prognostic Utility of Histological Growth Patterns of Colorectal Lung Oligometastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeong, Son Jae; Pak, Min Gyoung; Lee, Hyoun Wook; Ha, Seung Yeon; Roh, Mee Sook

    2018-03-01

    Patients with resectable colorectal lung oligometastasis (CLOM) demonstrate a heterogeneous oncological outcome. However, the parameters for predicting tumor aggressiveness have not yet been fully investigated in CLOM. This study was performed to determine the prognostic value of histological growth patterns in patients who underwent surgery for CLOM. The study included 92 patients who were diagnosed with CLOM among the first resection cases. CLOMs grow according to three histological patterns: aerogenous, pushing, and desmoplastic patterns. The growth patterns were evaluated on archival hematoxylin and eosin-stained tissue sections. The aerogenous pattern was found in 29.4% (n=27) of patients, the pushing pattern in 34.7% (n=32), the desmoplastic pattern in 6.5% (n=6), and a mix of two growth patterns in 29.4% (n=27). The size of the aerogenous pattern was significantly smaller than that of metastases with other patterns (p=.033). Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated that patients showing an aerogenous pattern appeared to have a poorer prognosis, which was calculated from the time of diagnosis of the CLOM (p=.044). The 5-year survival rate from the diagnosis of colorectal cancer tended to be lower in patients with an aerogenous pattern than in those who had a non-aerogenous pattern; however, the difference was marginally significant (p=.051). In the multivariate Cox analysis, the aerogenous pattern appeared as an independent predictor of poor overall survival (hazard ratio, 3.122; 95% confidence interval, 1.196 to 8.145; p=.020). These results suggest that the growth patterns may play a part as a histology-based prognostic parameter for patients with CLOM.

  8. Prognostic Utility of Histological Growth Patterns of Colorectal Lung Oligometastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Son Jae Yeong

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Patients with resectable colorectal lung oligometastasis (CLOM demonstrate a heterogeneous oncological outcome. However, the parameters for predicting tumor aggressiveness have not yet been fully investigated in CLOM. This study was performed to determine the prognostic value of histological growth patterns in patients who underwent surgery for CLOM. Methods The study included 92 patients who were diagnosed with CLOM among the first resection cases. CLOMs grow according to three histological patterns: aerogenous, pushing, and desmoplastic patterns. The growth patterns were evaluated on archival hematoxylin and eosin–stained tissue sections. Results The aerogenous pattern was found in 29.4% (n=27 of patients, the pushing pattern in 34.7% (n=32, the desmoplastic pattern in 6.5% (n=6, and a mix of two growth patterns in 29.4% (n=27. The size of the aerogenous pattern was significantly smaller than that of metastases with other patterns (p=.033. Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated that patients showing an aerogenous pattern appeared to have a poorer prognosis, which was calculated from the time of diagnosis of the CLOM (p=.044. The 5-year survival rate from the diagnosis of colorectal cancer tended to be lower in patients with an aerogenous pattern than in those who had a non-aerogenous pattern; however, the difference was marginally significant (p=.051. In the multivariate Cox analysis, the aerogenous pattern appeared as an independent predictor of poor overall survival (hazard ratio, 3.122; 95% confidence interval, 1.196 to 8.145; p=.020. Conclusions These results suggest that the growth patterns may play a part as a histology-based prognostic parameter for patients with CLOM.

  9. How does pattern of feeding and rate of nutrient delivery influence conditioned food preferences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, A J; Elwert, C; Villalba, J J; Yearsley, J; Pouloupoulou, I; Gordon, I J

    2007-09-01

    Ruminant herbivores have been shown to learn about food properties by associating food flavours with the food's post-ingestive consequences. Previous experimentation supporting the conditioned food aversion/preference hypothesis has generally employed very simple diet learning tasks which do not effectively represent the wide range of foods selected within single bouts typical of wild, free-ranging ruminant herbivores. We tested the ability of a ruminant herbivore to associate a food with artificially administered nutrient rewards in a designed experiment where we altered the temporal pattern of encounter with the food as well as the nature (fast or slow reward) of the post-ingestive outcome. Twenty-four goats were offered branches of Sitka spruce (SS) and Norway spruce (NS) for 4 h per day on two days per week for five weeks. The pattern of feeding varied with treatment such that the species on offer changed every hour (short) or every 2 h (long). The energy treatment altered the reward delivered during Sitka consumption so that animals were dosed either with predominantly sugar (rapidly fermented), predominantly starch (slower fermentation rate), or with water (placebo). Preference was measured on the day following each learning day. We expected that goats would find it easier to associate SS with post-ingestive rewards when the duration of encounter was longest, and that associations would be stronger with the most rapidly digested post-ingestive reward. In the event, goats did not alter their consumption of SS in response to the treatments. Our results suggest that at the scale of temporal resolution of encounters with different plant species (1-2 h), and at the different rates of experiencing post-ingestive consequences tested in this experiment, ruminants do not appear to discriminate the nutritive properties of foods predominantly through a post-ingestive feedback mechanism. They must, instead, use a range of cues-including post-ingestive consequences

  10. Feed consumption, nutrient utilization and serum metabolite profile of captive blackbucks (Antelope cervicapra) fed diets varying in crude protein content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, A; Katole, S; Kumar, A; Gupta, S P; Saini, M; Swarup, D

    2012-06-01

    A feeding trial was conducted to determine the optimum level of crude protein (CP) in the diet of captive blackbuck (Antelope cervicapra) in which feed consumption and nutrient utilization are maximal. Fifteen blackbucks (BW 25-34 kg) were distributed into three groups of five each in an experiment of 75-days duration including a digestion trial of 5-day collection period. All the animals were offered 200 g of concentrates and fresh maize fodder ad libitum. The overall CP content of the three respective diets was 6.9%, 10.4% and 12.7%. Blood samples were collected on the last day of the experiment. Intake and digestibility of CP increased (p consumption and nutrient intake were not significantly different among the groups. However, digestibilities of most of the nutrients were higher in the 10.4% CP diet than in the 6.9% CP diet. The endogenous loss of nitrogen was similar among the groups. Based on the endogenous losses, minimum N requirement was calculated to be 776 mg/kg BW(0.75) /day, and to meet this requirement, diet must contain at least 8.27% CP. Serum urea nitrogen concentration increased (p consumption and serum metabolite profile of blackbucks. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Long-term seasonal nutrient limiting patterns at Meiliang Bay in a large, shallow and subtropical Lake Taihu, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Ye

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Lake Taihu has undergone severe eutrophication in the past three decades, and harmful cyanobacteria blooms occur nearly every year in Meiliang Bay at the north end of the lake. To elucidate the potential relationship between seasonal nutrient limitation and phytoplankton proliferation, a 20-year (1991-2012 time series of nutrient limitation in Meiliang Bay was analyzed for deviations between trophic state index (TSI parameters. Results showed that patterns of nutrient limitation in Meiliang Bay were distinctly seasonal, where phytoplankton growth was generally phosphorus (P-limited in winter and spring, but nitrogen (N-limited mainly occurred in summer and fall. This general pattern, however, shifted into N limitation across the four seasons during the mid-1990s because a rapid increase in industrialization led to a significant rise in the input of N and P from inflowing tributaries. The initial patterns were restored by environmental regulation in the end of 1990s, including the Zero Actions plan. Using routine monitoring data, a generalised additive model (GAM with time and deviations between trophic state indexes for nitrogen and phosphorus (TSIN-TSIP as explanatory variables was used to explore which nutrient was responsible for limitation of phytoplankton chlorophyll-a (Chl-a in different seasons. Surprisingly, the model revealed a weak N limitation (TSIN-TSIP = -10 corresponded to peak values of Chl-a in summer-autumn season, which is probably because the phytoplankton community is co-limited by N & P during the period. The shift of nutrition limitation during winter-spring would partially explain high values of Chl-a throughout 1996. This study suggests that seasonal patterns of nutrient limitation must be considered to develop effective management measures to control cyanobacterial blooms.

  12. Effect of heat stress on protein utilization and nutrient transporters in meat-type chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habashy, Walid S.; Milfort, Marie C.; Fuller, Alberta L.; Attia, Youssef A.; Rekaya, Romdhane; Aggrey, Samuel E.

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of heat stress (HS) on digestibility of protein and fat and the expression of nutrient transporters in broilers. Forty-eight male Cobb500 chicks were used in this study. At day 14, birds were randomly divided into two groups and kept under either constant normal temperature (25 °C) or high temperature (35 °C) in individual cages. Five birds per treatment at 1 and 12 days post-treatment were euthanized, and Pectoralis major ( P. major) and ileum were sampled for gene expression analysis. At day 33, ileal contents were collected and used for digestibility analysis. The total consumption and retention of protein and fat were significantly lower in the HS group compared to the control group. Meanwhile, the retention of crude protein per BWG was significantly higher in the HS group compared to the control group. In P. major and ileum tissues at day 1, transporters FATP1 and SGLT1 were down-regulated in the HS group. Meanwhile, FABP1 and PepT1 were down-regulated only in the ileum of the HS group. The converse was shown in P. major. The nutrient transporter FABP1 at day 12 post-HS was down-regulated in the P. major and ileum, but GLUT1 and PepT2 were down-regulated only in the ileum, and PepT1 was down-regulated only in the P. major compared with the control group. These changes in nutrient transporters suggest that high ambient temperature might change the ileum and P. major lipids, glucose, and oligopeptide transporters.

  13. Pattern of herbal medicine utilization among secondary school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, there is a statistically significant association between ethnic group, religion and utilization of herbal drugs(p<0.05). Conclusion: Herbal drugs utilization among the students is very high and many of the students combine it with orthodox drugs. The school health programme should be strengthened and the students ...

  14. Effect of feeding chayote (Sechium edule) meal on growth performance and nutrient utilization in indigenous pig (Zovawk) of Mizoram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalthansanga, James; Samanta, A K

    2015-07-01

    This study was planned to investigate the effect of feeding different levels of chayote (Sechium edule) meal by replacing standard concentrate mixture (CM) on the growth parameters such as feed intake, body weight gain, average daily gain (ADG) and feed conversion ratio (FCR), and nutrient utilization in indigenous pig of Mizoram. Twenty-four growing indigenous pigs (Zovawk) were used to study the effect of feeding chayote (Sechium edule) meal (fruits and leaves at the ratio 4:1) on growth performance and nutrient utilization. They were allocated randomly into 4 treatment groups (G1, G2, G3, and G4). Chayote meal was used to replace standard CM (pig grower ration) at 0% (G1), 20% (G2), 30% (G3), and 40% (G4). During the feeding trial of 90 days, it was found that the dry matter (DM) intake decreased as the level of chayote meal increased. For G1, G2, G3, and G4, the ADG (kg) was 0.24±0.04, 0.23±0.03, 0.18±0.02, and 0.18±0.02, respectively, and the feed conversion efficiency was 5.42±0.44, 4.93±0.17, 5.38±0.05, and 5.74±0.53, respectively. However, there was no significant difference (p>0.05) among the different treatment groups in respect to ADG and FCR. At the end of the feeding trial, digestibility trial was conducted to study the effect of feeding chayote meal in the digestibility of the different nutrients by the experimental animals. From the digestibility trial, it was revealed that the digestibility coefficient of DM, crude protein, and crude fiber were also similar (p>0.05), although the ether extract digestibility in G1 was significantly low (pChayote meal could safely replace the standard grower ration up to 40% in the diet of growing local pigs without causing any adverse effects on growth and nutrient utilization.

  15. Effect of feeding chayote (Sechium edule meal on growth performance and nutrient utilization in indigenous pig (Zovawk of Mizoram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Lalthansanga

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was planned to investigate the effect of feeding different levels of chayote (Sechium edule meal by replacing standard concentrate mixture (CM on the growth parameters such as feed intake, body weight gain, average daily gain (ADG and feed conversion ratio (FCR, and nutrient utilization in indigenous pig of Mizoram. Materials and Methods: Twenty-four growing indigenous pigs (Zovawk were used to study the effect of feeding chayote (Sechium edule meal (fruits and leaves at the ratio 4:1 on growth performance and nutrient utilization. They were allocated randomly into 4 treatment groups (G1, G2, G3, and G4. Chayote meal was used to replace standard CM (pig grower ration at 0% (G1, 20% (G2, 30% (G3, and 40% (G4. Results: During the feeding trial of 90 days, it was found that the dry matter (DM intake decreased as the level of chayote meal increased. For G1, G2, G3, and G4, the ADG (kg was 0.24±0.04, 0.23±0.03, 0.18±0.02, and 0.18±0.02, respectively, and the feed conversion efficiency was 5.42±0.44, 4.93±0.17, 5.38±0.05, and 5.74±0.53, respectively. However, there was no significant difference (p>0.05 among the different treatment groups in respect to ADG and FCR. At the end of the feeding trial, digestibility trial was conducted to study the effect of feeding chayote meal in the digestibility of the different nutrients by the experimental animals. From the digestibility trial, it was revealed that the digestibility coefficient of DM, crude protein, and crude fiber were also similar (p>0.05, although the ether extract digestibility in G1 was significantly low (p<0.01 as compared to G2, G3, and G4. Conclusion: Chayote meal could safely replace the standard grower ration up to 40% in the diet of growing local pigs without causing any adverse effects on growth and nutrient utilization.

  16. Patterns of prescribing and utilization of asthma medications in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To assess the prescribing patterns of asthma medications in a hospital in Dubai, United Arab Emirates (UAE) with regard to the demographic pattern of the population. Methods: One hundred fifty four patients, 83 male and 71 female, were randomly selected from the outpatient respiratory diseases clinic of a tertiary ...

  17. Antibiotic Utilization and Prescribing Patterns in a Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study of prescribing pattern seeks to monitor, evaluate and suggest a modification in prescriber's prescribing habits so as to make medical care rational and cost effective. Information about antibiotic use pattern is necessary for a constructive approach to problems that arise from multiple antibiotics available. To identify ...

  18. Identification of spatiotemporal nutrient patterns in a coastal bay via an integrated k-means clustering and gravity model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ni-Bin; Wimberly, Brent; Xuan, Zhemin

    2012-03-01

    This study presents an integrated k-means clustering and gravity model (IKCGM) for investigating the spatiotemporal patterns of nutrient and associated dissolved oxygen levels in Tampa Bay, Florida. By using a k-means clustering analysis to first partition the nutrient data into a user-specified number of subsets, it is possible to discover the spatiotemporal patterns of nutrient distribution in the bay and capture the inherent linkages of hydrodynamic and biogeochemical features. Such patterns may then be combined with a gravity model to link the nutrient source contribution from each coastal watershed to the generated clusters in the bay to aid in the source proportion analysis for environmental management. The clustering analysis was carried out based on 1 year (2008) water quality data composed of 55 sample stations throughout Tampa Bay collected by the Environmental Protection Commission of Hillsborough County. In addition, hydrological and river water quality data of the same year were acquired from the United States Geological Survey's National Water Information System to support the gravity modeling analysis. The results show that the k-means model with 8 clusters is the optimal choice, in which cluster 2 at Lower Tampa Bay had the minimum values of total nitrogen (TN) concentrations, chlorophyll a (Chl-a) concentrations, and ocean color values in every season as well as the minimum concentration of total phosphorus (TP) in three consecutive seasons in 2008. The datasets indicate that Lower Tampa Bay is an area with limited nutrient input throughout the year. Cluster 5, located in Middle Tampa Bay, displayed elevated TN concentrations, ocean color values, and Chl-a concentrations, suggesting that high values of colored dissolved organic matter are linked with some nutrient sources. The data presented by the gravity modeling analysis indicate that the Alafia River Basin is the major contributor of nutrients in terms of both TP and TN values in all seasons

  19. Utilization of oil palm empty bunches waste as biochar-microbes for improving availibity of soil nutrients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G . I . Ichriani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There are about 23% waste oil palm empty fruit bunches (OPEFB of total waste generated from the production of crude palm oil in oil palm plantations. Pyrolysis technology can be used to convert waste into biochar and further can be utilized for the improvement of soil. Biochar-microbes of OPEFB are biochar from OPEFB biomass that enriched with soil microbes. Biochar-microbes is expected to be used for the improvement of the soil and plants. Therefore the purpose of this research was to study the ability of biochar-microbes OPEFB to increase availability of the nutrients in sandy soils. The process of making biochar done by using slow pyrolysis technology by heating 300oC and 400oC for 2 and 3 hours, and with sizes 40 and 80 mesh, as well as indigenous microbial Bulkhorderia nodosa G.52.Rif1 and Trichoderma sp. added. The biochar production and research were conducted in the Department of Forestry Laboratory and in the Department of Agronomy Laboratory, Faculty of Agriculture, Palangka Raya University. In general, the study showed that biochar-microbes could maintain the soil pH value and tends to increase the soil pH, increasing the holding capacity of sandy soil to the elements of P and K as well as increasing the availability of nutrients N, P and K. Furthermore, this study showed that the biochar process by 400oC heating for 3 hours and 40 mesh with microbes or without microbes were the best effect on the improvement of the quality of holding capacity and the nutrients supply in sandy soils.

  20. Uptake and utilization of nutrients by developing kernels of Zea mays L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyznik, L.A.

    1987-01-01

    The mechanisms involved in amino acid and sugar uptake by developing maize kernels were investigated. In the pedicel region of maize kernel, the site of nutrient unloading from phloem terminals, amino acids are accumulated in considerable amounts and undergo significant interconversion. A wide spectrum of enzymatic activities involved in the metabolism of amino acids is observed in these tissues. Subsequently, amino acids are taken up by the endosperm tissue in processes which require energy and the presence of carrier proteins. Conversely, no evidence was found that energy and carriers are involved in sugar uptake. This process of sugar uptake is not inhibited by metabolic inhibitors and shows nonsaturable kinetics, but the uptake is pH-dependent. L-glucose is taken up at a significantly reduced rate in comparison to D-glucose uptake. Based on analysis of radioactivity distribution among sugar fractions after incubations of kernels with radiolabeled D-glucose, it seems that sucrose is not efficiently resynthesized from D-glucose in the endosperm tissue. Thus, the proposed mechanism of sucrose transport involving sucrose hydrolysis in the pedicel region and subsequent resynthesis in endosperm cells may not be the main pathway. The evidence that transfer cells play an active role in D-glucose transport is presented

  1. Effect of prolonged photopeiod on morphology, biomass accumulation and nutrient utilazation and nutrient utilization in post-transplant taxus cuspidata seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Y.; Wang, Zi.; Wei, H.; Bao, Y.; Guo, P.

    2017-01-01

    Both threats and interest are the reasons for studying conservation and restoration programs of yew species. The seedling growth rate of slowly-growing species has been found to accelerate under prolonged photoperiod relative to that under the natural one, but the illumination effect has rarely been identified on yew species especially at their post-transplant stage. In the present study, one-year-old Taxus cuspidata seedlings were fed with exponential fertilization at the rate of 80 mg N/seedling under the prolonged photoperiod (18 h per day) with natural photoperiod (10.5 h per day) as the control in Northeast China. In the subsequent spring, seedlings were sampled to identify their post-transplant responses. Compared to the natural photoperiod, prolonged photoperiod increased seedling height, RCD, root length, and number of FOLR by 70 percent (p<0.0001), 30 percent (p=0.0037), 31 percent (p=0.0128), and 76 percent (P=0.0002), respectively. In addition, prolonged photoperiod increased dry mass in new shoot, old shoot, and root by 140 percent, 200 percent, and 153 percent (all P values <0.0001), respectively. In response to prolonged photoperiod, whole-plant nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) contents and utilizaitons decreased with the decline of N concentration in new shoot and P concentration in annual organ, respectively. Our results indicated that prolonged photoperiod did not promote, but stimulated, growth and biomass accumulation of transplanted T. cuspidata seedlings due to inherent decline of nutrient utilization for new growth. (author)

  2. Patterns of research utilization on patient care units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lander Janice

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Organizational context plays a central role in shaping the use of research by healthcare professionals. The largest group of professionals employed in healthcare organizations is nurses, putting them in a position to influence patient and system outcomes significantly. However, investigators have often limited their study on the determinants of research use to individual factors over organizational or contextual factors. Methods The purpose of this study was to examine the determinants of research use among nurses working in acute care hospitals, with an emphasis on identifying contextual determinants of research use. A comparative ethnographic case study design was used to examine seven patient care units (two adult and five pediatric units in four hospitals in two Canadian provinces (Ontario and Alberta. Data were collected over a six-month period by means of quantitative and qualitative approaches using an array of instruments and extensive fieldwork. The patient care unit was the unit of analysis. Drawing on the quantitative data and using correspondence analysis, relationships between various factors were mapped using the coefficient of variation. Results Units with the highest mean research utilization scores clustered together on factors such as nurse critical thinking dispositions, unit culture (as measured by work creativity, work efficiency, questioning behavior, co-worker support, and the importance nurses place on access to continuing education, environmental complexity (as measured by changing patient acuity and re-sequencing of work, and nurses' attitudes towards research. Units with moderate research utilization clustered on organizational support, belief suspension, and intent to use research. Higher nursing workloads and lack of people support clustered more closely to units with the lowest research utilization scores. Conclusion Modifiable characteristics of organizational context at the patient care unit

  3. Coupled Spatio-Temporal Patterns of Solute Transport, Metabolism and Nutrient Uptake in Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurz, M. J.; Schmidt, C.

    2017-12-01

    Slower flow velocities and longer residence times within stream transient storage (TS) zones facilitate interaction between solutes and microbial communities, potentially increasing local rates of metabolic activity. Multiple factors, including channel morphology and substrate, variable hydrology, and seasonal changes in biological and physical parameters, result in changes in the solute transport dynamics and reactivity of TS zones over time and space. These changes would be expected to, in turn, influence rates of whole-stream ecosystem functions such as metabolism and nutrient uptake. However, the linkages between solute transport and ecosystem functioning within TS zones, and the contribution of TS zones to whole-stream functioning, are not always so straight forward. This may be due, in part, to methodological challenges. In this study we investigated the influence of stream channel hydro-morphology and substrate type on reach (103 m) and sub-reach (102 m) scale TS and ecosystem functioning. Patterns in solute transport, metabolism and nitrate uptake were tracked from April through October in two contrasting upland streams using several methods. The two streams, located in the Harz Mountains, Germany, are characterized by differing size (0.02 vs. 0.3 m3/s), dominant stream channel substrate (bedrock vs. alluvium) and sub-reach morphology (predominance of pools, riffles and glides). Solute transport parameters and respiration rates at the reach and sub-reach scale were estimated monthly from coupled pulse injections of the reactive tracer resazurin (Raz) and conservative tracers uranine and salt. Raz, a weakly fluorescent dye, irreversibly transforms to resorufin (Rru) under mildly reducing conditions, providing a proxy for aerobic respiration. Daily rates of primary productivity, respiration and nitrate retention at the reach scale were estimated using the diel cycles in dissolved oxygen and nitrate concentrations measured by in-situ sensors. Preliminary

  4. Nutrients and Hydrology Indicate the Driving Mechanisms of Peatland Surface Patterning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eppinga, M.B.; Ruiter, de P.C.; Wassen, M.J.; Rietkerk, M.

    2009-01-01

    Peatland surface patterning motivates studies that identify underlying structuring mechanisms. Theoretical studies so far suggest that different mechanisms may drive similar types of patterning. The long time span associated with peatland surface pattern formation, however, limits possibilities for

  5. Transcriptional analysis of the conidiation pattern shift of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium acridum in response to different nutrients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenglong; Jin, Kai; Xia, Yuxian

    2016-08-09

    Most fungi, including entomopathogenic fungi, have two different conidiation patterns, normal and microcycle conidiation, under different culture conditions, eg, in media containing different nutrients. However, the mechanisms underlying the conidiation pattern shift are poorly understood. In this study, Metarhizium acridum undergoing microcycle conidiation on sucrose yeast extract agar (SYA) medium shifted to normal conidiation when the medium was supplemented with sucrose, nitrate, or phosphate. By linking changes in nutrients with the conidiation pattern shift and transcriptional changes, we obtained conidiation pattern shift libraries by Solexa/Illumina deep-sequencing technology. A comparative analysis demonstrated that the expression of 137 genes was up-regulated during the shift to normal conidiation, while the expression of 436 genes was up-regulated at the microcycle conidiation stage. A comparison of subtractive libraries revealed that 83, 216, and 168 genes were related to sucrose-induced, nitrate-induced, and phosphate-induced conidiation pattern shifts, respectively. The expression of 217 genes whose expression was specific to microcycle conidiation was further analyzed by the gene expression profiling via multigene concatemers method using mRNA isolated from M. acridum grown on SYA and the four normal conidiation media. The expression of 142 genes was confirmed to be up-regulated on standard SYA medium. Of these 142 genes, 101 encode hypothetical proteins or proteins of unknown function, and only 41 genes encode proteins with putative functions. Of these 41 genes, 18 are related to cell growth, 10 are related to cell proliferation, three are related to the cell cycle, three are related to cell differentiation, two are related to cell wall synthesis, two are related to cell division, and seven have other functions. These results indicate that the conidiation pattern shift in M. acridum mainly results from changes in cell growth and proliferation. The

  6. Proline porters effect the utilization of proline as nutrient or osmoprotectant for bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, J M

    1988-12-01

    Proline is utilized by all organisms as a protein constituent. It may also serve as a source of carbon, energy and nitrogen for growth or as an osmoprotectant. The molecular characteristics of the proline transport systems which mediate the multiple functions of proline in the Gram negative enteric bacteria, Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium, are now becoming apparent. Recent research on those organisms has provided both protocols for the genetic and biochemical characterization of the enzymes mediating proline transport and molecular probes with which the degree of homology among the proline transport systems of archaebacteria, eubacteria and eukaryotes can be assessed. This review has provided a detailed summary of recent research on proline transport in E. coli and S. typhimurium; the properties of other organisms are cited primarily to illustrate the generality of those observations and to show where homologous proline transport systems might be expected to occur. The characteristics of proline transport in eukaryotic microorganisms have recently been reviewed (Horak, 1986).

  7. Health Services Utilization Patterns Associated with Emergency Department Closure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kristian Schultz; Enemark, Ulrika; Foldspang, Anders

    2011-01-01

    , 1997-2003. Data were extracted from administrative registries including information on individual use of emergency services and other hospital care, contact with GPs and socioeconomic background. Health services' use by the Morsø population was measured before reduction in emergency room opening hours...... of substitute health services. By contrast, Morsø women compared to the rest of Viborg county reduced their use of GP services in terms of face-to-face visits (β = -0.08, P = 0.020), telephone consultations (β = -0.11, P = 0.007), home visits (β = -0.48, P = 0.009), and their inpatient hospital utilization (β...... = -0.12, P = 0.022) during the period when emergeny services were only available in the daytime. CONCLUSIONS: Emergency services at neighbouring hospitals (40 kilometres distance) were able to compensate, in part, for the decreased local emergency service provision. Concurrent changes in health care...

  8. Utility and recognition of lines and linear patterns on electronic displays depicting aeronautical charting information

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    This report describes a study conducted to explore the utility and recognition of lines and linear patterns on electronic displays depicting aeronautical charting information. The study gathered data from a large number of pilots who conduct all type...

  9. The impact of ageing and changing utilization patterns on future cardiovascular drug expenditure: a pharmacoepidemiological projection approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kildemoes, Helle Wallach; Andersen, Morten; Støvring, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    To develop a method for projecting the impact of ageing and changing drug utilization patterns on future drug expenditure.......To develop a method for projecting the impact of ageing and changing drug utilization patterns on future drug expenditure....

  10. Patterns of outpatient care utilization by seniors under the National Health Insurance in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Chin Hsu

    2016-05-01

    Conclusion: This study employed nationally representative data in the detection of patterns in outpatient care utilization by elderly individuals in Taiwan. Medical care providers and policymakers should be fully aware of the complex patterns unique to older patients. The results of this study could be used as a benchmark with which to assess the impact of future medical care policy on elderly people.

  11. Presence and patterns of alkaline phosphatase activity and phosphorus cycling in natural riparian zones under changing nutrient conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peifang Wang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorus (P is an important limiting nutrient in aquatic ecosystems and knowledge of P cycling is fundamental for reducing harmful algae blooms and other negative effects in water. Despite their importance, the characteristics of P cycling under changing nutrient conditions in shallow lakes were poorly investigated. In this study, in situ incubation experiments were conducted in a natural riparian zone in the main diversion channel used for water transfer into Lake Taihu (Wangyu River. Variations in microbial biomass, dissolved P fractions (organic and inorganic, and alkaline phosphatase activity (bulk APA and specific APA were determined after incubation with and without the addition of P and nitrogen (N (4 total water treatments: +P, +N, +NP, and control. Experiments were conducted during two seasons (late spring and early fall to account for natural differences in nutrient levels that may occur in situ. Our results demonstrated that low levels of DRP may not necessarily indicate P limitation. Phytoplankton exhibited “serial N limitation with P stress” in May, such that chlorophyll a (Chl a increased significantly with N addition, while the limiting nutrient shifted to P in October and phytoplankton biomass increased with P addition. Phytoplankton contributed greatly to APA production and was significantly influenced by P bioavailability, yet high levels of bulk APA were also not necessarily indicative of P limitation. In contrast to phytoplankton, bacteria were less P stressed. As a consequence of enhanced utilization of dissolved reactive P (DRP and dissolved organic P (DOP, +N treatment elevated APA significantly. By contrast, APA could be repressed to low values and phytoplankton converted a large portion of DRP to DOP with P addition. But this was not consistent with bacteria APA (bact-APA in the absence or presence of abundant phytoplankton biomass. The correlation between bulk APA and DRP was good at separate sites and discrepant

  12. Influence of selenomethionine and omega-3 fatty acid on serum mineral profile and nutrient utilization of broiler chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Kumar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was conducted to investigate the effect of selenomethionine and omega-3 fatty acid on serum mineral profile and nutrient utilization of broiler chicken. Materials and Methods: The present study was a 2×3 factorial arrangement of two levels of selenomethionine (0 and 0.3 ppm and three levels of omega-3 fatty acid (0, 0.5 and 1%. Day-old Vencobb broiler chicks (n=180, were randomly assigned in six treatment groups. The experiment lasted for 42 days. Treatment groups followed of: Group I was a control. Group II, III, IV, V and VI were supplemented with 0 ppm selenomethionine with 0.5% omega-3 fatty acid, 0 ppm selenomethionine with 1% omega-3 fatty acid, 0.3 ppm selenomethionine with 0% omega-3 fatty acid, 0.3 ppm selenomethionine with 0.5% omega-3 fatty acid and 0.3 ppm selenomethionine with 1% omega-3 fatty acid, respectively. Linseed oil was used as a source of omega-3 fatty acid while sel-plex is used for selenomethionine supplementation. Results: Significant (p<0.05 interaction exist between selenomethionine and omega-3 fatty acid for serum zinc and iron concentration whereas, it was non-significant for serum calcium and copper. Significantly (p<0.05 increased concentration of selenium, zinc, iron and phosphorus was observed in birds fed 0.3 ppm selenomethionine whereas, significantly (p<0.05 increased zinc and iron was observed in birds fed 0.5% omega-3 fatty acid. There was significant (p<0.05 interaction exist between selenomethionine and omega-3 fatty acid for calcium and phosphorus retention percentage. The maximum retention of calcium and phosphorus was recorded in birds supplemented with 0.3 ppm selenomethionine in combination with 0.5% omega-3 fatty acid. There was marked interaction between selenomethionine and omega-3 fatty acid for hemoglobin (Hb, total erythrocytic count, total leukocytic count and platelets (p<0.05 however, it was non-significant for mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular Hb, MCH concentration

  13. Effect of -based Direct-fed Microbial on Performance, Nutrient Utilization, Intestinal Morphology and Cecal Microflora in Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinjian Lei

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of the dietary supplementation of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens-based direct-fed microbial (DFM on growth performance, nutrient utilization, intestinal morphology and cecal microflora in broiler chickens. A total of two hundred and eighty eight 1-d-old Arbor Acres male broilers were randomly allocated to one of four experimental treatments in a completely randomized design. Each treatment was fed to eight replicate cages, with nine birds per cage. Dietary treatments were composed of an antibiotic-free basal diet (control, and the basal diet supplemented with either 15 mg/kg of virginiamycin as antibiotic growth promoter (AGP, 30 mg/kg of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens-based DFM (DFM 30 or 60 mg/kg of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens-based DFM (DFM 60. Experimental diets were fed in two phases: starter (d 1 to 21 and finisher (d 22 to 42. Growth performance, nutrient utilization, morphological parameters of the small intestine and cecal microbial populations were measured at the end of the starter (d 21 and finisher (d 42 phases. During the starter phase, DFM and virginiamycin supplementation improved the feed conversion ratio (FCR; p<0.01 compared with the control group. For the finisher phase and the overall experiment (d 1 to 42 broilers fed diets with the DFM had better body weight gain (BWG and FCR than that of control (p<0.05. Supplementation of virginiamycin and DFM significantly increased the total tract apparent digestibility of crude protein (CP, dry matter (DM and gross energy during both starter and finisher phases (p<0.05 compared with the control group. On d 21, villus height, crypt depth and villus height to crypt depth ratio of duodenum, jejunum, and ileum were significantly increased for the birds fed with the DFM diets as compared with the control group (p<0.05. The DFM 30, DFM 60, and AGP groups decreased the Escherichia coli population in cecum at d 21 and d 42 compared with control

  14. Anaerobic/oxic/anoxic granular sludge process as an effective nutrient removal process utilizing denitrifying polyphosphate-accumulating organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishida, Naohiro; Kim, Juhyun; Tsuneda, Satoshi; Sudo, Ryuichi

    2006-07-01

    In a biological nutrient removal (BNR) process, the utilization of denitrifying polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (DNPAOs) has many advantages such as effective use of organic carbon substrates and low sludge production. As a suitable process for the utilization of DNPAOs in BNR, an anaerobic/oxic/anoxic granular sludge (AOAGS) process was proposed in this study. In spite of performing aeration for nitrifying bacteria, the AOAGS process can create anaerobic/anoxic conditions suitable for the cultivation of DNPAOs because anoxic zones exist inside the granular sludge in the oxic phase. Thus, DNPAOs can coexist with nitrifying bacteria in a single reactor. In addition, the usability of DNPAOs in the reactor can be improved by adding the anoxic phase after the oxic phase. These characteristics enable the AOAGS process to attain effective removal of both nitrogen and phosphorus. When acetate-based synthetic wastewater (COD: 600 mg/L, NH4-N: 60 mg/L, PO(4)-P: 10 mg/L) was supplied to a laboratory-scale sequencing batch reactor under the operation of anaerobic/oxic/anoxic cycles, granular sludge with a diameter of 500 microm was successfully formed within 1 month. Although the removal of both nitrogen and phosphorus was almost complete at the end of the oxic phase, a short anoxic period subsequent to the oxic phase was necessary for further removal of nitrogen and phosphorus. As a result, effluent concentrations of NH(4)-N, NO(x)-N and PO(4)-P were always lower than 1 mg/L. It was found that penetration depth of oxygen inside the granular sludge was approximately 100 microm by microsensor measurements. In addition, from the microbiological analysis by fluorescence in situ hybridization, existence depth of polyphosphate-accumulating organisms was further than the maximum oxygen penetration depth. The water quality data, oxygen profiles and microbial community structure demonstrated that DNPAOs inside the granular sludge may be responsible for denitrification in the

  15. Linking spatial patterns of soil redistribution traced with 137Cs and soil nutrients in a Mediterranean mountain agroecosystem (NE Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quijano, Laura; Gaspar, Leticia; Navas, Ana

    2016-04-01

    fractions to analyze the SOC pool dynamics is presented in this study. A detailed field topographic survey and mapping of the spatial variability of soil properties and nutrient contents from soil analyses displayed similar spatial patterns of 137Cs and soil nutrients that also were directly and significantly correlated (p≤0.01). As much as 70% of the surface of the study field had lower values of 137Cs inventory indicating a predominance of soil loss linked to a generalized loss of soil nutrients. SOC gain was found in less than 1% of the study field and there was a large loss of SON compared to the undisturbed reference site. Higher and significant (p≤0.01) contents of soil nutrients were found in topsoil samples than in the bulk ones. Furthermore, there was an enrichment of the relative contribution of ACF to total SOC in sampling points where there was a 137Cs gain in both bulk and topsoil samples. Understanding patterns of soil nutrients can be useful for developing and implementing land management strategies to preserve soil quality in Mediterranean agricultural areas.

  16. Linking diverse nutrient patterns to different water masses within anticyclonic eddies in the upwelling system off Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saranga José, Yonss; Dietze, Heiner; Oschlies, Andreas

    2017-03-01

    Ocean eddies can both trigger mixing (during their formation and decay) and effectively shield water encompassed from being exchanged with ambient water (throughout their lifetimes). These antagonistic effects of eddies complicate the interpretation of synoptic snapshots typically obtained by ship-based oceanographic measurement campaigns. Here we use a coupled physical-biogeochemical model to explore biogeochemical dynamics within anticyclonic eddies in the eastern tropical South Pacific Ocean. The goal is to understand the diverse biogeochemical patterns that have been observed at the subsurface layers of the anticyclonic eddies in this region. Our model results suggest that the diverse subsurface nutrient patterns within eddies are associated with the presence of water masses of different origins at different depths.

  17. Spatial patterns of soil nutrients and groundwater levels within the Debre Mawi watershed of the Ethiopian highlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, Christian; Tilahun, Seifu; Dagnew, Dessalegn; Zegeye, Assefe; Tebebu, Tigist; Yitaferu, Birru; Steenhuis, Tammo

    2015-04-01

    Persistent patterns of erosion have emerged in the Ethiopian highlands leading to soil and water conservation practices being implemented throughout the countryside. A common concern is the loss of soil fertility and loss of soil water. This study investigates the spatial patterns of soil nutrients and water table depths in a small sub-watershed in the northwestern Ethiopian highlands. NPK, a particularly important group of nutrients for inorganic fertilizer considerations, did not follow a consistent trend as a group along and across slope and land use transects. Whereas nitrogen content was greatest in the upslope regions (~0.1% TN), available phosphorus had comparably similar content in the different slope regions throughout the watershed (~2.7 mg/kg). The exchangeable cations (K, Ca, Mg) did increase in content in a downslope direction (in most cases though, they were highest in the middle region) but not consistently later in the season. On average, calcium (40 cmol/kg), magnesium (5 cmol/kg), and potassium (0.5 cmol/kg) were orders of magnitudes different in content. The perched water table in different areas of the watershed showed a very distinct trend. The lower part of the sub-watershed had shallower levels of water table depths (less than 10 cm from the surface) than did the upper parts of the sub-watershed (usually greater than 120 cm from the surface). The middle part of the sub-watershed had water table depths located at 40 to 70 cm below the surface. These results show how the landscape slope position and land use may be important for planning where and when soil nutrients and water would be expected to be appropriately "conserved" or stored.

  18. Effect of supplementation with protein differ for rumen degradability on milk production and nutrients utilization in early lactating Sahiwal cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talat N. Pasha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Early lactating Sahiwal cows (n=24 of approximately similar yield and lactation were selected and randomly divided into four groups of six cows in each. These groups were fed ad libitum four iso- energetic and iso- proteic diets with different rumen undegradable protein (RUP sources: diet A 30% RUP, diet B 40% RUP, diet C 50% RUP and diet D 60% RUP in a completely randomized design. Among nutrients intake, dry matter (DM and crude protein (CP intake was significantly (P<0.01 different, while neutral detergent fibre (NDF and acid detergent fibre (ADF intakes were similar across four diets. DM, CP and NDF digestibility were also different (P<0.05 except, NDF digestibility. Whole milk yield (kg/d and 4% fat corrected milk (FCM (kg/d, fat (g/d and protein (g/d was found maximum on diet B, followed by diet A. Not significant differences were found in fat, solid not fat (SNF, protein, lactose, salts and total solids percentage across all diet except SNF, lactose and salts percentages which were significantly lower (P<0.05 on diet D. Nitrogen intake, balance and utilization were statistically similar across all diets however, nitrogen excretion in milk (g/d and percentage of intake and urine (percentage of intake were significantly different across diets. Nitrogen intake and output varied (P<0.01 across all diets. Nitrogen balance and its utilization were maximum (P<0.001 on diet B, while other diets showed not significant differences among themselves. Based on presenting findings, it is concluded that feed intake, digestibility and production performance was maximum in early lactating Sahiwal cows when fed 40% rumen undegradable protein in total mixed ration based diet.

  19. Mining of high utility-probability sequential patterns from uncertain databases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binbin Zhang

    Full Text Available High-utility sequential pattern mining (HUSPM has become an important issue in the field of data mining. Several HUSPM algorithms have been designed to mine high-utility sequential patterns (HUPSPs. They have been applied in several real-life situations such as for consumer behavior analysis and event detection in sensor networks. Nonetheless, most studies on HUSPM have focused on mining HUPSPs in precise data. But in real-life, uncertainty is an important factor as data is collected using various types of sensors that are more or less accurate. Hence, data collected in a real-life database can be annotated with existing probabilities. This paper presents a novel pattern mining framework called high utility-probability sequential pattern mining (HUPSPM for mining high utility-probability sequential patterns (HUPSPs in uncertain sequence databases. A baseline algorithm with three optional pruning strategies is presented to mine HUPSPs. Moroever, to speed up the mining process, a projection mechanism is designed to create a database projection for each processed sequence, which is smaller than the original database. Thus, the number of unpromising candidates can be greatly reduced, as well as the execution time for mining HUPSPs. Substantial experiments both on real-life and synthetic datasets show that the designed algorithm performs well in terms of runtime, number of candidates, memory usage, and scalability for different minimum utility and minimum probability thresholds.

  20. Nutritional, technological and managerial parameters for precision feeding to enhance feed nutrient utilization and productivity in different dairy cattle production systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Empel, Mireille JM; Makkar, Harinder PS; Dijkstra, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Increased future demand of animal products as well as competition between food, feed and fuel, require efficient utilization of feed resources to strengthen environmental, economic and social sustainability of livestock systems. The objective of this review is to summarize current knowledge...... on precision feeding (PF) and the relevance of PF approaches in dairy cattle production systems in developing countries. The concept of PF aims at achieving balanced nutrition (matching animal requirements with nutrient supply, preferably from locally available feed resources) to improve animal productivity...... and to reduce both the cost of production and environmental pollution. In addition to the supply of proper amounts of nutrients to the dairy cow using various methodologies and tools, approaches that enhance overall nutrient digestion and availability to the animal are also discussed as an integral part of PF...

  1. Growth and Nutrient Utilization in Kids Fed Expander-extruded Complete Feed Pellets Containing Red Gram ( Straw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. B. Reddy

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A growth and digestibility study was conducted using Osmanabadi goat male kids by feeding complete diets in the form of mash or expander extruded pellets containing different levels of red gram (Cajanus cajan straw (RGS. Two iso-nitrogenous complete diets were prepared by incorporating RGS at 35% and 50% levels. Half the quantity of each complete mash feed was then converted into pellets through expander extruder processing. Thirty two kids of 4 to 5 months age were divided into four groups of eight each and were fed for 150 d with four experimental diets (T1: mash with 35% RGS, T2: mash with 50% RGS, T3: pellets with 35% RGS and T4: pellets with 50% RGS. Pelleting of complete diets significantly (p<0.001 increased the voluntary feed intake (671.45 vs 426.28 g/d at both levels of RGS in the feeds. Average daily gain (ADG, g/d also increased significantly (p<0.001 from 48.79 in kids fed mash diet to 71.29 in those fed with pelleted diets. Feed conversion efficiency (dry matter (DM intake: weight gain was comparable among all the treatment groups. Digestibility of nutrients was not affected by pelleting of the feeds whereas, increasing the level of inclusion of RGS in feeds from 35% to 50% decreased (p<0.05 the digestibility of DM and crude protein (CP resulting in lower (p<0.001 metabolizable energy (ME content (MJ/kg DM in feeds with 50% RGS (7.93 vs 8.75. Daily intake (MJ/kg BW−0.75 of ME decreased (p<0.05 in feeds containing 50% RGS while pelleting of feeds increased (p<0.05 the intake of DM, CP, digestible crude protein (DCP and ME. It is inferred that expander extruder pelleting can efficiently utilize RGS up to 50% level in complete diets for growing goat kids.

  2. Impact of multiple soil nutrients on distribution patterns of shrubs in an arid valley, in southwest china

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, C.J.; Yishui, T.; Zao, L.X.

    2014-01-01

    Shrubs play key roles in arid regions and multiple interacting resources limit their distribution patterns. Identifying limiting resources and their coupling effects on shrubs is essential for developing restoration theory and practice. A survey of shrub composition, soil properties and topography was conducted in fifty-seven 15-m * 15-m plots in an arid valley of the upper Minjiang River, Southwest China. With quantitative classification method and ordination technique, 48 shrubs species were classified into four clusters and two categories along soil gradient. Cluster I and II composed Category I and had a significantly higher percentage of dominant legume shrubs than in Cluster III and Cluster IV, which made up Category II. Correlation analysis indicated that both multi-resource limitation and single resource limitation were coexisting simultaneously in this arid area, the extent of which was functional cluster-specific and also quantified hierarchical structure of multiple resource limitation: soil water played a primary limitation role, available nitrogen the next, and available phosphorus the third at community scale. Moreover, this study affirmed that both soil pH and soil texture could effectively regulate retention of soil moisture and available nutrients, respectively. Distinguishing critical limiting resources and their regulators is very meaningful to clarify couplings and controlling mechanisms in restoration practices. Therefore, decreasing soil pH and increasing soil clay content should be conducted thoroughly in plantation sites to remain abundant soil moisture and available nutrients in native restoration projects. (author)

  3. Hydrolysis of phytate to its lower esters can influence the growth performance and nutrient utilization of broilers with regular or super doses of phytase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeson, L A; Walk, C L; Bedford, M R; Olukosi, O A

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the study was to observe the effects of dietary available phosphorus (aP) and calcium (Ca), with regular or super doses of phytase, on phytate hydrolysis and subsequent influences on broiler growth performance and nutrient utilization. In a 2 × 3 factorial design, 384 Ross-308 broilers were allocated to one of 6 dietary treatments with 8 replicates in a randomized complete block design for 21 days. Diets were nutritionally adequate (positive control, PC) or marginally deficient in aP and Ca (negative control, NC), with 0, 500 or 1,500 FTU/kg phytase. Bird and feed weights were recorded on d 0 and 21, excreta were collected on d 19 and 20, and gizzard and ileal contents were collected on d 21. Body weight gain (P phytase in the PC and quadratically in the NC. There was an interactive effect on ileal DM, N, and P utilization, increasing quadratically with phytase supplementation in the NC, but there was no phytase influence in the PC (P Phytase linearly increased copper (P Phytase decreased ileal (IPx, inositol x-phosphate) IP6 and IP5 and increased inositol (quadratic, P phytase was added. Phytate hydrolysis improves the growth potential of birds fed NC diets, allowing them to match the growth performance of birds fed PC diets and improve nutrient utilization. These results indicate that dietary Ca and aP concentrations can be reduced when phytase is supplemented. It also may be beneficial to apply the enzyme nutrient matrix to other nutrients in the diet to maintain an optimal balance of nutrients in the digesta. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Poultry Science Association.

  4. library use instruction and the pattern of utilization of library services ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Global Journal

    The data collected was analysed using descriptive statistics (simple percentage %). ... semesters and it should be an independent credit carrying course under the General Studies ... large and well stocked a library is, if the ..... Online. LIBRARY USE INSTRUCTION AND THE PATTERN OF UTILIZATION OF LIBRARY ...

  5. Six-month longitudinal patterns of mental health treatment utilization by older adults with depressive symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gum, Amber M.; Iser, Lindsay; King-Kallimanis, Bellinda L.; Petkus, Andrew; DeMuth, Anne; Schonfeld, Lawrence

    2011-01-01

    Aims of the study were to describe behavioral health treatment utilization patterns of community-dwelling older adults with depressive symptoms over a six-month period and to identify factors associated with treatment use, guided by a theoretical model emphasizing the dynamic nature of treatment use

  6. Disease Patterns and Socioeconomic Status Associated with Utilization of Computed Tomography in Taiwan, 1997–2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Tseng Kung

    2008-02-01

    Conclusion: Neoplasm, diseases of the circulatory system, congenital malformations, and poor socioeconomic status were significantly associated with a higher rate of CT utilization. The distribution of disease patterns varied with gender, age groups, salary levels, and health care region's household income levels. Further study is needed to better understand the nature of the findings.

  7. Industrial energy utilization patterns in a developing country: a case study of selected industries in Ethiopia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolde-Ghiorgis, W. (Addis Ababa Univ. (Ethiopia))

    1991-01-01

    Energy utilization patterns in three factories involved in cement production, textile manufacturing, and food processing in Ethiopia are discussed. The study uses data of energy consumption and products to obtain specific energy consumption figures for two of the factories. Results show areas of apparent energy losses and corresponding conservation possibilities. (author).

  8. Human action pattern monitor for telecare system utilizing magnetic thin film infrared sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osada, H.; Chiba, S.; Oka, H.; Seki, K.

    2002-01-01

    The magnetic thin film infrared sensor (MFI) is an infrared sensing device utilizing a temperature-sensitive magnetic thin film with marked temperature dependence in the room temperature range. We propose a human action pattern monitor (HPM) constructed with the MFI, without a monitor camera to save the clients' privacy, as a telecare system

  9. Solvent-Free Patterning of Colloidal Quantum Dot Films Utilizing Shape Memory Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hohyun Keum

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Colloidal quantum dots (QDs with properties that can be tuned by size, shape, and composition are promising for the next generation of photonic and electronic devices. However, utilization of these materials in such devices is hindered by the limited compatibility of established semiconductor processing techniques. In this context, patterning of QD films formed from colloidal solutions is a critical challenge and alternative methods are currently being developed for the broader adoption of colloidal QDs in functional devices. Here, we present a solvent-free approach to patterning QD films by utilizing a shape memory polymer (SMP. The high pull-off force of the SMP below glass transition temperature (Tg in conjunction with the conformal contact at elevated temperatures (above Tg enables large-area, rate-independent, fine patterning while preserving desired properties of QDs.

  10. A specialized araneophagic predator's short-term nutrient utilization depends on the macronutrient content of prey rather than on prey taxonomic affiliation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Søren; Li, Daiqin; Mayntz, David

    2010-01-01

    rate of high-protein flies than of high-lipid flies and spiders but, after 5 days of feeding, there is no significant difference in growth between treatments, and the diets lead to significant changes in the macronutrient composition of P. quei as a result of variable extraction and utilization...... of the prey. The short-term utilization of spider prey is similar to that of high-lipid flies and both differ in several respects from the utilization of high-protein flies. Thus, the short-term nutrient utilization is better explained by prey macronutrient content than by whether the prey is a spider or not....... The results suggest that spider prey may have a more optimal macronutrient composition for P. quei and that P. quei does not depend on spider-specific substances....

  11. How may a shift towards a more sustainable food consumption pattern affect nutrient intakes of Dutch children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temme, Elisabeth H M; Bakker, Helena M E; Seves, S Marije; Verkaik-Kloosterman, Janneke; Dekkers, Arnold L; van Raaij, Joop M A; Ocké, Marga C

    2015-09-01

    Food has a considerable environmental impact. Diets with less meat and dairy reduce environmental impact but may pose nutritional challenges for children. The current modelling study investigates the impact of diets with less or no meat and dairy products on nutrient intakes. Energy and nutrient intakes were assessed for observed consumption patterns (reference) and two replacement scenarios with data from the Dutch National Food Consumption Survey - Young Children (2005-2006). In the replacement scenarios, 30 % or 100 % of the consumed dairy and meat (in grams) was replaced by plant-derived foods with similar use. The Netherlands. Children (n 1279) aged 2-6 years. Partial and full replacement of meat and dairy foods by plant-derived foods reduced SFA intake by 9 % and 26 %, respectively, while fibre intake was 8 % and 29 % higher. With partial replacement, micronutrient intakes were similar, except for lower vitamin B12 intake. After full meat and dairy replacement, mean intakes of Ca, Zn and thiamin decreased by 5-13 %, and vitamin B12 intake by 49 %, while total intake of Fe was higher but of lower bioavailability. With full replacement, the proportion of girls aged 4-6 years with intakes below recommendations was 15 % for thiamin, 10 % for vitamin B12 and 6 % for Zn. Partial replacement of meat and dairy by plant-derived foods is beneficial for children's health by lowering SFA intake, increasing fibre content and maintaining similar micronutrient intakes. When full replacements are made, attention is recommended to ensure adequate thiamin, vitamin B12 and Zn intakes.

  12. Trichoderma asperellum T42 Reprograms Tobacco for Enhanced Nitrogen Utilization Efficiency and Plant Growth When Fed with N Nutrients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bansh N. Singh

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Trichoderma spp., are saprophytic fungi that can improve plant growth through increased nutrient acquisition and change in the root architecture. In the present study, we demonstrate that Trichoderma asperellum T42 mediate enhancement in host biomass, total nitrogen content, nitric oxide (NO production and cytosolic Ca2+ accumulation in tobacco. T42 inoculation enhanced lateral root, root hair length, root hair density and root/shoot dry mass in tobacco under deprived nutrients condition. Interestingly, these growth attributes were further elevated in presence of T42 and supplementation of NO3- and NH4+ nutrients to tobacco at 40 and 70 days, particularly in NO3- supplementation, whereas no significant increment was observed in nia30 mutant. In addition, NO production was more in tobacco roots in T42 inoculated plants fed with NO3- nutrient confirming NO generation was dependent on NR pathway. NO3- dependent NO production contributed to increase in lateral root initiation, Ca2+ accumulation and activities of nitrate transporters (NRTs in tobacco. Higher activities of several NRT genes in response to T42 and N nutrients and suppression of ammonium transporter (AMT1 suggested that induction of high affinity NRTs help NO3- acquisition through roots of tobacco. Among the NRTs NRT2.1 and NRT2.2 were more up-regulated compared to the other NRTs. Addition of sodium nitroprusside (SNP, relative to those supplied with NO3-/NH4+ nutrition and T42 treated plants singly, and with application of NO inhibitor, cPTIO, confirmed the altered NO fluorescence intensity in tobacco roots. Our findings suggest that T42 promoted plant growth significantly ant N content in the tobacco plants grown under N nutrients, notably higher in NO3-, providing insight of the strategy for not only tobacco but probably for other crops as well to adapt to fluctuating nitrate availability in soil.

  13. The impact of feeding growing-finishing pigs with daily tailored diets using precision feeding techniques on animal performance, nutrient utilization, and body and carcass composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andretta, I; Pomar, C; Rivest, J; Pomar, J; Lovatto, P A; Radünz Neto, J

    2014-09-01

    The impact of moving from conventional to precision feeding systems in growing-finishing pig operations on animal performance, nutrient utilization, and body and carcass composition was studied. Fifteen animals per treatment for a total of 60 pigs of 41.2 (SE = 0.5) kg of BW were used in a performance trial (84 d) with 4 treatments: a 3-phase (3P) feeding program obtained by blending fixed proportions of feeds A (high nutrient density) and B (low nutrient density); a 3-phase commercial (COM) feeding program; and 2 daily-phase feeding programs in which the blended proportions of feeds A and B were adjusted daily to meet the estimated nutritional requirements of the group (multiphase-group feeding, MPG) or of each pig individually (multiphase-individual feeding, MPI). Daily feed intake was recorded each day and pigs were weighed weekly during the trial. Body composition was assessed at the beginning of the trial and every 28 d by dual-energy X-ray densitometry. Nitrogen and phosphorus excretion was estimated as the difference between retention and intake. Organ, carcass, and primal cut measurements were taken after slaughter. The COM feeding program reduced (P carcass, and primal cut weights did not differ among treatments. Feeding growing-finishing pigs with daily tailored diets using precision feeding techniques is an effective approach to reduce nutrient excretion without compromising pig performance or carcass composition.

  14. Sugar utilization patterns and respiro-fermentative metabolism in the baker’s yeast Torulaspora delbrueckii

    OpenAIRE

    Araújo, Cecília Alves; Pacheco, A.; Almeida, M. J.; Martins, I. Spencer; Leão, Cecília; Sousa, M. J.

    2007-01-01

    The highly osmo- and cryotolerant yeast species Torulaspora delbrueckii is an important case study among the non-Saccharomyces yeast species. The strain T delbrueckii PYCC 532 1, isolated from traditional corn and rye bread dough in northern Portugal, is considered particularly interesting for the baking industry. This paper reports the sugar utilization patterns of this strain, using media with glucose, maltose and sucrose, alone or in mixtures. Kinetics of growth, biomass and ethanol yields...

  15. Observations of rapid changes in N:P ratio associated with non-Redfield nutrient utilization in mesoscale eddies in the upper ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, M.; Xu, Y.; Kao, S. J.; Huang, B.; Sun, J.; Sun, Z.

    2016-02-01

    The concept of Redfield Ratio,or the ocean's nutrient stoichiometry has been fundamental to understanding the ocean biogeochemistry, reflecting the balance of elements between the organisms and the chemical environment and thereby modulating to a large extent the metabolic status of an ecosystem as well as the ecosystem structure. Nutrient stoichiometry of the deep ocean as a consequence of the organic matter regeneration therein is very much homogeneous worldwide while at the upper ocean, changes in nutrient stoichiometryas being frequently observed are to be better understood in terms of their mechanism. Here we report direct observations of fast on a weekly time scale and large fluctuations of nitrate+nitrite (N+N) to soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) ratios in the ambient seawater in responding to development of meso-scale eddies in an oligotrophic sea, the South China Sea. At the spin up and/or matured stages of eddies, the N:P ratio fluctuated up to 44 in the upper 100 m water column. Along the decay of theeddy, N:P ratio declined back to 3- 20; similar to a "no eddy" condition of 4-22. Along with the fluctuations of N:P ratio was the diatom dominance with the eddy development, while the community structure of the region in typical or non-eddy conditions was predominated by the pico-/nano-plankton as revealed by both the taxa identification and biogenic silicate measurements. This fast growing diatom group apparently had lower nutrient utilization of nitrogenrelative to silicate and/or phosphorus, augmenting the ambient seawater N:P and N:Si. Such preferential P utilization therefore by the fast growing diatomsresulted in significant variations during the different stages of the eddy development.

  16. A laboratory feasibility study on a new electrokinetic nutrient injection pattern and bioremediation of phenanthrene in a clayey soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Wei; Wang Cuiping; Liu Haibin; Zhang Zhiyuan; Sun Hongwen

    2010-01-01

    Electrokinetic (EK) injection has recently been proposed to supply nutrients and electron acceptors in bioremediation of low permeable soils. However, effective pH control and uniform injection of inorganic ions have yet to be developed. The present study investigated a new EK injection pattern, which combined electrolyte circulation and electrode polarity reversal on a clayey soil. Soil pH could be controlled ranging from 7.0 to 7.6 by circulating the mixed electrolyte at a suitable rate (800 mL/h in this study) without any buffer. Ammonium and nitrate ions were distributed more uniformly in soil by electrode polarity reversal. The developed electrokinetic injection technology was applied primarily in bioremediation of phenanthrene contaminated soil. Over 80% of the initial 200 mg/kg phenanthrene in soil could be removed in 20 d, and greater phenanthrene removal was achieved using electrode polarity reversal. Hence, the present study provides a promising electrokinetic injection technology for bioremediation of contaminated soils.

  17. [Patterns of utilization of external employee assistance program--analysis of employees who have their psychiatrists].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, H; Fujii, K; Sasaki, Y

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to clarify some patterns of utilization of an external employee assistance program (EAP) we have conducted for other public and private facilities in the Tokyo Kenbikyoin Foundation between April, 1986 and December, 1996. The subjects were 26 men and 12 women in 7 facilities under the following conditions: (1) Employees who have already had their own psychiatrists at the first interview of the external EAP; (2) Facilities utilize the EAP for two or more employees who met the first criterion. As a result, utilization patterns differed depending on medical staff's attitude toward the external EAP. There was a significant difference according to sex. The rate for men was 54% in worksites where medical staff understood this external program (worksite A1) and 93% in worksites where they did not (worksite A2-3, B). As to expectations for the program, there were more consultations for organizational measurements (63%) in worksite A1, while less organizational matters (27%) and more personal complains about their psychiatrists in the worksite A2-3, and B. These results suggest that the involvement of medical staff is the key to utilizing the external EAP effectively.

  18. Effects of organic plant oils and role of oxidation on nutrient utilization in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Ivar; Dalsgaard, Anne Johanne Tang; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    Producing organic fish diets requires that the use of both fishmeal and fish oil (FO) be minimized and replaced by sustainable, organic sources. The purpose of the present study was to replace FO with organic oils and evaluate the effects on feed intake, feed conversion ratio (FCR), daily specifi...... with plant-based organic oils without negatively affecting nutrient digestibility and growth performance. Furthermore, plant-based organic oils are less likely to oxidize than FOs, prolonging the shelf life of such organic diets...... growth rate (SGR) and nutrient digestibility in diets in which fishmeal protein was partly substituted by organic plant protein concentrates. It is prohibited to add antioxidants to organic oils, and therefore the effects of force-oxidizing the oils (including FO) on feed intake and nutrient...... very different dietary fatty acid profiles. All organic plant oils had a positive effect on apparent lipid digestibility compared with the FO diet (P,0.05), whereas there were no effects on the apparent digestibility of other macronutrients when compared with the FO diet (P.0.05). Organic vegetable...

  19. Dairy Products as Essential Contributors of (Micro-) Nutrients in Reference Food Patterns: An Outline for Elderly People

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staveren, van W.A.; Steijns, J.M.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.

    2008-01-01

    he nutrient richness of dairy products is widely recognized, but mainly low fat or skimmed versions are generally advocated given the proportion of saturated fatty acids in milk fat. The question arises how to appraise this nutrient richness relative to the contribution of the saturated fraction of

  20. A simulation model "CTR Dairy" to predict the supply of nutrients in dairy cows managed under discontinuous feeding patterns.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chilibroste, P.; Dijkstra, J.; Robinson, P.H.; Tamminga, S.

    2008-01-01

    A simulation rumen model has been developed to function under non-steady state conditions in order to allow prediction of nutrient availability in dairy cows managed under discontinuous feeding systems. The model simulates availability of glycogenic, aminogenic and lipogenic nutrients to lactating

  1. Control rod pattern exchange in a BWR/6 utilizing gang mode withdrawal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auvil, A.B. Jr.; Aldemir, T.; Hajek, B.K.

    1986-01-01

    The use of checkerboard pattern of alternating inserted and fully withdrawn control rods and the uneven void distribution in boiling water reactor (BWR) cores can cause large burnup gradients even after a short time of operation. To compensate for these effects, power has to be reshaped periodically (typically every two full-power months) by individually manipulating the control rods. During this manipulation process (called the control rod pattern exchange), the core power is reduced to 60% of nominal power by means of flow reduction to limit power swings to tolerable levels and to ensure that fuel thermal limits are not exceeded. A control rod pattern exchange by individual rod manipulation typically takes 4 to 8 h and represents a large cost burden to the utility in terms of reduced system output. The latest generation of BWRs, the BWR/6, possesses the capability to simultaneously move up to four symmetrically located control rods. The rods corresponding to a given gang may have rotational symmetry, mirror symmetry, or a combination of the two. This paper presents a pattern exchange procedure that exploits the capability of gang mode rod withdrawal to reduce the pattern exchange execution time and radial power distribution asymmetry associated with individual rod manipulation. The working model used in the study is the Perry Nuclear Power Plant Unit 1, located in Perry, Ohio, and owned by the Cleveland Electric Illuminating Company

  2. Effects of naturally mycotoxin-contaminated corn on nutrient and energy utilization of ducks fed diets with or without Calibrin-A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Z B; Wan, X L; Yang, W R; Jiang, S Z; Zhang, G G; Johnston, S L; Chi, F

    2014-09-01

    One hundred sixty-two 21-d-old ducks were randomly allotted to 6 treatments with 3 levels of mycotoxin-contaminated corn (0, 50, and 100% M) and 2 levels of Calibrin-A (CA, a clay mycotoxin adsorbent, 0 and 0.1%) to evaluate the effects of increasing levels of mycotoxin-contaminated corn on nutrient utilization in ducks fed diets with or without CA. Endogenous losses were obtained from another 27 ducks. Excreta samples were collected to determine DM, OM, CP, amino acids, and gross energy. Gross energy was analyzed for computation of AME and TME. The apparent digestibility (AD) and true digestibility (TD) of the nutrients in all treatments with and without CA had common (P > 0.05) intercepts and slopes except Pro (P Ducks fed the 100% M diet supplemented with 0.1% CA increased AD and TD of Gly compared with the 100% M diet, and ducks fed 50 and 100% M diet supplemented with 0.1% CA increased AD and TD of Pro compared with 50% M and 100% M diet, respectively. In the present study, ducks fed mycotoxin-contaminated corn decreased nutrient digestibility in dose-dependent manner, and 0.1% CA supplementation improved AD and TD of Gly and Pro. © 2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  3. Nutrient intake, diet quality, and weight/adiposity parameters in breakfast patterns compared with no breakfast in adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Carol E; Nicklas, Theresa A; Fulgoni, Victor L

    2014-12-01

    The effect of different breakfast consumption patterns on nutrient intake, diet quality, and weight/adiposity status is unknown. To compare nutrient intake, diet quality, and weight/adiposity measures of consumers assigned to different breakfast patterns with breakfast skippers. These associations were assessed in adults 19+ years (N=18,988) participating in the 2001-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Intake was determined from 1-day 24-hour dietary recall. Diet quality was quantified using the Healthy Eating Index-2005. Body mass index (calculated as kg/m(2)) and waist circumferences were determined. Twelve patterns (including No Breakfast [approximately 19% of population]), explaining 58% of the variance in energy from the breakfast meal, were examined. Covariate adjusted general linear models were used to compare nutrient intakes, Healthy Eating Index-2005 scores, and body mass index/waist circumference of consumers of different patterns with breakfast skippers. The P value was Bonferroni corrected (Juice and Presweetened Ready-to-Eat Cereal (RTEC)/Lower-Fat Milk patterns had lower daily intakes of nutrients to limit (added sugars, saturated fatty acids, solid fats, cholesterol, and sodium) than breakfast skippers. Consumers of the Grain/100% Fruit Juice; Presweetened RTEC/Lower-Fat Milk; and RTEC/Lower-Fat Milk/Whole Fruit/100% Fruit Juice patterns had higher daily intakes of all shortfall nutrients examined (dietary fiber; vitamins A, D, and C; calcium, potassium, folate, iron, and magnesium) than breakfast skippers. Consumers of the Grain/100% Fruit Juice; Grain; Presweetened RTEC/Lower-Fat Milk; RTEC/Lower-Fat Milk/Whole Fruit/100% Fruit Juice; Cooked Cereal; Lower-Fat Milk/Whole Fruit; and Whole Fruit patterns had higher Healthy Eating Index-2005 scores than breakfast skippers. Consumers of the Grain/100% Fruit Juice; Presweetened RTEC/Lower-Fat Milk; RTEC/Lower-Fat Milk/Whole Fruit/100% Fruit Juice; and Cooked Cereal patterns had lower

  4. Effects of organic plant oils and role of oxidation on nutrient utilization in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, I; Dalsgaard, J; Jacobsen, C; Hansen, J H; Holm, J; Jokumsen, A

    2013-03-01

    Producing organic fish diets requires that the use of both fishmeal and fish oil (FO) be minimized and replaced by sustainable, organic sources. The purpose of the present study was to replace FO with organic oils and evaluate the effects on feed intake, feed conversion ratio (FCR), daily specific growth rate (SGR) and nutrient digestibility in diets in which fishmeal protein was partly substituted by organic plant protein concentrates. It is prohibited to add antioxidants to organic oils, and therefore the effects of force-oxidizing the oils (including FO) on feed intake and nutrient digestibility was furthermore examined. Four organic oils with either a relatively high or low content of polyunsaturated fatty acids were considered: linseed oil, rapeseed oil, sunflower oil and grapeseed oil. Substituting FO with organic oils did not affect feed intake (P > 0.05), FCR or SGR (P > 0.05) despite very different dietary fatty acid profiles. All organic plant oils had a positive effect on apparent lipid digestibility compared with the FO diet (P digestibility of other macronutrients when compared with the FO diet (P > 0.05). Organic vegetable oils did not undergo auto-oxidation as opposed to the FO, and the FO diet consequently had a significantly negative effect on the apparent lipid digestibility. Feed intake was not affected by oxidation of any oils. In conclusion, the study demonstrated that it is possible to fully substitute FO with plant-based organic oils without negatively affecting nutrient digestibility and growth performance. Furthermore, plant-based organic oils are less likely to oxidize than FOs, prolonging the shelf life of such organic diets.

  5. Effects of lead and cadmium nitrate on biomass and substrate utilization pattern of soil microbial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Akmal; Xu, Jianming; Li, Zhaojun; Wang, Haizhen; Yao, Huaiying

    2005-07-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of different concentrations of lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) applied as their nitrates on soil microbial biomass carbon (C(mic)) and nitrogen (N(mic)), and substrate utilization pattern of soil microbial communities. The C(mic) and N(mic) contents were determined at 0, 14, 28, 42 and 56 days after heavy metal application (DAA). The results showed a significant decline in the C(mic) for all Pb and Cd amended soils from the start to 28 DAA. From 28 to 56 DAA, C(mic) contents changed non-significantly for all other treatments except for 600 mgkg(-1) Pb and 100 mgkg(-1) Cd in which it declined significantly from 42 to 56 DAA. The N(mic) contents also decreased significantly from start to 28 DAA for all other Pb and Cd treatments except for 200 mgkg(-1) Pb which did not show significant difference from the control. Control and 200 mgkg(-1) Pb had significantly lower soil microbial biomass C:N ratio as compared with other Pb treatments from 14 to 42 DAA, however at 56 DAA, only 1000 mgkg(-1) Pb showed significantly higher C:N ratio compared with other treatments. No significant difference in C:N ratio for all Cd treated soils was seen from start to 28 DAA, however from 42 to 56 DAA, 100 mgkg(-1) Pb showed significantly higher C:N ratio compared with other treatments. On 56 DAA, substrate utilization pattern of soil microbial communities was determined by inoculating Biolog ECO plates. The results indicated that Pb and Cd addition inhibited the functional activity of soil microbial communities as indicated by the intensity of average well color development (AWCD) during 168 h of incubation. Multivariate analysis of sole carbon source utilization pattern demonstrated that higher levels of heavy metal application had significantly affected soil microbial community structure.

  6. Drug utilization pattern of Chinese herbal medicines in a general hospital in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L C; Wang, B R; Chou, Y C; Tien, J H

    2005-09-01

    Drug utilization studies are important for the optimization of drug therapy and have received a great attention in recent years. Most of the information on drug use patterns has been derived from studies in modern Western medicines; however, studies regarding the drug utilization of traditional Chinese medicine (CM) are few. The present study was the first clinical research to evaluate the drug utilization patterns of Chinese herbal medicines in a general hospital in Taiwan. Data were collected prospectively from the patients attending the Traditional Medicine Center of Taipei Veteran General Hospital under CM drug treatments. The study was carried out over a period of 1 year, from January 2002 to December 2002. Core drug use indicators, such as the average number of drugs per prescriptions, the dosing frequency of prescriptions, and the most common prescribed CM herbs and formulae were evaluated. The primary diagnosis and the CM drugs prescribed for were also revealed. All data were analyzed by descriptive statistics. A total of 10 737 patients, representing 52 255 CM drugs, were screened during the study period. Regarding the prescriptions, the average number of drugs per prescription was 4.87 and 37.21% of prescriptions were composed by five drugs. Most of prescriptions (91.38%) were prescribed for three times a day. The most often prescribed Chinese herb was Hong-Hwa (5.76%) and the most common Chinese herbal formula was Jia-Wey-Shiau-Yau-San (3.80%). The most frequent main diagnosis was insomnia (15.58%), followed by menopause (5.22%) and constipation (5.09%). The survey revealed the drug use pattern of CMs in a general hospital. The majority of CM prescriptions were composed by 3-6 drugs and often prescribed for three times a day. Generally, the rational drug uses of CM drugs were provided with respect to the various diagnoses. (c) 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. The Effect of Dietary Replacement of Ordinary Rice with Red Yeast Rice on Nutrient Utilization, Enteric Methane Emission and Rumen Archaeal Diversity in Goats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Z Wang

    Full Text Available Twenty castrated Boer crossbred goats were used in the present study with two treatments to examine the effect of dietary replacement of ordinary rice with red yeast rice on nutrient utilization, enteric methane emission and ruminal archaea structure and composition. Two treatment diets contained (DM basis 70.0% of forage, 21.8% of concentrates and 8.2% of either ordinary rice (control or red yeast rice (RYR. Nutrient utilization was measured and enteric methane emissions were determined in respiration chambers. Results showed that RYR had significantly lower digestibility of N and organic matter compared to control group. However, feeding red yeast rice did not affect N retention as g/d or a proportion of N intake, and reduced heat production as MJ/d or as a proportion of metabolizable energy intake, thus leading to a higher proportion of metabolizable energy intake to be retained in body tissue. RYR also had significantly lower methane emissions either as g/d, or as a proportion of feed intake. Although feeding red yeast rice had no negative effect on any rumen fermentation variables, it decreased serum contents of total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol. In the present study, 75616 archaeal sequences were generated and clustered into 2364 Operational Taxonomic Units. At the genus level, the predominant archaea in the rumen of goats was Methanobrevibacter, which was significantly inhibited with the supplementation of red yeast rice. In conclusion, red yeast rice is a potential feed ingredient for mitigation of enteric methane emissions of goats. However, caution should be taken when it is used because it may inhibit the digestibility of some nutrients. Further studies are required to evaluate its potential with different diets and animal species, as well as its effects on animal health and food safety.

  8. Utilization pattern of extension tools and methods by Agricultural Extension Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Surudhi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted in Krishnagiri district of Tamil Nadu state to understand the utilization pattern of extension tools and methods by the agricultural extension agents. As ICT revolution is slowly conquering the rural sector, it becomes imperative that the agricultural extension agents transform themselves to the changing times and develop competencies in utilizing these ICTs.  The study explored the usage of various extension tools and methods by the change agents and the constraints faced in utilizing them. The findings revealed that the extension functionaries frequently used the individual contact methods viz., telephone, office calls and farm and home visits in the process of transfer of technology. Least efforts were shown in sending SMS based communication. Meetings were the common and frequently adopted group contact method. Demonstrations, farmer field school, farmer’s interest groups, field trips and farmer training programmes were moderately adopted. Posters, leaflets and pre-season campaigns were the widely adopted mass contact methods. They possess least skill in utilizing farm magazines, presenting television and radio programmes, which are among the most popular and most efficient mass contact methods. The extension functionaries need to be trained adequately on the wider use of electronic communication methods like e mails, and SMS in the local language. Efforts should be taken up to sensitize the importance and train the extension agents in the usage of different group and mass contact methods.

  9. Effects of anaerobic growth conditions on biomass accumulation, root morphology, and efficiencies of nutrient uptake and utilization in seedlings of some southern coastal plain pine species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topa, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    Seedlings of pond (Pinus serotina (Michx.)), sand (P. clausa (Engelm.) Sarg.), and loblolly pines (P. taeda L., drought-hardy and wet site seed sources) were grown in a non-circulating, continuously-flowing solution culture under anaerobic or aerobic conditions to determine the effects of anaerobics on overall growth, root morphology and efficiencies of nutrient uptake and utilization. Although shoot growth of the 11-week old loblolly and pond pines was not affected by anaerobic treatment, it did significantly reduce root biomass. Sand pine suffered the largest biomass reduction. Flooding tolerance was positively correlated with specific morphological changes which enhanced root internal aeration. Oxygen transport from shoot to the root in anaerobically-grown loblolly and pond pine seedlings was demonstrated via rhizosphere oxidation experiments. Tissue elemental analyses showed that anaerobic conditions interfered with nutrient absorption and utilization. Short-term 32 p uptake experiments with intact seedlings indicated that net absorption decreased because of the reduction in root biomass, since H 2 PO 4 - influx in the anaerobically-grown seedlings was more than twice that of their aerobic counterparts. Sand pine possessed the physiological but not morphological capacity to increase P uptake under anaerobic growth conditions. Pond and wet-site loblolly pine seedlings maintained root growth, perhaps through enhanced internal root aeration - an advantage in field conditions where the phosphorus supply may be limited or highly localized

  10. Utilizing the response patterns of a temperature modulated chemoresistive gas sensor for gas diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amini, Amir [Jannatabad College, Sama Organization, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghafarinia, Vahid, E-mail: amir.amini.elec@gmail.com, E-mail: ghafarinia@ee.kntu.ac.ir [Electrical Engineering Department, K. N. Toosi University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-02-15

    The observed features in the temporal response patterns of a temperature-modulated chemoresistive gas sensor were used for gas diagnosis. The patterns were recorded for clean air and air contaminated with different levels of some volatile organic compounds while a staircase heating voltage waveform had been applied to the microheater of a tin oxide gas sensor that modulated its operating temperature. Combining the steady-state and transient parameters of the recorded responses in the 50-400 deg. C range resulted in discriminatory feature vectors which were utilized for contaminant classification. The information content of these feature vectors was proved sufficient for discrimination of methanol, ethanol, 1-butanol, and acetone contaminations in a wide concentration range.

  11. Utilizing the response patterns of a temperature modulated chemoresistive gas sensor for gas diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amini, Amir; Ghafarinia, Vahid

    2011-01-01

    The observed features in the temporal response patterns of a temperature-modulated chemoresistive gas sensor were used for gas diagnosis. The patterns were recorded for clean air and air contaminated with different levels of some volatile organic compounds while a staircase heating voltage waveform had been applied to the microheater of a tin oxide gas sensor that modulated its operating temperature. Combining the steady-state and transient parameters of the recorded responses in the 50-400 deg. C range resulted in discriminatory feature vectors which were utilized for contaminant classification. The information content of these feature vectors was proved sufficient for discrimination of methanol, ethanol, 1-butanol, and acetone contaminations in a wide concentration range.

  12. Patterns and determinants of antenatal care utilization: analysis of national survey data in seven countdown countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghada Saad–Haddad

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Antenatal care (ANC is critical for improving maternal and newborn health. WHO recommends that pregnant women complete at least four ANC visits. Countdown and other global monitoring efforts track the proportions of women who receive one or more visits by a skilled provider (ANC1+ and four or more visits by any provider (ANC4+. This study investigates patterns of drop–off in use between ANC1+ and ANC4+, and explores inequalities in women’s use of ANC services. It also identifies determinants of utilization and describes countries’ ANC–related policies, and programs.

  13. Characteristics and drug utilization patterns for heavy users of prescription drugs among the elderly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øymoen, Anita; Pottegård, Anton; Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna

    2015-01-01

    drug users accounted for 75.4% of their use in 2012, and five of these were cardiovascular drugs. The development over time for the ten most used drug classes followed the same pattern among heavy drug users and in the general population. CONCLUSION: There is a skewed utilization of prescription drugs...... frequently used drugs among heavy drug users and development in use over time. METHOD: This is a descriptive study. Heavy drug users were defined as the accumulated top 1 percentile who accounted for the largest share of prescription drug use measured in number of dispensed defined daily doses (DDDs...

  14. Interactive effects of climate and nutrient enrichment on patterns of herbivory by different feeding guilds in mangrove forests

    KAUST Repository

    Feller, Ilka C.; Ball, Marilyn C.; Ellis, Joanne; Lovelock, Catherine E.; Reef, Ruth

    2017-01-01

    , primary productivity and biotic interactions in the tropics are predicted to have stronger responses to increased nutrients than in temperate ecosystems. Habitats that occur across broad climatic ranges, such as mangrove forests, provide an opportunity

  15. Presence and patterns of alkaline phosphatase activity and phosphorus cycling in natural riparian zones under changing nutrient conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Peifang Wang; Lingxiao Ren; Chao Wang; Jin Qian; Jun Hou

    2014-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) is an important limiting nutrient in aquatic ecosystems and knowledge of P cycling is fundamental for reducing harmful algae blooms and other negative effects in water. Despite their importance, the characteristics of P cycling under changing nutrient conditions in shallow lakes were poorly investigated. In this study, in situ incubation experiments were conducted in a natural riparian zone in the main diversion channel used for water transfer into Lake Taihu (Wangyu River). Va...

  16. An assessment of schoolyard features and behavior patterns in children's utilization and physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthamatten, Peter; Brink, Lois; Kingston, Beverly; Kutchman, Eve; Lampe, Sarah; Nigg, Claudio

    2014-03-01

    Careful research that elucidates how behavior relates to design in the context of elementary school grounds can serve to guide cost-efficient design with the goal of encouraging physical activity (PA). This work explores patterns in children's PA behavior within playground spaces with the specific goal of guiding healthy playground design. Data on children's utilization and PA behavior in 6 playgrounds divided into 106 observation zones were collected in 2005 and 2006 at Denver elementary school playgrounds using the System for Observing Play and Leisure Activity in Youth. Analyses of variance and t tests determined whether there were differences in utilization and behavior patterns across observations zones and between genders. This study provides evidence that children prefer to use certain types of playground zones and that they are more likely to practice moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in some zones. The authors observed statistically significant differences between genders. Boys were more likely to engage in MVPA in zones without equipment, girls were more likely to use zones with equipment. This work suggests that the inclusion or omission of specific playground features may have an impact on the way that children use the spaces.

  17. Patterns of health service utilization at a medical school clinic in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yawson, A E; Malm, K L; Adu, A A; Wontumi, G-M; Biritwum, R B

    2012-09-01

    The University of Ghana Medical School (UGMS) Clinic provides healthcare service which is free at point of service to students, staff, retired staff and dependents of staff of the College of Health Sciences. However, since 1983, no in-depth review of health service provision or utilization has been undertaken. This study reviewed client characteristics, utilization and disease patterns at the clinic and also compared the disease patterns to that of other primary health facilities nationwide. This was an analytical cross-sectional study undertaken at the UGMS clinic in Korle-Bu. It was a retrospective review of records of all clients attending the facility from January 2002 to December, 2004. More males than females attended the clinic and majority (63.9%) of clients were between 15-44 years (median age was 26 years). Dependents of staff constituted the highest attendants (41%) to the clinic. Among staff, junior staffs were in the majority. Malaria, respiratory tract infection and musculoskeletal pain were the most common conditions seen. Overall, 83% of clients were treated and discharged per visit without the need for review visits. Dependents of staff used the facility the most and they live in many different part of the city of Accra, and to ask them to attend the clinic for care is not efficient. It will be better to provide or supplement their securing of insurance so that they could access health care close to their homes and save time and attention to students and staff.

  18. Workplace harassment patterning, gender, and utilization of professional services: findings from a US national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, Candice A; Rospenda, Kathleen M; Richman, Judith A

    2007-03-01

    This study constitutes the first national longitudinal survey to address the relationship between workplace harassment and service utilization. We examine how patterns of sexual harassment and generalized workplace harassment are linked to utilization of mental health, health, legal, spiritual, and work-related services, and whether and how gender influences these relationships. Data derive from a random digit dial telephone survey with a continental US sample of employed adults. Eligibility criteria were being 18 years of age or over, and being employed at least 20 h per week at some time in the 12 months prior to the wave 1 survey. Out of 4116 households with eligible individuals, 2151 agreed to participate at wave 1. At wave 2, 1418 participated, thus, the overall response rate was 34.5%. We show that the patterning of workplace harassment over two time points (chronic, remission, onset, never harassed) is associated with the use of different types of services. Gender partially moderated the relationship between workplace harassment and services.

  19. Pattern of prenatal care utilization in Tehran: A population based longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolahi, Ali-Asghar; Abbasi-Kangevari, Mohsen; Abdollahi, Morteza; Ehdaeivand, Farnaz; Arshi, Shahnam

    2017-09-28

    To assess the pattern of prenatal care utilization in Tehran in 2015. A total of 2005 pregnant women who lived in the catchment area of the study participated. Participants were followed from the sixth week of pregnancy until birth. Data were collected either through interviews or from written medical records. More than 95% of mothers completed all eight prenatal care visits. Some 99% of mothers completed at least four visits. The prenatal care utilization was equal among all different socio-economic regions in Tehran. Gynecologists were the main healthcare providers in prenatal care visits. In addition, 75% of mothers went to gynecologists at their office or in hospitals for ordering first-trimester screening tests. Prenatal care utilization complied with both national guidelines and recommendations of World Health Organization regarding the number of conducted visits. Equal accessibility and availability of prenatal care service despite the socio-economical differences of families is suggestive of equity and social justice in terms of providing health services in both public and private sectors. Among healthcare providers, gynecologists were the main healthcare provider for prenatal care visits. Copyright © 2017 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Regional health care planning: a methodology to cluster facilities using community utilization patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delamater, Paul L; Shortridge, Ashton M; Messina, Joseph P

    2013-08-22

    Community-based health care planning and regulation necessitates grouping facilities and areal units into regions of similar health care use. Limited research has explored the methodologies used in creating these regions. We offer a new methodology that clusters facilities based on similarities in patient utilization patterns and geographic location. Our case study focused on Hospital Groups in Michigan, the allocation units used for predicting future inpatient hospital bed demand in the state's Bed Need Methodology. The scientific, practical, and political concerns that were considered throughout the formulation and development of the methodology are detailed. The clustering methodology employs a 2-step K-means + Ward's clustering algorithm to group hospitals. The final number of clusters is selected using a heuristic that integrates both a statistical-based measure of cluster fit and characteristics of the resulting Hospital Groups. Using recent hospital utilization data, the clustering methodology identified 33 Hospital Groups in Michigan. Despite being developed within the politically charged climate of Certificate of Need regulation, we have provided an objective, replicable, and sustainable methodology to create Hospital Groups. Because the methodology is built upon theoretically sound principles of clustering analysis and health care service utilization, it is highly transferable across applications and suitable for grouping facilities or areal units.

  1. Discovery of temporal and disease association patterns in condition-specific hospital utilization rates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian S Haimovich

    Full Text Available Identifying temporal variation in hospitalization rates may provide insights about disease patterns and thereby inform research, policy, and clinical care. However, the majority of medical conditions have not been studied for their potential seasonal variation. The objective of this study was to apply a data-driven approach to characterize temporal variation in condition-specific hospitalizations. Using a dataset of 34 million inpatient discharges gathered from hospitals in New York State from 2008-2011, we grouped all discharges into 263 clinical conditions based on the principal discharge diagnosis using Clinical Classification Software in order to mitigate the limitation that administrative claims data reflect clinical conditions to varying specificity. After applying Seasonal-Trend Decomposition by LOESS, we estimated the periodicity of the seasonal component using spectral analysis and applied harmonic regression to calculate the amplitude and phase of the condition's seasonal utilization pattern. We also introduced four new indices of temporal variation: mean oscillation width, seasonal coefficient, trend coefficient, and linearity of the trend. Finally, K-means clustering was used to group conditions across these four indices to identify common temporal variation patterns. Of all 263 clinical conditions considered, 164 demonstrated statistically significant seasonality. Notably, we identified conditions for which seasonal variation has not been previously described such as ovarian cancer, tuberculosis, and schizophrenia. Clustering analysis yielded three distinct groups of conditions based on multiple measures of seasonal variation. Our study was limited to New York State and results may not directly apply to other regions with distinct climates and health burden. A substantial proportion of medical conditions, larger than previously described, exhibit seasonal variation in hospital utilization. Moreover, the application of clustering

  2. Inclusion of sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) silage in dairy cow rations affects nutrient digestibility, nitrogen utilization, energy balance, and methane emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huyen, N.T.; Desrues, O.; Alferink, S.J.J.; Zandstra, T.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Hendriks, W.H.; Pellikaan, W.F.

    2016-01-01

    Sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) is a tanniniferous legume forage that has potential nutritional and health benefits preventing bloating, reducing nematode larval establishment, improving N utilization, and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. However, the use of sainfoin as a fodder crop in dairy

  3. Inclusion of sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) silage in dairy cow rations affects nutrient digestibility, nitrogen utilization, energy balance, and methane emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huyen, N. T.; Desrues, O.; Alferink, S. J. J.; Zandstra, T.; Verstegen, M. W. A.; Hendriks, W. H.; Pellikaan, W. F.

    Sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) is a tanniniferous legume forage that has potential nutritional and health benefits preventing bloating, reducing nematode larval establishment, improving N utilization, and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. However, the use of sainfoin as a fodder crop in dairy cow

  4. Yield, nutrient utilization and soil properties in a melon crop amended with wine-distillery waste compost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Requejo Mariscal, María Isabel; Villena Gordo, Raquel; Cartagena Causapé, María Carmen; Arce Martínez, Augusto; Ribas Elcorobarrutia, Francisco; Jesús Cabello Cabello, María; Castellanos Serrano, María Teresa

    2014-05-01

    In Spain, large quantities of wine are produced every year (3,339,700 tonnes in 2011) (FAO, 2011) with the consequent waste generation. During the winemaking process, solid residues like grape stalks are generated, as well as grape marc and wine lees as by-products. According to the Council Regulation (EC) 1493/1999 on the common organization of the wine market, by-products coming from the winery industry must be sent to alcohol-distilleries to generate exhausted grape marc and vinasses. With an adequate composting treatment, these wastes can be applied to soils as a source of nutrients and organic matter. A three-year field experiment (2011, 2012 and 2013) was carried out in Ciudad Real (central Spain) to study the effects of wine-distillery waste compost application in a melon crop (Cucumis melo L.). Melon crop has been traditionally cultivated in this area with high inputs of water and fertilizers, but no antecedents of application of winery wastes are known. In a randomized complete block design, four treatments were compared: three compost doses consisted of 6.7 (D1), 13.3 (D2) and 20 t compost ha-1 (D3), and a control treatment without compost addition (D0). The soil was a shallow sandy-loam (Petrocalcic Palexeralfs) with a depth of 0.60 m and a discontinuous petrocalcic horizon between 0.60 and 0.70 m, slightly basic (pH 8.4), poor in organic matter (0.24%), rich in potassium (410 ppm) and with a medium level of phosphorus (22.1 ppm). During each growing period four harvests were carried out and total and marketable yield (fruits weighting cycle, four plants per treatment were sampled and the nutrient content (N, P and K) was determined. Soil samplings (0-30 cm depth) were carried before the application of compost and at the end of each growing season and available N and P, as well as exchangeable K content were analyzed. With this information, an integrated analysis was carried out with the aim to evaluate the suitability of this compost as organic

  5. Nutrient Intake, Diet Quality, and Weight Measures in Breakfast Patterns Consumed by Children Compared with Breakfast Skippers: NHANES 2001-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol E. O'Neil

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Most studies showing that children consuming breakfast have better nutrient intakes, diet quality, and lower weight than breakfast skippers have the incorrect premise that breakfast meals are homogeneous. The purpose of this study was to classify breakfast meals into patterns and determine the association of the breakfast patterns with daily and breakfast nutrient intakes, diet quality, and weight. Data from children (2-18 years of age; N = 14,200 participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001-2008 were used. Intake was determined from one day 24-hour dietary recalls. Diet quality was measured using the Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005. Body mass index (BMI z-scores were determined. Twelve patterns (including No Breakfast [~19% of population], explaining 63% of the variance in energy from breakfast, were examined. Covariate adjusted general linear models were used to compare outcome variables of consumers of different patterns with breakfast skippers. The p value was Bonferroni corrected (< 0.05/12 = < 0.0042. Consumers of the Eggs/Grain/Meat, Poultry, Fish (MPF/Fruit Juice (FJ and MPF/Grain/FJ patterns showed higher daily intakes of saturated fats, solid fats, and sodium and lower daily intakes of added sugars than breakfast skippers. Consumers of most breakfast patterns showed higher daily intakes of some nutrients of public health concern (dietary fiber, vitamin D, calcium, and potassium; however, those consuming the Grain or MPF/Grain/FJ pattern did not. Consumers of the Grain/Lower Fat Milk (LFM/Sweets/FJ, Presweetened (PS Ready-to-eat Cereal (RTEC/LFM, RTEC/LFM, Cooked Cereal/Milk/FJ, and Whole Fruit patterns had higher total HEI-2005 scores than breakfast skippers; those consuming the MPF/Grain/FJ pattern had lower diet quality than breakfast skippers. Consumption of the Grain/LFM/Sweets/FJ, PSRTEC/whole milk, Soft Drinks/FJ/Grain/Potatoes, RTEC/whole milk, and Cooked Cereal/Milk/FJ patterns was associated

  6. Rock-phosphate mobilization induced by the alkaline uptake pattern of legumes utilizing symbiotically fixed nitrogen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aguilar Santelises, A.

    1981-01-01

    The ability of plants to exert a certain degree of selection when absorbing nutrients often has as a consequence that on an equivalence basis unequal quantities of cationic and anionic nutrients are absorbed. To maintain electroneutrality inside and outside its tissues, the plant absorbs or extrudes

  7. Utilization of Condensed Distillers Solubles as Nutrient Supplement for Production of Nisin and Lactic Acid from Whey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chuanbin; Hu, Bo; Chen, Shulin; Glass, Richard W.

    The major challenge associated with the rapid growth of the ethanol industry is the usage of the coproducts, i.e., condensed distillers solubles (CDS) and distillers dried grains, which are currently sold as animal feed supplements. As the growth of the livestock industries remains flat, alternative usage of these coproducts is urgently needed. CDS is obtained after the removal of ethanol by distillation from the yeast fermentation of a grain or a grain mixture by condensing the thin stillage fraction to semisolid. In this work, CDS was first characterized and yeast biomass was proven to be the major component of CDS. CDS contained 7.50% crude protein but with only 42% of that protein being water soluble. Then, CDS was applied as a nutrient supplement for simultaneous production of nisin and lactic acid by Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis (ATCC 11454). Although CDS was able to support bacteria growth and nisin production, a strong inhibition was observed when CDS was overdosed. This may be caused by the existence of the major ethanol fermentation byproducts, especially lactate and acetate, in CDS. In the final step, the CDS based medium composition for nisin and lactic acid production was optimized using response surface methodology.

  8. Light spectrum modifies the utilization pattern of energy sources in Pseudomonas sp. DR 5-09.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharaie, Samareh; Vaas, Lea A I; Rosberg, Anna Karin; Windstam, Sofia T; Karlsson, Maria E; Bergstrand, Karl-Johan; Khalil, Sammar; Wohanka, Walter; Alsanius, Beatrix W

    2017-01-01

    Despite the overruling impact of light in the phyllosphere, little is known regarding the influence of light spectra on non-phototrophic bacteria colonizing the leaf surface. We developed an in vitro method to study phenotypic profile responses of bacterial pure cultures to different bands of the visible light spectrum using monochromatic (blue: 460 nm; red: 660 nm) and polychromatic (white: 350-990 nm) LEDs, by modification and optimization of a protocol for the Phenotype MicroArray™ technique (Biolog Inc., CA, USA). The new protocol revealed high reproducibility of substrate utilization under all conditions tested. Challenging the non-phototrophic bacterium Pseudomonas sp. DR 5-09 with white, blue, and red light demonstrated that all light treatments affected the respiratory profile differently, with blue LED having the most decisive impact on substrate utilization by impairing respiration of 140 substrates. The respiratory activity was decreased on 23 and 42 substrates under red and white LEDs, respectively, while utilization of one, 16, and 20 substrates increased in the presence of red, blue, and white LEDs, respectively. Interestingly, on four substrates contrasting utilization patterns were found when the bacterium was exposed to different light spectra. Although non-phototrophic bacteria do not rely directly on light as an energy source, Pseudomonas sp. DR 5-09 changed its respiratory activity on various substrates differently when exposed to different lights. Thus, ability to sense and distinguish between different wavelengths even within the visible light spectrum must exist, and leads to differential regulation of substrate usage. With these results, we hypothesize that different light spectra might be a hitherto neglected key stimulus for changes in microbial lifestyle and habits of substrate usage by non-phototrophic phyllospheric microbiota, and thus might essentially stratify leaf microbiota composition and diversity.

  9. Light spectrum modifies the utilization pattern of energy sources in Pseudomonas sp. DR 5-09.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samareh Gharaie

    Full Text Available Despite the overruling impact of light in the phyllosphere, little is known regarding the influence of light spectra on non-phototrophic bacteria colonizing the leaf surface. We developed an in vitro method to study phenotypic profile responses of bacterial pure cultures to different bands of the visible light spectrum using monochromatic (blue: 460 nm; red: 660 nm and polychromatic (white: 350-990 nm LEDs, by modification and optimization of a protocol for the Phenotype MicroArray™ technique (Biolog Inc., CA, USA. The new protocol revealed high reproducibility of substrate utilization under all conditions tested. Challenging the non-phototrophic bacterium Pseudomonas sp. DR 5-09 with white, blue, and red light demonstrated that all light treatments affected the respiratory profile differently, with blue LED having the most decisive impact on substrate utilization by impairing respiration of 140 substrates. The respiratory activity was decreased on 23 and 42 substrates under red and white LEDs, respectively, while utilization of one, 16, and 20 substrates increased in the presence of red, blue, and white LEDs, respectively. Interestingly, on four substrates contrasting utilization patterns were found when the bacterium was exposed to different light spectra. Although non-phototrophic bacteria do not rely directly on light as an energy source, Pseudomonas sp. DR 5-09 changed its respiratory activity on various substrates differently when exposed to different lights. Thus, ability to sense and distinguish between different wavelengths even within the visible light spectrum must exist, and leads to differential regulation of substrate usage. With these results, we hypothesize that different light spectra might be a hitherto neglected key stimulus for changes in microbial lifestyle and habits of substrate usage by non-phototrophic phyllospheric microbiota, and thus might essentially stratify leaf microbiota composition and diversity.

  10. Utilization of antiepileptic drugs during pregnancy : Comparative patterns in 38 countries based on data from the EURAP registry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Battino, D.; Bonizzoni, E.; Craig, J.; Lindhout, D.; Perucca, E.; Sabers, A.; Tomson, T.; Vajda, F.

    2009-01-01

    P>We assessed the utilization of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), 1999-2005, in 4,798 prospective epilepsy pregnancies from 38 countries participating in EURAP, an international AED and pregnancy registry. Prominent differences in utilization patterns were observed across the various countries. Exposure

  11. Nutrient Intake, Diet Quality, and Weight Measures in Breakfast Patterns Consumed by Children Compared with Breakfast Skippers: NHANES 2001-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Carol E; Nicklas, Theresa A; Fulgoni, Victor L

    2015-01-01

    Most studies showing that children consuming breakfast have better nutrient intakes, diet quality, and lower weight than breakfast skippers have the incorrect premise that breakfast meals are homogeneous. The purpose of this study was to classify breakfast meals into patterns and determine the association of the breakfast patterns with daily and breakfast nutrient intakes, diet quality, and weight. Data from children (2-18 years of age; N = 14,200) participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001-2008 were used. Intake was determined from one day 24-hour dietary recalls. Diet quality was measured using the Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005). Body mass index (BMI) z-scores were determined. Twelve patterns (including No Breakfast [∼19% of population]), explaining 63% of the variance in energy from breakfast, were examined. Covariate adjusted general linear models were used to compare outcome variables of consumers of different patterns with breakfast skippers. The p value was Bonferroni corrected (eat Cereal (RTEC)/ LFM, RTEC/LFM, Cooked Cereal/Milk/FJ, and Whole Fruit patterns had higher total HEI-2005 scores than breakfast skippers; those consuming the MPF/ Grain/FJ pattern had lower diet quality than breakfast skippers. Consumption of the Grain/ LFM/Sweets/FJ, PSRTEC/whole milk, Soft Drinks/ FJ/Grain/Potatoes, RTEC/whole milk, and Cooked Cereal/ Milk/ FJ patterns was associated with lower BMI z-scores than seen in breakfast skippers. There are dietary and weight advantages of consuming breakfast, especially breakfasts that include grains, cereals, LFM, and fruit/ FJ, in contrast to the potential adverse effects of skipping breakfast.

  12. Dietary effects of Azolla pinnata combined with exogenous digestive enzyme (Digestin™) on growth and nutrients utilization of freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man 1879)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goda, Ashraf; Saad, Amal; Hanafy, Mohamed; Sharawy, Zaki; El-Haroun, Ehab

    2017-07-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of either individual or combined wheat bran (WB) replacement with Azolla pinnata supplemented with Digestin™ in the diet of freshwater prawn,Macrobrachium rosenbergii Postlarvae (PL) on growth performance, nutrient utilization, chemical body composition and survival (%). Experimental diets were a wheat bran-soybean based diet with no Azolla and Digestin TM (control, T1), and diets containing 17% Azolla supplemented with Digestin TM 0% (T2), 1% (T3), 2% (T4) and 3% (T5). Each experimental diet was allocated into three tanks (6m3/tank) fed for 12 wks. Each tank was subdivided into three equal pens by nets (2m3) and stoked with 84 PL/m2. The experimental diets were readily consumed by prawns PLs where both high growth and good feed efficiency were achieved for all diets. The results showed that the diets containing A. pinnata supplemented with Digestin™ at the level up to 3% have the higher growth and better nutrient utilization than the control diet. No differences were observed for moisture and protein content among the experimental diets. However, the highest protein content was observed on prawns fed on diets T1 and T5 respectively, while the lowest value was recorded for T 4 diet. The results also show that prawn PLs fed the diets contain A. pinnata and supplemented with Digestin TM recorded the highest values of body lipid content compared to the control diet. Feed efficiency and economic conversion rate (ECR) values show that economic performance and the cost-effectiveness of the A. pinnata supplemented with up to 3% Digestin TM recorded the highest net return, and therefore it is recommended for prawn, M. rosenbergii PL's. These results are clearly indicating that A. pinnata have a good potential for use in prawn diets at reasonable levels than other conventional diets.

  13. [Utilization patterns of prevention and early diagnosis for cancer in women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Mejía, Gabriela; Ortega-Olvera, Carolina; Ángeles-Llerenas, Angélica; Villalobos-Hernández, Aremis Litai; Salmerón-Castro, Jorge; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Hernández-Ávila, Mauricio

    2013-01-01

    To estimate the utilization patterns of cancer prevention programs in women during the period 2000-2012 in Mexican women who participated in three national surveys. We analyzed data from the ENSA 2000, ENSANUT 2006 and ENSANUT 2012 that are representative of the Mexican population. Prevalences were obtained, trend tests and Poisson regression were used to determine the possibility of having more coverage. The coverage of Papanicolaou use in the last 12 months in 2012 was 45.5%, HPV testing in the last four years was 11.9% and mammography use in the past two years was 29.4% and 17.2% in women aged 50-69 years and 40-49 years, respectively. Although there was an increase in the coverage of screening programs, there should be a boost in the service quality and universal coverage.

  14. Typology of diatom communities in the Dutch delta: Recognizing patterns of environmental drivers in nutrient rich ditches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goldenberg Vilar, Alejandra; Vonk, J. Arie; van der geest, Harm; van Dam, Herman; Admiraal, Wim

    2014-01-01

    The extensive network of waters in the lower part of the Dutch delta is loaded with nutrients and accordingly a uniform ecological classification ‘moderate’ has been derived. The present study sets out to typify the diatom communities in this apparently homogenous environment via self-organizing

  15. Typology of diatom communities in the Dutch delta: recognizing patterns of environmental drivers in nutrient rich ditches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goldenberg Vilar, A.; van Dam, H.; Vonk, J.A.; van der Geest, H.G.; Admiraal, W.

    2014-01-01

    The extensive network of waters in the lower part of the Dutch delta is loaded with nutrients and accordingly a uniform ecological classification ‘moderate’ has been derived. The present study sets out to typify the diatom communities in this apparently homogenous environment via self-organizing

  16. Continental-scale patterns of nutrient and fish effects on shallow lakes: synthesis of a pan-European mesocosm experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moss, B.; Stephen, D.; Balayla, D.; Bécares, E.; Collings, S.E.; Fernández-Aláez, C.; Fernández-Aláez, M.; Ferriol, C.; García, P.; Gomá, J.; Gyllström, M.; Hansson, L-A.; Hietala, J.; Kairesalo, T.; Rosa Miracle, M.; Romo, S.; Rueda, J.; Russell, V.; Ståhl-Delbanco, A.; Svensson, M.; Vakkilainen, K.; Valentín, M.; van de Bund, W.; Van Donk, E.; Vicente, E.; Villena, M.J.

    2004-01-01

    1. Results are analysed from 11 experiments in which effects of fish addition and nutrient loading on shallow lakes were studied in mesocosms. The experiments, five in 1998, six in 1999, were carried out in six lakes, distributed from Finland to southern Spain, according to a standard protocol. 2.

  17. Pyruvate oxidase influences the sugar utilization pattern and capsule production in Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra M Carvalho

    Full Text Available Pyruvate oxidase is a key function in the metabolism and lifestyle of many lactic acid bacteria and its activity depends on the presence of environmental oxygen. In Streptococcus pneumoniae the protein has been suggested to play a major role in metabolism and has been implicated in virulence, oxidative stress survival and death in stationary phase. Under semi-aerobic conditions, transcriptomic and metabolite profiling analysis of a spxB mutant grown on glucose showed minor changes compared to the wild type, apart from the significant induction of two operons involved in carbohydrate uptake and processing. This induction leads to a change in the sugar utilization capabilities of the bacterium, as indicated by the analysis of the growth profiles of the D39 parent and spxB mutant on alternative carbohydrates. Metabolic analysis and growth experiments showed that inactivation of SpxB has no effect on the glucose fermentation pattern, except under aerobic conditions. More importantly, we show that mutation of spxB results in the production of increased amounts of capsule, the major virulence factor of S. pneumoniae. Part of this increase can be attributed to induction of capsule operon (cps transcription. Therefore, we propose that S. pneumoniae utilizes pyruvate oxidase as an indirect sensor of the oxygenation of the environment, resulting in the adaption of its nutritional capability and the amount of capsule to survive in the host.

  18. Drug Utilization Pattern In Psychiatry Outdoor Patients At Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital Of Bastar Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Tabish

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Psychotropic drugs have had a remarkable impact in psychiatric practice. However, their utilization in actualClinical practice, effectiveness and safety in real life situation need continuous study.Aim: To evaluate the utilization pattern of antipsychotics drugs in the OPD of Psychiatry department.Materials and Methods: A prospective cross-sectional study was     undertaken for a period of three months.   The total number of prescriptions that were analyzed were 264. Patients of all ages and both sexes were included in the study while inpatients,Referred patients and patients of epilepsy were excluded.Results: Out of 264 patients, 180(68.18% were males and84 (31.81% were females. Depression (30.6% was the commonest psychotic ailment. Fluoxetine (34% was the most common antidepressant prescribed for its treatment.Anxiety comprised the second commonest category of psychotic disorder (24.4% followed by Schizophrenia (22%. Lorazepam (43.4% was the most prescribed anxiolytic whereas      Risperidone (46.6% was used to treat it.Conclusion:  Depression was the commonest psychotic ailment followed by anxiety and schizophrenia. Polypharmacy was found in 45% of prescriptions. Risperidone + Trihexyphenidyl was the commonest fixed dose combination used for Schizophrenia and Psychosis followed by amitriptyline+Chlordiazepoxide for anxiety and depression.

  19. Pyruvate oxidase influences the sugar utilization pattern and capsule production in Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Sandra M; Farshchi Andisi, Vahid; Gradstedt, Henrik; Neef, Jolanda; Kuipers, Oscar P; Neves, Ana R; Bijlsma, Jetta J E

    2013-01-01

    Pyruvate oxidase is a key function in the metabolism and lifestyle of many lactic acid bacteria and its activity depends on the presence of environmental oxygen. In Streptococcus pneumoniae the protein has been suggested to play a major role in metabolism and has been implicated in virulence, oxidative stress survival and death in stationary phase. Under semi-aerobic conditions, transcriptomic and metabolite profiling analysis of a spxB mutant grown on glucose showed minor changes compared to the wild type, apart from the significant induction of two operons involved in carbohydrate uptake and processing. This induction leads to a change in the sugar utilization capabilities of the bacterium, as indicated by the analysis of the growth profiles of the D39 parent and spxB mutant on alternative carbohydrates. Metabolic analysis and growth experiments showed that inactivation of SpxB has no effect on the glucose fermentation pattern, except under aerobic conditions. More importantly, we show that mutation of spxB results in the production of increased amounts of capsule, the major virulence factor of S. pneumoniae. Part of this increase can be attributed to induction of capsule operon (cps) transcription. Therefore, we propose that S. pneumoniae utilizes pyruvate oxidase as an indirect sensor of the oxygenation of the environment, resulting in the adaption of its nutritional capability and the amount of capsule to survive in the host.

  20. Effect of soil type and application method on nutrients absorption and utilization by grape plants 1-Absorption and utilization of manganese using Mn-54

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, F.A.; Sharaf, A.N.M.; Khamis, M.A.; Sharaf, M.M.

    2000-01-01

    This work was conducted to study effect of soil type and application method on absorption, translocation and utilization of Mn by grape plants. One year old rooted cuttings of grape (Cv. Ruby seedless) were transplanted in plastic containers filled with 15 kg of three different soils, i.e. clay loam soil, sandy soil and calcareous soil. Fertilization treatments were as follows: Tap water (control) (T1); soil application of N, P,K and Mg (T2); T2 plus soil application of Fe, Mn and Zn (T4). Also, pot experiment was carried out using Mn SO4 at 5ppm for soil application and at 0.5% for foliar application and Mn-54 was used for labelling both solutions. Manganese contents in different organs of grape plant were significantly increased by the three fertilization treatments as compared to those of control. Moreover, highest Mn level was obtained due to foliar application of micro elements and soil application of macro elements T 4 . followed by soil application of both macro-and micro elements T 3 , soil application of macro elements only T2 and control T1

  1. Six-month longitudinal patterns of mental health treatment utilization by older adults with depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gum, Amber M; Iser, Lindsay; King-Kallimanis, Bellinda L; Petkus, Andrew; DeMuth, Anne; Schonfeld, Lawrence

    2011-11-01

    Aims of the study were to describe behavioral health treatment utilization patterns of community-dwelling older adults with depressive symptoms over a six-month period and to identify factors associated with treatment use, guided by a theoretical model emphasizing the dynamic nature of treatment use patterns over time and social context. A total of 144 participants ≥65 years old with depressive symptoms completed an in-person baseline interview and six monthly telephone follow-up interviews. Outcomes at each follow-up included the use of antidepressants or counseling. Covariates included personal and social context variables. Approximately half of the participants (N=70, 48%) received no formal treatment (antidepressant prescription or counseling). Treatment use or nonuse did not change for most participants. More participants with severe symptoms received antidepressants (25%-37%) than did those with milder symptoms (10%-14%), although more participants in the latter group started (milder, 62%,versus severe, 49%) and stopped (milder, 77%, versus severe, 26%) antidepressant treatment at least once. Fewer individuals received counseling overall, with no clear patterns by symptom severity. In multivariate longitudinal analyses, treatment use at follow-up was independently associated with younger age, current major depressive episode, baseline use of antidepressant, intention to begin a new treatment at baseline, and receipt of advice to seek treatment. Over a six-month period, most older adults with depressive symptoms in this study continued their use or nonuse of mental health treatment. Demographic, need, attitudinal, and social variables were related to treatment use over time. Addressing intentions and providing advice may facilitate treatment seeking.

  2. Evaluation of Resource Utilization and Treatment Patterns in Patients with Actinic Keratosis in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asche, Carl V; Zografos, Panagiotis; Norlin, Jenny M; Urbanek, Bill; Mamay, Carl; Makin, Charles; Erntoft, Sandra; Chen, Chi-Chang; Hines, Dionne M; Mark Siegel, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    To compare health care resource utilization and treatment patterns between patients with actinic keratosis (AK) treated with ingenol mebutate gel (IngMeb) and those treated with other field-directed AK therapies. A retrospective, propensity-score-matched, cohort study compared refill/repeat and adding-on/switching patterns and outpatient visits and prescriptions (health care resource utilization) over 6 months in patients receiving IngMeb versus those receiving imiquimod, 5-fluorouracil, diclofenac sodium, and methyl aminolevulinate or aminolevulinic acid photodynamic therapy (MAL/ALA-PDT). The final sample analyzed included four matched treatment cohort pairs (IngMeb and comparator; n = 790-971 per treatment arm). Refill rates were similar except for imiquimod (15% vs. 9% for imiquimod and IngMeb, respectively; P < 0.05). MAL/ALA-PDT treatment repetition rates were higher than IngMeb refill rates (20% vs. 10%; P < 0.05). Topical agent add-on/switch rates were comparable. PDT had higher switch rates than did IngMeb (5% vs. 2%; P < 0.05). The IngMeb cohort had a significantly lower proportion of patients with at least one AK-related outpatient visit during the 6-month follow-up than did any other cohort: versus imiquimod (50% vs. 66%; P < 0.0001), versus 5-fluorouracil (50% vs. 69%; P < 0.0001), versus diclofenac sodium (51% vs. 56%; P = 0.034), and versus MAL/ALA-PDT (50% vs. 100%; P < 0.0001). There were significantly fewer AK-related prescriptions among patients receiving IngMeb than among patients in other cohorts. Results based on the first 6 months after treatment initiation suggested that most field-directed AK therapies had clinically comparable treatment patterns except imiquimod, which was associated with higher refill rates, and PDT, which was associated with significantly more frequent treatment sessions and higher switching rates. IngMeb was also associated with significantly fewer outpatient visits than were other field-directed therapies. Copyright

  3. Utilization and growth patterns of sacroiliac joint injections from 2000 to 2011 in the medicare population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Hansen, Hans; Pampati, Vidyasagar; Falco, Frank J E

    2013-01-01

      The high prevalence of persistent low back pain and growing number of diagnostic and therapeutic modalities employed to manage chronic low back pain and the subsequent impact on society and the economy continue to hold sway over health care policy. Among the multiple causes responsible for chronic low back pain, the contributions of the sacroiliac joint have been a subject of debate albeit a paucity of research. At present, there are no definitive conservative, interventional or surgical management options for managing sacroiliac joint pain. It has been shown that the increases were highest for facet joint interventions and sacroiliac joint blocks with an increase of 310% per 100,000 Medicare beneficiaries from 2000 to 2011. There has not been a systematic assessment of the utilization and growth patterns of sacroiliac joint injections. Analysis of the growth patterns of sacroiliac joint injections in Medicare beneficiaries from 2000 to 2011. To evaluate the utilization and growth patterns of sacroiliac joint injections. This assessment was performed utilizing Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) Physician/Supplier Procedure Summary (PSPS) Master data from 2000 to 2011. The findings of this assessment in Medicare beneficiaries from 2000 to 2011 showed a 331% increase per 100,000 Medicare beneficiaries with an annual increase of 14.2%, compared to an increase in the Medicare population of 23% or annual increase of 1.9%. The number of procedures increased from 49,554 in 2000 to 252,654 in 2011, or a rate of 125 to 539 per 100,000 Medicare beneficiaries. Among the various specialists performing sacroiliac joint injections, physicians specializing in physical medicine and rehabilitation have shown the most increase, followed by neurology with 1,568% and 698%, even though many physicians from both specialties have been enrolling in interventional pain management and pain management. Even though the numbers were small for nonphysician providers including

  4. Seasonal evolution of the nutrient pattern on Biscay Bay continental shelf over the years 1999-2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Loyer

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The French Atlantic shelf is subjected to strong anthropic influences (urban, industrial and agricultural discharges of two main rivers (Loire and Gironde. The extension and consequences of these continental loadings for the nutrient and chlorophyll distribution have never been studied before on the Bay of Biscay continental shelf as a whole. We present the first synoptic view of the nutrient distribution and evolution on the French Atlantic shelf. Nutrient concentrations of the surface layer were studied during four cruises in April, June, September 1999 and March 2000. Until June, the freshwater inputs induce a nitrate gradient from river mouths to offshore waters in the vicinity of the 100 m isobath. The Redfield’s ratio study highlights the nitrate excess in river loadings. The early spring situation is characterised by high N:P ratios in front of the two estuaries and by a potential Si-limitation in the northern part. Nitrate removal continues in spite of the P-limitation and the increase in silicate concentrations during summer supposes high regeneration processes. At the end of summer, the water column is thermally stratified and the surface mixed layer is totally depleted in nitrate.

  5. Patterns and processes of nutrient transfers from land to water: a catchment approach to evaluate Good Agricultural Practice in Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellander, P.-E.; Melland, A. R.; Shortle, G.; Wall, D.; Mechan, S.; Buckley, C.; Fealy, R.; Jordan, P.

    2009-04-01

    Eutrophication of fresh, transitional and coastal waters by excessive nutrient inputs is one of the most widespread water quality problems in developed countries. Sources of nutrient nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) can come from a multiplicity of sources and be dependent on numerous hydrological controls from catchments with both urban and agricultural landuses. Aquatic impacts are widely reported as a result of excessive nutrient transfers from land to water and include changes in ecological integrity and loss of amenity. In the European Union, the Water Framework Directive (WFD) and associated Directives are the key structures with which member states must develop national and often trans-national polices to deal with issues of water resources management. The linked Nitrates Directive is particularly concerned with integrating sustainable agriculture and good water quality objectives and is written into national polices. In Ireland this policy is the Nitrates Directive National Action Programme (NAP), Statutory Instruction 378, Good Agricultural Practise regulation, and amongst other things, sets targets and limits on the use of organic and inorganic fertilisers, soil fertility and slurry/fertiliser spreading and cultivation times. To evaluate the effectiveness of this policy, Teagasc, the Irish Agriculture and Food Development Authority, is undertaking a catchment scale audit on sources, sinks, and changes in nutrient use and export over several years. The Agricultural Catchments Programme is based on a science-stakeholder-management partnership to generate knowledge and specifically to protect water quality from nitrogen and phosphorus transfers within the constraints of the requirements of modern Irish agricultural practises. Eight catchments of 5-12 km2 have been selected for the programme to represent a range of agricultural intensities and vulnerabilities to nitrogen and phosphorus loss including catchments that are situated on permeable and impermeable

  6. Interactive effects of climate and nutrient enrichment on patterns of herbivory by different feeding guilds in mangrove forests

    KAUST Repository

    Feller, Ilka C.

    2017-09-28

    Aim Global warming and eutrophication are major threats to coastal environments worldwide. As a result of differences between temperate and tropical ecosystems in nutrient availability, nitrogen (N):phosphorus (P) coupling and carbon retention, primary productivity and biotic interactions in the tropics are predicted to have stronger responses to increased nutrients than in temperate ecosystems. Habitats that occur across broad climatic ranges, such as mangrove forests, provide an opportunity to test this hypothesis by investigating the responses of herbivores to nutrient enrichment in temperate versus tropical latitudes on the same species. Location Australia and New Zealand. Time period Fertilization experiments were established at Port Douglas and Cape Cleveland in October 2000; Batemans Bay and Waikopua in August 2001; Whangapoua in January 2003; Tinchi Tamba in September 2005; and Garalia in October 2007. Herbivory was measured in 2009. Major taxa studied Insect leaf miners; insect and fungal leaf gallers. Methods We used seven fertilization experiments in Australia and New Zealand across 20° of latitude to determine how increased nutrients affected herbivory and diversity of leaf miners and gallers of the mangrove Avicennia marina. Individual trees were fertilized annually with one of three treatments (Control, +N, +P); herbivory was measured in 2009. Results Fertilization did not significantly affect herbivory or herbivore diversity. Leaf N:P, latitude and rainfall contributed significantly to herbivory, accounting for > 56% of the variation. Latitude, temperature, %P and salinity differentiated herbivory by feeding guild in the tropical versus subtropical and temperate latitudes. The effect of N fertilization on folivory differed across climatic regions; relative to Control trees, N-fertilized trees in temperate areas had greater folivory than in tropical and subtropical latitudes. Species richness for leaf miners and gallers was correlated with latitude

  7. Effect of feeding tannin degrading bacterial culture (Streptococcus gallolyticus strain TDGB 406) on nutrient utilization, urinary purine derivatives and growth performance of goats fed on Quercus semicarpifolia leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, K; Chaudhary, L C; Agarwal, N; Kamra, D N

    2014-10-01

    To study the effect of supplementation of tannin degrading bacterial culture (Streptococcus gallolyticus strain TDGB 406) on growth performance, nutrient utilization and urinary purine derivatives of goats fed on oak (Quercus semicarpifolia) leaves. For growth study, eighteen billy goats (4 month old, average body weight 9.50 ± 1.50 kg) were distributed into three groups of six animals each. The animals of group 1 served as control while animals of groups 2 (T1) and 3 (T2) were given (@ 5 ml/kg live weight) autoclaved and live culture of isolate TDGB 406 (10(6) cells/ml) respectively. The animals were fed measured quantity of dry oak leaves as the main roughage source and ad libitum maize hay along with fixed quantity of concentrate mixture. The feeding of live culture of isolate TDGB 406 (probiotic) did not affect dry matter intake and digestibility of nutrients except that of dry matter and crude protein, which was higher in T2 group as compared to control. All the animals were in positive nitrogen balance. There was no significant effect of feeding isolate TDGB 406 on urinary purine derivatives (microbial protein production) in goats. The body weight gain and average live weight gain was significantly higher (p = 0.071) in T2 group as compared to control. Feed conversion efficiency was also better in the goats fed on live culture of TDGB 406 (T2). The feeding of tannin degrading bacterial isolate TDGB 406 as probiotic resulted in improved growth performance and feed conversion ratio in goats fed on oak leaves as one of the main roughage source. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Patterns of medical utilization before the first hospitalization for women with anorexia nervosa in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Yen-Ni; Kuo, Chian-Jue; Yang, Shu-Yu; Huang, Ming-Chyi; Chen, Ying-Yeh; Lin, Shih-Ku; Chen, Kuan-Yu

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this paper was to analyze medical utilization patterns of female patients with anorexia nervosa before their first inpatient care visit for anorexia nervosa using the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) of Taiwan. We selected female anorexia nervosa patients (n=239) and control participants hospitalized for peptic ulcers (n=478) or appendectomy (n=478) who were matched by age and incident year from two subsets of the NHIRD. The number of visits, specialists, diagnosis distribution, and selected procedures used in ambulatory services during the 2-year period before the index admission were identified and compared. Healthcare service expenditures were also analyzed. Compared to the control groups, the female anorexia nervosa patients used more outpatient services (anorexia nervosa, 58.6±45.0 visits; peptic ulcers, 45.3±37.3 visits; appendectomy, 32.5±26.0 visits), mainly due to psychiatric visits. Anorexia nervosa patients were more likely to have received a diagnosis of digestive, endocrine/metabolic, and mental disorders than patients in the control groups. Although nearly equal percentages of patients in the three groups had obtained a diagnosis of a digestive disease, anorexia nervosa patients received digestive disease diagnoses with greater frequency. We posit that the various physical symptoms of anorexia nervosa patients and physicians' low level of suspicion of anorexia nervosa led to delayed diagnoses and greater medical utilization than that of the controls groups. Education to raise awareness of anorexia nervosa and other eating disorders among physicians is warranted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Drug Utilization Patterns and Costs of Erythropoiesis-Stimulating Agents in an Outpatient Setting in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papachristos, Apostolos; Kani, Chara; Litsa, Panagiota; Valsami, Georgia; Souliotis, Kyriakos; Saridi, Maria; Markantonis, Sophia

    2016-05-01

    Anemia in the elderly is often related to a higher prevalence of chronic diseases such as chronic kidney failure, arthritis, and malignancy. Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) have been used for years to effectively treat anemia and when used appropriately can substantially improve the health status and quality of life of older adults. Following the 2008 recession in Greece, the government introduced ESA price control restrictions, but no prescribing restrictions, in an effort to reduce drug expenditure. ESA prescribing patterns and treatment costs were analyzed to determine inappropriate or appropriate use of these agents and related health care resources in Greece. A retrospective register-based drug utilization study was carried out using data from prescriptions dispensed at the public pharmacy of the largest social insurance fund (IKA-ETAM), for patients receiving ESAs over a six-month period. For each patient, demographic data, ESA dosage regimen, treatment indication and cost, prescriber specialty, and prescription origin were recorded. A total of 14,387 prescriptions from 6,074 patients (median age 74 years) were reviewed. A substantial number of patients (13.5%) were treated for off-label indications, for which the average cost per patient per indication was higher. ESA dosage/frequency of administration varied but was in accordance with recommendations. The percentage of patients who received innovator and biosimilar erythropoietin (EPO) was 88% and 12%, respectively. For the optimization of ESA utilization and the reduction of treatment costs, strict ESA prescription monitoring, development of registries, and criteria for off-label indications and biosimilar use in naive patients under the umbrella of risk-sharing agreements should be proposed.

  10. Patterns in Patient Access and Utilization of Online Medical Records: Analysis of MyChart

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Background Electronic patient portals provide a new method for sharing personal medical information with individual patients. Objective Our aim was to review utilization patterns of the largest online patient portal in Canada's largest city. Methods We conducted a 4-year time-trend analysis of aggregated anonymous utilization data of the MyChart patient portal at Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre in Ontario, Canada, from January 1, 2012, through December 31, 2015. Prespecified analyses examined trends related to day (weekend vs weekday), season (July vs January), year (2012 vs 2015), and an extreme adverse weather event (ice storm of December 20-26, 2013). Primary endpoints included three measures of patient portal activity: registrations, logins, and pageviews. Results We identified 32,325 patients who registered for a MyChart account during the study interval. Time-trend analysis showed no sign of attenuating registrations over time. Logins were frequent, averaged 734 total per day, and showed an increasing trend over time. Pageviews mirrored logins, averaged about 3029 total per day, and equated to about 5 pageviews during the average login. The most popular pageviews were clinical notes, followed by laboratory results and medical imaging reports. All measures of patient activity were lower on weekends compared to weekdays (P<.001) yet showed no significant changes related to seasons or extreme weather. No major security breach, malware attack, or software failure occurred during the study. Conclusions Online patient portals can provide a popular and reliable system for distributing personal medical information to active patients and may merit consideration for hospitals. PMID:29410386

  11. Patterns in Patient Access and Utilization of Online Medical Records: Analysis of MyChart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redelmeier, Donald A; Kraus, Nicole C

    2018-02-06

    Electronic patient portals provide a new method for sharing personal medical information with individual patients. Our aim was to review utilization patterns of the largest online patient portal in Canada's largest city. We conducted a 4-year time-trend analysis of aggregated anonymous utilization data of the MyChart patient portal at Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre in Ontario, Canada, from January 1, 2012, through December 31, 2015. Prespecified analyses examined trends related to day (weekend vs weekday), season (July vs January), year (2012 vs 2015), and an extreme adverse weather event (ice storm of December 20-26, 2013). Primary endpoints included three measures of patient portal activity: registrations, logins, and pageviews. We identified 32,325 patients who registered for a MyChart account during the study interval. Time-trend analysis showed no sign of attenuating registrations over time. Logins were frequent, averaged 734 total per day, and showed an increasing trend over time. Pageviews mirrored logins, averaged about 3029 total per day, and equated to about 5 pageviews during the average login. The most popular pageviews were clinical notes, followed by laboratory results and medical imaging reports. All measures of patient activity were lower on weekends compared to weekdays (Psecurity breach, malware attack, or software failure occurred during the study. Online patient portals can provide a popular and reliable system for distributing personal medical information to active patients and may merit consideration for hospitals. ©Donald A Redelmeier, Nicole C Kraus. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (http://www.jmir.org), 06.02.2018.

  12. Referral patterns and service utilization in a pediatric hospital-wide intimate partner violence program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Mario; Cruz, Patricia B; Weirich, Christine; McGorty, Ryan; McColgan, Maria D

    2013-08-01

    To describe the referral patterns and utilization of on-site intimate partner violence (IPV) services in both inpatient and outpatient settings at a large urban children's hospital. Retrospective review of case records from IPV victims referred to an on-site IPV counselor between September 2005 and February 2010. Descriptive statistics were used to examine IPV victim demographics, number of referrals per hospital department, referral source (type of staff member), time spent by IPV counselor for initial consultation, and services provided to IPV victims. A total of 453 unique referrals were made to the IPV counselor: 81% were identified by universal screening and 19% by risk-based screening. Thirty-six percent of IPV victims were referred from primary care clinics; 26% from inpatient units; 13% from outpatient subspecialty clinics; 12.5% from the emergency department; 5% from the Child Protection Program; and 4% were employee self-referrals. Social workers generated the most referrals (55%), followed by attending physicians (17%), residents (13%), nurses (7%), and other individuals (self-referrals) (4%). The median initial IPV intervention required 42 minutes. Supportive counseling and safety planning were the services most often utilized by IPV victims. IPV screening can be successfully integrated in both inpatient and outpatient settings by a multidisciplinary group of hospital staff. Most referrals were generated by universal screening outside of the primary care setting. IPV victims generally desired supportive counseling and safety planning over immediate housing relocation. Many IPV screening opportunities were missed by using verbal screening alone. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Studies on common illnesses and medical care utilization patterns of adolescents in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, J T; Yu, A; Cheung, J C; Leung, S S

    2000-12-01

    To estimate the prevalences of common illnesses in Hong Kong adolescents, the sociodemographic and selected risk factors associated with these illnesses, and their health care utilization behavior and attitudes. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey of 3355 participating secondary school students (response rate = 98%). Self-reported 3-month prevalences were obtained for cough/cold/influenza (55.2%), digestive disorders (34.6%), accidental injuries (29.5%), headache/dizziness (23.6%), chronic anxiety/insomnia (20.1%), skin problems (9.5%), asthma (3.8%), liver disease (1.3%), and menstrual pain (13.8% of female students). Self-perceived poor health, smoking, and alcohol consumption were associated with many of these illnesses. Treatment choice depended on the illness suffered (e.g., most students with respiratory problems consulted medical practitioners, whereas most with chronic anxiety/insomnia did not). Many students lacked trust in their doctors, doctor-shopped, relied heavily on self-medication, did not comply with prescribed treatments, would not seek help about medical problems, felt they had insufficient access to health information, and wanted confidential health care. This study examined for the first time the common illnesses and health care utilization patterns of Hong Kong adolescents. Students with chronic anxiety/insomnia were much less likely to seek care, indicating a need for better education on mental health. Efforts to prevent smoking and alcohol consumption among adolescents need to be strengthened. The students' attitudes, poor compliance and help-seeking behaviors suggest suboptimal use of the health care system. Our findings are useful for international comparisons by medical practitioners, health care managers, and researchers.

  14. Drug utilization pattern in a pain clinic of a tertiary care teaching hospital in Eastern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debjyoti Dutta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients attend the Pain Clinic with varieties of complains of pain, like low back pain, knee pain, shoulder pain, headache, facial pain, different neuralgias and other neuropathic pain states. They receive a multimodal treatment for their pain, Multimodal pain therapy is an integrated multidisciplinary treatment in small groups with a closely coordinated therapeutic approach. Drugs that are prescribed for treatment are not only NSAIDS or Opioids, but also various groups of adjuvant pain medications like anti-epileptics, antidepressants etc. Aim: To find out the drug utilization pattern in the Pain Clinic of a tertiary care medical college hospital in Eastern India. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional; unicentric study was conducted in the Pain Clinic during April 2013 to June 2013. New patients who were willing to participate in the study were enrolled as per selection criteria. A copy of prescriptions were collected from the patients. The drugs prescription patterns were analyzed. Result: 319 patients were included in this study in three months period and their prescriptions were analyzed. Female patients (222 were more in number than male (97. As single prescription and also as combination therapy, paracetamol was found to be the most frequently prescribed drug. Frequently used adjuvant pain medications were found to be pregabalin (21.63% and amitriptyline (16.92%.. Antacid was commonly prescribed as gastroprotective agent. Among drug combinations paracetamol (325 mg + tramadol (37.5 mg combination was used most frequently. (55.17%. Conclusion: In this uncentric study we found that patacetamol, tramadol, pregabalin and amitriptyline are the commonly used medications in a pain clinic. We need more multi-centric and comparative Indian studies.

  15. Impact of Climate Variability and Landscape Patterns on Water Budget and Nutrient Loads in a Peri-urban Watershed: A Coupled Analysis Using Process-based Hydrological Model and Landscape Indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chongwei; Zhang, Yajuan; Kharel, Gehendra; Zou, Chris B

    2018-06-01

    Nutrient discharge into peri-urban streams and reservoirs constitutes a significant pressure on environmental management, but quantitative assessment of non-point source pollution under climate variability in fast changing peri-urban watersheds is challenging. Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was used to simulate water budget and nutrient loads for landscape patterns representing a 30-year progression of urbanization in a peri-urban watershed near Tianjin metropolis, China. A suite of landscape pattern indices was related to nitrogen (N) and phosphorous (P) loads under dry and wet climate using CANOCO redundancy analysis. The calibrated SWAT model was adequate to simulate runoff and nutrient loads for this peri-urban watershed, with Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient (NSE) and coefficient of determination (R 2 ) > 0.70 and percentage bias (PBIAS) between -7 and +18 for calibration and validation periods. With the progression of urbanization, forest remained the main "sink" landscape while cultivated and urban lands remained the main "source" landscapes with the role of orchard and grassland being uncertain and changing with time. Compared to 1984, the landscape use pattern in 2013 increased nutrient discharge by 10%. Nutrient loads modelled under wet climate were 3-4 times higher than that under dry climate for the same landscape pattern. Results indicate that climate change could impose a far greater impact on runoff and nutrient discharge in a peri-urban watershed than landscape pattern change.

  16. Impact of Climate Variability and Landscape Patterns on Water Budget and Nutrient Loads in a Peri-urban Watershed: A Coupled Analysis Using Process-based Hydrological Model and Landscape Indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chongwei; Zhang, Yajuan; Kharel, Gehendra; Zou, Chris B.

    2018-06-01

    Nutrient discharge into peri-urban streams and reservoirs constitutes a significant pressure on environmental management, but quantitative assessment of non-point source pollution under climate variability in fast changing peri-urban watersheds is challenging. Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was used to simulate water budget and nutrient loads for landscape patterns representing a 30-year progression of urbanization in a peri-urban watershed near Tianjin metropolis, China. A suite of landscape pattern indices was related to nitrogen (N) and phosphorous (P) loads under dry and wet climate using CANOCO redundancy analysis. The calibrated SWAT model was adequate to simulate runoff and nutrient loads for this peri-urban watershed, with Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient (NSE) and coefficient of determination ( R 2) > 0.70 and percentage bias (PBIAS) between -7 and +18 for calibration and validation periods. With the progression of urbanization, forest remained the main "sink" landscape while cultivated and urban lands remained the main "source" landscapes with the role of orchard and grassland being uncertain and changing with time. Compared to 1984, the landscape use pattern in 2013 increased nutrient discharge by 10%. Nutrient loads modelled under wet climate were 3-4 times higher than that under dry climate for the same landscape pattern. Results indicate that climate change could impose a far greater impact on runoff and nutrient discharge in a peri-urban watershed than landscape pattern change.

  17. Multidisciplinary Service Utilization Pattern by Advanced Head and Neck Cancer Patients: A Single Institution Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline C. Junn

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To analyze the patterns and associations of adjunctive service visits by head and neck cancer patients receiving primary, concurrent chemoradiation therapy. Methods. Retrospective chart review of patients receiving adjunctive support during a uniform chemoradiation regimen for stages III-IV head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Univariate and multivariate models for each outcome were obtained from simple and multivariate linear regression analyses. Results. Fifty-two consecutive patients were assessed. Female gender, single marital status, and nonprivate insurance were factors associated with an increased number of social work visits. In a multivariate analysis, female gender and marital status were related to increased social work services. Female gender and stage IV disease were significant for increased nursing visits. In a multivariate analysis for nursing visits, living greater than 20 miles between home and hospital was a negative predictive factor. Conclusion. Treatment of advanced stage head and neck cancer with concurrent chemoradiation warrants a multidisciplinary approach. Female gender, single marital status, and stage IV disease were correlated with increased utilization of social work and nursing services. Distance over 20 miles from the center was a negative factor. This information may help guide the treatment team to allocate resources for the comprehensive care of patients.

  18. Loading pattern optimization with maximum utilization of discharging fuel employing adaptively constrained discontinuous penalty function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, T. K.; Joo, H. G.; Kim, C. H.

    2010-01-01

    In order to find the most economical loading pattern (LP) considering multi-cycle fuel loading, multi-objective fuel LP optimization problems are examined by employing an adaptively constrained discontinuous penalty function (ACDPF) method. This is an improved method to simplify the complicated acceptance logic of the original DPF method in that the stochastic effects caused by the different random number sequence can be reduced. The effectiveness of the multi-objective simulated annealing (SA) algorithm employing ACDPF is examined for the reload core LP of Cycle 4 of Yonggwang Nuclear Unit 4. Several optimization runs are performed with different numbers of objectives consisting of cycle length and average burnup of fuels to be discharged or reloaded. The candidate LPs obtained from the multi-objective optimization runs turn out to be better than the reference LP in the aspects of cycle length and utilization of given fuels. It is note that the proposed ACDPF based MOSA algorithm can be a practical method to obtain an economical LP considering multi-cycle fuel loading. (authors)

  19. Sugar utilization patterns and respiro-fermentative metabolism in the baker's yeast Torulaspora delbrueckii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves-Araújo, C; Pacheco, A; Almeida, M J; Spencer-Martins, I; Leão, C; Sousa, M J

    2007-03-01

    The highly osmo- and cryotolerant yeast species Torulaspora delbrueckii is an important case study among the non-Saccharomyces yeast species. The strain T. delbrueckii PYCC 5321, isolated from traditional corn and rye bread dough in northern Portugal, is considered particularly interesting for the baking industry. This paper reports the sugar utilization patterns of this strain, using media with glucose, maltose and sucrose, alone or in mixtures. Kinetics of growth, biomass and ethanol yields, fermentation and respiration rates, hydrolase activities and sugar uptake rates were used to infer the potential applied relevance of this yeast in comparison to a conventional baker's strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The results showed that both maltase and maltose transport in T. delbrueckii were subject to glucose repression and maltose induction, whereas invertase was subject to glucose control but not dependent on sucrose induction. A comparative analysis of specific sugar consumption rates and transport capacities suggests that the transport step limits both glucose and maltose metabolism. Specific rates of CO(2) production and O(2) consumption showed a significantly higher contribution of respiration to the overall metabolism in T. delbrueckii than in S. cerevisiae. This was reflected in the biomass yields from batch cultures and could represent an asset for the large-scale production of the former species. This work contributes to a better understanding of the physiology of a non-conventional yeast species, with a view to the full exploitation of T. delbrueckii by the baking industry.

  20. Patterns and predictors of mental health service utilization in people with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troeung, Lakkhina; Gasson, Natalie; Egan, Sarah J

    2015-03-01

    Comorbid psychiatric complications are a common occurrence in Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the majority of people with PD experiencing mental health problems do not receive any professional treatment. A total of 327 Australian adults with PD completed a cross-sectional survey examining patterns of mental health service utilization and predictors of willingness to seek future mental health treatment. Only 8% of participants were currently engaged in mental health treatment despite elevated levels of depressive and anxiety symptoms. The lifetime service use rate was also low at 24%. Logistic regression analysis showed that, second to prior treatment experience (odds ratio [OR] = 3.28, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.46-7.35), having had a discussion about psychological symptoms with a primary PD neurologist was the next most important predictor and tripled the likelihood of an individual being willing to seek future treatment, (OR = 3.01, 95% CI = 1.72-5.27). This study highlights the integral role of the PD neurologist in facilitating awareness and treatment of mental health problems for individuals with PD. © The Author(s) 2014.

  1. Quantifying the Effect of Fast Charger Deployments on Electric Vehicle Utility and Travel Patterns via Advanced Simulation: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, E.; Neubauer, J.; Burton, E.

    2015-02-01

    The disparate characteristics between conventional (CVs) and battery electric vehicles (BEVs) in terms of driving range, refill/recharge time, and availability of refuel/recharge infrastructure inherently limit the relative utility of BEVs when benchmarked against traditional driver travel patterns. However, given a high penetration of high-power public charging combined with driver tolerance for rerouting travel to facilitate charging on long-distance trips, the difference in utility between CVs and BEVs could be marginalized. We quantify the relationships between BEV utility, the deployment of fast chargers, and driver tolerance for rerouting travel and extending travel durations by simulating BEVs operated over real-world travel patterns using the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Battery Lifetime Analysis and Simulation Tool for Vehicles (BLAST-V). With support from the U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Office, BLAST-V has been developed to include algorithms for estimating the available range of BEVs prior to the start of trips, for rerouting baseline travel to utilize public charging infrastructure when necessary, and for making driver travel decisions for those trips in the presence of available public charging infrastructure, all while conducting advanced vehicle simulations that account for battery electrical, thermal, and degradation response. Results from BLAST-V simulations on vehicle utility, frequency of inserted stops, duration of charging events, and additional time and distance necessary for rerouting travel are presented to illustrate how BEV utility and travel patterns can be affected by various fast charge deployments.

  2. Global patterns of foliar nitrogen isotopes and their relationships with climate, mycorrhizal fungi, foliar nutrient concentrations, and nitrogen availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph M. Craine; Andrew J. Elmore; Marcos P. M. Aidar; Mercedes Bustamante; Todd E. Dawson; Erik A. Hobbie; Ansgar Kahmen; Michelle C. Mack; Kendra K. McLauchlan; Anders Michelsen; Gabriela Nardoto; Linda H. Pardo; Josep Penuelas; Peter B. Reich; Edward A.G. Schuur; William D. Stock; Pamela H. Templer; Ross A. Virginia; Jeffrey M. Welker; Ian J. Wright

    2009-01-01

    Ratios of nitrogen (N) isotopes in leaves could elucidate underlying patterns of N cycling across ecological gradients. To better understand global-scale patterns of N cycling, we compiled data on foliar N isotope ratios, foliar N concentrations, mycorrhizal type and climate for over 11 000 plants worldwide. Global-scale comparisons of other components of the N cycle...

  3. Global patterns of foliar nitrogen isotopes and their relationships with climate, mycorrhizal fungi, foliar nutrient concentrations, and nitrogen availability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Craine, J M; Elmore, A J; Aidar, M P M

    2009-01-01

    Ratios of nitrogen (N) isotopes in leaves could elucidate underlying patterns of N cycling across ecological gradients. To better understand global-scale patterns of N cycling, we compiled data on foliar N isotope ratios (d15N), foliar N concentrations, mycorrhizal type and climate for over 11 00...

  4. Growth performance, nutrient utilization, and feed efficiency in broilers fed Tithonia diversifolia leaf meal as substitute of conventional feed ingredients in Mizoram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buragohain, Rajat

    2016-05-01

    The study was for assessment of growth performance, nutrient utilization, and feed efficiency in broilers fed rations with varying levels of Tithonia diversifolia leaf meal (TDLM) as a substitute of conventional feed ingredients in Mizoram. A total of 180, 1-day-old broiler chicks were randomly divided into six homogeneous groups and fed rations incorporated with TDLM (TDLM at 0% [TDLM-0], 2% [TDLM-2], 4% [TDLM-4], 6% [TDLM-6], 8% [TDLM-8], and 10% [TDLM-10] level as substitute of conventional feed ingredients) for 6 weeks. The chicks were reared in battery brooders for the first 2 weeks, and thereafter, in well-ventilated deep litter house following standard management protocols. Feed and drinking water were provided ad libitum to all the groups throughout the experiment. The daily feed intake and weekly body weight gain were recorded, and a metabolic trial for 3 days was conducted at the end of the 6(th) week. Feed consumption decreased for inclusion of TDLM but without any significant differences, except during the 3(rd) week where it reduced significantly (pbroilers reared under deep litter system of management in Mizoram.

  5. Effects of replacing fish meal with rubber seed meal on growth, nutrient utilization, and cholesterol metabolism of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus × O. aureus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Junming; Wang, Kun; Mai, Kangsen; Chen, Liqiao; Zhang, Lu; Mi, Haifeng

    2017-08-01

    A feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of replacing fish meal with rubber seed meal (RSM) on growth, nutrient utilization, and cholesterol metabolism of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus × Oreochromis aureus). Five experimental diets were formulated with 0, 150, 300, 450, and 600 g kg -1 RSM replacing graded levels of fish meal, respectively. Each diet was randomly assigned to triplicate groups of 25 fish (initial average weight 65.3 g) per aquarium in a rearing system maintained at 29 ± 1 °C for 8 weeks. Dietary 150 g kg -1 RSM inclusion did not affect the weight gain and daily growth coefficient, whereas these were depressed by a further inclusion. Additionally, feed efficiency ratio and protein efficiency ratio were not affected by dietary RSM inclusion regardless of inclusion level. However, the inclusion of 450 and 600 g kg -1 RSM decreased the mid-intestinal trypsin, lipase, and amylase activities; the hepatic acyl-CoA/cholesterol acyl transferase; low-density lipoprotein receptor; and 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase activities. Similarly, dietary 600 g kg -1 RSM inclusion inhibited the plasma catalase and hepatic glutathione peroxidase activities. These results indicated that 150 g kg -1 RSM can be included in tilapia diets, whereas higher inclusion of RSM inhibited the growth rate, digestive enzyme activity, antioxidant capacity, and cholesterol metabolism.

  6. Patterns of Mental Health Care Utilization Among Sexual Orientation Minority Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, Lisa F; Wolf, Julia Kay; Scheitle, Christopher P

    2018-01-01

    Prior studies of the utilization of mental health professionals by sexual minority populations have relied on data that are now dated or not nationally representative. These studies have also provided mixed findings regarding gender differences in the utilization of mental health professionals among sexual minority individuals. Using data from the 2013-2015 National Health Interview Surveys, this study investigates (1) how sexual minority individuals compare to heterosexual participants in their utilization of mental health professionals; and (2) gender differences in that utilization. The results indicate sexual minority individuals utilize mental health care professionals at higher rates than heterosexual individuals even after controlling for measures of mental health and other demographic characteristics; this is true for both men and women. However, gender moderates the sexual minority effect on utilization rates. Sexual minority men utilize mental health professionals at a high rate, such that their utilization rates are similar to sexual minority women, contrary to the gender gap seen among heterosexuals.

  7. Spatiotemporal patterns of childhood asthma hospitalization and utilization in Memphis Metropolitan Area from 2005 to 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyana, Tonny J; Podila, Pradeep; Wesley, Jagila Minso; Lomnicki, Slawo; Cormier, Stephania

    2017-10-01

    To identify the key risk factors and explain the spatiotemporal patterns of childhood asthma in the Memphis metropolitan area (MMA) over an 11-year period (2005-2015). We hypothesize that in the MMA region this burden is more prevalent among urban children living south, downtown, and north of Memphis than in other areas. We used a large-scale longitudinal electronic health record database from an integrated healthcare system, Geographic information systems (GIS), and statistical and space-time models to study the spatiotemporal distributions of childhood asthma at census tract level. We found statistically significant spatiotemporal clusters of childhood asthma in the south, west, and north of Memphis city after adjusting for key covariates. The results further show a significant increase in temporal gradient in frequency of emergency department (ED) visits and inpatient hospitalizations from 2009 to 2013, and an upward trajectory from 4 per 1,000 children in 2005 to 16 per 1,000 children in 2015. The multivariate logistic regression identified age, race, insurance, admit source, encounter type, and frequency of visits as significant risk factors for childhood asthma (p asthma burden and healthcare utilization for African American (AA) patients living in a high-risk area than those living in a low-risk area in comparison to the white patients: AA vs. white [odds ratio (OR) = 3.03, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.75-3.34]; and Hispanic vs. white (OR = 1.62, 95% CI: 1.21-2.17). These findings provide a strong basis for developing geographically tailored population health strategies at the neighborhood level for young children with chronic respiratory conditions.

  8. Awareness of Mothers and Doctors about Drug Utilization Pattern for Illnesses Encountered during Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kureshee, Nargis Ibrahim; Dhande, Priti Pravin

    2013-11-01

    Careful consideration of the benefit to the mother and risk to the foetus, is required, while prescribing drugs during pregnancy. To assess the pattern of drug utilization during pregnancy and to explore the knowledge, attitude and awareness on drug use by the antenatal mother in a tertiary care hospital setup in western India. Observational, cross-sectional study involved holding interviews on 501 pregnant women, in OPD and IPD of Obstetrics-Gynaecology Department using a pilot-based questionnaire, was done. Data from prescriptions and case-files were also collected. Drugs were classified pharmacologically and according to teratogenic potential using U.S.FDA classification. Study population was classified according to the trimester of pregnancy and educational and socioeconomic status. Intergroup comparison was done using Chi-square test. Majority of the drugs were from Category A(71.2%) and Category B (16.5%), followed by those from Categories C(9.09%), D(1.12%) and X(0.7%). Category A drugs were significantly used more in first trimester, while Category C and D drugs were used in the last two trimesters (pwomen believed that drug use in pregnancy could be harmful to both mother and baby, while 35.52% believed that drug use could be dangerous throughout pregnancy. Patients' educational and socio-economic statuses influenced their compliance for nutritional supplements prescribed during pregnancy and their awareness on common contraceptive methods. Higher education and socioeconomic class provided information on safety of barrier contraception during pregnancy. Study revealed careful prescribing behaviour of physicians. Lack of awareness on safety of drugs in pregnancy and contraceptive use advocates a need for educating and counselling women of child bearing ages.

  9. Comparison of vegetation patterns and soil nutrient relations in an oak-pine forest and a mixed deciduous forest on Long Island, New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, S.C.; Curtis, P.S.

    1980-11-01

    An analysis of soil nutrient relations in two forest communities on Long Island, NY, yielded a correlation between the fertility of the top-soil and vegetational composition. The oak-pine forest soils at Brookhaven National Laboratory contain lower average concentrations of NH/sub 3/, Ca, K, and organic matter than the mixed deciduous forest soils in the Stony Brook area. The pH of the topsoil is also more acidic at Brookhaven. The observed differences between localities are greater than within-locality differences between the two soil series tested (Plymouth and Riverhead), which are common to both localities. Nutrient concentrations in the subsoil are not consistently correlated with either locality or soil series, although organic matter and NH/sub 3/ show significantly higher concentrations at Stony Brook. Supporting data on density and basal area of trees and coverage of shrubs and herbs also reveals significant variation between the two forest communities. An ordination of the vegetation data shows higher similarity within than between localities, while no obvious pattern of within-locality variation due to soil series treatments is apparent. These data support the hypothesis that fertility gradients may influence forest community composition and structure. This hypothesis is discussed with reference to vegetation-soil interactions and other factors, such as frequency of burning, which may direct the future development of the Brookhaven oak-pine forest.

  10. Ready-to-Eat Cereal Consumption Patterns: The Relationship to Nutrient Intake, Whole Grain Intake, and Body Mass Index in an Older American Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann M. Albertson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the relationship between ready-to-eat (RTE breakfast cereal consumption patterns and body mass index (BMI, nutrient intake, and whole grain intake in an older American population. Design. A cross-sectional survey of US households, collected by the NPD Group via the National Eating Trends (NET survey. Main outcome measures include BMI, nutrient intake, and whole grain intake. Subjects/Setting. The sample included 1759 participants age 55 and older, which was divided into approximate quartiles based on intake of RTE breakfast cereal for the 2-week period (0 servings, 1–3 servings, 4–7 servings, and ≥8 servings. Results. In the multivariate linear regression analysis adjusted for energy and age; intake of dietary fiber, whole grains, and the majority of micronutrients examined were found to be positively associated with frequent RTE cereal consumption. The proportion of participants consuming less than the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR was lower for the highest quartile of RTE cereal consumers compared to nonconsumers, for the majority of vitamins and minerals examined. Significant differences in BMI between RTE breakfast cereal intake groups were found for men. Conclusion. Results suggest that ready-to-eat breakfast cereals may contribute to the nutritional quality of the diets of older Americans. Prospective studies and experimental trials are needed to better evaluate the role of RTE cereal consumption in energy balance.

  11. Intrusion Pattern of the Offshore Kuroshio Branch Current and Its Effects on Nutrient Contributions in the East China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wentao; Yu, Zhiming; Song, Xiuxian; Yuan, Yongquan; Wu, Zaixing; Zhou, Peng; Cao, Xihua

    2018-03-01

    During the autumn season of 2014 (October-November), nutrient samples and nitrogen and oxygen isotope samples from the East China Sea (ECS) were collected and analyzed, and auxiliary physical parameters were determined. Distinctive high-salinity water column conditions with significant haloclines and pycnoclines similar to those observed during the spring were detected at the bottom of the ECS during the autumn. These water column conditions were attributed to the intrusion of the Kuroshio Subsurface Water (KSSW), which then separated into two currents, including the Offshore Kuroshio Branch Current (OKBC). Compared with spring, this intrusion transported higher phosphorus (P) concentrations onto the ECS continental shelf in autumn. However, according to multiple analyses, biogeochemical nitrogen processes are unable to explain the variations in the P concentrations (increase) while assuming that each distinctive water column is consistent. Identifying the water columns by their salinities and P concentrations revealed that the northern ECS water column was similar to the deep KSSW while the southern ECS water column was similar to the shallow KSSW. Therefore, we speculate that the distinctions among the seasonal variations of P-enriched water masses were attributable to the different intrusion positions of the Kuroshio. The shift of the KSSW intrusion location moved toward the northeast during the autumn relative to the spring. This shift, which was proved by the oceanic vortex data, caused the deeper KSSW water upwelled to the ECS and formed the OKBC, thereby supplying additional P during the autumn.

  12. Differences in root distribution, nutrient acquisition and nutrient utilization by tropical forage species grown in degraded hillside soil conditions¹ Diferencias en la distribución de raíces, absorción y utilización de nutrientes por especies forrajeras tropicales en condiciones de suelos degradados de ladera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnulfo Gómez-Carabalí

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Low nutrient availability, especially phosphorus (P and nitrogen (N supply is the major limitation to forage production in acid infertile soils of the tropics. A field study was conducted at the farm ‘La Esperanza’ located in Mondomo, Department of Cauca, in the coffee growing zone of Colombia. The main objective was to determine differences in root distribution, nutrient (N, P, K, Ca, Mg and S acquisition and nutrient utilization of one C4 forage grass (Brachiaria dictyoneura and two C3 forage legumes (Arachis pintoi and Centrosema macrocarpum grown under two fertilization levels, cultivated either in monoculture or in association and harvested at four different ages.There were no significant differences in root biomass among the grass and legumes and their combinations. The native vegetation had the lowest root biomass; while the introduced grass (B. dictyoneura had the highest root length density among all materials at all depths and ages and the native vegetation had the highest specific root length. As expected, nutrient uptake increased with age and with high fertilization in all species. Centrosema macrocarpun had the highest N and Ca uptake among all plant materials tested. Uptake of P, K and Mg was greater in the grass B. dictyoneura than in the other plant species and combination planting at all ages. On the other hand, the grass had the lowest Ca uptake. The grass and its mixture with the legumes A. pintoi and C. macrocarpun had the highest S uptake. A highly significant (pLa baja disponibilidad de nutrientes, especialmente fósforo (P y nitrógeno (N es el mayor limitante para la producción de forrajes en los suelos ácidos de baja fertilidad del trópico. En la finca La Esperanza. localizada en Mondomo, departamento del Cauca, zona cafetera de Colombia, se llevo a cabo un estudio con el objeto de determinar las diferencias en la distribución de raíces, absorción y utilización de nutrientes (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, y S de una gram

  13. Dietary fish oil replacement by linseed oil: Effect on growth, nutrient utilization, tissue fatty acid composition and desaturase gene expression in silver barb (Puntius gonionotus) fingerlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Madhusmita; Saha, Ashis; Pradhan, Avinash; Samanta, Mrinal; Giri, Shiba Shankar

    2017-03-01

    Silver barb (Puntius gonionotus) is considered a promising medium carp species for freshwater aquaculture in Asia. This study in silver barb was carried out to evaluate the effects of total or partial substitution of dietary fish oil (FO) with linseed oil (LO) on growth, nutrient utilization, whole-body composition, muscle and liver fatty acid composition. Fish (12.1±0.4g of initial body weight) were fed for 60days with five experimental iso-proteinous, iso-lipidic and iso-caloric diets in which FO (control diet) was replaced by 33.3%, 50%, 66.7% and 100% LO. Final weight, weight gain, percent weight gain, SGR decreased linearly (p0.05) affect the feed conversion ratio (FCR), protein efficiency ratio (PER) and whole body proximate composition. Furthermore, enhanced level of LO increased α-linolenic acid (ALA; 18:3n3) and linoleic acid (LA; 18:2n6) and decreased eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n3) in muscle and liver. To understand the molecular mechanism of long chain-polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) biosynthesis, we cloned and characterized the fatty acyl Δ6 desaturase (Δ6 fad) cDNA and investigated its expression in various organs/tissues following replacement of FO with LO in the diet. The full-length Δ6 fad cDNA was 2056bp encoding 444 amino acids and was widely expressed in various organs/tissues. Replacement of FO with LO increased the expression of Δ6 fad mRNA in liver, muscle and intestine but no significant difference was found in the brain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Quality of fresh organic matter affects priming of soil organic matter and substrate utilization patterns of microbes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Boutton, Thomas W.; Xu, Wenhua; Hu, Guoqing; Jiang, Ping; Bai, Edith

    2015-05-01

    Changes in biogeochemical cycles and the climate system due to human activities are expected to change the quantity and quality of plant litter inputs to soils. How changing quality of fresh organic matter (FOM) might influence the priming effect (PE) on soil organic matter (SOM) mineralization is still under debate. Here we determined the PE induced by two 13C-labeled FOMs with contrasting nutritional quality (leaf vs. stalk of Zea mays L.). Soils from two different forest types yielded consistent results: soils amended with leaf tissue switched faster from negative PE to positive PE due to greater microbial growth compared to soils amended with stalks. However, after 16 d of incubation, soils amended with stalks had a higher PE than those amended with leaf. Phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) results suggested that microbial demand for carbon and other nutrients was one of the major determinants of the PE observed. Therefore, consideration of both microbial demands for nutrients and FOM supply simultaneously is essential to understand the underlying mechanisms of PE. Our study provided evidence that changes in FOM quality could affect microbial utilization of substrate and PE on SOM mineralization, which may exacerbate global warming problems under future climate change.

  15. Seasonal patterns in nutrients, carbon, and algal responses in wadeable streams within three geographically distinct areas of the United States, 2007-08

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kathy E.; Lorenz, David L.; Petersen, James C.; Greene, John B.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey determined seasonal variability in nutrients, carbon, and algal biomass in 22 wadeable streams over a 1-year period during 2007 or 2008 within three geographically distinct areas in the United States. The three areas are the Upper Mississippi River Basin (UMIS) in Minnesota, the Ozark Plateaus (ORZK) in southern Missouri and northern Arkansas, and the Upper Snake River Basin (USNK) in southern Idaho. Seasonal patterns in some constituent concentrations and algal responses were distinct. Nitrate concentrations were greatest during the winter in all study areas potentially because of a reduction in denitrification rates and algal uptake during the winter, along with reduced surface runoff. Decreases in nitrate concentrations during the spring and summer at most stream sites coincided with increased streamflow during the snowmelt runoff or spring storms indicating dilution. The continued decrease in nitrate concentrations during summer potentially is because of a reduction in nitrate inputs (from decreased surface runoff) or increases in biological uptake. In contrast to nitrate concentrations, ammonia concentrations varied among study areas. Ammonia concentration trends were similar at UMIS and USNK sampling sites with winter peak concentrations and rapid decreases in ammonia concentrations by spring or early summer. In contrast, ammonia concentrations at OZRK sampling sites were more variable with peak concentrations later in the year. Ammonia may accumulate in stream water in the winter under ice and snow cover at the UMIS and USNK sites because of limited algal metabolism and increased mineralization of decaying organic matter under reducing conditions within stream bottom sediments. Phosphorus concentration patterns and the type of phosphorus present changes with changing hydrologic conditions and seasons and varied among study areas. Orthophosphate concentrations tended to be greater in the summer at UMIS sites, whereas total

  16. Defense pattern of Chinese cork oak across latitudinal gradients: influences of ontogeny, herbivory, climate and soil nutrients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Fei; Liu, Jian-Feng; Gao, Wen-Qiang; Deng, Yun-Peng; Ni, Yan-Yan; Xiao, Yi-Hua; Kang, Feng-Feng; Wang, Qi; Lei, Jing-Pin; Jiang, Ze-Ping

    2016-06-01

    Knowledge of latitudinal patterns in plant defense and herbivory is crucial for understanding the mechanisms that govern ecosystem functioning and for predicting their responses to climate change. Using a widely distributed species in East Asia, Quercus variabilis, we aim to reveal defense patterns of trees with respect to ontogeny along latitudinal gradients. Six leaf chemical (total phenolics and total condensed tannin concentrations) and physical (cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin and dry mass concentration) defensive traits as well as leaf herbivory (% leaf area loss) were investigated in natural Chinese cork oak (Q. variabilis) forests across two ontogenetic stages (juvenile and mature trees) along a ~14°-latitudinal gradient. Our results showed that juveniles had higher herbivory values and a higher concentration of leaf chemical defense substances compared with mature trees across the latitudinal gradient. In addition, chemical defense and herbivory in both ontogenetic stages decreased with increasing latitude, which supports the latitudinal herbivory-defense hypothesis and optimal defense theory. The identified trade-offs between chemical and physical defense were primarily determined by environmental variation associated with the latitudinal gradient, with the climatic factors (annual precipitation, minimum temperature of the coldest month) largely contributing to the latitudinal defense pattern in both juvenile and mature oak trees.

  17. Effect of supplemental nutrient source on heifer growth and reproductive performance, and on utilization of corn silage-based diets by beef steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howlett, C M; Vanzant, E S; Anderson, L H; Burris, W R; Fieser, B G; Bapst, R F

    2003-09-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine effects of oilseeds or soybean hulls on growth and reproductive performance of heifers and utilization of corn silage diets by growing beef cattle. In Exp. 1, 96 beef heifers (249 kg of BW) were used in a randomized complete block design. Treatments were as follows: 1) corn and soybean meal (CON) at 56% of the DMI; 2) whole linted cottonseed at 15% of the DMI (COT); 3) whole raw soybeans at 15% of the DMI (SB); or 4) pelleted soyhulls at 30% of the DMI (SH). Diets were formulated to be isonitrogenous (13.8% CP) and fed to achieve target weights equal to 65% of expected mature BW at the time of AI. Estrus was synchronized and heifers were inseminated by AI in response to detected estrus. Because the energy value for SH was underestimated, cumulative ADG for SH (1.03 kg/d) was greater (P 0.10) the proportion of pubertal heifers at the beginning of the breeding season: CON (60%), COT (53%), SB (69%), SH (71%), or first-service conception rates: CON (37%); COT (38%); SB (57%); SH (42%). In Exp. 2, crossbred steers (387 kg) were used in a 6 x 6 Latin square design to evaluate the effects of supplemental nutrient source on utilization of corn silage diets. Treatments included diets used in Exp. 1, plus a negative control (soybean meal at 10% of the DMI; SIL) and whole raw soybeans at 25% of the DMI (SB25). Diets were formulated to be isonitrogenous (13.8% CP) except SB25 (17% CP), and were fed twice daily at 1.8 x NEm. Oilseed inclusion decreased (P tract NDF digestibilities. The CON and SH diets had the greatest (P tract OM digestibilities. Microbial efficiencies were greatest (P reproductive performance of heifers. Although oilseed additions increased total fatty acid flow to the duodenum, a high degree of biohydrogenation occurred, greatly increasing C18:0, with only marginal increases in unsaturated fatty acid flow. Depending on diet and feeding conditions, inclusion of whole oilseeds may not be an effective means of

  18. Spatial Patterns and Temperature Predictions of Tuna Fatty Acids: Tracing Essential Nutrients and Changes in Primary Producers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi R Pethybridge

    Full Text Available Fatty acids are among the least understood nutrients in marine environments, despite their profile as key energy components of food webs and that they are essential to all life forms. Presented here is a novel approach to predict the spatial-temporal distributions of fatty acids in marine resources using generalized additive mixed models. Fatty acid tracers (FAT of key primary producers, nutritional condition indices and concentrations of two essential long-chain (≥C20 omega-3 fatty acids (EFA measured in muscle of albacore tuna, Thunnus alalunga, sampled in the south-west Pacific Ocean were response variables. Predictive variables were: location, time, sea surface temperature (SST and chlorophyll-a (Chla, and phytoplankton biomass at time of catch and curved fork length. The best model fit for all fatty acid parameters included fish length and SST. The first oceanographic contour maps of EFA and FAT (FATscapes were produced and demonstrated clear geographical gradients in the study region. Predicted changes in all fatty acid parameters reflected shifts in the size-structure of dominant primary producers. Model projections show that the supply and availability of EFA are likely to be negatively affected by increases in SST especially in temperate waters where a 12% reduction in both total fatty acid content and EFA proportions are predicted. Such changes will have large implications for the availability of energy and associated health benefits to high-order consumers. Results convey new concerns on impacts of projected climate change on fish-derived EFA in marine systems.

  19. Carbohydrate utilization patterns for the extremely thermophilic bacterium Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus reveal broad growth substrate preferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanfossen, A.L.; Verhaart, M.R.A.; Kengen, S.W.M.; Kelly, R.M.

    2009-01-01

    Co-utilization of hexoses and pentoses derived from lignocellulose is an attractive trait in microorganisms considered for consolidated biomass processing to biofuels. This issue was examined for the H2-producing, extremely thermophilic bacterium Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus growing on

  20. Automatic Generation of English-Japanese Translation Pattern Utilizing Genetic Programming Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumura, Koki; Tamekuni, Yuji; Kimura, Shuhei

    There are a lot of constructional differences in an English-Japanese phrase template, and that often makes the act of translation difficult. Moreover, there exist various and tremendous phrase templates and sentence to be refered to. It is not easy to prepare the corpus that covers the all. Therefore, it is very significant to generate the translation pattern of the sentence pattern automatically from a viewpoint of the translation success rate and the capacity of the pattern dictionary. Then, for the purpose of realizing the automatic generation of the translation pattern, this paper proposed the new method for the generation of the translation pattern by using the genetic programming technique (GP). The technique tries to generate the translation pattern of various sentences which are not registered in the phrase template dictionary automatically by giving the genetic operation to the parsing tree of a basic pattern. The tree consists of the pair of the English-Japanese sentence generated as the first stage population. The analysis tree data base with 50,100,150,200 pairs was prepared as the first stage population. And this system was applied and executed for an English input of 1,555 sentences. As a result, the analysis tree increases from 200 to 517, and the accuracy rate of the translation pattern has improved from 42.57% to 70.10%. And, 86.71% of the generated translations was successfully done, whose meanings are enough acceptable and understandable. It seemed that this proposal technique became a clue to raise the translation success rate, and to find the possibility of the reduction of the analysis tree data base.

  1. Utilization of antiepileptic drugs during pregnancy: Comparative patterns in 38 countries based on data from the EURAP registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Battino, D.; Bonizzoni, E.; Craig, J.

    2009-01-01

    We assessed the utilization of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), 1999-2005, in 4,798 prospective epilepsy pregnancies from 38 countries participating in EURAP, an international AED and pregnancy registry. Prominent differences in utilization patterns were observed across the various countries. Exposure...... to second-generation AEDs ranged from 3.5% in India and 7.3% in Italy to 75% in Denmark. Even wider variation was recorded in exposure to individual AEDs. The utilization of second-generation AEDs increased over time (for lamotrigine, from 9.9% of all pregnancies before 2001 to 29.6% after 2003......). The differences in use of individual AEDs across countries probably reflect lack of evidence concerning the optimal treatment of epilepsy in women of childbearing age, as well as variation in country-specific traditions, medication costs, and drug promotion. Our observations underscore the need for comparative...

  2. Methane production and diurnal variation measured in dairy cows and predicted from fermentation pattern and nutrient or carbon flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brask, Maike; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl

    2015-01-01

    Many feeding trials have been conducted to quantify enteric methane (CH(4)) production in ruminants. Although a relationship between diet composition, rumen fermentation and CH(4) production is generally accepted, the efforts to quantify this relationship within the same experiment remain scarce....... In the present study, a data set was compiled from the results of three intensive respiration chamber trials with lactating rumen and intestinal fistulated Holstein cows, including measurements of rumen and intestinal digestion, rumen fermentation parameters and CH(4) production. Two approaches were used...... for endogenous matter, and contribution of fermentation in the large intestine was accounted for. Hydrogen (H(2)) arising from fermentation was calculated using the fermentation pattern measured in rumen fluid. CH(4) was calculated from H(2) production corrected for H(2) use with biohydrogenation of fatty acids...

  3. [Adapting health services to the specific needs and utilization patterns of the new Spaniards. 2008 SESPAS Report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribera, Berta; Casal, Bruno; Cantarero, David; Pascual, Marta

    2008-04-01

    Because of the progressive increase in the number of immigrants and the uncertainty about the capacity of the Spanish health service to deal with the quantitative and qualitative increases in demand, the possibility of introducing changes to adapt our services to the new situation should be considered. Beginning with an analysis of the factors that influence health status and use of the health service, based on the National Health Survey (NHS), the European Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC) and the European Community Household Panel (ECHP), we compare the health profiles and patterns of medical resources utilization between the national and foreign populations. The pattern of demand for health services in the immigrant population corresponds basically to the needs of a young population in good health. According to NHS data, resource utilization among immigrants can even be lower than that among the national population. Assessing the link between health status and demand for healthcare from a dynamic point of view, by identifying variations in patterns of health and patterns of demand for healthcare, is important to identify imbalances in resources and to establish an appropriate hierarchy of preventive and treatment priorities.

  4. Fabrication of graphene-based flexible devices utilizing a soft lithographic patterning method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Min Wook; Myung, Sung; Kim, Ki Woong; Song, Wooseok; Jo, You-Young; Lee, Sun Suk; Lim, Jongsun; Park, Chong-Yun; An, Ki-Seok

    2014-07-01

    There has been considerable interest in soft lithographic patterning processing of large scale graphene sheets due to the low cost and simplicity of the patterning process along with the exceptional electrical or physical properties of graphene. These properties include an extremely high carrier mobility and excellent mechanical strength. Recently, a study has reported that single layer graphene grown via chemical vapor deposition (CVD) was patterned and transferred to a target surface by controlling the surface energy of the polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) stamp. However, applications are limited because of the challenge of CVD-graphene functionalization for devices such as chemical or bio-sensors. In addition, graphene-based layers patterned with a micron scale width on the surface of biocompatible silk fibroin thin films, which are not suitable for conventional CMOS processes such as the patterning or etching of substrates, have yet to be reported. Herein, we developed a soft lithographic patterning process via surface energy modification for advanced graphene-based flexible devices such as transistors or chemical sensors. Using this approach, the surface of a relief-patterned elastomeric stamp was functionalized with hydrophilic dimethylsulfoxide molecules to enhance the surface energy of the stamp and to remove the graphene-based layer from the initial substrate and transfer it to a target surface. As a proof of concept using this soft lithographic patterning technique, we demonstrated a simple and efficient chemical sensor consisting of reduced graphene oxide and a metallic nanoparticle composite. A flexible graphene-based device on a biocompatible silk fibroin substrate, which is attachable to an arbitrary target surface, was also successfully fabricated. Briefly, a soft lithographic patterning process via surface energy modification was developed for advanced graphene-based flexible devices such as transistors or chemical sensors and attachable devices on a

  5. Fabrication of graphene-based flexible devices utilizing a soft lithographic patterning method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wook Jung, Min; Myung, Sung; Woong Kim, Ki; Song, Wooseok; Suk Lee, Sun; Lim, Jongsun; An, Ki-Seok; Jo, You-Young; Park, Chong-Yun

    2014-01-01

    There has been considerable interest in soft lithographic patterning processing of large scale graphene sheets due to the low cost and simplicity of the patterning process along with the exceptional electrical or physical properties of graphene. These properties include an extremely high carrier mobility and excellent mechanical strength. Recently, a study has reported that single layer graphene grown via chemical vapor deposition (CVD) was patterned and transferred to a target surface by controlling the surface energy of the polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) stamp. However, applications are limited because of the challenge of CVD-graphene functionalization for devices such as chemical or bio-sensors. In addition, graphene-based layers patterned with a micron scale width on the surface of biocompatible silk fibroin thin films, which are not suitable for conventional CMOS processes such as the patterning or etching of substrates, have yet to be reported. Herein, we developed a soft lithographic patterning process via surface energy modification for advanced graphene-based flexible devices such as transistors or chemical sensors. Using this approach, the surface of a relief-patterned elastomeric stamp was functionalized with hydrophilic dimethylsulfoxide molecules to enhance the surface energy of the stamp and to remove the graphene-based layer from the initial substrate and transfer it to a target surface. As a proof of concept using this soft lithographic patterning technique, we demonstrated a simple and efficient chemical sensor consisting of reduced graphene oxide and a metallic nanoparticle composite. A flexible graphene-based device on a biocompatible silk fibroin substrate, which is attachable to an arbitrary target surface, was also successfully fabricated. Briefly, a soft lithographic patterning process via surface energy modification was developed for advanced graphene-based flexible devices such as transistors or chemical sensors and attachable devices on a

  6. Utilization of health services and prescription patterns among lupus patients followed by primary care physicians and rheumatologists in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, María J; Mayor, Angel M; Franco, Alejandro E; Morell, Carlos A; López, Miguel A; Vilá, Luis M

    2008-01-01

    To examine the utilization of health services and prescription patterns among patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) followed by primary care physicians and rheumatologists in Puerto Rico. The insurance claims submitted by physicians to a health insurance company of Puerto Rico in 2003 were examined. The diagnosis of lupus was determined by using the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, code for SLE (710.0). Of 552,733 insured people, 665 SLE patients were seen by rheumatologists, and 92 were followed by primary care physicians. Demographic features, selected co-morbidities, healthcare utilization parameters, and prescription patterns were examined. Fisher exact test, chi2 test, and analysis of variances were used to evaluate differences between the study groups. SLE patients followed by rheumatologists had osteopenia/osteoporosis diagnosed more frequently than did patients followed by primary care physicians. The frequency of high blood pressure, diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, coronary artery disease, and renal disease was similar for both groups. Rheumatologists were more likely to order erythrocyte sedimentation rate, anti-dsDNA antibodies, and serum complements. No differences were observed for office or emergency room visits, hospitalizations, and utilization of routine laboratory tests. Rheumatologists prescribed hydroxychloroquine more frequently than did primary care physicians. The use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors, glucocorticoids, azathioprine, cyclophosphamide, and methotrexate was similar for both groups. Overall, the utilization of health services and prescription patterns among SLE patients followed by primary care physicians and rheumatologists in Puerto Rico are similar. However, rheumatologists ordered SLE biomarkers of disease activity and prescribed hydroxychloroquine more frequently than did primary care physicians.

  7. Home Health Care and Patterns of Subsequent VA and Medicare Health Care Utilization for Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Houtven, Courtney Harold; Jeffreys, Amy S.; Coffman, Cynthia J.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The Veterans Affairs or VA health care system is in the process of significantly expanding home health care (HOC) nationwide. We describe VA HHC use in 2003 for all VA HHC users from 2002; we examine whether VA utilization across a broad spectrum of services differed for a sample of VA HHC users and their propensity-score-matched…

  8. Effects of feeding lauric acid or coconut oil on ruminal protozoa numbers, fermentation pattern, digestion, omasal nutrient flow, and milk production in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faciola, A P; Broderick, G A

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the feeding of coconut oil (CO), in which lauric acid (La) comprises about 50% of the fatty acid composition, as a practical rumen protozoa (RP) suppressing agent, to assess whether the source of La affects ruminal fermentation and animal performance and to test whether suppressing RP improves N utilization, nutrient digestion, nutrient flow at the omasal canal, and milk production. Fifteen multiparous Holstein cows (3 fitted with ruminal cannulas) and 15 primiparous Holstein cows (3 fitted with ruminal cannulas) were used in a replicated 3×3 Latin square experiment with 14d of adaptation and 14d of sample collection. Diets were fed as total mixed ration and contained (dry matter basis) 10% corn silage, 50% alfalfa silage, and 40% concentrate. The control diet contained 3% (dry matter basis) calcium soaps of palm oil fatty acids (Megalac, Church & Dwight Co. Inc., Princeton, NJ) as a ruminally inert fat source and had no added La or CO. Diets with La and CO were formulated to contain equal amounts of La (1.3%, dry matter basis). Dry matter intake was not affected by treatment. Both CO and La reduced RP numbers by about 40%. Lauric acid reduced yield of milk and milk components; however, CO did not affect yield of milk and yields of milk components. Both La and CO caused small reductions in total VFA concentration; CO increased molar proportion of ruminal propionate, reduced ruminal ammonia and branched-chain volatile fatty acids, suggesting reduced protein degradation, and reduced milk urea N and blood urea N concentrations, suggesting improved protein efficiency. Lauric acid reduced total-tract apparent digestibility of neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber as well as ruminal apparent digestibility of neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber as measured at the omasal canal; however, CO did not alter fiber digestion. Microbial protein flow at the omasal canal, as well as the flow of N fractions at

  9. Changes of Dietary Pattern, Food Choice, Food Consumption, Nutrient Intake and Body Mass Index of Korean American College Students with Different Length of Residence in the Los Angeles Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nam; Tam, Chick F.; Poon, George; Lew, Polong; Kim, Samuel Saychang; Kim, James C.; Kim, Rachel Byungsook

    2010-01-01

    This study was to investigate how dietary pattern, food choice, food consumption, nutrient intake and body mass index (BMI) vary with length of residence for Korean American college students. The respondents were 60 Korean American residents living in the Los Angeles Area. They were divided into two groups based on the length of stay in the U.S.:…

  10. Health Care Costs, Utilization and Patterns of Care following Lyme Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrion, Emily R.; Aucott, John; Lemke, Klaus W.; Weiner, Jonathan P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Lyme disease is the most frequently reported vector borne infection in the United States. The Centers for Disease Control have estimated that approximately 10% to 20% of individuals may experience Post-Treatment Lyme Disease Syndrome – a set of symptoms including fatigue, musculoskeletal pain, and neurocognitive complaints that persist after initial antibiotic treatment of Lyme disease. Little is known about the impact of Lyme disease or post-treatment Lyme disease symptoms (PTLDS) on health care costs and utilization in the United States. Objectives 1) to examine the impact of Lyme disease on health care costs and utilization, 2) to understand the relationship between Lyme disease and the probability of developing PTLDS, 3) to understand how PTLDS may impact health care costs and utilization. Methods This study utilizes retrospective data on medical claims and member enrollment for persons aged 0-64 years who were enrolled in commercial health insurance plans in the United States between 2006-2010. 52,795 individuals treated for Lyme disease were compared to 263,975 matched controls with no evidence of Lyme disease exposure. Results Lyme disease is associated with $2,968 higher total health care costs (95% CI: 2,807-3,128, pLyme disease, having one or more PTLDS-related diagnosis is associated with $3,798 higher total health care costs (95% CI: 3,542-4,055, pLyme disease is associated with increased costs above what would be expected for an easy to treat infection. The presence of PTLDS-related diagnoses after treatment is associated with significant health care costs and utilization. PMID:25650808

  11. Microtransfer printing of metal ink patterns onto plastic substrates utilizing an adhesion-controlled polymeric donor layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Ji-Sub; Choi, Jun-Chan; Park, Min-Kyu; Bae, Jeong Min; Bae, Jin-Hyuk; Kim, Hak-Rin

    2016-01-01

    We propose a method for transfer-printed electrode patterns onto flexible/plastic substrates, specifically intended for metal ink that requires a high sintering temperature. Typically, metal-ink-based electrodes cannot be picked up for microtransfer printing because the adhesion between the electrodes and the donor substrate greatly increases after the sintering process due to the binding materials. We introduced a polymeric donor layer between the printed electrodes and the donor substrate and effectively reduced the adhesion between the Ag pattern and the polymeric donor layer by controlling the interfacial contact area. After completing a wet-etching process for the polymeric donor layer, we obtained Ag patterns supported on the fine polymeric anchor structures; the Ag patterns could be picked up onto the stamp surface even after the sintering process by utilizing the viscoelastic properties of the elastomeric stamp with a pick-up velocity control. The proposed method enables highly conductive metal-ink-based electrode patterns to be applied on thermally weak plastic substrates via an all-solution process. Metal electrodes transferred onto a film showed superior electrical and mechanical stability under the bending stress test required for use in printed flexible electronics. (paper)

  12. Mathematical models utilized in the retrieval of displacement information encoded in fringe patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciammarella, Cesar A.; Lamberti, Luciano

    2016-02-01

    All the techniques that measure displacements, whether in the range of visible optics or any other form of field methods, require the presence of a carrier signal. A carrier signal is a wave form modulated (modified) by an input, deformation of the medium. A carrier is tagged to the medium under analysis and deforms with the medium. The wave form must be known both in the unmodulated and the modulated conditions. There are two basic mathematical models that can be utilized to decode the information contained in the carrier, phase modulation or frequency modulation, both are closely connected. Basic problems connected to the detection and recovery of displacement information that are common to all optical techniques will be analyzed in this paper, focusing on the general theory common to all the methods independently of the type of signal utilized. The aspects discussed are those that have practical impact in the process of data gathering and data processing.

  13. Alternating current line-filter based on electrochemical capacitor utilizing template-patterned graphene

    OpenAIRE

    Zhenkun Wu; Liyi Li; Ziyin Lin; Bo Song; Zhuo Li; Kyoung-Sik Moon; Ching-Ping Wong; Shu-Lin Bai

    2015-01-01

    Aluminum electrolytic capacitors (AECs) are widely used for alternating current (ac) line-filtering. However, their bulky size is becoming more and more incompatible with the rapid development of portable electronics. Here we report a scalable process to fabricate miniaturized graphene-based ac line-filters on flexible substrates at room temperature. In this work, graphene oxide (GO) is reduced by patterned metal interdigits at room temperature and used directly as the electrode material. The...

  14. Several grain dietary patterns are associated with better diet quality and improved shortfall nutrient intakes in US children and adolescents: a study focusing on the 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papanikolaou, Yanni; Jones, Julie Miller; Fulgoni, Victor L

    2017-02-20

    The present study identified the most commonly consumed grain food patterns in US children and adolescents (2-18 years-old; N = 8,367) relative to those not consuming grains and compared diet quality and nutrient intakes, with focus on 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans (2015-2020 DGA) shortfall nutrients. Cluster analysis using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2010, identified 8 unique grain food patterns: a) no consumption of main grain groups, b) cakes, cookies and pies, c) yeast bread and rolls, d) cereals, e) pasta, cooked cereals and rice, f) crackers and salty snacks, g) pancakes, waffles and French toast and other grains, and h) quick breads. Energy intake was higher for all grain cluster patterns examined, except 'cereals', compared to no grains. Children and adolescents in the 'yeast bread and rolls', 'cereals', 'pasta, cooked cereals and rice', and 'crackers and salty snacks' patterns had a higher diet quality relative to no grains (all p dietary fiber intake was greater in five of the seven grain patterns, ranging from 1.8 - 2.8 g more per day (all p patterns, except cakes, cookies and pies had higher EA daily folate relative to children in the no grains pattern (all p pattern (all p patterns relative to no grains (all p patterns in children and adolescents were associated with improved 2015-2020 DGA shortfall nutrient intakes and diet quality as compared to those consuming no grains.

  15. Analyses and simulation to spatial pattern of land utilization in Guangzhu City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin-chang; Zhang, Wen-jiang; Ma, Kun

    2006-10-01

    Based on Landsat TM remote sensing images in 1990 and 2000, we analyses the temporal and spatial pattern Characters of land use in the 1990s in Guangzhou city. We also simulate the scenarios of land-use pattern in 2010 by integrating the Markov process into cellular automata model. The results show that the area of constructions was rapid increasing during the last ten years of the 20th century, at the same time the arable land, woodland and unused land areas were decreasing, the orchard and water areas were rarely changed; In the first ten years of 21st century, land use pattern keep the change trend in the 1990s, land of constructions continue rapid increasing; arable land and unused land areas continue rapid decreasing; woodland, orchard and water areas keep steadily. Research shows that the extent of urban area has increased exponentially in Guangzhou city, no evidences show that the arable land decreasing rate will slow down in the near future. So, it is necessary to enhance the control functions of land use planning and take actives measures to protect arable land.

  16. Influence of protein source on amino acid uptake patterns and protein utilization in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rolland, Marine; Holm, Jørgen; Dalsgaard, Anne Johanne Tang

    induces reduced growth performances that remain partly unexplained. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of exchanging the protein source on protein utilization. Marine (fish meal) and vegetable (pea protein) sources were used with or without supplementation of crystalline amino......Matrixes of different protein sources (fish and plant products) combined with the use of crystalline amino acids allow for formulation of diets that meet fish requirements with little or no effect on protein digestibility and/or feed intake. Despite this, a total or partial replacement of fish meal...... acids to the fishmeal diet level (see Table 1). Amino acid uptake patterns were assessed by the appearance of amino acids in the blood stream following the ingestion of a meal, while dietary protein utilization was evaluated by examining the metabolic response to digestion and ammonium and urea...

  17. Fruit and Vegetable Intake Patterns and Their Associations with Sociodemographic Characteristics, Anthropometric Status and Nutrient Intake Profiles among Malaysian Children Aged 1–6 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kar Hau Chong

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess fruit and vegetable intake patterns and their associations with sociodemographic characteristics, anthropometric status and nutrient intake profiles among Malaysian children aged 1–6 years. Using the Malaysian dataset of South East Asian Nutrition Surveys (SEANUTS Malaysia, a total of 1307 children aged 1–6 years with complete datasets were included in this analysis. Dietary intake was assessed using age-specific, validated food frequency questionnaires. On average, Malaysian children consumed 0.91 and 1.07 servings of fruits and vegetables per day, respectively. Less than one-fifth of the children achieved the daily recommended servings of fruits (11.7% and vegetables (15.8%. Fruit intake was associated with age, parental educational level and geographical region, and vegetable intake was associated with ethnicity and geographical region. There was little evidence of an association between fruit and vegetable intake and children’s anthropometric status, but an adequate intake of fruits and vegetables contributed significantly and differently to children’s micronutrient intake. Future nutrition interventions should focus on addressing the sociodemographic determinants and be tailored to the needs of the low consumers to more effectively promote and encourage the adequate intake of fruit and vegetables among young children.

  18. Fruit and Vegetable Intake Patterns and Their Associations with Sociodemographic Characteristics, Anthropometric Status and Nutrient Intake Profiles among Malaysian Children Aged 1–6 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shoo Thien; Ng, Swee Ai; Khouw, Ilse; Poh, Bee Koon

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to assess fruit and vegetable intake patterns and their associations with sociodemographic characteristics, anthropometric status and nutrient intake profiles among Malaysian children aged 1–6 years. Using the Malaysian dataset of South East Asian Nutrition Surveys (SEANUTS Malaysia), a total of 1307 children aged 1–6 years with complete datasets were included in this analysis. Dietary intake was assessed using age-specific, validated food frequency questionnaires. On average, Malaysian children consumed 0.91 and 1.07 servings of fruits and vegetables per day, respectively. Less than one-fifth of the children achieved the daily recommended servings of fruits (11.7%) and vegetables (15.8%). Fruit intake was associated with age, parental educational level and geographical region, and vegetable intake was associated with ethnicity and geographical region. There was little evidence of an association between fruit and vegetable intake and children’s anthropometric status, but an adequate intake of fruits and vegetables contributed significantly and differently to children’s micronutrient intake. Future nutrition interventions should focus on addressing the sociodemographic determinants and be tailored to the needs of the low consumers to more effectively promote and encourage the adequate intake of fruit and vegetables among young children. PMID:28758956

  19. Fruit and Vegetable Intake Patterns and Their Associations with Sociodemographic Characteristics, Anthropometric Status and Nutrient Intake Profiles among Malaysian Children Aged 1-6 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Kar Hau; Lee, Shoo Thien; Ng, Swee Ai; Khouw, Ilse; Poh, Bee Koon

    2017-07-31

    This study aimed to assess fruit and vegetable intake patterns and their associations with sociodemographic characteristics, anthropometric status and nutrient intake profiles among Malaysian children aged 1-6 years. Using the Malaysian dataset of South East Asian Nutrition Surveys (SEANUTS Malaysia), a total of 1307 children aged 1-6 years with complete datasets were included in this analysis. Dietary intake was assessed using age-specific, validated food frequency questionnaires. On average, Malaysian children consumed 0.91 and 1.07 servings of fruits and vegetables per day, respectively. Less than one-fifth of the children achieved the daily recommended servings of fruits (11.7%) and vegetables (15.8%). Fruit intake was associated with age, parental educational level and geographical region, and vegetable intake was associated with ethnicity and geographical region. There was little evidence of an association between fruit and vegetable intake and children's anthropometric status, but an adequate intake of fruits and vegetables contributed significantly and differently to children's micronutrient intake. Future nutrition interventions should focus on addressing the sociodemographic determinants and be tailored to the needs of the low consumers to more effectively promote and encourage the adequate intake of fruit and vegetables among young children.

  20. Exploring the Patterns and Mechanisms of Reclaimed Arable Land Utilization under the Requisition-Compensation Balance Policy in Wenzhou, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Lin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Arable land in China is undergoing significant changes, with massive losses of arable land due to rapid urbanization and the reclamation of arable land from other lands to compensate for these losses. Many studies have analyzed arable land loss, but less attention has been paid to land reclamation, and the utilization of reclaimed land remains unclear. The goal of our study was to characterize the patterns and efficiency of the utilization of reclaimed land and to identify the factors influencing the land utilization process in Wenzhou using remote sensing, geographic information systems and logistic regression. Our results showed that only 37% of the total reclaimed land area was under cultivation, and other lands were still bare or had been covered by trees and grasses. The likelihood that reclaimed land was used for cultivation was highly correlated with the land use type of its neighboring or adjacent parcels. Reclaimed land utilization was also limited at high elevations in lands with poor soil fertility and in lands at a great distance from rural residential areas. In addition, parcels located in the ecological protection zone were less likely to be cultivated. Therefore, we suggest that the important determinants should be considered when identifying the most suitable land reclamation areas.

  1. International practice patterns and factors associated with non-conventional hemodialysis utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen Nathan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of our study was to determine characteristics that influence the utilization of non-conventional hemodialysis (NCHD therapies and its subtypes (nocturnal (NHD, short daily (SDHD, long conventional (LCHD and conventional hemodialysis (CHD as well as provider attitudes regarding the evidence for NCHD use. Methods An international cohort of subscribers of a nephrology education website http://www.nephrologynow.com was invited to participate in an online survey. Non-conventional hemodialysis was defined as any forms of hemodialysis delivered > 3 treatments per week and/or > 4 hours per session. NHD and SDHD included both home and in-centre. Respondents were categorized as CHD if their centre only offered conventional thrice weekly hemodialysis. Variables associated with NCHD and its subtypes were determined using multivariate logistic regression analysis. The survey assessed multiple domains regarding NCHD including reasons for initiating and discontinuing, for not offering and attitudes regarding evidence. Results 544 surveys were completed leading to a 15.6% response rate. The final cohort was limited to 311 physicians. Dialysis modalities utilized among the respondents were as follows: NCHD194 (62.4%, NHD 83 (26.7%, SDHD 107 (34.4%, LCHD 81 (26% and CHD 117 (37.6%. The geographic regions of participants were as follows: 11.9% Canada, 26.7% USA, 21.5% Europe, 6.1% Australia/New Zealand, 10% Africa/Middle East, 10.9% Asia and 12.9% South America. Variables associated with NCHD utilization included NCHD training (OR 2.47 CI 1.25-4.16, government physician reimbursement (OR 2.66, CI 1.11-6.40, practicing at an academic centre (OR 2.28 CI 1.25-4.16, higher national health care expenditure and number of ESRD patients per centre. Hemodialysis providers with patients on NCHD were significantly more likely to agree with the statements that NCHD improves quality of life, improves nutritional status, reduces EPO requirements

  2. Awareness and pattern of utilizing family planning services among women attending urban health care center Azizabad Sukkur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, N.A.; Nisar, N.

    2008-01-01

    To assess level of awareness and pattern of utilizing family planning services among women (15-49 years) of reproductive age at Urban Health Center, Azizabad Sukkur, Sindh. A cross-sectional study was conducted from April to June 2005 at Urban Health Care Center Azizabad Sukkur. Two hundred women of reproductive age group were interviewed by using a pre tested semi structured questionnaire visiting the health care center during the study period. Information was obtained after taking informed consent regarding socio demographic characteristics, knowledge, attitude and pattern of utilizing family planning services. The data was entered and analyzed by using statistical package SPSS version 13. About 75% of women and 42.5% husbands were found illiterate, 85% women were housewives, 69.5% were married before 18 years of age and 54% had nuclear family. Regarding desired number of children women responded one child (3%), 2-3 children (11%), 4-5 (37.5%), more than five children (36%), 5.5% said that children are God gifted and 7% did not answer. About 60% of women reported use of at least one contraceptive method and 40% had never used any contraceptive method. The women who received counseling from the health care provider were 48.5% and only 6% received information through media. Religious prohibition, shortage of female staff and cost of family planning contraceptive methods were the main reasons identified for not utilizing contraceptive methods. The unsatisfactory variables were long waiting hours at the center, non-availability of contraceptive, shortage of the female staff and cost. Limited number of women was aware and practice contraception in the area and utilization of family planning services were low. The efforts should be made for providing information to couple and improving quality of family planning services in the area. (author)

  3. Utilizing Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to analyze geographic and demographic patterns related to forensic case recovery locations in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolpan, Katharine E; Warren, Michael

    2017-12-01

    This paper highlights how Geographic Information Systems (GIS) can be utilized to analyze biases and patterns related to physical and cultural geography in Florida. Using case recovery locations from the C. Addison Pound Human Identification Laboratory (CAPHIL), results indicate that the majority of CAPHIL cases are recovered from urban areas with medium to low population density and low rates of crime. The results also suggest that more accurate record keeping methods would enhance the data. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Muscle utilization patterns vary by skill levels of the practitioners across specific yoga poses (asanas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Meng; Mooney, Kiersten; Balachandran, Anoop; Richards, Luca; Harriell, Kysha; Signorile, Joseph F

    2014-08-01

    To compare muscle activation patterns in 14 dominant side muscles during different yoga poses across three skill levels. Mixed repeated-measures descriptive study. University neuromuscular research laboratory, Miami, US. A group of 36 yoga practitioners (9 M/27 F; mean ± SD, 31.6 ± 12.6 years) with at least 3 months yoga practice experience. Each of the 11 surya namaskar poses A and B was performed separately for 15s and the surface electromyography for 14 muscles were recorded. Normalized root mean square of the electromyographic signal (NrmsEMG) for 14 muscles (5 upper body, 4 trunk, 5 lower body). There were significant main effects of pose for all fourteen muscles except middle trapezius (p<.02) and of skill level for the vastus medialis; p=.027). A significant skill level × pose interaction existed for five muscles (pectoralis major sternal head, anterior deltoid, medial deltoid, upper rectus abdominis and gastrocnemius lateralis; p<.05). Post hoc analyses using Bonferroni comparisons indicated that different poses activated specific muscle groups; however, this varied by skill level. Our results indicate that different poses can produce specific muscle activation patterns which may vary due to practitioners' skill levels. This information can be used in designing rehabilitation and training programs and for cuing during yoga training. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Reverse pattern duplication utilizing a two-step metal lift-off process via nanoimprint lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Sun-Sik; Kim, Eun-Uk; Jung, Hee-Soo; Kim, Ki-Seok; Jung, Gun-Young

    2009-01-01

    A two-step metal lift-off process using a selective etching recipe was demonstrated as a new technique for the reverse pattern fabrication of the features of a master stamp via a UV-based nanoimprint lithography technique. A transparent master stamp with repeated pillars (150 nm diameter at 300 nm pitch) was fabricated by using laser interference lithography and the subsequent dry-etching process. After nanoimprint lithography and the following gold (Au) lift-off process, the corresponding gold dots (20 nm height) were generated. A thin chromium layer (Cr, 5 nm) was then deposited and subjected to the aqua regia solution, which dissolved only Au dots. By using a selective wet etching recipe between gold (Au) and chromium (Cr) materials, a Cr layer with holes was reliably generated, which was used as an etching mask to transfer holes into the silicon substrate in the subsequent dry-etching process. Hole patterns with a diameter of 146 nm were inversely replicated faithfully from the master stamp with the corresponding pillars without a notable feature size distortion

  6. Alternating current line-filter based on electrochemical capacitor utilizing template-patterned graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhenkun; Li, Liyi; Lin, Ziyin; Song, Bo; Li, Zhuo; Moon, Kyoung-Sik; Wong, Ching-Ping; Bai, Shu-Lin

    2015-06-17

    Aluminum electrolytic capacitors (AECs) are widely used for alternating current (ac) line-filtering. However, their bulky size is becoming more and more incompatible with the rapid development of portable electronics. Here we report a scalable process to fabricate miniaturized graphene-based ac line-filters on flexible substrates at room temperature. In this work, graphene oxide (GO) is reduced by patterned metal interdigits at room temperature and used directly as the electrode material. The as-fabricated device shows a phase angle of -75.4° at 120 Hz with a specific capacitance of 316 µF/cm(2) and a RC time constant of 0.35 ms. In addition, it retains 97.2% of the initial capacitance after 10000 charge/discharge cycles. These outstanding performance characteristics of our device demonstrate its promising to replace the conventional AECs for ac line filtering.

  7. A survey on resource and service utilization pattern for patients with smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis in Azadshahr district; 2013-2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Zarei

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: Our findings showed that the utilization pattern of resources and services in patients with tuberculosis was approximately consistent with protocols developed by World Health Organization (WHO and Ministry of Health of Iran often.

  8. Treatment patterns, health state, and health care resource utilization of patients with radioactive iodine refractory differentiated thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gianoukakis, Andrew G; Flores, Natalia M; Pelletier, Corey L; Forsythe, Anna; Wolfe, Gregory R; Taylor, Matthew H

    2016-01-01

    Patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) often respond well to treatment but some become refractory to radioactive iodine (RAI) treatment, and treatment options are limited. Despite the humanistic and economic burden RAI refractory disease imposes on patients, published research concerning treatment patterns and health care resource utilization is sparse. Data were collected from an online retrospective chart review study in the US and five European Union (EU) countries (France, Germany, Italy, Spain, and UK) with physicians recruited from an online panel. Physicians (N=211) provided demographics, disease history, treatment information, and health care resource utilization for one to four of their patients with radioactive iodine refractory differentiated thyroid cancer (RR-DTC). The majority of the patients with RR-DTC (N=623) were female (56%), and their mean age was 58.2 years. In this sample, 63.2% had papillary thyroid cancer and 57.0% were in Stage IV when deemed RAI refractory. Patients with RR-DTC experienced regional recurrence in the thyroid bed/central neck area (25.3%) and had distant metastatic disease (53.6%). At the time data were collected, 50.7% were receiving systemic treatment. Of those, 78.5% were on first-line treatment and 62.7% were receiving multikinase inhibitors. Regional differences for prescribed treatments were observed; the US was more likely to have patients receiving multikinase inhibitors (79.2%) compared with UK (41.2%) and Italy (17.1%). Additional details regarding treatment patterns and resource utilization are discussed. The current study aimed to obtain a greater understanding of RR-DTC treatment globally. These results can assist in the development and implementation of treatment guidelines and ultimately enhance the care of patients with RR-DTC

  9. Patterns and predictors of analgesic use in pregnancy: a longitudinal drug utilization study with special focus on women with migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Gerd-Marie Eskerud; Wood, Mollie; Eberhard-Gran, Malin; Lundqvist, Christofer; Nordeng, Hedvig

    2017-07-14

    Few studies have investigated the drug utilization patterns and factors predicting drug use in pregnant women with migraine. This longitudinal drug utilization study aimed to describe patterns of analgesic use in a sample of Norwegian pregnant women according to their migraine history, and to identify predictors for analgesic use among these women. Pregnant women giving birth at Akershus University Hospital between 2008 and 2010 were recruited at ultrasound examination in gestational week 17. Data were collected by questionnaires in gestational weeks 17 and 32, and at 8 weeks postpartum, and linked to birth records. Women were grouped into four categories according to migraine history: no migraine history, previous migraine history, recent migraine history (within 1 year prior to pregnancy) and migraine in pregnancy. Patterns of use of analgesics were analyzed descriptively. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify factors predicting analgesic use. Out of 1981 women, 5.0% reported having migraine in pregnancy, 13.2% had a recent history of migraine, 11.5% had a previous history of migraine, and 68.8% reported no history of migraine. Analgesic use declined during pregnancy. Many women switched from triptans and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs to paracetamol, which constituted most of the analgesic use. Factors associated with analgesic use included recent migraine history (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.2-2.2), more severe headache intensity (OR 1.3, 95% CI 1.3-1.4), smoking (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.1-3.3) and multiparity (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.1-1.7). Women with migraine stop or switch medications during pregnancy. Analgesic use in pregnancy is affected by migraine characteristics and intensity, and also by socio-demographic factors. Clinicians should bear this in mind when giving advice on adequate management of migraine in pregnancy and safe analgesic use.

  10. Measuring nutrient spiralling in streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newbold, J D; Elwood, J W; O' Neill, R V; Van Winkle, W

    1981-01-01

    Nutrient cycling in streams involves some downstream transport before the cycle is completed. Thus, the path traveled by a nutrient atom in passing through the cycle can be visualized as a spiral. As an index of the spiralling process, we introduce spiralling length, defined as the average distance associated with one complete cycle of a nutrient atom. This index provides a measure of the utilization of nutrients relative to the available supply from upstream. Using /sup 32/p as a tracer, we estimated a spiralling length of 193 m for phosphorus in a small woodland stream.

  11. The behavioral economics of consumer brand choice: patterns of reinforcement and utility maximization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxall, Gordon R; Oliveira-Castro, Jorge M; Schrezenmaier, Teresa C

    2004-06-30

    Purchasers of fast-moving consumer goods generally exhibit multi-brand choice, selecting apparently randomly among a small subset or "repertoire" of tried and trusted brands. Their behavior shows both matching and maximization, though it is not clear just what the majority of buyers are maximizing. Each brand attracts, however, a small percentage of consumers who are 100%-loyal to it during the period of observation. Some of these are exclusively buyers of premium-priced brands who are presumably maximizing informational reinforcement because their demand for the brand is relatively price-insensitive or inelastic. Others buy exclusively the cheapest brands available and can be assumed to maximize utilitarian reinforcement since their behavior is particularly price-sensitive or elastic. Between them are the majority of consumers whose multi-brand buying takes the form of selecting a mixture of economy -- and premium-priced brands. Based on the analysis of buying patterns of 80 consumers for 9 product categories, the paper examines the continuum of consumers so defined and seeks to relate their buying behavior to the question of how and what consumers maximize.

  12. Environmental Drivers of Seasonal Patterns of Host Utilization by Culiseta melanura (Diptera: Culicidae) in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blosser, Erik M; Lord, Cynthia C; Stenn, Tanise; Acevedo, Carolina; Hassan, Hassan K; Reeves, Lawrence E; Unnasch, Thomas R; Burkett-Cadena, Nathan D

    2017-09-01

    Field studies were carried out in four Florida counties to investigate winter and spring ecology of host use by Culiseta melanura (Coquillet), the primary vector of eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus (EEEV) in North America. Bloodmeal analysis by PCR was used to identify 233 host bloodmeals, which mainly originated from birds (78.5%) and reptiles (17.2%), primarily Anolis spp. lizards. Across counties, the percentage of bloodmeals from reptiles (7-37% depending upon county) increased with increasing day length and temperature in the spring. Multiple logistic regression revealed that differences in reptile host use across collection sites were largely explained by differences in average day length and temperature on the day of collection, and is probably owing to environment-driven behavioral patterns of ectothermic animals. Although past studies have demonstrated reptile biting by epizootic vectors of EEEV, including Culex (Melanoconion) spp., this is the first study to demonstrate widespread and common feeding upon ectothermic hosts by Cs. melanura. This work suggests that reptiles, particularly anole lizards, play a role in the ecology of EEEV in Florida either as amplifying hosts or as noncompetent hosts which dilute vector feedings thereby suppressing transmission. Detailed laboratory studies investigating impacts of environmental variables (temperature and photoperiod) on EEEV competence of anoles are needed to assess whether these animals support virus amplification. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Patterns of glucose lowering drugs utilization in Portugal and in the Netherlands. Trends over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torre, Carla; Guerreiro, José; de Oliveira Martins, Sofia; Raposo, João Filipe; Martins, Ana Paula; Leufkens, Hubert

    2015-12-01

    To compare the temporal trends in the consumption patterns of glucose lowering drugs (GLD) between Portugal and the Netherlands from 2004 to 2013 and to examine possible reasons behind the cross-national variation found. All GLD (ATC pharmacological subgroup A10B) were selected for analysis. Consumption data were obtained for the 10-year period. Portuguese and Dutch drug estimates were obtained from nationwide databases. The consumption of GLD increased in Portugal from 52.9 defined daily dose per 1000 inhabitants per day (DHD) in 2004 to 70.0 DHD in 2013 and in the Netherlands from 44.9 DHD in 2004 to 50.7 DHD in 2013. In Portugal, the use of fixed-dose combinations, especially with dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP-4) increased remarkably and in 2013 represented almost a quarter of total GLD consumption. In the Netherlands, the use of combinations was residual. The consumption of GLD rose over the 10-year period in both countries. However, Portuguese overall consumption and costs of GLD were higher. The differentially rapid uptake of DPP-4 inhibitors in Portugal was the main driver of the cost difference. Copyright © 2015 Primary Care Diabetes Europe. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Utilization of Bioslurry on Maize Hydroponic Fodder as a Corn Silage Supplement on Nutrient Digestibility and Milk Production of Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. D. Nugroho

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted to study the effect of addition of 7% DM maize hydroponic fodder (MHF in corn silage on digestibility and milk production of dairy cows. The experiment used a completely randomized block design with two treatments, and four replications. The treatments were dairy cows fed with grass (Pennisetum purpureum, corn silage, and concentrate (R0, and dairy cows fed with grass (P. purpureum, corn silage, concentrate, and MHF (R1. This research used eight dairy cows with initial average milk production of 13.01±2.96 L/d. MHF was produced in a hydroponic system using bioslurry as a fertilizer enriched with mineral fertilizer. Variables observed were chemical composition of bioslurry, nutrient content of ration, daily dry matter intake, nutrient digestibility, Total Digestible Nutrient (TDN, and Digestible Energy (DE. Data were analyzed with ANOVA, except for milk production using ANCOVA. Supplementation of MHF resulted a higher total dry matter intake on R1 than R0 (P<0.05, 12.99±0.063 kg/head/d, and 11.98±0.295 kg/head/d, respectively. The digestibility of nutrients were not affected by the addition of MHF. Energy consumption in R1 was also higher than R0 (P<0.05, 49.95±0.36 Mkal/kg, and 46.11±0.54 Mkal/kg, respectively. Supplementation of MHF also increased nitrogen consumption, R1 was higher than R0 (P<0.05, 318.3±2.3 g/head/d, and 295.9±3.5 g/head/d, respectively, and could maintain the persistency of milk production at the end of lactation. It can be concluded that supplementation of MHF in corn silage can increase dry matter intake, energy consumption, and nitrogen consumption, also can maintain nutrient digestibility and maintain persistency of milk production during late lactation of dairy cows.

  15. Parenteral Opioid Analgesics Utilization Pattern in Amir-al-Momenin Hospital, Zabol-IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Vatanpour

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Opioids are the most available medicines to get rid of any general severe pain and avoiding of any deleterious sequential that can worsen patient outcomes. Rational prescription of opioid analgesics with respect to the possibility of abuse is a big concern in the medical care costs. Zabol, where is located in eastern part of Iran and has common border with Afghanistanhas the most opioid traffic in the region. In this study the rational prescription of parenteral opioid in Amir-al-Momenin general hospital was investigated. A retrospective drug utilization review was performed on 509 in-patients who received parenteral opioids including Morphine, Pethidin, Pentazocin, Fentanyl, Alfentanil, Sufentanil and Methadone from March 21sttoSeptember 23rd, 2011. Multivariate conditional regression modeling was used to determine independent predictors for daily parenteral opioid consumption. Total daily parenteral opioid consumption was 38.63 DDDs/100bed-days for Morphine, Pethidine and Pentazocin and 84564.78 PFEQs/100bed-days for Fentanyl, Alfentanil and Sufentanil and 766 mg for Methadone. Pethidine was the most frequently prescribed parenteral opioid. Most patients who were prescribed by the intramuscular routes, ordered PRN. Daily parenteral opioid consumption was the highest in the emergency ward whereas it was considered as the lowest in the intensive care unit[ICU]. According to our findings, total daily parenteral opioid consumption was almost high in Amir-al-Momenin Hospital. Unlike to some relevant factors that can effect on the consumption of analgesic opioids like gender, age, drug-drug interaction and etc, we found no rational prescription and consumption in the mentioned hospital.

  16. Using Health Care Utilization and Publication Patterns to Characterize the Research Portfolio and to Plan Future Research Investments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luba Katz

    Full Text Available Government funders of biomedical research are under increasing pressure to demonstrate societal benefits of their investments. A number of published studies attempted to correlate research funding levels with the societal burden for various diseases, with mixed results. We examined whether research funded by the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA is well aligned with current and projected veterans' health needs. The organizational structure of the VA makes it a particularly suitable setting for examining these questions.We used the publication patterns and dollar expenditures of VA-funded researchers to characterize the VA research portfolio by disease. We used health care utilization data from the VA for the same diseases to define veterans' health needs. We then measured the level of correlation between the two and identified disease groups that were under- or over-represented in the research portfolio relative to disease expenditures. Finally, we used historic health care utilization trends combined with demographic projections to identify diseases and conditions that are increasing in costs and/or patient volume and consequently represent potential targets for future research investments.We found a significant correlation between research volume/expenditures and health utilization. Some disease groups were slightly under- or over-represented, but these deviations were relatively small. Diseases and conditions with the increasing utilization trend at the VA included hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes, hearing loss, sleeping disorders, complications of pregnancy, and several mental disorders.Research investments at the VA are well aligned with veteran health needs. The VA can continue to meet these needs by supporting research on the diseases and conditions with a growing number of patients, costs of care, or both. Our approach can be used by other funders of disease research to characterize their portfolios and to plan research

  17. Using Health Care Utilization and Publication Patterns to Characterize the Research Portfolio and to Plan Future Research Investments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Luba; Fink, Rebecca V; Bozeman, Samuel R; McNeil, Barbara J

    2014-01-01

    Government funders of biomedical research are under increasing pressure to demonstrate societal benefits of their investments. A number of published studies attempted to correlate research funding levels with the societal burden for various diseases, with mixed results. We examined whether research funded by the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) is well aligned with current and projected veterans' health needs. The organizational structure of the VA makes it a particularly suitable setting for examining these questions. We used the publication patterns and dollar expenditures of VA-funded researchers to characterize the VA research portfolio by disease. We used health care utilization data from the VA for the same diseases to define veterans' health needs. We then measured the level of correlation between the two and identified disease groups that were under- or over-represented in the research portfolio relative to disease expenditures. Finally, we used historic health care utilization trends combined with demographic projections to identify diseases and conditions that are increasing in costs and/or patient volume and consequently represent potential targets for future research investments. We found a significant correlation between research volume/expenditures and health utilization. Some disease groups were slightly under- or over-represented, but these deviations were relatively small. Diseases and conditions with the increasing utilization trend at the VA included hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes, hearing loss, sleeping disorders, complications of pregnancy, and several mental disorders. Research investments at the VA are well aligned with veteran health needs. The VA can continue to meet these needs by supporting research on the diseases and conditions with a growing number of patients, costs of care, or both. Our approach can be used by other funders of disease research to characterize their portfolios and to plan research investments.

  18. Coastal Acidification as Nutrients Over Enrichment Impact: A Case Study in Ambon Bay, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idha Yulia Ikhsani

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Ambon Bay is a silled bay on Ambon Island consisting of two regions, Inner Ambon Bay (IAB and Outer Ambon Bay (OAB that are separated by shallow sill. Ambon bay and its surrounding have economically important ecosystem since the utilization for many activities. The bay is affected by anthropogenic impacts associated with urbanization, climate change, and nutrients over enrichment. The “deep water-rich nutrients” from Banda Sea that enter the bay during Southeast monsoon also contribute to this enrichment as well as the nutrients transport from the land. The high concentration of nutrients increases carbon dioxide level and promotes acidifications. There are literatures about nutrients over enrichment in Ambon Bay, however, little is known about coastal acidification as nutrients over enrichment impact. In order to study the effect of nutrients distribution on the acidity of Ambon Bay, the researchers measured pH and concentrations of nutrients {nitrate + nitrite (N+N and Soluble Reactive Phosphate (SRP} from water samples collected in 7 stations on both IAB and OAB during Southeast monsoon. The results showed that in surface water, nutrients concentrations is increased from May to June due to the “deep water flushing” occurrence on May and increased precipitations from May to June. From July to August, the nutrients concentrations on surface layer decreased, due to the decreased precipitations. In column and bottom water, the nutrients concentrations were increased from May to August. While the acidity have reverse pattern from the nutrients, when nutrient concentrations increased the acidity was decreased. From correlation test, pH was not significantly correlated with the concentrations of nutrients on surface water, but showed significantly correlated on column and bottom water. The results indicated that the distribution of nutrients on column and bottom water might be an important environmental factor affecting the acidification of

  19. Drug utilization and therapy provision patterns by prescriber types among patients with systemic lupus erythematosus in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin S

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Sooyoung Shin College of Pharmacy and Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology (RIPST, Ajou University, Yeongtong-gu, Suwon, Republic of Korea Background: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE poses a growing challenge for healthcare systems, affecting an increasing number of people in Korea. This study aimed to investigate the prescribing patterns of SLE therapies and to compare common drug regimens prescribed by provider types.Methods: Sampled national health insurance claims data in 2015 were used to select eligible SLE patients. Frequency analyses were carried out regarding patient characteristics related to relevant SLE prescriptions. Patient-days were calculated per substance and per drug class and then categorized by provider types. Differences in drug utilization trends among the main types of providers were examined with the chi-square test.Results: A total of 2,074 patients with SLE were selected for study inclusion. Systemic corticosteroid therapy was provided for up to 67.9% of patients, frequently in conjunction with other SLE therapies. About 33.2% and 18.7% of steroid users were treated for more than 150 days and 300 days during the study period, respectively. The provider group that most frequently prescribed systemic corticosteroids was dermatologists. Hydroxychloroquine, an antimalarial considered pivotal to SLE management, was prescribed for only 32.4% of patients, predominantly by rheumatologists. Antimalarial therapy was associated with the longest therapy duration (257.7±120.1 days, followed by immunosuppressant therapy (187.0±153.0 days. Prescription rates of antimalarials and immunosuppressants were substantially lower in primary care doctor group and particularly in dermatologist group, compared to rheumatologist group (P-value associated with prescription patterns by provider types was <0.001 for both drug classes.Conclusion: The drug utilization patterns among the main provider groups commonly

  20. Effect of gamma radiation on wheat plant growth due to impact on gas exchange characteristics and mineral nutrient uptake and utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhupinder Singh; Sumedha Ahuja; Singhal, R.K.; Venu Babu, P.

    2013-01-01

    The experiment was conducted to determine the effect of gamma radiation on plant growth and development, flag leaf gas exchange characteristics such as net photosynthetic rate (P N ), stomatal conductance (g s ), and transpiration rate (E) and activity of key carbon and nitrogen assimilating enzymes like Rubisco, starch synthase (SS) and nitrate reductase (NR) in field grown wheat. Grains of cultivar PBW-343 were exposed to a 60 Co (Cobalt-60) gamma source at a dose range from 0 to 500 Gy (Gray). Gas exchange characteristics of flag leaf were measured using Infrared Gas Analyzer (IRGA), while mineral nutrients were analyzed spectrophotometrically. Our results show that an irradiation treatment, in general, caused an improvement in plant growth and yield characteristics such as shoot and root mass, root length and surface area, leaf area and chlorophyll SPAD index, tiller number and grain yield. However, irradiation exceeding 5 Gy reduced the magnitude of radiation advantage for most of the investigated physiological and biochemical traits. No germination was recorded at 500 Gy irradiation dose. A dose-dependant increase in shoot Fe in radiated plants up to 25 Gy reflected its higher plant root to shoot translocation which may yield micronutrient rich grains. At higher dose of 100 Gy, there was a drastic reduction in flag leaf membrane stability index (MSI), photosynthesis, Rubisco, NR, and nutrients like K, P, Mg, Fe, and Zn. Starch synthase enzyme activity was unaffected by gamma irradiation indicating that the negative effect of high dose (100 Gy) on the grain yield were caused by the adverse effect of radiation on the gas exchange attributes particularly photosynthesis, carbon, and nitrogen assimilation efficiency and the plant uptake of mineral nutrients. The study concludes that gamma radiation at a low dose (25 Gy or lower) stimulates, while a high dose (100 Gy and above) inhibits plant growth and development of wheat. The adverse effect at 100 Gy and beyond

  1. Changes in distributional patterns of plaice Pleuronectes platessa in the central and eastern North Sea; do declining nutrient loadings play a role?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støttrup, Josianne Gatt; Munk, Peter; Kodama, Masashi

    2017-01-01

    of offshore habitats as nursery areas by juvenile plaice in the North Sea appears not related to water depth per se but driven by specific processes dominating in near-shore areas and may be related to changes in nutrient loadings. This point to the importance of separating more general depth-related factors....... For the same time period available time series data on nutrient conditions in the coastalNorth Sea area showthat the freshwater nitrogen loading has decreased by about 50%. While nutrient concentrations in the ambient environment have been shown to influence growth in juvenile plaice through influence...... on their prey, we here inspect the potential linkage between distributional changes in plaice and the decline in nutrient loading.We compare plaice observations in coastal areas in the eastern North Sea,which have experienced large changes in eutrophication,with observations for the Dogger Bank, a large...

  2. Effect of nutrient nitrogen on laccase production, its isozyme pattern and effluent decolorization by the fungus NIOCC No. 2a, isolated from mangrove wood

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DeSouza-Ticlo, D.; Verma, A.K.; Mathew, M.; Raghukumar, C.

    Carbon and nitrogen sources in the growth medium play an important role in the production of lignin-degrading enzymes in the white-rot basidiomyceteous fungi. The role of nutrient nitrogen sources in growth media on production of lignin...

  3. Treatment patterns and healthcare resource utilization and costs in heavy menstrual bleeding: a Japanese claims database analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, Sayako; Tanaka, Erika; Cristeau, Olivier; Onishi, Yoshie; Osuga, Yutaka

    2018-06-01

    Heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) is a highly prevalent condition, characterized by excessive menstrual blood loss and cramping, that interferes with activities of daily life. The aim of this study was to investigate treatment patterns in HMB in Japan, and to assess healthcare resource utilization and costs among women newly-diagnosed with the condition. This study retrospectively analyzed health insurance data available in the Japan Medical Data Center (JMDC) database on women aged 18-49 years who were newly-diagnosed with primary or secondary HMB. Treatment patterns were analyzed, and healthcare utilization and costs were evaluated and compared to matched controls. The study included a total of 635 patients, 210 with primary HMB and 425 with secondary HMB. In the primary HMB cohort, 60.0% of patients received one or more pharmacological or surgical treatments, compared with 76.2% in the secondary HMB cohort. The most commonly prescribed medications in all patients were hemostatic agents (28.7%), traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) (12.1%), and low-dose estrogen progestins (LEPs) (10.1%). After adjustment for patient baseline characteristics, healthcare costs were 1.93-times higher in primary HMB cases (p < .0001) and 4.44-times higher in secondary HMB cases (p < .0001) vs healthy controls. Outpatient care was the main cost driver. The main limitations of this study are related to its retrospective nature, and the fact that only reimbursed medications were captured in the source database. A substantial proportion of HMB patients did not receive the recommended treatments. Healthcare costs were considerably increased in the presence of an HMB diagnosis.

  4. Inclusion of sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) silage in dairy cow rations affects nutrient digestibility, nitrogen utilization, energy balance, and methane emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huyen, N.T.; Desrues, O; Alferink, S.J.J

    2016-01-01

    Sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) is a tanniniferous legume forage that has potential nutritional and health benefits preventing bloating, reducing nematode larval establishment, improving N utilization, and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. However, the use of sainfoin as a fodder crop in dairy...

  5. Utilization Patterns of IV Iron and Erythropoiesis Stimulating Agents in Anemic Chronic Kidney Disease Patients: A Multihospital Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avani D. Joshi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Intravenous (IV iron and Erythropoiesis Stimulating Agents (ESAs are recommended for anemia management in chronic kidney disease (CKD. This retrospective cohort study analyzed utilization patterns of IV iron and ESA in patients over 18 years of age admitted to University Health System Hospitals with a primary or secondary diagnosis of CKD between January 1, 2006 to December 31, 2008. A clustered binomial logistic regression using the GEE methodology was used to identify predictors of IV iron utilization. Only 8% (n = 6678 of CKD patients on ESA therapy received IV iron supplementation in university hospitals. Those receiving iron used significantly less amounts of ESAs. Patient demographics (age, race, primary payer, patient clinical conditions (admission status, severity of illness, dialysis status, and physician specialty were identified as predictors of IV iron use in CKD patients. Use of IV iron with ESAs was low despite recommendations from consensus guidelines. The low treatment rate of IV iron represents a gap in treatment practices and signals an opportunity for healthcare improvement in CKD anemic patients.

  6. Theoretical and Methodological Approaches to Understanding Human Migration Patterns and their Utility in Forensic Human Identification Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Holobinko

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Human migration patterns are of interest to scientists representing many fields. Theories have been posited to explain modern human evolutionary expansion, the diversity of human culture, and the motivational factors underlying an individual or group decision to migrate. Although the research question and subsequent approach may vary between disciplines, one thread is ubiquitous throughout most migration studies: why do humans migrate and what is the result of such an event? While the determination of individual attributes such as age, sex, and ancestry is often integral to migration studies, the positive identification of human remains is usually irrelevant. However, the positive identification of a deceased is paramount to a forensic investigation in which human remains have been recovered and must be identified. What role, if any, might the study of human movement patterns play in the interpretation of evidence associated with unidentified human remains? Due to increasing global mobility in the world's populations, it is not inconceivable that an individual might die far away from his or her home. If positive identification cannot immediately be made, investigators may consider various theories as to how or why a deceased ended up in a particular geographic location. While scientific evidence influences the direction of forensic investigations, qualitative evaluation can be an important component of evidence interpretation. This review explores several modern human migration theories and the methodologies utilized to identify evidence of human migratory movement before addressing the practical application of migration theory to forensic cases requiring the identification of human remains.

  7. WERF Nutrient Challenge investigates limits of nutrient removal technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neethling, J B; Clark, D; Pramanik, A; Stensel, H D; Sandino, J; Tsuchihashi, R

    2010-01-01

    The WERF Nutrient Challenge is a multi-year collaborative research initiative established in 2007 to develop and provide current information about wastewater treatment nutrients (specifically nitrogen and phosphorus in wastewater), their characteristics, and bioavailability in aquatic environments to help regulators make informed decisions. The Nutrient Challenge will also provide data on nutrient removal so that treatment facilities can select sustainable, cost-effective methods and technologies to meet permit limits. To meet these goals, the Nutrient Challenge has teamed with a wide array of utilities, agencies, consultants, universities and other researchers and practitioners to collaborate on projects that advance these goals. The Nutrient Challenge is focusing on a different approach to collaborating and leveraging resources (financial and intellectual) on research projects by targeting existing projects and research that correspond with its goals and funding those aspects that the Nutrient Challenge identified as a priority. Because the Nutrient Challenge is focused on collaboration, outreach is an absolutely necessary component of its effectiveness. Through workshops, webinars, a web portal and online compendium, published papers, and conference lectures, the Nutrient Challenge is both presenting important new information, and soliciting new partnerships.

  8. Effect of substitution of groundnut with high glucosinolate mustard (Brassica juncea) meal on nutrient utilization, growth, vital organ weight and blood composition of lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, M K.; Mishra, A S.; Misra, A K.; Mondal, D; Karim, S A.

    2001-03-01

    Twenty-four 14-day-old weaner Avivastra (Russian MerinoxNali) male lambs were maintained for 180 days on ad libidum Cenchrus (Cenchrus ciliaris) hay and concentrate mixture (CM) contained groundnut meal (control) and mustard meal (MM group) as major protein source. The two CMs were isonitrogenous (21% CP) and isocaloric (2.78McalMEkg(-1) DM), while, CM fed to MM group contained 24.6mg glucosinolatesg(-1) DM. Digestibility of nutrients was similar (P>0.05) in the two groups except for CP and hemicellulose, which was higher (P0.05) in the two groups. Average daily gain (ADG) was, however, 22% higher (Pgrowth rate and induced iodine deficiency. Carcass of lambs fed mustard meal had more fat and less protein.

  9. Development of Storage Methods for Saccharomyces Strains to be Utilized for In situ Nutrient Production in Long-Duration Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Natalie; Kagawa, Hiromi; Hindupur, Aditya; Hogan, John

    2017-01-01

    Long-duration space missions will benefit from closed-loop life support technologies that minimize mass, volume, and power as well as decrease reliance on Earth-based resupply. A system for In situ production of essential vitamins and nutrients can address the documented problem of degradation of stored food and supplements. Research has shown that the edible yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae can be used as an on-demand system for the production of various compounds that are beneficial to human health. A critical objective in the development of this approach for long-duration space missions is the effective storage of the selected microorganisms. This research investigates the effects of different storage methods on survival rates of the non-sporulating probiotic S. boulardii, and S. cerevisiae spores and vegetative cells. Dehydration has been shown to increase long-term yeast viability, which also allows increased shelf-life and reduction in mass and volume. The process of dehydration causes detrimental effects on vegetative cells, including oxidative damage and membrane disruption. To maximize cell viability, various dehydration methods are tested here, including lyophilization (freeze-drying), air drying, and dehydration by vacuum. As a potential solution to damage caused by lyophilization, the efficacy of various cryoprotectants was tested. Furthermore, in an attempt to maintain higher survival rates, the effect of temperature during long-term storage was investigated. Data show spores of the wild-type strain to be more resilient to dehydration-related stressors than vegetative cells of either strain, and maintain high viability rates even after one year at room temperature. In the event that engineering the organism to produce targeted nutrient compounds interferes with effective sporulation of S. cerevisiae, a more robust method for improving vegetative cell storage is being sought. Therefore, anhydrobiotic engineering of S. cerevisiae and S. boulardii is being

  10. Treatment patterns and health care resource utilization associated with dalfampridine extended release in multiple sclerosis: a retrospective claims database analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo A

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Amy Guo,1 Michael Grabner,2 Swetha Rao Palli,2 Jessica Elder,1 Matthew Sidovar,1 Peter Aupperle,1 Stephen Krieger3 1Acorda Therapeutics Inc., Ardsley, New York, NY, USA; 2HealthCore Inc., Wilmington, DE, USA; 3Corinne Goldsmith Dickinson Center for MS, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA Background: Although previous studies have demonstrated the clinical benefits of dalfampridine extended release (D-ER tablets in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS, there are limited real-world data on D-ER utilization and associated outcomes in patients with MS. Purpose: The objective of this study was to evaluate treatment patterns, budget impact, and health care resource utilization (HRU associated with D-ER use in a real-world setting. Methods: A retrospective claims database analysis was conducted using the HealthCore Integrated Research DatabaseSM. Adherence (measured by medication possession ratio, or [MPR] and persistence (measured by days between initial D-ER claim and discontinuation or end of follow-up were evaluated over 1-year follow-up. Budget impact was calculated as cost per member per month (PMPM over the available follow-up period. D-ER and control cohorts were propensity-score matched on baseline demographics, comorbidities, and MS-related resource utilization to compare walking-impairment-related HRU over follow-up. Results: Of the 2,138 MS patients identified, 1,200 were not treated with D-ER (control and 938 were treated with D-ER. Patients were aged 51 years on average and 74% female. Approximately 82.6% of D-ER patients were adherent (MPR >80%. The estimated budget impact range of D-ER was $0.014–$0.026 PMPM. Propensity-score-matched D-ER and controls yielded 479 patients in each cohort. Postmatching comparison showed that the D-ER cohort was associated with fewer physician (21.5% vs 62.4%, P<0.0001 and other outpatient visits (22.8% vs 51.4%, P<0.0001 over the 12-month follow-up. Changes in HRU from follow

  11. Adolescents involved in weight-related and power team sports have better eating patterns and nutrient intakes than non-sport-involved adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croll, Jillian K; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Story, Mary; Wall, Melanie; Perry, Cheryl; Harnack, Lisa

    2006-05-01

    To examine eating habits and energy and nutrient intake among adolescents participating in weight-related and power team sports and non-sport-involved adolescents. Data were drawn from Project EAT (Eating Among Teens), which was conducted with 4,746 adolescents from 31 middle and high schools in the Minneapolis/St Paul metropolitan area. Urban secondary schools. Adolescents reporting participation in a weight-related sport, a power team sport, or no consistent participation in a sport. Meal and snack frequency, mean energy and nutrient intake, and mean physical activity. Analyses were conducted by sex across the three groups. General linear models were used to compare mean energy and nutrient intake, composite nutrient adequacy, and mean physical activity across the three groups. Percentages of youth meeting nutrient recommendations were compared across the three groups using chi(2) tests. For both males and females, youth involved in weight-related sports ate breakfast more frequently than non-sport-involved peers (females: 3.6 and 3.2 times per week, respectively, Psport-involved youth also had higher mean protein, calcium, iron, and zinc intakes than non-sport-involved peers. However, adolescent females had low calcium intake, regardless of sports involvement (weight-related sports 1,091 mg/day, power team sports 1,070 mg/day, and non-sport-involved 1,028 mg/day, PSport-involved adolescents have better eating habits and nutrient intake than their non-sport-involved peers. However, they are still in need of nutrition interventions, particularly around calcium intake.

  12. Growth performance, rumen fermentation, nutrient utilization, and metabolic profile of dairy heifers limit-fed distillers dried grains with ad libitum forage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manthey, A K; Anderson, J L

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of feeding a corn- and soybean-product-based concentrate mix or distillers dried grains with solubles concentrate mix with ad libitum grass hay to dairy heifers. A 16-wk randomized complete block design study was conducted using 24 heifers [18 Holstein and 6 Brown Swiss; 219 ± 2 d of age (±standard deviation); 230 ± 4 kg of body weight] to evaluate the effect of diet on dry matter intake (DMI), growth performance, rumen fermentation, metabolic profile, and nutrient digestibility. Treatments were (1) corn and soybean product concentrate mix, and (2) distillers-dried-grains-with-solubles-based concentrate mix (DDG). Both concentrate mixes were limit-fed at 0.8% of body weight and grass hay was offered ad libitum. Heifers were individually fed using Calan gates and orts were recorded daily at feeding. Heifers were weighed every 2 wk and ration concentrate mix offered was adjusted accordingly. Frame measurements and body condition score were recorded every 2 wk. Rumen fluid was collected via esophageal tubing during wk 12 and 16 for pH, ammonia N, and volatile fatty acid analysis. Jugular blood samples were collected every 4 wk for metabolite and metabolic hormone analysis. Total-tract digestibility of nutrients was evaluated during wk 16 by fecal grab sampling. No treatment by week interactions were observed for any of the growth measurements and growth measurements and DMI did not differ between treatments. A treatment by time interaction was observed for rumen butyrate percentage with heifers fed DDG having a greater percentage. Total volatile fatty acid concentration, acetate molar percentage, and acetate:propionate decreased with the DDG treatment, whereas propionate molar percentage increased. No treatment by week interactions were observed for any of the metabolites or metabolic hormones measured. A tendency was observed for glucose and plasma urea nitrogen concentration to decrease with DDG. Plasma

  13. Growth patterns reflect response to antiretroviral therapy in HIV-positive infants: potential utility in resource-poor settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, D K; Miller, W C; Ryder, R W; Weber, D J; Walter, E; McKinney, R E

    2004-01-01

    Laboratory monitoring of HIV-infected children is the current standard of care in the United States to guide the appropriate use of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Although ART is becoming a reality in some developing countries, laboratory monitoring of ART is costly, necessitating creative approaches to monitoring. As an initial step to guide monitoring of HIV progression in low resource settings, we assessed the utility of the physical examination to predict clinical progression of HIV. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of HIV-infected children using data from Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group Protocol 300. We developed a clinical predictive model, and compared the utility of the clinical model to the change in HIV RNA viral load as diagnostic tests of ART failure. The clinical model incorporated treatment regimen, age, and height velocity: a three-level clinical predictive model provided likelihood ratios of 0.3, 3.9, and 14. For decline in RNA the likelihood ratios were 0.2 (> 1 log decline), 1.4, and 3.5 (> log increase). We developed a simple clinical predictive model that was able to predict clinical progression of HIV after initiation of new ART. The clinical model performed similarly to using changes in HIV RNA viral load. These data should be validated internationally and prospectively, because the test subjects were from a resource rich environment and growth patterns in undernourished children may be impacted differently by HIV and its treatment. The model was most pertinent to children 36 months of age or younger, and was conducted in children receiving monotherapy and dual therapy.

  14. Analysis of utilization patterns and associated costs of the breast imaging and diagnostic procedures after screening mammography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlahiotis A

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Anna Vlahiotis,1 Brian Griffin,2 A Thomas Stavros,3 Jay Margolis1 1Value Based Care, Outcomes Research, Truven Health Analytics, an IBM Company, Bethesda, MD USA; 2Value Based Care, Outcomes Research, Truven Health Analytics, an IBM Company, Newark, NJ, USA; 3Seno Medical Instruments, Inc., San Antonio, TX, USA Background: Little data exist on real-world patterns and associated costs of downstream breast diagnostic procedures following an abnormal screening mammography or clinical exam.Objectives: To analyze the utilization patterns in real-world clinical settings for breast imaging and diagnostic procedures, including the frequency and volume of patients and procedures, procedure sequencing, and associated health care expenditures.Materials and methods: Using medical claims from 2011 to 2015 MarketScan Commercial and Medicare Databases, adult females with breast imaging/diagnostic procedures (diagnostic mammography, ultrasound, molecular breast imaging, tomosynthesis, magnetic resonance imaging, or biopsy other than screening mammography were selected. Continuous health plan coverage without breast diagnostic procedures was required for ≥13 months before the first found breast diagnostic procedure (index event, with a 13-month post-index follow-up period. Key outcomes included diagnostic procedure volumes, sequences, and payments. Results reported descriptively were projected to provide US national patient and procedure volumes.Results: The final sample of 875,526 patients was nationally projected to 12,394,432 patients annually receiving 8,732,909 diagnostic mammograms (53.3% of patients, 6,987,399 breast ultrasounds (42.4% of patients, and 1,585,856 biopsies (10.3% of patients. Following initial diagnostic procedures, 49.4% had second procedures, 20.1% followed with third procedures, and 10.0% had a fourth procedure. Mean (SD costs for diagnostic mammograms of US$349 ($493, ultrasounds US$132 ($134, and biopsies US$1,938 ($2,343 contributed

  15. Estimation of the Optimal Brachytherapy Utilization Rate in the Treatment of Gynecological Cancers and Comparison With Patterns of Care

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, Stephen R.; Delaney, Geoff P.; Gabriel, Gabriel S.; Jacob, Susannah; Das, Prabir; Barton, Michael B.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: We aimed to estimate the optimal proportion of all gynecological cancers that should be treated with brachytherapy (BT)—the optimal brachytherapy utilization rate (BTU)—to compare this with actual gynecological BTU and to assess the effects of nonmedical factors on access to BT. Methods and Materials: The previously constructed inter/multinational guideline-based peer-reviewed models of optimal BTU for cancers of the uterine cervix, uterine corpus, and vagina were combined to estimate optimal BTU for all gynecological cancers. The robustness of the model was tested by univariate and multivariate sensitivity analyses. The resulting model was applied to New South Wales (NSW), the United States, and Western Europe. Actual BTU was determined for NSW by a retrospective patterns-of-care study of BT; for Western Europe from published reports; and for the United States from Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results data. Differences between optimal and actual BTU were assessed. The effect of nonmedical factors on access to BT in NSW were analyzed. Results: Gynecological BTU was as follows: NSW 28% optimal (95% confidence interval [CI] 26%-33%) compared with 14% actual; United States 30% optimal (95% CI 26%-34%) and 10% actual; and Western Europe 27% optimal (95% CI 25%-32%) and 16% actual. On multivariate analysis, NSW patients were more likely to undergo gynecological BT if residing in Area Health Service equipped with BT (odds ratio 1.76, P=.008) and if residing in socioeconomically disadvantaged postcodes (odds ratio 1.12, P=.05), but remoteness of residence was not significant. Conclusions: Gynecological BT is underutilized in NSW, Western Europe, and the United States given evidence-based guidelines. Access to BT equipment in NSW was significantly associated with higher utilization rates. Causes of underutilization elsewhere were undetermined. Our model of optimal BTU can be used as a quality assurance tool, providing an evidence-based benchmark against

  16. [Impact of Land Utilization Pattern on Distributing Characters of Labile Organic Carbon in Soil Aggregates in Jinyun Mountain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rui; Jiang, Chang-sheng; Hao, Qing-ju

    2015-09-01

    Four land utilization patterns were selected for this study in Jinyun mountain, including subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest (abbreviation: forest), sloping farmland, orchard and abandoned land. Soil samples were taken every 10 cm in the depth of 60 cm soil and proportions of large macroaggregates (> 2 mm), small macroaggregates (0. 25-2 mm), microaggregates (0. 053 - 0. 25 mm) and silt + clay (organic carbon and labile organic carbon in each aggregate fraction and analyze impacts of land uses on organic carbon and labile organic carbon of soil aggregates. LOC content of four soil aggregates were significantly reduced with the increase of soil depth; in layers of 0-60 cm soil depth, our results showed that LOC contents of forest and abandoned land were higher than orchard and sloping farmland. Reserves of labile organic carbon were estimated by the same soil quality, it revealed that forest (3. 68 Mg.hm-2) > abandoned land (1. 73 Mg.hm-2) > orchard (1. 43 Mg.hm-2) >sloping farmland (0.54 Mg.hm-2) in large macroaggregates, abandoned land (7.77, 5. 01 Mg.hm-2) > forest (4. 96, 2.71 Mg.hm-2) > orchard (3. 33, 21. 10 Mg.hm-2) > sloping farmland (1. 68, 1. 35 Mg.hm-2) in small macroaggregates and microaggregates, and abandoned land(4. 32 Mg.hm-2) > orchard(4. 00 Mg.hm-2) > forest(3. 22 Mg.hm-2) > sloping farmland (2.37 Mg.hm-2) in silt + clay, forest and abandoned land were higher than orchard and sloping farmland in other three soil aggregates except silt + clay. It was observed that the level of organic carbon and labile organic carbon were decreased when bringing forest under cultivation to orchard or farmland, and augments on organic carbon and labile organic carbon were found after exchanging farmland to abandoned land. The most reverses of forest and abandoned land emerged in small macroaggregates, orchard and sloping farmland were in microaggregates. That was, during the transformations of land utilization pattern, soil aggregates with bigger size were

  17. Patterns, Policy and Appropriateness: A 12-Year Utilization Review of Blood Glucose Test Strip Use in Insulin Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Jamie; Friesen, Kevin J; Okunnu, Anuoluwapo; Bugden, Shawn

    2017-08-01

    Considerable attention has been paid to the rising costs of the use of blood glucose test strips (BGTS). Insulin users have generally been treated as a single homogeneous group, resulting in policies that cap usage (8.2 strips/day) in provincial drug insurance programs. The objective of this study was to conduct a utilization review of BGTS by insulin users and to evaluate use patterns against current insulin use patterns and BGTS policy. BGTS usage was examined in a cohort of insulin users with type 1 and type 2 diabetes over a 12-year period (2001 to 2013) using the population-based administrative data in Manitoba, Canada. Total BGTS strip use increased by 121%, from $4.3 to $9.5 million. However, the number of insulin users also increased by 115%. Use has been stable at 1.5 strips per day per person since 2004 by insulin users with type 2 diabetes but has risen from 1.9 to 3.0 strips per day per person in those with type 1 diabetes. Mean daily test strip use was below the number of daily tests recommended for patients using insulin as per the current Canadian guidelines, with 11% and 15% of insulin users with type 1 and type 2 diabetes not claiming any BGTS use and a further 15% (type 1) and 28% (type 2) using fewer than 1 strip per day. BGTS use per insulin user has been stable for most of the past decade, and the vast majority of use falls well below provincial insurance caps. The amount of low-level testing (0 to <1 strip/day) suggests that greater attention should be directed to ensuring a safe level of testing by all insulin users. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Enhancement of Nutrient Removal in a Hybrid Constructed Wetland Utilizing an Electric Fan Air Blower with Renewable Energy of Solar and Wind Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Jin Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The sewage treatment efficiency of hybrid constructed wetlands (CWs was evaluated under different ventilation methods. The removal efficiencies of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD, total nitrogen (TN, and total phosphorus (TP in the vertical flow- (VF- horizontal flow (HF CWs using an electric fan air blower by the renewable energy of solar and wind power were higher than those by natural ventilation, excluding only suspended solids (SS. The TN treatment efficiency in the CW using the air blower especially increased rapidly by 16.6% in comparison with the CW employing natural ventilation, since the VF bed provided suitable conditions (aerobic for nitrification to occur. The average removal efficiencies of BOD, SS, TN, and TP in the effluent were 98.8, 97.4, 58.0, and 48.3% in the CW using an electric fan air blower, respectively. The treatment performance of the CWs under different ventilation methods was assessed, showing TN in the CW using an electric fan air blower to be reduced by 57.5~58.6% for inlet TN loading, whereas reduction by 19.0~53.3% was observed in the CW with natural ventilation. Therefore, to increase the removal of nutrients in CWs, an improved ventilation system, providing ventilation via an electric fan air blower with the renewable energy, is recommended.

  19. Effect of replacing fish meal with extruded soybean meal on growth, feed utilization and apparent nutrient digestibility of juvenile white shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qihui; Tan, Beiping; Dong, Xiaohui; Chi, Shuyan; Liu, Hongyu

    2015-10-01

    Extruded soybean meal (ESBM) was evaluated as a protein source for partial replacement of fish meal (FM) in diets of juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei. In the control diet (Diet 1), FM protein was replaced with increasing dietary levels of ESBM (4.28%, 8.40%, 12.62%, 16.82%, and 25.26%) at 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, and 60% levels (Diets 2 to 6, respectively). An eight-week feeding trial was conducted on 720 juvenile shrimp (0.67 g ± 0.01 g mean initial weight), and nutrient digestibility of the six diets was determined. ESBM could replace 20% of FM without causing a significant reduction in growth of shrimp, but other dietary treatments strongly affected whole body composition. Crude protein content of the whole body fed Diet 6 was significantly lower than that fed Diet 2 ( P digestibilities of Diets 5 and 6 were significantly lower than that of Diet 1 ( P Digestibility of lipids ranged from 96.97% in Diet 6 to 98.34% in Diet 3, whereas dry matter digestibility decreased with increasing replacement level. This study indicates that 20% FM replacement with ESBM in the basic diet containing 40% protein and 30% FM is optimal for juvenile L. vannamei.

  20. Scale-up of an alkaline protease from Bacillus pumilus MTCC 7514 utilizing fish meal as a sole source of nutrients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Rishikesh Kumar; Prasad, Dinesh; Sathesh, Jaykumar; Naidu, Ramachandra Boopathy; Kamini, Numbi Ramudu; Palanivel, Saravanan; Gowthaman, Marichetti Kuppuswami

    2012-09-01

    Fish meal grades SL1 and SL2 from Sardine (Sardinella longiceps) and NJ from Pink Perch (Nemipterus japonicas) were evaluated as a sole source of carbon and nitrogen in the medium for alkaline protease production by Bacillus pumilus MTCC 7514. The analysis of the fish meal suggests that the carbon and nitrogen contents in fish meal are sufficient to justify its choice as replacement for other nutrients. Protease production increased significantly (4,914 U/ml) in medium containing only fish meal, compared with the basal medium (2,646 U/ml). However, the elimination of inorganic salts from media reduced the protease productivity. In addition, all the three grades of fish meal yielded almost the same amounts of protease when employed as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen. Nevertheless, the best results were observed in fish meal SL1 medium. Furthermore, protease production was enhanced to 6,966 U/ml and 7,047 U/ml on scaling up from flask (4,914 U/ml) to 3.7 and 20 L fermenters, respectively, using fish meal (10 g/l). Similarly, the corresponding improvement in productivities over flask (102.38 U/ml/h) was 193.5 and 195.75 U/ml/h in 3.7 and 20 L fermenters, respectively. The crude protease was found to have dehairing ability in leather processing, which is bound to have great environmental benefits.

  1. The subtropical nutrient spiral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, William J.; Doney, Scott C.

    2003-12-01

    We present an extended series of observations and more comprehensive analysis of a tracer-based measure of new production in the Sargasso Sea near Bermuda using the 3He flux gauge technique. The estimated annually averaged nitrate flux of 0.84 ± 0.26 mol m-2 yr-1 constitutes only that nitrate physically transported to the euphotic zone, not nitrogen from biological sources (e.g., nitrogen fixation or zooplankton migration). We show that the flux estimate is quantitatively consistent with other observations, including decade timescale evolution of the 3H + 3He inventory in the main thermocline and export production estimates. However, we argue that the flux cannot be supplied in the long term by local diapycnal or isopycnal processes. These considerations lead us to propose a three-dimensional pathway whereby nutrients remineralized within the main thermocline are returned to the seasonally accessible layers within the subtropical gyre. We describe this mechanism, which we call "the nutrient spiral," as a sequence of steps where (1) nutrient-rich thermocline waters are entrained into the Gulf Stream, (2) enhanced diapycnal mixing moves nutrients upward onto lighter densities, (3) detrainment and enhanced isopycnal mixing injects these waters into the seasonally accessible layer of the gyre recirculation region, and (4) the nutrients become available to biota via eddy heaving and wintertime convection. The spiral is closed when nutrients are utilized, exported, and then remineralized within the thermocline. We present evidence regarding the characteristics of the spiral and discuss some implications of its operation within the biogeochemical cycle of the subtropical ocean.

  2. Critical illness among adults with cystic fibrosis in Texas, 2004-2013: Patterns of ICU utilization, characteristics, and outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavi Oud

    Full Text Available Available reports on critically ill adults with cystic fibrosis (CF suggest improving short-term outcomes. However, there is marked heterogeneity in reported findings, with studies mostly based on single-centered data, limiting generalizability. We sought to examine population-level patterns of demand for critical care resources, and the characteristics, resource utilization, and outcomes of ICU-managed adults with CF.We used the Texas Inpatient Public Use Data File to identify ICU admissions with CF aged ≥18 years in Texas between 2004-2013. We examined ICU utilization at population level (using CF Foundation annual reports and, among ICU admissions, socio-demographic characteristics, burden of comorbidities, organ failure, life-support utilization and hospital disposition. Linear regression and multilevel logistic regression were used to examine temporal trends and predictors of short-term mortality (hospital death and discharge to hospice, respectively.Of 9,579 hospitalizations of adults with CF, 1,249 (13% were admitted to ICU. The incidence of ICU admission among adults with CF in Texas increased between 2004-2005 and 2012-2013 from 16.7 to 19.2 per 100 person-years (p = 0.0181, with ICU admissions aged ≥30 years accounting for 80.3% of the change. Among ICU admissions the following changes were noted between 2004-2005 and 2012-2013: any organ failure 30.2% vs. 56.3% (p = 0.0004, mechanical ventilation 11.5% vs. 19.2% (p = 0.0216, and hemodialysis 1.0% vs. 8.1% (p = 0.0007. Short-term mortality for the whole cohort and for those with mechanical ventilation was 11.4% and 41.8%, respectively, with corresponding home discharge among survivors 84% and 62.1%, respectively. Key predictors (adjusted odds ratios [aOR (95% CI] of short-term mortality included age ≥45 years (2.051 [1.231-3.415], female gender (1.907 [1.237-2.941], and mechanical ventilation (7.982 [5.001-12.739].Adults with CF had high and rising population-level burden of

  3. Critical illness among adults with cystic fibrosis in Texas, 2004-2013: Patterns of ICU utilization, characteristics, and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oud, Lavi

    2017-01-01

    Available reports on critically ill adults with cystic fibrosis (CF) suggest improving short-term outcomes. However, there is marked heterogeneity in reported findings, with studies mostly based on single-centered data, limiting generalizability. We sought to examine population-level patterns of demand for critical care resources, and the characteristics, resource utilization, and outcomes of ICU-managed adults with CF. We used the Texas Inpatient Public Use Data File to identify ICU admissions with CF aged ≥18 years in Texas between 2004-2013. We examined ICU utilization at population level (using CF Foundation annual reports) and, among ICU admissions, socio-demographic characteristics, burden of comorbidities, organ failure, life-support utilization and hospital disposition. Linear regression and multilevel logistic regression were used to examine temporal trends and predictors of short-term mortality (hospital death and discharge to hospice), respectively. Of 9,579 hospitalizations of adults with CF, 1,249 (13%) were admitted to ICU. The incidence of ICU admission among adults with CF in Texas increased between 2004-2005 and 2012-2013 from 16.7 to 19.2 per 100 person-years (p = 0.0181), with ICU admissions aged ≥30 years accounting for 80.3% of the change. Among ICU admissions the following changes were noted between 2004-2005 and 2012-2013: any organ failure 30.2% vs. 56.3% (p = 0.0004), mechanical ventilation 11.5% vs. 19.2% (p = 0.0216), and hemodialysis 1.0% vs. 8.1% (p = 0.0007). Short-term mortality for the whole cohort and for those with mechanical ventilation was 11.4% and 41.8%, respectively, with corresponding home discharge among survivors 84% and 62.1%, respectively. Key predictors (adjusted odds ratios [aOR (95% CI)]) of short-term mortality included age ≥45 years (2.051 [1.231-3.415]), female gender (1.907 [1.237-2.941]), and mechanical ventilation (7.982 [5.001-12.739]). Adults with CF had high and rising population-level burden of critical

  4. Assessing medication adherence and healthcare utilization and cost patterns among hospital-discharged patients with schizoaffective disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karve, Sudeep; Markowitz, Michael; Fu, Dong-Jing; Lindenmayer, Jean-Pierre; Wang, Chi-Chuan; Candrilli, Sean D; Alphs, Larry

    2014-06-01

    Hospital-discharged patients with schizoaffective disorder have a high risk of re-hospitalization. However, limited data exist evaluating critical post-discharge periods during which the risk of re-hospitalization is significant. Among hospital-discharged patients with schizoaffective disorder, we assessed pharmacotherapy adherence and healthcare utilization and costs during sequential 60-day clinical periods before schizoaffective disorder-related hospitalization and post-hospital discharge. From the MarketScan(®) Medicaid database (2004-2008), we identified patients (≥18 years) with a schizoaffective disorder-related inpatient admission. Study measures including medication adherence and healthcare utilization and costs were assessed during sequential preadmission and post-discharge periods. We conducted univariate and multivariable regression analyses to compare schizoaffective disorder-related and all-cause healthcare utilization and costs (in 2010 US dollars) between each adjacent 60-day post-discharge periods. No adjustment was made for multiplicity. We identified 1,193 hospital-discharged patients with a mean age of 41 years. The mean medication adherence rate was 46% during the 60-day period prior to index inpatient admission, which improved to 80% during the 60-day post-discharge period. Following hospital discharge, schizoaffective disorder-related healthcare costs were significantly greater during the initial 60-day period compared with the 61- to 120-day post-discharge period (mean US$2,370 vs US$1,765; p schizoaffective disorder-related costs declined during the 61- to 120-day post-discharge period and remained stable for the remaining post-discharge periods (days 121-365). We observed considerably lower (46%) adherence during 60 days prior to the inpatient admission; in comparison, adherence for the overall 6-month period was 8% (54%) higher. Our study findings suggest that both short-term (e.g., 60 days) and long-term (e.g., 6-12 months) medication

  5. Associations between preoperative physical therapy and post-acute care utilization patterns and cost in total joint replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Richard; Granata, Jaymes; Ruhil, Anirudh V S; Vogel, Karen; McShane, Michael; Wasielewski, Ray

    2014-10-01

    Health-care costs following acute hospital care have been identified as a major contributor to regional variation in Medicare spending. This study investigated the associations of preoperative physical therapy and post-acute care resource use and its effect on the total cost of care during primary hip or knee arthroplasty. Historical claims data were analyzed using the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services Limited Data Set files for Diagnosis Related Group 470. Analysis included descriptive statistics of patient demographic characteristics, comorbidities, procedures, and post-acute care utilization patterns, which included skilled nursing facility, home health agency, or inpatient rehabilitation facility, during the ninety-day period after a surgical hospitalization. To evaluate the associations, we used bivariate and multivariate techniques focused on post-acute care use and total episode-of-care costs. The Limited Data Set provided 4733 index hip or knee replacement cases for analysis within the thirty-nine-county Medicare hospital referral cluster. Post-acute care utilization was a significant variable in the total cost of care for the ninety-day episode. Overall, 77.0% of patients used post-acute care services after surgery. Post-acute care utilization decreased if preoperative physical therapy was used, with only 54.2% of the preoperative physical therapy cohort using post-acute care services. However, 79.7% of the non-preoperative physical therapy cohort used post-acute care services. After adjusting for demographic characteristics and comorbidities, the use of preoperative physical therapy was associated with a significant 29% reduction in post-acute care use, including an $871 reduction of episode payment driven largely by a reduction in payments for skilled nursing facility ($1093), home health agency ($527), and inpatient rehabilitation ($172). The use of preoperative physical therapy was associated with a 29% decrease in the use of any post-acute care

  6. Dominance patterns in macroalgal and phytoplankton biomass under different nutrient loads in subtropical coastal lagoons of the SE Gulf of California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Páez-Osuna, F.; Piñón-Gimate, A.; Ochoa-Izaguirre, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Nine macroalgal blooms were examined in five lagoons from SE Gulf of California. • Shrimp farms were the main point source of nutrients loads to the lagoons. • Biomass as phytoplankton ranged 40–792 mg m −2 and macroalgal of 1–296 g m −2 . • Biomass (phytoplankton + macroalgae) was the same tendency that nutrient loads. • Phytoplankton and macroalgal biomass were a significant correlation with N:P ratio. -- Abstract: Nine macroalgal blooms were studied in five coastal lagoons of the SE Gulf of California. The nutrient loads from point and diffuse sources were estimated in the proximity of the macroalgal blooms. Chlorophyll a and macroalgal biomass were measured during the dry, rainy and cold seasons. Shrimp farms were the main point source of nitrogen and phosphorus loads for the lagoons. High biomasses were found during the dry season for phytoplankton at site 6 (791.7 ± 34.6 mg m −2 ) and during the rainy season for macroalgae at site 4 (296.0 ± 82.4 g m −2 ). Depending on the season, the phytoplankton biomass ranged between 40.0 and 791.7 mg m −2 and the macroalgal biomass between 1 and 296.0 g m −2 . The bulk biomass (phytoplankton + macroalgal) displayed the same tendency as the nutrient loads entering the coastal lagoons. Phytoplankton and macroalgal biomass presented a significant correlation with the atomic N:P ratio

  7. Changes in distributional patterns of plaice Pleuronectes platessa in the central and eastern North Sea; do declining nutrient loadings play a role?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Støttrup, Josianne G.; Munk, Peter; Kodama, Masashi; Stedmon, Colin

    2017-09-01

    Since the beginning of the 1990s, there has been a change in the relative distribution of smaller age-classes of plaice Pleuronectes platessa (age 1-3) in the North Sea. The abundances have increased in deeper, more offshore areas, while coastal abundances have been stagnant or declining. For the same time period available time series data on nutrient conditions in the coastal North Sea area show that the freshwater nitrogen loading has decreased by about 50%. While nutrient concentrations in the ambient environment have been shown to influence growth in juvenile plaice through influence on their prey, we here inspect the potential linkage between distributional changes in plaice and the decline in nutrient loading. We compare plaice observations in coastal areas in the eastern North Sea, which have experienced large changes in eutrophication, with observations for the Dogger Bank, a large sandbank in a shallow offshore area of the North Sea. The Dogger Bank, was used as a reference location assuming this area has been less influenced from coastal eutrophication but similar regional climate conditions, and here we found no changes in the abundances of juvenile plaice. The increase in the use of offshore habitats as nursery areas by juvenile plaice in the North Sea appears not related to water depth per se but driven by specific processes dominating in near-shore areas and may be related to changes in nutrient loadings. This point to the importance of separating more general depth-related factors from conditions specific for near-shore areas, such as nutrient loadings in coastal waters and export offshore. The concurrent changes in environment and in distribution of juvenile plaice may have implications for environmental and fisheries management.

  8. Integrating Traditional Chinese Medicine Services in Community Health Centers: Insights into Utilization Patterns in the Pearl River Region of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent C. H. Chung

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In China's healthcare reform, community health centers (CHCs are designed to take a pivotal role in providing primary care. Whilst about 20% of all outpatient care in China is delivered by the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM sector, hospitals, instead of CHCs, are major providers. Using current patterns of patient utilization this study aims to inform CHCs on how they may strengthen access to TCM services. Three thousand three hundred and sixty CHC patients from six cities within the urban Pearl Delta Region were enumerated using multistage cluster sampling. Fifty-two percent had visited herbalists within three months with a mean visit frequency of 1.50 times. Herbal treatments, which are cheaper than western medicines, were more popular amongst those who needed to pay out of pocket including the uninsured. Herbal medicines appeared to be an alternative for those who are underinsured. Acupuncturists and massage therapists were visited by smaller proportions, 6.58% and 5.98%, respectively, with a mean three-month visit of 0.27 and 0.26 times. Access was restricted by lack of social insurance coverage. Whilst increasing provision of TCM in CHCs might respond to patient demand, increasing insurance coverage for TCM needs to be evaluated using current evidence on safety and effectiveness.

  9. PATTERNS UTILIZED IN THE SIMULATION OF UNDERGROUND WATER FLOW AND THE TRANSPORTATION OF POLLUTANTS IN THE BAHLUI DRAINAGE BASIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionut Minea

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. – Patterns utilized in the simulation of underground water flow and the transportation of pollutants in the Bahlui drainage basin. In the actual context of accelerate economic development, the excessive exploatation of water resources from the underground and the contamination of these with different water pollutants has become a major problem which has enetered the attention of many researchers. For the evaluation of an underground water flow and pollutants transport sistem we have chosen the package of programs MODFLOW which includes a whole series of applications,such as MOC3D, MT3D, MT3DMS, PEST, UCODE, PMPATH, which allow simulations and multiple recalibrations of the capacity of recharging of the aquifers, the flowing of the water towards wells and drillings the transport of a pollutant agent in the underground or the evaluation of the exchange of water between the hidrographic network and aquifers. The sistem targets both the evaluation of the modelation of the underground flowing and the simulation of a punctual polluation of the canvas of groundwater scenery, in the meadow of the river Bahlui, west from Letcani village.

  10. Patterns of the utilization of prenatal diagnosis services among pregnant women, their satisfaction and its associated factors in Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doan, Duong Thi Thuy; Nguyen, Huong Thi Thu; Bui, Ha Thi Thu

    2017-02-01

    This study aimed at understanding the patterns of the utilization of prenatal diagnostic (PND) services among pregnant women, their satisfaction and its associated factors at three regional prenatal diagnostic centres in Viet Nam. A cross-sectional design was used, with a consecutive sampling method to recruit pregnant women who used PND services at the three biggest regional PND services centres in Viet Nam between January and June, 2014. A total of 298 participants, about 100 participants per centre were interviewed and included in data analysis. Descriptive analyses and logistic regression methods were applied to identify association between satisfaction of women and their socio-economic characteristics. 80% of pregnant women received counselling on PND services, whilst 90% received ultrasonography services; 65.4% were satisfied with the PND services they used. Pregnant women, who were in a lower income group and received counselling but did not receive ultrasonography, were more likely to have higher satisfaction levels of PND services. A process to ensure that every pregnant woman receives sufficient PND counselling before and after receiving PND testing must be given careful and thorough consideration.

  11. Mediterranean dietary pattern and VEGF +405 G/C gene polymorphisms in patients with metabolic syndrome: An aspect of gene-nutrient interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajiluian, Ghazaleh; Abbasalizad Farhangi, Mahdieh; Jahangiry, Leila

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the relationship between Mediterranean dietary pattern, anthropometric and metabolic biomarkers and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) +405 G/C gene polymorphism in patient with metabolic syndrome (Mets). In this study 150 patients with Mets and 50 healthy subjects were enrolled. Dietary intakes were evaluated with a semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and Mediterranean dietary quality index (Med-DQI) was assessed. Anthropometric assessments and blood pressure measurement were performed. Biochemical assays including fasting serum glucose (FSG), matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3), liver enzymes and lipid profiles were also assessed. Polymorphism of +405 G/C VEGF gene was determined utilizing polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragments length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method. Serum high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) was significantly lower and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC) concentrations and FSG were significantly higher in metabolic syndrome patients compared with control group (P consumption of "cholesterol" had significantly upper serum TG; also high consumption of "fish" and "vegetables-fruits" was associated with a significantly lower serum LDL concentrations. In metabolic syndrome patients with CC genotype, mean score of "saturated fatty acid" subgroup was significantly higher compared with other genotypes; whereas, in healthy individuals, mean score of "fruit-vegetable" subgroup in individuals of CC and GG genotype was significantly higher (P<0.05). Our findings indicated a significant relationship between Mediterranean dietary quality index and both anthropometric and metabolic risk factors. We also indicated a higher "saturated fatty acid" intake in CC genotype among metabolic syndrome patients.

  12. The gender-related differences of nutrient intakes in a group of Italian obese patients display the ongoing transition from Mediterranean to western dietary patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, Giorgio; Canducci, Edgardo; Guida, Ada; Frascari, Ambra; Rossi, Angelo; Bersani, Gianluca; Ravani, Bruna; Alvisi, Vittorio

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare nutrients and energy intakes between obese women and men and the variation rates over or below the recommended dietary allowances. A retrospective survey was conducted on the records of obese patients, categorized into gender-related groups (36 women, 36 men). Total energy and nutrient intakes were determined. The highest variation rates were found for animal protein, averaging 225 % over the recommended dietary allowance, without significant differences between women and men. The simple carbohydrate intake was quite elevated in women with variations almost 80% over the RDA, significantly higher than in men (22%). The consumption of high-protein foods in both sexes, and even more the association with high-simple carbohydrate foods in women, display the Westernization of traditional eating habits.

  13. Patterns of prescription antihypertensive drug utilization and adherence to treatment guidelines in the city of Novi Sad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomas, Ana; Tomić, Zdenko; Milijasević, Boris; Ban, Milica; Horvat, Olga; Vukmirović, Sasa; Sabo, Ana

    2016-06-01

    Hypertension is one of the leading causes of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality and more than a half of all health insurance expenditures for reimbursed medicines are allocated to antihypertensive drugs in Serbia. The aim of this study was to identify the antihypertensive drug utilization patterns among hypertensive outpatients in the city of Novi Sad, Serbia, determine the adherence to clinical guidelines and address the economic aspects of current prescribing practices. This retrospective observational study was conducted in Novi Sad over a period of six months. The data on the number of packages, size their, and retail price of antihypertensives issued on prescription in outpatients with the diagnosis of essential arterial hypertension was collected from all state-owned pharmacies in Novi Sad. Drug consumption was analyzed using the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC)/ defined daily dose (DDD) methodology. Total consumption of antihypertensives issued on prescription over a 6-month period in the city of Novi sad, Serbia was 283.48 DDD per 1,000 inhabitans per day (DID). Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi) were most commonly prescribed drugs, and were used 3 times more often than calcium channel blockers and 5 times more than beta-blockers. The consumption of diuretics and angiotensin receptor antagonists was low within all the groups of outpatients. Both national and international guidelines state superiority and effectiveness of diuretics in treatment of hypertension in the elderly, but their consumption was unreasonable low despite the fact that over 70% of all antihypertensive drugs in the city of Novi Sad were dispensed in people aged > 60. The use of more expensive ACEi was observed despite the guidelines deeming all the drugs of this class equally effective in treatment of hypertension. Large differences in utilization of different groups of antihypertensive agents were noted in this study. Underutilization of valuable, efficacious, and

  14. SEASONAL PATTERNS AND VERTICAL PROFILE OF SOIL WATER UPTAKE AND UTILIZATION BY YOUNG AND OLD DOUGLAS-FIR AND PONDEROSA PINE FORESTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water availability has a strong influence on the distribution of forest tree species across the landscape. However, we do not understand how seasonal patterns of water utilization by tree species are related to their drought tolerance. In the Pacific Northwest, Douglas-fir occu...

  15. Knowledge, awareness, and utilization pattern of services under Janani Suraksha Yojana among beneficiaries in rural area of Himachal Pradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prem Lal Chauhan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Safe motherhood is perceived as a human right, and the health sector is always encouraged to provide quality services to ensure the same. Government of India launched a scheme called Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY on April 11, 2005, under the flagship of National Rural Health Mission to reduce maternal and neonatal mortality, by promoting institutional deliveries for which financial incentives are provided to mothers delivering in the health facilities. Objective: To study the knowledge, awareness, and utilization pattern of services under JSY among the beneficiaries in rural area of Shimla, Himachal Pradesh, India. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among the 78 JSY beneficiaries residing in the rural field practice area of Indira Gandhi Medical College Shimla, Himachal Pradesh, India. These beneficiaries were interviewed with pretested, predesigned, semi-structured close ended questionnaire by house-to-house visits, after obtaining informed consent. Results: Majority of the JSY beneficiaries (50; 64% were in the age group of 20–25 years and 43 (55.1% of them heard about the JSY scheme before the present pregnancy. Anganwadi workers 78 (100% and female health workers (62; 79.5% were the main sources of information. More than half of the study participants (44; 56% had good knowledge about the scheme and 42 (53.85% registered their name in health institution during thefirst trimester of last pregnancy. Forty-four (56.4% beneficiaries had undergone three antenatal checkups and only 11 (14.1% of them received three postnatal (PN visits. All the beneficiaries received the JSY incentives 1-week the following delivery. Conclusions: Awareness regarding the JSY scheme, early antenatal registration, minimum three antenatal care visits, and three PN visits is still low among rural women which needs strengthening through intensification of IEC activities.

  16. An international investigation into O red blood cell unit administration in hospitals: the GRoup O Utilization Patterns (GROUP) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeller, Michelle P; Barty, Rebecca; Aandahl, Astrid; Apelseth, Torunn O; Callum, Jeannie; Dunbar, Nancy M; Elahie, Allahna; Garritsen, Henk; Hancock, Helen; Kutner, José Mauro; Manukian, Belinda; Mizuta, Shuichi; Okuda, Makoto; Pagano, Monica B; Pogłód, Ryszard; Rushford, Kylie; Selleng, Kathleen; Sørensen, Claess Henning; Sprogøe, Ulrik; Staves, Julie; Weiland, Thorsten; Wendel, Silvano; Wood, Erica M; van de Watering, Leo; van Wordragen-Vlaswinkel, Maria; Ziman, Alyssa; Jan Zwaginga, Jaap; Murphy, Michael F; Heddle, Nancy M; Yazer, Mark H

    2017-10-01

    Transfusion of group O blood to non-O recipients, or transfusion of D- blood to D+ recipients, can result in shortages of group O or D- blood, respectively. This study investigated RBC utilization patterns at hospitals around the world and explored the context and policies that guide ABO blood group and D type selection practices. This was a retrospective study on transfusion data from the 2013 calendar year. This study included a survey component that asked about hospital RBC selection and transfusion practices and a data collection component where participants submitted information on RBC unit disposition including blood group and D type of unit and recipient. Units administered to recipients of unknown ABO or D group were excluded. Thirty-eight hospitals in 11 countries responded to the survey, 30 of which provided specific RBC unit disposition data. Overall, 11.1% (21,235/191,397) of group O units were transfused to non-O recipients; 22.6% (8777/38,911) of group O D- RBC units were transfused to O D+ recipients, and 43.2% (16,800/38,911) of group O D- RBC units were transfused to recipients that were not group O D-. Disposition of units and hospital transfusion policy varied within and across hospitals of different sizes, with transfusion of group O D- units to non-group O D- patients ranging from 0% to 33%. A significant proportion of group O and D- RBC units were transfused to compatible, nonidentical recipients, although the frequency of this practice varied across sites. © 2017 AABB.

  17. Nitrogen utilization, preweaning nutrient digestibility, and growth effects of Holstein dairy calves fed 2 amounts of a moderately high protein or conventional milk replacer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, C E; Hill, T M; Elder, D R; Erickson, P S

    2017-01-01

    Studies have shown that calves fed milk replacers (MR) with crude protein (CP) concentrations greater than 20%, as typically found in conventional MR, have higher dry matter intakes (DMI) and greater average daily gains (ADG) but consume less starter, which can lead to stress during weaning and reduced rumen development. The greater amount of CP being fed to preweaned calves may alter their nitrogen (N) balance, and excess N may be excreted in the urine. The objective of this study was to determine N utilization in preweaned calves fed diets varying in the amount of CP and MR fed. This study used 24 newborn dairy heifer calves blocked by birth and randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatments: (1) 446g dry matter (DM) of a conventional MR (CON; 20% CP, 20% fat), (2) 669g DM of a moderately high protein MR (moderate; MOD; 26% CP, 18% fat), or (3) 892g DM of a moderately high protein MR (aggressive; AGG; 26% CP, 18% fat). All calves had ad libitum access to starter and water. Both MR and starter were medicated with decoquinate. During weaning (d 43-49), the morning MR feeding ceased. On d 50, all MR feedings ended; however, starter and water intakes were continuously recorded until d 56. At 5wk of age, urine was collected using urinary catheters for 3d and chromium oxide was administered by bolus at 2g/d for 7d to estimate N efficiency. Calves fed MOD and AGG had similar starter intakes, feed efficiencies, and ADG, with the combined treatments having reduced starter intakes (258 vs. 537g/d), greater ADG (674 vs. 422g/d), and improved feed efficiency (0.57 vs. 0.45 gain:feed) compared with CON calves preweaning. However, DMI and water intake were similar across all treatments. Results from the N utilization phase showed that MOD and AGG treatments had similar but lower N efficiency compared with CON calves (45.5 vs. 52.7%). This could be due to MOD- and AGG-fed calves having greater urine volume and thereby, greater combined urine N output compared with CON calves (17.6 vs

  18. Early sugar-sweetened beverage consumption frequency is associated with poor quality of later food and nutrient intake patterns among Japanese young children: the Osaka Maternal and Child Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okubo, Hitomi; Miyake, Yoshihiro; Sasaki, Satoshi; Tanaka, Keiko; Hirota, Yoshio

    2016-06-01

    Evidence from Western countries shows that higher consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) is associated with lower quality of young children's diets, but little is known about these relations in non-Western countries with relatively low consumption levels of SSBs. We hypothesized that SSB consumption in infancy would be associated with poor quality of later food and nutrient intake patterns among Japanese young children. The study subjects were 493 Japanese mother-child pairs from a prospective birth cohort study. Dietary data on children were collected from the mothers using self-administered questionnaires when the children were aged 16-24 months and 41-49 months. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to examine the relationships between SSB consumption frequency in infancy and later intake of foods and nutrients. At 16-24 months of age, more than half of the children (56.4%) consumed SSBs less than once a week, whereas 11.6% consumed SSBs at least once daily. More frequent consumption of SSBs in infancy was associated with higher intake of confectionaries and SSBs and lower intake of fruits and vegetables at 41-49 months of age. These associations were still evident after adjustment for maternal SSB consumption and socioeconomic status. At the nutrient level, SSB consumption frequency was positively associated with energy intake and inversely associated with intake of many nutrients, such as protein, dietary fiber, and most of the micronutrients examined. In conclusion, higher consumption frequency of SSBs at an early age is associated with poor quality of overall dietary intake among young Japanese children 1.5-2.5 years later. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. In-depth Analysis of Pattern of Occupational Injuries and Utilization of Safety Measures among Workers of Railway Wagon Repair Workshop in Jhansi (U.P.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Shubhanshu; Malhotra, Anil K; Verma, Santosh K; Yadav, Rashmi

    2017-01-01

    Occupational injuries constitute a global health challenge, yet they receive comparatively modest scientific attention. Pattern of occupational injuries and its safety precautions among wagon repair workers is an important health issue, especially in developing countries like India. To assess the pattern of occupational injuries and utilization of safety measures among railway wagon repair workshop workers in Jhansi (U.P.). Railway wagon repair workshop urban area, Jhansi (U.P). Occupation-based cross-sectional study. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 309 workers of railway workshop in Jhansi (U.P.) who were all injured during the study period of 1 year from July 2015 to June 2016. Baseline characteristics, pattern of occupational injuries, safety measures, and their availability to and utilization by the participants were assessed using a pretested structured questionnaire. Data obtained were collected and analyzed statistically by simple proportions and Chi-square test. The majority of studied workers aged between 38 and 47 years ( n = 93, 30.6%) followed by 28-37 years ( n = 79, 26%). Among the pattern of occupational injuries, laceration (28.7%) was most common followed by abrasion/scratch (21%). Safety shoes and hat were utilized 100% by all workers. Many of them had more than 5 years of experience ( n = 237, 78%). Age group, education level, and utilization of safety measures were significantly associated with pattern of occupational injuries in univariate analysis ( P safety measures is low among workers on railway wagon repair workshop, which highlights the importance of strengthening safety regulatory services toward this group of workers. Younger age group workers show a significant association with open wounds and surface wounds. As the education level of workers increases, the incidence of injuries decreases. Apart from shoes, hat, and gloves, regular utilization of other personal protective equipment was not seen.

  20. Leaf absorption of mineral nutrients in carnivorous plants stimulates root nutrient uptake

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Adamec, Lubomír

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 155, - (2002), s. 89-100 ISSN 0028-646X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6005905 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6005908 Keywords : terrestrial carnivorous plant s * utilization of prey * mineral nutrient re-utilization * leaf nutrient supply Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.945, year: 2002

  1. A vegetarian dietary pattern as a nutrient-dense approach to weight management: an analysis of the national health and nutrition examination survey 1999-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Bonnie; Larson, Brian T; Fulgoni, Victor L; Rainville, Alice J; Liepa, George U

    2011-06-01

    Population-based studies have shown that vegetarians have lower body mass index than nonvegetarians, suggesting that vegetarian diet plans may be an approach for weight management. However, a perception exists that vegetarian diets are deficient in certain nutrients. To compare dietary quality of vegetarians, nonvegetarians, and dieters, and to test the hypothesis that a vegetarian diet would not compromise nutrient intake when used to manage body weight. Cross-sectional analysis of National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999-2004) dietary and anthropometric data. Diet quality was determined using United States Department of Agriculture's Healthy Eating Index 2005. Participants included adults aged 19 years and older, excluding pregnant and lactating women (N = 13,292). Lacto-ovo vegetarian diets were portrayed by intakes of participants who did not eat meat, poultry, or fish on the day of the survey (n = 851). Weight-loss diets were portrayed by intakes of participants who consumed 500 kcal less than their estimated energy requirements (n = 4,635). Mean nutrient intakes and body mass indexes were adjusted for energy, sex, and ethnicity. Using analysis of variance, all vegetarians were compared to all nonvegetarians, dieting vegetarians to dieting nonvegetarians, and nondieting vegetarians to nondieting nonvegetarians. Mean intakes of fiber, vitamins A, C, and E, thiamin, riboflavin, folate, calcium, magnesium, and iron were higher for all vegetarians than for all nonvegetarians. Although vegetarian intakes of vitamin E, vitamin A, and magnesium exceeded that of nonvegetarians (8.3 ± 0.3 vs 7.0 ± 0.1 mg; 718 ± 28 vs 603 ± 10 μg; 322 ± 5 vs 281 ± 2 mg), both groups had intakes that were less than desired. The Healthy Eating Index score did not differ for all vegetarians compared to all nonvegetarians (50.5 ± 0.88 vs 50.1 ± 0.33, P = 0.6). These findings suggest that vegetarian diets are nutrient dense, consistent with dietary guidelines, and

  2. Desempenho, eficiência de utilização dos nutrientes e estrutura do trato digestório de pintos de corte alimentados na fase pré-inicial com rações de diferentes formas físicas Performance, efficiency of nutrient utilization and gastrointestinal structures of broiler chick fed in prestarter phase with ratios with different physical form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ednardo Rodrigues Freitas

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da forma física da ração sobre o desempenho, a utilização dos nutrientes das rações e o desenvolvimento do trato disgestório de pintos de corte na primeira semana de vida. Foram utilizados 150 pintos machos Cobb distribuídos ao acaso em três tratamentos com cinco repetições de dez aves. Os tratamentos consistiram das formas físicas farelada, triturada e peletizada de uma ração pré-inicial comercial. Com exceção da moela, os órgãos do trato digestório e a estrutura morfométrica do intestino não foram influenciados pela forma física da ração. Maior digestibilidade do N foi obtida com a ração peletizada, enquanto a ração triturada possibilitou maior digestibilidade do EE. A energia metabolizável determinada para a ração farelada foi menor que a obtida nas demais formas físicas da ração. As aves alimentadas com raç��o farelada tiveram menor consumo de ração e ganho de peso e pior conversão alimentar. Ingeriram ainda menos energia, apresentaram menores retenções de proteína, gordura e energia corporal e utilizaram maior proporção da energia ingerida para produção de calor. As rações pré-iniciais na forma peletizada ou triturada possibilitam maior aproveitamento dos nutrientes da ração pelos pintos e melhor desempenho.This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of different physical form of pre-starter diet on performance, nutrient utilization and development of gastrointestinal tract of broiler chicks during the first week of age. A total of 150-day-old male broiler chicks was allotted to a completely randomized design with three treatments and five replicates of 10 birds each. Treatments consisted of three physical forms of a commercial pre-starter diet: mashed, crumbled and pressed into pellets. Except for gizzard, the other organs of the digestive tract and morphologic structures of the small intestine were not affected by

  3. Spatio-temporal patterns of groundwater depths and soil nutrients in a small watershed in the Ethiopian highlands: Topographic and land-use controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, Christian D.; Tilahun, Seifu A.; Dagnew, Dessalegn C.; Zimale, Fasikaw A.; Zegeye, Assefa D.; Boll, Jan; Parlange, Jean-Yves; Steenhuis, Tammo S.

    2017-12-01

    Soil and water conservation structures, promoted by local and international development organizations throughout rural landscapes, aim to increase recharge and prevent degradation of soil surface characteristics. This study investigates this unexamined relationship between recharge, water table depths, and soil surface characteristics (nutrients) in a small sub-watershed in the northwestern Ethiopian highlands. These highland watersheds have high infiltration rates (mean 70 mm hr-1, median 33 mm hr-1), recharging the shallow unconfined hillslope aquifer with water transport occurring via subsurface pathways down the slope. The perched water tables reflect the subsurface flux and are deep where this flux is rapid in the upland areas (138 cm below surface). Soil saturation and overland flow occur when the subsurface flux exceeds the transport capacity of the soil in the lower downslope areas near the ephemeral stream (19 cm below surface). Land use is directly related to the water table depth, corresponding to grazing and fallowed (saturated) land in the downslope areas and cultivated (unsaturated) land in the middle and upper parts where the water table is deeper. Kjeldahl Total Nitrogen (TN), Bray II available phosphorus (AP), and exchangeable potassium (K+) averages exhibit different behaviors across slope, land use transects, or saturation conditions. TN was moderate to low (0.07% ± 0.04) in various land uses and slope regions. Bray II AP had very low concentrations (0.25 mg kg-1 ± 0.26) among the different slope regions with no significant differences throughout (p > .05). The exchangeable cation (K+, Ca2+, Mg2+) concentrations and pH, however, were greater in non-cultivated (seasonally saturated) lands and in a downslope direction (p < .001, p < .005, p < .05, and p < .005, respectively). These results show that the perched groundwater plays an important role in influencing land use, the amount of water seasonally available for crop growth, and exchangeable

  4. Nutrient Dynamics and Litter Decomposition in Leucaena ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutrient contents and rate of litter decomposition were investigated in Leucaena leucocephala plantation in the University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria. Litter bag technique was used to study the pattern and rate of litter decomposition and nutrient release of Leucaena leucocephala. Fifty grams of oven-dried ...

  5. Differences in health insurance and health service utilization among Asian Americans: method for using the NHIS to identify unique patterns between ethnic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruy, Hosihn; Young, Wendy B; Kwak, Hoil

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to outline a method to identify the characteristics of socioeconomic variables in determining the differences in health insurance coverage and health services utilization patterns for different ethnic groups, using the behavioural model of health service utilization. A sample drawn from Asian American adult respondents to the 1992, 1993, and 1994 National Health Interview Surveys (NHIS) in the USA formed the data set. The results showed Asian Americans as not being homogeneous. There were distinctly different demographic and socioeconomic characteristics between six Asian American ethnic groups that affect health insurance coverage and health service utilization. The study method is useful for constructing health policy and services to address the general public need without adversely affecting smaller minority groups. Secondary analysis of well-constructed national data sets such as the specific Asian ethnic groups in NHIS, offers a rich method for predicting the differential impact of specific health policies on various ethnic groups.

  6. Effects of replacing soybean meal with canola meal or treated canola meal on ruminal digestion, fermentation pattern, omasal nutrient flow, and performance in lactating dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extrusion-treated canola meal (TCM) was produced in an attempt to increase the rumen undegradable protein (RUP) fraction of canola meal (CM). The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of replacing soybean meal (SBM) with CM or TCM on ruminal digestion, fermentation pattern, omasal nutr...

  7. Variations in Patterns of Utilization and Charges for the Care of Headache in North Carolina, 2000-2009: A Statewide Claims' Data Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurwitz, Eric L; Vassilaki, Maria; Li, Dongmei; Schneider, Michael J; Stevans, Joel M; Phillips, Reed B; Phelan, Shawn P; Lewis, Eugene A; Armstrong, Richard C

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare patterns of utilization and charges generated by medical doctors (MDs), doctors of chiropractic (DCs), and physical therapists (PTs) for the treatment of headache in North Carolina. Retrospective analysis of claims data from the North Carolina State Health Plan for Teachers and State Employees from 2000 to 2009. Data were extracted from Blue Cross Blue Shield of North Carolina for the North Carolina State Health Plan using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, diagnostic codes for headache. The claims were separated by individual provider type, combination of provider types, and referral patterns. The majority of patients and claims were in the MD-only or MD plus referral patterns. Chiropractic patterns represented less than 10% of patients. Care patterns with single-provider types and no referrals incurred the least charges on average for headache. When care did not include referral providers or services, MD with DC care was generally less expensive than MD care with PT. However, when combined with referral care, MD care with PT was generally less expensive. Compared with MD-only care, risk-adjusted charges (available 2006-2009) for patients in the middle risk quintile were significantly less for DC-only care. Utilization and expenditures for headache treatment increased from 2000 to 2009 across all provider groups. MD care represented the majority of total allowed charges in this study. MD care and DC care, alone or in combination, were overall the least expensive patterns of headache care. Risk-adjusted charges were significantly less for DC-only care. Copyright © 2016 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Referral patterns and utilization of physiotherapy services following a one-time physiotherapist consultation in general practice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, H.J.M.; Kerssens, J.J.; Heerkens, Y.F.; Elvers, J.W.H.; Dekker, J.; Zee, J. van der; Oostendorp, R.A.B.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the influence of a one-time consultation of physiotherapists (PRs) by primary care physicians (PDPs) on utilization of physiotherapy services, functional outcomes, and number of treatment sessions of treatment episode. A 7-months observational study with 59

  9. Simulation of filter strips influence on runoff and soil and nutrient losses under different rainfall patterns in a small vineyard catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Maria C.; Benito, Carolina

    2014-05-01

    This work presents the analysis of the influence of filter strips on soil and water losses in a small catchment, whose main land use is grape vines. The watershed was located in the municipality of Piera (Barcelona, Spain). Other crops like olive trees, winter barley and alfalfa were also found, as well as some residential areas. Soil and water losses were simulated using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). The model was calibrated and validated using soil water and runoff data collected in the field during the period May 2010- May 2012. Then, the model was run for the period 2000-2011, which included years with different rainfall amounts and characteristics. Soil losses with and without that soil conservation measure was compared. The annual rainfall recorded during the analysed years ranged from 329.8 to 785 mm with different rainfall distributions within the year. Runoff rates ranged from 17 to 141 mm, which represented respectively 4.7 and 21% of total precipitation. Both extreme situations were recorded in the driest years of the series, with precipitation below the average. Soil losses ranged between 0.31 Mg/ha in the driest year and 13.9 Mg/ha, in the wettest. The simulation of soil losses with the introduction of filter strips 3m width in the vineyards resulted in a reduction of soil losses up to 68% in relation to the situation without that soil conservation measure. This soil loss decrease represented an additional nutrient loss reduction (up to 66% for N_organic, up to 64% of P_organic and between 6.5 and 40% of N_nitrate, depending on rainfall characteristics).

  10. Process time optimization of robotic remote laser cutting by utilizing customized beam patterns and redundancy space task sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villumsen, Sigurd

    This dissertation is written as a part of the ROBOCUT project which concerns the development of a new laser cutting technology that seeks to increase the performance of traditional and remote laser cutting by using beam shaping technologies. The resulting customized beam patterns are obtained by ...... axes of the laser cutting system and transforming the sequencing problem into a generalized traveling salesman problem (GTSP)....

  11. Nutrient cycling strategies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breemen, van N.

    1995-01-01

    This paper briefly reviews pathways by which plants can influence the nutrient cycle, and thereby the nutrient supply of themselves and of their competitors. Higher or lower internal nutrient use efficiency positively feeds back into the nutrient cycle, and helps to increase or decrease soil

  12. Effect of feeding Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus) root as prebiotic on nutrient utilization, fecal characteristics and serum metabolite profile of captive Indian leopard (Panthera pardus fusca) fed a meat-on-bone diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, S K; Das, A; Kullu, S S; Saini, M; Pattanaik, A K; Dutta, N; Sharma, A K

    2015-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of incorporating Jerusalem artichoke (JA) as a prebiotic in the diet of Indian leopards (n = 11 adults) fed a meat-on-bone diet. The trial consisted of three periods (A1 , B, and A2 ). Each period comprised 17 days of adaptation and four days of collection. During the control periods (A1 and A2 ), the leopards were fed their normal zoo diets of 2.5-3 kg of buffalo meat-on-bone six days a week without any supplement. During trial B, meat-on-bone diets of the leopards were supplemented with JA at 2% of dietary dry matter (DM). Meat consumption was similar among the treatments. Supplementation of JA decreased the digestibility of crude protein (P < 0.01). Digestibilities of organic matter and ether extract were similar among the treatments. Serum concentrations of urea and triglycerides were lower (P < 0.05) when JA was added to the diet. Incorporation of JA to the basal diet increased fecal concentrations of acetate (P < 0.01), butyrate (P < 0.01), lactate (P < 0.01), Lactobacillus spp., and Bifidobacterium spp. (P < 0.01) with a simultaneous decrease in the concentration of ammonia (P < 0.01), Clostridia spp. (P < 0.01), and fecal pH (P < 0.01). Fecal microbial profiles and hind gut fermentation were improved, without any adverse effects on feed consumption, nutrient utilization, and serum metabolite profiles. Results of this experiment showed that feeding JA at 2% DM in the whole diet could be potentially beneficial for captive Indian leopards fed meat-on-bone diets. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Immobilization Patterns and Dynamics of Acetate-Utilizing Methanogens Immobilized in Sterile Granular Sludge in Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Jens Ejbye; Ahring, Birgitte Kjær

    1999-01-01

    Sterile granular sludge was inoculated with either Methanosarcina mazeii S-6, Methanosaeta concilii GP-6, or both species in acetate-fed upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors to investigate the immobilization patterns and dynamics of aceticlastic methanogens in granular sludge. After several months of reactor operation, the methanogens were immobilized, either separately or together. The fastest immobilization was observed in the reactor containing M. mazeii S-6. The highest effluent concentration of acetate was observed in the reactor with only M. mazeii S-6 immobilized, while the lowest effluent concentration of acetate was observed in the reactor where both types of methanogens were immobilized together. No changes were observed in the kinetic parameters (Ks and μmax) of immobilized M. concilii GP-6 or M. mazeii S-6 compared with suspended cultures, indicating that immobilization does not affect the growth kinetics of these methanogens. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using polyclonal antibodies against either M. concilii GP-6 or M. mazeii S-6 showed significant variations in the two methanogenic populations in the different reactors. Polyclonal antibodies were further used to study the spatial distribution of the two methanogens. M. concilii GP-6 was immobilized only on existing support material without any specific pattern. M. mazeii S-6, however, showed a different immobilization pattern: large clumps were formed when the concentration of acetate was high, but where the acetate concentration was low this strain was immobilized on support material as single cells or small clumps. The data clearly show that the two aceticlastic methanogens immobilize differently in UASB systems, depending on the conditions found throughout the UASB reactor. PMID:10049862

  14. Immobilization patterns and dynamics of acetate-utilizing methanogens in sterile granular sludge from upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Jens Ejbye; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    1999-01-01

    Sterile granular sludge was inoculated with either Methanosarcina mazeii S-6, Methanosaeta concilii GP-6, or both species in acetate-fea upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors to investigate the immobilization patterns and dynamics of aceticlastic methanogens in granular sludge. After......, but where the acetate concentration was low this strain was immobilized on support material as single cells or small clumps, The data clearly show that the two aceticlastic methanogens immobilize differently in UASB systems, depending on the conditions found throughout the UASB reactor....

  15. Immobilization patterns and dynamics of acetate-utilizing methanogens immobilized in sterile granular sludge in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Jens Ejbye; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    1999-01-01

    Sterile granular sludge was inoculated with either Methanosarcina mazeii S-6, Methanosaeta concilii GP-6, or both species in acetate-fea upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors to investigate the immobilization patterns and dynamics of aceticlastic methanogens in granular sludge. After......, but where the acetate concentration was low this strain was immobilized on support material as single cells or small clumps, The data clearly show that the two aceticlastic methanogens immobilize differently in UASB systems, depending on the conditions found throughout the UASB reactor....

  16. Factors associated with patterns of plural healthcare utilization among patients taking antiretroviral therapy in rural and urban South Africa: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshabela, Mosa; Schneider, Helen; Silal, Sheetal P; Cleary, Susan M

    2012-07-02

    In low-resource settings, patients' use of multiple healthcare sources may complicate chronic care and clinical outcomes as antiretroviral therapy (ART) continues to expand. However, little is known regarding patterns, drivers and consequences of using multiple healthcare sources. We therefore investigated factors associated with patterns of plural healthcare usage among patients taking ART in diverse South African settings. A cross-sectional study of patients taking ART was conducted in two rural and two urban sub-districts, involving 13 accredited facilities and 1266 participants selected through systematic random sampling. Structured questionnaires were used in interviews, and participant's clinic records were reviewed. Data collected included household assets, healthcare access dimensions (availability, affordability and acceptability), healthcare utilization and pluralism, and laboratory-based outcomes. Multiple logistic regression models were fitted to identify predictors of healthcare pluralism and associations with treatment outcomes. Prior ethical approval and informed consent were obtained. Nineteen percent of respondents reported use of additional healthcare providers over and above their regular ART visits in the prior month. A further 15% of respondents reported additional expenditure on self-care (e.g. special foods). Access to health insurance (Adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 6.15) and disability grants (aOR 1.35) increased plural healthcare use. However, plural healthcare users were more likely to borrow money to finance healthcare (aOR 2.68), and incur catastrophic levels of healthcare expenditure (27%) than non-plural users (7%). Quality of care factors, such as perceived disrespect by staff (aOR 2.07) and lack of privacy (aOR 1.50) increased plural healthcare utilization. Plural healthcare utilization was associated with rural residence (aOR 1.97). Healthcare pluralism was not associated with missed visits or biological outcomes. Increased plural

  17. Substrate specificity of glucose dehydrogenase and carbon source utilization pattern of pantoea dispersa strain P2 and its radiation induced mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Young Keun; Murugesan, Senthilkumar

    2009-01-01

    Mineral phosphate solubilizing pantoea dispersa strain P2 produced 5.5 mM and 42.6 mM of gluconic acid on 24 h and 72 h incubation, respectively. Strain P2 exhibited glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) specific activity of 0.32 IU mg -1 protein. We have studied the substrate specificity of GDH as well as carbon source utilization pattern of strain P2. GDH of strain P2 did not use ribose as substrate. Utilization of lactose with specific activity of 0.65 IU mg -1 protein indicated that the enzyme belongs to GDH type B isozyme. Arabinose, galactose, ribose, sucrose and xylose did not induce the synthesis of GDH enzyme while mannose induced the synthesis of GDH with highest specific activity of 0.58 IU mg -1 protein. Through radiation mutagenesis, the substrate specificity of GDH was modified in order to utilize side range of sugars available in root exudates. Ribose, originally not a substrate for GDH of strain P2 was utilized as substrate by mutants P2-M5 with specific activity of 0.44 and 0.57 IU mg -1 protein, respectively. Specific activity of GDH on the media containing lactose and galactose was also improved to 1.2 and 0.52 IU mg -1 protein in P2-M5 and P2-M6 respectively. Based on the carbon source availability in root exudate, the mutants can be selected and utilized as efficient biofertilizer under P-deficient soil conditions

  18. Substrate specificity of glucose dehydrogenase and carbon source utilization pattern of pantoea dispersa strain P2 and its radiation induced mutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young Keun; Murugesan, Senthilkumar [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-06-15

    Mineral phosphate solubilizing pantoea dispersa strain P2 produced 5.5 mM and 42.6 mM of gluconic acid on 24 h and 72 h incubation, respectively. Strain P2 exhibited glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) specific activity of 0.32 IU mg{sup -1} protein. We have studied the substrate specificity of GDH as well as carbon source utilization pattern of strain P2. GDH of strain P2 did not use ribose as substrate. Utilization of lactose with specific activity of 0.65 IU mg{sup -1} protein indicated that the enzyme belongs to GDH type B isozyme. Arabinose, galactose, ribose, sucrose and xylose did not induce the synthesis of GDH enzyme while mannose induced the synthesis of GDH with highest specific activity of 0.58 IU mg{sup -1} protein. Through radiation mutagenesis, the substrate specificity of GDH was modified in order to utilize side range of sugars available in root exudates. Ribose, originally not a substrate for GDH of strain P2 was utilized as substrate by mutants P2-M5 with specific activity of 0.44 and 0.57 IU mg{sup -1} protein, respectively. Specific activity of GDH on the media containing lactose and galactose was also improved to 1.2 and 0.52 IU mg{sup -1} protein in P2-M5 and P2-M6 respectively. Based on the carbon source availability in root exudate, the mutants can be selected and utilized as efficient biofertilizer under P-deficient soil conditions.

  19. Assessment of fuel resource diversity and utilization patterns in Askot Wildlife Sanctuary in Kumaun Himalaya, India, for conservation and management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samant, Sher S.; Dhar, Uppeandra; Rawal, Ranbeer S. [G.B. Pant Inst. of Himalayan Environment and Development, Uttar Pradesh (India)

    2000-07-01

    A general decrease in abundance of wood plant species used as sources of fuel suggests that more detailed information is urgently needed on species-level trends and their conservation. Such studies have not been carried out so far in India and elsewhere; we therefore quantified the species-wise extraction of fuel from a site (Gori Ganga Valley) in Askot Wildlife Sanctuary in the Kumaun Himalaya. In all, 31 species (26 trees and 5 shrubs) were used as fuel, of which 14 were native to the Himalaya. Utilisation patterns, distributions, probabilities of use (PU), resources use indices (RUI), preferences and availabilities in forest communities of these species were determined. Use pattern did not vary much amongst low altitude villages (Similarity: 52-74%), whereas along the vertical (elevational) gradient it varied considerably (Similarity: 15-31%). Woodfordia fruticosa (L.) Kurz, Pinus roxburghii Sarg., Quercus leucotrichophora A. Camus, Macaranga pustulata King ex Hk. F., Quercus lanuginosa Don, Engelhardtia spicata Bl. and Mallotus philippensis (Lamk.) Muell. contributed most to collections, while Pyracantha crenulata (Don) Roem., Syzygium cuminii (L.) Skeels, Alnus nepalensis Don and Bauhinia vahlii Wt. and Arn. were in lesser demand. W. fruticosa, P. roxburghii, M. pustulata, Casearia elliptica Willd., E. spicata, M. philippensis, Q. leucotrichophora and Phoebe lanceolata (Nees) Nees showed high values of PU and RUI, indicating high pressure. Higher density of P. roxburghii, Rhododendron arboreum Sm., Q. lanuginosa, Q. leucotrichophora, Lyonia ovalifolia (Wall.) Drude, C. elliptica and M. pustulata amongst trees and Maesa indica A.DC., P. crenulata and W. fruticosa amongst shrubs exhibited high density but the remaining species showed low density indicating the possible depletion. Intensive management of natural habitats of species highly-referred for fuel, diversification of choice of species from natives to non-natives, large scale propagation of highly

  20. Surgery Goes Social: The Extent and Patterns of Social Media Utilization by Major Trauma, Acute and Critical Care Surgery Societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalifeh, Jawad M; Kaafarani, Haytham M A

    2017-01-01

    The evolving influence of social media in trauma, acute, and critical care surgery (TACCS) cannot be ignored. We sought to investigate the extent and patterns of use of social networks by major regional, national and international TACCS societies. The two leading social networking sites, Facebook (FB) and Twitter (TW), were thoroughly examined for the presence of official accounts for each of the major TACCS societies. An official FB or TW account was defined as one which has a blue verified badge and/or is linked the society's official website. For societies with confirmed official accounts, the extent and patterns of use of the two platforms were systematically examined over a 2-week period through: (1) manual inspection of the societies' FB and TW pages, (2) the SQLite database containing downloaded samples of posts, and (3) the TW analytics database, symplur.com. Standardized social media metrics were calculated for each society. Posted content was categorized as being: (1) society news updates, (2) event announcements, or (3) general medical information. From a total of 64 TACCS societies, only 27 (42%) had FB and/or TW accounts. Ten out of the 12 American societies had accounts compared to 13/39 of European, 2/9 of Australasian, and 0/2 of international societies. For the societies with social media presence, the mean numbers of monthly tweets and FB posts per society were 22 and 8, respectively. We summarize the FB and TW activity of the studied TACCS societies. Most tweets/posts were society news updates and event announcements intended to the society's constituents not the general public. A text cloud was constructed to summarize the major featured topics. Less than half of the TACCS societies are currently using social media; those that do are arguably underutilizing its potential. Non-American societies in particular lag behind in their use of social networking.

  1. The Effect of Feeding Calliandra Calothyrus in Different Patterns as a Supplement to Rhodes Grass Hay on Intake, Nitrogen Utilization and Milk Yield of dual Purpose Goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kariuki, J.N.

    2002-01-01

    Eighteen dual purpose goats were used to evaluate the effects of feeding Calliandra caryothyrus leaf meal at different patterns as a supplement to Rhodes grass hay on intake, nitrogen utilization and milk yield. A basal diet of low quality Rhodes grass hay (fed at 90% ad libitum) and 100 g maize germ were offered to the goats over a 60-day experimental period. The treatments were:- (T1) 100 g day -1 calliandra for 60 days; (T2) 200 g day -1 calliandra for 30 days followed by another 30 days where 200 g or 0 g day -1 calliandra were alternated every 5 days; and (T3) 200 g or 0 g day -1 alternated every 5 days for 60 days. Total dry matter intake (DMI) was significantly (p -1 for T1, T2 and T3, respectively.Milk Yields had similar trend and averaged 166.1, 231.8 and 201.1 g day -1 for T1, T2, and T3, respectively. The utilization of nitrogen was also significantly (p<0.05) affected by pattern of supplement feeding. It was concluded from the results that the overall animal response could be influenced by how a limited quantity of supplement was fed

  2. Carbon source utilization patterns of Bacillus simplex ecotypes do not reflect their adaptation to ecologically divergent slopes in 'Evolution Canyon', Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikorski, Johannes; Pukall, Rüdiger; Stackebrandt, Erko

    2008-10-01

    The 'Evolution Canyons' I and II in Israel are model habitats to study adaptation and speciation of bacteria in the environment. These canyons represent similar ecological replicates, separated by 40 km, with a strongly sun-exposed and hot 'African' south-facing slope (SFS) vs. a cooler and mesic-lush 'European' north-facing slope (NFS). Previously, among 131 Bacillus simplex isolates, distinct genetic lineages (ecotypes), each specific for either SFS or NFS, were identified, suggesting a temperature-driven slope-specific adaptation. Here, we asked whether the ecological heterogeneity of SFS vs. NFS also affected carbon utilization abilities, as determined using the Biolog assay. Contrary to expectation, a correlation between substrate utilization patterns and the ecological origin of strains was not found. Rather, the patterns split according to the two major phylogenetic lineages each of which contain SFS and NFS ecotypes. We conclude that traits related to the general energy metabolism, as far as assessed here, are neither shaped by the major abiotic features of 'Evolution Canyon', namely solar radiation, temperature, and drought, nor by the soil characteristics. We further conclude that some traits diverge rather neutrally from each other, whereas other, more environmentally related traits are shaped by natural selection and show evolutionary convergence.

  3. Treatment patterns, health care resource utilization, and costs in Japanese adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder treated with atomoxetine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imagawa H

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Hideyuki Imagawa,1 Saurabh P Nagar,2 William Montgomery,3 Tomomi Nakamura,1 Masayo Sato,1 Keith L Davis2 1Medical Development Unit Japan, Eli Lilly Japan K.K., Kobe, Japan; 2RTI Health Solutions, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA; 3Global Patient Outcomes and Real World Evidence, Eli Lilly Australia, NSW, Australia Objective: To describe the characteristics and medication treatment patterns of adult patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD prescribed atomoxetine in Japan. Materials and methods: A retrospective analysis of insurance claims data was conducted using the Japan Medical Data Center database. Adults (≥18 years with ADHD who had ≥1 atomoxetine claim from January 1, 2013 to December 31, 2014, and ≥180 to ≤900 days of follow-up were included. First atomoxetine claim defined the index date. Patient characteristics included age, gender, and comorbid conditions. Treatment patterns assessed included rates of atomoxetine discontinuation, switching, persistence, adherence (assessed via the medication possession ratio, and use of concomitant medications. Results: A total of 457 adults met all the inclusion criteria. Mean (SD age was 32.7 (10.4 years, and 61.0% of patients were male. Nearly 72.0% of the patients had at least one comorbid mental health condition in the baseline period; depression (43.8% and insomnia (40.7% were the most common mental health comorbidities. Most common physical comorbidities were chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (14.4% and diabetes (12.9%. Non-ADHD-specific psychotropics were prescribed to 59.7% of patients during the baseline period and to 65.9% during the follow-up period; 6.6% were prescribed non-ADHD-specific psychotropics concomitantly with atomoxetine. Overall, 40.0% of adults discontinued atomoxetine during the entire follow-up period and 65.9% were persistent with atomoxetine therapy at 3 months post-index date. Mean (SD atomoxetine medication possession ratio was 0.57 (0

  4. Patterns of pharmacotherapy and health care utilization and costs prior to total hip or total knee replacement in patients with osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Ariel; Bozic, Kevin; Stacey, Brett; Edelsberg, John; Sadosky, Alesia; Oster, Gerry

    2011-08-01

    To examine patterns of pharmacotherapy and health care utilization and costs prior to total knee replacement (TKR) or total hip replacement (THR) in patients with osteoarthritis (OA). Using a large US health insurance claims database, we identified all patients with OA who were ages ≥40 years and had undergone TKR or THR between January 1, 2006 and December 31, 2007. Patients with care utilization and costs over the 2-year period preceding surgery. A total of 16,527 patients met all study entry criteria. Their mean ± SD age was 56.6 ± 6.1 years, and 56% of them were women. In the 2 years preceding surgery, 55% of patients received prescription nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, 58% received opioids, and 50% received injections of corticosteroids. The numbers of patients receiving these drugs increased steadily during the presurgery period. The mean ± SD total health care costs in the 2 years preceding surgery were $19,466 ± 29,869, of which outpatient care, inpatient care, and pharmacotherapy represented 45%, 20%, and 20%, respectively. Costs increased from $2,094 in the eighth calendar quarter prior to surgery to $3,100 in the final quarter. Patients with OA who undergo THR or TKR have relatively high levels of use of pain-related pharmacotherapy and high total health care costs in the 2-year period preceding surgery. Levels of utilization and cost increase as the date of surgery approaches. Copyright © 2011 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  5. Successional dynamics drive tropical forest nutrient limitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, C.; Hedin, L. O. O.

    2017-12-01

    It is increasingly recognized that nutrients such as N and P may significantly constrain the land carbon sink. However, we currently lack a complete understanding of these nutrient cycles in forest ecosystems and how to incorporate them into Earth System Models. We have developed a framework of dynamic forest nutrient limitation, focusing on the role of secondary forest succession and canopy gap disturbances as bottlenecks of high plant nutrient demand and limitation. We used succession biomass data to parameterize a simple ecosystem model and examined the dynamics of nutrient limitation throughout tropical secondary forest succession. Due to the patterns of biomass recovery in secondary tropical forests, we found high nutrient demand from rapid biomass accumulation in the earliest years of succession. Depending on previous land use scenarios, soil nutrient availability may also be low in this time period. Coupled together, this is evidence that there may be high biomass nutrient limitation early in succession, which is partially met by abundant symbiotic nitrogen fixation from certain tree species. We predict a switch from nitrogen limitation in early succession to one of three conditions: (i) phosphorus only, (ii) phosphorus plus nitrogen, or (iii) phosphorus, nitrogen, plus light co-limitation. We will discuss the mechanisms that govern the exact trajectory of limitation as forests build biomass. In addition, we used our model to explore scenarios of tropical secondary forest impermanence and the impacts of these dynamics on ecosystem nutrient limitation. We found that secondary forest impermanence exacerbates nutrient limitation and the need for nitrogen fixation early in succession. Together, these results indicate that biomass recovery dynamics early in succession as well as their connection to nutrient demand and limitation are fundamental for understanding and modeling nutrient limitation of the tropical forest carbon sink.

  6. Engineering crop nutrient efficiency for sustainable agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liyu; Liao, Hong

    2017-10-01

    Increasing crop yields can provide food, animal feed, bioenergy feedstocks and biomaterials to meet increasing global demand; however, the methods used to increase yield can negatively affect sustainability. For example, application of excess fertilizer can generate and maintain high yields but also increases input costs and contributes to environmental damage through eutrophication, soil acidification and air pollution. Improving crop nutrient efficiency can improve agricultural sustainability by increasing yield while decreasing input costs and harmful environmental effects. Here, we review the mechanisms of nutrient efficiency (primarily for nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and iron) and breeding strategies for improving this trait, along with the role of regulation of gene expression in enhancing crop nutrient efficiency to increase yields. We focus on the importance of root system architecture to improve nutrient acquisition efficiency, as well as the contributions of mineral translocation, remobilization and metabolic efficiency to nutrient utilization efficiency. © 2017 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  7. A study of spatial and temporal distribution of land utilization pattern in Mopka village using RS & GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soni Prasoon

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Remote Sensing and GIS is a very good modality for retrospection and the strategy for better exploitation of sustainable land use system. The present study was conducted in the Bilaspur district for analyzing the spatial distribution of Land Use Change. During last decades the increasing population of Bilaspur city, affect the land use pattern of Mopka Village. The anthropogenic activities were affecting the agricultural land along with barren land. For the development of civic amenities the land of the above village was used. The main objective of the present study is to analyses the land use/land cover distribution in Mopka village, Bilaspur district in between last 12 years and to identify the main forces behind the changes. The objectives of present studies are, to create a land use land cover maps of Mopka village using satellite imagery. To analysis the temporal changes of village area in between the year 2000 and 2012, the primary, secondary and satellite data were used. The results of the present study show that the decadeial changes due to population growth and increasing demand of infrastructure were destroying the natural resources, natural habitat and soil structure of area.

  8. Transcriptome sequencing of the blind subterranean mole rat, Spalax galili: Utility and potential for the discovery of novel evolutionary patterns

    KAUST Repository

    Malik, Assaf

    2011-08-12

    The blind subterranean mole rat (Spalax ehrenbergi superspecies) is a model animal for survival under extreme environments due to its ability to live in underground habitats under severe hypoxic stress and darkness. Here we report the transcriptome sequencing of Spalax galili, a chromosomal type of S. ehrenbergi. cDNA pools from muscle and brain tissues isolated from animals exposed to hypoxic and normoxic conditions were sequenced using Sanger, GS FLX, and GS FLX Titanium technologies. Assembly of the sequences yielded over 51,000 isotigs with homology to ~12,000 mouse, rat or human genes. Based on these results, it was possible to detect large numbers of splice variants, SNPs, and novel transcribed regions. In addition, multiple differential expression patterns were detected between tissues and treatments. The results presented here will serve as a valuable resource for future studies aimed at identifying genes and gene regions evolved during the adaptive radiation associated with underground life of the blind mole rat. 2011 Malik et al.

  9. Assessment of Antibiotic Utilization Pattern in Treatment of Acute Diarrhoea Diseases in Bishoftu General Hospital, Oromia Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulu, Selamawit; Tadesse, Tarekegne; Alemayehu Gube, Addisu

    2018-01-01

    Majority of acute diarrhoeal diseases are self-limiting and do not require routine treatment. Treatment with empirical antimicrobials is recommended only for dysenteric and invasive bacterial diarrhoea. Irrational use of antibiotics in treatment of acute diarrhoea is common in clinical practice worldwide. This study was carried out to assess the pattern of antibiotic use for acute diarrhoeal diseases in Bishoftu General Hospital, East Shewa Ethiopia. Institution based cross-sectional study was conducted from April 1 to April 30, 2016. Data were collected retrospectively from patients treated for diarrhoeal diseases from January 2015 to December 2015 using structured questionnaires and entered into SPSS (IBM 20) and descriptive statistics was carried out. Among the 303 patients, 51.2% were males and 48.8% were females. Of them, 62% were children under five years. Two hundred sixty three (86.8%) patients received eight different types of antibiotics and cotrimoxazole (178 patients, 58.7%) was the most prescribed antibiotics, followed by ciprofloxacin (33, 10.9%) and amoxicillin (14, 4.6%). Based on the presence of blood in stools, 14.5% of cases were of invasive bacterial type. According to the recommendations of WHO, the rate of overuse of antibiotics was 72.3%. This study revealed that there was high overuse of antibiotics for both adults and children under five with acute diarrhoea in Bishoftu General Hospital. And Cotrimoxazole was the most prescribed antibiotic.

  10. Utilizing Crochet to Showcase Temporal Patterns in Temperature Records from One Location and to Spark a Climate Conversation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guertin, L. A.

    2017-12-01

    Scientists that seek to show temperature changes over time will typically select a line graph as the tool for data communication. However, one non-traditional way to showcase variations in data can be through an artistic visualization created with yarn. For several years, amateur and professional artisans have been using needlework (crocheting/knitting) to represent weather/climate records in scarves and blankets, sharing their work in online communities. Since the Sky Scarf project in 2011, a temporal record of data represented in yarn can include precipitation/snowfall to the air quality index. Here is an example of how crochet is being utilized to show maximum air temperature records over time for one location. Maximum daily temperature values have been collected for January through April in Philadelphia in fifty-year intervals (1917, 1967, 2017). This four-month interval was selected to match with the location and timing of a university's spring semester, as the target audience for this particular visualization is undergraduate students. Instead of trying to read differences in temperature across line graphs plotted for each year, three mini-temperature tapestries have been crocheted. A temperature scale has been developed with rainbow colors of yarn, where the purple and blue represent the coldest temperatures, and the orange and red represent the warmest temperatures. By using the same yarn temperature scale across the three mini-tapestries, the increase in daily maximum temperature in Philadelphia for a set time period can quickly and easily be observed. This form of science art, when presented to students, generates a series of questions, stories and predictions of a scientific and personal nature that are not typically part of a climate science instructional unit.

  11. Patterns of Utilization of Adjuvant Radiotherapy and Outcomes in Black Women After Breast Conservation at a Large Multidisciplinary Cancer Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards-Bennett, Sophia M.; Jacks, Lindsay M.; McCormick, Beryl; Zhang, Zhigang; Azu, Michelle; Ho, Alice; Powell, Simon; Brown, Carol

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Population-based studies have reported that as many of 35% of black women do not undergo radiotherapy (RT) after breast conservation surgery (BCS). The objective of the present study was to determine whether this trend persisted at a large multidisciplinary cancer center, and to identify the factors that predict for noncompliance with RT and determine the outcomes for this subset of patients. Methods and Materials: Between January 2002 and December 2007, 83 black women underwent BCS at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center and were therefore eligible for the present study. Of the 83 women, 38 (46%) had Stage I, 38 (46%) Stage II, and 7 (8%) Stage III disease. Of the study cohort, 31 (37%) had triple hormone receptor-negative tumors. RT was recommended for 81 (98%) of the 83 patients (median dose, 60 Gy). Results: Of the 81 women, 12 (15%) did not receive the recommended adjuvant breast RT. Nonreceipt of chemotherapy (p = .003) and older age (p = .009) were associated with nonreceipt of RT. With a median follow-up of 70 months, the 3-year local control, locoregional control, recurrence-free survival, disease-free survival, and overall survival rate was 99% (actuarial 5-year rate, 97%), 96% (actuarial 5-year rate, 93%), 95% (actuarial 5-year rate, 92%), 92% (actuarial 5-year rate, 89%), and 95% (actuarial 5-year rate, 91%), respectively. Conclusion: We found a greater rate of utilization adjuvant breast RT (85%) among black women after BCS than has been reported in recent studies, indicating that excellent outcomes are attainable for black women after BCS when care is administered in a multidisciplinary cancer center.

  12. Utilization of Away-From-Home Food Establishments, Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension Dietary Pattern, and Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penney, Tarra L; Jones, Nicholas R V; Adams, Jean; Maguire, Eva R; Burgoine, Thomas; Monsivais, Pablo

    2017-11-01

    Eating meals away from home has been associated with the consumption of unhealthy foods and increased body weight. However, more rigorous assessment of the contribution of different types of away-from-home food establishments to overall diet quality and obesity is minimal. This study examined usage of these food establishments, accordance to the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) dietary pattern and obesity status in a nationally representative sample of adults in the United Kingdom. A cross-sectional analysis of data from a national survey (N=2,083 aged ≥19 years, from 2008 to 2012) with dietary intake measured using a 4-day food diary, and height and weight measured objectively. Exposures included usage of (i.e., by proportion of energy) all away-from-home food establishments combined, and fast-food outlets, restaurants, and cafés separately. Outcomes included accordance with the DASH diet, and obesity status. Multivariable logistic regressions were conducted in 2016 to estimate associations between food establishments, diet quality, and obesity. People consuming a higher proportion of energy from any away-from-home food establishment had lower odds of DASH accordance (OR=0.45, 95% CI=0.31, 0.67) and increased odds of obesity (OR=1.48, 95% CI=1.10, 1.99). After adjustment, only use of fast-food outlets was significantly associated with lower odds of DASH accordance (OR=0.48, 95% CI=0.33, 0.69) and higher odds of obesity (OR=1.30, 95% CI=1.01, 1.69). Although a greater reliance on eating away-from-home is associated with less-healthy diets and obesity, dietary public health interventions that target these food establishments may be most effective if they focus on modifying the use of fast-food outlets. Copyright © 2017 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Soluble organic nutrient fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert G. Qualls; Bruce L. Haines; Wayne Swank

    2014-01-01

    Our objectives in this study were (i) compare fluxes of the dissolved organic nutrients dissolved organic carbon (DOC), DON, and dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP) in a clearcut area and an adjacent mature reference area. (ii) determine whether concentrations of dissolved organic nutrients or inorganic nutrients were greater in clearcut areas than in reference areas,...

  14. Utilizing mixed methods research in analyzing Iranian researchers’ informarion search behaviour in the Web and presenting current pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Asadi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Using mixed methods research design, the current study has analyzed Iranian researchers’ information searching behaviour on the Web.Then based on extracted concepts, the model of their information searching behavior was revealed. . Forty-four participants, including academic staff from universities and research centers were recruited for this study selected by purposive sampling. Data were gathered from questionnairs including ten questions and semi-structured interview. Each participant’s memos were analyzed using grounded theory methods adapted from Strauss & Corbin (1998. Results showed that the main objectives of subjects were doing a research, writing a paper, studying, doing assignments, downloading files and acquiring public information in using Web. The most important of learning about how to search and retrieve information were trial and error and get help from friends among the subjects. Information resources are identified by searching in information resources (e.g. search engines, references in papers, and search in Online database… communications facilities & tools (e.g. contact with colleagues, seminars & workshops, social networking..., and information services (e.g. RSS, Alerting, and SDI. Also, Findings indicated that searching by search engines, reviewing references, searching in online databases, and contact with colleagues and studying last issue of the electronic journals were the most important for searching. The most important strategies were using search engines and scientific tools such as Google Scholar. In addition, utilizing from simple (Quick search method was the most common among subjects. Using of topic, keywords, title of paper were most important of elements for retrieval information. Analysis of interview showed that there were nine stages in researchers’ information searching behaviour: topic selection, initiating search, formulating search query, information retrieval, access to information

  15. Seasonal Patterns in Hydrogen Isotopes of Claws from Breeding Wood-Warblers (Parulidae: Utility for Estimating Migratory Origins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin C. Fraser

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The global decline in many species of migratory birds has focused attention on the extent of migratory connectivity between breeding and wintering populations. Stable-hydrogen isotope (δD analysis of feathers is a useful technique for measuring connectivity, but is constrained by features of molt location and timing. Claws are metabolically inert, keratinous tissues that grow continuously and can be sampled at any point in the annual cycle, thus providing potentially useful clues about an individual's previous movements. However, variation in the rate at which claws incorporate local δD values is not well described. We measured δD values in claws of two species of Neotropical-Nearctic migrant wood-warblers (Golden-winged Warbler and Cerulean Warbler breeding in eastern Ontario, Canada to investigate the rate of δD change through the breeding season and the utility of claw δD values for estimating migratory origins. δD values of claw tips from 66 different individuals, each sampled once during the breeding season, showed an average change of -0.3‰ to -0.4‰ per day in the direction of the expected local Ontario value. There were no significant sex or species differences in the rate of change. These results suggest δD values of claw tips in Parulids may reflect those of the non-breeding area for 3-7 weeks after arrival on the breeding grounds, and are useful estimators of non-breeding migratory origin. Our results also suggest that these species may leave the breeding ground before claw tips fully incorporate a local δD signature, as claws sampled at the end of the breeding season did not match locally grown feather and claw δD values. This is the first study to examine the seasonal rate of the change in δD values of claws in long-distance, insectivorous, migratory birds.

  16. Patterns of hospital resource utilization of children with leukemia and CNS tumors: a comparison of children who survive and those who die within 3 years of diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrickson, Karrie Cummings; Rimar, Joan

    2009-01-01

    Hospital admissions for children with cancer tend to be longer than admissions for adults with cancer and longer, more frequent, and more costly than other pediatric admissions. The two childhood cancers most commonly requiring hospitalization are leukemia and tumors of the central nervous system (CNS tumors). Determining the best use of limited financial resources and preparing children and their parents for what to expect requires a better understanding of the patterns and cost of hospital resource utilization by children with cancer. Both hospital administrators and third-party payers can use this understanding to better allocate resources and plan the care of children with cancer in the future. Because many parents of children with cancer struggle financially due to the high cost of treatments, time off of work, and other non-medical expenses, more education in this area may help parents to prepare, thus alleviating some of the uncertainty and unexpected financial costs associated with childhood cancer.

  17. Food Cost and Nutrient Availability in Urban Indonesia: Estimates for Food Policy Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Teklu, Tesfaye; Jensen, Helen H.

    1989-01-01

    Evaluating the effects of economic growth and the effectiveness of targeted government intervention requires identification of tarket groups and information on food and nutrient consumption patterns. A model of nutrient consumption linked to food choice behaviour is used to evaluate nutrient availability in urban Indonesia. Nutrient demand responses varied significantly across income levels

  18. Utilization pattern and survival outcomes of adjuvant therapies in high-grade nonretroperitoneal abdominal soft tissue sarcoma: A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, William Ross; Chokshi, Ravi; Jabbour, Salma K; DeLaney, Thomas F; Mahmoud, Omar

    2018-02-01

    Nonretroperitoneal abdominal soft tissue sarcoma (NRA-STS) is a rare disease with limited data supporting its management. Our study aimed to reveal the utilization patterns of adjuvant therapy and its potential survival benefits using the National Cancer Data Base. The analysis included patients with resected high-grade NRA-STS. Chi-square analysis was used to evaluate distribution of patient and tumor-related factors within treatment groups. The Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards model were utilized to evaluate overall survival according to treatment approach. Multivariate analysis was used to determine the impact of these factors on patients' outcome. Matched propensity score analysis was implemented to control for imbalance of confounding variables. At median follow-up of 49 months, 5-year overall survival improved from 46% without adjuvant radiation therapy to 52% (P = 0.009) with radiotherapy delivery with a 30% reduction in hazard of death (95% confidence interval = 0.58-0.84). On multivariate analysis, age <50, tumor <8 cm, negative margins and radiotherapy delivery were significant predictors of improved survival. Chemotherapy was not associated with significant survival improvement (Hazard Ratios [HR]: 0.89, P = 0.28). Adjuvant radiotherapy was associated with improved survival in high-grade NRA-STS. Chemotherapy was not associated with a survival improvement; however, further studies are needed to refine treatment strategies. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  19. Impact of presumed service-connected diagnosis on the Department of Veterans Affairs healthcare utilization patterns of Vietnam-Theater Veterans: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fried, Dennis A; Rajan, Mangala; Tseng, Chin-Lin; Helmer, Drew

    2018-05-01

    During the Vietnam War, the US military sprayed almost 20 million gallons of Agent Orange (AO), an herbicide contaminated with dioxin, over Vietnam. Approximately, 2.7 million US military personnel may have been exposed to AO during their deployment. Ordinarily, veterans who can demonstrate a nexus between a diagnosed condition and military service are eligible for Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) service-connected disability compensation. Vietnam Veterans have had difficulty, however, establishing a nexus between AO exposure and certain medical conditions that developed many years after the war. In response, VA has designated certain conditions as "presumed service connected" for Vietnam Veterans who were present and possibly exposed. Veterans with any of these designated conditions do not have to document AO exposure, making it easier for them to access the VA disability system. The extent to which VA healthcare utilization patterns reflect easier access afforded those with diagnosed presumptive conditions remains unknown. In this cross-sectional study, we hypothesized that Vietnam Veterans with diagnosed presumptive conditions would be heavier users of the VA healthcare system than those without these conditions. In our analysis of 85,699 Vietnam Veterans, we used binary and cumulative logit multivariable regression to assess associations between diagnosed presumptive conditions and VA healthcare utilization in 2013. We found that diagnosed presumptive conditions were associated with higher odds of 5+ VHA primary care visits (OR = 2.01, 95% CI: 1.93-2.07), 5+ specialty care visits (OR = 2.11, 95% CI: 2.04-2.18), emergency department use (OR = 1.22, 95% CI: 1.11-1.34), and hospitalization (OR = 1.23, 95% CI: 1.17-1.29). Consistent with legislative intent, presumptive policies appear to facilitate greater VA system utilization for Vietnam Veterans who may have been exposed to AO.

  20. Impact of presumed service-connected diagnosis on the Department of Veterans Affairs healthcare utilization patterns of Vietnam-Theater Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fried, Dennis A.; Rajan, Mangala; Tseng, Chin-lin; Helmer, Drew

    2018-01-01

    Abstract During the Vietnam War, the US military sprayed almost 20 million gallons of Agent Orange (AO), an herbicide contaminated with dioxin, over Vietnam. Approximately, 2.7 million US military personnel may have been exposed to AO during their deployment. Ordinarily, veterans who can demonstrate a nexus between a diagnosed condition and military service are eligible for Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) service-connected disability compensation. Vietnam Veterans have had difficulty, however, establishing a nexus between AO exposure and certain medical conditions that developed many years after the war. In response, VA has designated certain conditions as “presumed service connected” for Vietnam Veterans who were present and possibly exposed. Veterans with any of these designated conditions do not have to document AO exposure, making it easier for them to access the VA disability system. The extent to which VA healthcare utilization patterns reflect easier access afforded those with diagnosed presumptive conditions remains unknown. In this cross-sectional study, we hypothesized that Vietnam Veterans with diagnosed presumptive conditions would be heavier users of the VA healthcare system than those without these conditions. In our analysis of 85,699 Vietnam Veterans, we used binary and cumulative logit multivariable regression to assess associations between diagnosed presumptive conditions and VA healthcare utilization in 2013. We found that diagnosed presumptive conditions were associated with higher odds of 5+ VHA primary care visits (OR = 2.01, 95% CI: 1.93–2.07), 5+ specialty care visits (OR = 2.11, 95% CI: 2.04–2.18), emergency department use (OR = 1.22, 95% CI: 1.11–1.34), and hospitalization (OR = 1.23, 95% CI: 1.17–1.29). Consistent with legislative intent, presumptive policies appear to facilitate greater VA system utilization for Vietnam Veterans who may have been exposed to AO. PMID:29742706

  1. Treatment patterns, resource utilization, and outcomes among hospitalized patients with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus complicated skin and soft tissue infections in Lebanon and Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matar MJ

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Madonna J Matar,1 Rima Moghnieh,2 Adel F Alothman,3 Abdulhakeem O Althaqafi,4 Thamer H Alenazi,3 Fayssal M Farahat,4 Shelby Corman,5 Caitlyn T Solem,5 Nirvana Raghubir,6 Cynthia Macahilig,7 Seema Haider,8 Jennifer M Stephens5 1Department of Infectious Diseases, Notre Dame des Secours University Hospital, Jbeil, Lebanon; 2Department of Internal Medicine, Makassed General Hospital, Beirut, Lebanon; 3College of Medicine, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 4King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, Infection Prevention and Control, King AbdulAziz Medical City, King Saud bin AbdulAziz University for Health Sciences, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; 5Pharmerit International, Real-World Evidence/Data Analytics, Bethesda, MD, 6Pfizer, New York, NY, 7Medical Data Analytics, Parsippany, NJ, 8Pfizer, Groton, CT, USA Objectives: To describe treatment patterns and medical resource use for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA complicated skin and soft tissue infections (cSSTI in Saudi Arabia and Lebanon in terms of drug selection against the infecting pathogen as well as hospital resource utilization and clinical outcomes among patients with these infections. Methods: This retrospective chart review study evaluated 2011–2012 data from five hospitals in Saudi Arabia and Lebanon. Patients were included if they had been discharged with a diagnosis of MRSA cSSTI, which was culture-proven or suspected based on clinical criteria. Hospital data were abstracted for a random sample of patients with each infection type to capture demographics, treatment patterns, hospital resource utilization, and clinical outcomes. Statistical analysis was descriptive. Results: Data were abstracted from medical records of 87 patients with MRSA cSSTI; mean age 52.4±25.9 years and 61% male. Only 64% of patients received an MRSA active initial therapy, with 56% of first

  2. Clinical and resource utilization patterns in patients with refractory neuropathic pain prescribed pregabalin for the first time in routine medical practice in primary care settings in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Concepción; Navarro, Ana; Saldaña, María T; Masramón, Xavier; Pérez, María; Rejas, Javier

    2013-12-01

    To describe clinical and resource utilization patterns in patients with refractory neuropathic pain (NeP) who were prescribed pregabalin for the first time in routine medical practice in primary care settings. Post-hoc analysis of a 12-week prospective observational study including pregabalin naïve adult patients with refractory chronic NeP of at least 6-months duration. Self-reported pain intensity, disability, sleep disturbances, symptoms of anxiety and depression, disability, health-related quality of life (HRQoL), health care resource utilization, and corresponding costs were assessed in this post-hoc analysis. One thousand three hundred fifty-four patients were enrolled in the study, and three treatment groups were identified: (1) 598 patients replaced prior pain treatments with pregabalin as monotherapy; (2) 589 added pregabalin to their existing pain treatments; and (3) 167 other pain treatments were prescribed according with physician routine medical practice. Statistically significant differences were reported at baseline for intensity of pain, patient disability, severity of depressive symptoms, and HRQoL (P use of direct and indirect resources vs the other groups, resulting in significantly higher quarterly overall costs per patient: €2,397 (2,308), €2,470 (1,857), and €3,110 (2,496), respectively (P < 0.001). These findings suggest that primary care physicians chose pregabalin as an option for treating refractory patients who tended to have much more severe NeP profiles, costing society more than when they chose other therapeutic strategies not including pregabalin. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Chronic pain and pattern of health care utilization among Malaysian elderly population: National Health and Morbidity Survey III (NHMS III, 2006).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed Zaki, Lily R; Hairi, Noran N

    2014-12-01

    The aims of this study were to report prevalence of chronic pain and to examine whether chronic pain influence healthcare usage among elderly Malaysian population. This was a sub-population analysis of the elderly sample in the Malaysia's Third National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS III) 2006, a nation-wide population based survey. A subset of 4954 elderly aged 60 years and above was used in the analysis. Chronic pain, pain's interference and outcome variables of healthcare utilization (hospital admission and ambulatory care service) were all measured and determined by self-report. Prevalence of chronic pain among elderly Malaysian was 15.2% (95% CI: 14.5, 16.8). Prevalence of chronic pain increased with advancing age, and the highest prevalence was seen among the old-old group category (21.5%). Across young-old and old-old groups, chronic pain was more prevalent among females, Indian ethnicity, widows/widowers, rural residency and those with no educational background. Our study showed that chronic pain alone increased hospitalization but not visits to ambulatory facilities. Presence of chronic pain was significantly associated with the frequency of hospitalization (aIRR 1.11; 95% CI 1.02, 1.38) but not ambulatory care service. Chronic pain is a prevalent health problem among the elderly in Malaysia and is associated with higher hospitalization rate among the elderly population. This study provides insight into the distribution of chronic pain among the elderly and its relationship with the patterns of healthcare utilization. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Patterns of the Demographics, Clinical Characteristics, and Resource Utilization Among Maternal Decedents in Texas, 2001 - 2010: A Population-Based Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oud, Lavi

    2015-12-01

    Contemporary reporting of maternal mortality is focused on single, mutually exclusive causes of death among a minority of maternal decedents (pregnancy-related deaths), reflecting initial events leading to death. Although obstetric patients are susceptible to the lethal effects of downstream, more proximate contributors to death and to conditions not caused or precipitated by pregnancy, the burden of both categories and related patients' attributes is invisible to clinicians and healthcare policy makers with the current reporting system. Thus, the population-level demographics, clinical characteristics, and resource utilization associated with pregnancy-associated deaths in the United States have not been adequately characterized. We used the Texas Inpatient Public Use Data File to perform a population-based cohort study of the patterns of demographics, chronic comorbidity, occurrence of early maternal demise, potential contributors to maternal death, and resource utilization among maternal decedents in the state during 2001 - 2010. There were 557 maternal decedents during study period. Chronic comorbidity was reported in 45.2%. Most women (74.1%) were admitted to an ICU. Hemorrhage (27.8%), sepsis (23.5%), and cardiovascular conditions (22.6%) were the most commonly reported potential contributing conditions to maternal death, varying across categories of pregnancy-associated hospitalizations. More than one condition was reported in 39% of decedents. One in three women died during their first day of hospitalization, with no significant change over the past decade. The mean hospital length of stay was 7.9 days and total hospital charges were $250,000 or higher in 65 (11.7%) women. The findings of the high burden of chronic illness, patterns of occurrence of a broad array of potential contributing conditions to pregnancy-associated death, and the resource-intensive needs of a large contemporary population-based cohort of maternal decedents may better inform

  5. Towards regional mapping of grass nutrients using remote sensing in Greater Kruger National Park

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ramoelo, Abel

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Regional maps of grass nutrients are important to inform decision making regarding the management of savanna ecosystems. Grass nutrients plays a crucial role in understanding the distribution, densities and feeding patterns of both wild herbivores...

  6. Contribution of Food Groups to Energy and Nutrient Intakes in Five Developed Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Auestad

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Economic growth in developing countries and globalization of the food sector is leading to increasingly similar food consumption patterns worldwide. The aim of this study was to describe similarities and differences in the contributions of main food groups to energy and nutrient intakes in five developed countries across three continents. We obtained summary reports of national food consumption survey data from Australia, France, Denmark, the Netherlands, and the United States. Survey years spanned 2003–2012; sample size ranged from 1444 to 17,386. To mitigate heterogeneity of food groups across countries, we recategorized each survey’s reported food groups and subgroups into eight main food groups and, for three countries, a ninth “mixed dishes” group. We determined the percent contribution of each food group to mean daily intakes of energy, saturated fat, sodium, fiber, and ten vitamins and minerals that are commonly under-consumed. Differences in findings from surveys utilizing a foods-as-consumed versus a disaggregated or ingredients approach to food group composition and contributions from the milk and milk products group, a source of several under-consumed nutrients, were explored. Patterns of food group contributions to energy and nutrient intakes were generally similar across countries. Some differences were attributable to the analytical approach used by the surveys. For the meat/protein, milk and milk products, vegetables, and fruit groups, percent contributions to key nutrient intakes exceeded percent contributions to energy intake. The mixed dishes group provided 10%–20% of total daily energy and a similar 10%–25% of the daily intake of several nutrients. This descriptive study contributes to an understanding of food group consumption patterns in developed countries.

  7. Contribution of Food Groups to Energy and Nutrient Intakes in Five Developed Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auestad, Nancy; Hurley, Judith S.; Fulgoni, Victor L.; Schweitzer, Cindy M.

    2015-01-01

    Economic growth in developing countries and globalization of the food sector is leading to increasingly similar food consumption patterns worldwide. The aim of this study was to describe similarities and differences in the contributions of main food groups to energy and nutrient intakes in five developed countries across three continents. We obtained summary reports of national food consumption survey data from Australia, France, Denmark, the Netherlands, and the United States. Survey years spanned 2003–2012; sample size ranged from 1444 to 17,386. To mitigate heterogeneity of food groups across countries, we recategorized each survey’s reported food groups and subgroups into eight main food groups and, for three countries, a ninth “mixed dishes” group. We determined the percent contribution of each food group to mean daily intakes of energy, saturated fat, sodium, fiber, and ten vitamins and minerals that are commonly under-consumed. Differences in findings from surveys utilizing a foods-as-consumed versus a disaggregated or ingredients approach to food group composition and contributions from the milk and milk products group, a source of several under-consumed nutrients, were explored. Patterns of food group contributions to energy and nutrient intakes were generally similar across countries. Some differences were attributable to the analytical approach used by the surveys. For the meat/protein, milk and milk products, vegetables, and fruit groups, percent contributions to key nutrient intakes exceeded percent contributions to energy intake. The mixed dishes group provided 10%–20% of total daily energy and a similar 10%–25% of the daily intake of several nutrients. This descriptive study contributes to an understanding of food group consumption patterns in developed countries. PMID:26061017

  8. Differences in egg nutrient availability, development, and nutrient metabolism of broiler and layer embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nangsuay, A; Molenaar, R; Meijerhof, R; van den Anker, I; Heetkamp, M J W; Kemp, B; van den Brand, H

    2015-03-01

    Selection for production traits of broilers and layers leads to physiological differences, which may already be present during incubation. This study aimed to investigate the influence of strain (broiler vs layer) on egg nutrient availability, embryonic development and nutrient metabolism. A total of 480 eggs with an egg weight range of 62.0 to 64.0 g from Lohmann Brown Lite and Ross 308 breeder flocks of 41 or 42 weeks of age were selected in two batches of 120 eggs per batch per strain. For each batch, 30 eggs per strain were used to determine egg composition, including nutrient and energy content, and 90 eggs per strain were separately incubated in one of two climate respiration chambers at an eggshell temperature of 37.8°C. The results showed that broiler eggs had a higher ratio of yolk: albumen with 2.41 g more yolk and 1.48 g less albumen than layers. The yolk energy content of broiler eggs was 46.32 kJ higher than that of layer eggs, whereas total energy content of broiler eggs was 47.85 kJ higher compared to layer eggs. Yolk-free body mass at incubation day 16 and chick weight and length at hatch were higher in broilers compared to layers. Respiration quotient of broiler embryos was higher than layer embryos during incubation day 8 to incubation day 10. A 0.24 g lower residual yolk at the hatch of broiler embryos than for the layer embryos indicated that broiler embryos used more yolk and had a higher energy utilization and energy deposition in yolk-free body mass. Heat production of broiler embryos was higher than that of layer embryos from incubation day 12 to incubation day 18, but efficiency of converting egg energy used by embryos to form yolk-free body mass was similar. In conclusion, broiler and layer embryos have different embryonic development patterns, which affect energy utilization and embryonic heat production. However, the embryos are equal in efficiency of converting the energy used to yolk-free body mass. © 2015 Poultry Science

  9. Energy-neutral sustainable nutrient recovery incorporated with the wastewater purification process in an enlarged microbial nutrient recovery cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Dongya; Gao, Yifan; Hou, Dianxun; Zuo, Kuichang; Chen, Xi; Liang, Peng; Zhang, Xiaoyuan; Ren, Zhiyong Jason; Huang, Xia

    2018-04-01

    Recovery of nutrient resources from the wastewater is now an inevitable strategy to maintain the supply of both nutrient and water for our huge population. While the intensive energy consumption in conventional nutrient recovery technologies still remained as the bottleneck towards the sustainable nutrient recycle. This study proposed an enlarged microbial nutrient recovery cell (EMNRC) which was powered by the energy contained in wastewater and achieved multi-cycle nutrient recovery incorporated with in situ wastewater treatment. With the optimal recovery solution of 3 g/L NaCl and the optimal volume ratio of wastewater to recovery solution of 10:1, >89% of phosphorus and >62% of ammonium nitrogen were recovered into struvite. An extremely low water input ratio of water. It was proved the EMNRC system was a promising technology which could utilize the chemical energy contained in wastewater itself and energy-neutrally recover nutrient during the continuous wastewater purification process.

  10. A comparison of the health status and health care utilization patterns between foreigners and the national population in Spain: new evidence from the Spanish National Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Quevedo, Cristina; Jiménez-Rubio, Dolores

    2009-08-01

    The increasing proportion of immigrants in Spanish society is placing pressure on the National Health Care System to accommodate the needs of this population group while keeping costs under control. In the year 2000, a law was approved in Spain according to which all people, regardless of their nationality, are entitled to use health care services under the same conditions as Spanish citizens, provided that they are registered in the local population census. However, empirical evidence about differences in health status and health care utilization between the immigrant and the Spanish population is insufficient. This paper uses the 2003 and 2006 Spanish National Health Surveys to explore the existence of inequalities in health and in the access to health services for the immigrant population living in Spain, relative to that of Spaniards. Our results show that there are different patterns in the level of health and the medical care use between the national and the foreign population in Spain: while immigrants' self-reported health relative to that of the Spanish population depends upon individual nationality, all immigrants, regardless of their nationality, seem to face barriers of entry to specialized care. Further research is needed to understand the nature of these barriers in order to design more effective health policies.

  11. Nutrients and toxin producing phytoplankton control algal blooms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A phytoplankton-zooplankton prey-predator model has been investigated for temporal, spatial and spatio-temporal dissipative pattern formation in a deterministic and noisy environment, respectively. The overall carrying capacity for the phytoplankton population depends on the nutrient level. The role of nutrient ...

  12. Comparative treatment patterns, healthcare resource utilization and costs of atomoxetine and long-acting methylphenidate among children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greven, Peter; Sikirica, Vanja; Chen, Yaozhu J; Curtice, Tammy G; Makin, Charles

    2017-09-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) imposes a substantial burden on patients and their families. A retrospective, propensity score-matched cohort study compared treatment patterns, healthcare resource utilization (HRU) and costs among children/adolescents with ADHD aged 6-17 years at treatment initiation (index) in Germany who received atomoxetine (ATX) or long-acting methylphenidate (LA-MPH) monotherapy. Patients received at least one prescription for their index medication (ATX/LA-MPH) during 2006-2010; the first prescription marked the index date. ATX- and LA-MPH-indexed cohorts were matched 1:1 (n = 737); a patient subset was identified that had not received ADHD-indicated medications in 12 months prior to index (novel initiators: ATX, n = 486; LA-MPH, n = 488). Treatment patterns were evaluated among novel initiators, and HRU and costs among the matched cohorts in the 12 months after index. No significant differences in baseline characteristics were found between the novel initiator patient subsets. ATX-indexed novel initiators had significantly longer persistence to index medication [mean (standard deviation; SD) days: 222.0 (133.9) vs 203.2 (135.0), P = 0.029) but higher switching rates (8.8 vs 5.5 %, P = 0.045) than LA-MPH-indexed novel initiators. The total ATX-indexed cohort required more prescriptions [any medication; mean (SD): 20.9 (11.5) vs 15.7 (9.0), P < 0.001] and outpatient visits [mean (SD): 10.1 (6.3) vs 8.3 (5.3), P < 0.001], and incurred significantly higher total median healthcare costs (€1144 vs €541, P < 0.001) versus matched LA-MPH patients. These real-world data indicate that, among children/adolescents with ADHD in Germany, ATX-indexed patients may require more prescriptions and physician visits, and incur higher total healthcare costs, than matched LA-MPH patients.

  13. Nutrient density: addressing the challenge of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewnowski, Adam

    2017-10-30

    Obesity rates are increasing worldwide. Potential reasons include excessive consumption of sugary beverages and energy-dense foods instead of more nutrient-rich options. On a per kJ basis, energy-dense grains, added sugars and fats cost less, whereas lean meats, seafood, leafy greens and whole fruit generally cost more. Given that consumer food choices are often driven by price, the observed social inequities in diet quality and health can be explained, in part, by nutrition economics. Achieving a nutrient-rich diet at an affordable cost has become progressively more difficult within the constraints of global food supply. However, given the necessary metrics and educational tools, it may be possible to eat better for less. New metrics of nutrient density help consumers identify foods, processed and unprocessed, that are nutrient-rich, affordable and appealing. Affordability metrics, created by adding food prices to food composition data, permit calculations of both kJ and nutrients per penny, allowing for new studies on the economic drivers of food choice. Merging dietary intake data with local or national food prices permits the estimation of individual-level diet costs. New metrics of nutrient balance can help identify those food patterns that provide optimal nutritional value. Behavioural factors, including cooking at home, have been associated with nutrition resilience, defined as healthier diets at lower cost. Studies of the energy and nutrient costs of the global food supply and diverse food patterns will permit a better understanding of the socioeconomic determinants of health. Dietary advice ought to be accompanied by economic feasibility studies.

  14. Distribution of nutrients in the Periyar river estuary

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Devi, K.S.; Sankaranarayanan, V.N.; Venugopal, P.

    higher values compared to the surface and bottom water. Irregular pattern of distribution of ammonia was recorded at all stations. Early monsoon season showed uniform conditions in this section. Subsequently a build up of nutrients in the mid...

  15. Expected utility without utility

    OpenAIRE

    Castagnoli, E.; Licalzi, M.

    1996-01-01

    This paper advances an interpretation of Von Neumann–Morgenstern’s expected utility model for preferences over lotteries which does not require the notion of a cardinal utility over prizes and can be phrased entirely in the language of probability. According to it, the expected utility of a lottery can be read as the probability that this lottery outperforms another given independent lottery. The implications of this interpretation for some topics and models in decision theory are considered....

  16. USA Nutrient managment forecasting via the "Fertilizer Forecaster": linking surface runnof, nutrient application and ecohydrology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drohan, Patrick; Buda, Anthony; Kleinman, Peter; Miller, Douglas; Lin, Henry; Beegle, Douglas; Knight, Paul

    2017-04-01

    USA and state nutrient management planning offers strategic guidance that strives to educate farmers and those involved in nutrient management to make wise management decisions. A goal of such programs is to manage hotspots of water quality degradation that threaten human and ecosystem health, water and food security. The guidance provided by nutrient management plans does not provide the day-to-day support necessary to make operational decisions, particularly when and where to apply nutrients over the short term. These short-term decisions on when and where to apply nutrients often make the difference between whether the nutrients impact water quality or are efficiently utilized by crops. Infiltrating rainfall events occurring shortly after broadcast nutrient applications are beneficial, given they will wash soluble nutrients into the soil where they are used by crops. Rainfall events that generate runoff shortly after nutrients are broadcast may wash off applied nutrients, and produce substantial nutrient losses from that site. We are developing a model and data based support tool for nutrient management, the Fertilizer Forecaster, which identifies the relative probability of runoff or infiltrating events in Pennsylvania (PA) landscapes in order to improve water quality. This tool will support field specific decisions by farmers and land managers on when and where to apply fertilizers and manures over 24, 48 and 72 hour periods. Our objectives are to: (1) monitor agricultural hillslopes in watersheds representing four of the five Physiographic Provinces of the Chesapeake Bay basin; (2) validate a high resolution mapping model that identifies soils prone to runoff; (3) develop an empirically based approach to relate state-of-the-art weather forecast variables to site-specific rainfall infiltration or runoff occurrence; (4) test the empirical forecasting model against alternative approaches to forecasting runoff occurrence; and (5) recruit farmers from the four

  17. Eficiência de utilização da energia metabolizável para ganho de peso e exigências de energia metabolizável e nutrientes digestíveis totais de bovinos F1 Simental x Nelore Efficiency of metabolizable energy utilization for weight gain and requirements of metabolizable energy and total digestible nutrients in F1 Simental x Nellore bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo de Andrade Ferreira

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estimar a eficiência de utilização da energia metabolizável (EM, para ganho de peso, e as exigências de energia metabolizável e nutrientes digestíveis totais de bovinos F1 Simental x Nelore, não-castrados, alimentados com rações contendo diferentes níveis de concentrado. Foram utilizados 29 animais com, em média, idade de 17 meses e peso vivo inicial de 354 kg. Cinco animais foram abatidos ao início do experimento, como referência, e o restante foi alimentado à vontade e distribuído nos tratamentos, de forma inteiramente casualizada, de acordo com o nível de concentrado na ração: 25; 37,5; 50; 62,5; e 75%. Os animais foram abatidos quando atingiram o peso de 500 kg. As concentrações de energia líquida das rações foram calculadas e as eficiências de utilização da energia metabolizável para ganho de peso foram estimadas, por análise de regressão, entre as energias líquidas para ganho, em relação à energia metabolizável (EM das rações. As exigências de EM para ganho de um quilograma de peso de corpo vazio aumentaram, à medida que se elevou o peso corporal dos animais e diminuíram, para mesmo peso vivo, à medida que se elevaram os níveis de concentrado nas rações. Estimaram-se as eficiências de utilização da energia metabolizável para ganho de peso em: 0,27; 0,26; 0,36; 0,39; e 0,42. O nível de concentrado melhorou a eficiência de utilização da EM para ganho de peso.The objective of this work was to estimate the efficiency of metabolizable energy utilization (ME for weight gain, and the requirements of metabolizable energy and total digestible nutrients in F1 Simental x Nellore bulls fed diets containing different concentrate levels. Twenty-nine animals averaging 17 of age and initial live weight of 354 kg were used. Five animals were slaughtered in the beginning of the experiment, as a reference, and the remainders were full fed and allotted to a completely randomized

  18. Biological response to millennial variability of dust and nutrient supply in the Subantarctic South Atlantic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Robert F; Barker, Stephen; Fleisher, Martin; Gersonde, Rainer; Goldstein, Steven L; Kuhn, Gerhard; Mortyn, P Graham; Pahnke, Katharina; Sachs, Julian P

    2014-07-13

    Fluxes of lithogenic material and fluxes of three palaeo-productivity proxies (organic carbon, biogenic opal and alkenones) over the past 100,000 years were determined using the (230)Th-normalization method in three sediment cores from the Subantarctic South Atlantic Ocean. Features in the lithogenic flux record of each core correspond to similar features in the record of dust deposition in the EPICA Dome C ice core. Biogenic fluxes correlate with lithogenic fluxes in each sediment core. Our preferred interpretation is that South American dust, most probably from Patagonia, constitutes a major source of lithogenic material in Subantarctic South Atlantic sediments, and that past biological productivity in this region responded to variability in the supply of dust, probably due to biologically available iron carried by the dust. Greater nutrient supply as well as greater nutrient utilization (stimulated by dust) contributed to Subantarctic productivity during cold periods, in contrast to the region south of the Antarctic Polar Front (APF), where reduced nutrient supply during cold periods was the principal factor limiting productivity. The anti-phased patterns of productivity on opposite sides of the APF point to shifts in the physical supply of nutrients and to dust as cofactors regulating productivity in the Southern Ocean. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  19. Nutrient regulation in a predator, the wolf spider Pardosa prativaga

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kim; Mayntz, David; Toft, Søren

    2011-01-01

    Nutrient balancing is well known in herbivores and omnivores, but has only recently been demonstrated in predators. To test how a predator might regulate nutrients when the prey varies in nutrient composition, we restricted juvenile Pardosa prativaga wolf spiders to diets of one of six fruit fly......, Drosophila melanogaster, prey types varying in lipid:protein composition during their second instar. We collected all fly remnants to estimate food and nutrient intake over each meal. The spiders adjusted their capture rate and nutrient extraction in response to prey mass and nutrient composition...... irrespective of energy intake. Intake was initially regulated to a constant lipid plus protein mass, but later spiders fed on prey with high proportions of protein increased consumption relative to spiders fed on other prey types. This pattern indicates that the spiders were prepared to overconsume vast...

  20. Nutrient synchrony in preruminant calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borne, van den J.J.G.C.

    2006-01-01

    In animal nutrition, the nutrient composition of the daily feed supply is composed to match the nutrient requirements for the desired performance. The time of nutrient availability within a day is usually considered not to affect the fate of nutrients. The aim of this thesis was to evaluate effects

  1. Utilization Patterns of Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor Agonists in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Italy: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federici, Marco Orsini; McQuillan, Janette; Biricolti, Giovanni; Losi, Serena; Lebrec, Jeremie; Richards, Catrina; Miglio, Cristiana; Norrbacka, Kirsi

    2018-04-01

    Real-world evidence on glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist (GLP-1 RAs) usage is emerging in different European countries but is lacking in Italy. This retrospective cohort study aimed to describe the real-world drug utilization patterns in patients initiating GLP-1 RAs for treating T2DM in Italy. Adults aged ≥ 20 years and with ≥ 1 oral antidiabetic drug (alone or in combination with insulin) other than GLP-1 RAs in the 6 months prior to initiating exenatide twice daily (exBID), exenatide once weekly (exQW), dulaglutide once weekly (DULA), liraglutide once daily (LIRA) or lixisenatide once daily (LIXI) between March and July 2016 were retrospectively identified in the Italian IMS LifeLink™ longitudinal prescriptions database (retail pharmacy data). Patients with ≥ 6-month follow-up (defined as evidence of any prescription activity) were included. Proportions of patients who remained persistent (continued treatment until discontinuation/switch) in the first 6 months and of those who discontinued or switched to a different GLP-1 RA over the entire follow-up were recorded. For each treatment, the average daily/weekly dosage (ADD/AWD) while persistent during the available follow-up was calculated. We identified 7319 patients: 92 exBID, 970 exQW, 3368 DULA, 2573 LIRA and 316 LIXI. Across treatments, 89% patients were ≥ 50 years old, 54% were males, and the median follow-up duration ranged between 8.1 and 8.7 months. At 6 months, 35% exBID, 47% exQW, 62% DULA, 50% LIRA and 40% LIXI patients remained persistent. Over the entire follow-up, median persistence days varied from 73 (exBID) to > 300 days (DULA). The mean ± SD ADD/AWD was exBID: 17.7 ± 2.1 µg/day; exQW: 2.1 ± 0.1 mg/week; DULA: 1.5 ± 0.2 mg/week; LIRA: 1.5 ± 0.2 mg/day; LIXI: 21.0 ± 5.5 µg/day. This real-world analysis suggests differences exist in persistence between patients treated with various GLP-1 RAs. Among the investigated

  2. Late gestational nutrient restriction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tygesen, Malin Plumhoff; Nielsen, Mette Olaf; Nørgaard, Peder

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the effect of 50% nutrient restriction during the last 6 weeks of gestation on twin-pregnant ewes' plasma glucose, non-esterified fatty acid, ß-hydroxybutyrate, insulin, IGF-1 and leptin concentrations and the effects on lamb birth weight and ewes' lactation performance. Plasma...

  3. Plant response to nutrient availability across variable bedrock geologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castle, S.C.; Neff, J.C.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the role of rock-derived mineral nutrient availability on the nutrient dynamics of overlying forest communities (Populus tremuloides and Picea engelmanni-Abies lasiocarpa v. arizonica) across three parent materials (andesite, limestone, and sandstone) in the southern Rocky Mountains of Colorado. Broad geochemical differences were observed between bedrock materials; however, bulk soil chemistries were remarkably similar between the three different sites. In contrast, soil nutrient pools were considerably different, particularly for P, Ca, and Mg concentrations. Despite variations in nutrient stocks and nutrient availability in soils, we observed relatively inflexible foliar concentrations and foliar stoichiometries for both deciduous and coniferous species. Foliar nutrient resorption (P and K) in the deciduous species followed patterns of nutrient content across substrate types, with higher resorption corresponding to lower bedrock concentrations. Work presented here indicates a complex plant response to available soil nutrients, wherein plant nutrient use compensates for variations in supply gradients and results in the maintenance of a narrow range in foliar stoichiometry. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  4. Nutrients in the nexus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Eric A.; Niphong, Rachel; Ferguson, Richard B.; Palm, Cheryl; Osmond, Deanna L.; Baron, Jill S.

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic nitrogen (N) fertilizer has enabled modern agriculture to greatly improve human nutrition during the twentieth century, but it has also created unintended human health and environmental pollution challenges for the twenty-first century. Averaged globally, about half of the fertilizer-N applied to farms is removed with the crops, while the other half remains in the soil or is lost from farmers’ fields, resulting in water and air pollution. As human population continues to grow and food security improves in the developing world, the dual development goals of producing more nutritious food with low pollution will require both technological and socio-economic innovations in agriculture. Two case studies presented here, one in sub-Saharan Africa and the other in Midwestern United States, demonstrate how management of nutrients, water, and energy is inextricably linked in both small-scale and large-scale food production, and that science-based solutions to improve the efficiency of nutrient use can optimize food production while minimizing pollution. To achieve the needed large increases in nutrient use efficiency, however, technological developments must be accompanied by policies that recognize the complex economic and social factors affecting farmer decision-making and national policy priorities. Farmers need access to affordable nutrient supplies and support information, and the costs of improving efficiencies and avoiding pollution may need to be shared by society through innovative policies. Success will require interdisciplinary partnerships across public and private sectors, including farmers, private sector crop advisors, commodity supply chains, government agencies, university research and extension, and consumers.

  5. Characteristic LDH isozyme electrophoretic patterns in six flatfish species in the Trondheimsfjord, Norway and their utility for the detection of natural species hybrids

    KAUST Repository

    He, Song

    2014-11-19

    Abstract: LDH isozyme electrophoretic patterns among 621 specimens of six different flatfish species collected in the Trondheimsfjord, Norway, were characterized by using the isoelectric focusing in polyacrylamide gel (IFPAG) technique. The LDH locus appears to be a reliable tool for species identification in the Trondheimsfjord flatfishes. Hence, these patterns were used to detect and identify potential hybrids, together with morphological traits. Among all the specimens collected during this study no hybrids were detected. From the actual numbers analysed, the natural hybridization rate between European plaice and European flounder in the Trondheimsfjord can be roughly estimated to be less than 1%. This is substantially lower than corresponding values reported from Baltic and Danish waters.

  6. Characteristic LDH isozyme electrophoretic patterns in six flatfish species in the Trondheimsfjord, Norway and their utility for the detection of natural species hybrids

    KAUST Repository

    He, Song; Mork, Jarle

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: LDH isozyme electrophoretic patterns among 621 specimens of six different flatfish species collected in the Trondheimsfjord, Norway, were characterized by using the isoelectric focusing in polyacrylamide gel (IFPAG) technique. The LDH locus appears to be a reliable tool for species identification in the Trondheimsfjord flatfishes. Hence, these patterns were used to detect and identify potential hybrids, together with morphological traits. Among all the specimens collected during this study no hybrids were detected. From the actual numbers analysed, the natural hybridization rate between European plaice and European flounder in the Trondheimsfjord can be roughly estimated to be less than 1%. This is substantially lower than corresponding values reported from Baltic and Danish waters.

  7. Utilization of Mental Health Care, Treatment Patterns, and Course of Psychosocial Functioning in Northern German Coronary Artery Disease Patients with Depressive and/or Anxiety Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westermair, Anna Lisa; Schaich, Anja; Willenborg, Bastian; Willenborg, Christina; Nitsche, Stefan; Schunkert, Heribert; Erdmann, Jeanette; Schweiger, Ulrich

    2018-01-01

    Comorbid mental disorders in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) are common and associated with adverse somatic outcomes. However, data on utilization rates of mental health care and treatment efficiency are scarce and inconsistent, which we tried to remedy with the present preliminary study on Northern German CAD patients. A total of 514 German CAD patients, as diagnosed by cardiac catheterization, were assessed using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview and the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) scale. Global utilization of mental health care since onset of CAD was 21.0%. Depressive disorders, younger age, and lower GAF at onset of CAD were associated with higher utilization rates, while anxiety disorders and gender were not. Lower GAF at onset of CAD, female gender, and psychotherapy was positively associated with higher gains in GAF, while younger age and anxiety disorders were negatively associated. The majority of CAD patients with comorbid depression reported to have received mental health treatment and seemed to have benefited from it. However, we found preliminary evidence of insufficiencies in the diagnosis and treatment of anxiety disorders in CAD patients. Further studies, preferably prospective and with representative samples, are needed to corroborate or falsify these findings and explore possible further mediators of health-care utilization by CAD patients such as race, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status.

  8. Trends in nutrients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heathwaite, A.L.; Johnes, P.J.; Peters, N.E.

    1996-01-01

    The roles of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) as key nutrients determining the trophic status of water bodies are examined, and evidence reviewed for trends in concentrations of N and P species which occur in freshwaters, primarily in northern temperate environments. Data are reported for water bodies undergoing eutrophication and acidification, especially water bodies receiving increased nitrogen inputs through the atmospheric deposition of nitrogen oxides (NOx). Nutrient loading on groundwaters and surface freshwaters is assessed with respect to causes and rates of (change, relative rates of change for N and P, and implications of change for the future management of lakes, rivers and groundwaters. In particular, the nature and emphasis of studies for N species and P fractions in lakes versus rivers and groundwaters are contrasted. This review paper primarily focuses on results from North America and Europe, particularly for the UK where a wide range of data sets exists. Few nutrient loading data have been published on water bodies in less developed countries; however, some of the available data are presented to provide a global perspective. In general, N and P concentrations have increased dramatically (>20 times background concentrations) in many areas and causes vary considerably, ranging from urbanization to changes in agricultural practices.

  9. Interactions between temperature and nutrients across levels of ecological organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Wyatt F; Hood, James M; Benstead, Jonathan P; Huryn, Alexander D; Nelson, Daniel

    2015-03-01

    Temperature and nutrient availability play key roles in controlling the pathways and rates at which energy and materials move through ecosystems. These factors have also changed dramatically on Earth over the past century as human activities have intensified. Although significant effort has been devoted to understanding the role of temperature and nutrients in isolation, less is known about how these two factors interact to influence ecological processes. Recent advances in ecological stoichiometry and metabolic ecology provide a useful framework for making progress in this area, but conceptual synthesis and review are needed to help catalyze additional research. Here, we examine known and potential interactions between temperature and nutrients from a variety of physiological, community, and ecosystem perspectives. We first review patterns at the level of the individual, focusing on four traits--growth, respiration, body size, and elemental content--that should theoretically govern how temperature and nutrients interact to influence higher levels of biological organization. We next explore the interactive effects of temperature and nutrients on populations, communities, and food webs by synthesizing information related to community size spectra, biomass distributions, and elemental composition. We use metabolic theory to make predictions about how population-level secondary production should respond to interactions between temperature and resource supply, setting up qualitative predictions about the flows of energy and materials through metazoan food webs. Last, we examine how temperature-nutrient interactions influence processes at the whole-ecosystem level, focusing on apparent vs. intrinsic activation energies of ecosystem processes, how to represent temperature-nutrient interactions in ecosystem models, and patterns with respect to nutrient uptake and organic matter decomposition. We conclude that a better understanding of interactions between temperature and

  10. Utilizing TRMM to Analyze Sea Breeze Thunderstorm Patterns During El Nino Southern Oscillations and Their Effects upon Available Fresh Water for South Florida Agricultural Planning and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooley, Clayton; Billiot, Amanda; Lee, Lucas; McKee, Jake

    2010-01-01

    Water is in high demand for farmers regardless of where you go. Unfortunately, farmers in southern Florida have fewer options for water supplies than public users and are often limited to using available supplies from surface and ground water sources which depend in part upon variable weather patterns. There is an interest by the agricultural community about the effect weather has on usable surface water, however, research into viable weather patterns during La Nina and El Nino has yet to be researched. Using rainfall accumulation data from NASA Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) satellite, this project s purpose was to assess the influence of El Nino and La Nina Oscillations on sea breeze thunderstorm patterns, as well as general rainfall patterns during the summer season in South Florida. Through this research we were able to illustrate the spatial and temporal variations in rainfall accumulation for each oscillation in relation to major agricultural areas. The study period for this project is from 1998, when TRMM was first launched, to 2009. Since sea breezes in Florida typically occur in the months of May through October, these months were chosen to be the months of the study. During this time, there were five periods of El Nino and two periods of La Nina, with a neutral period separating each oscillation. In order to eliminate rainfall from systems other than sea breeze thunderstorms, only days that were conducive to the development of a sea breeze front were selected.

  11. An integrative approach-using field and laboratory data to characterize shell utilization and selection pattern by the hermit crab Pagurus criniticornis (Paguridae from Anchieta Island, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando L. Mantelatto

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to characterize the pattern of gastropod shell occupation in the field and selection of shell size and type under laboratory conditions by the hermit crab Pagurus criniticornis (Dana, 1852, inhabiting the infralittoral area of Anchieta Island, São Paulo, Brazil. Hermit crabs were obtained monthly during 1999 by SCUBA diving. For experiments under laboratory conditions, samplings were performed in 2002. The hermit crabs occupied 16 species of gastropods shells. Cerithium atratum (Born, 1778 was the most occupied shell (89.31%, followed by Morula nodulosa (4.73% (Adams, 1845. No difference was observed in the pattern of occupation between males and females. The equations that best demonstrated the relationship between hermit crabs and their shells were those that involved Shell Wet Weight (SWW and Shell Internal Volume (SIV. The laboratory experiments were in accordance to the pattern of occupation observed in the field; the mean value of SAI (Shell Adequacy Index recorded to the population studied was 1.13 with a trend to increase this value in the last size classes. The results obtained corroborate with the hypothesis of the occupation process of shells governed not only by availability of shells, but also by its architecture. In addition, the shell stock in the area is one another important condition related to the exhibited pattern of shell occupation by P. criniticornis, and allows the stable coexistence among the island assemblage. The pattern of occupation observed promotes a high reproductive profile for the population studied, maximizing the populational growth.

  12. Nutrient uptake dynamics across a gradient of nutrient concentrations and ratios at the landscape scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Catherine A.; O'Reilly, Catherine M.; Conine, Andrea L.; Lipshutz, Sondra M.

    2015-02-01

    Understanding interactions between nutrient cycles is essential for recognizing and remediating human impacts on water quality, yet multielemental approaches to studying nutrient cycling in streams are currently rare. Here we utilized a relatively new approach (tracer additions for spiraling curve characterization) to examine uptake dynamics for three essential nutrients across a landscape that varied in absolute and relative nutrient availability. We measured nutrient uptake for soluble reactive phosphorous, ammonium-nitrogen, and nitrate-nitrogen in 16 headwater streams in the Catskill Mountains, New York. Across the landscape, ammonium-nitrogen and soluble reactive phosphorus had shorter uptake lengths and higher uptake velocities than nitrate-nitrogen. Ammonium-nitrogen and soluble reactive phosphorus uptake velocities were tightly correlated, and the slope of the relationship did not differ from one, suggesting strong demand for both nutrients despite the high ambient water column dissolved inorganic nitrogen: soluble reactive phosphorus ratios. Ammonium-nitrogen appeared to be the preferred form of nitrogen despite much higher nitrate-nitrogen concentrations. The uptake rate of nitrate-nitrogen was positively correlated with ambient soluble reactive phosphorus concentration and soluble reactive phosphorus areal uptake rate, suggesting that higher soluble reactive phosphorus concentrations alleviate phosphorus limitation and facilitate nitrate-nitrogen uptake. In addition, these streams retained a large proportion of soluble reactive phosphorus, ammonium-nitrogen, and nitrate-nitrogen supplied by the watershed, demonstrating that these streams are important landscape filters for nutrients. Together, these results (1) indicated phosphorus limitation across the landscape but similarly high demand for ammonium-nitrogen and (2) suggested that nitrate-nitrogen uptake was influenced by variability in soluble reactive phosphorus availability and preference for

  13. Impact of initiation of asenapine on patterns of utilization and cost of healthcare resources associated with the treatment of bipolar I disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitnis, Abhishek; Wang, Rosa; Sun, Shawn X; Dixit, Shailja; Tawah, Alie; Boulanger, Luke

    2015-01-01

    To assess the impact of initiation of asenapine on "real-world" levels of utilization and cost of healthcare services for the treatment of bipolar I disorder (BPD) in the US. Using two large US healthcare claims databases that collectively included commercially insured patients aged a BPD diagnosis, plus psychiatric medications and the costs thereof (2012 dollars) were deemed 'BPD-related'. Differences in BPD-related utilization and cost of healthcare services were compared between the pre- and post-index periods. A total of 1403 patients met all selection criteria; the mean age was 42.8 years and 70.6% were women. Relative to pre-index, significant decreases were noted in post-index use of BPD-related healthcare services, most notably admissions (from 24.0% to 12.3% during the post-index period) and emergency department visits (from 4.6% to 2.6%) (both p levels of utilization of BPD-related healthcare services and costs decreased during the 6-month period immediately following initiation of asenapine therapy.

  14. Nutrient density of beverages in relation to climate impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annika Smedman

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The food chain contributes to a substantial part of greenhouse gas (GHG emissions and growing evidence points to the urgent need to reduce GHGs emissions worldwide. Among suggestions were proposals to alter food consumption patterns by replacing animal foods with more plant-based foods. However, the nutritional dimensions of changing consumption patterns to lower GHG emissions still remains relatively unexplored. This study is the first to estimate the composite nutrient density, expressed as percentage of Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (NNR for 21 essential nutrients, in relation to cost in GHG emissions of the production from a life cycle perspective, expressed in grams of CO2-equivalents, using an index called the Nutrient Density to Climate Impact (NDCI index. The NDCI index was calculated for milk, soft drink, orange juice, beer, wine, bottled carbonated water, soy drink, and oat drink. Due to low-nutrient density, the NDCI index was 0 for carbonated water, soft drink, and beer and below 0.1 for red wine and oat drink. The NDCI index was similar for orange juice (0.28 and soy drink (0.25. Due to a very high-nutrient density, the NDCI index for milk was substantially higher (0.54 than for the other beverages. Future discussion on how changes in food consumption patterns might help avert climate change need to take both GHG emission and nutrient density of foods and beverages into account.

  15. Development of an epiphyte indicator of nutrient enrichment. A ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    An extensive review of the literature on epiphytes on submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV), primarily seagrasses but including some brackish and freshwater rooted macrophytes, was conducted in order to evaluate the evidence for response of epiphyte metrics to increased nutrients. Evidence from field observational studies together with laboratory and field mesocosm experiments was assembled from the literature and evaluated for evidence of a hypothesized positive response to nutrient addition. There was general consistency in the results to confirm that elevated nutrients tended to increase the load of epiphytes on the surface of SAV, in the absence of other limiting factors. In spite of multiple sources of uncontrolled variation, positive relationships of epiphyte load to nutrient concentration or load (either N or P) were often observed along strong anthropogenic or natural nutrient gradients in coastal regions, although response patterns may only be evident for parts of the year. Mesocosm nutrient studies tended to be more common for temperate regions and field addition studies more common for tropical and subtropical regions. Addition of nutrients via the water column tended to elicit stronger epiphyte responses than sediment additions, and may be a factor in the lack of epiphyte response reported in some studies. Mesograzer activity is a critical covariate for epiphyte response under experimental nutrient elevation, but the epiphyte response is highly de

  16. Pareto utility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ikefuji, M.; Laeven, R.J.A.; Magnus, J.R.; Muris, C.H.M.

    2013-01-01

    In searching for an appropriate utility function in the expected utility framework, we formulate four properties that we want the utility function to satisfy. We conduct a search for such a function, and we identify Pareto utility as a function satisfying all four desired properties. Pareto utility

  17. Dynamics of indigenous bacterial communities associated with crude oil degradation in soil microcosms during nutrient-enhanced bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikere, Chioma B; Surridge, Karen; Okpokwasili, Gideon C; Cloete, Thomas E

    2012-03-01

    Bacterial population dynamics were examined during bioremediation of an African soil contaminated with Arabian light crude oil and nutrient enrichment (biostimulation). Polymerase chain reaction followed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) were used to generate bacterial community fingerprints of the different treatments employing the 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) gene as molecular marker. The DGGE patterns of the nutrient-amended soils indicated the presence of distinguishable bands corresponding to the oil-contaminated-nutrient-enriched soils, which were not present in the oil-contaminated and pristine control soils. Further characterization of the dominant DGGE bands after excision, reamplification and sequencing revealed that Corynebacterium spp., Dietzia spp., Rhodococcus erythropolis sp., Nocardioides sp., Low G+C (guanine plus cytosine) Gram positive bacterial clones and several uncultured bacterial clones were the dominant bacterial groups after biostimulation. Prominent Corynebacterium sp. IC10 sequence was detected across all nutrient-amended soils but not in oil-contaminated control soil. Total heterotrophic and hydrocarbon utilizing bacterial counts increased significantly in the nutrient-amended soils 2 weeks post contamination whereas oil-contaminated and pristine control soils remained fairly stable throughout the experimental period. Gas chromatographic analysis of residual hydrocarbons in biostimulated soils showed marked attenuation of contaminants starting from the second to the sixth week after contamination whereas no significant reduction in hydrocarbon peaks were seen in the oil-contaminated control soil throughout the 6-week experimental period. Results obtained indicated that nutrient amendment of oil-contaminated soil selected and enriched the bacterial communities mainly of the Actinobacteria phylogenetic group capable of surviving in toxic contamination with concomitant biodegradation of the hydrocarbons. The

  18. Guidewire and microcatheter utilization patterns during antegrade wire escalation in chronic total occlusion percutaneous coronary intervention: Insights from a contemporary multicenter registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatasakis, Aris; Tarar, Muhammad Nauman J; Karmpaliotis, Dimitri; Alaswad, Khaldoon; Yeh, Robert W; Jaffer, Farouc A; Wyman, R Michael; Lombardi, William L; Grantham, J Aaron; Kandzari, David E; Lembo, Nicholas J; Moses, Jeffrey W; Kirtane, Ajay J; Parikh, Manish; Garcia, Santiago; Doing, Anthony; Pershad, Ashish; Shah, Alpesh; Patel, Mitul; Bahadorani, John; Shoultz, Charles A; Danek, Barbara A; Thompson, Craig A; Banerjee, Subhash; Brilakis, Emmanouil S

    2017-03-01

    We sought to describe contemporary guidewire and microcatheter utilization for antegrade wire escalation (AWE) during chronic total occlusion (CTO) percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Equipment utilization for AWE has been variable and evolving over time. We examined device utilization during 694 AWE attempts in 679 patients performed at 15 experienced US centers between May 2012 and April 2015. Mean age was 65.6 ± 9.7 years, and 85% of the patients were men. Successful wiring occurred in 436 AWE attempts (63%). Final technical and procedural success was 91% and 89%, respectively. The mean number of guidewire types used for AWE was 2.2 ± 1.4. The most frequently used guidewire types were the Pilot 200 (Abbott Vascular, 56% of AWE procedures), Fielder XT (Asahi Intecc, 45%), and the Confianza Pro 12 (Asahi Intecc, 28%). The same guidewires were the ones that most commonly crossed the occlusion: Pilot 200 (36% of successful AWE crossings), Fielder XT (20%), and Confianza Pro 12 (11%). A microcatheter or over-the-wire balloon was used for 81% of AWE attempts; the Corsair microcatheter (Asahi Intecc) was the most commonly used (44%). No significant association was found between guidewire type and incidence of major adverse cardiac events (MACE). Our contemporary, multicenter CTO PCI registry demonstrates that the most commonly used wires for AWE are polymer-jacketed guidewires. "Stiff" and polymer-jacketed guidewires appear to provide high crossing rates without an increase in MACE or perforation, and may thus be considered for upfront use. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Clinical Utility of Additional Measurement of Total Lung Capacity in Diagnosing Obstructive Lung Disease in Subjects With Restrictive Pattern of Spirometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun; Chang, Boksoon; Kim, Kyunga; Song, Won Jun; Chon, Hae Ri; Kang, Hyung Koo; Kim, Jung Soo; Jeong, Byeong-Ho; Oh, Yeon-Mok; Koh, Won-Jung; Park, Hye Yun

    2016-04-01

    Total lung capacity (TLC), forced expiratory flow between 25 and 75% (FEF25-75%), peak expiratory flow (PEF), or post-bronchodilator volume response is recommended to detect obstructive abnormalities in the lung. The present study was performed to evaluate the usefulness of these pulmonary function test (PFT) parameters to diagnose obstructive lung disease in subjects with a restrictive pattern of spirometry. A retrospective study was conducted in 64 subjects with a restrictive pattern of spirometry (normal FEV1/FVC and low FVC) out of 3,030 patients who underwent all pre- and post-bronchodilator spirometry and lung volume measurement between April 2008 and December 2010. After subjects were clinically classified into those with obstructive lung disease, restrictive lung disease, and mixed lung disease, the agreements between the clinical diagnosis and PFT classification according to TLC, FEF(25-75%), PEF, and post-bronchodilator response criteria were compared. Of 64 subjects, 18 (28.1%) were classified with obstructive lung disease, 39 (60.9%) had restrictive lung disease, 1 (1.6%) had mixed lung disease, and 6 (9.4%) had no clinical lung disease. Among the 58 subjects with clinical lung disease, 22 (37.9%), 37 (63.8%), 33 (56.9%), and 3 (5.2%) were classified as having obstructive pattern based on TLC, FEF25-75%, PEF, and post-bronchodilator response criteria, respectively. The kappa coefficients for the agreement between the clinical classification and PFT classification using TLC, FEF25-75%, PEF, and post-bronchodilator response criteria in 58 subjects were 0.59, 0.18, 0.17, and spirometry, when obstructive lung disease is clinically suspected. Copyright © 2016 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  20. Utility of Tissue Transglutaminase Immunohistochemistry in Pediatric Duodenal Biopsies: Patterns of Expression and Role in Celiac Disease—A Clinicopathologic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeeda Almarzooqi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tissue transglutaminase (tTG is a ubiquitous multifunctional protein. It has roles in various cellular processes. tTG is a major target of autoantibodies in celiac disease, and its expression by immunohistochemistry in pediatric celiac disease has not been fully examined. We studied tTG expression in 78 pediatric duodenal biopsies by utilizing an antibody to transglutaminase 2. Serum tTG was positive in all celiac cases evaluated. Serum antiserum endomysial antibody (EMA and tTG were negative in all control subjects and in inflammatory bowel disease and eosinophilic gastroenteritis. There was a statistically significant difference between cases of celiac disease and normal controls in terms of tTG immunohistochemical staining in duodenal biopsies surface epithelium ( value = 0.0012. There was no significant statistical difference in terms of staining of the villous surface or crypt between the cases of celiac disease and cases with IBD ( value = 0.5970 and 0.5227, resp.. There was no detected correlation between serum tTG values and immunohistochemical positivity on duodenal biopsy in cases of celiac disease ( value = 1. There was no relationship between Marsh classification and positivity of villous surface for tTG ( value = 0.4955. We conclude that tTG has limited utility in diagnosis of celiac disease in pediatric duodenal biopsies.

  1. Identifying patterns of general practitioner service utilisation and their relationship with potentially preventable hospitalisations in people with diabetes: The utility of a cluster analysis approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Ninh Thi; Harris, Mark; Preen, David; Robinson, Suzanne; Moorin, Rachael

    2018-04-01

    We aimed to characterise use of general practitioners (GP) simultaneously across multiple attributes in people with diabetes and examine its impact on diabetes related potentially preventable hospitalisations (PPHs). Five-years of panel data from 40,625 adults with diabetes were sourced from Western Australian administrative health records. Cluster analysis (CA) was used to group individuals with similar patterns of GP utilisation characterised by frequency and recency of services. The relationship between GP utilisation cluster and the risk of PPHs was examined using multivariable random-effects negative binomial regression. CA categorised GP utilisation into three clusters: moderate; high and very high usage, having distinct patient characteristics. After adjusting for potential confounders, the rate of PPHs was significantly lower across all GP usage clusters compared with those with no GP usage; IRR = 0.67 (95%CI: 0.62-0.71) among the moderate, IRR = 0.70 (95%CI 0.66-0.73) high and IRR = 0.76 (95%CI 0.72-0.80) very high GP usage clusters. Combination of temporal factors with measures of frequency of use of GP services revealed patterns of primary health care utilisation associated with different underlying patient characteristics. Incorporation of multiple attributes, that go beyond frequency-based approaches may better characterise the complex relationship between use of GP services and diabetes-related hospitalisation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Modeling nutrient in-stream processes at the watershed scale using Nutrient Spiralling metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcé, R.; Armengol, J.

    2009-07-01

    One of the fundamental problems of using large-scale biogeochemical models is the uncertainty involved in aggregating the components of fine-scale deterministic models in watershed applications, and in extrapolating the results of field-scale measurements to larger spatial scales. Although spatial or temporal lumping may reduce the problem, information obtained during fine-scale research may not apply to lumped categories. Thus, the use of knowledge gained through fine-scale studies to predict coarse-scale phenomena is not straightforward. In this study, we used the nutrient uptake metrics defined in the Nutrient Spiralling concept to formulate the equations governing total phosphorus in-stream fate in a deterministic, watershed-scale biogeochemical model. Once the model was calibrated, fitted phosphorus retention metrics where put in context of global patterns of phosphorus retention variability. For this purpose, we calculated power regressions between phosphorus retention metrics, streamflow, and phosphorus concentration in water using published data from 66 streams worldwide, including both pristine and nutrient enriched streams. Performance of the calibrated model confirmed that the Nutrient Spiralling formulation is a convenient simplification of the biogeochemical transformations involved in total phosphorus in-stream fate. Thus, this approach may be helpful even for customary deterministic applications working at short time steps. The calibrated phosphorus retention metrics were comparable to field estimates from the study watershed, and showed high coherence with global patterns of retention metrics from streams of the world. In this sense, the fitted phosphorus retention metrics were similar to field values measured in other nutrient enriched streams. Analysis of the bibliographical data supports the view that nutrient enriched streams have lower phosphorus retention efficiency than pristine streams, and that this efficiency loss is maintained in a wide

  3. Testing consumer perception of nutrient content claims using conjoint analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewnowski, Adam; Moskowitz, Howard; Reisner, Michele; Krieger, Bert

    2010-05-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) proposes to establish standardized and mandatory criteria upon which front-of-pack (FOP) nutrition labelling must be based. The present study aimed to estimate the relative contribution of declared amounts of different nutrients to the perception of the overall 'healthfulness' of foods by the consumer. Protein, fibre, vitamin A, vitamin C, calcium and iron were nutrients to encourage. Total fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, total and added sugar, and sodium were the nutrients to limit. Two content claims per nutrient used the FDA-approved language. An online consumer panel (n 320) exposed to multiple messages (n 48) rated the healthfulness of each hypothetical food product. Utility functions were constructed using conjoint analysis, based on multiple logistic regression and maximum likelihood estimation. Consumer perception of healthfulness was most strongly driven by the declared presence of protein, fibre, calcium and vitamin C and by the declared total absence of saturated fat and sodium. For this adult panel, total and added sugar had lower utilities and contributed less to the perception of healthfulness. There were major differences between women and men. Conjoint analysis can lead to a better understanding of how consumers process information about the full nutrition profile of a product, and is a powerful tool for the testing of nutrient content claims. Such studies can help the FDA develop science-based criteria for nutrient profiling that underlies FOP and shelf labelling.

  4. Political effects of different types of CO2 taxation: A comparison of different taxation patterns in the field of public utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welsch, H.

    1993-01-01

    The fuel-specific and performance-dependent CO 2 taxation of the power plant sector is compared with a standardized taxation under the aspects of directive effect and efficiency. In addition, the author compares the tax level required in both cases for a 25% reduction of CO 2 emissions by power plants by 2005. This does not imply that the Federal Government intends only a sectoral reduction of emissions; the power plant sector is to serve as an example for assessing the cost and the necessary taxation level. For reasons of data availability, the investigation is limited to the field of public utilities. After an outline of the methodology applied, the directive effect of the two taxation models is analyzed verbally. The simulation model used is then described, and the quantitative results achieved are presented. The article closes on an interpretation of the results in comparison with the available literature in this field. (orig.) [de

  5. Dietary Patterns in Childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Louise Beltoft Borup

    A healthy diet is essential for healthy growth and development during childhood and may prevent obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases throughout life. Traditionally, diet has been investigated as single nutrients. However, people do not eat one single nutrient and they do not even eat one...... single food. People consume meals and these meals vary during a day, over a year and during a life time. To comprehend some of this complexity it could be advantageous to investigate dietary patterns representing the whole diet as patterns might be better markers of growth and health than single...... childhood. These associations might contribute to the identification of families, who would benefit from guidance to help them establish healthy dietary patterns for their infants. Finding tracking for some infants and changes in adherence to dietary patterns for others as well as the association between...

  6. Patterns of resource utilization and cost for postmenopausal women with hormone-receptor–positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor-2–negative advanced breast cancer in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jerusalem, Guy; Neven, Patrick; Marinsek, Nina; Zhang, Jie; Degun, Ravi; Benelli, Giancarlo; Saletan, Stephen; Ricci, Jean-François; Andre, Fabrice

    2015-01-01

    Healthcare resource utilization in breast cancer varies by disease characteristics and treatment choices. However, lack of clarity in guidelines can result in varied interpretation and heterogeneous treatment management and costs. In Europe, the extent of this variability is unclear. Therefore, evaluation of chemotherapy use and costs versus hormone therapy across Europe is needed. This retrospective chart review (N = 355) examined primarily direct costs for chemotherapy versus hormone therapy in postmenopausal women with hormone-receptor–positive (HR+), human epidermal growth factor receptor-2–negative (HER2–) advanced breast cancer across 5 European countries (France, Germany, The Netherlands, Belgium, and Sweden). Total direct costs across the first 3 treatment lines were approximately €10 000 to €14 000 lower for an additional line of hormone therapy-based treatment versus switching to chemotherapy-based treatment. Direct cost difference between chemotherapy-based and hormone therapy-based regimens was approximately €1900 to €2500 per month. Chemotherapy-based regimens were associated with increased resource utilization (managing side effects; concomitant targeted therapy use; and increased frequencies of hospitalizations, provider visits, and monitoring tests). The proportion of patients taking sick leave doubled after switching from hormone therapy to chemotherapy. These results suggest chemotherapy is associated with increased direct costs and potentially with increased indirect costs (lower productivity of working patients) versus hormone therapy in HR+, HER2– advanced breast cancer. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12885-015-1762-3) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users

  7. No diagnostic utility of antibody patterns against Klebsiella pneumoniae capsular serotypes in patients with axial spondyloarthritis vs. patients with non-specific low back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermansen, L T; Loft, A G; Christiansen, A A

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether antibody response patterns against Klebsiella pneumoniae capsular serotypes can discriminate patients with axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) from patients with non-specific low back pain (LBP). METHOD: Immunoglobulin (Ig)G and IgA antibodies against K. pneumoniae...... capsular serotypes K2, K26, K36, and K50 were measured, and antibody seropositivity compared between groups and analysed for patient correlation in five different groups: (a) 96 patients fulfilling the Assessment of SpondyloArthritis International Society (ASAS) classification criteria for axSpA; (b) 38...... ankylosing spondylitis (AS) served as the negative and positive control groups. RESULTS: There was no difference in IgG and IgA seropositivity against all serotypes between the axSpA, non-axSpA, and LBP groups. No significant correlations were found between anti-Klebsiella antibodies and age, gender, HLA-B27...

  8. Growth performance and nutrient utilization of Clarias gariepinus fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cally

    formulated to contain 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% cassava leaves to replace equal weight of maize meal. Internationally made fish feed (coppens) ... The results revealed that optimum requirement of cassava leaves level in the .... feeds were ground to a fine powder by using hammer mill machine. One kilogram of the feed was ...

  9. Growth performance and nutrient utilization of Clarias gariepinus fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cally

    0.31 cm mean total ... control groups (L0 and Ac) were stocked with eight fingerlings per square meter, respectively. ... with cassava root and cassava leaf in fish diet. ... Protein. 21.628. Carbohydrate. 50.923. Table 2. Percentage composition of ...

  10. enhancing pineaple waste utilization as animalfeed through nutrient

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rose

    2013-10-23

    Oct 23, 2013 ... that fermentation of pineapple waste by solid state fermentation using the fungi A. niger and T. viride significantly (P < 0.05) ... The conventional commercial feeds ... waste management, biomass energy conservation and.

  11. Evaluation of production parameters and nutrient utilization of hens ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two hundred and fifty Babcock hens in their 10th week of lay were divided into 5 groups of 50 hens each and randomly assigned to the 5 treatment rations in a completely randomized design (CRD). Data were collected on average final weight, body weight change, average feed intake, average hen-day lay, average egg ...

  12. Nutrient removal from swine lagoon effluent by duckweed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergmann, B.A.; Cheng, J.; Classen, J.; Stomp, A.M.

    2000-04-01

    Three duckweed geographic isolates were grown on varying concentrations of swine lagoon effluent in a greenhouse to determine their ability to remove nutrients from the effluent. Duckweed biomass was harvested every other day over a 12-day period. Duckweed biomass production, nutrient loss from the swine lagoon effluent, and nutrient content of duckweed biomass were used to identify effluent concentrations/geographic isolate combinations that are effective in terms of nutrient utilization from swine lagoon effluent and production of healthy duckweed biomass. When Lemna minor geographic isolate 8627 was grown on 50% swine lagoon effluent, respective losses of TKN, NH{sub 3}-N, TP, OPO{sub 4}-P, TOC, K, Cu, and Zn were 83, 100, 49, 31, 68, 21, 28 and 67%.

  13. Utilization of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) among children from a German birth cohort (GINIplus): patterns, costs, and trends of use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Italia, Salvatore; Brand, Helmut; Heinrich, Joachim; Berdel, Dietrich; von Berg, Andrea; Wolfenstetter, Silke Britta

    2015-03-10

    The use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is widespread among children in Germany and other European countries. Only a few studies are available on trends in pediatric CAM use over time. The study's objective was to present updated results for prevalence, predictors, and costs of CAM use among German children and a comparison with findings from a previous follow-up of the same birth cohort. Data were collected for 3013 children on their utilization of medicinal products (during the last 4 weeks) and consultation with CAM providers (in the preceding year) from a German birth cohort study (GINIplus, 15-year follow-up) using a self-administered questionnaire. The reported medicinal CAMs were classified into six categories (homeopathy, herbal drugs, nutritionals, minerals and trace elements, microorganisms, further CAM). Drug prices were traced using pharmaceutical identification numbers (PZNs), or otherwise conservatively estimated. Finally, the results were compared with data obtained from the 10-year follow-up of the same birth cohort study by adopting the identical methodology. In all, 26% of the reported 2489 drugs were medicinal CAM. The 4-week prevalence for homeopathy and herbal drug use was 7.5% and 5.6%, respectively. Some 13.9% of the children used at least one type of medicinal CAM in the preceding 4 weeks. The 1-year prevalence for consultation with CAM providers was 10.8%. From the drugs identified as CAM, 53.7% were homeopathic remedies, and 30.8% were herbal drugs. Factors associated with higher medicinal CAM use were female gender, residing in Munich, and higher maternal education. A homeopathy user utilized on average homeopathic remedies worth EUR 15.28. The corresponding figure for herbal drug users was EUR 16.02, and EUR 18.72 for overall medicinal CAM users. Compared with the 10-year follow-up, the prevalence of homeopathy use was more than halved (-52%) and dropped substantially for herbal drug use (-36%) and overall CAM use (-38

  14. Patterns of post-acute health care utilization after a severe traumatic brain injury: Results from the PariS-TBI cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jourdan, Claire; Bayen, Eleonore; Darnoux, Emmanuelle; Ghout, Idir; Azerad, Sylvie; Ruet, Alexis; Vallat-Azouvi, Claire; Pradat-Diehl, Pascale; Aegerter, Philippe; Weiss, Jean-Jacques; Azouvi, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    To assess brain injury services utilization and their determinants using Andersen's model. Prospective follow-up of the PariS-TBI inception cohort. Out of 504 adults with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI), 245 survived and 147 received a 4-year outcome assessment (mean age 33 years, 80% men). Provision rates of medical, rehabilitation, social and re-entry services and their relations to patients' characteristics were assessed. Following acute care discharge, 78% of patients received physiotherapy, 61% speech/cognitive therapy, 50% occupational therapy, 41% psychological assistance, 63% specialized medical follow-up, 21% community re-entry assistance. Health-related need factors, in terms of TBI severity, were the main predictors of services. Provision of each therapy was significantly associated with corresponding speech, motor and psychological impairments. However, care provision did not depend on cognitive impairments and cognitive therapy was related to pre-disposing and geographical factors. Community re-entry assistance was provided to younger and more independent patients. These quantitative findings illustrate strengths and weaknesses of late brain injury care provision in urban France and highlight the need to improve treatment of cognitive impairments.

  15. The Nutrient Density of Snacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Hess BA

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although Americans receive almost a quarter of their daily energy from snacks, snacking remains a poorly defined and understood eating occasion. However, there is little dietary guidance about choosing snacks. Families, clinicians, and researchers need a comprehensive approach to assessing their nutritional value. Objective: To quantify and compare the nutrient density of commonly consumed snacks by their overall nutrient profiles using the Nutrient-Rich Foods (NRF Index 10.3. Methods: NRF Index scores were calculated for the top 3 selling products (based on 2014 market research data in different snack categories. These NRF scores were averaged to provide an overall nutrient-density score for each category. Results: Based on NRF scores, yogurt (55.3, milk (52.5, and fruit (30.1 emerged as the most nutrient-dense snacks. Ice cream (−4.4, pies and cakes (−11.1, and carbonated soft drinks (−17.2 emerged as the most nutrient-poor snacks. Conclusions: The NRF Index is a useful tool for assessing the overall nutritional value of snacks based on nutrients to limit and nutrients to encourage.

  16. Nutrient management in substrate systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonneveld, C.; Voogt, W.

    2009-01-01

    Speaking about nutrient solutions in soilless cultivation, different solutions can be discerned. Originally, in soilless culture only one nutrient solution was taken into account, being the solution in the containers in which the plants were grown. Such solutions were intensively moved by air

  17. Fisheries management under nutrient influence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammarlund, Cecilia; Nielsen, Max; Waldo, Staffan

    2018-01-01

    A fisheries management model that identifies the economic optimal management of fisheries under the influence of nutrients is presented. The model starts from the idea that growth in fish biomass increases with increasing availability of nutrients owing to higher food availability up to a peak...

  18. Effects of Gravel Bars on Nutrient Spiraling in Bedrock-Alluvium Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iobst, B. R.; Carroll, E. P.; Furbish, D. J.

    2007-05-01

    The importance of the connection between nutrient transport and local stream geomorphology is becoming increasingly important. Studies have shown that the interconnectivity of nutrient cycles in the downstream direction is in part controlled by the distribution and size of gravel bars in low order streams, as hyporheic flow occurs dominantly through alternate and mid-channel gravel bars. For this investigation multiple gravel bars in a 3rd order bedrock-alluvium stream were studied to determine general relationships between nutrient spiraling and hyporheic flow. The first goal was to understand (1) the extent to which water moves through hyporheic zones and (2) the basic chemistry of the hyporheic water. The second part of the study was to understand how nutrients, notably nitrogen, are affected in their cycling by the relatively long residence times encountered in gravel bars during hyporheic flow. Wells were installed along a 600 m reach of Panther Creek, KY in selected bars, as well as in a secondary location involving a grid installation pattern in one large bar. Results have shown that hyporheic flow through gravel bars is an important factor in influencing stream chemistry. Background water chemistry surveys have shown that certain parameters, specifically ammonium and nitrogen concentrations vary downstream, and that the dominant control over these changes is gravel bar location. Rhodamine WT was used in field tracer tests to track the travel times of water through bars as well as partitioning of water between the open channel and hyporheic flows. Further tests will be conducted utilizing a stable isotope study to determine how nitrogen is affected by hyporheic flow, and what implications this has for nutrient transport. We expect results to show that the spacing and size of gravel bars is a dominant control in key nutrient spiraling parameters, namely uptake lengths and overall nitrogen cycling rates. This has implications for how natural systems will

  19. Florida Agriculture - Utilizing TRMM to Analyze Sea Breeze Thunderstorm Patterns During El Nino Southern Oscillations and Their Effects Upon Available Fresh Water for South Florida Agricultural Planning and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billiot, Amanda; Lee, Lucas; McKee, Jake; Cooley, Zachary Clayton; Mitchell, Brandie

    2010-01-01

    This project utilizes Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) and Landsat satellite data to assess the impact of sea breeze precipitation upon areas of agricultural land use in southern Florida. Water is a critical resource to agriculture, and the availability of water for agricultural use in Florida continues to remain a key issue. Recent projections of statewide water use by 2020 estimate that 9.3 billion gallons of water per day will be demanded, and agriculture represents 47% of this demand (Bronson 2003). Farmers have fewer options for water supplies than public users and are often limited to using available supplies from surface and ground water sources which depend in part upon variable weather patterns. Sea breeze thunderstorms are responsible for much of the rainfall delivered to Florida during the wet season (May-October) and have been recognized as an important overall contributor of rainfall in southern Florida (Almeida 2003). TRMM satellite data was used to analyze how sea breeze-induced thunderstorms during El Nino and La Nina affected interannual patterns of precipitation in southern Florida from 1998-2009. TRMM's Precipitation Radar and Microwave Imager provide data to quantify water vapor in the atmosphere, precipitation rates and intensity, and the distribution of precipitation. Rainfall accumulation data derived from TRMM and other microwave sensors were used to analyze the temporal and spatial variations of rainfall during each phase of the El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Through the use of TRMM and Landsat, slight variations were observed, but it was determined that neither sea breeze nor total rainfall patterns in South Florida were strongly affected by ENSO during the study period. However, more research is needed to characterize the influence of ENSO on summer weather patterns in South Florida. This research will provide the basis for continued observations and study with the Global Precipitation Measurement Mission.

  20. Nutrient cycling in an agroforestry alley cropping system receiving poultry litter or nitrogen fertilizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Optimal utilization of animal manures as a plant nutrient source should also prevent adverse impacts on water quality. The objective of this study was to evaluate long-term poultry litter and N fertilizer application on nutrient cycling following establishment of an alley cropping system with easter...

  1. Approaches and uncertainties in nutrient budgets; Implications for nutrient management and environmental policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oenema, O.; Kros, J.; Vries, de W.

    2003-01-01

    Nutrient budgets of agroecosystems are constructed either (i) to increase the understanding of nutrient cycling, (ii) as performance indicator and awareness raiser in nutrient management and environmental policy, or (iii) as regulating policy instrument to enforce a certain nutrient management

  2. Context-dependent effects of nutrient loading on the coral-algal mutualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shantz, Andrew A; Burkepile, Deron E

    2014-07-01

    Human-mediated increases in nutrient availability alter patterns of primary production, impact species diversity, and threaten ecosystem function. Nutrients can also alter community structure by disrupting the relationships between nutrient-sharing mutualists that form the foundation of communities. Given their oligotrophic nature and the dependence of reef-building corals on symbiotic relationships, coral reefs may be particularly vulnerable to excess nutrients. However, individual studies suggest complex, even contradictory, relationships among nutrient availability, coral physiology, and coral growth. Here, we used meta-analysis to establish general patterns of the impact of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) on coral growth and photobiology. Overall, we found that over a wide range of concentrations, N reduced coral calcification 11%, on average, but enhanced metrics of coral photobiology, such as photosynthetic rate. In contrast, P enrichment increased average calcification rates by 9%, likely through direct impacts on the calcification process, but minimally impacted coral photobiology. There were few synergistic impacts of combined N and P on corals, as the nutrients impact corals via different pathways. Additionally, the response of corals to increasing nutrient availability was context dependent, varying with coral taxa and morphology, enrichment source, and nutrient identity. For example, naturally occurring enrichment from fish excretion increased coral growth, while human-mediated enrichment tended to decrease coral growth. Understanding the nuances of the relationship between nutrients and corals may allow for more targeted remediation strategies and suggest how other global change drivers such as overfishing and climate change will shape how nutrient availability impacts corals.

  3. A household study of the pattern of utilization of mother and child health services in rural Greece and variation by socioeconomic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzoumaka-Bakoula, C G; Lovel, H J

    1983-01-01

    A household study of all families with children under age 6 in 3 villages in rural northwest Greece was conducted during August-September 1981. 94 mothers were interviewed about each of their children to find out who they had consulted seeking advice and care during pregnancy, for delivery, during the postnatal period, for child immunization, and in cases of mild or severe child illness. All 142 children were examined physically and developmentally. Information was also collected on the socioeconomic status of the family. Particular causes for concern were the findings that 30% of the mothers said they experienced at least 1 induced abortion; 5% had delivered without the help of any trained birth attendant; most of those who delivered in the district town (usually the more affluent) had not received postnatal care; 37% of the children had not seen a doctor during their 1st year of life either for sickness or for a developmental assessment. Only 41% of the children were fully immunized for their age, and 23% of those who should have begun their immunizations had not. Most of the 30 children who had been severely or chronically ill had bypassed the local doctor and sought services in the district town. There was clear variation in the pattern of health services use and socioeconomic status as shown by the availability of household facilities including water and electricity. The poorer mothers (30% of the sample) were more likely than the more affluent mothers to have delivered at home. Many had had the help of the local midwife, but those who had no help from a trained attendant came from poorer families. Postnatal care was provided to most (79%) of the families by the midwife. The poorer the family, the more likely that a sick child would be treated with a home remedy. Children from poor families were likely never to have seen a doctor and if a child did go, it was likely to be older at the time of the 1st visit. Very few poor families had ever consulted a

  4. The influence of nutrient and water availability on carbohydrate storage in loblolly pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    K.H. Ludovici; H.L. Allen; T.J. Albaugh; P.M. Dougherty

    2002-01-01

    We quantified the effects of nutrient and water availability on monthly whole-tree carbohydrate budgets and determined allocation patterns of storage carbohydrates in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) to test site resource impacts on internal carbon (C) storage. A factorial combination of two nutrient and two irrigation treatments were imposed on a 7-year...

  5. Review on Periphyton as Mediator of Nutrient Transfer in Aquatic Ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surjya K. Saikia

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In the studies of aquatic ecology, periphyton has been uncared for despite its vital role in nutrient uptake and transfer to the upper trophic organisms. Being the component of food chain as attached organism it takes part in nutrient cycling in the ecosystem like that of suspended planktonic counterparts. The present review, with an aim to understand the role of periphyton in nutrient transfer from benthic environment to upper trophic level, focuses many aspects of periphyton-nutrient relationship based on available literatures. It also attempts to redefine periphyton, as a part of biofilm, harboring nutrient components like protein, fat and carbohydrate preferably in its extracellular polymeric substance (EPS, cyanobacteria, diatom and other algal communities. In addition to physical processes, nutrient uptake by periphyton is catalyzed by enzymes like Nitrogen Reductase and Alkaline Phosphatase from the environment. This uptake and transfer is further regulated by periphytic C: nutrient (N or P stoichiometry, colonization time, distribution of periphyton cover on sediments and macrophytes, macronutrient concentration, grazing, sloughing, temperature, and advective transport. The Carbon (C sources of periphyton are mainly dissolve organic matter and photosynthetic C that enters into higher trophic levels through predation and transfers as C-rich nutrient components. Despite of emerging interests on utilizing periphyton as nutrient transfer tool in aquatic ecosystem, the major challenges ahead for modern aquatic biologists lies on determining nutrient uptake and transfer rate of periphyton, periphytic growth and simulating nutrient models of periphyton to figure a complete energy cycle in aquatic ecosystem.

  6. Improving animal productivity by supplementary feeding of multi-nutrient blocks, controlling internal parasites and enhancing utilization of alternate feed resources. A publication prepared under the framework of an RCA with technical support of the Joint FAO/IAEA Programme of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-12-01

    countries generally encounter another principal constraint: health. Of the health constraints, bacterial and viral diseases can be successfully controlled through conventional vaccination and quarantine procedures. However, for parasitic disease, these approaches are either not yet possible or impractical, and chemotherapy, coupled with grazing management, are the only methods of control method currently available. In developing countries, the losses induced by clinical and subclinical parasite infections have been estimated to equal the value of the present output of ruminant industries, therefore improved control has the potential to yield considerable productivity benefits. The RCA (Regional Cooperation Agreement for the Asia and Pacific Region) project, RAS/5/035 entitled Improving Animal Productivity and Reproductive Efficiency was initiated in 1999 to assist RCA Member States to improve animal productivity and reproductive efficiency. This project had two components: animal nutrition, and animal reproduction. The animal nutrition component focused on: (i) developing and feeding of urea-molasses multinutrient blocks to supply nutrients deficient in crop residues and forages; (ii) using the ureamolasses multinitrient blocks for the delivery of anthelmintic medication to control gastrointestinal nematode parasitism; and (iii) enhancing efficiency of utilization of feed resources which are locally available and for which humans are not competing with livestock for food. The present publication presents results on these three aspects obtained by the participating groups from the RCA Member States and presented at the Final Review Meeting of the project held in October 2004 in Bangkok, Thailand. This publication is a good source of reference for research workers, students and extension workers alike. It will help promote efficient utilization of feed resources and enhance animal productivity to meet the challenges imposed by the 'Livestock Revolution' taking place in

  7. Wildfire Effects on In-stream Nutrient Processing and Hydrologic Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhea, A.; Covino, T. P.; Rhoades, C.; Fegel, T.

    2017-12-01

    In many forests throughout the Western U.S., drought, climate change, and growing fuel loads are contributing to increased fire frequency and severity. Wildfires can influence watershed nutrient retention as they fundamentally alter the biological composition and physical structure in upland landscapes, riparian corridors, and stream channels. While numerous studies have documented substantial short-term increases in stream nutrient concentrations and export (particularly reactive nitrogen, N) following forest fires, the long-term implications for watershed nutrient cycling remain unclear. For example, recent work indicates that nitrate concentrations and export can remain elevated for a decade or more following wildfire, yet the controls on these processes are unknown. In this research, we use empirical observations from nutrient tracer injections, nutrient diffusing substrates, and continuous water quality monitoring to isolate biological and physical controls on nutrient export across a burn-severity gradient. Tracer results demonstrate substantial stream-groundwater exchange, but little biological nutrient uptake in burned streams. This in part explains patterns of elevated nutrient export. Paired nutrient diffusing substrate experiments allow us to further investigate shifts in N, phosphorus, and carbon limitation that may suppress post-fire stream nutrient uptake. By isolating the mechanisms that reduce the capacity of fire-affected streams to retain and transform nutrient inputs, we can better predict dynamics in post-fire water quality and help prioritize upland and riparian restoration.

  8. Surface-water nutrient conditions and sources in the United States Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, D.R.; Johnson, H.M.

    2011-01-01

    The SPAtially Referenced Regressions On Watershed attributes (SPARROW) model was used to perform an assessment of surface-water nutrient conditions and to identify important nutrient sources in watersheds of the Pacific Northwest region of the United States (U.S.) for the year 2002. Our models included variables representing nutrient sources as well as landscape characteristics that affect nutrient delivery to streams. Annual nutrient yields were higher in watersheds on the wetter, west side of the Cascade Range compared to watersheds on the drier, east side. High nutrient enrichment (relative to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's recommended nutrient criteria) was estimated in watersheds throughout the region. Forest land was generally the largest source of total nitrogen stream load and geologic material was generally the largest source of total phosphorus stream load generated within the 12,039 modeled watersheds. These results reflected the prevalence of these two natural sources and the low input from other nutrient sources across the region. However, the combined input from agriculture, point sources, and developed land, rather than natural nutrient sources, was responsible for most of the nutrient load discharged from many of the largest watersheds. Our results provided an understanding of the regional patterns in surface-water nutrient conditions and should be useful to environmental managers in future water-quality planning efforts.

  9. Fish extinctions alter nutrient recycling in tropical freshwaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Peter B; Jones, Laura E; Flecker, Alexander S; Vanni, Michael J

    2007-03-13

    There is increasing evidence that species extinctions jeopardize the functioning of ecosystems. Overfishing and other human influences are reducing the diversity and abundance of fish worldwide, but the ecosystem-level consequences of these changes have not been assessed quantitatively. Recycling of nutrients is one important ecosystem process that is directly influenced by fish. Fish species vary widely in the rates at which they excrete nitrogen and phosphorus; thus, altering fish communities could affect nutrient recycling. Here, we use extensive field data on nutrient recycling rates and population sizes of fish species in a Neotropical river and Lake Tanganyika, Africa, to evaluate the effects of simulated extinctions on nutrient recycling. In both of these species-rich ecosystems, recycling was dominated by relatively few species, but contributions of individual species differed between nitrogen and phosphorus. Alternative extinction scenarios produced widely divergent patterns. Loss of the species targeted by fishermen led to faster declines in nutrient recycling than extinctions in order of rarity, body size, or trophic position. However, when surviving species were allowed to increase after extinctions, these compensatory responses had strong moderating effects even after losing many species. Our results underscore the complexity of predicting the consequences of extinctions from species-rich animal communities. Nevertheless, the importance of exploited species in nutrient recycling suggests that overfishing could have particularly detrimental effects on ecosystem functioning.

  10. Nutrient and Coliform Loading (NCL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is a database of available fecal coliform bacteria, fecal streptococci bacteria, and nutrient loading data. Loading for contaminants other than fecal coliform...

  11. Nutrient imbalance in Norway spruce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thelin, Gunnar

    2000-11-01

    The studies presented in my thesis indicate that growing Norway spruce in monoculture does not constitute sustainable forest management in a high N and S deposition environment, such as in southern Sweden. The combination of N-induced high growth rates and leaching due to soil acidification causes soil reserves of nutrients to decrease. This will increase the risk of nutrient imbalance within the trees when nutrient demands are not met. The development of nutrient imbalance in Scania, southern Sweden, was shown as negative trends in needle and soil nutrient status from the mid-80s to the present in Norway spruce and Scots pine stands. This imbalance appears to be connected to high levels of N and S deposition. Clear negative effects on tree vitality were found when using a new branch development method. Today, growth and vitality seems to be limited by K, rather than N, in spruce stands older than 40 years. However, younger stands appear to be able to absorb the deposited N without negative effects on growth and vitality. When investigating effects of nutrient stress on tree vitality, indicators such as branch length and shoot multiplication rate, which include effects accumulated over several years, are suitable. Countermeasures are needed in order to maintain the forest production at a high level. Positive effects on tree nutrient status after vitality fertilization (N-free fertilization) was shown in two micronutrient deficient stands in south-central Sweden. In addition, tree vitality was positively affected after the application of a site-adapted fertilizer to the canopy. Site-adaption of fertilizers will most likely improve the possibilities of a positive response on tree growth and vitality in declining stands. In a survey of Norway spruce in mixtures with beech, birch, or oak compared to monocultures it was shown that spruce nutrient status was higher in mixtures with deciduous species than in monocultures. By using mixed-species stands the need for

  12. Nutrient imbalance in Norway spruce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thelin, Gunnar

    2000-11-01

    The studies presented in my thesis indicate that growing Norway spruce in monoculture does not constitute sustainable forest management in a high N and S deposition environment, such as in southern Sweden. The combination of N-induced high growth rates and leaching due to soil acidification causes soil reserves of nutrients to decrease. This will increase the risk of nutrient imbalance within the trees when nutrient demands are not met. The development of nutrient imbalance in Scania, southern Sweden, was shown as negative trends in needle and soil nutrient status from the mid-80s to the present in Norway spruce and Scots pine stands. This imbalance appears to be connected to high levels of N and S deposition. Clear negative effects on tree vitality were found when using a new branch development method. Today, growth and vitality seems to be limited by K, rather than N, in spruce stands older than 40 years. However, younger stands appear to be able to absorb the deposited N without negative effects on growth and vitality. When investigating effects of nutrient stress on tree vitality, indicators such as branch length and shoot multiplication rate, which include effects accumulated over several years, are suitable. Countermeasures are needed in order to maintain the forest production at a high level. Positive effects on tree nutrient status after vitality fertilization (N-free fertilization) was shown in two micronutrient deficient stands in south-central Sweden. In addition, tree vitality was positively affected after the application of a site-adapted fertilizer to the canopy. Site-adaption of fertilizers will most likely improve the possibilities of a positive response on tree growth and vitality in declining stands. In a survey of Norway spruce in mixtures with beech, birch, or oak compared to monocultures it was shown that spruce nutrient status was higher in mixtures with deciduous species than in monocultures. By using mixed-species stands the need for

  13. Nutrient limitation of soil microbial activity during the earliest stages of ecosystem development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castle, Sarah C; Sullivan, Benjamin W; Knelman, Joseph; Hood, Eran; Nemergut, Diana R; Schmidt, Steven K; Cleveland, Cory C

    2017-11-01

    A dominant paradigm in ecology is that plants are limited by nitrogen (N) during primary succession. Whether generalizable patterns of nutrient limitation are also applicable to metabolically and phylogenetically diverse soil microbial communities, however, is not well understood. We investigated if measures of N and phosphorus (P) pools inform our understanding of the nutrient(s) most limiting to soil microbial community activities during primary succession. We evaluated soil biogeochemical properties and microbial processes using two complementary methodological approaches-a nutrient addition microcosm experiment and extracellular enzyme assays-to assess microbial nutrient limitation across three actively retreating glacial chronosequences. Microbial respiratory responses in the microcosm experiment provided evidence for N, P and N/P co-limitation at Easton Glacier, Washington, USA, Puca Glacier, Peru, and Mendenhall Glacier, Alaska, USA, respectively, and patterns of nutrient limitation generally reflected site-level differences in soil nutrient availability. The activities of three key extracellular enzymes known to vary with soil N and P availability developed in broadly similar ways among sites, increasing with succession and consistently correlating with changes in soil total N pools. Together, our findings demonstrate that during the earliest stages of soil development, microbial nutrient limitation and activity generally reflect soil nutrient supply, a result that is broadly consistent with biogeochemical theory.

  14. Information sources and utilization patterns of pharmaceutical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the adequacy of pharmaceutical scientists' information environment in feeding their occupational activities. Data was collected through observation and through questionnaire administration to all the twenty-seven scientists in two large pharmaceutical companies in Lagos, Nigeria. Findings revealed ...

  15. Monitoring TASCC Injections Using A Field-Ready Wet Chemistry Nutrient Autoanalyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, L. E.; Herstand, M. R.; Bowden, W. B.

    2011-12-01

    Quantification of nutrient cycling and transport (spiraling) in stream systems is a fundamental component of stream ecology. Additions of isotopic tracer and bulk inorganic nutrient to streams have been frequently used to evaluate nutrient transfer between ecosystem compartments and nutrient uptake estimation, respectively. The Tracer Addition for Spiraling Curve Characterization (TASCC) methodology of Covino et al. (2010) instantaneously and simultaneously adds conservative and biologically active tracers to a stream system to quantify nutrient uptake metrics. In this method, comparing the ratio of mass of nutrient and conservative solute recovered in each sample throughout a breakthrough curve to that of the injectate, a distribution of spiraling metrics is calculated across a range of nutrient concentrations. This distribution across concentrations allows for both a robust estimation of ambient spiraling parameters by regression techniques, and comparison with uptake kinetic models. We tested a unique sampling strategy for TASCC injections in which samples were taken manually throughout the nutrient breakthrough curves while, simultaneously, continuously monitoring with a field-ready wet chemistry autoanalyzer. The autoanalyzer was programmed to measure concentrations of nitrate, phosphate and ammonium at the rate of one measurement per second throughout each experiment. Utilization of an autoanalyzer in the field during the experiment results in the return of several thousand additional nutrient data points when compared with manual sampling. This technique, then, allows for a deeper understanding and more statistically robust estimation of stream nutrient spiraling parameters.

  16. Supplementing the energy and plant nutrient requirements through organic recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahdi, S. S.; Misra, R. V.

    1980-03-15

    In context of dwindling non-renewable energy resources and increasing health hazards because of environmental pollution, recycling of organic residues obtained through various sources like crops, animals, and human beings is becoming increasingly important. The organic residues obtained as wastes through these sources can be recycled effectively to meet scarce resources of energy and the plant nutrients, so vitally needed for our day-to-day activities and for raising agricultural production. Agriculture is the main stay of the Indian economy. Considerable quantities of crop residues available from agriculture can be utilized to serve as a source of organic fertilizers which not only provide plant nutrients but also improve soil health. The country has a large animal and human population. The animal and human wastes can be successfully used for production of energy and organic fertilizer by routing through biogas system. There is a need to develop an integrated energy and nutrient supply program. An action program is outlined.

  17. Octopamine connects nutrient cues to lipid metabolism upon nutrient deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Jun; Ma, Yi-Cheng; Yang, Zhong-Shan; Zou, Cheng-Gang; Zhang, Ke-Qin

    2016-05-01

    Starvation is probably the most common stressful situation in nature. In vertebrates, elevation of the biogenic amine norepinephrine levels is common during starvation. However, the precise role of norepinephrine in nutrient deprivation remains largely unknown. We report that in the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, up-regulation of the biosynthesis of octopamine, the invertebrate counterpart of norepinephrine, serves as a mechanism to adapt to starvation. During nutrient deprivation, the nuclear receptor DAF-12, known to sense nutritional cues, up-regulates the expression of tbh-1 that encodes tyramine β-hydroxylase, a key enzyme for octopamine biosynthesis, in the RIC neurons. Octopamine induces the expression of the lipase gene lips-6 via its receptor SER-3 in the intestine. LIPS-6, in turn, elicits lipid mobilization. Our findings reveal that octopamine acts as an endocrine regulator linking nutrient cues to lipolysis to maintain energy homeostasis, and suggest that such a mechanism may be evolutionally conserved in diverse organisms.

  18. Nutrient acquisition strategies of mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm, Wilhelm; Thompson, Craig B

    2017-06-07

    Mammalian cells are surrounded by diverse nutrients, such as glucose, amino acids, various macromolecules and micronutrients, which they can import through transmembrane transporters and endolysosomal pathways. By using different nutrient sources, cells gain metabolic flexibility to survive periods of starvation. Quiescent cells take up sufficient nutrients to sustain homeostasis. However, proliferating cells depend on growth-factor-induced increases in nutrient uptake to support biomass formation. Here, we review cellular nutrient acquisition strategies and their regulation by growth factors and cell-intrinsic nutrient sensors. We also discuss how oncogenes and tumour suppressors promote nutrient uptake and thereby support the survival and growth of cancer cells.

  19. Managing Soil Biota-Mediated Decomposition and Nutrient Mineralization in Sustainable Agroecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joann K. Whalen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Transformation of organic residues into plant-available nutrients occurs through decomposition and mineralization and is mediated by saprophytic microorganisms and fauna. Of particular interest is the recycling of the essential plant elements—N, P, and S—contained in organic residues. If organic residues can supply sufficient nutrients during crop growth, a reduction in fertilizer use is possible. The challenge is synchronizing nutrient release from organic residues with crop nutrient demands throughout the growing season. This paper presents a conceptual model describing the pattern of nutrient release from organic residues in relation to crop nutrient uptake. Next, it explores experimental approaches to measure the physical, chemical, and biological barriers to decomposition and nutrient mineralization. Methods are proposed to determine the rates of decomposition and nutrient release from organic residues. Practically, this information can be used by agricultural producers to determine if plant-available nutrient supply is sufficient to meet crop demands at key growth stages or whether additional fertilizer is needed. Finally, agronomic practices that control the rate of soil biota-mediated decomposition and mineralization, as well as those that facilitate uptake of plant-available nutrients, are identified. Increasing reliance on soil biological activity could benefit crop nutrition and health in sustainable agroecosystems.

  20. TOR Signaling and Nutrient Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrenel, Thomas; Caldana, Camila; Hanson, Johannes; Robaglia, Christophe; Vincentz, Michel; Veit, Bruce; Meyer, Christian

    2016-04-29

    All living organisms rely on nutrients to sustain cell metabolism and energy production, which in turn need to be adjusted based on available resources. The evolutionarily conserved target of rapamycin (TOR) protein kinase is a central regulatory hub that connects environmental information about the quantity and quality of nutrients to developmental and metabolic processes in order to maintain cellular homeostasis. TOR is activated by both nitrogen and carbon metabolites and promotes energy-consuming processes such as cell division, mRNA translation, and anabolism in times of abundance while repressing nutrient remobilization through autophagy. In animals and yeasts, TOR acts antagonistically to the starvation-induced AMP-activated kinase (AMPK)/sucrose nonfermenting 1 (Snf1) kinase, called Snf1-related kinase 1 (SnRK1) in plants. This review summarizes the immense knowledge on the relationship between TOR signaling and nutrients in nonphotosynthetic organisms and presents recent findings in plants that illuminate the crucial role of this pathway in conveying nutrient-derived signals and regulating many aspects of metabolism and growth.

  1. Healthcare resource utilization, costs of care, and treatment of mycosis fungoides cutaneous T-cell lymphoma patterns in a large managed care population: a retrospective US claims-based analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Yuen; Gu, Tao; Sharma, Gaurav; Raspa, Susan; Drake, Bill; Tan, Hiangkiat

    2018-05-07

    To evaluate health care utilization, treatment patterns and costs among patients with mycosis fungoides-cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (MF-CTCL). This retrospective cohort study queried the HealthCore Integrated Research Database to identify patients ≥18 years with ≥2 diagnoses of MF-CTCL (ICD-9-CM code 202.1x, 202.2x) between 07 January 2006 and 07 January 2013. Index date was defined as first MF-CTCL diagnosis. Patients were continuously enrolled ≥6 months before and ≥12 months after index date. Severe MF-CTCL was identified via systemic therapy use postindex. Generalized linear model (GLM) was used to estimate the relationship between MF-CTCL severity and healthcare costs controlling for selected factors. A total of 1981 MF-CTCL patients were evaluated: 493 (24.9%) severe and 1488 (75.1%) with mild to moderate disease. GLM analysis indicated severe MF-CTCL patients incurred higher all-cause healthcare total costs compared to patients with mild-to-moderate MF-CTCL (coefficient estimate: 4.19, p < .0001). About 51% of patients did not receive any MF-CTCL-specific treatment within 60 days after MF-CTCL diagnosis. MF-CTCL severity was associated with greater healthcare resource utilization and costs. These findings suggest that about half of MF-CTCL patients do not receive MF-CTCL-specific treatment within 60 days following initial diagnosis. Future studies are needed to understand reasons for delayed treatment initiation.

  2. Compost supplementation with nutrients and microorganisms in composting process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Óscar J; Ospina, Diego A; Montoya, Sandra

    2017-11-01

    The composting is an aerobic, microorganism-mediated, solid-state fermentation process by which different organic materials are transformed into more stable compounds. The product obtained is the compost, which contributes to the improvement of physical, chemical and microbiological properties of the soil. However, the compost usage in agriculture is constrained because of its long-time action and reduced supply of nutrients to the crops. To enhance the content of nutrients assimilable by the plants in the compost, its supplementation with nutrients and inoculation with microorganisms have been proposed. The objective of this work was to review the state of the art on compost supplementation with nutrients and the role played by the microorganisms involved (or added) in their transformation during the composting process. The phases of composting are briefly compiled and different strategies for supplementation are analyzed. The utilization of nitrogenous materials and addition of microorganisms fixing nitrogen from the atmosphere or oxidizing ammonia into more assimilable for plants nitrogenous forms are analyzed. Several strategies for nitrogen conservation during composting are presented as well. The supplementation with phosphorus and utilization of microorganisms solubilizing phosphorus and potassium are also discussed. Main groups of microorganisms relevant during the composting process are described as well as most important strategies to identify them. In general, the development of this type of nutrient-enriched bio-inputs requires research and development not only in the supplementation of compost itself, but also in the isolation and identification of microorganisms and genes allowing the degradation and conversion of nitrogenous substances and materials containing potassium and phosphorus present in the feedstocks undergoing the composting process. In this sense, most important research trends and strategies to increase nutrient content in the compost

  3. Identification and utilization of inter-species conserved (ISC probesets on Affymetrix human GeneChip® platforms for the optimization of the assessment of expression patterns in non human primate (NHP samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnold Alma

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While researchers have utilized versions of the Affymetrix human GeneChip® for the assessment of expression patterns in non human primate (NHP samples, there has been no comprehensive sequence analysis study undertaken to demonstrate that the probe sequences designed to detect human transcripts are reliably hybridizing with their orthologs in NHP. By aligning probe sequences with expressed sequence tags (ESTs in NHP, inter-species conserved (ISC probesets, which have two or more probes complementary to ESTs in NHP, were identified on human GeneChip® platforms. The utility of human GeneChips® for the assessment of NHP expression patterns can be effectively evaluated by analyzing the hybridization behaviour of ISC probesets. Appropriate normalization methods were identified that further improve the reliability of human GeneChips® for interspecies (human vs NHP comparisons. Results ISC probesets in each of the seven Affymetrix GeneChip® platforms (U133Plus2.0, U133A, U133B, U95Av2, U95B, Focus and HuGeneFL were identified for both monkey and chimpanzee. Expression data was generated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs of 12 human and 8 monkey (Indian origin Rhesus macaque samples using the Focus GeneChip®. Analysis of both qualitative detection calls and quantitative signal intensities showed that intra-species reproducibility (human vs. human or monkey vs. monkey was much higher than interspecies reproducibility (human vs. monkey. ISC probesets exhibited higher interspecies reproducibility than the overall expressed probesets. Importantly, appropriate normalization methods could be leveraged to greatly improve interspecies correlations. The correlation coefficients between human (average of 12 samples and monkey (average of 8 Rhesus macaque samples are 0.725, 0.821 and 0.893 for MAS5.0 (Microarray Suite version 5.0, dChip and RMA (Robust Multi-chip Average normalization method, respectively. Conclusion It is

  4. Nutrient cycling and nutrient losses in Andean montane forests from Antioquia, Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Londono Alvarez, Adriana; Montoya Gomez, Diana Cristina; Leon Pelaez, Juan Diego; Gonzalez Hernandez, Maria Isabel

    2007-01-01

    Gravitational flow and its chemical composition were measured in montane oak forests (Quercus humboldtii), in pine (Pinus patula) and cypress (Cupressus lusitanica) plantations in Piedras Blancas, Antioquia (Colombia), over two years. Zero tension lysimeters were used at different depth soil levels, the highest gravitational flow value at highest depth (50-80 cm) was obtained in cypress plot (492-7 mm), followed by pine (14,2 mm) and oak forest (2,0 mm). A similar behavior was encountered for nutrient losses, following the same pattern as gravitational flow. thus, for oak, pine and cypress, nutrient losses were respective/y: ca: 0,004, 0,084 and 2,270 kg ha -1 Y 1 ; P 0,008, 0,052 and 1,234 kg ha -1 Y 1 , mg: 0,004, 0,022 and 0,667 kg ha -1 y 1. K losses were 0,08 and 7,092 kg ha -1 Y 1 for oak forest and cypress plantation respectively. Nutrient losses followed the next order for each type of forest: oak: K ≥ P ≥Ca≥Mg, pine: Ca≥Fe≥P>Mg≥Zn≥Mn and cypress: K≥Mn≥Ca≥P≥Fe≥Zn≥Mg

  5. Nutrient supply of plants in aquaponic systems

    OpenAIRE

    Bittsánszky, András; Uzinger, Nikolett; Gyulai, Gábor; Mathis, Alex; Junge, Ranka; Villarroel, Morris; Kotzen, Benzion; Komives, Tamas

    2016-01-01

    In this preliminary article we present data on plant nutrient concentrations in aquaponic systems, and compare them to nutrient concentrations in “standard” hydroponic solutions. Our data shows that the nutrient concentrations supplied by the fish in aquaponic system are significantly lower for most nutrients, compared to hydroponic systems. Nevertheless, plants do thrive in solutions that have lower nutrient levels than “standard” hydroponic solutions. This is especially true for green leafy...

  6. Estimating Utility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Simler, Kenneth R.

    2010-01-01

    A fundamental premise of absolute poverty lines is that they represent the same level of utility through time and space. Disturbingly, a series of recent studies in middle- and low-income economies show that even carefully derived poverty lines rarely satisfy this premise. This article proposes a......, with the current approach tending to systematically overestimate (underestimate) poverty in urban (rural) zones.......A fundamental premise of absolute poverty lines is that they represent the same level of utility through time and space. Disturbingly, a series of recent studies in middle- and low-income economies show that even carefully derived poverty lines rarely satisfy this premise. This article proposes...... an information-theoretic approach to estimating cost-of-basic-needs (CBN) poverty lines that are utility consistent. Applications to date illustrate that utility-consistent poverty measurements derived from the proposed approach and those derived from current CBN best practices often differ substantially...

  7. Snacking patterns, diet quality, and cardiovascular risk factors in adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    The relationship of snacking patterns on nutrient intake and cardiovascular risk factors in adults is unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the associations of snacking patterns with nutrient intake, diet quality, and a selection of cardiovascular risk factors in adults participating in the ...

  8. CADDIS Volume 2. Sources, Stressors and Responses: Nutrients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction to the nutrients module, when to list nutrients as a candidate cause, ways to measure nutrients, simple and detailed conceptual diagrams for nutrients, nutrients module references and literature reviews.

  9. Nutrients, foods, and colorectal cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Mingyang; Garrett, Wendy S; Chan, Andrew T

    2015-05-01

    Diet has an important role in the development of colorectal cancer. In the past few decades, findings from extensive epidemiologic and experimental investigations have linked consumption of several foods and nutrients to the risk of colorectal neoplasia. Calcium, fiber, milk, and whole grains have been associated with a lower risk of colorectal cancer, and red meat and processed meat have been associated with an increased risk. There is substantial evidence for the potential chemopreventive effects of vitamin D, folate, fruits, and vegetables. Nutrients and foods also may interact, as a dietary pattern, to influence colorectal cancer risk. Diet likely influences colorectal carcinogenesis through several interacting mechanisms. These include the direct effects on immune responsiveness and inflammation, and the indirect effects of overnutrition and obesity-risk factors for colorectal cancer. Emerging evidence also implicates the gut microbiota as an important effector in the relationship between diet and cancer. Dietary modification therefore has the promise of reducing colorectal cancer incidence. Copyright © 2015 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Assessment of nutrient loadings of a large multipurpose prairie reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Marín, L. A.; Wheater, H. S.; Lindenschmidt, K. E.

    2017-07-01

    The relatively low water flow velocities in reservoirs cause them to have high capacities for retaining sediments and pollutants, which can lead to a reduction in downstream nutrient loading. Hence, nutrients can progressively accumulate in reservoirs, resulting in the deterioration of aquatic ecosystems and water quality. Lake Diefenbaker (LD) is a large multipurpose reservoir, located on the South Saskatchewan River (SSR), that serves as a major source of freshwater in Saskatchewan, Canada. Over the past several years, changes in land use (e.g. expansion of urban areas and industrial developments) in the reservoir's catchment have heightened concerns about future water quality in the catchment and in the reservoir. Intensification of agricultural activities has led to an increase in augmented the application of manure and fertilizer for crops and pasture. Although previous research has attempted to quantify nutrient retention in LD, there is a knowledge gap related to the identification of major nutrient sources and quantification of nutrient export from the catchment at different spatial scales. Using the SPAtially Referenced Regression On Watershed (SPARROW) model, this gap has been addressed by assessing water quality regionally, and identifying spatial patterns of factors and processes that affect water quality in the LD catchment. Model results indicate that LD retains about 70% of the inflowing total nitrogen (TN) and 90% of the inflowing total phosphorus (TP) loads, of which fertilizer and manure applied to agricultural fields contribute the greatest proportion. The SPARROW model will be useful as a tool to guide the optimal implementation of nutrient management plans to reduce nutrient inputs to LD.

  11. Nutrient-enhancement of Matooke banana for improved nutrient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 173 PLHIVregistered with Rakai Health Science Project were chosen and interviewed using structured questionnaires to determine the current contribution of banana to the household food security. Nutrient intake data were collected using Gibson s 24-hour recall method and food frequency questionnaires.

  12. dietary patterns and nutrient intakes of a south african population ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alan Jackson

    this study, loadings below 0.2 were considered weak associations with the components ..... level, smoking status, gender and energy, PUFA: Poly Unsaturated Fatty Acid. HIV - .... Hardon AP, Akurut D, Comoro C, Ekezie C, Irunde HF, Gerris T,.

  13. Hydromorphological control of nutrient cycling in complex river floodplain systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, T.; Bondar-Kunze, E.; Felkl, M.; Habersack, H.; Mair, M.; Pinay, G.; Tritthart, M.; Welti, N.

    2009-04-01

    potential effects on the main channel in a large river, the Danube River. During the growing season of 2006 and the end of the growing season 2007, a large-scale field survey was completed for two areas in the floodplain stretch of the Danube River one of which has recently undergone restoration via reconnection to the Danube River main channel. The sampling compared the sediment nutrient concentrations and potential denitrification and respiration rates. With changing surface water connection to the Danube River, the water bodies in the two compared floodplains experienced different patterns of microbial processing rates, particularly potential denitrification. We demonstrate that principles of hydromorphological dynamics control nutrient cycling in the water column and at the water sediment interface. These findings confirm the environmental control on these processes and their potential use as proxies to assess the consequences of hydrological changes by restoration measures on river ecosystem functioning.

  14. Nutrient Partitioning and Stoichiometry in Unburnt Sugarcane Ratoon at Varying Yield Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Marcos Leite

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Unraveling nutrient imbalances in contemporary agriculture is a research priority to improve whenever possible yield and nutrient use efficiency in sugarcane (Saccharum spp. systems while minimizing the costs of cultivation (e.g., use of fertilizers and environmental concerns. The main goal of this study was therefore to investigate biomass and nutrient [nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P, and potassium (K] content, partitioning, stoichiometry and internal efficiencies in sugarcane ratoon at varying yield levels. Three sites were established on highly weathered tropical soils located in the Southeast region of Brazil. At all sites, seasonal biomass and nutrient uptake patterns were synthesized from four sampling times taken throughout the sugarcane ratoon season. At all sites, in-season nutrient partitioning (in diverse plant components, internal efficiencies (yield to nutrient content ratio and nutrient ratios (N:P and N:K were determined at harvesting. Sugarcane exhibited three distinct phases of plant growth, as follows: lag, exponential-linear, and stationary. Across sites, nutrient requirement per unit of yield was 1.4 kg N, 0.24 kg P, and 2.7 kg K per Mg of stalk produced, but nutrient removal varied with soil nutrient status (based on soil plus fertilizer nutrient supply and crop demand (potential yield. Dry leaves had lower nutrient content (N, P, and K and broader N:P and N:K ratios when compared with tops and stalks plant fractions. Greater sugarcane yield and narrowed N:P ratio (6:1 were verified for tops of sugarcane when increasing both N and P content. High-yielding sugarcane systems were related to higher nutrient content and more balanced N:P (6:1 and N:K (0.5:1 ratios.

  15. Strong hydrological control on nutrient cycling of subtropical rainforests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, T. C.; Chang, C. T.; Huang, J. C.; Wang, L.; Lin, N. H.

    2016-12-01

    Forest nutrient cycling is strongly controlled by both biological and hydrological factors. However, based on a close examination of earlier reports, we highlight the role of hydrological control on nutrient cycling at a global scale and is more important at humid tropical and subtropical forests. we analyzed the nutrient budget of precipitation input and stream water output from 1994 to 2013 in a subtropical forest in Taiwan and conducted a data synthesis using results from 32 forests across the globe. The results revealed that monthly input and output of ions were positively correlated with water quantity, indicating hydrological control on nutrient cycling. Hydrological control is also evident from the greater ions export via stream water during the warm and wet growing season. The synthesis also illustrates that strong hydrological control leads to lower nitrogen retention and greater net loss of base cations in humid regions, particularly in the humid tropical and subtropical forests. Our result is of great significance in an era of global climate change because climate change could directly affect ecosystem nutrient cycling particularly in the tropics through changes in patterns of precipitation regime.

  16. The influence of dietary and whole-body nutrient content on the excretion of a vertebrate consumer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher M Dalton

    Full Text Available In many contexts, nutrient excretion by consumers can impact ecosystems by altering the availability of limiting nutrients. Variation in nutrient excretion can be predicted by mass balance models, most of which are premised on two key ideas: (1 consumers maintain fixed whole-body nutrient content (i.e., %N and %P, so-called fixed homeostasis; (2 if dietary nutrients are not matched to whole-body nutrients, excesses of any nutrient are released as excretion to maintain fixed homeostasis. Mass balance models thus predict that consumer excretion should be positively correlated with diet nutrients and negatively correlated with whole-body nutrients. Recent meta-analyses and field studies, however, have often failed to find these expected patterns, potentially because of a confounding influence-flexibility in whole-body nutrient content with diet quality (flexible homeostasis. Here, we explore the impact of flexible homeostasis on nutrient excretion by comparing the N and P excretion of four genetically diverged Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata populations when reared on diets of variable P content. As predicted by mass balance, P excretion increased on the high-P diet, but, contrary to the notion of fixed homeostasis, guppy whole-body %P also increased on the high-P diet. While there was no overall correlation between excretion nutrients and whole-body nutrients, when the effect of diet on both whole-body and excretion nutrients was included, we detected the expected negative correlation between whole-body N:P and excretion N:P. This last result suggests that mass balance can predict excretion rates within species, but only if dietary effects on whole-body nutrient content are controlled. Flexible homeostasis can obscure patterns predicted by mass balance, creating an imperative to accurately capture an organism's diet quality in predicting its excretion rate.

  17. Improving Lowland Rice (O. sativa L. cv. MR219 Plant Growth Variables, Nutrients Uptake, and Nutrients Recovery Using Crude Humic Substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perumal Palanivell

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available High cation exchange capacity and organic matter content of crude humic substances from compost could be exploited to reduce ammonia loss from urea and to as well improve rice growth and soil chemical properties for efficient nutrients utilization in lowland rice cultivation. Close-dynamic air flow system was used to determine the effects of crude humic substances on ammonia volatilization. A pot experiment was conducted to determine the effects of crude humic substances on rice plant growth, nutrients uptake, nutrients recovery, and soil chemical properties using an acid soil mixed with three rates of crude humic substances (20, 40, and 60 g pot−1. Standard procedures were used to evaluate rice plant dry matter production, nutrients uptake, nutrients recovery, and soil chemical properties. Application of crude humic substances increased ammonia volatilization. However, the lowest rate of crude humic substances (20 g pot−1 significantly improved total dry matter, nutrients uptake, nutrients recovery, and soil nutrients availability compared with crude humic substances (40 and 60 g pot−1 and the normal fertilization. Apart from improving growth of rice plants, crude humic substances can be used to ameliorate acid soils in rice cultivation. The findings of this study are being validated in our ongoing field trials.

  18. Improving Lowland Rice (O. sativa L. cv. MR219) Plant Growth Variables, Nutrients Uptake, and Nutrients Recovery Using Crude Humic Substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palanivell, Perumal; Ahmed, Osumanu Haruna; Ab Majid, Nik Muhamad; Jalloh, Mohamadu Boyie; Susilawati, Kasim

    2015-01-01

    High cation exchange capacity and organic matter content of crude humic substances from compost could be exploited to reduce ammonia loss from urea and to as well improve rice growth and soil chemical properties for efficient nutrients utilization in lowland rice cultivation. Close-dynamic air flow system was used to determine the effects of crude humic substances on ammonia volatilization. A pot experiment was conducted to determine the effects of crude humic substances on rice plant growth, nutrients uptake, nutrients recovery, and soil chemical properties using an acid soil mixed with three rates of crude humic substances (20, 40, and 60 g pot(-1)). Standard procedures were used to evaluate rice plant dry matter production, nutrients uptake, nutrients recovery, and soil chemical properties. Application of crude humic substances increased ammonia volatilization. However, the lowest rate of crude humic substances (20 g pot(-1)) significantly improved total dry matter, nutrients uptake, nutrients recovery, and soil nutrients availability compared with crude humic substances (40 and 60 g pot(-1)) and the normal fertilization. Apart from improving growth of rice plants, crude humic substances can be used to ameliorate acid soils in rice cultivation. The findings of this study are being validated in our ongoing field trials.

  19. Regulating nutrient allocation in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udvardi, Michael; Yang, Jiading; Worley, Eric

    2014-12-09

    The invention provides coding and promoter sequences for a VS-1 and AP-2 gene, which affects the developmental process of senescence in plants. Vectors, transgenic plants, seeds, and host cells comprising heterologous VS-1 and AP-2 genes are also provided. Additionally provided are methods of altering nutrient allocation and composition in a plant using the VS-1 and AP-2 genes.

  20. Nutrients for the aging eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasmussen HM

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Helen M Rasmussen,1 Elizabeth J Johnson2 1Educational Studies, Lesley University, Cambridge, MA, USA; 2Carotenoid and Health Laboratory, Jean Mayer US Department of Agriculture Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University, Boston, MA, USA Abstract: The incidence of age-related eye diseases is expected to rise with the aging of the population. Oxidation and inflammation are implicated in the etiology of these diseases. There is evidence that dietary antioxidants and anti-inflammatories may provide benefit in decreasing the risk of age-related eye disease. Nutrients of interest are vitamins C and E, β-carotene, zinc, lutein, zeaxanthin, and the omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. While a recent survey finds that among the baby boomers (45–65 years old, vision is the most important of the five senses, well over half of those surveyed were not aware of the important nutrients that play a key role in eye health. This is evident from a national survey that finds that intake of these key nutrients from dietary sources is below the recommendations or guidelines. Therefore, it is important to educate this population and to create an awareness of the nutrients and foods of particular interest in the prevention of age-related eye disease. Keywords: nutrition, aging, eye health

  1. Nutrient resorption from seagrass leaves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stapel, J.; Hemminga, M.A.

    1997-01-01

    The resorption of nutrients (C, N and P) from senescent leaves of six seagrass species from nine different locations in tropical (Indonesia and Kenya), Mediterranean (Spain) and temperate (The Netherlands) regions has been investigated. Resorption was quantitatively assessed by calculating the

  2. Recycling nutrients in algae biorefinery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia Alba, Laura; Vos, M.P.; Torri, C.; Fabbri, D.; Kersten, Sascha R.A.; Brilman, Derk Willem Frederik

    2013-01-01

    Algal fuel cells: Repeated nutrient recycling is demonstrated by reusing the aqueous phase obtained from the hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of microalgae. This is achieved, for the first time, by performing a complete set of four continuous growth–HTL cycles. Results show similar growth rates in

  3. Nutrient Management in Pine Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan E. Tiarks

    1999-01-01

    Coastal plain soils are naturally low in fertility and many pine stands will give an economic response to fertilization, especially phosphorus. Maintaining the nutrients that are on the site by limiting displacement of logging slash during and after the harvest can be important in maintaining the productivity of the site and reducing the amount of fertilizer required...

  4. Synchronizing legume residue nutrient release with Kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala) uptake in a Nitrosol of Kabete, Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Onwonga, Richard N.; Chepkoech, Caroline; Wahome, R.G.

    fertility improvement for crop production e.g. kales (Brassica oleracea var. acephala) under organic farming systems. Chickpea (Cicer arietinum) and white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) are leguminous crops commonly intercropped with kales (Genga, 2014) and their influence on crop yield and soil nutrient status...... has been widely studied (Nduku 2014, Genga 2014; Onwonga et al., 2015). There is however a dearth of information with respect to synchronization of nutrient released by legume residues with pattern of nutrient uptake by kales to match their demand. The objective of the current study was therefore...... to assess decomposition and nutrient release rates of chickpea and lupin residues and kale nutrient uptake patterns for better synchrony of nutrient supply and demand....

  5. The effects of leaf litter nutrient pulses on Alliaria petiolata performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert W. Heckman

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Nutrient pulses can facilitate species establishment and spread in new habitats, particularly when one species more effectively uses that nutrient pulse. Biological differences in nutrient acquisition between native and exotic species may facilitate invasions into a variety of habitats including deciduous forest understories. Alliaria petiolata (Bieb. Cavara & Grande is an important invader of deciduous forest understories throughout much of North America. These understory communities contain many species which perform the majority of their growth and reproduction before canopy closure in spring. Because A. petiolata is a wintergreen biennial that can be active during autumn and winter, it may utilize nutrients released from decaying leaf litter before its competitors. To investigate this we manipulated the timing of leaf litter addition (fall or spring and experimentally simulated the nutrient pulse from decaying leaves using artificial fertilizer. To determine whether A. petiolata affected the abundance of understory competitors, we also removed A. petiolata from one treatment. A. petiolata that received early nutrients exhibited greater growth. Treatments receiving fall leaf litter or artificial nutrients had greater A. petiolata adult biomass than plots receiving spring nutrient additions (leaf litter or artificial nutrients. However, fall leaf litter addition had no effect on the richness of competitor species. Thus, wintergreen phenology may contribute to the spread of A. petiolata through deciduous forest understories, but may not explain community-level impacts of A. petiolata in deciduous forests.

  6. Multiattribute Utility Theory without Expected Utility Foundations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stiggelbout, A.M.; Wakker, P.P.

    1995-01-01

    Methods for determining the form of utilities are needed for the implementation of utility theory in specific decisions. An important step forward was achieved when utility theorists characterized useful parametric families of utilities, and simplifying decompositions of multiattribute utilities.

  7. Multiattribute utility theory without expected utility foundations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wakker, P.P.; Miyamoto, J.

    1996-01-01

    Methods for determining the form of utilities are needed for the implementation of utility theory in specific decisions. An important step forward was achieved when utility theorists characterized useful parametric families of utilities, and simplifying decompositions of multiattribute utilities.

  8. Investigation of nutrient feeding strategies in a countercurrent mixed-acid multi-staged fermentation: experimental data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Aaron Douglas; Lockman, Nur Ain; Holtzapple, Mark T

    2011-06-01

    Nutrients are essential for microbial growth and metabolism in mixed-culture acid fermentations. Understanding the influence of nutrient feeding strategies on fermentation performance is necessary for optimization. For a four-bottle fermentation train, five nutrient contacting patterns (single-point nutrient addition to fermentors F1, F2, F3, and F4 and multi-point parallel addition) were investigated. Compared to the traditional nutrient contacting method (all nutrients fed to F1), the near-optimal feeding strategies improved exit yield, culture yield, process yield, exit acetate-equivalent yield, conversion, and total acid productivity by approximately 31%, 39%, 46%, 31%, 100%, and 19%, respectively. There was no statistical improvement in total acid concentration. The traditional nutrient feeding strategy had the highest selectivity and acetate-equivalent selectivity. Total acid productivity depends on carbon-nitrogen ratio.

  9. Perspectives and utilization technologies of chicory ( Cichorium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Exploring and developing multiple utility technologies of plant resources is an alternative way for improving the efficiency of land used for food and fuel production. Chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) has a nutritional quality comparable to lucerne as it contains similar proportions of protein, lipid, minerals and other nutrients.

  10. Energetic utilization of dietary fiber in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijnen, M.M.J.A.

    2003-01-01

    The energetic utilization of fermentable dietary fiber (fDF) of different fiber sources and its relation to physical activity and housing conditions was studied in three experiments. In all experiments the daily intake of digestible nutrients, nitrogen and energy balances, heat production, and

  11. Cross-Cultural Dietary Patterns: A College Course on Ethnically Diverse Eating Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, Mary K.; Stuhldreher, Wendy L.

    1998-01-01

    A course on cross-cultural dietary patterns provides family and consumer sciences students with information about influences on ethnic diets while introducing food preparation and computer nutrient evaluation techniques. (SK)

  12. Assessment of nutrient retention by Natete wetland Kampala, Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanyiginya, V.; Kansiime, F.; Kimwaga, R.; Mashauri, D. A.

    Natete wetland which is located in a suburb of Kampala city in Uganda is dominated by C yperus papyrus and covers an area of approximately 1 km 2. The wetland receives wastewater and runoff from Natete town which do not have a wastewater treatment facility. The main objective of this study was to assess nutrient retention of Natete wetland and specifically to: determine the wastewater flow patterns in the wetland; estimate the nutrient loads into and out of the wetland; determine the nutrient retention by soil, plants and water column in the wetland; and assess the above and belowground biomass density of the dominant vegetation. Soil, water and plant samples were taken at 50 m intervals along two transects cut through the wetland; soil and water samples were taken at 10 cm just below the surface. Physico-chemical parameters namely pH, electrical conductivity and temperature were measured in situ. Water samples were analyzed in the laboratory for ammonium-nitrogen, nitrate-nitrogen, total nitrogen, orthophosphate and total phosphorus. Electrical conductivity ranged between 113 μS/cm and 530 μS/cm and the wastewater flow was concentrated on the eastern side of the wetland. pH varied between 6 and 7, temperature ranged from 19 °C to 24 °C. NH 4-N, NO 3-N, and TN concentrations were retained by 21%, 98%, and 35% respectively. Phosphorus concentration was higher at the outlet of the wetland possibly due to release from sediments and leaching. Nutrient loads were higher at the inlet (12,614 ± 394 kgN/day and 778 ± 159 kgP/day) than the outlet (2368 ± 425 kgN/day and 216 ± 56 kgP/day) indicating retention by the wetland. Plants stored most nutrients compared to soil and water. The belowground biomass of papyrus vegetation in the wetland was higher (1288.4 ± 8.3 gDW/m 2) than the aboveground biomass (1019.7 ± 13.8 gDW/m 2). Plant uptake is one of the important routes of nutrient retention in Natete wetland. It is recommended that harvesting papyrus can be an

  13. Nutrient management for rice production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.R.; Chandra, D.; Nanda, P.; Singh, S.S.; Singh, S.R.; Ghorai, A.K.

    2002-06-01

    The nutrient removed by the crops far exceeds the amounts replenished through fertilizer, causing a much greater strain on the native soil reserves. The situation is further aggravated in countries like India, where sub-optimal fertilizer used by the farmers is a common phenomenon rather than an exception. The total consumption of nutrients of all crops in India, even though reached 15 million tons in 1997, remains much below the estimated nutrient removal of 25 million tons (Swarup and Goneshamurthy, 1998). The gap between nutrient removal supplied through fertilizer has widened further in 2000 to 34 million tons of plant nutrients from the soil against an estimated fertilizer availability of 18 million tons (Singh and Dwivedi, 1996). Nitrogen is the nutrient which limits the most the rice production worldwide. In Asia, where more than 90 percent of the world's rice is produced, about 60 percent of the N fertilizer consumed is used on rice (Stangel and De Dutta, 1985). Conjunctive use of organic material along with fertilizer has been proved an efficient source of nitrogen. Organic residue recycling is becoming an increasingly important aspect of environmentally sound sustainable agriculture. Returning residues like green manure to the soil is necessary for maintaining soil organic matter, which is important for favourable soil structure, soil water retention and soil microbial flora and fauna activities. Use of organic manures in conjunction or as an alternative to chemical fertilizer is receiving attention. Green manure, addition to some extent, helps not only in enhancing the yield but also in improving the physical and chemical nature of soils. The excessive application of chemical fertilizers made it imperative that a part of inorganic fertilizer may be substituted with the recycling of organic wastes. Organic manure has been recorded to enhance the efficiency and reduce the requirement of chemical fertilizers. Partial nitrogen substitution through organic

  14. Carbon and nutrient use efficiencies optimally balance stoichiometric imbalances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoni, Stefano; Čapek, Petr; Lindahl, Björn; Mooshammer, Maria; Richter, Andreas; Šantrůčková, Hana

    2016-04-01

    Decomposer organisms face large stoichiometric imbalances because their food is generally poor in nutrients compared to the decomposer cellular composition. The presence of excess carbon (C) requires adaptations to utilize nutrients effectively while disposing of or investing excess C. As food composition changes, these adaptations lead to variable C- and nutrient-use efficiencies (defined as the ratios of C and nutrients used for growth over the amounts consumed). For organisms to be ecologically competitive, these changes in efficiencies with resource stoichiometry have to balance advantages and disadvantages in an optimal way. We hypothesize that efficiencies are varied so that community growth rate is optimized along stoichiometric gradients of their resources. Building from previous theories, we predict that maximum growth is achieved when C and nutrients are co-limiting, so that the maximum C-use efficiency is reached, and nutrient release is minimized. This optimality principle is expected to be applicable across terrestrial-aquatic borders, to various elements, and at different trophic levels. While the growth rate maximization hypothesis has been evaluated for consumers and predators, in this contribution we test it for terrestrial and aquatic decomposers degrading resources across wide stoichiometry gradients. The optimality hypothesis predicts constant efficiencies at low substrate C:N and C:P, whereas above a stoichiometric threshold, C-use efficiency declines and nitrogen- and phosphorus-use efficiencies increase up to one. Thus, high resource C:N and C:P lead to low C-use efficiency, but effective retention of nitrogen and phosphorus. Predictions are broadly consistent with efficiency trends in decomposer communities across terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems.

  15. Nutrient supply of plants in aquaponic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andras Bittsanszky

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this preliminary article we present data on plant nutrient concentrations in aquaponics systems, and we compare them to nutrient concentrations in “standard” hydroponic solutions. Our data shows that the nutrient concentrations supplied by the fish in the aquaponics system are significantly lower for most nutrients compared to hydroponic systems. Nevertheless, plants do thrive in solutions that have lower nutrient levels compared to “standard” hydroponic solutions. This is especially true for green leafy vegetables that rarely need additional nutritional supplementation. It is concluded that in the highly complex system of aquaponics, special care has to be taken, via continuous monitoring of the chemical composition of the circulating water, to provide adequate concentrations and ratios of nutrients, and especially for the potentially toxic component, ammonium. If certain plants require nutrient supplementation, we consider that one based on organic substances would be most beneficial. However, protocols for the application of such nutrient amendments still need to be developed.

  16. Nutrient Limitation in Central Red Sea Mangroves

    KAUST Repository

    Almahasheer, Hanan; Duarte, Carlos M.; Irigoien, Xabier

    2016-01-01

    Red Sea have characteristic heights of ~2 m, suggesting nutrient limitation. We assessed the nutrient status of mangrove stands in the Central Red Sea and conducted a fertilization experiment (N, P and Fe and various combinations thereof) on 4-week

  17. Predator-driven nutrient recycling in California stream ecosystems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin G Munshaw

    Full Text Available Nutrient recycling by consumers in streams can influence ecosystem nutrient availability and the assemblage and growth of photoautotrophs. Stream fishes can play a large role in nutrient recycling, but contributions by other vertebrates to overall recycling rates remain poorly studied. In tributaries of the Pacific Northwest, coastal giant salamanders (Dicamptodon tenebrosus occur at high densities alongside steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss and are top aquatic predators. We surveyed the density and body size distributions of D. tenebrosus and O. mykiss in a California tributary stream, combined with a field study to determine mass-specific excretion rates of ammonium (N and total dissolved phosphorus (P for D. tenebrosus. We estimated O. mykiss excretion rates (N, P by bioenergetics using field-collected data on the nutrient composition of O. mykiss diets from the same system. Despite lower abundance, D. tenebrosus biomass was 2.5 times higher than O. mykiss. Mass-specific excretion summed over 170 m of stream revealed that O. mykiss recycle 1.7 times more N, and 1.2 times more P than D. tenebrosus, and had a higher N:P ratio (8.7 than that of D. tenebrosus (6.0, or the two species combined (7.5. Through simulated trade-offs in biomass, we estimate that shifts from salamander biomass toward fish biomass have the potential to ease nutrient limitation in forested tributary streams. These results suggest that natural and anthropogenic heterogeneity in the relative abundance of these vertebrates and variation in the uptake rates across river networks can affect broad-scale patterns of nutrient limitation.

  18. Automated nutrient analyses in seawater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitledge, T.E.; Malloy, S.C.; Patton, C.J.; Wirick, C.D.

    1981-02-01

    This manual was assembled for use as a guide for analyzing the nutrient content of seawater samples collected in the marine coastal zone of the Northeast United States and the Bering Sea. Some modifications (changes in dilution or sample pump tube sizes) may be necessary to achieve optimum measurements in very pronounced oligotrophic, eutrophic or brackish areas. Information is presented under the following section headings: theory and mechanics of automated analysis; continuous flow system description; operation of autoanalyzer system; cookbook of current nutrient methods; automated analyzer and data analysis software; computer interfacing and hardware modifications; and trouble shooting. The three appendixes are entitled: references and additional reading; manifold components and chemicals; and software listings. (JGB)

  19. The utilization of microbes as a fermentation agent to reduce saponin in Trembesi leaves (Sammanea saman)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sariri, A. K.; Mulyono, A. M. W.; Tari, A. I. N.

    2018-03-01

    This objective of this research was to observe the utilization of microbes as a fermentation agent of trembesi leaves that can increase the quality of trembesi leaves as ruminants feed. Before fermentation, trembesi leaves were divided into three treatments. They were control = non-agentic in fermentation, D-An = the addition of Aspergillus niger as fermentation agent, and D-Lp = the addition of Lactobacillus plantarum as fermentation agent. Each treatment experienced five repetitions. The experimental design used a randomized direct pattern group design. The analysis included proximate analysis consisting of water content, crude protein content, crude fiber content, lipid content, mineral content (ash) and saponin content after fermentation. It could be concluded that the utilization of Aspergillus niger and Lactobacillus plantarum in fermentation could decrease saponin content and could increase the nutrient content of trembesi leaves by increasing crude protein content otherwise by decreasing crude fiber content of trembesi leaves.

  20. Nutrients requirements in biological industrial wastewater treatment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In both these wastewaters nutrients were not added. A simple formula is introduced to calculate nutrient requirements based on removal efficiency and observed biomass yield coefficient. Key Words: Olive mill wastewater; anaerobic treatment; aerobic treatment; sequencing batch reactor; biomass yield; nutrient requirement.

  1. Nutrient quality of fast food kids meals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure of children to kids’ meals at fast food restaurants is high; however, the nutrient quality of such meals has not been systematically assessed. We assessed the nutrient quality of fast food meals marketed to young children, i.e., "kids meals". The nutrient quality of kids’ meals was assessed...

  2. Nutrient surpluses on integrated arable farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schröder, J.J.; Asperen, van P.; Dongen, van G.J.M.; Wijnands, F.G.

    1996-01-01

    From 1990 to 1993 nutrient fluxes were monitored on 38 private arable farms that had adopted farming strategies aiming at reduced nutrient inputs and substitution of mineral fertilizers by organic fertilizers. The nutrient surplus was defined as the difference between inputs (including inputs

  3. Spectral Quantitation Of Hydroponic Nutrients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlager, Kenneth J.; Kahle, Scott J.; Wilson, Monica A.; Boehlen, Michelle

    1996-01-01

    Instrument continuously monitors hydroponic solution by use of absorption and emission spectrometry to determine concentrations of principal nutrients, including nitrate, iron, potassium, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, sodium, and others. Does not depend on extraction and processing of samples, use of such surrograte parameters as pH or electrical conductivity for control, or addition of analytical reagents to solution. Solution not chemically altered by analysis and can be returned to hydroponic process stream after analysis.

  4. The global nutrient challenge. From science to public engagement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutton, M.A.; Howard, C.M. [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Bleeker, A. [Energy research Centre of the Netherlands, Petten (Netherlands); Datta, A. [United Nations Environment Programme, Nairobi (Kenya)

    2013-04-15

    Among the many environment and development challenges facing humanity, it is fair to say that nutrients do not currently feature so regularly in the newspapers, radio and television. The media tends to prefer easy single issues which affect our daily lives in a clear-cut way. The role of carbon in climate change is a good example. We all depend on climate. Burning fossil fuels makes more carbon dioxide, tending to change temperature and rainfall patterns, to which we can easily relate. The science is complex, but it is a simple message for the public to understand. It does not take long to think of several other easily grasped threats, like urban air pollution, poor drinking water, or even the occurrence of horsemeat in food chains. It is perhaps for these reasons that the role of nutrients in environmental change has received much less public attention. After all, nutrients - including nitrogen, phosphorus and many micronutrients - play multiple roles in our world; they affect many biogeochemical processes and they lead to a plethora of interacting threats. If we are not careful, we can quickly get buried in the complexity of the different ways in which our lives are affected by these elements. The outcome is that it can become hard to convey the science of global nutrient cycles in a way that the public can understand. These are points about which we have given substantial thought as we contributed to a recently launched report Our Nutrient World: The challenge to produce more food and energy with less pollution (Sutton et al., 2013). The report was commissioned by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and conducted by the Global Partnership on Nutrient Management in cooperation with the International Nitrogen Initiative. The commission was not to provide a full scientific assessment, but rather to develop a global overview of the challenges associated with nutrient management. Drawing on existing knowledge, the aim was to distill the nature of the

  5. Nutritional status as assessed by nutrient intakes and biomarkers among women of childbearing age--is the burden of nutrient inadequacies growing in America?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Deshanie; Bird, Julia K; McBurney, Michael I; Chapman-Novakofski, Karen M

    2015-06-01

    Understanding nutrient intakes among women of childbearing age within the USA is important given the accumulating evidence that maternal body weight gain and nutrient intakes prior to pregnancy may influence the health and well-being of the offspring. The objective of the present study was to evaluate nutritional status in women of childbearing age and to ascertain the influence of ethnicity and income on nutrient intakes. Nutritional status was assessed using data on nutrient intakes through foods and supplements from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Biomarker data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention were used to assess nutritional status for selected nutrients. Poverty-income ratio was used to assess family income. White (n 1560), African-American (n 889) and Mexican-American (n 761) women aged 19-30 and 31-50 years were included. A nationally representative sample of non-pregnant women of childbearing age resident in the USA. African-American women had the lowest intakes of fibre, folate, riboflavin, P, K, Ca and Mg. Women (31-50 years) with a poverty-income ratio of ≤ 1.85 had significantly lower intakes of almost all nutrients analysed. Irrespective of ethnicity and income, a significant percentage of women were not consuming the estimated recommended amounts (Estimated Average Requirement) of several key nutrients: vitamin A (~80%), vitamin D (~78%) and fibre (~92%). Nutrient biomarker data were generally reflective of nutrient intake patterns among the different ethnic groups. Women of childbearing age in the USA are not meeting nutrient intake guidelines, with differences between ethnic groups and socio-economic strata. These factors should be considered when establishing nutrition science advocacy and policy.

  6. Rhizosphere priming: a nutrient perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feike Auke Dijkstra

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Rhizosphere priming is the change in decomposition of soil organic matter (SOM caused by root activity. Rhizosphere priming plays a crucial role in soil carbon (C dynamics and their response to global climate change. Rhizosphere priming may be affected by soil nutrient availability, but rhizosphere priming itself can also affect nutrient supply to plants. These interactive effects may be of particular relevance in understanding the sustained increase in plant growth and nutrient supply in response to a rise in atmospheric CO2 concentration. We examined how these interactions were affected by elevated CO2 in two similar semiarid grassland field studies. We found that an increase in rhizosphere priming enhanced the release of nitrogen (N through decomposition of a larger fraction of SOM in one study, but not in the other. We postulate that rhizosphere priming may enhance N supply to plants in systems that are N limited, but that rhizosphere priming may not occur in systems that are phosphorus (P limited. Under P limitation, rhizodeposition may be used for mobilisation of P, rather than for decomposition of SOM. Therefore, with increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations, rhizosphere priming may play a larger role in affecting C sequestration in N poor than in P poor soils.

  7. Sensitivity analysis of a pulse nutrient addition technique for estimating nutrient uptake in large streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurence Lin; J.R. Webster

    2012-01-01

    The constant nutrient addition technique has been used extensively to measure nutrient uptake in streams. However, this technique is impractical for large streams, and the pulse nutrient addition (PNA) has been suggested as an alternative. We developed a computer model to simulate Monod kinetics nutrient uptake in large rivers and used this model to evaluate the...

  8. Modeling farm nutrient flows in the North China Plain to reduce nutrient losses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Zhanqing; Bai, Zhaohai; Wei, Sha; Ma, Wenqi; Wang, Mengru; Kroeze, Carolien; Ma, Lin

    2017-01-01

    Years of poor nutrient management practices in the agriculture industry in the North China Plain have led to large losses of nutrients to the environment, causing severe ecological consequences. Analyzing farm nutrient flows is urgently needed in order to reduce nutrient losses. A farm-level

  9. Evaluation of Biostimulation (Nutrients) in hydrocarbons contaminated soils by respirometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Erika; Roldan, Fabio; Garzon, Laura

    2011-01-01

    The biostimulation process was evaluated in a hydrocarbon contaminated soil by respirometry after amendment with inorganic compound fertilizer (ICF) (N: P: K 28:12:7) and simple inorganic salts (SIS) (NH 4 NO 3 and K 2 HPO 4 ). The soil was contaminated with oily sludge (40.000 MgTPH/Kgdw). The oxygen uptake was measured using two respirometers (HACH 2173b and OXITOP PF 600) during thirteen days (n=3). Two treatments (ICF and SIS) and three controls (abiotic, reference substance and without nutrients) were evaluated during the study. Physicochemical (pH, nutrients, and TPH) and microbiological analysis (heterotrophic and hydrocarbon-utilizing microorganisms) were obtained at the beginning and at the end of each assay. Higher respiration rates were recorded in sis and without nutrient control. Results were 802.28 and 850.72- 1 d-1, MgO 2 kgps - 1d i n HACH, while in OXITOP were 936.65 and 502.05 MgO 2 Kgps respectively. These data indicate that amendment of nutrients stimulated microbial metabolism. ICF had lower respiration rates (188.18 and 139.87 MgO 2 kgps - 1d - 1 i n HACH and OXITOP, respectively) as well as counts; this could be attributed to ammonia toxicity.

  10. Utilities objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cousin, Y.; Fabian, H.U.

    1996-01-01

    The policy of French and german utilities is to make use of nuclear energy as a long term, competitive and environmentally friendly power supply. The world electricity generation is due to double within the next 30 years. In the next 20 to 30 years the necessity of nuclear energy will be broadly recognized. More than for most industries, to deal properly with nuclear energy requires the combination of a consistent political will, of a proper institutional framework, of strong and legitimate control authorities, of a sophisticated industry and of operators with skilled management and human resources. One of the major risk facing nuclear energy is the loss of competitiveness. This can be achieved only through the combination of an optimized design, a consistent standardization, a proper industrial partnership and a stable long term strategy. Although the existing plants in Western Europe are already very safe, the policy is clearly to enhance the safety of the next generation of nuclear plants which are designing today. The French and German utilities have chosen an evolutionary approach based on experience and proven technologies, with an enhanced defense in depth and an objective of easier operation and maintenance. The cost objective is to maintain and improve what has been achieved in the best existing power plants in both countries. This calls for rational choices and optimized design to meet the safety objectives, a strong standardization policy, short construction times, high availability and enough flexibility to enable optimization of the fuel cycle throughout the lifetime of the plants. The conceptual design phase has proven that the French and German teams from industry and from the utilities are able to pursue both the safety and the cost objectives, basing their decision on a rational approach which could be accepted by the safety authorities. (J.S.)

  11. Adaptive radiation with regard to nutrient sequestration strategies in the carnivorous plants of the genus Nepenthes

    OpenAIRE

    Pavlovič, Andrej

    2012-01-01

    Carnivorous pitcher plants of the genus Nepenthes have evolved a great diversity of pitcher morphologies. Selective pressures for maximizing nutrient uptake have driven speciation and diversification of the genus in a process known as adaptive radiation. This leads to the evolution of pitchers adapted to specific and often bizarre source of nutrients, which are not strictly animal-derived. One example is Nepenthes ampullaria with unusual growth pattern and pitcher morphology what enables the ...

  12. Thorium utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trauger, D B [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)

    1978-01-01

    Some of the factors that provide incentive for the utilization of thorium in specific reactor types are explored and the constraints that stand in the way are pointed out. The properties of thorium and derived fuels are discussed, and test and reactor operating experience is reviewed. In addition, symbiotic systems of breeder and converter reactor are suggested as being particularly attractive systems for energy production. Throughout the discussion, the High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor and Molten Salt Reactor are treated in some detail because they have been developed primarily for use with thorium fuel cycles.

  13. Japanese utilities' plutonium utilization program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, Yuichiro.

    1996-01-01

    Japan's 10 utility companies are working and will continue to work towards establishing a fully closed nuclear fuel cycle. The key goals of which are: (1) reprocessing spent fuel; (2) recycling recovered uranium and plutonium; and (3) commercializing fast breeder technology by around the year 2030. This course of action by the Japanese electric power industry is in full accordance with Japan's national policy outlined in the government's report ''The Long-Term Program for Research, Development, and Nuclear Energy,'' which was published in June 1994. The Japanese civilian nuclear program is a long-term program that looks into the 21st century and beyond. It is quite true that sustaining the recycling option for energy security and the global environment demands a large invest