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Sample records for nutrient intake serum

  1. Nutrient intake, serum lipids and iron status of colligiate rugby players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamura, Hiroyuki; Iide, Kazuhide; Yoshimura, Yoshitaka; Kumagai, Kenya; Oshikata, Reika; Miyahara, Keiko; Oda, Kazuto; Miyamoto, Noriko; Nakazawa, Anthony

    2013-02-13

    There are two main playing positions in rugby (backs and forwards), which demonstrate different exercise patterns, roles, and physical characteristics. The purpose of this study was: 1) to collect baseline data on nutrient intake in order to advise the athletes about nutrition practices that might enhance performance, and 2) to compare serum lipids, lipoproteins, apolipoproteins (apo), lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) activity, and iron status of forwards and backs. The sporting group was divided into 18 forwards and 16 backs and were compared with 26 sedentary controls. Dietary information was obtained with a food frequency questionnaire. There were significant differences among the three groups. The forwards had the highest body weight, body mass index, percentage of body fat (calculated by sum of four skinfold thicknesses), as well as the highest lean body mass, followed by the backs and the control group. The mean carbohydrate intake was marginal and protein intake was lower than the respective recommended targets in all three groups. The mean intakes of calcium, magnesium, and vitamins A, B1, B2, and C were lower than the respective Japanese recommended dietary allowances or adequate dietary intakes for the rugby players. The forwards had significantly lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and HDL2-C than the backs and had significantly higher apo B and LCAT activity than the controls. The backs showed significantly higher HDL-C, HDL3-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and apo A-I, and LCAT activity than the controls. Four forwards (22%), five backs (31%), and three controls (12%) had hemolysis. None of the rugby players had anemia or iron depletion. The findings of our study indicate that as the athletes increased their carbohydrate and protein intake, their performance and lean body mass increased. Further, to increase mineral and vitamin intakes, we recommended athletes increase their consumption of green and other vegetables

  2. Serum lipids, apoproteins and nutrient intake in rural Cretan boys consuming high-olive-oil diets.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aravanis, C.; Mensink, R.P.; Karalias, N.; Christodoulou, B.; Kafatos, A.; Katan, M.B.

    1988-01-01

    A high intake of olive oil has produced high levels of high-density and low levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in short-term dietary trials. To investigate long-term effects of olive oil we have studied the diet and serum lipids of boys in Crete, where a high olive oil consumption is the

  3. Dietary intakes and serum nutrients differ between adults from food-insufficient and food-sufficient families: Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988-1994.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, L B; Winkleby, M A; Radimer, K L

    2001-04-01

    Approximately 10.2 million persons in the United States sometimes or often do not have enough food to eat, a condition known as food insufficiency. Using cross-sectional data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), we examined whether dietary intakes and serum nutrients differed between adults from food-insufficient families (FIF) and adults from food-sufficient families (FSF). Results from analyses, stratified by age group and adjusted for family income and other important covariates, revealed several significant findings (P milk/milk products, fruits/fruit juices and vegetables. In addition, younger adults from FIF had lower serum concentrations of total cholesterol, vitamin A and three carotenoids (alpha-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin and lutein/zeaxanthin). Older adults (aged > or =60 y) from FIF had lower intakes of energy, vitamin B-6, magnesium, iron and zinc and were more likely to have iron and zinc intakes below 50% of the recommended amount on a given day. Older adults from FIF also had lower serum concentrations of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, albumin, vitamin A, beta-cryptoxanthin and vitamin E. Both younger and older adults from FIF were more likely to have very low serum albumin (<35 g/L) than were adults from FSF. Our findings show that adults from FIF have diets that may compromise their health.

  4. Lecithin intake and serum cholesterol.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knuiman, J.T.; Beynen, A.C.; Katan, M.B.

    1989-01-01

    To find out whether the consumption of lecithin has a more beneficial effect on serum cholesterol than does the consumption of equivalent amounts of polyunsaturated oils, we scrutinized 24 studies on the effect of supplementary lecithin intakes ranging from 1 to 54 mg/d. Most of the studies lacked

  5. Nutrient Intake among Pregnant Teenage Girls Attending Ante-Natal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A standardised interviewer administered Food Frequency Questionnaire was used to asses the dietary intake. Nutrient calculator was used to determine the nutrient intake of the study participant. Results: The intakes of all selected nutrients were significantly lower than the RDA. Protein intake was significantly associated ...

  6. FINDIET 2007 Survey: energy and nutrient intakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietinen, Pirjo; Paturi, Merja; Reinivuo, Heli; Tapanainen, Heli; Valsta, Liisa M

    2010-06-01

    The National FINDIET surveys are carried out every 5 years to monitor dietary habits and nutrient intake of the adult Finnish population. The latest survey was carried out in 2007. Cross-sectional population-based study. Dietary assessment was carried out using 48 h recall interviews. A picture book of food portions was used to estimate portion sizes and the national Food Composition Database Fineli(R) to calculate nutrient intakes. A representative sample taken in five regions in Finland. A total of 730 men and 846 women aged 24-64 years. The percentage contribution of fat to the total energy intake was 33 % in men and 31 % in women. The respective percentages for SFA in men and women were 13 % and 12 %, respectively, and 0.4 % for trans fatty acids in both genders. The average intakes of folate, vitamin D and fibre fell below the recommended levels, whereas the average salt intake was somewhat higher than the recommendations. Women's diet was higher in protein, dietary fibre and sucrose compared to that of men. According to the FINDIET 2007 Survey, the dietary habits of the adult Finnish population have headed in a positive direction overall. However, although the quality of the fats consumed has continued to improve, and the intake of salt has decreased, they still do not meet the recommended levels of intake. Similarly, the average intakes of folate and vitamin D continue to fall below the recommendations. There is also a need to increase fibre intake and to cut down the intake of sucrose.

  7. A multivariate analysis of serum nutrient levels and lung function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smit Henriette A

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is mounting evidence that estimates of intakes of a range of dietary nutrients are related to both lung function level and rate of decline, but far less evidence on the relation between lung function and objective measures of serum levels of individual nutrients. The aim of this study was to conduct a comprehensive examination of the independent associations of a wide range of serum markers of nutritional status with lung function, measured as the one-second forced expiratory volume (FEV1. Methods Using data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a US population-based cross-sectional study, we investigated the relation between 21 serum markers of potentially relevant nutrients and FEV1, with adjustment for potential confounding factors. Systematic approaches were used to guide the analysis. Results In a mutually adjusted model, higher serum levels of antioxidant vitamins (vitamin A, beta-cryptoxanthin, vitamin C, vitamin E, selenium, normalized calcium, chloride, and iron were independently associated with higher levels of FEV1. Higher concentrations of potassium and sodium were associated with lower FEV1. Conclusion Maintaining higher serum concentrations of dietary antioxidant vitamins and selenium is potentially beneficial to lung health. In addition other novel associations found in this study merit further investigation.

  8. Application of nutrient intake values (NIVs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorster, Hester H; Murphy, Suzanne P; Allen, Lindsay H; King, Janet C

    2007-03-01

    The process of applying nutrient intake values (NIVs) for dietary assessment, planning, and implementing programs is discussed in this paper. In addition to assessing, monitoring, and evaluating nutritional situations, applications include planning food policies, strategies, and programs for promotion of optimal nutrition and preventing and treating malnutrition (both over- and undernutrition). Other applications include nutrition education, food and nutrient legislation, marketing and labeling, research, product development, food procurement and trade (import and export), food aid, and therapeutic (clinical) nutrition. Specific examples of how NIVs are used to develop food labels, fortification policies, and food-based dietary guidelines are described. Applications in both developed and developing countries are also described. In summary, NIVs are the scientific backbone of all aspects of nutrition policy in countries and regions worldwide.

  9. Dietary diversity and nutrient intake adequacy among women in Iwo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dietary diversity and nutrient intake adequacy among women in Iwo Local Government Area, Osun State Nigeria. ... A 24-hour dietary recall questionnaire was used to assess the food intake of the respondents, which was converted into nutrient intake using adapted Total Dietary Assessment (TDA) software. Dietary ...

  10. Nutrient Intake and Nutritional Status Profile of HIV-Positive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The intake of sufficient nutrients is important for maintaining the functional compounds of the immune system. The main aim of this study was to assess the nutrient intake and nutritional status profile of HIV positive individuals. Home dietary recall and six days\\' food intake from the nutrition center was used to estimate the ...

  11. Dietary patterns and nutrient intakes of a South African population ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dietary patterns and nutrient intakes of a South African population and asymptomatic people infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus: The transition health and urbanisation in South Africa (Thusa) study.

  12. Anaemia prevalence and nutrient intake among women in peri ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This cross-sectional study assessed the nutrient intake, sickling and haemoglobin levels of 134 women aged 15-49 years enrolled in a peanut-based field trial at baseline. A pretested semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire was used to assess energy and nutrient intake using the Food Processor (ESHA) software.

  13. Contribution of Dairy to Nutrient Intake in the Western Diet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hettinga, Kasper; Valenberg, van Hein

    2017-01-01

    Milk and dairy products play an important role in providing nutrients in both Western and developing countries. Most research in this area focuses on the intake of individual nutrients from food products, like dairy products. However, nutrients are not consumed, and do not function, in isolation.

  14. Nutrient intake during peritoneal dialysis at the Prince of Wales Hospital in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Angela Yee-Moon; Sea, Mandy Man-Mei; Ng, Kenway; Kwan, Mandy; Lui, Siu-Fai; Woo, Jean

    2007-05-01

    Individuals undergoing peritoneal dialysis are at increased risk of developing cardiac disease and malnutrition. A cross-sectional survey. 249 Chinese continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients were recruited from the Prince of Wales Hospital in Hong Kong. Another 249 age- and sex-matched controls were recruited from an archive of 1,010 individuals with known food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) data. To compare the dietary intake pattern of CAPD patients with controls and evaluate its association with background cardiac disease. Intake of different nutrients was estimated by using a 7-day FFQ. Intake of all nutrients was lower in CAPD patients than controls, with resulting lower overall energy intake. Nutrient intake was decreased further in CAPD patients with background cardiac disease, which corresponded to worse nutritional status. Controlling for age, male sex, body weight, diabetes mellitus, dialysis therapy duration, residual renal function, peritoneal dialysis urea clearance, and Charlson Comorbidity Index score, background cardiac disease was associated independently with less intake of energy and most macronutrients and micronutrients. However, the association between background cardiac disease and energy and most nutrient intake was decreased or even lost when additional adjustment was made for C-reactive protein and serum albumin levels. An FFQ is limited in that nutrient quantitation is not exact and may be underestimated as a result of underreporting by patients. CAPD patients were compared with a control group without cardiovascular disease ascertainment that did not include subjects with diabetes. Chinese CAPD patients had significantly lower nutrient intake than age- and sex-matched controls. The association between cardiac disease and lower dietary macronutrient and micronutrient intake in CAPD patients was mediated in part through systemic inflammation, which also was associated with more malnutrition. More attention should be

  15. dietary patterns and nutrient intakes of a south african population ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alan Jackson

    1Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, College of Science, Kwame ... The pattern of diet is an important determinant of overall pattern of nutrient intake, ..... fibre. For the staple-based, dietary score showed significant positive linear ...

  16. dietary patterns and nutrient intakes of a south african population

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alan Jackson

    information on the patterns of habitual food consumption and nutrient intakes for ... the benefits of antiretroviral treatment and reducing side effects of the drugs, whilst ...... Scrimshaw NS, Taylor CE and JE Gordon Interactions of nutrition and.

  17. Projected prevalence of inadequate nutrient intakes in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vinas, B.R.; Barba, L.R.; Ngo, J.; Gurinovic, M.; Novakovic, R.; Cavelaars, A.J.E.M.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Veer, van 't P.; Matthys, C.; Serra Majem, L.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to analyze the prevalence of nutrient intake inadequacy in Europe, applying the Nordic Nutritional Recommendations in the context of the EURRECA Network of Excellence. Methods: Nutrient data was obtained from the European Nutrition and Health Report II.

  18. Intake of antioxidant nutrients and the risk of skin cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinen, M.M.; Hughes, M.C.; Ibiebele, T.I.; Marks, G.C.; Green, A.C.; Pols, van der J.C.

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the associations between intake of antioxidant nutrients and risk of basal cell (BCC) and squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) of the skin, we carried out a prospective study among 1001 randomly selected adults living in an Australian community. Intake of antioxidants was estimated in 1996.

  19. Association of usual intake of added sugars with nutrient adequacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recommendations for intakes of added sugars have varied considerably and the scientific basis supporting these recommendations has been inconsistent. The goal of this study was to examine the association of usual intake (UI) of added sugars and nutrient adequacy in those participating in NHANES 2009...

  20. Performance and nutrient intake of Zebu Heifers fed guinea grass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sixteen zebu heifors were ted 0. 20. 40 and 60% autoclaved broiler litter in total mixed rations. The effect of treatment was evaluated on feed intake. mean growth rate. digestibility coetlicient and digestible nutrient intake. Autoclaved broiler litter appeared to be well accepted by heiters even when included in ration at 60% of ...

  1. Assessing Nutrient Intake and Nutrient Status of HIV Seropositive Patients Attending Clinic at Chulaimbo Sub-District Hospital, Kenya

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    Agatha Christine Onyango

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Nutritional status is an important determinant of HIV outcomes. Objective. To assess the nutrient intake and nutrient status of HIV seropositive patients attending an AIDS outpatient clinic, to improve the nutritional management of HIV-infected patients. Design. Prospective cohort study. Setting. Comprehensive care clinic in Chulaimbo Sub-District Hospital, Kenya. Subjects. 497 HIV sero-positive adults attending the clinic. Main Outcome Measures. Evaluation of nutrient intake using 24-hour recall, food frequency checklist, and nutrient status using biochemical assessment indicators (haemoglobin, creatinine, serum glutamate pyruvate (SGPT and mean corpuscular volume (MCV. Results. Among the 497 patients recruited (M : F sex ratio: 1.4, mean age: 39 years ± 10.5 y, Generally there was inadequate nutrient intake reported among the HIV patients, except iron (10.49 ± 3.49 mg. All the biochemical assessment indicators were within normal range except for haemoglobin 11.2 g/dL (11.4 ± 2.60 male and 11.2 ± 4.25 female. Conclusions. Given its high frequency, malnutrition should be prevented, detected, monitored, and treated from the early stages of HIV infection among patients attending AIDS clinics in order to improve survival and quality of life.

  2. Nutrient Intake and Digestibility in Merino Sheep Fed Peanut Straw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanim, C.; Muhlisin

    2018-02-01

    This study aimed to compare nutrient intake and digestibility between male and female Merino fed peanut straw as sole feed. Four male and five female Merino sheep ages 10 to 12 month with average weight of 40 kg were used in this study. All animals were confined in individual metabolism cages and nylon nets were fitted bellow the cages for faecal collection. This experiment was done with 14 d adaptation period and 7 d collection period. Representative sample of feed, refusal feed, and faeces were analysed proximate including dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), crude fibre (CF), ether extract (EE), and extract-free nitrogen (EFN). Data collected were used to calculate nutrient intake and digestibility. All nutrient intake in male Merino was higher (Pdigestibility of DM, CP, and CF in male Merino sheep were higher (Pdigestibility.

  3. Nutrient intake of adolescents in rural area of Himachal Pradesh

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    Ritika Khandelwal

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The nutrient requirements during adolescence are higher than at any other stage of life. Inadequate nutrient intake leads to poor growth, delayed sexual maturation, slow linear growth, anaemia and osteomalacia. Aim &Objective: To assess the nutrient intake of adolescents in 13-15 years belonging to rural area of Shimla district, Himachal Pradesh. Material & Methods: A school based cross-sectional study was conducted during 2014 - 2015 in rural area of Shimla district. Thirty clusters were identified using population proportionate to size sampling method.  A total of 170 adolescents in the age group of 13-15 years studying in government schools were enrolled. Dietary assessment was done using 24h dietary recall method. Results: The percentage deficit in boys for calorie, iron, zinc and calcium intake was found 37.9%, 53.7%, 35.5% and 22.4% respectively as compared to Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA. The girls had percentage deficit for calorie, iron, zinc and calcium intake as 47.7%, 61.5%, 53.6%, and 43.6 % respectively as compared to RDA. Conclusion: The findings of present study indicate that the nutrient intake of adolescents aged 13-15 years was inadequate.

  4. Nutrient intake, digestibility and rumen metabolites in bulls fed rice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutrient intake, digestibility and rumen metabolites were determined in rumen - cannulated bulls fed rice straw or straw supplemented with urea, groundnut hay or cotton seed cake. Total dry matter intake (DMI) ranged from 7.55 Lo 8.29kg/d or 3.66 to 4.04% of liveweight and from 6.48 to 7. 21 kg/d for organic matter.

  5. Nutrient intakes of US infants, toddlers, and preschoolers meet or exceed dietary reference intakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butte, Nancy F; Fox, Mary Kay; Briefel, Ronette R; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Dwyer, Johanna T; Deming, Denise M; Reidy, Kathleen C

    2010-12-01

    To assess the usual nutrient intakes of 3,273 US infants, toddlers, and preschoolers, aged 0 to 47 months, surveyed in the Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study (FITS) 2008; and to compare data on the usual nutrient intakes for the two waves of FITS conducted in 2002 and 2008. The FITS 2008 is a cross-sectional survey of a national random sample of US children from birth through age 47 months. Usual nutrient intakes derived from foods, beverages, and supplements were ascertained using a telephone-administered, multiple-pass 24-hour dietary recall. Infants aged birth to 5 months (n=382) and 6 to 11 months (n=505), toddlers aged 12 to 23 months (n=925), and preschoolers aged 24 to 47 months (n=1,461) were surveyed. All primary caregivers completed one 24-hour dietary recall and a random subsample (n=701) completed a second 24-hour dietary recall. The personal computer version of the Software for Intake Distribution Estimation was used to estimate the 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, and 90th percentiles, as well as the proportions below and above cutoff values defined by the Dietary Reference Intakes or the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Usual nutrient intakes met or exceeded energy and protein requirements with minimal risk of vitamin and mineral deficiencies. The usual intakes of antioxidants, B vitamins, bone-related nutrients, and other micronutrients were adequate relative to the Adequate Intakes or Estimated Average Requirements, except for iron and zinc in a small subset of older infants, and vitamin E and potassium in toddlers and preschoolers. Intakes of synthetic folate, preformed vitamin A, zinc, and sodium exceeded Tolerable Upper Intake Level in a significant proportion of toddlers and preschoolers. Macronutrient distributions were within acceptable macronutrient distribution ranges, except for dietary fat, in some toddlers and preschoolers. Dietary fiber was low in the vast majority of toddlers and preschoolers, and saturated fat intakes exceeded

  6. Nutrient intake among elderly in southern Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suriah, A R; Zainorni, M; Shafawi, S; Mimie Suraya, S; Zarina, N; Wan Zainuddin, W; Zalifah, M

    1996-03-01

    Studies were conducted in selected areas in three states namely Johor (n=117, male=55, female=62), Negeri Sembilan (n=130, male=52, female=78) and Malacca (n=97, male=33, female=64) involving free living elderly (age range from 60 to 93 years old). Respondents were divided into three age cohort groups that is 60 to 69 years, 70 to 79 years and above 80 years old. Assessment of macro and micronutrients were obtained from 24-hour diet recall for three consecutive days. Household measurements were used to estimate the amount of food consumed. Mean energy intake for both sexes were lower than the Malaysian RDA. Mean energy intake were also found to decline with age increment. The percentage of carbohydrate from total calories is higher compared to fat and protein. No respondents were found to consume less than 1/3 RDA for protein. Although no significant difference in nutrient intake was noted among age cohort groups, there was a decline in the intake of protein, fat and carbohydrate. Significantly (p population studied consumed less than 2/3 RDA for vitamin A, thiamine, riboflavin, niacin and calcium. Very low intake of nutrient may lead to many health problems. Overall mean energy intake indicate the respondents consume less than the Malaysian RDA for all three age cohort groups. Total mean energy intake were also found to decline with age increment for both sexes. Due to the low energy intake, higher percentage of elderly were found consuming less than 2/3 RDA for thiamine (65%), riboflavin (63%) and niacin (90%). Other nutrients which were also being consumed less than 2/3 RDA by the respondents are vitamin A (67%) and calcium (65%). The intake of calcium which was found to be extremely low (ranged from 277 to 303 mg) could lead to problems like osteoporosis.

  7. Adequacy of nutrient intake in women with restrictive anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiurazzi, Chiara; Cioffi, Iolanda; De Caprio, Carmela; De Filippo, Emilia; Marra, Maurizio; Sammarco, Rosa; Di Guglielmo, Maria Luisa; Contaldo, Franco; Pasanisi, Fabrizio

    2017-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess energy and nutrient intake in a group of women with restrictive AN (r-AN) compared with a control group. Thirteen r-AN patients and 13 healthy female controls completed 7-d food records. Intake of macro- and micronutrients was compared between the two groups as well as to the Dietary Reference Intake for the Italian Population (LARN) for specific ages. Additionally, the r-AN patients underwent indirect calorimetry for measuring resting energy expenditure (REE). Total energy intake was significantly lower in the r-AN group than in controls (906 ± 224 vs 1660 ± 139, respectively; P nutritional gaps in these patients. According to these preliminary observations, nutritional counseling, mainly focused on calcium and vitamin D intake, should be suggested for healthy women, as well. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of enzyme Additive on Nutrient intake, Digestibility and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutrient intake, digestibility and rumen metabolites were determined in sixteen yearling cattle fed Panicum maximum hay supplemented with concentrate diet in which an exogenous fibrolytic enzyme, ROXAZYME G2® (which consist of Cellulase, hemicellulase and beta glucanase) was included at 0, 50, 100 and 150mg/kg.

  9. Influence of Percieved body Image on Nutrient Intake and Nutritional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main objective of this study was to investigate the perceived body image of Moi University undergraduate female students and its influence on their nutrient intake and nutritional health. Methods: Cross sectional Survey was done on 260 female students of Moi University aged 20-25. Stratified followed by systematic ...

  10. Feed intake and nutrient digestibility of West African Dwarf (WAD ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nine (9) West African dwarf goats (8 weeks of age,averaging 6.3 + 1.3 kg body weight) were used in a 42 day feeding trial to determine the effec of feeding Pennisetum purpureum supplemented with Gmelina arborea on diet intake and nutrient digesibility of goats. The experimental diets were diets 1 2 and 3 wth 0%, 25%, ...

  11. Street foods contribute to nutrient intakes among children from rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The contribution of Street Foods (SF) to the energy and nutrient intakes of young children in rural African communities has been understudied. Under the Enhancing Child Nutrition through Animal Source Food Management (ENAM) project, a microcredit and nutrition education intervention with caregivers of children 2-to ...

  12. Energy and nutrient intake from pizza in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Lisa M; Nguyen, Binh T; Dietz, William H

    2015-02-01

    Pizza consumption is a top contributor to children's and adolescents' caloric intake. The objective of this study was to examine children's and adolescents' pizza consumption patterns and its impact on their energy and nutrient intake. Twenty-four-hour dietary recall data for children aged 2 to 11 and adolescents aged 12 to 19 were drawn from the 2003-2004, 2005-2006, 2007-2008, and 2009-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We tested changes in consumption patterns, including by race/ethnicity, income, meal occasion, and source. Individual-level fixed effects regression models estimated the impact of pizza consumption on total energy intake (TEI) and intakes of sugar, saturated fat, and sodium. From 2003-2004 to 2009-2010, overall energy intake from pizza declined 25% among children (110 to 83 kcal, P ≤ .05). Among adolescents, although caloric intake from pizza among those who consumed pizza fell (801 to 624 kcal, P ≤ .05), overall pizza intake remained unchanged due to slightly higher pizza consumption prevalence. For children and adolescents, pizza intake fell (P ≤ .05) at dinner time and from fast food. For children and adolescents, respectively, pizza consumption was significantly associated with higher net daily TEI (84 kcal and 230 kcal) and higher intakes of saturated fat (3 g and 5 g) and sodium (134 mg and 484 mg) but not sugar intake, and such affects generally did not differ by sociodemographic characteristics. Pizza consumption as a snack or from fast-food restaurants had the greatest adverse impact on TEI. The adverse dietary effects of pizza consumption found in this study suggest that its consumption should be curbed and its nutrient content improved. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  13. Nutrient intake amongst rural adolescent girls of Wardha

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    Maliye C

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the nutrient intake of rural adolescent girls. Materials and Methods: The cross-sectional study was carried in four adopted villages of the Department of Community Medicine, M.G.I.M.S., Sewagram. A household survey was carried out in the villages. A list of all the adolescent girls in the age group of 10-19 years was prepared by enumeration through house-to-house visit. All adolescent girls were included in the study. A pre-designed and pre-tested questionnaire was used to collect data on socio-demographic variables and anthropometric variables. A 24 h recall method was used to assess nutrient intake. Data generated was entered and analyzed using epi_info 2000. Nutrient intake was compared with ICMR Recommended Dietary Allowances. Nutritional status was assessed by BMI for age. Results: The mean height of the adolescent girls was 142.9 cm. Overall, 57% of the adolescents were thin (BMI for age <5 th percentile for CDC 2000 reference and 43% of the adolescents were normal (BMI for age between 5 th - 85 th percentile for CDC 2000 reference. The average energy intake, which was 1239.6±176.4 kcal/day, was deficient of RDA by 39%. The average protein intake was 39.5±7 gm/day. It was deficient by 36% and the average iron intake, which was 13.2±2.5 mg/day, was deficient by 48%. Conclusion: The findings reiterate the dietary deficiency among adolescent girls which adversely affects the nutritional status. If the poor nutritional status is not corrected promptly before they become pregnant, it adversely affects the reproductive outcome. If we have to meet out the goals of Reproductive and Child Health Program, intervention strategies to improve the dietary intake of adolescent girls are needed so that their requirements of energy, protein, vitamins and minerals are met.

  14. Intake of energy and nutrients. Euronut SENECA investigators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreiras, O; van Staveren, W A; Cruz, J A; Nes, M; Lund-Larsen, K

    1991-12-01

    As part of the Euronut SENECA study, food consumption has been assessed in 1217 men and 1241 women, born between 1913 and 1918 and living in 18 towns in 12 European countries. The method used was a standardized modified dietary history, including a 3-day estimated record and a food frequency list based on local food patterns. Intakes of energy, protein, fat, carbohydrate, fatty acids, cholesterol and alcohol are described in this paper. As expected, a difference between men and women in energy and nutrient intake was observed in all towns. There was a great variation between towns in mean dietary intakes of all dietary components. Mean energy intake of men ranged from 12.7 MJ in Marki (Poland) to 8.2 MJ in Yverdon (Switzerland) and Chateau Renault-Amboise (France). For women the range was from 10.9 MJ in Marki (Poland) to 6.3 MJ in Yverdon (Switzerland) and Vila Franca de Xira (Portugal). A geographical pattern can be detected for the intake of fatty acids. Intakes of saturated fat were lower in southern than in northern European towns. The calculated ratio for intakes of unsaturated and saturated fatty acids (polyunsaturated fatty acids plus monounsaturated fatty acids/saturated fatty acids) for all participants was higher in the southern European centres than in the northern centres and ranged from 2.7 in Markopoulo (Greece) to 1.2 in Elverum (Norway) and Marki (Poland). Alcohol consumption was considerable higher in men than in women. In men a north-south gradient in alcohol intake can be detected, with the highest intake in the two centres in Italy, where, on average 11% of energy intake was derived from alcohol.

  15. Total food duplicate study on nutrient intake of working women in Manila, the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatsuka, H; Zhang, Z W; Agetano, M G; Subida, R D; Inouguchi, N; Watanabe, T; Shimbo, S; Higashikawa, K; Ikeda, M

    1998-03-01

    Intakes of various nutrients by working women in Manila, the Philippines, was surveyed by the total food duplicate method, with foci to elucidate relative weight of three meals and snack in addition to quantitative evaluation of nutrient intakes. In practice, 45 women (average age; 37.2 years) volunteered, who were all nonsmokers and nonhabitual drinkers, and mostly married. In parallel, hematology, serum biochemistry, anthropometry and clinical examinations were conducted. On average, the women took 1787 kcal energy, 57 g protein, and 54 g lipid daily. Comparison with the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) for Filipinos showed that intakes of energy and major nutrients were adequate, whereas that of minerals (e.g., 15 mg Fe/day vs. 26 mg Fe/day as RDA) and vitamins (e.g., 0.65 mg vitamin B1/day vs. 1 mg/day as RDA) were generally insufficient. Prevalence of anemia was however rather low with an average hemoglobin concentration of 12.9 g/100 ml blood. Rice was the staple source of energy for daily life, and beef rather than fish and shellfish was the leading source of protein. Lunch was the richest meal of a day (with the largest intake of energy, protein and lipid), and snacks rather than dinner appeared to be next substantial.

  16. High sugar consumption and poor nutrient intake among drug addicts in Oslo, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeland, M; Haugen, M; Eriksen, F-L; Wandel, M; Smehaugen, A; Böhmer, T; Oshaug, A

    2011-02-01

    Poor dietary habits among drug addicts represent health hazards. However, very few studies have focused on dietary intake as an independent health risk factor in relation to this group. The objective of the present study was to examine the dietary habits of drug addicts living on the fringes of an affluent society. The study focused on food access, food preferences, intake of energy and nutrients, and related nutrient blood concentrations. The respondent group consisted of 123 male and seventy-two female drug addicts, who participated in a cross-sectional study that included a 24 h dietary recall, blood samples, anthropometrical measurements and a semi-structured interview concerning food access and preferences. Daily energy intake varied from 0 to 37 MJ. Food received from charitable sources and friends/family had a higher nutrient density than food bought by the respondents. Added sugar accounted for 30 % of the energy intake, which was mirrored in biomarkers. Sugar and sugar-sweetened food items were preferred by 61 % of the respondents. Of the respondents, 32 % had a TAG concentration above the reference values, while 35 % had a cholesterol concentration beneath the reference values. An elevated serum Cu concentration indicated inflammation among the respondents. Further research on problems related to the diets of drug addicts should focus on dietary habits and aim to uncover connections that may reinforce inebriation and addiction.

  17. Vitamin D nutrient intake for all life stages.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McKenna, M

    2011-04-01

    Vitamin D, unlike other nutrients, is a conditionally required nutrient being obtained from two sources – predominantly by skin production upon exposure to natural ultraviolet (UV) solar radiation, and to a lesser extent by oral intake. Being a fat soluble vitamin it has a long half-life of about two weeks and is stored in fat tissues.1 For nearly six months of the year from October to March in Ireland, skin production is absent and the population is dependent on oral intake from natural foodstuffs, (which are consumed in small quantities only), fortified foodstuffs (most notably some milk products for the past 25 years) and vitamin D supplements, either in multivitamin tablets or in combination with calcium tablets.

  18. Food and nutrient intake in relation to mental wellbeing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albanes Demetrius

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We studied food consumption and nutrient intake in subjects with depressed mood, anxiety and insomnia as indices of compromised mental wellbeing. Methods The study population consisted of 29,133 male smokers aged 50 to 69 years who entered the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study in 1985–1988. This was a placebo-controlled trial to test whether supplementation with alpha-tocopherol or beta-carotene prevents lung cancer. At baseline 27,111 men completed a diet history questionnaire from which food and alcohol consumption and nutrient intake were calculated. The questionnaire on background and medical history included three symptoms on mental wellbeing, anxiety, depression and insomnia experienced in the past four months. Results Energy intake was higher in men who reported anxiety or depressed mood, and those reporting any such symptoms consumed more alcohol. Subjects reporting anxiety or depressed mood had higher intake of omega-3 fatty acids and omega-6 fatty acids. Conclusions Our findings conflict with the previous reports of beneficial effects of omega-3 fatty acids on mood.

  19. Gastric volume rather than nutrient content inhibits food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, R J; Powley, T L

    1996-09-01

    To evaluate the separate contributions of distension and nutrient stimulation of the stomach to the inhibition of short-term food intake and, particularly, to reassess previous analyses based on the inflatable gastrointestinal cuff, four experiments were performed. Rats equipped with pyloric cuffs and indwelling gastric catheters consumed a liquid diet ad libitum. Their consumption during short-term (30 min) feeding bout was measured after gastric infusions on cuff-open and cuff-closed trials. Animals taking meals (approximately 5 ml) with cuffs closed immediately after receiving intragastric infusions of 2.5, 5, 7.5, or 10 ml of normal saline exhibited both suppression at the smallest infusion and a dose-dependent reduction across the other volumes (experiment 1). Additionally, when the test diet concentration was varied, animals with their cuffs closed consumed a constant volume, not a constant number of calories (experiment 2). Furthermore, cuff-closed animals exhibited no more suppression to 5-ml intragastric infusions of nutrients (including, on different trials, 50 and 100% Isocal diet; 10, 20, and 40% glucose; and 40% sucrose and 40% fructose) than to the same volume of saline (experiments 3 and 4). In contrast, on cuff-open trials in which gastric contents could empty into the duodenum, these same nutrient loads were more effective (except fructose) than saline in producing suppression of food intake. In summary, although both limited gastric distension with the pylorus occluded and intestinal nutrient stimulation with the cuff open effectively reduced intake, cuff-closed gastric loads of mixed macronutrients or carbohydrate solutions of 2-8 kcal, pH from 5.8 to 6.7, and osmolarities between 117 and 2,294 mosM/kg produced only the distension-based suppression generated by the same volume of saline.

  20. Eating patterns and energy and nutrient intakes of US women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, P S; Hungerford, D W; Popkin, B M; Guilkey, D K

    1992-06-01

    A longitudinal multivariate analysis was used to determine whether differences in energy and nutrient intakes were present for women classified into different eating patterns. Ten multidimensional eating patterns were created based on the proportion of energy consumed at home and at seven away-from-home locations. Data were from 1,120 women aged 19 through 50 years who were surveyed up to six times over a 1-year period as part of the 1985 Continuing Survey of Food Intake by Individuals, US Department of Agriculture. Data from 5,993 days were analyzed. To examine differences in energy and nutrient intakes, longitudinal multivariate analyses were used to control for eating pattern and factors such as demographics, season, and day of week. Younger women in the Fast Food eating pattern consumed the greatest intakes of energy, total fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, and sodium. Well-educated, higher-income women in the Restaurant pattern consumed diets with the highest overall fat density. Nutrient densities for dietary fiber, calcium, vitamin C, and folacin were particularly low in away-from-home eating patterns. In contrast, moderately educated, middle-aged and middle-income women in the Home Mixed eating pattern (70% at home, 30% away from home) consumed the most healthful diets. We conclude that knowledge of demographics such as income and education is not enough to target dietary interventions. Rather, educational efforts must consider both demographics and the location of away-from-home eating. This will allow development of behavioral change strategies that consider food choices dictated by the eating environment as well as personal knowledge and attitude factors related to adoption of healthful food choices.

  1. Food and Nutrient Intake and Nutritional Status of Finnish Vegans and Non-Vegetarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elorinne, Anna-Liisa; Alfthan, Georg; Erlund, Iris; Kivimäki, Hanna; Paju, Annukka; Salminen, Irma; Turpeinen, Ursula; Voutilainen, Sari; Laakso, Juha

    2016-01-01

    Vegetarian and vegan diets have become more popular among adolescents and young adults. However, few studies have investigated the nutritional status of vegans, who may be at risk of nutritional deficiencies. To compare dietary intake and nutritional status of Finnish long-term vegans and non-vegetarians. Dietary intake and supplement use were estimated using three-day dietary records. Nutritional status was assessed by measuring biomarkers in plasma, serum, and urine samples. Vegans' (n = 22) data was compared with those of sex- and age-matched non-vegetarians (n = 19). All vegans adhered strictly to their diet; however, individual variability was marked in food consumption and supplementation habits. Dietary intakes of key nutrients, vitamins B12 and D, were lower (P vegans than in non-vegetarians. Nutritional biomarker measurements showed lower concentrations of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3), iodine and selenium (corrected for multiple comparisons, P Vegans showed more favorable fatty acid profiles (P vegans were higher than expected. The median concentration of iodine in urine was below the recommended levels in both groups. Long-term consumption of a vegan diet was associated with some favorable laboratory measures but also with lowered concentrations of key nutrients compared to reference values. This study highlights the need for nutritional guidance to vegans.

  2. Food and Nutrient Intake and Nutritional Status of Finnish Vegans and Non-Vegetarians.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Liisa Elorinne

    Full Text Available Vegetarian and vegan diets have become more popular among adolescents and young adults. However, few studies have investigated the nutritional status of vegans, who may be at risk of nutritional deficiencies.To compare dietary intake and nutritional status of Finnish long-term vegans and non-vegetarians.Dietary intake and supplement use were estimated using three-day dietary records. Nutritional status was assessed by measuring biomarkers in plasma, serum, and urine samples. Vegans' (n = 22 data was compared with those of sex- and age-matched non-vegetarians (n = 19.All vegans adhered strictly to their diet; however, individual variability was marked in food consumption and supplementation habits. Dietary intakes of key nutrients, vitamins B12 and D, were lower (P < 0.001 in vegans than in non-vegetarians. Nutritional biomarker measurements showed lower concentrations of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OHD3, iodine and selenium (corrected for multiple comparisons, P < 0.001, Vegans showed more favorable fatty acid profiles (P < 0.001 as well as much higher concentrations of polyphenols such as genistein and daidzein (P < 0.001. Eicosapentaenoic acid proportions in vegans were higher than expected. The median concentration of iodine in urine was below the recommended levels in both groups.Long-term consumption of a vegan diet was associated with some favorable laboratory measures but also with lowered concentrations of key nutrients compared to reference values. This study highlights the need for nutritional guidance to vegans.

  3. Food and nutrient intake among workers with different shift systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemiö, Katri; Puttonen, Sampsa; Viitasalo, Katriina; Härmä, Mikko; Peltonen, Markku; Lindström, Jaana

    2015-07-01

    Over 20% of employees in Europe work in shifts. Shift work increases the risk for chronic diseases, but a healthy lifestyle may attenuate the adverse effect of shift work. The aim of this study was to explore food and nutrient intake differences between working time groups. The participants were 1478 employees (55% of men) of an airline divided into three working time groups: day work (n=608), shift work without in-flight work (n=541) and in-flight work (n=329). Measures included laboratory tests, physical measurements, a questionnaire, and food and nutrient intake estimations by a validated 16-item food intake questionnaire. Shift working men were less likely to consume vegetables (p<0.001) and fruits (p=0.049) daily than male day and in-flight workers. In women, energy intake from saturated fat was higher among shift workers compared with day workers (12.6 vs 12.2 E%, p=0.023). In older female participants, energy intake from fat and saturated fat was higher in the shift work and in-flight work groups than in the day work group (p<0.001). In this study, shift work and working environment were associated with dietary habits, and this association was not explained by other characteristics such as workers' educational level. Shift workers' increased risk for chronic diseases should be taken into account and lifestyle counselling including advice in nutrition should be incorporated in routine occupational healthcare of shift workers. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  4. Changes in Dairy Food and Nutrient Intakes in Australian Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Therese A. O'Sullivan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Dairy nutrients, such as calcium, are particularly important in adolescence, a critical time for growth and development. There are limited Australian data following individuals through adolescence, evaluating changes in dairy nutrient and dairy product consumption. We used a validated food frequency questionnaire to investigate consumption in adolescents participating in both the 14 and 17 year follow-ups of the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine Study. Most adolescents did not reach age and gender specific recommended daily intakes for calcium or magnesium at 14 years, and this decreased as they aged to 17 years (from 33.0% to 29.2% meeting for calcium, P < 0.05, and from 33.6% to 20.5% meeting for magnesium, P < 0.01. Mean intakes of calcium, potassium, riboflavin and vitamin A also decreased with age (P < 0.01. Mean dairy intake decreased from 536 ± 343 g/day to 464 ± 339 g/day (P < 0.01, due mostly to a decrease in regular milk, although flavoured milk consumption increased in boys. Cheese and butter were the only products to show a significantly increased consumption over the period. Girls decreased from 2.2 to 1.9 serves/day of dairy, while boys remained relatively steady at 2.9 to 2.8 serves/day. Our findings suggest that dairy product consumption decreases over adolescence. This may have implications for bone mass, development and later health.

  5. Socioeconomic Indicators Are Independently Associated with Nutrient Intake in French Adults: A DEDIPAC Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Si Hassen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Studies have suggested differential associations of specific indicators of socioeconomic position (SEP with nutrient intake and a cumulative effect of these indicators on diet. We investigated the independent association of SEP indicators (education, income, occupation with nutrient intake and their effect modification. This cross-sectional analysis included 91,900 French adults from the NutriNet-Santé cohort. Nutrient intake was estimated using three 24-h records. We investigated associations between the three SEP factors and nutrient intake using sex-stratified analysis of covariance, adjusted for age and energy intake, and associations between income and nutrient intake stratified by education and occupation. Low educated participants had higher protein and cholesterol intakes and lower fibre, vitamin C and beta-carotene intakes. Low income individuals had higher complex carbohydrate intakes, and lower magnesium, potassium, folate and vitamin C intakes. Intakes of vitamin D and alcohol were lower in low occupation individuals. Higher income was associated with higher intakes of fibre, protein, magnesium, potassium, beta-carotene, and folate among low educated persons only, highlighting effect modification. Lower SEP, particularly low education, was associated with lower intakes of nutrients required for a healthy diet. Each SEP indicator was associated with specific differences in nutrient intake suggesting that they underpin different social processes.

  6. Taste perception, associated hormonal modulation, and nutrient intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loper, Hillary B.; La Sala, Michael; Dotson, Cedrick

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that taste perception influences food intake. After ingestion, gustatory receptors relay sensory signals to the brain, which segregates, evaluates, and distinguishes the stimuli, leading to the experience known as “flavor.” It is well accepted that five taste qualities – sweet, salty, bitter, sour, and umami – can be perceived by animals. In this review, the anatomy and physiology of human taste buds, the hormonal modulation of taste function, the importance of genetic chemosensory variation, and the influence of gustatory functioning on macronutrient selection and eating behavior are discussed. Individual genotypic variation results in specific phenotypes of food preference and nutrient intake. Understanding the role of taste in food selection and ingestive behavior is important for expanding our understanding of the factors involved in body weight maintenance and the risk of chronic diseases including obesity, atherosclerosis, cancer, diabetes, liver disease, and hypertension. PMID:26024495

  7. Intake of energy and nutrients; harmonization of Food Composition Databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Victoria, Emilio; Martinez de Victoria, Ignacio; Martinez-Burgos, M Alba

    2015-02-26

    Food composition databases (FCDBs) provide detailed information about the nutritional composition of foods. The conversion of food consumption into nutrient intake need a Food composition database (FCDB) which lists the mean nutritional values for a given food portion. The limitations of FCDBs are sometimes little known by the users. Multicentre studies have raised several methodology challenges which allow to standardize nutritional assessments in different populations and geographical areas for food composition and nutrient intake. Differences between FCDBs include those attributed to technical matters, such as description of foods, calculation of energy and definition of nutrients, analytical methods, and principles for recipe calculation. Such differences need to be identified and eliminated before comparing data from different studies, especially when dietary data is related to a health outcome. There are ongoing efforts since 1984 to standardize FCDBs over the world (INFOODS, EPIC, EuroFIR, etc.). Food composition data can be gathered from different sources like private company analysis, universities, government laboratories and food industry. They can also be borrowed from scientific literature or even from the food labelling. There are different proposals to evaluate the quality of food composition data. For the development of a FCDB it is fundamental document in the most detailed way, each of the data values of the different components and nutrients of a food. The objective of AECOSAN (Agencia Española de Consumo Seguridad Alimentaria y Nutrición) and BEDCA (Base de Datos Española de Composición de Alimentos) association was the development and support of a reference FCDB in Spain according to the standards to be defined in Europe. BEDCA is currently the only FCDB developed in Spain with compiled and documented data following EuroFIR standards. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2015. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  8. NUTRIENTS INTAKE AND NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF STREET CHILDREN IN BANDUNG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Patriasih

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 The objectives of this research were to analyze food habits and nutrients intake, and health and nutritional status of street children. The research was carried out in the City of Bandung, West Java; Indonesia. A sample of 324 street children was selected randomly. The sample consisted of 232 boys and 92 girls. The data obtained from questionnaires. Means, standard deviation, frequency and proportion were calculated with a combination of software applications:  Microsoft Excel and Statistical Analysis System. The result showed the level of consumption adequacy did not meet the recommended dietary allowances i.e. with the shortage of 10-15%, this is an indication that the street children should be aware of their daily food consumption. The most common diseases suffered by the respondents were acute respiratory infections (ARI (47%. In addition, 22.7 % and 18.4 % of them suffered from diarrhoea and skin diseases, respectively. Blood haemoglobin status of street children shows that the incidence of anemia was 29.3%. Based on the classification of nutritional status, 42.7% and 80.4 % of street children were underweight and stunted, respectively. Key words: nutrients intake, nutritional status, street children

  9. Adult nutrient intake as a risk factor for Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, C C; Gorell, J M; Rybicki, B A; Sanders, K; Peterson, E L

    1999-12-01

    This population-based case-control study evaluated nutrient intake as a risk factor for Parkinson's disease (PD) among people aged > or =50 years in metropolitan Detroit. Cases (n = 126) were diagnosed between 1991 and 1995 and neurologist-confirmed. Controls (n = 432) were frequency-matched for sex, age (+/-5 years) and race. Using a standardized food frequency questionnaire, subjects reported the foods they ate within the past year. Estimating the association between PD and risk of being in the highest versus the lowest intake quartile, there were elevated odds ratios for total fat (OR 1.94, 95% confidence interval [CI] : 1.05-3.58), cholesterol (OR 2.11, 95% CI: 1.14-3.90), lutein (OR 2.52, 95% CI: 1.32-4.84) and iron (OR 1.88, 95% CI: 1.05-3.38). These results suggest an association of PD with high intake of total fat, saturated fats, cholesterol, lutein and iron.

  10. Nutrient Intake during Ramadan in Fasting People Referring to Health Centers in Qom, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hozoori

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: During Ramadan, the ninth month in the Islamic calendar, Muslims abstain from eating and drinking from sunrise adhaan to sunset adhaan. This long fasting period can cause change in certain metabolic and hormonal indices and affect eating behaviors and nutrient intake. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess nutrient intake in fasting people in Qom, Iran. Methods: We enrolled 120 fasting people aged 20-45 years old living in Qom in Ramadan, 2014. A dietary records questionnaire was used to survey the nutrient intake. All questionnaires were collected after three days. The nutrient intake was determined by Nutritionist IV software and then data compared with recommended values. Results: Energy and macronutrients intake were higher than the recommended values (carbohydrate, 110%; protein, 139%; and fat, 114% of daily values. Except iron (19.8 mg or 108% of daily value, intake of all other micronutrients was lower than the recommended values. Conclusion: The nutrient intake of fasting people in Qom is not appropriate, and is characterized by increased intake of energy and energy suppliers. Therefore, given the undeniable role of proper and adequate nutrient intake in health, it seems necessary for fasting people to receive nutrition education to enhance nutrient intake from various food groups.

  11. An Examination of Sex Differences in Relation to the Eating Habits and Nutrient Intakes of University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kin-Kit; Concepcion, Rebecca Y.; Lee, Hyo; Cardinal, Bradley J.; Ebbeck, Vicki; Woekel, Erica; Readdy, R. Tucker

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To examine sex differences in eating habits and nutrient intakes and explore whether eating habits mediate the effects of sex on nutrient intakes and whether sex moderates the effects of eating habits on nutrient intakes. Methods: Cross-sectional survey of eating habits and food-intake frequency in a convenience sample of college…

  12. Intake of total and added sugars and nutrient dilution in Australian children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louie, Jimmy Chun Yu; Tapsell, Linda C

    2015-12-14

    This analysis aimed to examine the association between intake of sugars (total or added) and nutrient intake with data from a recent Australian national nutrition survey, the 2007 Australian National Children's Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey (2007ANCNPAS). Data from participants (n 4140; 51 % male) who provided 2×plausible 24-h recalls were included in the analysis. The values on added sugars for foods were estimated using a previously published ten-step systematic methodology. Reported intakes of nutrients and foods defined in the 2007ANCNPAS were analysed by age- and sex-specific quintiles of %energy from added sugars (%EAS) or %energy from total sugars (%ETS) using ANCOVA. Linear trends across the quintiles were examined using multiple linear regression. Logistic regression analysis was used to calculate the OR of not meeting a specified nutrient reference values for Australia and New Zealand per unit in %EAS or %ETS. Analyses were adjusted for age, sex, BMI z-score and total energy intake. Small but significant negative associations were seen between %EAS and the intakes of most nutrient intakes (all Padded sugars were associated with lower intakes of most nutrient-rich, 'core' food groups and higher intakes of energy-dense, nutrient-poor 'extra' foods. In conclusion, assessing intakes of added sugars may be a better approach for addressing issues of diet quality compared with intakes of total sugars.

  13. Smokers report lower intake of key nutrients than nonsmokers, yet both fall short of meeting recommended intakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raatz, Susan K; Jahns, Lisa; Johnson, LuAnn K; Scheett, Angela; Carriquiry, Alicia; Lemieux, Andrine; Nakajima, Motohiro; al'Absi, Mustafa

    2017-09-01

    Smoking is a major risk factor in the development of preventable disease which may be due to a poorer diet and the reduced nutrient intake of smokers. Our objective was to compare and evaluate the reported intake of current smokers with that of nonsmokers among participants of a study evaluating stress and smoking. We hypothesized (1) that overall energy and nutrient intake would be reduced in smokers compared with nonsmokers and (2) that smokers would have increased noncompliance with Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs). Men and women (smokers n=138, nonsmokers n=46) completed a 3-day diet record at baseline. Mean energy and nutrient intakes were stratified by smoking status and compared with DRI levels. The mean body mass index was 28.3±0.5kg/m 2 for smokers and 27.2±1.0kg/m 2 for nonsmokers. Compared with nonsmokers, the smokers reported lower intakes of energy, total polyunsaturated fatty acids, linolenic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, total sugars, calcium, iron, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, vitamin C, riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, vitamin B6, folate, vitamin A, and vitamin E. Smokers reported reduced compliance with the DRIs for iron, phosphorus, vitamin C, riboflavin, and folate compared with nonsmokers. Unlike other evaluations of smokers vs nonsmokers, we observed no difference in body weight between groups. Smokers and nonsmokers alike reported dietary intakes lower than the DRIs for many nutrients. However, the reported nutrient intake of the smokers was substantially lower than nonsmokers for key nutrients, and they were more likely to not comply with the DRIs for essential nutrients, placing them at increased risk of chronic disease. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Adult Nutrient Intakes from Current National Dietary Surveys of European Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly L. Rippin

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The World Health Organization (WHO encourages countries to undertake national dietary survey (NDS but implementation and reporting is inconsistent. This paper provides an up-to-date review of adult macro and micronutrient intakes in European populations as reported by NDS. It uses WHO Recommended Nutrient Intakes (RNIs to assess intake adequacy and highlight areas of concern. NDS information was gathered primarily by internet searches and contacting survey authors and nutrition experts. Survey characteristics and adult intakes by gender/age group were extracted for selected nutrients and weighted means calculated by region. Of the 53 WHO Europe countries, over a third (n = 19, mainly Central & Eastern European countries (CEEC, had no identifiable NDS. Energy and nutrient intakes were extracted for 21 (40% countries but differences in age group, methodology, under-reporting and nutrient composition databases hindered inter-country comparisons. No country met more than 39% WHO RNIs in all age/gender groups; macronutrient RNI achievement was poorer than micronutrient. Overall RNI attainment was slightly worse in CEEC and lower in women and female elderly. Only 40% countries provided adult energy and nutrient intakes. The main gaps lie in CEEC, where unknown nutrient deficiencies may occur. WHO RNI attainment was universally poor for macronutrients, especially for women, the female elderly and CEEC. All countries could be encouraged to report a uniform nutrient set and sub-analyses of nationally representative nutrient intakes.

  15. Relationships between serum resistin and fat intake, serum lipid concentrations and adiposity in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera de León, Antonio; Almeida González, Delia; González Hernández, Ana; Domínguez Coello, Santiago; Marrugat, Jaume; Juan Alemán Sánchez, José; Brito Díaz, Buenaventura; Marcelino Rodríguez, Itahisa; Pérez, María del Cristo Rodríguez

    2014-01-01

    The serum resistin level is associated with the incidence of ischemic heart disease in the general population. We analyzed the associations between serum resistin and fat intake, serum lipid concentrations and adiposity in the general population. A cross-sectional study of 6,637 randomly recruited adults was conducted. The resistin levels were measured in thawed aliquots of serum using an enzyme immunoanalysis technique. The resistin level exhibited a positive nonparametric correlation with saturated fat intake(p correlation with adherence to the Mediterranean diet(p HDL cholesterol(p body mass index(p HDL cholesterol level(OR=0.84 CI95%= 0.76-0.93), a high non-HDL cholesterol level(OR=0.84 CI95%=0.72-0.99), a high LDL cholesterol level(OR=0.82 CI95%=0.70-0.97) and a waist/height ratio of ≥0.55(OR=0.76 CI95%=0.67-0.85). The multivariate models corroborated the positive associations between the resistin level and saturated fat intake(p adiposity.

  16. Validation of the Diet Quality Index for Adolescents by Comparison with Biomarkers, Nutrient and Food Intakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vyncke, Krishna; Cruz Fernandez, Estefania; Fajó-Pascual, Marta

    2013-01-01

    in the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence (HELENA) Study. Dietary intake was assessed by two, non-consecutive 24 h recalls. A DQI-A score, considering the components' dietary quality, diversity and equilibrium, was calculated. Associations between the DQI-A and food and nutrient intakes...... with energy-dense and low-nutritious foods. On the nutrient level, the DQI-A was positively related to the intake of water, fibre and most minerals and vitamins. No association was found between the DQI-A and total fat intake. Furthermore, a positive association was observed with 25-hydroxyvitamin D, holo...

  17. Evaluation of the Brazilian population's intake of antioxidant nutrients and their relation with the nutritional status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tureck, Camila; Locateli, Gelvani; Corrêa, Vanesa Gesser; Koehnlein, Eloá Angélica

    2017-01-01

    The study of dietary antioxidants has gained prominence owing to the elucidation of the deleterious effects of oxidative stress to the human body. Objective: To evaluate the Brazilian population's intake of antioxidant nutrients and their association with the nutritional status. A cross-sectional study was carried out including secondary data on food consumption of 33,459 individuals from both sexes, aged 10 years or older, from all Brazilian regions based on microdata of the "2008-2009 Household Budget Survey, Brazilian Dairy Survey." The content of vitamins E, A, and C; zinc; manganese; copper; and selenium from 188 food items, divided into 12 groups, according to the habitual consumption form was analyzed. The means of antioxidant nutrient intake according to the nutritional status were compared using Bonferroni's t-test. Higher percentages of insufficient intake of vitamins than antioxidant minerals were seen. A significant difference in the intake of vitamin E as to the nutritional status was noticed, wherein the intake in overweight individuals was lower than in those with proper weight. Participants with low weight presented lower intake of almost all antioxidant minerals, except for copper, in which the intake of participants with low weight was equal to those with normal weight. High percentages of insufficient intake of antioxidant nutrients were observed in the studied population, especially vitamins. It was also found that the intake of antioxidant nutrients varied based on nutritional status, gender, and life stage.

  18. Serum sterol responses to increasing plant sterol intake from natural foods in the Mediterranean diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escurriol, Verónica; Cofán, Montserrat; Serra, Mercè; Bulló, Mónica; Basora, Josep; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Corella, Dolores; Zazpe, Itziar; Martínez-González, Miguel A; Ruiz-Gutiérrez, Valentina; Estruch, Ramón; Ros, Emilio

    2009-09-01

    Phytosterols in natural foods are thought to inhibit cholesterol absorption. The Mediterranean diet is rich in phytosterol-containing plant foods. To assess whether increasing phytosterol intake from natural foods was associated with a cholesterol-lowering effect in a substudy of a randomized trial of nutritional intervention with Mediterranean diets for primary cardiovascular prevention (PREDIMED study). One hundred and six high cardiovascular risk subjects assigned to two Mediterranean diets supplemented with virgin olive oil (VOO) or nuts, which are phytosterol-rich foods, or advice on a low-fat diet. Outcomes were 1-year changes in nutrient intake and serum levels of lipids and non-cholesterol sterols. Average phytosterol intake increased by 76, 158 and 15 mg/day in participants assigned VOO, nuts and low-fat diets, respectively. Compared to participants in the low-fat diet group, changes in outcome variables were observed only in those in the Mediterranean diet with nuts group, with increases in intake of fibre, polyunsaturated fatty acids and phytosterols (P natural foods appear to be bioactive in cholesterol lowering.

  19. Serum lipid profiles, total tract nutrient digestibility, and gastrointestinal tolerance by dogs of α-cyclodextrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara, M A; Bauer, L L; Garleb, K A; Fahey, G C; de Godoy, M R C

    2015-05-01

    The objectives were to quantify gastrointestinal tolerance, total tract nutrient digestibility, and serum lipid profiles of dogs as affected by α-cyclodextrin (ACD) supplementation and to validate the accuracy of fat analyses techniques using novel ACD-fat complexes. The ACD was hydrolyzed and free sugars and hydrolyzed monosaccharides were quantified using high performance liquid chromatography. Known amount of fats were complexed with ACD, and fat content of complexes were determined using the ether extraction and acid-hydrolyzed fat methods. Nine mixed-breed hounds were used in a crossover design with 3 periods of 10 d each, including 6 d for diet adaptation and 4 d for fecal collection. Dogs were fed twice daily a diet with poultry byproduct meal and brewer's rice as the main ingredients, and chromic oxide (0.2%) was included as a digestion marker. Dogs were supplemented with either 0, 3, or 6 g of ACD diluted in 15 mL of water twice per day for a total of 0, 6, and 12 g ACD per day. The ACD had a very low free sugar concentration and, once hydrolyzed, released only glucose, as expected. Average daily food intake, fecal output (DM basis), and fecal scores were not significantly different among treatments. Body weight and condition score and serum triglycerides and cholesterol concentrations remained unaltered throughout the duration of the experiment. Dry matter, OM, and fat digestibility coefficients were lower (P < 0.05) for both treatment groups compared to the control. The acid-hydrolyzed fat method was valid to measure fat that was bound to ACD. Intake of ACD lowered fat digestibility somewhat but not to the extent previously reported, without affecting serum lipid concentrations or outcomes related to tolerance. Therefore, ACD supplementation resulted in a small decrease in fat digestibility, but ACD supplementation might have potential in modifying serum lipid profiles.

  20. Calcium, nutrient and food intake of Greek Orthodox Christian monks during a fasting and non-fasting week.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadaki, Angeliki; Vardavas, Constantine; Hatzis, Christos; Kafatos, Anthony

    2008-10-01

    To assess the Ca, nutrient and food intake of Greek Orthodox Christian monks during a vegetarian-type fasting week, compared with their normal diet. Dietary data collection (using 7 d weighed food records), anthropometric and blood pressure measurements, as well as serum glucose and lipid analyses, were performed during Palm Sunday week (fasting) and the week following Pentecost Sunday (non-fasting). Mean daily nutrient and food (g/d) intakes were calculated from the food records. The study took place in two monasteries in the Municipality of Heraklion, Crete. The study involved ten healthy monks aged 25-65 years, with BMI > 30 kg/m2, who had been performing fasts for the last 24.4 (SD 10.4) years and lived in monasteries in Crete during April-June 2005. Nutrient and food intake profiles were more favourable during the fasting week, when participants had lower intakes of total and saturated fat and trans-fatty acids, and higher intakes of dietary fibre, Fe, folate, legumes and fish/seafood. Ca intake was lower when participants fasted, whereas consumption of dairy products, meat and eggs increased significantly in the non-fasting week. Systolic blood pressure was significantly higher, whereas blood lipid levels were more favourable during the fasting week. The periodic vegetarianism recommended by the Greek Orthodox Church contributes to the favourable profiles of several biomarkers of health among this sample of monks. The fasting rituals described are an important component of the traditional diet of Crete and should be emphasised in nutrition education programmes promoting this Mediterranean eating pattern.

  1. Does breakfast-club attendance affect schoolchildren's nutrient intake? A study of dietary intake at three schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belderson, Pippa; Harvey, Ian; Kimbell, Rosemary; O'Neill, Jennifer; Russell, Jean; Barker, Margo E

    2003-12-01

    Lack of breakfast has been implicated as a factor contributing to children's poor diets and school performance. Breakfast-club schemes, where children are provided with breakfast in school at the start of the school day, have been initiated by the Department of Health in schools throughout England, UK. The aim of the present study was to compare the energy and nutrient intakes of schoolchildren who attended breakfast clubs (attendee subjects) with those who did not (control subjects). Three different schools were studied, involving a total of 111 children aged between 9 and 15 years. There were fifty-nine attendee and fifty-two control subjects. The two groups were matched for eligibility for school meals. All subjects completed a 3 d weighed food diary for estimation of nutrient intake. Height and weight were measured and BMI calculated. Nutrient intake data were analysed using a general linear model with age as a covariate. The demographic and anthropometric characteristics of the attendee and control subjects were similar. Children who attended breakfast clubs had significantly greater intakes of fat (% energy), saturated fat (% energy) and Na than control subjects. Thus, in these schools breakfast-club participation was not associated with superior nutrient intake or improvements in dietary pattern.

  2. Canadian infants' nutrient intakes from complementary foods during the first year of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prowse Daniel

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Complementary feeding is currently recommended after six months of age, when the nutrients in breast milk alone are no longer adequate to support growth. Few studies have examined macro- and micro-nutrient intakes from complementary foods (CF only. Our purpose was to assess the sources and nutritional contribution of CF over the first year of life. Methods In July 2003, a cross-sectional survey was conducted on a nationally representative sample of mothers with infants aged three to 12 months. The survey was administered evenly across all regions of the country and included a four-day dietary record to assess infants' CF intakes in household (tablespoon measures (breast milk and formula intakes excluded. Records from 2,663 infants were analyzed for nutrient and CF food intake according to 12 categories. Mean daily intakes for infants at each month of age from CF were pooled and compared to the Dietary Reference Intakes for the respective age range. Results At three months of age, 83% of infants were already consuming infant cereals. Fruits and vegetables were among the most common foods consumed by infants at all ages, while meats were least common at all ages except 12 months. Macro- and micro-nutrient intakes from CF generally increased with age. All mean nutrient intakes, except vitamin D and iron, met CF recommendations at seven to 12 months. Conclusions Complementary foods were introduced earlier than recommended. Although mean nutrient intakes from CF at six to 12 months appear to be adequate among Canadian infants, further attention to iron and vitamin D intakes and sources may be warranted.

  3. Volume 10 No. 7 July 2010 1 NUTRIENT INTAKE AND ADEQUACY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2010-07-07

    Jul 7, 2010 ... nutrient adequacy due to the use of a food frequency questionnaire which was not quantified. In assessing the elderly Botswanan's diet with the Healthy Eating Index, researchers found adequate intake of grains, but poor variety and intake of milk, vegetables and fruit [7]. A secondary analysis of dietary data ...

  4. Energy and Nutrient Intakes: Findings from the Malaysian Adult Nutrition Survey (MANS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirnalini, K; Zalilah, M S; Safiah, M Y; Tahir, A; Siti Haslinda, M D; Siti Rohana, D; Khairul Zarina, M Y; Mohd Hasyami, S; Normah, H

    2008-03-01

    Nutrition surveys based on a representative sample of the Malaysian adult population have hitherto not been reported. In 2003, the Ministry of Health, Malaysia, conducted the Malaysian Adult Nutrition Survey (MANS), the first and largest nutrition survey in the country which aimed to provide detailed quantitative information on nutritional status, food and nutrient intakes, and physical activity pattern on a nationwide representative sample of adult subjects between the ages of 18 and 59 years. The survey covered four zones in Peninsular Malaysia (Central, Southern, Northern and East Coast), Sabah and Sarawak. This paper presents the mean and selected percentiles of energy and nutrient intake of 6886 subjects by selected demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. Energy contributions by macronutrients and dietary adequacy in relation to the Recommended Nutrient Intake for Malaysians are also described. Information on dietary intake was collected by trained nutritionists using a one day 24-hour diet recall. Dietary data were analysed using Nutritionist Pro, a diet analysis software and statistical analysis was carried out using the SPSS ver. 13.0. In most of the demographic and socioeconomic groups, males had higher mean energy (1776 kcal) and nutrient intake and percent achievement of RNI than females (1447 kcal). The proportions of calories derived from macronutrients were within the recommendations for a healthy diet. Intake of micronutrients such as iron, calcium and vitamin A was about 50% of RNI particularly in women. Sodium intake of Malaysians, not reported in earlier studies, is also made available. Under-reporting using the EI/BMR ratio was found in half of the population studied. The present study provides the first national estimates of energy and nutrient intake of the Malaysian adult population. Regular nutrition surveys are needed at the national level to provide valuable information on trends in food and nutrient intake, particularly among age

  5. Dietary sources of energy and nutrient intake among children and adolescents with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen; Ducharme-Smith, Kirstie; Davis, Laura; Hui, Wun Fung; Warady, Bradley A; Furth, Susan L; Abraham, Alison G; Betoko, Aisha

    2017-07-01

    Our purpose was to identify the main food contributors to energy and nutrient intake in children with chronic kidney disease (CKD). In this cross-sectional study of dietary intake assessed using Food Frequency Questionnaires (FFQ) in the Chronic Kidney Disease in Children (CKiD) cohort study, we estimated energy and nutrient intake and identified the primary contributing foods within this population. Completed FFQs were available for 658 children. Of those, 69.9% were boys, median age 12 (interquartile range (IQR) 8-15 years). The average daily energy intake was 1968 kcal (IQR 1523-2574 kcal). Milk was the largest contributor to total energy, protein, potassium, and phosphorus intake. Fast foods were the largest contributors to fat and sodium intake, the second largest contributors to energy intake, and the third largest contributors to potassium and phosphorus intake. Fruit contributed 12.0%, 8.7%, and 6.7% to potassium intake for children aged 2-5, 6-13, and 14-18 years old, respectively. Children with CKD consumed more sodium, protein, and calories but less potassium than recommended by the National Kidney Foundation (NKF) guidelines for pediatric CKD. Energy, protein, and sodium intake is heavily driven by consumption of milk and fast foods. Limiting contribution of fast foods in patients with good appetite may be particularly important for maintaining recommended energy and sodium intake, as overconsumption can increase the risk of obesity and cardiovascular complications in that population.

  6. Patterns of Protein Food Intake Are Associated with Nutrient Adequacy in the General French Adult Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavelle, Erwan de; Huneau, Jean-François; Mariotti, François

    2018-02-17

    Protein food intake appears to partially structure dietary patterns, as most current emergent diets (e.g., vegetarian and flexitarian) can be described according to their levels of specific protein sources. However, few data are available on dietary protein patterns in the general population and their association with nutrient adequacy. Based on protein food intake data concerning 1678 adults from a representative French national dietary survey, and non-negative-matrix factorization followed by cluster analysis, we were able to identify distinctive dietary protein patterns and compare their nutrient adequacy (using PANDiet probabilistic scoring). The findings revealed eight patterns that clearly discriminate protein intakes and were characterized by the intakes of one or more specific protein foods: 'Processed meat', 'Poultry', 'Pork', 'Traditional', 'Milk', 'Take-away', 'Beef' and 'Fish'. 'Fish eaters' and 'Milk drinkers' had the highest overall nutrient adequacy, whereas that of 'Pork' and 'Take-away eaters' was the lowest. Nutrient adequacy could often be accounted for by the characteristics of the food contributing to protein intake: 'Meat eaters' had high probability of adequacy for iron and zinc, for example. We concluded that protein patterns constitute strong elements in the background structure of the dietary intake and are associated with the nutrient profile that they convey.

  7. Serum uric acid, protein intake and mortality in hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Christina; Obi, Yoshitsugu; Streja, Elani; Rhee, Connie M; Catabay, Christina J; Vaziri, Nosratola D; Kovesdy, Csaba P; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar

    2017-10-01

    The association between serum uric acid (SUA) and mortality has been conflicting among studies using hemodialysis (HD) patients. Given the close link between purine and protein in foods, we hypothesized that normalized protein catabolic rate (nPCR), a dietary protein intake surrogate, modifies the SUA-mortality association in the HD population. We identified 4298 patients who initiated HD and had one or more SUA measurement in a contemporary cohort of HD patients over 5 years (1 January 2007-31 December 2011), and examined survival probability according to the first uric acid measurement, adjusting for dialysis vintage, case-mix and malnutrition-inflammation complex-related variables. Mean SUA concentration was 6.6 ± 1.8 mg/dL. There was a consistent association of higher SUA with better nutritional status and lower all-cause mortality irrespective of adjusted models (Ptrend 6.0-7.0 mg/dL) showed no significant mortality risk [hazard ratio (HR) 0.90, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.72-1.13], while the lowest category (HD patients. Contrary to the general population, low but not high SUA is associated with higher all-cause mortality in HD patients, especially in those with low protein intake. Nutritional features of SUA warrant additional studies. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  8. Nutrient intake disparities in the US: modeling the effect of food substitutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Zach; Johnson, LuAnn K; Roemmich, James N; Juan, WenYen; Jahns, Lisa

    2018-05-17

    Diet quality among federal food assistance program participants remains low, and little research has assessed the diet quality of food insecure non-participants. Further research is needed to assess the extent to which food substitutions can improve the nutritional status of these vulnerable populations. Substituting egg dishes for other commonly consumed dishes at certain eating occasions may be an effective strategy for improving the daily nutrient intake among these groups. Eggs are rich in many important nutrients, and are low-cost and part of a wide range of cultural food menus, which are important considerations for low-income and ethnically diverse populations. To help guide the focus of targeted nutrition interventions and education campaigns for vulnerable populations, the present work begins by 1) estimating the prevalence of nutrient inadequacy among these groups, and then models the effect of consuming egg dishes instead of commonly consumed dishes at each eating occasion on 2) the prevalence of nutrient inadequacy, and 3) the mean intake of nutrients. Dietary data from 34,741 adults ≥ 20 y were acquired from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2001-2014. Diet pattern modeling was used to substitute commonly consumed egg dishes for commonly consumed main dishes at breakfast, lunch, and dinner. National Cancer Institute usual intake methods were used to estimate the prevalence of inadequate intake of 31 nutrients pre- and post-substitution, and a novel index was used to estimate change in intake of all nutrients collectively. Substituting eggs for commonly consumed main dishes at lunch or dinner did not change total daily nutrient intake for each group (P > 0.05), but decreased the prevalence of vitamin D inadequacy by 1-4 percentage points (P diet costs, which may be an important driver of food purchasing decisions among low income individuals with limited food budgets.

  9. Combining nutrient intake from food/beverages and vitamin/mineral supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garriguet, Didier

    2010-12-01

    To calculate total intake of a nutrient and estimate inadequate intake for a population, the amounts derived from food/beverages and from vitamin/mineral supplements must be combined. The two methods Statistics Canada has suggested present problems of interpretation. Data collected from 34,386 respondents to the 2004 Canadian Community Health Survey-Nutrition were used to compare four methods of combining nutrient intake from food/beverages and vitamin/mineral supplements: adding average intake from supplements to the 24-hour food/beverage recall and estimating the usual distribution in the population (Method 1); estimating usual individual intake from food? beverages and adding intake from supplements (Method 2); and dividing the population into supplement users and non-users and applying Method 1 or Method 2 and combining the estimates based on the percentages of users and non-users (Methods 3 and 4). Interpretation problems arise with Methods 1 and 2; for example, the percentage of the population with inadequate intake of vitamin C and folate equivalents falls outside the expected minimum-maximum range. These interpretation problems are not observed with Methods 3 and 4. Interpretation problems that may arise in combining food and supplement intake of a given nutrient are overcome if the population is divided into supplement users and non-users before Method 1 or Method 2 is applied.

  10. Assessment of Daily Food and Nutrient Intake in Japanese Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients Using Dietary Reference Intakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoto Nakamura

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Medical nutrition therapy for the management of diabetes plays an important role in preventing diabetes complications and managing metabolic control. However, little is known about actual eating habits of individuals with type 2 diabetic mellitus (T2DM, especially in Japan. Therefore, we sought to (1 assess the dietary intake of individuals with T2DM, and (2 characterize their intake relative to national recommendations. This cross-sectional study involved 149 patients (77 males and 72 females aged 40–79 years with T2DM recruited at a Kyoto hospital. Dietary intake was assessed using a validated self-administered diet history questionnaire. Under-consumption, adequacy, and over-consumption, of nutrients were compared to the age- and sex-based standards of the Japanese Dietary Reference Intakes. Among the results, most notable are (1 the inadequacy of diets in men with respect to intake of vitamins and minerals, likely owing to low intake of vegetables and fruits; (2 excess contributions of fat intake to total energy in both sexes; and (3 excess consumption of sweets and beverages relative to the national average. The prevalence of diabetes complications may be increasing because of a major gap between the typical dietary intake of individuals with T2DM and dietary recommendation.

  11. Intake of selected nutrients from foods, from fortification and from supplements in various European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flynn, A; Hirvonen, T; Mensik, GBM

    2009-01-01

    and evaluate recently available data on intakes of selected vitamins and minerals from conventional foods, food supplements and fortified foods in adults and children. Intake of calcium, copper, iodine, iron, magnesium, phosphorus, selenium, zinc, folic acid, niacin and total vitamin A/retinol, B6, D and E...... is generally higher in children than in adults. Conclusion: The risk of excessive intakes is relatively low for the majority of nutrients with a few exceptions. Children are the most vulnerable group as they are more likely to exhibit high intakes relative to the UL. There is a need to develop improved methods...

  12. Feed consumption, nutrient utilization and serum metabolite profile of captive blackbucks (Antelope cervicapra) fed diets varying in crude protein content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, A; Katole, S; Kumar, A; Gupta, S P; Saini, M; Swarup, D

    2012-06-01

    A feeding trial was conducted to determine the optimum level of crude protein (CP) in the diet of captive blackbuck (Antelope cervicapra) in which feed consumption and nutrient utilization are maximal. Fifteen blackbucks (BW 25-34 kg) were distributed into three groups of five each in an experiment of 75-days duration including a digestion trial of 5-day collection period. All the animals were offered 200 g of concentrates and fresh maize fodder ad libitum. The overall CP content of the three respective diets was 6.9%, 10.4% and 12.7%. Blood samples were collected on the last day of the experiment. Intake and digestibility of CP increased (p consumption and nutrient intake were not significantly different among the groups. However, digestibilities of most of the nutrients were higher in the 10.4% CP diet than in the 6.9% CP diet. The endogenous loss of nitrogen was similar among the groups. Based on the endogenous losses, minimum N requirement was calculated to be 776 mg/kg BW(0.75) /day, and to meet this requirement, diet must contain at least 8.27% CP. Serum urea nitrogen concentration increased (p consumption and serum metabolite profile of blackbucks. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Nutritional knowledge, nutrients intake and nutritional status of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed at assessing the anthropometry, dietary intake and micronutrient status of hypertensive patients attending specialist hospitals in Ondo State, Nigeria. A descriptive case control study was conducted among subjects attending two specialist hospitals located in Akure and Ondo towns. A total of 452 subjects ...

  14. Geographic and socioeconomic diversity of food and nutrient intakes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mertens, Elly; Kuijsten, Anneleen; Dofková, Marcela; Mistura, Lorenza; D’Addezio, Laura; Turrini, Aida; Dubuisson, Carine; Favret, Sandra; Havard, Sabrina; Trolle, Ellen; van’t Veer, Pieter; Geleijnse, Johanna M.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: Public health policies and actions increasingly acknowledge the climate burden of food consumption. The aim of this study is to describe dietary intakes across four European countries, as baseline for further research towards healthier and environmentally-friendlier diets for Europe.

  15. Measuring Food Intake and Nutrient Absorption in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Amaro, Rafael L; Valentine, Elizabeth R; Carretero, Maria; LeBoeuf, Sarah E; Rangaraju, Sunitha; Broaddus, Caroline D; Solis, Gregory M; Williamson, James R; Petrascheck, Michael

    2015-06-01

    Caenorhabditis elegans has emerged as a powerful model to study the genetics of feeding, food-related behaviors, and metabolism. Despite the many advantages of C. elegans as a model organism, direct measurement of its bacterial food intake remains challenging. Here, we describe two complementary methods that measure the food intake of C. elegans. The first method is a microtiter plate-based bacterial clearing assay that measures food intake by quantifying the change in the optical density of bacteria over time. The second method, termed pulse feeding, measures the absorption of food by tracking de novo protein synthesis using a novel metabolic pulse-labeling strategy. Using the bacterial clearance assay, we compare the bacterial food intake of various C. elegans strains and show that long-lived eat mutants eat substantially more than previous estimates. To demonstrate the applicability of the pulse-feeding assay, we compare the assimilation of food for two C. elegans strains in response to serotonin. We show that serotonin-increased feeding leads to increased protein synthesis in a SER-7-dependent manner, including proteins known to promote aging. Protein content in the food has recently emerged as critical factor in determining how food composition affects aging and health. The pulse-feeding assay, by measuring de novo protein synthesis, represents an ideal method to unequivocally establish how the composition of food dictates protein synthesis. In combination, these two assays provide new and powerful tools for C. elegans research to investigate feeding and how food intake affects the proteome and thus the physiology and health of an organism. Copyright © 2015 by the Genetics Society of America.

  16. Dietary intakes of essential nutrients among Arab and Berber ethnic groups on rural Tunisian island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroudi, Thouraya; Maiz, Hedi Ben; Abid, Hafaoua Kammoun; Benammar-Elgaaied, Amel; Alouane, Leila Trabelsi

    2010-01-01

    The dietary intake was investigated and food sources were identified among Tunisian ethnic groups from Jerba Island in the south of Tunisia. Ninety-four subjects of moderate socioeconomic status (47 Berbers and 47 Arabs) aged 32 to 64 y completed a 1-mo qualitative food-frequency questionnaire and a single 24-h dietary recall, and dietary intakes and demographic status were observed from 2006 to 2007. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was not significantly associated with Arab men compared with Berber men. Therefore, obesity was significantly associated with Berber women (PBerber women (PBerber group were significantly different from the Arab group. Intakes of calcium, zinc, iron, and folate were below recommended nutrient intakes in men and women in the two ethnic groups. Vitamin E intake was greater in Berbers than in Arabs (P<0.01). Ethnicity was significantly associated with dietary intakes in the two ethnic groups of Jerba Island.

  17. Systematic review of the association of mastication with food and nutrient intake in the independent elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tada, Akio; Miura, Hiroko

    2014-01-01

    Substantial number of elderly people suffer from poor mastication, which is considered to have a detrimental effect on their dietary habits. However, the association between mastication and diet is far from conclusive. The objective of this systematic review was to assess the association of mastication with food and nutrient intake in the community dwelling elderly. We searched the PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and Scirus databases to obtain information on the epidemiological studies in this research area. The included publications were analyzed for study design, main conclusions, and strength of evidence. A comprehensive quality assessment of all the included studies (28 cross-sectional and 7 intervention studies) was performed. In 22 of the 28 cross-sectional studies, elderly persons with better mastication and dentition reported significantly higher consumption of foods and intake of some nutrients than those with poorer oral health; however, the remaining studies showed no such differences. Five of the 7 intervention studies with an intervention involving the provision of new prostheses did not show significant improvement in food and/or nutrient intake. These discrepant findings suggest that masticatory ability explains only part of the variance in food and nutrient intake of the elderly. Two intervention studies with the combination of prosthetic treatment and dietary intervention produced changes in intake of foods such as fruits and vegetables. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Dietary and economic effects of eliminating shortfall in fruit intake on nutrient intakes and diet cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehm, Colin D; Drewnowski, Adam

    2016-07-07

    Children in the United States do not consume the recommended amounts of fruit. The economic and dietary consequences of meeting the shortfall in fruit consumption have not been evaluated. Analyses were based on a nationally representative sample of 4-18 year-old children (n = 2,647) from the 2009-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). The shortfall in total fruit consumption for each child was estimated based on the USDA MyPlate recommendations. The potential impact of filling the shortfall in total fruit consumption was projected with whole fruit alone (WF model) or a combination of 100 % fruit juice and whole fruit (FJ + WF model). Juice consumption was capped using American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) standards. The USDA national food prices database was used to estimate the cost of meeting the dietary recommendations for fruit. Selected nutrient and mineral intakes, as well as daily diet cost were estimated after eliminating the shortfall in fruit consumption. Among all children, vitamin C (+22.8 mg [95 % CI 21.4, 24.1] in the WF model and +48.1 mg [95 % CI 45.2, 51.1] in the FJ + WF model) and potassium intakes (+203 mg [95 % CI 190, 215] in WF and +263 mg [95 % CI 248, 280] in FJ + WF) were increased in both models. The FJ + WF model resulted in a marginal increase in dietary fiber (e.g., a relative change less than 10 %), while the WF model resulted in a meaningful increase in dietary fiber (e.g., a relative change greater than 10 %; +2.2 g [95 % CI 2.1, 2.3]). Conversely, the WF model resulted in only a marginal increase in calcium, while the FJ + WF model resulted in a meaningful increase in calcium (+85 mg [95 % CI 79, 89]). Calories were increased in all models (+4.5 % [95 % CI 4.1, 4.9 %] for FJ + WF and +3.5 % [95 % CI 3.2, 3.7 %] for WF). Meeting the fruit shortfall with whole fruit alone increased estimated diet costs by 9.9 % (+$0.44/d [95 % CI 0.42, 0.47]), while the fruit

  19. Modelling of usual nutrient intakes : potential impact of the choices programme on nutrient intakes in young dutch adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roodenburg, Annet J C; van Ballegooijen, Adriana J; Dötsch-Klerk, Mariska; van der Voet, Hilko; Seidell, Jacob C

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The Choices Programme is an internationally applicable nutrient profiling system with nutrition criteria for trans fatty acids (TFA), saturated fatty acids, sodium, added sugar and for some product groups energy and fibre. These criteria determine whether foods are eligible to carry a

  20. Modelling of Usual Nutrient Intakes: Potential Impact of the Choices Programme on Nutrient Intakes in Young Dutch Adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roodenburg, A.J.C.; Ballegooijen, van A.J.; Dötsch-Klerk, M.; Voet, van der H.; Seidell, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The Choices Programme is an internationally applicable nutrient profiling system with nutrition criteria for trans fatty acids (TFA), saturated fatty acids, sodium, added sugar and for some product groups energy and fibre. These criteria determine whether foods are eligible to carry a

  1. Assessment of nutrient and water intake among adolescents from sports federations in the Federal District, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa, Eliene F; Da Costa, Teresa H M; Nogueira, Julia A D; Vivaldi, Lúcio J

    2008-06-01

    Adolescents aged 11-14 years (n 326), belonging to organized sports federations in the Federal District, Brazil were interviewed. Subjects (n 107) provided four non-consecutive days of food consumption and 219 subjects provided two non-consecutive days of intake. The objective was to assess their nutrient and water intake according to dietary reference intake values and their energy and macronutrient intake by sex and sports groups they were engaged in: endurance, strength-skill or mixed, according to the guidelines established by the American College of Sport Medicine (ACSM). Dietary data were corrected for intra-individual variation. Total energy expenditure was higher among endurance athletes (P sports. Total energy intake was only significantly higher among endurance-engaged females (P = 0.05). Protein intake of males was above the guidelines established by the ACSM for all sports groups. All male sport groups fulfilled the intake levels of carbohydrate per kg body weight but only females engaged in endurance sports fulfilled carbohydrate guidelines. Intakes of micronutrients with low prevalence of adequate intake were: vitamins B1, E and folate, magnesium and phosphorus. Few adolescents ( sports and to improve their intake of micronutrients and water. Special attention should be given to female adolescent athletes.

  2. Higher intake of vitamin B-6 and dairy products and lower intake of green and oolong tea are independently associated with lower serum homocysteine concentration in young Japanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Kentaro; Sasaki, Satoshi; Uenishi, Kazuhiro

    2013-08-01

    Little is known about the relation of modifiable dietary factors to circulating homocysteine concentrations, particularly in young adults and non-Western populations. We investigated the hypothesis that intakes of nutrients and foods are associated with serum homocysteine concentration in a group of young Japanese women. This cross-sectional study included 1050 female Japanese dietetic students aged 18 to 22 years. Dietary intake was assessed using a validated, self-administered, comprehensive diet history questionnaire. Fasting blood samples were collected, and serum homocysteine concentrations were measured. Adjustment was made for survey year, region, municipality level, current smoking, current alcohol drinking, dietary supplement use, physical activity, body mass index, energy intake, and intakes of other nutrients or foods. After adjustment for nondietary confounding factors, intakes of all B vitamins (folate, vitamin B-6, vitamin B-12, and riboflavin) were inversely associated with homocysteine concentration. However, only vitamin B-6 remained significant after further adjustment for other B vitamins. Marine-origin n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid intake showed an inverse association, but this was not independent of intakes of B vitamins. For foods, pulses, fish and shellfish, and vegetables were independently and inversely associated with homocysteine concentration, but these associations disappeared after adjustment for intakes of other foods. Conversely, an inverse association for dairy products and a positive association for green and oolong tea remained even after adjustment for other foods. To conclude, in a group of young Japanese women, higher intake of vitamin B-6 and dairy products and lower intake of green and oolong tea were independently associated with lower serum homocysteine concentration. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Contribution of Food Groups to Energy and Nutrient Intakes in Five Developed Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Auestad

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Economic growth in developing countries and globalization of the food sector is leading to increasingly similar food consumption patterns worldwide. The aim of this study was to describe similarities and differences in the contributions of main food groups to energy and nutrient intakes in five developed countries across three continents. We obtained summary reports of national food consumption survey data from Australia, France, Denmark, the Netherlands, and the United States. Survey years spanned 2003–2012; sample size ranged from 1444 to 17,386. To mitigate heterogeneity of food groups across countries, we recategorized each survey’s reported food groups and subgroups into eight main food groups and, for three countries, a ninth “mixed dishes” group. We determined the percent contribution of each food group to mean daily intakes of energy, saturated fat, sodium, fiber, and ten vitamins and minerals that are commonly under-consumed. Differences in findings from surveys utilizing a foods-as-consumed versus a disaggregated or ingredients approach to food group composition and contributions from the milk and milk products group, a source of several under-consumed nutrients, were explored. Patterns of food group contributions to energy and nutrient intakes were generally similar across countries. Some differences were attributable to the analytical approach used by the surveys. For the meat/protein, milk and milk products, vegetables, and fruit groups, percent contributions to key nutrient intakes exceeded percent contributions to energy intake. The mixed dishes group provided 10%–20% of total daily energy and a similar 10%–25% of the daily intake of several nutrients. This descriptive study contributes to an understanding of food group consumption patterns in developed countries.

  4. Contribution of Food Groups to Energy and Nutrient Intakes in Five Developed Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auestad, Nancy; Hurley, Judith S.; Fulgoni, Victor L.; Schweitzer, Cindy M.

    2015-01-01

    Economic growth in developing countries and globalization of the food sector is leading to increasingly similar food consumption patterns worldwide. The aim of this study was to describe similarities and differences in the contributions of main food groups to energy and nutrient intakes in five developed countries across three continents. We obtained summary reports of national food consumption survey data from Australia, France, Denmark, the Netherlands, and the United States. Survey years spanned 2003–2012; sample size ranged from 1444 to 17,386. To mitigate heterogeneity of food groups across countries, we recategorized each survey’s reported food groups and subgroups into eight main food groups and, for three countries, a ninth “mixed dishes” group. We determined the percent contribution of each food group to mean daily intakes of energy, saturated fat, sodium, fiber, and ten vitamins and minerals that are commonly under-consumed. Differences in findings from surveys utilizing a foods-as-consumed versus a disaggregated or ingredients approach to food group composition and contributions from the milk and milk products group, a source of several under-consumed nutrients, were explored. Patterns of food group contributions to energy and nutrient intakes were generally similar across countries. Some differences were attributable to the analytical approach used by the surveys. For the meat/protein, milk and milk products, vegetables, and fruit groups, percent contributions to key nutrient intakes exceeded percent contributions to energy intake. The mixed dishes group provided 10%–20% of total daily energy and a similar 10%–25% of the daily intake of several nutrients. This descriptive study contributes to an understanding of food group consumption patterns in developed countries. PMID:26061017

  5. Human skin condition and its associations with nutrient concentrations in serum and diet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelsma, E.; Vijver, L.P.L. van de; Goldbohm, R.A.; Klöpping-Ketelaars, I.A.A.; Hendriks, H.F.J.; Roza, L.

    2003-01-01

    Background: Nutritional factors exert promising actions on the skin, but only scant information is available on the modulating effects of physiologic concentrations of nutrients on the skin condition of humans. Objective: The objective was to evaluate whether nutrient concentrations in serum and

  6. Postdiagnostic intake of one-carbon nutrients and alcohol in relation to colorectal cancer survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochhead, Paul; Nishihara, Reiko; Qian, Zhi Rong; Mima, Kosuke; Cao, Yin; Sukawa, Yasutaka; Kim, Sun A; Inamura, Kentaro; Zhang, Xuehong; Wu, Kana; Giovannucci, Edward; Meyerhardt, Jeffrey A; Chan, Andrew T; Fuchs, Charles S; Ogino, Shuji

    2015-11-01

    Observational data have suggested that intakes of nutrients involved in one-carbon metabolism are inversely associated with risk of colorectal carcinoma and adenomas. In contrast, results from some preclinical studies and cardiovascular and chemoprevention trials have raised concerns that high folate intake may promote carcinogenesis by facilitating the progression of established neoplasia. We tested the hypothesis that higher total folate intake (including food folate and folic acid from fortified foods and supplements) or other one-carbon nutrient intakes might be associated with poorer survival after a diagnosis of colorectal cancer. We used rectal and colon cancer cases within the following 2 US prospective cohort studies: the Nurses' Health Study and the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study. Biennial questionnaires were used to gather information on medical history and lifestyle factors, including smoking and alcohol consumption. B-vitamin and methionine intakes were derived from food-frequency questionnaires. Data on tumor molecular characteristics (including microsatellite instability, CpG island methylator phenotype, KRAS, BRAF, and PIK3CA mutations, and long interspersed nucleotide element 1 methylation level) were available for a subset of cases. We assessed colorectal cancer-specific mortality according to postdiagnostic intakes of one-carbon nutrients with the use of multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models. In 1550 stage I-III colorectal cancer cases with a median follow-up of 14.9 y, we documented 641 deaths including 176 colorectal cancer-specific deaths. No statistically significant associations were observed between postdiagnostic intakes of folate or other one-carbon nutrients and colorectal cancer-specific mortality (multivariate P-trend ≥ 0.21). In an exploratory molecular pathologic epidemiology survival analysis, there was no significant interaction between one-carbon nutrients or alcohol and any of the tumor molecular

  7. Postdiagnostic intake of one-carbon nutrients and alcohol in relation to colorectal cancer survival123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochhead, Paul; Nishihara, Reiko; Qian, Zhi Rong; Mima, Kosuke; Cao, Yin; Sukawa, Yasutaka; Kim, Sun A; Inamura, Kentaro; Zhang, Xuehong; Wu, Kana; Giovannucci, Edward; Meyerhardt, Jeffrey A; Chan, Andrew T; Fuchs, Charles S; Ogino, Shuji

    2015-01-01

    Background: Observational data have suggested that intakes of nutrients involved in one-carbon metabolism are inversely associated with risk of colorectal carcinoma and adenomas. In contrast, results from some preclinical studies and cardiovascular and chemoprevention trials have raised concerns that high folate intake may promote carcinogenesis by facilitating the progression of established neoplasia. Objective: We tested the hypothesis that higher total folate intake (including food folate and folic acid from fortified foods and supplements) or other one-carbon nutrient intakes might be associated with poorer survival after a diagnosis of colorectal cancer. Design: We used rectal and colon cancer cases within the following 2 US prospective cohort studies: the Nurses’ Health Study and the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study. Biennial questionnaires were used to gather information on medical history and lifestyle factors, including smoking and alcohol consumption. B-vitamin and methionine intakes were derived from food-frequency questionnaires. Data on tumor molecular characteristics (including microsatellite instability, CpG island methylator phenotype, KRAS, BRAF, and PIK3CA mutations, and long interspersed nucleotide element 1 methylation level) were available for a subset of cases. We assessed colorectal cancer–specific mortality according to postdiagnostic intakes of one-carbon nutrients with the use of multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models. Results: In 1550 stage I–III colorectal cancer cases with a median follow-up of 14.9 y, we documented 641 deaths including 176 colorectal cancer–specific deaths. No statistically significant associations were observed between postdiagnostic intakes of folate or other one-carbon nutrients and colorectal cancer–specific mortality (multivariate P-trend ≥ 0.21). In an exploratory molecular pathologic epidemiology survival analysis, there was no significant interaction between one

  8. Nutritional status as assessed by nutrient intakes and biomarkers among women of childbearing age--is the burden of nutrient inadequacies growing in America?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Deshanie; Bird, Julia K; McBurney, Michael I; Chapman-Novakofski, Karen M

    2015-06-01

    Understanding nutrient intakes among women of childbearing age within the USA is important given the accumulating evidence that maternal body weight gain and nutrient intakes prior to pregnancy may influence the health and well-being of the offspring. The objective of the present study was to evaluate nutritional status in women of childbearing age and to ascertain the influence of ethnicity and income on nutrient intakes. Nutritional status was assessed using data on nutrient intakes through foods and supplements from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Biomarker data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention were used to assess nutritional status for selected nutrients. Poverty-income ratio was used to assess family income. White (n 1560), African-American (n 889) and Mexican-American (n 761) women aged 19-30 and 31-50 years were included. A nationally representative sample of non-pregnant women of childbearing age resident in the USA. African-American women had the lowest intakes of fibre, folate, riboflavin, P, K, Ca and Mg. Women (31-50 years) with a poverty-income ratio of ≤ 1.85 had significantly lower intakes of almost all nutrients analysed. Irrespective of ethnicity and income, a significant percentage of women were not consuming the estimated recommended amounts (Estimated Average Requirement) of several key nutrients: vitamin A (~80%), vitamin D (~78%) and fibre (~92%). Nutrient biomarker data were generally reflective of nutrient intake patterns among the different ethnic groups. Women of childbearing age in the USA are not meeting nutrient intake guidelines, with differences between ethnic groups and socio-economic strata. These factors should be considered when establishing nutrition science advocacy and policy.

  9. Frequent Canned Food Use is Positively Associated with Nutrient-Dense Food Group Consumption and Higher Nutrient Intakes in US Children and Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comerford, Kevin B

    2015-07-09

    In addition to fresh foods, many canned foods also provide nutrient-dense dietary options, often at a lower price, with longer storage potential. The aim of this study was to compare nutrient-dense food group intake and nutrient intake between different levels of canned food consumption in the US. Consumption data were collected for this cross-sectional study from 9761 American canned food consumers (aged two years and older) from The NPD Group's National Eating Trends® (NET®) database during 2011-2013; and the data were assessed using The NPD Group's Nutrient Intake Database. Canned food consumers were placed into three groups: Frequent Can Users (≥6 canned items/week); n = 2584, Average Can Users (3-5 canned items/week); n = 4445, and Infrequent Can Users (≤2 canned items/week); n = 2732. The results provide evidence that Frequent Can Users consume more nutrient-dense food groups such as fruits, vegetables, dairy products, and protein-rich foods, and also have higher intakes of 17 essential nutrients including the shortfall nutrients-potassium, calcium and fiber-when compared to Infrequent Can Users. Therefore, in addition to fresh foods, diets higher in nutrient-dense canned food consumption can also offer dietary options which improve nutrient intakes and the overall diet quality of Americans.

  10. Systematic review to support the development of nutrient reference intake values: challenges and solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workshops sponsored by the Institute of Medicine (IOM) and the World Health Organization (WHO) suggested that incorporating systematic reviews into the process of updating nutrient reference values would enhance the transparency of the process. The IOM issues the Dietary Reference Intake values (DR...

  11. effects of timing of pre-exercise nutrient intake on glucose responses ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    as well as the optimal timing of nutrient intake in the hour prior to exercise.14,20 .... 515 Varberg, Sweden). ... separate days with at least 48 hours, but no longer than 1 week, between trials. ... This 8-minute cycling period was repeated a total of 6 times (18 .... Total work (joules) for the 18 Wingate tests was not significantly.

  12. Nutrient intake, acid base status and weight gain in water buffalo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The impact of different dietary levels of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) on nutrient intake, acid-base status, nitrogen balance and weight gain was examined in growing male buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) calves exposed to hot summer conditions. In a complete randomized block design 60 animals of similar age and weight ...

  13. Maternal nutrient intakes and levels of energy underreporting during early pregnancy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGowan, C A

    2012-08-01

    Pregnancy is a critical period in a woman\\'s life where nutrition is of key importance for optimal pregnancy outcome. The aim of this study was to assess maternal nutrient intakes during early pregnancy and to examine potential levels of energy underreporting.

  14. Fetal Neurobehavioral Development and the Role of Maternal Nutrient Intake and Psychological Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spann, Marisa; Smerling, Jennifer; Gustafsson, Hanna C.; Foss, Sophie; Monk, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Measuring and understanding fetal neurodevelopment provides insight regarding the developing brain. Maternal nutrient intake and psychological stress during pregnancy each impact fetal neurodevelopment and influence childhood outcomes and are thus important factors to consider when studying fetal neurobehavioral development. The authors provide an…

  15. Cooking Schools Improve Nutrient Intake Patterns of People with Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archuleta, Martha; VanLeeuwen, Dawn; Halderson, Karen; Jackson, K'Dawn; Bock, Margaret Ann; Eastman, Wanda; Powell, Jennifer; Titone, Michelle; Marr, Carol; Wells, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether cooking classes offered by the Cooperative Extension Service improved nutrient intake patterns in people with type 2 diabetes. Design: Quasi-experimental using pretest, posttest comparisons. Setting: Community locations including schools, churches, and senior centers. Participants: One hundred seventeen people with…

  16. Body Mass Index, Nutrient Intakes, Health Behaviours and Nutrition Knowledge: A Quantile Regression Application in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shih-Neng; Tseng, Jauling

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess various marginal effects of nutrient intakes, health behaviours and nutrition knowledge on the entire distribution of body mass index (BMI) across individuals. Design: Quantitative and distributional study. Setting: Taiwan. Methods: This study applies Becker's (1965) model of health production to construct an individual's BMI…

  17. Dietary Supplements Contribute Substantially to the Total Nutrient Intake in Pregnant Norwegian Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugen, Margaretha; Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Alexander, Jan; Meltzer, Helle Margrete

    2008-01-01

    Background Use of dietary supplements during pregnancy may give an important contribution to nutrient intake, and for nutrients like folate and vitamin D supplements are recommended. Our objective was to study use and contribution of dietary supplement to nutrient intake among women participating in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). Methods This study is based on 40,108 women participating in MoBa which is conducted by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. The women had filled inversion 2 of the food frequency questionnaire in MoBa between February 2002 and February 2005. Results 81% reported use of one or more dietary supplements. The most commonly used category was cod liver oil/fish oil supplements (59%) followed by singular folic acid supplements (36%) and multivitamin/multimineral supplements (31%). The nutrient contribution of the dietary supplements varied from 65% for folate and vitamin D to 1% for potassium among supplement users. The dietary intake of vitamin D, folate, iodine and iron did not reach the Nordic Recommendations for pregnant women. Conclusions Use of supplements improved the intake of folate, iron and vitamin D, but not sufficiently to reach the recommended amounts. PMID:18645244

  18. Nutrient intake and blood iron status of male collegiate soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Yuka; Iide, Kazuhide; Masuda, Reika; Kishida, Reina; Nagata, Atsumi; Hirakawa, Fumiko; Yoshimura, Yoshitaka; Imamura, Hiroyuki

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was: 1) to collect baseline data on nutrient intake in order to advise athletes about nutrition practices that might enhance performance, and 2) to evaluate the dietary iron intake and blood iron status of Japanese collegiate soccer players. The subjects were 31 soccer players and 15 controls. Dietary information was obtained with a food frequency questionnaire. The mean carbohydrate (6.9 g.kg-1 BW) and protein (1.3 g/kg) intakes of the soccer players were marginal in comparisons with recommended targets. The mean intakes of calcium, magnesium, vitamin A, B1, B2, and C were lower than the respective Japanese recommended dietary allowances (RDAs) or adequate dietary intakes in the soccer players. The mean intakes of green and other vegetables, milk and dairy products, fruits, and eggs were lower than the recommended targets. Thus, we recommended athletes to increase the intake of these foodstuffs along with slight increase in carbohydrate and lean meat. The mean intake of iron was higher than the respective RDA in the soccer players. A high prevalence of hemolysis (71%) in the soccer players was found. None of the soccer players and controls had anemia. Two soccer players had iron depletion, while none was found in the controls. In those players who had iron deficiency, the training load need to be lowered and/or iron intake may be increased.

  19. Intake of Key Chronic Disease–Related Nutrients among Baby Boomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Dana E.; Xiang, Jun; Brown, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The dietary habits of baby boomers (people born between 1946 and 1964) undoubtedly will have a substantial impact on their future health; however, dietary information regarding the intake of key chronic disease–related nutrients is lacking for this generation. The objective of this study was to compare the dietary intake of key chronic disease–related nutrients of the baby boomer generation with the previous generation of middle-aged adults. Methods National cross-sectional study comparison analyzing data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) including NHANES III (1988–1994) and the NHANES for 2007–2010, focused on adult respondents ages 46 to 64 years who were not institutionalized at the time of each survey. The two cohorts were compared with regard to dietary intake of key nutritional components. The main outcome measures were intake of total calories, sodium, cholesterol, fat, fruits, vegetables, vitamin C, water, and fiber. Results The baby boomers’ average daily intake of nutrients exceeded that of the previous generation of middle-aged adults for total calories (2118/1999), total fat (82/76 g), sodium (3513/3291 mg), and cholesterol (294/262 g; all P generation (P baby boomers compared with the previous generation of middle-aged adults. These findings are indicative of a diet that may contribute to increased rates of chronic disease among individuals in this age group. PMID:24945165

  20. Intake of key chronic disease-related nutrients among baby boomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Dana E; Xiang, Jun; Brown, Alexander

    2014-06-01

    The dietary habits of baby boomers (people born between 1946 and 1964) undoubtedly will have a substantial impact on their future health; however, dietary information regarding the intake of key chronic disease-related nutrients is lacking for this generation. The objective of this study was to compare the dietary intake of key chronic disease-related nutrients of the baby boomer generation with the previous generation of middle-aged adults. National cross-sectional study comparison analyzing data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) including NHANES III (1988-1994) and the NHANES for 2007-2010, focused on adult respondents ages 46 to 64 years who were not institutionalized at the time of each survey. The two cohorts were compared with regard to dietary intake of key nutritional components. The main outcome measures were intake of total calories, sodium, cholesterol, fat, fruits, vegetables, vitamin C, water, and fiber. The baby boomers' average daily intake of nutrients exceeded that of the previous generation of middle-aged adults for total calories (2118/1999), total fat (82/76 g), sodium (3513/3291 mg), and cholesterol (294/262 g; all P generation (P baby boomers compared with the previous generation of middle-aged adults. These findings are indicative of a diet that may contribute to increased rates of chronic disease among individuals in this age group.

  1. A comparative study of nutrient intakes of migrant and Australian children in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owles, E N

    1975-07-26

    Little is known about the dietary patterns and nutrient intakes of preschool children in Australia. A study was undertaken in Perth on Australian and migrant children to obtain information on preschool diets. It was found that, although the mean nutrient intakes in both groups were adequate, some individual migrant national groups showed deficiencies of one or more nutrients. Many children were obtaining excessive calories and protein. The consumption of "empty calorie" foods was also high. In order to find different ways to teach good principles and practice of nutrition, the types of media which might influence parents were studied. It was considered that television and, to a lesser degree, radio were media which might exert a considerable effect if they were used to the best advantage. These forms of communication particularly were of potential value, as some migrant parents could not read English and some were illiterate. A positive nutrition education programme to combat commerical food advertising of "empty calorie" foods is recommended.

  2. Patients with MAC Lung Disease Have a Low Visceral Fat Area and Low Nutrient Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kentaro Wakamatsu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study aimed to examine the nutritional status and nutrient intake of patients with MAC lung disease with a focus on visceral fat area. Patients and Methods. Among 116 patients of our hospital with nontuberculous mycobacteriosis who were registered between May 2010 and August 2011, 103 patients with MAC lung disease were included in this study. In all patients, nutritional status and nutrient intake were prospectively examined. Results. Patients were 23 men and 80 women (mean age, 72.3±10.9 years. BMI (kg/m2 at the time of registration was 20.4±2.7 in men and 19.2±2.9 in women. Visceral fat area (cm2 was significantly lower in women (35.7±26.6 than in men (57.5±47.4 (p=0.0111. The comparison with general healthy adults according to age revealed a markedly reduced visceral fat area among patients with MAC lung disease. With respect to nutrient intake, energy adequacy (86.1±15.7%, protein adequacy (82.4±18.2%, lipid adequacy (78.1±21.8%, and carbohydrate adequacy (89.6±19.2% ratios were all low at the time of registration. BMI was significantly correlated with protein adequacy (p=0.0397 and lipid adequacy (p=0.0214 ratios, while no association was found between visceral fat area and nutrient intake. Conclusion. Patients with MAC lung disease had a low visceral fat area and low nutrient intake.

  3. Preliminary study of micro nutrient intake comparison of elementary school children on holiday and schooldays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widya Dwi Ariyani; K Oginawati; Muhayatun; Endah Damastuti; Syukria Kurniawati

    2010-01-01

    The dietary pattern has influences on nutritional status. In this activity, we compared micro nutrient intake of elementary school children (7-12 years) as a consequence of dietary pattern difference on holiday and schooldays, due to most of their time was spend in school where the tendency of snack consuming is usually higher at school. Therefore, the comparison of dietary pattern and micro nutrient daily intake of elementary school children on holiday and schooldays was needed to carry out. Food sampling was done by duplicate diet method for 3 days in a row with one day among them was a holiday. The determination of micro nutrient elements concentration was measured using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). There was a significant difference of daily intake of Na, K, Ca, Fe, and Cr on holiday and schooldays, while for Br, Mg, Zn, Mn, Cu, Se and Co were no significant difference. The most significant difference contained on sodium intake with average daily intake was 2578 mg/day on schooldays and 1298 mg/day on holiday. It was caused by the number of high sodium content snacks consumed on schooldays were bigger than on holiday. However, the results of micro nutrient daily intake obtained either on schooldays or on holiday generally were below RDA (Recommended Dietary Allowance), except for Na and Cr. It's expected that this result could be used as information about nutrition status of children as next generation on behalf of supporting the formation of high quality human resources. (author)

  4. Frequent Canned Food Use is Positively Associated with Nutrient-Dense Food Group Consumption and Higher Nutrient Intakes in US Children and Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin B. Comerford

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In addition to fresh foods, many canned foods also provide nutrient-dense dietary options, often at a lower price, with longer storage potential. The aim of this study was to compare nutrient-dense food group intake and nutrient intake between different levels of canned food consumption in the US. Consumption data were collected for this cross-sectional study from 9761 American canned food consumers (aged two years and older from The NPD Group’s National Eating Trends® (NET® database during 2011–2013; and the data were assessed using The NPD Group’s Nutrient Intake Database. Canned food consumers were placed into three groups: Frequent Can Users (≥6 canned items/week; n = 2584, Average Can Users (3–5 canned items/week; n = 4445, and Infrequent Can Users (≤2 canned items/week; n = 2732. The results provide evidence that Frequent Can Users consume more nutrient-dense food groups such as fruits, vegetables, dairy products, and protein-rich foods, and also have higher intakes of 17 essential nutrients including the shortfall nutrients—potassium, calcium and fiber—when compared to Infrequent Can Users. Therefore, in addition to fresh foods, diets higher in nutrient-dense canned food consumption can also offer dietary options which improve nutrient intakes and the overall diet quality of Americans.

  5. Nutrient composition of important fish species in Bangladesh and potential contribution to recommended nutrient intakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogard, Jessica R.; Thilsted, Shakuntala H.; Marks, Geoffrey C.

    2015-01-01

    Fish, in Bangladesh where malnutrition remains a significant development challenge, is an irreplaceable animal-source food in the diet of millions. However, existing data on the nutrient composition of fish do not reflect the large diversity available and have focused on only a few select nutrien...... indigenous species, which should guide policy and programmes to improve food and nutrition security in Bangladesh....

  6. Impact of protected mealtimes on ward mealtime environment, patient experience and nutrient intake in hospitalised patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickson, M; Connolly, A; Whelan, K

    2011-08-01

    Malnutrition is a common problem in hospitalised inpatients, resulting in a range of negative clinical, patient-centred and economic sequelae. Protected mealtimes (PM) aim to enhance the quality of the mealtime experience and maximise nutrient intake in hospitalised patients. The present study aimed to measure mealtime environment, patient experience and nutrient intake before and after the implementation of PM.   PM were implemented in a large teaching hospital through a range of different approaches. Direct observations were used to assess ward-level mealtime environment (e.g. dining room use, removal of distractions) (40 versus 34 wards) and individual patient experience (e.g. assistance with eating, visitors present) (253 versus 237 patients), and nutrient intake was assessed with a weighed food intake at lunch (39 versus 60 patients) at baseline and after the implementation of PM, respectively. Mealtime experience showed improvements in three objectives: more patients were monitored using food/fluid charts (32% versus 43%, P = 0.02), more were offered the opportunity to wash hands (30% versus 40%, P = 0.03) and more were served meals at uncluttered tables (54% versus 64%, P = 0.04). There was no difference in the number of patients experiencing mealtime interruptions (32% versus 25%, P = 0.14). There was no difference in energy intake (1088 versus 837 kJ, P = 0.25) and a decrease in protein intake (14.0 versus 7.5 g, P = 0.04) after PM. Only minor improvements in mealtime experience were made after the implementation of PM and so it is not unexpected that macronutrient intake did not improve. The implementation of PM needs to be evaluated to ensure improvements in mealtime experience are made such that measurable improvements in nutritional and clinical outcomes ensue. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2011 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  7. Processed Food Contributions to Energy and Nutrient Intake Differ among US Children by Race/Ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eicher-Miller, Heather A; Fulgoni, Victor L; Keast, Debra R

    2015-12-02

    This study determined and compared the mean daily intake of energy and nutrients from processed foods by level of processing (minimally processed; processed for preservation, nutrient enhancement, and freshness; mixtures of combined ingredients; ready-to-eat processed foods; and prepared foods/meals) among non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Mexican American US children. Data from participants 2-18 years old (n = 10,298) of the nationally representative cross-sectional National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2008 with a complete one day, 24-h dietary recall were used to determine mean intake of energy and nutrients recommended for increase and decrease, as per the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans, among child race/ethnic groups by category of food processing. Regression analysis was used to estimate and compare covariate-adjusted (gender, age, and poverty-income-level) least square means (p processed foods. Approximately 66% to 84% of total daily energy, saturated fat, cholesterol, fiber, total sugar, added sugars, calcium, vitamin D, potassium, and sodium intake are contributed by one of the five categories of processed foods. Clinicians and policy should primarily advise consideration of the energy and nutrient composition of foods, rather than the processing level, when selecting a healthy diet for children.

  8. Processed Food Contributions to Energy and Nutrient Intake Differ among US Children by Race/Ethnicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather A. Eicher-Miller

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study determined and compared the mean daily intake of energy and nutrients from processed foods by level of processing (minimally processed; processed for preservation, nutrient enhancement, and freshness; mixtures of combined ingredients; ready-to-eat processed foods; and prepared foods/meals among non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Mexican American US children. Data from participants 2–18 years old (n = 10,298 of the nationally representative cross-sectional National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003–2008 with a complete one day, 24-h dietary recall were used to determine mean intake of energy and nutrients recommended for increase and decrease, as per the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans, among child race/ethnic groups by category of food processing. Regression analysis was used to estimate and compare covariate-adjusted (gender, age, and poverty-income-level least square means (p < 0.05/3 race/ethnic groups. All children, regardless of race or ethnicity consumed processed foods. Approximately 66% to 84% of total daily energy, saturated fat, cholesterol, fiber, total sugar, added sugars, calcium, vitamin D, potassium, and sodium intake are contributed by one of the five categories of processed foods. Clinicians and policy should primarily advise consideration of the energy and nutrient composition of foods, rather than the processing level, when selecting a healthy diet for children.

  9. Processed Food Contributions to Energy and Nutrient Intake Differ among US Children by Race/Ethnicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eicher-Miller, Heather A.; Fulgoni, Victor L.; Keast, Debra R.

    2015-01-01

    This study determined and compared the mean daily intake of energy and nutrients from processed foods by level of processing (minimally processed; processed for preservation, nutrient enhancement, and freshness; mixtures of combined ingredients; ready-to-eat processed foods; and prepared foods/meals) among non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Mexican American US children. Data from participants 2–18 years old (n = 10,298) of the nationally representative cross-sectional National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003–2008 with a complete one day, 24-h dietary recall were used to determine mean intake of energy and nutrients recommended for increase and decrease, as per the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans, among child race/ethnic groups by category of food processing. Regression analysis was used to estimate and compare covariate-adjusted (gender, age, and poverty-income-level) least square means (p processed foods. Approximately 66% to 84% of total daily energy, saturated fat, cholesterol, fiber, total sugar, added sugars, calcium, vitamin D, potassium, and sodium intake are contributed by one of the five categories of processed foods. Clinicians and policy should primarily advise consideration of the energy and nutrient composition of foods, rather than the processing level, when selecting a healthy diet for children. PMID:26633491

  10. Relationship between oral health, nutrient intake and nutritional status in a sample of Brazilian elderly people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Andrade, Fabiola Bof; de França Caldas, Arnaldo; Kitoko, Pedro Makumbundu

    2009-03-01

    To evaluate the relationship between the oral health condition, the nutrient intake and the body mass index (BMI) in elderly people. Impaired dentition has been associated with an inadequate consumption of key nutrients and with changes in nutritional status in elderly people. The sample comprised 887 elderly people, aged 60 and over, of whom 816 underwent a clinical oral examination and were allocated into groups according to the numbers of teeth and number of posterior occluding pairs of natural teeth. Nutritional status was determined using the BMI. Dietary intake was assessed by a 24-h diet recall interview and the data from these records were converted to nutritional intake using DietPro software. Differences between means were evaluated using ANOVA, together with the Tukey test or Dunnet test, according to the normality of the data. Associations between categorical variables were tested using chi-square analysis. Ages ranged from 60 to 96 years (mean, 71.46 years), with 47% of the respondents in the 60-to 69-year-old group. A high DMFT index (mean, 27.81) was observed with the missing component accounting for 88.8% of the index. Significant differences were observed between the mean intake of nutrients and the number of posterior occluding pairs of natural teeth (p oral health status as defined by clinical measures.

  11. Relative validity of a food frequency questionnaire to assess nutrient intake in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, C A; Curran, S; McAuliffe, F M

    2014-04-01

    To date, there are no food frequency questionnaires that have been validated to assess nutrient intakes in pregnant women in Ireland. The present study aimed to assess the relative validity of a self-administered food frequency questionnaire during pregnancy. The food frequency questionnaire was administered once during pregnancy between 12 and 34 weeks. Participants also completed a 3-day food diary during each trimester of pregnancy (reference method) and intakes from both the food frequency questionnaire and the mean of the 3-day food diaries were compared in a sample of 130 participants from the control arm of an intervention study. Energy-adjusted Pearson's correlation coefficients ranged from 0.24 (riboflavin) to 0.59 (magnesium) and were all statistically significant (P food frequency questionnaire tended to report higher energy and nutrient intakes compared to the food diaries. On average, 74% of participants were classified into the same ± 1 quartile and 7% into opposing quartiles by the two methods. Overall, our food frequency questionnaire showed good relative validity. We conclude that a single administration of a food frequency questionnaire is a valid tool for ranking women in accordance with their nutrient intakes during pregnancy. © 2013 The Authors Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  12. Consequences of a plant-based diet with low dairy consumption on intake of bone-relevant nutrients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Ray M; Aldana, Steven G

    2009-05-01

    This study examines the extent to which a plant-based dietary intervention that discourages consumption of dairy products and meat influences bone-relevant nutrients. A randomized controlled study design was used to evaluate the Coronary Health Improvement Project. The Project is a heart disease prevention intervention administered in an intensive 40-hour educational course delivered over a 4-week period. Participants were evaluated at baseline, 6 weeks, and 6 months. After 6 weeks, participants in the intervention group compared with the control group experienced significant increases in magnesium and daily intake of fruit, vegetables, and grains but significant decreases in dairy servings per day and calcium and vitamin D from food. After 6 months, those in the intervention group showed significant increases in daily intake of fruit, vegetables, and grains and significant decreases in dairy servings per day, daily meat consumption, and protein, phosphorous, calcium, total calcium, and vitamin D from food. Serum calcium levels are the primary determinant of parathyroid hormone (PTH) release, and within 6 weeks, the intervention group's PTH levels were elevated from baseline and significantly different from the control group's PTH levels. At 6 months, urinary type I collagen N-telopeptide (NTx) levels were significantly greater in the intervention group compared with the control group. The Coronary Health Improvement Project increases the intake of important food items but decreases calcium and vitamin D consumption. There is also some evidence of an increase in NTx biomarkers, consistent with increased bone resorption.

  13. Nutrient intake and growth indices for children at Kindergartens in Shiraz, Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmadi, A.; Moazen, M.; Mosallaei, Z.; Mohammadbeigi, A.; Lari, F.A

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate energy and nutrient intake and determine growth indices for pre-school children in Iran. Methods: The study was conducted from June to September 2010 and included 150 children aged between 3 and 5 years who attended kindergartens in Shiraz, Iran. Following a measurement of the participants height and weight, three 24-hour dietary recalls were completed based on interviews with their parents. The data was entered into various computer softwares. The prevalence of underweight, stunting, wasting, at risk of overweight and overweight children was then calculated, and energy and nutrient intake was compared with the recommended values. Results: The mean intake of energy, calcium and iron for the children were less than the recommended values. In contrast, the mean intakes of carbohydrate, protein, zinc and vitamin C were higher than the recommendations. Fat intake, however, was within the Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range. In addition, the rates of prevalence of the underweight, stunting, wasting, and overweight or at risk of overweight were found to be 27 (18.6%), 37 (25.5%), 18 (12.4%) and 34 (23.4%), respectively. Finally, underweight children had lower intake of energy, carbohydrate, protein, fat, iron and zinc, while overweight or at-risk-of-overweight ones had higher intake of protein, calcium and zinc. Conclusion: There is a need for children in kindergartens of Shiraz to improve their mean intake of energy, calcium and iron. Moreover, about one-fourth of the children were stunted and about the same proportion were either overweight or at the risk of being so. (author)

  14. Implant retainers for free-end removable partial dentures affect mastication and nutrient intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Camila Heitor; Gonçalves, Thais Marques Simek Vega; Rodrigues Garcia, Renata Cunha Matheus

    2014-08-01

    This study measured swallowing threshold parameters and nutrient intake in partially dentate subjects rehabilitated by conventional free-end removable partial dentures (RPD) and by RPD over posterior implant retainers and ball attachments (BA). Eight subjects (two men and six women; mean age 60.1 ± 6.6 years old) received conventional total maxillary dentures and free-end RPD in the mandible. Two months after denture insertion, swallowing threshold and nutrient intake assessments occurred, which included an evaluation of the number of masticatory cycles and medium particle size (X₅₀) of a silicone test material (Optocal). A 3-day food diary verified nutrient intake based on a standard Brazilian Food Composition Table. Then, osseointegrated implants were placed bilaterally in the mandibular first molar region, followed by BA, which was fitted in the RPD bases after healing. After 2 months of the RPD over implants and BA use, variables were again assessed. Wilcoxon signed rank tests evaluated the data (P 0.05); however, subjects showed decreased X₅₀ values at the swallowing moment (P = 0.008) and increased daily energy (P = 0.008), carbohydrate (P = 0.016), protein (P = 0.023), calcium (P = 0.008), fiber (P = 0.016), and iron (P = 0.016) intake with RPD implants and BA inserts. No differences were found in fat consumption (P > 0.05). Implants and BA retainers over a free-end RPD resulted in smaller swallowed median particle size and improved nutrient intake. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Ready-to-eat cereals improve nutrient, milk and fruit intake at breakfast in European adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michels, Nathalie; De Henauw, Stefaan; Beghin, Laurent; Cuenca-García, Magdalena; Gonzalez-Gross, Marcela; Hallstrom, Lena; Kafatos, Anthony; Kersting, Mathilde; Manios, Yannis; Marcos, Ascensión; Molnar, Denes; Roccaldo, Romana; Santaliestra-Pasías, Alba M; Sjostrom, Michael; Reye, Béatrice; Thielecke, Frank; Widhalm, Kurt; Claessens, Mandy

    2016-03-01

    Breakfast consumption has been recommended as part of a healthy diet. Recently, ready-to-eat cereals (RTEC) became more popular as a breakfast item. Our aim was to analyse the dietary characteristics of an RTEC breakfast in European adolescents and to compare them with other breakfast options. From the European multi-centre HELENA study, two 24-h dietary recalls of 3137 adolescents were available. Food items (RTEC or bread, milk/yoghurt, fruit) and macro- and micronutrient intakes at breakfast were calculated. Cross-sectional regression analyses were adjusted for gender, age, socio-economic status and city. Compared to bread breakfasts (39 %) and all other breakfasts (41.5 %), RTEC breakfast (19.5 %) was associated with improved nutrient intake (less fat and less sucrose; more fibre, protein and some micronutrients like vitamin B, calcium, magnesium and phosphorus) at the breakfast occasion. Exceptions were more simple sugars in RTEC breakfast consumers: more lactose and galactose due to increased milk consumption, but also higher glucose and fructose than bread consumers. RTEC consumers had a significantly higher frequency (92.5 vs. 50.4 and 60.2 %) and quantity of milk/yoghurt intake and a slightly higher frequency of fruit intake (13.4 vs. 10.9 and 8.0 %) at breakfast. Among European adolescents, RTEC consumers showed a more favourable nutrient intake than consumers of bread or other breakfasts, except for simple sugars. Therefore, RTEC may be regarded as a good breakfast option as part of a varied and balanced diet. Nevertheless, more research is warranted concerning the role of different RTEC types in nutrient intake, especially for simple sugars.

  16. Energy and nutrient intake in preschool and school age Mexican children: National Nutrition Survey 1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barquera Simón

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To estimate energy and nutrient intake and adequacy in preschool and school age Mexican children, using the National Nutrition Survey 1999 (NNS-1999. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty four-h dietary recalls from pre-school (n=1 309 and school (n=2 611 children obtained from a representative sub-sample of the NNS-1999 were analyzed. Intakes and adequacies were estimated and compared across four regions, socio-economic strata, and between urban and rural areas, and indigenous vs. non-indigenous children. RESULTS: Median energy intake in pre-school children was 949 kcal and in school children 1 377 kcal, with adequacies 150% in both age groups. The North and Mexico City regions had the highest fat intake and the lowest fiber intake. Children in the South region, indigenous children, and those in the lowest socio-economic stratum had higher fiber and carbohydrate intakes and the lowest fat intake. These children also showed the highest risks of inadequacies for vitamin A, vitamin C, folate, iron, zinc and calcium. CONCLUSIONS: Mexico is experiencing a nutrition transition with internal inequalities across regions and socio-economic strata. Food policy must account for these differences in order to optimize resources directed at social programs.

  17. Dietary intake of energy-dense, nutrient-poor and nutrient-dense food sources in children with cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Rosie; Katz, Tamarah; Liu, Victoria; Quintano, Justine; Brunner, Rebecca; Tong, Chai Wei; Collins, Clare E; Ooi, Chee Y

    2018-04-30

    Prescription of a high-energy, high-fat diet is a mainstay of nutrition management in cystic fibrosis (CF). However, families may be relying on energy-dense, nutrient-poor (EDNP) foods rather than nutrient-dense (ND) foods to meet dietary targets. We aimed to evaluate the relative contribution of EDNP and ND foods to the usual diets of children with CF and identify sociodemographic factors associated with higher EDNP intakes. This is a cross-sectional comparison of children with CF aged 2-18 years and age- and gender-matched controls. Dietary intake was assessed using the Australian Child and Adolescent Eating Survey (ACAES) food frequency questionnaire. Children with CF (n = 80: 37 males; mean age 9.3 years) consumed significantly more EDNP foods than controls (mean age 9.8 years) in terms of both total energy (median [IQR]: 1301 kcal/day (843-1860) vs. 686 kcal/day (480-1032); p energy intake (median [IQR]: 44% (34-51) vs. 31% (24-43); p energy requirements (median [IQR]: 158% (124-187) vs. 112% (90-137); p energy- and fat-dense CF diet is primarily achieved by overconsumption of EDNP foods, rather than ND sources. This dietary pattern may not be optimal for the future health of children with CF, who are now expected to survive well into adulthood. Copyright © 2018 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. All rights reserved.

  18. Nutrient intake of working women in Bangkok, Thailand, as studied by total food duplicate method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda-Inoguchi, N; Shimbo, S; Zhang, Z W; Srianujata, S; Banjong, O; Chitchumroonchokchai, C; Watanabe, T; Nakatsuka, H; Higashikawa, K; Ikeda, M

    2000-03-01

    To establish a general view of food habits in Thailand, and to make a quantitative assessment of rice dependency of Thai people. Cross-sectional study. Community. 52 non-smoking and non-habitually drinking adult women in Bangkok participated in the study. The participants offered 24 h food duplicates and peripheral blood samples, and underwent clinical examination including anthropometry. The duplicates were subjected to nutritional evaluation taking advantage of the Thai food composition tables (FCTs), and analyzed for eight nutrient elements by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The participants took 1630 kcal from 55 g protein (63% from animal sources), 57 g lipid (mostly from vegetable oil), and 224 g carbohydrate (60% from rice) daily. Nutrient intake at lunch was as large as that at dinner. About a half of the women had insufficient energy intake (ie 120%). Protein intake was sufficient in most cases, whereas lipid intake was in excess in more than a half of the women. Ca, Fe, Mg, Zn and possibly P intakes were below the RDA values in many participants. FCT-based estimates agreed well with the ICP-MS measures in cases of Fe and Ca but tended to be greater than the measures by 50% with regard to P. Lunch as substantial as dinner for Thai urbanites. There was a marked dependency on rice as an energy source. Whereas protein intake is generally sufficient, the intake of Ca (and to a lesser extent Fe) was insufficient in a majority of the study participants. Dai-ichi Mutual Life Insurance, Japan; the Ministry of Health and Welfare, the government of Japan.

  19. Nutrient intake and hormonal status of premenopausal vegetarian Seventh-day Adventists and premenopausal nonvegetarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, T D; Leklem, J E

    1983-01-01

    The relationship between dietary nutrients and plasma estrone, estradiol-17 beta, estriol, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, and prolactin levels was investigated in 14 premenopausal Seventh-day Adventist vegetarian (SV) women and 9 premenopausal non-Seventh-day Adventist nonvegetarian (NV) women. The SV subjects consumed less fat, especially saturated fat, and used significantly less fried food than the NV subjects. Plasma levels of estrone and estradiol-17 beta in the SV subjects were significantly lower than in the NV subjects. SV estradiol-17 beta and estriol levels were positively correlated with linoleic acid and protein intake, while NV prolactin levels were significantly correlated with intakes of oleic and linoleic acids and total fat. The data suggest that specific dietary nutrients were related to the hormonal milieu of these SV and NV subjects.

  20. Phylloquinone (vitamin K1) intakes and serum undercarboxylated osteocalcin levels in Irish postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Aoife; Cashman, Kevin D; Kiely, Máiréad

    2006-05-01

    Low phylloquinone (vitamin K1) intakes have been associated with low bone mineral density in older adults. Phylloquinone intakes and serum undercarboxylated osteocalcin (ucOC) levels were assessed in ninety-seven apparently healthy, free-living Irish women aged 50-75 years. Phylloquinone intakes were estimated using a detailed dietary history, which measured habitual food intakes from a typical 14 d period, and recently published food composition data for phylloquinone. Fasting serum ucOC was measured using an enzyme immunoassay. The median daily intake of phylloquinone in the group from all sources was 108.8 microg and from food sources only was 106.6 microg, indicating that approximately 99 % of the phylloquinone came from food. Vegetables and vegetable dishes contributed 67 % of the total phylloquinone intake, but further analysis showed that broccoli, cabbage and lettuce were the primary sources, making a total contribution of 44 %. Twenty per cent of the women had a phylloquinone intake below the UK recommendation of 1 microg/kg body weight per day and 34 % failed to meet the US Adequate Intake value of 90 microg/day. Mean serum ucOC levels in the women were 6.2 (SD 1.7) ng/ml and were predicted by phylloquinone intake (beta -2.20, generated from log-transformed phylloquinone intake data; P=0.04). On the basis of comparisons with both UK recommendations and US Adequate Intakes for phylloquinone, the habitual intakes of phylloquinone in a high proportion of Irish postmenopausal women may not be adequate.

  1. Arsenic methylation capacity in relation to nutrient intake and genetic polymorphisms in one-carbon metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamboa-Loira, Brenda; Hernández-Alcaraz, César; Gandolfi, A Jay; Cebrián, Mariano E; Burguete-García, Ana; García-Martínez, Angélica; López-Carrillo, Lizbeth

    2018-07-01

    Nutrients and genetic polymorphisms participating in one-carbon metabolism may explain interindividual differences in inorganic arsenic (iAs) methylation capacity, which in turn may account for variations in susceptibility to iAs-induced diseases. 1) To evaluate the association between polymorphisms in five one-carbon metabolism genes (FOLH1 c.223 T > C, MTHFD1 c.1958 G > A, MTHFR c.665 C > T, MTR c.2756 A > G, and MTRR c.66 A > G) and iAs methylation capacity; 2) To assess if previously reported associations between nutrient intake and iAs methylation capacity are modified by those polymorphisms. Women (n = 1027) exposed to iAs in Northern Mexico were interviewed. Blood and urine samples were collected. Nutrient dietary intake was estimated using a validated food frequency questionnaire. iAs methylation capacity was calculated from urinary iAs species (iAs, monomethylarsonic acid [MMA] and dimethylarsinic acid [DMA]) measured by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-ICP-MS). One polymorphism in each of the five genes evaluated was genotyped by allelic discrimination. Multivariable linear regression models were used to evaluate if genetic polymorphisms modified the associations between iAs methylation capacity parameters and nutrient intake. The median (min-max) concentration of total arsenic (TAs) was 20.2 (1.3-2776.0) µg/g creatinine in the study population. Significant interactions for iAs metabolism were only found with FOLH1 c.223 T > C polymorphism and vitamin B12 intake, so that CT and CC genotype carriers had significantly lower %iAs, and higher DMA/iAs with an increased vitamin B12 intake, as compared to carriers of wild-type TT. Differences in dietary nutrient intake and genetic variants in one-carbon metabolism may jointly influence iAs methylation capacity. Confirmation of these interactions in other populations is warranted. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Apelin-13 increased food intake with serum ghrelin and leptin levels in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saral, S; Alkanat, M; Sumer, A; Canpolat, S

    2018-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to explain the role of apelin-13 on body weight, food and water intake with serum leptin, ghrelin, neuropeptid Y (NPY) and peptid YY (PYY) levels in male rat. Thirty-two Sprague-Dawley male rats were used for the study. The rats were injected SP (0.9 %) intraperitoneally (i.p) in the control group and 30 (AP30), 100 (AP100) and 300 (AP300) µg/kg apelin-13 in the study groups, respectively, 10 min before the transition to dark period, for 10 days. During the experimental period, with light and dark periods of food and water intake, body weights were recorded in rats. Rats were euthanized and serum samples were obtained. In serum samples leptin, ghrelin, NPY and PYY levels were measured with specific ELISA kit. Apelin-13 was increased body weights in all three (AP30, AP100 and AP300) groups compared with the control group. AP100 and AP300 groups had increased food intake in the dark and the cumulative period, but in the light period food intake values were not significantly increased (p > 0.05). As for the value of water intake, compared with the control group, all dose of apelin-13 increased water intake during the dark and the cumulative period. There was no significant change in water intake in the light period. On the other hand, compared with the control group, serum leptin levels were found to increase in the groups administered 100 and 300 µg/kg of apelin-13 (p Ghrelin levels were found high in all groups treated with apelin-13. Serum levels of NPY decreased only in the 300 µg/kg apelin-13 treated group (p 0.05). Apelin-13 increases body weight in rats as well as food and water intake (dark and cumulative period). Additionally, ghrelin can mediate the orexigenic effect of apelin-13 in the regulation of food intake (Fig. 4, Ref. 37).

  3. Frequent Canned Food Use is Positively Associated with Nutrient-Dense Food Group Consumption and Higher Nutrient Intakes in US Children and Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Comerford, Kevin B.

    2015-01-01

    In addition to fresh foods, many canned foods also provide nutrient-dense dietary options, often at a lower price, with longer storage potential. The aim of this study was to compare nutrient-dense food group intake and nutrient intake between different levels of canned food consumption in the US. Consumption data were collected for this cross-sectional study from 9761 American canned food consumers (aged two years and older) from The NPD Group’s National Eating Trends® (NET®) database during...

  4. To what extent do food purchases reflect shoppers? diet quality and nutrient intake?

    OpenAIRE

    Appelhans, Bradley M.; French, Simone A.; Tangney, Christy C.; Powell, Lisa M.; Wang, Yamin

    2017-01-01

    Background Food purchasing is considered a key mediator between the food environment and eating behavior, and food purchasing patterns are increasingly measured in epidemiologic and intervention studies. However, the extent to which food purchases actually reflect individuals? dietary intake has not been rigorously tested. This study examined cross-sectional agreement between estimates of diet quality and nutrient densities derived from objectively documented household food purchases and thos...

  5. Validation of a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire to assess food groups and nutrient intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo-Ojeda, Gabriela; Vizmanos-Lamotte, Barbara; Márquez-Sandoval, Yolanda Fabiola; Rodríguez-Rocha, Norma Patricia; López-Uriarte, Patricia Josefina; Fernández-Ballart, Joan D

    2013-11-01

    Semi-quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaires (FFQs) analyze average food and nutrient intake over extended periods to associate habitual dietary intake with health problems and chronic diseases. A tool of this nature applicable to both women and men is not presently available in Mexico. To validate a FFQ for adult men and women. The study was conducted on 97 participants, 61% were women. Two FFQs were administered (with a one-year interval) to measure reproducibility. To assess validity, the second FFQ was compared against dietary record (DR) covering nine days. Statistical analyses included Pearson correlations and Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICC). The de-attenuation of the ICC resulting from intraindividual variability was controlled. The validity analysis was complemented by comparing the classification ability of FFQ to that of DR through concordance between intake categories and Bland-Altman plots. Reproducibility: ICC values for food groups ranged 0.42-0.87; the range for energy and nutrients was between 0.34 and 0.82. ICC values for food groups ranged 0.35-0.84; the range for energy and nutrients was between 0.36 and 0.77. Most subjects (56.7-76.3%) classified in the same or adjacent quintile for energy and nutrients using both methods. Extreme misclassification was <6.3% for all items. Bland-Altman plots reveal high concordance between FFQ and DR. FFQ produced sufficient levels of reproducibility and validity to determine average daily intake over one year. These results will enable the analysis of possible associations with chronic diseases and dietary diagnoses in adult populations of men and women. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  6. Maternal Nutrition During Pregnancy: Intake of Nutrients Important for Bone Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Natalie K; Brennan-Olsen, Sharon L; Bennett, Kathy; Moloney, David J; Pasco, Julie A

    2017-04-01

    Objectives Maternal nutrition during pregnancy plays an important role in predisposing offspring to the development of chronic disease in adulthood, including osteoporosis. Our aim was to investigate maternal dietary intakes during pregnancy, with a focus on nutrients important for skeletal development in the offspring. Methods In this case-control study, cases were pregnant women recruited for the Vitamin D in Pregnancy Study (n = 350, age 20-40 years) and controls were non-pregnant peers participating in the Geelong Osteoporosis Study (n = 305, age 20-40 years). Dietary intakes of nutrients were quantified using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Results Compared to controls, cases consumed more energy [median (interquartile range): 7831 (6506-9461) vs. 7136 (6112-8785) kJ/day]; median intakes for cases were greater for carbohydrates [206.2 (172.5-249.9) vs. 188.2 (147.7-217.5) g/day], fat [77.9 (60.3-96.6) vs. 72.1 (53.3-87.4) g/day], potassium [2860 (2363-3442) vs. 2606 (2166-3442) mg/day] and calcium [1022 (819-1264) vs. 918 (782-1264) mg/day] (all p ≤ 0.05). However, pregnant women were not consuming greater amounts of those nutrients which had an increased demand (protein, magnesium, phosphorus and zinc). Similarly, this translated to the likelihood of achieving national recommendations for corresponding nutrients. Conclusions for Practice Compared to their non-pregnant peers, pregnant women were more likely to meet dietary recommendations for calcium and potassium; however, this was not the pattern observed for protein, magnesium and zinc. Future public health messages should perhaps focus on increasing awareness of the importance of all these nutrients during pregnancy.

  7. Effect of a strict vegan diet on energy and nutrient intakes by Finnish rheumatoid patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauma, A L; Nenonen, M; Helve, T; Hänninen, O

    1993-10-01

    Dietary intake data of 43 Finnish rheumatoid arthritis patients were collected using 7-day food records. The subjects were randomized into a control and a vegan diet groups, consisting of 22 and 21 subjects, respectively. The subjects in the vegan diet group received an uncooked vegan diet ('living food') for 3 months, and they were tutored daily by a living-food expert. The subjects in the control group continued their usual diets and received no tutoring. Adherence to the strict vegan diet was assessed on the basis of urinary sodium excretion and by the information on consumption of specific food items (wheatgrass juice and the rejuvelac drink). The use of these drinks was variable, and some boiled vegetables were consumed occasionally. However, only one of the subjects in the vegan diet group lacked a clear decrease in urinary sodium excretion. Rheumatoid patients had lower than recommended intakes of iron, zinc and niacin, and their energy intake was low compared to mean daily energy intake of the healthy Finnish females of the same age. Shifting to the uncooked vegan diet significantly increased the intakes of energy and many nutrients. In spite of the increased energy intake, the group on the vegan diet lost 9% of their body weight during the intervention period, indicating a low availability of energy from the vegan diet.

  8. Nutrient intake and food habits of soccer players: analyzing the correlates of eating practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Rovés, Pablo M; García-Zapico, Pedro; Patterson, Angeles M; Iglesias-Gutiérrez, Eduardo

    2014-07-18

    Despite the impact and popularity of soccer, and the growing field of soccer-related scientific research, little attention has been devoted to the nutritional intake and eating habits of soccer players. Moreover, the few studies that have addressed this issue suggest that the nutritional intake of soccer players is inadequate, underscoring the need for better adherence to nutritional recommendations and the development and implementation of nutrition education programs. The objective of these programs would be to promote healthy eating habits for male and female soccer players of all ages to optimize performance and provide health benefits that last beyond the end of a player's career. To date, no well-designed nutrition education program has been implemented for soccer players. The design and implementation of such an intervention requires a priori knowledge of nutritional intake and other correlates of food selection, such as food preferences and the influence of field position on nutrient intake, as well as detailed analysis of nutritional intake on match days, on which little data is available. Our aim is to provide an up-to-date overview of the nutritional intake, eating habits, and correlates of eating practice of soccer players.

  9. Nutrient Intake and Food Habits of Soccer Players: Analyzing the Correlates of Eating Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo M. García-Rovés

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite the impact and popularity of soccer, and the growing field of soccer-related scientific research, little attention has been devoted to the nutritional intake and eating habits of soccer players. Moreover, the few studies that have addressed this issue suggest that the nutritional intake of soccer players is inadequate, underscoring the need for better adherence to nutritional recommendations and the development and implementation of nutrition education programs. The objective of these programs would be to promote healthy eating habits for male and female soccer players of all ages to optimize performance and provide health benefits that last beyond the end of a player’s career. To date, no well-designed nutrition education program has been implemented for soccer players. The design and implementation of such an intervention requires a priori knowledge of nutritional intake and other correlates of food selection, such as food preferences and the influence of field position on nutrient intake, as well as detailed analysis of nutritional intake on match days, on which little data is available. Our aim is to provide an up-to-date overview of the nutritional intake, eating habits, and correlates of eating practice of soccer players.

  10. Nutrient Intake and Food Habits of Soccer Players: Analyzing the Correlates of Eating Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Rovés, Pablo M.; García-Zapico, Pedro; Patterson, Ángeles M.; Iglesias-Gutiérrez, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Despite the impact and popularity of soccer, and the growing field of soccer-related scientific research, little attention has been devoted to the nutritional intake and eating habits of soccer players. Moreover, the few studies that have addressed this issue suggest that the nutritional intake of soccer players is inadequate, underscoring the need for better adherence to nutritional recommendations and the development and implementation of nutrition education programs. The objective of these programs would be to promote healthy eating habits for male and female soccer players of all ages to optimize performance and provide health benefits that last beyond the end of a player’s career. To date, no well-designed nutrition education program has been implemented for soccer players. The design and implementation of such an intervention requires a priori knowledge of nutritional intake and other correlates of food selection, such as food preferences and the influence of field position on nutrient intake, as well as detailed analysis of nutritional intake on match days, on which little data is available. Our aim is to provide an up-to-date overview of the nutritional intake, eating habits, and correlates of eating practice of soccer players. PMID:25045939

  11. [Caloric intake and distribution of the main nutrients in a population of obese children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, M; Croci, M; Tufano, A; Sassano, G; Panigoni, G; Costa, M; Morricone, L; Longari, V; Mazzocchi, M; Caviezel, F

    1990-01-01

    Calorie intake and the main nutrient contents were assessed in a population of 152 obese (OB) children (86 M; 66 F; age 7-11) and 153 normal weight (NW) peers (87 M; 66 F). The following method was used: a) an interview using a food dictionary to assess food intake during the 2 days prior to the study and on one holiday: and b) a weekly questionnaire. The mean food intake of OB did not exceed that of NW, but on the contrary was lower (OB: 1812.9 +/- 39.6 kcal/die; NW: 1928.5 +/- 39.4 kcal/die; p less than 0.05). The population studied consumed approximately 50% of calories as carbohydrates (CHO), 35% as fats (F) and 15% as protein (P), and no difference was noted between OB and NW. The percentage of CHO was lower than that recommended by LARN, whereas the percentages of F and P were higher. A significant increase with age was noted in F and P intake as was a significant reduction of CO. 70% of OB and 80% of NW matched or exceeded the calorie intake recommended by LARN. 30% of OB and 24% of NW consumed 30% less than the daily calorie intake recommended by LARN.

  12. The New Zealand Food Composition Database: A useful tool for assessing New Zealanders' nutrient intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivakumaran, Subathira; Huffman, Lee; Sivakumaran, Sivalingam

    2018-01-01

    A country-specific food composition databases is useful for assessing nutrient intake reliably in national nutrition surveys, research studies and clinical practice. The New Zealand Food Composition Database (NZFCDB) programme seeks to maintain relevant and up-to-date food records that reflect the composition of foods commonly consumed in New Zealand following Food Agricultural Organisation of the United Nations/International Network of Food Data Systems (FAO/INFOODS) guidelines. Food composition data (FCD) of up to 87 core components for approximately 600 foods have been added to NZFCDB since 2010. These foods include those identified as providing key nutrients in a 2008/09 New Zealand Adult Nutrition Survey. Nutrient data obtained by analysis of composite samples or are calculated from analytical data. Currently >2500 foods in 22 food groups are freely available in various NZFCDB output products on the website: www.foodcomposition.co.nz. NZFCDB is the main source of FCD for estimating nutrient intake in New Zealand nutrition surveys. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Vegetable and fruit intake and its relevance with serum osteocalcin and urinary deoxypyridinoline in Korean adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Myung-Hwa; Kim, Myung-Hee; Bae, Yun-Jung; Choi, Mi-Kyeong

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the daily vegetable and fruit intake status of Korean adults and to examine the relationship of vegetable and fruit intake with bone metabolism. The vegetable and fruit intake of 542 healthy male and female adults was analyzed. Then, by selecting 51 targets from the subjects, the relation of vegetable and fruit intake with serum calcium, osteocalcin and deoxypyridinoline (DPD) excretion in urine was examined. The total vegetable intake per day was 397.7 g and 333.5 g by men and women respectively for the age group of 20-29, 366.9 g and 309.2 g respectively for the age group of 30-49, 378.4 g and 325.9 g respectively for the age group of 50-64. Of vegetable varieties, leafy and stem vegetables displayed the highest intake. The order of major intake items of vegetables and fruits was found to be Chinese cabbage kimchi, onion, radish, cucumber, and welsh onion for the age group of 20-29, watermelon, Chinese cabbage kimchi, peach, potato, and onion for the age group of 30-49 and watermelon, Chinese cabbage kimchi, tomato, potato, and peach for the age group of 50-64. Of 51 targets, β-carotene intake displayed a significantly negative correlation with serum osteocalcin. While caloric intake as well as protein, carbohydrate, calcium, phosphorous, zinc and total food intake displayed a significantly negative correlation with DPD excretion in urine, tuber vegetable intake displayed a significantly positive correlation with DPD excretion in urine. In the future, a study will be necessary to accurately explain the relevance of vegetable and fruit intake with bone mineral density and bone metabolism. Also, efforts will be required to increase vegetable and fruit intake.

  14. Energy and Nutrient Intakes from Processed Foods Differ by Sex, Income Status, and Race/Ethnicity of US Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eicher-Miller, Heather A; Fulgoni, Victor L; Keast, Debra R

    2015-06-01

    The 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA) recommends nutrients to increase and to decrease for US adults. The contributions processed foods make to the US intake of nutrients to increase and decrease may vary by the level of processing and by population subgroup. The hypotheses that the intakes of nutrients to increase or decrease, as specified by the DGA, are contributed exclusively from certain processed food categories and consumed differentially by population subgroups by sex, poverty-income ratio (ratio of household income to poverty threshold), and race/ethnicity was tested along with the hypothesis that specific processed food categories are responsible for nutrient intake differences between the population subgroups. The 24-hour dietary recall data from the cross-sectional 2003-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey was used to determine population subgroup energy and nutrient intake differences among processed food categories defined by the International Food Information Council Foundation Continuum of Processed Foods. Fifteen thousand fifty-three US adults aged ≥19 years. The mean daily intake of energy and nutrients from processed food categories reported by population subgroups were compared using regression analysis to determine covariate-adjusted least square means. Processed food categories that contributed to energy and nutrient intake differences within subgroups did not uniformly or exclusively contribute nutrients to increase or decrease per DGA recommendations. The between-group differences in mean daily intake of both nutrients to increase and decrease contributed by the various processed food categories were diverse and were not contributed exclusively from specific processed food categories. Recommendations for a diet adhering to the DGA should continue to focus on the energy and nutrient content, frequency of consumption, and serving size of individual foods rather than the level of processing. Copyright © 2015

  15. High saturated-fat and low-fibre intake: a comparative analysis of nutrient intake in individuals with and without type 2 diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Breen, C; Ryan, M; McNulty, B; Gibney, M J; Canavan, R; O'Shea, D

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of dietary modification, as a cornerstone of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) management, is to optimise metabolic control and overall health. This study describes food and nutrient intake in a sample of adults with T2DM, and compares this to recommendations, and to intake in age, sex, body mass index (BMI) and social-class matched adults without T2DM. Design: A cross-sectional analysis of food and nutrient intake in 124 T2DM individuals (64% male; age 57.4±5.6 years, BMI 32.5±5.8 kg...

  16. Energy and nutrient intake and acceptability of nutritionally balanced school meals in Filipino students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeles-Agdeppa, Imelda; Neufingerl, Nicole; Magsadia, Clarita; Hiemstra, Harry; Patalen, Chona; Eilander, Ans

    2014-09-01

    School meals provide an excellent opportunity to improve children's diet. To investigate dietary intakes and acceptance of nutritionally balanced school meals ("nutrimeals") as compared with regular ("baseline") school meals among Filipino students. The study employed a before-after intervention design with one group. Students 13 to 16 years of age from a public school in Metro Manila (n = 112) consumed baseline school meals for 2 weeks followed by consumption of nutri-meals for 7 weeks. Served meals and plate waste were weighed to calculate food and nutrient intakes. Acceptability of meals was assessed daily in a random subsample using a seven-point hedonic scale. Analysis of covariance corrected for age and sex was conducted to test for differences in nutrient intakes and acceptability between nutri-meals and baseline meals. Feeding nutri-meals resulted in a higher intake of vegetables (95.3 ± 13.8 g), fruit (76.5 ± 6.3 g), and fish (19.1 ± 3.3 g) than baseline meals. Energy and protein intakes significantly increased by 140.7 ± 2.8 kcal and 3.2 ± 0.1 g, respectively. The quality of fat intake improved compared with baseline meals (p 90%) liked both baseline and nutrimeals; however, the mean acceptability score for baseline meals was slightly higher (0.2 ± 0.07 points, p = .004). Nutritionally balanced nutri-meals may be a healthier and acceptable alternative to regular Filipino school meals. Further optimization of nutri-meals is required to meet the nutritional needs of adolescents and reduce sodium content.

  17. The association between serum C-reactive protein and macronutrients and antioxidants intake in hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooshki, A; Samadipour, E; Akbarzadeh, R

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite the high levels of inflammation in hemodialysis patients and the effects of diet on systemic inflammation, such as the development of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease, few studies have evaluated the relationship of macronutrients and antioxidants intake with serum C-reactive protein (CRP). Therefore, this study assessed the relationship between serum high sensitivity CRP (hs-CRP) with macronutrients and antioxidants intake and serum albumin. Methods: This cross-sectional study used census sampling to select 75 hemodialysis patients (35 men and 40 women) who attended the hemodialysis department of Vaseie Hospital of Sabzevar, Iran. After obtaining the written consent, all the patients were interviewed and dietary data was collected by using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire including 160 food items. Diet analysis was performed with Nutritionist IV. Before being connected to the dialysis machine, 5 cc fasting blood samples were obtained from all participants and serum hs-CRP and albumin levels were measured. All the statistical analyses were conducted with SPSS -for Windows, version 16.0. Results: The patients' mean body mass index was 20.09 ± 3.27 kg/ m2. The participants' intake of antioxidants and all macronutrients, except for carbohydrates and proteins, was less than the standard levels. Moreover, the hs-CRP had significant inverse relationships with serum albumin (P=0.0001) and vitamin E and C intakes but was not significant. Also, a significant relationship was observed between hs-CRP levels and the intake of energy (P=0.002) and protein (P=0.0001). Conclusion: Our findings indicated hs-CRP levels of hemodialysis patients to have significant inverse relationships with serum albumin and vitamin E and C intakes but was not significant. Also, a significant relationship was observed between hs-CRP levels and the intake of energy and protein.

  18. Relations between various measures of iodine intake and thyroid volume, thyroid nodularity, and serum thyroglobulin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Ovesen, L.; Bulow, I.

    2002-01-01

    sought to identify, if possible, groups at risk of thyroid disease because of their food choices. Design: This cohort study included 4649 randomly selected subjects with mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency; the subjects lived in 2 cities in Denmark. Iodine intake was estimated by using a food...... some measures of iodine intake were significantly related to the prevalence of thyroid nodules. Conclusions: Even in a geographic area where mild iodine deficiency is common, a significant relation between iodine intake and thyroid volume was found. All measures of iodine intake, except iodine......Background: Iodine intake can be measured in various ways, and each method may have advantages and disadvantages. Objective: We sought to investigate the potential associations of various measures of iodine intake with thyroid volume, prevalence of thyroid nodules, and serum thyroglobulin. We also...

  19. Effects of weaning age on growth, nutrient digestibility and metabolism, and serum parameters in Hu lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianmin Chai

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the effect of weaning age on growth performance, nutrient digestion and metabolism, and serological indicators, and to obtain an optimal weaning age in Hu lambs. Forty-eight newborn Hu lambs (birth weight, 2.53 ± 0.14 kg were randomly divided into 4 groups. The lambs in control group (ER suckled their dams. The lambs in other three experimental groups were weaned on milk replacer at 10, 20, and 30 days of age (EW10, EW20, and EW30 groups, respectively. The results were as follows: 1 lambs in EW10 and EW30 groups had a lower (P  0.05 among groups; however, the apparent digestibility and deposition of calcium in early weaned lambs were lower (P < 0.05 than those in ewe-reared lambs. 4 The albumin content in EW30 group was lower (P < 0.05 than that in ER group; the globulin content in EW30 group was higher (P < 0.05 than that in other groups; the content of serum insulin-like growth factor-Ⅰ in weaned lambs tended to increase compared with lambs in ER group. Finally, the growth rate of lambs decreased within 10 days post-weaning, but early weaning boosted creep feed intake, leading to better growth and health later in life. The Hu lambs can be weaned on milk replacer and creep feed at 10 days of age.

  20. Dietary pattern classifications with nutrient intake and health-risk factors in Korean men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji Eun; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Son, Say Jin; Ahn, Younjhin; Lee, Juyoung; Park, Chan; Lee, Lilha; Erickson, Kent L; Jung, In-Kyung

    2011-01-01

    This study was performed to identify dietary patterns in Korean men and to determine the associations among dietary patterns, nutrient intake, and health-risk factors. Using baseline data from the Korean Health and Genome Study, dietary patterns were identified using factor analysis of data from a validated food-frequency questionnaire, and associations between these dietary patterns and health-risk factors were analyzed. Three dietary patterns were identified: 1) the "animal-food" pattern (greater intake of meats, fish, and dairy products), 2) the "rice-vegetable" pattern (greater intake of rice, tofu, kimchi, soybean paste, vegetables, and seaweed), and 3) the "noodle-bread" pattern (greater intake of instant noodles, Chinese noodles, and bread). The animal-food pattern (preferred by younger people with higher income and education levels) had a positive correlation with obesity and hypercholesterolemia, whereas the rice-vegetable pattern (preferred by older people with lower income and educational levels) was positively associated with hypertension. The noodle-bread pattern (also preferred by younger people with higher income and education levels) had a positive association with abdominal obesity and hypercholesterolemia. This study identifies three unique dietary patterns in Korean men, which are independently associated with certain health-risk factors. The rice-vegetable dietary pattern, modified for a low sodium intake, might be a healthy dietary pattern for Korean men. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. [Nutrient intake of Chilean older people according to body mass index].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán, Samuel A; Ulloa, Alejandra A; Reyes, Sussanne G

    2014-12-01

    An adequate consumption of micro and macro nutrients is essential to maintain an adequate health among older people. To compare the consumption of micro- and macronutrients in older people from three Chilean cities, according to their nutritional status. Body mass index (BMI) was assessed and a food consumption tendency survey was applied to 976 non-disabled older people, living in the community. Thinness was defined as a BMI < 23 kg/m². Twenty percent of females and 17% of males had a BMI < 23 kg/m². Participants with a higher BMI had a greater intake of micro- and macronutrients. In females, micronutrient intake was adequate among those with higher BMI, although mean intake of calcium and vitamin B-12 were below recommendations. In males, iron, zinc, calcium, magnesium, vitamin A, vitamin B6, vitamin B12 and pantothenic acid intake were below recommendation. Thin older adults, regardless of sex, had a lower intake of calories and micro- and macronutrients. Additionally, an overall low consumption of zinc, calcium, magnesium and vitamin B12 was detected.

  2. Types of food and nutrient intake in India: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecchio, Maria Gabriella; Paramesh, Elizabeth Cherian; Paramesh, Haralappa; Loganes, Claudia; Ballali, Simonetta; Gafare, Claudia Elena; Verduci, Elvira; Gulati, Achal

    2014-09-01

    Nowadays India is undergoing an impressive economic growth accompanied by a very slow decline, almost stagnation, in malnutrition levels. In developing countries, studies on dietary patterns and their relationship with nutritional status are scarce. Over the years some nutritional studies have been performed to explore different types of food consumed in various Indian regions, among different social samples. The aim of the present paper is to review and describe trends in food and nutrition intake patterns in the different states of India. The review was carried out in PubMed, using the advanced research criteria: [food* OR ("meal pattern*") OR ("eating pattern*")] AND ("nutrient intake") AND India*. PubMed research gave back 84 results and out of these, 7 papers due to their focus on food intake and consumption levels in India have been included in this study. Food intake patterns showed that most of the Indians are vegetarians and that food items rich in micronutrients (pulses, other vegetables, fruits, nuts, oilseeds and animal foods) are generally consumed less frequently. Poor and monotonous cereals-based diet may promote inadequate nutrition intakes according to Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA) standards.

  3. Ethnic differences in the nutrient intake adequacy of premenopausal US women: results from the Third National Health Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arab, Lenore; Carriquiry, Alicia; Steck-Scott, Susan; Gaudet, Mia M

    2003-08-01

    To examine the adequacy of dietary intake of calcium; folate; and vitamins C, D, E, B-6, and B-12 in premenopausal US women of differing ethnicity. Analyses of single and duplicate 24-hour recalls were conducted to determine dietary intake during the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Three thousand five hundred eighty-five randomly selected women aged 20 to 50 years from across the United States who were not pregnant or lactating were examined between 1988 and 1994. Usual nutrient intake distributions were estimated using the Iowa State University method for adjustment of the distribution. The Estimated Average Requirement cut-point method was used to determine the proportion of women with inadequate intake for each nutrient in each ethnic group. More than 75% of women irrespective of ethnic group had usual intakes of calcium lower than the new Adequate Intake. More than 90% of the women had inadequate intakes of folate and vitamin E from food sources alone. More than half of smokers had inadequate intakes of vitamin C. Intakes of vitamins B-6 and B-12 were low in less than 10% of these women. This article provides evidence that a high proportion of premenopausal US women are underconsuming a variety of nutrients. Dietary intakes alone are not currently adequate to meet the new recommended intakes. Nutritional supplement use is widespread and effective, but does not eliminate the concerns for at-risk populations. Awareness of the general inadequacies in intakes of vitamin E and folic acid at large, and in many women vitamin C as well, can help direct individual dietary recommendations and place the emphasis in group counseling on nutrients that are of widespread concern. In addition, foods rich in vitamins B-6 and of general nutritional benefit should be emphasized among African American women in the United States as a substantial proportion of this group is still showing inadequate intakes from foods.

  4. Effect of feeding cassava bioethanol waste on nutrient intake, digestibility, and rumen fermentation in growing goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherdthong, Anusorn; Pornjantuek, Boonserm; Wachirapakorn, Chalong

    2016-10-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of various levels of cassava bioethanol waste (CBW) on nutrient intake, digestibility, rumen fermentation, and blood metabolites in growing goats. Twelve crossbred, male (Thai Native × Anglo Nubian) growing goats with initial body weight (BW) of 20±3 kg were randomly assigned according to a completely randomized design (CRD). The dietary treatments were total mixed ration (TMR) containing various levels of CBW at 0, 10, and 20 % dry matter (DM). CBW contained crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), and acid detergent lignin (ADL) at 11, 69, 47, and 23 % DM, respectively. The TMR diets were offered ad libitum and contained CP at 15 % DM. Inclusion of CBW at 10 % DM in TMR did not alter feed intake (g DM and g/kg BW(0.75)) and CP intake when compared to the control fed group (0 % CBW). Total OM intake was lower in the 20 % CBW group than in the others (P  0.05) whereas when 20 % CBW was incorporated to diet, intermediate digestibility coefficients were decreased. Average ruminal pH values ranged from 6-7. Rumen NH3-N and PUN concentration at 0, 3, and 6 h post-feeding were not significantly different among treatments (P > 0.05). Thus, inclusion of 10 % CBW in TMR diets does not adversely affect nutrient intake, digestibility, rumen fermentation, and blood metabolite in fattening goats, and CBW may be effectively used as an alternative roughage source in the diets of goats.

  5. Protein-energy supplementation for lambs: feed intake, ingestive behavior, rumen parameters and nutrient digestibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pâmila Carolini Gonçalves da Silva

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The study evaluated the effects of dietary protein-energy supplementation on feed intake, ingestive behavior, rumen parameters and nutrient digestibility in lambs. Four castrated lambs with 31.9 kg mean body weight and fistulated rumen were tested. distributed into latin square design (4x4, four treatments were tested over four periods of time: no supplementation (control or with supplementation at 8, 16 and 24 g kg-1 body weight. The supplement (soybean meal, soybean hulls, ground corn and minerals was provided with roughage (Tifton Bermudagrass, Cynodon spp., hay, which was offered ad libitum once a day, at 8h00. In treatments receiving 0 (control, 8, 16 and 24 g kg-1 supplementation, dry matter intake was 685.26, 742.86, 842.51 and 1013.33 g day-1, crude protein intake was 80.18, 95.98, 118.64, 150.14 g day-1 and metabolizable energy intake 1.55, 1.91, 2.31 and 2.98 g day-1, respectively. Treatments receiving the highest supplementation levels spent less time with rumination and feeding and rested for longer (P < 0.05. Protein-energy supplementation level did not affect rumen parameters. Average rumen pH was 6.3 and rumen ammonia nitrogen 165 mg dL-1; both were affected by sampling time. Supplementation levels until 24 g kg-1 BW improves feed intake and nutrient digestibility linearly and changes ingestive behavior, lowering rumination time without affecting rumen parameters.

  6. Assessment of dietary food and nutrient intake and bone density in children with eczema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, T F; Wang, S S; Kwok, F Yy; Leung, L Ws; Chow, C M; Hon, K L

    2017-10-01

    Dietary restrictions are common among patients with eczema, and such practice may lead to diminished bone mineral density. This study investigated dietary intake and bone mineral density in Hong Kong Chinese children with eczema. This cross-sectional and observational study was conducted in a university-affiliated teaching hospital in Hong Kong. Chinese children aged below 18 years with physician-diagnosed eczema were recruited from our paediatric allergy and dermatology clinics over a 6-month period in 2012. Subjects with stable asthma and/or allergic rhinitis who were free of eczema and food allergy as well as non-allergic children were recruited from attendants at our out-patient clinics as a reference group. Intake of various foods and nutrients was recorded using a food frequency questionnaire that was analysed using Foodworks Professional software. Bone mineral density at the radius and the tibia was measured by quantitative ultrasound bone sonometry, and urinary cross-linked telopeptides were quantified by immunoassay and corrected for creatinine level. Overall, 114 children with eczema and 60 other children as reference group were recruited. Eczema severity of the patients was classified according to the objective SCORing Atopic Dermatitis score. Males had a higher daily energy intake than females (median, 7570 vs 6736 kJ; P=0.035), but intake of any single food item or nutrient did not differ between them. Compared with the reference group, children with eczema had a higher intake of soybeans and miscellaneous dairy products and lower intake of eggs, beef, and shellfish. Children with eczema also consumed less vitamin D, calcium, and iron. The mean (standard deviation) bone mineral density Z-score of children with eczema and those in the reference group were 0.52 (0.90) and 0.55 (1.12) over the radius (P=0.889), and 0.02 (1.03) and -0.01 (1.13) over the tibia (P=0.886), respectively. Urine telopeptide levels were similar between the groups. Calcium intake

  7. Protein and lipid accretion in body components of growing pigs : effects of body weight and nutrient intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bikker, P.

    1994-01-01

    In pig production, optimization of the conversion of animal feeding-stuffs into body components, especially lean meat, requires knowledge of the response relationships between nutrient intake and animal performance. In this study, the separate effects of protein and energy intake on rate

  8. Association of nutrient-dense snack combinations with calories and vegetable intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wansink, Brian; Shimizu, Mitsuru; Brumberg, Adam

    2013-01-01

    With other factors such as general diet and insufficient exercise, eating non-nutrient dense snack foods such as potato chips contributes to childhood obesity. We examined whether children consumed fewer calories when offered high-nutrient dense snacks consisting of cheese and vegetables than children who were offered non-nutrient dense snacks (ie, potato chips). Two hundred one children (115 girls) entering the third to sixth grades were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 snacking conditions: (1) potato chips only, (2) cheese-only, (3) vegetables only, and (4) cheese and vegetables. Children were allowed to eat snacks freely provided while watching 45-minute TV programs. Satiety was measured before they started eating snacks, in the middle of the study, and 20 minutes after they finished eating the snacks. Parents completed a questionnaire regarding their family environment. Children consumed 72% fewer calories when eating a combined snack compared with when they were served potato chips, P snack needed significantly fewer calories to achieve satiety than those who ate potato chips, P snack conditions on caloric intake were more pronounced among overweight or obese children (P = .02) and those from low-involvement families (P = .049) The combination snack of vegetables and cheese can be an effective means for children to reduce caloric intake while snacking. The effect was more pronounced among children who were overweight or obese and children from low-involvement families.

  9. Assessing the adequacy of essential nutrient intake in obese dogs undergoing energy restriction for weight loss: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, Alexander J; Holden, Shelley L; Serisier, Samuel; Queau, Yann; Biourge, Vincent

    2015-10-07

    Canine obesity is usually treated with dietary energy restriction, but data are limited regarding nutritional adequacy. The aim of the current study was to compare intake of essential nutrients with National Research Council recommendations in obese dogs during weight management with a purpose-formulated diet. Twenty-seven dogs were included in this non-randomised retrospective observational cohort study. All were determined to be systemically well, and without significant abnormalities based upon physical examination and clinicopathological assessments. The dogs underwent a controlled weight loss protocol of at least 182 days' duration using a high protein high fibre weight loss diet. Median, maximum, and minimum daily intakes of all essential nutrients were compared against NRC 2006 recommended allowances (RA) for adult dogs. Median weight loss was 28 % (16-40 %), mean daily energy intake was 61 kcal/kg(0.75) (44-74 kcal/kg(0.75)), and no clinical signs of nutrient deficiency were observed in any dog. Based upon the average nutrient content of the diet, daily intake of the majority of essential nutrients was greater than their NRC 2006 recommended allowance (RA per kg body weight(0.75)), except for selenium, choline, methionine/cysteine, tryptophan, magnesium, and potassium. However, apart from choline (2/27 dogs) and methionine/cysteine (2/27 dogs), all essential nutrients remained above NRC minimum requirements (MR) throughout the trial. When fed the diet used in the current study, daily intakes of most essential nutrients meet both their NRC 2006 RA and MR in obese dogs during weight loss. In light of absence of clinical signs of nutrient deficiency, it is unclear what significance intakes less that NRC cut-offs for some nutrients have (especially selenium and choline), and further studies are recommended.

  10. [Effects of individualized nutritional education programs on the level of nutrient intake and nutritional status of colorectal cancer patients undergoing palliative chemotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kwi Ock; Choi-Kwon, Smi

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of an individualized nutritional education programs on nutrient intake and nutritional status of patients with colorectal cancer who are undergoing palliative chemotherapy. Forty patients with colorectal cancer (19 experimental and 21 control patients) were recruited from a chemotherapy ward at S University Hospital in Seoul, Korea. The experimental group received two individualized nutritional counseling sessions and two telephone counseling sessions over 6 weeks. The control group received nutritional counseling after completion of data collection. Nutritional education included general guidelines for food intake while receiving chemotherapy, dietary guidelines for patients with colorectal cancer, daily meal schedules to overcome cancer, and dietary guideline for each chemotherapy side effect. Data were analyzed using χ²-test and t-test with the SPSS program 17.0. Two group comparison revealed that the experimental group had significantly improved calorie (p=.038) and total protein intake (p=.001), and serum albumin percentage change (p=.040). Body weight did not increase but remained the same as the baseline in both groups. Study results indicate that this individualized nutritional education programs are effective in enhancing nutrient intake and nutritional status of patients with colorectal cancer who are undergoing palliative chemotherapy.

  11. Dietary intake of energy, nutrients and water in elderly people living at home or in nursing home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelheart, S; Akner, G

    2015-03-01

    There is a lack of detailed information on dietary intake in elderly people at an individual level, which is crucial for improvement of nutritional support. The aim of this study was to investigate the dietary intake in elderly people in two types of living situations. Observational study, analysing prospective data. The dietary intake was studied in elderly people living at home or in nursing home, in different cities of Sweden. A total of 264 elderly people (mean age 84) participated in the observational study. Dietary intake was measured using weighed food records and food diaries, comparing females and males. The observed dietary intake was related to Recommended intake and Lower intake level. All dietary intake and patient characteristic variables showed large individual differences (ranges). We found no significant differences (p>0.05) between those living at home and nursing home residents regarding the average intake of energy, protein and water when expressed as total intake per kg of body weight. A very low daily intake of energy (<20 kcal/kg body weight/day) was observed in 16% of the participants. For vitamin D and iron, 19% and 15%, respectively, had intakes below the Lower intake level. There was no correlation between intake of energy, protein or water and resident characteristics such as age, autonomy, morbidity, nutritional state or cognition. The large individual differences (ranges) in energy, nutrients and water show that the use of mean values when analysing dietary intake data from elderly people is misleading. From a clinical perspective it is more important to consider the individual intake of energy, nutrients and water. Ageism is intrinsic in the realm of 'averageology'.

  12. Dietary taurine and nutrients intake and anthropometric and body composition data by abdominal obesity in Korean male college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Min Jung; Chang, Kyung Ja

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between abdominal obesity and dietary taurine intake, nutrient intake, anthropometric data and body composition in Korean male college students. One hundred seventy four subjects were divided into 2 groups based on abdominal obesity as estimated by waist circumference (cm) (Lee et al. 2006): normal group (waist circumference (cm): obese group (waist circumference (cm): > or = 90 cm, n = 33). A three day-recall method was used to assess diet (2 weekdays and 1 weekend). Anthropometric data and body composition were measured with Inbody 3.0 (Bioelectrical Impedance Fatness Analyzer). Average dietary intake of taurine in the normal and obese groups was 123.1 +/- 78.8 mg/day and 128.4 +/- 79.6 mg/day, respectively. There was no significant difference in dietary taurine and nutrient intake between the normal and obese groups. However, data of anthropometric measurements and body composition in the obese group were significantly elevated compared to those of the normal group. In the normal group, dietary taurine intake was positively correlated with nutrient intake (p obese group, dietary taurine intake was positively correlated with the intake of energy foods and of animal lipid (p obese group. Therefore, the data suggest that further study is warranted to examine the relationship between dietary taurine intake and abdominal obesity.

  13. Assessment of intake of iron and nutrients that affect bioavailability of daily food rations of girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Broniecka

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION AND AIM In a human body iron occurs at a level of 3 to 5 g, 60-70 % of which are in hemoglobin, ca. 10% in myoglobin, and ca. 3% are accumulated in enzymes of cellular respiration or enzymes degrading toxic hydrogen peroxide. The other part of iron is accumulated in liver, spleen, kidneys and bone marrow. The dietary deficiency of iron appears at its insufficient level in a diet and at impaired absorption of iron ions present in food products by a body. Groups at an especially high risk of iron deficiencies include, among others, menstruating girls in the pubescence period and women with heavy and irregular menstruations, as well as vegetarians and patients with chronic enteritis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the intake of iron and nutrients that affect its bioavailability from daily food rations of girls. MATERIAL AND METHODS The study included 159 girls aged 17-18, students of high schools in the city of Wroclaw. The study was conducted between November 2010 and ay 2011. Girls were divided into 3 subgroups according to the BMI score. Girls’ diets were analyzed with the method of a direct interview of the last 24 hours before the test and the interview was repeated seven times. RESULTS The present study demonstrated that the intake of iron from food rations of almost all the girls surveyed was below the requirements defined for this age group. Statistically significant differences were noted in the intake of energy and nutrients among the three distinguished subgroups of girls. CONCLUSIONS Food rations of the surveyed girls were characterized by a low, compared to dietary allowances, calorific value, which resulted in deficiencies of nutrients increasing iron bioavailability.

  14. Validity and practicability of smartphone-based photographic food records for estimating energy and nutrient intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Kaimeng; Zhang, Lulu; Huang, Lisu; Tao, Yexuan

    2017-05-01

    Image-assisted dietary assessment methods are frequently used to record individual eating habits. This study tested the validity of a smartphone-based photographic food recording approach by comparing the results obtained with those of a weighed food record. We also assessed the practicality of the method by using it to measure the energy and nutrient intake of college students. The experiment was implemented in two phases, each lasting 2 weeks. In the first phase, a labelled menu and a photograph database were constructed. The energy and nutrient content of 31 randomly selected dishes in three different portion sizes were then estimated by the photograph-based method and compared with a weighed food record. In the second phase, we combined the smartphone-based photographic method with the WeChat smartphone application and applied this to 120 randomly selected participants to record their energy and nutrient intake. The Pearson correlation coefficients for energy, protein, fat, and carbohydrate content between the weighed and the photographic food record were 0.997, 0.936, 0.996, and 0.999, respectively. Bland-Altman plots showed good agreement between the two methods. The estimated protein, fat, and carbohydrate intake by participants was in accordance with values in the Chinese Residents' Nutrition and Chronic Disease report (2015). Participants expressed satisfaction with the new approach and the compliance rate was 97.5%. The smartphone-based photographic dietary assessment method combined with the WeChat instant messaging application was effective and practical for use by young people.

  15. Effects of marijuana consumption on food intake and nutrient metabolism: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Morales Basto

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Marijuana is one of the most consumed psychoactive in Colombia and worldwide. It has been observed that it has effects over central nervous system; in consequence it may affect the metabolism and nutritional status of marijuana users. This article intends to evaluate if consumption of marijuana and the activation of the cannabinoid system have the capacity to activate physiological mechanisms through which the intake and the nutrient metabolism get affected. As a result, it is found that the consumption of marijuana influences increasing the orexigenic stimulus and decreasing the anorexigenic stimulus, which influence increasing the ingestion and changing the production of important enzymes in the metabolism of fat. Likewise, it affects the appearance of alterations in the nutritional status of the consumers that involve the decrease of their body max index (BMI, which contrasts with the results related to the intake, thus highlights the importance of carry out deep studies that could explain this questioning.

  16. Nutrient utilisation and methane emissions in Sahiwal calves differing in residual feed intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vimlesh C; Mahesh, Munnurpal S; Mohini, Madhu; Datt, Chander; Nampoothiri, Vinu M

    2014-01-01

    The presented study aimed at investigating the residual feed intake (RFI) of Sahiwal calves, nutrient utilisation as affected by RFI and its relationship with methane (CH4) emissions and some blood metabolites. Eighteen male Sahiwal calves (10-18 months of age; mean body weight 133 kg) were fed ad libitum with a total mixed ration. After calculating RFI for individual calves (-0.40 to +0.34 kg DM/d), they were divided into three groups with low, medium and high RFI, respectively. Dry matter intake (DMI) was higher (p feed conversion ratio were similar among the groups. With exception of glucose, concentrations of all measured blood metabolites were higher in Group High RFI (p feed efficiency and less CH4 production were observed in Group Low RFI, it was concluded that RFI can be used as a measure of feed efficiency, which has a potential to select Sahiwal calves for lowered CH4 emissions.

  17. Systematic review of nutrient intake and growth in children with multiple IgE-mediated food allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sova, Cassandra; Feuling, Mary Beth; Baumler, Megan; Gleason, Linda; Tam, Jonathan S; Zafra, Heidi; Goday, Praveen S

    2013-12-01

    Food allergies affect up to 8% of American children. The current recommended treatment for food allergies is strict elimination of the allergens from the diet. Dietary elimination of nutrient-dense foods may result in inadequate nutrient intake and impaired growth. The purpose of this review was to critically analyze available research on the effect of an elimination diet on nutrient intake and growth in children with multiple food allergies. A systematic review of the literature was conducted and a workgroup was established to critically analyze each relevant article. The findings were summarized and a conclusion was generated. Six studies were analyzed. One study found that children with food allergies are more likely to be malnourished than children without food allergies. Three studies found that children with multiple food allergies were shorter than children with 1 food allergy. Four studies assessed nutrient intake of children with multiple food allergies, but the inclusion and comparison criteria were different in each of the studies and the findings were conflicting. One study found that children with food allergies who did not receive nutrition counseling were more likely to have inadequate intake of calcium and vitamin D. Children with multiple food allergies have a higher risk of impaired growth and may have a higher risk of inadequate nutrient intake than children without food allergies. Until more research is available, we recommend monitoring of nutrition and growth of children with multiple food allergies to prevent possible nutrient deficiencies and to optimize growth.

  18. Low nutrient intake among adult women and patients with severe tuberculosis disease in Uganda: a cross-sectional study

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    Mupere Ezekiel

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Information regarding dietary nutrient intake during tuberculosis disease is lacking. We established the relationship between disease severity or wasting during pulmonary tuberculosis and nutrient intake. Methods In a cross-sectional study of 131 adults with or without pulmonary tuberculosis were screened for human immune-deficiency virus (HIV, wasting, disease severity using 13 item validated clinical TBscore, and 24-hour dietary intake recall. Results Of the 131 participants, 61 were males and 70 females. Overall men and women had similar age. In average 24-hour nutrient intake, the following nutrients: energy, protein, total fat, carbohydrate, calcium, vitamin A, and folate were low among patients with severe tuberculosis disease. Patients with moderate-to-severe clinical TBscore had lower average energy intake than patients with mild TBscores (6.11 vs. 9.27 MJ, respectively (p Conclusions Findings suggest that severity of pulmonary tuberculosis and female gender had reduced nutrient intake. Early tuberculosis diagnosis and nutritional support may be important in management of tuberculosis patients.

  19. Inadequação do consumo de nutrientes entre adolescentes brasileiros Consumo inadecuado de nutrientes entre adolescentes brasileños Inadequate nutrient intake in Brazilian adolescents

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    Rosely Sichieri

    2013-02-01

    -2009. Se consideraron los factores de expansión, la complejidad de diseño de la muestra y la corrección de la variabilidad intra-personal de consumo. La prevalencia de consumo inadecuado de micronutrientes fue estimada por la proporción de adolescentes con ingestión por debajo de la necesidad promedio estimada. Para el sodio, se estimó la prevalencia de consumo por encima del valor de ingestión máxima tolerable. CONCLUSIÓN: Los promedios de consumo energético y la distribución de macronutrientes eran adecuados, sin embargo, se observaron elevadas prevalencias de consumo inadecuado de vitaminas y minerales, destacándose el consumo de sodio muy por encima de lo recomendado, consumo de calcio reducido y en las adolescentes de 14 a 18 años fue observada importante ingestión inadecuada de hierro.OBJECTIVE: To assess energy and nutrient consumption and the prevalence of inadequate micronutrient intake among Brazilian adolescents. METHODS: A random sample composed of 6,797 adolescents (49.7% girls, between 10 and 18 years old, was evaluated in the first National Dietary Survey, part of the Household Budget Survey carried out in 2008-2009. Expansion factors, sample complexity design and correction of intraindividual variability were considered. The prevalence of inadequate micronutrient intake was based on the proportion of adolescents with intake below the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR. The prevalence of intake above the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL was estimated for sodium. RESULTS: The mean energy intake ranged between 1,869 kcal (10 to 13 year old females and 2,198 kcal (14 to 18 year old males. Of the total energy intake, 57% came from carbohydrates, 27% from lipids and about 16% from proteins. Inadequacies were higher for calcium (> 95%, phosphorous (54% to 69% and vitamins A (66% to 85%, E (100% and C (27% to 49%. More than 70% of adolescents reported sodium intake above the UL. CONCLUSIONS: Mean energy consumption and distribution of macro-nutrients

  20. Relative validity of an FFQ to estimate daily food and nutrient intakes for Chilean adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghan, Mahshid; Martinez, Solange; Zhang, Xiaohe; Seron, Pamela; Lanas, Fernando; Islam, Shofiqul; Merchant, Anwar T

    2013-10-01

    FFQ are commonly used to rank individuals by their food and nutrient intakes in large epidemiological studies. The purpose of the present study was to develop and validate an FFQ to rank individuals participating in an ongoing Prospective Urban and Rural Epidemiological (PURE) study in Chile. An FFQ and four 24 h dietary recalls were completed over 1 year. Pearson correlation coefficients, energy-adjusted and de-attenuated correlations and weighted kappa were computed between the dietary recalls and the FFQ. The level of agreement between the two dietary assessment methods was evaluated by Bland-Altman analysis. Temuco, Chile. Overall, 166 women and men enrolled in the present study. One hundred men and women participated in FFQ development and sixty-six individuals participated in FFQ validation. The FFQ consisted of 109 food items. For nutrients, the crude correlation coefficients between the dietary recalls and FFQ varied from 0.14 (protein) to 0.44 (fat). Energy adjustment and de-attenuation improved correlation coefficients and almost all correlation coefficients exceeded 0.40. Similar correlation coefficients were observed for food groups; the highest de-attenuated energy adjusted correlation coefficient was found for margarine and butter (0.75) and the lowest for potatoes (0.12). The FFQ showed moderate to high agreement for most nutrients and food groups, and can be used to rank individuals based on energy, nutrient and food intakes. The validation study was conducted in a unique setting and indicated that the tool is valid for use by adults in Chile.

  1. Effects of dietary brown propolis on nutrient intake and digestibility in feedlot lambs

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    Jonilson Araújo da Silva

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study tested brown propolis in crude or extract form as a feed supplement for feedlot lambs to identify the type that most improves in vivo nutrient digestibility. Digestibility was assessed by both total fecal collection and internal markers and the results obtained by these techniques were compared. The completely randomized design was used to compare feed intake and nutrient digestibility of 24 male lambs aged seven months among four dietary treatments (crude brown propolis, propolis ethanol extract, monensin sodium, and control. Methods of feces collection were compared using a completely randomized split-plot design, with experimental diets corresponding to the main factor and the methods to estimate fecal production as the sub-factor. The diets had a roughage:concentrate ratio of 50:50, with Tifton-85 bermudagrass hay (Cynodon spp. as roughage, and ground corn, soybean meal and minerals as concentrate. The lambs fed diets with crude propolis had higher feed intake than those fed diets containing monensin sodium. The different diets did not affect dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, or acid detergent fiber digestibility, but crude propolis supplementation provided higher ether extract digestibility than monensin sodium. Nutrient digestibility, as indicated by indigestible neutral detergent fiber, indigestible acid detergent fiber and sequentially-determined indigestible acid detergent fiber, was lower than that found with the fecal collection method. The addition of brown propolis has the same effect as monensin, but neither maximized nutrient availability in the diet of feedlot lambs at 7 months of age. Digestibility assessment using the internal markers indigestible neutral detergent fiber, indigestible acid detergent fiber and sequentially-determined indigestible acid detergent fiber is not an efficient method compared with total feces collection.

  2. Dietary intake and adequacy of energy and nutrients in Mexican older adults: results from two National Health and Nutrition Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Góngora, Vanessa De la; Martínez-Tapia, Brenda; Cuevas-Nasu, Lucía; Flores-Aldana, Mario; Shamah-Levy, Teresa

    2017-01-01

    To describe energy and nutrient intakes and their adequacies in older Mexican adults participating in the National Health and Nutrition Survey (Ensanut) 2006 and 2012. Dietary information was obtained through a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire (SFFQ) from 526 adults 60 y and older participating in Ensanut 2012 and 3 326 in Ensanut 2006 in Mexico. Quantile and logistic regression models were used to obtain medians and marginal effects of each nutrient, adjusting by confounders and survey design. Dietary intake of energy and nutrients was similar in both surveys. Most common micronutrients at risk of dietary deficiency were, for vitamins: A, B-12, C, D and folate, and for minerals: calcium, iron and zinc, in both surveys. Excessive intake of sugar and saturated fat and low fiber intake were common. Diet in older Mexican adults is low in micronutrient essentials, and excessive in fat and sugar. Attention to the diet in this age group through targeted interventions is necessary to promote a healthy diet.

  3. Relationship between Self-Reported Dietary Nutrient Intake and Self-Reported Sleep Duration among Japanese Adults

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    Yoko Komada

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have reported that short sleep duration is a risk factor for obesity and metabolic disease. Moreover, both sleep duration and sleep timing might independently be associated with dietary nutrient intake. In this study, we investigated the associations between self-reported sleep duration and dietary nutrient intake, with and without adjustments for variations in sleep timing (i.e., the midpoint of sleep. We conducted a questionnaire survey, comprising a validated brief self-administered diet history questionnaire (BDHQ and the Japanese version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI among 1902 healthy Japanese adults and found that the dietary intakes of several nutrients correlated with sleep duration among men regardless of adjustment for the midpoint of sleep. Particularly, (1 small but significant correlations were observed between sleep duration and the percentage of energy from protein, regardless of adjustment for the midpoint of sleep; (2 energy-adjusted intakes of sodium, vitamin D, and vitamin B12 also significantly correlated with sleep duration; and (3 intakes of bread, pulses, and fish and shellfish correlated with sleep duration. In contrast, no significant correlations were observed between sleep duration and dietary intakes among women. This study revealed that after controlling for the midpoint of sleep, sleep duration correlated significantly with the dietary intake of specific nutrients and foods in a population of Japanese men.

  4. High saturated-fat and low-fibre intake: a comparative analysis of nutrient intake in individuals with and without type 2 diabetes.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Breen, C

    2014-02-01

    The aim of dietary modification, as a cornerstone of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) management, is to optimise metabolic control and overall health. This study describes food and nutrient intake in a sample of adults with T2DM, and compares this to recommendations, and to intake in age, sex, body mass index (BMI) and social-class matched adults without T2DM.

  5. Plant-Based Lunch at Work: Effects on Nutrient Intake, Environmental Impact and Tastiness—A Case Study

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    Mirjam E. van de Kamp

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the environmental impact, nutrient intake, appreciation and tastiness of three buffet-style lunches served at the workplace, consisting of (1 animal-based foods; (2 plant-based foods; and (3 both animal-based and plant-based foods. Employees of the National Institute for Public Health and the Environment in the Netherlands participated in the study. Participants scored the lunch for appreciation and tastiness (scores from 1 to 10. Greenhouse gas (GHG emissions and land use associated with foods consumed were calculated using life cycle assessments. Nutrient intake was calculated using food composition data. The results show that both the plant-based and the combination lunch received higher scores for tastiness than the animal-based lunch. GHG emissions and land use were lowest for the plant-based lunch and highest for the animal-based lunch. The combination lunch was associated with increased fiber and decreased saturated fat intake compared to the animal-based lunch, but also lead to increased energy intake. The plant-based lunch did not increase energy intake, while increasing fiber intake and decreasing sodium (salt and saturated fat intakes. These initial results show that plant-based lunches have the potential to improve nutrient intake and tastiness while reducing environmental impact. Additional research in this field is worthwhile.

  6. Food crop production, nutrient availability, and nutrient intakes in Bangladesh: exploring the agriculture-nutrition nexus with the 2010 Household Income and Expenditure Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedler, John L

    2014-12-01

    Systematic collection of national agricultural data has been neglected in many low- and middle-income countries for the past 20 years. Commonly conducted nationally representative household surveys collect substantial quantities of highly underutilized food crop production data. To demonstrate the potential usefulness of commonly available household survey databases for analyzing the agriculture-nutrition nexus. Using household data from the 2010 Bangladesh Household Income and Expenditure Survey, the role and significance of crop selection, area planted, yield, nutrient production, and the disposition of 34 food crops in affecting the adequacy of farming households' nutrient availability and nutrient intake status are explored. The adequacy of each farming household's available energy, vitamin A, calcium, iron, and zinc and households' apparent intakes and intake adequacies are estimated. Each household's total apparent nutrient intake adequacies are estimated, taking into account the amount of each crop that households consume from their own production, together with food purchased or obtained from other sources. Even though rice contains relatively small amounts of micronutrients, has relatively low nutrient density, and is a relatively poor source of nutrients compared with what other crops can produce on a given tract of land, because so much rice is produced in Bangladesh, it is the source of 90% of the total available energy, 85% of the zinc, 67% of the calcium, and 55% of the iron produced by the agricultural sector. The domination of agriculture and diet by rice is a major constraint to improving nutrition in Bangladesh. Simple examples of how minor changes in the five most common cropping patterns could improve farming households' nutritional status are provided. Household surveys' agricultural modules can provide a useful tool for better understanding national nutrient production realities and possibilities.

  7. Food and nutrient intakes of French frequent seafood consumers with regard to fish consumption recommendations: results from the CALIPSO study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirot, Véronique; Dumas, Céline; Leblanc, Jean-Charles; Margaritis, Irène

    2011-05-01

    Besides providing n-3 fatty acids with nutritional and health benefits, seafood consumption may contribute to the reduction of nutrient prevalences of inadequacy. To evaluate the contributions of seafood and other food groups to nutrient intakes of frequent seafood consumers, food consumption was evaluated through an FFQ on 991 French men and women (18-81 years) consuming seafood at least twice a week. Intakes, prevalence of inadequacies, risks of upper limit excess and food contributions to intakes were assessed for thirty-three nutrients. Mean fat contributions to total energy intakes (38·3 and 39·0 % for men and women, respectively) met French recommendations, but mean carbohydrate intakes (40·9 and 39·7 %, respectively) were insufficient. Micronutrient inadequacies were lower than in the French general population, the highest being for vitamin C (41·3 and 40·1 % for men and women, respectively), vitamin E (35·0 and 35·3 % for men and women, respectively) and Mg (37·5 and 25·5 % for men and women, respectively). Upper safety limits (USL) were exceeded mostly for Zn (6·2 %), Ca (3·7 %), retinol (2·0 %) and Cu (0·9 %). Mean contributions of seafood to vitamin D, B12, I and Se intakes ranged 40-65 %. Molluscs and crustaceans significantly contributed to vitamin B12 (13·7 %), Cu (11·4 %), Fe (11·5 %), Zn (8·4 %) and I (6·1 %) intakes, and canned fish contributed to vitamin D intake (13·4 %). Besides fish, contributions of mollusc and crustacean consumption to nutrient intakes should be considered from a public health viewpoint. Consuming seafood at least twice a week induces moderate inadequacies and risks of exceeding USL for some micronutrients, whereas macronutrient intakes remained imbalanced.

  8. Nutrient intakes, major food sources and dietary inadequacies of Inuit adults living in three remote communities in Nunavut, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, S; Hopping, B N; Roache, C; Sheehy, T

    2013-12-01

    Inuit in Nunavut, Canada, are currently undergoing a nutritional transition that may contribute to an increased prevalence of chronic disease. Information is lacking about the extent to which contemporary Inuit diets are meeting current dietary recommendations. A culturally appropriate quantitative food frequency questionnaire (QFFQ) developed and validated for Inuit in Nunavut, Canada, was used to assess food and nutrient intake in a cross-sectional sample of adults. Participants included 175 women and 36 men with mean (SD) ages of 42.4 (13.2) and 42.1 (15.0) years, respectively. The response rate for those who completed the study was 79% with 208 QFFQs included for analysis. Reported mean daily energy intakes were: men 15,171 kJ (3626 kcal); women 11,593 kJ (2771 kcal). Dietary inadequacy was expressed as the percentage of participants reporting intakes below the sex- and age-specific estimated average requirements (EARs). For nutrients without EARs, adequate intakes were used. Energy and sodium intakes exceeded the recommendations. Less than 10% of participants met recommendations for dietary fibre intake. Vitamin E intakes were below EARs for ≥97% of participants, whereas >20% reported inadequate vitamin A, folate and magnesium intakes. Among women, >50% reported inadequate calcium and vitamin D intakes. Non-nutrient-dense foods contributed 30% of energy, 73% of sugars and 22% of fat. Traditional foods contributed 56% of protein and 49% of iron. The present study demonstrates a relatively high prevalence of inadequate nutrient intakes among Inuit. The results may be used to monitor the nutrition transition among Inuit, evaluate nutritional interventions, and inform public health policy decision-making. © 2013 The Authors Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  9. The Influence of Seasonal Frugivory on Nutrient and Energy Intake in Wild Western Gorillas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masi, Shelly; Mundry, Roger; Ortmann, Sylvia; Cipolletta, Chloé; Boitani, Luigi; Robbins, Martha M

    2015-01-01

    The daily energy requirements of animals are determined by a combination of physical and physiological factors, but food availability may challenge the capacity to meet nutritional needs. Western gorillas (Gorilla gorilla) are an interesting model for investigating this topic because they are folivore-frugivores that adjust their diet and activities to seasonal variation in fruit availability. Observations of one habituated group of western gorillas in Bai-Hokou, Central African Republic (December 2004-December 2005) were used to examine seasonal variation in diet quality and nutritional intake. We tested if during the high fruit season the food consumed by western gorillas was higher in quality (higher in energy, sugar, fat but lower in fibre and antifeedants) than during the low fruit season. Food consumed during the high fruit season was higher in digestible energy, but not any other macronutrients. Second, we investigated whether the gorillas increased their daily intake of carbohydrates, metabolizable energy (KCal/g OM), or other nutrients during the high fruit season. Intake of dry matter, fibers, fat, protein and the majority of minerals and phenols decreased with increased frugivory and there was some indication of seasonal variation in intake of energy (KCal/g OM), tannins, protein/fiber ratio, and iron. Intake of non-structural carbohydrates and sugars was not influenced by fruit availability. Gorillas are probably able to extract large quantities of energy via fermentation since they rely on proteinaceous leaves during the low fruit season. Macronutrients and micronutrients, but not digestible energy, may be limited for them during times of low fruit availability because they are hind-gut fermenters. We discuss the advantages of seasonal frugivores having large dietary breath and flexibility, significant characteristics to consider in the conservation strategies of endangered species.

  10. The Influence of Seasonal Frugivory on Nutrient and Energy Intake in Wild Western Gorillas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelly Masi

    Full Text Available The daily energy requirements of animals are determined by a combination of physical and physiological factors, but food availability may challenge the capacity to meet nutritional needs. Western gorillas (Gorilla gorilla are an interesting model for investigating this topic because they are folivore-frugivores that adjust their diet and activities to seasonal variation in fruit availability. Observations of one habituated group of western gorillas in Bai-Hokou, Central African Republic (December 2004-December 2005 were used to examine seasonal variation in diet quality and nutritional intake. We tested if during the high fruit season the food consumed by western gorillas was higher in quality (higher in energy, sugar, fat but lower in fibre and antifeedants than during the low fruit season. Food consumed during the high fruit season was higher in digestible energy, but not any other macronutrients. Second, we investigated whether the gorillas increased their daily intake of carbohydrates, metabolizable energy (KCal/g OM, or other nutrients during the high fruit season. Intake of dry matter, fibers, fat, protein and the majority of minerals and phenols decreased with increased frugivory and there was some indication of seasonal variation in intake of energy (KCal/g OM, tannins, protein/fiber ratio, and iron. Intake of non-structural carbohydrates and sugars was not influenced by fruit availability. Gorillas are probably able to extract large quantities of energy via fermentation since they rely on proteinaceous leaves during the low fruit season. Macronutrients and micronutrients, but not digestible energy, may be limited for them during times of low fruit availability because they are hind-gut fermenters. We discuss the advantages of seasonal frugivores having large dietary breath and flexibility, significant characteristics to consider in the conservation strategies of endangered species.

  11. Nutrient Intake and Depression Symptoms in Spanish Children: The ANIVA Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-López, Nuria; Morales-Suárez-Varela, María; Pico, Yolanda; Livianos-Aldana, Lorenzo; Llopis-González, Agustín

    2016-03-22

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between nutritional intake and depressive symptoms in Valencian schoolchildren. The ANIVA (Antropometria y Nutricion Infantil de Valencia) study is a descriptive cross-sectional study. During academic year 2013-2014, 710 schoolchildren aged 6-9 years were selected from eleven primary schools in Valencia (Spain). Children's dietary intake was measured on three-day food records, completed by parents/guardians; children completed the 20-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale for Children (CES-DC) Questionnaire to measure depressive symptoms. Weight, height, and body mass index (BMI), and z-scores were evaluated in all subjects. Nutrient adequacy was assessed using Spanish dietary recommended intakes (DRIs); 20.70% of the sample presented depressive symptoms. We identified a positive association between children with depressive symptoms and non-depressive symptoms for thiamin, vitamin K, and bromine (p < 0.05), and a negative association for protein, carbohydrates, pantothenic acid, biotin, vitamin B12 and E, zinc, manganese, cobalt, and aluminum (p < 0.05). Statistically significant differences were found between both groups according to the DRIs for intakes of total energy (p = 0.026), fiber (p < 0.001), vitamin C (p < 0.001), vitamin E (p = 0.004), magnesium (p = 0.018), and iron (p = 0.013). Our results demonstrated that carbohydrates were the most closely associated factor with depressive symptoms, and highlight the potential significant public health implications of inadequate nutritional intake on schoolchildren's mental health.

  12. Nutrient Intake and Depression Symptoms in Spanish Children: The ANIVA Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuria Rubio-López

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between nutritional intake and depressive symptoms in Valencian schoolchildren. The ANIVA (Antropometria y Nutricion Infantil de Valencia study is a descriptive cross-sectional study. During academic year 2013–2014, 710 schoolchildren aged 6–9 years were selected from eleven primary schools in Valencia (Spain. Children’s dietary intake was measured on three-day food records, completed by parents/guardians; children completed the 20-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale for Children (CES-DC Questionnaire to measure depressive symptoms. Weight, height, and body mass index (BMI, and z-scores were evaluated in all subjects. Nutrient adequacy was assessed using Spanish dietary recommended intakes (DRIs; 20.70% of the sample presented depressive symptoms. We identified a positive association between children with depressive symptoms and non-depressive symptoms for thiamin, vitamin K, and bromine (p < 0.05, and a negative association for protein, carbohydrates, pantothenic acid, biotin, vitamin B12 and E, zinc, manganese, cobalt, and aluminum (p < 0.05. Statistically significant differences were found between both groups according to the DRIs for intakes of total energy (p = 0.026, fiber (p < 0.001, vitamin C (p < 0.001, vitamin E (p = 0.004, magnesium (p = 0.018, and iron (p = 0.013. Our results demonstrated that carbohydrates were the most closely associated factor with depressive symptoms, and highlight the potential significant public health implications of inadequate nutritional intake on schoolchildren’s mental health.

  13. To what extent do food purchases reflect shoppers' diet quality and nutrient intake?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelhans, Bradley M; French, Simone A; Tangney, Christy C; Powell, Lisa M; Wang, Yamin

    2017-04-11

    Food purchasing is considered a key mediator between the food environment and eating behavior, and food purchasing patterns are increasingly measured in epidemiologic and intervention studies. However, the extent to which food purchases actually reflect individuals' dietary intake has not been rigorously tested. This study examined cross-sectional agreement between estimates of diet quality and nutrient densities derived from objectively documented household food purchases and those derived from interviewer-administered 24-h diet recalls. A secondary aim was to identify moderator variables associated with attenuated agreement between purchases and dietary intake. Primary household food shoppers (N = 196) collected and annotated receipts for all household food and beverage purchases (16,356 total) over 14 days. Research staff visited participants' homes four times to photograph the packaging and nutrition labels of each purchased item. Three or four multiple-pass 24-h diet recalls were performed within the same 14-d period. Nutrient densities and Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI-2010) scores were calculated from both food purchase and diet recall data. HEI-2010 scores derived from food purchases (median = 60.9, interquartile range 49.1-71.7) showed moderate agreement (ρc = .57, p social desirability, household income, household size, and body mass. Concordance for individual nutrient densities from food purchases and 24-h diet recalls varied widely from ρc = .10 to .61, with the strongest associations observed for fiber (ρc = .61), whole fruit (ρc = .48), and vegetables (ρc = .39). Objectively documented household food purchases yield an unbiased and reasonably accurate estimate of overall diet quality as measured through 24-h diet recalls, but are generally less useful for characterizing dietary intake of specific nutrients. Thus, some degree of caution is warranted when interpreting food purchase data as a reflection of diet in

  14. Relationship between anthropometric variables and nutrient intake in apparently healthy male elderly individuals: A study from Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawelec Graham

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The elderly population is increasing worldwide, which warrants their nutritional status assessment more important. The present study was undertaken to establish the nutritional status of the least-studied elderly population in Pakistan. Methods This was a cross-sectional study with a sample of 526 generally healthy free-living elderly men (mean age: 68.9 yr; range: 50-98 yr from Peshawar, Pakistan. Anthropometric measurements (weight, height, WC were measured and BMI and WHR were calculated from these measurements following WHO standard procedures. Dietary intake was assessed by 24-hr dietary recall. Nutrients were calculated from the information on food intake. Nutrients in terms of % of RNI were calculated using WHO data on recommended intakes. Results Based on BMI, the numbers of obese, overweight and underweight elderly were 13.1, 3.1 and 10.8%, respectively. Age was negatively and significantly correlated with BMI (p = 0.0028. Energy (p = 0.0564 and protein intake (p = 0.0776 tended to decrease with age. There was a significant increase in % BF with age (p = p p Conclusions Malnutrition is common in apparently healthy elderly Pakistani men. Very few elderly have adequate nutrient intake. Obese and overweight had higher % BF as compared to normal weight elderly. Older age is associated with changes not only in anthropometrics and body composition but also in intake of key nutrients like energy and protein.

  15. Ready-to-Eat Cereal Consumption Patterns: The Relationship to Nutrient Intake, Whole Grain Intake, and Body Mass Index in an Older American Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann M. Albertson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the relationship between ready-to-eat (RTE breakfast cereal consumption patterns and body mass index (BMI, nutrient intake, and whole grain intake in an older American population. Design. A cross-sectional survey of US households, collected by the NPD Group via the National Eating Trends (NET survey. Main outcome measures include BMI, nutrient intake, and whole grain intake. Subjects/Setting. The sample included 1759 participants age 55 and older, which was divided into approximate quartiles based on intake of RTE breakfast cereal for the 2-week period (0 servings, 1–3 servings, 4–7 servings, and ≥8 servings. Results. In the multivariate linear regression analysis adjusted for energy and age; intake of dietary fiber, whole grains, and the majority of micronutrients examined were found to be positively associated with frequent RTE cereal consumption. The proportion of participants consuming less than the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR was lower for the highest quartile of RTE cereal consumers compared to nonconsumers, for the majority of vitamins and minerals examined. Significant differences in BMI between RTE breakfast cereal intake groups were found for men. Conclusion. Results suggest that ready-to-eat breakfast cereals may contribute to the nutritional quality of the diets of older Americans. Prospective studies and experimental trials are needed to better evaluate the role of RTE cereal consumption in energy balance.

  16. The Effects of Different Energy and Protein Ratio to Sheep’s Nutrient Intake and Digestibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Mawati

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} The objective of this research was to study the effects of different energy and protein ratio towards sheep’s nutrient intake and digestibility. Twenty four male sheep’s, 6 – 7 months old with initial average live weight 13+1.56 kg, coefficient variant11.78% were used in this research. The complete feed ration which consisted of King Grass (Pennisetum purpureum, soybean powder, rice bran, dried cassava and molasses was used in this research. Protein content on each component was 10, 12 and 14% and total digestible nutrients (TDN 60 and 65%, respectively. Dry matter (DM and organic matter (OM intake, DM and OM digestibility were studied in this research. Analysis of variance (ANOVA was employed to analyze the data. Test of Small Difference (P<0.05 was then carried out if significant different occurred. The research results showed that Dry matter and OM ration intake showed significant different among treatments (P<0.05. The highest DM intake was obtained at crude protein (CP 14% and TDN 65% i.e. 695.54 g while the lowest value was CP 14% and TDN 65% i.e. 462.11 g. Thus different DM and OM intake were caused by different ration ingredients composition. Dry matter and OM ration digestibility were not show

  17. Nutrient Intake Is Associated with Longevity Characterization by Metabolites and Element Profiles of Healthy Centenarians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da Cai

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The relationships between diet and metabolites as well as element profiles in healthy centenarians are important but remain inconclusive. Therefore, to test the interesting hypothesis that there would be distinctive features of metabolites and element profiles in healthy centenarians, and that these would be associated with nutrient intake; the short chain fatty acids (SCFAs, total bile acids and ammonia in feces, phenol, p-cresol, uric acid, urea, creatinine and ammonia in urine, and element profiles in fingernails were determined in 90 healthy elderly people, including centenarians from Bama county (China—a famous longevous region—and elderly people aged 80–99 from the longevous region and a non-longevous region. The partial least squares-discriminant analysis was used for pattern recognition. As a result, the centenarians showed a distinct metabolic pattern. Seven characteristic components closely related to the centenarians were identified, including acetic acid, total SCFA, Mn, Co, propionic acid, butyric acid and valeric acid. Their concentrations were significantly higher in the centenarians group (p < 0.05. Additionally, the dietary fiber intake was positively associated with butyric acid contents in feces (r = 0.896, p < 0.01, and negatively associated with phenol in urine (r = −0.326, p < 0.01. The results suggest that the specific metabolic pattern of centenarians may have an important and positive influence on the formation of the longevity phenomenon. Elevated dietary fiber intake should be a path toward health and longevity.

  18. What do prisoners eat? Nutrient intakes and food practices in a high-secure prison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannan-Jones, Mary; Capra, Sandra

    2016-04-01

    There are limited studies on the adequacy of prisoner diet and food practices, yet understanding these are important to inform food provision and assure duty of care for this group. The aim of this study was to assess the dietary intakes of prisoners to inform food and nutrition policy in this setting. This research used a cross-sectional design with convenience sampling in a 945-bed male high-secure prison. Multiple methods were used to assess food available at the group level, including verification of food portion, quality and practices. A pictorial tool supported the diet history method. Of 276 eligible prisoners, 120 dietary interviews were conducted and verified against prison records, with 106 deemed plausible. The results showed the planned food to be nutritionally adequate, with the exception of vitamin D for older males and long-chain fatty acids, with Na above upper limits. The Australian dietary targets for chronic disease risk were not achieved. High energy intakes were reported with median 13·8 (se 0·3) MJ. Probability estimates of inadequate intake varied with age groups: Mg 8 % (>30 years), 2·9 % (70 years), 1·5 % (food provision in the prison environment and also poses questions for population-level dietary guidance in delivering appropriate nutrients within energy limits.

  19. How may a shift towards a more sustainable food consumption pattern affect nutrient intakes of Dutch children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temme, Elisabeth H M; Bakker, Helena M E; Seves, S Marije; Verkaik-Kloosterman, Janneke; Dekkers, Arnold L; van Raaij, Joop M A; Ocké, Marga C

    2015-09-01

    Food has a considerable environmental impact. Diets with less meat and dairy reduce environmental impact but may pose nutritional challenges for children. The current modelling study investigates the impact of diets with less or no meat and dairy products on nutrient intakes. Energy and nutrient intakes were assessed for observed consumption patterns (reference) and two replacement scenarios with data from the Dutch National Food Consumption Survey - Young Children (2005-2006). In the replacement scenarios, 30 % or 100 % of the consumed dairy and meat (in grams) was replaced by plant-derived foods with similar use. The Netherlands. Children (n 1279) aged 2-6 years. Partial and full replacement of meat and dairy foods by plant-derived foods reduced SFA intake by 9 % and 26 %, respectively, while fibre intake was 8 % and 29 % higher. With partial replacement, micronutrient intakes were similar, except for lower vitamin B12 intake. After full meat and dairy replacement, mean intakes of Ca, Zn and thiamin decreased by 5-13 %, and vitamin B12 intake by 49 %, while total intake of Fe was higher but of lower bioavailability. With full replacement, the proportion of girls aged 4-6 years with intakes below recommendations was 15 % for thiamin, 10 % for vitamin B12 and 6 % for Zn. Partial replacement of meat and dairy by plant-derived foods is beneficial for children's health by lowering SFA intake, increasing fibre content and maintaining similar micronutrient intakes. When full replacements are made, attention is recommended to ensure adequate thiamin, vitamin B12 and Zn intakes.

  20. Plain Water and Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption in Relation to Energy and Nutrient Intake at Full-Service Restaurants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruopeng An

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Drinking plain water, such as tap or bottled water, provides hydration and satiety without adding calories. We examined plain water and sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB consumption in relation to energy and nutrient intake at full-service restaurants. Methods: Data came from the 2005–2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, comprising a nationally-representative sample of 2900 adults who reported full-service restaurant consumption in 24-h dietary recalls. Linear regressions were performed to examine the differences in daily energy and nutrient intake at full-service restaurants by plain water and SSB consumption status, adjusting for individual characteristics and sampling design. Results: Over 18% of U.S. adults had full-service restaurant consumption on any given day. Among full-service restaurant consumers, 16.7% consumed SSBs, 2.6% consumed plain water but no SSBs, and the remaining 80.7% consumed neither beverage at the restaurant. Compared to onsite SSB consumption, plain water but no SSB consumption was associated with reduced daily total energy intake at full-service restaurants by 443.4 kcal, added sugar intake by 58.2 g, saturated fat intake by 4.4 g, and sodium intake by 616.8 mg, respectively. Conclusion: Replacing SSBs with plain water consumption could be an effective strategy to balance energy/nutrient intake and prevent overconsumption at full-service restaurant setting.

  1. Plain Water and Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption in Relation to Energy and Nutrient Intake at Full-Service Restaurants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Ruopeng

    2016-05-04

    Drinking plain water, such as tap or bottled water, provides hydration and satiety without adding calories. We examined plain water and sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption in relation to energy and nutrient intake at full-service restaurants. Data came from the 2005-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, comprising a nationally-representative sample of 2900 adults who reported full-service restaurant consumption in 24-h dietary recalls. Linear regressions were performed to examine the differences in daily energy and nutrient intake at full-service restaurants by plain water and SSB consumption status, adjusting for individual characteristics and sampling design. Over 18% of U.S. adults had full-service restaurant consumption on any given day. Among full-service restaurant consumers, 16.7% consumed SSBs, 2.6% consumed plain water but no SSBs, and the remaining 80.7% consumed neither beverage at the restaurant. Compared to onsite SSB consumption, plain water but no SSB consumption was associated with reduced daily total energy intake at full-service restaurants by 443.4 kcal, added sugar intake by 58.2 g, saturated fat intake by 4.4 g, and sodium intake by 616.8 mg, respectively. Replacing SSBs with plain water consumption could be an effective strategy to balance energy/nutrient intake and prevent overconsumption at full-service restaurant setting.

  2. Effects of dietary yeastβ-glucan on nutrient digestibility and serum proifles in pre-ruminant Holstein calves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Tao; TU Yan; ZHANG Nai-feng; GUO Jiang-peng; DENG Kai-dong; ZHOU Yi; YUN Qiang; DIAO Qi-yu

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation of yeastβ-glucan on the nutrient digestibility and serum proifles in pre-ruminant Holstein calves. Forty-two neonatal Holstein calves ((39.6±4.2) kg) were randomly al otted to six groups, and each was offered one of the fol owing diets:a basal diet (control) or the basal diet supplemented with 25, 50, 75, 100 or 200 mg of yeastβ-glucan kg–1 feed (dry matter basis). The basal diet consisted of a milk replacer and a starter feed. The trial lasted for 56 d. Two digestibility trials were conducted from d 14 to 20 and from d 42 to 48. Blood samples were col ected on d 0, 14, 28 and 42 for serum proifle analyses. On d 56, three calves from each group were slaughtered, and intestinal samples were col ected to assess the vil ous height, crypt depth and mucosal thickness. Although feed intake was not affected by dietary treatment (P>0.05), the average daily gain (ADG) and gain-to-feed ratios were higher (P0.05). Compared with the control group, supplementation of yeastβ-glucan decreased (P0.05). The supplementation of yeastβ-glucan stimu-lated the enzymatic activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) (P<0.05) compared with the control group. The lysozyme (LYZ) concentration increased quadratical y (P<0.05) with increasing yeastβ-glucan levels. The results suggested that dietary supplementation of yeastβ-glucan at 75 mg kg–1 feed improved nutrient digestibility, enhanced immunity by increasing the immunoglobulin concentration and stimulating ALP, and exerted no adverse effects on metabolism in pre-ruminant calves.

  3. Children's Executive Function and High-Calorie, Low-Nutrient Food Intake: Mediating Effects of Child-Perceived Adult Fast Food Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Eleanor B.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Chou, Chih-Ping; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Pentz, Mary Ann; Riggs, Nathaniel R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study tested the relationships among child executive function (EF), child-perceived parent fast food intake, and child self-reported subsequent consumption of high-calorie, low-nutrient (HCLN) food. Design: One year and 6-month longitudinal observation from a larger randomized controlled trial. Setting. Southern California…

  4. Fruit and Vegetable Intake Patterns and Their Associations with Sociodemographic Characteristics, Anthropometric Status and Nutrient Intake Profiles among Malaysian Children Aged 1–6 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kar Hau Chong

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess fruit and vegetable intake patterns and their associations with sociodemographic characteristics, anthropometric status and nutrient intake profiles among Malaysian children aged 1–6 years. Using the Malaysian dataset of South East Asian Nutrition Surveys (SEANUTS Malaysia, a total of 1307 children aged 1–6 years with complete datasets were included in this analysis. Dietary intake was assessed using age-specific, validated food frequency questionnaires. On average, Malaysian children consumed 0.91 and 1.07 servings of fruits and vegetables per day, respectively. Less than one-fifth of the children achieved the daily recommended servings of fruits (11.7% and vegetables (15.8%. Fruit intake was associated with age, parental educational level and geographical region, and vegetable intake was associated with ethnicity and geographical region. There was little evidence of an association between fruit and vegetable intake and children’s anthropometric status, but an adequate intake of fruits and vegetables contributed significantly and differently to children’s micronutrient intake. Future nutrition interventions should focus on addressing the sociodemographic determinants and be tailored to the needs of the low consumers to more effectively promote and encourage the adequate intake of fruit and vegetables among young children.

  5. Fruit and Vegetable Intake Patterns and Their Associations with Sociodemographic Characteristics, Anthropometric Status and Nutrient Intake Profiles among Malaysian Children Aged 1–6 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shoo Thien; Ng, Swee Ai; Khouw, Ilse; Poh, Bee Koon

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to assess fruit and vegetable intake patterns and their associations with sociodemographic characteristics, anthropometric status and nutrient intake profiles among Malaysian children aged 1–6 years. Using the Malaysian dataset of South East Asian Nutrition Surveys (SEANUTS Malaysia), a total of 1307 children aged 1–6 years with complete datasets were included in this analysis. Dietary intake was assessed using age-specific, validated food frequency questionnaires. On average, Malaysian children consumed 0.91 and 1.07 servings of fruits and vegetables per day, respectively. Less than one-fifth of the children achieved the daily recommended servings of fruits (11.7%) and vegetables (15.8%). Fruit intake was associated with age, parental educational level and geographical region, and vegetable intake was associated with ethnicity and geographical region. There was little evidence of an association between fruit and vegetable intake and children’s anthropometric status, but an adequate intake of fruits and vegetables contributed significantly and differently to children’s micronutrient intake. Future nutrition interventions should focus on addressing the sociodemographic determinants and be tailored to the needs of the low consumers to more effectively promote and encourage the adequate intake of fruit and vegetables among young children. PMID:28758956

  6. Fruit and Vegetable Intake Patterns and Their Associations with Sociodemographic Characteristics, Anthropometric Status and Nutrient Intake Profiles among Malaysian Children Aged 1-6 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Kar Hau; Lee, Shoo Thien; Ng, Swee Ai; Khouw, Ilse; Poh, Bee Koon

    2017-07-31

    This study aimed to assess fruit and vegetable intake patterns and their associations with sociodemographic characteristics, anthropometric status and nutrient intake profiles among Malaysian children aged 1-6 years. Using the Malaysian dataset of South East Asian Nutrition Surveys (SEANUTS Malaysia), a total of 1307 children aged 1-6 years with complete datasets were included in this analysis. Dietary intake was assessed using age-specific, validated food frequency questionnaires. On average, Malaysian children consumed 0.91 and 1.07 servings of fruits and vegetables per day, respectively. Less than one-fifth of the children achieved the daily recommended servings of fruits (11.7%) and vegetables (15.8%). Fruit intake was associated with age, parental educational level and geographical region, and vegetable intake was associated with ethnicity and geographical region. There was little evidence of an association between fruit and vegetable intake and children's anthropometric status, but an adequate intake of fruits and vegetables contributed significantly and differently to children's micronutrient intake. Future nutrition interventions should focus on addressing the sociodemographic determinants and be tailored to the needs of the low consumers to more effectively promote and encourage the adequate intake of fruit and vegetables among young children.

  7. A cross-sectional study on nutrient intake and -status in inflammatory bowel disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidarsdottir, Jona B; Johannsdottir, Sigridur E; Thorsdottir, Inga; Bjornsson, Einar; Ramel, Alfons

    2016-06-08

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) can be associated with nutritional problems. The aim of this study was to investigate diet and nutritional status of IBD patients. A total of 78 participants (35 men and 43 women aged 18-74 years) were included in this cross-sectional study. The majority (80 %) of the participant received infliximab treatment. Participants filled out disease related questionnaires and 31 participants also a 3-day food record. Body composition was measured and blood samples analysed in order to estimate nutritional status. The majority (87 %) claimed that diet affects digestive tract symptoms and 72 % had changed diet accordingly. The most common foods restricted were dairy products (60 %), processed meat (55 %), soft drinks (46 %), alcohol (45 %) and fast food (44 %). Body mass index was mostly in the overweight range but 46 % of the participants had been diagnosed with some nutritional deficiency since IBD diagnosis (most common was iron deficiency: 39 %). Patients who restricted meat products had lower ferritin values (48 ± 39 vs. 95 ± 74 μg/L, P = 0.011). Intake of vitamin D and calcium were not adequate (65 % below recommeded intake for both) and 60 % had poor vitamin D status. IBD patients often change their dietary intake in order to affect digestive tract symptoms. Many patients have a history of nutrient deficiency. Restriction of dairy and meat consumption is common and is negatively associated with intake or status of micronutrients like calcium and iron. Dietary advice by a dietitian and use of potentially helpful dietary supplements is indicated.

  8. Food and Nutrient Intake among 12-Month-Old Norwegian-Somali and Norwegian-Iraqi Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grewal, Navnit Kaur; Andersen, Lene Frost; Kolve, Cathrine Solheim; Kverndalen, Ingrid; Torheim, Liv Elin

    2016-09-28

    The aim of the present paper was to describe food and nutrient intake among 12-month-old Norwegian-Somali and Norwegian-Iraqi infants, with a focus on iron and vitamin D intake. A cross-sectional survey was conducted from August 2013 through September 2014. Eighty-nine mothers/infants of Somali origin and 77 mothers/infants of Iraqi origin residing in Eastern Norway participated in the study. Data were collected using two 24-h multiple-pass recalls. Forty percent of the Norwegian-Somali infants and 47% of the Norwegian-Iraqi infants were breastfed at 12 months of age ( p = 0.414). Median energy percentages (E%) from protein, fat and carbohydrates were within the recommended intake ranges, except the level of saturated fats (12-13 E%). Median intakes of almost all micronutrients were above the recommended daily intakes. Most of the infants consumed iron-enriched products (81%) and received vitamin D supplements (84%). The median intakes of iron and vitamin D were significantly higher among infants receiving iron-enriched products and vitamin D supplements compared to infants not receiving such products ( p food and nutrient intake of this group of infants in general seems to be in accordance with Norwegian dietary recommendations. Foods rich in iron and vitamin D supplements were important sources of the infants' intake of iron and vitamin D and should continue to be promoted.

  9. Potential effects of nutrient profiles on nutrient intakes in the Netherlands, Greece, Spain, USA, Israel, China and South-Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roodenburg, Annet J C; Schlatmann, Anke; Dötsch-Klerk, Mariska; Daamen, Robert; Dong, Jie; Guarro, Marta; Stergiou, Margarita; Sayed, Nazeeia; Ronoh, Eunice; Jansen, Léon; Seidell, Jacob C

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Nutrient profiling is defined as the science of categorising foods based on their nutrient composition. The Choices Programme is a nutrient profile system with criteria that determine whether foods are eligible to carry a "healthier option" stamp. The Daily Menu Method which has been

  10. Self-administered structured food record for measuring individual energy and nutrient intake in large cohorts: Design and validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Silvia M; González, Claudio; Rucci, Enzo; Ambrosino, Cintia; Vidal, Julia; Fantuzzi, Gabriel; Prestes, Mariana; Kronsbein, Peter

    2018-06-05

    Several instruments developed to assess dietary intake of groups or populations have strengths and weaknesses that affect their specific application. No self-administered, closed-ended dietary survey was previously used in Argentina to assess current food and nutrient intake on a daily basis. To design and validate a self-administered, structured food record (NutriQuid, NQ) representative of the adult Argentine population's food consumption pattern to measure individual energy and nutrient intake. Records were loaded onto a database using software that checks a regional nutrition information system (SARA program), automatically quantifying energy and nutrient intake. NQ validation included two phases: (1) NQ construct validity comparing records kept simultaneously by healthy volunteers (45-75 years) and a nutritionist who provided meals (reference), and (2) verification of whether NQ reflected target population consumption (calories and nutrients), week consumption differences, respondent acceptability, and ease of data entry/analysis. Data analysis included descriptive statistics, repeated measures ANOVA, intraclass correlation coefficient, nonparametric regression, and cross-classification into quintiles. The first validation (study group vs. reference) showed an underestimation (10%) of carbohydrate, fat, and energy intake. Second validation: 109 volunteers (91% response) completed the NQ for seven consecutive days. Record completion took about 9min/day, and data entry 3-6min. Mean calorie intake was 2240±119kcal/day (42% carbohydrates, 17% protein, and 41% fat). Intake significantly increased in the weekend. NQ is a simple and efficient tool to assess dietary intake in large samples. Copyright © 2018 SEEN y SED. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Validation of a Dietary History Questionnaire against a 7-D Weighed Record for Estimating Nutrient Intake among Rural Elderly Malays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahar, S; Earland, J; Abdulrahman, S

    2000-03-01

    Energy and nutrient intake estimated using a pre-coded dietary history questionnaire (DHQ) was compared with results obtained from a 7-d weighed intake record (WI) in a group of 37 elderly Malays residing in rural areas of Mersing District, Johor, Malaysia to determine the validity of the DHQ. The DHQ consists of a pre-coded dietary history with a qualitative food frequency questionnaire which was developed to obtain information on food intake and usual dietary habits. The 7-d WI requires subjects to weigh each food immediately before eating and to weigh any leftovers. The medians of intake from the two methods were rather similar and varied by less than 30% for every nutrient, except for vitamin C (114%). For most of the nutrients, analysis of group means using the Wilcoxon matched pairs signed rank sum test showed no significant difference between the estimation of intake from the DHQ and from the WI, with the exceptions of vitamin C and niacin. The DHQ significantly overestimated the intake of vitamin C compared to the WI (ppopulation with a high prevalence of illiteracy, a specially designed DHQ can provide very similar estimations to that obtained from 7-d WI.

  12. Children's executive function and high-calorie, low-nutrient food intake: mediating effects of child-perceived adult fast food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Eleanor B; Unger, Jennifer B; Chou, Chih-Ping; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Pentz, Mary Ann; Riggs, Nathaniel R

    2015-04-01

    This study tested the relationships among child executive function (EF), child-perceived parent fast food intake, and child self-reported subsequent consumption of high-calorie, low-nutrient (HCLN) food. One year and 6-month longitudinal observation from a larger randomized controlled trial. Southern California elementary schools. Fourth- and fifth-grade children (N = 1,005) participating in the Pathways to Health obesity prevention program. Child EF problems were associated with higher concurrent HCLN intake (B = 0.29, SE = 0.10, p fast food intake (indirect effect = 0.17, 95% confidence interval [CI] = [0.11, 0.25], p problems did not significantly predict higher HCLN intake a year and a half later (B = 0.01, SE = 0.10, p = .92, n = 848) but did have a significant indirect effect through higher perceived parent fast food intake (indirect effect = 0.05, 95% CI = [0.02, 0.10], p fast food intake, contributing to their own unhealthy food intake. However, EF problems may not directly affect HCLN intake across time, except when problems are associated with child perception of more frequent parent consumption of convenience foods. Future research is needed to investigate the possibility that helping children perceive and understand role models' convenience food consumption may improve child dietary consumption patterns. © 2014 Society for Public Health Education.

  13. Nutrient and food intakes in early life and risk of childhood fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Händel, Mina N; Heitmann, Berit L; Abrahamsen, Bo

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The identification of detrimental dietary patterns early in life may contribute to reducing the high incidence of fracture among healthy children. However, information based on a systematic review of the effect of various dietary foods and nutrients on fracture risk is lacking......, Web of Science, and Scopus databases and by hand searching references by first author based on predefined inclusion criteria. A meta-analysis was carried out for case-control studies that examined differences in mean calcium intake in the case compared with the control group. Random-effects analysis...... of a systematic review of studies that were judged to be of high or medium quality, there is an indication that some nutritional factors seem to be associated with an increased fracture risk among children. The results may be inflated by selection bias, bias in diet reporting, or residual confounding. More high...

  14. Impacts of daily intakes on the isomeric profiles of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in human serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Guoqiang; Wang, Zhi; Zhou, Lianqiu; Du, Pin; Luo, Xiaoxiao; Wu, Qiannian; Zhu, Lingyan

    2016-01-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have been well studied in human daily intake for assessment of potential health risks. However, little is known about the isomeric compositions of PFASs in daily intake and their impacts on isomeric profiles in humans. In this study, we investigated the occurrence of PFASs with isomeric analysis in various human exposure matrices including foodstuffs, tap water and indoor dust. Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and/or perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) were predominant in these exposure matrices collected in Tianjin, China. In fish and meat, linear (n-) PFOA was enriched with a percentage of 92.2% and 99.6%, respectively. Although n-PFOS was higher in fish (84.8%) than in technical PFOS (ca. 70%), it was much lower in meat (63.1%) and vegetables (58.5%). Dietary intake contributed >99% of the estimated daily intake (EDI) for the general population. The isomeric profiles of PFOA and PFOS in human serum were predicted based on the EDI and a one-compartment, first-order pharmacokinetic model. The isomeric percentage of n-PFOA in the EDI (98.6%) was similar to that in human serum (predicted: 98.2%, previously measured: 99.7%) of Tianjin residents. The results suggest direct PFOA intake plays an important role in its isomeric compositions in humans. For PFOS, the predicted n-PFOS (69.3%) was much higher than the previously measured values (59.2%) in human serum. This implies that other factors, such as indirect exposure to PFOS precursors and multiple excretion pathways, may contribute to the lower percentage of n-PFOS in humans than of technical PFOS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Traditional food consumption is associated with higher nutrient intakes in Inuit children attending childcare centres in Nunavik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doris Gagné

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To describe traditional food (TF consumption and to evaluate its impact on nutrient intakes of preschool Inuit children from Nunavik. Design. A cross-sectional study. Methods. Dietary intakes of children were assessed with a single 24-hour recall (n=217. TF consumption at home and at the childcare centres was compared. Differences in children's nutrient intakes when consuming or not consuming at least 1 TF item were examined using ANCOVA. Results. A total of 245 children attending childcare centres in 10 communities of Nunavik were recruited between 2006 and 2010. The children's mean age was 25.0±9.6 months (11–54 months. Thirty-six percent of children had consumed at least 1 TF item on the day of the recall. TF contributed to 2.6% of total energy intake. Caribou and Arctic char were the most reported TF species. Land animals and fish/shellfish were the main contributors to energy intake from TF (38 and 33%, respectively. In spite of a low TF intake, children who consumed TF had significantly (p<0.05 higher intakes of protein, omega-3 fatty acids, iron, phosphorus, zinc, copper, selenium, niacin, pantothenic acid, riboflavin, and vitamin B12, and lower intakes of energy and carbohydrate compared with non-consumers. There was no significant difference in any of the socio-economic variables between children who consumed TF and those who did not. Conclusion. Although TF was not eaten much, it contributed significantly to the nutrient intakes of children. Consumption of TF should be encouraged as it provides many nutritional, economic, and sociocultural benefits.

  16. Nutrient intake and nutrient patterns and risk of lung cancer among heavy smokers: results from the COSMOS screening study with annual low-dose CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gnagnarella, Patrizia; Maisonneuve, Patrick; Bellomi, Massimo; Rampinelli, Cristiano; Bertolotti, Raffaella; Spaggiari, Lorenzo; Palli, Domenico; Veronesi, Giulia

    2013-01-01

    The role of nutrients in lung cancer aetiology remains controversial and has never been evaluated in the context of screening. Our aim was to investigate the role of single nutrients and nutrient patterns in the aetiology of lung cancer in heavy smokers. Asymptomatic heavy smokers (≥20 pack-years) were invited to undergo annual low-dose computed tomography. We assessed diet using a self-administered food frequency questionnaire and collected information on multivitamin supplement use. We performed principal component analysis identifying four nutrient patterns and used Cox proportional Hazards regression to assess the association between nutrients and nutrients patterns and lung cancer risk. During a mean follow-up of 5.7 years, 178 of 4,336 participants were diagnosed with lung cancer by screening. We found a significant risk reduction of lung cancer with increasing vegetable fat consumption (HR for highest vs. lowest quartile = 0.50, 95 % CI = 0.31–0.80; P-trend = 0.02). Participants classified in the high “vitamins and fiber” pattern score had a significant risk reduction of lung cancer (HR = 0.57; 95 % CI = 0.36–0.90, P-trend = 0.01). Among heavy smokers enrolled in a screening trial, high vegetable fat intake and adherence to the “vitamin and fiber” nutrient pattern were associated with reduced lung cancer incidence.

  17. Dietary patterns of adolescents in Germany - Associations with nutrient intake and other health related lifestyle characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to identify dietary patterns among a representative sample of German adolescents and their associations with energy and nutrient intake, socioeconomic and lifestyle characteristics, and overweight status. Methods In the analysis, data from the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents were used. The survey included a comprehensive dietary history interview conducted among 1272 adolescents aged 12 to 17 years. Dietary patterns were determined with principal component analysis (PCA) based on 48 food groups, for boys and girls separately. Results Three dietary patterns among boys and two among girls were identified. Among boys, high adherence to the 'western' pattern was associated with higher age, lower socioeconomic status (SES), and lower physical activity level (PA). High adherence to the 'healthy' pattern among boys, but not among girls, was associated with higher SES, and higher PA. Among boys, high adherence to the 'traditional' pattern was associated with higher age. Among girls, high adherence to the 'traditional and western' pattern was associated with lower age, lower SES and more hours watching TV per day. The nutrient density of several vitamins and minerals, particularly of B-vitamins and calcium, increased with increasing scores of the 'healthy' pattern among both sexes. Conversely, with increasing scores of the 'western' pattern among boys, most nutrient densities decreased, particularly of fibre, beta-carotene, vitamin D, biotin and calcium. Among girls with higher scores of the 'traditional and western' pattern, nutrient densities of vitamin A, C, E, K and folate decreased. Among boys, high adherence to the 'traditional' pattern was correlated with higher densities of vitamin B12 and vitamin D and lower densities of fibre, magnesium and iron. No significant associations between dietary patterns and overweight were found. Conclusions Higher scores for dietary patterns characterized

  18. Nutrient intakes and iron and vitamin D status differ depending on main milk consumed by UK children aged 12-18 months - secondary analysis from the Diet and Nutrition Survey of Infants and Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidnell, Anne; Pigat, Sandrine; Gibson, Sigrid; O'Connor, Rosalyn; Connolly, Aileen; Sterecka, Sylwia; Stephen, Alison M

    2016-01-01

    Nutrition in the second year is important as this is a period of rapid growth and development. Milk is a major food for young children and this analysis evaluated the impact of the type of milk consumed on nutrient intakes and nutritional status. Data from the Diet and Nutrition Survey of Infants and Young Children were used to investigate the intakes of key nutrients, and Fe and vitamin D status, of children aged 12-18 months, not breastfed, and consuming >400 g/d fortified milk (n 139) or >400 g/d of whole cows' milk (n 404). Blood samples from eligible children for measurement of Hb (n 113), serum ferritin and plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations (n 105) were available for approximately 20 % of children. Unpaired Mann-Whitney tests were used to compare nutrient intakes and status between consumers of fortified and cows' milk. Mean daily total dietary intakes of Fe, Zn, vitamin A and vitamin D were significantly higher in the fortified milk group. Mean daily total dietary intakes of energy, protein, Ca, iodine, Na and saturated fat were significantly higher in the cows' milk group. Hb was not different between groups. The fortified milk group had significantly higher serum ferritin (P = 0·049) and plasma 25(OH)D (P = 0·014). This analysis demonstrates significantly different nutrient intakes and status between infants consuming >400 g/d fortified milk v. those consuming >400 g/d whole cows' milk. These results indicate that fortified milks can play a significant role in improving the quality of young children's diets in their second year of life.

  19. Relative Validity of a 24-h Recall in Assessing Intake of Key Nutrients in a Cohort of Australian Toddlers

    OpenAIRE

    Beaton, Elizabeth; Wright, Janine; Devenish, Gemma; Do, Loc; Scott, Jane

    2018-01-01

    There is limited information concerning the dietary intake of toddlers in Australia. Consequently, there is a need for studies investigating toddler intake that use dietary assessment measures that are valid and place a low participant burden on caregivers. The aim of this study was to determine the relative validity of a single 24-h dietary recall (24HR) in measuring the intake of five nutrients in a cohort of Australian toddlers compared to a combined 24HR and 2-day estimated food record (2...

  20. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 is related to fish intake and exercise in Korean adult men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lym, Youl Lee; Joh, Hee-Kyung

    2009-01-01

    Vitamin D is an important factor for bone health. It is uncertain which lifestyle is associated with vitamin D status, especially in healthy middle aged Asian men. A cross-sectional analysis was performed in 149 men aged 40-69 years who visited a health check-up center in Korea. Serum vitamin D (25-OHD3) was measured and smoking, alcohol, exercise, occupation, frequency of fish and dairy intake were estimated by self-administered questionnaire. The mean (+/-SD) 25-OHD3 concentration was 96.5+/-30.7 nmol/L. Higher and lower 25-OHD3 groups were generated with the median concentration as the cut-off point. By univariate analysis, exercise status and fish intake frequency were significantly different between two 25-OHD3 groups (p=0.012, 0.019 respectively). After multivariable logistic regression, higher fish intake frequency and regular exercise were associated with higher levels of 25-OHD3 (p for trend=0.017 and 0.02 respectively). In conclusion, frequent fish intake and regular exercise are positively associated with serum 25-OHD3 concentrations in healthy Korean men.

  1. A statistical method to base nutrient recommendations on meta-analysis of intake and health-related status biomarkers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilko van der Voet

    Full Text Available Nutrient recommendations in use today are often derived from relatively old data of few studies with few individuals. However, for many nutrients, including vitamin B-12, extensive data have now become available from both observational studies and randomized controlled trials, addressing the relation between intake and health-related status biomarkers. The purpose of this article is to provide new methodology for dietary planning based on dose-response data and meta-analysis. The methodology builds on existing work, and is consistent with current methodology and measurement error models for dietary assessment. The detailed purposes of this paper are twofold. Firstly, to define a Population Nutrient Level (PNL for dietary planning in groups. Secondly, to show how data from different sources can be combined in an extended meta-analysis of intake-status datasets for estimating PNL as well as other nutrient intake values, such as the Average Nutrient Requirement (ANR and the Individual Nutrient Level (INL. For this, a computational method is presented for comparing a bivariate lognormal distribution to a health criterion value. Procedures to meta-analyse available data in different ways are described. Example calculations on vitamin B-12 requirements were made for four models, assuming different ways of estimating the dose-response relation, and different values of the health criterion. Resulting estimates of ANRs and less so for INLs were found to be sensitive to model assumptions, whereas estimates of PNLs were much less sensitive to these assumptions as they were closer to the average nutrient intake in the available data.

  2. Inappropriate nutrients intake is associated with lower functional status and inferior quality of life in older adults with depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guligowska, Agnieszka; Pigłowska, Małgorzata; Fife, Elizaveta; Kostka, Joanna; Sołtysik, Bartłomiej K; Kroc, Łukasz; Kostka, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    The study is a case-control analysis of whether depression impairs physical and cognitive functioning and quality of life, and whether there is a relationship between nutrient deficiencies and these adverse changes. A total of 130 older subjects participated in the study: 65 with diagnosed depression (16 men and 49 women) and 65 age- and sex-matched controls without depression. All patients underwent comprehensive geriatric assessment. Nutritional state was assessed with the Mini Nutritional Assessment, cognitive performance was evaluated by the Mini-Mental State Examination and physical functioning by the Timed "Up & Go" test and handgrip strength. The pattern of consumption of various nutrients was analyzed in detail. The differences in cognitive functioning observed between the groups were related to specific nutrient intake, as was handgrip strength to some extent. The differences in nutritional status, several functional tests and muscle strength were related to both the presence of depression and inappropriate consumption of certain nutrients. The incidence of falls and poor quality of life may be partially associated with the presence of depression. The inappropriate intake of selected nutrients may impair the functioning and quality of life of older adults with depression, such as the excess consumption of sucrose and insufficient consumption of protein, fiber, eicosapentaenoic acid, niacin and vitamin B6. Particular nutrients should be translated into dietary patterns which allow the individual patient to address these nutrient deficiencies.

  3. The effect of coffee consumption on food group intake, nutrient intake, and metabolic syndrome of Korean adults—2010 KNHANES (V-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangfang Song

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Coffee is a popular beverage in Korea recent years. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between coffee consumption and the risk of metabolic syndrome in Korean adults based on the 2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES V-1. Methods: Dietary intake status and the factors of metabolic syndrome were assessed. Three groups (no coffee consumption, moderate intake, and high intake were divided into tertile according to black coffee cream (include brewed coffee consumption per day. Results: Our results showed that the Tertile 3 group consumed more calories from fat, and niacin was higher than in the Tertile 1 and Tertile 2 group. INQ for protein and vitamin B1 was significantly higher in no coffee consumption group than the other groups and in Tertile 3 exhibited significantly higher niacin intake. The subjects in Tertile 3 showed significantly higher consumption in grain and oil intake, and Tertile 1 group showed higher consumption in milk and dairy products. In the logistic regression analysis, adjusting for sex, age, energy intake, smoking, and drinking, being in the high coffee consumption group (Tertile 3 was significantly and inversely associated with abdominal obesity (OR = 0.76, CI = 0.71–0.82, hypertension (OR = 0.70, CI = 0.54–0.87, high glucose(OR =  0.71, CI = 0.61–0.86. However, no significant association was found between coffee consumption and metabolic syndrome. Conclusion: Coffee consumption has not a considerably relationship with nutrient intake. Appropriate consumption of coffee may have potentially helpful effects on certain metabolic risk factors, such as abdominal obesity, hypertension, and high glucose. Keywords: Coffee consumption, Nutrient intake, INQ, Metabolic syndrome, KNHANES

  4. Variation in nutrient digestibility and energy intake are key contributors to differences in postweaning growth performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C K; Patience, J F

    2014-05-01

    Pig weight variation represents an important source of lost production and profitability in the swine industry. To date, few experiments have classified how pigs of the same age but different weight utilize dietary energy and nutrients. The objective of this experiment was to characterize how pigs with varying weaning weights (WW) and postweaning growth performance differ in apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of energy or nutrient digestibility or energy utilization. Ninety-six barrows weaned at 18 to 22 d of age were selected from 960 to represent the 10% of the lightest (LWW), median (MWW), and heaviest (HWW) at weaning (n = 32 pigs per WW category). Pigs were housed in metabolism crates for a 5-d acclimation period and a 27-d study and fed ad libitum quantities of a common diet containing titanium dioxide as an indigestible marker. Fecal grab samples and total urine were collected during a 3-d collection period at the beginning and end of the experiment. After the experiment, pigs within each WW category were further classified into the 33% slowest, median, or fastest ADG categories. This resulted in a total of 9 treatments in a nested design. Data were analyzed using the GLIMMIX procedure of SAS. There were no differences in ATTD according to WW at the beginning or end of the experiment, or when ADG was nested within WW at the beginning of the experiment. However, the ATTD of DM, GE, N, and ash, as well as the related DE, ME, and NE content, were greatest (P ratio of calculated to actual ME intake was lower in LWW pigs than HWW pigs (P = 0.04; 1.03 and 1.10 for LWW and HWW pigs, respectively). When ADG was nested within WW category, both increasing WW and ADG increased (P ratio differed (P < 0.03), supposedly because of differences in thermoneutrality, and therefore maintenance requirements. Reduced postweaning ADG appears to be driven by a combination of poor nutrient digestibility, energy intake, and, possibly, cold stress, which may provide avenues

  5. Seasonal variation in food pattern but not in energy and nutrient intakes of rural Beninese school-aged children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mitchikpe, C.E.S.; Dossa, R.A.M.; Ategbo, E.A.D.; Raaij, van J.M.A.; Kok, F.J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Inadequate energy and nutrient intakes are a major nutritional problem in developing countries. A recent study in Beninese school-aged children in different seasons revealed a high prevalence of stunting and poor iron status that might be related to the food pattern. Objective: To

  6. Dietary intake and adequacy of energy and nutrients in Mexican older adults: results from two National Health and Nutrition Surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa De la Cruz-Góngora

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To describe energy and nutrient intakes and their adequacies in older Mexican adults participating in the National Health and Nutrition Survey (Ensanut 2006 and 2012. Materials and methods. Dietary information was obtained through a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire (SFFQ from 526 adults 60 y and older participating in Ensanut 2012 and 3 326 in Ensanut 2006 in Mexico. Quantile and logistic regression models were used to obtain medians and marginal effects of each nutrient, ad­justing by confounders and survey design. Results. Dietary intake of energy and nutrients was similar in both surveys. Most common micronutrients at risk of dietary deficiency were, for vitamins: A, B-12, C, D and folate, and for minerals: calcium, iron and zinc, in both surveys. Excessive intake of sugar and saturated fat and low fiber intake were common. Conclusions. Diet in older Mexican adults is low in micro­nutrient essentials, and excessive in fat and sugar. Attention to the diet in this age group through targeted interventions is necessary to promote a healthy diet.

  7. Effectiveness of flavour nutrient learning and mere exposure as mechanisms to increase toddler's intake and preference for green vegetables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wild, de V.W.T.; Graaf, de C.; Jager, G.

    2013-01-01

    Children’s consumption of vegetables is still below recommendations. Since preference is the most important predictor of children’s intake and most children dislike vegetables, new strategies are needed to increase their preferences for vegetables. Flavour nutrient learning (FNL) could be an

  8. Nutrition of grazing cattle in the Mid Rift Valley of Ethiopia: use of an improved n-alkane method to estimate nutrient intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derseh, M.B.

    2013-01-01

    Nutrient intake is an important factor that determines the performance of production animals. In free ranging animals, direct measurement of nutrient intake is difficult to conduct, and it is frequently estimated indirectly by the aid of markers. The aim of this thesis was to investigate the

  9. Evaluation of food and nutrient intake assessment using concentration biomarkers in European adolescents from the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandevijvere, S.; Geelen, A.; Gonzalez-Gross, M.; Veer, van 't P.; Dallongeville, J.; Mouratidu, T.; Dekkers, A.; Börnhorst, C.; Breidenassel, C.

    2013-01-01

    Accurate food and nutrient intake assessment is essential for investigating diet–disease relationships. In the present study, food and nutrient intake assessment among European adolescents using 24 h recalls (mean of two recalls) and a FFQ (separately and the combination of both) were evaluated

  10. INTAKES OF SELECTED NUTRIENTS, BONE MINERALISATION AND DENSITY OF ADOLESCENT FEMALE SWIMMERS OVER A THREE-YEAR PERIOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Czeczelewski

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to conduct three-year monitoring of bone mineralization (BMC and bone mineral density (BMD of adolescent girls engaged in swimming at the time of attaining the peak bone mass and of their counterparts leading a rather sedentary life, considering the intakes of calcium, phosphorus and protein, as well as the proportions among those nutrients. Two groups of girls aged 11–13 years were studied 3 times at yearly intervals: untrained controls (n = 20 and those engaged in competitive swimming (n = 20. Bone density was determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA in the lumbar spine (L2 – L4. Nutrient intakes (energy, protein, calcium, phosphorus were assessed from 24-h recalls. The group of swimmers had significantly lower BMI values than the control group. No systematic, significant between-group differences were found in nutrient intake or in bone mineralization variables. Calcium intake was below the recommended norm in all subjects but mean values of bone mineralization variables (BMC, BMD steadily increased in both groups. The BMD z-scores proved negative throughout the three-year period of early adolescence in both groups of girls and that decrease was significant in swimmers. This could have been due to insufficient calcium intake as well as to inadequate calcium-to-phosphate and protein-to-calcium ratios and, when continued, might result in a decreased bone mass in adulthood.

  11. Relative Validity of a 24-h Recall in Assessing Intake of Key Nutrients in a Cohort of Australian Toddlers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Beaton

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available There is limited information concerning the dietary intake of toddlers in Australia. Consequently, there is a need for studies investigating toddler intake that use dietary assessment measures that are valid and place a low participant burden on caregivers. The aim of this study was to determine the relative validity of a single 24-h dietary recall (24HR in measuring the intake of five nutrients in a cohort of Australian toddlers compared to a combined 24HR and 2-day estimated food record (2DFR. A single 24HR and a 2DFR were collected from a cohort of Australian toddlers (n = 699 at approximately 12 months of age as part of the Study of Mothers’ and Infants’ Life Events affecting oral health (SMILE project. Relative validity of one day of dietary data (24HR in assessing intake of energy, protein, calcium, iron, and added sugars was tested against three days of dietary data (24HR + 2DFR using paired t-tests, Bland–Altman analysis, cross-classification, and weighted Kappa statistic. Classification analysis found good agreement between the 24HR and 24HR + 2DFR for all nutrients with the percentage classified in the same tertile at 57.9% and above. The weighted Kappa statistic found acceptable agreement for all nutrients. This study suggests that a 24HR is a valid assessment tool for estimating the relative intake of energy, protein, calcium, iron, and added sugars among Australian toddlers at the individual level.

  12. Relative Validity of a 24-h Recall in Assessing Intake of Key Nutrients in a Cohort of Australian Toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaton, Elizabeth; Wright, Janine; Devenish, Gemma; Do, Loc; Scott, Jane

    2018-01-12

    There is limited information concerning the dietary intake of toddlers in Australia. Consequently, there is a need for studies investigating toddler intake that use dietary assessment measures that are valid and place a low participant burden on caregivers. The aim of this study was to determine the relative validity of a single 24-h dietary recall (24HR) in measuring the intake of five nutrients in a cohort of Australian toddlers compared to a combined 24HR and 2-day estimated food record (2DFR). A single 24HR and a 2DFR were collected from a cohort of Australian toddlers ( n = 699) at approximately 12 months of age as part of the Study of Mothers' and Infants' Life Events affecting oral health (SMILE) project. Relative validity of one day of dietary data (24HR) in assessing intake of energy, protein, calcium, iron, and added sugars was tested against three days of dietary data (24HR + 2DFR) using paired t -tests, Bland-Altman analysis, cross-classification, and weighted Kappa statistic. Classification analysis found good agreement between the 24HR and 24HR + 2DFR for all nutrients with the percentage classified in the same tertile at 57.9% and above. The weighted Kappa statistic found acceptable agreement for all nutrients. This study suggests that a 24HR is a valid assessment tool for estimating the relative intake of energy, protein, calcium, iron, and added sugars among Australian toddlers at the individual level.

  13. Nutrient Intake and Digestibility of Cynomolgus Monkey (Macaca fascicularis Fed with High Soluble Carbohydrate Diet: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DEWI APRI ASTUTI

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available High carbohydrate as obese diet is not yet available commercially for monkeys. Therefore, this preliminary study was to carry out nutrient intake and digestibility of cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis fed with high soluble carbohydrate diet compared to monkey chow. Five adult female macaques (average body weight 2.67 kg were made to consume freshly diet. Commercial monkey chows (contains 3500 cal/g energy and 35% starch were fed to three adult females (average body weight 3.62 kg. Nutrient intakes and digestibility parameters were measured using modified metabolic cages. Result showed that average of protein, fat, starch, and energy intakes in treatment diet were higher than control diet (T-test. Fat intake in the treatment diet was three times higher, while starch and energy intakes were almost two times higher than monkey chow. Digestibility percentage of all nutrients were the same in both diets except for the protein. The study concludes that the freshly prepared high sugar diet was palatable and digestible for the cynomolgus monkeys. Further studies are in progress to develop obese diet high in energy content based on fat and source of starch treatments.

  14. Use of household supermarket sales data to estimate nutrient intakes: a comparison with repeat 24-hour dietary recalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyles, Helen; Jiang, Yannan; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona

    2010-01-01

    Electronic supermarket sales data provide a promising, novel way of estimating nutrient intakes. However, little is known about how these data reflect the nutrients consumed by an individual household member. A cross-sectional survey of 49 primary household shoppers (age [mean+/-standard deviation age]=48+/-14 years; 84% female) from Wellington, New Zealand, was undertaken. Three months of baseline electronic supermarket sales data were compared with individual dietary intakes estimated from four random 24-hour dietary recalls collected during the same 3-month period. Spearman rank correlations between household purchases and individual intakes ranged from 0.54 for percentage of energy from saturated fat (Psupermarket sales data may be a useful surrogate measure of some nutrient intakes of individuals, particularly percentage of energy from saturated and total fat. In the case of a supermarket intervention, an effect on household sales of percentage energy from saturated and total fat is also likely to impact the saturated and total fat intake of individual household members. Copyright 2010 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Daily intake and serum concentration of menaquinone-4 (MK-4) in haemodialysis patients with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyskida, Katarzyna; Żak-Gołąb, Agnieszka; Łabuzek, Krzysztof; Suchy, Dariusz; Ficek, Rafał; Pośpiech, Kornel; Olszanecka-Glinianowicz, Magdalena; Okopień, Bogusław; Więcek, Andrzej; Chudek, Jerzy

    2015-12-01

    Decreased concentration of menaquinone-4 (MK-4) seems to be an important risk factor of vascular calcification in haemodialysis (HD) patients. Optimal dietary intake, as well as serum MK-4 reference range, in HD has not been determined, yet. The aim of the present study was to assess daily vitamin K1 and MK-4 intakes and their relation to serum MK-4 concentration in HD patients. Daily vitamin K1 and MK-4, micro- and macronutrients and energy intakes were assessed using 3-day food diary completed by patients and serum MK-4 concentration was measured by HPLC [limit of quantification (LOQ): 0.055 ng/mL] in 85 HD patients (51 males) and 22 apparently healthy subjects. Daily MK-4 intake was significantly lower (by 29%) among HD, while K1 consumption was similar in both groups. Daily MK-4 intake was associated with fat and protein consumption in HD (r=0.43, pintakes were weaker in HD (r=0.38 and r=0.30 respectively) than in the control group (r=0.47 and r=0.45, respectively). In multiple regression analysis the variability of serum MK-4 concentrations in HD patients was explained by its daily intake. Decreased serum MK-4 concentration in HD patients is caused by lower dietary MK-4 intake, mainly due to diminished meat consumption, and in addition, probably reduced K1 conversion. Copyright © 2015 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Imbalanced Nutrient Intake in Cancer Survivors from the Examination from the Nationwide Health Examination Center-Based Cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyoung Park

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to examine the nutrient intake status of cancer survivors. A total of 5224 cancer survivors, 19,926 non-cancer individuals without comorbidities (non-cancer I, and 20,622 non-cancer individuals with comorbidities, matched by age, gender, and recruitment center location were included in the analysis. Generally, the proportion of total energy from carbohydrates was higher and the proportion from fat was lower in cancer survivors. The odds ratios (ORs for total energy (OR = 0.92, 95% confidence interval (CI = 0.86–0.99, proportion of total energy from fat (OR = 0.54, 95% CI = 0.35–0.83, and protein (OR = 0.85, 95% CI = 0.79–0.90 were significantly lower, and the OR for the proportion of total energy from carbohydrates was higher (OR = 1.21, 95% CI = 1.10–1.33 in the cancer survivors than in non-cancer I. Additionally, the cancer survivors’ protein, vitamin B1, vitamin B2, niacin, and phosphorus intakes were lower, whereas their vitamin C intake was higher. When divided by cancer type, the ORs for the carbohydrate percentages were significantly higher in the colon and breast cancer survivors, whereas protein intake was lower in gastric, breast, and cervical cancer survivors. The nutrient intake patterns in Asian cancer survivors are poor, with higher carbohydrate and lower fat and protein intakes.

  17. The Intake of Energy and Selected Nutrients by Thai Urban Sedentary Workers: An Evaluation of Adherence to Dietary Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katiya Ivanovitch

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid changes in Thailand’s nutrition and lifestyles have led to increasing diet-related pathologies among people with sedentary occupations. This study examines the extent to which the dietary intake of nutrients and energy by a sample of Thai sedentary workers conforms to the Thai Dietary Reference Intakes (Thai DRIs. The nutrients and energy intake estimates were based on self-reported information collected with a single 24-hour dietary recall and nonweighed 2-day food record. The study participants were Thai adults aged 20–50 years employed in sedentary occupations. A convenience sample of 215 healthy individuals (75 males and 140 females was based on four randomly selected worksites in the Bangkok metropolitan area. For male participants, the study found a median energy intake of 1,485 kcal/day, with 54.4% of energy coming from carbohydrate, 15.9% from protein, and 29.6% from fat. Females’ median energy intake was 1,428 kcal/day, 56% of which came from carbohydrate, 16.2% from protein, and 28.6% from fat. Both genders showed insufficient intake of fiber and most micronutrients. This study provides the material for preventive public health interventions focusing on nutrition-related diseases affecting Thailand’s rapidly growing sedentary workforce.

  18. Fructose Intake, Serum Uric Acid, and Cardiometabolic Disorders: A Critical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiana Caliceti

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available There is a direct relationship between fructose intake and serum levels of uric acid (UA, which is the final product of purine metabolism. Recent preclinical and clinical evidence suggests that chronic hyperuricemia is an independent risk factor for hypertension, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease. It is probably also an independent risk factor for chronic kidney disease, Type 2 diabetes, and cognitive decline. These relationships have been observed for high serum UA levels (>5.5 mg/dL in women and >6 mg/dL in men, but also for normal to high serum UA levels (5–6 mg/dL. In this regard, blood UA levels are much higher in industrialized countries than in the rest of the world. Xanthine-oxidase inhibitors can reduce UA and seem to minimize its negative effects on vascular health. Other dietary and pathophysiological factors are also related to UA production. However, the role of fructose-derived UA in the pathogenesis of cardiometabolic disorders has not yet been fully clarified. Here, we critically review recent research on the biochemistry of UA production, the relationship between fructose intake and UA production, and how this relationship is linked to cardiometabolic disorders.

  19. Fructose Intake, Serum Uric Acid, and Cardiometabolic Disorders: A Critical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caliceti, Cristiana; Calabria, Donato; Roda, Aldo; Cicero, Arrigo F G

    2017-04-18

    There is a direct relationship between fructose intake and serum levels of uric acid (UA), which is the final product of purine metabolism. Recent preclinical and clinical evidence suggests that chronic hyperuricemia is an independent risk factor for hypertension, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease. It is probably also an independent risk factor for chronic kidney disease, Type 2 diabetes, and cognitive decline. These relationships have been observed for high serum UA levels (>5.5 mg/dL in women and >6 mg/dL in men), but also for normal to high serum UA levels (5-6 mg/dL). In this regard, blood UA levels are much higher in industrialized countries than in the rest of the world. Xanthine-oxidase inhibitors can reduce UA and seem to minimize its negative effects on vascular health. Other dietary and pathophysiological factors are also related to UA production. However, the role of fructose-derived UA in the pathogenesis of cardiometabolic disorders has not yet been fully clarified. Here, we critically review recent research on the biochemistry of UA production, the relationship between fructose intake and UA production, and how this relationship is linked to cardiometabolic disorders.

  20. Food groups and nutrient intake and risk of colorectal cancer: a hospital-based case-control study in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banqué, Marta; Raidó, Blanca; Masuet, Cristina; Ramon, Josep M

    2012-04-01

    Although evidence supports that colorectal cancer (CRC) has an environmental etiology, the potential influence of diet appears to be one of the most important components. We studied the relation between food groups and nutrient intake and the risk of CRC. A hospital-based case-control study was conducted in Spain between 2007 and 2009. The authors matched 245 patients with incident histologically confirmed CRC by age, gender, and date of admission with 490 controls. Information about nutrient intake was gathered by using a semiquantitative frequency food questionnaire. Univariate analysis was done with individual food items. Odds ratios (ORs) for consecutive tertiles of nutrient intake were computed after allowance for sociodemographic variables and consumption of food groups. Vitamin B6 (OR: 0.26), vitamin D (OR: 0.45), vitamin E (OR: 0.42), polyunsaturated fatty acids (OR: 0.57), and fiber (OR: 0.40) were inversely associated with CRC, whereas carbohydrates (OR: 1.82) were significantly associated with CRC risk for the upper tertile. In multivariate analysis adjusting for major covariables (energy, age, and gender), vitamin D (OR:0.45), vitamin E (OR:0.36), and fiber (OR:0.46) remained associated with CRC. Data suggest that the etiology of colorectal cancer is not due to lifestyle and dietary patterns being important the effect of single nutrients.

  1. Intake, nutrient apparent digestibility and ruminal constituents of sheep fed diets with canola, sunflower or castor oils

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    Michelle de Oliveira Maia

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective in this experiment was to determine the effects of feeding diets with canola, sunflower or castor oils on intake, nutrient apparent digestibility and ruminal constituents of crossbred Dorper × Santa Inês sheep. Four rumen-cannulated animals of 90.2±11.4 kg average body weight were assigned to a 4 × 4 latin square. Animals remained individually in cages for the metabolism assay and were fed diets containing roughage at 500 g/kg and concentrate based on ground corn and soybean meal also at 500 g/kg. No oil was added to the control diet, whereas the others had canola, sunflower or castor oils at 30 g/kg (DM basis. There was no difference for the intake of DM and nutrients, except for ether extract, which was greater when animals received oil. The digestibility coefficients of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, non-fiber carbohydrates and neutral detergent fiber were not changed; however, the addition of oil increased the ether extract digestibility. The values of total digestible nutrients (TDN, g/kg of DM, digestible energy (DE, Mcal/kg of DM, TDN intake and DE intake also did not change with the addition of lipids. Concerning the ruminal constituents, the addition of vegetable oils reduced the concentrations of acetate, butyrate and total short-chain fatty acids. Adding canola, sunflower or castor oils at 30 g/kg in diets with 500 g roughage/kg and 500 g concentrate/kg does not impair the intake or digestibility of nutrients in sheep, although it reduces the concentration of short-chain fatty acids in the rumen.

  2. Increasing Plant Based Foods or Dairy Foods Differentially Affects Nutrient Intakes: Dietary Scenarios Using NHANES 2007–2010

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    Christopher J. Cifelli

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Diets rich in plant foods and lower in animal-based products have garnered increased attention among researchers, dietitians and health professionals in recent years for their potential to, not only improve health, but also to lessen the environmental impact. However, the potential effects of increasing plant-based foods at the expense of animal-based foods on macro- and micronutrient nutrient adequacy in the U.S. diet is unknown. In addition, dairy foods are consistently under consumed, thus the impact of increased dairy on nutrient adequacy is important to measure. Accordingly, the objective of this study was to use national survey data to model three different dietary scenarios to assess the effects of increasing plant-based foods or dairy foods on macronutrient intake and nutrient adequacy. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2007–2010 for persons two years and older (n = 17,387 were used in all the analyses. Comparisons were made of usual intake of macronutrients and shortfall nutrients of three dietary scenarios that increased intakes by 100%: (i plant-based foods; (ii protein-rich plant-based foods (i.e., legumes, nuts, seeds, soy; and (iii milk, cheese and yogurt. Scenarios (i and (ii had commensurate reductions in animal product intake. In both children (2–18 years and adults (≥19 years, the percent not meeting the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR decreased for vitamin C, magnesium, vitamin E, folate and iron when plant-based foods were increased. However the percent not meeting the EAR increased for calcium, protein, vitamin A, and vitamin D in this scenario. Doubling protein-rich plant-based foods had no effect on nutrient intake because they were consumed in very low quantities in the baseline diet. The dairy model reduced the percent not meeting the EAR for calcium, vitamin A, vitamin D, magnesium, and protein, while sodium and saturated fat levels increased. Our modeling shows that

  3. Nutrient Intake Values for Folate during Pregnancy and Lactation Vary Widely around the World

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    Lisa A. Houghton

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Folate is a B-vitamin with particular importance during reproduction due to its role in the synthesis and maintenance of DNA. Folate is well known for its role in preventing neural tube defects (NTDs during the periconceptional period. There is also an increased need for folate throughout pregnancy to support optimal growth and development of the fetus and blood volume expansion and tissue growth of the mother. During lactation, women are at risk of folate deficiency due to increased demands to accommodate milk folate levels. Nutrient Intake Values (NIVs for folate have been calculated to take into account additional needs during pregnancy and lactation. However, these values vary widely between countries. For example, the folate requirement that is set to meet the needs of almost all healthy women during pregnancy varies from 300 µg/day in the United Kingdom to 750 µg/day in Mexico. Currently, there is no accepted standardized terminology or framework for establishing NIVs. This article reviews country-specific NIVs for folate during pregnancy and lactation and the basis for setting these reference values.

  4. Fast-food and full-service restaurant consumption and daily energy and nutrient intakes in US adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, R

    2016-01-01

    Calorie intake and diet quality are influenced by the source of food and the place of consumption. This study examines the impacts of fast-food and full-service restaurant consumption on daily energy and nutrient intakes in US adults. Nationally representative data of 18,098 adults 18 years of age and above from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2010 waves were analyzed. Outcomes included daily intake of total calories and 24 nutrients of public health concern. The key predictors were any food/beverage consumption in a day from fast-food or full-service restaurant, differentiated by consumption at home versus away from home. First-difference estimator addressed confounding bias from time-invariant unobservables such as personal food/beverage preferences by using within-individual variations in diet and restaurant consumption status between two nonconsecutive 24-h dietary recalls. Fast-food and full-service restaurant consumption, respectively, were associated with a net increase in daily total energy intake of 190.29 and 186.74 kcal, total fat of 10.61 and 9.58 g, saturated fat of 3.49 and 2.46 g, cholesterol of 10.34 and 57.90 mg, and sodium of 297.47 and 411.92 mg. The impact of fast-food and full-service restaurant consumption on energy and nutrient intakes differed by sex, race/ethnicity, education, income and weight status. Increased total energy, total fat, saturated fat, cholesterol and sodium intake were substantially larger when full-service restaurant food was consumed away from home than at home. A holistic policy intervention is warranted to target the American's overall dining-out behavior rather than fast-food consumption alone.

  5. Validity of the Remote Food Photography Method (RFPM) for estimating energy and nutrient intake in near real-time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, C. K.; Correa, J. B.; Han, H.; Allen, H. R.; Rood, J.; Champagne, C. M.; Gunturk, B. K.; Bray, G. A.

    2014-01-01

    Two studies are reported; a pilot study to demonstrate feasibility followed by a larger validity study. Study 1’s objective was to test the effect of two ecological momentary assessment (EMA) approaches that varied in intensity on the validity/accuracy of estimating energy intake with the Remote Food Photography Method (RFPM) over six days in free-living conditions. When using the RFPM, Smartphones are used to capture images of food selection and plate waste and to send the images to a server for food intake estimation. Consistent with EMA, prompts are sent to the Smartphones reminding participants to capture food images. During Study 1, energy intake estimated with the RFPM and the gold standard, doubly labeled water (DLW), were compared. Participants were assigned to receive Standard EMA Prompts (n=24) or Customized Prompts (n=16) (the latter received more reminders delivered at personalized meal times). The RFPM differed significantly from DLW at estimating energy intake when Standard (mean±SD = −895±770 kcal/day, p<.0001), but not Customized Prompts (−270±748 kcal/day, p=.22) were used. Error (energy intake from the RFPM minus that from DLW) was significantly smaller with Customized vs. Standard Prompts. The objectives of Study 2 included testing the RFPM’s ability to accurately estimate energy intake in free-living adults (N=50) over six days, and energy and nutrient intake in laboratory-based meals. The RFPM did not differ significantly from DLW at estimating free-living energy intake (−152±694 kcal/day, p=0.16). During laboratory-based meals, estimating energy and macronutrient intake with the RFPM did not differ significantly compared to directly weighed intake. PMID:22134199

  6. Relationship of dietary intake of fish and non-fish selenium to serum lipids in Japanese rural coastal community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Yukiko; Koyama, Hiroshi; Nojiri, Masami; Suzuki, Shosuke

    2002-01-01

    Several studies have suggested that dietary selenium deficiency may be associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). In the present study, 55 men and 71 women were selected from participants in a health examination in a rural coastal community in Japan. The mean dietary selenium intake calculated from the simple food frequency questionnaire (SFFQ) was 127.5 micrograms/day. Fish was the major source of dietary selenium and it contributed to 68.7% of the daily total. HDL cholesterol was higher in the middle selenium intake group and in the high selenium intake group than in the low selenium intake group in all subjects and for males, and a significant difference was found between the middle selenium intake group and the low selenium intake group. The atherogenic index was significantly higher in the low selenium intake group than in the middle selenium intake group and in the high selenium intake group in males. GPx activity, total cholesterol and triacylglycerols did not show any significant differences among the three different selenium intake groups. Dietary intake of non-fish Se had a positive correlation with HDL cholesterol, and an inverse correlation with the atherogenic index in all subjects and for females. On the other hand, dietary intake of fish-Se had no relationship with any serum lipids. Non-fish Se is an important factor in selenium status for the prevention of CHD.

  7. Food fortification improves the intake of all fortified nutrients, but fails to meet the estimated dietary requirements for vitamins A and B6, riboflavin and zinc, in lactating South African women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papathakis, Peggy C; Pearson, Kerry E

    2012-10-01

    To investigate the impact of fortification by comparing food records and selected biochemical indicators of nutritional status pre- and post-fortification. Mean intake from 24 h recalls (n 142) was compared with the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) to determine the proportion with inadequate intake. In a subsample (n 34), diet and serum retinol, folate, ferritin and Zn were compared pre- and post-fortification for fortified nutrients vitamin A, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, folic acid, Fe and Zn. South Africa. Breast-feeding women (ninety-four HIV-infected, forty eight HIV-uninfected) measured at ~6, 14, 24 weeks, and 9 and 12 months postpartum. Pre-fortification, >80 % of women did not meet the EAR for vitamins A, C, D, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, B6, B12 and folate and minerals Zn, iodine and Ca. Dietary intake post-fortification increased for all fortified nutrients. In post-fortification food records, >70 % did not meet the EAR for Zn and vitamins A, riboflavin and B6. Serum folate and Zn increased significantly post-fortification (P 93 % were retinol replete. There was no change in Fe deficiency (16.7 % pre v. 19.4 % post; P = 0.728). Micronutrient intake improved with fortification, but >70 % of lactating women did not meet the EAR for Zn, vitamins A, riboflavin and B6. Although 100 % exceeded the EAR for Fe after fortification, Fe status did not improve.

  8. Effects of water addition to total mixed ration on water intake, nutrient digestibility, wool cortisol and blood indices in Corriedale ewes.

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    Nejad, Jalil Ghassemi; Kim, Byong-Wan; Lee, Bae-Hun; Kim, Ji-Yung; Sung, Kyung-Il

    2017-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of adding water to total mixed ration (TMR) on fresh water intake, nutrient digestibility, wool cortisol, and blood indices in Corriedale ewes under hot and humid conditions. Nine non-pregnant Corriedale ewes (ave. body weight = 41±3.5 kg) were individually fed diets based on maintenance requirements in metabolic crates. Ewes were assigned to three treatment groups according to a triplicate 3×3 Latin Square design for 3 periods of 21 days duration each (9 ewes per treatment, 27 replications). Treatments were TMR (crude protein [CP] = 16.1, total digestible nutrients = 69.1%) moisture levels for 40%, 50%, and 60%. No differences were found in body weight gain among all treatment groups (p>0.05). Nitrogen balance including digestible N, retained N, and urinary and fecal N showed no change among the treatment groups (p>0.05). Fresh water intake was the lower in 50% TMR moisture group than in the other groups (p0.05). No significant difference was observed for serum protein, blood urea nitrogen, glucose, and triglyceride among the treatment groups (p>0.05). Wool and blood cortisol were not different among the treatment groups (p>0.05). Blood hematology including red blood cell, white blood cells, hemoglobin, hematocrit, basophils, and eosinophils were not different among the treatment groups (p>0.05). It is concluded that TMR moisture at 40%, 50%, and 60% had no effects on N balance parameters, and nutrient digestibilities except for the ether extract under hot and humid conditions. Additionally there were no effects on stress conditions include wool cortisol, as well as blood cortisol levels of ewes.

  9. Effects of water addition to total mixed ration on water intake, nutrient digestibility, wool cortisol and blood indices in Corriedale ewes

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    Jalil Ghassemi Nejad

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective The objective of this study was to determine the effect of adding water to total mixed ration (TMR on fresh water intake, nutrient digestibility, wool cortisol, and blood indices in Corriedale ewes under hot and humid conditions. Methods Nine non-pregnant Corriedale ewes (ave. body weight = 41±3.5 kg were individually fed diets based on maintenance requirements in metabolic crates. Ewes were assigned to three treatment groups according to a triplicate 3×3 Latin Square design for 3 periods of 21 days duration each (9 ewes per treatment, 27 replications. Treatments were TMR (crude protein [CP] = 16.1, total digestible nutrients = 69.1% moisture levels for 40%, 50%, and 60%. Results No differences were found in body weight gain among all treatment groups (p>0.05. Nitrogen balance including digestible N, retained N, and urinary and fecal N showed no change among the treatment groups (p>0.05. Fresh water intake was the lower in 50% TMR moisture group than in the other groups (p0.05. No significant difference was observed for serum protein, blood urea nitrogen, glucose, and triglyceride among the treatment groups (p>0.05. Wool and blood cortisol were not different among the treatment groups (p>0.05. Blood hematology including red blood cell, white blood cells, hemoglobin, hematocrit, basophils, and eosinophils were not different among the treatment groups (p>0.05. Conclusion It is concluded that TMR moisture at 40%, 50%, and 60% had no effects on N balance parameters, and nutrient digestibilities except for the ether extract under hot and humid conditions. Additionally there were no effects on stress conditions include wool cortisol, as well as blood cortisol levels of ewes.

  10. Does a mandibular overdenture improve nutrient intake and markers of nutritional status better than conventional complete denture? A systematic review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Toru; Martiniuk, Alexandra LC; Irie, Koichiro; Sokejima, Shigeru; Lee, Crystal Man Ying

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The need for denture treatment in public health will increase as the population ages. However, the impact of dentures on nutrition, particularly overdenture treatment, remains unclear although the physical and psychological effects are known. We investigated whether treatment with a mandibular implant supported overdenture improves nutrient intake and markers of nutritional status better than a conventional complete denture in edentulous patients. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Methods Medline, EMBASE and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched for eligible studies published up to April 2016. We included studies which compared the treatment effect of an overdenture to conventional denture on nutrition, in which primary outcomes included changes in intake of macronutrients and/or micronutrients and/or indicators of nutritional status. Two reviewers independently evaluated eligible studies and assessed the risk of bias. We used a fixed effects model to estimate the weighted mean difference (WMD) and 95% CI for change in body mass index (BMI), albumin and serum vitamin B12 between overdenture and conventional denture 6 months after treatment. Results Of 108 eligible studies, 8 studies involving 901 participants were included in the narrative appraisal. Four studies reported changes in markers of nutritional status and nutrient intake after treatment with a prosthetic, regardless of type. In a meta-analysis of 322 participants aged 65 years or older from three studies, pooled analysis suggested no significant difference in change in BMI between an overdenture and conventional denture 6 months after treatment (WMD=−0.18 kg/m2 (95% CI −0.52 to 0.16)), and no significant difference in change in albumin or vitamin B12 between the two treatments. Conclusions The modifying effect of overdenture treatment on nutritional status might be limited. Further studies are needed to evaluate the effectiveness and efficacy of

  11. Inappropriate nutrients intake is associated with lower functional status and inferior quality of life in older adults with depression

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    Guligowska A

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Agnieszka Guligowska,1 Małgorzata Pigłowska,1 Elizaveta Fife,1 Joanna Kostka,2 Bartłomiej K Sołtysik,1 Łukasz Kroc,1 Tomasz Kostka1 1Department of Geriatrics, Healthy Ageing Research Centre, Medical University of Lodz, Lodz, Poland; 2Department of Physical Medicine, Medical University of Lodz, Lodz, Poland Objectives: The study is a case-control analysis of whether depression impairs physical and cognitive functioning and quality of life, and whether there is a relationship between nutrient deficiencies and these adverse changes.Patients and methods: A total of 130 older subjects participated in the study: 65 with diagnosed depression (16 men and 49 women and 65 age- and sex-matched controls without depression. All patients underwent comprehensive geriatric assessment. Nutritional state was assessed with the Mini Nutritional Assessment, cognitive performance was evaluated by the Mini-Mental State Examination and physical functioning by the Timed “Up & Go” test and handgrip strength. The pattern of consumption of various nutrients was analyzed in detail.Results: The differences in cognitive functioning observed between the groups were related to specific nutrient intake, as was handgrip strength to some extent. The differences in nutritional status, several functional tests and muscle strength were related to both the presence of depression and inappropriate consumption of certain nutrients.Conclusion: The incidence of falls and poor quality of life may be partially associated with the presence of depression. The inappropriate intake of selected nutrients may impair the functioning and quality of life of older adults with depression, such as the excess consumption of sucrose and insufficient consumption of protein, fiber, eicosapentaenoic acid, niacin and vitamin B6. Particular nutrients should be translated into dietary patterns which allow the individual patient to address these nutrient deficiencies. Keywords: aging, cognitive

  12. [Calcium intake, serum vitamin D and obesity in children: is there an association?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Kelly Aparecida da; Magalhães, Elma Izze da Silva; Loureiro, Laís Monteiro Rodrigues; Sant'Ana, Luciana Ferreira da Rocha; Ribeiro, Andréia Queiroz; Novaes, Juliana Farias de

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the association between calcium intake and serum vitamin D levels and childhood obesity by an integrative review. The research was conducted in the databases PubMed/medLine, Science Direct and SciELO with 2001 to 2014 publications. We used the combined terms in English: "children" and "calcium" or "children" and "vitamin D" associated with the descriptors: "obesity", "adiposity" or "body fat" for all bases. Cross-sectional and cohort studies, as well as clinical trials, were included. Review articles or those that that have not addressed the association of interest were excluded. Eight articles were part of this review, five of which were related to calcium and three to vitamin D. Most studies had a longitudinal design. The analyzed studies found an association between calcium intake and obesity, especially when age and sex were considered. Inverse relationship between serum vitamin D and measures of adiposity in children has been observed and this association was influenced by the sex of the patient and by the seasons of the year. The studies reviewed showed an association between calcium and vitamin D with childhood obesity. Considering the possible protective effect of these micronutrients in relation to childhood obesity, preventive public health actions should be designed, with emphasis on nutritional education. Copyright © 2015 Associação de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  13. A comparison of food and nutrient intake between instant noodle consumers and non-instant noodle consumers in Korean adults

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Juyeon; Lee, Jung-Sug; Jang, Young Ai; Chung, Hae Rang; Kim, Jeongseon

    2011-01-01

    Instant noodles are widely consumed in Asian countries. The Korean population consumed the largest quantity of instant noodles in the world in 2008. However, few studies have investigated the relationship between instant noodles and nutritional status in Koreans. The objective of this study was to examine the association between instant noodle consumption and food and nutrient intake in Korean adults. We used dietary data of 6,440 subjects aged 20 years and older who participated in the Korea...

  14. Posting point-of-purchase nutrition information in university canteens does not influence meal choice and nutrient intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoefkens, Christine; Lachat, Carl; Kolsteren, Patrick; Van Camp, John; Verbeke, Wim

    2011-08-01

    Growing concern over the relation between out-of-home eating and overweight has triggered the use of point-of-purchase (POP) nutrition information when eating out of the home. In canteens that offer various unhealthy choices, the posting of POP nutrition information has the potential to improve meal choices and dietary intakes. The objective of this study was to increase the proportion of consumed meals that comply with recommendations for energy, saturated fat, sodium, and vegetable content by 5%. A one-group pretest-posttest design was used. A total of 224 customers of 2 university canteens completed a questionnaire used for consumer profiling and 3-d food records to assess their meal choices and nutrient intakes. The 12 best meal combinations received star ratings and descriptors for nutrients or food groups that did not comply. Reported meal choices in canteens and nutrient intakes did not improve after the intervention (P > 0.05). The nutritional profile of the meal choice, obtained from a qualitative and quantitative nutritional assessment of meals, mirrored the nutritional profile of all meals offered (P > 0.05) and not that of the recommended meals offered (P choices were not compensated for later in the day (P > 0.05). The healthiest choices were made by participants with greater objective nutrition knowledge, stronger health and weight-control motives, and a greater openness to change meal choices at baseline (P choices and nutrient intakes. Despite the intervention, meal choices were largely determined by meals offered. Therefore, nutrition-information interventions in canteens may be more effective with a healthier meal supply. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01249508.

  15. Dietary intake and adequacy of energy and nutrients in Mexican older adults: results from two National Health and Nutrition Surveys

    OpenAIRE

    Vanessa De la Cruz-Góngora; Brenda Martínez-Tapia; Lucía Cuevas-Nasu; Mario Flores-Aldana; Teresa Shamah-Levy

    2017-01-01

    Objective. To describe energy and nutrient intakes and their adequacies in older Mexican adults participating in the National Health and Nutrition Survey (Ensanut) 2006 and 2012. Materials and methods. Dietary information was obtained through a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire (SFFQ) from 526 adults 60 y and older participating in Ensanut 2012 and 3 326 in Ensanut 2006 in Mexico. Quantile and logistic regression models were used to obtain medians and marginal effects of each nutr...

  16. [Dietary diversity and nutrient intake in children 24 to 59 months old and their association with food insecurity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundo-Rosas, Verónica; de la Cruz-Góngora, Vanessa; Jiménez-Aguilar, Alejandra; Shamah-Levy, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    To assess dietary diversity (DD) and adequacies of energy and nutrients intake of Mexican children two to four years old according to the level of food insecurity (FI) at household. Information of 955 Mexican children aged 24-29 months and their households from Ensanut 2012 were included. Dietary data were obtained with a food frequency questionnaire. An index of DD and adequacies of energy and nutrients were estimated. Adjusted prevalences of DD were estimated according to the classification of FI at home using the Latin American and Caribbean Food Safety Scale. Children living in severe FI had the highest proportion of low DD (53.6%) compared to those living in food security. Children with moderate and severe insecurity did not reach the recommended energy intake. The DD, energy and nutrients intake in Mexican children are associated to FI. It is important to improve access to foods that provide more diversity to the diet and which are difficult to obtain due to their cost.

  17. Caffeine and Alcohol Intakes and Overall Nutrient Adequacy Are Associated with Longitudinal Cognitive Performance among U.S. Adults123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beydoun, May A.; Gamaldo, Alyssa A.; Beydoun, Hind A.; Tanaka, Toshiko; Tucker, Katherine L.; Talegawkar, Sameera A.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Zonderman, Alan B.

    2014-01-01

    Among modifiable lifestyle factors, diet may affect cognitive health. Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations may exist between dietary exposures [e.g., caffeine (mg/d), alcohol (g/d), and nutrient adequacy] and cognitive performance and change over time. This was a prospective cohort study, the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (n = 628–1305 persons depending on the cognitive outcome; ∼2 visits/person). Outcomes included 10 cognitive scores, spanning various domains of cognition. Caffeine and alcohol intakes and a nutrient adequacy score (NAS) were estimated from 7-d food diaries. Among key findings, caffeine intake was associated with better baseline global cognition among participants with a baseline age (Agebase) of ≥70 y. A higher NAS was associated with better baseline global cognition performance (overall, women, Agebase memory (immediate and delayed recall, Agebase ≥70 y), and slower rate of decline or faster improvement in the attention domain (women). For an Agebase of memory. In sum, patterns of diet and cognition associations indicate stratum-specific associations by sex and baseline age. The general observed trend was that of putative beneficial effects of caffeine intake and nutrient adequacy on domains of global cognition, verbal memory, and attention, and mixed effects of alcohol on domains of letter fluency, attention, and working memory. Further longitudinal studies conducted on larger samples of adults are needed to determine whether dietary factors individually or in combination are modifiers of cognitive trajectories among adults. PMID:24744319

  18. Caffeine and alcohol intakes and overall nutrient adequacy are associated with longitudinal cognitive performance among U.S. adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beydoun, May A; Gamaldo, Alyssa A; Beydoun, Hind A; Tanaka, Toshiko; Tucker, Katherine L; Talegawkar, Sameera A; Ferrucci, Luigi; Zonderman, Alan B

    2014-06-01

    Among modifiable lifestyle factors, diet may affect cognitive health. Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations may exist between dietary exposures [e.g., caffeine (mg/d), alcohol (g/d), and nutrient adequacy] and cognitive performance and change over time. This was a prospective cohort study, the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (n = 628-1305 persons depending on the cognitive outcome; ∼2 visits/person). Outcomes included 10 cognitive scores, spanning various domains of cognition. Caffeine and alcohol intakes and a nutrient adequacy score (NAS) were estimated from 7-d food diaries. Among key findings, caffeine intake was associated with better baseline global cognition among participants with a baseline age (Agebase) of ≥70 y. A higher NAS was associated with better baseline global cognition performance (overall, women, Agebase memory (immediate and delayed recall, Agebase ≥70 y), and slower rate of decline or faster improvement in the attention domain (women). For an Agebase of memory. In sum, patterns of diet and cognition associations indicate stratum-specific associations by sex and baseline age. The general observed trend was that of putative beneficial effects of caffeine intake and nutrient adequacy on domains of global cognition, verbal memory, and attention, and mixed effects of alcohol on domains of letter fluency, attention, and working memory. Further longitudinal studies conducted on larger samples of adults are needed to determine whether dietary factors individually or in combination are modifiers of cognitive trajectories among adults. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  19. Tomato juice intake suppressed serum concentration of 8-oxodG after extensive physical activity

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    Harms-Ringdahl Mats

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background DNA is constantly exposed to reactive oxygen species (ROS, spontaneously arising during the normal oxygen metabolism. ROS may result in temporary as well as permanent modifications in various cellular components such as lipids, proteins and DNA, which may have deleterious consequences. Demonstrating that a dietary supplementation of antioxidants can reduce oxidative DNA damage may provide evidence for the value of such supplementation in prevention of cancer and age related diseases. Findings The present study was conducted to address whether tomato juice protects against ROS induced by extensive physical exercise in untrained individuals. As a marker of oxidative stress, serum levels of 8-oxodG were monitored using a modified ELISA. An intervention was performed involving 15 untrained healthy subjects who performed a 20 min physical exercise at 80% of maximum pulse using an ergometer bicycle. Blood samples were taken before and one hour after the exercise. The procedure was repeated after 5 weeks with a daily intake of 150 ml tomato juice and followed by a 5 weeks wash-out period and another 5 weeks with a daily intake of tomato juice. The results indicated that a daily intake of tomato juice, equal to 15 mg lycopene per day, for 5 weeks significantly reduced the serum levels of 8-oxodG after an extensive physical exercise. Conclusion These data strongly suggest that tomato juice has a potential antioxidant effect and may reduce the elevated level of ROS induced by oxidative stress.

  20. Study of weight, height, body mass index, energy and nutrients intake of 11-14 years old girls, Tehran

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    Sadeqipoor H

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available A descriptive, analytical cross-sectional syudy was conducted in 1996 on 350 female students 11-14 years old in the center of Tehran, Iran. The general objective was determining energy and nutrient intakes and weight, height and BMI (Body Mass Index of the girls, using anthropometric measurements, interviews (24-hour dietary recall and food consumption frequency, and the NCHS standards. The results were as follows: 1 Based on weight for age and the Z-score, 20% of the girls suffered from mild past and present malnutrition. 2 Based on height for age and BMI, 16.6%, 12.5%, and 1.3% suffered from mild past malnutrition, severe present malnutrition and overweight, respectively. 3 The height curves were normal, as compared to the respective standards. 4 The BMI curves were quite different from the respective standards. 5 On the whole, 53.7%, 49.7%, 86.0%, 59.0%, 67.7%, 76.5% and 88.0% of the girls had low intakes of energy, vitamin A, riboflavin, vitamin B12, folic acid, calcium, and iron, respectively. 6 A positive linear correlation was observed between energy intake and height, vitamin A intake and weight, zinc intake and height, and carbohydrate intake and height.

  1. Relationships between serum 25-hydroxycalciferol, vitamin D intake and disease activity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis--TOMORROW study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Yoshinari; Sugioka, Yuko; Tada, Masahiro; Okano, Tadashi; Mamoto, Kenji; Inui, Kentaro; Habu, Daiki; Koike, Tatsuya

    2015-03-01

    The effect of serum 25-hydroxycalciferol [25(OH)D] on rheumatoid arthritis (RA) activity remains controversial. This study was undertaken with an aim to clarify the relationship between serum 25(OH)D and RA activity, and to determine the effects of dietary vitamin D intake and age on serum 25(OH)D level. A total of 208 outpatients with RA were matched according to age and sex with 205 individuals without RA (controls) from the TOMORROW study (UMIN000003876). We excluded 27 patients with RA and 19 control subjects who had been prescribed vitamin D medication or were taking vitamin D supplements. Vitamin D intake was assessed in the remaining 181 patients and 186 controls using the brief-type dietary history questionnaire. Serum 25(OH)D levels were measured using a radioimmunoassay. Serum 25(OH)D levels were significantly lower in patients with RA than in the controls (p < 0.001). There was a significant and positive correlation between age and 25(OH)D in the patients (r = 0.283, p < 0.001), as with vitamin D intake and 25(OH)D, even after adjusting for age (r = 0.313, p < 0.001). Disease activity and 25(OH)D did not significantly correlate. Patients with RA were observed to have serum 25(OH)D levels which correlated with vitamin D intake and age but not disease activity.

  2. Diet Quality and Nutrient Intake of Urban Overweight and Obese Primarily African American Older Adults with Osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevasti Vergis

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Diet quality may be a unique target for preventing and managing obesity-related osteoarthritis (OA. Using the Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI-2010, this study examined the nutrient intake and diet quality of 400 urban overweight and obese primarily African American older adults with self-reported lower extremity OA. Associations between sociodemographic and health-related factors and diet quality were explored. Participants (mean age 67.8 years, SD 5.9 were included. Habitual dietary intake was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ. Nutrient intake and diet quality were calculated from the FFQ. Results indicated that diet quality needs improvement (HEI-2010: 66.3 (SD 10.5. Age, body mass index, employment (multivariable model only, and OA severity (bivariate model only were significant predictors of HEI-2010 total score in linear models. Mean intakes for fiber, calcium, and vitamin D were below recommendations, while percentage of calories as total fat exceeded recommendations. These findings can inform future dietary intervention trials and public health messaging for a sub-population at a high risk for obesity-related OA.

  3. Diet quality of Italian yogurt consumers: an application of the probability of adequate nutrient intake score (PANDiet).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistura, Lorenza; D'Addezio, Laura; Sette, Stefania; Piccinelli, Raffaela; Turrini, Aida

    2016-01-01

    The diet quality in yogurt consumers and non-consumers was evaluated by applying the probability of adequate nutrient intake (PANDiet) index to a sample of adults and elderly from the Italian food consumption survey INRAN SCAI 2005-06. Overall, yogurt consumers had a significantly higher mean intake of energy, calcium and percentage of energy from total sugars whereas the mean percentage of energy from total fat, saturated fatty acid and total carbohydrate were significantly (p yogurt consumers than in non-consumers, (60.58 ± 0.33 vs. 58.58 ± 0.19, p yogurt consumers. The items of calcium, potassium and riboflavin showed the major percentage variation between consumers and non-consumers. Yogurt consumers were more likely to have adequate intakes of vitamins and minerals, and a higher quality score of the diet.

  4. High calorie, low nutrient food/beverage intake and video gaming in children as potential signals for addictive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pentz, Mary Ann; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Chou, Chih Ping; Riggs, Nathaniel R

    2011-12-01

    Little is known about the co-occurrence of health risk behaviors in childhood that may signal later addictive behavior. Using a survey, this study evaluated high calorie, low nutrient HCLN intake and video gaming behaviors in 964 fourth grade children over 18 months, with stress, sensation-seeking, inhibitory control, grades, perceived safety of environment, and demographic variables as predictors. SEM and growth curve analyses supported a co-occurrence model with some support for addiction specificity. Male gender, free/reduced lunch, low perceived safety and low inhibitory control independently predicted both gaming and HCLN intake. Ethnicity and low stress predicted HCLN. The findings raise questions about whether living in some impoverished neighborhoods may contribute to social isolation characterized by staying indoors, and HCLN intake and video gaming as compensatory behaviors. Future prevention programs could include skills training for inhibitory control, combined with changes in the built environment that increase safety, e.g., implementing Safe Routes to School Programs.

  5. Little evidence for intralocus sexual conflict over the optimal intake of nutrients for life span and reproduction in the black field cricket Teleogryllus commodus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapkin, James; Archer, C Ruth; Grant, Charles E; Jensen, Kim; House, Clarissa M; Wilson, Alastair J; Hunt, John

    2017-09-01

    There is often large divergence in the effects of key nutrients on life span (LS) and reproduction in the sexes, yet nutrient intake is regulated in the same way in males and females given dietary choice. This suggests that the sexes are constrained from feeding to their sex-specific nutritional optima for these traits. Here, we examine the potential for intralocus sexual conflict (IASC) over optimal protein and carbohydrate intake for LS and reproduction to constrain the evolution of sex-specific nutrient regulation in the field cricket, Teleogryllus commodus. We show clear sex differences in the effects of protein and carbohydrate intake on LS and reproduction and strong positive genetic correlations between the sexes for the regulated intake of these nutrients. However, the between-sex additive genetic covariance matrix had very little effect on the predicted evolutionary response of nutrient regulation in the sexes. Thus, IASC appears unlikely to act as an evolutionary constraint on sex-specific nutrient regulation in T. commodus. This finding is supported by clear sexual dimorphism in the regulated intake of these nutrients under dietary choice. However, nutrient regulation did not coincide with the nutritional optima for LS or reproduction in either sex, suggesting that IASC is not completely resolved in T. commodus. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  6. A measurement error approach to assess the association between dietary diversity, nutrient intake, and mean probability of adequacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Maria L; Carriquiry, Alicia

    2010-11-01

    Collection of dietary intake information requires time-consuming and expensive methods, making it inaccessible to many resource-poor countries. Quantifying the association between simple measures of usual dietary diversity and usual nutrient intake/adequacy would allow inferences to be made about the adequacy of micronutrient intake at the population level for a fraction of the cost. In this study, we used secondary data from a dietary intake study carried out in Bangladesh to assess the association between 3 food group diversity indicators (FGI) and calcium intake; and the association between these same 3 FGI and a composite measure of nutrient adequacy, mean probability of adequacy (MPA). By implementing Fuller's error-in-the-equation measurement error model (EEM) and simple linear regression (SLR) models, we assessed these associations while accounting for the error in the observed quantities. Significant associations were detected between usual FGI and usual calcium intakes, when the more complex EEM was used. The SLR model detected significant associations between FGI and MPA as well as for variations of these measures, including the best linear unbiased predictor. Through simulation, we support the use of the EEM. In contrast to the EEM, the SLR model does not account for the possible correlation between the measurement errors in the response and predictor. The EEM performs best when the model variables are not complex functions of other variables observed with error (e.g. MPA). When observation days are limited and poor estimates of the within-person variances are obtained, the SLR model tends to be more appropriate.

  7. Dietary self-selection by broilers at normal and high temperature changes feed intake behavior, nutrient intake, and performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Syafwan, W.; Wermink, G.J.D.; Kwakkel, R.P.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2012-01-01

    Self-selection assumes that at high ambient temperature, birds are able to select a diet from different sources to minimize the heat load associated with the ingested nutrient metabolism. The objective was to test the hypothesis that young chickens are able to compose an adequate ration by adjusting

  8. Fast-food and full-service restaurant consumption among children and adolescents: effect on energy, beverage, and nutrient intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Lisa M; Nguyen, Binh T

    2013-01-01

    To examine the effect of fast-food and full-service restaurant consumption on total energy intake, dietary indicators, and beverage consumption. Individual-level fixed-effects estimation based on 2 nonconsecutive 24-hour dietary recalls. Nationally representative data from the 2003-2004, 2005-2006, and 2007-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Children aged 2 to 11 years (n = 4717) and adolescents aged 12 to 19 years (n = 4699). Daily total energy intake in kilocalories; intake of grams of sugar, total fat, saturated fat, and protein and milligrams of sodium; and total grams of sugar-sweetened beverages, regular soda, and milk consumed. Fast-food and full-service restaurant consumption, respectively, was associated with a net increase in daily total energy intake of 126.29 kcal and 160.49 kcal for children and 309.53 kcal and 267.30 kcal for adolescents and with higher intake of regular soda (73.77 g and 88.28 g for children and 163.67 g and 107.25 g for adolescents) and sugar-sweetened beverages generally. Fast-food consumption increased intake of total fat (7.03-14.36 g), saturated fat (1.99-4.64 g), and sugar (5.71-16.24 g) for both age groups and sodium (396.28 mg) and protein (7.94 g) for adolescents. Full-service restaurant consumption was associated with increases in all nutrients examined. Additional key findings were (1) adverse effects on diet were larger for lower-income children and adolescents and (2) among adolescents, increased soda intake was twice as large when fast food was consumed away from home than at home. Fast-food and full-service restaurant consumption is associated with higher net total energy intake and poorer diet quality.

  9. Breakfast consumption and nutrient intakes in 4-18-year-olds : UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey Rolling Programme (2008-2012)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coulthard, Janine D.; Palla, Luigi; Pot, Gerda K.

    2017-01-01

    Although breakfast consumption is widely considered to be an important component of a healthy lifestyle, few UK studies have examined differences in nutrient intakes between breakfast consumers and breakfast skippers among children and adolescents. We investigated associations between breakfast

  10. Intake of added sugars and selected nutrients in the United States, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marriott, Bernadette P; Olsho, Lauren; Hadden, Louise; Connor, Patty

    2010-03-01

    In the Institute of Medicine (IOM) macronutrient report the Committee recommended a maximal intake of added sugars. The primary objectives of this study were to utilize National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) to update the reference table data on intake of added sugars from the IOM report and compute food sources of added sugars. We combined data from NHANES with the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) MyPyramid Equivalents Database (MPED) and calculated individual added sugars intake as percent of total energy then classified individuals into 8 added sugars percent energy categories, calculated usual intake with the National Cancer Institute (NCI) method, and compared intakes to the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs). Nutrients at most risk for inadequacy based on the Estimated Average Requirements (EARs) were vitamins E, A, C, and magnesium. Nutrient intake was less with each 5% increase in added sugars intake above 5-10%. Thirteen percent of the population had added sugars intake > 25%. The mean g-eq added sugars intake of 83.1 g-eq/day and added sugars food sources were comparable to the mid-1990s. Higher added sugars intakes were associated with higher proportions of individuals with nutrient intakes below the EAR, but the overall high calorie and the low quality of the U.S. diet remained the predominant issue. With over 80% of the population at risk for select nutrient inadequacy, guidance may need to focus on targeted healthful diet communication to reach the highest risk demographic groups for specific life stage nutrient inadequacies.

  11. [Comparison of the dietary phytosterols intake and serum lipids content in elderly women from three cities of China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jun-hua; Li, Yan-ping; Men, Jian-hua; Yu, Wen-tao; Yang, Yue-xin

    2009-12-01

    To investigate the dietary phytosterol intake of elderly women in three different cities of China, and to compare the main dietary sources, so that to discuss the relationship of dietary phytosterol intake and serum lipids. Based on the dietary pattern, women more than 50 years old from Beijing, Hefei and Urumchi were chosen as testers, 80 - 100 people for each city respectively. The dietary survey was done by continues 24 hours review of two days, the plant food were collected and the phytosterol content (include beta-sitosterol, campesterol, stigmasterol, sitostanol) were analyzed by GC methods, the total phytosterols content were calculated. The dietary phytosterol intake were calculated and serum lipids were also analyzed in all the testers. Testers from Beijing, Hefei and Urumchi were 100, 101 and 84 respectively. The average dietary phytosterol intake of people in Beijing and Hefei were 340.3 mg/d and 313.5 mg/d, the main sources were plant oil and cereals, while the average dietary phytosterol intake of people in Urumchi were 550.4 mg/d, higher than the other two cities (t values were 9.369, 10.420, respectively, both P values phytosterol intake). The laboratory results showed, testers in Urumchi had significantly lower serum TC content ((4.04 +/- 0.78) mmol/L) than that in Beijing ((4.89 +/- 0.91) mmol/L) and Hefei ((4.71 +/- 0.83) mmol/L) (t value were 6.766 and 5.401 respectively, both P values phytosterol intake in elder women in three cities, higher, phytosterol intake seemed to contribute to lower serum lipids.

  12. Intakes and adequacy of potentially important nutrients for cognitive development among 5-year-old children in the Seychelles Child Development and Nutrition Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAfee, Alison J; Mulhern, Maria S; McSorley, Emeir M; Wallace, Julie M W; Bonham, Maxine P; Faure, Jude; Romain, Sarah; Esther, Christina; Shamlaye, Conrad F; Watson, Gene E; Myers, Gary J; Clarkson, Thomas W; Davidson, Philip W; Strain, J J

    2012-09-01

    To assess the nutritional adequacy of Seychellois children in relation to nutrients reported to be important for cognitive development. Dietary intakes were assessed by 4 d weighed food diaries and analysed using dietary analysis software (WISP version 3·0; Tinuviel Software, UK). Individual nutrient intakes were adjusted to usual intakes and, in order to investigate adequacy, were compared with the UK Estimated Average Requirements for children aged 4-6 years. Children 5 years old were followed up as part of the Seychelles Child Development Nutrition Study (SCDNS), located in the high-fish-consuming population of Mahé, Republic of Seychelles. Analysis was carried out on a sample of 229 children (118 boys, 111 girls). Children consumed a diet of which fortified cereal and milk products contributed the most to nutrient intakes. The majority (≥80 %) of children met requirements for several nutrients important for child development including Fe, folate and Se. Adjusted dietary intakes of Cu, Zn, iodine, niacin and vitamin A were below the Estimated Average Requirement or Recommended Nutrient Intake. Mean adjusted energy intakes (boys 4769 kJ/d (1139·84 kcal/d), girls 4759 kJ/d (1137·43 kcal/d)) were lower than the estimated energy requirement (boys 5104 kJ/d (1220 kcal/d), girls 5042 kJ/d (1205 kcal/d)) for 88 % of boys and 86 % of girls. Nutrition was adequate for most children within the SCDNS cohort. Low intakes of some nutrients (including Zn, niacin and vitamin A) could reflect nutritional database inaccuracies, but may require further investigation. The study provides valuable information on the adequacy of intakes of nutrients which could affect the growth and development of Seychellois children.

  13. High saturated-fat and low-fibre intake: a comparative analysis of nutrient intake in individuals with and without type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, C; Ryan, M; McNulty, B; Gibney, M J; Canavan, R; O'Shea, D

    2014-02-03

    The aim of dietary modification, as a cornerstone of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) management, is to optimise metabolic control and overall health. This study describes food and nutrient intake in a sample of adults with T2DM, and compares this to recommendations, and to intake in age, sex, body mass index (BMI) and social-class matched adults without T2DM. A cross-sectional analysis of food and nutrient intake in 124 T2DM individuals (64% male; age 57.4±5.6 years, BMI 32.5±5.8 kg m(-2)) and 124 adults (age 57.4±7.0 years, BMI 31.2±5.0 kg m(-2)) with no diabetes (ND) was undertaken using a 4-day semiweighed food diary. Biochemical and anthropometric variables were also measured. While reported energy intake was similar in T2DM vs ND (1954 vs 2004 kcal per day, P=0.99), T2DM subjects consumed more total-fat (38.8% vs 35%, P0.001), monounsaturated-fat (13.3% vs 12.2%; P=0.004), polyunsaturated-fat (6.7% vs 5.9%; Pvs 17.5%, P0.01). Both groups exceeded saturated-fat recommendations (14.0% vs 13.8%). T2DM intakes of carbohydrate (39.5% vs 42.9%), non-milk sugar (10.4% vs 15.0%) and fibre (14.4 vs 18.9 g) were significantly lower (Pvs 129.2; P=0.02), despite a similar glycaemic index (59.7 vs 60.1; P=0.48). T2DM individuals reported consuming significantly more wholemeal/brown/wholegrain breads, eggs, oils, vegetables, meat/meat products, savoury snacks and soups/sauces and less white breads, breakfast cereals, cakes/buns, full-fat dairy, chocolate, fruit juices, oily fish and alcohol than ND controls. Adults with T2DM made different food choices to ND adults. This resulted in a high saturated-fat diet, with a higher total-fat, monounsaturated-fat, polyunsaturated-fat and protein content and a lower GL, carbohydrate, fibre and non-milk sugar content. Dietary education should emphasise and reinforce the importance of higher fibre, fruit, vegetable and wholegrain intake and the substitution of monounsaturated for saturated-fat sources, in energy balanced

  14. Increased Intake of Foods with High Nutrient Density Can Help to Break the Intergenerational Cycle of Malnutrition and Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Troesch

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A workshop held at the University Medical Center in Groningen, The Netherlands, aimed at discussing the nutritional situation of the population in general and the role diet plays during critical windows in the life course, during which the body is programmed for the development of non-communicable diseases (NCDs. NCDs are increasingly prevalent as our society ages, and nutrition is well known to play an important role in determining the risk and the time of onset of many common NCDs. Even in affluent countries, people have difficulties to achieve adequate intakes for a range of nutrients: Economic constraints as well as modern lifestyles lead people to consume diets with a positive energy balance, but low in micronutrients, resulting in increasing prevalence of obesity and suboptimal nutritional status. Information about nutrient density, which refers to the content of micronutrients relative to energy in food or diets, can help identify foods that have a low calorie to nutrient ratio. It thus allows the consumption of diets that cover nutritional needs without increasing the risk of becoming obese. Given the impact a nutrient dense, low energy diet can have on health, researchers, food industry and governments jointly should develop options for affordable, appealing nutrient-rich food products, which, in combination with physical activity, allow for optimal health throughout the life-course.

  15. Dietary sodium restriction in the prophylaxis of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy: effects on the intake of other nutrients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Buul, B J; Steegers, E A; Jongsma, H W; Rijpkema, A L; Eskes, T K; Thomas, C M; Baadenhuysen, H; Hein, P R

    1995-07-01

    Dietary sodium restriction is used in the Netherlands in the prophylaxis of preeclampsia. To study the effects of long-term sodium restriction on the intake of other nutrients and the outcome of pregnancy, 68 healthy nulliparous pregnant women were randomly assigned to either a low-sodium diet (20 mmol/24 h) or an unrestricted diet. The diet was consumed between week 14 of gestation and delivery. The dietary intakes of energy, fat, protein, carbohydrate, sodium, potassium, and calcium were estimated with the dietary-history technique. A low-sodium diet reduced the intake of protein (by approximately 15 g/24 h), fat (by 20 g/24 h), and calcium (by 350 mg/24 h) and tended to decrease the energy intake (by approximately 0.7 MJ/24 h). The intakes of carbohydrate and potassium did not differ between the groups. The maternal weight gain was less in the low-sodium group (6.0 +/- 3.7 compared with 11.7 +/- 4.7 kg). Mean birth weight was not significantly different (3.2 +/- 0.5 compared with 3.4 +/- 0.5 kg).

  16. Consumption of various forms of apples is associated with a better nutrient intake and improved nutrient adequacy in diets of children: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa A. Nicklas

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Consumption of fruit has been associated with a variety of health benefits, yet, 75% of children have usual intakes of total fruit below minimum recommended amounts. Apples are the second most commonly consumed fruit in the United States; however, no studies have examined the impact of apple consumption on nutrient intake and adequacy in children's diets. Objective: The purpose of this study is to examine the association between apple (various forms consumption with nutrient intake and nutrient adequacy in a nationally representative sample of children. Design: Participants were children aged 2–18 years (n=13,339, from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003–2010. Least square means of total energy and nutrient intake, and the percentage of the population below the estimated average requirement (EAR or above the adequate intake (AI among apple consumers and non-consumers were examined. Results: Consumers of total apple products had higher (p<0.01 total intakes of fiber, magnesium, and potassium and lower intakes of total fat, saturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acid, and sodium than non-consumers. Apple consumers had higher (p<0.01 total sugar intake, but lower intake of added sugars compared to non-consumers. A lower (p<0.01 percentage of apple consumers were below the EAR for 13 of the 16 nutrients studied. Apple consumers had approximately a 10 percentage unit difference below the EAR for calcium and magnesium, and vitamins A, C, D, and E, than non-consumers. The percentage above the AI for fiber was significantly (p<0.0001 higher among total apple consumers (6.24±0.45 g compared to non-consumers (0.57±0.07 g. The results were similar for individual apple products (i.e. apple juice, applesauce, and whole apples. Conclusion: Consumption of any forms of apples provided valuable nutrients in the diets of children.

  17. Nutrient intake and nutritional status of newly diagnosed patients with cancer from the East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Kavitha; Razak, Shariza Abdul; Ismail, Karami A; Krishna, Bhavaraju Venkata Murali

    2014-09-30

    Cancer therapy in Malaysia primarily focuses on the clinical management of patients with cancer and malnutrition continues to be one of the major causes of death in these patients. There is a dearth of information on the nutrient intake and status of newly diagnosed patients with cancer prior to the initiation of treatment. The present study aims to assess the nutrient intake and status of newly diagnosed patients with cancer from the East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia. A cross-sectional study was conducted using a convenient sample of newly diagnosed adult patients with cancer (n = 70) attending the Oncology clinic, Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia in the East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia. Information on socio-demographic characteristics, clinical status, anthropometry, dietary intake and biochemical data including blood samples was obtained. The mean (SD) age, triceps skin fold (TSF), mid upper arm circumference (MUAC) and body mass index (BMI) of participants was 21.1(3.9) years, 17.6(7.9) mm, 24.1(5.5) cm, and 21.1(3.9) Kg/m(2), respectively; 39% participants had BMI cancer were undernourished (i.e. women: MUAC cancer from the East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia were underweight and undernourished. The majority of patients with cancer had poor micronutrient intakes; the older women had a poor macro and micronutrient intakes. Before the initiation of rigorous clinical management of patients with cancer, screening for nutritional status, subsequent nutrition counseling, and interventions are essential to improve their nutritional status; consequently, response to cancer therapy, survival and quality of life.

  18. Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, arsenic and environmental tobacco smoke, nutrient intake, and oxidative stress in Japanese preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Takuya; Yoshinaga, Jun; Suzuki, Kei; Mizoi, Miho; Adachi, Shu-Ichi; Tao, Hiroaki; Nakazato, Tetsuya; Li, Yun-Shan; Kawai, Kazuaki; Kasai, Hiroshi

    2011-07-01

    The association between oxidative stress and exposure to environmental chemicals was assessed in a group of Japanese preschool children. The concentrations of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP), inorganic arsenic (iAs) and monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), and cotinine in spot urine samples, collected from 134 children (3-6 yrs) from a kindergarten in Kanagawa, Japan, were measured as biomarkers of oxidative stress or exposure to environmental chemicals. For 76 subjects of the 134, intakes of anti-oxidant nutrients (vitamins A, C, and E, manganese, copper, zinc and selenium (Se)) were estimated from a food consumption survey carried out 2-4 weeks after urine sampling and by urine analysis (Se). The median (min-max) creatinine-corrected concentrations of urinary biomarkers were 4.45 (1.98-12.3), 0.127 (0.04-2.41), 4.78 (1.18-12.7), and 0.62 (iAs+MMA, and cotinine, respectively. Multiple regression analysis was carried out using 8-OHdG concentration as a dependent variable and urinary biomarkers of exposure and Se intake, intakes of vitamins and biological attributes of the subjects as independent variables. To explain 8-OHdG concentrations, intake of vitamin A and age were significant variables with negative coefficients, while 1-OHP concentration had a positive coefficient. These results indicated that oxidative stress of children is affected by chemical exposure at environmental levels, by nutrient intake and by physiological factors in a complex manner. On the other hand, unstable statistical results due to sub-grouping of subject, based on the availability of food consumption data, were found: the present results should further be validated by future studies with suitable research design. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Associations between intakes of individual nutrients or whole food groups and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease among Korean adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jung Mi; Jo, An Na; Lee, Seung Min; Bae, Hyun Suk; Jun, Dae Won; Cho, Yong Kyun; Suk, Ki Tae; Yoon, Jai Hoon; Ahn, Sang Bong; Cho, Yong Jin; Kim, Seong Woo; Jang, Eun Chul

    2014-06-01

    Dietary factors are closely associated with the risk of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Asian and Western diets differ in energy-nutrient composition, fatty-acid composition, and main nutritional sources; therefore, the implications would be limited if the Western-oriented study results were applied to Asian patients. We aimed to identify the nutrient and food group intakes of a typical Asian diet and assess their effects on NAFLD risk. In total, 348 subjects were recruited from 5 participating hospitals. Information on sociodemographic characteristics and health-related behaviors were obtained through face-to-face interviews. NAFLD was diagnosed by ultrasound. Dietary intakes were assessed with a 24-h recall applying a multiple-pass approach and 4-day food records that included 1 or 2 weekend days. There were no significant differences in health-related behaviors between the cases and controls except for smoking behavior. The cases had elevated triacylglycerol, fasting glucose, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels compared with the controls. In men, after adjusting for variables, low intakes of vitamin C (odds ratio [OR], 4.23), vitamin K (OR, 3.93), folate (OR, 3.37), omega-3 fatty acids (OR, 2.16), and nuts and seeds (OR, 3.66) were associated with a significantly higher risk for developing NAFLD. In women, vitamin K (OR, 2.54) and vegetable (OR, 4.11) intakes showed a significant beneficial effect for lowering NAFLD risk. Adequate intakes of vitamin C, vitamin K, folate, omega-3 fatty acids, nuts and seeds, and vegetables may help in preventing NAFLD in Korean adults.

  20. Santa Inês sheep supplementation on urochloa grass pasture during the dry season: intake, nutrient digestibility and performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo José Presídio Almeida

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted with the objective of evaluating the effect of concentrate supplementation, formulated with different ingredients (Mesquite pod meal, sorghum meal or wheat meal and mineral supplementation on performance, intake and digestibility of nutrients in Santa Inês lambs grazing on urochloa grass during the dry season. Twenty-four uncastrated weaned Santa Inês sheep, with average body weight (BW 20±2 kg with an average of 120 days of age were used in the assay. The experiment lasted 75 days. The animals grazing deferred Urochloa grass (Urochloa mosambicensis (Hack Daudy were distributed into four treatments consisting of mineral supplementation provided ad libitum and concentrated supplements containing mesquite pod meal, sorghum meal or wheat meal, supplied 10 g /kg BW on dry matter basis. The intakes of dry matter (DM and crude protein (CP were affected by the intake of concentrate supplement, regardless of the ingredients used in the supplements, compared with the mineral supplementation treatment, since the consumption of forage was reduced in 30% with mesquite pod meal supplement, and neutral detergent fiber (NDF intake was not affected in relation to treatments. The digestibility of DM and CP were higher for treatments with supplements, and NDF digestibility did not differ between treatments. A significant difference was observed in the values of average daily gain for the treatments with concentrate supplementation compared with the one of mineral supplementation. The supplementation with concentrate in grazing enables improvement of performance, intake and digestibility of nutrients regardless of the ingredient used in the supplement.

  1. Dietary taurine intake, nutrients intake, dietary habits and life stress by depression in Korean female college students: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ji-Yeon; You, Jeong-Soon; Chang, Kyung-Ja

    2010-08-24

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the dietary taurine intake, nutrients intake, dietary habits and life stress by depression in Korean female college students. In this study, research data were collected in March 2009 and 65 patients with depression and 65 controls without depression participated. The CES-D (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression) scale was used for depression measure and controls were matched for age. A 3-day recall method was used for dietary assessment (2 weekdays and 1 weekend day). Average height, weight and body mass index (BMI) were 161.3+/-0.5 cm, 55.3+/-1.0 kg and 21.2+/-0.4 kg/m2 for depression patients and those of control group were 161.4+/-0.7 cm, 53.1+/-0.8 kg and 20.3+/-0.2 kg/m2, respectively. Average dietary taurine intakes of depression patients and control group were 89.1 and 88.0 mg/day, respectively. There was no significant difference in dietary taurine intake between depression patients and control group. The average intakes of vitamin A (pdepression patients were significantly lower compared to control group. The average total dietary habit score of depression patients (47.2) was significantly lower than that of control group (51.3) (pdepression patients compare to control group. The average scores of total life stress (pdepression patients were significantly higher than those of control group except faculty problem score. These results show that depression patients have poor dietary habits and unbalanced nutrition status. Also depression patients have higher life stress score.Therefore, continuous nutrition education and counselling for good dietary habits and balanced nutrition status are needed to prevent depression in Korean college students.

  2. Repeated 24-hour recalls versus dietary records for estimating nutrient intakes in a national food consumption survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willem De Keyzer

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The methodology used in the first Belgian food consumption survey followed to a large extent the instructions of the European Food Consumption (EFCOSUM reports, where repeated 24-hour recalls (24HR using EPIC-SOFT were recommended.To evaluate the relative validity of two non-consecutive 24HR using EPIC-SOFT by comparison with 5-day estimated dietary records (EDR. To assess misreporting in energy for both methods by comparing energy intake with energy expenditure from accelerometery in a subsample.A total of 175 subjects (aged 15 and over were recruited to participate in the study. Repeated 24HR were performed with an interval of 2–8 weeks. After completion of the second interview, subjects were instructed to keep an EDR. Dietary intakes were adjusted for within-person variability to reflect usual intakes. A Student's t-test was calculated to assess differences between both methods. Spearman and Kappa correlation coefficients were used to investigate agreement.In total, 127 subjects completed the required repeated 24HR, as well as the five record days. From 76 participants, accelerometer data were available. In both methods, about 35% of participants had ratios of Energy Intake/Total Energy Expenditure (EI/TEE above or below 95% confidence intervals for EI/TEE, suggesting misreporting of energy. Significant differences between the two dietary intake methods were found for total energy, total fat, fatty acids, cholesterol, alcohol, vitamin C, thiamine, riboflavin and iron. In general, intakes from 24HR were higher compared to EDR. Correlation coefficients for all nutrients ranged from 0.16 for thiamine to 0.70 for water.The results from this study show that in the context of nutritional surveillance, duplicate 24HR can be used to asses intakes of protein, carbohydrates, starch, sugar, water, potassium and calcium.

  3. Avocado consumption by adults is associated with better nutrient intake, diet quality, and some measures of adiposity: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2001-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avocados contain a beneficial lipid profile, including a high level of monounsaturated fatty acids, as well as dietary fiber, essential nutrients, and phytochemicals. However, little epidemiologic data exist on the effect that consumption of avocados has on overall nutrient intake, diet quality, adi...

  4. Variability of nutrients intake, lipid profile and cardiovascular mortality among geographical areas in Spain: The DRECE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez de la Cámara, Agustín; De Andrés Esteban, Eva; Urrútia Cuchí, Gerard; Calderón Sandubete, Enrique; Rubio Herrera, Miguel Ángel; Menéndez Orenga, Miguel; Lora Pablos, David

    2017-11-07

    It has often been suggested that cardiovascular mortality and their geographical heterogeneity are associated with nutrients intake patterns and also lipid profile. The large Spanish study Dieta y Riesgo de Enfermedades Cardiovasculares en España (DRECE) investigated this theory from 1991 to 2010. Out of the 4,783 Spanish individuals making up the DRECE cohort, 220 subjects (148 men and 72 women) died (4.62%) during the course of the study. The mean age of patients who died from cardiovascular causes (32 in all) was 61.08 years 95% CI (57.47-64.69) and 70.91% of them were males. The consumption of nutrients and the lipid profile by geographical area, studied by geospatial models, showed that the east and southern area of the country had the highest fat intake coupled to a high rate of unhealthy lipid profile. It was concluded that the spatial geographical analysis showed a relationship between high fat intake, unhealthy lipid profile and cardiovascular mortality in the different geographical areas, with a high variability within the country.

  5. The relationship between dental status, food selection, nutrient intake, nutritional status, and body mass index in older people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Marcenes

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviewed the findings from a national survey in Great Britain which assessed whether dental status affected older people's food selection, nutrient intake, and nutritional status. The survey analyzed national random samples of free-living and institution subjects for dental examination, interview, and four-day food diary as well as blood and urine tests In the free-living sample, intakes of non-starch polysaccharides, protein, calcium, non-heme iron, niacin, and vitamin C were significantly lower in edentulous as compared to dentate subjects. People with 21 or more teeth consumed more of most nutrients, particularly non-starch polysaccharides. This relationship in intake was not apparent in the hematological analysis. Plasma ascorbate and retinol were the only analytes significantly associated with dental status. Having 21 or more teeth increased the likelihood of having an acceptable body mass index (BMI. Thus, maintaining a natural and functional dentition defined as having more than twenty teeth into old age plays an important role in having a healthy diet rich in fruits and vegetables, a satisfactory nutritional status, and an acceptable BMI.

  6. Ultra-processed Food Intake and Obesity: What Really Matters for Health-Processing or Nutrient Content?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poti, Jennifer M; Braga, Bianca; Qin, Bo

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this narrative review was to summarize and critique recent evidence evaluating the association between ultra-processed food intake and obesity. Four of five studies found that higher purchases or consumption of ultra-processed food was associated with overweight/obesity. Additional studies reported relationships between ultra-processed food intake and higher fasting glucose, metabolic syndrome, increases in total and LDL cholesterol, and risk of hypertension. It remains unclear whether associations can be attributed to processing itself or the nutrient content of ultra-processed foods. Only three of nine studies used a prospective design, and the potential for residual confounding was high. Recent research provides fairly consistent support for the association of ultra-processed food intake with obesity and related cardiometabolic outcomes. There is a clear need for further studies, particularly those using longitudinal designs and with sufficient control for confounding, to potentially confirm these findings in different populations and to determine whether ultra-processed food consumption is associated with obesity independent of nutrient content.

  7. Stabilization of the Serum Lithium Concentration by Regulation of Sodium Chloride Intake: Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita, Takashi; Goto, Hidekazu; Sumiya, Kenji; Yoshida, Tadashi; Tanaka, Katsuya; Kohda, Yukinao

    2016-01-01

    To avoid fluctuation of the serum lithium concentration (CLi), sodium chloride (NaCl) intake was regulated in oral alimentation. A 62-year-old woman was hospitalized and orally administered 400 mg of lithium carbonate a day to treat her mania. Her CLi was found to be 0.75-0.81 mEq/L. Vomiting made it difficult for the patient to ingest meals orally, and therefore parenteral nutrition with additional oral intake of protein-fortified food was initiated. On day 22, parenteral nutrition was switched to oral alimentation to enable oral intake of food. The total NaCl equivalent amount was decreased to 1.2 g/d, and the CLi increased to 1.15 mEq/L on day 26. Oral alimentation with semi-solid food blended in a mixer was immediately initiated. Although the total NaCl equivalent amount was increased to 4.5-5.0 g/d, her CLi remained high at 1.14-1.17 mEq/L on days 33 and 49, respectively. We investigated oral administration of NaCl (1.8 g/d) on day 52. The total NaCl equivalent amount was increased to 6.3-6.8 g/d, and the CLi decreased to 1.08-0.97 mEq/L on days 63 and 104, respectively. After the start of the orally administered NaCl, her diet was changed to a completely blended diet on day 125. The total NaCl equivalent amount was increased to 9.0-14.5 g/d, and the CLi decreased to 0.53 mEq/L on day 152; therefore, the oral administration of NaCl was discontinued on day 166. The CLi was found to be 0.70-0.85 mEq/L on days 176 and 220.

  8. Serum tocopherol levels and vitamin E intake are associated with lung function in the normative aging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Corrine; Lyden, Elizabeth; Furtado, Jeremy; Campos, Hannia; Sparrow, David; Vokonas, Pantel; Litonjua, Augusto A

    2016-02-01

    The results of studies assessing relationships between vitamin E intake and status and lung function are conflicting. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of vitamin E intake and serum levels of tocopherol isoforms on lung function in a cross-sectional sample of 580 men from the Normative Aging Study, a longitudinal aging study. Regression models were used to look at associations of serum tocopherol isoform levels and vitamin E intake with lung function parameters after adjustment for confounders. Vitamin E intake was measured using a food frequency questionnaire and serum levels of γ, α, and δ-tocopherol levels were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography. After adjustment for potential confounders, serum γ-tocopherol had a significant inverse association with forced vital capacity (β = -0.10, p = 0.05). Alpha and δ-tocopherol were not associated with any lung function parameter. After classifying COPD status according to Global Initiative for Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) stage criteria, serum levels of δ-tocopherol were lower in participants with more severe COPD (p = 0.01). Serum levels of δ-tocopherol were also lower in participants with greater levels of smoking (p = 0.02). Both vitamin E intake (β = 0.03, p = 0.02; β = 0.03, p = 0.01) and use of vitamin E supplements (β = 0.05, p = 0.03; β = 0.06. p = 0.02) were positively associated with FEV1 and FVC, after adjusting for confounders. Subjects who took vitamin E supplements had significantly higher α-tocopherol levels (p tocopherol levels (p tocopherol and lung function. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  9. Nutrient Intake Is Insufficient among Senegalese Urban School Children and Adolescents: Results from Two 24 h Recalls in State Primary Schools in Dakar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Fiorentino

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to rapid urbanization and high food prices and in the absence of nutrition programs, school children from urban areas in West Africa often have insufficient and inadequate diet leading to nutrient deficiencies that affect their health and schooling performance. Acute malnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies are prevalent in children from primary state schools of Dakar (Senegal. The objectives of the present study were to assess the overall diet of these children, to report insufficient/excessive energy and nutrient intakes and to investigate association between insufficient nutrient intake and micronutrient deficiencies. Children attending urban state primary schools in the Dakar area were selected through a two-stage random cluster sampling (30 schools × 20 children. Dietary intake data were obtained from two 24 h recalls and blood samples were collected from 545 children (aged 5–17 years, 45% < 10 years, 53% girls and adjusted for intra-individual variability to estimate nutrient usual intakes. Energy intake was insufficient and unbalanced with insufficient contribution of protein and excessive contribution of fat to global energy intake in one third of the children. Proportions of children with insufficient intake were: 100% for calcium, 100% for folic acid, 79% for vitamin A, 69% for zinc, 53% for vitamin C and 46% for iron. Insufficient iron and protein intake were risk factors for iron deficiency (odds ratio, OR 1.5, 2.2. Insufficient zinc intake and energy intake from protein were risk factors for zinc deficiency (OR 1.8, 3.0, 1.7, 2.9. Insufficient iron and vitamin C intake, and insufficient energy intake from protein were risk factors for marginal vitamin A status (OR 1.8, 1.8, 3.3. To address nutritional deficiencies associated with a diet deficient in energy, protein and micronutrients, nutrition education or school feeding programs are needed in urban primary schools of Senegal.

  10. Association between Nutrition Label Reading and Nutrient Intake in Korean Adults: Korea National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey, 2007-2009 (KNHANES IV)

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Min-Gyou; Oh, Seung-Won; Han, Na-Rae; Song, Dong-Ju; Um, Jae-Yean; Bae, Su-Hyun; Kwon, Hyuktae; Lee, Cheol-Min; Joh, Hee-Kyung; Hong, Sung-woo

    2014-01-01

    Background Nutrition labels provide various information on the nutrient contents of food. However, despite the recent increase in the interest in dietary intake and expansion of related policies, studies on the association between nutrition label reading and dietary intake are lacking in Korea. Methods This study analyzed the 2007-2009 KNHANES (Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey) data. To examine macronutrients and micronutrients intake according to nutrition label readin...

  11. Nutrient Intake Is Insufficient among Senegalese Urban School Children and Adolescents: Results from Two 24 h Recalls in State Primary Schools in Dakar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorentino, Marion; Landais, Edwige; Bastard, Guillaume; Carriquiry, Alicia; Wieringa, Frank T.; Berger, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    Due to rapid urbanization and high food prices and in the absence of nutrition programs, school children from urban areas in West Africa often have insufficient and inadequate diet leading to nutrient deficiencies that affect their health and schooling performance. Acute malnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies are prevalent in children from primary state schools of Dakar (Senegal). The objectives of the present study were to assess the overall diet of these children, to report insufficient/excessive energy and nutrient intakes and to investigate association between insufficient nutrient intake and micronutrient deficiencies. Children attending urban state primary schools in the Dakar area were selected through a two-stage random cluster sampling (30 schools × 20 children). Dietary intake data were obtained from two 24 h recalls and blood samples were collected from 545 children (aged 5–17 years, 45% < 10 years, 53% girls) and adjusted for intra-individual variability to estimate nutrient usual intakes. Energy intake was insufficient and unbalanced with insufficient contribution of protein and excessive contribution of fat to global energy intake in one third of the children. Proportions of children with insufficient intake were: 100% for calcium, 100% for folic acid, 79% for vitamin A, 69% for zinc, 53% for vitamin C and 46% for iron. Insufficient iron and protein intake were risk factors for iron deficiency (odds ratio, OR 1.5, 2.2). Insufficient zinc intake and energy intake from protein were risk factors for zinc deficiency (OR 1.8, 3.0, 1.7, 2.9). Insufficient iron and vitamin C intake, and insufficient energy intake from protein were risk factors for marginal vitamin A status (OR 1.8, 1.8, 3.3). To address nutritional deficiencies associated with a diet deficient in energy, protein and micronutrients, nutrition education or school feeding programs are needed in urban primary schools of Senegal. PMID:27775598

  12. Guar gum effects on food intake, blood serum lipids and glucose levels of Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frias, A C; Sgarbieri, V C

    1998-01-01

    The effects of guar gum derived from the endosperm of Cyamopsis tetragonoloba (75% soluble fiber, 7.6% insoluble fiber, 2.16% crude protein, 0.78% total lipids, 0.54% ash and 9.55% moisture) on food intake, levels of blood serum cholesterol, triacylglycerols, glucose and LDL and HDL-cholesterol were studied. The effects of guar gum on indices of protein absorption and utilization were also investigated. Diets containing 0%, 10% and 20% (w/w) guar gum or 10% and 20% cellulose powder (reference) were fed to normal rats for 60 days. The rats fed the guar gum diets showed significantly (p Guar gum decreased blood serum glucose only during the first month of the experiment, and no changes in the indices of protein absorption and utilization were found. The guar gum caused a 10% increase in the small intestine length and a 25% retardation in the intestinal transit. The results of this research suggested that guar gum could potentially be effective in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia and obesity in humans.

  13. Nutrient intake of children (36 months) fed fermented foods in urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 3-day weighed food intake study was conducted with 200 children aged 36 months in two urban and rural communities in Anambra and Enugu states. Means, standard error of the mean and Duncan's multiple range test were the statistical tools used to analyze the data. The daily mean energy intake, protein, thiamin, ...

  14. Asociación entre la ingesta de nutrientes hematopoyéticos y el origen nutricional de la anemia en mujeres en edad fértil en Colombia Association between hematopoietic nutrient intake and the origin of nutritional anemia in women of childbearing age in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Mariela Manjarrés

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar el origen de la anemia nutricional según las variables sociodemográficas y analizar su asociación con la deficiencia en la ingesta de nutrientes hematopoyéticos. MÉTODOS: Se utilizó la base de datos de la Encuesta Nacional de la Situación Nutricional de Colombia, 2005. Los datos se obtuvieron por muestreo complejo representativo de la población y se procesaron con el programa SPSS, v.15. Se seleccionaron mujeres en edad fértil con anemia y se clasificaron en dos grupos según la ferritina sérica. Se determinó la ingesta usual de nutrientes hematopoyéticos y el riesgo de deficiencia. Se compararon las proporciones de los tipos de anemia según las variables sociodemográficas utilizando la prueba F de Rao-Scott de segundo orden (P OBJECTIVES: Compare the nutritional origin of anemia by sociodemographic variables and analyze its association with deficient hematopoietic nutrient intake. METHODS: The database of Colombia's 2005 National Survey of Nutritional Status was used. The data were obtained through complex representative sampling of the population and processed using SPSS v.15. Anemic women of childbearing age were selected and divided into two groups according to serum ferritin levels. Their customary hematopoietic nutrient intake and risk of deficiency were determined. The proportions of anemia types were compared by sociodemographic variables using the F-distribution, the Rao-Scott second order correction (P < 0.05. The association between the origin of the anemia and classification of the nutrient was analyzed using the odds ratio (OR. RESULTS: Sample: 595 women. Non-hypoferric anemia (67.2% predominated, with no statistical difference by sociodemographic variable, except in the Pacific region (hypoferric anemia, 52.1%. The prevalence of deficiency in the customary intake of hematopoietic nutrients was high. There was no significant association between the deficit in consumption and the origin of the anemia

  15. Effect of television viewing on food and nutrient intake among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Elisabete; Costa, Andreia; Araújo, Joana; Severo, Milton; Lopes, Carla

    2013-01-01

    Among the behaviors associated with food intake, exposure to television is particularly important given the number of adolescents exposed. Also, increased time spent watching television has been associated with physical inactivity and with less desirable dietary intake among adolescents. The aim of this study was to examine the association between television viewing and dietary intake among 13-y-old adolescents. A cross-sectional evaluation was carried out in the 2003-2004 school year, including adolescents born in 1990 and enrolled in the schools of Porto, Portugal. Time spent watching TV was collected by self-administered questionnaires and dietary intake was evaluated using a food frequency questionnaire. Included in the analysis were 1436 adolescents. Spending more than 120 min per day watching TV was significantly associated with higher intake of total fat and polyunsaturated fat and with lower intake of magnesium, in both sexes. Additionally, in girls, spending more than 120 min per day watching TV was associated with lower intake of complex carbohydrates, fiber, total vitamin A, folate, vitamin C, calcium, iron, phosphorus, and potassium. In boys, higher intake of saturated fat and cholesterol was found among those spending more time watching TV. We found that television viewing is associated with higher consumption of foods containing more fats and sugars and a lower consumption of fruits and vegetables. Consequently, adolescents who watched more television had a higher intake of total fat and polyunsaturated fat and a lower intake of minerals and vitamins. This dietary behavior among adolescents may have long-term health implications, not only limited to obesity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Zinc intake and plasma/serum zinc concentration: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warthon-Medina, M.; Dullemeijer, C.; Skinner, A.L.; Moran, V.H.

    2011-01-01

    A systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was conducted to investigate how Zn intake influences plasma/serum Zn concentrations. We used protocols developed by EURRECA to perform a literature search for papers published up until February 2010 through MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane

  17. Nutrient and food group intakes of women with and without Bulimia Nervosa and Binge Eating Disorder during pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Haugen, Margaretha; Meltzer, Helle M; Von Holle, Ann; Hamer, Robert; Torgersen, Leila; Knopf-Berg, Cecilie; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; Bulik, Cynthia M

    2009-01-01

    Background Little is known concerning the dietary habits of eating disordered women during pregnancy that may lie in the causal pathway of adverse birth outcomes. Objective To examine the nutrient and food group intake of women with bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge eating disorder (BED) during pregnancy and compare their intake to women with no eating disorders. Design Data on 30,040 mother-child pairs are from the prospective Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study was used in cross-sectional analyses. Dietary information was collected using a food frequency questionnaire during the first half of pregnancy. Statistical testing by eating disorder categories with the non-eating disorder category as the referent group were conducted using log (means) adjusted for confounding and multiple comparisons. Food group differences were conducted using a Wilcoxon two-sided normal approximation test also adjusting for multiple comparisons. Results Women with BED before and during pregnancy had higher intakes of total energy, total mono-saturated and saturated fat, and lower intakes of folate, potassium, and vitamin C compared to the referent (p<.02). Women with incident BED during pregnancy had higher total energy and saturated fat intake compared to the referent (p=.01). Several differences emerged in food group consumption between women with and without eating disorders including intakes of artificial sweeteners, sweets, juice, fruits and fats. Conclusions Women with BN before and during pregnancy and those with BED before pregnancy exhibit dietary patterns different from women without eating disorders, that are reflective of their symptomatology, and may influence pregnancy outcomes. PMID:18469258

  18. Is nutrient intake a gender-specific cause for enhanced susceptibility to alcohol-induced liver disease in women?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagnerberger, S.; Schafer, C.; Schwarz, E.

    2008-01-01

    Aim: Women have a higher susceptibility to alcohol-induced liver disease (ALD) than men. Gender-related differences in food preference were described in previous studies for several populations, but not in alcohol abusers. As certain micronutrients are reported to take influence on the development...... of ALD in animal experiments, the hypothesis of the present retrospective cross-sectional study was that gender-dependent (micro-) nutrient intake in patients with ALD may cause the higher susceptibility of women to this disease. Methods: In 210 patients (male: 158, female: 52) with different stages...

  19. Agreement of dietary fiber and calorie intake values according to the choice of nutrient composition and household measure tables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele DREHMER

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze the variations in the daily intake of dietary fiber and calories according to the different nutrient composition and homemade measure tables. Methods: Five different methods based on different nutrient composition and household measure tables were used to calculate daily calorie and fiber intake, measured using a food frequency questionnaire, of 633 pregnant women receiving care in primary health care units in the Southern region of Brazil; they were selected to participate in a cohort study. The agreement between the five methods was evaluated using the Kappa and weighted Kappa coefficients. The Nutritional Support Table, a Brazilian traditional food composition table and the Brazilian household expenditure survey were used in Method 1. Brazilian Food Composition Table and the Table for the Assessment of Household Measures (Pinheiro were used in Methods 2 and 3. The average values of all subtypes of food listed in the Brazilian Food Composition Table for each corresponding item in the food frequency questionnaire were calculated in the method 3. The United States Department of Agriculture Food Composition Table and the table complied by Pinheiro were used in Method 4. The Brazilian Food Composition Table and the Brazilian household expenditure survey were used in Method 5. Results: The highest agreement of calorie intake values were found between Methods 2 and 3 (Kappa=0.94; 0.92-0.95, and the lowest agreement was found between Methods 4 and 5 (Kappa=0.46; 0.42-0.50. As for the fiber intake, the highest agreement was found between Methods 2 and 5 (Kappa=0.87; 0.82-0.90, and the lowest agreement was observed between Methods 1 and 4 (Kappa=0.36; 0.3-0.43. Conclusion: Considerable differences were found between the nutritional composition tables. Therefore, the choice of the table can influence the comparability between studies.

  20. Nutrient utilisation, growth performance and blood metabolites in Murrah buffalo calves (Bubalus bubalis) divergently selected for residual feed intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vijay K; Kundu, Shivlal S; Prusty, Sonali; Datt, Chander; Kumar, Muneendra

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate differences in efficiency of feed utilisation between buffalo calves with low and high residual feed intake (RFI) by comparing feed intake, nutrient digestibility, growth traits and blood metabolites. Eighteen male Murrah buffalo calves (aged 4-6 months; 70 ± 1.0 kg body weight) were fed ad libitum with a total mixed ration for 120 d. Based on linear regression models involving dry matter intake (DMI), average daily gain (ADG) and mid-test metabolic body size, calves were assigned into low and high RFI groups. The RFI varied from -0.33 to +0.28 kg DM/d with an average RFI of -0.14 and 0.14 kg DM/d in low and high RFI calves, respectively. Calves had a mean DMI of 1.9 and 2.4 kg/d and an ADG of 0.5 and 0.6 kg/d in low and high RFI groups, respectively. Low RFI calves ate 19.0% less DM each day and required significantly less metabolisable energy for maintenance compared with high RFI calves (12.5 vs. 16.7 MJ/d). Nutrient digestibility and nitrogen balance did not differ among low and high RFI calves. In more efficient animals (low RFI calves) higher (p calves are more efficient in feed utilisation and the differences in blood metabolites are probably due to differences in feed intake and body metabolism.

  1. The Nutritional Geometry of Resource Scarcity: Effects of Lean Seasons and Habitat Disturbance on Nutrient Intakes and Balancing in Wild Sifakas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell T Irwin

    Full Text Available Animals experience spatial and temporal variation in food and nutrient supply, which may cause deviations from optimal nutrient intakes in both absolute amounts (meeting nutrient requirements and proportions (nutrient balancing. Recent research has used the geometric framework for nutrition to obtain an improved understanding of how animals respond to these nutritional constraints, among them free-ranging primates including spider monkeys and gorillas. We used this framework to examine macronutrient intakes and nutrient balancing in sifakas (Propithecus diadema at Tsinjoarivo, Madagascar, in order to quantify how these vary across seasons and across habitats with varying degrees of anthropogenic disturbance. Groups in intact habitat experience lean season decreases in frugivory, amounts of food ingested, and nutrient intakes, yet preserve remarkably constant proportions of dietary macronutrients, with the proportional contribution of protein to the diet being highly consistent. Sifakas in disturbed habitat resemble intact forest groups in the relative contribution of dietary macronutrients, but experience less seasonality: all groups' diets converge in the lean season, but disturbed forest groups largely fail to experience abundant season improvements in food intake or nutritional outcomes. These results suggest that: (1 lemurs experience seasonality by maintaining nutrient balance at the expense of calories ingested, which contrasts with earlier studies of spider monkeys and gorillas, (2 abundant season foods should be the target of habitat management, even though mortality might be concentrated in the lean season, and (3 primates' within-group competitive landscapes, which contribute to variation in social organization, may vary in complex ways across habitats and seasons.

  2. Geographic and socioeconomic diversity of food and nutrient intakes: a comparison of four European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertens, Elly; Kuijsten, Anneleen; Dofková, Marcela

    2018-01-01

    Purpose Public health policies and actions increasingly acknowledge the climate burden of food consumption. The aim ofthis study is to describe dietary intakes across four European countries, as baseline for further research towards healthierand environmentally-friendlier diets for Europe. Methods...... from48 to 224 ml/day, and for alcohol from 8 to 15 g/day, with higher intakes in Italy for fruit, vegetables and fish, and in Denmarkfor dairy, sweet beverages and alcohol. In all countries, intakes were low for legumes (80...

  3. Fish protein intake induces fast-muscle hypertrophy and reduces liver lipids and serum glucose levels in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabata, Fuminori; Mizushige, Takafumi; Uozumi, Keisuke; Hayamizu, Kohsuke; Han, Li; Tsuji, Tomoko; Kishida, Taro

    2015-01-01

    In our previous study, fish protein was proven to reduce serum lipids and body fat accumulation by skeletal muscle hypertrophy and enhancing basal energy expenditure in rats. In the present study, we examined the precise effects of fish protein intake on different skeletal muscle fiber types and metabolic gene expression of the muscle. Fish protein increased fast-twitch muscle weight, reduced liver triglycerides and serum glucose levels, compared with the casein diet after 6 or 8 weeks of feeding. Furthermore, fish protein upregulated the gene expressions of a fast-twitch muscle-type marker and a glucose transporter in the muscle. These results suggest that fish protein induces fast-muscle hypertrophy, and the enhancement of basal energy expenditure by muscle hypertrophy and the increase in muscle glucose uptake reduced liver lipids and serum glucose levels. The present results also imply that fish protein intake causes a slow-to-fast shift in muscle fiber type.

  4. Volume 10 No. 7 July 2010 1 NUTRIENT INTAKE AND ADEQUACY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2010-07-07

    Jul 7, 2010 ... 24-hour food recall instrument and in addition, demographic, health status, and ... higher consumption of fruits, but still much lower than the ... Key words: Elderly, Botswana, diet, nutrient, health ..... picture of the elderly diet.

  5. Effect of a nutrient-enriched drink on dietary intake and nutritional status in institutionalised elderly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manders, M.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Blauw, Y.H.; Dhonukshe-Rutten, R.A.M.; Hoeckel-Prüst, van L.; Bindels, J.G.; Siebelink, E.; Staveren, van W.A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: (1) To determine whether nutritional supplementation (energy and micronutrients) in institutionalised elderly has a positive effect on dietary intake and nutritional status. (2) To investigate whether individuals tend to compensate for the energy content of the intervention product by

  6. Nutrient and nontraditional food intakes by Zambian children in a controlled feeding trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmaelzle, Samantha; Kaliwile, Chisela; Arscott, Sara A; Gannon, Bryan; Masi, Cassim; Tanumihardjo, Sherry A

    2014-03-01

    Many programs aim to alleviate vitamin A deficiency. Biofortification is an approach to improve provitamin A carotenoid concentrations of staple crops in some developing countries. In rural Zambia, maize accounts for the majority of energy intake. Provitamin A-biofortified (orange) maize has been released in Zambia. This study quantified food intake of Zambian children from records collected in a feeding trial in 2012 in order to compare adoption of orange maize and a new vegetable (green beans) with white maize and traditional foods. One hundred thirty-six children with a mean age of 71.5 +/- 6.9 months were fed three meals a day for 6 days a week for 15 weeks at four feeding centers. Breakfast consisted of maize porridge, and lunch and dinner were stiff porridge (nshima) with various side dishes (relishes). There were three treatment groups, which received orange maize and placebo oil, white maize and placebo oil, or white maize and a daily vitamin A supplement. Food was weighed before and after consumption. Nutritionists were trained to interview the children's caregivers about the previous day's intake using dietary recalls. Nine dietary recalls for each child were recorded and analyzed. Total food intake did not differ among the groups (p = .31) and energy intakes on Sundays (kcal) were below recommendations. Nshima intake was lower in the orange-maize group (p = .008), largely due to a genotype effect. Intakes of relish, green bean, and porridge did not differ among the groups (p > .19). Dietary recalls revealed that children living in sites closer to the main road consumed more on Sundays than children living about 8 km from the main road, but less in the evenings when children were off site. The intakes of energy of these Zambian children were low. Implementation and adoption of new and biofortified foods is possible with promotion.

  7. Nutrient Intake and Food Habits of Soccer Players: Analyzing the Correlates of Eating Practice

    OpenAIRE

    García-Rovés, Pablo M.; García-Zapico, Pedro; Patterson, Ángeles M.; Iglesias-Gutiérrez, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Despite the impact and popularity of soccer, and the growing field of soccer-related scientific research, little attention has been devoted to the nutritional intake and eating habits of soccer players. Moreover, the few studies that have addressed this issue suggest that the nutritional intake of soccer players is inadequate, underscoring the need for better adherence to nutritional recommendations and the development and implementation of nutrition education programs. The objective of thes...

  8. Parent-child associations in selected food group and nutrient intakes among overweight and obese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Allison W; Mâsse, Louise C; Barr, Susan I; Lovato, Chris Y; Hanning, Rhona M

    2014-10-01

    Few studies have compared parent-child dietary intake among adolescents who are overweight or obese. The purpose of our study was to determine the relationship between parent-teen intake of selected dietary components among this sample. Baseline data from 165 parent and adolescent (aged 11 to 16 years) pairs who presented for a lifestyle behavior modification intervention were collected between 2010 and 2012. Parent and adolescent dietary intake (servings of fruits and vegetables [F/V]; grams of sugar; and percent energy from total fat, saturated fat, dessert/treats, sugar-sweetened beverages, and snacks) was assessed using web-based 24-hour dietary recalls. Multivariable linear and negative binomial regression models identified associations between parent and child dietary intake adjusting for relevant covariates. A large proportion of adolescents and parents did not meet dietary recommendations for F/V, total fat, and saturated fat. Parent-adolescent intake of F/V, total fat, saturated fat, sugar, sugar-sweetened beverages, and snacks were positively associated (r=0.19 to 0.37). No relationship was observed for dessert/treats. In multivariate models, significant interaction effects suggest that the parent-child association in diet was weaker for fat intake among parents with higher educational attainment (b=-.31; P<0.05) and for snacking among adolescent boys (b=-.30; P<.05). Parent intake of several dietary components important for good health, and related to obesity, was associated with adolescent intake. Helping parents improve their diet may promote improvements in their adolescent's diet and is a potential target for interventions designed to increase healthy eating among adolescents. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Balancing the benefits and costs of traditional food substitution by indigenous Arctic women of childbearing age: Impacts on persistent organic pollutant, mercury, and nutrient intakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binnington, Matthew J; Curren, Meredith S; Chan, Hing Man; Wania, Frank

    2016-09-01

    For indigenous Arctic Canadians, traditional food consumption represents a key source of nutrients and environmental contaminants. Particularly, ingestion of marine mammal blubber and meat may lead to persistent organic pollutant levels and mercury intakes that exceed regulatory thresholds for sensitive populations. We investigated whether temporary adjustments to the consumption of traditional food derived from marine mammals appreciably impacted contaminant exposure and nutrient intakes among indigenous women of childbearing age. Such adjustments can be motivated by the desire to lower contaminant exposure or to increase nutrition, or by the diminishing availability of other traditional food sources. We combined the contaminant fate and transport model GloboPOP with the food chain bioaccumulation model ACC-Human Arctic to simulate polychlorinated biphenyl exposures in female 2007-08 Inuit Health Survey participants. We also calculated daily mercury and nutrient intake rates. Our results suggest that a temporary decrease in marine mammal consumption is largely ineffective at reducing exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls, because of their long elimination half-lives. In contrast, substitution of marine mammals was highly efficient at reducing mercury intake, but also appreciably lowered intakes of iron, manganese, selenium, and ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. The impact of increasing intake of traditional food derived from marine mammals during childbearing age greatly depended on baseline consumption rates; replacement is ill-advised for those who already consume a lot of traditional food due to greater polychlorinated biphenyl and mercury exposures, while replacement was potentially beneficial for those with very limited marine mammal consumption due to increased nutrient intakes. Our calculations primarily suggest that considering baseline traditional food intake rates is critical to devising reproductive dietary adjustment strategies that maximize nutrient

  10. Comparison of nutrient intake in adolescents and adults with and without food allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslin, K; Venter, C; MacKenzie, H; Vlieg-Boerstra, B; Dean, T; Sommer, I

    2018-04-01

    Exclusion diets for the management of food allergy pose a risk of nutritional deficiencies and inadequate growth in children, yet less is known about their effect in adolescents and adults. The present study aimed to compare the dietary intake of adolescents and adults with food allergies with that of a control group. A food allergic and a control group were recruited from Portsmouth and the Isle of Wight in the UK. Participants were recruited from a food allergy charity, allergy clinics, a local school and university, and previous research studies. Macro and micronutrient intake data were obtained using a 4-day estimated food diary. Sociodemographic and anthropometric data was collected via a constructed questionnaire. This cross-sectional study included 81 adolescents (48 food allergic and 33 controls) aged 11-18 years and 70 adults aged 19-65 years (23 food allergic and 47 controls). Overall, 19 (22.8%) adolescents and 19 (27.1%) adults took dietary supplements, with no difference according to food allergic status. Adolescents with food allergy had higher intakes of niacin and selenium than adolescents without (P food allergies had higher intakes of folate and zinc than those without (P food allergic status. The dietary intake of food allergic participants was broadly similar and, in some cases, better than that of control participants. However, suboptimal intakes of several micronutrients were observed across all participants, suggesting poor food choices. © 2017 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  11. Increased serum triglycerides and reduced HDL cholesterol in male rats after intake of ammonium chloride for 3 weeks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous data suggested that intake of sodas and other acid beverages might be associated with increased levels of serum triglycerides, lowered HDL cholesterol, and increased formation of mono unsaturated fatty acids, which are the preferred ones for triglyceride synthesis. The present work is an extension of these studies. Methods Thirty male rats were divided into 3 groups. All groups were given the same food, but various beverages: water (W), ammonium chloride, 200 mmol/L (AC), or sodium bicarbonate, 200 mmol/L (SB). Serum triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, and the fatty acid distribution in total serum lipids were determined. Delta9-desaturase in serum lipids was estimated by the ratio of palmitoleic to palmitic acid, and by the oleic/stearic acid ratio. Correlation and ANOVA were used to study associations and group differences. Results After 3 weeks, the AC group had higher triglyceride concentration and higher Delta9 desaturase indexes, but lower serum HDL and body weight as compared with the SB and W groups. In each of the groups, the oleic acid/stearic acid ratio correlated positively with serum triglycerides; in the pooled group the correlation coefficient was r = 0.963, ptriglycerides, and lowered HDL cholesterol concentration, thereby possibly contributing to explain the increased triglyceride concentration previously observed in subjects with a frequent intake of acid beverages, such as sodas containing carbonic acid, citric acid, and phosphoric acid. PMID:23800210

  12. IMPACT OF NUTRITIONAL COUNSELLING ON BODY MASS INDEX (BMI AND NUTRIENT INTAKE OF THE NON - COMMUNICABLE DISEASE PATIENTS (NCD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manisha Singh

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Good health is an important discussion of the quality of life. Health problem is a major concern in all over the world but especially in developing countries. Non-communicable diseases ( NCDs contribute the ill health. Diabetes, coronary heart disease, various forms of cancer, gastro intestinal disorder and various diseases of bones and joints are diet related NCDs. Nutritional counselling is one of the effective tools of changing the food habits of people. The data for this study is taken from the out patients services of Department of Endocrinology & Metabolism and Cardiology of Sir Sunder Lal Hospital, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-5. Total 250 samples were included in the study. Age group 40 – 60 years were considered as study samples who attended the Endocrinology and Cardiology departments. Purposive sampling method was used in the study. Questionnaire cum interview method was adopted in the study. Anthropametric measurements were taken by using standard techniques. 24 hours diet recall method was also used in this study. Evaluation of councelling was done on basis of changes in BMI and nutrient intake. Result shows the positive impact of nutritional counselling in BMI and nutrient intake of NCD patients.

  13. Validity of the Remote Food Photography Method (RFPM) for estimating energy and nutrient intake in near real-time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Corby K; Correa, John B; Han, Hongmei; Allen, H Raymond; Rood, Jennifer C; Champagne, Catherine M; Gunturk, Bahadir K; Bray, George A

    2012-04-01

    Two studies are reported; a pilot study to demonstrate feasibility followed by a larger validity study. Study 1's objective was to test the effect of two ecological momentary assessment (EMA) approaches that varied in intensity on the validity/accuracy of estimating energy intake (EI) with the Remote Food Photography Method (RFPM) over 6 days in free-living conditions. When using the RFPM, Smartphones are used to capture images of food selection and plate waste and to send the images to a server for food intake estimation. Consistent with EMA, prompts are sent to the Smartphones reminding participants to capture food images. During Study 1, EI estimated with the RFPM and the gold standard, doubly labeled water (DLW), were compared. Participants were assigned to receive Standard EMA Prompts (n = 24) or Customized Prompts (n = 16) (the latter received more reminders delivered at personalized meal times). The RFPM differed significantly from DLW at estimating EI when Standard (mean ± s.d. = -895 ± 770 kcal/day, P < 0.0001), but not Customized Prompts (-270 ± 748 kcal/day, P = 0.22) were used. Error (EI from the RFPM minus that from DLW) was significantly smaller with Customized vs. Standard Prompts. The objectives of Study 2 included testing the RFPM's ability to accurately estimate EI in free-living adults (N = 50) over 6 days, and energy and nutrient intake in laboratory-based meals. The RFPM did not differ significantly from DLW at estimating free-living EI (-152 ± 694 kcal/day, P = 0.16). During laboratory-based meals, estimating energy and macronutrient intake with the RFPM did not differ significantly compared to directly weighed intake.

  14. Adolescents involved in weight-related and power team sports have better eating patterns and nutrient intakes than non-sport-involved adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croll, Jillian K; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Story, Mary; Wall, Melanie; Perry, Cheryl; Harnack, Lisa

    2006-05-01

    To examine eating habits and energy and nutrient intake among adolescents participating in weight-related and power team sports and non-sport-involved adolescents. Data were drawn from Project EAT (Eating Among Teens), which was conducted with 4,746 adolescents from 31 middle and high schools in the Minneapolis/St Paul metropolitan area. Urban secondary schools. Adolescents reporting participation in a weight-related sport, a power team sport, or no consistent participation in a sport. Meal and snack frequency, mean energy and nutrient intake, and mean physical activity. Analyses were conducted by sex across the three groups. General linear models were used to compare mean energy and nutrient intake, composite nutrient adequacy, and mean physical activity across the three groups. Percentages of youth meeting nutrient recommendations were compared across the three groups using chi(2) tests. For both males and females, youth involved in weight-related sports ate breakfast more frequently than non-sport-involved peers (females: 3.6 and 3.2 times per week, respectively, Psport-involved youth also had higher mean protein, calcium, iron, and zinc intakes than non-sport-involved peers. However, adolescent females had low calcium intake, regardless of sports involvement (weight-related sports 1,091 mg/day, power team sports 1,070 mg/day, and non-sport-involved 1,028 mg/day, PSport-involved adolescents have better eating habits and nutrient intake than their non-sport-involved peers. However, they are still in need of nutrition interventions, particularly around calcium intake.

  15. The relation between dietary intake of vegetable oils and serum lipids and apolipoprotein levels in central Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Khosravi Boroujeni

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The detrimental effects of partially hydrogenated vegetable oils (PHVOs on apolipoproteins have been reported from several parts of the world. However, little data is available in this regard from the understudied region of the Middle East. The present study therefore tried to evaluate the association between type of vegetable oils and serum lipids and apolipoprotein levels among Iranians. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, data from 1772 people (795 men and 977 women aged 19-81 years, who were selected with multistage cluster random sampling method from three cities of Isfahan, Najaf Abad and Arak in "Isfahan Healthy Heart Program" (IHHP, was used. To assess participants' usual dietary intakes, a validated food frequency questionnaire was used. Hydrogenated vegetable oil (commonly consumed for cooking in Iran and margarine were considered as the category of PHVOs. Soy, sunflower, corn, olive and canola oils were considered as non-HVOs. After an overnight fasting, serum cholesterol (total, low density lipoprotein (LDL and high density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol and triglyceride as well as apolipoproteins A and B were measured using standard methods. RESULTS: Participants with the highest intakes of non-HVOs and PHVOs were younger and had lower weight than those with lowest intakes. High consumption of non-HVOs and PHVOs was associated with lower intakes of energy, carbohydrate, dietary fiber, and higher intakes of fruits, vegetables, meat, milk and grains. No overall significant differences were found in serum lipids and apolipoprotein levels across the quartiles of non-HVOs and PHVOs after controlling for potential confounding. CONCLUSION: We did not find any significant associations between hydrogenated or non-hydrogenated vegetable oil and serum lipid and apolipoprotein levels. Thus, further studies are needed in this region to explore this association. Keywords: Vegetable Oils, Cardiovascular Risk Factors, Lipids

  16. Potential Foraging Decisions by a Desert Ungulate to Balance Water and Nutrient Intake in a Water-Stressed Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedir, Jay V; Cain, James W; Krausman, Paul R; Allen, Jamison D; Duff, Glenn C; Morgart, John R

    2016-01-01

    Arid climates have unpredictable precipitation patterns, and wildlife managers often provide supplemental water to help desert ungulates endure the hottest, driest periods. When surface water is unavailable, the only source of water for ungulates comes from the forage they consume, and they must make resourceful foraging decisions to meet their requirements. We compared two desert bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis nelsoni) populations in Arizona, USA: a treatment population with supplemental water removed during treatment, and a control population. We examined whether sheep altered their seasonal diets without supplemental water. We calculated water and nutrient intake and metabolic water production from dry matter intake and forage moisture and nitrogen content, to determine whether sheep could meet their seasonal daily water and nutrient requirements solely from forage. Diets of sheep were higher in protein (all seasons) and moisture (autumn and winter) during treatment compared to pretreatment. During treatment, sheep diet composition was similar between the treatment and control populations, which suggests, under the climatic conditions of this study, water removal did not influence sheep diets. We estimated that under drought conditions, without any surface water available (although small ephemeral potholes would contain water after rains), female and male sheep would be unable to meet their daily water requirements in all seasons, except winter, when reproductive females had a nitrogen deficit. We determined that sheep could achieve water and nutrient balances in all seasons by shifting their total diet proportions by 8-55% from lower to higher moisture and nitrogen forage species. We elucidate how seasonal forage quality and foraging decisions by desert ungulates allow them to cope with their xeric and uncertain environment, and suggest that, with the forage conditions observed in our study area during this study period, providing supplemental water during

  17. Potential Foraging Decisions by a Desert Ungulate to Balance Water and Nutrient Intake in a Water-Stressed Environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay V Gedir

    Full Text Available Arid climates have unpredictable precipitation patterns, and wildlife managers often provide supplemental water to help desert ungulates endure the hottest, driest periods. When surface water is unavailable, the only source of water for ungulates comes from the forage they consume, and they must make resourceful foraging decisions to meet their requirements. We compared two desert bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis nelsoni populations in Arizona, USA: a treatment population with supplemental water removed during treatment, and a control population. We examined whether sheep altered their seasonal diets without supplemental water. We calculated water and nutrient intake and metabolic water production from dry matter intake and forage moisture and nitrogen content, to determine whether sheep could meet their seasonal daily water and nutrient requirements solely from forage. Diets of sheep were higher in protein (all seasons and moisture (autumn and winter during treatment compared to pretreatment. During treatment, sheep diet composition was similar between the treatment and control populations, which suggests, under the climatic conditions of this study, water removal did not influence sheep diets. We estimated that under drought conditions, without any surface water available (although small ephemeral potholes would contain water after rains, female and male sheep would be unable to meet their daily water requirements in all seasons, except winter, when reproductive females had a nitrogen deficit. We determined that sheep could achieve water and nutrient balances in all seasons by shifting their total diet proportions by 8-55% from lower to higher moisture and nitrogen forage species. We elucidate how seasonal forage quality and foraging decisions by desert ungulates allow them to cope with their xeric and uncertain environment, and suggest that, with the forage conditions observed in our study area during this study period, providing supplemental

  18. Potential foraging decisions by a desert ungulate to balance water and nutrient intake in a water-stressed environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedir, Jay V.; Cain, James W.; Krausman, Paul R.; Allen, Jamison D.; Duff, Glenn C.; Morgart, John R.

    2016-01-01

    Arid climates have unpredictable precipitation patterns, and wildlife managers often provide supplemental water to help desert ungulates endure the hottest, driest periods. When surface water is unavailable, the only source of water for ungulates comes from the forage they consume, and they must make resourceful foraging decisions to meet their requirements. We compared two desert bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis nelsoni) populations in Arizona, USA: a treatment population with supplemental water removed during treatment, and a control population. We examined whether sheep altered their seasonal diets without supplemental water. We calculated water and nutrient intake and metabolic water production from dry matter intake and forage moisture and nitrogen content, to determine whether sheep could meet their seasonal daily water and nutrient requirements solely from forage. Diets of sheep were higher in protein (all seasons) and moisture (autumn and winter) during treatment compared to pretreatment. During treatment, sheep diet composition was similar between the treatment and control populations, which suggests, under the climatic conditions of this study, water removal did not influence sheep diets. We estimated that under drought conditions, without any surface water available (although small ephemeral potholes would contain water after rains), female and male sheep would be unable to meet their daily water requirements in all seasons, except winter, when reproductive females had a nitrogen deficit. We determined that sheep could achieve water and nutrient balances in all seasons by shifting their total diet proportions by 8–55% from lower to higher moisture and nitrogen forage species. We elucidate how seasonal forage quality and foraging decisions by desert ungulates allow them to cope with their xeric and uncertain environment, and suggest that, with the forage conditions observed in our study area during this study period, providing supplemental water during

  19. Consumption of ready-to-eat cereals (RTEC) among Malaysian children and association with socio-demographics and nutrient intakes - findings from the MyBreakfast study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Nasir, Mohd Taib; Nurliyana, Abdul Razak; Norimah, A Karim; Jan Mohamed, Hamid Jan B; Tan, Sue Yee; Appukutty, Mahenderan; Hopkins, Sinead; Thielecke, Frank; Ong, Moi Kim; Ning, Celia; Tee, E Siong

    2017-01-01

    Background : The association between different types of breakfast meals and nutrient intakes has been studied to a lesser extent. Objective : This study compared nutrient intakes at breakfast and throughout the day between Malaysian children who consumed ready-to-eat cereals (RTEC) and those who did not. Methods : Anthropometric and dietary data for 1955 children aged 6-12 years from the MyBreakfast study were used in the analysis. Results : Overall, 18% of the children consumed RTEC at breakfast on at least one of the recall days. RTEC consumption was associated with younger age, urban areas, higher income and education level of parents. Among consumers, RTEC contributed 10% and 15% to daily intakes of calcium and iron respectively and ≥20% to daily intakes of vitamin C, thiamin, riboflavin and niacin. RTEC consumers had significantly higher mean intakes of vitamin C, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, calcium, iron and sugar but lower intakes of fat and sodium than non-RTEC consumers at breakfast and for the total day. Conclusion : Consumption of fortified RTEC at breakfast was associated with lower fat and sodium intakes and higher intakes of several micronutrients both at breakfast and for the total day. However, total sugar intakes appeared to be higher.

  20. A comparison of food and nutrient intake between instant noodle consumers and non-instant noodle consumers in Korean adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Juyeon; Lee, Jung-Sug; Jang, Young Ai; Chung, Hae Rang; Kim, Jeongseon

    2011-10-01

    Instant noodles are widely consumed in Asian countries. The Korean population consumed the largest quantity of instant noodles in the world in 2008. However, few studies have investigated the relationship between instant noodles and nutritional status in Koreans. The objective of this study was to examine the association between instant noodle consumption and food and nutrient intake in Korean adults. We used dietary data of 6,440 subjects aged 20 years and older who participated in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III. The average age of the instant noodle consumers (INC) was 36.2 and that of the non-instant noodle consumers (non-INC) was 44.9; men consumed more instant noodles than women (P instant noodles may lead to excessive intake of energy, fats, and sodium but may also cause increased intake of thiamine and riboflavin. Therefore, nutritional education helping adults to choose a balanced meal while consuming instant noodles should be implemented. Additionally, instant noodle manufacturers should consider nutritional aspects when developing new products.

  1. The impact of a workplace catering initiative on dietary intakes of salt and other nutrients: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geaney, F; Harrington, J; Fitzgerald, Ap; Perry, Ij

    2011-08-01

    Owing to modern lifestyles, individuals are dependent on out-of-home eating. The catering sector can have a pivotal role in influencing our food choices. The objective of the present study was to examine the impact of a structured catering initiative on food choices in a public sector workplace setting. A cross-sectional comparison study in two hospitals, one of which had implemented a catering initiative designed to provide nutritious food while reducing sugar, fat and salt intakes. Two public sector hospitals in Cork, Ireland. A total of 100 random participants aged 18-64 years (fifty intervention, fifty non-intervention) who consumed at least one main meal in the hospital staff canteen daily. Each respondent was asked to complete one anonymous 24 h dietary recall and questionnaire. Food and nutrient analysis was conducted using WISP (Weighed Intake Software Program). Reported mean intakes of total sugars (P catering initiatives in the workplace are a potentially important option in the promotion of healthy food choices. Targeted public health programmes and health policy changes are needed to motivate caterers in the public sector and other industries to develop interventions that promote a healthy diet.

  2. High Calorie, Low Nutrient Food/Beverage Intake and Video Gaming in Children as Potential Signals for Addictive Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathaniel R. Riggs

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the co-occurrence of health risk behaviors in childhood that may signal later addictive behavior. Using a survey, this study evaluated high calorie, low nutrient HCLN intake and video gaming behaviors in 964 fourth grade children over 18 months, with stress, sensation-seeking, inhibitory control, grades, perceived safety of environment, and demographic variables as predictors. SEM and growth curve analyses supported a co-occurrence model with some support for addiction specificity. Male gender, free/reduced lunch, low perceived safety and low inhibitory control independently predicted both gaming and HCLN intake. Ethnicity and low stress predicted HCLN. The findings raise questions about whether living in some impoverished neighborhoods may contribute to social isolation characterized by staying indoors, and HCLN intake and video gaming as compensatory behaviors. Future prevention programs could include skills training for inhibitory control, combined with changes in the built environment that increase safety, e.g., implementing Safe Routes to School Programs.

  3. Effectiveness of flavour nutrient learning and mere exposure as mechanisms to increase toddler's intake and preference for green vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wild, Victoire W T; de Graaf, Cees; Jager, Gerry

    2013-05-01

    Children's consumption of vegetables is still below recommendations. Since preference is the most important predictor of children's intake and most children dislike vegetables, new strategies are needed to increase their preferences for vegetables. Flavour nutrient learning (FNL) could be an effective mechanism to change preferences. Forty healthy toddlers were included in a randomized intervention study. During an intervention period of 7weeks, they consumed vegetable soups (endive and spinach) twice per week. Half of the group received a high-energy variant of one soup (e.g. HE spinach) and a low energy variant of the other (LE endive), whereas for the other half the order was reversed (HE endive, LE spinach). Primary outcome measures were preference and ad libitum consumption (with a maximum of 200g) of both vegetable products (LE), measured before, shortly after the intervention period, and 2 and 6months following conditioning to assess longer-term effects. After completion of the intervention period, 28 children (14 girls and 14 boys, age 35months; SD±8.3) met criteria for FNL to occur, and were included in further data analysis. Results showed a significant increase (~58g) in ad libitum intake for both vegetable soups (stable over time), but irrespective of the energy content. This indicates a robust effect of mere exposure on intake, but no FNL. For preference, however, results showed a significant shift in liking for the vegetable soup consistently paired with high energy, supporting FNL. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Postexercise nutrient intake enhances leg protein balance in early postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Lars; Esmarck, Birgitte; Suetta, Charlotte

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We investigated the effect of nutrient administration after a session of resistance exercise on muscle protein kinetics in six healthy, early postmenopausal women, in a crossover design of random and double-blinded administration of protein and carbohydrate (PC) or placebo (NON). METH...

  5. Nutrient intake, acid base status and weight gain in water buffalo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p2492989

    URL: http://www.sasas.co.za ... Introduction. A consistent supply of macro and micro nutrients to growing water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) calves is important to ... humid environmental conditions appears to be inappropriate. ... The experiment was conducted on five commercial feedlot farms in the district, Toba Tek Singh, in.

  6. Mesquite pod meal in sheep diet: intake, apparent digestibility of nutrients and nitrogen balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edileusa de Jesus do Santos

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Eight Santa Ines sheep were assigned to two 4 x 4 Latin squares, to evaluate the effects of replacing elephant grass silage with different levels of mesquite pod meal (MDM (15, 30 and 45% DM on intake, apparent digestibility of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, crude protein (CP, ether extract (EE, acid detergent fiber (ADF, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, total carbohydrates (TC and non-fiber carbohydrates (NFC and the nitrogen balance. There was a linear increase (p < 0.05 in the intake of DM, OM, CP, ADF, NDF, NFC and TC according to the addition of MPM to the diet. The digestibility of DM, OM and CP increased (p < 0.05 with the addition of MDM. We observed a positive linear effect (p < 0.05 for the nitrogen intake. The addition of mesquite pod meal up to 45% increased the intake of DM, NDF, ADF, CP, OM, NFC and TC but reduced the digestibility of EE and NDF. MPM at 30 and 45% propitiated a positive nitrogen balance.

  7. Intake and nutrient digestibilies of all-concentrate diet form forage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total or 20 animals comprising 10 rams and 10 bucks were involved in a digestibility study to assess the nutritive value of a combination of yam peel, ... The dry matter intakes in the all-concentrate diet by the sheep and goat ( > 4% of body weight) were higher (p<0.05) than obtained for the conventional diet of grass hay ...

  8. Feeding practices and nutrient intake of under-five children in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The underfive children generally met the mean daily energy, protein, iron, vitamin A, thiamin and riboflavin intake. However, zinc, calcium, niacin and ascorbate were below the recommended allowance. The study showed that most of the under-five children were feed infrequently as against the recommended frequency of ...

  9. Effect of nutrient dilution on feed intake, eating time and performance of hens in early lay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Krimpen, M M; Kwakkel, R P; André, G; van der Peet-Schwering, C M C; den Hartog, L A; Verstegen, M W A

    2007-08-01

    1. An experiment with 480 ISA Brown layers was conducted to measure the effect of dietary energy (11.8, 11.2 and 10.6 MJ/kg) and non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) (128, 146 and 207 g/kg) concentration, soluble NSP content (64 and 85 g/kg), particle size distribution of the NSP fraction (fine and coarse) and feed form (mash and crumble) on feed intake, eating time and egg performance of laying hens in early lay (from 18 to 26 weeks of age). Twelve experimental diets were tested, each replicated 4 times. 2. Laying hens in early lay that were fed low- or high-NSP diets were able to compensate for 10% dietary dilution by 9.5 and 4.9% higher feed intakes, respectively. Feeding crumble or coarsely ground mash did not affect feed intake. 3. Eating time of the hens fed the undiluted diets increased over the experimental period from 16.4 to 24.6% of the observation period, but was not affected by sand or grit addition, particle size distribution or feed form. Feeding high-NSP diets increased eating time by 22%. 4. Egg performance and body weight gain of the hens that were fed low-NSP or high-NSP diets were similar or better compared to the undiluted diets, whereas coarse grinding of the diets showed 7 to 10% lower egg performance and weight gain. Egg performance and weight gain were not affected by feed form. 5. It is concluded that hens in early lay, fed energy-diluted diets, by adding sand or grit (low-NSP) or NSP-rich raw materials (high-NSP) to the control diet, were able to increase their feed intake, resulting in energy intake and egg performance comparable to the control group. Supplementing diets with insoluble NSP also decreased eating rate. Prolonged eating time using insoluble NSP could be useful in reducing feather pecking behaviour.

  10. Effects of limited concentrate feeding on growth and blood and serum variables, and on nutrient digestibility and gene expression of hepatic gluconeogenic enzymes in dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohakare, J D; van de Sand, H; Gerlach, K; Hosseini, A; Mielenz, M; Sauerwein, H; Pries, M; Südekum, K-H

    2012-02-01

    This study elucidated the effects of limited concentrate feeding on growth, nutrient digestibility, blood profile and gene expression of gluconeogenic enzymes in the liver of dairy calves. The study utilized 36 German Holstein dairy calves (5-7 days of age) divided into two groups of 18 calves each for 150 days. Control group calves received 2 kg/(calf × day) of concentrate, whereas calves in the restricted group received only 1 kg/(calf × day). Good quality forage (mixture of maize and grass silages) was available for ad libitum consumption to both groups. The intake of milk replacer before weaning, and of concentrate were recorded daily per calf; however, the consumption of forages was quantified as daily average of the group. Body weights (BW) were recorded at start and on days 35, 70, 112 and 150. Blood and serum samples and spot urinary and faecal samples were also collected at similar time points. On days 70 and 150, liver biopsies were collected from seven animals in each group. The BW was not different between the groups at all times. Total BW gain in the control group was 124 kg as opposed to 111 kg in restricted group that led to average BW gain of 827 g/day and 739 g/day in respective groups, and the differences were significant (p = 0.018). As planned, the control group had higher concentrate and lower forage intake than the restricted group. The blood haemoglobin, haematocrit and serum variables (glucose, total protein, albumin and urea) were within the normal range in both groups, but serum glucose was higher (p < 0.05) in control than in restricted group at 70 days. There was no difference between groups in organic matter (OM) digestibility which declined (p < 0.001) with increasing age in both groups. Microbial crude protein (MCP) synthesis estimated from urinary allantoin excretion increased (p < 0.001) in both groups with increasing age but was not different between groups. The mRNA expressions for the gluconeogenic enzymes, cytosolic and

  11. Complementary and alternative medicine use and nutrient intake among individuals with multiple sclerosis in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masullo, Laura; Papas, Mia A; Cotugna, Nancy; Baker, Sandra; Mahoney, Lauren; Trabulsi, Jillian

    2015-02-01

    Individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS) often use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). However, specific CAM therapies used within this population have not been thoroughly described, particularly the use of supplements, herbal remedies, and dietary modifications. The aim of this pilot study was to determine the prevalence of specific types of CAM used by adults with MS in the United States. Participants included adults who were diagnosed with MS at least 1 year prior to study enrollment. CAM use was measured using the CAM Supplement of the National Health Interview Survey, and nutrient intake was assessed using an Automated Self-Administered 24-h Recall. This study found that a majority (77 %, n = 27) of the sample used CAM within the past 12 months, the most prevalent type being vitamins/minerals (88.9 %, n = 24), nonvitamin, nonmineral, natural products (NP) (44.4 %, n = 12), relaxation techniques (33.3 %, n = 9), and special diets (29.6 %, n = 8). Regarding diet, median percent calories from fat (37 %) and saturated fat (12 %) were higher than current recommendations, while dietary fiber intake met only 87 % of the adequate intake. Participants following the Paleo (7.4 %, n = 2) diet did not meet the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) for vitamins D and E, while those on the Swank diet (7.4 %, n = 2) were below the EAR for vitamins C, A, E, and folate. The results support previous findings that CAM therapies are commonly used by individuals with MS. Inadequate intakes of certain vitamins and minerals by those following the Swank and Paleo diet suggest these diets may be too restrictive, thus further research is warranted.

  12. A genome-wide linkage scan for dietary energy and nutrient intakes: the Health, Risk Factors, Exercise Training, and Genetics (HERITAGE) Family Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collaku, Agron; Rankinen, Tuomo; Rice, Treva; Leon, Arthur S; Rao, D C; Skinner, James S; Wilmore, Jack H; Bouchard, Claude

    2004-05-01

    A poor diet is a risk factor for chronic diseases such as obesity, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, and some cancers. Twin and family studies suggest that genetic factors potentially influence energy and nutrient intakes. We sought to identify genomic regions harboring genes affecting total energy, carbohydrate, protein, and fat intakes. We performed a genomic scan in 347 white sibling pairs and 99 black sibling pairs. Dietary energy and nutrient intakes were assessed by using Willett's food-frequency questionnaire. Single-point and multipoint Haseman-Elston regression techniques were used to test for linkage. These subjects were part of the Health, Risk Factors, Exercise Training, and Genetics (HERITAGE) Family Study, a multicenter project undertaken by 5 laboratories. In the whites, the strongest evidence of linkage appeared for dietary energy and nutrient intakes on chromosomes 1p21.2 (P = 0.0002) and 20q13.13 (P = 0.00007), and that for fat intake appeared on chromosome 12q14.1 (P = 0.0013). The linkage evidence on chromosomes 1 and 20 related to total energy intake rather than to the intake of specific macronutrients. In the blacks, promising linkages for macronutrient intakes occurred on chromosomes 12q23-q24.21, 1q32.1, and 7q11.1. Several potential candidate genes are encoded in and around the linkage regions on chromosomes 1p21.2, 12q14.1, and 20q13.13. These are the first reported human quantitative trait loci for dietary energy and macronutrient intakes. Further study may refine these quantitative trait loci to identify potential candidate genes for energy and specific macronutrient intakes that would be amenable to more detailed molecular studies.

  13. Trends in food consumption and nutrient intake in Germany between 2006 and 2012: results of the German National Nutrition Monitoring (NEMONIT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gose, Maria; Krems, Carolin; Heuer, Thorsten; Hoffmann, Ingrid

    2016-04-01

    The German National Nutrition Monitoring (NEMONIT) is a longitudinal and nationwide study to assess changes in food consumption and nutrient intake in Germany. A sample of 1840 participants (baseline age: 14-80 years) was drawn from the nationally representative German National Nutrition Survey (NVS) II (2005-2007). The participants have been interviewed by telephone annually since 2008. Food consumption was assessed by two 24-h recalls in the NVS II and the 4 years of NEMONIT (2008-2012/2013), respectively. Energy and nutrient intakes were calculated using the German Nutrient Database 3.02. Diet quality was evaluated using the Healthy Eating Index-NVS (HEI-NVS) II. Time trends were analysed by generalised estimating equation. Consumption of fruit/fruit products and fruit juice/nectar among men and women decreased, whereas consumption of water, soft drinks and coffee/tea increased over the 6-year period. Furthermore, increased consumption of confectionery and animal fats was observed among women. HEI-NVS II did not change since NVS II in both sexes. There were no changes in energy and protein intakes, but carbohydrate intake declined while fat intake increased over time. Regarding micronutrients, a decreasing intake of thiamin, riboflavin and vitamin B6 was observed in both sexes, but intake of Mg, Fe and niacin increased among women over time. In conclusion, food consumption and nutrient intake remained relatively stable between 2005-2007 and 2012/2013 within this German cohort. A few favourable and unfavourable changes were observed. Compared with national dietary guidelines, consumption of food of plant origin remained too low and consumption of meat/meat products remained too high in Germany.

  14. Home availability of fruit and vegetables and obesogenic foods as an indicator of nutrient intake in 50 year olds from Canterbury, New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Emily; Gearry, Richard Blair; Wilson, Renée; Pearson, John; Skidmore, Paula Marie Louise

    2017-05-01

    The home food environment is known to influence children's diet and selected health outcomes. However, similar research in adults is scarce. The home is arguably the most important food environment for New Zealand adults as the majority of food consumed is stored and prepared in the home. Therefore we investigated relationships between home food availability and nutrient intake in 50 year olds from Canterbury, New Zealand. A cross-sectional study where participants completed a home food inventory and a four-day estimated food diary. Regression analysis was used to investigate relationships between home availability of 'Fruit and Vegetables' and 'Obesogenic Foods' and intake of selected nutrients, adjusting for Body Mass Index and demographic factors. Men and women (n=216) aged 50 were randomly selected from Canterbury District Health Board area electoral rolls. Women with a high 'Obesogenic Foods' score were significantly more likely to have a high intake of saturated fat (OR 5.8, CI: 1.67, 19.6) and high sugar intake (OR 3.1, CI: 1.23, 7.58). Men with a high 'Obesogenic Foods' score were less likely to have high folate (OR 0.14, CI: 0.05, 0.40) and fibre intake (OR 0.21, CI: 0.07, 0.60). Men and women with a higher 'Fruit and Vegetables' score were more likely to have high vitamin C intake (OR 5.6 and 4.5 respectively). Home Food Inventory scores are associated with selected nutrient intakes, particularly in women, suggesting that they are useful for identifying those groups with less favourable nutrient intakes. Future research should investigate whether these scores can predict health outcomes.

  15. Macro and Micro-Nutrients Intake, Food Groups Consumption and Dietary Habits among Female Students in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences

    OpenAIRE

    Azadbakht, L; Esmaillzadeh, A

    2012-01-01

    Background Improving the dietary intake among different groups and population is important for improving the health status. This study determines the nutrients and food group intake as well as dietary habits among female students in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. Methods Two hundreds and eighty nine healthy female youths who were randomly selected among students of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences in Isfahan, Iran were enrolled. A validated semi quantitative food frequency ques...

  16. Influence of nutrients on feed intake and condition of captive canvasbacks in winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, M.C.; Kuenzel, W.J.; Williams, B.K.; Serafin, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    Dramatic changes in the food habits and distribution of canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) in Chesapeake Bay during the 1970's generated a need to evaluate the nutritional value of food items and the requirements of this species on its wintering grounds. Groups of captive canvasbacks were maintained ad libitum on 5 diets during the winters of 1978-79 and 1979-80 to evaluate the effects of varying protein and energy levels on feed intake and condition. Feed intake during the 1979-80 winter was 42% greater for those ducks fed the low energy (1,543 kcal/kg) diet than for those fed the high energy (3,638 kcal/kg) diet. Canvasbacks fed the high energy diet, however, consumed 317 kcal/bird day, whereas those fed the low energy diet consumed only 191 kcal/bird day. Body weight of males and females did not differ among groups fed different diets, but there were seasonal differences (P < 0.05) for both sexes aggregated across diets. Data from this study indicate that canvasbacks may be unable to adjust intake rates to compensate for low energy foods and subsequently may store less fat or modify behavior. However, decreased weight, feed intake, and activity of ducks fed ad libitum rations occurred in mid-winter irrespective of diet quality and appeared to be an endogenous component of their annual cycle that persists in captivity. These changes apparently have a selective advantage of increasing the probability of survival in ducks by decreasing energy expenditure during periods of winter stress.

  17. Serum apolipoproteins in relation to intakes of fish in population of Arkhangelsk County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrenya Natalia

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diets rich in omega-3 fatty acids and low in saturated fat were found beneficially associated with blood lipids and cardio-vascular health. Lean reindeer meet and local cold water white-fish species high in omega-3 are among the main sources of nutrients in the rural area of the Nenets Autonomous Okrug (NAO in Russia and are not normally consumed by the urban population from the same region. The aims of the study were firstly, to compare serum lipid profiles of residents of urban (Arkhangelsk city and rural (NAO regions of Arkhangelsk County, and secondly, to investigate the effects of fish consumption on the predictor of cardiovascular events apolipoprotein (Apo B/ApoA-I ratio in these populations. Methods A cross-sectional study conducted in Arkhangelsk County, Russia. Sample size of 249 adults: 132 subjects from Arkhangelsk city, aged 21–70 and 117 subject (87% Ethnic Nenets from NAO, aged 18–69. Results We observed more favorable lipid levels in NAO compared to Arkhangelsk participants. Age-adjusted geometric means of ApoB/ApoA-I ratio were 1.02 and 0.98 in men and women from Arkhangelsk; 0.84 and 0.91 in men and women from NAO respectively. Age and consumption of animal fat were positively associated with ApoB/ApoA-I ratio in women (pooled samples from Arkhangelsk and NAO. Body mass index and low levels of physical activity were positively associated with ApoB/ApoA-I ratio in men (pooled samples from Arkhangelsk and NAO. Reported oily fish consumption was not significantly correlated with ApoB/ApoA-I ratio. Conclusion The population sample from rural NAO, consisting largely of the indigenous Arctic population Nenets with healthier dietary sources, had a relatively less atherogenic lipid profile compared to the urban Arkhangelsk group. Fish consumption had no effect on apolipoproteins profile.

  18. Nutrient intakes among children and adolescents eating usual pizza products in school lunch compared with pizza meeting HealthierUS School Challenge criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, In Young; Marquart, Len; Reicks, Marla

    2014-05-01

    Pizza is a popular food that can contribute to high intakes of saturated fat and sodium among children and adolescents. The objective of this study was to compare daily nutrient intakes when a pizza product meeting the US Department of Agriculture's criteria for competitive food entrées under the HealthierUS School Challenge (HUSSC) was substituted for usual pizza products consumed during foodservice-prepared school lunch. The study used National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2005-2008) dietary recall data from a cross-sectional sample of US children and adolescents (age 5 to 18 years, n=337) who ate pizza during school lunch on 1 day of dietary recall. Daily nutrient intakes based on the consumption of usual pizza products for school lunch (pre-modeled) were compared with intakes modeled by substituting nutrient values from an HUSSC whole-grain pizza product (post-modeled). Paired t tests were used to make the comparison. Post-modeled intakes were lower in daily energy, carbohydrate, total fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, and sodium compared with pre-modeled intakes among children and adolescents (Ppizza product for usual pizza products may significantly improve dietary quality of children and adolescents eating pizza for school lunch, indicating that it could be an effective approach to improve the nutritional quality of school lunch programs. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Blood lipid and lipoprotein profile of female athletes with respect to their jobs and nutrients intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazloom, Z; Salehi, M; Eftekhari, M H

    2008-01-01

    There is general believe that exercise may results in changes that likely reduce the risk of developing cardiovascular disease and may slow the progression of established coronary artery disease. Chronic cardiovascular training results in changes in lipoproteins and apolipoproteins that reflect adaptation to the increased metabolic demands imposed by frequent, vigorous exercise. Moreover, the alterations in lipoproteins vary according to level of physical conditioning and intensity of exercise. One hundred three pre-menopausal physically active women ages 20-50 years old which have been exercising for at least 6 months involve in this study. Upon entering the study subjects were asked to complete questionnaire, regarding personal health and diet history (24 h recall plus 7 days food frequency list). Total calorie intake, level of carbohydrate, protein and fat in the subjects' diet were analyzed. In addition the concentration of women's plasma triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL-C and HDL-C were also measured and compared with normal value. The results of the present study showed that, the mean total caloric intake of women were 1812.54 kilocalories, where their carbohydrate, protein and fat intake were 67.28, 12.83 and 19.89% of their total calories, respectively. The average age, weight, height and Body Mass Index (BMI) of the women involved in the study were, 30.81+/-8.87 years, 57.85+/-7.79 kg, 160.32+/-5.36 cm and 22.53+/-2.82 kg m(-2), respectively. Plasma lipid and lipoprotein concentration of women were also in normal range with the lowest in those who exercise for more than one year and physical education teacher.

  20. Nutrient intake and balancing among female Colobus angolensis palliatus inhabiting structurally distinct forest areas: Effects of group, season, and reproductive state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, Noah T; Rodriguez-Saona, Luis E

    2018-06-08

    Understanding intraspecific behavioral and dietary variation is critical for assessing primate populations' abilities to persist in habitats characterized by increasing anthropogenic disturbances. While it is evident that some species exhibit considerable dietary flexibility (in terms of species-specific plant parts) in relation to habitat disturbance, it is unclear if primates are characterized by similar variation and flexibility regarding nutrient intake. This study examined the effects of group, season, and reproductive state on nutrient intake and balancing in adult female Colobus angolensis palliatus in the Diani Forest, Kenya. During July 2014 to December 2015, estimates of nutrient intake were recorded for eight females from three groups inhabiting structurally and ecologically distinct forest areas differing in tree species composition and density. There were differences in metabolizable energy (ME) and macronutrient intakes among groups, seasons, and reproductive states. Most notably, females inhabiting one of the more disturbed forest areas consumed less ME and macronutrients compared to females in the more intact forest area. Contrary to prediction, females in early lactation consumed significantly less ME and macronutrients compared to non-lactating and late lactation females. Despite differences in macronutrient intake, the relative contribution of macronutrients to ME were generally more conservative among groups, seasons, and reproductive states. Average daily intake ratios of non-protein energy to available protein ranged from approximately 3.5:1-4.3:1 among groups. These results indicate that female C. a. palliatus demonstrate a consistent nutrient balancing strategy despite significant intergroup differences in consumption of species-specific plant parts. Data from additional colobine species inhabiting different forest types are required to assess the extent to which nutrient balancing is constrained by phylogeny or is more flexible to local

  1. Changes in Lean Mass and Serum Myostatin with Habitual Protein Intake and High-Velocity Resistance Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binns, A; Gray, M; Henson, A C; Fort, I L

    2017-01-01

    Examine the associations between dietary protein intake, lean mass (LM), and serum myostatin (Mstn) levels among community-dwelling older adults participating in a 20-week high-velocity resistance training (HVRT) program. This longitudinal study consisted of 33 community-dwelling, older adults (mean age 77.0 years, SD = 6.4); all of which obtained physician clearance prior to study participation. Twenty-five females and eight males were randomized to a control (CON) or HVRT group. Anthropometric measures were obtained via dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and peripheral venous blood draw used for serum myostatin analysis. Exercise was performed twice per week for 20 consecutive weeks. Food intake estimation with a diet history questionnaire (DHQ) was used for protein intake comparison to the recommended dietary allowance (RDA). All measures were recorded both prior to and following study participation. Altogether, protein was consumed in amounts more generous (1.01 ± 0.47 g·kg-1·d-1) than that of the RDA (0.8 g·kg-1·d-1). As a result of significant LM differences among men and women (p myostatin was greater among females (6681.8 ± 3155.0 pg·mL-1) than males (5560.0 ± 2946.1 pg·mL-1); however, these values were not significantly different (p = 0.39). Combined, protein consumption and serum myostatin did not significantly influence LM among males (p = 0.09) or females (p = 0.71). Irrespective of training group, significant changes were not exhibited in dietary intake patterns, LM, or serum myostatin. Contrary to the proposed hypothesis, results suggest protein consumption and circulating serum myostatin levels did not significantly influence LM among older adults. Although HVRT positively impacts LM, neither exercise group displayed significant changes in LM. Therefore, further research is needed examining dietary intake, exercise modality, and myostatin downregulation as non-pharmacological approaches to combating sarcopenia.

  2. Influence of nutrient intake on antioxidant capacity, muscle damage and white blood cell count in female soccer players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gravina Leyre

    2012-07-01

    markers. The benefit of the intake of specific nutrients may contribute to preventing the undesirable physiological effects provoked by soccer matches.

  3. Influence of nutrient intake on antioxidant capacity, muscle damage and white blood cell count in female soccer players

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    of the intake of specific nutrients may contribute to preventing the undesirable physiological effects provoked by soccer matches. PMID:22812729

  4. Associations between dietary intake and serum polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) levels in Taiwanese

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, H.-L.; Lee, C.-C.; Liao, P.-C.; Guo, Y.-L.; Chen, C.-H.; Su, H.-J. mail: hjsu@mail.ncku.edu.tw

    2003-01-01

    The study was conducted to correlate the consumption frequency of different food groups (milk, eggs, fish, and others) and the levels of serum polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) concentrations of residents living near a municipal waste incinerator. All selected subjects were between 18 and 65 years old and proportionally chosen from each age group based on population distribution. In addition, they had to have lived within a 5-km radius of the incinerator for at least 5 years. Trained interviewers administered a dietary questionnaire interview. Higher serum CDD/F levels were found in older than in younger subjects, and higher PCDD/F concentrations were found in females than in males. An analysis between the consumption frequency of different foods and serum PCDD/F levels showed that fish might have contributed the highest quantity of measured serum PCDD/Fs. et, the regression coefficient of dietary intake and PCDD/F concentration as only 0.017 before and 0.105 after adjusting for the variables of age, gender, and smoking status of the study subjects. The frequency of fish consumption may be the most significant contributor to serum PCDD/F levels. Further research is needed to quantify the association between the consumption of various food groups and their potential contributions to the corresponding serum PCDD/F concentrations

  5. Nutrient Status of Adults with Cystic Fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    GORDON, CATHERINE M.; ANDERSON, ELLEN J.; HERLYN, KAREN; HUBBARD, JANE L.; PIZZO, ANGELA; GELBARD, RONDI; LAPEY, ALLEN; MERKEL, PETER A.

    2011-01-01

    Nutrition is thought to influence disease status in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). This cross-sectional study sought to evaluate nutrient intake and anthropometric data from 64 adult outpatients with cystic fibrosis. Nutrient intake from food and supplements was compared with the Dietary Reference Intakes for 16 nutrients and outcomes influenced by nutritional status. Attention was given to vitamin D and calcium given potential skeletal implications due to cystic fibrosis. Measurements included weight, height, body composition, pulmonary function, and serum metabolic parameters. Participants were interviewed about dietary intake, supplement use, pulmonary function, sunlight exposure, and pain. The participants’ mean body mass index (±standard deviation) was 21.8±4.9 and pulmonary function tests were normal. Seventy-eight percent used pancreatic enzyme replacement for malabsorption. Vitamin D deficiency [25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD)<37.5 nmol/L] was common: 25 (39%) were deficient despite adequate vitamin D intake. Lipid profiles were normal in the majority, even though total and saturated fat consumption represented 33.0% and 16.8% of energy intake, respectively. Reported protein intake represented 16.9% of total energy intake (range 10%–25%). For several nutrients, including vitamin D and calcium, intake from food and supplements in many participants exceeded recommended Tolerable Upper Intake Levels. Among adults with cystic fibrosis, vitamin D deficiency was common despite reported adequate intake, and lipid profiles were normal despite a relatively high fat intake. Mean protein consumption was adequate, but the range of intake was concerning, as both inadequate or excessive intake may have deleterious skeletal effects. These findings call into question the applicability of established nutrient thresholds for patients with cystic fibrosis. PMID:18060897

  6. Black gram ( L. foliage supplementation to crossbred cows: effects on feed intake, nutrient digestibility and milk production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avijit Dey

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective An experiment was conducted to examine the effect of dietary supplementation of dried and ground foliage of black gram (Vigna mungo L. on feed intake and utilization, and production performance of crossbred lactating cows. Methods Eighteen lactating crossbred (Bos taurus×Bos indicus cows (body weight 330.93± 10.82 kg at their second and mid lactation (milk yield 6.77±0.54 kg/d were randomly divided into three groups of six each in a completely randomized block design. Three supplements were formulated by quantitatively replacing 0, 50, and 100 per cent of dietary wheat bran of concentrate mixture with dried and ground foliage of black gram. The designated supplement was fed to each group with basal diet of rice straw (ad libitum to meet the requirements for maintenance and milk production. Daily feed intake and milk yield was recorded. A digestion trial was conducted to determine the total tract digestibility of various nutrients. Results The daily feed intake was increased (p0.05, the fibre digestibility was increased (p0.05 among the groups, milk yield was increased by 10 per cent with total replacement of wheat bran in concentrate mixture with of black gram foliage. The economics of milk production calculated as feed cost per kg milk yield (INR 10.61 vs 7.98 was reduced by complete replacement of wheat bran with black gram foliage. Conclusion Black gram foliage could be used as complete replacement for wheat bran in concentrate mixture of dairy cows in formulating least cost ration for economic milk production in small holders’ animal production.

  7. The administration of long-term high-fat diet in ovariectomized wistar rat (Study on Daily Food Intake, Lee Index, Abdominal Fat Mass and Leptin Serum Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dita Fitriani

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: Serum leptin levels positively correlated with Lee index and abdominal fat mass, but negatively correlated with daily food intake. Administration of long-term high-fat diet in this study cannot induce leptin resistance.

  8. Effect of a nutrient-enriched drink on dietary intake and nutritional status in institutionalised elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manders, M; de Groot, C P G M; Blauw, Y H; Dhonukshe-Rutten, R A M; van Hoeckel-Prüst, L; Bindels, J G; Siebelink, E; van Staveren, W A

    2009-10-01

    (1) To determine whether nutritional supplementation (energy and micronutrients) in institutionalised elderly has a positive effect on dietary intake and nutritional status. (2) To investigate whether individuals tend to compensate for the energy content of the intervention product by decreasing their habitual food consumption. A 24-week, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, intervention trial in homes for the elderly (n=3), in nursing homes (n=3) and 'mixed' homes (n=3) in The Netherlands. Institutionalised elderly people (n=176) older than 60 years of age, with a body mass index nutrition-related analyses in fasting blood samples were measured in all participants. Data on dietary intake were collected in a subsample (n=66). A significantly favourable effect (Pfood decreased in both groups to the same extent (-0.5 MJ/day). Therefore, this decrease cannot be considered as compensation for the energy content of the product. This group of institutionalised elderly people does not compensate for the energy content of a concentrated nutritional supplement. Therefore, this supplement is effective for counteracting the development of malnutrition in this population.

  9. Identifying critical nutrient intake in groups at risk of poverty in Europe: the CHANCE project approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolić, Marina; Glibetić, Maria; Gurinović, Mirjana; Milešević, Jelena; Khokhar, Santosh; Chillo, Stefania; Abaravicius, Jonas Algis; Bordoni, Alessandra; Capozzi, Francesco

    2014-04-02

    The aim of the CHANCE project is to develop novel and affordable nutritious foods to optimize the diet and reduce the risk of diet-related diseases among groups at risk of poverty (ROP). This paper describes the methodology used in the two initial steps to accomplish the project's objective as follows: 1. a literature review of existing data and 2. an identification of ROP groups with which to design and perform the CHANCE nutritional survey, which will supply new data that is useful for formulating the new CHANCE food. Based on the literature review, a low intake of fruit and vegetables, whole grain products, fish, energy, fiber, vitamins B1, B2, B3, B6, B12 and C, folate, calcium, magnesium, iron, potassium and zinc and a high intake of starchy foods, processed meat and sodium were apparent. However, the available data appeared fragmented because of the different methodologies used in the studies. A more global vision of the main nutritional problems that are present among low-income people in Europe is needed, and the first step to achieve this goal is the use of common criteria to define the risk of poverty. The scoring system described here represents novel criteria for defining at-risk-of-poverty groups not only in the CHANCE-participating countries but also all over Europe.

  10. Identifying Critical Nutrient Intake in Groups at Risk of Poverty in Europe: The CHANCE Project Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolić, Marina; Glibetić, Maria; Gurinović, Mirjana; Milešević, Jelena; Khokhar, Santosh; Chillo, Stefania; Abaravicius, Jonas Algis; Bordoni, Alessandra; Capozzi, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the CHANCE project is to develop novel and affordable nutritious foods to optimize the diet and reduce the risk of diet-related diseases among groups at risk of poverty (ROP). This paper describes the methodology used in the two initial steps to accomplish the project’s objective as follows: 1. a literature review of existing data and 2. an identification of ROP groups with which to design and perform the CHANCE nutritional survey, which will supply new data that is useful for formulating the new CHANCE food. Based on the literature review, a low intake of fruit and vegetables, whole grain products, fish, energy, fiber, vitamins B1, B2, B3, B6, B12 and C, folate, calcium, magnesium, iron, potassium and zinc and a high intake of starchy foods, processed meat and sodium were apparent. However, the available data appeared fragmented because of the different methodologies used in the studies. A more global vision of the main nutritional problems that are present among low-income people in Europe is needed, and the first step to achieve this goal is the use of common criteria to define the risk of poverty. The scoring system described here represents novel criteria for defining at-risk-of-poverty groups not only in the CHANCE-participating countries but also all over Europe. PMID:24699195

  11. Identifying Critical Nutrient Intake in Groups at Risk of Poverty in Europe: The CHANCE Project Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Nikolić

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the CHANCE project is to develop novel and affordable nutritious foods to optimize the diet and reduce the risk of diet-related diseases among groups at risk of poverty (ROP. This paper describes the methodology used in the two initial steps to accomplish the project’s objective as follows: 1. a literature review of existing data and 2. an identification of ROP groups with which to design and perform the CHANCE nutritional survey, which will supply new data that is useful for formulating the new CHANCE food. Based on the literature review, a low intake of fruit and vegetables, whole grain products, fish, energy, fiber, vitamins B1, B2, B3, B6, B12 and C, folate, calcium, magnesium, iron, potassium and zinc and a high intake of starchy foods, processed meat and sodium were apparent. However, the available data appeared fragmented because of the different methodologies used in the studies. A more global vision of the main nutritional problems that are present among low-income people in Europe is needed, and the first step to achieve this goal is the use of common criteria to define the risk of poverty. The scoring system described here represents novel criteria for defining at-risk-of-poverty groups not only in the CHANCE-participating countries but also all over Europe.

  12. EFFECT OF UREA-MOLASSES BLOCK SUPPLEMENTATION ON NUTRIENT DIGESTIBILITY AND INTAKE OF AMMONIATED MAIZE STOVERS IN COW -CALVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Usman Faizi, M.M. Siddiqui and G. Habib

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted in a 4x4 Latin square design with four cow-calves {Holstein Friesian, aged' 6-8 months to investigate the effect of supplementing molasses-urea block {MUB to untreated or ammoniated maize stovers on feed intake and in viva digestibility of nutrients. Each period consisted of 10 days adaptation, followed by five days data collection. The four diets were untreated maize stovers {Diet A, untreated maize stovers with MUB {Diet B, ammoniated maize stovers {Diet 'C and ammoniated maize stovers with MUB {Diet D. Daily consumption of maize stovers and total feed by the calves were higher {P< 0.01 on the diets containing ammoniated maize stovers than those containing untreated maize stovers. Ammoniation increased the intake of maize stovers by 61 %. Supplementary feeding of MUB did not change the daily intake of both untreated and ammoniated maize stovers. Calves receiving untreated maize stovers consumed more MUB {P< 0.01 than those given ammoniated maize stovers {496.40 vs 180.20g DM/d. Daily water consumption was affected {P< 0.01 by diets and was lowest on Diet A. Calves receiving ammoniated maize stovers consumed more water than those given untreated maize stovers. MUB increased {P<0.01 the water consumption only on untreated maize stovers. Mean water consumption was 13.93, 15.91, 15.07 and 15.60 lit/d on diet A, B, C and D, respectively. In vivo digestibility of dry matter, organic matter and crude protein were Influenced {P<0.01 by diet composition. I Among the four diets, dry matter digestibility was minimum (P< 0.01 on Diet A and remained the same on diets B, C and D {55.82, 58.02 and 58.14%, respectively. Organic matter and crude protein digestibility were higher in the claves receiving ammoniated maize stovers. Supplementation of MUB increased (P< 0.01 the digestibility of all the three nutrients in untreated maize stovers but did not affect the digestibility of ammoniated maize stovers. The results demonstrated

  13. The importance of using food and nutrient intake data to identify appropriate vehicles and estimate potential benefits of food fortification in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyamuhangire, William; Lubowa, Abdelrahman; Kaaya, Archileo; Kikafunda, Joyce; Harvey, Philip W J; Rambeloson, Zo; Dary, Omar; Dror, Daphna K; Allen, Lindsay H

    2013-06-01

    Concern over micronutrient inadequacies in Uganda has prompted the introduction of mass fortification. To use food intake to determine nutrient inadequacies in children aged 24 to 59 months and nonpregnant women of reproductive age, and to model the adequacy of mass fortification. Data were collected by the 24-hour recall method in three regions. Usual nutrient intakes were calculated by adjusting actual intake distribution for the intraindividual variance. The impact of fortification on intake adequacy was simulated. The nutrients with the highest prevalence of inadequate intake across regions were vitamin A (30% to 99%), vitamin B12 (32% to 100%), iron (55% to 89%), zinc (18% to 82%), and calcium (84% to 100%). According to simulations, fortification of vegetable oil and sugar with vitamin A would reduce the prevalence of vitamin A inadequacy in the Western and Northern regions; in Kampala it would eliminate vitamin A inadequacy but would cause 2% to 48% of children to exceed the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL). The proposed fortification of wheat flour would reduce the prevalence of inadequate intakes of thiamine, riboflavin, folate, and niacin in Kampala, but would have little impact in the other two regions due to low flour consumption. Micronutrient fortification of vegetable oil and sugar in all regions and of wheat flour in Kampala would reduce the prevalence of micronutrient inadequacies. However, the wheat flour formulation should be modified to better meet requirements, and the vitamin A content in sugar should be reduced to minimize the risk of high intakes. Maize flour may be suitable for targeted fortification, but prior consolidation of the industry would be required for maize flour to become a good vehicle for mass fortification.

  14. The gender-related differences of nutrient intakes in a group of Italian obese patients display the ongoing transition from Mediterranean to western dietary patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, Giorgio; Canducci, Edgardo; Guida, Ada; Frascari, Ambra; Rossi, Angelo; Bersani, Gianluca; Ravani, Bruna; Alvisi, Vittorio

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare nutrients and energy intakes between obese women and men and the variation rates over or below the recommended dietary allowances. A retrospective survey was conducted on the records of obese patients, categorized into gender-related groups (36 women, 36 men). Total energy and nutrient intakes were determined. The highest variation rates were found for animal protein, averaging 225 % over the recommended dietary allowance, without significant differences between women and men. The simple carbohydrate intake was quite elevated in women with variations almost 80% over the RDA, significantly higher than in men (22%). The consumption of high-protein foods in both sexes, and even more the association with high-simple carbohydrate foods in women, display the Westernization of traditional eating habits.

  15. Associations of colorectal cancer incidence with nutrient and food group intakes in korean adults: a case-control study.

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    Chun, Yu Jeong; Sohn, Seung-Kook; Song, Hye Kyung; Lee, Song Mi; Youn, Young Hoon; Lee, Seungmin; Park, Hyojin

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed to examine the associations between intakes of various nutrients and food groups and colorectal cancer risk in a case-control study among Koreans aged 20 to 80 years. A total of 150 new cases and 116 controls were recruited with subjects' informed consent. Dietary data were collected using the food frequency questionnaire developed and validated by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for colorectal cancer incidence. High intakes of total lipid (ORT3 vs T1 = 4.15, 95% CI: 1.33-12.96, p for trend = 0.034), saturated fatty acid (ORT3 vs T1 = 2.96, 95% CI: 1.24-7.04, p for trend = 0.016) and monounsaturated fatty acid (ORT3 vs T1 = 3.04, 95% CI: 1.23-7.54, p for trend = 0.018) were significantly associated with increased incidence of colorectal cancer. High dietary fiber (ORT3 vs T1 = 0.22, 95% CI: 0.08-0.56, p for trend = 0.002) and vitamin C (ORT3 vs T1 = 0.38, 95% CI: 0.14-1.05, p for trend = 0.021) intakes were significantly associated with reduced colorectal cancer incidence. From the food group analysis, bread (ORT3 vs T1 = 2.26, 95% CI: 0.96-5.33, p for trend = 0.031), red meat (ORT3 vs T1 = 7.33, 95% CI: 2.98-18.06, p for trend colorectal cancer risk. On the other hand, high intake of traditional rice cake (ORT3 vs T1 = 0.35, 95% CI: 0.14-0.86, p for trend = 0.024) was linked with lower colorectal cancer incidence. In conclusion, eating a diet high in total lipid, saturated fatty acids and monounsaturated fatty acids is associated with higher incidence of colorectal cancer, whereas a diet high in dietary fiber and vitamin C was found to lower the incidence in Korean adults. Interestingly high traditional rice cake consumption is associated inversely with colorectal cancer incidence, warranting a future study.

  16. Maize supplementation of Pelibuey sheep in a silvopastoral system: fodder selection, nutrient intake and resilience against gastrointestinal nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retama-Flores, C; Torres-Acosta, J F J; Sandoval-Castro, C A; Aguilar-Caballero, A J; Cámara-Sarmiento, R; Canul-Ku, H L

    2012-01-01

    This trial evaluated the effect of maize supplementation on the ingestive behavior, nutrient intake and the resilience against gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) infection of hair sheep in a silvopastoral system containing tropical grasses and legume trees. In addition, it attempted to determine the metabolic cost of the natural GIN infection in supplemented and non-supplemented animals. Twenty-nine 3-month-old lambs (male and female), raised nematode free, were allocated to four groups: I-NS (infected, not supplemented, n = 8), I-S (infected, supplemented with maize at 1.5% live weight (LW), n = 7), T-NS (treated with moxidectin 0.2 mg/kg LW every 28 days, and not supplemented, n = 7) and T-S (treated with moxidectin and supplemented with maize at 1.5% LW, n = 7). During the 70-day trial, fodder intake, fodder selection, LW change (LWC), red blood cell counts (RBC), hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Ht) and eggs per gram of feces (EPG) were measured every 14 days. Supplement consumption was recorded daily. Metabolizable energy (ME) and protein (MP) consumption from the feeds were estimated. Maize supplementation helped to improve the resilience of hair sheep lambs against GIN infections. The I-S and T-NS groups showed similar LWC, RBC, Hb and Ht (P > 0.05) and both were higher than those in the I-NS group (P 0.05). No effect of sex was observed in the different variables. Although all groups showed low dry matter intake (DMI) (< 2% LW), supplemented groups (T-S and I-S) showed higher total DMI (fodder + maize; P < 0.05), hence higher ME and MP intakes than the non-supplemented groups (T-NS and I-NS). All groups showed similar fodder selection patterns. The estimated metabolic cost of parasitism was ME = 0.70 MJ/day and MP = 9.2 g/day in the I-S animals. Meanwhile, the cost in the I-NS animals was ME = 1.46 MJ/day and MP = 12.71 g/day. Maize supplementation was an economically viable strategy to control GIN compared with no intervention.

  17. Serum Retinol Levels in Pregnant Adolescents and Their Relationship with Habitual Food Intake, Infection and Obstetric, Nutritional and Socioeconomic Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spíndola Garcêz, Laís; de Sousa Paz Lima, Geania; de Azevedo Paiva, Adriana; Maria Rebêlo Sampaio da Paz, Suzana; Lázaro Gomes, Erica Ivana; Nunes, Valéria Sutti; Cotta de Faria, Eliana; de Barros-Mazon, Sílvia

    2016-10-25

    Globally, vitamin A deficiency (VAD) affects about 19.1 million pregnant women. Its occurrence is classically associated with inadequate food intake and may also be associated with socioeconomic factors and the presence of infection. The aim of this study was to determine the factors related to serum retinol levels among pregnant teenagers. The sample consisted of 89 pregnant adolescents, from whom socioeconomic, obstetric, anthropometric, and food consumption data were collected. Serum concentrations of retinol and the supposed presence of infection were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography and C-reactive protein quantification, respectively. The serum retinol concentrations were classified according to the criteria of the World Health Organization. We adopted a 5% significance level for all statistical tests. Serum retinol levels were significantly and positively associated with sanitation ( p = 0.008) and pre-gestational nutritional status ( p = 0.002), and negatively with the trimester ( p = 0.001). The appropriate sanitation conditions and pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) were shown to have a protective effect against VAD. Conversely, serum retinol levels were reduced with trimester progression, favoring VAD occurrence.

  18. Changes in nutrient intake and dietary quality among participants with type 2 diabetes following a low-fat vegan diet or a conventional diabetes diet for 22 weeks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle M; Barnard, Neal D; Cohen, Joshua; Jenkins, David J A; Gloede, Lise; Green, Amber A

    2008-10-01

    Although vegan diets improve diabetes management, little is known about the nutrient profiles or diet quality of individuals with type 2 diabetes who adopt a vegan diet. To assess the changes in nutrient intake and dietary quality among participants following a low-fat vegan diet or the 2003 American Diabetes Association dietary recommendations. A 22-week randomized, controlled clinical trial examining changes in nutrient intake and diet quality. Participants with type 2 diabetes (n=99) in a free-living setting. Participants were randomly assigned to a low-fat vegan diet or a 2003 American Diabetes Association recommended diet. Nutrient intake and Alternate Healthy Eating Index (AHEI) scores were collected at baseline and 22 weeks. Between-group t tests were calculated for changes between groups and paired comparison t tests were calculated for changes within-group. Pearson's correlation assessed relationship of AHEI score to hemoglobin A1c and body weight changes. Both groups reported significant decreases in energy, protein, fat, cholesterol, vitamin D, selenium, and sodium intakes. The vegan group also significantly reduced reported intakes of vitamin B-12 and calcium, and significantly increased carbohydrate, fiber, total vitamin A activity, beta carotene, vitamins K and C, folate, magnesium, and potassium. The American Diabetes Association recommended diet group also reported significant decreases in carbohydrate and iron, but reported no significant increases. The vegan group significantly improved its AHEI score (PVegan diets increase intakes of carbohydrate, fiber, and several micronutrients, in contrast with the American Diabetes Association recommended diet. The vegan group improved its AHEI score whereas the American Diabetes Association recommended diet group's AHEI score remained unchanged.

  19. Dietary choice for a balanced nutrient intake increases the mean and reduces the variance in the reproductive performance of male and female cockroaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunning, Harriet; Bassett, Lee; Clowser, Christina; Rapkin, James; Jensen, Kim; House, Clarissa M; Archer, Catharine R; Hunt, John

    2016-07-01

    Sexual selection may cause dietary requirements for reproduction to diverge across the sexes and promote the evolution of different foraging strategies in males and females. However, our understanding of how the sexes regulate their nutrition and the effects that this has on sex-specific fitness is limited. We quantified how protein (P) and carbohydrate (C) intakes affect reproductive traits in male (pheromone expression) and female (clutch size and gestation time) cockroaches (Nauphoeta cinerea). We then determined how the sexes regulate their intake of nutrients when restricted to a single diet and when given dietary choice and how this affected expression of these important reproductive traits. Pheromone levels that improve male attractiveness, female clutch size and gestation time all peaked at a high daily intake of P:C in a 1:8 ratio. This is surprising because female insects typically require more P than males to maximize reproduction. The relatively low P requirement of females may reflect the action of cockroach endosymbionts that help recycle stored nitrogen for protein synthesis. When constrained to a single diet, both sexes prioritized regulating their daily intake of P over C, although this prioritization was stronger in females than males. When given the choice between diets, both sexes actively regulated their intake of nutrients at a 1:4.8 P:C ratio. The P:C ratio did not overlap exactly with the intake of nutrients that optimized reproductive trait expression. Despite this, cockroaches of both sexes that were given dietary choice generally improved the mean and reduced the variance in all reproductive traits we measured relative to animals fed a single diet from the diet choice pair. This pattern was not as strong when compared to the single best diet in our geometric array, suggesting that the relationship between nutrient balancing and reproduction is complex in this species.

  20. Methyl-Donor and Cofactor Nutrient Intakes in the First 2–3 Years and Global DNA Methylation at Age 4: A Prospective Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Rachael M.; Smith, Roger; Collins, Clare E.; Mossman, David; Wong-Brown, Michelle W.; Chan, Eng-Cheng; Evans, Tiffany-Jane; Attia, John R.; Smith, Tenele; Butler, Trent

    2018-01-01

    Background: During the early postnatal period, the impact of nutrition on DNA methylation has not been well studied in humans. The aim was to quantify the relationship between one-carbon metabolism nutrient intake during the first three years of life and global DNA methylation levels at four years. Design: Childhood dietary intake was assessed using infant feeding questionnaires, food frequency questionnaires, 4-day weighed food records and 24-h food records. The dietary records were used to estimate the intake of methionine, folate, vitamins B2, B6 and B12 and choline. The accumulative nutrient intake specific rank from three months to three years of age was used for analysis. Global DNA methylation (%5-methyl cytosines (%5-mC)) was measured in buccal cells at four years of age, using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) commercial kit. Linear regression models were used to quantify the statistical relationships. Results: Data were collected from 73 children recruited from the Women and their Children’s Health (WATCH) study. No association was found between one-carbon metabolism nutrient intake and global DNA methylation levels (P 0.05). Global DNA methylation levels in males were significantly higher than in females (median %5-mC: 1.82 vs. 1.03, males and females respectively, (P 0.05)). Conclusion: No association was found between the intake of one-carbon metabolism nutrients during the early postnatal period and global DNA methylation levels at age four years. Higher global DNA methylation levels in males warrants further investigation. PMID:29495543

  1. Methyl-Donor and Cofactor Nutrient Intakes in the First 2–3 Years and Global DNA Methylation at Age 4: A Prospective Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachael M. Taylor

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: During the early postnatal period, the impact of nutrition on DNA methylation has not been well studied in humans. The aim was to quantify the relationship between one-carbon metabolism nutrient intake during the first three years of life and global DNA methylation levels at four years. Design: Childhood dietary intake was assessed using infant feeding questionnaires, food frequency questionnaires, 4-day weighed food records and 24-h food records. The dietary records were used to estimate the intake of methionine, folate, vitamins B2, B6 and B12 and choline. The accumulative nutrient intake specific rank from three months to three years of age was used for analysis. Global DNA methylation (%5-methyl cytosines (%5-mC was measured in buccal cells at four years of age, using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA commercial kit. Linear regression models were used to quantify the statistical relationships. Results: Data were collected from 73 children recruited from the Women and their Children’s Health (WATCH study. No association was found between one-carbon metabolism nutrient intake and global DNA methylation levels (P > 0.05. Global DNA methylation levels in males were significantly higher than in females (median %5-mC: 1.82 vs. 1.03, males and females respectively, (P < 0.05. Conclusion: No association was found between the intake of one-carbon metabolism nutrients during the early postnatal period and global DNA methylation levels at age four years. Higher global DNA methylation levels in males warrants further investigation.

  2. Recommended energy and nutrients intakes in the European Union: 2008-2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Gabarra, Antoni; Castellà Soley, Marta; Calleja Fernández, Alicia

    2017-03-30

    The aim of this document is to refl ect the changes happened in the European Union legislation and the opinions of the European Food Safety Authority in relation to the nutritional labeling on food, the reference values for energy, macronutrients and micronutrients, and the tolerable upper safe levels. The European legislation in force uses the labeling reference values established by the Scientific Committee on Food in 2003. There would be advisable an update of them from the reference values for vitamins and minerals established by the European Food Safety Authority. Equally, there would be good to include reference labeling values for polyunsaturated fatty acids, dietary fiber and choline, and specific reference labeling values for children from 6 to 36 months. For vitamins and minerals there would be desirable the revision of tolerable upper safe levels and the establishment of maximum amounts allowed in fortified food and food supplements in the European Union; its absence might represent a risk in some population groups for an excessive and unsafe intake of certain minerals and vitamins.

  3. Breakfast and Breakfast Cereal Choice and Its Impact on Nutrient and Sugar Intakes and Anthropometric Measures among a Nationally Representative Sample of Australian Children and Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Fayet-Moore

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available There is limited evidence in Australia that compares the nutritional impact of a breakfast cereal breakfast to a non-cereal breakfast, and includes the type of cereal. This study investigated the impact of breakfast choice and the total sugar content of breakfast cereal on nutrient intakes and anthropometric measures among Australian children and adolescents. Data from 2 to 18-year-old in the 2011–2012 National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey were used (n = 2821. Participants were classified as breakfast cereal consumers (minimally pre-sweetened (MPS or pre-sweetened (PS, non-cereal breakfast consumers, or breakfast skippers. Foods consumed for breakfast, foods added to the cereal bowl, and the impact of breakfast choice on daily nutrient intakes and anthropometric measures were determined. Although only 9% of children skipped breakfast, 61% of skippers were aged 14–18 years. Among breakfast consumers, 49% had breakfast cereal, and 62% of these exclusively consumed MPS cereal. Breakfast skippers had a higher saturated fat intake than breakfast cereal consumers, and lower intakes of dietary fibre and most micronutrients (p < 0.001. Compared with non-cereal breakfast consumers, breakfast cereal consumers had additional free sugars intake, lower sodium, and higher total sugars, carbohydrate, dietary fibre, and almost all other micronutrients (p < 0.001. The only difference in nutrient intakes between MPS and PS cereal consumers was higher folate among PS consumers. No associations between anthropometric measures and breakfast or breakfast cereal choice were found. The highest prevalence of breakfast skipping was among 14–18-year old. Breakfast cereal consumers had higher intakes of dietary fibre and most micronutrients compared with non-cereal breakfast consumers and skippers, and almost no differences were found between MPS and PS cereal consumers.

  4. [Effect of selenium on serum TGAb, TMAb, FT3, FT4 and TSH of rats with excessive intake of iodine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Haiyan; Zhou, Yuping; Li, Li

    2012-07-01

    To investigate the effect of selenium on the TGAb, TMAb, FT3, FT4 and TSH level of rats with excessive intake of iodine. Wistar rats were divided into three groups by random:normal control, high iodine group and high iodine plus selenium group. Rats in the high iodine plus selenium group were lavaged with sodium selenite for 10 weeks. The levels of serum TGAb, TMAb, FT3, FT4 and TSH were tested at different time of the experiment. There were no significant change on levels of FT3, FT4 and TSH (P > 0.05). The levels of TGAb and TMAb in the high iodine group were increased slowly (P iodine plus selenium group. Excessive intake of iodine might induce goiter, and selenium might have antagonistic effect on it.

  5. A preliminary assessment of vitamin K1 intakes and serum undercarboxylated osteocalcin levels in 11-13 year old Irish girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Aoife; Cashman, Kevin D; Kiely, Máiréad

    2006-11-01

    Low vitamin K1 intakes have been associated with low bone mineral density in women and reduced bone turnover in girls. No European data exist on the relationship between vitamin K1 and serum undercarboxylated osteocalcin (ucOC), an indicator of K1 status in adolescents. The aim of the current study was to assess intakes of vitamin K1 in relation to serum ucOC status in Irish girls. A detailed dietary history method, which measured habitual intakes from a typical 14-day period, was used to estimate vitamin K1 intakes in 18 girls aged 11-13 years. Recently compiled and validated food composition data for vitamin K1 were used to determine vitamin K1 intakes. An enzyme immunoassay was used to measure ucOC in fasting serum samples. The mean (+/- SD) intake of vitamin K1 in the girls was 72.4 microg/day (SD 34.4). Vegetables (particularly broccoli, composite dishes, and lettuce) contributed 53% of total vitamin K1 intakes. Thirty-Seven percent of the girls failed to meet the current U.S. adequate intake for adolescents of 60 microg/day vitamin K1. Serum ucOC levels were inversely related to body weight-adjusted vitamin K1 intakes, controlling for energy intake (partial correlation r = -0.538; p = 0.026). The data indicate that large-scale studies to examine relationships between vitamin K1 (and green vegetable) intakes and bone growth and development in adolescents are warranted.

  6. Effectiveness in improving knowledge, practices, and intakes of "key problem nutrients" of a complementary feeding intervention developed by using linear programming: experience in Lombok, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahmida, Umi; Kolopaking, Risatianti; Santika, Otte; Sriani, Sriani; Umar, Jahja; Htet, Min Kyaw; Ferguson, Elaine

    2015-03-01

    Complementary feeding recommendations (CFRs) with the use of locally available foods can be developed by using linear programming (LP). Although its potential has been shown for planning phases of food-based interventions, the effectiveness in the community setting has not been tested to our knowledge. We aimed to assess effectiveness of promoting optimized CFRs for improving maternal knowledge, feeding practices, and child intakes of key problem nutrients (calcium, iron, niacin, and zinc). A community-intervention trial with a quasi-experimental design was conducted in East Lombok, West Nusa Tenggara Province, Indonesia, on children aged 9-16 mo at baseline. A CFR group (n = 240) was compared with a non-CFR group (n = 215). The CFRs, which were developed using LP, were promoted in an intervention that included monthly cooking sessions and weekly home visits. The mother's nutrition knowledge and her child's feeding practices and the child's nutrient intakes were measured before and after the 6-mo intervention by using a structured interview, 24-h recall, and 1-wk food-frequency questionnaire. The CFR intervention improved mothers' knowledge and children's feeding practices and improved children's intakes of calcium, iron, and zinc. At the end line, median (IQR) nutrient densities were significantly higher in the CFR group than in the non-CFR group for iron [i.e., 0.6 mg/100 kcal (0.4-0.8 mg/100 kcal) compared with 0.5 mg/100 kcal (0.4-0.7 mg/100 kcal)] and niacin [i.e., 0.8 mg/100 kcal (0.5-1.0 mg/100 kcal) compared with 0.6 mg/100 kcal (0.4-0.8 mg/100 kcal)]. However, median nutrient densities for calcium, iron, niacin, and zinc in the CFR group (23, 0.6, 0.7, and 0.5 mg/100 kcal, respectively) were still below desired densities (63, 1.0, 0.9, and 0.6 mg/100 kcal, respectively). The CFRs significantly increased intakes of calcium, iron, niacin, and zinc, but nutrient densities were still below desired nutrient densities. When the adoption of optimized CFRs is

  7. Is Placental Mitochondrial Function a Regulator that Matches Fetal and Placental Growth to Maternal Nutrient Intake in the Mouse?

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    Marcos R Chiaratti

    Full Text Available Effective fetal growth requires adequate maternal nutrition coupled to active transport of nutrients across the placenta, which, in turn requires ATP. Epidemiological and experimental evidence has shown that impaired maternal nutrition in utero results in an adverse postnatal phenotype for the offspring. Placental mitochondrial function might link maternal food intake to fetal growth since impaired placental ATP production, in response to poor maternal nutrition, could be a pathway linking maternal food intake to reduced fetal growth.We assessed the effects of maternal diet on placental water content, ATP levels and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA content in mice at embryonic (E day 18 (E18. Females maintained on either low- (LPD or normal- (NPD protein diets were mated with NPD males.Fetal dry weight and placental efficiency (embryo/placental fresh weight were positively correlated (r = 0.53, P = 0.0001. Individual placental dry weight was reduced by LPD (P = 0.003, as was the expression of amino acid transporter Slc38a2 and of growth factor Igf2. Placental water content, which is regulated by active transport of solutes, was increased by LPD (P = 0.0001. However, placental ATP content was also increased (P = 0.03. To investigate the possibility of an underlying mitochondrial stress response, we studied cultured human trophoblast cells (BeWos. High throughput imaging showed that amino acid starvation induces changes in mitochondrial morphology that suggest stress-induced mitochondrial hyperfusion. This is a defensive response, believed to increase mitochondrial efficiency, that could underlie the increase in ATP observed in placenta.These findings reinforce the pathophysiological links between maternal diet and conceptus mitochondria, potentially contributing to metabolic programming. The quiet embryo hypothesis proposes that pre-implantation embryo survival is best served by a relatively low level of metabolism. This may extend to post

  8. Elevated plasma low-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in amenorrheic athletes: effects of endogenous hormone status and nutrient intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friday, K E; Drinkwater, B L; Bruemmer, B; Chesnut, C; Chait, A

    1993-12-01

    To determine the interactive effects of hormones, exercise, and diet on plasma lipids and lipoproteins, serum estrogen and progesterone levels, nutrient intake, and plasma lipid, lipoprotein, and apolipoprotein concentrations were measured in 24 hypoestrogenic amenorrheic and 44 eumenorrheic female athletes. When compared to eumenorrheic athletes, amenorrheic athletes had higher levels of plasma cholesterol (5.47 +/- 0.17 vs. 4.84 +/- 0.12 mmol/L, P = 0.003), triglyceride (0.75 +/- 0.06 vs. 0.61 +/- 0.03 mmol/L, P = 0.046), low-density lipoprotein (LDL; 3.16 +/- 0.15 vs. 2.81 +/- 0.09 mmol/L, P = 0.037), high-density lipoprotein (HDL; 1.95 +/- 0.07 vs. 1.73 +/- 0.05 mmol/L, P = 0.007), and HDL2 (0.84 +/- 0.06 vs. 0.68 +/- 0.04 mmol/L, P = 0.02) cholesterol. Plasma LDL/HDL cholesterol ratios, very low-density lipoprotein and HDL3 cholesterol, and apolipoprotein A-I and A-II levels were similar in the two groups. Amenorrheic athletes consumed less fat than eumenorrheic subjects (52 +/- 5 vs. 75 +/- 3 g/day, P = 0.02), but similar amounts of calories, cholesterol, protein, carbohydrate, and ethanol. HDL cholesterol levels in amenorrheic subjects correlated positively with the percent of dietary calories from fat (r = 0.42, n = 23, P = 0.045) but negatively with the percent from protein (r = -0.49, n = 23, P = 0.017). Thus, exercise-induced amenorrhea may adversely affect cardiovascular risk by increasing plasma LDL and total cholesterol. However, cardioprotective elevations in plasma HDL and HDL2 cholesterol may neutralize the risk of cardiovascular disease in amenorrheic athletes.

  9. CONCEPTS IN HUMAN NUTRITION AND ANIMAL FEEDING New Reference Values for nutrient intake in Germany, Austria and Switzerland (DACH-reference values

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    Wolfram Günther

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In accordance to their very good collaboration through decades especially at the “3 Countries Meetings” the Nutrition Societies of Germany, Austria and Switzerland (D, A, CH decided to prepare new Reference Values for nutrient intake as a joint edition in the year 2000. The Reference Values consist of two parts: Part 1, Nutritive aspects of nutrients. Part 2, Preventive aspect of nutrient and food components. The Reference Values presented should protect almost all individuals of the respective group against potential damage to health from their diet and provide a basis for full functional capacity. In detail recommendations, estimates or guideline values are presented for the different nutrients. Total fat should not exceed 30% of energy, saturated fatty acids should not provide more than 10% of energy and polyunsaturated fatty acids 7% of energy with n-6 and n-3 fatty acids in a ratio of 5:1. Preventive aspect concern the prophylaxis of nutrition-related diseases.

  10. Macro and Micro-Nutrients Intake, Food Groups Consumption and Dietary Habits among Female Students in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azadbakht, L; Esmaillzadeh, A

    2012-04-01

    Improving the dietary intake among different groups and population is important for improving the health status. This study determines the nutrients and food group intake as well as dietary habits among female students in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. Two hundreds and eighty nine healthy female youths who were randomly selected among students of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences in Isfahan, Iran were enrolled. A validated semi quantitative food frequency questionnaire was used. Folate, iron, calcium and fiber intake were lower than the recommended dietary allowances (RDA) amounts (70, 76, 90, 56% of RDA, respectively). Forty five percent of the population consumed fast foods 2 times a week and 35% used the frying oils for cooking most of the time. Female youths had lower amount of some micronutrients. Consuming frying oils, hydrogenated vegetable oils, and fast food intake should be limited among this group.

  11. Instant noodles made with fortified wheat flour to improve micronutrient intake in Asia: a review of simulation, nutrient retention and sensory studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronder, Kayla L; Zimmerman, Sarah L; van den Wijngaart, Annoek; Codling, Karen; Johns, Kirsten Ag; Pachón, Helena

    2017-03-01

    Consumption of foods made with wheat flour, particularly instant noodles, is increasing in Asia. Given this trend, fortifying wheat flour with vitamins and minerals may improve micronutrient intake in the region. The objective of this review was to understand what is known about fortifying wheat flour used to make instant noodles. A literature review of seven databases was performed using the search terms "noodle" and ("Asian" or "instant"). Grey literature was requested through a food fortification listserv. Articles were title screened first for relevance and duplicity, with exclusion criteria applied during the second round of abstract-level screening. This review considered studies examining simulation, retention, sensory, bioavailability, efficacy, and effectiveness of instant noodles made with fortified wheat flour. Fourteen relevant documents were reviewed for simulation (n=1), retention (n=11), and sensory studies (n=3). The documents revealed that instant noodles produced from fortified wheat flour have potential to improve nutrient intakes, have high retention of most nutrients, and provoke no or minimal changes in sensory characteristics. The available literature indicates that using fortified wheat flour for instant noodle production results in retention of the added nutrients, except thiamin, with no significant sensory change to the final product. Given the rising consumption of instant noodles, production of this item with fortified wheat flour has potential to improve nutrient intakes in Asia. This review provides a resource for the design of a wheat flour fortification program in countries where a large proportion of wheat flour is consumed as instant noodles.

  12. Effect of Carbohydrate Source and Cottonseed Meal Level in the Concentrate on Feed Intake, Nutrient Digestibility, Rumen Fermentation and Microbial Protein Synthesis in Swamp Buffaloes

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    M. Wanapat

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of carbohydrate source and cottonseed meal level in the concentrate on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, rumen fermentation and microbial protein synthesis in swamp buffaloes. Four, 4-yr old rumen fistulated swamp buffaloes were randomly assigned to receive four dietary treatments according to a 2×2 factorial arrangement in a 4×4 Latin square design. Factor A was carbohydrate source; cassava chip (CC and CC+rice bran at a ratio 3:1 (CR3:1, and factor B was level of cottonseed meal (CM; 109 g CP/kg (LCM and 328 g CP/kg (HCM in isonitrogenous diets (490 g CP/kg. Buffaloes received urea-treated rice straw ad libitum and supplemented with 5 g concentrate/kg BW. It was found that carbohydrate source did not affect feed intake, nutrient intake, digested nutrients, nutrient digestibility, ammonia nitrogen concentration, fungi and bacterial populations, or microbial protein synthesis (p>0.05. Ruminal pH at 6 h after feeding and the population of protozoa at 4 h after feeding were higher when buffalo were fed with CC than in the CR3:1 treatment (p0.05. Based on this experiment, concentrate with a low level of cottonseed meal could be fed with cassava chips as an energy source in swamp buffalo receiving rice straw.

  13. A procedure for culturing rat neocortex explants in a serum-free nutrient medium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romijn, H. J.; de Jong, B. M.; Ruijter, J. M.

    1988-01-01

    A procedure is described for long-term culturing of rat neocortex explants in a serum-free growth medium. Slices spanning the entire cortical depth from pial to ventricular side are prepared from 6-day-old rat pups. After preincubation in Hanks' balanced salt solution with extra glucose, the

  14. Dose-response relationship between dietary magnesium intake, serum magnesium concentration and risk of hypertension: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hedong; Fang, Xin; Wei, Xin; Liu, Yuzhou; Jin, Zhicao; Chen, Qi; Fan, Zhongjie; Aaseth, Jan; Hiyoshi, Ayako; He, Jia; Cao, Yang

    2017-05-05

    The findings of prospective cohort studies are inconsistent regarding the association between dietary magnesium intake and serum magnesium concentration and the risk of hypertension. We aimed to review the evidence from prospective cohort studies and perform a dose-response meta-analysis to investigate the relationship between dietary magnesium intake and serum magnesium concentrations and the risk of hypertension. We searched systematically PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library databases from October 1951 through June 2016. Prospective cohort studies reporting effect estimates with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for hypertension in more than two categories of dietary magnesium intake and/or serum magnesium concentrations were included. Random-effects models were used to combine the estimated effects. Nine articles (six on dietary magnesium intake, two on serum magnesium concentration and one on both) of ten cohort studies, including 20,119 cases of hypertension and 180,566 participates, were eligible for inclusion in the meta-analysis. We found an inverse association between dietary magnesium intake and the risk of hypertension [relative risk (RR) = 0.92; 95% CI: 0.86, 0.98] comparing the highest intake group with the lowest. A 100 mg/day increment in magnesium intake was associated with a 5% reduction in the risk of hypertension (RR = 0.95; 95% CI: 0.90, 1.00). The association of serum magnesium concentration with the risk of hypertension was marginally significant (RR = 0.91; 95% CI: 0.80, 1.02). Current evidence supports the inverse dose-response relationship between dietary magnesium intake and the risk of hypertension. However, the evidence about the relationship between serum magnesium concentration and hypertension is limited.

  15. Vitamin A Intake, Serum Vitamin D and Bone Mineral Density: Analysis of the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES, 2008–2011

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    Nam-Seok Joo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The association of high vitamin A intake and low bone mineral density (BMD is still controversial. To determine the association of dietary vitamin A intake and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD concentration with BMD, a total of 6481 subjects (2907 men and 3574 women aged ≥50 years from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2008–2011 were divided into groups according to dietary vitamin A intake (tertiles and serum 25(OHD (<50, 50–75, >75 nmol/L, and evaluated for BMD after adjusting for relevant variables. Mean dietary vitamin A intakes were 737 and 600 μg RE (Retinol Equivalents in men and women, respectively. Total hip and femoral neck BMD in men and lumbar spine BMD in women were both positively correlated with dietary vitamin A intake in subjects with serum 25(OHD >75 nmol/L. Among men with serum 25(OHD <50 nmol/L, both the top (mean 1353 μg RE and bottom (mean 218 μg RE tertiles of dietary vitamin A intake had lower BMD than the middle group (mean 577 μg RE. In this population, BMD was the highest among men and women with serum 25(OHD = 50–75 nmol/L and that there were no differences in BMD by vitamin A intake in these vitamin D adequate groups. This cross-sectional study indicates that vitamin A intake does not affect bone mineral density as long as the serum 25(OHD concentration is maintained in the moderate level of 50–75 nmol/L.

  16. Vitamin A intake, serum vitamin D and bone mineral density: analysis of the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES, 2008-2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Nam-Seok; Yang, Sung-Won; Song, Byeng Chun; Yeum, Kyung-Jin

    2015-03-10

    The association of high vitamin A intake and low bone mineral density (BMD) is still controversial. To determine the association of dietary vitamin A intake and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration with BMD, a total of 6481 subjects (2907 men and 3574 women) aged ≥50 years from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2008-2011) were divided into groups according to dietary vitamin A intake (tertiles) and serum 25(OH)D (75 nmol/L), and evaluated for BMD after adjusting for relevant variables. Mean dietary vitamin A intakes were 737 and 600 μg RE (Retinol Equivalents) in men and women, respectively. Total hip and femoral neck BMD in men and lumbar spine BMD in women were both positively correlated with dietary vitamin A intake in subjects with serum 25(OH)D >75 nmol/L. Among men with serum 25(OH)D L, both the top (mean 1353 μg RE) and bottom (mean 218 μg RE) tertiles of dietary vitamin A intake had lower BMD than the middle group (mean 577 μg RE). In this population, BMD was the highest among men and women with serum 25(OH)D = 50-75 nmol/L and that there were no differences in BMD by vitamin A intake in these vitamin D adequate groups. This cross-sectional study indicates that vitamin A intake does not affect bone mineral density as long as the serum 25(OH)D concentration is maintained in the moderate level of 50-75 nmol/L.

  17. The Effects of a Normal Rate versus a Slow Intervalled Rate of Oral Nutrient Intake and Intravenous Low Rate Macronutrient Application on Psychophysical Function – Two Pilot Studies

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    Melanie Y. Denzer-Lippmann

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Stomach distension and energy per time are factors influencing satiety. Moreover, different rates of nutrient intake induce different stomach distension. The goal of our studies was to elucidate the influence of different oral rates of nutrient intake (normal rate versus slow intervalled rate; study I and intravenous low rate macronutrient application (protein, carbohydrate, fat or placebo (study II on psychophysical function. The pilot studies investigated the effects of 1 study I: a mixed nutrient solution (1/3 protein, 1/3 fat, 1/3 carbohydrates 2 study II: intravenous macronutrient infusions (protein, carbohydrate, fat or placebo on psychophysical function (mood, hunger, food craving, alertness, smell intensity ratings and hedonic ratings in human subjects. In study I 10 male subjects (age range: 21–30 years completed the study protocol participating in both test conditions and in study II 20 male subjects (age range: 19–41 years completed the study protocol participating in all test conditions. Additionally, metabolic function was analyzed and cognitive and olfactory tests were conducted twice starting 100 min before the beginning of the intervention and 240 min after. Psychophysical (mood, hunger, fat-, protein-, carbohydrate-, sweets- and vegetable-craving, alertness and metabolic function tests were performed seven times on each examination day. Greater effects on hunger and food cravings were observed for normal rate of intake compared to slow intervalled rate of intake and intravenous low rate macronutrient application. Our findings potentially confirm that volume of the food ingested and a higher rate of energy per time contribute to satiety during normal rate of food intake, while slow intervalled rate of food intake and intravenous low rate macronutrient application showed no effects on satiation. Our results motivate the view that a certain amount of volume of the food ingested and a certain energy per time ratio are necessary

  18. Permissive parental feeding behavior is associated with an increase in intake of low-nutrient-dense foods among American children living in rural communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy, Erin; Hughes, Sheryl O; Goldberg, Jeanne P; Hyatt, Raymond R; Economos, Christina D

    2012-01-01

    Parents play an important role in shaping children's eating habits. Few studies have evaluated the influence of both parenting style and parenting practices on child outcomes such as dietary intake. During spring 2007, 99 parent-child dyads from four rural US areas participated in this cross-sectional study. Child food intake was reported during two interviewer-administered, parent-assisted 24-hour recalls. Diet quality was defined as the average number of low-nutrient-dense (LND) foods consumed. Validated questionnaires were used to assess parental feeding practices and feeding style. Pearson correlations identified relationships among child food intake, parental feeding style typologies, and covariates. Regression analyses were used to predict child diet quality. Sixty percent of children and 76% of parents were overweight or obese. A permissive feeding style, which is highly responsive to a child's requests and sets few demands on him or her, was the most common (n=37) parental feeding style. This feeding style was associated with child intake of LND foods (r=0.3; Pparental feeding practices and child intake of LND foods. In the presence of a permissive feeding style, higher levels of monitoring were associated with child intake of LND foods (β=.69; PParental feeding style may alter the effectiveness of parental feeding practices on children's food intake. More research is needed to understand the parent-child feeding relationship in the context of parental feeding styles and practices. Copyright © 2012 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Associations of Socioeconomic Status and Processed Food Intake with Serum Phosphorus in Community-Living Adults: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Orlando M.; Katz, Ronit; Peralta, Carmen A.; de Boer, Ian H.; Siscovick, David; Wolf, Myles; Roux, Ana Diez; Kestenbaum, Bryan; Nettleton, Jennifer A.; Ix, Joachim H.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Higher serum phosphorus concentrations are associated with cardiovascular disease events and mortality. Low socioeconomic status is linked with higher serum phosphorus, but the reasons are unclear. Poor individuals disproportionately consume inexpensive processed foods commonly enriched with phosphorus-based food preservatives. Accordingly, we hypothesized that excess intake of these foods accounts for a relationship between lower socioeconomic status and higher serum phosphorus. Design Cross-sectional analysis. Setting and Participants We examined a random cohort of 2,664 participants with available phosphorus measurements in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, a community-based sample of individuals free of clinically apparent cardiovascular disease from across the United States. Predictor Variables Socioeconomic status, the intake of foods commonly enriched with phosphorus additives (processed meats, sodas) and frequency of fast food consumption. Outcomes Fasting morning serum phosphorus concentrations. Results In unadjusted analyses, lower income and lower educational achievement categories were associated with modestly higher serum phosphorus (by 0.02 to 0.10 mg/dL, P fast-food consumption with serum phosphorus in multivariable-adjusted analyses. In contrast, each serving per day higher soda intake was associated with 0.02 mg/dl lower serum phosphorus (95% confidence interval, −0.04, −0.01). Conclusions Greater intake of foods commonly enriched with phosphorus additives was not associated with higher serum phosphorus in a community-living sample with largely preserved kidney function. These results suggest that excess intake of processed and fast foods may not impact fasting serum phosphorus concentrations among individuals without kidney disease. PMID:22217539

  20. Associations of socioeconomic status and processed food intake with serum phosphorus concentration in community-living adults: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Orlando M; Katz, Ronit; Peralta, Carmen A; de Boer, Ian H; Siscovick, David; Wolf, Myles; Diez Roux, Ana; Kestenbaum, Bryan; Nettleton, Jennifer A; Ix, Joachim H

    2012-09-01

    Higher serum phosphorus concentrations are associated with cardiovascular disease events and mortality. Low socioeconomic status is linked with higher serum phosphorus concentration, but the reasons are unclear. Poor individuals disproportionately consume inexpensive processed foods commonly enriched with phosphorus-based food preservatives. Accordingly, we hypothesized that excess intake of these foods accounts for a relationship between lower socioeconomic status and higher serum phosphorus concentration. Cross-sectional analysis. We examined a random cohort of 2,664 participants with available phosphorus measurements in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, a community-based sample of individuals free of clinically apparent cardiovascular disease from across the United States. Socioeconomic status, the intake of foods commonly enriched with phosphorus-based food additives (processed meats, sodas), and frequency of fast-food consumption. Fasting morning serum phosphorus concentrations. In unadjusted analyses, lower income and lower educational achievement categories were associated with modestly higher serum phosphorus concentration (by 0.02 to 0.10 mg/dL, P fast-food consumption with serum phosphorus. In contrast, each serving per day higher soda intake was associated with 0.02 mg/dL lower serum phosphorus concentration (95% confidence interval, -0.04, -0.01). Greater intake of foods commonly enriched with phosphorus additives was not associated with higher serum phosphorus concentration in a community-living sample with largely preserved kidney function. These results suggest that excess intake of processed and fast foods may not impact fasting serum phosphorus concentrations among individuals without kidney disease. Copyright © 2012 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. EFFECTS OF FEEDING Moringa stenopetala LEAF MEAL ON NUTRIENT INTAKE AND GROWTH PERFORMANCE OF RHODE ISLAND RED CHICKS UNDER TROPICAL CLIMATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aberra Melesse

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of Moringa stenopetala leaf meal (MSLM on nutrient intake and weight gain (WG were evaluated. Forty unsexed Rhode Island Red chicks were randomly assigned to 4 treatment groups. The control diet (T1 (MSLM 0%, the experimental diets contained MSML at a rate of 2% (T2, 4% (T3, and 6% (T4 of the diets (as fed basis to replace 3%, 5.9% and 8.8% of the crude protein (CP of the control diet. Daily feed, dry matter and CP intake of the chicks fed MSLM diets were higher (p

  2. The Geometry of Nutrient Space-Based Life-History Trade-Offs: Sex-Specific Effects of Macronutrient Intake on the Trade-Off between Encapsulation Ability and Reproductive Effort in Decorated Crickets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapkin, James; Jensen, Kim; Archer, C Ruth; House, Clarissa M; Sakaluk, Scott K; Castillo, Enrique Del; Hunt, John

    2018-04-01

    Life-history theory assumes that traits compete for limited resources, resulting in trade-offs. The most commonly manipulated resource in empirical studies is the quantity or quality of diet. Recent studies using the geometric framework for nutrition, however, suggest that trade-offs are often regulated by the intake of specific nutrients, but a formal approach to identify and quantify the strength of such trade-offs is lacking. We posit that trade-offs occur whenever life-history traits are maximized in different regions of nutrient space, as evidenced by nonoverlapping 95% confidence regions of the global maximum for each trait and large angles (θ) between linear nutritional vectors and Euclidean distances (d) between global maxima. We then examined the effects of protein and carbohydrate intake on the trade-off between reproduction and aspects of immune function in male and female Gryllodes sigillatus. Female encapsulation ability and egg production increased with the intake of both nutrients, whereas male encapsulation ability increased with protein intake but calling effort increased with carbohydrate intake. The trade-offs between traits was therefore larger in males than in females, as demonstrated by significant negative correlations between the traits in males, nonoverlapping 95% confidence regions, and larger estimates of θ and d. Under dietary choice, the sexes had similar regulated intakes, but neither optimally regulated nutrient intake for maximal trait expression. We highlight the fact that greater consideration of specific nutrient intake is needed when examining nutrient space-based trade-offs.

  3. Effects of Combined Selective Aerobic Moderate Intensity Exercises and Soya Intake on Serum Lipids and Obesity in Obese Postmenopausal Women

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    A Zarneshan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aim: Today, the percentage of deaths due to heart diseases has increased and along with the exercise training role in reducing obesity and cardiovascular disease, soy is a useful source of food in reducing blood lipid and obesity. The present study investigated the effect of combined selective short aerobic moderate intensity exercise and soya intake on serum lipids and obesity in obese postmenopausal women. Methods: In the present quasi-experimental study conducted in 2006 on women of Urmia, Iran, 56 obese postmenopausal women were selected and randomly divided into four groups of 14 subjects as follow: exercise-soya, exercise, soya, and control group. Pre- and post protocol blood samples were collected and the level of TG (Triglyceride, tCho (Total Cholesterol, LDL-C (Low density lipoprotein, HDL-C (high density lipoprotein were measured. Exercise training within the range of 60-70% maximum heart rate (MHR was performed for 60 minutes, 3 sessions per week. The subjects of soya group and exercise-soya group had a 100 gram soya nut intake daily for 10 weeks. After The training course, blood samples were taken from the subjects. The collected data was analyzed using Two-way ANOVA and paired t-test. Results: Having soya along with exercise had significant impact on reduction of TG, tCho, LDL-C means (p<0.05. Body mass index and waist to hip ratio decreased significantly in exercise-soya group after 10 weeks (p<0.05. Conclusion: Based on the findings of this study, aerobic moderate intensity exercise along with soya intake, decrease obesity and serum lipids in obese postmenopausal women.

  4. Nutrient intake, rumen fermentation and growth performance of dairy calves fed extruded full-fat soybean as a replacement for soybean meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZeidAli-Nejad, A; Ghorbani, G R; Kargar, S; Sadeghi-Sefidmazgi, A; Pezeshki, A; Ghaffari, M H

    2018-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of extruded full-fat soybean (ESB) as a replacement for soybean meal (SBM) on nutrient intake, rumen fermentation, and growth performance of dairy calves. A total of 45 male Holstein dairy calves (42.0±0.5 kg of BW) were randomly assigned to one of three experimental diets: (1) 0% ESB (Control): 35.3% SBM no ESB; (2) 25% ESB: 27.0% SBM+9.0% ESB; and (3) 50% ESB: 19.0% SBM+19.0% ESB. All calves were weaned on day 56 of age and remained in the study until day 70 of age. During the pre-weaning and overall periods, substituting of SBM with ESB had no effect on intake of starter feed, metabolizable energy (ME), CP and non-fiber carbohydrate (NFC). Compared with the control, 50% ESB resulted in a decrease in starter feed intake, and intakes of other nutrients including CP, NFC and ME during the post-weaning period. Substituting SBM with ESB decreased intake of C16 : 0 and increased intakes of n-9 C18 : 1, n-6 C18 : 2 and n-3 C18 : 3 during the pre-weaning, post-weaning and overall periods. Using ESB as a replacement for SBM did not affect average daily gain, feed efficiency, rectal temperature and fecal score over the trial periods. Compared with control, the rumen concentration of NH3-N decreased for 50% ESB on days 35 and 56 of age but not when compared with 25% ESB. Rumen pH, total volatile fatty acids concentrations, and the molar proportions of ruminal acetate, propionate and butyrate were not different among treatments. Body measurements were not affected by the treatments. In conclusion, substitution of SBM with ESB may improve nitrogen utilization efficiency in dairy calves but slightly reduce post-weaning starter intake with no negative outcomes on growth performance and rumen fermentation.

  5. Nutrient intake, diet quality, and weight/adiposity parameters in breakfast patterns compared with no breakfast in adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Carol E; Nicklas, Theresa A; Fulgoni, Victor L

    2014-12-01

    The effect of different breakfast consumption patterns on nutrient intake, diet quality, and weight/adiposity status is unknown. To compare nutrient intake, diet quality, and weight/adiposity measures of consumers assigned to different breakfast patterns with breakfast skippers. These associations were assessed in adults 19+ years (N=18,988) participating in the 2001-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Intake was determined from 1-day 24-hour dietary recall. Diet quality was quantified using the Healthy Eating Index-2005. Body mass index (calculated as kg/m(2)) and waist circumferences were determined. Twelve patterns (including No Breakfast [approximately 19% of population]), explaining 58% of the variance in energy from the breakfast meal, were examined. Covariate adjusted general linear models were used to compare nutrient intakes, Healthy Eating Index-2005 scores, and body mass index/waist circumference of consumers of different patterns with breakfast skippers. The P value was Bonferroni corrected (Juice and Presweetened Ready-to-Eat Cereal (RTEC)/Lower-Fat Milk patterns had lower daily intakes of nutrients to limit (added sugars, saturated fatty acids, solid fats, cholesterol, and sodium) than breakfast skippers. Consumers of the Grain/100% Fruit Juice; Presweetened RTEC/Lower-Fat Milk; and RTEC/Lower-Fat Milk/Whole Fruit/100% Fruit Juice patterns had higher daily intakes of all shortfall nutrients examined (dietary fiber; vitamins A, D, and C; calcium, potassium, folate, iron, and magnesium) than breakfast skippers. Consumers of the Grain/100% Fruit Juice; Grain; Presweetened RTEC/Lower-Fat Milk; RTEC/Lower-Fat Milk/Whole Fruit/100% Fruit Juice; Cooked Cereal; Lower-Fat Milk/Whole Fruit; and Whole Fruit patterns had higher Healthy Eating Index-2005 scores than breakfast skippers. Consumers of the Grain/100% Fruit Juice; Presweetened RTEC/Lower-Fat Milk; RTEC/Lower-Fat Milk/Whole Fruit/100% Fruit Juice; and Cooked Cereal patterns had lower

  6. Effects of different levels of urea supplementation on nutrient intake and growth performance in growing camels fed roughage based complete pellet diets

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    Ntiranyibagira Emmanuel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of urea in camels has beneficial and negative effects. The aims of this study were to investigate the effects of different levels of urea supplementation on nutrients intake, digestibility, growth performance, feed efficiency and economics in growing camels fed roughage based complete pellet diets. In the present study, eighteen growing camels with an average live body weight of 306.17 ± 2.05 kg were randomly assigned in three treatments: T1 = roughage complete pellet diet without urea, T2 = T1 plus 1% urea, and T3 = T1 plus 2% urea. The results showed that the urea supplementation significantly affected average daily feed and nutrient intake of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, and acid detergent fiber (ADF (P  0.05. Similarly, digestion coefficient of DM, CP, ether extract (EE, crude fiber (CF and ADF was influenced by increasing urea level (P  0.05. The intake of digestive nutrients was similar among all treatment groups. Total body live weight gain and average daily gain were significantly higher in urea supplemented groups (P < 0.05 than in the control group. The supplementation of urea at 1% in low quality roughage complete pellet diets significantly improved (P < 0.05 the feed efficiency. In conclusion, these results indicated that the incorporation of urea at 1% in roughage based complete pellet diets could positively improve nutrients intake, digestibility, growth performance and feed conversion efficiency of growing camels.

  7. Nutrient Intakes of the Enlisted Personnel Aboard the USS Saratoga Before and After Implementing ’Fast Food’ to the Food Service System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-05-01

    intakes. In 1978, vitamin A fortified milk shakes (dry base) and vitamin C fortified extruded French fried potatoes and vitamin C fortified non...dry base) and vitamin C fortified extruded French fried potatoes and vitamin C fortified non-carbonated beverages were provided with the "Fast Food...identification of any unusual food items, and assignment of each food item as a component of either a meal or between-meal snack . The LAIR Nutrient Factor File

  8. Comparative validity of the ASSO–Food Frequency Questionnaire for the web-based assessment of food and nutrients intake in adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabacchi, Garden; Filippi, Anna Rita; Breda, João; Censi, Laura; Amodio, Emanuele; Napoli, Giuseppe; Bianco, Antonino; Jemni, Monèm; Firenze, Alberto; Mammina, Caterina

    2015-01-01

    Background A new web-based food frequency questionnaire (the ASSO–FFQ) was developed within the ASSO Project funded by the Italian Ministry of Health. Objective The aim of the present study is to assess the validity of the ASSO–FFQ at food groups, energy, and nutrients level. Design and subjects The validation study compared the ASSO–FFQ against a weighted food record (WFR) measuring foods, beverages and supplements intake, compiled during the week following the ASSO–FFQ administration. Ninety-two subjects aged 14–17, recruited from secondary schools in Palermo (Italy), completed the ASSO–FFQ and WFR. The intake of 24 food groups, energy, and 52 nutrients were taken as main outcomes. Tests for paired observations, Spearman and Pearson’s correlation coefficients (cc), kappa statistics and classification in quintiles, Bland–Altman plots and multiple regressions, on untransformed and transformed data were used for the statistical analysis. Results High cc (≥0.40) were found for soft drinks, milk, tea/coffee, vegetables, and lactose; fair energy-adjusted cc (0.25–0.40) for water, alcoholic drinks, breakfast cereals, fishery products, savory food, fruit juice, eggs, and 19 nutrients. The subjects classified in the same or adjacent quintile for food groups ranged from 40% (alcoholic drinks) to 100% (dried fruit); for energy and nutrients from 43% (phosphorus, thiamin, niacin) to 77% (lactose). Mean differences were not significant for water, soft drinks, meat, sweets, animal fats, milk and white bread, and vitamin B12 and folate. Limits of Agreement were broad for all food groups and nutrients. School, gender, alcohol consumption and between meals mainly affected most food groups’ intake differences. Gender stratification showed females had increased Pearson’s cc for energy and 28 nutrients, such as almost all fats, carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals. Conclusions The ASSO–FFQ could be applied in epidemiological studies for the assessment of

  9. Comparative validity of the ASSO–Food Frequency Questionnaire for the web-based assessment of food and nutrients intake in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garden Tabacchi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: A new web-based food frequency questionnaire (the ASSO–FFQ was developed within the ASSO Project funded by the Italian Ministry of Health. Objective: The aim of the present study is to assess the validity of the ASSO–FFQ at food groups, energy, and nutrients level. Design and subjects: The validation study compared the ASSO–FFQ against a weighted food record (WFR measuring foods, beverages and supplements intake, compiled during the week following the ASSO–FFQ administration. Ninety-two subjects aged 14–17, recruited from secondary schools in Palermo (Italy, completed the ASSO–FFQ and WFR. The intake of 24 food groups, energy, and 52 nutrients were taken as main outcomes. Tests for paired observations, Spearman and Pearson's correlation coefficients (cc, kappa statistics and classification in quintiles, Bland–Altman plots and multiple regressions, on untransformed and transformed data were used for the statistical analysis. Results: High cc (≥0.40 were found for soft drinks, milk, tea/coffee, vegetables, and lactose; fair energy-adjusted cc (0.25–0.40 for water, alcoholic drinks, breakfast cereals, fishery products, savory food, fruit juice, eggs, and 19 nutrients. The subjects classified in the same or adjacent quintile for food groups ranged from 40% (alcoholic drinks to 100% (dried fruit; for energy and nutrients from 43% (phosphorus, thiamin, niacin to 77% (lactose. Mean differences were not significant for water, soft drinks, meat, sweets, animal fats, milk and white bread, and vitamin B12 and folate. Limits of Agreement were broad for all food groups and nutrients. School, gender, alcohol consumption and between meals mainly affected most food groups’ intake differences. Gender stratification showed females had increased Pearson's cc for energy and 28 nutrients, such as almost all fats, carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals. Conclusions: The ASSO–FFQ could be applied in epidemiological studies for the

  10. Nutrient intake, digestibility and performance of Gaddi kids supplemented with tea seed or tea seed saponin extract

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    M. Kumar

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective An experiment was conducted to determine the nutrient intake, digestibility, microbial protein synthesis, haemato-biochemical attributes, immune response and growth performance of Gaddi kids fed with oat fodder based basal diet supplemented with either tea seed or tea seed saponin (TSS extract. Methods Eighteen male kids, 7.03±0.16 months of age and 19.72±0.64 kg body weight, were distributed into three groups, T0 (control, T1, and T2, consisting of 6 animals each in a completely randomized design. The kids were fed a basal diet consisting of concentrate mixture and oat fodder (50:50. Animals in group III (T2 were supplemented with TSS at 0.4% of dry matter intake (DMI, and group II (T1 were supplemented with tea seed at 2.6% of DMI to provide equivalent dose of TSS as in T2. Two metabolism trials were conducted, 1st after 21 days and 2nd after 90 days of feeding to evaluate the short term and long term effects of supplementation. Results The tea seed (T1 or TSS (T2 supplementation did not affect DMI as well as the digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fibre, and acid detergent fibre. Nutritive value of diet and plane of nutrition were also comparable for both the periods. However, the average daily gain and feed conversion ratio (FCR were improved (p<0.05 for T1 and T2 as compared to T0. The microbial protein supply was also higher (p<0.05 for T1 and T2 for both the periods. There was no effect of supplementation on most blood parameters. However, the triglyceride and low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels decreased (p<0.05 and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol level increased (p<0.05 in T2 as compared with T0 and T1. Supplementation also did not affect the cell mediated and humoral immune response in goats. Conclusion Tea seed at 2.6% of DMI and TSS at 0.4% DMI can be fed to Gaddi goats to improve growth rate, FCR and microbial protein synthesis.

  11. The effect of sensory-nutrient congruency on food intake after repeated exposure: do texture and/or energy density matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogenkamp, P S

    2014-09-01

    Sensory properties guide the amount that people eat. In particular, food texture plays an important role in a food's 'expected satiation', which in turn affects the food-related decision making process. One hypothesis is that incongruent pairing of a textural cue with a post-ingestive outcome compromises this process, leading to poor energy compensation. Several studies examined the effect of both energy density and sensory characteristics (i.e. increased creaminess and thickness) on expectations, subjective appetite and food intake. To add to this literature, a re-analysis of data assessed whether the effect of sensory-nutrient pairings on energy intake compensation persisted after repeated exposure to a food. In this cross-over design, 27 participants consumed two preloads with 'congruent' (low-energy/liquid; high-energy/semi-solid) and two preloads with 'incongruent' (low-energy/semi-solid; high-energy/liquid) texture-nutrient combinations for nine subsequent meals, during which ad libitum intake was measured. Intake at first exposure did not differ between the low-energy (280±150kcal) and high-energy preloads (292±183kcal) in the incongruent conditions. By contrast, it was greater after the low-energy (332±203kcal) than after the high-energy (236±132kcal) preload in the congruent conditions (energy∗incongruent/congruent, p=0.04). Post-exposure, this pattern changed: intake depended on the energy density of the preloads in all conditions, and was greater after low-energy preloads (day∗energy∗incongruent/congruent-interaction for breakfast: p=0.02). Thus, manipulating the sensory properties of a food influenced energy compensation and meal size, but only at initial exposure. Repeated exposure 'corrected' the initial lack of compensation observed in conditions with incongruent sensory-nutrient pairings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Contributions of food categories to absolute nutrient intake and between-person variation within a representative sample of 2677 Norwegian men and women

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    Annhild Mosdøl

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available  ABSTRACTSemi-quantitative food frequency data from a nation-wide, representative sample of 2677 Norwegianmen and women were analysed to identify food categories contributing most to absolute intake andbetween-person variation in intake of energy and nine nutrients. The 149 food categories in the questionnairewere ranked according to their contribution to absolute nutrient intake, and categories contributingat least 0.5% to the average absolute intake were included in a stepwise regression model. Thenumber of food categories explaining 90% of the between-person variation varied from 2 categories forb -carotene to 33 for a-tocopherol. The models accounted for 53–76% of the estimated absolute nutrientintakes. These analyses present a meaningful way of restricting the number of food categories inquestionnaires aimed at capturing the between-person variation in energy or specific nutrient intakes.NORSK SAMMENDRAGSemikvantitative matvarefrekvensdata fra et landsrepresentativt utvalg av 2677 norske menn og kvinnerble analysert for å identifisere de matvarekategoriene som bidro mest til absolutt inntak og til variasjoni inntak mellom individer for energi og ni næringsstoffer. De 149 matvarekategoriene ble rangert iforhold til deres bidrag til inntaket av et næringsstoff, og de kategoriene som bidro med minst 0,5% avgjennomsnittlig inntak ble inkludert i en trinnvis regresjonsmodell. Antallet kategorier som forklarte90% av variasjonen mellom individer varierte fra 2 kategorier for b-karoten til 33 for a-tokoferol.Modellene inkluderte 53–76% av det estimerte absoluttinntaket av næringsstoffene. Disse analysenepeker på en meningsfylt måte å redusere antall kostspørsmål i spørreskjema som er rettet mot å fangeopp variasjonen i inntak av energi og utvalgte næringsstoffer mellom personer.

  13. Influence of selenomethionine and omega-3 fatty acid on serum mineral profile and nutrient utilization of broiler chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Kumar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was conducted to investigate the effect of selenomethionine and omega-3 fatty acid on serum mineral profile and nutrient utilization of broiler chicken. Materials and Methods: The present study was a 2×3 factorial arrangement of two levels of selenomethionine (0 and 0.3 ppm and three levels of omega-3 fatty acid (0, 0.5 and 1%. Day-old Vencobb broiler chicks (n=180, were randomly assigned in six treatment groups. The experiment lasted for 42 days. Treatment groups followed of: Group I was a control. Group II, III, IV, V and VI were supplemented with 0 ppm selenomethionine with 0.5% omega-3 fatty acid, 0 ppm selenomethionine with 1% omega-3 fatty acid, 0.3 ppm selenomethionine with 0% omega-3 fatty acid, 0.3 ppm selenomethionine with 0.5% omega-3 fatty acid and 0.3 ppm selenomethionine with 1% omega-3 fatty acid, respectively. Linseed oil was used as a source of omega-3 fatty acid while sel-plex is used for selenomethionine supplementation. Results: Significant (p<0.05 interaction exist between selenomethionine and omega-3 fatty acid for serum zinc and iron concentration whereas, it was non-significant for serum calcium and copper. Significantly (p<0.05 increased concentration of selenium, zinc, iron and phosphorus was observed in birds fed 0.3 ppm selenomethionine whereas, significantly (p<0.05 increased zinc and iron was observed in birds fed 0.5% omega-3 fatty acid. There was significant (p<0.05 interaction exist between selenomethionine and omega-3 fatty acid for calcium and phosphorus retention percentage. The maximum retention of calcium and phosphorus was recorded in birds supplemented with 0.3 ppm selenomethionine in combination with 0.5% omega-3 fatty acid. There was marked interaction between selenomethionine and omega-3 fatty acid for hemoglobin (Hb, total erythrocytic count, total leukocytic count and platelets (p<0.05 however, it was non-significant for mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular Hb, MCH concentration

  14. Patterns of food and nutrient intakes of Dutch adults according to intakes of total fat, saturated fatty acids, dietary fibre, and of fruit and vegetables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Löwik, M.R.H.; Hulshof, K.F.A.M.; Brussaard, J.H.

    1999-01-01

    Dietary intake characteristics were studied among 3833 adults of the second Dutch National Food Consumption Survey held in 1992. The subjects were classified into three groups based on their intake of total fat (% energy), saturated fatty acids (% energy), dietary fibre (g/MJ), and fruit and

  15. Lowest neonatal serum sodium predicts sodium intake in low birth weight children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirazki, Adi; Weintraub, Zalman; Reich, Dan; Gershon, Edith; Leshem, Micah

    2007-04-01

    Forty-one children aged 10.5 +/- 0.2 years (range, 8.0-15.0 yr), born with low birth weight of 1,218.2 +/- 36.6 g (range, 765-1,580 g) were selected from hospital archives on the basis of whether they had received neonatal diuretic treatment or as healthy matched controls. The children were tested for salt appetite and sweet preference, including rating of preferred concentration of salt in tomato soup (and sugar in tea), ratings of oral spray (NaCl and sucrose solutions), intake of salt or sweet snack items, and a food-seasoning, liking, and dietary questionnaire. Results showed that sodium appetite was not related to neonatal diuretic treatment, birth weight, or gestational age. However, there was a robust inverse correlation (r = -0.445, P clear that perinatal sodium loss, from a variety of causes, is a consistent and significant contributor to long-term sodium intake.

  16. Milk minerals modify the effect of fat intake on serum lipid profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Janne Kunchel; Jensen, Søren Krogh; Astrup, Arne

    2014-01-01

    Despite a high content of saturated fat, evidence from observational studies indicates that the consumption of dairy products may have a neutral effect or may be inversely associated with the risk of CVD. We aimed to examine whether milk minerals modify the effect of saturated fat on serum lipid...

  17. Serum lithium as a compliance marker for food and supplement intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roos, de N.; Vries, de J.H.M.; Katan, M.B.

    2001-01-01

    Analyzing 24-h urine for lithium after consumption of lithium-tagged foods or supplements provides a validated compliance marker but is laborious. Objective: Most studies involve blood sampling; therefore, we tested whether serum lithium concentration could be used as a compliance marker. Design: We

  18. The glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor in the ventromedial hypothalamus reduces short-term food intake in male mice by regulating nutrient sensor activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burmeister, Melissa A; Brown, Jacob D; Ayala, Jennifer E; Stoffers, Doris A; Sandoval, Darleen A; Seeley, Randy J; Ayala, Julio E

    2017-12-01

    Pharmacological activation of the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) in the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) reduces food intake. Here, we assessed whether suppression of food intake by GLP-1R agonists (GLP-1RA) in this region is dependent on AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). We found that pharmacological inhibition of glycolysis, and thus activation of AMPK, in the VMH attenuates the anorectic effect of the GLP-1R agonist exendin-4 (Ex4), indicating that glucose metabolism and inhibition of AMPK are both required for this effect. Furthermore, we found that Ex4-mediated anorexia in the VMH involved mTOR but not acetyl-CoA carboxylase, two downstream targets of AMPK. We support this by showing that Ex4 activates mTOR signaling in the VMH and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO)-K1 cells. In contrast to the clear acute pharmacological impact of the these receptors on food intake, knockdown of the VMH Glp1r conferred no changes in energy balance in either chow- or high-fat-diet-fed mice, and the acute anorectic and glucose tolerance effects of peripherally dosed GLP-1RA were preserved. These results show that the VMH GLP-1R regulates food intake by engaging key nutrient sensors but is dispensable for the effects of GLP-1RA on nutrient homeostasis. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  19. Correlates of anaemia in pregnant urban South Indian women: a possible role of dietary intake of nutrients that inhibit iron absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Tinu Mary; Thomas, Tinku; Finkelstein, Julia; Bosch, Ronald; Rajendran, Ramya; Virtanen, Suvi M; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari; Kurpad, Anura V; Duggan, Christopher

    2013-02-01

    To identify correlates of anaemia during the first trimester of pregnancy among 366 urban South Indian pregnant women. Cross-sectional study evaluating demographic, socio-economic, anthropometric and dietary intake data on haematological outcomes. A government maternity health-care centre catering predominantly to the needs of pregnant women from the lower socio-economic strata of urban Bangalore. Pregnant women (n 366) aged ≥18 and ≤40 years, who registered for antenatal screening at ≤14 weeks of gestation. Mean age was 22·6 (sd 3·4) years, mean BMI was 20·4 (sd 3·3) kg/m2 and 236 (64·5 %) of the pregnant women were primiparous. The prevalence of anaemia (Hb poultry (1·94; 1·29, 2·91). Low dietary intake of multiple micronutrients, but higher intakes of nutrients that inhibit Fe absorption such as Ca and P, may help explain high rates of maternal anaemia in India.

  20. Consumption of bakery products, sweetened soft drinks and yogurt among children aged 6-7 years: association with nutrient intake and overall diet quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Artalejo, Fernando; García, Esther López; Gorgojo, Lydia; Garcés, Carmen; Royo, Miguel Angel; Martín Moreno, José María; Benavente, Mercedes; Macías, Alfonso; De Oya, Manuel

    2003-03-01

    The present study tests the hypothesis that higher consumption of bakery products, sweetened soft drinks and yogurt is associated with higher intake of energy, saturated fats, sugars and worse overall diet quality among Spanish children. This is a cross-sectional study covering 1112 children aged 6.0-7.0 years in four Spanish cities. Nutrient and food intake were obtained through a food-frequency questionnaire, and overall diet quality calculated using the healthy-eating index (HEI) developed by Kennedy et al. (1995). Standardized methods were used to measure anthropometric variables. Associations of interest were summarized as the difference in nutrient and food consumption between the value of the fifth and the first quintile of consumption (dq) of bakery products, sweetened soft drinks or yogurt, adjusted for energy intake and BMI. Bakery products, sweetened soft drinks and yogurt supplied 15.5, 1.0 and 5.6 % energy intake respectively. Higher consumption of these three foods was associated with greater energy intake (Pbakery products was associated with the proportion of energy derived from intake of total carbohydrates (dq 4.5 %, Pbakery products, sweetened soft drinks and yogurt were usually very small. We conclude that the impact of the consumption of bakery products, sweetened soft drinks and yogurt on the quality of the diet of Spanish children is only modest, although it may contribute to aggravating certain unhealthy characteristics of their diet, particularly excess energy, saturated fats and sugars. Therefore, consumption of bakery products and sweetened soft drinks should be moderated, and priority given to consumption of low-fat, low-sugar yogurt.

  1. Fecal bulk, energy intake, and serum cholesterol: regression response of serum cholesterol to apparent digestibility of dry matter and suboptimal energy intake in rats on fiber-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normani, M Z; Hussain, S S; Lim, J K; Albrink, M J; Gunnells, C K; Davis, G K

    1981-10-01

    Two experiments were conducted in the rat to determine the relationships of serum cholesterol (SC, mg/dl), apparent digestibility of dry matter (DDM, %), and digested energy intake (DE, kcal/day) at suboptimal level of energy. The energies in diet and feces were determined by calorimetry. DE as percentage of the National Research Council requirement (DE%) was suboptimal (70 to 85%). The experiments had four to five isofibrous diets, and no fiber diets, supplemented with 0.2% crystalline cholesterol (CChol). Animals in experiment 1 were fed varying amounts of feed with 18% coconut oil in the diets where as these in experiment 2 were given fixed amounts of feed with either 6 or 18% oil. The following regressions (p less than 0.001) for SC were found: experiment 1: -1157.7 -5.97 DDM +105.5 CCI -1.48 CCI2 (r2 0.35), where CCI = CChol, mg/day; -1888.4 -2.66 DE +120.97 CCI -1.62 CCI2 (r2 0.37). Experiment 2: 762.99 -6.15 DDM -0.8 fat cal % -0.87DE% (r2 0.31), where fat cal % = fat calories % of DE. Data indicate that at suboptimal energy intake, SC was inversely related to (1) DDM, (2) fat cal, and (3) total energy intake. Liver cholesterol lowering effect of the dietary fiber was also observed. The above findings help to elucidate various conflicting reports related to diet and blood cholesterol.

  2. Fast-food and full-service restaurant consumption in relation to daily energy and nutrient intakes among US adult cancer survivors, 2003-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Ruopeng; Liu, Junyi

    2013-01-01

    Healthy diet is an essential component in cancer survivorship care planning. Cancer survivors should be particularly prudent regarding their daily food choices, with an aim of ensuring safe consumption, reducing risk of recurrence or other comorbidity, and improving quality of life. We aimed to examine the impacts of fast-food and full-service restaurant consumption on daily energy and nutrient intakes among US adult cancer survivors. Nationally representative data of 1308 adult cancer survivors came from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2012 waves. First-difference estimator was adopted to address confounding bias from time-invariant unobservables like personal food/beverage preferences by using within-individual variations in diet and restaurant consumption status between two non-consecutive 24-hour dietary recalls. Fast-food and full-service restaurant consumption, respectively, was associated with an increase in daily total energy intake by 125.97 and 152.26 kcal and sodium intake by 312.47 and 373.75 mg. Fast-food consumption was significantly associated with a decrease in daily vitamin A intake by 119.88 µg and vitamin K intake by 30.48 µg, whereas full-service restaurant consumption was associated with an increase in daily fat intake by 8.99 g and omega-6 fatty acid intake by 3.85 g, and a decrease in vitamin D intake by 0.93 µg. Compared with fast-food and full-service restaurant consumption at home, consumption away from home led to further reduced diet quality. Individualized nutrition counseling and food assistance programs should address cancer survivors' overall dining-out behavior rather than fast-food consumption alone. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Elevated Serum Thyroglobulin and Low Iodine Intake Are Associated with Nontoxic Nodular Goiter among Adults Living near the Eastern Mediterranean Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaniv S. Ovadia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Information about iodine intake is crucial for preventing thyroid diseases. Inadequate iodine intake can lead to thyroid diseases, including nontoxic nodular goiter (NNG. Objective. To estimate iodine intake and explore its correlation with thyroid diseases among Israeli adults living near the Mediterranean coast, where iodine-depleted desalinated water has become a major source of drinking water. Methods. Cross-sectional study of patients attending Barzilai Medical Center Ashkelon. Participants, who were classified as either NNG (n=17, hypothyroidism (n=14, or control (n=31, provided serum thyroglobulin (Tg and completed a semiquantitative iodine food frequency questionnaire. Results. Elevated serum Tg values (Tg > 60 ng/mL were significantly more prevalent in the NNG group than in the other groups (29% versus 7% and 0% for hypothyroidism and controls, resp., P<0.05. Mean estimated iodine intake was significantly lower in the NNG group (65±30 μg/d than in controls (115±60 μg/d (P<0.05 with intermediate intake in the hypothyroid group (73±38 μg/d. Conclusions. Elevated serum Tg values and low dietary iodine intake are associated with NNG among adult patients in Ashkelon District, Israel. Larger studies are needed in order to expand on these important initial findings.

  4. Nutrient Intake During Diet-Induced Weight Loss and Exercise Interventions in a Randomized Trial in Older Overweight and Obese Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, G D; Beavers, D P; Hamm, D; Mihalko, S L; Messier, S P

    2017-01-01

    Dietary restriction in obese older adults undergoing weight loss may exacerbate nutrient deficiencies common in this group; the nutritional health of older adults is a factor in their quality of life, disability, and mortality. This study examined the effect of an 18-month weight loss program based in social cognitive theory incorporating partial meal replacements, on nutrient intake in older overweight and obese adults. The following analysis is from the Intensive Diet and Exercise for Arthritis (IDEA) trial, a single-blind, randomized controlled trial. Individuals were randomized into one of three 18-month interventions: exercise (E); intensive diet-induced weight loss (D); or intensive diet-induced weight loss plus exercise (D+E). The study setting was at a university research facility. Overweight and obese older adults (n=388; BMI=33.7±3.8 kg/m2; 65.8±6.1 years) were recruited. The D and D+E interventions (group mean goal of ≥10% loss by 18-months) utilized partial meal replacements (2 meal replacement shakes/day for 6-months). Exercise training for E and D+E was 3 days/week, 60 minutes/day. Three day food records were collected at baseline, 6-months, and 18-months and analyzed for total energy and macro- and micronutrient intake. Comparisons of dietary intake among treatment groups were performed at 6 and 18 months using mixed linear models. Weight loss at 18-months was 11.3±8.3% (D), 10.3±6.8% (D+E), and 1.2±4.2% (E). Meal replacements were used by more than 60% (6-months) and 50% (18-months) of D and D+E participants, compared to ≤15% for E. Both D and D+E consumed less energy and fat, and more carbohydrates and selected micronutrients than E during follow-up. More than 50% of all participants consumed less than the recommended intake of particular vitamins and minerals. The diet intervention improved intakes of several nutrients. However, inadequate intake of several vitamins and minerals of concern for older adults suggests they need further

  5. Treated Olive Cake as a Non-forage Fiber Source for Growing Awassi Lambs: Effects on Nutrient Intake, Rumen and Urine pH, Performance, and Carcass Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Awawdeh

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of partial replacement of wheat hay with sun-dried (SOC or acid-treated SOC (ASOC olive cake on nutrient intake and performance of Awassi lambs. An additional objective was to study the effects of acid treatment of olive cake (OC on its chemical composition and nutritive value. On DM basis, sun-drying of OC did not dramatically affect its chemical composition. On the other hand, treating SOC with phosphoric acid decreased (p<0.05 SOC contents of neutral detergent fiber. Twenty seven male lambs (17.6±0.75 kg body weight individually housed in shaded pens were randomly assigned to one of three dietary treatments (9 lambs/treatment. Dietary treatments were formulated to be isocaloric and isonitrogenous by replacing 50% of wheat hay in the control diet (CTL with SOC or ASOC and to meet all nutrient requirements. Dietary treatments had no effects on nutrient intake or digestibility except for ether extract. Lambs fed the SOC diet had (p = 0.05 faster growth rate, greater final body weight, and greater total body weight gain in comparison with the CTL diet, but not different from the ASOC diet. Additionally, lambs fed the SOC diet had greater (p = 0.03 hot and cold carcass weights than the ASOC diet, but not different from the CTL diet. However, feed conversion ratios and dressing percentages were similar among dietary treatments. In conclusion, replacing half of dietary wheat hay with SOC improved performance of Awassi lambs with no detrimental effects on nutrients intake or digestibility. No further improvements in the nutritive value of SOC and lambs performance were detected when SOC was treated with acid.

  6. Effect of spray-dried bovine serum on intake, health, and growth of broilers housed in different environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, J M; Quigley, J D; Russell, L E; Kidd, M T

    2003-11-01

    Three experiments utilizing broilers were conducted in different environments to evaluate the effects of Innavax (INX; spray-dried serum) administered in drinking water on broiler performance. In Exp. 1 (1 to 42 d), 252 Ross x Cobb male broilers were assigned randomly to one of six treatments consisting of tap water mixed with 0, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.0, or 1.25% (wt/wt) INX. Broilers (six broilers per pen; seven pens per treatment) were housed in Petersime battery cages (raised wire flooring) in temperature-controlled rooms. Average daily gain, and feed and water intake (as-fed) were not affected (P > 0.05) by experimental treatments. Feed efficiency tended to improve linearly (P = 0.076) from d 0 to 7 with increasing levels of INX, but was unaffected (P > 0.05) during the remaining periods. In Exp. 2 and 3, 800 Ross x Ross 308 male broilers (400 broilers in each trial; 10 broilers per pen; 10 pens per treatment) in two 21-d experiments were assigned randomly to one of four treatments consisting of tap water mixed with 0, 0.45, 0.90, or 1.35% (wt/wt) INX. Broilers were housed in floor pens containing clean (Exp. 2) or used (Exp. 3) litter. In Exp. 2, intake, ADG, and feed efficiency were linearly improved (P 0.10) by level of INX. Overall (d 0 to 21), ADG, intake, and feed efficiency were linearly improved (P 0.05) by experimental treatment during d 0 to 7, but was linearly increased (P broilers to INX was observed when broilers were housed in floor pens with used litter, followed by floor pens with clean litter and battery pens. Further research on the relationship between the response to INX and housing conditions seems warranted.

  7. Impacts of decline harvest of country food on nutrient intake among Inuit in Arctic Canada: impact of climate change and possible adaptation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosol, Renata; Powell-Hellyer, Stephanie; Chan, Hing Man

    2016-01-01

    The pervasive food insecurity and the diet transition away from local, nutrient-rich country foods present a public health challenge among Inuit living in the Canadian Arctic. While environmental factors such as climate change decreased the accessibility and availability of many country food species, new species were introduced into regions where they were previously unavailable. An adaptation such as turning to alternate country food species can be a viable solution to substitute for the nutrients provided by the declined food species. The objective of this study was to estimate the impact on nutrient intake using hypothetical scenarios that current commonly harvested country foods were reduced by 50%, and were replaced with alternate or new species. Data collected during the 2007-2008 Inuit Health Survey from 36 Canadian Arctic communities spanning Nunavut, the Inuvialuit Settlement Region and Nunatsiavut were used. A 50% decline in consumption of fish, whale, ringed seals and birds (the food that was reported to be in decline) resulted in a significant decrease in essential nutrient intake. Possible substitute foods were identified but some nutrients such as zinc and especially vitamin D were most often found lacking in the alternative diet. If the alternative species are not available or feasible, more expensive and less nutritionally dense store-bought foods may be sought. Given the superior quality of country foods and their association with food security, and Inuit cultural health and personal identity, developing skills and awareness for adaptation, promoting regional sharing networks, forming a co-management agency and continuing nutritional monitoring may potentially preserve the nutritional integrity of Inuit diet, and in turn their health and cultural survival.

  8. Impacts of decline harvest of country food on nutrient intake among Inuit in Arctic Canada: impact of climate change and possible adaptation plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Rosol

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The pervasive food insecurity and the diet transition away from local, nutrient-rich country foods present a public health challenge among Inuit living in the Canadian Arctic. While environmental factors such as climate change decreased the accessibility and availability of many country food species, new species were introduced into regions where they were previously unavailable. An adaptation such as turning to alternate country food species can be a viable solution to substitute for the nutrients provided by the declined food species. The objective of this study was to estimate the impact on nutrient intake using hypothetical scenarios that current commonly harvested country foods were reduced by 50%, and were replaced with alternate or new species. Methods: Data collected during the 2007–2008 Inuit Health Survey from 36 Canadian Arctic communities spanning Nunavut, the Inuvialuit Settlement Region and Nunatsiavut were used. Results: A 50% decline in consumption of fish, whale, ringed seals and birds (the food that was reported to be in decline resulted in a significant decrease in essential nutrient intake. Possible substitute foods were identified but some nutrients such as zinc and especially vitamin D were most often found lacking in the alternative diet. Conclusions: If the alternative species are not available or feasible, more expensive and less nutritionally dense store-bought foods may be sought. Given the superior quality of country foods and their association with food security, and Inuit cultural health and personal identity, developing skills and awareness for adaptation, promoting regional sharing networks, forming a co-management agency and continuing nutritional monitoring may potentially preserve the nutritional integrity of Inuit diet, and in turn their health and cultural survival.

  9. Contribution of linseed intake to urine and serum enterolignan levels in German females: a randomised controlled intervention trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knust, U; Spiegelhalder, B; Strowitzki, T; Owen, R W

    2006-07-01

    Linseeds are a rich source of lignans, secondary plant substances which are suggested to possess chemopreventive effects inter alia with regard to breast cancer. In a randomised controlled trial 40 German women were informed about "5-a-day" and encouraged to increase their dietary intake of fruit and vegetables. Moreover 19 participants were randomly assigned to an intervention group supplemented with ground linseeds (20 g/d) over a 2-month period. Before and after intervention, urine and blood samples were collected after an overnight fast. Analysis was by intention-to-treat and the outcome parameters of interest were enterolignan concentrations. After linseed supplementation, enterolignan concentrations (mean) measured as their glucuronides by a newly developed high performance liquid chromatography electrospray mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS) in serum (122 nmol/l) as well as in urine (72 micromol/l) showed a significant increase (P<0.01) compared to pre-intervention values (47 nmol/l and 29 micromol/l). In the control group enterolignan levels were raised slightly but did not reach significance. Serum and urinary enterolignans of the whole collective showed a good pairwise correlation.

  10. Trends in nutrient intakes, nutritional status, and correlates of undernutrition among rural children below 5 years of age: The National Nutrition Monitoring Bureau Survey 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I I Meshram

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In spite of several national nutrition intervention programs that have been in operation since the past four decades, undernutrition continues to be an important public health problem in India. Aim: The aim of the present study was to assess the trends in food and nutrient intakes and nutritional status of children in India below 5 years of age. Setting and Design: A community-based, cross-sectional study was carried out in ten National Nutrition Monitoring Bureau states by adopting a multistage random sampling procedure. Methods: Data were collected on the household (HH socioeconomic and demographic particulars, and anthropometric measurements of the children, such as their length/height and weight, were noted. A 24-h dietary recall method was used for assessing dietary intake. Results: Intake of all the foodstuffs except pulses, vegetables, and fats and oils declined over a period of time (1975–1979 to 2011–2012 while the intake of all the micronutrients except Vitamins A and C declined during the same period. The prevalence of undernutrition, i.e. underweight, stunting, and wasting has declined from 76%, 82%, and 27%, respectively in 1975–1979 to 42%, 44%, and 19%,respectively, in 2011–2012 among 1-5 year children. The severe form of undernutrition has also declined during the same period. The prevalence of undernutrition was significantly (P < 0.01 higher among children of illiterate mothers, those belonging to lower socioeconomic status, and those living in nuclear families. Conclusions: The prevalence of undernutrition declined over the period despite the decrease in food and nutrient intake. However, the pace of decline was slower and it was attributed to improved health-care services coupled with control of communicable diseases and increase in the HHs income. Further efforts are needed to improve the literacy of parents, environmental and personal hygiene, along with the food security of HHs through a public

  11. Food choice, plate waste and nutrient intake of elementary- and middle-school students participating in the US National School Lunch Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stephanie L; Cunningham-Sabo, Leslie

    2014-06-01

    To (i) evaluate food choices and consumption patterns of elementary- and middle-school students who participate in the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) and (ii) compare students' average nutrient intake from lunch with NSLP standards. Plate waste from elementary- and middle-school students' lunch trays was measured in autumn 2010 using a previously validated digital photography method. Percentage waste was estimated to the nearest 10 % for the entrée, canned fruit, fresh fruit, vegetable, grain and milk. Univariate ANOVA determined differences in percentage waste between schools, grades and genders. Daily nutrient intake was calculated using the district's menu analysis and percentage waste. Elementary and middle schools in northern Colorado (USA). Students, grades 1-8. Plate waste was estimated from 899 lunch trays; 535 elementary- and 364 middle-school students. Only 45 % of elementary- and 34 % middle-school students selected a vegetable. Elementary-school students wasted more than a third of grain, fruit and vegetable menu items. Middle-school students left nearly 50 % of fresh fruit, 37 % of canned fruit and nearly a third of vegetables unconsumed. Less than half of the students met the national meal standards for vitamins A and C, or Fe. Few students' lunch consumption met previous or new, strengthened NSLP lunch standards. Due to the relatively low intake of vegetables, intakes of vitamins A and C were of particular concern. Effective behavioural interventions, combined with marketing, communications and behavioural economics, will likely be necessary to encourage increased vegetable intake to meet the new meal standards.

  12. Associations between Dietary Nutrient Intakes and Hepatic Lipid Contents in NAFLD Patients Quantified by 1H-MRS and Dual-Echo MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yipeng Cheng

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Dietary habits are crucial in the progression of hepatic lipid accumulation and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. However, there are limited studies using 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS and dual-echo in-phase and out-phase magnetic resonance spectroscopy imaging (dual-echo MRI to assess the effects of dietary nutrient intakes on hepatic lipid contents. In the present study, we recruited 36 female adults (NAFLD:control = 19:17 to receive questionnaires and medical examinations, including dietary intakes, anthropometric and biochemical measurements, and 1H-MRS and dual-echo MRI examinations. NAFLD patients were found to consume diets higher in energy, protein, fat, saturated fatty acid (SFA, and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA. Total energy intake was positively associated with hepatic fat fraction (HFF and intrahepatic lipid (IHL after adjustment for age and body-mass index (BMI (HFF: β = 0.24, p = 0.02; IHL: β = 0.38, p = 0.02. Total fat intake was positively associated with HFF and IHL after adjustment for age, BMI and total energy intake (HFF: β = 0.36, p = 0.03; IHL: β = 0.42, p = 0.01. SFA intake was positively associated with HFF and IHL after adjustments (HFF: β = 0.45, p = 0.003; IHL: β = 1.16, p = 0.03. In conclusion, hepatic fat content was associated with high energy, high fat and high SFA intakes, quantified by 1H-MRS and dual-echo MRI in our population. Our findings are useful to provide dietary targets to prevent the hepatic lipid accumulation and NAFLD.

  13. Intake of Phthalate-tainted Foods and Serum Thyroid Hormones in Taiwanese Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Hui-Ju; Wu, Chia-Fang; Tsai, Yi-Chun; Huang, Po-Chin; Chen, Mei-Lien; Wang, Shu-Li; Chen, Bai-Hsiun; Chen, Chu-Chih; Wu, Wen-Chiu; Hsu, Pi-Shan; Hsiung, Chao A.; Wu, Ming-Tsang

    2016-07-01

    On April-May, 2011, phthalates, mainly Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), were deliberately added to a variety of foodstuff as a substitute emulsifier in Taiwan. This study investigated the relationship between DEHP-tainted foodstuffs exposure and thyroid function in possibly affected children and adolescents. Two hundred fifty participants food items. Blood and urine samples were collected for biochemical workups to measure current exposure derived from three urinary DEHP metabolites using a creatinine excretion-based model. More than half of 250 participants were estimated to be exposed to DEHP-tainted foods found to exceed the recommend tolerable daily intake of DEHP established by the European Food Safety Authority (studies may want to follow the long-term health effects of this food scandal in affected children and adolescents.

  14. Nutrient Intake, Diet Quality, and Weight Measures in Breakfast Patterns Consumed by Children Compared with Breakfast Skippers: NHANES 2001-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol E. O'Neil

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Most studies showing that children consuming breakfast have better nutrient intakes, diet quality, and lower weight than breakfast skippers have the incorrect premise that breakfast meals are homogeneous. The purpose of this study was to classify breakfast meals into patterns and determine the association of the breakfast patterns with daily and breakfast nutrient intakes, diet quality, and weight. Data from children (2-18 years of age; N = 14,200 participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001-2008 were used. Intake was determined from one day 24-hour dietary recalls. Diet quality was measured using the Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005. Body mass index (BMI z-scores were determined. Twelve patterns (including No Breakfast [~19% of population], explaining 63% of the variance in energy from breakfast, were examined. Covariate adjusted general linear models were used to compare outcome variables of consumers of different patterns with breakfast skippers. The p value was Bonferroni corrected (< 0.05/12 = < 0.0042. Consumers of the Eggs/Grain/Meat, Poultry, Fish (MPF/Fruit Juice (FJ and MPF/Grain/FJ patterns showed higher daily intakes of saturated fats, solid fats, and sodium and lower daily intakes of added sugars than breakfast skippers. Consumers of most breakfast patterns showed higher daily intakes of some nutrients of public health concern (dietary fiber, vitamin D, calcium, and potassium; however, those consuming the Grain or MPF/Grain/FJ pattern did not. Consumers of the Grain/Lower Fat Milk (LFM/Sweets/FJ, Presweetened (PS Ready-to-eat Cereal (RTEC/LFM, RTEC/LFM, Cooked Cereal/Milk/FJ, and Whole Fruit patterns had higher total HEI-2005 scores than breakfast skippers; those consuming the MPF/Grain/FJ pattern had lower diet quality than breakfast skippers. Consumption of the Grain/LFM/Sweets/FJ, PSRTEC/whole milk, Soft Drinks/FJ/Grain/Potatoes, RTEC/whole milk, and Cooked Cereal/Milk/FJ patterns was associated

  15. Consumption of grapefruit is associated with higher nutrient intakes and diet quality among adults, and more favorable anthropometrics in women, NHANES 2003–2008

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    Mary M. Murphy

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dietary guidance recommends consumption of a nutrient-dense diet containing a variety of fruits. The purpose of this study was to estimate usual nutrient intakes and adequacy of nutrient intakes among adult grapefruit consumers and non-consumers, and to examine associations between grapefruit consumption and select health parameters. Methods: The analysis was conducted with data collected in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2003–2008. Respondents reporting consumption of any amount of grapefruit or 100% grapefruit juice at least once during the 2 days of dietary recall were classified as grapefruit consumers. Results: Among adults aged 19+ years with 2 days of dietary recall (n=12,789, 2.5% of males and 2.7% of females reported consumption of 100% grapefruit juice or fresh, canned, or frozen grapefruit during the recalls. Grapefruit consumers were less likely to have usual intakes of vitamin C (males: 0% vs. 47%; females: 0% vs. 43%; P<0.001 and magnesium (P<0.05 below the estimated average requirement (EAR compared to non-consumers, and they were more likely to meet adequate intake levels for dietary fiber (P<0.05. Potassium and β-carotene intakes were significantly higher among grapefruit consumers (P<0.001. Diet quality as assessed by the Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005 was higher in grapefruit consumers (males: 66.2 [95% CI: 61.0–71.5] vs. 55.4 [95% CI: 54.4–56.4]; females: 71.4 [95% CI: 65.1–77.6] vs. 61.2 [95% CI: 59.8–62.6]. Among women, grapefruit consumption was associated with lower body weight, waist circumference, body mass index (BMI, triglycerides, C-reactive protein (CRP, and higher high-density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol (P<0.05, However, risk of being overweight/obese was not associated with grapefruit consumption. Conclusion: Consumption of grapefruit was associated with higher intakes of vitamin C, magnesium, potassium, dietary fiber, and improved diet quality

  16. Serum markers of bone turnover change in response to depletion and repletion of fruit and vegetable intake in adults: A 28-wk single-arm experimental feeding intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Data from controlled intervention trials are lacking to support observational evidence suggesting a positive association between intake of fruit and vegetable (FV) and bone health. The objective of this study was to assess serum markers of bone turnover change in response to FV depletion and repleti...

  17. Ingestão de energia e nutrientes por adolescentes de uma escola pública Nutrient and energy intake in adolescents from a public school

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    Renata Doratioto Albano

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar o consumo médio alimentar de energia, de proteína, de cálcio, de ferro, e de vitaminas A e C de adolescentes. MÉTODOS: estudo transversal em uma escola pública de ensino fundamental e médio, no município de São Paulo, com 92 alunos, de ambos os sexos, entre 11 e 17 anos, do ensino fundamental, em 1998. A amostra foi selecionada utilizando-se um procedimento sistemático, com intervalo 2, de acordo com a série e sexo. Os dados de consumo alimentar foram coletados através do recordatório de 24 horas e comparados com as recomendações preconizadas pelo National Research Council de 1989. RESULTADOS: os consumos médios de energia, de proteínas e de vitamina C, para ambos os sexos, ultrapassaram a recomendação. O consumo médio de ferro para o sexo masculino ultrapassou a recomendação e, para o feminino, atingiu mais que 80%. O consumo médio de cálcio para o sexo masculino atingiu menos que 70% da recomendação e para o feminino, menos que 50%. CONCLUSÕES: pode-se concluir que os principais problemas detectados foram o baixo consumo médio de cálcio e elevado consumo de energia.OBJECTIVE: to assess the average intake of energy, protein, calcium, iron, vitamins A and C in adolescents. METHODS: cross-sectional study in a high school in São Paulo, Brazil, with 92 students, both males and females, aged between 11 and 17. The sample was chosen by a systematic statistical selection. The food intake was determined by 24-h diet recall and compared with the National Research Council recommendation (1989. RESULTS: the average intake of energy, proteins and vitamin C by both males and females was higher than the recommendation. The average iron intake by males was higher than the recommendation and more than 80% in females. The average calcium intake by males was less than 70% and less than 50% in females. CONCLUSIONS: low average intake of calcium and high average intake of energy were observed.

  18. No effect of human serum and erythrocytes enriched in n-3 fatty acids by oral intake on Plasmodium falciparum blood stage parasites in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abu-Zeid, Y A; Hansen, H S; Jakobsen, P H

    1993-01-01

    -s) and pre-intake erythrocyte (pre-e). Also the effect of EPA and arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6) on the erythrocytic growth of P. falciparum was tested using in vitro assays. The results show that both post-s and post-e had no antimalarial activity on P. falciparum. No differential antimalarial effect...... acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) of 3.5 g/d and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) of 2.5 g/d and 24 mg/d of total tocopherol. Post-intake fish oil serum (post-s) and erythrocytes (post-e) were tested in vitro for inhibitory activity against blood stages of P. falciparum compared with pre-intake serum (pre...

  19. No effect of human serum and erythrocytes enriched in n-3 fatty acids by oral intake on Plasmodium falciparum bloodstage parasites in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abu-Zeid, Y.A.; Hansen, Harald S.; Jakobsen, P.H.

    1993-01-01

    -s) and pre-intake erythrocyte (pre-e). Also the effect of EPA and arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6) on the erythrocytic growth of P. falciparum was tested using in vitro assays. The results show that both post-s and post-e had no antimalarial activity on P. falciparum. No differential antimalarial effect...... acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) of 3.5g/d and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) of 2.5 g/d and 24 mg/d of total tocopherol. Post-intake fish oil serum (post-s) and erythrocytes (post-e) were tested in vitro for inhibitory activity against blood stages of P. falciparum compared with pre-intake serum (pre...

  20. Intake of nutrients, fiber, and sugar in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in comparison to healthy individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Zolfaghari

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: In total, it seems the type of dietary intake source is associated with NAFLD. Increasing saturated fatty acids and sugar and decreasing fiber, folic acid, Vitamin D, zinc, and potassium intake might play a role in the progression of this disease.

  1. The role of serum and urinary urea in the evaluation of enteral protein intake in adequate and small-for-gestational-age very low birth weight infants

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    Silvana Darcie

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Very low birth weight (VLBW infants have special nutritional needs. There is a current tendency to individualize their protein needs. The objective of this study was to determine the suitability of serum and urinary urea as indicators for protein intake in adequate-for-gestational-age (AGA and small-for-gestational-age (SGA VLBW infants. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective study in the nursery attached to the Maternity Ward of the "Prof. Pedro de Alcântara" Children's Institute, Hospital das Clínicas, Department of Pediatrics, Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: Seventy-two VLBW infants (mean protein intake = 3.7 mg/kg/day were enrolled in a prospective cohort study in two groups: AGA (n = 34 and SGA (n = 38. Blood samples, six-hour urine (6hUr collections and urine sample tests (STUr were obtained for urea and creatinine assays at three and five weeks of life. Statistical analysis: Student's t test, Pearson correlation and linear regression (p < 0.05. RESULTS: There were no differences between groups for serum urea, 6hUr and STUr, or between two assessments within each group. Serum urea correlated with 6hUr in both AGA and SGA, and to STUr in SGA; 6hUr correlated with STUr in both AGA and SGA. There was no correlation between protein intake and serum or urine urea. CONCLUSIONS: Serum and urinary urea did not reflect protein intake when mean intakes of 3.7 g/kg/day were used. Sample tests of urinary urea can be as reliable as urea from urine collected over longer periods.

  2. Nutrient intake, productive performance and body measurements of dairy heifers fed with different sources of protein - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v35i3.18749

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    Andressa Fereirra Ribeiro

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of different protein sources (soybean meal, cottonseed meal, peanut meal and sunflower meal on dry matter and nutrient intake, productive performance and body measurements of dairy heifers, Holstein x Zebu, recreated in confinement. The experiment consisted in a randomized complete block design made up by 6 replications and 4 treatments. The mean values of ingestion of ether extract (EEI, kg day-1 were statistically different (p -1 to the diet with sunflower meal (0.82 kg day-1, and considering the final body weight, the diet with soybean meal was superior to the other treatments (p  

  3. Nutrient intake in an elderly population in southern France (POLANUT): deficiency in some vitamins, minerals and omega-3 PUFA. : Nutrient deficiency in a French aged population.

    OpenAIRE

    Carrière, Isabelle; Delcourt, Cécile; Lacroux, Annie; Gerber, Mariette

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Evaluation of the nutritional status of an elderly cohort from a French Mediterranean area. DESIGN: Cross-sectional nutritional assessment in the framework of the population-based POLA cohort. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: 832 subjects aged 70 years or older answered a 165-item, semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Mean Nutritional Need (MNN) was defined as 77% of the French Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA). The risk for clinical deficiency (CD) was defined as intakes lower tha...

  4. Body composition changes were related to nutrient intakes in elderly men but elderly women had a higher prevalence of sarcopenic obesity in a population of Korean adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Chorong; Jho, Sunkug; No, Jae-Kyung; Kim, Hak-Seon

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we examined the relationship between sarcopenic obesity (SO) and nutrition status, according to sex in Korean adults who were 60 years or older. Body composition was categorized as SO, sarcopenic nonobesity, nonsarcopenic obesity, and nonsarcopenic nonobesity. Obesity was defined by body mass index. Sarcopenia was defined as an appendicular skeletal muscle mass divided by weight (Wt) of less than 1 SD below the sex-specific mean for young adults. Subjects included 1433 subjects (658 men and 775 women) who were 60 years or older and who participated in the fifth Korea National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey 2010. Sarcopenic obesity was more prevalent in women (31.3%) than in men (19.6%). Individuals with SO had significantly higher fasting insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (male: 3.2 ± 1.4, female: 3.4 ± 2.1), and triglycerides (male: 167.3 ± 90.6 mg/dL, female: 160.7 ± 85.0 mg/dL). High-density lipoprotein was under the normal criteria (50 mg/dL) in women. Intake of nutrients associated with muscle loss (protein, vitamin D, calcium, and vitamin C) was significantly different among the male but not the female groups. Although protein intake was normal, calcium and vitamin D intakes were insufficient in all groups. In conclusion, body composition changes were related to nutrient intakes in elderly (60 years or older) men but not elderly women. Women had a higher prevalence of SO than did men, suggesting that early nutritional intervention in elderly women may help them address age-associated body composition changes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Dietary One-Carbon Nutrient Intake and Risk of Lymphoid and Myeloid Neoplasms: Results of the Netherlands Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinen, M.M.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Schouten, L.J.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Schouten, H.C.; Verhage, B.A.J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Previous epidemiologic research suggests a protective role of one-carbon nutrients in carcinogenesis. Folate, however, may play a dual role in neoplasms development: protect early in carcinogenesis and promote carcinogenesis at a later stage. We prospectively examined associations

  6. Residual feed intake as a feed efficiency selection tool and its relationship with feed intake, performance and nutrient utilization in Murrah buffalo calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subhashchandra Bose, Bisitha Kattiparambil; Kundu, Shivlal Singh; Tho, Nguyen Thi Be; Sharma, Vijay Kumar; Sontakke, Umesh Balaji

    2014-04-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) is the difference between the actual and expected feed intake of an animal based on its body weight and growth rate over a specific period. The objective of this study was to determine the RFI of buffalo calves using residuals from appropriate linear regression models involving dry matter intake (DMI), average daily gain (ADG) and mid-test metabolic body weight. Eighteen male Murrah buffalo calves of 5-7 months were selected and fed individually. A feeding trial using ad libitum feeding of total mixed ration (TMR, concentrate/roughage = 40:60) was conducted for 52 days in which the daily DMI, weekly body weight (BW) and growth rate of the calves were monitored. RFI of calves ranged from -0.20 to +0.23 kg/day. Mean DMI (in grams per kilogram of BW(0.75)) during the feeding trial period was significantly (P 0.05) between low and high RFI groups. Over the course of a trial period, low RFI group animals consumed 10% less feed compared to high RFI group of animals, yet performed in a comparable manner in terms of growth rate. Metabolizable energy for maintenance (MEm) was found to be significantly (P feed efficiency.

  7. Suplementos para recria de bovinos Nelore na época seca: desempenho, consumo e digestibilidade dos nutrientes = Supplements for Nellore rearing in dry season: performance, intake and nutrient digestibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Gonçalves Mateus

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito do suplemento com consumo de 0; 0,25; 0,50 e 0,75% do peso corporal (PC de novilhos Nelore sobre o consumo, desempenho e digestibilidade aparente dos nutrientes no período seco. Foram utilizados 116 animais da raça Nelore, nãocastrados, com média de nove meses de idade e peso corporal de 168 ± 35 kg, com duração de 114 dias iniciando em 04 de agosto e finalizando em 25 de novembro de 2007. O delineamento foi o inteiramente casualizado, com quatro tratamentos e 29 repetições para o desempenho e cinco repetições para as avaliações de consumo e digestibilidade, mantidos em pastagem de Brachiaria brizantha diferida. Foram realizadas pesagens no início e final do período experimental. O consumo de MS da forragem apresentou efeito quadrático, com ponto de mínima de 0,4% PC, consumos de PB, CT e NDT aumentaram linearmente, GMD, GPT e peso corporal final apresentaram efeito quadrático, com o ponto de máxima ao redor de 0,60% do PC. O coeficiente de digestibilidade aparente da MS, MO, PB, CT, CNF e o valor de NDT demonstraram efeito linear crescente. Recomenda-se o fornecimento de suplemento até 0,60% PC, em que se obteve o ponto de máximo desempenho, e a digestibilidade apresentou efeito linear e o aumento das percentagens do suplemento proporcionou aumentos no consumo de nutrientes. The objective was to evaluate the effect of supplementation with intake of 0, 0.25, 0.50 and 0.75% body weight (BW of Nellore young bulls on intake, performance and apparent digestibility of nutrients during the dry season. A total of 116 Nellore young bulls were used with an average of nine months of age and body weight of 168 ± 35 kg. The study lasted 114 days, beginning on August 4 and ending on November 25, 2007. The design was completely randomized with four treatments and 29 replications for performance and five replications to evaluate intake and digestibility, in deferred Brachiaria brizantha grazing. The animals

  8. Effect of dietary supplementation of Pulvis Curcuma Longa on the voluntary feed intake, nutrient digestibility and Growth performance of Broiler rabbits under summer stress

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    Basavaraj

    Full Text Available Eighteen four weeks’ old weaned Broiler rabbits of comparable body weights were allotted to three dietary treatment groups of six rabbits in each group namely T0 (basal control diet, T1 (basal diet added with Turmeric (Curcuma longa Rhizoid Powder, TRP, at the ratio of 150mg and T2 ( basal diet added with TRP at the ratio of 300mg/100g diet. Feeding cum growth trial and digestion trial were during summer months of April, May and June to study voluntary feed intake, growth rate and nutrient utilization by the experimental animals. TRP included in the diets of experimental groups consisting 6.72 % CP, 5.04% ether extract, 3.96% crude fibre, 7.85% total ash. Depression in voluntary feed intake due to summer stress did not alter due to the inclusion of turmeric powder. The weekly mean body weight gain, feed conversion efficiency and digestibility of nutrients did not show significant difference by the supplementation of turmeric rhizome powder in the diets of rabbit in present study. [Veterinary World 2010; 3(8.000: 369-372

  9. Treated Olive Cake as a Non-forage Fiber Source for Growing Awassi Lambs: Effects on Nutrient Intake, Rumen and Urine pH, Performance, and Carcass Yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awawdeh, M S; Obeidat, B S

    2013-05-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of partial replacement of wheat hay with sun-dried (SOC) or acid-treated SOC (ASOC) olive cake on nutrient intake and performance of Awassi lambs. An additional objective was to study the effects of acid treatment of olive cake (OC) on its chemical composition and nutritive value. On DM basis, sun-drying of OC did not dramatically affect its chemical composition. On the other hand, treating SOC with phosphoric acid decreased (pcomparison with the CTL diet, but not different from the ASOC diet. Additionally, lambs fed the SOC diet had greater (p = 0.03) hot and cold carcass weights than the ASOC diet, but not different from the CTL diet. However, feed conversion ratios and dressing percentages were similar among dietary treatments. In conclusion, replacing half of dietary wheat hay with SOC improved performance of Awassi lambs with no detrimental effects on nutrients intake or digestibility. No further improvements in the nutritive value of SOC and lambs performance were detected when SOC was treated with acid.

  10. Comparing the effects of meal replacements with an isocaloric reduced-fat diet on nutrient intake and lower urinary tract symptoms in obese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoo, J; Ling, P-S; Chen, R Y-T; Ng, K-K; Tay, T-L; Tan, E; Cho, L-W; Cheong, M

    2014-06-01

    Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in men are associated with obesity, particularly central obesity as measured by waist circumference (WC), and may improve with weight loss. We aimed to compare effects of a meal-replacement based diet with isocaloric reduced-fat plan on LUTS and nutrient intake in obese Asian men. Obese Asian [mean (range) body mass index of 32.9 (30.5-42.3) kg m(-2) ] men [mean (range) age 40.2 (30-61) years] were randomised to a reduced-fat (meal-replacement-based plan [meal replacement (MR) group; n = 23], to reduce daily intake by 2000 kJ for 12 weeks. CD and MR groups had statistically significant and similar reductions in weight (-2.6 ± 1.9 kg versus -4.2 ± 3.8 kg), overall LUTS severity measured with International Prostate Symptom Scale (IPSS) scores (-1.71 ± 1.93 points versus -2.42 ± 2.12 points) and insulin resistance [homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) calculated from plasma glucose and insulin]. The MR group had significantly greater decreases in WC (-4.8 ± 3.3 cm versus -2.5 ± 2.3 cm), fat mass (-2.47 ± 3.63 kg versus -1.59 ± 2.32 kg), fat intake, plasma C-reactive protein, and in storage LUTS score (-1.59 ± 1.33 points versus -1.00 ± 0.87 points), which was associated with a decreased fat intake (r = 0.48, P = 0.03). A decrease in overall IPSS score was associated with reductions in weight, WC and HOMA. Weight loss as a result of CD or MR had similar efficacy in relieving LUTS. MR produced greater reductions in fat intake, adiposity and storage LUTS. © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  11. Effects of exposure to television advertising for energy-dense/nutrient-poor food on children's food intake and obesity in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bora; Kim, Hyogyoo; Lee, Soo-Kyung; Yoon, Jihyun; Chung, Sang-Jin

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of television food advertising on participant food intake and risk of obesity. A total of 2419 children aged 11-13 years were selected from 118 elementary schools in South Korea. All participants completed a self-administered questionnaire with questions about height, weight, television viewing times, food preferences, and food intakes. To estimate actual exposure to food advertising, we asked participants to specify the times at which they usually watched television. We then collected data on the various types of food advertisement broadcast on five different television networks during those viewing times over the course of the previous 7 months. The amount of television watched and exposure to energy-dense/nutrient-poor (EDNP) food advertising were associated with an increased risk of being overweight or obese. Exposure to television advertising for EDNP food was also significantly associated with higher EDNP food preference and intake and lower fruit and vegetable intake. However, these relationships disappeared for all foods after adjusting for the overall amount of television watched. Although it was not possible to conclude that exposure to television advertising for EDNP food was associated with an increased risk of obesity, preference for EDNP foods, or overall food intake due to the strong comprehensive effects of television viewing time, there was a reason to believe the evidence of the effects of advertising in this study. Future longitudinal studies are needed to determine the exclusive effects of exposure to television advertising for EDNP food. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of prey macronutrient content on body composition and nutrient intake in a web-building spider.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse Hawley

    Full Text Available The nutritional composition of diets can vary widely in nature and have large effects on the growth, reproduction and survival of animals. Many animals, especially herbivores, will tightly regulate the nutritional composition of their body, which has been referred to as nutritional homeostasis. We tested how experimental manipulation of the lipid and protein content of live prey affected the nutrient reserves and subsequent diet regulation of web-building spiders, Argiope keyserlingi. Live locusts were injected with experimental solutions containing specific amounts of lipid and protein and then fed to spiders. The nutrient composition of the spiders' bodies was directly related to the nutrient composition of the prey on which they fed. We then conducted an experiment where spiders were fed either high lipid or high protein prey and subsequently provided with two large unmanipulated locusts. Prior diet did not affect the amount or ratio of lipid and protein ingested by spiders when feeding on unmanipulated prey. Argiope keyserlingi were flexible in the storage of lipid and protein in their bodies and did not bias their extraction of nutrients from prey to compensate for previously biased diets. Some carnivores, especially those that experience frequent food limitation, may be less likely to strictly regulate their body composition than herbivores because food limitation may encourage opportunistic ingestion and assimilation of nutrients.

  13. Estado nutricional e adequação da ingestão de energia e nutrientes em pacientes com insuficiência cardíaca Estado nutricional y adecuación de la ingesta de energía y nutrientes en pacientes con insuficiencia cardiaca Nutritional status and adequacy of energy and nutrient intakes among heart failure patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Hatzlhoffer Lourenço

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: Maior conhecimento sobre o estado nutricional e a ingestão de energia e nutrientes é necessário para auxiliar no tratamento de pacientes com insuficiência cardíaca (IC. OBJETIVO: Verificar o estado nutricional e analisar a adequação da ingestão de energia, macro e micronutrientes de pacientes com IC em atendimento ambulatorial. MÉTODOS: Foram coletados dados antropométricos e de ingestão alimentar habitual de 125 pacientes (72% homens, 52,1±9,8 anos, IMC 26,9±4,4 kg/m². As variáveis antropométricas foram comparadas entre os sexos, e analisou-se a adequação da ingestão de energia e nutrientes perante as recomendações. RESULTADOS: Depleção ou risco de depleção das reservas musculares estava presente em 38,4% dos pacientes (associação com sexo masculino; p FUNDAMENTO: Para ayudar en el tratamiento de pacientes con insuficiencia cardiaca (IC es necesario un mayor conocimiento sobre el estado nutricional y la ingesta de energía y nutrientes. OBJETIVO: Verificar el estado nutricional y analizar la adecuación de la ingesta de energía, macro y micronutrientes de pacientes con IC en atención ambulatoria. MÉTODOS: Se recolectaron datos antropométricos y de la ingesta alimentaria habitual de 125 pacientes (72% hombres, 52,1±9,8 años, IMC 26,9±4,4 kg/m². Se compararon las variables antropométricas de ambos sexos y se analizó la adecuación de la ingesta de energía y nutrientes frente a las recomendaciones. RESULTADOS: En el 38,4% de los pacientes (asociación con sexo masculino; p SUMMARY: Increased knowledge about nutritional status and energy and nutrient intakes is required to improve the treatment of patients with heart failure (HF. OBJECTIVES: To verify the nutritional status and evaluate the adequacy of energy, macronutrient and micronutrient intakes in patients with HF in outpatient clinical settings. METHODS: We collected anthropometric and habitual dietary intake data of 125 patients (72% men, 52

  14. Low Calorie Beverage Consumption Is Associated with Energy and Nutrient Intakes and Diet Quality in British Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Sigrid A; Horgan, Graham W; Francis, Lucy E; Gibson, Amelia A; Stephen, Alison M

    2016-01-02

    It is unclear whether consumption of low-calorie beverages (LCB) leads to compensatory consumption of sweet foods, thus reducing benefits for weight control or diet quality. This analysis investigated associations between beverage consumption and energy intake and diet quality of adults in the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) (2008-2011; n = 1590), classified into: (a) non-consumers of soft drinks (NC); (b) LCB consumers; (c) sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumers; or (d) consumers of both beverages (BB), based on 4-day dietary records. Within-person data on beverage consumption on different days assessed the impact on energy intake. LCB consumers and NC consumed less energy and non-milk extrinsic sugars than other groups. Micronutrient intakes and food choices suggested higher dietary quality in NC/LCB consumers compared with SSB/BB consumers. Within individuals on different days, consumption of SSB, milk, juice, and alcohol were all associated with increased energy intake, while LCB and tea, coffee or water were associated with no change; or reduced energy intake when substituted for caloric beverages. Results indicate that NC and LCB consumers tend to have higher quality diets compared with SSB or BB consumers and do not compensate for sugar or energy deficits by consuming more sugary foods.

  15. Low Calorie Beverage Consumption Is Associated with Energy and Nutrient Intakes and Diet Quality in British Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Sigrid A.; Horgan, Graham W.; Francis, Lucy E.; Gibson, Amelia A.; Stephen, Alison M.

    2016-01-01

    It is unclear whether consumption of low-calorie beverages (LCB) leads to compensatory consumption of sweet foods, thus reducing benefits for weight control or diet quality. This analysis investigated associations between beverage consumption and energy intake and diet quality of adults in the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) (2008–2011; n = 1590), classified into: (a) non-consumers of soft drinks (NC); (b) LCB consumers; (c) sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumers; or (d) consumers of both beverages (BB), based on 4-day dietary records. Within-person data on beverage consumption on different days assessed the impact on energy intake. LCB consumers and NC consumed less energy and non-milk extrinsic sugars than other groups. Micronutrient intakes and food choices suggested higher dietary quality in NC/LCB consumers compared with SSB/BB consumers. Within individuals on different days, consumption of SSB, milk, juice, and alcohol were all associated with increased energy intake, while LCB and tea, coffee or water were associated with no change; or reduced energy intake when substituted for caloric beverages. Results indicate that NC and LCB consumers tend to have higher quality diets compared with SSB or BB consumers and do not compensate for sugar or energy deficits by consuming more sugary foods. PMID:26729159

  16. The effects of increasing garlic powder and monensin supplementation on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, growth performance and blood parameters of growing calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholipour, A; Foroozandeh Shahraki, A D; Tabeidian, S A; Nasrollahi, S M; Yang, W Z

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of increasing garlic powder and monensin supplementation on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, growth performance and blood metabolites of growing calves. Forty Holstein calves (BW = 100 ± 11 kg) were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments (n = 10) in a complete randomized design. Experimental treatments consisted of the following: (i) basal diet (control), (ii) basal diet supplemented with 0.0003% of dietary dry matter (DM) sodium monensin, (iii) low level of garlic powder (Low-GAR; 0.5% of dietary DM) and (iv) high level of garlic powder (High-GAR; 1% of dietary DM). DM intake (DMI) and DM digestibility were (p calves supplemented with Low-GAR had a similar DMI to the control calves and similar DM digestibility to the control and monensin groups. The digestibility of other nutrients were not affected by the treatments. Although supplementing monensin relative to Low-GAR increased the DMI (p calves, which were higher than the control and High-GAR groups (p feed conversion ratio was improved in the Low-GAR group versus other treatment groups (p calves fed the Low-GAR showed an improved FCR and blood metabolites without changing the DMI and nutrient digestibility. It suggests that garlic powder could be used as an alternative to monensin for growing calves under the current feeding conditions. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. Nutrient Intake, Diet Quality, and Weight Measures in Breakfast Patterns Consumed by Children Compared with Breakfast Skippers: NHANES 2001-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Carol E; Nicklas, Theresa A; Fulgoni, Victor L

    2015-01-01

    Most studies showing that children consuming breakfast have better nutrient intakes, diet quality, and lower weight than breakfast skippers have the incorrect premise that breakfast meals are homogeneous. The purpose of this study was to classify breakfast meals into patterns and determine the association of the breakfast patterns with daily and breakfast nutrient intakes, diet quality, and weight. Data from children (2-18 years of age; N = 14,200) participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001-2008 were used. Intake was determined from one day 24-hour dietary recalls. Diet quality was measured using the Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005). Body mass index (BMI) z-scores were determined. Twelve patterns (including No Breakfast [∼19% of population]), explaining 63% of the variance in energy from breakfast, were examined. Covariate adjusted general linear models were used to compare outcome variables of consumers of different patterns with breakfast skippers. The p value was Bonferroni corrected (eat Cereal (RTEC)/ LFM, RTEC/LFM, Cooked Cereal/Milk/FJ, and Whole Fruit patterns had higher total HEI-2005 scores than breakfast skippers; those consuming the MPF/ Grain/FJ pattern had lower diet quality than breakfast skippers. Consumption of the Grain/ LFM/Sweets/FJ, PSRTEC/whole milk, Soft Drinks/ FJ/Grain/Potatoes, RTEC/whole milk, and Cooked Cereal/ Milk/ FJ patterns was associated with lower BMI z-scores than seen in breakfast skippers. There are dietary and weight advantages of consuming breakfast, especially breakfasts that include grains, cereals, LFM, and fruit/ FJ, in contrast to the potential adverse effects of skipping breakfast.

  18. IMPACT OF IMPROVED FAT-MEAT PRODUCTS CONSUMPTION ON ANTHROPOMETRIC MARKERS AND NUTRIENT INTAKES OF MALE VOLUNTEERS AT INCREASED CARDIOVASCULAR RISK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celada, Paloma; Delgado-Pando, Gonzalo; Olmedilla-Alonso, Begoña; Jiménez-Colmenero, Francisco; Ruperto, Mar; Sánchez-Muniz, Francisco J

    2015-08-01

    meat products have been recognized to be adequate matrix for incorporating functional ingredients. The impact of meat products formulated by replacing animal fat with a combination of olive, linseed and fish oils on energy and nutrient intakes and anthropometric measurements were tested in a non-randomized-controlled- sequential study. eighteen male volunteers at high-CVD risk consumed weekly 200 g frankfurters and 250 g pâtés during three 4-wk periods (reduced fat (RF); n3-enriched- RF (n-3RF), and normal fat (NF)), separated by 4-wk washout. Energy and nutrient intakes, healthy eating index (HEI), and anthropometric changes were evaluated. body fat mass rate-of-change and the waist/ hip ratio significantly differs (p = 0.018 and p = 0.031, respectively) between periods, decreasing body fat mass, waist circumference and waist/hip ratio in RF period and increasing body fat mass in NF one (all p = 0.05). Significant inverse correlations were observed between rate- of-change of BMI and ideal body weight with dietary carbohydrate/SFA ratio in n-3RF period (p = 0.003 and p = 0.006, respectively). Initial diets presented low HEIs (means Product consumption improved dietary Zn, Ca, retinol equivalent, folate and vitamin B12 contents in all periods, and ameliorated n-3 PUFA contents and n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio over the n-3RF period. improved-fat meat products appear as functional foods for overweight/obeses since their consumption improved selected body-fat markers, without affecting HEI, macronutrient and energy but their n-3 PUFA and n6/n3 ratio intakes. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  19. Nutrient Intake and Contribution of Home Enteral Nutrition to Meeting Nutritional Requirements after Oesophagectomy and Total Gastrectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Melanie L; Halliday, Vanessa; Robinson, Pauline; Smith, Karen; Bowrey, David J

    2017-01-01

    Background/Objectives This study evaluated nutrition after oesophago-gastric resection and the influence of home jejunostomy feeding in the six months after surgery. Subjects/Methods Data on nutritional intake and physiologic measures were collected as part of a randomised trial with measurements taken before and up to six months after surgery. Results 41 participants (32 oesophagectomy, 9 total gastrectomy) received home jejunostomy feeding (n=18) or usual care without feeding (n=23). At hospital discharge, oral intakes were adequate for energy and protein in 9% and 6% respectively. By three and six months, these values had increased to 61% & 55%, 94% & 77% respectively. Six participants (26%) who received usual care required rescue feeding. Six weeks after hospital discharge, energy intakes were met in those who received jejunal feeding due to the contribution of enteral nutrition. Jejunal feeding did not affect oral intake, being similar in both groups (fed: 77% estimated need, usual care: 79%). At three months, inadequate micronutrient intakes were seen in over one third. Compared to baseline values, six weeks after surgery, weight loss exceeding 5% was seen in 5/18 (28%) who received feeding, 14/17 (82%) who received usual care and 5/6 (83%) of those who required rescue feeding, p=0.002. Weight loss averaged 4.1% (fed), 10.4% (usual care) and 9.2% (rescue fed), p=0.004. These trends persisted out to six months. Conclusions Supplementary jejunostomy feeding made an important contribution to meeting nutrition after oesophago-gastric resection. Importantly, oral nutritional intake was not compromised dispelling the assertion that jejunal feeding deincentivises patients from eating. PMID:28656968

  20. Better functional mobility in community-dwelling elderly is related to D-hormone serum levels and to daily calcium intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dukas, L; Staehelin, H B; Schacht, E; Bischoff, H A

    2005-01-01

    The influence of calcitropic hormones on functional mobility has been studied in vitamin D (calcidiol) deficient elderly or elderly with a history of falls, however, data in community-dwelling independent vitamin D replete elderly are missing. We therefore assessed in an observational survey the association of calcidiol (25(OH)D3) and calcitriol (D-hormone / 1,25(OH)2D3) status as well as of daily calcium intake on functional mobility in older subjects We evaluated 192 women and 188 men, aged superior 70 years and living independently. Average Timed-up and go test (TUG-test) in seconds was taken as measure of functional mobility. Calcidiol and D-hormone serum concentrations and daily calcium intake were studied in multivariate controlled linear regression models with TUG-test performance as the dependent variable and/or as dichotomous variables (deficient vs. non-deficient, above vs. below the median, respectively). Subjects with low D-hormone serum concentrations took significantly more time to perform the TUG-test (low = 7.70s +/- 2.52 SD ; high = 6.70s +/- 1.29 SD; p = 0.004). In the linear multivariate controlled regression model increased D-hormone serum concentrations predicted better TUG-test performance (estimate -0.0007, p = 0.044). Participants with a calcium intake of > or =512 mg/day were significantly faster to perform the TUG-test than participants with a daily calcium intake of better TUG-test performance in both models were: male gender, less comorbid conditions, younger age, lower BMI, iPTH serum levels and creatinine clearance. Calcidiol serum levels were not associated with TUG-test performance. Higher D-hormone status and a calcium intake of > or =512 mg/day in community-dwelling independent older persons are significant determinants of better functional mobility. Therefore, to ensure optimal functional mobility, the care of older persons should address correction of D-hormone deficiency and increasing daily calcium intake.

  1. Wheat straw as ruminant feed : effect of supplementation and ammonia treatment on voluntary intake and nutrient availability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosting, S.J.

    1993-01-01

    This thesis describes the results of experiments with goats, sheep and cattle fed untreated or ammonia-treated wheat straw. Aim of the experiments was to identify factors limiting voluntary intake and digestion of these low-quality feeds. Supplementation of urea to untreated wheat straw

  2. Low Vitamin D Status and Inadequate Nutrient Intakes of Elementary School Children in a Highly Educated Pacific Northwest Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frei, Simone; Frei, Balz; Bobe, Gerd

    2014-01-01

    Are Extension healthy youth programs needed in highly educated U.S. communities? To answer this question, 175 children from four public elementary schools in Corvallis, Oregon, self-reported in a cross-sectional study their dietary intake, and 71 children provided a blood sample for measuring vitamin D concentrations. Most children had…

  3. Consequences of radiotherapy on nutritional status, dietary intake, serum zinc and copper levels in patients with gastrointestinal tract and head and neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahadavi, R.; Faramarzi, E.; Mohamed-Zadeh, M.; Ghaemmaghami, J.; Jabbari, Morteza V.

    2007-01-01

    Malnutrition occurs frequently in cancer patients and is multifactorial and can lead to negative outcomes. So we studied the effect of radiotherapy on nutritional status, weight changes, dietary intake, serum zinc and copper levels. During the period of October to March 2005, 45 cancer patients who referred to the Radiotherapy Center, Imam Khomeini Hospital, Iran were recruited. We assessed the nutritional status of patients using Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment (PG-SGA) questionnaire. Patients on the basis of location of radiotherapy classified to mediastinum, head and neck pelvic groups. Changes in dietary intake (using 24 hour recall method) and body weight were evaluated prior to and during radiotherapy. At the onset and the end of radiotherapy, serum levels of Zinc, copper and albumin were determined. After treatment malnutrition increased significantly in all patients (p=0.01) and in head and neck (p=0.007) and pelvic groups (p=0.04). The decreased bodyweight of patients was significant in head and neck (p=0.02) and pelvic groups (p=0.05). The mean daily energy and protein intake of head and neck and pelvic groups decreased during radiotherapy while energy intake increased significantly in mediastinum group (p=0.01). After treatment, significant decreases also observed in mean serum zinc, copper and albumin levels (p<0.05). Because of negative effect of radiotherapy on oral feeding, nutritional assessment and intervention should be an integral part of treatment. Also, it would be worthwhile studying the effect of zinc supplementation on dietary intake and nutritional status of patients. (author)

  4. Plant Protein Intake Is Associated with Fibroblast Growth Factor 23 and Serum Bicarbonate in Patients with CKD: The Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scialla, Julia J.; Appel, Lawrence J; Wolf, Myles; Yang, Wei; Zhang, Xiaoming; Sozio, Stephen M.; Miller, Edgar R.; Bazzano, Lydia A.; Cuevas, Magdalena; Glenn, Melanie J.; Lustigova, Eva; Kallem, Radhakrishna R.; Porter, Anna C.; Townsend, Raymond R.; Weir, Matthew R.; Anderson, Cheryl A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Protein from plant, as opposed to animal, sources may be preferred in chronic kidney disease (CKD), due to lower bioavailability of phosphate and lower nonvolatile acid load. Study Design Observational cross-sectional study. Setting & Participants 2938 participants with chronic kidney disease and information on dietary intake at the baseline visit in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort Study. Predictors Percentage of total protein from plant sources (% plant protein) was determined by scoring individual food items from the National Cancer Institute Diet History Questionnaire (DHQ). Outcomes Metabolic parameters, including serum phosphate, bicarbonate (HCO3), potassium, and albumin, plasma fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), and parathyroid hormone (PTH), and hemoglobin. Measurements We modeled the association between % plant protein and metabolic parameters using linear regression. Models were adjusted for age, sex, race, diabetes, body mass index, eGFR, income, smoking, total energy intake, total protein intake, 24 hour urinary sodium, use of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers and use of diuretics. Results Higher % plant protein was associated with lower FGF23 (p=0.05) and higher HCO3 (p=0.01), but not with serum phosphate or PTH (p=0.9 and 0.5, respectively). Higher % plant protein was not associated with higher serum potassium (p=0.2), lower serum albumin (p=0.2) or lower hemoglobin (p=0.3). The associations of % plant protein with FGF23 and HCO3 did not differ by diabetes status, sex, race, CKD stage (2/3 vs. 4/5) or total protein intake (≤ 0.8 g/kg/d vs. >0.8 g/kg/d) (p-interaction > 0.10 for each). Limitations Cross-sectional study; Determination of % plant protein using the DHQ has not been validated. Conclusions Consumption of a higher percentage of protein from plant sources may lower FGF23 and raise HCO3 in patients with CKD. PMID:22480598

  5. Vitamin D intake, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D status and response to moderate vitamin D3 supplementation: a randomised controlled trial in East African and Finnish women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebayo, Folasade A; Itkonen, Suvi T; Öhman, Taina; Skaffari, Essi; Saarnio, Elisa M; Erkkola, Maijaliisa; Cashman, Kevin D; Lamberg-Allardt, Christel

    2018-02-01

    Insufficient vitamin D status (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (S-25(OH)D)0·05 for differences between ethnic groups). In conclusion, high prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency existed among East African women living in Finland, despite higher vitamin D intake than their Finnish peers. Moderate vitamin D3 supplementation was effective in increasing S-25(OH)D in both groups of women, and no ethnic differences existed in the response to supplementation.

  6. Investigations on the presence of antibodies against equine herpesvirus-1 in blood serum of foals, prior to and after colostrum intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauš Saša

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The titer of specific antibodies against equine herpesvirus-1 in blood serum was tested in two groups of mares and their foals. The first group consisted of 12 mares, Standardbred and Serbian Trotter breed, who were vaccinated against equine herpesvirus-1 and 4 in the 5th, 7th and 9th month of pregnancy. On the contrary, 12 mares from the second group, of Lipizzaner breed, were not vaccinated. The mares’ blood samples for antibodies titer investigation were taken 30, 15 and 7 days before the expected partus, then immediately after the partus, while their foals’ blood samples were taken immediately after foaling, then just before colostrum intake, and finally 1, 2, 3 and 7 days later. The titer of antibodies against equine herpesvirus-1 was tested by the method of virus - neutralization, on microtiter plates with constant dose of the virus and serial double dilutions of the serum. In unvaccinated mares, titer of antibodies against equine herpesvirus-1 was either low or not present, but on the contrary, in the vaccinated ones the antibodies titer ranged from 1:32 to 1:256. In the foals originating from both vaccinated and unvaccinated there were not found specific antibodies in the serum before colostrum intake. After the colostrum intake, the values of specific antibodies against equine herpesvirus-1 significantly increased in the foals originating from the vaccinated mares, and ranged from 1:8 to 1:32.

  7. Changes in consumption of food away from home and intakes of energy and other nutrients among US working-age adults, 2005-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Jessica E

    2017-12-01

    To document changes in consumption of food away from home (FAFH) and intakes of selected nutrients by working-age adults between 2005-06 and 2013-14, covering the most recent recessionary period and recovery. Means were compared across survey rounds relative to 2005-06. Multivariate regression was used to account for changes in demographic characteristics over time. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2005-2014. Working-age adults born in 1951-80 (n 12 129) and adolescents and young adults born in 1981-90 (n 5197) who reported day 1 dietary intake data. Approximately 34 % of energy consumed by working-age adults came from FAFH (14 % from fast foods) in 2005-06. Levels of FAFH consumption were lowest in 2009-10, at 28 and 11 % of energy from FAFH and fast foods, respectively. Percentage of energy from fast foods was 1·9 percentage points higher in 2013-14. Percentage of energy from saturated fat and total mg of cholesterol consumed were lower in 2009-14, while intake of fibre was higher in 2011-14. At-home foods had less saturated fat and more fibre in 2009-14. The greater the percentage of energy from FAFH in the day, the greater the intakes of fat and cholesterol. Percentage of energy from FAFH was highest among those born in 1981-90 and lowest among those born in 1951-60. FAFH is a significant source of energy, fat and cholesterol among working-age adults. Menu labelling may lower FAFH's energy content and make it easier for consumers to choose more healthful items.

  8. Effects of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Supplementation on Serum Leptin Levels, Appetite Sensations, and Intake of Energy and Macronutrients in Obese People: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payahoo, L; Ostadrahimi, A; Farrin, N; Khaje-Bishak, Y

    2017-10-05

    Obesity is a common health problem. Appetite is one of the main obesity-controlling factors that can be influenced by leptin. Leptin reduces food intake and accelerates energy expenditure. Leptin levels can be affected by dietary factors such as fats, special amino acids, and fructose. This study aimed to determine the effects of polyunsaturated fatty acid n-3 (PUFA n-3) supplementation on serum leptin levels, appetite sensations, and dietary intakes in obese people. This study was performed on 60 obese individuals with body mass index (BMI) 30 (kg/m 2 ) and above in 2012 in Tabriz, Iran. The participants were randomly allocated to the intervention (consumed two capsules containing 1 g/day n-3 fatty acids [180 mg EPA, 120 mg DHA] for 4 weeks) and control groups. Serum leptin levels were assessed by ELISA method, and visual analogue scale (VAS) questionnaire was completed for evaluating appetite sensations. The mean caloric [before = 1,575.39 (600), after = 1,236.14 (448.40)] and macronutrient intakes were decreased significantly in the intervention group (p macronutrient intakes, probably through the modulating of satiety. The short period of study caused the nonsignificant changes in BMI and circulatory leptin. Further studies are needed to confirm these results.

  9. Avaliação da ingestão de nutrientes de crianças de uma creche filantrópica: aplicação do Consumo Dietético de Referência Assessment of nutrients intake of children in a charity daycare center: application of Dietary Reference Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roseane Moreira Sampaio Barbosa

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: comparar a adequação aparente da ingestão dos nutrientes utilizando os valores de referência "Consumo Dietético de Referência" (Dietary Reference Intake-DRIs de 35 crianças de uma creche filantrópica, em dois momentos, no ato da matrícula (momento 1 e após seis meses de freqüência na creche (momento 2. MÉTODOS: A avaliação sócio-demográfica foi realizada através de questionário abordando renda, escolaridade, condições de moradia e saneamento básico. Para avaliação do consumo alimentar, no ato da matrícula, a história dietética foi determinada em entrevista com o responsável, com o propósito de obter informações sobre consumo habitual da criança na sua residência. Após o período de seis meses foi utilizado o método de pesagem direta de alimentos (na creche complementando com o consumo alimentar da criança na residência. A análise dos nutrientes como proteínas, ferro, cálcio e vitamina C, além das fibras alimentares, foi realizada através um programa computacional. Para comparar a adequação dos nutrientes nos dois momentos do estudo utilizou-se o teste t de Student para dados pareados (p OBJECTIVES: to compare nutrients intake apparent adequacy through reference values of Dietary Reference Intake (DRIs of 35 children of a charity daycare center in two instances, when they enrolled (instance 1 and six months after (instance 2. METHODS: socio-demographic assessment was performed through a questionnaire collecting information pertaining to income, school level, living conditions and basic sanitation. To assess food consumption at enrollment, dietary history was informed through an interview with the parent, family member or guardian on the usual intake of the child at home. Following a six month period the weighed food record method (in the daycare center was performed complemented by the food intake of the child at home. Nutrient analysis such as proteins, iron, calcium and vitamin C in

  10. Consumo, digestibilidade dos nutrientes e parâmetros ruminais em bovinos alimentados com silagem de capim-mombaça Intake, digestibilities of the nutrients, and ruminal variables in cattle fed Mombaça-grass silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.R. Vieira

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se o consumo, a digestibilidade aparente total e parcial dos nutrientes, o pH e a concentração de amônia ruminal em bovinos alimentados com silagem de capim-mombaça e concentrado nas seguintes proporções: 80:20, 65:35, 50:50 e 35:65, com base na matéria seca. Foram utilizados quatro animais Holandês x Zebu, com peso corporal médio inicial de 229kg, canulados no rúmen e abomaso, e distribuídos em quadrado latino 4x4. Os consumos de matéria seca (MS, matéria orgânica (MO, proteína bruta (PB, extrato etéreo (EE e carboidratos totais (CHOT, expressos em kg/dia, e a digestibilidade parcial dos carboidratos não fibrosos (CNF apresentaram comportamento linear crescente, com resposta platô nos níveis de concentrado de 54,1; 54,8; 52,9; 62,2; 55,2 e 52,7%. O consumo dos demais nutrientes, exceto da fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, e as digestibilidades aparente total de MS, MO e CNF e a parcial de MO aumentaram linearmente com o incremento do concentrado nas dietas. Não foram encontradas diferenças no consumo e nas digestibilidades aparente total e parcial da FDN. Para concentração de amônia e pH ruminal, observou-se efeito quadrático de tempo de amostragem, com valores máximos de 24,76mg/dL e 6,53 em 2,8 e 3,5 horas após a alimentação, respectivamente.Intake; total and partial digestibilities of nutrients; and ruminal pH and ammonia concentration were evaluated in beef cattle fed Mombaça-grass silage and concentrate at the following proportions: 80:20, 65:35, 50:50, and 35:65, in the dry matter basis. Four Holstein x Zebu steers, with average live weight of 229kg, fitted with ruminal and abomasal canullae, were used. The animals were allotted in a 4x4 latin square design. The intakes of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, crude protein (CP, ether extract (EE, and total carbohydrates (kg/day, as well the partials digestibilities of non fibrous carbohydrates (NFC increased linearly with plateau at the concentrate

  11. Beneficial changes in food consumption and nutrient intake after 10 years of follow-up in a Mediterranean cohort: the SUN project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen de la Fuente-Arrillaga

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The assessment of changes in dietary habits provides interesting information on whether or not the observed trends are in line with accepted nutritional guidelines. The objective was to evaluate within-subject longitudinal changes in food consumption and nutrient intake and in a 10-year follow-up study. Methods The SUN (Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra project is a prospective Spanish cohort study. Diet was assessed using a 136-item food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ, previously validated in Spain. The participants were 3036 university graduates (55.8 % women of Spain and the main outcome measures the changes in dietary quality and in food consumption and nutrient intake. Paired t-tests and conditional logistic regression models were used to evaluate within-subject longitudinal dietary changes and the risk of inadequacy respectively, after 10 years of follow-up. Results During follow-up, participants showed a relevant and significant increase (p < 0.001 in the consumption of fruits (7.4 %, vegetables (8.6 %, low-fat dairy products (35.2 %, lean meat (12.4 %, fish (2.9 %, whole grains (53.2 %, nuts (52.4 % and a significant decrease in legumes (−7.4 %, whole-fat dairy products (−44.2 %, red meat (−17.6 %, sugar-sweetened beverages (−58.7 % and wine (−11.9 %. With respect to nutrients, we found a higher proportion of carbohydrates (3.6 % and fiber (7.4 % and a decrease in total energy intake (2.7 %, total fat (−4.5 %, SFA (−9.4 %, MUFA (−4.9 %, PUFA (−12.7 %, w-3 and w-6 fatty acids (−9.1 and −20.5 % respectively and cholesterol (−9.6 %. Conclusions In this Mediterranean cohort study, mainly beneficial changes in the consumption of most foods and macronutrients were observed after 10 years of follow-up.

  12. Comparison of buffet and a la carte serving at worksite canteens on nutrient intake and fruit and vegetable consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Anne Dahl; Hansen, K.S.; Trolle, Ellen

    2007-01-01

    : Laboratory technicians observed employees' food selection and collected identical dishes. Food items were weighed separately to calculate the content of fruit and vegetables. The content of protein, fat and ash of each dish was chemically analysed and the carbohydrate and energy content calculated. Setting...... and 33 +/- 12 among women. No association was found between the meal serving system and energy intake or macronutrient composition. Eating at canteens serving buffet style, on the other hand, was associated with an increased intake of fruit and vegetables, on average 76 g, and a lower energy density...... of the food for both genders. Conclusion: The results highlight the possibilities of promoting healthy food choices in the catering sector and the need to identify models of healthy catering practice. Serving buffet style appears to be a promising strategy in order to increase fruit and vegetable consumption...

  13. Secretion of glucagon-like peptide-2 responds to nutrient intake but not glucose provision in milk-fed calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castro, J.J.; Morrison, S.Y.; Hosseinni, A.

    2016-01-01

    concentrations in plasma and intestinal development in Holstein calves. In the first experiment, 48 newborn calves were assigned to 12 treatments (n = 4) corresponding to the factorial combination of 4 milk feeding amounts [1.75, 1.32, 0.88, and 0.44% of body weight (BW) as dry matter (DM)] and 3 oral...... fashion to milk intake but not to glucose supplementation, even at milk consumption levels of only 0.4% of BW as DM....

  14. Is nutrient intake a gender-specific cause for enhanced susceptibility to alcohol-induced liver disease in women?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagnerberger, S.; Schäfer, C.; Schwarz, E.

    2008-01-01

    AIM: Women have a higher susceptibility to alcohol-induced liver disease (ALD) than men. Gender-related differences in food preference were described in previous studies for several populations, but not in alcohol abusers. As certain micronutrients are reported to take influence on the development......, the data of calculated daily macro- and micronutrient intake do not suggest any explicit influence of gender-specific nutrition in the development of ALD....

  15. Caffeine intake is not associated with serum testosterone levels in adult men: cross-sectional findings from the NHANES 1999-2004 and 2011-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, David S; Advani, Shailesh; Qiu, Xueting; Tsilidis, Konstantinos K; Khera, Mohit; Kim, Jeri; Canfield, Steven

    2018-04-25

    The association of caffeine intake with testosterone remains unclear. We evaluated the association of caffeine intake with serum testosterone among American men and determined whether this association varied by race/ethnicity and measurements of adiposity. Data were analyzed for 2581 men (≥20 years old) who participated in the cycles of the NHANES 1999-2004 and 2011-2012, a cross-sectional study. Testosterone (ng/mL) was measured by immunoassay among men who participated in the morning examination session. We analyzed 24-h dietary recall data to estimate caffeine intake (mg/day). Multivariable weighted linear regression models were conducted. We identified no linear relationship between caffeine intake and testosterone levels in the total population, but there was a non-linear association (p nonlinearity  < .01). Similarly, stratified analysis showed nonlinear associations among Mexican-American and Non-Hispanic White men (p nonlinearity  ≤ .03 both) and only among men with waist circumference <102 cm and body mass index <25 kg/m 2 (p nonlinearity  < .01, both). No linear association was identified between levels of caffeine intake and testosterone in US men, but we observed a non-linear association, including among racial/ethnic groups and measurements of adiposity in this cross-sectional study. These associations are warranted to be investigated in larger prospective studies.

  16. Nutrient-intake-level-dependent regulation of intestinal development in newborn intrauterine growth-restricted piglets via glucagon-like peptide-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J; Liu, Z; Gao, L; Chen, L; Zhang, H

    2016-10-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the intestinal development of newborn intrauterine growth-restricted (IUGR) piglets subjected to normal nutrient intake (NNI) or restricted nutrient intake (RNI). Newborn normal birth weight (NBW) and IUGR piglets were allotted to NNI or RNI levels for 4 weeks from day 8 postnatal. IUGR piglets receiving NNI had similar growth performance compared with that of NBW piglets. Small intestine length and villous height were greater in IUGR piglets fed the NNI than that of piglets fed the RNI. Lactase activity was increased in piglets fed the NNI compared with piglets fed the RNI. Absorptive function, represented by active glucose transport by the Ussing chamber method and messenger RNA (mRNA) expressions of two main intestinal glucose transporters, Na+-dependent glucose transporter 1 (SGLT1) and glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2), were greater in IUGR piglets fed the NNI compared with piglets fed the RNI regimen. The apoptotic process, characterized by caspase-3 activity (a sign of activated apoptotic cells) and mRNA expressions of p53 (pro-apoptotic), bcl-2-like protein 4 (Bax) (pro-apoptotic) and B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) (anti-apoptotic), were improved in IUGR piglets fed the NNI regimen. To test the hypothesis that improvements in intestinal development of IUGR piglets fed NNI might be mediated through circulating glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2), GLP-2 was injected subcutaneously to IUGR piglets fed the RNI from day 8 to day 15 postnatal. Although the intestinal development of IUGR piglets fed the RNI regimen was suppressed compared with those fed the NNI regimen, an exogenous injection of GLP-2 was able to bring intestinal development to similar levels as NNI-fed IUGR piglets. Collectively, our results demonstrate that IUGR neonates that have NNI levels could improve intestinal function via the regulation of GLP-2.

  17. Changes in time-trends of nutrient intake from fortified and non-fortified food in German children and adolescents--15 year results of the DONALD study. Dortmund Nutritional and Anthropometric Longitudinally Designed Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sichert-Hellert, W; Kersting, M; Manz, F

    2001-04-01

    Although fortified products have played an increasing role in food marketing since the 1980s in Germany, data as to the consumption of fortified food is sparse. To assess long-term data on changes in fortified food supply or consumption patterns, nutrient intake, and time trends in the DONALD Study (Dortmund Nutritional and Anthropometric Longitudinally Designed Study). Between 1985 and 2000 consumption of nutrient intake (total and from fortified foods) was evaluated and time trends in energy and nutrient intake were assessed on the basis of 3-day weighed dietary records (n = 4193) of 2-14 year-old males (n = 383) and females (n = 404) enrolled in the DONALD Study. Nutrient intake was expressed as percentage of the current German recommendations. Food products were defined as fortified if enriched with at least one of the following nutrients: Vitamin A or provitamin A carotenoids (summarised as Vitamin A), Vitamins E, B1, B2, B6, C, niacin, folate, calcium or iron. Nutrient supplements and medicine were excluded from this evaluation. Time trends were analysed using linear and non-linear regression models (PROC MIXED, SAS 6.12). In percent of German references [3], non-fortified food contributed to folate intake by 20-30%, to Vitamin E by about 40%, to Vitamin B1 by 50-65%, to Vitamin A, C, B2, calcium, iron by about 65-95%, and to Vitamin B6 and niacin intake by 100% and more. Fortified food alone provided no more than 5% of calcium intake, about 10-20% of iron, Vitamin A and folate intake, up to 40-50% of Vitamin C, B1, B2, E, niacin and up to 80% of Vitamin B6 intake. During the 15 year period of the DONALD Study with total food, we only found a significant linear time trend for Vitamin C, whereas significant non-linear time trends were found for calcium, Vitamin E, B1, B2, B6, niacin and folate. In the latter there was a uniform increase until 1994 and a decrease thereafter. For iron and Vitamin A no significant time trend could be identified. Only iron and

  18. Subprodutos industriais na ensilagem de capim-elefante para cabras leiteiras: consumo, digestibilidade de nutrientes e produção de leite Industrial by-products in elephant grass silage for dairy goats: intake, nutrient digestibility and milk yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jobel Beserra de Oliveira

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido para avaliar o consumo, a digestibilidade aparente e a produção do leite em cabras alimentadas com silagens de capim-elefante contendo subprodutos industriais. Utilizaram-se oito cabras da raça Saanen, distribuídas em dois quadrados latinos 4 × 4, com 4 períodos de 14 dias (10 dias de adaptação e 4 dias para coleta de dados. Os tratamentos foram: silagem de capim-elefante + concentrado; silagem de capim-elefante com 15% de farelo de mandioca + concentrado; silagem de capim-elefante com 15% de casca de café + concentrado; silagem de capim-elefante com 15% farelo de cacau + concentrado. Os maiores consumos de matéria seca (MS, matéria orgânica (MO, carboidratos totais (CT, carboidratos não-fibrosos (CNF e nutrientes digestíveis totais foram observados entre os animais alimentados com a silagem contendo farelo de mandioca. As silagens com farelo de mandioca ou casca de café promoveram maior consumo de extrato etéreo. Os maiores valores de digestibilidade da MS, MO, EE e CT foram obtidos na dieta contendo silagem de capim-elefante com farelo de mandioca. O valor de digestibilidade dos CNF foi semelhante entre as dietas contendo silagem de capim-elefante com farelo de mandioca, casca de café e farelo de cacau. A digestibilidade de fibra em detergente neutro e de fibra em detergente ácido foi maior para a silagem sem aditivo, com farelo de mandioca ou farelo de cacau. Entre os subprodutos avaliados, o farelo de mandioca é o que promove maiores consumos, digestibilidades dos nutrientes e produção de leite em cabras alimentadas com silagem de capim-elefante.The experiment was carried out to evaluate the intake, apparent digestibility and the milk yield of goats fed elephant grass silages containing industrial by-products. Eight Saanen breed goats were used, distributed in two 4 × 4 Latin squares, with four 14-day periods (ten days of adaptation and four days for data collection. The treatments were

  19. Nutrient adequacy during weight loss interventions: a randomized study in women comparing the dietary intake in a meal replacement group with a traditional food group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bovee Vicki

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Safe and effective weight control strategies are needed to stem the current obesity epidemic. The objective of this one-year study was to document and compare the macronutrient and micronutrient levels in the foods chosen by women following two different weight reduction interventions. Methods Ninety-six generally healthy overweight or obese women (ages 25–50 years; BMI 25–35 kg/m2 were randomized into a Traditional Food group (TFG or a Meal Replacement Group (MRG incorporating 1–2 meal replacement drinks or bars per day. Both groups had an energy-restricted goal of 5400 kJ/day. Dietary intake data was obtained using 3-Day Food records kept by the subjects at baseline, 6 months and one-year. For more uniform comparisons between groups, each diet intervention consisted of 18 small group sessions led by the same Registered Dietitian. Results Weight loss for the 73% (n = 70 completing this one-year study was not significantly different between the groups, but was significantly different (p ≤ .05 within each group with a mean (± standard deviation weight loss of -6.1 ± 6.7 kg (TFG, n = 35 vs -5.0 ± 4.9 kg (MRG, n = 35. Both groups had macronutrient (Carbohydrate:Protein:Fat ratios that were within the ranges recommended (50:19:31, TFG vs 55:16:29, MRG. Their reported reduced energy intake was similar (5729 ± 1424 kJ, TFG vs 5993 ± 2016 kJ, MRG. There was an improved dietary intake pattern in both groups as indicated by decreased intake of saturated fat (≤ 10%, cholesterol ( Conclusion In this one-year university-based intervention, both dietitian-led groups successfully lost weight while improving overall dietary adequacy. The group incorporating fortified meal replacements tended to have a more adequate essential nutrient intake compared to the group following a more traditional food group diet. This study supports the need to incorporate fortified foods and/or dietary supplements while following an energy

  20. Validity of the Remote Food Photography Method (RFPM) for estimating energy and nutrient intake in near real-time

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, C. K.; Correa, J. B.; Han, H.; Allen, H. R.; Rood, J.; Champagne, C. M.; Gunturk, B. K.; Bray, G. A.

    2011-01-01

    Two studies are reported; a pilot study to demonstrate feasibility followed by a larger validity study. Study 1’s objective was to test the effect of two ecological momentary assessment (EMA) approaches that varied in intensity on the validity/accuracy of estimating energy intake with the Remote Food Photography Method (RFPM) over six days in free-living conditions. When using the RFPM, Smartphones are used to capture images of food selection and plate waste and to send the images to a server...

  1. Early sugar-sweetened beverage consumption frequency is associated with poor quality of later food and nutrient intake patterns among Japanese young children: the Osaka Maternal and Child Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okubo, Hitomi; Miyake, Yoshihiro; Sasaki, Satoshi; Tanaka, Keiko; Hirota, Yoshio

    2016-06-01

    Evidence from Western countries shows that higher consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) is associated with lower quality of young children's diets, but little is known about these relations in non-Western countries with relatively low consumption levels of SSBs. We hypothesized that SSB consumption in infancy would be associated with poor quality of later food and nutrient intake patterns among Japanese young children. The study subjects were 493 Japanese mother-child pairs from a prospective birth cohort study. Dietary data on children were collected from the mothers using self-administered questionnaires when the children were aged 16-24 months and 41-49 months. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to examine the relationships between SSB consumption frequency in infancy and later intake of foods and nutrients. At 16-24 months of age, more than half of the children (56.4%) consumed SSBs less than once a week, whereas 11.6% consumed SSBs at least once daily. More frequent consumption of SSBs in infancy was associated with higher intake of confectionaries and SSBs and lower intake of fruits and vegetables at 41-49 months of age. These associations were still evident after adjustment for maternal SSB consumption and socioeconomic status. At the nutrient level, SSB consumption frequency was positively associated with energy intake and inversely associated with intake of many nutrients, such as protein, dietary fiber, and most of the micronutrients examined. In conclusion, higher consumption frequency of SSBs at an early age is associated with poor quality of overall dietary intake among young Japanese children 1.5-2.5 years later. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Bagaço de mandioca (Manihot esculenta, Crantz na dieta de vacas leiteiras: consumo de nutrientes Cassava bagasse (Manihot esculenta, Crantz in the diet of lactating cows: intake of nutrients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.P. Lima

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito da inclusão de diferentes níveis (0, 5, 10 e 15% de bagaço de mandioca à dieta de 12 vacas mestiças leiteiras Holandês x Zebu (composição racial com variação de ¼ a ¾ de sangue H x Z com 478,5kg de peso corporal médio e com 100 a 150 dias de lactação, distribuídas em três Quadrados Latinos 4 x 4. Foi avaliado o consumo de matéria seca (MS, matéria orgânica (MO, proteína bruta (PB, extrato etéreo (EE, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, fibra em detergente ácido (FDA, carboidratos totais (CHT, carboidratos não-fibrosos (CNF e nutrientes digestíveis totais (NDT. Forneceu-se silagem de capim-elefante como fonte de volumoso. As relações volumoso:concentrado utilizadas foram de 65,19:34,81; 61,59:38,41; 59,08:40,92 e 54,76:45,24. Formularam-se as dietas isoprotéicas e isoenergéticas. Houve aumento linear do consumo de MS, MO, PB, CHT, CNF e NDT, efeito quadrático do consumo de EE e redução do consumo de FDA com o aumento do BM, enquanto o consumo de FDN não diferiu entre os tratamentos.O bagaço de mandioca pode ser utilizado até o nível de 15% de inclusão na dieta total de vacas mestiças leiteiras sem trazer transtornos fisiológicos ou nutricionais aos animais.The effect of different inclusion levels (0, 5, 10, and 15% of cassava bagasse to the diet of 12 Holstein x Zebu crossbred dairy cows (breed composition varying from ¼ to ¾ H x Z blood, averaging 478.5kg body weight and 100 to 150 days in milk was evaluated. Cows were distributed in three 4 x 4 latin squares. The intake of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, crude protein (CP, ether extract (EE, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF, total carbohydrates (TC, non fiber carbohydrates (NFC, and total digestible nutrients (TDN were evaluated. Elephant grass silage was provided as roughage source. The roughage:concentrate ratios were 65.19:34.81; 61.59:38.41; 59.08:40.92; and 54.76:45.24. Isonitogen and isoenergetic diets

  3. Carotenoid Intakes, Assessed by food frequency questionnaires are associated with serum carotenoid concentrations in the Jackson Heart Study: Validation of the Jackson Heart Study Delta NIRI Adult Food Frequency Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objectives: Intake and status of carotenoids have been associated with chronic disease. The objectives of this study were to examine the association between carotenoid intakes as measured by two regional food-frequency questionnaires (FFQs) and their corresponding measures in serum, and to report ...

  4. Association of dental and skeletal fluorosis with calcium intake and serum vitamin D concentration in adolescents from a region endemic for fluorosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prerna P Patel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Fluorosis is controlled by the duration of fluoride exposure and calcium and Vitamin D nutrition status. Aim: To examine (a prevalence of dental and skeletal fluorosis in adolescents from upper, middle, and lower socioeconomic strata (SES and (b association of fluorosis with calcium intake and Vitamin D status. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study conducted in 10–13.9 years apparently healthy adolescents (n = 90, from different SES of Patan (Gujarat, India. Materials and Methods: Dental fluorosis was graded as mild, moderate, and severe. Radiographs of the right hand and wrist were examined and graded. Serum 25 hydroxyvitamin D3 (25OHD and parathyroid hormone concentrations were measured. Diet was recorded (24 h recall and calcium intake was computed (C-diet V-2.1, 2013, Xenios Technologies Pvt. Ltd. Statistical Analysis: Generalized linear model was used to analyze relationships between fluorosis, SES, serum 25OHD concentration, and calcium intake. Results: Fluorosis was predominant in lower SES (17% had both dental and radiological features whereas 73% had dental fluorosis; no skeletal deformities were observed. Mean 25OHD concentrations and dietary calcium were 26.3 ± 4.9, 23.4 ± 4.7, and 18.6 ± 4 ng/ml and 441.2 ± 227.6, 484.3 ± 160.9, and 749.2 ± 245.4 mg/day, respectively, for lower, middle, and upper SES (P < 0.05. Fluorosis and SES showed a significant association (exponential β = 2.5, P = 0.01 as compared to upper SES, middle SES adolescents were at 1.3 times while lower SES adolescents were at 2.5 times higher risk. Serum 25OHD concentrations (P = 0.937 and dietary calcium intake (P = 0.825 did not show a significant association with fluorosis. Conclusion: Fluorosis was more common in lower SES adolescents, probably due to the lack of access to bottled water. Relatively adequate calcium intake and serum 25OHD concentrations may have increased the efficiency of dietary calcium absorption, thus preventing severe

  5. Plant protein intake is associated with fibroblast growth factor 23 and serum bicarbonate levels in patients with chronic kidney disease: the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scialla, Julia J; Appel, Lawrence J; Wolf, Myles; Yang, Wei; Zhang, Xiaoming; Sozio, Stephen M; Miller, Edgar R; Bazzano, Lydia A; Cuevas, Magdalena; Glenn, Melanie J; Lustigova, Eva; Kallem, Radhakrishna R; Porter, Anna C; Townsend, Raymond R; Weir, Matthew R; Anderson, Cheryl A M

    2012-07-01

    Protein from plant, as opposed to animal, sources may be preferred in chronic kidney disease (CKD) because of the lower bioavailability of phosphate and lower nonvolatile acid load. Observational cross-sectional study. A total of 2,938 participants with CKD and information on their dietary intake at the baseline visit in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort Study. Percentage of total protein intake from plant sources (percent plant protein) was determined by scoring individual food items using the National Cancer Institute Diet History Questionnaire (DHQ). Metabolic parameters, including serum phosphate, bicarbonate (HCO₃), potassium, and albumin, plasma fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23), and parathyroid hormone (PTH), and hemoglobin levels. We modeled the association between percent plant protein and metabolic parameters using linear regression. Models were adjusted for age, sex, race, diabetes status, body mass index, estimated glomerular filtration rate, income, smoking status, total energy intake, total protein intake, 24-hour urinary sodium concentration, use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers, and use of diuretics. Higher percent plant protein was associated with lower FGF-23 (P = .05) and higher HCO₃ (P = .01) levels, but not with serum phosphate or parathyroid hormone concentrations (P = .9 and P = .5, respectively). Higher percent plant protein was not associated with higher serum potassium (P = .2), lower serum albumin (P = .2), or lower hemoglobin (P = .3) levels. The associations of percent plant protein with FGF-23 and HCO₃ levels did not differ by diabetes status, sex, race, CKD stage (2/3 vs. 4/5), or total protein intake (≤0.8 g/kg/day vs. >0.8 g/kg/day; P-interaction >.10 for each). This is a cross-sectional study; determination of percent plant protein using the Diet History Questionnaire has not been validated. Consumption of a higher percentage of protein from plant sources may lower FGF-23 and

  6. Effects of replacing wheat bran by pistachio skins on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, milk yield, milk composition and blood metabolites of dairy Saanen goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naserian, A A; Staples, C R; Ghaffari, M H

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of pistachio skins (PiS) as a replacement of wheat bran on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, milk yield, milk composition and blood metabolites of dairy Saanen goats. Eight multiparous lactating Saanen goats (55 ± 7.2 days post-partum, 45 ± 2 kg body weight) were randomly assigned to one of the four dietary treatments arranged in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design. The dietary treatments were 1) 0 g/kg PiS and 210 g/kg wheat bran in the TMR (0PiS), 2) 70 g/kg PiS and 140 g/kg wheat bran in the TMR (7PiS), 3) 140 g/kg PiS and 70 g/kg wheat bran in the TMR (14PiS) and 4) 210 g/kg PiS and 0 g/kg wheat bran in the TMR (21PiS). The trial consisted of four 21-day periods, each composed of 14 days adaptation and 7 days data collection. Dry matter intake (p < 0.05) and crude protein digestibility (p < 0.01) increased linearly with increasing PiS proportions in the diet. Increasing the proportion of PiS in the diet caused a quadratic increase in apparent digestibility of dry matter (p < 0.05), and tended (p = 0.05) to increase quadratically organic matter, and ether extract digestibility. Replacing wheat bran with PiS in the diet had no effects on milk yield, whereas milk fat concentration increased linearly (p < 0.01) with increasing inclusion of PiS in the diet. As the dietary proportion of PiS increased, ruminal pH tended (p = 0.07) to increase linearly, whereas ammonia-N concentration declined in the rumen. Plasma concentrations of glucose and BUN remained unaffected, whereas triglycerides (p < 0.05) and cholesterol (p < 0.01) concentrations increased linearly with increasing inclusion of PiS in the diet. It was concluded that PiS based on local ingredients can successfully replace wheat bran in diets of dairy goats without detrimental effects on feed intake, nutrient digestibility and milk production. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell

  7. Association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elderly people in institutionalized home care might have the risk of getting certain nutrient deficiencies due to lack of food intake and comorbidities. This study was intended to investigate the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among institutionalized elderly people and association between anthropometric indices with serum ...

  8. Changes of Dietary Pattern, Food Choice, Food Consumption, Nutrient Intake and Body Mass Index of Korean American College Students with Different Length of Residence in the Los Angeles Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nam; Tam, Chick F.; Poon, George; Lew, Polong; Kim, Samuel Saychang; Kim, James C.; Kim, Rachel Byungsook

    2010-01-01

    This study was to investigate how dietary pattern, food choice, food consumption, nutrient intake and body mass index (BMI) vary with length of residence for Korean American college students. The respondents were 60 Korean American residents living in the Los Angeles Area. They were divided into two groups based on the length of stay in the U.S.:…

  9. Cooked oatmeal consumption is associated with better diet quality, better nutrient intakes, and reduced risk for central adiposity and obesity in children 2–18 years: NHANES 2001–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol E. O'Neil

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: None of the studies of whole grains that have looked either at diet or weight/adiposity measures have focused exclusively on oatmeal. Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the association between oatmeal consumption and nutrient intake, diet quality, and weight/adiposity of children aged 2–18. Design: A nationally representative sample of children aged 2–18 (N=14,690 participating in National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001–2010 was used. Intake was determined from a single 24-h dietary recall. Diet quality was measured using the Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI-2010. Covariate-adjusted regression analyses, using appropriate sample weights, were used to determine differences between oatmeal consumers and non-consumers for demographics, nutrient intakes, diet quality, and weight/adiposity measures (p<0.01. Logistic regression was performed to calculate odds ratios for weight measures and obesity (p<0.05. Results: Compared to non-consumers, oatmeal consumers were more likely to be younger and less likely to be smokers. Consumers had higher intakes of dietary fiber, vitamin A, thiamin, riboflavin, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, iron, copper, and potassium, and significantly lower intakes of total, monounsaturated and saturated fatty acids, cholesterol, and sodium. Oatmeal consumers had higher dietary quality scores attributable to higher intakes of whole grains and lower intakes of refined grains and empty calories. Children consuming oatmeal were at lower risk for having central adiposity and being obese. Conclusions: Consumption of oatmeal by children was associated with better nutrient intake, diet quality, and reduced risk for central adiposity and obesity and should be encouraged as part of an overall healthful diet.

  10. The effects of the Danish saturated fat tax on food and nutrient intake and modelled health outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smed, Sinne; Scarborough, P.; Rayner, M.

    2016-01-01

    Integrated ModEl)) to estimate the effect of these changes on non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and mortality. Results: The tax resulted in a 4.0% reduction in saturated fat intake. Vegetable consumption increased, and salt consumption increased for most individuals, except younger females. We find a modelled......Background/Objective: The World Health Organisation recommends governments to consider the use of fiscal policies to promote healthy eating. However, there is very limited evidence of the effect of food taxation in a real-life setting, as most evidence is based on simulation studies. The objective...... reduction in mortality with 123 lives saved annually, 76 of them below 75 years equal to 0.4% of all deaths from NCDs. Conclusions: Modelling the effect of the changes in diet on health outcomes suggests that the saturated fat tax made a positive, but minor, contribution to public health in Denmark....

  11. The effect of increasing the