WorldWideScience

Sample records for nutrient delivery system

  1. On-The-Move Nutrient Delivery System - Description and Initial Evaluation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mountain, Scott

    2004-01-01

    .... A novel nutrient delivery system has been developed to provide Warfighters on-demand access to flavored electrolyte- and carbohydrate-enhanced drinks, to provide hydration, and energy to sustain work...

  2. Nanoscale Nutrient Delivery Systems for Food Applications: Improving Bioactive Dispersibility, Stability, and Bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClements, David Julian

    2015-07-01

    There has been a surge of interest in the development of nanoscale systems for the encapsulation, protection, and delivery of lipophilic nutrients, vitamins, and nutraceuticals. This review article highlights the challenges associated with incorporating these lipophilic bioactive components into foods, and then discusses potential nanoscale delivery systems that can be used to overcome these challenges. In particular, the desirable characteristics required for any nanoscale delivery system are presented, as well as methods of fabricating them and of characterizing them. An overview of different delivery systems is given, such as microemulsions, nanoemulsions, emulsions, microgels, and biopolymer nanoparticles, and their potential applications are discussed. Nanoscale delivery systems have considerable potential within the food industry, but they must be carefully formulated to ensure that they are safe, economically viable, and effective. Nanoscale delivery systems have numerous potential applications in the food industry for encapsulating, protecting, and releasing bioactive agents, such as nutraceuticals and vitamins. This review article highlights methods for designing, fabricating, characterizing, and utilizing edible nanoparticles from a variety of different food-grade ingredients. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  3. Examining Dehydration and Hypoxic Stress in Wheat Plants Using a Porous Tube Plant Nutrient Delivery System Developed for Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreschel, T. W.; Hall, C. R.; Foster, T. E.; Salganic, M.; Warren, L.; Corbett, M.

    2005-01-01

    The Porous Tube Plant Nutrient Delivery System (PTPNDS) was designed for NASA to grow plants in microgravity of space. The system utilizes a controlled fluid loop to supply nutrients and water to plant roots growing on a ceramic surface moistened by capiflary action. A PTPNDS test bed was developed and utilizing remote sensing systems, spectral analyses procedures, gas-exchange, and fluorescence measurements, we examined differences in plant water status for wheat plants (Triticum aestivum, cv. Perigee) grown in a modified growth chamber during the summers of 2003 and 2004. Some differences in plant performance were detectable in the gas-exchange and fluorescence measurements. For instance, in both years the plants grown with the most available water had the lowest rates of photosynthesis and exhibited higher proportions of non-photochemical quenching particularly under low light levels. In addition, small differences in mean leaf water content between treatments were detected using spectral reflectance analyses.

  4. A Lindenmayer system-based approach for the design of nutrient delivery networks in tissue constructs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasar, Ozlem; Starly, Binil [School of Industrial Engineering, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Lan, S-F [University of Oklahoma Bioengineering Center, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019 (United States)

    2009-12-15

    Large thick tissue constructs have reported limited success primarily due to the inability of cells to survive deep within the scaffold. Without access to adequate nutrients, cells placed deep within the tissue construct will die out, leading to non-uniform tissue regeneration. Currently, there is a necessity to design nutrient conduit networks within the tissue construct to enable cells to survive in the matrix. However, the design of complex networks within a tissue construct is challenging. In this paper, we present the Lindenmayer system, an elegant fractal-based language algorithm framework, to generate conduit networks in two- and three-dimensional architecture with several degrees of complexity. The conduit network maintains a parent-child relationship between each branch of the network. Several L-system parameters have been studied-branching angle, branch length, ratio of parent to child branch diameter, etc-to simulate several architectures under a given L-system notation. We have also presented a layered manufacturing-based UV-photopolymerization process using the Texas Instruments DLP(TM) system to fabricate the branched structures. This preliminary work showcases the applicability of L-system-based construct designs to drive scaffold fabrication systems.

  5. A Lindenmayer system-based approach for the design of nutrient delivery networks in tissue constructs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasar, Ozlem; Starly, Binil; Lan, S-F

    2009-01-01

    Large thick tissue constructs have reported limited success primarily due to the inability of cells to survive deep within the scaffold. Without access to adequate nutrients, cells placed deep within the tissue construct will die out, leading to non-uniform tissue regeneration. Currently, there is a necessity to design nutrient conduit networks within the tissue construct to enable cells to survive in the matrix. However, the design of complex networks within a tissue construct is challenging. In this paper, we present the Lindenmayer system, an elegant fractal-based language algorithm framework, to generate conduit networks in two- and three-dimensional architecture with several degrees of complexity. The conduit network maintains a parent-child relationship between each branch of the network. Several L-system parameters have been studied-branching angle, branch length, ratio of parent to child branch diameter, etc-to simulate several architectures under a given L-system notation. We have also presented a layered manufacturing-based UV-photopolymerization process using the Texas Instruments DLP(TM) system to fabricate the branched structures. This preliminary work showcases the applicability of L-system-based construct designs to drive scaffold fabrication systems.

  6. UAV Delivery Monitoring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    San Khin Thida

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available UAV-based delivery systems are increasingly being used in the logistics field, particularly to achieve faster last-mile delivery. This study develops a UAV delivery system that manages delivery order assignments, autonomous flight operation, real time control for UAV flights, and delivery status tracking. To manage the delivery item assignments, we apply the concurrent scheduler approach with a genetic algorithm. The present paper describes real time flight data based on a micro air vehicle communication protocol (MAVLink. It also presents the detailed hardware components used for the field tests. Finally, we provide UAV component analysis to choose the suitable components for delivery in terms of battery capacity, flight time, payload weight and motor thrust ratio.

  7. Project delivery system (PDS)

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    As business environments become increasingly competitive, companies seek more comprehensive solutions to the delivery of their projects. "Project Delivery System: Fourth Edition" describes the process-driven project delivery systems which incorporates the best practices from Total Quality and is aligned with the Project Management Institute and ISO Quality Standards is the means by which projects are consistently and efficiently planned, executed and completed to the satisfaction of clients and customers.

  8. Health care delivery systems.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevens, F.; Zee, J. van der

    2007-01-01

    A health care delivery system is the organized response of a society to the health problems of its inhabitants. Societies choose from alternative health care delivery models and, in doing so, they organize and set goals and priorities in such a way that the actions of different actors are effective,

  9. Nutrient supply of plants in aquaponic systems

    OpenAIRE

    Bittsánszky, András; Uzinger, Nikolett; Gyulai, Gábor; Mathis, Alex; Junge, Ranka; Villarroel, Morris; Kotzen, Benzion; Komives, Tamas

    2016-01-01

    In this preliminary article we present data on plant nutrient concentrations in aquaponic systems, and compare them to nutrient concentrations in “standard” hydroponic solutions. Our data shows that the nutrient concentrations supplied by the fish in aquaponic system are significantly lower for most nutrients, compared to hydroponic systems. Nevertheless, plants do thrive in solutions that have lower nutrient levels than “standard” hydroponic solutions. This is especially true for green leafy...

  10. TRANSDERMAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM: REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Vishvakarama Prabhakar; Agarwal Shivendra; Sharma Ritika; Saurabh Sharma

    2012-01-01

    Various new technologies have been developed for the transdermal delivery of some important drugs. Today about 74% of drugs are taken orally and are found not to be as effective as desired. To improve such characters transdermal drug delivery system was emerged. Drug delivery through the skin to achieve a systemic effect of a drug is commonly known as transdermal drug delivery and differs from traditional topical drug delivery. Transdermal drug delivery systems (TDDS) are dosage forms involve...

  11. Nutrient supply of plants in aquaponic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andras Bittsanszky

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this preliminary article we present data on plant nutrient concentrations in aquaponics systems, and we compare them to nutrient concentrations in “standard” hydroponic solutions. Our data shows that the nutrient concentrations supplied by the fish in the aquaponics system are significantly lower for most nutrients compared to hydroponic systems. Nevertheless, plants do thrive in solutions that have lower nutrient levels compared to “standard” hydroponic solutions. This is especially true for green leafy vegetables that rarely need additional nutritional supplementation. It is concluded that in the highly complex system of aquaponics, special care has to be taken, via continuous monitoring of the chemical composition of the circulating water, to provide adequate concentrations and ratios of nutrients, and especially for the potentially toxic component, ammonium. If certain plants require nutrient supplementation, we consider that one based on organic substances would be most beneficial. However, protocols for the application of such nutrient amendments still need to be developed.

  12. Supersaturating drug delivery systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laitinen, Riikka; Löbmann, Korbinian; Grohganz, Holger

    2017-01-01

    of the bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs by increasing the driving force for drug absorption. However, ASDs often require a high weight percentage of carrier (usually a hydrophilic polymer) to ensure molecular mixing of the drug in the carrier and stabilization of the supersaturated state, often leading......Amorphous solid dispersions (ASDs) are probably the most common and important supersaturating drug delivery systems for the formulation of poorly water-soluble compounds. These delivery systems are able to achieve and maintain a sustained drug supersaturation which enables improvement...... strategy for poorly-soluble drugs. While the current research on co-amorphous formulations is focused on preparation and characterization of these systems, more detailed research on their supersaturation and precipitation behavior and the effect of co-formers on nucleation and crystal growth inhibition...

  13. Mucoadhesive drug delivery systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahamatullah Shaikh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mucoadhesion is commonly defined as the adhesion between two materials, at least one of which is a mucosal surface. Over the past few decades, mucosal drug delivery has received a great deal of attention. Mucoadhesive dosage forms may be designed to enable prolonged retention at the site of application, providing a controlled rate of drug release for improved therapeutic outcome. Application of dosage forms to mucosal surfaces may be of benefit to drug molecules not amenable to the oral route, such as those that undergo acid degradation or extensive first-pass metabolism. The mucoadhesive ability of a dosage form is dependent upon a variety of factors, including the nature of the mucosal tissue and the physicochemical properties of the polymeric formulation. This review article aims to provide an overview of the various aspects of mucoadhesion, mucoadhesive materials, factors affecting mucoadhesion, evaluating methods, and finally various mucoadhesive drug delivery systems (buccal, nasal, ocular, gastro, vaginal, and rectal.

  14. Secondary fuel delivery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, David M.; Cai, Weidong; Garan, Daniel W.; Harris, Arthur J.

    2010-02-23

    A secondary fuel delivery system for delivering a secondary stream of fuel and/or diluent to a secondary combustion zone located in the transition piece of a combustion engine, downstream of the engine primary combustion region is disclosed. The system includes a manifold formed integral to, and surrounding a portion of, the transition piece, a manifold inlet port, and a collection of injection nozzles. A flowsleeve augments fuel/diluent flow velocity and improves the system cooling effectiveness. Passive cooling elements, including effusion cooling holes located within the transition boundary and thermal-stress-dissipating gaps that resist thermal stress accumulation, provide supplemental heat dissipation in key areas. The system delivers a secondary fuel/diluent mixture to a secondary combustion zone located along the length of the transition piece, while reducing the impact of elevated vibration levels found within the transition piece and avoiding the heat dissipation difficulties often associated with traditional vibration reduction methods.

  15. Nutrient management in substrate systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonneveld, C.; Voogt, W.

    2009-01-01

    Speaking about nutrient solutions in soilless cultivation, different solutions can be discerned. Originally, in soilless culture only one nutrient solution was taken into account, being the solution in the containers in which the plants were grown. Such solutions were intensively moved by air

  16. Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walley, Susan C; Jenssen, Brian P

    2015-11-01

    Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) are rapidly growing in popularity among youth. ENDS are handheld devices that produce an aerosolized mixture from a solution typically containing concentrated nicotine, flavoring chemicals, and propylene glycol to be inhaled by the user. ENDS are marketed under a variety of names, most commonly electronic cigarettes and e-cigarettes. In 2014, more youth reported using ENDS than any other tobacco product. ENDS pose health risks to both users and nonusers. Nicotine, the major psychoactive ingredient in ENDS solutions, is both highly addictive and toxic. In addition to nicotine, other toxicants, carcinogens, and metal particles have been detected in solutions and aerosols of ENDS. Nonusers are involuntarily exposed to the emissions of these devices with secondhand and thirdhand aerosol. The concentrated and often flavored nicotine in ENDS solutions poses a poisoning risk for young children. Reports of acute nicotine toxicity from US poison control centers have been increasing, with at least 1 child death reported from unintentional exposure to a nicotine-containing ENDS solution. With flavors, design, and marketing that appeal to youth, ENDS threaten to renormalize and glamorize nicotine and tobacco product use. There is a critical need for ENDS regulation, legislative action, and counter promotion to protect youth. ENDS have the potential to addict a new generation of youth to nicotine and reverse more than 50 years of progress in tobacco control. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  17. Data-driven nutrient analysis and reality check: Human inputs, catchment delivery and management effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Destouni, G.

    2017-12-01

    Measures for mitigating nutrient loads to aquatic ecosystems should have observable effects, e.g, in the Baltic region after joint first periods of nutrient management actions under the Baltic Sea Action Plan (BASP; since 2007) and the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD; since 2009). Looking for such observable effects, all openly available water and nutrient monitoring data since 2003 are compiled and analyzed for Sweden as a case study. Results show that hydro-climatically driven water discharge dominates the determination of waterborne loads of both phosphorus and nitrogen. Furthermore, the nutrient loads and water discharge are all similarly well correlated with the ecosystem status classification of Swedish water bodies according to the WFD. Nutrient concentrations, which are hydro-climatically correlated and should thus reflect human effects better than loads, have changed only slightly over the study period (2003-2013) and even increased in moderate-to-bad status waters, where the WFD and BSAP jointly target nutrient decreases. These results indicate insufficient distinction and mitigation of human-driven nutrient components by the internationally harmonized applications of both the WFD and the BSAP. Aiming for better general identification of such components, nutrient data for the large transboundary catchments of the Baltic Sea and the Sava River are compared. The comparison shows cross-regional consistency in nutrient relationships to driving hydro-climatic conditions (water discharge) for nutrient loads, and socio-economic conditions (population density and farmland share) for nutrient concentrations. A data-driven screening methodology is further developed for estimating nutrient input and retention-delivery in catchments. Its first application to nested Sava River catchments identifies characteristic regional values of nutrient input per area and relative delivery, and hotspots of much larger inputs, related to urban high-population areas.

  18. Synthetic sustained gene delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Ankit; Mallapragada, Surya K

    2008-01-01

    Gene therapy today is hampered by the need of a safe and efficient gene delivery system that can provide a sustained therapeutic effect without cytotoxicity or unwanted immune responses. Bolus gene delivery in solution results in the loss of delivered factors via lymphatic system and may cause undesired effects by the escape of bioactive molecules to distant sites. Controlled gene delivery systems, acting as localized depot of genes, provide an extended sustained release of genes, giving prolonged maintenance of the therapeutic level of encoded proteins. They also limit the DNA degradation in the nuclease rich extra-cellular environment. While attempts have been made to adapt existing controlled drug delivery technologies, more novel approaches are being investigated for controlled gene delivery. DNA encapsulated in nano/micro spheres of polymers have been administered systemically/orally to be taken up by the targeted tissues and provide sustained release once internalized. Alternatively, DNA entrapped in hydrogels or scaffolds have been injected/implanted in tissues/cavities as platforms for gene delivery. The present review examines these different modalities for sustained delivery of viral and non-viral gene-delivery vectors. Design parameters and release mechanisms of different systems made with synthetic or natural polymers are presented along with their prospective applications and opportunities for continuous development.

  19. Tree root systems and nutrient mobilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyle, Jim; Rob, Harrison; Raulund-Rasmussen, Karsten

    sometimes stored at depth. Other recent studies on potential release of nutrients due to chemical weathering indicate the importance of root access to deep soil layers. Release profi les clearly indicate depletion in the top layers and a much higher potential in B and C horizons. Review of evaluations......Roots mobilize nutrients via deep penetration and rhizosphere processes inducing weathering of primary minerals. These contribute to C transfer to soils and to tree nutrition. Assessments of these characteristics and processes of root systems are important for understanding long-term supplies...... of nutrient elements essential for forest growth and resilience. Research and techniques have signifi cantly advanced since Olof Tamm’s 1934 base mineral index for Swedish forest soils, and basic nutrient budget estimates for whole-tree harvesting systems of the 1970s. Recent research in areas that include...

  20. Self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery systems for oral insulin delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Ping; Tan, Angel; Prestidge, Clive A

    2014-01-01

    This study aims at evaluating the combination of self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery systems (SNEDDS) and enteric-coated capsules as a potential delivery strategy for oral delivery of insulin. The SNEDDS preconcentrates, loaded with insulin-phospholipid complex at different levels (0, 2.5 and 10% w...

  1. Nutrient Film Technique (NFT Hydroponic Monitoring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmy Helmy

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Plant cultivation using hydroponic is very popular today. Nutrient Film Technique (NFT hydroponic system is commonly used by people. It can be applied indoor or outdoor. Plants in this systemneed nutrient solution to grow well. pH, TDS and temperature of the nutrient solution must be check to ensure plant gets sufficient nutrients. This research aims todevelop monitoring system of NFT hydroponic. Farmer will be able to monitor pH, TDS and temperature online. It will ease farmer to decide which plant is suitable to be cultivated and time to boost growth.Delay of the system will be measured to know system performance. Result shows that pH is directly proportional with TDS. Temperature value has no correlation with pH and TDS. System has highest delay during daylight and afternoon but it will decline in the night and morning. Average of delay in the morning is 11 s, 28.5 s in daylight, 32 s in the afternoon and 17.5 s in the night.

  2. Peptide and protein delivery using new drug delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Ashish; Jain, Aviral; Gulbake, Arvind; Shilpi, Satish; Hurkat, Pooja; Jain, Sanjay K

    2013-01-01

    Pharmaceutical and biotechnological research sorts protein drug delivery systems by importance based on their various therapeutic applications. The effective and potent action of the proteins/peptides makes them the drugs of choice for the treatment of numerous diseases. Major research issues in protein delivery include the stabilization of proteins in delivery devices and the design of appropriate target-specific protein carriers. Many efforts have been made for effective delivery of proteins/peptidal drugs through various routes of administrations for successful therapeutic effects. Nanoparticles made of biodegradable polymers such as poly lactic acid, polycaprolactone, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid), the poly(fumaric-co-sebacic) anhydride chitosan, and modified chitosan, as well as solid lipids, have shown great potential in the delivery of proteins/peptidal drugs. Moreover, scientists also have used liposomes, PEGylated liposomes, niosomes, and aquasomes, among others, for peptidal drug delivery. They also have developed hydrogels and transdermal drug delivery systems for peptidal drug delivery. A receptor-mediated delivery system is another attractive strategy to overcome the limitation in drug absorption that enables the transcytosis of the protein across the epithelial barrier. Modification such as PEGnology is applied to various proteins and peptides of the desired protein and peptides also increases the circulating life, solubility and stability, pharmacokinetic properties, and antigenicity of protein. This review focuses on various approaches for effective protein/peptidal drug delivery, with special emphasis on insulin delivery.

  3. Software Build and Delivery Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robey, Robert W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-07-10

    This presentation deals with the hierarchy of software build and delivery systems. One of the goals is to maximize the success rate of new users and developers when first trying your software. First impressions are important. Early successes are important. This also reduces critical documentation costs. This is a presentation focused on computer science and goes into detail about code documentation.

  4. MINI-SLAR delivery system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alstein, D.

    1996-01-01

    In the Spring of 1993, a need to complete Spacer Location and Repositioning (SLAR) on the Bruce 'A', Unit 1 Reactor was identified. An alternate SLAR delivery system was required due to conversion constraints that prevented the existing Bruce SLAR System from being used in Unit 1. A Portable SLAR Delivery System called MINI-SLAR Delivery System was developed, designed and fabricated in a 14 month period, then used to successfully SLAR 109 channels. The system is a portable remotely operated Nuclear Class 1 registered fitting that is independent of the Fuelling Machine, allowing the station to continue normal Fuelling and Maintenance activities. It is designed to a Level 'D' faulted condition of HPECI Pressure thus minimizing PHT Heat Sink configuration requirements and minimizing outage set-up times. The system is based on a modular design allowing for easy fabrication, assembly and repair. It consists of a Snout Assembly, a Closure Plug Assembly, Shield Plug Assembly, SLAR Ram assembly, Work Table Assembly and Control Panel. Controls are through a Programmable Logic Controller with software tested and certified to a Software Quality Assurance of Level Ill. (author). 2 refs., 2 figs

  5. MINI-SLAR delivery system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alstein, D [Ontario Hydro, Tiverton, ON (Canada). Bruce Nuclear Generating Station-A; Dalton, K [Spectrum Engineering, Peterborough, ON (Canada)

    1997-12-31

    In the Spring of 1993, a need to complete Spacer Location and Repositioning (SLAR) on the Bruce `A`, Unit 1 Reactor was identified. An alternate SLAR delivery system was required due to conversion constraints that prevented the existing Bruce SLAR System from being used in Unit 1. A Portable SLAR Delivery System called MINI-SLAR Delivery System was developed, designed and fabricated in a 14 month period, then used to successfully SLAR 109 channels. The system is a portable remotely operated Nuclear Class 1 registered fitting that is independent of the Fuelling Machine, allowing the station to continue normal Fuelling and Maintenance activities. It is designed to a Level `D` faulted condition of HPECI Pressure thus minimizing PHT Heat Sink configuration requirements and minimizing outage set-up times. The system is based on a modular design allowing for easy fabrication, assembly and repair. It consists of a Snout Assembly, a Closure Plug Assembly, Shield Plug Assembly, SLAR Ram assembly, Work Table Assembly and Control Panel. Controls are through a Programmable Logic Controller with software tested and certified to a Software Quality Assurance of Level Ill. (author). 2 refs., 2 figs.

  6. Sterile Product Packaging and Delivery Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akers, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Both conventional and more advanced product container and delivery systems are the focus of this brief article. Six different product container systems will be discussed, plus advances in primary packaging for special delivery systems and needle technology.

  7. Delivery systems for antimicrobial peptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordström, Randi; Malmsten, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Due to rapidly increasing resistance development against conventional antibiotics, finding novel approaches for the treatment of infections has emerged as a key health issue. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have attracted interest in this context, and there is by now a considerable literature...... on the identification such peptides, as well as on their optimization to reach potent antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory effects at simultaneously low toxicity against human cells. In comparison, delivery systems for antimicrobial peptides have attracted considerably less interest. However, such delivery systems...... are likely to play a key role in the development of potent and safe AMP-based therapeutics, e.g., through reducing chemical or biological degradation of AMPs either in the formulation or after administration, by reducing adverse side-effects, by controlling AMP release rate, by promoting biofilm penetration...

  8. Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems Key Facts Infographic

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Explore the Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems Key Facts Infographic which outlines key facts related to electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), including...

  9. Preparing and evaluating delivery systems for proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorgensen, L; Moeller, E H; van de Weert, M

    2006-01-01

    From a formulation perspective proteins are complex and therefore challenging molecules to develop drug delivery systems for. The success of a formulation depends on the ability of the protein to maintain the native structure and activity during preparation and delivery as well as during shipping...... and long-term storage of the formulation. Therefore, the development and evaluation of successful and promising drug delivery systems is essential. In the present review, some of the particulate drug delivery systems for parenteral delivery of protein are presented and discussed. The challenge...... for incorporation of protein in particulate delivery systems is exemplified by water-in-oil emulsions....

  10. Colloidal drug delivery system: amplify the ocular delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Javed; Fazil, Mohd; Qumbar, Mohd; Khan, Nazia; Ali, Asgar

    2016-01-01

    The ocular perceivers are the most voluntarily accessible organs in terms of location in the body, yet drug distribution to these tissues is one of the most intriguing and challenging endeavors and problematic to the pharmaceutical scientist. The most of ocular diseases are treated with topical application of conventional formulation, i.e. solutions, suspensions and ointment. Typically on installation of these conventional formulations, only <5% of the applied dose penetrates the cornea and reaches intraocular tissues, while a major fraction of the instilled dose is wastage due to the presence of many ocular barriers like external barriers, rapid loss of the instilled solution from the precorneal area and nasolacrimal drainage system. Systemic absorption caused systemic side effects varying from mild to life-threatening events. The main objective of this review is to explore the role of colloidal delivery of drug to minimize the drawbacks associated with them. This review provides an insight into the various constraints associated with ocular drug delivery, summarizes recent findings and applications of colloidal delivery systems, i.e. nanoparticles, nanosuspensions, liposomes, niosomes, dendrimers and contact lenses containing nanoparticles have the capacity to distribute ocular drugs to categorical target sites and hold promise to revolutionize the therapy of many ocular perceiver diseases and minimized the circumscription of conventional delivery. Form the basis of literature review, it has been found that the novel delivery system have greater impact to maximize ocular drug absorption, and minimize systemic absorption and side effects.

  11. Optimizing nutrient management for farm systems

    OpenAIRE

    Goulding, Keith; Jarvis, Steve; Whitmore, Andy

    2007-01-01

    Increasing the inputs of nutrients has played a major role in increasing the supply of food to a continually growing world population. However, focusing attention on the most important nutrients, such as nitrogen (N), has in some cases led to nutrient imbalances, some excess applications especially of N, inefficient use and large losses to the environment with impacts on air and water quality, biodiversity and human health. In contrast, food exports from the developing to the developed world ...

  12. Integrated delivery systems. Evolving oligopolies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, T A

    1998-01-01

    The proliferation of Integrated Delivery Systems (IDSs) in regional health care markets has resulted in the movement of these markets from a monopolistic competitive model of behavior to an oligopoly. An oligopoly is synonymous with competition among the few, as a small number of firms supply a dominant share of an industry's total output. The basic characteristics of a market with competition among the few are: (1) A mutual interdependence among the actions and behaviors of competing firms; (2) competition tends to rely on the differentiation of products; (3) significant barriers to entering the market exist; (4) the demand curve for services may be kinked; and (5) firms can benefit from economies of scale. An understanding of these characteristics is essential to the survival of IDSs as regional managed care markets mature.

  13. Collagen macromolecular drug delivery systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, D.L.

    1988-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine collagen for use as a macromolecular drug delivery system by determining the mechanism of release through a matrix. Collagen membranes varying in porosity, crosslinking density, structure and crosslinker were fabricated. Collagen characterized by infrared spectroscopy and solution viscosity was determined to be pure and native. The collagen membranes were determined to possess native vs. non-native quaternary structure and porous vs. dense aggregate membranes by electron microscopy. Collagen monolithic devices containing a model macromolecule (inulin) were fabricated. In vitro release rates were found to be linear with respect to t 1/2 and were affected by crosslinking density, crosslinker and structure. The biodegradation of the collagen matrix was also examined. In vivo biocompatibility, degradation and 14 C-inulin release rates were evaluated subcutaneously in rats

  14. Levodopa delivery systems: advancements in delivery of the gold standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngwuluka, Ndidi; Pillay, Viness; Du Toit, Lisa C; Ndesendo, Valence; Choonara, Yahya; Modi, Girish; Naidoo, Dinesh

    2010-02-01

    Despite the fact that Parkinson's disease (PD) was discovered almost 200 years ago, its treatment and management remain immense challenges because progressive loss of dopaminergic nigral neurons, motor complications experienced by the patients as the disease progresses and drawbacks of pharmacotherapeutic management still persist. Various therapeutic agents have been used in the management of PD, including levodopa (l-DOPA), selegiline, amantadine, bromocriptine, entacapone, pramipexole dihydrochloride and more recently istradefylline and rasagiline. Of all agents, l-DOPA although the oldest, remains the most effective. l-DOPA is easier to administer, better tolerated, less expensive and is required by almost all PD patients. However, l-DOPA's efficacy in advanced PD is significantly reduced due to metabolism, subsequent low bioavailability and irregular fluctuations in its plasma levels. Significant strides have been made to improve the delivery of l-DOPA in order to enhance its bioavailability and reduce plasma fluctuations as well as motor complications experienced by patients purportedly resulting from pulsatile stimulation of the striatal dopamine receptors. Drug delivery systems that have been instituted for the delivery of l-DOPA include immediate release formulations, liquid formulations, dispersible tablets, controlled release formulations, dual-release formulations, microspheres, infusion and transdermal delivery, among others. In this review, the l-DOPA-loaded drug delivery systems developed over the past three decades are elaborated. The ultimate aim was to assess critically the attempts made thus far directed at improving l-DOPA absorption, bioavailability and maintenance of constant plasma concentrations, including the drug delivery technologies implicated. This review highlights the fact that neuropharmaceutics is at a precipice, which is expected to spur investigators to take that leap to enable the generation of innovative delivery systems for the

  15. Nutrient cycle benchmarks for earth system land model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Q.; Riley, W. J.; Tang, J.; Zhao, L.

    2017-12-01

    Projecting future biosphere-climate feedbacks using Earth system models (ESMs) relies heavily on robust modeling of land surface carbon dynamics. More importantly, soil nutrient (particularly, nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P)) dynamics strongly modulate carbon dynamics, such as plant sequestration of atmospheric CO2. Prevailing ESM land models all consider nitrogen as a potentially limiting nutrient, and several consider phosphorus. However, including nutrient cycle processes in ESM land models potentially introduces large uncertainties that could be identified and addressed by improved observational constraints. We describe the development of two nutrient cycle benchmarks for ESM land models: (1) nutrient partitioning between plants and soil microbes inferred from 15N and 33P tracers studies and (2) nutrient limitation effects on carbon cycle informed by long-term fertilization experiments. We used these benchmarks to evaluate critical hypotheses regarding nutrient cycling and their representation in ESMs. We found that a mechanistic representation of plant-microbe nutrient competition based on relevant functional traits best reproduced observed plant-microbe nutrient partitioning. We also found that for multiple-nutrient models (i.e., N and P), application of Liebig's law of the minimum is often inaccurate. Rather, the Multiple Nutrient Limitation (MNL) concept better reproduces observed carbon-nutrient interactions.

  16. A Systems Approach to Nitrogen Delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goins, Bobby [Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-10-23

    A systems based approach will be used to evaluate the nitrogen delivery process. This approach involves principles found in Lean, Reliability, Systems Thinking, and Requirements. This unique combination of principles and thought process yields a very in depth look into the system to which it is applied. By applying a systems based approach to the nitrogen delivery process there should be improvements in cycle time, efficiency, and a reduction in the required number of personnel needed to sustain the delivery process. This will in turn reduce the amount of demurrage charges that the site incurs. In addition there should be less frustration associated with the delivery process.

  17. A Systems Approach to Nitrogen Delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goins, Bobby [Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2017-10-17

    A systems based approach will be used to evaluate the nitrogen delivery process. This approach involves principles found in Lean, Reliability, Systems Thinking, and Requirements. This unique combination of principles and thought process yields a very in depth look into the system to which it is applied. By applying a systems based approach to the nitrogen delivery process there should be improvements in cycle time, efficiency, and a reduction in the required number of personnel needed to sustain the delivery process. This will in turn reduce the amount of demurrage charges that the site incurs. In addition there should be less frustration associated with the delivery process.

  18. Fiber coupled optical spark delivery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalin, Azer; Willson, Bryan; Defoort, Morgan

    2008-08-12

    A spark delivery system for generating a spark using a laser beam is provided, the spark delivery system including a laser light source and a laser delivery assembly. The laser delivery assembly includes a hollow fiber and a launch assembly comprising launch focusing optics to input the laser beam in the hollow fiber. In addition, the laser delivery assembly includes exit focusing optics that demagnify an exit beam of laser light from the hollow fiber, thereby increasing the intensity of the laser beam and creating a spark. In accordance with embodiments of the present invention, the assembly may be used to create a spark in a combustion engine. In accordance with other embodiments of the present invention, a method of using the spark delivery system is provided. In addition, a method of choosing an appropriate fiber for creating a spark using a laser beam is also presented.

  19. CLOSYS: Closed System for Water and Nutrient Management in Horticulture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marcelis, L.F.M.; Dieleman, J.A.; Boulard, T.; Garate, A.; Kittas, C.; Buschmann, C.; Brajeul, E.; Wieringa, G.; Groot, de F.; Loon, van A.; Kocsanyi, L.

    2006-01-01

    The EU project CLOSYS aimed at developing a CLOsed SYStem for water and nutrients in horticulture. The main objective was to control water and nutrients accurately such that pollution is minimized and crop quality enhanced. The closed system as developed in this project consists of crop growth

  20. Analysis of nutrient flows in integrated intensive aquaculture systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schneider, O.; Sereti, V.; Eding, E.H.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2005-01-01

    This paper analyses nutrient conversions, which are taking place in integrated intensive aquaculture systems. In these systems fish is cultured next to other organisms, which are converting otherwise discharged nutrients into valuable products. These conversions are analyzed based on nitrogen and

  1. Functional nutrients in infants born by vaginal delivery or Cesarean section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Lista

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of a proper neonatal microbiota is of great importance, especially for the effects that dysbiosis has in acute and chronic diseases’ onset. The microbiota, particularly the intestinal one, plays a crucial role in maintaining the health of the host, preventing colonization by pathogenic bacteria and significantly influencing the development and maturation of a normal gastrointestinal mucosal immunity. Several factors may interfere with the physiological development of microbiota, such as diseases during pregnancy, type of delivery, maternal nutrition, type of neonatal feeding, use of antibiotics, exposition to hospital environment (e.g., neonatal intensive care unit and genetic factors. Thanks to a proper maternal and neonatal supplementation with specific functional nutrients, it is now possible to correct dysbiosis, thus reducing the risks for the newborn’s health. In this review of the literature, we give an overview of the studies highlighting the composition of the maternal, fetal and neonatal microbiota, the factors potentially responsible for dysbiosis and the use of functional nutrients to prevent diseases’ onset.

  2. Organoclays for drug delivery Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Canovas Creus, Alba

    2008-01-01

    Modified clays can be used as carriers of drugs due to their suitable properties and structure in order to achieve improvements in drug delivery. The study of this thesis starts with an introduction to mineral clays and its classification, properties and characterization, then deepens into modified clays (properties, comparison with mineral clays, applications and procedure of modification). Another chapter is focused in drug delivery: definition, its difficulties nowadays and the different w...

  3. Colonic delivery of nutrients for management of blood glucose in type 2 diabetes patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Szewczyk

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background:It is now widely accepted that bariatric surgeries such as Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB and sleeve gastrectomy (SG can resolve orimprove type 2 diabetes mellitus. Post-prandial glucagon-like peptide-1(GLP-1 increases after both RYGB and SG and blockade of the GLP-1 receptor suppresses the hypoglycemic effect post-operatively. The expedited delivery of nutrients, including L-glutamine and butyrate, to the distal small intestine and colon, where most GLP-1–secreting enteroendocrine L-cells are expressed, could explain this increase post-surgery. Pharmacological treatments that target nutrient-sensing receptors on L-cells may mimic the effects of bariatric surgeries and may ameliorate deficiencies in gut hormone responses involved in the regulation of glucose and satiety. In this study, we investigated the effects of the colonic delivery of L-glutamine and butyrate on GLP-1 secretion and glucose homeostasis in both a pre-clinical rodent model and clinical type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Results: Infusion of 4.4mg of sodium butyrate, compared to saline, into the colon of Zuckerdiabetic fatty (ZDF rats increased GLP-1secretion in response to an intra-duodenal glucose challenge. In a chronic study, oral dosing of 40mg of sodium butyrate twice a day, formulated as colon-targeted sustained-release tablets, preserved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in ZDF rats. In ten T2DM patients requiring oral anti-hyperglycemic agents, infusion of 1g of L-glutamine into the colon, compared to saline, increased plasma GLP-1 (p=0.017 at 30min and insulin (p<0.01 at 90min; p=0.001 at 120min; AUC p<0.005 after an oral glucose challenge. infusion with butyrate significantly increased only insulin secretion at 120min, compared to saline (p<0.05. Neither agent had an effect on glucose disposal.Conclusion: Targeted colonic delivery of L-glutamine and butyrate augments secretion of meal-stimulated GLP-1 and insulin; L-glutamine was more efficacious in

  4. Engineering the system of healthcare delivery

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rouse, William B; Cortese, Denis A

    2010-01-01

    "As the United States continues to debate reform of its healthcare system, this book argues that providing health insurance for all without improving the delivery system will not improve the current...

  5. New Delivery Systems and Propellants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myrna Dolovich

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The removal of chlorofluorocarbon (CFC propellants from industrial and household products has been agreed to by over 165 countires of which more than 135 are developing countries. The timetable for this process is outlined in the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer document and in several subsequent amendments. Pressured metered dose inhalers (pMDIs for medical use have been granted temporary exemptions until replacement formulations, providing the same medication via the same route, and with the same efficacy and safety profiles, are approved for human use. Hydrofluoroalkanes (HFAs are the alternative propellants for CFCs-12 and -114. Their potential for damage to the ozone layer is nonexistent, and while they are greenhouse gases, their global warming potential is a fraction (one-tenth of that of CFCs. Replacement formulations for almost all inhalant respiratory medications have been or are being produced and tested; in Canada, it is anticipated that the transition to these HFA or CFC-free pMDIs will be complete by the year 2005. Initially, an HFA pMDI was to be equivalent to the CFC pMDI being replaced, in terms of aerosol properties and effective clinical dose. However, this will not necessarily be the situation, particularly for some corticosteroid products. Currently, only one CFC-free formulation is available in Canada – Airomir, a HFA salbutamol pMDI. This paper discusses the in vitro aerosol characteristics, in vivo deposition and clinical data for several HFA pMDIs for which there are data available in the literature. Alternative delivery systems to the pMDI, namely, dry powder inhalers and nebulizers, are briefly reviewed.

  6. A Geographic Information System approach to modeling nutrient and sediment transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, D.A. [Automated Sciences Group, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hunsaker, C.T.; Beauchamp, J.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Timmins, S.P. [Analysas Corp., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1993-02-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a water quality model to quantify nonpoint-source (NPS) pollution that uses a geographic information system (GIS) to link statistical modeling of nutrient and sediment delivery with the spatial arrangement of the parameters that drive the model. The model predicts annual nutrient and sediment loading and was developed, calibrated, and tested on 12 watersheds within the Lake Ray Roberts drainage basin in north Texas. Three physiographic regions are represented by these watersheds, and model success, as measured by the accuracy of load estimates, was compared within and across these regions.

  7. Distance Synchronous Information Systems Course Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peslak, Alan R.; Lewis, Griffith R.; Aebli, Fred

    2014-01-01

    Teaching computer information systems via distance education is a challenge for both student and faculty. Much research work has been performed on methods of teaching via distance education. Today we are faced with a variety of options for course delivery. Asynchronous delivery via online or lesson instruction still remains most common. But…

  8. Biological Nutrient Removal in Compact Biofilm Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bassin, J.P.

    2012-01-01

    The removal of nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus from both domestic and industrial wastewaters is imperative since they potentially harm the environment. One of the main consequences of excessive availability of nitrogen and phosphorus in aquatic ecosystems (freshwater, marine and estuarine)

  9. Future of Automated Insulin Delivery Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castle, Jessica R; DeVries, J Hans; Kovatchev, Boris

    2017-06-01

    Advances in continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) have brought on a paradigm shift in the management of type 1 diabetes. These advances have enabled the automation of insulin delivery, where an algorithm determines the insulin delivery rate in response to the CGM values. There are multiple automated insulin delivery (AID) systems in development. A system that automates basal insulin delivery has already received Food and Drug Administration approval, and more systems are likely to follow. As the field of AID matures, future systems may incorporate additional hormones and/or multiple inputs, such as activity level. All AID systems are impacted by CGM accuracy and future CGM devices must be shown to be sufficiently accurate to be safely incorporated into AID. In this article, we summarize recent achievements in AID development, with a special emphasis on CGM sensor performance, and discuss the future of AID systems from the point of view of their input-output characteristics, form factor, and adaptability.

  10. Dynamics of Nutrients Transport in Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toor, G.; De, M.

    2013-05-01

    Domestic wastewater is abundant in nutrients¬ that originate from various activities in the households. In developed countries, wastewater is largely managed by (1) centralized treatment where wastewater from large population is collected, treated, and discharged and (2) onsite treatment where wastewater is collected from an individual house, treated, and dispersed onsite; this system is commonly known as septic system or onsite wastewater treatment system (OWTS) and consist of a septic tank (collects wastewater) and drain-field (disperses wastewater in soil). In areas with porous sandy soils, the transport of nutrients from drain-field to shallow groundwater is accelerated. To overcome this limitation, elevated disposal fields (commonly called mounds) on top of the natural soil are constructed to provide unsaturated conditions for wastewater treatment. Our objective was to study the dynamics of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) transport in the vadose zone and groundwater in traditional and advanced OWTS. Soil water samples were collected from the vadose zone by using suction cup lysimeters and groundwater samples were collected by using piezometers. Collected samples (wastewater, soil-water, groundwater) were analyzed for various water quality parameters. The pH (4.39-4.78) and EC (0.28-0.34 dS/m) of groundwater was much lower than both wastewater and soil-water. In contrast to >50 mg/L of ammonium-N in wastewater, concentrations in all lysimeters (0.02-0.81 mg/L) and piezometers (0.01-0.82 mg/L) were 99% disappeared (primarily nitrified) in the vadose zone (20 mg/L in the vadose zones of traditional systems (drip dispersal and gravel trench). Concentrations of chloride showed a distinct pattern of nitrate-N breakthrough in vadose zone and groundwater; the groundwater nitrate-N was elevated upto 19.2 mg/L after wastewater delivery in tradional systems. Total P in the wastewater was ~10 mg/L, but low in all lysimeters (0.046-1.72 mg/L) and piezometers (0.01-0.78 mg

  11. Macromolecular systems for vaccine delivery

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mužíková, Gabriela; Laga, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 65, Suppl. 2 (2016), S203-S216 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LQ1604 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : vaccine delivery * cellular and humoral immunity * polymer immunostimulants Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.461, year: 2016 http://www.biomed.cas.cz/physiolres/pdf/65%20Suppl%202/65_S203.pdf

  12. Cyclodextrins in delivery systems: Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Tiwari

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyclodextrins (CDs are a family of cyclic oligosaccharides with a hydrophilic outer surface and a lipophilic central cavity. CD molecules are relatively large with a number of hydrogen donors and acceptors and, thus in general, they do not permeate lipophilic membranes. In the pharmaceutical industry, CDs have mainly been used as complexing agents to increase aqueous solubility of poorly soluble drugs and to increase their bioavailability and stability. CDs are used in pharmaceutical applications for numerous purposes, including improving the bioavailability of drugs. Current CD-based therapeutics is described and possible future applications are discussed. CD-containing polymers are reviewed and their use in drug delivery is presented. Of specific interest is the use of CD-containing polymers to provide unique capabilities for the delivery of nucleic acids. Studies in both humans and animals have shown that CDs can be used to improve drug delivery from almost any type of drug formulation. Currently, there are approximately 30 different pharmaceutical products worldwide containing drug/CD complexes in the market.

  13. Biological Nutrient Removal in Compact Biofilm Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Bassin, J.P.

    2012-01-01

    The removal of nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus from both domestic and industrial wastewaters is imperative since they potentially harm the environment. One of the main consequences of excessive availability of nitrogen and phosphorus in aquatic ecosystems (freshwater, marine and estuarine) is the overgrowth of algae and other aquatic plants, a phenomenon designated as eutrophication. Algae and aquatic plants induce depletion of oxygen in water basins, resulting in massive death of e...

  14. Nanoparticulate systems for nucleic acid delivery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Varkouhi, A.K.

    2011-01-01

    Development of carrier systems with controllable physicochemical and delivery properties has opened up the possibility of nanomedicines containing nucleic acids. In the last decades, much effort has been dedicated to two exciting approaches in biomedicine, namely gene and RNA interference

  15. A Sample Delivery System for Planetary Missions

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The project will develop, test and characterize the performance of a prototype /sample delivery system (SDS) implemented as an end effector on a robotic arm capable...

  16. Microemulsion Drug Delivery Systems for Radiopharmacy Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre Ozgenc

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Microemulsions have been used increasingly for last year’s because of ideal properties like favorable drug delivery, ease of preparation and physical stability. They have been improved the solubility and efficacy of the drug and reduce the side effects. Use of radiolabeled microemulsions plays an alternative role in drug delivery systems by investigating the formation, stability and application of microemulsions in radiopharmacy. Gama scintigraphic method is well recognized for developing and detecting the biodistribution of newly developed drugs or formulation. This review will focus on how radionuclides are able to play role with characterization studies of microemulsion drug delivery systems.

  17. A REVIEW ON OSMOTIC DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Harnish Patel; Upendra Patel; Hiren Kadikar; Bhavin Bhimani; Dhiren Daslaniya; Ghanshyam Patel

    2012-01-01

    Conventional oral drug delivery systems supply an instantaneous release of drug, which cannot control the release of the drug and effective concentration at the target site. This kind of dosing pattern may result in constantly changing, unpredictable plasma concentrations. Drugs can be delivered in a controlled pattern over a long period of time by the process of osmosis. Osmotic devices are the most promising strategy based systems for controlled drug delivery. They are the most reliable con...

  18. Ferritin cage for encapsulation and delivery of bioactive nutrients: From structure, property to applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Jiachen; Chen, Hai; Zhao, Guanghua; Wang, Fudi; Ren, Fazheng

    2017-11-22

    Ferritin is a class of naturally occurring iron storage proteins, which is distributed widely in animal, plant, and bacteria. It usually consists of 24 subunits that form a hollow protein shell with high symmetry. One holoferritin molecule can store up to 4500 iron atom within its inner cavity, and it becomes apoferritin upon removal of iron from the cavity. Recently, scientists have subverted these nature functions and used reversibly self-assembled property of apoferritin cage controlled by pH for the encapsulation and delivery of bioactive nutrients or anticancer drug. In all these cases, the ferritin cages shield their cargo from the influence of external conditions and provide a controlled microenvironment. More importantly, upon encapsulation, ferritin shell greatly improved the water solubility, thermal stability, photostability, and cellular uptake activity of these small bioactive compounds. This review aims to highlight recent advances in applications of ferritin cage as a novel vehicle in the field of food science and nutrition. Future outlooks are highlighted with the aim to suggest a research line to follow for further studies.

  19. Nutrient Release from Disturbance of Infiltration System Soils during Construction

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel P. Treese; Shirley E. Clark; Katherine H. Baker

    2012-01-01

    Subsurface infiltration and surface bioretention systems composed of engineered and/or native soils are preferred tools for stormwater management. However, the disturbance of native soils, especially during the process of adding amendments to improve infiltration rates and pollutant removal, may result in releases of nutrients in the early life of these systems. This project investigated the nutrient release from two soils, one disturbed and one undisturbed. The disturbed soil was collected i...

  20. Diagnosis of nutrient imbalances with vector analysis in agroforestry systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac, Marney E; Kimaro, Anthony A

    2011-01-01

    Agricultural intensification has had unintended environmental consequences, including increased nutrient leaching and surface runoff and other agrarian-derived pollutants. Improved diagnosis of on-farm nutrient dynamics will have the advantage of increasing yields and will diminish financial and environmental costs. To achieve this, a management support system that allows for site-specific rapid evaluation of nutrient production imbalances and subsequent management prescriptions is needed for agroecological design. Vector diagnosis, a bivariate model to depict changes in yield and nutritional response simultaneously in a single graph, facilitates identification of nutritional status such as growth dilution, deficiency, sufficiency, luxury uptake, and toxicity. Quantitative data from cocoa agroforestry systems and pigeonpea intercropping trials in Ghana and Tanzania, respectively, were re-evaluated with vector analysis. Relative to monoculture, biomass increase in cocoa ( L.) under shade (35-80%) was accompanied by a 17 to 25% decline in P concentration, the most limiting nutrient on this site. Similarly, increasing biomass with declining P concentrations was noted for pigeonpea [ (L). Millsp.] in response to soil moisture availability under intercropping. Although vector analysis depicted nutrient responses, the current vector model does not consider non-nutrient resource effects on growth, such as ameliorated light and soil moisture, which were particularly active in these systems. We revisit and develop vector analysis into a framework for diagnosing nutrient and non-nutrient interactions in agroforestry systems. Such a diagnostic technique advances management decision-making by increasing nutrient precision and reducing environmental issues associated with agrarian-derived soil contamination. American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America.

  1. Hydromorphological control of nutrient cycling in complex river floodplain systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, T.; Bondar-Kunze, E.; Felkl, M.; Habersack, H.; Mair, M.; Pinay, G.; Tritthart, M.; Welti, N.

    2009-04-01

    Riparian zones and floodplains are key components within river ecosystems controlling nutrient cycling by promoting transformation processes and thus, act as biogeochemical hot spots. The intensity of these processes depends on the exchange conditions (the connectivity) with the main channel and the morphological setting of the water bodies. At the landscape scale, three interrelated principles of hydromorphological dynamics can be formulated regarding the cycling and transfer of carbon and nutrients in large rivers ecosystems: a) The mode of carbon and nutrient delivery affects ecosystem functioning; b) Increasing residence time and contact area impact nutrient transformation; c) Floods and droughts are natural events that strongly influence pathways of carbon and nutrient cycling. These three principles of hydromorphological dynamics control the nutrient uptake and retention and are linked over different temporal and spatial scales. All three factors can be strongly affected by natural disturbances or anthropogenic impacts, through a change in either the water regime or the geomorphologic setting of the river valley. Any change in natural water regimes will affect the biogeochemistry of riparian zones and floodplains as well as their ability to cycle and mitigate nutrient fluxes originating from upstream and/or upslope. Especially these areas have been altered by river regulation and land use changes over the last 200 years leading to the deterioration of the functioning of these compartments within the riverine landscape. The resulting deficits have prompted rehabilitation and restoration measures aiming to increase the spatial heterogeneity, the complexity, of these ecosystems. Yet, a more integrated approach is needed considering the present status of nutrient dynamics and the effects of restoration measures at different scales. The present paper analyses the effects of river side-arm restoration on ecosystem functions within the side-arm and highlights

  2. Sustained subconjunctival protein delivery using a thermosetting gel delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieke, Erin R; Amaral, Juan; Becerra, S Patricia; Lutz, Robert J

    2010-02-01

    An effective treatment modality for posterior eye diseases would provide prolonged delivery of therapeutic agents, including macromolecules, to eye tissues using a safe and minimally invasive method. The goal of this study was to assess the ability of a thermosetting gel to deliver a fluorescently labeled protein, Alexa 647 ovalbumin, to the choroid and retina of rats following a single subconjunctival injection of the gel. Additional experiments were performed to compare in vitro to in vivo ovalbumin release rates from the gel. The ovalbumin content of the eye tissues was monitored by spectrophotometric assays of tissue extracts of Alexa 647 ovalbumin from dissected sclera, choroid, and retina at time points ranging from 2 h to 14 days. At the same time points, fluorescence microscopy images of tissue samples were also obtained. Measurement of intact ovalbumin was verified by LDS-PAGE analysis of the tissue extract solutions. In vitro release of Alexa 488 ovalbumin into 37 degrees C PBS solutions from ovalbumin-loaded gel pellets was also monitored over time by spectrophotometric assay. In vivo ovalbumin release rates were determined by measurement of residual ovalbumin extracted from gel pellets removed from rat eyes at various time intervals. Our results indicate that ovalbumin concentrations can be maintained at measurable levels in the sclera, choroid, and retina of rats for up to 14 days using the thermosetting gel delivery system. The concentration of ovalbumin exhibited a gradient that decreased from sclera to choroid and to retina. The in vitro release rate profiles were similar to the in vivo release profiles. Our findings suggest that the thermosetting gel system may be a feasible method for safe and convenient sustained delivery of proteins to choroidal and retinal tissue in the posterior segments of the eye.

  3. Automated pH Control of Nutrient Solution in a Hydroponic Plant Growth System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, B.; Dogan, N.; Aglan, H.; Mortley, D.; Loretan, P.

    1998-01-01

    Over, the years, NASA has played an important role in providing to and the development of automated nutrient delivery and monitoring, systems for growing crops hydroponically for long term space missions. One example are the systems used in the Biomass Production Chamber (BPC) at Kennedy Space Center (KSC). The current KSC monitoring system is based on an engineering workstation using standard analog/digital input/output hardware and custom written software. The monitoring system uses completely separate sensors to provide a check of control sensor accuracy and has the ability to graphically display and store data form past experiment so that they are available for data analysis [Fortson, 1992]. In many cases, growing systems have not been fitted with the kind of automated control systems as used at KSC. The Center for Food and Environmental Systems for Human Exploration of Space (CFESH) located on the campus of Tuskegee University, has effectively grown sweetpotatoes and peanuts hydroponically for the past five years. However they have adjusted the pH electrical conductivity and volume of the hydroponic nutrient solution only manually at times when the solution was to be replenished or changed out according to its protocol (e.g. one-week, two-week, or two-day cycle). But the pH of the nutrient solution flowing through the channel is neither known nor controlled between the update, change out, or replenishment period. Thus, the pH of the nutrient solution is not held at an optimum level over the span of the plant's growth cycle. To solve this dilemma, an automated system for the control and data logging of pH data relative to sweetpotato production using the nutrient film technique (NFT) has been developed, This paper discusses a microprocessor-based system, which was designed to monitor, control, and record the pH of a nutrient solution used for growing sweetpotatoes using NFT.

  4. Food for thought: how nutrients regulate root system architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahzad, Zaigham; Amtmann, Anna

    2017-10-01

    The spatial arrangement of the plant root system (root system architecture, RSA) is very sensitive to edaphic and endogenous signals that report on the nutrient status of soil and plant. Signalling pathways underpinning RSA responses to individual nutrients, particularly nitrate and phosphate, have been unravelled. Researchers have now started to investigate interactive effects between two or more nutrients on RSA. Several proteins enabling crosstalk between signalling pathways have recently been identified. RSA is potentially an important trait for sustainable and/or marginal agriculture. It is generally assumed that RSA responses are adaptive and optimise nutrient uptake in a given environment, but hard evidence for this paradigm is still sparse. Here we summarize recent advances made in these areas of research. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. STRATEGIES AND PROSPECTS OF NASAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Gannu Praveen Kumar

    2012-01-01

    The recent advancement of nasal drug delivery systems has increased enormously and is gaining significant importance. Intranasal therapy has been an accepted form of treatment in the Ayurvedic system of Indian Medicine. The non-invasive delivery of nasal drug delivery systems made to exploit for the development of successful treatment. The advantages, disadvantages, mechanism of action and application of nasal drug delivery system in local delivery, systematic delivery, nasal vaccines and CNS...

  6. Enabling nutrient security and sustainability through systems research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaput, Jim; Kussmann, Martin; Mendoza, Yery; Le Coutre, Ronit; Cooper, Karen; Roulin, Anne

    2015-05-01

    Human and companion animal health depends upon nutritional quality of foods. Seed varieties, seasonal and local growing conditions, transportation, food processing, and storage, and local food customs can influence the nutrient content of food. A new and intensive area of investigation is emerging that recognizes many factors in these agri-food systems that influence the maintenance of nutrient quality which is fundamental to ensure nutrient security for world populations. Modeling how these systems function requires data from different sectors including agricultural, environmental, social, and economic, but also must incorporate basic nutrition and other biomedical sciences. Improving the agri-food system through advances in pre- and post-harvest processing methods, biofortification, or fortifying processed foods will aid in targeting nutrition for populations and individuals. The challenge to maintain and improve nutrient quality is magnified by the need to produce food locally and globally in a sustainable and consumer-acceptable manner for current and future populations. An unmet requirement for assessing how to improve nutrient quality, however, is the basic knowledge of how to define health. That is, health cannot be maintained or improved by altering nutrient quality without an adequate definition of what health means for individuals and populations. Defining and measuring health therefore becomes a critical objective for basic nutritional and other biomedical sciences.

  7. Smart Drug Delivery Systems in Cancer Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unsoy, Gozde; Gunduz, Ufuk

    2018-02-08

    Smart nanocarriers have been designed for tissue-specific targeted drug delivery, sustained or triggered drug release and co-delivery of synergistic drug combinations to develop safer and more efficient therapeutics. Advances in drug delivery systems provide reduced side effects, longer circulation half-life and improved pharmacokinetics. Smart drug delivery systems have been achieved successfully in the case of cancer. These nanocarriers can serve as an intelligent system by considering the differences of tumor microenvironment from healthy tissue, such as low pH, low oxygen level, or high enzymatic activity of matrix metalloproteinases. The performance of anti-cancer agents used in cancer diagnosis and therapy is improved by enhanced cellular internalization of smart nanocarriers and controlled drug release. Here, we review targeting, cellular internalization; controlled drug release and toxicity of smart drug delivery systems. We are also emphasizing the stimulus responsive controlled drug release from smart nanocarriers. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  8. Servir: an automated document delivery system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, E.C.; Azevedo Coutinho, O.C. de

    1986-01-01

    SERVIR, an automated document delivery system developed by CIN/CNEN, is described. Parametric procedures for reading bibliographic data bases and requesting documents from libraries through computer are specified. Statistical procedures, accounting system and the on-line fulfillment of requests are presented. (Author) [pt

  9. Nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Baljit

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Nanoparticles hold tremendous potential as an effective drug delivery system. In this review we discussed recent developments in nanotechnology for drug delivery. To overcome the problems of gene and drug delivery, nanotechnology has gained interest in recent years. Nanosystems with different compositions and biological properties have been extensively investigated for drug and gene delivery applications. To achieve efficient drug delivery it is important to understand the interactions of nanomaterials with the biological environment, targeting cell-surface receptors, drug release, multiple drug administration, stability of therapeutic agents and molecular mechanisms of cell signalling involved in pathobiology of the disease under consideration. Several anti-cancer drugs including paclitaxel, doxorubicin, 5-fluorouracil and dexamethasone have been successfully formulated using nanomaterials. Quantom dots, chitosan, Polylactic/glycolic acid (PLGA and PLGA-based nanoparticles have also been used for in vitro RNAi delivery. Brain cancer is one of the most difficult malignancies to detect and treat mainly because of the difficulty in getting imaging and therapeutic agents past the blood-brain barrier and into the brain. Anti-cancer drugs such as loperamide and doxorubicin bound to nanomaterials have been shown to cross the intact blood-brain barrier and released at therapeutic concentrations in the brain. The use of nanomaterials including peptide-based nanotubes to target the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF receptor and cell adhesion molecules like integrins, cadherins and selectins, is a new approach to control disease progression.

  10. Renewable energy delivery systems and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Howard Andrew

    2013-12-10

    A system, method and/or apparatus for the delivery of energy at a site, at least a portion of the energy being delivered by at least one or more of a plurality of renewable energy technologies, the system and method including calculating the load required by the site for the period; calculating the amount of renewable energy for the period, including obtaining a capacity and a percentage of the period for the renewable energy to be delivered; comparing the total load to the renewable energy available; and, implementing one or both of additional and alternative renewable energy sources for delivery of energy to the site.

  11. Closing the water and nutrient cycles in soilless cultivation systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beerling, E.A.M.; Blok, C.; Maas, van der A.A.; Os, van E.A.

    2014-01-01

    Soilless cultivation systems are common in Dutch greenhouse horticulture, i.e., less than 20% of the greenhouse area is still soil grown. For long, it was assumed that in these so-called closed systems the emission of nutrients and plant protection products (PPPs) was close to zero. However, Water

  12. Ion-Responsive Drug Delivery Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Takayuki; Shakushiro, Kohsuke; Sako, Kazuhiro

    2018-02-08

    Some kinds of cations and anions are contained in body fluids such as blood, interstitial fluid, gastrointestinal juice, and tears at relatively high concentration. Ionresponsive drug delivery is available to design the unique dosage formulations which provide optimized drug therapy with effective, safe and convenient dosing of drugs. The objective of the present review was to collect, summarize, and categorize recent research findings on ion-responsive drug delivery systems. Ions in body fluid/formulations caused structural changes of polymers/molecules contained in the formulations, allow formulations exhibit functions. The polymers/molecules responding to ions were ion-exchange resins/fibers, anionic or cationic polymers, polymers exhibiting transition at lower critical solution temperature, self-assemble supramolecular systems, peptides, and metalorganic frameworks. The functions of ion-responsive drug delivery systems were categorized to controlled drug release, site-specific drug release, in situ gelation, prolonged retention at the target sites, and enhancement of drug permeation. Administration of the formulations via oral, ophthalmic, transdermal, and nasal routes has showed significant advantages in the recent literatures. Many kinds of drug delivery systems responding to ions have been reported recently for several administration routes. Improvement and advancement of these systems can maximize drugs potential and contribute to patients in the world. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  13. Some Recent Advances in Transdermal Drug Delivery Systems ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some Recent Advances in Transdermal Drug Delivery Systems. ... Advances in Transdermal Drug Delivery Systems. EC Ibezim, B Kabele-Toge, CO Anie, C Njoku. Abstract. Transdermal delivery systems are forms of drug delivery involving the dermis, as distinct from topical, oral or other forms of parenteral dosage forms.

  14. Waste Feed Delivery Transfer System Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JULYK, L.J.

    2000-05-05

    This document provides a documented basis for the required design pressure rating and pump pressure capacity of the Hanford Site waste-transfer system in support of the waste feed delivery to the privatization contractor for vitrification. The scope of the analysis includes the 200 East Area double-shell tank waste transfer pipeline system and the associated transfer system pumps for a11 Phase 1B and Phase 2 waste transfers from AN, AP, AW, AY, and A2 Tank Farms.

  15. Waste Feed Delivery Transfer System Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JULYK, L.J.

    2000-01-01

    This document provides a documented basis for the required design pressure rating and pump pressure capacity of the Hanford Site waste-transfer system in support of the waste feed delivery to the privatization contractor for vitrification. The scope of the analysis includes the 200 East Area double-shell tank waste transfer pipeline system and the associated transfer system pumps for a11 Phase 1B and Phase 2 waste transfers from AN, AP, AW, AY, and A2 Tank Farms

  16. Immunological Risk of Injectable Drug Delivery Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiskoot, W.; van Schie, R.M.F.; Carstens, M.G.; Schellekens, H.

    2009-01-01

    Injectable drug delivery systems (DDS) such as particulate carriers and water-soluble polymers are being used and developed for a wide variety of therapeutic applications. However, a number of immunological risks with serious clinical implications are associated with administration of DDS. These

  17. Distance Learning Delivery Systems: Instructional Options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Ray L.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the availability of satellite and cable programing to provide distance education opportunities in school districts. Various delivery systems are described, including telephones with speakers, personal computers, and satellite dishes; and a sidebar provides a directory of distance learning opportunities, including telecommunications…

  18. Auditing Information System : Delivery Product Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purwoko Purwoko

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the research is to ensure the securities of information system asset and to ensure if informa-tion system support the operational and data collected was valid. Research method that used in this research were library studies and field studies. Field studies such an observation, questioner, and inter-view. the expected result are founding the weakness of security management control, operational man-agement control, input control, and output control of risk happened in the company. Conclusion of this research are the system on the company work good and there’s no potential risk happened and make an impact to the delivery process of information system.Index Terms - Auditing Information system, Delivery product process.

  19. Nutrient balances in Field vegetable production systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neeteson, J.J.; Langeveld, J.W.A.; Smit, A.L.; Haan, de J.J.

    2003-01-01

    In this review paper an overview of the nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) cycles in agricultural systems is presented. The information summarized provides general information on the important processes involved as they relate to losses from agricultural systems. Such background information is a

  20. Macromolecular systems for vaccine delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MuŽíková, G; Laga, R

    2016-10-20

    Vaccines have helped considerably in eliminating some life-threatening infectious diseases in past two hundred years. Recently, human medicine has focused on vaccination against some of the world's most common infectious diseases (AIDS, malaria, tuberculosis, etc.), and vaccination is also gaining popularity in the treatment of cancer or autoimmune diseases. The major limitation of current vaccines lies in their poor ability to generate a sufficient level of protective antibodies and T cell responses against diseases such as HIV, malaria, tuberculosis and cancers. Among the promising vaccination systems that could improve the potency of weakly immunogenic vaccines belong macromolecular carriers (water soluble polymers, polymer particels, micelles, gels etc.) conjugated with antigens and immunistumulatory molecules. The size, architecture, and the composition of the high molecular-weight carrier can significantly improve the vaccine efficiency. This review includes the most recently developed (bio)polymer-based vaccines reported in the literature.

  1. Chitosan microspheres in novel drug delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Analava; Dey, Baishakhi

    2011-07-01

    The main aim in the drug therapy of any disease is to attain the desired therapeutic concentration of the drug in plasma or at the site of action and maintain it for the entire duration of treatment. A drug on being used in conventional dosage forms leads to unavoidable fluctuations in the drug concentration leading to under medication or overmedication and increased frequency of dose administration as well as poor patient compliance. To minimize drug degradation and loss, to prevent harmful side effects and to increase drug bioavailability various drug delivery and drug targeting systems are currently under development. Handling the treatment of severe disease conditions has necessitated the development of innovative ideas to modify drug delivery techniques. Drug targeting means delivery of the drug-loaded system to the site of interest. Drug carrier systems include polymers, micelles, microcapsules, liposomes and lipoproteins to name some. Different polymer carriers exert different effects on drug delivery. Synthetic polymers are usually non-biocompatible, non-biodegradable and expensive. Natural polymers such as chitin and chitosan are devoid of such problems. Chitosan comes from the deacetylation of chitin, a natural biopolymer originating from crustacean shells. Chitosan is a biocompatible, biodegradable, and nontoxic natural polymer with excellent film-forming ability. Being of cationic character, chitosan is able to react with polyanions giving rise to polyelectrolyte complexes. Hence chitosan has become a promising natural polymer for the preparation of microspheres/nanospheres and microcapsules. The techniques employed to microencapsulate with chitosan include ionotropic gelation, spray drying, emulsion phase separation, simple and complex coacervation. This review focuses on the preparation, characterization of chitosan microspheres and their role in novel drug delivery systems.

  2. Nutrient fate in aquacultural systems for waste treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dontje, J.H.; Clanton, C.J.

    1999-08-01

    Twelve small, recirculating aquacultural systems were operated for livestock waste treatment to determine nutrient fate. Each system consisted of a 730-L fish tank coupled in a recirculating loop with three sand beds (serving as biofilters) in parallel. Fish (Tilapia species) were grown in the tanks while cattails, reed canary grass, and tomatoes were grown in separate sand beds. Swine waste was added to the fish tanks every other day at average rates of 50, 72, 95, and 118 kg-COD/ha/day of fish tank surface (three replications of each loading rate). Water from the fish tanks was filtered through the sand beds three times per day with 20% of the tank volume passing through the sand each day. The systems were operated in a greenhouse for eight months (21 July to 8 March). Aboveground plant matter was harvested at eight-week intervals. The fish were removed after four months and the tanks were restocked with fingerlings. Initial and final nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) contents of the system components, as well as that of the harvested plants and fish, were determined. Nutrient balance calculations revealed that 30 to 68% of added N was lost from the systems, probably via denitrification. Nutrient removal by plants was 6 to 18% for N, 8 to 21% for P, and 25 to 71% for K, with tomatoes (foliage and fruit) accounting for the majority of the removal. Plant growth was limited by growing conditions (particularly day length), not be nutrient availability. Fish growth was limited by temperature; thus nutrient extraction by the fish was minimal. Under the conditions of this experiment, the system required supplemental aeration.

  3. Modelling nutrient management in tropical cropping systems

    OpenAIRE

    Delve, R. (ed.); Probert, M. (ed.)

    2004-01-01

    Metadata only record In tropical regions, organic materials are often more important than fertilizers in maintaining soil fertility, yet fertilizer recommendations and most crop models are unable to take account of the level and quality of organic inputs that farmers use. Computer simulation models, such as the Agricultural Production Systems Simulator (APSIM) developed by CSIRO and the Queensland Department of Primary Industries, have proven their value in many cropping environments. Thes...

  4. A wireless actuating drug delivery system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, Won-Jun; Baek, Seung-Ki; Park, Jung-Hwan

    2015-01-01

    A wireless actuating drug delivery system was devised. The system is based on induction heating for drug delivery. In this study, thermally generated nitrogen gas produced by induction heating of azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN) was utilized for pressure-driven release of the drug. The delivery device consists of an actuator chamber, a drug reservoir, and a microchannel. A semicircular copper disc (5 and 6 mm in diameter and 100 µm thick), and thermal conductive tape were integrated as the heating element in the actuator chamber. The final device was 2.7 mm thick. 28 µl of drug solution were placed in the reservoir and the device released the drug quickly at the rate of 6 µl s −1 by induction heating at 160 µT of magnetic intensity. The entire drug solution was released and dispersed after subcutaneous implantation under identical experimental condition. This study demonstrates that the device was simply prepared and drug delivery could be achieved by wireless actuation of a thin, pressure-driven actuator. (paper)

  5. Limiting nutrient emission from a cut rose closed system by high-flux irrigation and low nutrient concentrations?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baas, R.; Berg, van der D.

    2004-01-01

    A two-year project was aimed at decreasing nutrient emission from closed nutrient systems by using high irrigation rates in order to allow lower EC levels in the presence of accumulated Na and Cl. Experimental variables were growing media, irrigation frequencies, EC and NaCl concentrations for cut

  6. Hydrogen storage and delivery system development: Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Handrock, J.L. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Hydrogen storage and delivery is an important element in effective hydrogen utilization for energy applications and is an important part of the FY1994-1998 Hydrogen Program Implementation Plan. This project is part of the Field Work Proposal entitled Hydrogen Utilization in Internal Combustion Engines (ICE). The goal of the Hydrogen Storage and Delivery System Development Project is to expand the state-of-the-art of hydrogen storage and delivery system design and development. At the foundation of this activity is the development of both analytical and experimental evaluation platforms. These tools provide the basis for an integrated approach for coupling hydrogen storage and delivery technology to the operating characteristics of potential hydrogen energy use applications. Results of the analytical model development portion of this project will be discussed. Analytical models have been developed for internal combustion engine (ICE) hybrid and fuel cell driven vehicles. The dependence of hydride storage system weight and energy use efficiency on engine brake efficiency and exhaust temperature for ICE hybrid vehicle applications is examined. Results show that while storage system weight decreases with increasing engine brake efficiency energy use efficiency remains relatively unchanged. The development, capability, and use of a recently developed fuel cell vehicle storage system model will also be discussed. As an example of model use, power distribution and control for a simulated driving cycle is presented. Model calibration results of fuel cell fluid inlet and exit temperatures at various fuel cell idle speeds, assumed fuel cell heat capacities, and ambient temperatures are presented. The model predicts general increases in temperature with fuel cell power and differences between inlet and exit temperatures, but under predicts absolute temperature values, especially at higher power levels.

  7. Micelles As Delivery System for Cancer Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Dilek; Tezcaner, Aysen

    2017-01-01

    Micelles are nanoparticles formed by the self-assembly of amphiphilic block copolymers in certain solvents above concentrations called critical micelle concentration (CMC). Micelles are used in different fields like food, cosmetics, medicine, etc. These nanosized delivery systems are under spotlight in the recent years with new achievements in terms of their in vivo stability, ability to protect entrapped drug, release kinetics, ease of cellular penetration and thereby increased therapeutic efficacy. Drug loaded micelles can be prepared by dialysis, oil-in-water method, solid dispersion, freezing, spray drying, etc. The aim of this review is to give an overview of the research on micelles (in vitro, in vivo and clinical) as delivery system for cancer treatment. Passive targeting is one route for accumulation of nanosized micellar drug formulations. Many research groups from both academia and industry focus on developing new strategies for improving the therapeutic efficacy of micellar systems (active targeting to the tumor site, designing multidrug delivery systems for overcoming multidrug resistance or micelles formed by prodrug conjugates, etc). There is only one micellar drug formulation in South Korea that has reached clinical practice. However, there are many untargeted anticancer drug loaded micellar formulations in clinical trials, which have potential for use in clinics. Many more products are expected to be on the market in the near future. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  8. Nanoparticulate delivery systems for antiviral drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lembo, David; Cavalli, Roberta

    2010-01-01

    Nanomedicine opens new therapeutic avenues for attacking viral diseases and for improving treatment success rates. Nanoparticulate-based systems might change the release kinetics of antivirals, increase their bioavailability, improve their efficacy, restrict adverse drug side effects and reduce treatment costs. Moreover, they could permit the delivery of antiviral drugs to specific target sites and viral reservoirs in the body. These features are particularly relevant in viral diseases where high drug doses are needed, drugs are expensive and the success of a therapy is associated with a patient's adherence to the administration protocol. This review presents the current status in the emerging area of nanoparticulate delivery systems in antiviral therapy, providing their definition and description, and highlighting some peculiar features. The paper closes with a discussion on the future challenges that must be addressed before the potential of nanotechnology can be translated into safe and effective antiviral formulations for clinical use.

  9. Drug delivery system and radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Tokushi

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the review of radiation therapy, neutron capture therapy (NCT) and drug delivery system for the latter. In cancer radiation therapy, there are problems of body movement like breathing, needless irradiation of normal tissues, difficulty to decide the correct irradiation position and tumor morphology. NCT has advantages to overcome these, and since boron has a big cross section for thermal neutron, NPT uses the reaction 10 B(n, α) 7 Li in the target cancer which previously incorporated the boron-containing drug. During the period 1966-1996, 246 patients were treated with this in Japan and the treatment has been continued thereafter. The tasks for NCT are developments of drug delivery system efficient to deliver the drug into the tumor and of convenient neutron source like the accelerator. (S.I.)

  10. Chitosan magnetic nanoparticles for drug delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assa, Farnaz; Jafarizadeh-Malmiri, Hoda; Ajamein, Hossein; Vaghari, Hamideh; Anarjan, Navideh; Ahmadi, Omid; Berenjian, Aydin

    2017-06-01

    The potential of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) in drug delivery systems (DDSs) is mainly related to its magnetic core and surface coating. These coatings can eliminate or minimize their aggregation under physiological conditions. Also, they can provide functional groups for bioconjugation to anticancer drugs and/or targeted ligands. Chitosan, as a derivative of chitin, is an attractive natural biopolymer from renewable resources with the presence of reactive amino and hydroxyl functional groups in its structure. Chitosan nanoparticles (NPs), due to their huge surface to volume ratio as compared to the chitosan in its bulk form, have outstanding physico-chemical, antimicrobial and biological properties. These unique properties make chitosan NPs a promising biopolymer for the application of DDSs. In this review, the current state and challenges for the application magnetic chitosan NPs in drug delivery systems were investigated. The present review also revisits the limitations and commercial impediments to provide insight for future works.

  11. Recent Advances in Ocular Drug Delivery Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinobu Fujii

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Transport of drugs applied by traditional dosage forms is restricted to the eye, and therapeutic drug concentrations in the target tissues are not maintained for a long duration since the eyes are protected by a unique anatomy and physiology. For the treatment of the anterior segment of the eye, various droppable products to prolong the retention time on the ocular surface have been introduced in the market. On the other hand, direct intravitreal implants, using biodegradable or non-biodegradable polymer technology, have been widely investigated for the treatment of chronic vitreoretinal diseases. There is urgent need to develop ocular drug delivery systems which provide controlled release for the treatment of chronic diseases, and increase patient’s and doctor’s convenience to reduce the dosing frequency and invasive treatment. In this article, progress of ocular drug delivery systems under clinical trials and in late experimental stage is reviewed.

  12. A Comprehensive Review on: Transdermal drug delivery systems.

    OpenAIRE

    Kharat, Rekha; Bathe, Ritesh Suresh

    2016-01-01

    Transdermal drug delivery system was introduced to overcome the difficulties of drug delivery through oral route. Despite their relatively higher costs, transdermal delivery systems have proved advantageous for delivery of selected drugs, such as estrogens, testosterone, clonidine and nitro-glycerine. Transdermal delivery provides a leading edge over injectable and oral routes by increasing patient compliance and avoiding first pass metabolism respectively. Topical  administration  of  therap...

  13. Drug delivery system and breast cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colone, Marisa; Kaliappan, Subramanian; Calcabrini, Annarica; Tortora, Mariarosaria; Cavalieri, Francesca; Stringaro, Annarita

    2016-06-01

    Recently, nanomedicine has received increasing attention for its ability to improve the efficacy of cancer therapeutics. Nanosized polymer therapeutic agents offer the advantage of prolonged circulation in the blood stream, targeting to specific sites, improved efficacy and reduced side effects. In this way, local, controlled delivery of the drug will be achieved with the advantage of a high concentration of drug release at the target site while keeping the systemic concentration of the drug low, thus reducing side effects due to bioaccumulation. Various drug delivery systems such as nanoparticles, liposomes, microparticles and implants have been demonstrated to significantly enhance the preventive/therapeutic efficacy of many drugs by increasing their bioavailability and targetability. As these carriers significantly increase the therapeutic effect of drugs, their administration would become less cost effective in the near future. The purpose of our research work is to develop a delivery system for breast cancer cells using a microvector of drugs. These results highlight the potential uses of these responsive platforms suited for biomedical and pharmaceutical applications. At the request of all authors of the paper an updated version was published on 12 July 2016. The manuscript was prepared and submitted without Dr. Francesca Cavalieri's contribution and her name was added without her consent. Her name has been removed in the updated and re-published article.

  14. Regional Multiteam Systems in Cancer Care Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monson, John R.T.; Rizvi, Irfan; Savastano, Ann; Green, James S.A.; Sevdalis, Nick

    2016-01-01

    Teamwork is essential for addressing many of the challenges that arise in the coordination and delivery of cancer care, especially for the problems that are presented by patients who cross geographic boundaries and enter and exit multiple health care systems at various times during their cancer care journeys. The problem of coordinating the care of patients with cancer is further complicated by the growing number of treatment options and modalities, incompatibilities among the vast variety of technology platforms that have recently been adopted by the health care industry, and competing and misaligned incentives for providers and systems. Here we examine the issue of regional care coordination in cancer through the prism of a real patient journey. This article will synthesize and elaborate on existing knowledge about coordination approaches for complex systems, in particular, in general and cancer care multidisciplinary teams; define elements of coordination derived from organizational psychology and human factors research that are applicable to team-based cancer care delivery; and suggest approaches for improving multidisciplinary team coordination in regional cancer care delivery and avenues for future research. The phenomenon of the mobile, multisystem patient represents a growing challenge in cancer care. Paradoxically, development of high-quality, high-volume centers of excellence and the ease of virtual communication and data sharing by using electronic medical records have introduced significant barriers to effective team-based cancer care. These challenges urgently require solutions. PMID:27650833

  15. Facile method of building hydroxyapatite 3D scaffolds assembled from porous hollow fibers enabling nutrient delivery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salamon, David; Da Silva Teixeira, Sandra; Dutczak, S.M.; Stamatialis, Dimitrios

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, diffusion through scaffold and tissue usually limits transport, and forms potentially hypoxic regions. Several methods are used for preparation of 3D hydroxyapatite scaffolds, however, production of a scaffold including porous hollow fibers for nutrition delivery is difficult and

  16. Advanced and controlled drug delivery systems in clinical disease management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwers, JRBJ

    1996-01-01

    Advanced and controlled drug delivery systems are important for clinical disease management. In this review the most important new systems which have reached clinical application are highlighted. Microbiologically controlled drug delivery is important for gastrointestinal diseases like ulcerative

  17. Resistive-wall Wake Effect in the Beam Delivery System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delayen, J.R.; Jefferson Lab; Wu, Juhao; Raubenheimer, T.O.; SLAC; Wang, Jiunn-Ming; BNL, NSLS

    2005-01-01

    General formulae for resistive-wall induced beam dilution are presented and then applied to the final beam delivery system of linear colliders. Criteria for the design of final beam delivery systems are discussed

  18. Bioavailability of iron and zinc from human diets: Nutrient delivery technology salt fortification in human nutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raghuramulu, N.

    1992-01-01

    Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD), iron deficiency anaemia(IDA) and zinc deficiency are common problems in India. The discussions in this paper centers on the selection of the vehicles which could be used to successfully deliver essential nutrients into the daily diet of the general population of india and the identification of compounds which inhibit the intestinal absorption of zinc. 40 refs, 11 tabs

  19. Spray-on transdermal drug delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Sarah A

    2015-02-01

    Transdermal drug delivery possesses superior advantages over other routes of administration, particularly minimizing first-pass metabolism. Transdermal drug delivery is challenged by the barrier nature of skin. Numerous technologies have been developed to overcome the relatively low skin permeability, including spray-on transdermal systems. A transdermal spray-on system (TSS) usually consists of a solution containing the drug, a volatile solvent and in many cases a chemical penetration enhancer. TSS promotes drug delivery via the complex interplay between solvent evaporation and drug-solvent drag into skin. The volatile solvent carries the drug into the upper layers of the stratum corneum, and as the volatile solvent evaporates, an increase in the thermodynamic activity of the drug occurs resulting in an increased drug loading in skin. TSS is easily applied, delivering flexible drug dosage and associated with lower incidence of skin irritation. TSS provides a fast-drying product where the volatile solvent enables uniform drug distribution with minimal vehicle deposition on skin. TSS ensures precise dose administration that is aesthetically appealing and eliminates concerns of residual drug associated with transdermal patches. Furthermore, it provides a better alternative to traditional transdermal products due to ease of product development and manufacturing.

  20. Communications data delivery system analysis task 2 report : high-level options for secure communications data delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-16

    This Communications Data Delivery System Analysis Task 2 report describes and analyzes options for Vehicle to Vehicle (V2V) and Vehicle to Infrastructure (V2I) communications data delivery systems using various communication media (Dedicated Short Ra...

  1. Recent Trends of Polymer Mediated Liposomal Gene Delivery System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyamal Kumar Kundu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Advancement in the gene delivery system have resulted in clinical successes in gene therapy for patients with several genetic diseases, such as immunodeficiency diseases, X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD blindness, thalassemia, and many more. Among various delivery systems, liposomal mediated gene delivery route is offering great promises for gene therapy. This review is an attempt to depict a portrait about the polymer based liposomal gene delivery systems and their future applications. Herein, we have discussed in detail the characteristics of liposome, importance of polymer for liposome formulation, gene delivery, and future direction of liposome based gene delivery as a whole.

  2. Microemulsions based transdermal drug delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadlamudi, Harini C; Narendran, Hyndavi; Nagaswaram, Tejeswari; Yaga, Gowri; Thanniru, Jyotsna; Yalavarthi, Prasanna R

    2014-01-01

    Since the discovery of microemulsions by Jack H Schulman, there has been huge progress made in applying microemulsion systems in plethora of research and industrial process. Microemulsions are optically isotropic systems consisting of water, oil and amphiphile. These systems are beneficial due to their thermodynamic stability, optical clarity, ease of preparation, higher diffusion and absorption rates. Moreover, it has been reported that the ingredients of microemulsion can effectively overcome the diffusion barrier and penetrate through the stratum corneum of the skin. Hence it becomes promising for both transdermal and dermal drug delivery. However, low viscosity of microemulsion restrains its applicability in pharmaceutical industry. To overcome the above drawback, the low viscous microemulsions were added to viscous gel bases to potentiate its applications as topical drug delivery systems so that various drug related toxic effects and erratic drug absorption can be avoided. The present review deals with the microemulsions, various techniques involved in the development of organic nanoparticles. The review emphasized on microemulsion based systems such as hydrogels and organogels. The physicochemical characteristics, mechanical properties, rheological and stability principles involved in microemulsion based viscous gels were also explored.

  3. Integrated delivery systems: the cure for fragmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enthoven, Alain C

    2009-12-01

    Our healthcare system is fragmented, with a misalignment of incentives, or lack of coordination, that spawns inefficient allocation of resources. Fragmentation adversely impacts quality, cost, and outcomes. Eliminating waste from unnecessary, unsafe care is crucial for improving quality and reducing costs--and making the system financially sustainable. Many believe this can be achieved through greater integration of healthcare delivery, more specifically via integrated delivery systems (IDSs). An IDS is an organized, coordinated, and collaborative network that links various healthcare providers to provide a coordinated, vertical continuum of services to a particular patient population or community. It is also accountable, both clinically and fiscally, for the clinical outcomes and health status of the population or community served, and has systems in place to manage and improve them. The marketplace already contains numerous styles and degrees of integration, ranging from Kaiser Permanente-style full integration, to more loosely organized individual practice associations, to public-private partnerships. Evidence suggests that IDSs can improve healthcare quality, improve outcomes, and reduce costs--especially for patients with complex needs--if properly implemented and coordinated. No single approach or public policy will fix the fragmented healthcare system, but IDSs represent an important step in the right direction.

  4. Advanced drug delivery systems: Nanotechnology of health design A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Safari

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology has finally and firmly entered the realm of drug delivery. Performances of intelligent drug delivery systems are continuously improved with the purpose to maximize therapeutic activity and to minimize undesirable side-effects. This review describes the advanced drug delivery systems based on micelles, polymeric nanoparticles, and dendrimers. Polymeric carbon nanotubes and many others demonstrate a broad variety of useful properties. This review emphasizes the main requirements for developing new nanotech-nology-based drug delivery systems.

  5. Stimuli-Responsive Polymeric Systems for Controlled Protein and Peptide Delivery: Future Implications for Ocular Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahlumba, Pakama; Choonara, Yahya E; Kumar, Pradeep; du Toit, Lisa C; Pillay, Viness

    2016-07-30

    Therapeutic proteins and peptides have become notable in the drug delivery arena for their compatibility with the human body as well as their high potency. However, their biocompatibility and high potency does not negate the existence of challenges resulting from physicochemical properties of proteins and peptides, including large size, short half-life, capability to provoke immune responses and susceptibility to degradation. Various delivery routes and delivery systems have been utilized to improve bioavailability, patient acceptability and reduce biodegradation. The ocular route remains of great interest, particularly for responsive delivery of macromolecules due to the anatomy and physiology of the eye that makes it a sensitive and complex environment. Research in this field is slowly gaining attention as this could be the breakthrough in ocular drug delivery of macromolecules. This work reviews stimuli-responsive polymeric delivery systems, their use in the delivery of therapeutic proteins and peptides as well as examples of proteins and peptides used in the treatment of ocular disorders. Stimuli reviewed include pH, temperature, enzymes, light, ultrasound and magnetic field. In addition, it discusses the current progress in responsive ocular drug delivery. Furthermore, it explores future prospects in the use of stimuli-responsive polymers for ocular delivery of proteins and peptides. Stimuli-responsive polymers offer great potential in improving the delivery of ocular therapeutics, therefore there is a need to consider them in order to guarantee a local, sustained and ideal delivery of ocular proteins and peptides, evading tissue invasion and systemic side-effects.

  6. Dairy production systems in the United States: Nutrient budgets and environmental impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Across the diversity of US dairy production systems, nutrient management priorities range widely, from feeding regimes to manure handling, storage and application to crop systems. To assess nutrient management and environmental impacts of dairy production systems in the US, we evaluated nutrient bud...

  7. Leaf nutrient resorption, leaf lifespan and the retention of nutrients in seagrass systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemminga, M.A.; Marbà, N.; Stapel, J.

    1999-01-01

    Efficient nutrient resorption from senescing leaves, and extended leaf life spans are important strategies in order to conserve nutrients for plants in general. Despite the fact that seagrasses often grow in oligotrophic waters, these conservation strategies are not strongly developed in seagrasses.

  8. The effect of VMP35 supplement ingredients encapsulated in a novel Phospholipid Prodosome SK713 SLP nutrient delivery technology on properties of live human blood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Blum

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: In North America digestive malfunction in terms of disintegration, dissolution, and absorption of food and nutrients, is a widespread malady. Malabsorption is also an exacerbating factor in most chronic degenerative diseases that might benefit from dietary supplementation. The purpose of this experiment was to determine, as shown by changes in properties of live blood, whether, a novel soy-lecithin-phospholipid-nutrient encapsulation technology could promote rapid bioavailability and bioactivity of a VMP35 nutraceutical formulation encapsulated within its clustoidal multilamellar Soy Lecithin Phospholipid (SLP liquid SK713 SLP structures. Method: Changes in peripheral blood smears from 38 subjects were measured utilizing peripheral live blood cell imaging (LBCI with phase contrast microscopy. Results: Compared to baseline and control, consistently and reproducibly, the SK713 SLP technology effected positive changes in the blood as demonstrated by observable morphological, hematological and rheological changes five minutes from intake and sustained for at least 30 minutes post intake. Conclusions: These results showed that the SK713 SLP system makes an important contribution by increasing the potential benefits of dietary supplementation to those patients with compromised digestive processes. We encourage additional research on this novel delivery system believing that it has potential impact on future therapy.

  9. Silk Electrogel Based Gastroretentive Drug Delivery System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qianrui

    Gastric cancer has become a global pandemic and there is imperative to develop efficient therapies. Oral dosing strategy is the preferred route to deliver drugs for treating the disease. Recent studies suggested silk electro hydrogel, which is pH sensitive and reversible, has potential as a vehicle to deliver the drug in the stomach environment. The aim of this study is to establish in vitro electrogelation e-gel based silk gel as a gastroretentive drug delivery system. We successfully extended the duration of silk e-gel in artificial gastric juice by mixing silk solution with glycerol at different ratios before the electrogelation. Structural analysis indicated the extended duration was due to the change of beta sheet content. The glycerol mixed silk e-gel had good doxorubicin loading capability and could release doxorubicin in a sustained-release profile. Doxorubicin loaded silk e-gels were applied to human gastric cancer cells. Significant cell viability decrease was observed. We believe that with further characterization as well as functional analysis, the silk e-gel system has the potential to become an effective vehicle for gastric drug delivery applications.

  10. Nanoemulsion: A new concept of delivery system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Sharma

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanoemulsion has been identified as a promising delivery system for various drugs including biopharmaceuticals. Nanoemulsion is a heterogeneous system composed of one immiscible liquid dispersed as droplets within another liquid. The droplets size of nano emulsion is between 20 to 500 nm. Diameter and surface properties of droplets of nanoemulsion plays an important role in the biological behavior of the formulation. Small droplet sizes lead to transparent emulsions so that product appearance is not altered by the addition of an oil phase. In this paper various aspects of nanoemulsion have been discussed including advantages, disadvantages and methods of preparation. Furthermore new approaches of stability of formulation, effect of types and concentration of surfactant, process variables and method are also discussed to improve the stability of nanoemulsion formulation

  11. Fluid Delivery System For Capillary Electrophoretic Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qingbo; Liu, Changsheng; Kane, Thomas E.; Kernan, John R.; Sonnenschein, Bernard; Sharer, Michael V.

    2002-04-23

    An automated electrophoretic system is disclosed. The system employs a capillary cartridge having a plurality of capillary tubes. The cartridge has a first array of capillary ends projecting from one side of a plate. The first array of capillary ends are spaced apart in substantially the same manner as the wells of a microtitre tray of standard size. This allows one to simultaneously perform capillary electrophoresis on samples present in each of the wells of the tray. The system includes a stacked, dual carrousel arrangement to eliminate cross-contamination resulting from reuse of the same buffer tray on consecutive executions from electrophoresis. The system also has a gel delivery module containing a gel syringe/a stepper motor or a high pressure chamber with a pump to quickly and uniformly deliver gel through the capillary tubes. The system further includes a multi-wavelength beam generator to generate a laser beam which produces a beam with a wide range of wavelengths. An off-line capillary reconditioner thoroughly cleans a capillary cartridge to enable simultaneous execution of electrophoresis with another capillary cartridge. The streamlined nature of the off-line capillary reconditioner offers the advantage of increased system throughput with a minimal increase in system cost.

  12. Electronic nicotine delivery systems: a research agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etter, Jean-François; Bullen, Chris; Flouris, Andreas D; Laugesen, Murray; Eissenberg, Thomas

    2011-05-01

    Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS, also called electronic cigarettes or e-cigarettes) are marketed to deliver nicotine and sometimes other substances by inhalation. Some tobacco smokers report that they used ENDS as a smoking cessation aid. Whether sold as tobacco products or drug delivery devices, these products need to be regulated, and thus far, across countries and states, there has been a wide range of regulatory responses ranging from no regulation to complete bans. The empirical basis for these regulatory decisions is uncertain, and more research on ENDS must be conducted in order to ensure that the decisions of regulators, health care providers and consumers are based on science. However, there is a dearth of scientific research on these products, including safety, abuse liability and efficacy for smoking cessation. The authors, who cover a broad range of scientific expertise, from basic science to public health, suggest research priorities for non-clinical, clinical and public health studies. They conclude that the first priority is to characterize the safety profile of these products, including in long-term users. If these products are demonstrated to be safe, their efficacy as smoking cessation aids should then be tested in appropriately designed trials. Until these studies are conducted, continued marketing constitutes an uncontrolled experiment and the primary outcome measure, poorly assessed, is user health. Potentially, this research effort, contributing to the safety and efficacy of new smoking cessation devices and to the withdrawal of dangerous products, could save many lives.

  13. Broadly Applicable Nanowafer Drug Delivery System for Treating Eye Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Systems in Systemic , Dermal, Transdermal , and Ocular Drug Delivery . Crit. Rev. Ther. Drug 2008, 25, 545–584. 14. Choy, Y. B.; Park, J.-H.; McCarey, B...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-1-0146 TITLE: Broadly Applicable Nanowafer Drug Delivery System for Treating Eye Injuries PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dr...Broadly Applicable Nanowafer Drug Delivery System for Treating Eye Injuries” 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-13-1-0146 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6

  14. Nutrient pumping by submesoscale circulations in the mauritanian upwelling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosegood, P. J.; Nightingale, P. D.; Rees, A. P.; Widdicombe, C. E.; Woodward, E. M. S.; Clark, D. R.; Torres, R. J.

    2017-12-01

    Observations made within a cold filament in the Mauritanian upwelling system demonstrate that intense submesoscale circulations at the peripheral edges of the filament are likely responsible for anomalously high levels of observed primary productivity by resupplying nutrients to the euphotic zone. Measurements made on the shelf within the recently upwelled water reveal that primary production (PP) of 8.2 gC/m-2 day-1 was supported by nitrate concentrations (NC) of 8 mmol m-3. Towards the front that defined the edge of the filament containing the upwelled water as it was transported offshore, PP dropped to 1.6 gC m-2 day-1 whilst NC dropped to 5.5 mmol m-3. Thus, whilst the observed nutrients on the shelf accounted for 90% of new production, this value dropped to ∼60% near the filament's front after accounting for vertical turbulent fluxes and Ekman pumping. We demonstrate that the N15 was likely to have been supplied at the front by submesoscale circulations that were directly measured as intense vertical velocities ⩾100 m day-1 by a drifting acoustic Doppler current profiler that crossed a submesoscale surface temperature front. At the same time, a recently released tracer was subducted out of the mixed layer within 24 h of release, providing direct evidence that the frontal circulations were capable of accessing the reservoir of nutrients beneath the pycnocline. The susceptibility of the filament edge to submesoscale instabilities was demonstrated by O(1) Rossby numbers at horizontal scales of 1-10 km. The frontal circulations are consistent with instabilities arising from a wind-driven nonlinear Ekman buoyancy flux generated by the persistent northerly wind stress that has a down-front component at the northern edge of the inshore section of the filament. The prevalence of submesoscale instabilities and their associated vertical circulations are proposed to be a key mechanism operating at sub-grid scales and sustaining new production throughout the upwelling

  15. Giant liposomes as delivery system for ecophysiological studies in copepods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttino, Isabella; De Rosa, Giuseppe; Carotenuto, Ylenia; Ianora, Adrianna; Fontana, Angelo; Quaglia, Fabiana; La Rotonda, Maria Immacolata; Miralto, Antonio

    2006-03-01

    Giant liposomes are proposed as a potential delivery system in marine copepods, the dominant constituent of the zooplankton. Liposomes were prepared in the same size range as the food ingested by copepods (mean diameter of about 7 microm). The encapsulation of a hydrophilic and high molecular mass fluorescent compound, fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran (FitcDx), within the liposomes provided a means of verifying copepod ingestion when viewed with the confocal laser-scanning microscope. Females of the calanoid copepod Temora stylifera were fed with FitcDx-encapsulated liposomes alone or mixed with the dinoflagellate alga Prorocentrum minimum. Control copepods were incubated with the P. minimum diet alone. Egg production rates, percentage egg-hatching success and number of faecal pellets produced were evaluated after 24 h and 48 h of feeding. Epifluorescence of copepod gut and faecal pellets indicated that the liposomes were actively ingested by T. stylifera in both experimental food conditions, with or without the dinoflagellate diet. Ingestion rates calculated using 3H-labelled liposomes indicated that females ingested more liposomes when P. minimum was added to the solution (16% vs 7.6% of uptake). When liposomes were supplied together with the algal diet, egg production rate, egg-hatching success and faecal pellet production were as high as those observed for the control diet. By contrary, egg production and hatching success were very low with a diet of liposomes alone and faecal pellet production was similar to that recorded in starved females. This results suggest that liposomes alone did not add any nutritive value to the diet, making them a good candidate as inert carriers to study the nutrient requirements or biological activity of different compounds. In particular, such liposomes are proposed as carriers for diatom-derived polyunsaturated aldehydes, which are known to impair copepod embryo viability. Other potential applications of liposomes as a delivery

  16. Polymers for Pharmaceutical Packaging and Delivery Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fristrup, Charlotte Juel

    materials of interest for pharmaceutical packaging and delivery systems. Confocal fluorescence microscopy studies and stability studies with insulin aspart (AspB28 insulin) were conducted to evaluate the impact of modified PP compared to unmodified PP. In contrast to PEEK, PP did not contain any functional....... In order to decrease the amount of catalyst residual in the modified materials, activator regenerated by electron transfer (ARGET) SI-ATRP was applied in the second experimental round. Two poly(ethylene glycol)methyl ether methacrylate (MPEGMA) monomers with 4 and 23 ethylene oxide units in the side chain......Selection of polymer materials which will be exposed to protein drugs in either containers or medical devices is often very challenging due to the demands on the polymers. Suitable polymer materials should comply with requirements like compatibility with proteins, sterilisability, good barrier...

  17. Nutrient Release from Disturbance of Infiltration System Soils during Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel P. Treese

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Subsurface infiltration and surface bioretention systems composed of engineered and/or native soils are preferred tools for stormwater management. However, the disturbance of native soils, especially during the process of adding amendments to improve infiltration rates and pollutant removal, may result in releases of nutrients in the early life of these systems. This project investigated the nutrient release from two soils, one disturbed and one undisturbed. The disturbed soil was collected intact, but had to be air-dried, and the columns repacked when soil shrinkage caused bypassing of water along the walls of the column. The undisturbed soil was collected and used intact, with no repacking. The disturbed soil showed elevated releases of nitrogen and phosphorus compared to the undisturbed soil for approximately 0.4 and 0.8 m of runoff loading, respectively. For the undisturbed soil, the nitrogen release was delayed, indicating that the soil disturbance accelerated the release of nitrogen into a very short time period. Leaving the soil undisturbed resulted in lower but still elevated effluent nitrogen concentrations over a longer period of time. For phosphorus, these results confirm prior research which demonstrated that the soil, if shown to be phosphorus-deficient during fertility testing, can remove phosphorus from runoff even when disturbed.

  18. Monitoring total mixed rations and feed delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oelberg, Thomas J; Stone, William

    2014-11-01

    This article is intended to give practitioners a method to evaluate total mixed ration (TMR) consistency and to give them practical solutions to improve TMR consistency that will improve cattle performance and health. Practitioners will learn how to manage the variation in moisture and nutrients that exists in haylage and corn silage piles and in bales of hay, and methods to reduce variation in the TMR mixing and delivery process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Applications of polymeric nanocapsules in field of drug delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Xinyu; Xie, Yinghua; Hao, Xiaomei; Chen, Tao; Wang, Yingming; Liu, Yuanyuan

    2011-09-01

    Drug-loaded polymeric nanocapsules have exhibited potential applications in the field of drug delivery systems in recent years. This article entails the biodegradable polymers generally used for preparing nanocapsules, which include both natural polymers and synthetic polymers. Furthermore, the article presents a general review of the different preparation methods: nanoprecipitation method, emulsion-diffusion method, double emulsification method, emulsion-coacervation method, layer-by-layer assembly method. In addition, the analysis methods of nanocapsule characteristics, such as mean size, morphology, surface characteristics, shell thickness, encapsulation efficiency, active substance release, dispersion stability, are mentioned. Also, the applications of nanocapsules as carriers for use in drug delivery systems are reviewed, which primarily involve targeting drug delivery, controlled/sustained release drug delivery systems, transdermal drug delivery systems and improving stability and bioavailability of drugs. Nanocapsules, prepared with different biodegradable polymers, have received more and more attention and have been regarded as one of the most promising drug delivery systems.

  20. Polymer hydrogels as optimized delivery systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batista, Jorge G.S.; Varca, Gustavo H.C.; Ferraz, Caroline C.; Garrido, Gabriela P.; Diniz, Bruna M.; Carvalho, Vinicius S.; Lugao, Ademar B., E-mail: jorgegabriel@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Hydrogels are formed by polymers capable of absorbing large quantities of water. They consist of one or more three-dimensionally structured polymer networks formed by macromolecular chains linked by covalent bonds-crosslinks - and physical interactions. The application of hydrogels, has been widely studied. Biodegradable synthetic or natural polymers such as chitosan, starch and poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid, have properties that allow the development of biodegradable systems for drug and nutraceutics delivery. This study aimed to develop polymeric hydrogels based on polyvinyl alcohol, polyacrylamide and polyvinylpyrrolidone using ionizing radiation in order to develop hydrogels for improved loading and release of compounds. Polymer solutions were solubilized in water and poured into thermoformed packages. After sealing, the material was subjected to γ-irradiation at 25kGy. The samples were assayed by means of mechanical properties, gel fraction and swelling degree. Nanostructure characterization was performed using Flory's equation to determine crosslinking density. The systems developed showed swelling degree and adequate mechanical resistance. The nanostructure evaluation showed different results for each system demonstrating the need of choosing the polymer based on the specific properties of each material. (author)

  1. Polymer hydrogels as optimized delivery systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batista, Jorge G.S.; Varca, Gustavo H.C.; Ferraz, Caroline C.; Garrido, Gabriela P.; Diniz, Bruna M.; Carvalho, Vinicius S.; Lugao, Ademar B.

    2013-01-01

    Hydrogels are formed by polymers capable of absorbing large quantities of water. They consist of one or more three-dimensionally structured polymer networks formed by macromolecular chains linked by covalent bonds-crosslinks - and physical interactions. The application of hydrogels, has been widely studied. Biodegradable synthetic or natural polymers such as chitosan, starch and poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid, have properties that allow the development of biodegradable systems for drug and nutraceutics delivery. This study aimed to develop polymeric hydrogels based on polyvinyl alcohol, polyacrylamide and polyvinylpyrrolidone using ionizing radiation in order to develop hydrogels for improved loading and release of compounds. Polymer solutions were solubilized in water and poured into thermoformed packages. After sealing, the material was subjected to γ-irradiation at 25kGy. The samples were assayed by means of mechanical properties, gel fraction and swelling degree. Nanostructure characterization was performed using Flory's equation to determine crosslinking density. The systems developed showed swelling degree and adequate mechanical resistance. The nanostructure evaluation showed different results for each system demonstrating the need of choosing the polymer based on the specific properties of each material. (author)

  2. How does pattern of feeding and rate of nutrient delivery influence conditioned food preferences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, A J; Elwert, C; Villalba, J J; Yearsley, J; Pouloupoulou, I; Gordon, I J

    2007-09-01

    Ruminant herbivores have been shown to learn about food properties by associating food flavours with the food's post-ingestive consequences. Previous experimentation supporting the conditioned food aversion/preference hypothesis has generally employed very simple diet learning tasks which do not effectively represent the wide range of foods selected within single bouts typical of wild, free-ranging ruminant herbivores. We tested the ability of a ruminant herbivore to associate a food with artificially administered nutrient rewards in a designed experiment where we altered the temporal pattern of encounter with the food as well as the nature (fast or slow reward) of the post-ingestive outcome. Twenty-four goats were offered branches of Sitka spruce (SS) and Norway spruce (NS) for 4 h per day on two days per week for five weeks. The pattern of feeding varied with treatment such that the species on offer changed every hour (short) or every 2 h (long). The energy treatment altered the reward delivered during Sitka consumption so that animals were dosed either with predominantly sugar (rapidly fermented), predominantly starch (slower fermentation rate), or with water (placebo). Preference was measured on the day following each learning day. We expected that goats would find it easier to associate SS with post-ingestive rewards when the duration of encounter was longest, and that associations would be stronger with the most rapidly digested post-ingestive reward. In the event, goats did not alter their consumption of SS in response to the treatments. Our results suggest that at the scale of temporal resolution of encounters with different plant species (1-2 h), and at the different rates of experiencing post-ingestive consequences tested in this experiment, ruminants do not appear to discriminate the nutritive properties of foods predominantly through a post-ingestive feedback mechanism. They must, instead, use a range of cues-including post-ingestive consequences

  3. Description and Documentation of the Dental School Dental Delivery System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, Rosen and Wallace, Inc., Alexandria, VA.

    A study was undertaken to describe and document the dental school dental delivery system using an integrated systems approach. In late 1976 and early 1977, a team of systems analysts and dental consultants visited three dental schools to observe the delivery of dental services and patient flow and to interview administrative staff and faculty.…

  4. Future of Automated Insulin Delivery Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castle, Jessica R.; DeVries, J. Hans; Kovatchev, Boris

    2017-01-01

    Advances in continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) have brought on a paradigm shift in the management of type 1 diabetes. These advances have enabled the automation of insulin delivery, where an algorithm determines the insulin delivery rate in response to the CGM values. There are multiple automated

  5. Current trends in microsponge drug delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangadharappa, H V; Gupta, N Vishal; Prasad M, Sarat Chandra; Shivakumar, H G

    2013-08-01

    Microsponge is a microscopic sphere capable of absorbing skin secretions, therefore reducing the oiliness of the skin. Microsponge having particle size of 10-25 microns in diameter, have wide range of entrapment of various ingredients in a single microsponges system and release them at desired rates. Conventional topical preparations have various disadvantages due to irritancy, odour, greasiness and patient compliance. In many topical dosage forms fail to reach the systemic circulation in sufficient amounts in few cases. These problems overcome by the usage of formulation as microsponge in the areas of research. Drug release in microsponge is done by the external stimuli like pH, temperature and rubbing. It has several advantageous over the other topical preparations in being non-allergenic, non-toxic, non-irritant and non- mutagenic. These microsponges are used in the sun screens, creams, ointments, over-the-counter skin care preparations, recently nanosponge were reported in literature used in delivery of drug by the use of cyclodextrins to enhance the solubility of poorly water soluble drugs, which are meant for topical application.

  6. Postruminal Delivery System for Amino Acids and Proteins in Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Sýkora

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this experiment was to develop an effective postruminal transport system (PTS with a high content of suitable vegetable proteins and amino acids. PTS serves for nutrient delivery to the abomasum and small intestine of dairy cows in order to increase the milk yield. Direct addition of proteins and amino acids to the diet is not useful as the ruminal microbes will utilize active substances before they reach absorption sites in the small intestine. PTS has several advantages, e.g. a possibility of the direct application in a food, low cost, and nutritional and therapeutical improvement. PTS consists of a core (pellets, small tablets and a coating, which protects the core against the environment of rumen and enables to release the core content in the environment of abomasum and small intestine. Lenticular tablets - cores of PTS were prepared by wet granulation method and compression. Qualitative indicators of tablets (average weight, weight uniformity, hardness, friability, disintegration time were determined according to valid Czech and European Pharmacopoeias. Cores were subsequently coated with several types of coating - ethylcellulose, stearic acid and pH sensitive polymer poly-(2-vinylpyridine-co-styren, alone or in combination of various rates. Nine samples of coated protein tablets exhibiting appropriate characteristics in vitro were prepared. The presence of the pH sensitive polymer at least in 10% concentration of the coating and the coating amount of 9.0 to 12.6% per tablet were necessary to ensure the requested PTS properties.

  7. Injectable In-Situ Gelling Controlled Release Drug Delivery System

    OpenAIRE

    Kulwant Singh; S. L. HariKumar

    2012-01-01

    The administration of poorly bioavailable drug through parenteral route is regarded the most efficient for drug delivery. Parenteral delivery provides rapid onset even for the drug with narrow therapeutic window, but to maintain the systemic drug level repeated installation are required which cause the patient discomfort. This can be overcome by designing the drug into a system, which control the drug release even through parenteral delivery, which improve patient compliance as well as pharma...

  8. Development of a soilless growing system for blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum): nutrient demand and nutrient solution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogt, W.; Dijk, van P.; Douven, F.; Maas, van der M.P.

    2014-01-01

    Although the majority of blueberries in The Netherlands are soil grown, interest in soilless culture has increased recently. Modern cultivation with high yield and fruit quality needs maximum control of growth and crop development, which is expected to be achieved with irrigation and nutrient

  9. How can innovative project delivery systems improve the overall efficiency of GDOT in transportation project delivery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    The USDOT and Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) recommend the smart use of innovative project : delivery systems, such as design-build, to improve efficiency and effectiveness of developing transportation : projects. Although design-build provide...

  10. Marine Origin Polysaccharides in Drug Delivery Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Matias J; Costa, Rui R; Mano, João F

    2016-02-05

    Oceans are a vast source of natural substances. In them, we find various compounds with wide biotechnological and biomedical applicabilities. The exploitation of the sea as a renewable source of biocompounds can have a positive impact on the development of new systems and devices for biomedical applications. Marine polysaccharides are among the most abundant materials in the seas, which contributes to a decrease of the extraction costs, besides their solubility behavior in aqueous solvents and extraction media, and their interaction with other biocompounds. Polysaccharides such as alginate, carrageenan and fucoidan can be extracted from algae, whereas chitosan and hyaluronan can be obtained from animal sources. Most marine polysaccharides have important biological properties such as biocompatibility, biodegradability, and anti-inflammatory activity, as well as adhesive and antimicrobial actions. Moreover, they can be modified in order to allow processing them into various shapes and sizes and may exhibit response dependence to external stimuli, such as pH and temperature. Due to these properties, these biomaterials have been studied as raw material for the construction of carrier devices for drugs, including particles, capsules and hydrogels. The devices are designed to achieve a controlled release of therapeutic agents in an attempt to fight against serious diseases, and to be used in advanced therapies, such as gene delivery or regenerative medicine.

  11. Marine Origin Polysaccharides in Drug Delivery Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Matias J.; Costa, Rui R.; Mano, João F.

    2016-01-01

    Oceans are a vast source of natural substances. In them, we find various compounds with wide biotechnological and biomedical applicabilities. The exploitation of the sea as a renewable source of biocompounds can have a positive impact on the development of new systems and devices for biomedical applications. Marine polysaccharides are among the most abundant materials in the seas, which contributes to a decrease of the extraction costs, besides their solubility behavior in aqueous solvents and extraction media, and their interaction with other biocompounds. Polysaccharides such as alginate, carrageenan and fucoidan can be extracted from algae, whereas chitosan and hyaluronan can be obtained from animal sources. Most marine polysaccharides have important biological properties such as biocompatibility, biodegradability, and anti-inflammatory activity, as well as adhesive and antimicrobial actions. Moreover, they can be modified in order to allow processing them into various shapes and sizes and may exhibit response dependence to external stimuli, such as pH and temperature. Due to these properties, these biomaterials have been studied as raw material for the construction of carrier devices for drugs, including particles, capsules and hydrogels. The devices are designed to achieve a controlled release of therapeutic agents in an attempt to fight against serious diseases, and to be used in advanced therapies, such as gene delivery or regenerative medicine. PMID:26861358

  12. Marine Origin Polysaccharides in Drug Delivery Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matias J. Cardoso

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Oceans are a vast source of natural substances. In them, we find various compounds with wide biotechnological and biomedical applicabilities. The exploitation of the sea as a renewable source of biocompounds can have a positive impact on the development of new systems and devices for biomedical applications. Marine polysaccharides are among the most abundant materials in the seas, which contributes to a decrease of the extraction costs, besides their solubility behavior in aqueous solvents and extraction media, and their interaction with other biocompounds. Polysaccharides such as alginate, carrageenan and fucoidan can be extracted from algae, whereas chitosan and hyaluronan can be obtained from animal sources. Most marine polysaccharides have important biological properties such as biocompatibility, biodegradability, and anti-inflammatory activity, as well as adhesive and antimicrobial actions. Moreover, they can be modified in order to allow processing them into various shapes and sizes and may exhibit response dependence to external stimuli, such as pH and temperature. Due to these properties, these biomaterials have been studied as raw material for the construction of carrier devices for drugs, including particles, capsules and hydrogels. The devices are designed to achieve a controlled release of therapeutic agents in an attempt to fight against serious diseases, and to be used in advanced therapies, such as gene delivery or regenerative medicine.

  13. Insulin delivery systems combined with microneedle technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xuan; Zhu, Dan Dan; Chen, Bo Zhi; Ashfaq, Mohammad; Guo, Xin Dong

    2018-03-29

    Diabetes, a metabolic disorder of glucose, is a serious chronic disease and an important public health problem. Insulin is one of the hormones for modulating blood glucose level and the products of which is indispensable for most diabetes patients. Introducing microneedles (MNs) to insulin delivery is promising to pave the way for modulating glucose level noninvasively of diabetes patients, as which born to be painless, easy to handle and no need of any power supply. In this work, we review the process of insulin delivery systems (IDSs) based on MN technology in terms of two categories: drug free MNs and drug loaded MNs. Drug free MNs include solid MNs ("poke and patch"), hollow MNs ("poke and flow") and reservoir-based swelling MNs ("poke and swell R-type"), and drug loaded MNs include coated MNs ("coat and poke"), dissolving MNs ("poke and release") and insulin incorporated swelling MNs ("poke and swell I-type"). Majority researches of MN-based IDSs have been conducted by using hollow MNs or dissolving MNs, and almost all clinical trials for MN-based IDSs have employed hollow MNs. "Poke and patch" approach dramatically increase skin permeability compared to traditional transdermal patch, but MNs fabricated from silicon or metal may leave sharp waste in the skin and cause a safety issue. "Poke and flow" approach, similar to transitional subcutaneous (SC) injection, is capable of producing faster insulin absorption and action than SC injection but may associate with blockage, leakage and low flow rate. Coated MNs are able of retaining the activity of drug, which loaded in a solid phase, for a long time, however have been relatively less studied for insulin application as the low drug dosing. "Poke and release" approach leaves no biohazardous sharp medical waste and is capable of rapid drug release. "Poke and swell R-type" can be seen as a combination of "poke and flow" and "poke and patch" approach, while "poke and swell I-type" is an approach between "coat and

  14. Guidelines for Psychological Practice in Health Care Delivery Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2013

    2013-01-01

    Psychologists practice in an increasingly diverse range of health care delivery systems. The following guidelines are intended to assist psychologists, other health care providers, administrators in health care delivery systems, and the public to conceptualize the roles and responsibilities of psychologists in these diverse contexts. These…

  15. Buccal Transmucosal Delivery System of Enalapril for Improved ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To prepare and characterize buccal transmucosal delivery system of enalapril maleate for overcoming its low bioavailability, and hence provide improved therapeutic efficacy and patient compliance. Methods: Transmucosal drug delivery systems of enalapril maleate were formulated as buccal films by solvent ...

  16. Characterization of particulate drug delivery systems for oral delivery of Peptide and protein drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christophersen, Philip Carsten; Fano, Mathias; Saaby, Lasse

    2015-01-01

    Oral drug delivery is a preferred route because of good patient compliance. However, most peptide/ protein drugs are delivered via parenteral routes because of the absorption barriers in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract such as enzymatic degradation by proteases and low permeability acrossthe...... delivery of peptide/protein drugs and to provide an overview of formulationand characterization strategies. For a better understanding of the challenges in oral delivery of peptide/protein drugs, the composition of GI fluids and the digestion processes of different kinds of excipients in the GI tract...... biological membranes. To overcome these barriers, different formulation strategies for oral delivery of biomacromolecules have been proposed, including lipid based formulations and polymer-based particulate drug delivery systems (DDS). The aim of this review is to summarize the existing knowledge about oral...

  17. Grizzli mobile systems and LPG delivery management; Grizzli mobile systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2000-07-01

    Complete text of publication follows: Grizzli Mobile Systems (and its sister companies) specialists in data communications and system solutions, offer their complete management solution for LPG deliveries, right through from remote reading of the gas level in the tank, through route management, management of the delivery itself and finally on-site invoicing and payment. The system permits a supplier to really differentiate itself from its competitors in terms of customer service and control of its operations. Domestic gas tanks are often difficult to access; visual reading of the gauge is not always easy and often leads to the customer re-ordering in panic mode. The supplier has also to react in panic mode to the customer. Grizzli Mobile Systems has developed a radio module that is fitted to the gas tank that calls, at regular set intervals with the tank level to a Call Rider gateway plug. The Call Rider is a small box plugged into the regular telephone socket (also supplying multiple operator telephony and other home automation services). As soon as the gas level reaches a predetermined minimum level, this radio information is relayed via the Internet to the LPG supplier. The supplier can then arrange (in non-panic mode) to deliver gas to the customer, via conventional means or by use of an interactive radio display (attached to a refrigerator or similar by magnets) that communicates with the Call Rider by radio. Once a delivery date has been set, a Grizzli Mobile Systems' dispatch system, installed at the supplier's headquarters creates and transfers routes via GSM communications to its fleet of delivery vehicles. A main-frame mapping software provides real-time follow-up and status checks of the vehicles using the GPS functionality and imports data back from the vehicles and updates databases. The driver is also assisted in localizing delivery sites. Inside the cabin of the vehicle the driver has available a Fujitsu PenCentra pen computer, a Microsoft

  18. The LITA Drill and Sample Delivery System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsen, G.; Yoon, S.; Zacny, K.; Wettergreeng, D.; Cabrol, N. A.

    2013-12-01

    The Life in the Atacama (LITA) project has a goal of demonstrating autonomous roving, sample acquisition, delivery and analysis operations in Atacama, Chile. To enable the sample handling requirement, Honeybee Robotics developed a rover-deployed, rotary-percussive, autonomous drill, called the LITA Drill, capable of penetrating to ~80 cm in various formations, capturing and delivering subsurface samples to a 20 cup carousel. The carousel has a built-in capability to press the samples within each cup, and position target cups underneath instruments for analysis. The drill and sample delivery system had to have mass and power requirements consistent with a flight system. The drill weighs 12 kg and uses less than 100 watt of power to penetrate ~80 cm. The LITA Drill auger has been designed with two distinct stages. The lower part has deep and gently sloping flutes for retaining powdered sample, while the upper section has shallow and steep flutes for preventing borehole collapse and for efficient movement of cuttings and fall back material out of the hole. The drill uses the so called 'bite-sampling' approach that is samples are taken in short, 5-10 cm bites. To take the first bite, the drill is lowered onto the ground and upon drilling of the first bite it is then retracted into an auger tube. The auger with the auger tube are then lifted off the ground and positioned next to the carousel. To deposit the sample, the auger is rotated and retracted above the auger tube. The cuttings retained on the flutes are either gravity fed or are brushed off by a passive side brush into the cup. After the sample from the first bite has been deposited, the drill is lowered back into the same hole to take the next bite. This process is repeated until a target depth is reached. The bite sampling is analogous to peck drilling in the machining process where a bit is periodically retracted to clear chips. If there is some fall back into the hole once the auger has cleared the hole, this

  19. Nutrient Exchange through Hyphae in Intercropping Systems Affects Yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thun, Tim Von

    2013-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizae fungi (AMF) play a large role in the current understanding of the soil ecosystem. They increase nutrient and water uptake, improve soil structure, and form complex hyphal networks that transfer nutrients between plants within an ecosystem. Factors such as species present, the physiological balance between the plants in the…

  20. Controlled drug delivery systems towards new frontiers in patient care

    CERN Document Server

    Rossi, Filippo; Masi, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    This book offers a state-of-the-art overview of controlled drug delivery systems, covering the most important innovative applications. The principles of controlled drug release and the mechanisms involved in controlled release are clearly explained. The various existing polymeric drug delivery systems are reviewed, and new frontiers in material design are examined in detail, covering a wide range of polymer modification techniques. The concluding chapter is a case study focusing on use of a drug-eluting stent. The book is designed to provide the reader with a complete understanding of the mechanisms and design of controlled drug delivery systems, and to this end includes numerous step-by-step tutorials. It illustrates how chemical engineers can advance medical care by designing polymeric delivery systems that achieve either temporal or spatial control of drug delivery and thus ensure more effective therapy that eliminates the potential for both under-and overdosing.

  1. Sources and delivery of carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus to the coastal zone: An overview of global Nutrient Export from Watersheds (NEWS) models and their application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seitzinger, S.P.; Harrison, J.A.; Dumont, E.L.; Beusen, A.H.W.; Bouwman, A.F.

    2005-01-01

    An overview of the first spatially explicit, multielement (N, P, and C), multiform (dissolved inorganic: DIN, DIP; dissolved organic: DOC, DON, DOP; and particulate: POC, PN, PP) predictive model system of river nutrient export from watersheds (Global Nutrient Export from Watersheds (NEWS)) is

  2. Thiolated polymers as mucoadhesive drug delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggan, Sarah; Cummins, Wayne; O' Donovan, Orla; Hughes, Helen; Owens, Eleanor

    2017-03-30

    Mucoadhesion is the process of binding a material to the mucosal layer of the body. Utilising both natural and synthetic polymers, mucoadhesive drug delivery is a method of controlled drug release which allows for intimate contact between the polymer and a target tissue. It has the potential to increase bioavailability, decrease potential side effects and offer protection to more sensitive drugs such as proteins and peptide based drugs. The thiolation of polymers has, in the last number of years, come to the fore of mucoadhesive drug delivery, markedly improving mucoadhesion due to the introduction of free thiol groups onto the polymer backbone while also offering a more cohesive polymeric matrix for the slower and more controlled release of drug. This review explores the concept of mucoadhesion and the recent advances in both the polymers and the methods of thiolation used in the synthesis of mucoadhesive drug delivery devices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Reduction of treatment delivery variances with a computer-controlled treatment delivery system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraass, B.A.; Lash, K.L.; Matrone, G.M.; Lichter, A.S.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze treatment delivery variances for 3-D conformal therapy performed at various levels of treatment delivery automation, ranging from manual field setup to virtually complete computer-controlled treatment delivery using a computer-controlled conformal radiotherapy system. Materials and Methods: All external beam treatments performed in our department during six months of 1996 were analyzed to study treatment delivery variances versus treatment complexity. Treatments for 505 patients (40,641 individual treatment ports) on four treatment machines were studied. All treatment variances noted by treatment therapists or quality assurance reviews (39 in all) were analyzed. Machines 'M1' (CLinac (6(100))) and 'M2' (CLinac 1800) were operated in a standard manual setup mode, with no record and verify system (R/V). Machines 'M3' (CLinac 2100CD/MLC) and ''M4'' (MM50 racetrack microtron system with MLC) treated patients under the control of a computer-controlled conformal radiotherapy system (CCRS) which 1) downloads the treatment delivery plan from the planning system, 2) performs some (or all) of the machine set-up and treatment delivery for each field, 3) monitors treatment delivery, 4) records all treatment parameters, and 5) notes exceptions to the electronically-prescribed plan. Complete external computer control is not available on M3, so it uses as many CCRS features as possible, while M4 operates completely under CCRS control and performs semi-automated and automated multi-segment intensity modulated treatments. Analysis of treatment complexity was based on numbers of fields, individual segments (ports), non-axial and non-coplanar plans, multi-segment intensity modulation, and pseudo-isocentric treatments (and other plans with computer-controlled table motions). Treatment delivery time was obtained from the computerized scheduling system (for manual treatments) or from CCRS system logs. Treatment therapists rotate among the machines, so this analysis

  4. A study on nanodiamond-based drug delivery system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jing; Zhang Xiaoyong; Zhu Ying; Li Wenxin; Huang Qing

    2010-01-01

    A multifunctional drug delivery system based on nanodiamonds (NDs) has been developed. FITC, HCPT and TF were absorbed on NDs successively to form the multifunctional complex. The NDs and ND complex samples were characterized by TEM, FR-IR and UV-V. The results indicated that this drug delivery system is a high loading system. Efficacy of the drug delivery system on Hela cell was evaluated with MTT assays and fluorescence microscopy. The results show that multifunction of the NDs complex include fluorescence, targeting and high efficacy. (authors)

  5. Methods and metrics challenges of delivery-system research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Jeffrey A

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many delivery-system interventions are fundamentally about change in social systems (both planned and unplanned. This systems perspective raises a number of methodological challenges for studying the effects of delivery-system change--particularly for answering questions related to whether the change will work under different conditions and how the change is integrated (or not into the operating context of the delivery system. Methods The purpose of this paper is to describe the methodological and measurement challenges posed by five key issues in delivery-system research: (1 modeling intervention context; (2 measuring readiness for change; (3 assessing intervention fidelity and sustainability; (4 assessing complex, multicomponent interventions; and (5 incorporating time in delivery-system models to discuss recommendations for addressing these issues. For each issue, we provide recommendations for how research may be designed and implemented to overcome these challenges. Results and conclusions We suggest that a more refined understanding of the mechanisms underlying delivery-system interventions (treatment theory and the ways in which outcomes for different classes of individuals change over time are fundamental starting points for capturing the heterogeneity in samples of individuals exposed to delivery-system interventions. To support the research recommendations outlined in this paper and to advance understanding of the "why" and "how" questions of delivery-system change and their effects, funding agencies should consider supporting studies with larger organizational sample sizes; longer duration; and nontraditional, mixed-methods designs. A version of this paper was prepared under contract with the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ, US Department of Health and Human Services for presentation and discussion at a meeting on "The Challenge and Promise of Delivery System Research," held in Sterling, VA, on

  6. Microcontainers - an oral drug delivery system for poorly soluble drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Line Hagner; Petersen, Ritika Singh; Marizza, Paolo

    In oral delivery, it can sometimes be necessary to employ drug delivery systems to achieve targeted delivery to the intestine. Microcontainers are polymeric, cylindrical devices in the micrometer size range (Figure 1), and are suggested as a promising oral drug delivery system [1],[2]. The purpose...... of these studies was to fabricate microcontainers in either SU-8 or biodegradable poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA), and fill the microcontainers with poorly soluble drugs. Furthermore, the application of the microcontainers as an oral drug delivery system was investigated in terms of release, in situ intestinal perfusion...... medium at pH 6.5 was observed. In situ intestinal perfusions were performed in rats of the Eudragit-coated ASSF-filled microcontainers and compared to a furosemide solution. At the end of the study, the small intestine was harvested from the rat and imaged under a light microscope. The absorption rate...

  7. Coaxial nozzle-assisted 3D bioprinting with built-in microchannels for nutrients delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qing; He, Yong; Fu, Jian-zhong; Liu, An; Ma, Liang

    2015-08-01

    This study offers a novel 3D bioprinting method based on hollow calcium alginate filaments by using a coaxial nozzle, in which high strength cell-laden hydrogel 3D structures with built-in microchannels can be fabricated by controlling the crosslinking time to realize fusion of adjacent hollow filaments. A 3D bioprinting system with a Z-shape platform was used to realize layer-by-layer fabrication of cell-laden hydrogel structures. Curving, straight, stretched or fractured filaments can be formed by changes to the filament extrusion speed or the platform movement speed. To print a 3D structure, we first adjusted the concentration and flow rate of the sodium alginate and calcium chloride solution in the crosslinking process to get partially crosslinked filaments. Next, a motorized XY stages with the coaxial nozzle attached was used to control adjacent hollow filament deposition in the precise location for fusion. Then the Z stage attached with a Z-shape platform moved down sequentially to print layers of structure. And the printing process always kept the top two layers fusing and the below layers solidifying. Finally, the Z stage moved down to keep the printed structure immersed in the CaCl2 solution for complete crosslinking. The mechanical properties of the resulting fused structures were investigated. High-strength structures can be formed using higher concentrations of sodium alginate solution with smaller distance between adjacent hollow filaments. In addition, cell viability of this method was investigated, and the findings show that the viability of L929 mouse fibroblasts in the hollow constructs was higher than that in alginate structures without built-in microchannels. Compared with other bioprinting methods, this study is an important technique to allow easy fabrication of lager-scale organs with built-in microchannels. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Characterization of particulate drug delivery systems for oral delivery of Peptide and protein drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christophersen, Philip Carsten; Fano, Mathias; Saaby, Lasse; Yang, Mingshi; Nielsen, Hanne Mørck; Mu, Huiling

    2015-01-01

    Oral drug delivery is a preferred route because of good patient compliance. However, most peptide/ protein drugs are delivered via parenteral routes because of the absorption barriers in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract such as enzymatic degradation by proteases and low permeability acrossthe biological membranes. To overcome these barriers, different formulation strategies for oral delivery of biomacromolecules have been proposed, including lipid based formulations and polymer-based particulate drug delivery systems (DDS). The aim of this review is to summarize the existing knowledge about oral delivery of peptide/protein drugs and to provide an overview of formulationand characterization strategies. For a better understanding of the challenges in oral delivery of peptide/protein drugs, the composition of GI fluids and the digestion processes of different kinds of excipients in the GI tract are summarized. Additionally, the paper provides an overview of recent studies on characterization of solid drug carriers for peptide/protein drugs, drug distribution in particles, drug release and stability in simulated GI fluids, as well as the absorption of peptide/protein drugs in cell-based models. The use of biorelevant media when applicable can increase the knowledge about the quality of DDS for oral protein delivery. Hopefully, the knowledge provided in this review will aid the establishment of improved biorelevant models capable of forecasting the performance of particulate DDS for oral peptide/protein delivery.

  9. Applications of nutrient profiling: potential role in diet-related chronic disease prevention and the feasibility of a core nutrient-profiling system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacks, G; Rayner, M; Stockley, L; Scarborough, P; Snowdon, W; Swinburn, B

    2011-03-01

    A number of different nutrient-profiling models have been proposed and several applications of nutrient profiling have been identified. This paper outlines the potential role of nutrient-profiling applications in the prevention of diet-related chronic disease (DRCD), and considers the feasibility of a core nutrient-profiling system, which could be modified for purpose, to underpin the multiple potential applications in a particular country. The 'Four 'P's of Marketing' (Product, Promotion, Place and Price) are used as a framework for identifying and for classifying potential applications of nutrient profiling. A logic pathway is then presented that can be used to gauge the potential impact of nutrient-profiling interventions on changes in behaviour, changes in diet and, ultimately, changes in DRCD outcomes. The feasibility of a core nutrient-profiling system is assessed by examining the implications of different model design decisions and their suitability to different purposes. There is substantial scope to use nutrient profiling as part of the policies for the prevention of DRCD. A core nutrient-profiling system underpinning the various applications is likely to reduce discrepancies and minimise the confusion for regulators, manufacturers and consumers. It seems feasible that common elements, such as a standard scoring method, a core set of nutrients and food components, and defined food categories, could be incorporated as part of a core system, with additional application-specific criteria applying. However, in developing and in implementing such a system, several country-specific contextual and technical factors would need to be balanced.

  10. Hydroponics: A Versatile System to Study Nutrient Allocation and Plant Responses to Nutrient Availability and Exposure to Toxic Elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nga T; McInturf, Samuel A; Mendoza-Cózatl, David G

    2016-07-13

    Hydroponic systems have been utilized as one of the standard methods for plant biology research and are also used in commercial production for several crops, including lettuce and tomato. Within the plant research community, numerous hydroponic systems have been designed to study plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. Here we present a hydroponic protocol that can be easily implemented in laboratories interested in pursuing studies on plant mineral nutrition. This protocol describes the hydroponic system set up in detail and the preparation of plant material for successful experiments. Most of the materials described in this protocol can be found outside scientific supply companies, making the set up for hydroponic experiments less expensive and convenient. The use of a hydroponic growth system is most advantageous in situations where the nutrient media need to be well controlled and when intact roots need to be harvested for downstream applications. We also demonstrate how nutrient concentrations can be modified to induce plant responses to both essential nutrients and toxic non-essential elements.

  11. LOGISTIC SYSTEM OF LOAD DELIVERY AND QUALITY OF ITS OPERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. G. Drozdovskaya

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers an opportunity for obtaining a competitive advantage by a transport and dispatch service company in the market of transport services while establishing a logistic system of load delivery. A model of delivery system, an universal scheme of system designing for every specific case are presented and also indices for evaluation of its operational quality are proposed in the paper.

  12. Mechanical valve assembly for xenon 133 gas delivery systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Round, W.H. (Royal Brisbane Hospital, Herston (Australia))

    Some gas delivery systems used in pulmonary ventilation scanning are unable to satisfactorily supply /sup 133/Xe gas to bed-ridden patients. A mechanical gas valve assembly to control the flow of gas in such systems was constructed. A commercially produced /sup 133/Xe gas delivery system when fitted with the new assembly was able to ventilate almost all patients whereas previously this could be achieved with approximately only 50% of patients.

  13. Commissioning of cryogen delivery system for superconducting cyclotron magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal, G.; Nandi, C.; Bhattacharyya, T.K.; Chaudhuri, J.; Bhandari, R.K.

    2005-01-01

    A K-500 superconducting cyclotron is being constructed at VECC Kolkata. The cryogen delivery system distributes liquid helium and liquid nitrogen to the superconducting cyclotron. Liquid helium is required to cool the cyclotron magnet and cryopanels. Liquid nitrogen is used to reduce the capacity of the helium liquefier. This paper describes the system, the current status and the commissioning experiences of cryogen delivery system for cyclotron magnet. (author)

  14. Improvement of different vaccine delivery systems for cancer therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safaiyan Shima

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cancer vaccines are the promising tools in the hands of the clinical oncologist. Many tumor-associated antigens are excellent targets for immune therapy and vaccine design. Optimally designed cancer vaccines should combine the best tumor antigens with the most effective immunotherapy agents and/or delivery strategies to achieve positive clinical results. Various vaccine delivery systems such as different routes of immunization and physical/chemical delivery methods have been used in cancer therapy with the goal to induce immunity against tumor-associated antigens. Two basic delivery approaches including physical delivery to achieve higher levels of antigen production and formulation with microparticles to target antigen-presenting cells (APCs have demonstrated to be effective in animal models. New developments in vaccine delivery systems will improve the efficiency of clinical trials in the near future. Among them, nanoparticles (NPs such as dendrimers, polymeric NPs, metallic NPs, magnetic NPs and quantum dots have emerged as effective vaccine adjuvants for infectious diseases and cancer therapy. Furthermore, cell-penetrating peptides (CPP have been known as attractive carrier having applications in drug delivery, gene transfer and DNA vaccination. This review will focus on the utilization of different vaccine delivery systems for prevention or treatment of cancer. We will discuss their clinical applications and the future prospects for cancer vaccine development.

  15. Designing and assessing a sustainable networked delivery (SND) system: hybrid business-to-consumer book delivery case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Junbeum; Xu, Ming; Kahhat, Ramzy; Allenby, Braden; Williams, Eric

    2009-01-01

    We attempted to design and assess an example of a sustainable networked delivery (SND) system: a hybrid business-to-consumer book delivery system. This system is intended to reduce costs, achieve significant reductions in energy consumption, and reduce environmental emissions of critical local pollutants and greenhouse gases. The energy consumption and concomitant emissions of this delivery system compared with existing alternative delivery systems were estimated. We found that regarding energy consumption, an emerging hybrid delivery system which is a sustainable networked delivery system (SND) would consume 47 and 7 times less than the traditional networked delivery system (TND) and e-commerce networked delivery system (END). Regarding concomitant emissions, in the case of CO2, the SND system produced 32 and 7 times fewer emissions than the TND and END systems. Also the SND system offer meaningful economic benefit such as the costs of delivery and packaging, to the online retailer, grocery, and consumer. Our research results show that the SND system has a lot of possibilities to save local transportation energy consumption and delivery costs, and reduce environmental emissions in delivery system.

  16. Biomimetics in drug delivery systems: A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikhpour, Mojgan; Barani, Leila; Kasaeian, Alibakhsh

    2017-05-10

    Today, the advanced drug delivery systems have been focused on targeted drug delivery fields. The novel drug delivery is involved with the improvement of the capacity of drug loading in drug carriers, cellular uptake of drug carriers, and the sustained release of drugs within target cells. In this review, six groups of therapeutic drug carriers including biomimetic hydrogels, biomimetic micelles, biomimetic liposomes, biomimetic dendrimers, biomimetic polymeric carriers and biomimetic nanostructures, are studied. The subject takes advantage of the biomimetic methods of productions or the biomimetic techniques for the surface modifications, similar to what accrues in natural cells. Moreover, the effects of these biomimetic approaches for promoting the drug efficiency in targeted drug delivery are visible. The study demonstrates that the fabrication of biomimetic nanocomposite drug carriers could noticeably promote the efficiency of drugs in targeted drug delivery systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Nonviral Delivery Systems For Cancer Gene Therapy: Strategies And Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Gayong; Kim, Dongyoon; Le, Quoc-Viet; Park, Gyu Thae; Kwon, Taekhyun; Oh, Yu-Kyoung

    2018-01-19

    Gene therapy has been receiving widespread attention due to its unique advantage in regulating the expression of specific target genes. In the field of cancer gene therapy, modulation of gene expression has been shown to decrease oncogenic factors in cancer cells or increase immune responses against cancer. Due to the macromolecular size and highly negative physicochemical features of plasmid DNA, efficient delivery systems are an essential ingredient for successful gene therapy. To date, a variety of nanostructures and materials have been studied as nonviral gene delivery systems. In this review, we will cover nonviral delivery strategies for cancer gene therapy, with a focus on target cancer genes and delivery materials. Moreover, we will address current challenges and perspectives for nonviral delivery-based cancer gene therapeutics. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  18. Otic drug delivery systems: formulation principles and recent developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xu; Li, Mingshuang; Smyth, Hugh; Zhang, Feng

    2018-04-25

    Disorders of the ear severely impact the quality of life of millions of people, but the treatment of these disorders is an ongoing, but often overlooked challenge particularly in terms of formulation design and product development. The prevalence of ear disorders has spurred significant efforts to develop new therapeutic agents, but perhaps less innovation has been applied to new drug delivery systems to improve the efficacy of ear disease treatments. This review provides a brief overview of physiology, major diseases, and current therapies used via the otic route of administration. The primary focuses are on the various administration routes and their formulation principles. The article also presents recent advances in otic drug deliveries as well as potential limitations. Otic drug delivery technology will likely evolve in the next decade and more efficient or specific treatments for ear disease will arise from the development of less invasive drug delivery methods, safe and highly controlled drug delivery systems, and biotechnology targeting therapies.

  19. An integrated decision support system for wastewater nutrient recovery and recycling to agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, E. D.; Bomeisl, L.; Cornbrooks, P.; Mo, W.

    2017-12-01

    Nutrient recovery and recycling has become a key research topic within the wastewater engineering and nutrient management communities. Several technologies now exist that can effectively capture nutrients from wastewater, and innovation in this area continues to be an important research pursuit. However, practical nutrient recycling solutions require more than capable nutrient capture technologies. We also need to understand the role that wastewater nutrient recovery and recycling can play within broader nutrient management schemes at the landscape level, including important interactions at the nexus of food, energy, and water. We are developing an integrated decision support system that combines wastewater treatment data, agricultural data, spatial nutrient balance modeling, life cycle assessment, stakeholder knowledge, and multi-criteria decision making. Our goals are to: (1) help guide design decisions related to the implementation of sustainable nutrient recovery technology, (2) support innovations in watershed nutrient management that operate at the interface of the built environment and agriculture, and (3) aid efforts to protect aquatic ecosystems while supporting human welfare in a circular nutrient economy. These goals will be realized partly through the assessment of plausible alternative scenarios for the future. In this presentation, we will describe the tool and focus on nutrient balance results for the New England region. These results illustrate that both centralized and decentralized wastewater nutrient recovery schemes have potential to transform nutrient flows in many New England watersheds, diverting wastewater N and P away from aquatic ecosystems and toward local or regional agricultural soils where they can offset a substantial percentage of imported fertilizer. We will also highlight feasibility criteria and next steps to integrate stakeholder knowledge, economics, and life cycle assessment into the tool.

  20. The Research Progress of Targeted Drug Delivery Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Jiayin; Ting, Xizi Liang; Zhu, Junjie

    2017-06-01

    Targeted drug delivery system (DDS) means to selectively transport drugs to targeted tissues, organs, and cells through a variety of drugs carrier. It is usually designed to improve the pharmacological and therapeutic properties of conventional drugs and to overcome problems such as limited solubility, drug aggregation, poor bio distribution and lack of selectivity, controlling drug release carrier and to reduce normal tissue damage. With the characteristics of nontoxic and biodegradable, it can increase the retention of drug in lesion site and the permeability, improve the concentration of the drug in lesion site. at present, there are some kinds of DDS using at test phase, such as slow controlled release drug delivery system, targeted drug delivery systems, transdermal drug delivery system, adhesion dosing system and so on. This paper makes a review for DDS.

  1. Iontophoresis: A Potential Emergence of a Transdermal Drug Delivery System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhote, Vinod; Bhatnagar, Punit; Mishra, Pradyumna K.; Mahajan, Suresh C.; Mishra, Dinesh K.

    2012-01-01

    The delivery of drugs into systemic circulation via skin has generated much attention during the last decade. Transdermal therapeutic systems propound controlled release of active ingredients through the skin and into the systemic circulation in a predictive manner. Drugs administered through these systems escape first-pass metabolism and maintain a steady state scenario similar to a continuous intravenous infusion for up to several days. However, the excellent impervious nature of the skin offers the greatest challenge for successful delivery of drug molecules by utilizing the concepts of iontophoresis. The present review deals with the principles and the recent innovations in the field of iontophoretic drug delivery system together with factors affecting the system. This delivery system utilizes electric current as a driving force for permeation of ionic and non-ionic medications. The rationale behind using this technique is to reversibly alter the barrier properties of skin, which could possibly improve the penetration of drugs such as proteins, peptides and other macromolecules to increase the systemic delivery of high molecular weight compounds with controlled input kinetics and minimum inter-subject variability. Although iontophoresis seems to be an ideal candidate to overcome the limitations associated with the delivery of ionic drugs, further extrapolation of this technique is imperative for translational utility and mass human application. PMID:22396901

  2. Hollow-duct radiation delivery system investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kramer D.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of hollow-duct structure for high-power laser-diode-array radiation delivery into the end-pumped large-aperture gain media is reported. A ray tracing method has been used to evaluate the performance of the structure designed for maximum transmission efficiency and output beam profile homogeneity. Variable hollow-duct lengths as well as emanating angles of laser-diode-array have been taken into account.

  3. Police and Community-partnered Delivery System to Address ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... Delivery System to Address Violence Against Women in the Punjab (India) ... Education, Scheduled Castes and Other Back Classes, and Land Rural Development. ... IWRA/IDRC webinar on climate change and adaptive water management.

  4. A remotely operated drug delivery system with dose control

    KAUST Repository

    Yi, Ying; Kosel, Jü rgen

    2017-01-01

    include an effective actuation stimulus and a controllable dose release mechanism. This work focuses on remotely powering an implantable drug delivery system and providing a high degree of control over the released dose. This is accomplished by integration

  5. Components of Maternal Healthcare Delivery System Contributing to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Components of Maternal Healthcare Delivery System Contributing to Maternal Deaths ... transcripts were analyzed using a directed approach to content analysis. Excerpts were categorized according to three main components of the maternal ...

  6. Buccal Transmucosal Delivery System of Enalapril for Improved ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Transmucosal drug delivery systems of enalapril maleate were ... Index Medicus, JournalSeek, Journal Citation Reports/Science Edition, Directory of Open Access Journals. (DOAJ) ... investigated for various drugs including protein.

  7. A mucoadhesive in situ gel delivery system for paclitaxel

    OpenAIRE

    Jauhari, Saurabh; Dash, Alekha K.

    2006-01-01

    MUC1 gene encodes a transmembrane mucin glycoprotein that is overexpressed in human breast cancer and colon cancer. The objective of this study was to develop an in situ gel delivery system containing paclitaxel (PTX) and mucoadhesives for sustained and targeted delivery of anticancer drugs. The delivery system consisted of chitosan and glyceryl monooleate (GMO) in 0.33M citric acid containing PTX. The in vitro release of PTX from the gel was performed in presence and absence of Tween 80 at d...

  8. Pharmacokinetics of a 5-fluorouracil liposomal delivery system.

    OpenAIRE

    Simmons, S T; Sherwood, M B; Nichols, D A; Penne, R B; Sery, T; Spaeth, G L

    1988-01-01

    A liposomal delivery system was developed in an attempt to prolong ocular levels of 5-fluorouracil for glaucoma filtering surgery. The pharmacokinetics of the 5-fluorouracil liposomal delivery system were studied in normal pigmented rabbits with 5-fluorouracil labelled with carbon-14 (C-14). 14C 5-fluorouracil was incorporated into the liposomes at a concentration of 10 g/l and injected subconjunctivally in doses of 5 and 10 mg. Concentrations of 5-fluorouracil were assayed at 10 time interva...

  9. Model for determining and optimizing delivery performance in industrial systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fechete Flavia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Performance means achieving organizational objectives regardless of their nature and variety, and even overcoming them. Improving performance is one of the major goals of any company. Achieving the global performance means not only obtaining the economic performance, it is a must to take into account other functions like: function of quality, delivery, costs and even the employees satisfaction. This paper aims to improve the delivery performance of an industrial system due to their very low results. The delivery performance took into account all categories of performance indicators, such as on time delivery, backlog efficiency or transport efficiency. The research was focused on optimizing the delivery performance of the industrial system, using linear programming. Modeling the delivery function using linear programming led to obtaining precise quantities to be produced and delivered each month by the industrial system in order to minimize their transport cost, satisfying their customers orders and to control their stock. The optimization led to a substantial improvement in all four performance indicators that concern deliveries.

  10. Drug delivery from the oral cavity: a focus on mucoadhesive buccal drug delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinkar, Dattatraya Manohar; Dhake, Avinash Sridhar; Setty, Chitral Mallikarjuna

    2012-01-01

    Since the early 1980s the concept of mucoadhesion has gained considerable interest in pharmaceutical technology. The various advantages associated with these systems made buccal drug delivery as a novel route of drug administration. It prolongs the residence time of the dosage form at the site of application. These systems remain in close contact with the absorption tissue, the mucous membrane, and thus contribute to improved and/or better therapeutic performance of the drug and of both local and systemic effects. This review highlights the anatomy and structure of oral mucosa, mechanism and theories of mucoadhesion, factors affecting mucoadhesion, characteristics and properties of desired mucoadhesive polymers, various types of dosage forms, and general considerations in design of mucoadhesive buccal dosage forms, permeation enhancers, and evaluation methods. Over the past few decades the mucoadhesive buccal drug delivery system has received a great deal of attention to develop mucoadhesive dosage forms to enable the prolonged retention at the site of action, providing a controlled release of drug for improved therapeutic outcome. Mucoadhesive drug delivery gives facility to include a permeation enhancer/enzyme inhibitor or pHmodifier in the formulation and versatility in designing as multidirectional or unidirectional release systems for local and systemic action. Local delivery to tissues of the oral cavity has a number of applications, including treatment of local conditions such as periodontal disease, bacterial and fungal infections, and aphthous stomatitis and vesiculo bullous diseases. For the treatment of chronic diseases, the mucoadhesive buccal drug delivery system allows easily accessibility and is generally well-accepted for administeringdrugs by systemic action.

  11. Integrated plant nutrient system - with special emphasis on mineral nutriton and biofertilizers for Black pepper and cardamom - A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    K P, Sangeeth; R, Suseela Bhai

    2016-05-01

    Integrated Plant Nutrition System (IPNS) as a concept and farm management strategy embraces and transcends from single season crop fertilization efforts to planning and management of plant nutrients in crop rotations and farming systems on a long-term basis for enhanced productivity, profitability and sustainability. It is estimated that about two-thirds of the required increase in crop production in developing countries will have to come from yield increases from lands already under cultivation. IPNS enhances soil productivity through a balanced use of soil nutrients, chemical fertilizers, combined with organic sources of plant nutrients, including bio-inoculants and nutrient transfer through agro-forestry systems and has adaptation to farming systems in both irrigated and rainfed agriculture. Horticultural crops, mainly plantation crops, management practices include application of fertilizers and pesticides which become inevitable due to the depletion of soil organic matter and incidence of pests and diseases. The extensive use of chemical fertilizers in these crops deteriorated soil health that in turn affected the productivity. To revitalize soil health and to enhance productivity, it is inexorable to enrich the soil using microorganisms. The lacunae observed here is the lack of exploitation of indigenous microbes having the potential to fix atmospheric nitrogen (N) and to solubilize Phosphorus (P) and Potassium (K). The concept of biofertilizer application appears to be technically simple and financially feasible, but the task of developing biofertilizers with efficient strains in appropriate combinations in a consortia mode is not easier. More than developing consortia, a suitable delivery system to discharge the microbial inoculants warranted much effort. This review focuses on the integrated plant nutrition system incorporating biofertilizer with special emphasis on developing and formulating biofertilizer consortium.

  12. Isotope-aided studies of nutrient cycling and soil fertility assessment in humid pasture systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkinson, S.R.

    1983-01-01

    Maintenance of primary productivity in grazed ecosystems depends on the orderly cycling of mineral nutrients. Potential applications of nuclear techniques to the study of soil fertility assessment and nutrient cycling are discussed for the plant nutrients N, P, K and S. The bioavailability of extrinsic and intrinsic sources of mineral nutrients are also discussed. With improvements in analytical technology, it appears feasible to use 15 N in grazed pasture ecosystems for N cycling studies. Sulphur cycling in soil/plant/grazing animal systems has been successfully studied, and further opportunities exist using 35 S to study nutrient flows in grazed grassland systems. Opportunities also appear for increased application of tracer technology in the evaluation of mineral intakes and mineral bioavailability to ruminants grazing semi-arid grassland herbage under native soil fertility, with supplemental fertilization, and in the evaluation of mineral supplementation procedures. Root system distribution and function also can be studied advantageously using tracer techniques. (author)

  13. Nutrient cycling in an agroforestry alley cropping system receiving poultry litter or nitrogen fertilizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Optimal utilization of animal manures as a plant nutrient source should also prevent adverse impacts on water quality. The objective of this study was to evaluate long-term poultry litter and N fertilizer application on nutrient cycling following establishment of an alley cropping system with easter...

  14. Nutrient and Food Group Analysis in the 2016 ASA24® System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Researchers, clinicians, and educators can use the ASA24 system to analyze 65 nutrients and 37 food groups (U.S. and Canadian versions) from food recall or record data. Analyses for ASA24-Australia-2016 provide 41 nutrients and no food groups.

  15. Recent trends in challenges and opportunities of Transdermal drug delivery system

    OpenAIRE

    P.M.Patil; P.D.Chaudhari; Jalpa K.Patel; K.A.Kedar; P.P.Katolkar

    2012-01-01

    Drug delivery system relates to the production of a drug, its delivery medium, and the way of administration. Drug delivery systems are even used for administering nitroglycerin. Transdermal drug delivery system is the system in which the delivery of the active ingredients of the drug occurs by the means of skin. Various types of transdermal patches are used. There are various methods to enhance the transdermal drug delivery system. But using microfabricated microneedles drugs are delivered v...

  16. Svelte Integrated Delivery System Performance Examined Through Diagnostic Catheter Delivery : The SPEED Registry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khattab, Ahmed A.; Nijhoff, Freek; Schofer, Joachim; Berland, Jacques; Meier, Bernhard; Nietlispach, Fabian; Agostoni, Pierfrancesco; Brucks, Steffen; Stella, Pieter

    2015-01-01

    Aims: The multi-center SPEED registry evaluated the procedural success and in-hospital clinical outcomes of direct stenting with the Svelte 'all-in-one' coronary stent Integrated Delivery System (IDS) through diagnostic catheters to identify the clinical indications for which this approach is

  17. Design and construction of a vertical hydroponic system with semi-continuous and continuous nutrient cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siswanto, Dian; Widoretno, Wahyu

    2017-11-01

    Problems due to the increase in agricultural land use change can be solved by hydroponic system applications. Many hydroponic studies have been conducted in several countries while their applications in Indonesia requires modification and adjustment. This research was conducted to design and construct a hydroponic system with semi-continuous and continuous nutrition systems. The hydroponic system which was used adapts the ebb and flow system, and the nutrient film technique (NFT). This hydroponic system was made from polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipes with a length of 197 cm, a diameter of 16 cm, and a slope of 4°. It was constructed from four PVC pipes. In semi-continuous irrigation treatment, nutrients flow four to six times for each of ten minutes depending on plant development and the estimated evapotranspiration occurring, while in a continuous nutrient system the nutrients are streamed for twenty-four hours without stopping at a maximum flow rate of 13.7 L per second.

  18. Encapsulation systems for the delivery of hydrophilic nutraceuticals: Food application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aditya, N P; Espinosa, Yadira Gonzalez; Norton, Ian T

    2017-07-01

    Increased health risk associated with the sedentary life style is forcing the food manufacturers to look for food products with specific or general health benefits e.g. beverages enriched with nutraceuticals like catechin, curcumin rutin. Compounds like polyphenols, flavonoids, vitamins are the good choice of bioactive compounds that can be used to fortify the food products to enhance their functionality. However due to low stability and bioavailability of these bioactives (both hydrophobic and hydrophilic) within the heterogeneous food microstructure and in the Gastro Intestinal Tract (GIT), it becomes extremely difficult to pass on the real health benefits to the consumers. Recent developments in the application of nano-delivery systems for food product development is proving to be a game changer which has raised the expectations of the researchers, food manufacturers and consumers regarding possibility of enhancing the functionality of bioactives within the fortified food products. In this direction, nano/micro delivery systems using lipids, surfactants and other materials (carbohydrates, polymers, complexes, protein) have been fabricated to stabilize and enhance the biological activity of the bioactive compounds. In the present review, current status of the various delivery systems that are used for the delivery of hydrophilic bioactives and future prospects for using other delivery systems that have been not completely explored for the delivery of hydrophilic bioactives e.g. niosomes; bilosomes, cubosomes are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Elastin-Like Recombinamers As Smart Drug Delivery Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, F Javier; Santos, Mercedes; Ibanez-Fonseca, Arturo; Pina, Maria Jesus; Serrano, Sofía

    2018-02-19

    Drug delivery systems that are able to control the release of bioactive molecules and designed to carry drugs to target sites are of particular interest for tissue therapy. Moreover, systems comprising materials that can respond to environmental stimuli and promote self-assembly and higher order supramolecular organization are especially useful in the biomedical field. Objetive: This review focuses on biomaterials suitable for this purpose and that include elastin-like recombinamers (ELRs), a class of proteinaceous polymers bioinspired by natural elastin, designed using recombinant technologies. The self-assembly and thermoresponsive behaviour of these systems, along with their biodegradability, biocompatibility and well-defined composition as a result of their tailormade design, make them particularly attractive for controlled drug delivery. ELR-based delivery systems that allow targeted delivery are reviewed, especially ELR-drug recombinant fusion constructs, ELR-drug systems chemically bioconjugated in their monomeric and soluble forms, and drug encapsulation by nanoparticle-forming ELRs. Subsequently, the review focuses on those drug carriers in which smart release is triggered by pH or temperature with a particular focus on cancer treatments. Systems for controlled drug release based on depots and hydrogels that act as both a support and reservoir in which drugs can be stored will be described, and their applications in drug delivery discussed. Finally, smart drug-delivery systems not based on ELRs, including those comprising proteins, synthetic polymers and non-polymeric systems, will also be briefly discussed. Several different constructions based on ELRs are potential candidates for controlled drug delivery to be applied in advanced biomedical treatments. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  20. Oral delivery of peptides and proteins using lipid-based drug delivery systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Ping; Nielsen, Hanne Mørck; Müllertz, Anette

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: In order to successfully develop lipid-based drug delivery systems (DDS) for oral administration of peptides and proteins, it is important to gain an understanding of the colloid structures formed by these DDS, the mode of peptide and protein incorporation as well as the mechanism...... by which intestinal absorption of peptides and proteins is promoted. AREAS COVERED: The present paper reviews the literature on lipid-based DDS, employed for oral delivery of peptides and proteins and highlights the mechanisms by which the different lipid-based carriers are expected to overcome the two...... and proteins. EXPERT OPINION: Lipid-based DDS are safe and suitable for oral delivery of peptides and proteins. Significant progress has been made in this area with several technologies on clinical trials. However, a better understanding of the mechanism of action in vivo is needed in order to improve...

  1. Hydrocolloid-based nutraceutical delivery systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janaswamy, Srinivas; Youngren, Susanne R. (Purdue)

    2012-07-11

    Nutraceuticals are important due to their inherent health benefits. However, utilization and consumption are limited by their poor water solubility and instability at normal processing and storage conditions. Herein, we propose an elegant and novel approach for the delivery of nutraceuticals in their active form using hydrocolloid matrices that are inexpensive and non-toxic with generally recognized as safe (GRAS) status. Iota-carrageenan and curcumin have been chosen as models of hydrocolloid and nutraceutical compounds, respectively. The iota-carrageenan network maintains a stable organization after encapsulating curcumin molecules, protects them from melting and then releases them in a sustained manner. These findings lay a strong foundation for developing value-added functional and medicinal foods.

  2. Establishment of protein delivery systems targeting podocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Chih Chiang

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Podocytes are uniquely structured cells that are critical to the kidney filtration barrier. Their anatomic location on the outer side of the glomerular capillaries expose podocytes to large quantities of both plasma and urinary components and thus are reachable for drug delivery. Recent years have made clear that interference with podocyte-specific disease pathways can modulate glomerular function and influence severity and progression of glomerular disease.Here, we describe studies that show efficient transport of proteins into the mammalian cells mouse 3T3 fibroblasts and podocytes, utilizing an approach termed profection. We are using synthetic lipid structures that allow the safe packing of proteins or antibodies resulting in the subsequent delivery of protein into the cell. The uptake of lipid coated protein is facilitated by the intrinsic characteristic of cells such as podocytes to engulf particles that are physiologically retained in the extracellular matrix. Profection of the restriction enzyme MunI in 3T3 mouse fibroblasts caused an increase in DNA degradation. Moreover, purified proteins such as beta-galactosidase and the large GTPase dynamin could be profected into podocytes using two different profection reagents with the success rate of 95-100%. The delivered beta-galactosidase enzyme was properly folded and able to cleave its substrate X-gal in podocytes. Diseased podocytes are also potential recipients of protein cargo as we also delivered fluorophore labeled IgG into puromycin treated podocytes. We are currently optimizing our protocol for in vivo profection.Protein transfer is developing as an exciting tool to study and target highly differentiated cells such as podocytes.

  3. Adamantane in Drug Delivery Systems and Surface Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Adela Štimac; Marina Šekutor; Kata Mlinarić-Majerski; Leo Frkanec; Ruža Frkanec

    2017-01-01

    The adamantane moiety is widely applied in design and synthesis of new drug delivery systems and in surface recognition studies. This review focuses on liposomes, cyclodextrins, and dendrimers based on or incorporating adamantane derivatives. Our recent concept of adamantane as an anchor in the lipid bilayer of liposomes has promising applications in the field of targeted drug delivery and surface recognition. The results reported here encourage the development of novel adamantane-based struc...

  4. Waste feed delivery program systems engineering implementation plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Toole, S.M.; Hendel, B.J.

    1998-01-01

    This document defines the systems engineering processes and products planned by the Waste Feed Delivery Program to develop the necessary and sufficient systems to provide waste feed to the Privatization Contractor for Phase 1. It defines roles and responsibilities for the performance of the systems engineering processes and generation of products

  5. Bioaccessibility of nutrients and micronutrients from dispersed food systems: impact of the multiscale bulk and interfacial structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marze, Sébastien

    2013-01-01

    Many food systems are dispersed systems, that is, they possess at least two immiscible phases. This is generally due to the coexistence of domains with different physicochemical properties separated by many interfaces which control the apparent thermodynamic equilibrium. This feature was and is still largely studied to design pharmaceutical delivery systems. In food science, the recent intensification of in vitro digestion tests to complement the in vivo ones holds promises in the identification of the key parameters controlling the bioaccessibility of nutrients and micronutrients. In this review, we present the developments of in vitro digestion tests for dispersed food systems (mainly emulsions, dispersions and gels). We especially highlight the evidences detailing the roles of the constituting multiscale structures. In a perspective section, we show the potential of structured interfaces to allow controlled bioaccessibility.

  6. Dairy Analytics and Nutrient Analysis (DANA) Prototype System User Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sam Alessi; Dennis Keiser

    2012-10-01

    This document is a user manual for the Dairy Analytics and Nutrient Analysis (DANA) model. DANA provides an analysis of dairy anaerobic digestion technology and allows users to calculate biogas production, co-product valuation, capital costs, expenses, revenue and financial metrics, for user customizable scenarios, dairy and digester types. The model provides results for three anaerobic digester types; Covered Lagoons, Modified Plug Flow, and Complete Mix, and three main energy production technologies; electricity generation, renewable natural gas generation, and compressed natural gas generation. Additional options include different dairy types, bedding types, backend treatment type as well as numerous production, and economic parameters. DANA’s goal is to extend the National Market Value of Anaerobic Digester Products analysis (informa economics, 2012; Innovation Center, 2011) to include a greater and more flexible set of regional digester scenarios and to provide a modular framework for creation of a tool to support farmer and investor needs. Users can set up scenarios from combinations of existing parameters or add new parameters, run the model and view a variety of reports, charts and tables that are automatically produced and delivered over the web interface. DANA is based in the INL’s analysis architecture entitled Generalized Environment for Modeling Systems (GEMS) , which offers extensive collaboration, analysis, and integration opportunities and greatly speeds the ability construct highly scalable web delivered user-oriented decision tools. DANA’s approach uses server-based data processing and web-based user interfaces, rather a client-based spreadsheet approach. This offers a number of benefits over the client-based approach. Server processing and storage can scale up to handle a very large number of scenarios, so that analysis of county, even field level, across the whole U.S., can be performed. Server based databases allow dairy and digester

  7. Phloem small RNAs, nutrient stress responses, and systemic mobility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kehr Julia

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nutrient availabilities and needs have to be tightly coordinated between organs to ensure a balance between uptake and consumption for metabolism, growth, and defense reactions. Since plants often have to grow in environments with sub-optimal nutrient availability, a fine tuning is vital. To achieve this, information has to flow cell-to-cell and over long-distance via xylem and phloem. Recently, specific miRNAs emerged as a new type of regulating molecules during stress and nutrient deficiency responses, and miR399 was suggested to be a phloem-mobile long-distance signal involved in the phosphate starvation response. Results We used miRNA microarrays containing all known plant miRNAs and a set of unknown small (s RNAs earlier cloned from Brassica phloem sap 1, to comprehensively analyze the phloem response to nutrient deficiency by removing sulfate, copper or iron, respectively, from the growth medium. We show that phloem sap contains a specific set of sRNAs that is distinct from leaves and roots, and that the phloem also responds specifically to stress. Upon S and Cu deficiencies phloem sap reacts with an increase of the same miRNAs that were earlier characterized in other tissues, while no clear positive response to -Fe was observed. However, -Fe led to a reduction of Cu- and P-responsive miRNAs. We further demonstrate that under nutrient starvation miR399 and miR395 can be translocated through graft unions from wild type scions to rootstocks of the miRNA processing hen1-1 mutant. In contrast, miR171 was not transported. Translocation of miR395 led to a down-regulation of one of its targets in rootstocks, suggesting that this transport is of functional relevance, and that miR395, in addition to the well characterized miR399, could potentially act as a long-distance information transmitter. Conclusions Phloem sap contains a specific set of sRNAs, of which some specifically accumulate in response to nutrient deprivation. From

  8. Drug Delivery Systems for Imaging and Therapy of Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunay, Mine Silindir; Ozer, A Yekta; Chalon, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    Although a variety of therapeutic approaches are available for the treatment of Parkinson's disease, challenges limit effective therapy. Among these challenges are delivery of drugs through the blood brain barier to the target brain tissue and the side effects observed during long term administration of antiparkinsonian drugs. The use of drug delivery systems such as liposomes, niosomes, micelles, nanoparticles, nanocapsules, gold nanoparticles, microspheres, microcapsules, nanobubbles, microbubbles and dendrimers is being investigated for diagnosis and therapy. This review focuses on formulation, development and advantages of nanosized drug delivery systems which can penetrate the central nervous system for the therapy and/or diagnosis of PD, and highlights future nanotechnological approaches. It is esential to deliver a sufficient amount of either therapeutic or radiocontrast agents to the brain in order to provide the best possible efficacy or imaging without undesired degradation of the agent. Current treatments focus on motor symptoms, but these treatments generally do not deal with modifying the course of Parkinson's disease. Beyond pharmacological therapy, the identification of abnormal proteins such as α -synuclein, parkin or leucine-rich repeat serine/threonine protein kinase 2 could represent promising alternative targets for molecular imaging and therapy of Parkinson's disease. Nanotechnology and nanosized drug delivery systems are being investigated intensely and could have potential effect for Parkinson's disease. The improvement of drug delivery systems could dramatically enhance the effectiveness of Parkinson's Disease therapy and reduce its side effects.

  9. Cyclosporine Amicellar delivery system for dry eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Han; Cha, Kwang-Ho; Cho, Wonkyung; Park, Junsung; Park, Hee Jun; Sun, Bo Kyung; Hyun, Sang-Min; Hwang, Sung-Joo

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to develop stable cyclosporine A (CsA) ophthalmic micelle solutions for dry-eye syndrome and evaluate their physicochemical properties and therapeutic efficacy. CsA-micelle solutions (MS-CsA) were created by a simple method with Cremophor EL, ethanol, and phosphate buffer. We investigated the particle size, pH, and osmolarity. In addition, long-term physical and chemical stability for MS-CsA was observed. To confirm the therapeutic efficacy, tear production in dry eye-induced rabbits was evaluated using the Schirmer tear test (STT). When compared to a commercial product, Restasis, MS-CsA demonstrated improvement in goblet-cell density and conjunctival epithelial morphology, as demonstrated in histological hematoxylin and eosin staining. MS-CsA had a smaller particle size (average diameter 14-18 nm) and a narrow size distribution. Physicochemical parameters, such as particle size, pH, osmolarity, and remaining CsA concentration were all within the expected range of 60 days. STT scores significantly improved in MS-CsA treated groups (Pdry eye-induced rabbits thinned with loss of goblet cells. However, after 5 days of treatment with drug formulations, rabbit conjunctivas recovered epithelia and showed a relative increase in the number of goblet cells. The results of this study indicate the potential use of a novel MS for the ophthalmic delivery of CsA in treating dry eyes.

  10. H2T liquid hydrogen delivery system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, S.

    2002-01-01

    This Power Point presentation provides a preliminary evaluation of the cost of delivering liquid hydrogen produced in Quebec to hydrogen fuelled cars in Germany. The presentation describes the chain of events regarding liquid hydrogen delivery, beginning with the production of hydrogen from an initial source of hydro power. Water passes through an electrolyzer where hydrogen is liquefied and then placed into a container which is transported to market via truck, rail or tanker. Once transported, the hydrogen fuel is made available for consumers at refueling stations. The paper lists the costs related to transportation with reference to safety rules, pure transportation costs, leasing fees for the containers, and permission of customs duties for the import of hydrogen and export of empty containers between Quebec and Germany. A graph depicting a typical refueling station in Germany and the refueling events per hour was presented. For safety reasons, refueling is performed by a refueling robot. A blueprint of safety and protection distances at a refueling station was also presented. tabs., figs

  11. Classification of nutrient emission sources in the Vistula River system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowalkowski, Tomasz

    2009-01-01

    Eutrophication of the Baltic sea still remains one of the biggest problems in the north-eastern area of Europe. Recognizing the sources of nutrient emission, classification of their importance and finding the way towards reduction of pollution are the most important tasks for scientists researching this area. This article presents the chemometric approach to the classification of nutrient emission with respect to the regionalisation of emission sources within the Vistula River basin (Poland). Modelled data for mean yearly emission of nitrogen and phosphorus in 1991-2000 has been used for the classification. Seventeen subcatchements in the Vistula basin have been classified according to cluster and factor analyses. The results of this analysis allowed determination of groups of areas with similar pollution characteristics and indicate the need for spatial differentiation of policies and strategies. Three major factors indicating urban, erosion and agricultural sources have been identified as major discriminants of the groups. - Two classification methods applied to evaluate the results of nutrient emission allow definition of major sources of the emissions and classification of catchments with similar pollution.

  12. Flexible power delivery system and its intelligent functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glamochanin, Vlastimir; Andonov, Dragan

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents some of the features and capabilities of the novel energy distribution system called FRIENDS. The main FRIENDS objective is distribution system reliability, with flexible system structure reconfiguration, inclusion of dispersed energy generation systems. Altogether, it represents a new concept of reliable and economic electric power delivery to end users. The FRIENDS project is a challenge for future research and development, including new technology and devices for the implementation of such an integrated system. (author)

  13. Drug delivery systems and materials for wound healing applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saghazadeh, Saghi; Rinoldi, Chiara; Schot, Maik; Kashaf, Sara Saheb; Sharifi, Fatemeh; Jalilian, Elmira; Nuutila, Kristo; Giatsidis, Giorgio; Mostafalu, Pooria; Derakhshandeh, Hossein; Yue, Kan; Swieszkowski, Wojciech; Memic, Adnan; Tamayol, Ali; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2018-04-05

    Chronic, non-healing wounds place a significant burden on patients and healthcare systems, resulting in impaired mobility, limb amputation, or even death. Chronic wounds result from a disruption in the highly orchestrated cascade of events involved in wound closure. Significant advances in our understanding of the pathophysiology of chronic wounds have resulted in the development of drugs designed to target different aspects of the impaired processes. However, the hostility of the wound environment rich in degradative enzymes and its elevated pH, combined with differences in the time scales of different physiological processes involved in tissue regeneration require the use of effective drug delivery systems. In this review, we will first discuss the pathophysiology of chronic wounds and then the materials used for engineering drug delivery systems. Different passive and active drug delivery systems used in wound care will be reviewed. In addition, the architecture of the delivery platform and its ability to modulate drug delivery are discussed. Emerging technologies and the opportunities for engineering more effective wound care devices are also highlighted. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Recent trends in drug delivery system using protein nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sripriyalakshmi, S; Jose, Pinkybel; Ravindran, Aswathy; Anjali, C H

    2014-09-01

    Engineered nanoparticles that can facilitate drug formulation and passively target tumours have been under extensive research in recent years. These successes have driven a new wave of significant innovation in the generation of advanced particles. The fate and transport of diagnostic nanoparticles would significantly depend on nonselective drug delivery, and hence the use of high drug dosage is implemented. In this perspective, nanocarrier-based drug targeting strategies can be used which improve the selective delivery of drugs to the site of action, i.e. drug targeting. Pharmaceutical industries majorly focus on reducing the toxicity and side effects of drugs but only recently it has been realised that carrier systems themselves may pose risks to the patient. Proteins are compatible with biological systems and they are biodegradable. They offer a multitude of moieties for modifications to tailor drug binding, imaging or targeting entities. Thus, protein nanoparticles provide outstanding contributions as a carrier for drug delivery systems. This review summarises recent progress in particle-based therapeutic delivery and discusses important concepts in particle design and biological barriers for developing the next generation of particles drug delivery systems.

  15. Cyclosporine Amicellar delivery system for dry eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Han; Cha, Kwang-Ho; Cho, Wonkyung; Park, Junsung; Park, Hee Jun; Sun, Bo Kyung; Hyun, Sang-Min; Hwang, Sung-Joo

    2016-01-01

    Background The objectives of this study were to develop stable cyclosporine A (CsA) ophthalmic micelle solutions for dry-eye syndrome and evaluate their physicochemical properties and therapeutic efficacy. Materials and methods CsA-micelle solutions (MS-CsA) were created by a simple method with Cremophor EL, ethanol, and phosphate buffer. We investigated the particle size, pH, and osmolarity. In addition, long-term physical and chemical stability for MS-CsA was observed. To confirm the therapeutic efficacy, tear production in dry eye-induced rabbits was evaluated using the Schirmer tear test (STT). When compared to a commercial product, Restasis, MS-CsA demonstrated improvement in goblet-cell density and conjunctival epithelial morphology, as demonstrated in histological hematoxylin and eosin staining. Results MS-CsA had a smaller particle size (average diameter 14–18 nm) and a narrow size distribution. Physicochemical parameters, such as particle size, pH, osmolarity, and remaining CsA concentration were all within the expected range of 60 days. STT scores significantly improved in MS-CsA treated groups (P<0.05) in comparison to those of the Restasis-treated group. The number of goblet cells for rabbit conjunctivas after the administration of MS-CsA was 94.83±8.38, a significantly higher result than the 65.17±11.51 seen with Restasis. The conjunctival epithelial morphology of dry eye-induced rabbits thinned with loss of goblet cells. However, after 5 days of treatment with drug formulations, rabbit conjunctivas recovered epithelia and showed a relative increase in the number of goblet cells. Conclusion The results of this study indicate the potential use of a novel MS for the ophthalmic delivery of CsA in treating dry eyes. PMID:27382280

  16. Carrier-Based Drug Delivery System for Treatment of Acne

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Amber; Kumar Sonker, Avinesh

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 95% of the population suffers at some point in their lifetime from acne vulgaris. Acne is a multifactorial disease of the pilosebaceous unit. This inflammatory skin disorder is most common in adolescents but also affects neonates, prepubescent children, and adults. Topical conventional systems are associated with various side effects. Novel drug delivery systems have been used to reduce the side effect of drugs commonly used in the topical treatment of acne. Topical treatment of acne with active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) makes direct contact with the target site before entering the systemic circulation which reduces the systemic side effect of the parenteral or oral administration of drug. The objective of the present review is to discuss the conventional delivery systems available for acne, their drawbacks, and limitations. The advantages, disadvantages, and outcome of using various carrier-based delivery systems like liposomes, niosomes, solid lipid nanoparticles, and so forth, are explained. This paper emphasizes approaches to overcome the drawbacks and limitations associated with the conventional system and the advances and application that are poised to further enhance the efficacy of topical acne formulations, offering the possibility of simplified dosing regimen that may improve treatment outcomes using novel delivery system. PMID:24688376

  17. Engaging Faculty in Telecommunications-Based Instructional Delivery Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swalec, John J.

    In the design and development of telecommunications-based instructional delivery systems, attention to faculty involvement and training is often overlooked until the system is operational. The Waubonsee Telecommunications Instructional Consortium (TIC), in Illinois, is one network that benefited from early faculty input. Even before the first…

  18. Pharmacokinetics of a 5-fluorouracil liposomal delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, S T; Sherwood, M B; Nichols, D A; Penne, R B; Sery, T; Spaeth, G L

    1988-01-01

    A liposomal delivery system was developed in an attempt to prolong ocular levels of 5-fluorouracil for glaucoma filtering surgery. The pharmacokinetics of the 5-fluorouracil liposomal delivery system were studied in normal pigmented rabbits with 5-fluorouracil labelled with carbon-14 (C-14). 14C 5-fluorouracil was incorporated into the liposomes at a concentration of 10 g/l and injected subconjunctivally in doses of 5 and 10 mg. Concentrations of 5-fluorouracil were assayed at 10 time intervals from 0.5 to 96 hours in cornea, sclera, and conjunctiva and at six time intervals from 0.5 to 12 hours in aqueous. Two peak concentrations were noted at approximately one and eight hours, with measurable levels present at 96 hours. This study demonstrates the ability of this liposomal delivery system to prolong levels of 5-fluorouracial in normal pigmented rabbits. PMID:3179257

  19. A clinical perspective on mucoadhesive buccal drug delivery systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilhotra, Ritu M; Ikram, Mohd; Srivastava, Sunny; Gilhotra, Neeraj

    2014-01-01

    Mucoadhesion can be defined as a state in which two components, of which one is of biological origin, are held together for extended periods of time by the help of interfacial forces. Among the various transmucosal routes, buccal mucosa has excellent accessibility and relatively immobile mucosa, hence suitable for administration of retentive dosage form. The objective of this paper is to review the works done so far in the field of mucoadhesive buccal drug delivery systems (MBDDS), with a clinical perspective. Starting with a brief introduction of the mucoadhesive drug delivery systems, oral mucosa, and the theories of mucoadhesion, this article then proceeds to cover the works done so far in the field of MBDDS, categorizing them on the basis of ailments they are meant to cure. Additionally, we focus on the various patents, recent advancements, and challenges as well as the future prospects for mucoadhesive buccal drug delivery systems. PMID:24683406

  20. Safety design integrated in the building delivery system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    . The purpose of this article is to demonstrate how safety and health can be integrated in the design phases integrated in the management delivery systems within construction, The method for the research was to go through the building delivery system step by step and create a normative description of what, when......In construction, it is important to view safety and health as an integrated part of the way that “designers” are working. The designers cowers architects, constructors, engineers and others who carry out their consulting services in the design phase of a construction project. The philosophy...... and how to fully integrate safety in each part of the process. The result is a concept and guideline including control forms for how to integrate safety design in the Building Delivery System plus what to do and when. The concept has been tested in an educational context. The practical value...

  1. Safety design integrated in the Building Delivery System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kirsten

    2012-01-01

    phases of the building delivery system by using the principle of the lean construction modelling. The method for the research was to go through the lean construction building delivery system step by step and create a normative description of what to do, when to do and how to do to fully integration...... of safety in each process. The group of participants who created the description had a high experience in a combination of research, safety and health in general and especial in construction and knowledge of the lean construction processes both from the clients perspective as well as from the designers...... and the consultants. The result is a concept and guideline including control schemes for how to integrate safety design in the lean construction building delivery system including what to do and when. The concept has been tested in an educational context and found useful by the designers. The practical value...

  2. Oral Drug Delivery Systems Comprising Altered Geometric Configurations for Controlled Drug Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Bawa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent pharmaceutical research has focused on controlled drug delivery having an advantage over conventional methods. Adequate controlled plasma drug levels, reduced side effects as well as improved patient compliance are some of the benefits that these systems may offer. Controlled delivery systems that can provide zero-order drug delivery have the potential for maximizing efficacy while minimizing dose frequency and toxicity. Thus, zero-order drug release is ideal in a large area of drug delivery which has therefore led to the development of various technologies with such drug release patterns. Systems such as multilayered tablets and other geometrically altered devices have been created to perform this function. One of the principles of multilayered tablets involves creating a constant surface area for release. Polymeric materials play an important role in the functioning of these systems. Technologies developed to date include among others: Geomatrix® multilayered tablets, which utilizes specific polymers that may act as barriers to control drug release; Procise®, which has a core with an aperture that can be modified to achieve various types of drug release; core-in-cup tablets, where the core matrix is coated on one surface while the circumference forms a cup around it; donut-shaped devices, which possess a centrally-placed aperture hole and Dome Matrix® as well as “release modules assemblage”, which can offer alternating drug release patterns. This review discusses the novel altered geometric system technologies that have been developed to provide controlled drug release, also focusing on polymers that have been employed in such developments.

  3. Oral delivery of peptides and proteins using lipid-based drug delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Nielsen, Hanne Mørck; Müllertz, Anette

    2012-10-01

    In order to successfully develop lipid-based drug delivery systems (DDS) for oral administration of peptides and proteins, it is important to gain an understanding of the colloid structures formed by these DDS, the mode of peptide and protein incorporation as well as the mechanism by which intestinal absorption of peptides and proteins is promoted. The present paper reviews the literature on lipid-based DDS, employed for oral delivery of peptides and proteins and highlights the mechanisms by which the different lipid-based carriers are expected to overcome the two most important barriers (extensive enzymatic degradation and poor transmucosal permeability). This paper also gives a clear-cut idea about advantages and drawbacks of using different lipidic colloidal carriers ((micro)emulsions, solid lipid core particles and liposomes) for oral delivery of peptides and proteins. Lipid-based DDS are safe and suitable for oral delivery of peptides and proteins. Significant progress has been made in this area with several technologies on clinical trials. However, a better understanding of the mechanism of action in vivo is needed in order to improve the design and development of lipid-based DDS with the desired bioavailability and therapeutic profile.

  4. Buccoadhesive drug delivery systems--extensive review on recent patents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathan, Shadab A; Iqbal, Zeenat; Sahani, Jasjeet K; Talegaonkar, Sushma; Khar, Roop K; Ahmad, Farhan J

    2008-01-01

    Peroral administration of drugs, although most preferred by both clinicians and patients has several disadvantages such as hepatic first pass metabolism and enzymatic degradation within the GI tract, that prohibit oral administration of certain classes of drugs especially peptides and proteins. Consequently, other absorptive mucosae are considered as potential sites for administration of these drugs. Among the various transmucosal routes studied the buccal mucosa offers several advantages for controlled drug delivery for extended period of time. The mucosa is well supplied with both vascular and lymphatic drainage and first-pass metabolism in the liver and pre-systemic elimination in the gastrointestinal tract is avoided. The area is well suited for a retentive device and appears to be acceptable to the patient. With the right dosage form, design and formulation, the permeability and the local environment of the mucosa can be controlled and manipulated in order to accommodate drug permeation. Buccal drug delivery is thus a promising area for continued research with the aim of systemic and local delivery of orally inefficient drugs as well as feasible and attractive alternative for non-invasive delivery of potent protein and peptide drug molecules. Extensive review pertaining specifically to the patents relating to buccal drug delivery is currently available. However, many patents e.g. US patents 6, 585,997; US20030059376A1 etc. have been mentioned in few articles. It is the objective of this article to extensively review buccal drug delivery by discussing the recent patents available. Buccal dosage forms will also be reviewed with an emphasis on bioadhesive polymeric based delivery systems.

  5. Efficiency performance of China's health care delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Luyu; Cheng, Gang; Song, Suhang; Yuan, Beibei; Zhu, Weiming; He, Li; Ma, Xiaochen; Meng, Qingyue

    2017-07-01

    Improving efficiency performance of the health care delivery system has been on the agenda for the health system reform that China initiated in 2009. This study examines the changes in efficiency performance and determinants of efficiency after the reform to provide evidence to assess the progress of the reform from the perspective of efficiency. Descriptive analysis, Data Envelopment Analysis, the Malmquist Index, and multilevel regressions are used with data from multiple sources, including the World Bank, the China Health Statistical Yearbook, and routine reports. The results indicate that over the last decade, health outcomes compared with health investment were relatively higher in China than in most other countries worldwide, and the trend was stable. The overall efficiency and total factor productivity increased after the reform, indicating that the reform was likely to have had a positive impact on the efficiency performance of the health care delivery system. However, the health care delivery structure showed low system efficiency, mainly attributed to the weakened primary health care system. Strengthening the primary health care system is central to enhancing the future performance of China's health care delivery system. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Ophthalmic Drug Delivery Systems for Antibiotherapy—A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubald, Marion; Bourgeois, Sandrine; Andrieu, Véronique; Fessi, Hatem

    2018-01-01

    The last fifty years, ophthalmic drug delivery research has made much progress, challenging scientists about the advantages and limitations of this drug delivery approach. Topical eye drops are the most commonly used formulation in ocular drug delivery. Despite the good tolerance for patients, this topical administration is only focus on the anterior ocular diseases and had a high precorneal loss of drugs due to the tears production and ocular barriers. Antibiotics are popularly used in solution or in ointment for the ophthalmic route. However, their local bioavailability needs to be improved in order to decrease the frequency of administrations and the side effects and to increase their therapeutic efficiency. For this purpose, sustained release forms for ophthalmic delivery of antibiotics were developed. This review briefly describes the ocular administration with the ocular barriers and the currently topical forms. It focuses on experimental results to bypass the limitations of ocular antibiotic delivery with new ocular technology as colloidal and in situ gelling systems or with the improvement of existing forms as implants and contact lenses. Nanotechnology is presently a promising drug delivery way to provide protection of antibiotics and improve pathway through ocular barriers and deliver drugs to specific target sites. PMID:29342879

  7. Ophthalmic Drug Delivery Systems for Antibiotherapy—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Dubald

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The last fifty years, ophthalmic drug delivery research has made much progress, challenging scientists about the advantages and limitations of this drug delivery approach. Topical eye drops are the most commonly used formulation in ocular drug delivery. Despite the good tolerance for patients, this topical administration is only focus on the anterior ocular diseases and had a high precorneal loss of drugs due to the tears production and ocular barriers. Antibiotics are popularly used in solution or in ointment for the ophthalmic route. However, their local bioavailability needs to be improved in order to decrease the frequency of administrations and the side effects and to increase their therapeutic efficiency. For this purpose, sustained release forms for ophthalmic delivery of antibiotics were developed. This review briefly describes the ocular administration with the ocular barriers and the currently topical forms. It focuses on experimental results to bypass the limitations of ocular antibiotic delivery with new ocular technology as colloidal and in situ gelling systems or with the improvement of existing forms as implants and contact lenses. Nanotechnology is presently a promising drug delivery way to provide protection of antibiotics and improve pathway through ocular barriers and deliver drugs to specific target sites.

  8. NOVEL APROACHES ON BUCCAL MUCOADHESIVE DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Dibyalochan Mohanty* , C. Gurulatha, Dr.Vasudha Bakshi, B. Mavya

    2018-01-01

    Among novel drug delivery system ,Buccal mucoadhesive systems have attracted great attention in recent years due to their ability to adhere and remain on the oral mucosa and to release their drug content gradually ,bioadhesion refers to any bond formed between two biological surface or a bond between a biological and a systemic surface. Buccal mucosa is preferred for both systemic and local drug action. The mucosa has a rich blood supply and it relatively permeable. Buccal mucoadhesive films ...

  9. A real-time virtual delivery system for photon radiotherapy delivery monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Shi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Treatment delivery monitoring is important for radiotherapy, which enables catching dosimetric error at the earliest possible opportunity. This project develops a virtual delivery system to monitor the dose delivery process of photon radiotherapy in real-time using GPU-based Monte Carlo (MC method.Methods: The simulation process consists of 3 parallel CPU threads. A thread T1 is responsible for communication with a linac, which acquires a set of linac status parameters, e.g. gantry angles, MLC configurations, and beam MUs every 20 ms. Since linac vendors currently do not offer interface to acquire data in real time, we mimic this process by fetching information from a linac dynalog file at the set frequency. Instantaneous beam fluence map (FM is calculated based. A FM buffer is also created in T1 and the instantaneous FM is accumulated to it. This process continues, until a ready signal is received from thread T2 on which an in-house developed MC dose engine executes on GPU. At that moment, the accumulated FM is transferred to T2 for dose calculations, and the FM buffer in T1 is cleared. Once the dose calculation finishes, the resulting 3D dose distribution is directed to thread T3, which displays it in three orthogonal planes in color wash overlaid on the CT image. This process continues to monitor the 3D dose distribution in real-time.Results: An IMRT and a VMAT cases used in our patient-specific QA are studied. Maximum dose differences between our system and treatment planning system are 0.98% and 1.58% for the IMRT and VMAT cases, respectively. The update frequency is >10Hz and the relative uncertainty level is 2%.Conclusion: By embedding a GPU-based MC code in a novel data/work flow, it is possible to achieve real-time MC dose calculations to monitor delivery process.------------------------------Cite this article as: Shi F, Gu X, Graves YJ, Jiang S, Jia X. A real-time virtual delivery system for photon radiotherapy delivery

  10. Chemistry, manufacturing and controls in passive transdermal drug delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Tarun; Audett, Jay

    2015-01-01

    Transdermal drug delivery systems (TDDS) are used for the delivery of the drugs through the skin into the systemic circulation by applying them to the intact skin. The development of TDDS is a complex and multidisciplinary affair which involves identification of suitable drug, excipients and various other components. There have been numerous problems reported with respect to TDDS quality and performance. These problems can be reduced by appropriately addressing chemistry, manufacturing and controls requirements, which would thereby result in development of robust TDDS product and processes. This article provides recommendations on the chemistry, manufacturing and controls focusing on the unique technical aspects of TDDS.

  11. Adamantane in Drug Delivery Systems and Surface Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Štimac, Adela; Šekutor, Marina; Mlinarić-Majerski, Kata; Frkanec, Leo; Frkanec, Ruža

    2017-02-16

    The adamantane moiety is widely applied in design and synthesis of new drug delivery systems and in surface recognition studies. This review focuses on liposomes, cyclodextrins, and dendrimers based on or incorporating adamantane derivatives. Our recent concept of adamantane as an anchor in the lipid bilayer of liposomes has promising applications in the field of targeted drug delivery and surface recognition. The results reported here encourage the development of novel adamantane-based structures and self-assembled supramolecular systems for basic chemical investigations as well as for biomedical application.

  12. Adamantane in Drug Delivery Systems and Surface Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adela Štimac

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The adamantane moiety is widely applied in design and synthesis of new drug delivery systems and in surface recognition studies. This review focuses on liposomes, cyclodextrins, and dendrimers based on or incorporating adamantane derivatives. Our recent concept of adamantane as an anchor in the lipid bilayer of liposomes has promising applications in the field of targeted drug delivery and surface recognition. The results reported here encourage the development of novel adamantane-based structures and self-assembled supramolecular systems for basic chemical investigations as well as for biomedical application.

  13. Nanocomposites chitosan/montmorillonite for drug delivery system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braga, Carla R. Costa; Barbosa, Rossemberg C.; Lima, Rosemary S. Cunha; Fook, Marcus V. Lia; Silva, Suedina M. Lima

    2009-01-01

    In drugs delivery system the incorporation of an inorganic nanophase in polymer matrix, i.e. production of an inorganic-organic nanocomposite is an attractive alternative to obtain a constant release rate for a prolonged time. This study was performed to obtain films of nanocomposites Chitosan/montmorillonite intercalation by the technique of solution in the proportions of 1:1, 5:1 and 10:1. The nanocomposites were characterized by infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetric analysis. The results indicated that the feasibility of obtaining films of nanocomposites exfoliate. Among the suggested applications for films developed in this study includes them use for drugs delivery system. (author)

  14. Process development work plan for waste feed delivery system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papp, I.G.

    1998-01-01

    This work plan defines the process used to develop project definition for Waste Feed Delivery (WFD). Project definition provides the direction for development of definitive design media required for the ultimate implementation of operational processing hardware and software. Outlines for the major deliverables are attached as appendices. The implementation of hardware and software will accommodate requirements for safe retrieval and delivery of waste currently stored in Hanford's underground storage tanks. Operations and maintenance ensure the availability of systems, structures, and components for current and future planned operations within the boundary of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) authorization basis

  15. An improved delivery system for bladder irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moslemi, Mohammad K; Rajaei, Mojtaba

    2010-10-05

    Occasionally, urologists may see patients requiring temporary bladder irrigation at hospitals without stocks of specialist irrigation apparatus. One option is to transfer the patient to a urology ward, but often there are outstanding medical issues that require continued specialist input. Here, we describe an improved system for delivering temporary bladder irrigation by utilizing readily available components and the novel modification of a sphygmomanometer blub. This option is good for bladder irrigation in patients with moderate or severe gross hematuria due to various causes. In this prospective study from March 2007 to April 2009, we used our new system in eligible cases. In this system, an irrigant bag with 1 L of normal saline was suspended 80 cm above the indwelled 3-way Foley catheter, and its drainage tube was inserted into the irrigant port of the catheter. To increase the flow rate of the irrigant system, we inserted a traditional sphygmomanometer bulb at the top of the irrigant bag. This closed system was used for continuous bladder irrigation (CBI) in patients who underwent open prostatectomy, transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP), or transurethral resection of the bladder (TURB). This high-pressure system is also used for irrigation during cystourethroscopy, internal urethrotomy, and transurethral lithotripsy. Our 831 eligible cases were divided into two groups: group 1 were endourologic cases and group 2 were open prostatectomy, TURP, and TURB cases. The maximum and average flow rates were evaluated. The efficacy of our new system was compared prospectively with the previous traditional system used in 545 cases. In group 1, we had clear vision at the time of endourologic procedures. The success rate of this system was 99.5%. In group 2, the incidence of clot retention decreased two fold in comparison to traditional gravity-dependent bladder flow system. These changes were statistically significant (P = 0.001). We did not observe any adverse

  16. Mercury sorbent delivery system for flue gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klunder,; Edgar, B [Bethel Park, PA

    2009-02-24

    The invention presents a device for the removal of elemental mercury from flue gas streams utilizing a layer of activated carbon particles contained within the filter fabric of a filter bag for use in a flue gas scrubbing system.

  17. Oral heparin delivery: design and in vivo evaluation of a stomach-targeted mucoadhesive delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Thierry; Leitner, Verena M; Bernkop-Schnürch, Andreas

    2005-05-01

    Low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) is an agent of choice in the anti-coagulant therapy and prophylaxis of thrombosis and coronary syndromes. However, the therapeutic use is partially limited due to a poor oral bioavailability. It was therefore the aim of this study to design and evaluate a highly efficient stomach-targeted oral delivery system for LMWH. In order to appraise the influence of the molecular weight on the oral bioavailability, mini-tablets comprising 3 kDa (279 IU) and 6 kDa (300 IU) LMWH, respectively, were generated and tested in vivo in rats. The potential of the test formulations based on thiolated polycarbophil, was evaluated in comparison to hydroxyethylcellulose (HEC) as control carrier matrix. The plasma levels of LMWH after oral versus subcutaneous administration were determined in order to calculate the relative bioavailability. With the delivery system containing 3 kDa LMWH (279 IU) a relative bioavailability of 19.1% was achieved, offering a significantly (p thiolated polymers are a promising tool for the non-invasive stomach-targeted systemic delivery of LMWH as model for a hydrophilic macromolecular polysaccharide. Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc

  18. Self-emulsifying drug delivery systems: Design of a novel vaginal delivery system for curcumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köllner, S; Nardin, I; Markt, R; Griesser, J; Prüfert, F; Bernkop-Schnürch, A

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a vaginal self-emulsifying delivery system for curcumin being capable of spreading, of permeating the mucus gel layer and of protecting the drug being incorporated in oily nanodroplets towards mucus interactions and immobilization. The emulsifying properties of curcumin loaded SEDDS containing 30% Cremophor RH40, 20% Capmul PG-8, 30% Captex 300, 10% DMSO and 10% tetraglycol (SEDD formulation A) as well as 25% PEG 200, 35% Cremophor RH40, 20% Captex 355, 10% Caprylic acid and 10% Tween 80 (SEDD formulation B) after diluting 1+2 with artificial vaginal fluid were characterized regarding droplet size and zeta potential. Collagen swelling test was used to examine the irritation potential of SEDDS. Additionally to mucus binding studies, permeation studies in the mucus were performed. Furthermore, spreading potential of the novel developed formulations was compared with a commercial available o/w cream (non-ionic hydrophilic cream) on vaginal mucosa. SEDDS displayed a mean droplet size between 38 and 141nm and a zeta potential of -0.3 to -1.6mV. The collagen swelling test indicated no significant irritation potential of both formulations over 24h. An immediate interaction of unformulated curcumin with the mucus was determined, whereas both SEDDS facilitated drug permeation through the mucus layer. Formulation B showed a 2.2-fold improved transport ratio of curcumin compared to SEDD formulation A. In comparison to the vaginal cream, SEDD formulation A and B were able to spread over the vaginal mucosa and cover the tissue to a 17.8- and 14.8-fold higher extent, respectively. According to these results, SEDDS seems to be a promising tool for vaginal application. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Novel engineered systems for oral, mucosal and transdermal drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hairui; Yu, Yuan; Faraji Dana, Sara; Li, Bo; Lee, Chi-Ying; Kang, Lifeng

    2013-08-01

    Technological advances in drug discovery have resulted in increasing number of molecules including proteins and peptides as drug candidates. However, how to deliver drugs with satisfactory therapeutic effect, minimal side effects and increased patient compliance is a question posted before researchers, especially for those drugs with poor solubility, large molecular weight or instability. Microfabrication technology, polymer science and bioconjugate chemistry combine to address these problems and generate a number of novel engineered drug delivery systems. Injection routes usually have poor patient compliance due to their invasive nature and potential safety concerns over needle reuse. The alternative non-invasive routes, such as oral, mucosal (pulmonary, nasal, ocular, buccal, rectal, vaginal), and transdermal drug delivery have thus attracted many attentions. Here, we review the applications of the novel engineered systems for oral, mucosal and transdermal drug delivery.

  20. RaPToRS Sample Delivery System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henchen, Robert; Shibata, Kye; Krieger, Michael; Pogozelski, Edward; Padalino, Stephen; Glebov, Vladimir; Sangster, Craig

    2010-11-01

    At various labs (NIF, LLE, NRL), activated material samples are used to measure reaction properties. The Rapid Pneumatic Transport of Radioactive Samples (RaPToRS) system quickly and safely moves these radioactive samples through a closed PVC tube via airflow. The carrier travels from the reaction chamber to the control and analysis station, pneumatically braking at the outlet. A reversible multiplexer routes samples from various locations near the shot chamber to the analysis station. Also, the multiplexer allows users to remotely load unactivated samples without manually approaching the reaction chamber. All elements of the system (pneumatic drivers, flow control valves, optical position sensors, multiplexers, Geiger counters, and release gates at the analysis station) can be controlled manually or automatically using a custom LabVIEW interface. A prototype is currently operating at NRL in Washington DC. Prospective facilities for Raptors systems include LLE and NIF.

  1. Application of mathematical modeling in sustained release delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, Mario; Grassi, Gabriele

    2014-08-01

    This review, presenting as starting point the concept of the mathematical modeling, is aimed at the physical and mathematical description of the most important mechanisms regulating drug delivery from matrix systems. The precise knowledge of the delivery mechanisms allows us to set up powerful mathematical models which, in turn, are essential for the design and optimization of appropriate drug delivery systems. The fundamental mechanisms for drug delivery from matrices are represented by drug diffusion, matrix swelling, matrix erosion, drug dissolution with possible recrystallization (e.g., as in the case of amorphous and nanocrystalline drugs), initial drug distribution inside the matrix, matrix geometry, matrix size distribution (in the case of spherical matrices of different diameter) and osmotic pressure. Depending on matrix characteristics, the above-reported variables may play a different role in drug delivery; thus the mathematical model needs to be built solely on the most relevant mechanisms of the particular matrix considered. Despite the somewhat diffident behavior of the industrial world, in the light of the most recent findings, we believe that mathematical modeling may have a tremendous potential impact in the pharmaceutical field. We do believe that mathematical modeling will be more and more important in the future especially in the light of the rapid advent of personalized medicine, a novel therapeutic approach intended to treat each single patient instead of the 'average' patient.

  2. Review of Innovative Sediment Delivery Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Alternative conveyor belt systems appear to be available from the growing hydraulic fracturing ( fracking , shale gas recovery) industry, which use...tons of aggregate material (with diameters up to 2 in.) per hour. This equates to roughly 150 cu yd per hr, de- pending on sand density. As fracking

  3. Nanostructured lipid carriers system: recent advances in drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Md Asif; Md, Shadab; Sahni, Jasjeet Kaur; Baboota, Sanjula; Dang, Shweta; Ali, Javed

    2012-12-01

    Nanostructured lipid carrier (NLC) is second generation smarter drug carrier system having solid matrix at room temperature. This carrier system is made up of physiological, biodegradable and biocompatible lipid materials and surfactants and is accepted by regulatory authorities for application in different drug delivery systems. The availability of many products in the market in short span of time reveals the success story of this delivery system. Since the introduction of the first product, around 30 NLC preparations are commercially available. NLC exhibit superior advantages over other colloidal carriers viz., nanoemulsions, polymeric nanoparticles, liposomes, SLN etc. and thus, have been explored to more extent in pharmaceutical technology. The whole set of unique advantages such as enhanced drug loading capacity, prevention of drug expulsion, leads to more flexibility for modulation of drug release and makes NLC versatile delivery system for various routes of administration. The present review gives insights on the definitions and characterization of NLC as colloidal carriers including the production techniques and suitable formulations. This review paper also highlights the importance of NLC in pharmaceutical applications for the various routes of drug delivery viz., topical, oral, pulmonary, ocular and parenteral administration and its future perspective as a pharmaceutical carrier.

  4. Transferosomes - A vesicular transdermal delivery system for enhanced drug permeation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reshmy Rajan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Transdermal administration of drugs is generally limited by the barrier function of the skin. Vesicular systems are one of the most controversial methods for transdermal delivery of active substances. The interest in designing transdermal delivery systems was relaunched after the discovery of elastic vesicles like transferosomes, ethosomes, cubosomes, phytosomes, etc. This paper presents the composition, mechanisms of penetration, manufacturing and characterization methods of transferosomes as transdermal delivery systems of active substances. For a drug to be absorbed and distributed into organs and tissues and eliminated from the body, it must pass through one or more biological membranes/barriers at various locations. Such a movement of drug across the membrane is called as drug transport. For the drugs to be delivered to the body, they should cross the membranous barrier. The concept of these delivery systems was designed in an attempt to concentrate the drug in the tissues of interest, while reducing the amount of drug in the remaining tissues. Hence, surrounding tissues are not affected by the drug. In addition, loss of drug does not happen due to localization of drug, leading to get maximum efficacy of the medication. Therefore, the phospholipid based carrier systems are of considerable interest in this era.

  5. Direct current power delivery system and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Di; Garces, Luis Jose; Dai, Jian; Lai, Rixin

    2016-09-06

    A power transmission system includes a first unit for carrying out the steps of receiving high voltage direct current (HVDC) power from an HVDC power line, generating an alternating current (AC) component indicative of a status of the first unit, and adding the AC component to the HVDC power line. Further, the power transmission system includes a second unit for carrying out the steps of generating a direct current (DC) voltage to transfer the HVDC power on the HVDC power line, wherein the HVDC power line is coupled between the first unit and the second unit, detecting a presence or an absence of the added AC component in the HVDC power line, and determining the status of the first unit based on the added AC component.

  6. Buccal Drug Delivery System: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Parth S. Patel; Ashish M. Parmar; Nilang S. Doshi; Hardik V. Patel; Raxit R. Patel; Chetan Nayee

    2013-01-01

    Bioadhesion can be defined as a phenomenon of interfacial molecular attractive forces in the midst of the surfaces of the biological substrate and the natural or synthetic polymers, which allows the polymer to adhere to the biological surface for an extended period of time. Bioadhesive polymeric systems have been used since extent in the development of products for various biomedical applications which include denture adhesives and surgical glue.Considerable attention has been focused in rece...

  7. Gene delivery to skeletal muscle results in sustained expression and systemic delivery of a therapeutic protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, P D; Podsakoff, G M; Chen, X; McQuiston, S A; Colosi, P C; Matelis, L A; Kurtzman, G J; Byrne, B J

    1996-11-26

    Somatic gene therapy has been proposed as a means to achieve systemic delivery of therapeutic proteins. However, there is limited evidence that current methods of gene delivery can practically achieve this goal. In this study, we demonstrate that, following a single intramuscular administration of a recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vector containing the beta-galactosidase (AAV-lacZ) gene into adult BALB/c mice, protein expression was detected in myofibers for at least 32 weeks. A single intramuscular administration of an AAV vector containing a gene for human erythropoietin (AAV-Epo) into mice resulted in dose-dependent secretion of erythropoietin and corresponding increases in red blood cell production that persisted for up to 40 weeks. Primary human myotubes transduced in vitro with the AAV-Epo vector also showed dose-dependent production of Epo. These results demonstrate that rAAV vectors are able to transduce skeletal muscle and are capable of achieving sustained expression and systemic delivery of a therapeutic protein following a single intramuscular administration. Gene therapy using AAV vectors may provide a practical strategy for the treatment of inherited and acquired protein deficiencies.

  8. Pricing strategies for capitated delivery systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruenberg, Leonard; Wallack, Stanley S.; Tompkins, Christopher P.

    1986-01-01

    This article discusses alternative methods for establishing a fairer pricing mechanism for Medicare recipients who enroll in health maintenance organizations and other competitive medical plans. The current method, based upon the adjusted average per capita cost, is inadequate because it fails to adjust premium levels for differences in health status; it establishes undesirable incentives that may lead to underservice, and it is tied to costs in the fee-for-service system. Alternative methods would incorporate health status, have Medicare share the risk with HMO's, and base payment on HMO experience. PMID:10311925

  9. Printing technologies in fabrication of drug delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolakovic, Ruzica; Viitala, Tapani; Ihalainen, Petri; Genina, Natalja; Peltonen, Jouko; Sandler, Niklas

    2013-12-01

    There has been increased activity in the field recently regarding the development and research on various printing techniques in fabrication of dosage forms and drug delivery systems. These technologies may offer benefits and flexibility in manufacturing, potentially paving the way for personalized dosing and tailor-made dosage forms. In this review, the most recent observations and advancements in fabrication of drug delivery systems by utilizing printing technologies are summarized. A general overview of 2D printing techniques is presented including a review of the most recent literature where printing techniques are used in fabrication of drug delivery systems. The future perspectives and possible impacts on formulation strategies, flexible dosing and personalized medication of using printing techniques for fabrication of drug delivery systems are discussed. It is evident that there is an urgent need to meet the challenges of rapidly growing trend of personalization of medicines through development of flexible drug-manufacturing approaches. In this context, various printing technologies, such as inkjet and flexography, can play an important role. Challenges on different levels exist and include: i) technological development of printers and production lines; ii) printable formulations and carrier substrates; iii) quality control and characterization; and iv) regulatory perspectives.

  10. Student Attitudes toward Information Systems Graduate Program Design and Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thouin, Mark F.; Hefley, William E.; Raghunathan, Srinivasan

    2018-01-01

    This study examines student preferences regarding graduate management information systems (MIS) education. One hundred and eighty four graduate students responded to a survey exploring student attitudes towards degree program content, delivery format, and peer group interaction. Study results indicate that students prefer a program with an even…

  11. Development of a Gastroretentive Drug Delivery System based on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Purpose: The aim of this work was to synthesize superporous hydrogels of rosiglitazone using chitosan and to study its swelling behaviour for application as a gastroretentive drug delivery system. Methods: Chitosan superporous hydrogels were synthesized using glyoxal as a crosslinking agent by gas blowing method.

  12. Safe Active Scanning for Energy Delivery Systems Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helms, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Salazar, B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Scheibel, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Engels, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Reiger, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-09-30

    The Department of Energy’s Cybersecurity for Energy Delivery Systems Program has funded Safe(r) Active Scanning for Energy Delivery Systems, led by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, to investigate and analyze the impacts of active scanning in the operational environment of energy delivery systems. In collaboration with Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and Idaho National Laboratory, active scans across three testbeds including 38 devices were performed. This report gives a summary of the initial literature survey performed on the SASEDS project as well as industry partner interview summaries and main findings from Phase 1 of the project. Additionally, the report goes into the details of scanning techniques, methodologies for testing, testbed descriptions, and scanning results, with appendices to elaborate on the specific scans that were performed. As a result of testing, a single device out of 38 exhibited problems when actively scanned, and a reboot was required to fix it. This single failure indicates that active scanning is not likely to have a detrimental effect on the safety and resilience of energy delivery systems. We provide a path forward for future research that could enable wide adoption of active scanning and lead utilities to incorporate active scanning as part of their default network security plans to discover and rectify rogue devices, adversaries, and services that may be on the network. This increased network visibility will allow operational technology cybersecurity practitioners to improve their situational awareness of networks and their vulnerabilities.

  13. Targeted nanodrug delivery systems for the treatment of Tuberculosis

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lemmer, Yolandy

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available patient treatment compliance and drug resistance pose a great challenge to TB treatment programs worldwide. To improve the current inadequate therapeutic management of TB, a polymeric anti-TB nanodrug delivery system for anti-TB drugs was developed...

  14. Online Instruction: An Alternative Delivery System for Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wronkovich, Michael

    2003-01-01

    In an increasingly technological society, delivery systems for professional development and higher education have greatly expanded. Video conferencing and web-based alternatives provide opportunities to extend the college campus far beyond the boundaries traditionally considered feasible. Adult learners have found the convenience of web-based…

  15. Printing technologies in fabrication of drug delivery systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolakovic, Ruzica; Viitala, Tapani; Ihalainen, Petri

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: There has been increased activity in the field recently regarding the development and research on various printing techniques in fabrication of dosage forms and drug delivery systems. These technologies may offer benefits and flexibility in manufacturing, potentially paving the way...... for personalized dosing and tailor-made dosage forms.\

  16. Bioinspired silica as drug delivery systems and their biocompatibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steven, Christopher R.; Busby, Grahame A.; Mather, Craig

    2014-01-01

    Silica nanoparticles have been shown to have great potential as drug delivery systems (DDS), however, their fabrication often involves harsh chemicals and energy intensive laborious methods. This work details the employment of a bioinspired "green" method for the controlled synthesis of silica, use...

  17. Quality of experience management in mobile content delivery systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agboma, F.; Liotta, A.

    2012-01-01

    This study contributes towards the relatively new but growing discipline of QoE management in content delivery systems. The study focuses on the development of a QoE-based management framework for the construction of QoE models for different types of multimedia contents delivered onto three typical

  18. Polarimeters and energy spectrometers for the ILC beam delivery system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boogert, S. [London Univ. (United Kingdom). Royal Holloway; Hildreth, M. [Univ. of Notre Dame (United States); Kaefer, K. [DESY, Hamburg (Germany); DESY, Zeuthen (DE)] (and others)

    2009-02-15

    This article gives an overview of current plans and issues for polarimeters and energy spectrometers in the Beam Delivery System of the ILC. It is meant to serve as a useful reference for the Detector Letter of Intent documents currently being prepared. (orig.)

  19. Magnetic microspheres as magical novel drug delivery system: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satinder Kakar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic microspheres hold great promise for reaching the goal of controlled and site specific drug delivery. Magnetic microspheres as an alternative to traditional radiation methods which uses highly penetrating radiations that is absorbed throughout the body. Its use is limited by toxicity and side effects. Now days, several targeted treatment systems including magnetic field, electric field, ultrasound, temperature, UV light and mechanical force are being used in many disease treatments (e.g. cancer, nerve damage, heart and artery, anti-diabetic, eye and other medical treatments. Among them, the magnetic targeted drug delivery system is one of the most attractive and promising strategy for delivering the drug to the specified site. Magnetically controlled drug targeting is one of the various possible ways of drug targeting. This technology is based on binding establish anticancer drug with ferrofluid that concentrate the drug in the area of interest (tumor site by means of magnetic fields. There has been keen interest in the development of a magnetically target drug delivery system. These drug delivery systems aim to deliver the drug at a rate directed by the needs of the body during the period of treatment, and target the activity entity to the site of action. Magnetic microspheres were developed to overcome two major problems encountered in drug targeting namely: RES clearance and target site specificity.

  20. Food and nutrient intake among workers with different shift systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemiö, Katri; Puttonen, Sampsa; Viitasalo, Katriina; Härmä, Mikko; Peltonen, Markku; Lindström, Jaana

    2015-07-01

    Over 20% of employees in Europe work in shifts. Shift work increases the risk for chronic diseases, but a healthy lifestyle may attenuate the adverse effect of shift work. The aim of this study was to explore food and nutrient intake differences between working time groups. The participants were 1478 employees (55% of men) of an airline divided into three working time groups: day work (n=608), shift work without in-flight work (n=541) and in-flight work (n=329). Measures included laboratory tests, physical measurements, a questionnaire, and food and nutrient intake estimations by a validated 16-item food intake questionnaire. Shift working men were less likely to consume vegetables (p<0.001) and fruits (p=0.049) daily than male day and in-flight workers. In women, energy intake from saturated fat was higher among shift workers compared with day workers (12.6 vs 12.2 E%, p=0.023). In older female participants, energy intake from fat and saturated fat was higher in the shift work and in-flight work groups than in the day work group (p<0.001). In this study, shift work and working environment were associated with dietary habits, and this association was not explained by other characteristics such as workers' educational level. Shift workers' increased risk for chronic diseases should be taken into account and lifestyle counselling including advice in nutrition should be incorporated in routine occupational healthcare of shift workers. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  1. Film forming systems for topical and transdermal drug delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kashmira Kathe

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Skin is considered as an important route of administration of drugs for both local and systemic effects. The effectiveness of topical therapy depends on the physicochemical properties of the drug and adherence of the patient to the treatment regimen as well as the system's ability to adhere to skin during the therapy so as to promote drug penetration through the skin barrier. Conventional formulations for topical and dermatological administration of drugs have certain limitations like poor adherence to skin, poor permeability and compromised patient compliance. For the treatment of diseases of body tissues and wounds, the drug has to be maintained at the site of treatment for an effective period of time. Topical film forming systems are such developing drug delivery systems meant for topical application to the skin, which adhere to the body, forming a thin transparent film and provide delivery of the active ingredients to the body tissue. These are intended for skin application as emollient or protective and for local action or transdermal penetration of medicament for systemic action. The transparency is an appreciable feature of this polymeric system which greatly influences the patient acceptance. In the current discussion, the film forming systems are described as a promising choice for topical and transdermal drug delivery. Further the various types of film forming systems (sprays/solutions, gels and emulsions along with their evaluation parameters have also been reviewed.

  2. Drug delivery systems with modified release for systemic and biophase bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leucuta, Sorin E

    2012-11-01

    This review describes the most important new generations of pharmaceutical systems: medicines with extended release, controlled release pharmaceutical systems, pharmaceutical systems for the targeted delivery of drug substances. The latest advances and approaches for delivering small molecular weight drugs and other biologically active agents such as proteins and nucleic acids require novel delivery technologies, the success of a drug being many times dependent on the delivery method. All these dosage forms are qualitatively superior to medicines with immediate release, in that they ensure optimal drug concentrations depending on specific demands of different disease particularities of the body. Drug delivery of these pharmaceutical formulations has the benefit of improving product efficacy and safety, as well as patient convenience and compliance. This paper describes the biopharmaceutical, pharmacokinetic, pharmacologic and technological principles in the design of drug delivery systems with modified release as well as the formulation criteria of prolonged and controlled release drug delivery systems. The paper presents pharmaceutical prolonged and controlled release dosage forms intended for different routes of administration: oral, ocular, transdermal, parenteral, pulmonary, mucoadhesive, but also orally fast dissolving tablets, gastroretentive drug delivery systems, colon-specific drug delivery systems, pulsatile drug delivery systems and carrier or ligand mediated transport for site specific or receptor drug targeting. Specific technologies are given on the dosage forms with modified release as well as examples of marketed products, and current research in these areas.

  3. Nature engineered diatom biosilica as drug delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uthappa, U T; Brahmkhatri, Varsha; Sriram, G; Jung, Ho-Young; Yu, Jingxian; Kurkuri, Nikita; Aminabhavi, Tejraj M; Altalhi, Tariq; Neelgund, Gururaj M; Kurkuri, Mahaveer D

    2018-05-14

    Diatoms, unicellular photosynthetic algae covered with siliceous cell wall, are also called frustule. These are the most potential naturally available materials for the development of cost-effective drug delivery systems because of their excellent biocompatibility, high surface area, low cost and ease of surface modification. Mesoporous silica materials such as MCM-41 and SBA-15 have been extensively used in drug delivery area. Their synthesis is challenging, time consuming, requires toxic chemicals and are energy intensive, making the entire process expensive and non-viable. Therefore, it is necessary to explore alternative materials. Surprisingly, nature has provided some exciting materials called diatoms; biosilica is one such a material that can be potentially used as a drug delivery vehicle. The present review focuses on different types of diatom species used in drug delivery with respect to their structural properties, morphology, purification process and surface functionalization. In this review, recent advances along with their limitations as well as the future scope to develop them as potential drug delivery vehicles are discussed. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. A high-density lipoprotein-mediated drug delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Zhong-Cheng; Ren, Kun; Liu, Xing; Tang, Zhen-Li; Yi, Guang-Hui

    2016-11-15

    High-density lipoprotein (HDL) is a comparatively dense and small lipoprotein that can carry lipids as a multifunctional aggregate in plasma. Several studies have shown that increasing the levels or improving the functionality of HDL is a promising target for treating a wide variety of diseases. Among lipoproteins, HDL particles possess unique physicochemical properties, including naturally synthesized physiological components, amphipathic apolipoproteins, lipid-loading and hydrophobic agent-incorporating characteristics, specific protein-protein interactions, heterogeneity, nanoparticles, and smaller size. Recently, the feasibility and superiority of using HDL particles as drug delivery vehicles have been of great interest. In this review, we summarize the structure, constituents, biogenesis, remodeling, and reconstitution of HDL drug delivery systems, focusing on their delivery capability, characteristics, applications, manufacturing, and drug-loading and drug-targeting characteristics. Finally, the future prospects are presented regarding the clinical application and challenges of using HDL as a pharmacodelivery carrier. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. A commentary on transdermal drug delivery systems in clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkinson, Adam C

    2013-09-01

    The number of drugs available as marketed transdermal products is limited to those that exhibit the correct physicochemical and pharmacokinetic properties that enable their effective delivery across the skin. In this respect, there are less than 20 drugs that are currently marketed in the US and EU as products that deliver systemic levels of their active ingredients. An analysis of clinical trials conducted in the transdermal sector shows a similar picture with only nine drugs accounting for approximately 80% of all transdermal clinical trials listed on ClinicalTrials.gov. Those drugs for which there are very few transdermal trials listed consist mostly of molecules that are inherently unsuitable for transdermal delivery and serve as a clear warning to drug developers that the science that governs transdermal drug delivery is well reflected by the successes and failures of drugs in development as well as those that make it to the market. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Dendrimer Advances for the Central Nervous System Delivery of Therapeutics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The effectiveness of noninvasive treatment for central nervous system (CNS) diseases is generally limited by the poor access of therapeutic agents into the CNS. Most CNS drugs cannot permeate into the brain parenchyma because of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), and overcoming this has become one of the most significant challenges in the development of CNS therapeutics. Rapid advances in nanotechnology have provided promising solutions to this challenge. This review discusses the latest applications of dendrimers in the treatment of CNS diseases with an emphasis on brain tumors. Dendrimer-mediated drug delivery, imaging, and diagnosis are also reviewed. The toxicity, biodistribution, and transport mechanisms in dendrimer-mediated delivery of CNS therapeutic agents bypassing or crossing the BBB are also discussed. Future directions and major challenges of dendrimer-mediated delivery of CNS therapeutic agents are included. PMID:24274162

  7. Dendrimer advances for the central nervous system delivery of therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Leyuan; Zhang, Hao; Wu, Yue

    2014-01-15

    The effectiveness of noninvasive treatment for central nervous system (CNS) diseases is generally limited by the poor access of therapeutic agents into the CNS. Most CNS drugs cannot permeate into the brain parenchyma because of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), and overcoming this has become one of the most significant challenges in the development of CNS therapeutics. Rapid advances in nanotechnology have provided promising solutions to this challenge. This review discusses the latest applications of dendrimers in the treatment of CNS diseases with an emphasis on brain tumors. Dendrimer-mediated drug delivery, imaging, and diagnosis are also reviewed. The toxicity, biodistribution, and transport mechanisms in dendrimer-mediated delivery of CNS therapeutic agents bypassing or crossing the BBB are also discussed. Future directions and major challenges of dendrimer-mediated delivery of CNS therapeutic agents are included.

  8. Application of nanohydrogels in drug delivery systems: recent patents review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalwadi, Chintan; Patel, Gayatri

    2015-01-01

    Nanohydrogel combines the advantages of hydrogel and nano particulate systems. Similar to the hydrogel and macrogel, nanohydrogel can protect the drug and control drug release by stimuli responsive conformation or biodegradable bond into the polymer networks. Nanohydrogel has drawn huge interest due to their potential applications, such as carrier in target-specific controlled drug delivery, absorbents, chemical/biological sensors, and bio-mimetic materials. Similar to the nanoparticles, stimuli responsive nanohydrogel can easily be delivered in the liquid form for parenteral drug delivery application. This review highlights the methods to prepare nanohydrogel based on natural and synthetic polymers for diverse applications in drug delivery. It also encompasses the drug loading and drug release mechanism of the nanohydrogel formulation and patents related to the composition and chemical methods for preparation of nanohydrogel formulation with current status in clinical trials.

  9. Significant role of cationic polymers in drug delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farshbaf, Masoud; Davaran, Soodabeh; Zarebkohan, Amir; Annabi, Nasim; Akbarzadeh, Abolfazl; Salehi, Roya

    2017-11-06

    Cationic polymers are characterized as the macromolecules that possess positive charges, which can be either inherently in the polymer side chains and/or its backbone. Based on their origins, cationic polymers are divided in two category including natural and synthetic, in which the possessed positive charges are as result of primary, secondary or tertiary amine functional groups that could be protonated in particular situations. Cationic polymers have been employed commonly as drug delivery agents due to their superior encapsulation efficacy, enhanced bioavailability, low toxicity and improved release profile. In this paper, we focus on the most prominent examples of cationic polymers which have been revealed to be applicable in drug delivery systems and we also discuss their general synthesis and surface modification methods as well as their controlled release profile in drug delivery.

  10. Roots bridge water to nutrients: a study of utilizing hydraulic redistribution through root systems to extract nutrients in the dry soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, J.; Ghezzehei, T. A.

    2017-12-01

    The rhizosphere is the region of soil that surrounds by individual plant roots. While its small volume and narrow region compared to bulk soil, the rhizosphere regulates numerous processes that determine physical structure, nutrient distribution, and biodiversity of soils. One of the most important and distinct functions of the rhizosphere is the capacity of roots to bridge and redistribute soil water from wet soil layers to drier layers. This process was identified and defined as hydraulic lift or hydraulic redistribution, a passive process driven by gradients in water potentials and it has attracted much research attention due to its important role in global water circulation and agriculture security. However, while previous studies mostly focused on the hydrological or physiological impacts of hydraulic redistribution, limited research has been conducted to elucidate its role in nutrient cycling and uptake. In this study, we aim to test the possibility of utilizing hydraulic redistribution to facilitate the nutrient movement and uptake from resource segregated zone. Our overarching hypothesis is that plants can extract nutrients from the drier but nutrient-rich regions by supplying sufficient amounts of water from the wet but nutrient-deficient regions. To test our hypothesis, we designed split-root systems of tomatoes with unequal supply of water and nutrients in different root compartments. More specifically, we transplanted tomato seedlings into sand or soil mediums, and grew them under conditions with alternate 12-h lightness and darkness. We continuously monitored the temperature, water and nutrient content of soils in these separated compartments. The above and below ground biomass were also quantified to evaluate the impacts on the plant growth. The results were compared to a control with evenly supply of water and nutrients to assess the plant growth, nutrient leaching and uptake without hydraulic redistribution.

  11. Evaluation of Roadmap to Achieve Energy Delivery Systems Cybersecurity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavez, Adrian R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-10-01

    The Department of Energy/Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (DOE/OE) Cybersecurity for Energy Delivery Systems (CEDS) program is currently evaluating the Roadmap to Achieve Energy Delivery Systems Cybersecurity document that sets a vision and outlines a set of milestones. The milestones are divided into five strategic focus areas that include: 1. Build a Culture of Security; 2. Assess and Monitor Risk; 3. Develop and Implement New Protective Measures to Reduce Risk; 4. Manage Incidents; and 5. Sustain Security Improvements. The most current version of the roadmap was last updated in September of 2016. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has been tasked with revisiting the roadmap to update the current state of energy delivery systems cybersecurity protections. SNL is currently working with previous and current partners to provide feedback on which of the roadmap milestones have been met and to identify any preexisting or new gaps that are not addressed by the roadmap. The specific focus areas SNL was asked to evaluate are: 1. Develop and Implement New Protective Measures to Reduce Risk and 2. Sustain Security Improvements. SNL has formed an Industry Advisory Board (IAB) to assist in answering these questions. The IAB consists of previous partners on past CEDS funded efforts as well as new collaborators that have unique insights into the current state of cybersecurity within energy delivery systems. The IAB includes asset owners, utilities and vendors of control systems. SNL will continue to maintain regular communications with the IAB to provide various perspectives on potential future updates to further improve the breadth of cybersecurity coverage of the roadmap.

  12. Integrated delivery systems: mergers and acquisitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkerton, S

    1999-01-01

    Mergers and acquisitions are usually the way an IDS is built. The CNO and/or CNOs/DONs have an integral role in the resolution of the M/A process. During this time of significant change, during which there may even be chaos, the CNOs work to maintain stability so there is as little impact as possible on patient outcomes, a core responsibility of the CNOs. The CNOs should focus on identifying and working with the highly skilled individuals in the organization to get to the recovery stage of the M/A process, at which time a high-performing organization is achieved. To build this new organization or IDS, the old organizations of the M/A must be changed (Moss Kanter, 1994). The successful CNOs will manage the trade-offs and will become experts in collaboration. The CNO's goals are to maximize the quality of patient care, the professional satisfaction of the nurse, and the goals of achieving cost effectiveness for the system (Clifford, 1998), and keeping this focus through the M/A process will yield success.

  13. Nanoparticle-based drug delivery systems: promising approaches against infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranghar, Shweta; Sirohi, Parul [Department of Applied Mechanics, Motilal Nehru National Institute of Technology, Allahabad (India); Verma, Pritam; Agarwal, Vishnu [Department of Biotechnology, Motilal Nehru National Institute of Technology, Allahabad (India)

    2014-03-15

    Despite the fact that many new drugs and technologies have been developed to combat the infectious diseases, these have continued to be global health challenges. The use of conventional antimicrobial agents against these infections is always associated with problems such as the development of multiple drug resistance and adverse side effects. In addition, the inefficient traditional drug delivery system results in inadequate therapeutic index, low bioavailability of drugs and many other limitations. In this regard, antimicrobial nanoparticles and nanosized drug delivery carriers have emerged as potent effective agents against the infections. Nanoparticles have unique properties owing to their ultra small and controllable size such as high surface area, enhanced reactivity, and functionalizable structure. This review focused on different classes of antimicrobial nanoparticles, including metal, metal oxide and others along with their mechanism of action and their potential use against the infections. The review also focused on the development of nanoparticle systems for antimicrobial drug delivery and use of these systems for delivery of various antimicrobial agents, giving an overview about modern nanoparticle based therapeutic strategies against the infections. (author)

  14. Nanoparticle-based drug delivery systems: promising approaches against infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranghar, Shweta; Sirohi, Parul; Verma, Pritam; Agarwal, Vishnu

    2014-01-01

    Despite the fact that many new drugs and technologies have been developed to combat the infectious diseases, these have continued to be global health challenges. The use of conventional antimicrobial agents against these infections is always associated with problems such as the development of multiple drug resistance and adverse side effects. In addition, the inefficient traditional drug delivery system results in inadequate therapeutic index, low bioavailability of drugs and many other limitations. In this regard, antimicrobial nanoparticles and nanosized drug delivery carriers have emerged as potent effective agents against the infections. Nanoparticles have unique properties owing to their ultra small and controllable size such as high surface area, enhanced reactivity, and functionalizable structure. This review focused on different classes of antimicrobial nanoparticles, including metal, metal oxide and others along with their mechanism of action and their potential use against the infections. The review also focused on the development of nanoparticle systems for antimicrobial drug delivery and use of these systems for delivery of various antimicrobial agents, giving an overview about modern nanoparticle based therapeutic strategies against the infections. (author)

  15. Interpenetrating Polymer Networks as Innovative Drug Delivery Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alka Lohani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Polymers have always been valuable excipients in conventional dosage forms, also have shown excellent performance into the parenteral arena, and are now capable of offering advanced and sophisticated functions such as controlled drug release and drug targeting. Advances in polymer science have led to the development of several novel drug delivery systems. Interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs have shown superior performances over the conventional individual polymers and, consequently, the ranges of applications have grown rapidly for such class of materials. The advanced properties of IPNs like swelling capacity, stability, biocompatibility, nontoxicity and biodegradability have attracted considerable attention in pharmaceutical field especially in delivering bioactive molecules to the target site. In the past few years various research reports on the IPN based delivery systems showed that these carriers have emerged as a novel carrier in controlled drug delivery. The present review encompasses IPNs, their types, method of synthesis, factors which affects the morphology of IPNs, extensively studied IPN based drug delivery systems, and some natural polymers widely used for IPNs.

  16. Delivery Systems for Biopharmaceuticals. Part I: Nanoparticles and Microparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Ana C; Lopes, Carla M; Lobo, José M S; Amaral, Maria H

    2015-01-01

    Pharmaceutical biotechnology has been showing therapeutic success never achieved with conventional drug molecules. Therefore, biopharmaceutical products are currently well-established in clinic and the development of new ones is expected. These products comprise mainly therapeutic proteins, although nucleic acids and cells are also included. However, according to their sensitive molecular structures, the efficient delivery of biopharmaceuticals is challenging. Several delivery systems (e.g. microparticles and nanoparticles) composed of different materials (e.g. polymers and lipids) have been explored and demonstrated excellent outcomes, such as: high cellular transfection efficiency for nucleic acids, cell targeting, increased proteins and peptides bioavailability, improved immune response in vaccination, and viability maintenance of microencapsulated cells. Nonetheless, important issues need to be addressed before they reach clinics. For example, more in vivo studies in animals, accessing the toxicity potential and predicting in vivo failure of these delivery systems are required. This is the Part I of two review articles, which presents the state of the art of delivery systems for biopharmaceuticals. Part I deals with microparticles and polymeric and lipid nanoparticles.

  17. Reduction of solids and nutrient loss from agricultural land by tailwater recovery systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omer, A.R.; Miranda, Leandro E.; Moore, M. T.; Krutz, L. J.; Prince Czarnecki, J. M.; Kröger, R.; Baker, B. H.; Hogue, J.; Allen, P. J.

    2018-01-01

    Best management practices are being implemented throughout the Lower Mississippi River Alluvial Valley with the aim of alleviating pressures placed on downstream aquatic systems by sediment and nutrient losses from agricultural land; however, research evaluating the performance of tailwater recovery (TWR) systems, an increasingly important practice, is limited. This study evaluated the ability of TWR systems to retain sediment and nutrients draining from agricultural landscapes. Composite flow-based samples were collected during flow events (precipitation or irrigation) over a two-year period in six TWR systems. Performance was evaluated by comparing concentrations and loads in water entering TWR systems (i.e., runoff or influent) from agricultural fields to water overflow exiting TWR systems (effluent). Tailwater recovery systems did not reduce concentrations of solids and nutrients, but did reduce loads of solids, phosphorus (P), and nitrogen (N) by 43%, 32%, and 44%, respectively. Annual mean load reductions were 1,142 kg solids, 0.7 kg of P, and 3.8 kg of N. Performance of TWR systems was influenced by effluent volume, system fullness, time since the previous event, and capacity of the TWR system. Mechanistically, TWR systems retain runoff on the agricultural landscape, thereby reducing the amount of sediment and nutrients entering downstream waterbodies. System performance can be improved through manipulation of influential parameters.

  18. Nutrient delivery to Lake Winnipeg from the Red-Assiniboine River Basin – A binational application of the SPARROW model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoy, Glenn A; Jenkinson, R. Wayne; Robertson, Dale M.; Saad, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Excessive phosphorus (TP) and nitrogen (TN) inputs from the Red–Assiniboine River Basin (RARB) have been linked to eutrophication of Lake Winnipeg; therefore, it is important for the management of water resources to understand where and from what sources these nutrients originate. The RARB straddles the Canada–United States border and includes portions of two provinces and three states. This study represents the first binationally focused application of SPAtially Referenced Regressions on Watershed attributes (SPARROW) models to estimate loads and sources of TP and TN by jurisdiction and basin at multiple spatial scales. Major hurdles overcome to develop these models included: (1) harmonization of geospatial data sets, particularly construction of a contiguous stream network; and (2) use of novel calibration steps to accommodate limitations in spatial variability across the model extent and in the number of calibration sites. Using nutrient inputs for a 2002 base year, a RARB TP SPARROW model was calibrated that included inputs from agriculture, forests and wetlands, wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and stream channels, and a TN model was calibrated that included inputs from agriculture, WWTPs and atmospheric deposition. At the RARB outlet, downstream from Winnipeg, Manitoba, the majority of the delivered TP and TN came from the Red River Basin (90%), followed by the Upper Assiniboine River and Souris River basins. Agriculture was the single most important TP and TN source for each major basin, province and state. In general, stream channels (historically deposited nutrients and from bank erosion) were the second most important source of TP. Performance metrics for the RARB SPARROW model are similarly robust compared to other, larger US SPARROW models making it a potentially useful tool to address questions of where nutrients originate and their relative contributions to loads delivered to Lake Winnipeg.

  19. Proteomic profiling of Mycobacterium tuberculosis identifies nutrient-starvation-responsive toxin-antitoxin systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrethsen, Jakob; Agner, Jeppe; Piersma, Sander R

    2013-01-01

    In order to successfully enter the latent stage, Mycobacterium tuberculosis must adapt to conditions such as nutrient limitation and hypoxia. In vitro models that mimic latent infection are valuable tools for describing the changes in metabolism that occur when the bacterium exists in a non......-growing form. We used two complementary proteomic approaches, label-free LC-MS/MS analysis and two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis, to determine the proteome profile of extracellular proteins from M. tuberculosis cultured under nutrient starvation. Through the label-free LC-MS/MS analysis......, significant differences in the overall metabolism during nutrient starvation were detected. Notably, members of the toxin-antitoxin systems were present in larger quantities in nutrient-starved cultures, supporting a role for these global modules as M. tuberculosis switches its metabolism into dormancy...

  20. Soil redistribution and nutrient delivery in a Mediterranean rain-fed agro-ecosystem with different crops and management: environmental and economic aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Vicente, Manuel; Álvarez, Sara

    2017-04-01

    Mediterranean agro-ecosystems are characterised by fragmented fields and patched vegetation. This shape governs the spatial patterns of water, soil and nutrient redistribution. Rainfall parameters, human infrastructures, crop management, support practices, and land use changes (set aside crops, land abandonment) control the magnitude of these processes. Under rain-fed water supply conditions, runoff generation and soil water content are two important factors in determining crop yield. Soil erosion and nutrient delivery are two of the factors which limit crop yield and thus, the gross earning of the landowner. In hilly landscapes, farmers usually supply extra soil to fill in the ephemeral gullies, and nutrient replenishment with fertilizers is a common practice. The aim of this study is to evaluate the environmental (runoff yield, soil erosion and nutrient delivery) and economic (replenishment of soil and nutrient losses with new soil and fertilizers) consequences of different conventional and conservative practices (fallow/crop rotation, cover crops, land abandonment, buffer strips) in a Mediterranean rain-fed agro-ecosystem (27 ha) with vineyards, cereal crops, cultivated and abandoned olive orchards, several trails and patches of natural vegetation. The five winter cereal fields (wheat and barley) follow fallow/crop rotation. The four vineyards are devoted to the Garnacha variety: one planted in 2007 with white wine grapes, and three planted in 2008 with red wine grapes. The inter-crop strips are managed with a mixture of plant species as cover crop (CC), including: i) spontaneous vegetation, and ii) plantation of common sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia). The maintenance of the CC includes one mowing pass at the end of spring, between May and June. The appearance and development of ephemeral gullies and the deposition of soil at the bottom of the hillslope are two of the main concerns of the landowners. In some places, the accumulation of soil complicates grape

  1. Using DNA nanotechnology to produce a drug delivery system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La, Thi Huyen; Nguyen, Thi Thu Thuy; Pham, Van Phuc; Nguyen, Thi Minh Huyen; Le, Quang Huan

    2013-01-01

    Drug delivery to cancer cells in chemotherapy is one of the most advanced research topics. The effectiveness of the current cancer treatment drugs is limited because they are not capable of distinguishing between cancer cells and normal cells so that they kill not only cancer cells but also normal ones. To overcome this disadvantage by profiting from the differences in physical and chemical properties between cancer and normal cells, nanoparticles (NPs) delivering a drug are designed in a specific manner such that they can distinguish the cancer cells from the normal ones and are targeted only to the cancer cells. Currently, there are various drug delivery systems with many advantages, but sharing some common disadvantages such as difficulty with controlling the size, low encapsulation capacity and low stability. With the development and success of DNA nanotechnology, DNA strands are used to create effective drug delivery NPs with precisely controlled size and structure, safety and high stability. This article presents our study on drug encapsulation in DNA nanostructure which loaded docetaxel and curcumin in a desire to create a new and effective drug delivery system with high biological compatibility. (paper)

  2. Use of radiopharmaceuticals in the development of drug delivery systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frier, M.

    1997-01-01

    Full text. Nuclear medicine imaging techniques have great potential in the study of the behaviour of drug formulations and drug delivery systems in human subjects. No other technique can locate so precisely the site of disintegration of a tablet in the Gl tract, the depth of penetration of a nebulized solution into the lung, or the residence time of a drug on the cornea. By using the gamma camera to image the in vivo distribution of pharmaceutical formulations radio labelled with a suitable gamma emitting radionuclide, images may be used to quantify the biodistribution, release and kinetics of drug formulations and delivery from novel carrier systems and devices. Radionuclide tracer techniques allow correlation between the observed pharmacological effects and the precise site of delivery. The strength of the technique lies in the quantitative nature of radionuclide images. Example will be shown of studies which examine the rate of transit of orally-administered formulations through the GI tract, as well as describing the development of devices for specific targeting of drugs to the colon. Data will also demonstrate the effectiveness of devices such as spacers in pulmonary drug delivery, in both normal volunteers, and in asthmatic subjects. Such studies not only provide data on the nature and characteristics of a product, such as reliability and reproducibility but, may also be used in submission to Regulatory Authorities in product registration dossiers

  3. Dose error analysis for a scanned proton beam delivery system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coutrakon, G; Wang, N; Miller, D W; Yang, Y

    2010-01-01

    All particle beam scanning systems are subject to dose delivery errors due to errors in position, energy and intensity of the delivered beam. In addition, finite scan speeds, beam spill non-uniformities, and delays in detector, detector electronics and magnet responses will all contribute errors in delivery. In this paper, we present dose errors for an 8 x 10 x 8 cm 3 target of uniform water equivalent density with 8 cm spread out Bragg peak and a prescribed dose of 2 Gy. Lower doses are also analyzed and presented later in the paper. Beam energy errors and errors due to limitations of scanning system hardware have been included in the analysis. By using Gaussian shaped pencil beams derived from measurements in the research room of the James M Slater Proton Treatment and Research Center at Loma Linda, CA and executing treatment simulations multiple times, statistical dose errors have been calculated in each 2.5 mm cubic voxel in the target. These errors were calculated by delivering multiple treatments to the same volume and calculating the rms variation in delivered dose at each voxel in the target. The variations in dose were the result of random beam delivery errors such as proton energy, spot position and intensity fluctuations. The results show that with reasonable assumptions of random beam delivery errors, the spot scanning technique yielded an rms dose error in each voxel less than 2% or 3% of the 2 Gy prescribed dose. These calculated errors are within acceptable clinical limits for radiation therapy.

  4. Using DNA nanotechnology to produce a drug delivery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huyen La, Thi; Thu Thuy Nguyen, Thi; Phuc Pham, Van; Huyen Nguyen, Thi Minh; Huan Le, Quang

    2013-03-01

    Drug delivery to cancer cells in chemotherapy is one of the most advanced research topics. The effectiveness of the current cancer treatment drugs is limited because they are not capable of distinguishing between cancer cells and normal cells so that they kill not only cancer cells but also normal ones. To overcome this disadvantage by profiting from the differences in physical and chemical properties between cancer and normal cells, nanoparticles (NPs) delivering a drug are designed in a specific manner such that they can distinguish the cancer cells from the normal ones and are targeted only to the cancer cells. Currently, there are various drug delivery systems with many advantages, but sharing some common disadvantages such as difficulty with controlling the size, low encapsulation capacity and low stability. With the development and success of DNA nanotechnology, DNA strands are used to create effective drug delivery NPs with precisely controlled size and structure, safety and high stability. This article presents our study on drug encapsulation in DNA nanostructure which loaded docetaxel and curcumin in a desire to create a new and effective drug delivery system with high biological compatibility. Invited talk at the 6th International Workshop on Advanced Materials Science and Nanotechnology, 30 October-2 November, 2012, Ha Long, Vietnam.

  5. Excimer laser beam delivery systems for medical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Uichi; Hashishin, Yuichi; Okada, Kazuyuki; Tanaka, Hiroyuki

    1993-05-01

    We have been doing the basic experiments of UV laser beams and biotissue interaction with both KrF and XeCl lasers. However, the conventional optical fiber can not be available for power UV beams. So we have been investigating about UV power beam delivery systems. These experiments carry on with the same elements doped quartz fibers and the hollow tube. The doped elements are OH ion, chlorine and fluorine. In our latest work, we have tried ArF excimer laser and biotissue interactions, and the beam delivery experiments. From our experimental results, we found that the ArF laser beam has high incision ability for hard biotissue. For example, in the case of the cow's bone incision, the incision depth by ArF laser was ca.15 times of KrF laser. Therefore, ArF laser would be expected to harden biotissue therapy as non-thermal method. However, its beam delivery is difficult to work in this time. We will develop ArF laser beam delivery systems.

  6. An emerging platform for drug delivery: aerogel based systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulker, Zeynep; Erkey, Can

    2014-03-10

    Over the past few decades, advances in "aerogel science" have provoked an increasing interest for these materials in pharmaceutical sciences for drug delivery applications. Because of their high surface areas, high porosities and open pore structures which can be tuned and controlled by manipulation of synthesis conditions, nanostructured aerogels represent a promising class of materials for delivery of various drugs as well as enzymes and proteins. Along with biocompatible inorganic aerogels and biodegradable organic aerogels, more complex systems such as surface functionalized aerogels, composite aerogels and layered aerogels have also been under development and possess huge potential. Emphasis is given to the details of the aerogel synthesis and drug loading methods as well as the influence of synthesis parameters and loading methods on the adsorption and release of the drugs. Owing to their ability to increase the bioavailability of low solubility drugs, to improve both their stability and their release kinetics, there are an increasing number of research articles concerning aerogels in different drug delivery applications. This review presents an up to date overview of the advances in all kinds of aerogel based drug delivery systems which are currently under investigation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Nursing Services Delivery Theory: an open system approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Raquel M; O'Brien-Pallas, Linda L

    2010-12-01

    This paper is a discussion of the derivation of the Nursing Services Delivery Theory from the application of open system theory to large-scale organizations. The underlying mechanisms by which staffing indicators influence outcomes remain under-theorized and unmeasured, resulting in a 'black box' that masks the nature and organization of nursing work. Theory linking nursing work, staffing, work environments, and outcomes in different settings is urgently needed to inform management decisions about the allocation of nurse staffing resources in organizations. A search of CINAHL and Business Source Premier for the years 1980-2008 was conducted using the following terms: theory, models, organization, organizational structure, management, administration, nursing units, and nursing. Seminal works were included. The healthcare organization is conceptualized as an open system characterized by energy transformation, a dynamic steady state, negative entropy, event cycles, negative feedback, differentiation, integration and coordination, and equifinality. The Nursing Services Delivery Theory proposes that input, throughput, and output factors interact dynamically to influence the global work demands placed on nursing work groups at the point of care in production subsystems. THE Nursing Services Delivery Theory can be applied to varied settings, cultures, and countries and supports the study of multi-level phenomena and cross-level effects. The Nursing Services Delivery Theory gives a relational structure for reconciling disparate streams of research related to nursing work, staffing, and work environments. The theory can guide future research and the management of nursing services in large-scale healthcare organizations. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Nursing Services Delivery Theory: an open system approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Raquel M; O’Brien-Pallas, Linda L

    2010-01-01

    meyer r.m. & o’brien-pallas l.l. (2010)Nursing services delivery theory: an open system approach. Journal of Advanced Nursing66(12), 2828–2838. Aim This paper is a discussion of the derivation of the Nursing Services Delivery Theory from the application of open system theory to large-scale organizations. Background The underlying mechanisms by which staffing indicators influence outcomes remain under-theorized and unmeasured, resulting in a ‘black box’ that masks the nature and organization of nursing work. Theory linking nursing work, staffing, work environments, and outcomes in different settings is urgently needed to inform management decisions about the allocation of nurse staffing resources in organizations. Data sources A search of CINAHL and Business Source Premier for the years 1980–2008 was conducted using the following terms: theory, models, organization, organizational structure, management, administration, nursing units, and nursing. Seminal works were included. Discussion The healthcare organization is conceptualized as an open system characterized by energy transformation, a dynamic steady state, negative entropy, event cycles, negative feedback, differentiation, integration and coordination, and equifinality. The Nursing Services Delivery Theory proposes that input, throughput, and output factors interact dynamically to influence the global work demands placed on nursing work groups at the point of care in production subsystems. Implications for nursing The Nursing Services Delivery Theory can be applied to varied settings, cultures, and countries and supports the study of multi-level phenomena and cross-level effects. Conclusion The Nursing Services Delivery Theory gives a relational structure for reconciling disparate streams of research related to nursing work, staffing, and work environments. The theory can guide future research and the management of nursing services in large-scale healthcare organizations. PMID:20831573

  9. Targeted multidrug delivery system to overcome chemoresistance in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Y

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Yuan Tang,1 Fariborz Soroush,1 Zhaohui Tong,2 Mohammad F Kiani,1 Bin Wang1,3 1Department of Mechanical Engineering, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, 2Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, 3Department of Biomedical Engineering, Widener University, Chester, PA, USA Abstract: Chemotherapy has been widely used in breast cancer patients to reduce tumor size. However, most anticancer agents cannot differentiate between cancerous and normal cells, resulting in severe systemic toxicity. In addition, acquired drug resistance during the chemotherapy treatment further decreases treatment efficacy. With the proper treatment strategy, nanodrug carriers, such as liposomes/immunoliposomes, may be able to reduce undesired side effects of chemotherapy, to overcome the acquired multidrug resistance, and to further improve the treatment efficacy. In this study, a novel combinational targeted drug delivery system was developed by encapsulating antiangiogenesis drug bevacizumab into liposomes and encapsulating chemotherapy drug doxorubicin (DOX into immunoliposomes where the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2 antibody was used as a targeting ligand. This novel combinational system was tested in vitro using a HER2 positive and multidrug resistant breast cancer cell line (BT-474/MDR, and in vivo using a xenograft mouse tumor model. In vitro cell culture experiments show that immunoliposome delivery led to a high cell nucleus accumulation of DOX, whereas free DOX was observed mostly near the cell membrane and in cytoplasm due to the action of P-gp. Combining liposomal bevacizumab with immunoliposomal DOX achieved the best tumor growth inhibition and the lowest toxicity. Tumor size decreased steadily within a 60-day observation period indicating a potential synergistic effect between DOX and bevacizumab through the targeted delivery. Our findings clearly indicate that tumor growth was significantly

  10. Monolithic Controlled Delivery Systems: Part I. Basic Characteristics and Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rumiana Blagoeva

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The article considers contemporary systems for controlled delivery of active agents, such as drugs, agricultural chemicals, pollutants and additives in the environment. A useful classification of the available controlled release systems (CRS is proposed according to the type of control (passive, active or self-preprogrammed and according to the main controlling mechanism (diffusion, swelling, dissolution or erosion. Special attention is given to some of the most used CRS - polymer monoliths. The structural and physical-chemical characteristics of CRS as well as the basic approaches to their production are examined. The basic mechanisms of controlled agent release are reviewed in detail and factors influencing the release kinetics are classified according to their importance. The present study can be helpful for understanding and applying the available mathematical models and for developing more comprehensive ones intended for design of new controlled delivery systems.

  11. Chitosan-based delivery systems for diclofenac delivery: preparation and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreve, Simina; Kacso, Irina; Bratu, Ioan; Indrea, Emil

    2009-01-01

    The preparation and characterization of novel materials for drug delivery has rapidly gained importance in development of innovative medicine. The paper concerns the uses of chitosan as an excipient in oral formulations and as a drug delivery vehicle for burnt painful injuries. The use of chitosan (CTS) as base in polyelectrolyte complex systems, to prepare liquid release systems as hydrogels and solid release systems as sponges is presented. In this paper the preparation of CTS hydrogels and sponges carrying diclofenac (DCF), as anti-inflammatory drug is reported. The immobilization of DCF in CTS is done by mixing the CTS hydrogel with the anti-inflammatory drug solutions. The concentration of anti-inflammatory drug in the CTS hydrogel generating the sponges was of 57 mg/l, 72 mg/l and 114 mg/l. The CTS sponges with anti-inflammatory drugs were prepared by freeze-drying at -610 0 C and 0,09 atm. The characterization of the hydrogels and sponges was done by infrared spectra (FTIR) and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-VIS). The results indicated the formation of CTS-DCF intermediates. The DCF molecules are forming temporary chelates in CTS hydrogels and sponges and they are compatible with skin or some of biological fluids with satisfactory results.

  12. Chitosan-based delivery systems for diclofenac delivery: preparation and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreve, Simina; Kacso, Irina; Bratu, Ioan; Indrea, Emil, E-mail: simina.dreve@itim-cj.r [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 65-103 Donath, 400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2009-08-01

    The preparation and characterization of novel materials for drug delivery has rapidly gained importance in development of innovative medicine. The paper concerns the uses of chitosan as an excipient in oral formulations and as a drug delivery vehicle for burnt painful injuries. The use of chitosan (CTS) as base in polyelectrolyte complex systems, to prepare liquid release systems as hydrogels and solid release systems as sponges is presented. In this paper the preparation of CTS hydrogels and sponges carrying diclofenac (DCF), as anti-inflammatory drug is reported. The immobilization of DCF in CTS is done by mixing the CTS hydrogel with the anti-inflammatory drug solutions. The concentration of anti-inflammatory drug in the CTS hydrogel generating the sponges was of 57 mg/l, 72 mg/l and 114 mg/l. The CTS sponges with anti-inflammatory drugs were prepared by freeze-drying at -610{sup 0}C and 0,09 atm. The characterization of the hydrogels and sponges was done by infrared spectra (FTIR) and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-VIS). The results indicated the formation of CTS-DCF intermediates. The DCF molecules are forming temporary chelates in CTS hydrogels and sponges and they are compatible with skin or some of biological fluids with satisfactory results.

  13. Nutrient dynamics and tree growth of silvopastoral systems: impact of poultry litter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazier, Michael A; Gaston, Lewis A; Clason, Terry R; Farrish, Kenneth W; Oswald, Brian P; Evans, Hayden A

    2008-01-01

    Fertilizing pastures with poultry litter has led to an increased incidence of nutrient-saturated soils, particularly on highly fertilized, well drained soils. Applying litter to silvopastures, in which loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) and bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum) production are integrated, may be an ecologically desirable alternative for upland soils of the southeastern USA. Integrating subterranean clover (Trifolium subterraneum) into silvopastures may enhance nutrient retention potential. This study evaluated soil nutrient dynamics, loblolly pine nutrient composition, and loblolly pine growth of an annually fertilized silvopasture on a well drained soil in response to fertilizer type, litter application rate, and subterranean clover. Three fertilizer treatments were applied annually for 4 yr: (i) 5 Mg litter ha(-1) (5LIT), (ii) 10 Mg litter ha(-1) (10LIT), and (iii) an inorganic N, P, K pasture blend (INO). Litter stimulated loblolly pine growth, and neither litter treatment produced soil test P concentrations above runoff potential threshold ranges. However, both litter treatments led to accumulation of several nutrients (notably P) in upper soil horizons relative to INO and unfertilized control treatments. The 10LIT treatment may have increased N and P leaching potential. Subterranean clover kept more P sequestered in the upper soil horizon and conferred some growth benefits to loblolly pine. Thus, although these silvopasture systems had a relatively high capacity for nutrient use and retention at this site, litter should be applied less frequently than in this study to reduce environmental risks.

  14. Nebuliser systems for drug delivery in cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Tracey; Mills, Nicola; Whitaker, Paul

    2013-04-30

    Nebuliser systems are used to deliver medications to control the symptoms and the progression of lung disease in people with cystic fibrosis. Many types of nebuliser systems are available for use with various medications; however, there has been no previous systematic review which has evaluated these systems. To evaluate effectiveness, safety, burden of treatment and adherence to nebulised therapy using different nebuliser systems for people with cystic fibrosis. We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group Trials Register comprising references identified from comprehensive electronic database searches, handsearching of relevant journals and abstract books of conference proceedings. We searched the reference lists of each study for additional publications and approached the manufacturers of both nebuliser systems and nebulised medications for published and unpublished data. Date of the most recent search: 15 Oct 2012. Randomised controlled trials or quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing nebuliser systems including conventional nebulisers, vibrating mesh technology systems, adaptive aerosol delivery systems and ultrasonic nebuliser systems. Two authors independently assessed studies for inclusion. They also independently extracted data and assessed the risk of bias. A third author assessed studies where agreement could not be reached. The search identified 40 studies with 20 of these (1936 participants) included in the review. These studies compared the delivery of tobramycin, colistin, dornase alfa, hypertonic sodium chloride and other solutions through the different nebuliser systems. This review demonstrates variability in the delivery of medication depending on the nebuliser system used. Conventional nebuliser systems providing higher flows, higher respirable fractions and smaller particles decrease treatment time, increase deposition and may be preferred by people with CF, as compared to conventional nebuliser systems providing

  15. Gamma- scintigraphy in the evaluation of drug delivery systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahhosseini, S.; Beiki, D.; Eftekhari, M.

    2003-01-01

    Gamma-scintigraphy is applied extensively in the development and evaluation of pharmaceutical delivery systems, particularly for monitoring formulations in the gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts. The radiolabelling is generally achieved by the incorporation of an appropriate radionuclide such as technetium-99m or indium-111 into the formulation or by addition of a non- radioactive isotope such as samarium-152 followed by neutron activation of the final product. Drug delivery systems can be tested in vitro using various techniques like dissolution rate. Since in vitro testing methods are not predictive of in vivo results, such systems should be evaluated in vivo using animal models, especially oral dosage forms. Altered gastrointestinal transit due to individual variation, physiologic factors, or the presence of food may influence bioavailability. Distribution or drug release may be premature or delayed in vivo. Similarly, altered deposition or clearance from other routes of administration such as nasal, ocular, or inhalation may explain drug absorption anomalies. Therefore, there is a growing tendency for new drug delivery systems to be tested, whenever possible, in human subjects in a so called phase 1 clinical evaluation. Gamma- scintigraphy combined with knowledge of physiological and dosage from design can help to identify some of these variables. the resulting insight can be used to accelerate the formulation development process and to ensure success in early clinical trials

  16. Quantitative dosimetric verification of an IMRT planning and delivery system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low, D.A.; Mutic, S.; Dempsey, J.F.; Gerber, R.L.; Bosch, W.R.; Perez, C.A.; Purdy, J.A.

    1998-01-01

    Background and purpose: The accuracy of dose calculation and delivery of a commercial serial tomotherapy treatment planning and delivery system (Peacock, NOMOS Corporation) was experimentally determined. Materials and methods: External beam fluence distributions were optimized and delivered to test treatment plan target volumes, including three with cylindrical targets with diameters ranging from 2.0 to 6.2 cm and lengths of 0.9 through 4.8 cm, one using three cylindrical targets and two using C-shaped targets surrounding a critical structure, each with different dose distribution optimization criteria. Computer overlays of film-measured and calculated planar dose distributions were used to assess the dose calculation and delivery spatial accuracy. A 0.125 cm 3 ionization chamber was used to conduct absolute point dosimetry verification. Thermoluminescent dosimetry chips, a small-volume ionization chamber and radiochromic film were used as independent checks of the ion chamber measurements. Results: Spatial localization accuracy was found to be better than ±2.0 mm in the transverse axes (with one exception of 3.0 mm) and ±1.5 mm in the longitudinal axis. Dosimetric verification using single slice delivery versions of the plans showed that the relative dose distribution was accurate to ±2% within and outside the target volumes (in high dose and low dose gradient regions) with a mean and standard deviation for all points of -0.05% and 1.1%, respectively. The absolute dose per monitor unit was found to vary by ±3.5% of the mean value due to the lack of consideration for leakage radiation and the limited scattered radiation integration in the dose calculation algorithm. To deliver the prescribed dose, adjustment of the monitor units by the measured ratio would be required. Conclusions: The treatment planning and delivery system offered suitably accurate spatial registration and dose delivery of serial tomotherapy generated dose distributions. The quantitative dose

  17. Design of Drug Delivery Systems Containing Artemisinin and Its Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blessing Atim Aderibigbe

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Artemisinin and its derivatives have been reported to be experimentally effective for the treatment of highly aggressive cancers without developing drug resistance, they are useful for the treatment of malaria, other protozoal infections and they exhibit antiviral activity. However, they are limited pharmacologically by their poor bioavailability, short half-life in vivo, poor water solubility and long term usage results in toxicity. They are also expensive for the treatment of malaria when compared to other antimalarials. In order to enhance their therapeutic efficacy, they are incorporated onto different drug delivery systems, thus yielding improved biological outcomes. This review article is focused on the currently synthesized derivatives of artemisinin and different delivery systems used for the incorporation of artemisinin and its derivatives.

  18. Automated Liquid-Level Control of a Nutrient Reservoir for a Hydroponic System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Boris; Asumadu, Johnson A.; Dogan, Numan S.

    1997-01-01

    A microprocessor-based system for control of the liquid level of a nutrient reservoir for a plant hydroponic growing system has been developed. The system uses an ultrasonic transducer to sense the liquid level or height. A National Instruments' Multifunction Analog and Digital Input/Output PC Kit includes NI-DAQ DOS/Windows driver software for an IBM 486 personal computer. A Labview Full Development system for Windows is the graphical programming system being used. The system allows liquid level control to within 0.1 cm for all levels tried between 8 and 36 cm in the hydroponic system application. The detailed algorithms have been developed and a fully automated microprocessor based nutrient replenishment system has been described for this hydroponic system.

  19. Feasibility Study: Ductless Hydronic Distribution Systems with Fan Coil Delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Springer, D.; Dakin, B.; Backman, C.

    2012-07-01

    The primary objectives of this study are to estimate potential energy savings relative to conventional ducted air distribution, and to identify equipment requirements, costs, and barriers with a focus on ductless hydronic delivery systems that utilize water-to-air terminal units in each zone. Results indicate that annual heating and cooling energy use can be reduced by up to 27% assuming replacement of the conventional 13 SEER heat pump and coil with a similarly rated air-to-water heat pump.

  20. Zeolites: promising candidates for drug delivery systems (DDSs)

    OpenAIRE

    Vilaça, Natália; Amorim, Ricardo; Baltazar, Fátima; Fonseca, António Manuel; Neves, Isabel C.

    2012-01-01

    [Excerpt] The aim of controlled drug delivery systems (DDSs) is to administer the necessary amount of drug safely and effectively to specific sites in the human body and to regulate the temporal drug profile for maximum therapeutic benefits.[1] Zeolites are crystalline aluminosilicates solids with very regular microporous structures and they have been recently considered for medical use due to their biological properties and stability in biological environments.[1,2] The large variety in ...

  1. Enhanced colonic delivery of ciclosporin A self-emulsifying drug delivery system encapsulated in coated minispheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keohane, Kieran; Rosa, Mónica; Coulter, Ivan S; Griffin, Brendan T

    2016-01-01

    Investigate the potential of coated minispheres (SmPill®) to enhance localized Ciclosporin A (CsA) delivery to the colon. CsA self-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDS) were encapsulated into SmPill® minispheres. Varying degrees of coating thickness (low, medium and high) were applied using ethylcellulose and pectin (E:P) polymers. In vitro CsA release was evaluated in simulated gastric and intestinal media. Bioavailability of CsA in vivo following oral administration to pigs of SmPill® minispheres was compared to Neoral® po and Sandimmun® iv in a pig model. CsA concentrations in blood and intestinal tissue were determined by HPLC-UV. In vitro CsA release from coated minispheres decreased with increasing coating thickness. A linear relationship was observed between in vitro CsA release and in vivo bioavailability (r(2) = 0.98). CsA concentrations in the proximal, transverse and distal colon were significantly higher following administration of SmPill®, compared to Neoral® po and Sandimmun® iv (p < 0.05). Analysis of transverse colon tissue subsections also revealed significantly higher CsA concentrations in the mucosa and submucosa using SmPill® minispheres (p < 0.05). Modulating E:P coating thickness controls release of CsA from SmPill® minispheres. Coated minispheres limited CsA release in the small intestine and enhanced delivery and uptake in the colon. These findings demonstrate clinical advantages of an oral coated minisphere-enabled CsA formulation in the treatment of inflammatory conditions of the large intestine.

  2. Protamine-based nanoparticles as new antigen delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Aramundiz, José Vicente; Peleteiro Olmedo, Mercedes; González-Fernández, África; Alonso Fernández, María José; Csaba, Noemi Stefánia

    2015-11-01

    The use of biodegradable nanoparticles as antigen delivery vehicles is an attractive approach to overcome the problems associated with the use of Alum-based classical adjuvants. Herein we report, the design and development of protamine-based nanoparticles as novel antigen delivery systems, using recombinant hepatitis B surface antigen as a model viral antigen. The nanoparticles, composed of protamine and a polysaccharide (hyaluronic acid or alginate), were obtained using a mild ionic cross-linking technique. The size and surface charge of the nanoparticles could be modulated by adjusting the ratio of the components. Prototypes with optimal physicochemical characteristics and satisfactory colloidal stability were selected for the assessment of their antigen loading capacity, antigen stability during storage and in vitro and in vivo proof-of-concept studies. In vitro studies showed that antigen-loaded nanoparticles induced the secretion of cytokines by macrophages more efficiently than the antigen in solution, thus indicating a potential adjuvant effect of the nanoparticles. Finally, in vivo studies showed the capacity of these systems to trigger efficient immune responses against the hepatitis B antigen following intramuscular administration, suggesting the potential interest of protamine-polysaccharide nanoparticles as antigen delivery systems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Novel delivery systems with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvijić Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic use of oral nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs is associated with increased risk of serious gastrointestinal side effects. Therefore, recent trends in the development of NSAIDs aim to reduce the incidence of side effects, and improve patient compliance. One of the strategies to improve efficacy and safety of oral NSAIDs is the development of combination products that contain gastroprotective agents. Several products containing NSAID in combination with proton pump inhibitors (ketoprofen/omeprazole, naproxen/esomeprazole, H2-receptor antagonists (ibuprofen/famotidine, and prostaglandin analogues (diclofenac/misoprostol are currently available on the market. Another approach refer to the special formulation design to allow dose reduction while preserving drug therapeutic efficacy. An example is SoluMatrix® technology, a manufacturing process that produce submicron-sized drug particles with enhanced dissolution and absorption properties. Patented SoluMatrix® technology has been successfully employed to develop low-dose diclofenac, meloxicam, indomethacin and naproxen products. Topical NSAID formulations enable drug delivery to target tissues, while reducing systemic exposure and concomitant side effects associated with oral NSAIDs. Dermal/transdermal NSAID delivery systems are subject of intensive investigation. So far, several 'advanced' drug delivery systems with diclofenac, ibuprofen and ketoprofen have been designed.

  4. Food Delivery System with the Utilization of Vehicle Using Geographical Information System (GIS) and A Star Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siregar, B.; Gunawan, D.; Andayani, U.; Sari Lubis, Elita; Fahmi, F.

    2017-01-01

    Food delivery system is one kind of geographical information systems (GIS) that can be applied through digitation process. The main case in food delivery system is the way to determine the shortest path and food delivery vehicle movement tracking. Therefore, to make sure that the digitation process of food delivery system can be applied efficiently, it is needed to add shortest path determination facility and food delivery vehicle tracking. This research uses A Star (A*) algorithm for determining shortest path and location-based system (LBS) programming for moving food delivery vehicle object tracking. According to this research, it is generated the integrated system that can be used by food delivery driver, customer, and administrator in terms of simplifying the food delivery system. Through the application of shortest path and the tracking of moving vehicle, thus the application of food delivery system in the scope of geographical information system (GIS) can be executed.

  5. Coupling hydrological and impact assessment models to explore nutrient cycling in freshwater systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwman, Lex; van Beek, Rens; Beusen, Arthur; Mogollón, José; Middelburg, Jack

    2016-04-01

    The IMAGE-Global Nutrient Model (GNM) is a new globally distributed, spatially explicit model in which the hydrology model PCR-GLOBWB is coupled to the integrated assessment model IMAGE to simulate nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) delivery, and then with a spiraling ecological approach to simulating instream biogeochemistry. Routing the water with dissolved and suspended N and P from upstream grid cells occurs simultaneous with N and P delivery to water bodies within grid cells from diffuse and point sources (wastewater). IMAGE-GNM describes the following diffuse sources associated with the water flow: surface runoff, shallow and deep groundwater, riparian zones. Depending on the landscape features, all these flows may be present within one grid cell. Furthermore, diffuse N and P inputs occur through allochtonous organic matter inputs via litterfall in (temporarily) inundated river floodplains, and atmospheric deposition. In the spiraling concept, the residence time of the water and nutrient uptake velocity determine N and P retention in water bodies. Validation of model results with observations yields acceptable agreement given the global scale of the uncalibrated model. Sensitivity analysis shows shifts in the importance of the different sources, with decreasing importance of natural sources and increasing influence of wastewater and agriculture. IMAGE-GNM can be employed to study the interaction between society and the environment over prolonged time periods. Here we show results for the full 20th century.

  6. Biocorrosion and biofilm formation in a nutrient limited heating system subjected to alternating microaerophilic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjellerup, B V; Kjeldsen, K U; Lopes, F; Abildgaard, L; Ingvorsen, K; Frølund, B; Sowers, K R; Nielsen, P H

    2009-11-01

    Severe biofilm formation and biocorrosion have been observed in heating systems even when the water quality complied with existing standards. The coupling between water chemistry, biofilm formation, species composition, and biocorrosion in a heating system was investigated by adding low concentrations of nutrients and oxygen under continuous and alternating dosing regimes. Molecular analysis of 16S rRNA gene fragments demonstrated that the amendments did not cause changes in the overall bacterial community composition. The combined alternating dosing of nutrients and oxygen caused increased rates of pitting (bio-) corrosion. Detection of bacteria involved in sulfide production and oxidation by retrieval of the functional dsrAB and apsA genes revealed the presence of Gram-positive sulfate- and sulfite-reducers and an unknown sulfur-oxidizer. Therefore, to control biocorrosion, sources of oxygen and nutrients must be limited, since the effect of the alternating operational conditions apparently is more important than the presence of potentially corrosive biofilm bacteria.

  7. Spatial dynamics of a nutrient-phytoplankton system with toxic effect on phytoplankton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Subhendu; Tiwari, P K; Misra, A K; Chattopadhyay, J

    2015-06-01

    The production of toxins by some species of phytoplankton is known to have several economic, ecological, and human health impacts. However, the role of toxins on the spatial distribution of phytoplankton is not well understood. In the present study, the spatial dynamics of a nutrient-phytoplankton system with toxic effect on phytoplankton is investigated. We analyze the linear stability of the system and obtain the condition for Turing instability. In the presence of toxic effect, we find that the distribution of nutrient and phytoplankton becomes inhomogeneous in space and results in different patterns, like stripes, spots, and the mixture of them depending on the toxicity level. We also observe that the distribution of nutrient and phytoplankton shows spatiotemporal oscillation for certain toxicity level. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A mucoadhesive in situ gel delivery system for paclitaxel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauhari, Saurabh; Dash, Alekha K

    2006-06-02

    MUC1 gene encodes a transmembrane mucin glycoprotein that is overexpressed in human breast cancer and colon cancer. The objective of this study was to develop an in situ gel delivery system containing paclitaxel (PTX) and mucoadhesives for sustained and targeted delivery of anticancer drugs. The delivery system consisted of chitosan and glyceryl monooleate (GMO) in 0.33M citric acid containing PTX. The in vitro release of PTX from the gel was performed in presence and absence of Tween 80 at drug loads of 0.18%, 0.30%, and 0.54% (wt/wt), in Sorensen's phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) at 37 degrees C. Different mucin-producing cell lines (Calu-3>Caco-2) were selected for PTX transport studies. Transport of PTX from solution and gel delivery system was performed in side by side diffusion chambers from apical to basal (A-B) and basal to apical (B-A) directions. In vitro release studies revealed that within 4 hours, only 7.61% +/- 0.19%, 12.0% +/- 0.98%, 31.7% +/- 0.40% of PTX were released from 0.18%, 0.30%, and 0.54% drug-loaded gel formulation, respectively, in absence of Tween 80. However, in presence of surfactant (0.05% wt/vol) in the dissolution medium, percentages of PTX released were 28.1% +/- 4.35%, 44.2% +/- 6.35%, and 97.1% +/- 1.22%, respectively. Paclitaxel has shown a polarized transport in all the cell monolayers with B-A transport 2 to 4 times higher than in the A-B direction. The highest mucin-producing cell line (Calu-3) has shown the lowest percentage of PTX transport from gels as compared with Caco-2 cells. Transport of PTX from mucoadhesive gels was shown to be influenced by the mucin-producing capability of cell.

  9. Liposomal drug delivery system from laboratory to clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kshirsagar N

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of drug delivery systems is to deliver a drug effectively, specifically to the site of action and to achieve greater efficacy and minimise the toxic effects compared to conventional drugs. Amongst various carrier systems, liposomes have generated a great interest because of their versatility. Liposomes are vesicular concentric bilayered structures, which are biocompatible, biodegradable and nonimmumnogenic. They can control the delivery of drugs by targeting the drug to the site of action or by site avoidance drug delivery or by prolonged circulation of drugs. Amphotericin B (Amp B remains the drug of choice in most systemic mycoses and also as a second line treatment for Kala azar. However, its toxic effects often limit its use. Although the liposome delivery system has been tried for several drugs, only a few have been used in patients due to the slow development of necessary large-scale pharmaceutical procedures. This paper reviews the development of the technique for liposomal Amphotericin B (L-Amp-LRC-1, FungisomeTM drug delivery system in our laboratory in collaboration with the department of Biochemistry, Delhi University in India and proving the safety and efficacy of this preparation in clinical practice. It also attempts to compare the efficacy and benefits of our product for Indian patients with those of similar products and it includes facts from the publications that flowed from our work. As compared to conventional Amp B, Fungisome is infused over a much shorter period requiring a smaller volume and no premedication. It was found to be safe in patients who had developed serious unacceptable toxicity with conventional Amp B. In renal transplant patients, Fungisome did not produce any nephrotoxicity. Fungisome is effective in fungal infections resistant to fluconazole, conventional Amp B and in virgin and resistant cases of visceral leishmaniasis. The cost of any drug is of great significance, especially in India

  10. Ex vivo investigation of magnetically targeted drug delivery system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Y.; Fukui, S.; Fujimoto, S.; Mishima, F.; Takeda, S.; Izumi, Y.; Ohtani, S.; Fujitani, Y.; Nishijima, S.

    2007-01-01

    In conventional systemic drug delivery the drug is administered by intravenous injection; it then travels to the heart from where it is pumped to all regions of the body. When the drug is aimed at a small target region, this method is extremely inefficient and leads to require much larger doses than those being necessary. In order to overcome this problem a number of targeted drug delivery methods are developed. One of these, magnetically targeted drug delivery system (MT-DDS) will be a promising way, which involves binding a drug to small biocompatible magnetic particles, injecting these into the blood stream and using a high gradient magnetic field to pull them out of suspension in the target region. In the present paper, we describe an ex vivo experimental work. It is also reported that navigation and accumulation test of the magnetic particles in the Y-shaped glass tube was performed in order to examine the threshold of the magnetic force for accumulation. It is found that accumulation of the magnetic particles was succeeded in the blood vessel when a permanent magnet was placed at the vicinity of the blood vessel. This result indicates the feasibility of the magnetically drug targeting in the blood vessel

  11. An implantable thermoresponsive drug delivery system based on Peltier device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rongbing; Gorelov, Alexander V; Aldabbagh, Fawaz; Carroll, William M; Rochev, Yury

    2013-04-15

    Locally dropping the temperature in vivo is the main obstacle to the clinical use of a thermoresponsive drug delivery system. In this paper, a Peltier electronic element is incorporated with a thermoresponsive thin film based drug delivery system to form a new drug delivery device which can regulate the release of rhodamine B in a water environment at 37 °C. Various current signals are used to control the temperature of the cold side of the Peltier device and the volume of water on top of the Peltier device affects the change in temperature. The pulsatile on-demand release profile of the model drug is obtained by turning the current signal on and off. The work has shown that the 2600 mAh power source is enough to power this device for 1.3 h. Furthermore, the excessive heat will not cause thermal damage in the body as it will be dissipated by the thermoregulation of the human body. Therefore, this simple novel device can be implanted and should work well in vivo. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Cellulose Nanocrystal Membranes as Excipients for Drug Delivery Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananda M. Barbosa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs were obtained from flax fibers by an acid hydrolysis assisted by sonochemistry in order to reduce reaction times. The cavitation inducted during hydrolysis resulted in CNC with uniform shapes, and thus further pretreatments into the cellulose are not required. The obtained CNC exhibited a homogeneous morphology and high crystallinity, as well as typical values for surface charge. Additionally, CNC membranes were developed from CNC solution to evaluation as a drug delivery system by the incorporation of a model drug. The drug delivery studies were carried out using chlorhexidine (CHX as a drug and the antimicrobial efficiency of the CNC membrane loaded with CHX was examined against Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus (S. Aureus. The release of CHX from the CNC membranes is determined by UV-Vis. The obtaining methodology of the membranes proved to be simple, and these early studies showed a potential use in antibiotic drug delivery systems due to the release kinetics and the satisfactory antimicrobial activity.

  13. An Effective Delivery System of Sitagliptin Using Optimized Mucoadhesive Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afzal Haq Asif

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Sitagliptin (MK-0431, is a potent oral hypoglycemic drug that is used for treating type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, the short half-life of sitagliptin requires patients to take a high dose of 50 mg twice per day, and the fraction of sitagliptin reversibly bound to plasma proteins is as low as 38%. In addition, it was reported that approximately 79% of sitagliptin is excreted unchanged in the urine for elimination without metabolism. Thus, a better delivery system is needed to improve the benefits of sitagliptin in patients. The drug content and percentage yield were found to be 73 ± 2% and 92 ± 2%, respectively. The optimized sitagliptin nanoparticle sizes were between 350–950 nm, and the surfaces were smooth and nearly spherical in shape. In addition, the optimized sitagliptin nanoparticles have an indicated excellent bioadhesion property of (6.1 ± 0.5 h. The swelling of the nanoparticles is 168 ± 15%. The pattern of sitagliptin release from the mucoadhesive nanoparticles follows the Korsmeyer-Peppas model. More importantly, the extended sitagliptin retention time, of up to 12 h in the gastrointestinal tract, suggests that the optimized mucoadhesive nanoparticle formulation is more efficient, and has a greater potential to be used for oral delivery compared to the conventional sitagliptin administration in the drug solution. This is the first developed delivery system using the optimized mucoadhesive nanoparticles to enhance the effectiveness of sitagliptin.

  14. Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems (ENDS): What Nurses Need to Know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essenmacher, Carol; Naegle, Madeline; Baird, Carolyn; Vest, Bridgette; Spielmann, Rene; Smith-East, Marie; Powers, Leigh

    Efforts to decrease adverse effects of tobacco use are affected by emergence of new nicotine delivery products. Advertising, product promotion, and social media promote use of these products, yet a lack of evidence regarding safety leaves nurses unprepared to counsel patients. To critically evaluate current research, reviews of literature, expert opinion, and stakeholder policy proposals on use and safety of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS). A targeted examination of literature generated by key stakeholders and subject matter experts was conducted using key words, modified by risk factors, and limited to the past 8 years. Current knowledge gaps in research literature and practice implications of the literature are discussed. The safety of ENDS is questionable and unclear. There are clear health risks of nicotine exposure to developing brains. Potential health risks of ENDS secondhand emissions exposure exist. Using ENDS to facilitate total tobacco cessation is not proven.

  15. Pancreatic Cancer Gene Therapy: From Molecular Targets to Delivery Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fillat, Cristina, E-mail: cristina.fillat@crg.es; Jose, Anabel; Ros, Xavier Bofill-De; Mato-Berciano, Ana; Maliandi, Maria Victoria; Sobrevals, Luciano [Programa Gens i Malaltia, Centre de Regulació Genòmica-CRG, UPF, Parc de Recerca Biomedica de Barcelona-PRBB and Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Raras (CIBERER), Barcelona (Spain)

    2011-01-18

    The continuous identification of molecular changes deregulating critical pathways in pancreatic tumor cells provides us with a large number of novel candidates to engineer gene-targeted approaches for pancreatic cancer treatment. Targets—both protein coding and non-coding—are being exploited in gene therapy to influence the deregulated pathways to facilitate cytotoxicity, enhance the immune response or sensitize to current treatments. Delivery vehicles based on viral or non-viral systems as well as cellular vectors with tumor homing characteristics are a critical part of the design of gene therapy strategies. The different behavior of tumoral versus non-tumoral cells inspires vector engineering with the generation of tumor selective products that can prevent potential toxic-associated effects. In the current review, a detailed analysis of the different targets, the delivery vectors, the preclinical approaches and a descriptive update on the conducted clinical trials are presented. Moreover, future possibilities in pancreatic cancer treatment by gene therapy strategies are discussed.

  16. Sustained Delivery of Chondroitinase ABC from Hydrogel System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Rossi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In the injured spinal cord, chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs are the principal responsible of axon growth inhibition and they contribute to regenerative failure, promoting glial scar formation. Chondroitinase ABC (chABC is known for being able to digest proteoglycans, thus degrading glial scar and favoring axonal regrowth. However, its classic administration is invasive, infection-prone and clinically problematic. An agarose-carbomer (AC1 hydrogel, already used in SCI repair strategies, was here investigated as a delivery system capable of an effective chABC administration: the material ability to include chABC within its pores and the possibility to be injected into the target tissue were firstly proved. Subsequently, release kinetic and the maintenance of enzymatic activity were positively assessed: AC1 hydrogel was thus confirmed to be a feasible tool for chABC delivery and a promising device for spinal cord injury topic repair strategies.

  17. Towards an Innovative Web-Based Lab Delivery System for a Management Information Systems Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breimer, Eric; Cotler, Jami; Yoder, Robert

    2011-01-01

    While online systems are an essential component of distance learning, they can also play a critical role in improving the delivery of activities in a traditional laboratory setting. The quality and effectiveness of online course delivery is often compared to equivalent face-to-face alternatives. In our approach, we have harnessed what we feel to…

  18. [Recent technical advances in portable oxygen delivery systems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machida, K; Kawabe, Y; Mori, M; Haga, T

    1992-08-01

    According to a Japanese national survey (June 30, 1990), the number of patients receiving home oxygen therapy (HOT) has been greater than 18,000 since March 1985, when HOT was first covered by health insurance. The oxygen concentrator, especially the molecular sieve type, is the most common method of delivery (more than 90%). In April 1988, the portable oxygen cylinder was acknowledged by health insurance, and the liquid oxygen supply system in April 1990. Three types of portable oxygen delivery systems are available; oxygen cyclinder, liquid oxygen system, and oxygen concentrator (membrane type), of which the oxygen cylinder is most commonly used. In our hospital, portable oxygen supply systems were used in 80% of 168 HOT cases in 1990, and the use of 400 L aluminum oxygen cylinders at a flow rate of 1-2 L/min has been most popular. There is an strong desire from patients for lighter portable oxygen supply system of longer duration. In 19 patients with chronic respiratory failure, we evaluated a newly designed demand oxygen delivery system (DODS), which weighs 2.4 kg including the DOD device (TER-20 Teijin), 1.1 L oxygen cylinder made of ultressor, nasal cannula, and carrier. Arterial blood gases at rest (room air) were PaO2 61.9 +/- 6.3 torr, PaCO2 63.8 +/- 9.4 torr and pH 7.40 +/- 0.04. A crossover trial was performed under three conditions; breathing room air with no weight, and pulse oxygen flow and continuous oxygen flow each carrying 2.4 kg of weight. Both 6 minute walking (E1) and walking on a slow speed treadmill (E2) were studied.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Healthcare delivery systems: designing quality into health information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Phil; Green, Rosamund; Winch, Graham

    2007-01-01

    To ensure that quality is 'engineered in' a holistic, integrated and quality approach is required, and Total Quality Management (TQM) principles are the obvious foundations for this. This paper describes a novel approach to viewing the operations of a healthcare provider where electronic means could be used to distribute information (including electronic fund settlements), building around the Full Service Provider core. Specifically, an approach called the "triple pair flow" model is used to provide a view of healthcare delivery that is integrated, yet detailed, and that combines the strategic enterprise view with a business process view.

  20. Prenatal Lipid-Based Nutrient Supplements Do Not Affect Pregnancy or Childbirth Complications or Cesarean Delivery in Bangladesh: A Cluster-Randomized Controlled Effectiveness Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mridha, Malay K; Matias, Susana L; Paul, Rina Rani; Hussain, Sohrab; Sarker, Mostofa; Hossain, Mokbul; Peerson, Janet M; Vosti, Stephen A; Dewey, Kathryn G

    2017-09-01

    Background: Pregnancy and childbirth complications and cesarean delivery are common in Bangladesh. Objective: We evaluated the effect of lipid-based nutrient supplements for pregnant and lactating women (LNS-PL) on pregnancy and childbirth complications and cesarean delivery. Methods: We conducted the Rang-Din Nutrition Study, a cluster-randomized controlled effectiveness trial within a community health program in rural Bangladesh. We enrolled 4011 pregnant women in early pregnancy. Women in 48 clusters received iron and folic acid (IFA; 60 mg Fe + 400 μg folic acid/d) and women in 16 clusters received LNS-PL (20 g/d, 118 kcal) containing essential fatty acids and 22 vitamins and minerals. Pregnancy and childbirth complications and the cesarean delivery rate were secondary outcomes of the study. Results: Women in the LNS-PL group did not differ significantly from the IFA group with respect to mean systolic blood pressure at 36 wk gestation (113 and 112 mm Hg; P = 0.17), diastolic blood pressure at 36 wk gestation (68.9 and 68.7 mmHg; P = 0.88), or mean total number of pregnancy and childbirth complications (0.32 and 0.31; P = 0.86). They also did not differ significantly with respect to the prevalence of high blood pressure at 36 wk (1.74% and 2.03%; P = 0.62), antepartum hemorrhage (0.83% and 1.39%; P = 0.21), prolonged labor (8.34% and 8.79%; P = 0.68), early rupture of membranes (9.30% and 8.45%; P = 0.43), convulsions (1.57% and 1.08%; P = 0.24), high blood pressure in labor (1.54% and 1.19%; P = 0.46), obstructed labor (2.83% and 2.91%; P = 0.90), any complications during pregnancy or childbirth (35.9% and 37.1%; P = 0.64), episiotomy (6.31% and 6.44%; P = 0.90), or cesarean delivery (15.6% and 14.2%; P = 0.48). Conclusion: Compared with IFA, antenatal LNS-PL did not increase or decrease pregnancy and childbirth complications or cesarean delivery among women in rural Bangladesh. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01715038. © 2017 American

  1. Metal organic frameworks as a drug delivery system for flurbiprofen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Haydar, Muder; Abid, Hussein Rasool; Sunderland, Bruce; Wang, Shaobin

    2017-01-01

    Metal organic frameworks (MOFs) have attracted more attention in the last decade because of a suitable pore size, large surface area, and high pore volume. Developing biocompatible MOFs such as the MIL family as a drug delivery system is possible. Flurbiprofen (FBP), a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent, is practically insoluble in aqueous solution, and, therefore, needs suitable drug delivery systems. Different biocompatible MOFs such as Ca-MOF and Fe-MILs (53, 100, and 101) were synthesized and employed for FBP delivery. A sample of 50 mg of each MOF was mixed and stirred for 24 h with 10 mL of 5 mg FBP in acetonitrile (40%) in a sealed container. The supernatant of the mixture after centrifuging was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography to determine the loaded quantity of FBP on the MOF. The overnight-dried solid material after centrifuging the mixture was analyzed for loading percent using X-ray diffraction, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance, and FBP release profile. The loading values of FBP were achieved at 10.0%±1%, 20%±0.8%, 37%±2.3%, and 46%±3.1% on Ca-MOF, Fe-MIL-53, Fe-MIL-101, and Fe-MIL-100, respectively. The FBP release profiles were investigated in a phosphate buffer solution at pH 7.4. The total release of the FBP after 2 days was obtained at 72.9, 75.2, 78.3, and 90.3% for Ca-MOF, Fe-MIL-100, Fe-MIL-53, and Fe-MIL-101, respectively. The MOFs are shown to be a promising drug delivery option for FBP with a significant loading percent and relatively prolonged drug release.

  2. A clinician-driven home care delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    August, D A; Faubion, W C; Ryan, M L; Haggerty, R H; Wesley, J R

    1993-12-01

    The financial, entrepreneurial, administrative, and legal forces acting within the home care arena make it difficult for clinicians to develop and operate home care initiatives within an academic setting. HomeMed is a clinician-initiated and -directed home care delivery system wholly owned by the University of Michigan. The advantages of a clinician-directed system include: Assurance that clinical and patient-based factors are the primary determinants of strategic and procedural decisions; Responsiveness of the system to clinician needs; Maintenance of an important role for the referring physician in home care; Economical clinical research by facilitation of protocol therapy in ambulatory and home settings; Reduction of lengths of hospital stays through clinician initiatives; Incorporation of outcome analysis and other research programs into the mission of the system; Clinician commitment to success of the system; and Clinician input on revenue use. Potential disadvantages of a clinician-based system include: Entrepreneurial, financial, and legal naivete; Disconnection from institutional administrative and data management resources; and Inadequate clinician interest and commitment. The University of Michigan HomeMed experience demonstrates a model of clinician-initiated and -directed home care delivery that has been innovative, profitable, and clinically excellent, has engendered broad physician, nurse, pharmacist, and social worker enthusiasm, and has supported individual investigator clinical protocols as well as broad outcomes research initiatives. It is concluded that a clinician-initiated and -directed home care program is feasible and effective, and in some settings may be optimal.

  3. Cooperation through Competition?Dynamics and Microeconomics of a Minimal Nutrient Trade System in Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Symbiosis

    OpenAIRE

    Schott, Stephan; Valdebenito, Braulio; Bustos, Daniel; Gomez-Porras, Judith L.; Sharma, Tripti; Dreyer, Ingo

    2016-01-01

    In arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis, fungi and plants exchange nutrients (sugars and phosphate, for instance) for reciprocal benefit. Until now it is not clear how this nutrient exchange system works. Here, we used computational cell biology to simulate the dynamics of a network of proton pumps and proton-coupled transporters that are upregulated during AM formation. We show that this minimal network is sufficient to describe accurately and realistically the nutrient trade system. By app...

  4. Environmental Characteristics and Geographic Information System Applications for the Development of Nutrient Thresholds in Oklahoma Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoner, Jason R.; Haggard, Brian E.; Rea, Alan

    2002-01-01

    The U.S.Environmental Protection Agency has developed nutrient criteria using ecoregions to manage and protect rivers and streams in the United States. Individual states and tribes are encouraged by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to modify or improve upon the ecoregion approach. The Oklahoma Water Resources Board uses a dichotomous process that stratifies streams using environmental characteristics such as stream order and stream slope. This process is called the Use Support Assessment Protocols, subchapter15. The Use Support Assessment Protocols can be used to identify streams threatened by excessive amounts of nutrients, dependant upon a beneficial use designation for each stream. The Use Support Assessment Protocols, subchapter 15 uses nutrient and environmental characteristic thresholds developed from a study conducted in the Netherlands, but the Oklahoma Water Resources Board wants to modify the thresholds to reflect hydrologic and ecological conditions relevant to Oklahoma streams and rivers. Environmental characteristics thought to affect impairment from nutrient concentrations in Oklahoma streams and rivers were determined for 798 water-quality sites in Oklahoma. Nutrient, chlorophyll, water-properties, and location data were retrieved from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency STORET database including data from the U.S. Geological Survey, Oklahoma Conservation Commission, and Oklahoma Water Resources Board. Drainage-basin area, stream order, stream slope, and land-use proportions were determined for each site using a Geographic Information System. The methods, procedures, and data sets used to determine the environmental characteristics are described.

  5. A remotely operated drug delivery system with dose control

    KAUST Repository

    Yi, Ying

    2017-05-08

    “On demand” implantable drug delivery systems can provide optimized treatments, due to their ability to provide targeted, flexible and precise dose release. However, two important issues that need to be carefully considered in a mature device include an effective actuation stimulus and a controllable dose release mechanism. This work focuses on remotely powering an implantable drug delivery system and providing a high degree of control over the released dose. This is accomplished by integration of a resonance-based wireless power transfer system, a constant voltage control circuit and an electrolytic pump. Upon the activation of the wireless power transfer system, the electrolytic actuator is remotely powered by a constant voltage regardless of movements of the device within an effective range of translation and rotation. This in turn contributes to a predictable dose release rate and greater flexibility in the positioning of external powering source. We have conducted proof-of-concept drug delivery studies using the liquid drug in reservoir approach and the solid drug in reservoir approach, respectively. Our experimental results demonstrate that the range of flow rate is mainly determined by the voltage controlled with a Zener diode and the resistance of the implantable device. The latter can be adjusted by connecting different resistors, providing control over the flow rate to meet different clinical needs. The flow rate can be maintained at a constant level within the effective movement range. When using a solid drug substitute with a low solubility, solvent blue 38, the dose release can be kept at 2.36μg/cycle within the effective movement range by using an input voltage of 10Vpp and a load of 1.5 kΩ, which indicates the feasibility and controllability of our system without any complicated closed-loop sensor.

  6. Feed-Forward control of water and nutrient supply in greenhouse horticulture: development of a system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elings, A.; Heinen, M.; Werner, B.E.; Visser, de P.; Boogaard, van den H.A.G.M.; Gieling, T.H.; Marcelis, L.F.M.

    2004-01-01

    Minimisation of nutrient and water loss to the environment, prediction and planning of production and product quality, such that they meet the demands of customers, and increased financial return are some of the goals of current greenhouse horticulture. This requires an integrated system for

  7. The integrated modeling system STONE for calculating nutrient emissions from agriculture in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, J.; Beusen, A.H.W.; Groenendijk, P.; Kroon, T.; Rötter, R.P.; Zeijts, van H.

    2003-01-01

    For the Netherlands, a nutrient emission modeling system, called STONE, has been developed. It was designed for evaluation at the national and regional scale of the effects of changes in the agricultural sector (e.g. changes in fertilizer recommendations and cropping patterns) and in policy measures

  8. Food inputs, water quality and nutrient accumulation in integrated pond systems: A multivariate approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nhan, D.K.; Milstein, A.; Verdegem, M.C.J.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2006-01-01

    A participatory on-farm study was conducted to explore the effects of food input patterns on water quality and sediment nutrient accumulation in ponds, and to identify different types of integrated pond systems. Ten integrated agriculture-aquaculture (IAA) farms, in which ponds associate with fruit

  9. Preparation, characterization and drug delivery study of a novel nanobiopolymeric multidrug delivery system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dadkhah Tehrani, Abbas, E-mail: A_dadkhahtehrani@yahoo.com; Parsamanesh, Masoumeh

    2017-04-01

    New nanocarrier for codelivery of curcumin and doxorubicin as the anticancer drugs was synthesized using biocompatible and biodegradable materials. Firstly, an inclusion complex of amylose (Am) and curcumin (CUR) was formed through entrapment of curcumin into the amylose helices. Then the surface of amylose-curcumin (Am-CUR) complex was modified by polycaprolactone (PCL) via esterification reaction between hydroxyl functional groups of amylose and carbonyl groups of PCL. Finally, poly citric acid (PCA) reacted with terminal hydroxyl groups of PCL by esterification reaction. Then, doxorubicin (DOX) reacted with the surface carboxylic acid functional groups of Am-CUR-PCL-PCA through noncovalent interactions to form Am-CUR-PCL-PCA-DOX as a multidrug delivery system. These new synthesized nanomaterials were characterized by spectroscopic measurement methods such as IR spectroscopy, UV–vis spectroscopy, NMR spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. FE-SEM analyses and DLS measurements showed that the hydrodynamic dimensions of Am-Cur-PCL-PCA were about 50 nm. Due to the presence of ester bonds, the synthesized nanomaterials are pH sensitive. Furthermore, the resulting copolymer was completely water soluble because of the hydrophilic nature of poly citric acid part of copolymer and therefore successfully can be utilized in biomedical applications. - Highlights: • A drug delivery system based on amylose-graft-PCL-PCA developed for codelivery of curcumin and DOX. • The IR and NMR spectra confirmed successful preparation of the copolymer. • The drugs release were more favorable at acidic pH for both drugs. • DLS measurements showed that the hydrodynamic dimensions of Am-Cur-PCL-PCA was about 50 nm.

  10. An evaluation of the sustainability of onsite wastewater treatment systems for nutrient management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Elsayed, Nancy; Xu, Xiaofan; Balaguer-Barbosa, Maraida; Zhang, Qiong

    2017-09-15

    The impairment of water bodies from nutrient pollution is a challenging environmental problem that could lead to high eutrophic conditions, fish kills, and human illness, while negatively impacting industries that rely on thriving water bodies. Onsite wastewater treatment systems (OWTSs) are a major source of nutrients, however no prior studies have conducted a holistic sustainability assessment of OWTSs that considers their ability to manage nutrients at the household-level in the United States. The aim of this study is therefore to evaluate the environmental and economic impacts of conventional and advanced OWTSs with respect to their ability to remove total nitrogen (TN). Septic tank and drainfield materials were varied for conventional systems, and the advanced systems evaluated consisted of aerobic treatment units (ATUs) and passive nitrogen reduction systems (PNRSs) with nitrification and denitrification stages. Life cycle assessment and life cycle cost analysis were performed to evaluate OWTSs operating in different soil and temperature conditions. Nutrient management of the advanced OWTSs outperformed the conventional systems (96.7-100% vs. 61-65% TN removal), and resulted in less than 40% of the freshwater (0.06-0.14 vs. 0.37-0.40 kg P-eq/kg TN) and marine eutrophication (0.04-0.06 vs. 0.54-0.65 kg N-eq/kg TN). However, the tradeoff for nutrient management was higher life cycle costs ($101-$121 vs. $45-$58 USD 2015/kg TN) and environmental impacts for the remaining impact categories. Lastly, when the TN removed by the drainfield was <20%, the advanced system had lower impacts than conventional OWTSs across all impact categories except ecotoxicity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Agroforestry systems, nutrients in litter and microbial activity in soils cultivated with coffee at high altitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystal de Alcantara Notaro

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Agroforestry systems are an alternative option for sustainable production management. These systems contain trees that absorb nutrients from deeper layers of the soil and leaf litter that help improve the soil quality of the rough terrain in high altitude areas, which are areas extremely susceptible to environmental degradation. The aim of this study was to characterize the stock and nutrients in litter, soil activity and the population of microorganisms in coffee (Coffea arabica L. plantations under high altitude agroforestry systems in the semi-arid region of the state of Pernambuco, Brazil. Samples were collected from the surface litter together with soil samples taken at two depths (0-10 and 10-20 cm from areas each subject to one of the following four treatments: agroforestry system (AS, native forest (NF, biodynamic system (BS and coffee control (CT.The coffee plantation had been abandoned for nearly 15 years and, although there had been no management or harvesting, still contained productive coffee plants. The accumulation of litter and mean nutrient content of the litter, the soil nutrient content, microbial biomass carbon, total carbon, total nitrogen, C/N ratio, basal respiration, microbial quotient, metabolic quotient and microbial populations (total bacteria, fluorescent bacteria group, total fungi and Trichoderma spp. were all analyzed. The systems thatwere exposed to human intervention (A and BS differed in their chemical attributes and contained higher levels of nutrients when compared to NF and CT. BS for coffee production at high altitude can be used as a sustainable alternative in the high altitude zones of the semi-arid region in Brazil, which is an area that is highly susceptible to environmental degradation.

  12. Carbonate system and nutrients in the Pearl River estuary, China: Seasonal and inter-annual variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, X.

    2017-12-01

    Located in southern China and surrounded by several metropolis, the Pearl River estuary is a large subtropical estuary under significant human perturbation. We examined the impact of sewage treatment rate on the water environmental factors. Carbonate system parameters (Dissolved inorganic carbon or DIC, Total alkalinity or TA, and pH), and nutrients were surveyed in the Pearl River estuary from 2000 to 2015. Spatially, concentrations of nutrients were high at low salinity and decreased with salinity in both wet and dry seasons although seasonal variation occurred. However, distribution patterns of DIC and TA differed in wet and dry seasons. In wet season, both DIC and TA were low at low salinity (600-1500 umol kg-1) and increased with salinity, but in dry season they were high at low salinity (3000-3500 umol kg-1) and decreased with salinity. Compared with the years before 2010, both values and distribution patterns of DIC, TA and pH were similar among the years in wet season, but they were conspicuously different in the upper estuary in dry season. Both DIC and TA were more than 1000 umol kg-1 lower than those in the years before 2010. For nutrients at low salinity, the ammonia concentration was much lower in the years after 2010 (200 vs. 400 umol kg-1 in wet season and 400 vs. 800 umol kg-1 in dry season), but nitrate concentration was slightly higher (180 vs 120 mmol kg-1 in wet season and 200 vs 180 mmol kg-1 in dry season). As a reference, carbonate system parameters and nutrients were stable among the 16 years in the adjacent northern South China Sea. The variations in biogeochemical processes induced by nutrients concentration and structure as a result of sewage discharge will be discussed in detail. The decrease in DIC, TA and nutrients in the upper Pearl River estuary after 2010 was due mainly to the improvement of sewage treatment rate and capacity.

  13. Thiomers: potential excipients for non-invasive peptide delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernkop-Schnürch, Andreas; Krauland, Alexander H; Leitner, Verena M; Palmberger, Thomas

    2004-09-01

    In recent years thiolated polymers or so-called thiomers have appeared as a promising alternative in the arena of non-invasive peptide delivery. Thiomers are generated by the immobilisation of thiol-bearing ligands to mucoadhesive polymeric excipients. By formation of disulfide bonds with mucus glycoproteins, the mucoadhesive properties of these polymers are improved up to 130-fold. Due to formation of inter- and intramolecular disulfide bonds within the thiomer itself, dosage forms such as tablets or microparticles display strong cohesive properties resulting in comparatively higher stability, prolonged disintegration times and a more controlled release of the embedded peptide drug. The permeation of peptide drugs through mucosa can be improved by the use of thiolated polymers. Additionally some thiomers exhibit improved inhibitory properties towards peptidases. The efficacy of thiomers in non-invasive peptide delivery could be demonstrated by various in vivo studies. Tablets comprising a thiomer and pegylated insulin, for instance, resulted in a pharmacological efficacy of 7% after oral application to diabetic mice. Furthermore, a pharmacological efficacy of 1.3% was achieved in rats by oral administration of calcitonin tablets comprising a thiomer. Human growth hormone in a thiomer-gel was applied nasally to rats and led to a bioavailability of 2.75%. In all these studies, formulations comprising the corresponding unmodified polymer had only a marginal or no effect. According to these results drug carrier systems based on thiomers seem to be a promising tool for non-invasive peptide drug delivery.

  14. New Delivery Systems for Local Anaesthetics—Part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward A. Shipton

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Part 2 of this paper deals with the techniques for drug delivery of topical and injectable local anaesthetics. The various routes of local anaesthetic delivery (epidural, peripheral, wound catheters, intra-nasal, intra-vesical, intra-articular, intra-osseous are explored. To enhance transdermal local anaesthetic permeation, additional methods to the use of an eutectic mixture of local anaesthetics and the use of controlled heat can be used. These methods include iontophoresis, electroporation, sonophoresis, and magnetophoresis. The potential clinical uses of topical local anaesthetics are elucidated. Iontophoresis, the active transportation of a drug into the skin using a constant low-voltage direct current is discussed. It is desirable to prolong local anaesthetic blockade by extending its sensory component only. The optimal release and safety of the encapsulated local anaesthetic agents still need to be determined. The use of different delivery systems should provide the clinician with both an extended range and choice in the degree of prolongation of action of each agent.

  15. Packaged Au-PPy valves for drug delivery systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Han-Kuan A.; Ma, Kuo-Sheng; Zoval, Jim; Kulinsky, Lawrence; Madou, Marc

    2006-03-01

    The most common methods for the drug delivery are swallowing pills or receiving injections. However, formulations that control the rate and period of medicine (i.e., time-release medications) are still problematic. The proposed implantable devices which include batteries, sensors, telemetry, valves, and drug storage reservoirs provide an alternative method for the responsive drug delivery system [1]. Using this device, drug concentration can be precisely controlled which enhances drug efficiency and decreases the side effects. In order to achieve responsive drug delivery, a reliable release valve has to be developed. Biocompatibility, low energy consumption, and minimized leakage are the main requirements for such release method. A bilayer structure composed of Au/PPy film is fabricated as a flap to control the release valve. Optimized potentiostatic control to synthesize polypyrrole (PPy) is presented. The release of miniaturize valve is tested and showed in this paper. A novel idea to simultaneously fabricate the device reservoirs as well as protective packaging is proposed in this paper. The solution of PDMS permeability problem is also mentioned in this article.

  16. Polymer-lipid hybrid nanoparticles as enhanced indomethacin delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalmoro, Annalisa; Bochicchio, Sabrina; Nasibullin, Shamil F; Bertoncin, Paolo; Lamberti, Gaetano; Barba, Anna Angela; Moustafine, Rouslan I

    2018-05-17

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), i.e. indomethacin used for rheumatoid arthritis and non-rheumatoid inflammatory diseases, are known for their injurious actions on the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Mucosal damage can be avoided by using nanoscale systems composed by a combination of liposomes and biodegradable natural polymer, i.e. chitosan, for enhancing drug activity. Aim of this study was to prepare chitosan-lipid hybrid delivery systems for indomethacin dosage through a novel continuous method based on microfluidic principles. The drop-wise conventional method was also applied in order to investigate the effect of the two polymeric coverage processes on the nanostructures features and their interactions with indomethacin. Thermal-physical properties, mucoadhesiveness, drug entrapment efficiency, in vitro release behavior in simulated GI fluids and stability in stocking conditions were assayed and compared, respectively, for the uncoated and chitosan-coated nanoliposomes prepared by the two introduced methods. The prepared chitosan-lipid hybrid structures, with nanometric size, have shown high indomethacin loading (about 10%) and drug encapsulation efficiency up to 99%. TEM investigation has highlighted that the developed novel simil-microfluidic method is able to put a polymeric layer, surrounding indomethacin loaded nanoliposomes, thicker and smoother than that achievable by the drop-wise method, improving their storage stability. Finally, double pH tests have confirmed that the chitosan-lipid hybrid nanostructures have a gastro retentive behavior in simulated gastric and intestinal fluids thus can be used as delivery systems for the oral-controlled release of indomethacin. Based on the present results, the simil-microfluidic method, working with large volumes, in a rapid manner, without the use of drastic conditions and with a precise control over the covering process, seems to be the most promising method for the production of suitable

  17. Potential applications for halloysite nanotubes based drug delivery systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lin

    Drug delivery refers to approaches, formulations, technologies, and systems for transporting a drug in the body. The purpose is to enhance the drug efficacy and to reduce side reactions, which can significantly improve treatment outcomes. Halloysite is a naturally occurred alumino-silicate clay with a tubular structure. It is a biocompatible material with a big surface area which can be used for attachment of targeted molecules. Besides, loaded molecules can present a sustained release manner in solution. These properties make halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) a good option for drug delivery. In this study, a drug delivery system was built based on halloysite via three different fabrication methods: physical adsorption, vacuum loading and layer-by-layer coating. Methotrexate was used as the model drug. Factors that may affect performance in both drug loading and release were tested. Results showed that methotrexate could be incorporated within the HNTs system and released in a sustained manner. Layer-by-layer coating showed a better potential than the other two methods in both MTX loading and release. Besides, lower pH could greatly improve MTX loading and release while the increased number of polyelectrolytes bilayers had a limited impact. Osteosarcoma is the most common primary bone malignancy in children and adolescents. Postoperative recurrence and metastasis has become one of the leading causes for patient death after surgical remove of the tumor mass. A strategy could be a sustained release of chemotherapeutics directly at the primary tumor sites where recurrence would mostly occur. Then, this HNTs based system was tested with osteosarcoma cells in vitro to show the potential of delivering chemotherapeutics in the treatment of osteosarcoma. Methotrexate was incorporated within HNTs with a layer-bylayer coating technique, and drug coated HNTs were filled into nylon-6 which is a common material for surgical sutures in industry. Results showed that (1) methotrexate

  18. Carbon sequestration and nutrient reserves under differen t land use systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ivanilda Aguiar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the contribution of agroforestry (AFS and traditional systems to carbon sequestration and nutrient reserves in plants, litter and soil. The study was carried out in the semiarid region of Brazil in a long-term experiment on an experimental farm of the goat and sheep section of the Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation (Embrapa. Two agroforestry systems were investigated: agrosilvopastoral (ASP and forest-pasture areas (SP as well as traditional agriculture management (TM, two areas left fallow after TM (six fallow years - F6 and nine fallow years - F9 and one area of preserved Caatinga vegetation (CAT. Soil, litter and plants were sampled from all areas and the contents of C, N, P, K, Ca and Mg per compartment determined. The AFS (ASP and SP had higher nutrient stocks than the traditional and intermediate stocks compared to the preserved Caatinga. In the ASP, a relevant part of the nutrients extracted by crops is returned to the system by constant inputs of litter, weeding of herbaceous vegetation and cutting of the legume crops. After fallow periods of six and nine years, carbon and nutrient stocks in the compartments soil, litter and herbaceous plants were similar to those of the preserved Caatinga (CAT, but still lower than under natural conditions in the woody vegetation.

  19. Targeted electrohydrodynamic printing for micro-reservoir drug delivery systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Tae Heon; Kim, Jin Bum; Yang, Da Som; Ryu, WonHyoung; Park, Yong-il

    2013-01-01

    Microfluidic drug delivery systems consisting of a drug reservoir and microfluidic channels have shown the possibility of simple and robust modulation of drug release rate. However, the difficulty of loading a small quantity of drug into drug reservoirs at a micro-scale limited further development of such systems. Electrohydrodynamic (EHD) printing was employed to fill micro-reservoirs with controlled amount of drugs in the range of a few hundreds of picograms to tens of micrograms with spatial resolution of as small as 20 µm. Unlike most EHD systems, this system was configured in combination with an inverted microscope that allows in situ targeting of drug loading at micrometer scale accuracy. Methylene blue and rhodamine B were used as model drugs in distilled water, isopropanol and a polymer solution of a biodegradable polymer and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). Also tetracycline-HCl/DI water was used as actual drug ink. The optimal parameters of EHD printing to load an extremely small quantity of drug into microscale drug reservoirs were investigated by changing pumping rates, the strength of an electric field and drug concentration. This targeted EHD technique was used to load drugs into the microreservoirs of PDMS microfluidic drug delivery devices and their drug release performance was demonstrated in vitro. (paper)

  20. A framework for the organization and delivery of systemic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenberg, T; Coakley, N; Nayler, J; Degrasse, C; Green, E; Mackay, J A; McLennan, C; Smith, A; Wilcock, L; Trudeau, M E

    2009-01-01

    Increasing systemic treatment and shortages of oncology professionals in Canada require innovative approaches to the safe and effective delivery of intravenous (IV) cancer treatment. We conducted a systematic review of the clinical and scientific literature, and an environmental scan of models in Canada, the United Kingdom, Australia, and New Zealand. We then developed a framework for the organization and delivery of IV systemic treatment. The systematic review covered the medline, embase, cinahl, and HealthStar databases. The environmental scan retrieved published and unpublished sources, coupled with a free key word search using the Google search engine. The Systemic Treatment Working Group reviewed the evidence and developed a draft framework using evidence-based analysis, existing recommendations from various jurisdictions, and expert opinion based on experience and consensus. The draft was assessed by Ontario stakeholders and reviewed and approved by Cancer Care Ontario. The poor quantity and quality of the evidence necessitated a consensus-derived model. That model comprises four levels of care determined by a regional systemic treatment program and three integrated structures (integrated cancer programs, affiliate institutions, and satellite institutions), each with a defined scope of practice and a specific organizational framework. New models of care are urgently required beyond large centres, particularly in geographically remote or rural areas. Despite limited applicable evidence, the development and successful implementation of this framework is intended to create sustainable, accessible, quality care and to measurably improve patient outcomes.

  1. Characterisation of zinc delivery from a nipple shield delivery system using a breastfeeding simulation apparatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebekah L Scheuerle

    Full Text Available Zinc delivery from a nipple shield delivery system (NSDS, a novel platform for administering medicines to infants during breastfeeding, was characterised using a breastfeeding simulation apparatus. In this study, human milk at flow rates and pressures physiologically representative of breastfeeding passed through the NSDS loaded with zinc-containing rapidly disintegrating tablets, resulting in release of zinc into the milk. Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry was used to detect the zinc released, using a method that does not require prior digestion of the samples and that could be applied in other zinc analysis studies in breast milk. Four different types of zinc-containing tablets with equal zinc load but varying excipient compositions were tested in the NSDS in vitro. Zinc release measured over 20 minutes ranged from 32-51% of the loaded dose. Total zinc release for sets tablets of the same composition but differing hardness were not significantly different from one another with P = 0.3598 and P = 0.1270 for two tested pairs using unpaired t tests with Welch's correction. By the same test total zinc release from two sets of tablets having similar hardness but differing composition were also not significantly significant with P = 0.2634. Future zinc tablet composition and formulation optimisation could lead to zinc supplements and therapeutics with faster drug release, which could be administered with the NSDS during breastfeeding. The use of the NSDS to deliver zinc could then lead to treatment and prevention of some of the leading causes of child mortality, including diarrheal disease and pneumonia.

  2. Reliability review of the remote tool delivery system locomotor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chesser, J.B.

    1999-04-01

    The locomotor being built by RedZone Robotics is designed to serve as a remote tool delivery (RID) system for waste retrieval, tank cleaning, viewing, and inspection inside the high-level waste tanks 8D-1 and 8D-2 at West Valley Nuclear Services (WVNS). The RTD systm is to be deployed through a tank riser. The locomotor portion of the RTD system is designed to be inserted into the tank and is to be capable of moving around the tank by supporting itself and moving on the tank internal structural columns. The locomotor will serve as a mounting platform for a dexterous manipulator arm. The complete RTD system consists of the locomotor, dexterous manipulator arm, cameras, lights, cables, hoses, cable/hose management system, power supply, and operator control station.

  3. Intrauterine levonorgestrel delivery with frameless fibrous delivery system: review of clinical experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wildemeersch D

    2017-01-01

    currently existing LNG-IUSs. A frameless fibrous drug delivery system fits, in principle, in all uterine cavities and may therefore be preferable to framed drug delivery systems. This review examines the clinical performance, acceptability, and potential of the frameless LNG-IUS (FibroPlant® when used for contraception, treatment of heavy menstrual bleeding, dysmenorrhea, and endometrial suppression in women using estrogen replacement therapy, endometrial hyperplasia, and other gynecological conditions. The review concludes that FibroPlant LNG-IUS offers unique advantages in reducing side effects. Keywords: LNG-IUS, frameless, efficacy, safety, acceptability

  4. Chewing gum and lozenges as delivery systems for noscapine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norgaard Jensen, L.; Christrup, Lona Louring; Menger, N.

    1991-01-01

    Chewing gum and lozenges were evaluated as delivery systems for noscapine with the aim of developing improved antitussive preparations. The formulations studied were prepared with both the water-soluble hydrochloride salt of noscapine and with the poorly soluble embonate salt and noscapine free...... base. The release characteristics of the preparations were evaluated both in vitro and in vivo, and their taste properties examined. Only the formulations containing noscapine base were without any appreciable taste. Chewing gum containing this compound showed, however, a low level of drug release both...

  5. Efficient gene delivery using chitosan-polyethylenimine hybrid systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Hu-Lin; Kim, Tae-Hee; Kim, You-Kyoung; Park, In-Young; Cho, Chong-Su [Department of Agricultural Bioechnology, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-921 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Myung-Haing [Laboratory of Toxicology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: chocs@plaza.snu.ac.kr

    2008-06-01

    Chitosan and chitosan derivatives have been investigated as non-viral vectors because they have several advantages, such as biocompatibility, biodegradability, low cytotoxicity and low immunogenicity. However, low transfection efficiency and low cell specificity must be solved for their use in clinical trials. In this paper, chitosan-polyethylenimine (PEI) hybrid systems such as chitosan/PEI blend and chitosan-graft-PEI are described for efficient gene delivery because the PEI has high transfection efficiency owing to a proton sponge effect and chitosan has biocompatibility. Also, hepatocyte specificity of the galactosylated chitosan is explained after combination with PEI.

  6. Nanoparticulated magnetic drug delivery systems: Preparation and magnetic characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morais, P C, E-mail: pcmor@unb.b [Universidade de BrasIlia, Instituto de Fisica, Nucleo de Fisica Aplicada, Brasilia DF 70910-900 (Brazil)

    2010-03-01

    This paper describes how magnetic resonance can be successfully used as a tool to help customize and quantify nanosized magnetic particles while labeling cells and administered in animals for targeting different biological sites. Customization of magnetic nanoparticles is addressed here in terms of production of complex magnetic drug delivery systems whereas quantification of magnetic nanoparticle in different biological compartments emerges as a key experimental information to assess time-dependent magnetic nanoparticle biodistribution profiles. Examples of using magnetic resonance in unfolding information regarding the pharmacokinetics of intravenously-injected surface-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles in animals are included in the paper.

  7. Efficient gene delivery using chitosan-polyethylenimine hybrid systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Hu-Lin; Kim, Tae-Hee; Kim, You-Kyoung; Park, In-Young; Cho, Chong-Su; Cho, Myung-Haing

    2008-01-01

    Chitosan and chitosan derivatives have been investigated as non-viral vectors because they have several advantages, such as biocompatibility, biodegradability, low cytotoxicity and low immunogenicity. However, low transfection efficiency and low cell specificity must be solved for their use in clinical trials. In this paper, chitosan-polyethylenimine (PEI) hybrid systems such as chitosan/PEI blend and chitosan-graft-PEI are described for efficient gene delivery because the PEI has high transfection efficiency owing to a proton sponge effect and chitosan has biocompatibility. Also, hepatocyte specificity of the galactosylated chitosan is explained after combination with PEI

  8. Nanostructured delivery systems with improved leishmanicidal activity: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruni, Natascia; Stella, Barbara; Giraudo, Leonardo; Della Pepa, Carlo; Gastaldi, Daniela; Dosio, Franco

    2017-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne zoonotic disease caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania , which are responsible for numerous clinical manifestations, such as cutaneous, visceral, and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis, depending on the site of infection for particular species. These complexities threaten 350 million people in 98 countries worldwide. Amastigotes living within macrophage phagolysosomes are the principal target of antileishmanial treatment, but these are not an easy target as drugs must overcome major structural barriers. Furthermore, limitations on current therapy are related to efficacy, toxicity, and cost, as well as the length of treatment, which can increase parasitic resistance. Nanotechnology has emerged as an attractive alternative as conventional drugs delivered by nanosized carriers have improved bioavailability and reduced toxicity, together with other characteristics that help to relieve the burden of this disease. The significance of using colloidal carriers loaded with active agents derives from the physiological uptake route of intravenous administered nanosystems (the phagocyte system). Nanosystems are thus able to promote a high drug concentration in intracellular mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS)-infected cells. Moreover, the versatility of nanometric drug delivery systems for the deliberate transport of a range of molecules plays a pivotal role in the design of therapeutic strategies against leishmaniasis. This review discusses studies on nanocarriers that have greatly contributed to improving the efficacy of antileishmaniasis drugs, presenting a critical review and some suggestions for improving drug delivery.

  9. Liposomal Conjugates for Drug Delivery to the Central Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frieder Helm

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Treatments of central nervous system (CNS diseases often fail due to the blood–brain barrier. Circumvention of this obstacle is crucial for any systemic treatment of such diseases to be effective. One approach to transfer drugs into the brain is the use of colloidal carrier systems—amongst others, liposomes. A prerequisite for successful drug delivery by colloidal carriers to the brain is the modification of their surface, making them invisible to the reticuloendothelial system (RES and to target them to specific surface epitopes at the blood–brain barrier. This study characterizes liposomes conjugated with cationized bovine serum albumin (cBSA as transport vectors in vitro in porcine brain capillary endothelial cells (PBCEC and in vivo in rats using fluorescently labelled liposomes. Experiments with PBCEC showed that sterically stabilized (PEGylated liposomes without protein as well as liposomes conjugated to native bovine serum albumin (BSA were not taken up. In contrast, cBSA-liposomes were taken up and appeared to be concentrated in intracellular vesicles. Uptake occurred in a concentration and time dependent manner. Free BSA and free cBSA inhibited uptake. After intravenous application of cBSA-liposomes, confocal fluorescence microscopy of brain cryosections from male Wistar rats showed fluorescence associated with liposomes in brain capillary surrounding tissue after 3, 6 and 24 h, for liposomes with a diameter between 120 and 150 nm, suggesting successful brain delivery of cationized-albumin coupled liposomes.

  10. Food emulsions as delivery systems for flavor compounds: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Like; Roos, Yrjö H; Biliaderis, Costas G; Miao, Song

    2017-10-13

    Food flavor is an important attribute of quality food, and it largely determines consumer food preference. Many food products exist as emulsions or experience emulsification during processing, and therefore, a good understanding of flavor release from emulsions is essential to design food with desirable flavor characteristics. Emulsions are biphasic systems, where flavor compounds are partitioning into different phases, and the releases can be modulated through different ways. Emulsion ingredients, such as oils, emulsifiers, thickening agents, can interact with flavor compounds, thus modifying the thermodynamic behavior of flavor compounds. Emulsion structures, including droplet size and size distribution, viscosity, interface thickness, etc., can influence flavor component partition and their diffusion in the emulsions, resulting in different release kinetics. When emulsions are consumed in the mouth, both emulsion ingredients and structures undergo significant changes, resulting in different flavor perception. Special design of emulsion structures in the water phase, oil phase, and interface provides emulsions with great potential as delivery systems to control flavor release in wider applications. This review provides an overview of the current understanding of flavor release from emulsions, and how emulsions can behave as delivery systems for flavor compounds to better design novel food products with enhanced sensorial and nutritional attributes.

  11. Delivery of Probiotics in the Space Food System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, S. L.; Ott, C. M.; Douglas, G. L.

    2014-01-01

    The addition of probiotic bacteria to the space food system is expected to confer immunostimulatory benefits on crewmembers during spaceflight, counteracting the immune dysregulation that has been documented in spaceflight. Specifically, the probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus has been shown to promote health benefits including antagonism towards and inhibition of virulence related gene expression in pathogens, mucosal stimulation of immune cells, and a reduction in the occurrence and duration of cold and flu-like symptoms. The optimum delivery system for probiotics has not been determined for spaceflight, where the food system is shelf stable and the lack of refrigeration prevents the use of traditional dairy delivery methods. This work proposes to determine whether L. acidophilus is more viable, and therefore more likely to confer immune benefit, when delivered in a capsule form or when delivered in nonfat dry milk powder with a resuscitation opportunity upon rehydration, following 0, 4, and 8 months of storage at -80degC, 4degC, and 22degC, and both prior to and after challenge with simulated gastric and intestinal juices. We hypothesize that the low moisture neutral dairy matrix provided by the nonfat dry milk, and the rehydration step prior to consumption, will extend probiotic viability and stress tolerance compared to a capsule during potential storage conditions in spaceflight and in simulated digestion conditions.

  12. Polymer based drug delivery systems for mycobacterial infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Rajesh; Khuller, G K

    2004-07-01

    In the last decade, polymer based technologies have found wide biomedical applications. Polymers, whether synthetic (e.g. polylactide-co-glycolide or PLG) or natural (e.g. alginate, chitosan etc.), have the property of encapsulating a diverse range of molecules of biological interest and bear distinct therapeutic advantages such as controlled release of drugs, protection against the premature degradation of drugs and reduction in drug toxicity. These are important considerations in the long-duration treatment of chronic infectious diseases such as tuberculosis in which patient non-compliance is the major obstacle to successful chemotherapy. Antitubercular drugs, singly or in combination, have been encapsulated in polymers to provide controlled drug release and the system also offers the flexibility of selecting various routes of administration such as oral, subcutaneous and aerosol. The present review highlights the approaches towards the preparation of polymeric antitubercular drug delivery systems, emphasizing how the route of administration may influence drug bioavailability as well as the chemotherapeutic efficacy. In addition, the pros and cons of the various delivery systems are also discussed.

  13. The Oral Health Care Delivery System in 2040: Executive Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailit, Howard L

    2017-09-01

    This executive summary for Section 4 of the "Advancing Dental Education in the 21 st Century" project examines the projected oral health care delivery system in 2040 and the likely impact of system changes on dental education. Dental care is at an early stage of major changes with the decline in solo practice and increase in large group practices. These groups are not consolidated at the state level, but further consolidation is expected as they try to increase their negotiating leverage with dental insurers. At this time, there is limited integration of medical and dental care in terms of financing, regulation, education, and delivery. This pattern may change as health maintenance organizations and integrated medical systems begin to offer dental care to their members. By 2040, it is expected that many dentists will be employed in large group practices and working with allied dental staff with expanded duties and other health professionals, and more dental graduates will seek formal postdoctoral training to obtain better positions in group practices.

  14. Nutrient fluctuations in the Quatipuru river: A macrotidal estuarine mangrove system in the Brazilian Amazonian basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamplona, Fábio Campos; Paes, Eduardo Tavares; Nepomuceno, Aguinaldo

    2013-11-01

    The temporal and spatial variability of dissolved inorganic nutrients (NO3-, NO2-, NH4+, PO43- and DSi), total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), nutrient ratios, suspended particulate matter (SPM) and Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) were evaluated for the macrotidal estuarine mangrove system of the Quatipuru river (QUATIES), east Amazon coast, North Brazil. Temporal variability was assessed by fortnightly sampling at a fixed station within the middle portion of the estuary, from November 2009 to November 2010. Spatial variability was investigated from two field surveys conducted in November 2009 (dry season) and May 2010 (rainy season), along the salinity gradient of the system. The average DIN (NO3- + NO2- + NH4+) concentration of 9 μM in the dry season was approximately threefold greater in comparison to the rainy season. NH4+ was the main form of DIN in the dry season, while NO3- predominated in the rainy season. The NH4+ concentrations in the water column during the dry season are largely attributed to release by tidal wash-out of the anoxic interstitial waters of the surficial mangrove sediments. On the other hand, the higher NO3- levels during the wet season, suggested that both freshwater inputs and nitrification processes in the water column acted in concert. The river PO43- concentrations (DIP mangrove forests also played a relevant role as a nutrient source as established by the high variability of the nutrient behaviour along the estuarine gradient, consequently affecting the productivity in QUATIES.

  15. Combined use of stable isotopes and hydrologic modeling to better understand nutrient sources and cycling in highly altered systems (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, M. B.; Kendall, C.; Guerin, M.; Stringfellow, W. T.; Silva, S. R.; Harter, T.; Parker, A.

    2013-12-01

    The Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers provide the majority of freshwater for the San Francisco Bay Delta. Both rivers are important sources of drinking and irrigation water for California, and play critical roles in the health of California fisheries. Understanding the factors controlling water quality and primary productivity in these rivers and the Delta is essential for making sound economic and environmental water management decisions. However, these highly altered surface water systems present many challenges for water quality monitoring studies due to factors such as multiple potential nutrient and contaminant inputs, dynamic source water inputs, and changing flow regimes controlled by both natural and engineered conditions. The watersheds for both rivers contain areas of intensive agriculture along with many other land uses, and the Sacramento River receives significant amounts of treated wastewater from the large population around the City of Sacramento. We have used a multi-isotope approach combined with mass balance and hydrodynamic modeling in order to better understand the dominant nutrient sources for each of these rivers, and to track nutrient sources and cycling within the complex Delta region around the confluence of the rivers. High nitrate concentrations within the San Joaquin River fuel summer algal blooms, contributing to low dissolved oxygen conditions. High δ15N-NO3 values combined with the high nitrate concentrations suggest that animal manure is a significant source of nitrate to the San Joaquin River. In contrast, the Sacramento River has lower nitrate concentrations but elevated ammonium concentrations from wastewater discharge. Downstream nitrification of the ammonium can be clearly traced using δ15N-NH4. Flow conditions for these rivers and the Delta have strong seasonal and inter-annual variations, resulting in significant changes in nutrient delivery and cycling. Isotopic measurements and estimates of source water contributions

  16. Waste Feed Delivery System Phase 1 Preliminary RAM Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DYKES, A.A.

    2000-01-01

    This report presents the updated results of the preliminary reliability, availability, and maintainability (RAM) analysis of selected waste feed delivery (WFD) operations to be performed by the Tank Farm Contractor (TFC) during Phase I activities in support of the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). For planning purposes, waste feed tanks are being divided into five classes in accordance with the type of waste in each tank and the activities required to retrieve, qualify, and transfer waste feed. This report reflects the baseline design and operating concept, as of the beginning of Fiscal Year 2000, for the delivery of feed from three of these classes, represented by source tanks 241-AN-102, 241-AZ-101 and 241-AN-105. The preliminary RAM analysis quantifies the potential schedule delay associated with operations and maintenance (OBM) field activities needed to accomplish these operations. The RAM analysis is preliminary because the system design, process definition, and activity planning are in a state of evolution. The results are being used to support the continuing development of an O and M Concept tailored to the unique requirements of the WFD Program, which is being documented in various volumes of the Waste Feed Delivery Technical Basis (Carlson. 1999, Rasmussen 1999, and Orme 2000). The waste feed provided to the WTP must: (1) meet limits for chemical and radioactive constituents based on pre-established compositional envelopes (i.e., feed quality); (2) be in acceptable quantities within a prescribed sequence to meet feed quantities; and (3) meet schedule requirements (i.e., feed timing). In the absence of new criteria related to acceptable schedule performance due to the termination of the TWRS Privatization Contract, the original criteria from the Tank Waste Remediation System (77443s) Privatization Contract (DOE 1998) will continue to be used for this analysis

  17. Systemic delivery of blood-brain barrier-targeted polymeric nanoparticles enhances delivery to brain tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saucier-Sawyer, Jennifer K; Deng, Yang; Seo, Young-Eun; Cheng, Christopher J; Zhang, Junwei; Quijano, Elias; Saltzman, W Mark

    2015-01-01

    Delivery of therapeutic agents to the central nervous system is a significant challenge, hindering progress in the treatment of diseases such as glioblastoma. Due to the presence of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), therapeutic agents do not readily transverse the brain endothelium to enter the parenchyma. Previous reports suggest that surface modification of polymer nanoparticles (NPs) can improve their ability to cross the BBB, but it is unclear whether the observed enhancements in transport are large enough to enhance therapy. In this study, we synthesized two degradable polymer NP systems surface-modified with ligands previously suggested to improve BBB transport, and tested their ability to cross the BBB after intravenous injection in mice. All the NP preparations were able to cross the BBB, although generally in low amounts (brain uptake (∼0.8% of the injected dose): a block copolymer of polylactic acid and hyperbranched polyglycerol, surface modified with adenosine (PLA-HPG-Ad). PLA-HPG-Ad NPs provided controlled release of camptothecin, killing U87 glioma cells in culture. When administered intravenously in mice with intracranial U87 tumors, they failed to increase survival. These results suggest that enhancing NP transport across the BBB does not necessarily yield proportional pharmacological effects.

  18. Computer control of the TFTR tritium storage and delivery system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youssef, N.; Phillips, H.; Yemin, L.; Dong, J.; Pierce, C.

    1980-01-01

    The Tritium Storage and Delivery System (TSDS) will deliver to the torus the required tritium gas in precisely controlled injection profiles. This system will utilize advanced Central Instrumentation, Control and Data Acquisition (CICADA) computer-control techniques, in normal and malfunction-recovery modes of operation. The control scheme of the TSDS is built of three main control scenarios. An operating mode defines the permissives, sequence and path of a process during each scenario. The computerized control of the TSDS has four distinct advantages: (1) versatile control with fast response times both for tritium gas generation and for gas injection into the torus; (2) ease of selecting the proper operating modes of a control scenario, (3) ease of operation without disturbing the multiple levels of containment, and (4) simple fast trouble shooting of system malfunction utilizing programmed procedures and on-line diagnosis. The TSDS has both remote nd local control capability

  19. [Formulation aspects and ex-vivo examination of buccal drug delivery systems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, Barnabás; Hetényi, Gergely; Majoros, Klaudia; Miszori, Veronika; Kállai, Nikolett; Zelkó, Romána

    2011-01-01

    Application of buccal dosage forms has several advantages. Buccal route can be used for systemic delivery because the mucosa has a rich blood supply and it is relatively permeable. This route of drug delivery is of special advantages, including the bypass of first pass effect and the avoidance of presystemic elimination within the GIT. Buccal delivery systems enable the systemic delivery of peptides and proteins. In our previous study the physiological background of this application and the excipients of the possible formulations were reviewed. In the present work the formulation and ex vivo examination aspects of buccal drug delivery systems are summarized.

  20. Insight into litter decomposition driven by nutrient demands of symbiosis system through the hypha bridge of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xiangshi; Jia, Yanyan; Song, Fuqiang; Tian, Kai; Lin, Hong; Bei, Zhanlin; Jia, Xiuqin; Yao, Bei; Guo, Peng; Tian, Xingjun

    2018-02-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) play an important role in litter decomposition. This study investigated how soil nutrient level affected the process. Results showed that AMF colonization had no significant effect on litter decomposition under normal soil nutrient conditions. However, litter decomposition was accelerated significantly under lower nutrient conditions. Soil microbial biomass in decomposition system was significantly increased. Especially, in moderate lower nutrient treatment (condition of half-normal soil nutrient), litters exhibited the highest decomposition rate, AMF hypha revealed the greatest density, and enzymes (especially nitrate reductase) showed the highest activities as well. Meanwhile, the immobilization of nitrogen (N) in the decomposing litter remarkably decreased. Our results suggested that the roles AMF played in ecosystem were largely affected by soil nutrient levels. At normal soil nutrient level, AMF exhibited limited effects in promoting decomposition. When soil nutrient level decreased, the promoting effect of AMF on litter decomposition began to appear, especially on N mobilization. However, under extremely low nutrient conditions, AMF showed less influence on decomposition and may even compete with decomposer microorganisms for nutrients.

  1. Communication Between Devices in the Viola Document Delivery System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodor Tolstoy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Viola is a newly developed document delivery system that handles incoming and outgoing requests for printed books, articles, sharing electronic resources, and other document delivery services on the local level in a library organisation. An important part of Viola is the stack fetching Android application that enables librarians to collect books in the open and closed stacks in an efficient manner using a smartphone and a Bluetooth connected portable printer. The aim of this article is to show how information is transferred between systems and devices in Viola. The article presents code examples from Viola that use current .NET technologies. The examples span from the creation of high-level REST-based JSON APIs to byte array communication with a Bluetooth connected printer and the reading of RFID tags. Please note that code examples in this article are for illustration purposes only. Null checking and other exception handling has been removed for clarity. Code that is separated in Viola for testability and other reasons has been brought together to make it more readable.

  2. Development of antimigraine transdermal delivery systems of pizotifen malate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serna-Jiménez, C E; del Rio-Sancho, S; Calatayud-Pascual, M A; Balaguer-Fernández, C; Femenía-Font, A; López-Castellano, A; Merino, V

    2015-08-15

    The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a transdermal delivery system of pizotifen malate. Pizotifen is frequently used in the preventive treatment of migraine, but is also indicated in eating disorders. In the course of the project, the effects of chemical enhancers such as ethanol, 1,8-cineole, limonene, azone and different fatty acids (decanoic, decenoic, dodecanoic, linoleic and oleic acids) were determined, first using a pizotifen solution. Steady state flux, diffusion and partition parameters were estimated by fitting the Scheuplein equation to the data obtained. Among the chemical enhancers studied, decenoic acid showed the highest enhancement activity, which seemed to be due to the length of its alkyl chain and unsaturation at the 9th carbon. The influence of iontophoresis and the involvement of electrotransport in said process was determined. The absorption profile obtained with iontophoresis was similar to that obtained with fatty acids and terpenes, though skin deposition of the drug was lower with the former. Transdermal delivery systems (TDS) of pizotifen were manufactured by including chemical enhancers, decenoic acid or oleic acid, and were subsequently characterized. When the results obtained with solutions were compared with those obtained with the TDS, a positive enhancement effect was observed with the latter with respect to the partitioning and diffusion of the drug across the skin. Our findings endorse the suitability of our TDS for delivering therapeutic amounts of pizotifen malate. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Self-Assembling Multifunctional Peptide Dimers for Gene Delivery Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kitae Ryu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Self-assembling multifunctional peptide was designed for gene delivery systems. The multifunctional peptide (MP consists of cellular penetrating peptide moiety (R8, matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2 specific sequence (GPLGV, pH-responsive moiety (H5, and hydrophobic moiety (palmitic acid (CR8GPLGVH5-Pal. MP was oxidized to form multifunctional peptide dimer (MPD by DMSO oxidation of thiols in terminal cysteine residues. MPD could condense pDNA successfully at a weight ratio of 5. MPD itself could self-assemble into submicron micelle particles via hydrophobic interaction, of which critical micelle concentration is about 0.01 mM. MPD showed concentration-dependent but low cytotoxicity in comparison with PEI25k. MPD polyplexes showed low transfection efficiency in HEK293 cells expressing low level of MMP-2 but high transfection efficiency in A549 and C2C12 cells expressing high level of MMP-2, meaning the enhanced transfection efficiency probably due to MMP-induced structural change of polyplexes. Bafilomycin A1-treated transfection results suggest that the transfection of MPD is mediated via endosomal escape by endosome buffering ability. These results show the potential of MPD for MMP-2 targeted gene delivery systems due to its multifunctionality.

  4. Advanced Drug-Delivery Systems of Curcumin for Cancer Chemoprevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Shyam S.; Goel, Mehak; Aqil, Farrukh; Vadhanam, Manicka V.; Gupta, Ramesh C.

    2011-01-01

    From ancient times, chemopreventive agents have been used to treat/prevent several diseases, including cancer. They are found to elicit a spectrum of potent responses including anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-proliferative, anti-carcinogenic, and anti-angiogenic activity in various cell culture and some animal studies. Research over the past four decades has shown that chemopreventives affect a number of proteins involved in various molecular pathways that regulate inflammatory and carcinogenic responses in a cell. Various enzymes, transcription factors, receptors, and adhesion proteins are also affected by chemopreventives. Although, these natural compounds have shown significant efficacy in cell-culture studies, they elicited limited efficacy in various clinical studies. Their introduction into the clinical setting is hindered largely by their poor solubility, rapid metabolism, or a combination of both, ultimately resulting in poor bioavailability upon oral administration. Therefore, to circumvent these limitations and to ease their transition to clinics, alternate strategies should be explored. Drug delivery systems such as nanoparticles, liposomes, microemulsions, and polymeric implantable devices are emerging as one of the viable alternatives that have been demonstrated to deliver therapeutic concentrations of various potent chemopreventives such as curcumin, ellagic acid, green tea polyphenols, and resveratrol into the systemic circulation. In this review article, we have attempted to provide a comprehensive outlook for these delivery approaches, using curcumin as a model agent, and discussed future strategies to enable the introduction of these highly potent chemopreventives into a physician’s armamentarium. PMID:21546540

  5. Nanoemulsifying drug delivery system to improve the bioavailability of piroxicam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motawea, Amira; Borg, Thanaa; Tarshoby, Manal; Abd El-Gawad, Abd El-Gawad H

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study is to develop and characterize self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system (SNEDDS) of piroxicam in liquid and solid forms to improve its dissolution, absorption and therapeutic efficacy. The generation of liquid SNEDDS (L-SNEDDS) was composed of soybean or coconut oil/Tween 80/Transcutol HP (12/80/8%w/w) and it was selected as the optimized formulation based on the solubility study and pseudo-ternary phase diagram. Optimized L-SNEDDS and liquid supersaturatable SNEDDS (L-sSNEDDS) preparations were then adsorbed onto adsorbents and formulated as directly compressed tablets. The improved drug dissolution rate in the solid supersaturatable preparation (S-sSNEDDS) may be due to the formation of a nanoemulsion and the presence of drug in an amorphous state with hydrogen bond interaction between the drug and SNEDDS components. In vivo pharmacokinetic studies on eight healthy human volunteers showed a significant improvement in the oral bioavailability of piroxicam from S-sSNEDDS (F12) compared with both the pure drug (PP) and its commercial product (Feldene ® ) (commercial dosage form (CD)). The relative bioavailability of S-sSNEDDS (F12) relative to PP or CD was about 151.01 and 98.96%, respectively. The obtained results ratify that S-sSNEDDS is a promising drug delivery system to enhance the oral bioavailability of piroxicam.

  6. Updates on smart polymeric carrier systems for protein delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sherbiny, Ibrahim; Khalil, Islam; Ali, Isra; Yacoub, Magdi

    2017-10-01

    Smart materials are those materials that are responsive to chemical (organic molecules, chemical agents or specific agents), biochemical (protein, enzymes, growth factors, substrates or ligands), physical (electric field, magnetic field, temperature, pH, ionic strength or radiation) or mechanical (pressure or mechanical stress) signals. These responsive materials interact with the stimuli by changing their properties or conformational structures in a predictable manner. Recently, smart polymers have been utilized in various biomedical applications. Particularly, they have been used as a platform to synthesize stimuli-responsive systems that could deliver therapeutics to a specific site for a specific period with minimal adverse effects. For instance, stimuli-responsive polymers-based systems have been recently reported to deliver different bioactive molecules such as carbohydrates (heparin), chemotherapeutic agents (doxorubicin), small organic molecules (anti-coagulants), nucleic acids (siRNA), and proteins (growth factors and hormones). Protein therapeutics played a fundamental role in treatment of various chronic and some autoimmune diseases. For instance insulin has been used in treatment of diabetes. However, being a protein in nature, insulin delivery is limited by its instability, short half-life, and easy denaturation when administered orally. To overcome these challenges, and as highlighted in this review article, much research efforts have been recently devoted to design and develop convenient smart controlled nanosystems for protein therapeutics delivery.

  7. Gastroretentive drug delivery systems for therapeutic management of peptic ulcer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Tarun; Kumar, Animesh; Rath, Goutam; Goyal, Amit K

    2014-01-01

    A peptic ulcer, stomach ulcer, or gastric ulcer, also known as peptic ulcer disease (PUD), is a very common chronic disorder of the stomach which is mainly caused by damage or impairment of the stomach lining. Various factors such as pepsin, gastric acid, H. pylori, NSAIDs, prostaglandins, mucus, bicarbonate, and blood flow to mucosa play an important role in causing peptic ulcers. In this review article, our main focus is on some important gastroretentive drug delivery systems (GRDDS) (floating, bioadhesive, high density, swellable, raft forming, superporous hydrogel, and magnetic systems) which will be helpful in gastroretention of different dosage forms for treatment of peptic ulcer. GRDDS provides a mean for controlled release of compounds that are absorbed by active transport in the upper intestine. It also enables controlled delivery for paracellularly absorbed drugs without a decrease in bioavailability. The above approaches are specific for targeting and leading to a marked improvement in the quality of life for a large number of patients. In the future, it is expected that they will become of growing significance, finally leading to improved efficiencies of various types of pharmacotherapies.

  8. Metal organic frameworks as a drug delivery system for flurbiprofen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AL Haydar M

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Muder AL Haydar,1,2 Hussein Rasool Abid,3,4 Bruce Sunderland,2 Shaobin Wang5,6 1Pharmaceutics Department, College of the Pharmacy, University of Kerbala, Kerbala, Iraq; 2Pharmaceutics Department, School of Pharmacy, Faculty of Health Sciences, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia; 3Department of Chemical Engineering, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia; 4College of Applied Medical Sciences, University of Kerbala, Kerbala, Iraq; 5School of Pharmacy, Faculty of Health Sciences, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia; 6Department of Chemical Engineering, School of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia Background: Metal organic frameworks (MOFs have attracted more attention in the last decade because of a suitable pore size, large surface area, and high pore volume. Developing biocompatible MOFs such as the MIL family as a drug delivery system is possible. Purpose: Flurbiprofen (FBP, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent, is practically insoluble in aqueous solution, and, therefore, needs suitable drug delivery systems. Different biocompatible MOFs such as Ca-MOF and Fe-MILs (53, 100, and 101 were synthesized and employed for FBP delivery. Patients and methods: A sample of 50 mg of each MOF was mixed and stirred for 24 h with 10 mL of 5 mg FBP in acetonitrile (40% in a sealed container. The supernatant of the mixture after centrifuging was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography to determine the loaded quantity of FBP on the MOF. The overnight-dried solid material after centrifuging the mixture was analyzed for loading percent using X-ray diffraction, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance, and FBP release profile. Results: The loading values of FBP were achieved at 10.0%±1%, 20%±0.8%, 37%±2.3%, and 46%±3.1% on Ca-MOF, Fe-MIL-53, Fe-MIL-101, and Fe-MIL-100, respectively. The FBP release

  9. Soil, water and nutrient conservation in mountain farming systems: case-study from the Sikkim Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, E; Rai, S C; Sharma, R

    2001-02-01

    The Khanikhola watershed in Sikkim is agrarian with about 50% area under rain-fed agriculture representing the conditions of the middle mountains all over the Himalaya. The study was conducted to assess overland flow, soil loss and subsequent nutrient losses from different land uses in the watershed, and identify biotechnological inputs for management of mountain farming systems. Overland flow, soil and nutrient losses were very high from open agricultural (cropped) fields compared to other land uses, and more than 72% of nutrient losses were attributable to agriculture land use. Forests and large cardamom agroforestry conserved more soil compared to other land uses. Interventions, like cultivation of broom grass upon terrace risers, N2-fixing Albizia trees for maintenance of soil fertility and plantation of horticulture trees, have reduced the soil loss (by 22%). Soil and water conservation values (> 80%) of both large cardamom and broom grass were higher compared to other crops. Use of N2-fixing Albizia tree in large cardamom agroforestry and croplands contributed to soil fertility, and increased productivity and yield. Bio-composting of farm resources ensured increase in nutrient availability specially phosphorus in cropped areas. Agricultural practices in mountain areas should be strengthened with more agroforestry components, and cash crops like large cardamom and broom grass in agroforestry provide high economic return and are hydroecologically sustainable.

  10. Technical Evaluation Report 5: Classification of DE Delivery Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane Belyk

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available For their optimal use in distance education (DE, online educational applications need to be integrated within a comprehensive course management system (CMS. Such systems are server-based software that supports the development, delivery, administration, and evaluation of online learning environments. The selection of an appropriate CMS should be considered from the multiple perspectives of the student, the course developer, the course instructor/ tutor, the technical support staff, and the DE institution’s administration. The current evaluation of CMS packages was conducted by a team of individuals with experience and contacts in relation to each of these DE user types. The report compares a series of CMS packages in terms of their range of features, and in relation to their satisfaction of international online education standards.

  11. Spatial service delivery system for smart licensing & enforcement management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahap, N. A.; Ismail, N. M.; Nor, N. M.; Ahmad, N.; Omar, M. F.; Termizi, A. A. A.; Zainal, D.; Noordin, N. M.; Mansor, S.

    2016-06-01

    Spatial information has introduced a new sense of urgency for a better understanding of the public needs in term of what, when and where they need services and through which devices, platform or physical locations they need them. The objective of this project is to value- add existing license management process for business premises which comes under the responsibility of Local Authority (PBT). Manipulation of geospatial and tracing technology via mobile platform allows enforcement officers to work in real-time, use a standardized system, improve service delivery, and optimize operation management. This paper will augment the scope and capabilities of proposed concept namely, Smart Licensing/Enforcement Management (SLEm). It will review the current licensing and enforcement practice of selected PBT in comparison to the enhanced method. As a result, the new enhanced system is expected to offer a total solution for licensing/enforcement management whilst increasing efficiency and transparency for smart city management and governance.

  12. Applications of nanoparticle systems in drug delivery technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed A.A. Rizvi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of nanoparticle-based drug formulations has yielded the opportunities to address and treat challenging diseases. Nanoparticles vary in size but are generally ranging from 100 to 500 nm. Through the manipulation of size, surface characteristics and material used, the nanoparticles can be developed into smart systems, encasing therapeutic and imaging agents as well as bearing stealth property. Further, these systems can deliver drug to specific tissues and provide controlled release therapy. This targeted and sustained drug delivery decreases the drug related toxicity and increase patient’s compliance with less frequent dosing. Nanotechnology has proven beneficial in the treatment of cancer, AIDS and many other disease, also providing advancement in diagnostic testing.

  13. Colloidal formulations for probiotics delivery and Pickering systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yücel Falco, Cigdem

    countries. One emerging functional food area is the efficient delivery of health-promoting probiotics. Although much progress has already been made in the development and understanding of novel microencapsulation systems, maintaining viability during gastric passage and being effective at the target site...... is still an issue for probiotics. On the other hand, one of the foremost challenges in the production of physically stable foods during the defined shelf life is the identification of new food-grade ingredients. In this context, the replacement of classical emulsifiers with solid particles is one...... of the advancing food research areas, though the number of food-grade solid particles investigated is still insufficient. Edible probiotic strains can potentially be valorised as particles similar to micron-sized fat particles in Pickering systems such as ice cream due to their low calories and their availability...

  14. Managerial competence at senior levels of integrated delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longest, B B

    1998-01-01

    The advent of integrated delivery systems (IDSs) in the healthcare industry has changed much about the work involved in running many healthcare organizations. As a result of these changes, senior healthcare managers in IDSs need different skills and knowledge (competencies) than managers of other healthcare systems. The work of managers is changed by the shift to more organizational integration in the healthcare industry because they become responsible for coordinated continuation of services, accountable for the overall health status of the populations they serve, and involved in more complex organizational structures. The article identifies six distinct managerial competencies--conceptual, technical managerial/clinical, interpersonal/collaborative, political, commercial, and governance--and describes how they relate to an IDS senior manager's successful work performance. The implications of these competencies are considered for practicing senior managers in IDSs, as well as those who aspire to such positions, and those who help educate them.

  15. Operating experience with TFTR's Tritium Storage and Delivery System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voorhees, D.R.

    1995-01-01

    The Tritium Storage and Delivery System (TSDS) at TFTR was fabricated at Monsanto Mound Lab in the late 1970's and delivered to PPPL in the early 1980's. Commissioning progressed slowly and was finally completed in 1992 following a series of Preoperational tests and Integrated Systems tests. Those tests included thorough leak testing of glove boxes and process piping, electrical interlocks and controls, instrumentation calibrations, volume determinations and verification of uranium bed capacity. The system accepted tritium in dilute form in May of 1993 and began serious usage of pure tritium in November 1993. As the throughput of high purity tritium increased, shortcomings of the system became evident and extensive repairs were implemented. System leakage and material compatibility were the primary causes of the problems. To date, the system has received, stored and delivered over 500 kCi of tritium and is performing very well. The dedicated quadrupole mass spectrometer and beta scintillator system has been analyzing tritium bearing and pure gas streams for over 3 years with minimal downtime

  16. Polymer-Based Novel Lung Targeted Delivery Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmowafy, Enas; Osman, Rihab; Ishak, Rania A H

    2017-01-01

    Due to its unique features, the respiratory tract had received great attention as a promising non-invasive route for drug administration to achieve both local and systemic effects. Efforts spent to tailor systems able to overcome the lung defence mechanisms and biological barriers are followed in this review. Aerodynamic diameter, morphology, lung deposition and drug release profiles are the main criteria describing the selected new smart lung targeted delivery systems. Novel systems such as nanoparticles, nano-embedded-in microparticles (NEM), small microparticles (MP), large porous particles (LPP), PulmospheresTM and polymeric micelles are used to passively target different areas in the respiratory tract. The most common preparation methods are outlined in the article. Special emphasis was given to the characteristics of the polymers used to fabricate the developed systems. Efforts made to prepare systems using chitosan (CS), alginate (alg), hyaluronic acid (HA), gelatin and albumin as examples of natural polymers and poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) and poly(Ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL) as synthetic polymers were compiled. The continuous development and work in the area of lung targeting resulted in the development of engineered smart platforms with the capability to carry small drug molecules, proteins and genes to treat a variety of local and systemic diseases. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  17. NUTRIENTS DYNIMIC IN AN AQUAPONIC RECIRCULATING SYSTEM FOR STURGEON AND LETTUCE (LACTUCA SATIVA PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LORENA SFETCU

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Aquaponics are modern production systems, which integrate the aquaculture technology with hydroponic systems (vegetable production without soil with a goal of fructification of residual nutrients resulted from metabolic activity of fish biomass as high quality vegetable biomass sealable as ecological products. In the present study, as a first step in aquaponic recirculating systems evaluation, the authors aim to compare two types of recirculating systems: classical (hereby noted with RAS and integrated/aquaponic (RAS_A regarding water quality parameters generally, and TAN (total ammonia nitrogen production and transformation, particularly.

  18. Removal of nutrients and veterinary antibiotics from swine wastewater by a constructed macrophyte floating bed system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xian, Qiming; Hu, Lixia; Chen, Hancheng; Chang, Zhizhou; Zou, Huixian

    2010-12-01

    The potential of three varieties of Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.), Dryan, Tachimasari and Waseyutaka, to improve the water quality of swine wastewater was evaluated using a constructed macrophyte floating bed system. With respect to reductions in levels of nutrients, chemical oxygen demand (COD), and sulfonamide antimicrobials (SAs, including sulfadiazine, sulfamethazine, and sulfamethoxazole), Dryan performed better than Tachimasari and Waseyutaka. For Dryan, total N was reduced by 84.0%, total P by 90.4%, COD by 83.4% and sulfonamide antimicrobials by 91.8-99.5%. Similar results were observed for Tachimasari and Waseyutaka. The results indicated that the treatment of swine wastewater using the constructed macrophyte floating bed system was effective in the removal of nutrients and veterinary antibiotics. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Tailoring stimuli-responsive delivery system driven by metal–ligand coordination bonding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang H

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Hongshan Liang,1–3 Bin Zhou,4 Yun He,1–3 Yaqiong Pei,1–3 Bin Li,1–3 Jing Li1–31College of Food Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, 2Key Laboratory of Environment Correlative Dietology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Ministry of Education, 3Functional Food Engineering & Technology Research Center of Hubei Province, Wuhan, Hubei, 4College of Food Science and Technology, Shanghai Ocean University, LinGang New City, Shanghai, People’s Republic of ChinaAbstract: In this study, a novel coordination bonding system based on metal–tannic acid (TA architecture on zein/carboxymethyl chitosan (CMCS nanoparticles (NPs was investigated for the pH-responsive drug delivery. CMCS has been reported to coat on zein NPs as delivery vehicles for drugs or nutrients in previous studies. The cleavage of either the “metal–TA” or “NH2–metal” coordination bonds resulted in significant release of guest molecules with high stimulus sensitivity, especially in mild acidic conditions. The prepared metal–TA-coated zein/CMCS NPs (zein/CMCS-TA/metal NPs could maintain particle size in cell culture medium at 37°C, demonstrating good stability compared with zein/CMCS NPs. In vitro release behavior of doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX-loaded metal–TA film-coated zein/CMCS NPs (DOX-zein/CMCS-TA/metal NPs showed fine pH responsiveness tailored by the ratio of zein to CMCS as well as the metal species and feeding concentrations. The blank zein/CMCS-TA/metal NPs (NPs-TA/metal were of low cytotoxicity, while a high cytotoxic activity of DOX-zein/CMCS-TA/metal NPs (DOX-NPs-TA/metal against HepG2 cells was demonstrated by in vitro cell assay. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM and flow cytometry were combined to study the uptake efficiency of DOX-NPs or DOX-NPs-TA/metal. This system showed significant potential as a highly versatile and potent platform for drug delivery. Keywords: coordination bonding, pH-responsive, high stimulus

  20. Assessment of Advanced Logistics Delivery System (ALDS) Launch Systems Concepts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Anderson, Gregory W; Borraccini, Joseph P; Fitzpatrick, Brian K; Lynch, William A; McGinnis, Patrick J

    2004-01-01

    .... A study to analyze the machinery technologies capable of meeting this requirement identified a near term solution based on electric linear motor technology derived from the Electromagnetic Aircraft Launch System (EMALS...

  1. Potential and problems in ultrasound-responsive drug delivery systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao YZ

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Ying-Zheng Zhao,1,3 Li-Na Du,2 Cui-Tao Lu,1 Yi-Guang Jin,2 Shu-Ping Ge3 1Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou City, Zhejiang Province, 2Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 3St Christopher’s Hospital for Children/Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA Abstract: Ultrasound is an important local stimulus for triggering drug release at the target tissue. Ultrasound-responsive drug delivery systems (URDDS have become an important research focus in targeted therapy. URDDS include many different formulations, such as microbubbles, nanobubbles, nanodroplets, liposomes, emulsions, and micelles. Drugs that can be loaded into URDDS include small molecules, biomacromolecules, and inorganic substances. Fields of clinical application include anticancer therapy, treatment of ischemic myocardium, induction of an immune response, cartilage tissue engineering, transdermal drug delivery, treatment of Huntington’s disease, thrombolysis, and disruption of the blood–brain barrier. This review focuses on recent advances in URDDS, and discusses their formulations, clinical application, and problems, as well as a perspective on their potential use in the future. Keywords: ultrasound, targeted therapy, clinical application

  2. Gamma-sterilization-induced radicals in biodegradable drug delivery systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeder, K.; Swartz, H.M.; Domb, A.

    1996-01-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy (1.2 and 9.25 GHz, 25 o C) was used to characterize free radicals in gamma-ray sterilized biodegradable polymers of the type which are in clinical use. Free radicals were detected in all irradiated polymer samples. The temperature of irradiation (25 o vs dry ice temperature) had only a minor influence on the yield of radicals and the shape of the EPR spectra. In contrast, the composition of the polymers and the drugs incorporated in them did strongly influence the amount of radiation-induced free radicals and their reactivity. In general, polymers with high melting points and crystallinity had the highest yields of radicals observable at room temperature. We were able to use the free radicals induced by the usual sterilization procedures to follow the penetration of water and the degradation of the polymers in vitro and in vivo. The ability of in vivo EPR to follow drug delivery noninvasively and continuously in vivo, using the free radicals induced in the usual sterilization process indicates that this approach could be applied immediately for the characterization of these drug delivery systems in experimental animals and in the near future should be able to be used in human subjects. (author)

  3. Design and evaluate alginate nanoparticles as a protein delivery system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saraei, F.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, encapsulation of drugs and antigens in hydrogels, specifically in calcium alginate particles, is an interesting and practical technique that was developed widespread. It is well known that alginate solution, under proper conditions, can form suitable nanoparticles as a promising carrier system, for vaccine delivery. The aim of this study was to synthesis alginate nanoparticles as protein carrier and to evaluate the influence of various factors on nanoparticles properties. Alginate nanoparticles were prepared by ionic gelation method. Briefly, various concentrations of CaCl2 were added to different concentrations of sodium alginate dropwisly by homogenizing magnetically at 1300 rpm. The effects of homogenization time and (- rate were investigated on nanoparticle feature. Nanoparticles were characterized for their morphology and size distribution. Evaluation of loading capacity and loading efficiency of nanoparticles were performed by using various concentration of BSA. The concentration of 0.3%w/v sodium alginate and 0.1%w/v CaCl2 solution, homogenization time 45 min and homogenization rate 1300 rpm were observed as suitable condition - to prepare optimized nanoparticles. It can be concluded that the properties of nanoparticles are strongly dependent on the physicochemical conditions. The optimum concentrations of alginate and CaCl2and appropriate condition led to forming desirable nanoparticles that can be used as carrier for drug and vaccine delivery.

  4. Delivery Systems for In Vivo use of Nucleic Acid Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Resende R.R

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The notorious biotechnological advance of the last few decades has allowed the development of experimental methods for understanding molecular mechanisms of genes and new therapeutic approaches. Gene therapy is maturing into a viable, practical method with the potential to cure a variety of human illnesses. Some nucleic-acid-based drugs are now available for controlling the progression of genetic diseases by inhibiting gene expression or the activity of their gene products. New therapeutic strategies employ a wide range of molecular tools such as bacterial plasmids containing transgenic inserts, RNA interference aptamers. A nucleic-acid based constitution confers a lower immunogenic potential and as result of the high stringency selection of large molecular variety, these drugs have high affi nity and selectivity for their targets. However, nucleic acids have poor biostability thus requiring chemical modifications and delivery systems to maintain their activity and ease their cellular internalization. This review discusses some of the mechanisms of action and the application of therapies based on nucleic acids such as aptamers and RNA interference as well as platforms for cellular uptake and intracellular delivery of therapeutic oligonucleotides and their trade-offs.

  5. Strategic workforce planning for a multihospital, integrated delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datz, David; Hallberg, Colleen; Harris, Kathy; Harrison, Lisa; Samples, Patience

    2012-01-01

    Banner Health has long recognized the need to anticipate, beyond the immediate operational realities or even the annual budgeting projection exercises, the necessary workforce needs of the future. Thus, in 2011, Banner implemented a workforce planning model that included structures, processes, and tools for predicting workforce needs, with particular focus on identified critical systemwide practice areas. The model represents the incorporation of labor management tools and processes with more strategic, broad-view, long-term assessment and planning mechanisms. The sequential tying of the workforce planning lifecycle with the organization's strategy and financial planning process supports alignment of goals, objectives, and resource allocation. Collaboration among strategy, finance, human resources, and operations has provided us with the ability to identify critical position groups based on 3-year strategic priorities. By engaging leaders from across the organization, focusing on activities at facility, regional, and system levels, and building in mechanisms for accountability, we are now engaged in continuous evaluations of our delivery models, the competencies and preparations necessary for the staff to effectively function within those delivery models, and developing and implementing action plans designed to ensure adequate numbers of the staff whose competencies will be suited to the work expected of them.

  6. Decomposition and nutrient release of leguminous plants in coffee agroforestry systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo da Silva Matos

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Leguminous plants used as green manure are an important nutrient source for coffee plantations, especially for soils with low nutrient levels. Field experiments were conducted in the Zona da Mata of Minas Gerais State, Brazil to evaluate the decomposition and nutrient release rates of four leguminous species used as green manures (Arachis pintoi, Calopogonium mucunoides, Stizolobium aterrimum and Stylosanthes guianensis in a coffee agroforestry system under two different climate conditions. The initial N contents in plant residues varied from 25.7 to 37.0 g kg-1 and P from 2.4 to 3.0 g kg-1. The lignin/N, lignin/polyphenol and (lignin+polyphenol/N ratios were low in all residues studied. Mass loss rates were highest in the first 15 days, when 25 % of the residues were decomposed. From 15 to 30 days, the decomposition rate decreased on both farms. On the farm in Pedra Dourada (PD, the decomposition constant k increased in the order C. mucunoides < S. aterrimum < S. guianensis < A. pintoi. On the farm in Araponga (ARA, there was no difference in the decomposition rate among leguminous plants. The N release rates varied from 0.0036 to 0.0096 d-1. Around 32 % of the total N content in the plant material was released in the first 15 days. In ARA, the N concentration in the S. aterrimum residues was always significantly higher than in the other residues. At the end of 360 days, the N released was 78 % in ARA and 89 % in PD of the initial content. Phosphorus was the most rapidly released nutrient (k values from 0.0165 to 0.0394 d-1. Residue decomposition and nutrient release did not correlate with initial residue chemistry and biochemistry, but differences in climatic conditions between the two study sites modified the decomposition rate constants.

  7. Designing food delivery systems: challenges related to the in vitro methods employed to determine the fate of bioactives in the gut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arranz, Elena; Corredig, Milena; Guri, Anilda

    2016-08-10

    An in depth understanding of the underpinning mechanisms that relate to food disruption and processing in the gastrointestinal tract is necessary to achieve optimal intake of nutrients and their bioefficacy. Although in vivo trials can provide insights on physiological responses of nutrients, in vitro assays are often applied as tools to understand specific mechanisms, or as prescreening methods to determine the factors associated with the uptake of food components in the gastrointestinal tract. In vitro assays are also often utilized to design novel or improved food delivery systems. In this review the available approaches to study delivery and uptake of food bioactives and the associated challenges are discussed. For an in depth understanding of food processing in the gastrointestinal tract, it is necessary to apply multidisciplinary methodologies, at the interface between materials science, chemistry, physics and biology.

  8. The origins and evolution of "controlled" drug delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Allan S

    2008-12-18

    This paper describes the earliest days when the "controlled drug delivery" (CDD) field began, the pioneers who launched this exciting and important field, and the key people who came after them. It traces the evolution of the field from its origins in the 1960s to (a) the 1970s and 1980s, when numerous macroscopic "controlled" drug delivery (DD) devices and implants were designed for delivery as mucosal inserts (e.g., in the eye or vagina), as implants (e.g., sub-cutaneous or intra-muscular), as ingestible capsules (e.g., in the G-I tract), as topical patches (e.g., on the skin), and were approved for clinical use, to (b) the 1980s and 1990s when microscopic degradable polymer depot DD systems (DDS) were commercialized, and to (c) the currently very active and exciting nanoscopic era of targeted nano-carriers, in a sense bringing to life Ehrlich's imagined concept of the "Magic Bullet". The nanoscopic era began with systems proposed in the 1970s, that were first used in the clinic in the 1980s, and which came of age in the 1990s, and which are presently evolving into many exciting and clinically successful products in the 2000s. Most of these have succeeded because of the emergence of three key technologies: (1) PEGylation, (2) active targeting to specific cells by ligands conjugated to the DDS, or passive targeting to solid tumors via the EPR effect. The author has been personally involved in the origins and evolution of this field for the past 38 years (see below), and this review includes information that was provided to him by many researchers in this field about the history of various developments. Thus, this paper is based on his own personal involvements in the CDD field, along with many historical anecdotes provided by the key pioneers and researchers in the field. Because of the huge literature of scientific papers on CDD systems, this article attempts to limit examples to those that have been approved for clinical use, or are currently in clinical trials

  9. Progress in psoriasis therapy via novel drug delivery systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitha Vincent

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Psoriasis is a lifelong condition which is caused by the negative signals produced by immune system, which leads to hyper proliferation and other inflammatory reactions on the skin. In this case, keratinocytes which are the outermost layer of skin possess shortened life cycle and results in the alteration of desquamation process where the cytokines will come out through lesions of affected patients and as a result, scaling marks appears on the skin. These conditions may negatively affect the patient’s quality of life and lead to psychosocial stress. Psoriasis can be categorized as mild, moderate and severe conditions. Mild psoriasis leads to the formation of rashes, and when it becomes moderate, the skin turns into scaly. In severe conditions, red patches may be present on skin surface and becomes itchy. Topical therapy continues to be one of the pillars for psoriasis management. Drug molecules with target effect on the skin tissues and other inflammations should be selected for the treatment of psoriasis. Most of the existing drugs lead to systemic intoxication and dryness when applied in higher dose. Different scientific approaches for topical delivery are being explored by researches including emollient, modified gelling system, transdermal delivery, spray, nanogels, hydrogels, micro/nano emulsion, liposomes, nano capsules etc. These topical dosage forms are evaluated for various physico chemical properties such as drug content, viscosity, pH, extrudability, spreadability, toxicity, irritancy, permeability and drug release mechanism. This review paper focus attention to the impact of these formulation approaches on various anti-psoriasis drugs for their successful treatment.

  10. Chronotherapeutic drug delivery systems: an approach to circadian rhythms diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunil, S A; Srikanth, M V; Rao, N Sreenivasa; Uhumwangho, M U; Latha, K; Murthy, K V Ramana

    2011-11-01

    The purpose of writing this review on chronotherapeutic drug delivery systems (ChrDDs) is to review the literatures with special focus on ChrDDs and the various dosage forms, techniques that are used to target the circadian rhythms (CR) of various diseases. Many functions of the human body vary considerably in a day. ChrDDs refers to a treatment method in which in vivo drug availability is timed to match circadian rhythms of disease in order to optimize therapeutic outcomes and minimize side effects. Several techniques have been developed but not many dosage forms for all the diseases are available in the market. ChrDDs are gaining importance in the field of pharmaceutical technology as these systems reduce dosing frequency, toxicity and deliver the drug that matches the CR of that particular disease when the symptoms are maximum to worse. Finally, the ultimate benefit goes to the patient due the compliance and convenience of the dosage form. Some diseases that follow circadian rhythms include cardiovascular diseases, asthma, arthritis, ulcers, diabetes etc. ChrDDs in the market were also discussed and the current technologies used to formulate were also stated. These technologies include Contin® , Chronotopic®, Pulsincaps®, Ceform®, Timerx®, Oros®, Codas®, Diffucaps®, Egalet®, Tablet in capsule device, Core-in-cup tablet technology. A coated drug-core tablet matrix, A bi-layered tablet, Multiparticulate-based chronotherapeutic drug delivery systems, Chronoset and Controlled release microchips.

  11. Floating rice-culture system for nutrient remediation and feed production in a eutrophic lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Ankita; Chun, Seong-Jun; Ko, So-Ra; Kim, Junhwan; Ahn, Chi-Yong; Oh, Hee-Mock

    2017-12-01

    The increased inputs of nutrients have been demonstrated to be a major contributing factor to the eutrophication of lakes and reservoirs which can lead to the production of harmful algal/cyanobacterial blooms and deleteriously affect the aesthetics of water-bodies. Floating plant-culture systems have been widely used for the ecological remediation of eutrophic water in a cost-effective manner. We investigated the applicability of Korean japonica rice variety 'Nampyeong' in a floating-culture system in a eutrophic lake for nutrient uptake and biomass production. Chemical and organic compound compositions were analyzed two times during the growth stages of the rice plant: 98 DAT (days after transplanting) and 165 DAT. Total nitrogen and phosphorus contributed around 1.36 and 0.15 (% dry weight), respectively, in rice plant components at 165 DAT. Crude protein, lipids, fiber and ash were 4.35, 1.91, 23.66 and 5.55 (% dry weight), respectively. In addition, microcystin levels in the rice plant components ranged from 0.0008 to 0.002 μg/g and did not exceed the recommended tolerable limits. These results suggested that the developed floating rice-culture system showed a good potential as a holistic management approach in terms of nutrient reduction, rice production for further use as feed and for bloom control. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Project Delivery System Mode Decision Based on Uncertain AHP and Fuzzy Sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaishan, Liu; Huimin, Li

    2017-12-01

    The project delivery system mode determines the contract pricing type, project management mode and the risk allocation among all participants. Different project delivery system modes have different characteristics and applicable scope. For the owners, the selection of the delivery mode is the key point to decide whether the project can achieve the expected benefits, it relates to the success or failure of project construction. Under the precondition of comprehensively considering the influence factors of the delivery mode, the model of project delivery system mode decision was set up on the basis of uncertain AHP and fuzzy sets, which can well consider the uncertainty and fuzziness when conducting the index evaluation and weight confirmation, so as to rapidly and effectively identify the most suitable delivery mode according to project characteristics. The effectiveness of the model has been verified via the actual case analysis in order to provide reference for the construction project delivery system mode.

  13. Oral controlled release drug delivery system and Characterization of oral tablets; A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Zaman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral route of drug administration is considered as the safest and easiest route of drug administration. Control release drug delivery system is the emerging trend in the pharmaceuticals and the oral route is most suitable for such kind of drug delivery system. Oral route is more convenient for It all age group including both pediatric and geriatrics. There are various systems which are adopted to deliver drug in a controlled manner to different target sites through oral route. It includes diffusion controlled drug delivery systems; dissolution controlled drug delivery systems, osmotically controlled drug delivery systems, ion-exchange controlled drug delivery systems, hydrodynamically balanced systems, multi-Particulate drug delivery systems and microencapsulated drug delivery system. The systems are formulated using different natural, semi-synthetic and synthetic polymers. The purpose of the review is to provide information about the orally controlled drug delivery system, polymers which are used to formulate these systems and characterizations of one of the most convenient dosage form which is the tablets. 

  14. A prosurvival and proangiogenic stem cell delivery system to promote ischemic limb regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yanyi; Fu, Minghuan; Li, Zhihong; Fan, Zhaobo; Li, Xiaofei; Liu, Ying; Anderson, Peter M; Xie, Xiaoyun; Liu, Zhenguo; Guan, Jianjun

    2016-02-01

    Stem cell therapy is one of the most promising strategies to restore blood perfusion and promote muscle regeneration in ischemic limbs. Yet its therapeutic efficacy remains low owing to the inferior cell survival under the low oxygen and nutrient environment of the injured limbs. To increase therapeutic efficacy, high rates of both short- and long-term cell survival are essential, which current approaches do not support. In this work, we hypothesized that a high rate of short-term cell survival can be achieved by introducing a prosurvival environment into the stem cell delivery system to enhance cell survival before vascularization is established; and that a high rate of long-term cell survival can be attained by building a proangiogenic environment in the system to quickly vascularize the limbs. The system was based on a biodegradable and thermosensitive poly(N-Isopropylacrylamide)-based hydrogel, a prosurvival and proangiogenic growth factor bFGF, and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). bFGF can be continuously released from the system for 4weeks. The released bFGF significantly improved MSC survival and paracrine effects under low nutrient and oxygen conditions (0% FBS and 1% O2) in vitro. The prosurvival effect of the bFGF on MSCs was resulted from activating cell Kruppel-like factor 4 (KLF4) pathway. When transplanted into the ischemic limbs, the system dramatically improved MSC survival. Some of the engrafted cells were differentiated into skeletal muscle and endothelial cells, respectively. The system also promoted the proliferation of host cells. After only 2weeks of implantation, tissue blood perfusion was completely recovered; and after 4weeks, the muscle fiber diameter was restored similarly to that of the normal limbs. These pronounced results demonstrate that the developed stem cell delivery system has a potential for ischemic limb regeneration. Stem cell therapy is a promising strategy to restore blood perfusion and promote muscle

  15. Leadership Perspectives on Operationalizing the Learning Health Care System in an Integrated Delivery System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psek, Wayne; Davis, F Daniel; Gerrity, Gloria; Stametz, Rebecca; Bailey-Davis, Lisa; Henninger, Debra; Sellers, Dorothy; Darer, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Healthcare leaders need operational strategies that support organizational learning for continued improvement and value generation. The learning health system (LHS) model may provide leaders with such strategies; however, little is known about leaders' perspectives on the value and application of system-wide operationalization of the LHS model. The objective of this project was to solicit and analyze senior health system leaders' perspectives on the LHS and learning activities in an integrated delivery system. A series of interviews were conducted with 41 system leaders from a broad range of clinical and administrative areas across an integrated delivery system. Leaders' responses were categorized into themes. Ten major themes emerged from our conversations with leaders. While leaders generally expressed support for the concept of the LHS and enhanced system-wide learning, their concerns and suggestions for operationalization where strongly aligned with their functional area and strategic goals. Our findings suggests that leaders tend to adopt a very pragmatic approach to learning. Leaders expressed a dichotomy between the operational imperative to execute operational objectives efficiently and the need for rigorous evaluation. Alignment of learning activities with system-wide strategic and operational priorities is important to gain leadership support and resources. Practical approaches to addressing opportunities and challenges identified in the themes are discussed. Continuous learning is an ongoing, multi-disciplinary function of a health care delivery system. Findings from this and other research may be used to inform and prioritize system-wide learning objectives and strategies which support reliable, high value care delivery.

  16. Thermosensitive Self-Assembling Block Copolymers as Drug Delivery Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Filippo Palmieri

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Self-assembling block copolymers (poloxamers, PEG/PLA and PEG/PLGA diblock and triblock copolymers, PEG/polycaprolactone, polyether modified poly(Acrylic Acid with large solubility difference between hydrophilic and hydrophobic moieties have the property of forming temperature dependent micellar aggregates and, after a further temperature increase, of gellifying due to micelle aggregation or packing. This property enables drugs to be mixed in the sol state at room temperature then the solution can be injected into a target tissue, forming a gel depot in-situ at body temperature with the goal of providing drug release control. The presence of micellar structures that give rise to thermoreversible gels, characterized by low toxicity and mucomimetic properties, makes this delivery system capable of solubilizing water-insoluble or poorly soluble drugs and of protecting labile molecules such as proteins and peptide drugs.

  17. Biological studies of matrix metalloproteinase sensitive drug delivery systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Pia Thermann

    due to severe side effects as a result of drug distribution to healthy tissues. To enhance ecacy of treatment and improve life quality of patients, tumor specific drug delivery strategies, such as liposome encapsulated drugs, which accumulate in tumor tissue, has gained increased attention. Several....... The system exploits the increased MMP-2 activity present in tumor tissue as a site-specific trigger of liposomal activation and controlled drug release after accumulation due to the enhanced permeability and retention effect. Enzymatic activity of MMP-2 results in shedding of a novel PEG coating, consisting...... of a negatively charged lipopeptide-PEG conjugates containing a MMP-2 cleavable peptide, which leads to cationic liposomes with enhanced ability to interact with negatively charged cell membranes. Activation of the liposomal formulation developed here resulted in enhanced association of liposomes with cancer...

  18. Development of magnetic drug delivery system using HTS bulk magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terada, T.; Fukui, S.; Mishima, F.; Akiyama, Y.; Izumi, Y.; Nishijima, S.

    2008-01-01

    Magnetic drug delivery system (MDDS) is the method which the magnetic seeded drug is injected into a blood vessel and then controlled and accumulated by a magnet located outside of the human body. A high accumulation efficiency of the drug to a local diseased part and reduction in side-effects to normal organs are expected by using MDDS. The most important element in MDDS is a magnetic field generator. The high temperature superconducting (HTS) bulk magnet which can generate high magnetic field and magnetic field gradient extending to a point distant from the magnet in several ten millimeters is necessary to achieve the MDDS. In this study, the computer simulation and model experiment were conducted in order to confirm the applicability of MDDS to ovary of the cow body

  19. Bacterial derived proteoliposome as ideal delivery system and cellular adjuvant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Tamara; Pérez, Oliver a; Ugrinovic, Sanja; Bracho, Gustavo; Mastroeni, Pietro

    2006-04-12

    We explored the potential of a proteoliposome (PL) from the outer membrane of N. meningitidis B, as an immunopotentiator and as a vector for antigen delivery to dendritic cells (DC). DC were incubated with PL resulting in up-regulation of MHC-II, CD40, CD80, and CD86 expression and production of TNFalpha and IL12(p70). Ovoalbumin (OVA) was incorporated within PL (PL-OVA). PL-OVA presented OVA-specific peptides to CD4+ and CD8+ OVA-specific T-cell hybridomas. PL exerts an immunomodulatory effect on DC and is a general system to deliver antigens for presentation to CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells possibly implicated in the induction CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) responses.

  20. An overview of Ball Aerospace cryogen storage and delivery systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marquardt, J; Keller, J; Mills, G; Schmidt, J

    2015-01-01

    Starting on the Gemini program in the 1960s, Beech Aircraft (now Ball Aerospace) has been designing and manufacturing dewars for a variety of cryogens including liquid hydrogen and oxygen. These dewars flew on the Apollo, Skylab and Space Shuttle spacecraft providing fuel cell reactants resulting in over 150 manned spaceflights. Since Space Shuttle, Ball has also built the liquid hydrogen fuel tanks for the Boeing Phantom Eye unmanned aerial vehicle. Returning back to its fuel cell days, Ball has designed, built and tested a volume-constrained liquid hydrogen and oxygen tank system for reactant delivery to fuel cells on unmanned undersea vehicles (UUVs). Herein past history of Ball technology is described. Testing has been completed on the UUV specific design, which will be described. (paper)

  1. Enzymatically triggered multifunctional delivery system based on hyaluronic acid micelles

    KAUST Repository

    Deng, Lin

    2012-01-01

    Tumor targetability and stimuli responsivity of drug delivery systems (DDS) are key factors in cancer therapy. Implementation of multifunctional DDS can afford targetability and responsivity at the same time. Herein, cholesterol molecules (Ch) were coupled to hyaluronic acid (HA) backbones to afford amphiphilic conjugates that can self-assemble into stable micelles. Doxorubicin (DOX), an anticancer drug, and superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles (NPs), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents, were encapsulated by Ch-HA micelles and were selectively released in the presence of hyaluronidase (Hyals) enzyme. Cytotoxicity and cell uptake studies were done using three cancer cell lines (HeLa, HepG2 and MCF7) and one normal cell line (WI38). Higher Ch-HA micelles uptake was seen in cancer cells versus normal cells. Consequently, DOX release was elevated in cancer cells causing higher cytotoxicity and enhanced cell death. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  2. Recent developments in retinal lasers and delivery systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naresh Kumar Yadav

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Photocoagulation is the standard of care for several ocular disorders and in particular retinal conditions. Technology has offered us newer lasing mediums, wavelengths and delivery systems. Pattern scan laser in proliferative diabetic retinopathy and diabetic macular edema allows laser treatment that is less time consuming and less painful. Now, it is possible to deliver a subthreshold micropulse laser that is above the threshold of biochemical effect but below the threshold of a visible, destructive lesion thereby preventing collateral damage. The advent of solid-state diode yellow laser allows us to treat closer to the fovea, is more effective for vascular structures and offers a more uniform effect in patients with light or irregular fundus pigmentation. Newer retinal photocoagulation options along with their advantages is discussed in this review.

  3. Optimized formulation of solid self-microemulsifying sirolimus delivery systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cho W

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Wonkyung Cho,1,2 Min-Soo Kim,3 Jeong-Soo Kim,2 Junsung Park,1,2 Hee Jun Park,1,2 Kwang-Ho Cha,1,2 Jeong-Sook Park,2 Sung-Joo Hwang1,4 1Yonsei Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Yonsei University, Incheon, Republic of Korea; 2College of Pharmacy, Chungnam National University, Daejeon, Republic of Korea; 3Department of Pharmaceutical Engineering, Inje University, Gimhae, Republic of Korea; 4College of Pharmacy, Yonsei University, Incheon, Republic of Korea Background: The aim of this study was to develop an optimized solid self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (SMEDDS formulation for sirolimus to enhance its solubility, stability, and bioavailability. Methods: Excipients used for enhancing the solubility and stability of sirolimus were screened. A phase-separation test, visual observation for emulsifying efficiency, and droplet size analysis were performed. Ternary phase diagrams were constructed to optimize the liquid SMEDDS formulation. The selected liquid SMEDDS formulations were prepared into solid form. The dissolution profiles and pharmacokinetic profiles in rats were analyzed. Results: In the results of the oil and cosolvent screening studies, Capryol™ Propylene glycol monocaprylate (PGMC and glycofurol exhibited the highest solubility of all oils and cosolvents, respectively. In the surfactant screening test, D-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (vitamin E TPGS was determined to be the most effective stabilizer of sirolimus in pH 1.2 simulated gastric fluids. The optimal formulation determined by the construction of ternary phase diagrams was the T32 (Capryol™ PGMC:glycofurol:vitamin E TPGS = 30:30:40 weight ratio formulation with a mean droplet size of 108.2 ± 11.4 nm. The solid SMEDDS formulations were prepared with Sucroester 15 and mannitol. The droplet size of the reconstituted solid SMEDDS showed no significant difference compared with the liquid SMEDDS. In the dissolution study, the release amounts of

  4. Systemic gene delivery to the central nervous system using Adeno-associated virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu eBOURDENX

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Adeno-associated virus (AAV-mediated gene delivery has emerged as an effective and safe tool for both preclinical and clinical studies of neurological disorders. The recent discovery that several serotypes are able to cross the blood-brain-barrier when administered systemically has been a real breakthrough in the field of neurodegenerative diseases. Widespread transgene expression after systemic injection could spark interest as a therapeutic approach. Such strategy will avoid invasive brain surgery and allow non-focal gene therapy promising for CNS diseases affecting large portion of the brain. Here, we will review the recent results achieved through different systemic routes of injection generated in the last decade using systemic AAV-mediated delivery and propose a brief assessment of their values. In particular, we emphasize how the methods used for virus engineering could improve brain transduction after peripheral delivery.

  5. A new approach in gastroretentive drug delivery system using cholestyramine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umamaheshwari, R B; Jain, Subheet; Jain, N K

    2003-01-01

    We prepared cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB)-coated cholestyramine microcapsules as a intragastric floating drug delivery system endowed with floating ability due to the carbon dioxide generation when exposed to the gastric fluid. The microcapsules also have a mucoadhesive property. Ion-exchange resin particles can be loaded with bicarbonate followed by acetohydroxamic acid (AHA) and coated with CAB by emulsion solvent evaporation method. The drug concentration was monitored to maintain the floating property and minimum effective concentration. The effect of CAB: drug-resin ratio (2:1, 4:1, 6:1 w/w) on the particle size, floating time, and drug release was determined. Cholestyramine microcapsules were characterized for shape, surface characteristics, and size distribution; cholestyramine/acetohydroxamic acid interactions inside microcapsules were investigated by X-ray diffractometry. The buoyancy time of CAB-coated formulations was better than that of uncoated resin particles. Also, a longer floating time was observed with a higher polymer:drug resin complex ratio (6:1). With increasing coating thickness the particle size was increased but drug release rate was decreased. The drug release rate was higher in simulated gastric fluid (SGF) than in simulated intestinal fluid (SIF). The in vivo mucoadhesion studies were performed with rhodamine-isothiocyanate (RITC) by fluorescent probe method. The amount of CAB-coated cholestyramine microcapsules that remained in the stomach was slightly lower than that of uncoated resin particles. Cholestyramine microcapsules were distributed throughout the stomach and exhibited prolonged gastric residence via mucoadhesion. These results suggest that CAB-coated microcapsules could be a floating as well as a mucoadhesive drug delivery system. Thus, it has promise in the treatment of Helicobacter pylori.

  6. Drug accumulation by means of noninvasive magnetic drug delivery system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuzawa, M.; Mishima, F.; Akiyama, Y.; Nishijima, S.

    2011-01-01

    The medication is one of the most general treatment methods, but drugs diffuse in the normal tissues other than the target part by the blood circulation. Therefore, side effect in the medication, particularly for a drug with strong effect such as anti-cancer drug, are a serious issue. Drug Delivery System (DDS) which accumulates the drug locally in the human body is one of the techniques to solve the side-effects. Magnetic Drug Delivery System (MDDS) is one of the active DDSs, which uses the magnetic force. The objective of this study is to accumulate the ferromagnetic drugs noninvasively in the deep part of the body by using MDDS. It is necessary to generate high magnetic field and magnetic gradient at the target part to reduce the side-effects to the tissues with no diseases. The biomimetic model was composed, which consists of multiple model organs connected with diverged blood vessel model. The arrangement of magnetic field was examined to accumulate ferromagnetic drug particles in the target model organ by using a superconducting bulk magnet which can generate high magnetic fields. The arrangement of magnet was designed to generate high and stable magnetic field at the target model organ. The accumulation experiment of ferromagnetic particles has been conducted. In this study, rotating HTS bulk magnet around the axis of blood vessels by centering on the target part was suggested, and the model experiment for magnet rotation was conducted. As a result, the accumulation of the ferromagnetic particles to the target model organ in the deep part was confirmed.

  7. Mental health service delivery following health system reform in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-González, Mauricio; González, Gerardo; Rosenheck, Robert A

    2003-12-01

    In 1993, Colombia underwent an ambitious and comprehensive process of health system reform based on managed competition and structured pluralism, but did not include coverage for mental health services. In this study, we sought to evaluate the impact of the reform on access to mental health services and whether there were changes in the pattern of mental health service delivery during the period after the reform. Changes in national economic indicators and in measures of mental health and non-mental health service delivery for the years 1987 and 1997 were compared. Data were obtained from the National Administrative Department of Statistics of Colombia (DANE), the Department of National Planning and Ministry of the Treasury of Colombia, and from national official reports of mental health and non-mental health service delivery from the Ministry of Health of Colombia for the same years. While population-adjusted access to mental health outpatient services declined by -2.7% (-11.2% among women and +5.8% among men), access to general medical outpatient services increased dramatically by 46%. In-patient admissions showed smaller differences, with a 7% increase in mental health admissions, as compared to 22.5% increase in general medical admissions. The health reform in Colombia imposed competition across all health institutions with the intention of encouraging efficiency and financial autonomy. However, the challenge of institutional survival appears to have fallen heavily on mental health care institutions that were also expected to participate in managed competition, but that were at a serious disadvantage because their services were excluded from the compulsory standardized package of health benefits. While the Colombian health care reform intended to close the gap between those who had and those who did not have access to health services, it appears to have failed to address access to specialized mental health services, although it does seem to have promoted a

  8. Advances in the Applications of Polyhydroxyalkanoate Nanoparticles for Novel Drug Delivery System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupama Shrivastav

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Drug delivery technology is emerging as an interdisciplinary science aimed at improving human health. The controlled delivery of pharmacologically active agents to the specific site of action at the therapeutically optimal rate and dose regimen has been a major goal in designing drug delivery systems. Over the past few decades, there has been considerable interest in developing biodegradable drug carriers as effective drug delivery systems. Polymeric materials from natural sources play an important role in controlled release of drug at a particular site. Polyhydroxyalkanoates, due to their origin from natural sources, are given attention as candidates for drug delivery materials. Biodegradable and biocompatible polyhydroxyalkanoates are linear polyesters produced by microorganisms under unbalanced growth conditions, which have emerged as potential polymers for use as biomedical materials for drug delivery due to their unique physiochemical and mechanical properties. This review summarizes many of the key findings in the applications of polyhydroxyalkanoates and polyhydroxyalkanoate nanoparticles for drug delivery system.

  9. Whey protein-derived biomaterials and their use as bioencapsulation and delivery systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subirade Muriel

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of bioactive food compounds (nutraceutical compounds with health benefits provides an excellent opportunity for improving public health. The incorporation of bioactive compounds into food systems is therefore of great interest to researchers in their efforts to develop innovative functional foods that may have physiological benefits or reduce the risk of disease beyond basic nutritional functions. However, the effectiveness of these products in preventing diseases relies on preserving the bioavailability of their active ingredients. This represents undoubtedly a great challenge since these molecules are generally sensitive to environmental conditions encountered in food processes (i.e., temperature oxygen, and light or in the gastrointestinal tract (i.e., pH, enzymes presence of other nutrients, which limit their activity and potential health benefits. However, bio- and microencapsulation can be used to overcome these limitations. Whey proteins, also known as the serum proteins of milk, are widely used in food products, because of their high nutritional value and their ability to form gels, emulsions, or foams. The aim of this article is to provide information on the different types of materials obtained from whey proteins and to examine their use as bioencapsulation and delivery systems.

  10. Handheld Delivery System for Modified Boron-Type Fire Extinguishment Agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-11-01

    was to develop and test a handheld portable delivery system for use with the modified boron-type fire extinguishing agent for metal fires . B...BACKGROUND A need exists for an extinguishing agent and accompanying delivery system that are effective against complex geometry metal fires . A modified...agent and its delivery system have proven effective against complex geometry metal fires containing up to 200 pounds of magnesium metal. Further

  11. Conceptualizing the use of system products and system deliveries in the building industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvam, Lars; Mortensen, Niels Henrik; Thuesen, Christian

    2013-01-01

    on the product architecture and partly of the setup of the business processes by using e.g. Configure to Order processes and Engineer to Order processes. Furthermore the potential impacts from using system products and system deliveries are discussed based on the examples included....

  12. Development of an automated flow injection analysis system for determination of phosphate in nutrient solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadağ, Sevinç; Görüşük, Emine M; Çetinkaya, Ebru; Deveci, Seda; Dönmez, Koray B; Uncuoğlu, Emre; Doğu, Mustafa

    2018-01-25

    A fully automated flow injection analysis (FIA) system was developed for determination of phosphate ion in nutrient solutions. This newly developed FIA system is a portable, rapid and sensitive measuring instrument that allows on-line analysis and monitoring of phosphate ion concentration in nutrient solutions. The molybdenum blue method, which is widely used in FIA phosphate analysis, was adapted to the developed FIA system. The method is based on the formation of ammonium Mo(VI) ion by reaction of ammonium molybdate with the phosphate ion present in the medium. The Mo(VI) ion then reacts with ascorbic acid and is reduced to the spectrometrically measurable Mo(V) ion. New software specific for flow analysis was developed in the LabVIEW development environment to control all the components of the FIA system. The important factors affecting the analytical signal were identified as reagent flow rate, injection volume and post-injection flow path length, and they were optimized using Box-Behnken experimental design and response surface methodology. The optimum point for the maximum analytical signal was calculated as 0.50 mL min -1 reagent flow rate, 100 µL sample injection volume and 60 cm post-injection flow path length. The proposed FIA system had a sampling frequency of 100 samples per hour over a linear working range of 3-100 mg L -1 (R 2  = 0.9995). The relative standard deviation (RSD) was 1.09% and the limit of detection (LOD) was 0.34 mg L -1 . Various nutrient solutions from a tomato-growing hydroponic greenhouse were analyzed with the developed FIA system and the results were found to be in good agreement with vanadomolybdate chemical method findings. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Nutrient Discharge from aquaculture operations in function of system design and production enviorment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdegem, M.C.J.

    2013-01-01

    In aquaculture, nutrient loading is defined as the difference between nutrients supplied with fertilizers and feed and nutrients harvested in the form of finfish, crustaceans, molluscs and seaweeds. On average, the production of finfish and crustaceans results in a net nutrient loading, while for

  14. Forensic analysis of online marketing for electronic nicotine delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, Nathan K; Brookover, Jody; Cobb, Caroline O

    2015-03-01

    Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) are growing in awareness and use in the USA. They are currently unregulated as the Food and Drug Administration has yet to assert jurisdiction under its tobacco authority over these products, and a US Court of Appeals held they cannot be regulated as drugs/delivery devices if they are not marketed for a therapeutic purpose. Observation of the current online marketplace suggests ENDS, like some nutraceutical products, are being promoted using affiliate marketing techniques using claims concerning purported health benefits. This study performed a forensic analysis to characterise the relationships between online ENDS affiliate advertisements and ENDS sellers, and evaluated descriptive content on advertisements and websites to inform future policy and regulatory efforts. A purposive sampling strategy was used to identify three forms of ENDS advertising. Web proxy software recorded identifiable objects and their ties to each other. Network analysis of these ties followed, as well as analysis of descriptive content on advertisements and websites identified. The forensic analysis included four ENDS advertisements, two linked affiliate websites, and two linked seller websites, and demonstrated a multilevel relationship between advertisements and sellers with multiple layers of redirection. Descriptive analysis indicated that advertisements and affiliates, but not linked sellers, included smoking cessation claims. Results suggest that ENDS sellers may be trying to distance marketing efforts containing unsubstantiated claims from sales. A separate descriptive analysis of 20 ENDS seller web pages indicated that the use of affiliate marketing by sellers may be widespread. These findings support increased monitoring and regulation of ENDS marketing to prevent deceptive marketing tactics and ensure consumer safety. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please

  15. A glimpse into the littoral nutrient dynamics of a lake system connected to the sea

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Taljaard, Susan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available -situ sources are those situated in the floodplains of water bodies such as septic tank systems from low-lying developments (e.g. Chen, 1988; Fraterrigo and Downing, 2008). The smaller, dynamic and more linear nature of over 80% of South Africa’s estuaries... of agricultural watersheds in central Navarre (Spain). Agric. Water Manage. 95 1111–1128. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2008.06.013 CHEN M (1988) Pollution of ground water by nutrients and fecal coliforms from lakeshore septic tank systems. Water Air Soil...

  16. Perinatal systemic gene delivery using adeno-associated viral vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajvinder eKarda

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Neurodegenerative monogenic diseases can also affect a broad range of tissues and organs throughout the body. An effective treatment would require a systemic approach. The intravenous administration of novel therapies is ideal but is hampered by the inability of such drugs to cross the blood-brain barrier and precludes efficacy in the central nervous system. A number of these early lethal intractable diseases also present devastating irreversible pathology at birth or soon after. Therefore, any therapy would ideally be administered during the perinatal period to prevent, stop or ameliorate disease progression. The concept of perinatal gene therapy has moved a step further towards being a feasible approach to treating such disorders. This has primarily been driven by the recent discoveries that particular serotypes of adeno-associated virus (AAV gene delivery vectors have the ability to cross the blood-brain barrier following intravenous administration. Furthermore, this has been safely demonstrated in perinatal mice and non-human primates. This review focuses on the progress made in using AAV to achieve systemic transduction and what this means for developing perinatal gene therapy for early lethal neurodegenerative diseases.

  17. Particle size distribution of selected electronic nicotine delivery system products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldham, Michael J; Zhang, Jingjie; Rusyniak, Mark J; Kane, David B; Gardner, William P

    2018-03-01

    Dosimetry models can be used to predict the dose of inhaled material, but they require several parameters including particle size distribution. The reported particle size distributions for aerosols from electronic nicotine delivery system (ENDS) products vary widely and don't always identify a specific product. A low-flow cascade impactor was used to determine the particle size distribution [mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD); geometric standard deviation (GSD)] from 20 different cartridge based ENDS products. To assess losses and vapor phase amount, collection efficiency of the system was measured by comparing the collected mass in the impactor to the difference in ENDS product mass. The levels of nicotine, glycerin, propylene glycol, water, and menthol in the formulations of each product were also measured. Regardless of the ENDS product formulation, the MMAD of all tested products was similar and ranged from 0.9 to 1.2 μm with a GSD ranging from 1.7 to 2.2. There was no consistent pattern of change in the MMAD and GSD as a function of number of puffs (cartridge life). The collection efficiency indicated that 9%-26% of the generated mass was deposited in the collection system or was in the vapor phase. The particle size distribution data are suitable for use in aerosol dosimetry programs. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Nutrient enhanced coastal ocean productivity in the north Gulf of Mexico: understanding the effects of nutrients on a coastal ecosystem

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    The continental shelf adjacent to the Mississippi River is a highly productive system, often referred to as the fertile fisheries crescent. This productivity is attributed to the effects of the river, especially nutrient delivery. In the later decades of the 2oth century, though, changes in the system were becoming evident. Nutrient loads were seen to be increasing and reports of hypoxia were becoming more frequent. During most recent summers, a broad area (up to 20,000 krn2) of near botto...

  19. Flower-level developmental plasticity to nutrient availability in Datura stramonium: implications for the mating system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, Iván Darío; Nattero, Julieta; Careaga, Sonia A; Núñez-Farfán, Juan

    2017-10-17

    Studies of phenotypic plasticity in plants have mainly focused on (1) the effect of environmental variation on whole-plant traits related to the number of modules rather than on (2) the phenotypic consequences of environmental variation in traits of individual modules. Since environmental and developmental factors can produce changes in traits related to the mating system, this study used the second approach to investigate whether within-individual variation in herkogamy-related traits is affected by the environment during plant development in two populations of Datura stramonium , an annual herb with a hypothesized persistent mixed mating system, and to determine which morphological traits may promote self-fertilization. Full-sib families of two Mexican populations of D. stramonium , with contrasting ecological histories, were grown under low, mid and high nutrient availability to investigate the effects of genetic, environmental and within-plant flower position on flower size, corolla, stamen and pistil lengths, and herkogamy. Populations showed differences in familial variation, plasticity and familial differences in plasticity in most floral traits analysed. In one population (Ticumán), the effect of flower position on trait variation varied among families, whereas in the other (Pedregal) the effect of flower position interacted with the nutrient environment. Flower size varied with the position of flowers, but in the opposite direction between populations in low nutrients; a systematic within-plant trend of reduction in flower size, pistil length and herkogamy with flower position increased the probability of self-fertilization in the Pedregal population. Besides genetic variation in floral traits between and within populations, environmental variation affects phenotypic floral trait values at the whole-plant level, as well as among flower positions. The interaction between flower position and nutrient environment can affect the plant's mating system, and

  20. Representation of deforestation impacts on climate, water, and nutrient cycles in the ACME earth system model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, X.; Riley, W. J.; Zhu, Q.

    2017-12-01

    Deforestation causes a series of changes to the climate, water, and nutrient cycles. Employing a state-of-the-art earth system model—ACME (Accelerated Climate Modeling for Energy), we comprehensively investigate the impacts of deforestation on these processes. We first assess the performance of the ACME Land Model (ALM) in simulating runoff, evapotranspiration, albedo, and plant productivity at 42 FLUXNET sites. The single column mode of ACME is then used to examine climate effects (temperature cooling/warming) and responses of runoff, evapotranspiration, and nutrient fluxes to deforestation. This approach separates local effects of deforestation from global circulation effects. To better understand the deforestation effects in a global context, we use the coupled (atmosphere, land, and slab ocean) mode of ACME to demonstrate the impacts of deforestation on global climate, water, and nutrient fluxes. Preliminary results showed that the land component of ACME has advantages in simulating these processes and that local deforestation has potentially large impacts on runoff and atmospheric processes.

  1. Making the Invisible Visible: A Model for Delivery Systems in Adult Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alex, Jennifer L.; Miller, Elizabeth A.; Platt, R. Eric; Rachal, John R.; Gammill, Deidra M.

    2007-01-01

    Delivery systems are not well defined in adult education. Therefore, this article reviews the multiple components that overlap to affect the adult learner and uses them to create a model for a comprehensive delivery system in adult education with these individual components as sub-systems that are interrelated and inter-locked. These components…

  2. A Review of Analytical Methods for the Identification and Characterization of Nano Delivery Systems in Food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luykx, D.M.A.M.; Peters, R.J.B.; Ruth, van S.M.; Bouwmeester, H.

    2008-01-01

    Detection and characterization of nano delivery systems is an essential part of understanding the benefits as well as the potential toxicity of these systems in food. This review gives a detailed description of food nano delivery systems based on lipids, proteins, and/or polysaccharides and

  3. A Prototype Educational Delivery System Using Water Quality Monitoring as a Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazer, Richard B.

    This report describes the model educational delivery system used by Ulster County Community College in its water quality monitoring program. The educational delivery system described in the report encompasses the use of behavioral objectives as its foundation and builds upon this foundation to form a complete system whose outcomes can be measured,…

  4. Impact of Nutrient Restriction on the Structure of Listeria monocytogenes Biofilm Grown in a Microfluidic System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherifi, Tamazight; Jacques, Mario; Quessy, Sylvain; Fravalo, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    Biofilm formation by the pathogen Listeria monocytogenes is a major concern in food industries. The aim of this work was to elucidate the effect of nutrient limitation on both biofilm architecture and on the viability of the bacteria in microfluidic growth conditions. Biofilm formation by two L. monocytogenes strains was performed in a rich medium (BHI) and in a 10-fold diluted BHI (BHI/10) at 30°C for 24 h by using both static conditions and the microfluidic system Bioflux. In dynamic conditions, biofilms grown in rich and poor medium showed significant differences as well in structure and in the resulting biovolume. In BHI/10, biofilm was organized in a knitted network where cells formed long chains, whereas in the rich medium, the observed structure was homogeneous cellular multilayers. Biofilm biovolume production in BHI/10 was significantly higher than in BHI in these dynamic conditions. Interestingly, biovolume of dead cells in biofilms formed under limited nutrient conditions (BHI/10) was significantly higher than in biofilms formed in the BHI medium. In the other hand, in static conditions, biofilm is organized in a multilayer cells and dispersed cells in a rich medium BHI and poor medium BHI/10 respectively. There was significantly more biomass in the rich medium compared to BHI/10 but no difference was noted in the dead/damaged subpopulation showing how L. monocytogenes biofilm could be affected by the growth conditions. This work demonstrated that nutrient concentration affects biofilm structure and the proportion of dead cells in biofilms under microfluidic condition. Our study also showed that limited nutrients play an important role in the structural stability of L. monocytogenes biofilm by enhancing cell death and liberating extracellular DNA. PMID:28567031

  5. Impact of Nutrient Restriction on the Structure of Listeria monocytogenes Biofilm Grown in a Microfluidic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamazight Cherifi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Biofilm formation by the pathogen Listeria monocytogenes is a major concern in food industries. The aim of this work was to elucidate the effect of nutrient limitation on both biofilm architecture and on the viability of the bacteria in microfluidic growth conditions. Biofilm formation by two L. monocytogenes strains was performed in a rich medium (BHI and in a 10-fold diluted BHI (BHI/10 at 30°C for 24 h by using both static conditions and the microfluidic system Bioflux. In dynamic conditions, biofilms grown in rich and poor medium showed significant differences as well in structure and in the resulting biovolume. In BHI/10, biofilm was organized in a knitted network where cells formed long chains, whereas in the rich medium, the observed structure was homogeneous cellular multilayers. Biofilm biovolume production in BHI/10 was significantly higher than in BHI in these dynamic conditions. Interestingly, biovolume of dead cells in biofilms formed under limited nutrient conditions (BHI/10 was significantly higher than in biofilms formed in the BHI medium. In the other hand, in static conditions, biofilm is organized in a multilayer cells and dispersed cells in a rich medium BHI and poor medium BHI/10 respectively. There was significantly more biomass in the rich medium compared to BHI/10 but no difference was noted in the dead/damaged subpopulation showing how L. monocytogenes biofilm could be affected by the growth conditions. This work demonstrated that nutrient concentration affects biofilm structure and the proportion of dead cells in biofilms under microfluidic condition. Our study also showed that limited nutrients play an important role in the structural stability of L. monocytogenes biofilm by enhancing cell death and liberating extracellular DNA.

  6. A road to food? : efficacy of nutrient management options targeted to heterogeneous soilscapes in the Teso farming system, Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ebanyat, P.

    2009-01-01

    Key words: Land use change; Heterogeneity in soil fertility; Targeting; Integrated soil fertility management; Nutrient use efficiencies; Rehabilitation of degraded fields; Fertiliser requirements, Finger millet; QUEFTS model; Smallholder systems; sub-Saharan Africa.

    Poor soil fertility

  7. The role of a fish pond in optimizing nutrient flows in integrated agriculture-aquaculture farming systems

    OpenAIRE

    Nhan, D.K.

    2007-01-01

    In the Mekong delta, the Vietnamese government promoted integrated agriculture-aquaculture (IAA) farming systems as an example of sustainable agriculture. An important advantage of IAA-farming is the nutrient linkage between the pond and terrestrial components within a farm, which allows to improve resource use efficiency and income while reducing environmental impacts. This study monitored and analyzed water use in and nutrient flows through ponds that are part of an IAA-farming system. Th...

  8. An experimental platform for systemic drug delivery to the retina.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Campbell, Matthew

    2009-10-20

    Degenerative retinopathies, including age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, and hereditary retinal disorders--major causes of world blindness--are potentially treatable by using low-molecular weight neuroprotective, antiapoptotic, or antineovascular drugs. These agents are, however, not in current systemic use owing to, among other factors, their inability to passively diffuse across the microvasculature of the retina because of the presence of the inner blood-retina barrier (iBRB). Moreover, preclinical assessment of the efficacies of new formulations in the treatment of such conditions is similarly compromised. We describe here an experimental process for RNAi-mediated, size-selective, transient, and reversible modulation of the iBRB in mice to molecules up to 800 Da by suppression of transcripts encoding claudin-5, a protein component of the tight junctions of the inner retinal vasculature. MRI produced no evidence indicative of brain or retinal edema, and the process resulted in minimal disturbance of global transcriptional patterns analyzed in neuronal tissue. We show that visual function can be improved in IMPDH1(-\\/-) mice, a model of autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa, and that the rate of photoreceptor cell death can be reduced in a model of light-induced retinal degeneration by systemic drug delivery after reversible barrier opening. These findings provide a platform for high-throughput drug screening in models of retinal degeneration, and they ultimately could result in the development of a novel "humanized" approach to therapy for conditions with little or no current forms of treatment.

  9. Buccal mucosa as a route for systemic drug delivery: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shojaei, A H

    1998-01-01

    Within the oral mucosal cavity, the buccal region offers an attractive route of administration for systemic drug delivery. The mucosa has a rich blood supply and it is relatively permeable. It is the objective of this article to review buccal drug delivery by discussing the structure and environment of the oral mucosa and the experimental methods used in assessing buccal drug permeation/absorption. Buccal dosage forms will also be reviewed with an emphasis on bioadhesive polymeric based delivery systems

  10. Integrated Soil, Water and Nutrient Management for Sustainable Rice–Wheat Cropping Systems in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-08-01

    The rice-wheat system is a predominant cropping system in Asia providing food, employment and income, ensuring the livelihoods of about 1 billion of resource poor rural and urban people. However, the productivity of the current rice-wheat systems is seriously threatened by increasing land degradation and scarcity of water and labour, inefficient cropping practices and other emerging socio economic and environmental drivers. Responding to the need to develop alternate crop establishment methods and improved cropping practices, this publication summarizes the results from a joint FAO/IAEA coordinated research project on optimizing productivity and sustainability of rice-wheat cropping systems. It provides relevant information on how to modify existing water and nutrient management systems and improve soil management in both traditional and emerging crop establishment methods for sustainable intensification of cereal production in Asia

  11. Approaches and Challenges of Engineering Implantable Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS Drug Delivery Systems for in Vitro and in Vivo Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken-Tye Yong

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite the advancements made in drug delivery systems over the years, many challenges remain in drug delivery systems for treating chronic diseases at the personalized medicine level. The current urgent need is to develop novel strategies for targeted therapy of chronic diseases. Due to their unique properties, microelectromechanical systems (MEMS technology has been recently engineered as implantable drug delivery systems for disease therapy. This review examines the challenges faced in implementing implantable MEMS drug delivery systems in vivo and the solutions available to overcome these challenges.

  12. Opportunities to enhance and interpret nutrient fluxes and imbalances in animal production systems by use of stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarvis, S.C.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The flows and transfers of nutrients within agricultural systems are complex and the presence of livestock increases the complexity. Few, if any, systems are in equilibrium with respect to nutrients inputs and outputs and all are 'leaky' to some extent or other: the presence of animals inevitably increases the opportunity for inefficiency. Whilst there is still much need to enhance nutrient use in many parts of the world in order to promote crop/food production particularly in resource-poor environments, there has been considerable recent research which re- examine nutrient behaviour because of pollution effects. Understanding nutrients fluxes and budgets/balances of inputs and outputs within a system and its component parts, provides the means to assess (i) current status, (ii) extent of losses and (iii) potential options for change to reduce losses, increase nutrient use efficiency and sustain or enhance production at minimum cost. Increasingly, nutrient accounting is being used at field, farm and national scales to aid decision making and planning. To do this effectively, requires that the sources and transfers of nutrients to, from and within the system be known. The paper discusses the way in which systems and farm gate balances can be used to promote efficiency of nutrient use in relation to required production levels and to optimise (i) investment in purchased nutrients, (ii) opportunities to capitalise on internal recycling and (iii) other farming activities which influence nutrient balance, surplus and loss. A major challenge for the future will be to balance the on- and off-farm needs of supplying and utilising nutrients in order to maintain long-term sustainability of farming systems, food production and rural resources. The paper concentrates on aspects of N in livestock systems as this provides one of the main opportunities to increase effectiveness of nutrient use in agriculture throughout the world with the aim of demonstrating some of the

  13. Ancient Soils in a Sunburnt Country: Nutrient and Carbon Distributions in an Australian Dryland River System

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, R. E.; Grierson, P. F.; Adams, M. A.

    2005-05-01

    Riparian systems are hotspots in dryland landscapes for nutrient supply and transformation. Biogeochemical fluxes in riparian systems are closely coupled to hydrological flowpaths, which, in dryland regions, are characterised by catastrophic flooding and long periods of erratic or no flow. Re-wetting of soils stimulates soil microbial processes that drive mineralization of nutrients necessary for plant growth. We present here the first data of a 3-year research project investigating biogeochemical processes in riparian systems in the semi-arid Pilbara region of Western Australia. Spatial patterns of nitrogen, phosphorus and carbon were closely related to topographic zone (across floodplain and channels) and vegetation type. NO3- and PCi concentrations were four-fold higher in channel, bank and riparian soils than in soils of floodplain and riparian-floodplain transition zones. Nitrogen distribution was highly heterogeneous in riparian soils (NO3- CV=102%, NH4+ CV=84%) while phosphorus was particularly heterogeneous in floodplain soils (PCi CV=153%, PCo CV=266%), in comparison to other zones. Phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) and enzymatic profiles will be used to assess microbial functional groups, combined with mineralisation experiments and stable isotope studies (15N and 13C). These data will improve understanding of biogeochemical cycling in dryland riparian systems, and contribute to improved regional management of water resources.

  14. Tidal variability of nutrients in a coastal coral reef system influenced by groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guizhi; Wang, Shuling; Wang, Zhangyong; Jing, Wenping; Xu, Yi; Zhang, Zhouling; Tan, Ehui; Dai, Minhan

    2018-02-01

    To investigate variation in nitrite, nitrate, phosphate, and silicate in a spring-neap tide in a coral reef system influenced by groundwater discharge, we carried out a time-series observation of these nutrients and 228Ra, a tracer of groundwater discharge, in the Luhuitou fringing reef at Sanya Bay in the South China Sea. The maximum 228Ra, 45.3 dpm 100 L-1, appeared at low tide and the minimum, 14.0 dpm 100 L-1, appeared during a flood tide in the spring tide. The activity of 228Ra was significantly correlated with water depth and salinity in the spring-neap tide, reflecting the tidal-pumping feature of groundwater discharge. Concentrations of all nutrients exhibited strong diurnal variation, with a maximum in the amplitude of the diel change for nitrite, nitrate, phosphate, and silicate in the spring tide of 0.46, 1.54, 0.12, and 2.68 µM, respectively. Nitrate and phosphate were negatively correlated with water depth during the spring tide but showed no correlation during the neap tide. Nitrite was positively correlated with water depth in the spring and neap tide due to mixing of nitrite-depleted groundwater and nitrite-rich offshore seawater. They were also significantly correlated with salinity (R2 ≥ 0.9 and P reef system was closely related with biological processes during both tidal periods, but the biological influence appeared to be less dominant, as inferred from the less significant correlations (R2 = 0.16) during the spring tide when groundwater discharge was more prominent. Thus, the variability of nutrients in the coral reef system was regulated mainly by biological uptake and release in a spring-neap tide and impacted by mixing of tidally driven groundwater and offshore seawater during spring tide.

  15. Novel Nanostructured Solid Materials for Modulating Oral Drug Delivery from Solid-State Lipid-Based Drug Delivery Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dening, Tahnee J; Rao, Shasha; Thomas, Nicky; Prestidge, Clive A

    2016-01-01

    Lipid-based drug delivery systems (LBDDS) have gained significant attention in recent times, owing to their ability to overcome the challenges limiting the oral delivery of poorly water-soluble drugs. Despite the successful commercialization of several LBDDS products over the years, a large discrepancy exists between the number of poorly water-soluble drugs displaying suboptimal in vivo performances and the application of LBDDS to mitigate their various delivery challenges. Conventional LBDDS, including lipid solutions and suspensions, emulsions, and self-emulsifying formulations, suffer from various drawbacks limiting their widespread use and commercialization. Accordingly, solid-state LBDDS, fabricated by adsorbing LBDDS onto a chemically inert solid carrier material, have attracted substantial interest as a viable means of stabilizing LBDDS whilst eliminating some of the various limitations. This review describes the impact of solid carrier choice on LBDDS performance and highlights the importance of appropriate solid carrier material selection when designing hybrid solid-state LBDDS. Specifically, emphasis is placed on discussing the ability of the specific solid carrier to modulate drug release, control lipase action and lipid digestion, and enhance biopharmaceutical performance above the original liquid-state LBDDS. To encourage the interested reader to consider their solid carrier choice on a higher level, various novel materials with the potential for future use as solid carriers for LBDDS are described. This review is highly significant in guiding future research directions in the solid-state LBDDS field and fostering the translation of these delivery systems to the pharmaceutical marketplace.

  16. Development Of Nutrient And Water Recycling Capabilities In Algae Biofuels Production Systems. Final Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundquist, Tryg [California Polytechnic State Univ. (CalPoly), San Luis Obispo, CA (United States). Civil and Environmental Engineering Dept.; Spierling, Ruth [California Polytechnic State Univ. (CalPoly), San Luis Obispo, CA (United States); Poole, Kyle [California Polytechnic State Univ. (CalPoly), San Luis Obispo, CA (United States); Blackwell, Shelley [California Polytechnic State Univ. (CalPoly), San Luis Obispo, CA (United States); Crowe, Braden [California Polytechnic State Univ. (CalPoly), San Luis Obispo, CA (United States); Hutton, Matt [California Polytechnic State Univ. (CalPoly), San Luis Obispo, CA (United States); Lehr, Corinne [California Polytechnic State Univ. (CalPoly), San Luis Obispo, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Biochemistry

    2018-01-25

    The objective of this project was to develop and demonstrate methods of recycling of water and nutrients for algal biofuels production. Recycling was accomplished both internal to the system and, in a broader sense, through import and reuse of municipal wastewater. Such an integrated system with wastewater input had not been demonstrated previously, and the performance was unknown, particularly in terms of influence of recycling on algal productivity and the practical extent of nutrient recovery from biomass residuals. Through long-term laboratory and pilot research, the project resulted in the following: 1. Bench-scale pretreatment of algal biomass did not sufficiently increase methane yield of nutrient solubilization during anaerobic digestion to warrant incorporation of pre-treatment into the pilot plant. The trial pretreatments were high-pressure orifice homogenization, sonication, and two types of heat treatment. 2. Solubilization of biomass particulate nutrients by lab anaerobic digesters ranged from 20% to nearly 60% for N and 40-65% for P. Subsequent aerobic degradation of the anaerobically digested biomass simulated raceways receiving whole digestate and resulted in an additional 20-55% N solubilization and additional 20% P solubilization. 3. Comparisons of laboratory and pilot digesters showed that laboratory units were reasonable proxies for pilot-scale. 4. Pilot-scale anaerobic digesters were designed, installed, and operated to digest algal biomass. Nutrient re-solubilization by the digesters was monitored and whole digestate was successfully used as a fertilizer in pilot algae raceways. 5. Unheated, unmixed digesters achieved greater methane yield and nutrient solubilization than heated, mixed digesters, presumably due to longer the solids residence times in unmixed digesters. The unmixed, unheated pilot digesters yielded 0.16 LCH4/g volatile solids (VS) introduced with 0.15 g VS/L-d organic loading and 16oC average temperature. A

  17. The interplay among prey preference, nutrient enrichment and stability in an omnivory system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LDB. Faria

    Full Text Available Food webs usually display an intricate mix of trophic interactions where multiple prey are common. In this context omnivory has been the subject of intensive analysis regarding food web stability and structure. In a three species omnivory setting it is shown that the modeling of prey preference by the top predator may exert a strong influence on the short as well as on the long term dynamics of the respective food web. Clearly, this has implications concerning the stability and the structure of omnivory systems under disturbances such as nutrient enrichment.

  18. siRNA delivery with lipid-based systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Camilla

    2012-01-01

    A key hurdle for the further development of RNA interference (RNAi) therapeutics like small interfering RNA (siRNA) is their safe and effective delivery. Lipids are promising and versatile carriers because they are based on Nature's own building blocks and can be provided with properties which......RNA into more hydrophobic lipoplexes, which promote passage of the siRNA across cellular membrane barriers, especially when lipids are added that facilitate membrane fusion. Despite these attractive features, siRNA delivery vehicles are facing a number of challenges such as the limited delivery efficiency...

  19. Delivery of asteroids and meteorites to the inner solar system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenberg, R.; Nolan, M.C.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses how critical observational constraints on the delivery of asteroids (including the very small ones, called meteorites, that land on the Earth) include orbital distributions, exposure ages and mineralogy. Orbital maturity in the inner solar system is indicated by the AM/PM distribution of meteorite falls and fireballs: orbits with perihelia at 1 AU are less mature and arrive preferentially in the PM. Ordinary chondrites have short exposure ages, but their AM/PM fall statistics indicate significant orbital maturity. Hence, many may be collisional offspring of slightly larger parents that emigrated from the main belt. The required size distribution, extrapolated up to multi-km-size bodies, would also yield numbers of planet-crossing asteroids comparable to those astronomically observed. However, such a distribution requires launch on Earth-bound trajectories by catastrophic disruption events, which probably cannot launch sufficient material at high enough velocities Cratering events offer higher ejecta velocities, and if dominant would explain the abundance of basaltic meteorites relative to olivine, which should constitute the bulk of a differentiated parent body's volume

  20. Laser prostatectomy using a right angle delivery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigo-Rocha, Flavio; Mitre, Anuar I.; Chavantes, Maria C.; Arap, Sami

    1995-05-01

    Benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) represents a major health problem in old men. In the present transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) is the gold standard treatment for BPH. Although TURP is related to low mortality rates its mobidity is quite high. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of a new surgical treatment for BPH we undertook 30 patients with symptomatic BPH. All of them were submitted to a laser prostatectomy using a lateral delivery system (non contact) connected to a Nd-YAG laser font. The preoperative evaluation showed a prostate weight ranging from 30,5 to 86 grams (mean equals 42,5). The preoperative prostatic specific antigen (PSA) ranged from 0,9 to 10,2 ng/dl (mean equals 4.3). The International prostate symptom score (I-PSS) ranged from 16 to 35 points (means equals 23,58). The flow rate ranged from 0 to m 12.8 ml/sec (mean equals 4,65) and the postvoid residual urine from 20 to 400 ml (mean equals 100). We obtained follow-up in 20 patients. After three months after the procedure the parameters were: I-PSS from 4 to 20 points (mean equals 7,0) p stenosis in one patient. We concluded that laser prostatectomy is a safe and effective treatment for BPH.

  1. Detonation nanodiamonds are promising nontoxic delivery system for urothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupančič, Daša; Kreft, Mateja Erdani; Grdadolnik, Maja; Mitev, Dimitar; Iglič, Aleš; Veranič, Peter

    2018-01-01

    Detonation nanodiamonds (DNDs) are carbon-based nanomaterials that are among the most promising nanoparticles available for biomedical applications so far. This is due to their biocompatibility, which could be contributed to their inert core and conformable surface nature. However, DNDs cytotoxicity for urothelial cells and the routes of their internalization remains an open question in the aspect of nanodiamond surface. We therefore analyzed four types of DNDs for cytotoxicity and internalization with normal urothelial cells and two types of cancer urothelial cell lines in vitro. Viability of any of the cell types we used was not compromised with any of four DNDs we evaluated after 24-, 48- and 72-h incubation in three different concentrations of DNDs. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that all four types of DNDs were endocytosed into all three types of urothelial cells tested here. We observed DNDs in endosomes, as well as in multivesicular bodies and multilamellar bodies. These results propose using of DNDs as a delivery system for urological applications in human nanomedicine.

  2. Liposome-Based Delivery Systems in Plant Polysaccharides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meiwan, C.; Yitao, W.; Yanfang, Z.; Xinsheng, P.; Jingjing, H.; Ping, Z.

    2012-01-01

    Plant polysaccharides consist of many monosaccharide by α or β glycosidic bond which can be extracted by the water, alcohol, lipophile liquid from a variety of plants including Cordyceps sinensis, astragalus, and mushrooms. Recently, many evidences illustrate that natural plant polysaccharides possess various biological activities including strengthening immunity, lowering blood sugar, regulating lipid metabolism, anti oxidation, anti aging, and antitumour. Plant polysaccharides have been widely used in the medical field due to their special features and low toxicity. As an important drug delivery system, liposomes can not only encapsulate small-molecule compound but also big-molecule drug; therefore, they present great promise for the application of plant polysaccharides with unique physical and chemical properties and make remarkable successes. This paper summarized the current progress in plant polysaccharides liposomes, gave an overview on their experiment design method, preparation, and formulation, characterization and quality control, as well as in vivo and in vitro studies. Moreover, the potential application of plant polysaccharides liposomes was prospected as well.

  3. Polysaccharides-based polyelectrolyte nanoparticles as protein drugs delivery system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shu Shujun; Sun Lei; Zhang Xinge, E-mail: zhangxinge@nankai.edu.cn [Nankai University, Key Laboratory of Functional Polymer Materials Ministry of Education, Institute of Polymer Chemistry (China); Wu Zhongming [Tianjin Medical University, Metabolic Diseases Hospital (China); Wang Zhen; Li Chaoxing, E-mail: lcx@nankai.edu.cn [Nankai University, Key Laboratory of Functional Polymer Materials Ministry of Education, Institute of Polymer Chemistry (China)

    2011-09-15

    Polysaccharides-based nanoparticles were prepared by synthesized quaternized chitosan and dextran sulfate through simple ionic-gelation self-assembled method. Introduction of quaternized groups was intended to increase water solubility of chitosan and make the nanoparticles have broader pH sensitive range which can remain more stable in physiological pH and decrease the loss of protein drugs caused by the gastric cavity. The load of BSA was affected by molecular parameter, i.e., degree of substitution, and average molecular weight of quaternized chitosan, as well as concentration of BSA. Fast release occurred in phosphate buffer solution (pH 7.4) while the release was slow in hydrochloric acid (pH 1.4). The drug release mechanism is Fickian diffusion through release kinetics analysis. Cell uptake demonstrated nanoparicles can internalize into Caco-2 cells, which suggested that nanoparticles had good biocompatibility. No significant conformation change was noted for the released BSA in comparison with native BSA using circular dichroism spectroscopy. This kind of novel composite nanoparticles may be a promising delivery system for oral protein and peptide drugs.

  4. Application of ion exchange resin in floating drug delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhye, Abhijeet A; Ambike, Anshuman A; Mahadik, Kakasaheb R; Paradkar, Anant

    2008-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the application of low-density ion exchange resin (IER) Tulsion(R) 344, for floating drug delivery system (FDDS), and study the effect of its particle size on rate of complexation, water uptake, drug release, and in situ complex formation. Batch method was used for the preparation of complexes, which were characterized by physical methods. Tablet containing resin with high degree of crosslinking showed buoyancy lag time (BLT) of 5-8 min. Decreasing the particle size of resin showed decrease in water uptake and drug release, with no significant effect on the rate of complexation and in situ complex formation for both preformed complexes (PCs) and physical mixtures (PMs). Thus, low-density and high degree of crosslinking of resin and water uptake may be the governing factor for controlling the initial release of tablet containing PMs but not in situ complex formation. However, further sustained release may be due to in situ complex formation.

  5. Gelatin as a carrier system for delivery of polyphenols compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Aleksandra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the influence of different encapsulation techniques (lyophilization and spray drying on gelatin, as a carrier system for delivery of polyphenols compounds, on wild thyme extracts and on encapsulated extracts was investigated. FTIR analyses has shown the presence of carbohydrates, polysaccharides, polyphenols, flavonoids, monoterpenes and carboxylates in the dried extracts, while FTIR spectrum of the encapsulated extracts has shown almost exclusively gelatin-based stripes, indicating the efficient encapsulation of the active ingredients of the extracts and therefore their protection. Scanning electron microscopy has shown that the lyophilization process produced irregularly shaped particles, while spray drying formed spherical and pseudo-spherical particles with rough surface. Using the method of diffraction of laser light, it has been found that spray dried encapsulate possessed significantly lower particle size and significantly better uniformity in comparison to the lyophilized sample. According to the results obtained in differential scanning calorimetry, endothermic peak of lyophilized gelatin encapsulate appeared at higher temperature, thus it can be concluded that lyophilized sample was more thermostable than spray dried parallel. Additionally, the values of enthalpy of gelatin encapsulates were significantly higher compared to pure extracts, which confirmed the presence of stabilizing interactions between the encapsulated components and a carrier.

  6. Computer-operated analytical platform for the determination of nutrients in hydroponic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rius-Ruiz, F Xavier; Andrade, Francisco J; Riu, Jordi; Rius, F Xavier

    2014-03-15

    Hydroponics is a water, energy, space, and cost efficient system for growing plants in constrained spaces or land exhausted areas. Precise control of hydroponic nutrients is essential for growing healthy plants and producing high yields. In this article we report for the first time on a new computer-operated analytical platform which can be readily used for the determination of essential nutrients in hydroponic growing systems. The liquid-handling system uses inexpensive components (i.e., peristaltic pump and solenoid valves), which are discretely computer-operated to automatically condition, calibrate and clean a multi-probe of solid-contact ion-selective electrodes (ISEs). These ISEs, which are based on carbon nanotubes, offer high portability, robustness and easy maintenance and storage. With this new computer-operated analytical platform we performed automatic measurements of K(+), Ca(2+), NO3(-) and Cl(-) during tomato plants growth in order to assure optimal nutritional uptake and tomato production. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Multi-Course Comparison of Traditional versus Web-Based Course Delivery Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, J. Michael; Lennon, Ron

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to measure and compare the effectiveness of a Web-based course delivery system to a traditional course delivery system. The results indicate that a web-based course is effective and equivalent to a traditional classroom environment. As with the implementation of all new technologies, there are some pros and cons that…

  8. Dual delivery systems based on polyamine analog BENSpm as prodrug and gene delivery vectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yu

    Combination drug and gene therapy shows promise in cancer treatment. However, the success of such strategy requires careful selection of the therapeutic agents, as well as development of efficient delivery vectors. BENSpm (N 1, N11-bisethylnorspermine), a polyamine analogue targeting the intracellular polyamine pathway, draws our special attention because of the following reasons: (1) polyamine pathway is frequently dysregulated in cancer; (2) BENSpm exhibits multiple functions to interfere with the polyamine pathway, such as to up-regulate polyamine metabolism enzymes and down-regulate polyamine biosynthesis enzymes. Therefore BENSpm depletes all natural polyamines and leads to apoptosis and cell growth inhibition in a wide range of cancers; (3) preclinical studies proved that BENSpm can act synergistically with various chemotherapy agents, making it a promising candidate in combination therapy; (4) multiple positive charges in BENSpm enable it as a suitable building block for cationic polymers, which can be further applied to gene delivery. In this dissertation, our goal was to design dual-function delivery vector based on BENSpm that can function as a gene delivery vector and, after intracellular degradation, as an active anticancer agent targeting dysregulated polyamine metabolism. We first demonstrated strong synergism between BENSpm and a potential therapeutic gene product TRAIL. Strong synergism was obtained in both estrogen-dependent MCF-7 breast cancer cells and triple-negative MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Significant dose reduction of TRAIL in combination with BENSpm in MDA-MB-231 cells, together with the fact that BENSpm rendered MCF-7 cells more sensitive to TRAIL treatment verified our rationale of designing BENSpm-based delivery platform. This was expected to be beneficial for overcoming drug resistance in chemotherapy, as well as boosting the therapeutic effect of therapeutic genes. We first designed a lipid-based BENSpm dual vector (Lipo

  9. Drug Delivery Systems: A New Frontier in Nano-technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chamindri Witharana

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Nano-technology is a recent advancement in science, defined as “Science, engineering, and technology conducted at the Nano scale” (National nanotechnology initiatives in USA. Applications of Nano-technology cover a vast range from basic material science, personal care applications, agriculture, and medicine. Nano-technology is used in field of medicine for treatment, diagnostic, monitoring, genetic engineering, and drug delivery. There are two main types of Nano Particles (NPs used in drug delivery; organic NPs and inorganic NPs. In drug delivery, the drug-Nano- Particle (NP conjugate should be able to deliver drugs to the target site without degradation in gastrointestinal track and without reducing drug activity. Further, it should attack to target cells without causing any adverse effects. The ultimate goal of NP drug delivery is to improve proper treatment, effectiveness, less side effects with safety and patient adherence as well as reduction in the cost.

  10. Development of a system for managing document delivery schedule(DDS) for NSSS system design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baek, S. H.; Baek, J. M.; Sohn, Y. S.; Shon, G. H.

    1999-01-01

    The construction of nuclear power plant is a long-term project from initial design to commercial operation. To accomplish NSSS (Nuclear Steam Supply System) system design successfully, the systematic and effective method for managing the system design product and interface correspondence with other organizations is required. To meet this requirement, a system has been developed to control the document delivery schedule, approval process and interface correspondence transmittal, and to report the documentation status periodically from the beginning of the YGN 5 and 6 project. This system is expected to contribute as the beginning step to development of integrated project management system. (author)

  11. Solid Lipid Nanoparticles as Efficient Drug and Gene Delivery Systems: Recent Breakthroughs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafar Ezzati Nazhad Dolatabadi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, nanomaterials have been widely applied as advanced drug and gene delivery nanosystems. Among them, solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs have attracted great attention as colloidal drug delivery systems for incorporating hydrophilic or lipophilic drugs and various macromolecules as well as proteins and nucleic acids. Therefore, SLNs offer great promise for controlled and site specific drug and gene delivery. This article includes general information about SLN structures and properties, production procedures, characterization. In addition, recent progress on development of drug and gene delivery systems using SLNs was reviewed.

  12. Diversidade funcional em sistemas de montado: fluxo de nutrientes em Quercus rotundifolia Lam. Functional diversity in “montado” systems: nutrients fluxes in Quercus rotundifolia Lam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. D. Nunes

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Os componentes dos ciclos de nutrientes em montados de Quercus rotundifolia Lam., relacionados com a precipitação foram estudados na região de Évora, de Novembro de 1996 a Dezembro de 2000. A precipitação bruta, o gotejo a diferentes distâncias do tronco e o escorrimento ao longo do tronco das árvores foram quantificados de modo contínuo, sendo colhidas amostras semanalmente para se proceder à respectiva caracterização química. A quantidade de nutrientes transferidos para o solo através das diferentes soluções foi também determinada. Verificou-se um acréscimo da concentração das espécies iónicas no gotejo em relação à precipitação bruta, o qual foi ainda mais manifesto no escorrimento ao longo do tronco. Estudaram-se, igualmente, as características físico-químicas do solo sob e fora da influência da copa destas árvores, num montado relativamente esparso. Além disso, também se avaliou a quantidade das camadas orgânicas e a quantidade de nutrientes aí retidos. As características físicas e químicas do solo apresentaram, de um modo geral, uma diferenciação positiva em resultado da presença das árvores. Avaliou-se a taxa de mineralização de N nas áreas sob e fora da acção do coberto das árvores, tendo-se observado uma mais elevada disponibilidade deste nutriente nas áreas do sob coberto.Nutrient cycling in Quercus rotundifolia Lam. systems, regarding precipitation was studied at Évora (Southern Portugal, since November of 1996 until December of 2000. The amounts of gross rainfall, throughfall (at different distances from the tree trunk and stemflow were measured continuously and samples for chemical analysis were collected weekly. The concentration of nutrients was higher in the throughfall than in the gross rainfall, especially in the areas closer to the tree trunk. Nutrients transferred to soil, through bulk rainfall, throughfall and stemflow were quantified. The highest concentration of nutrients

  13. Tidal variability of nutrients in a coastal coral reef system influenced by groundwater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Wang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available To investigate variation in nitrite, nitrate, phosphate, and silicate in a spring–neap tide in a coral reef system influenced by groundwater discharge, we carried out a time-series observation of these nutrients and 228Ra, a tracer of groundwater discharge, in the Luhuitou fringing reef at Sanya Bay in the South China Sea. The maximum 228Ra, 45.3 dpm 100 L−1, appeared at low tide and the minimum, 14.0 dpm 100 L−1, appeared during a flood tide in the spring tide. The activity of 228Ra was significantly correlated with water depth and salinity in the spring–neap tide, reflecting the tidal-pumping feature of groundwater discharge. Concentrations of all nutrients exhibited strong diurnal variation, with a maximum in the amplitude of the diel change for nitrite, nitrate, phosphate, and silicate in the spring tide of 0.46, 1.54, 0.12, and 2.68 µM, respectively. Nitrate and phosphate were negatively correlated with water depth during the spring tide but showed no correlation during the neap tide. Nitrite was positively correlated with water depth in the spring and neap tide due to mixing of nitrite-depleted groundwater and nitrite-rich offshore seawater. They were also significantly correlated with salinity (R2  ≥  0.9 and P < 0.05 at the ebb flow of the spring tide, negative for nitrate and phosphate and positive for nitrite, indicating the mixing of nitrite-depleted, nitrate- and phosphate-rich less saline groundwater and nitrite-rich, nitrate- and phosphate-depleted saline offshore seawater. We quantified variation in oxidized nitrogen (NOx and phosphate contributed by biological processes based on deviations from mixing lines of these nutrients. During both the spring and neap tide biologically contributed NOx and phosphate were significantly correlated with regression slopes of 4.60 (R2  =  0.16 in the spring tide and 13.4 (R2  =  0.75 in the neap tide, similar to the composition of these

  14. Fabrication, Characterization, and Biological Activity of Avermectin Nano-delivery Systems with Different Particle Sizes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Anqi; Wang, Yan; Sun, Changjiao; Wang, Chunxin; Cui, Bo; Zhao, Xiang; Zeng, Zhanghua; Yao, Junwei; Yang, Dongsheng; Liu, Guoqiang; Cui, Haixin

    2018-01-01

    Nano-delivery systems for the active ingredients of pesticides can improve the utilization rates of pesticides and prolong their control effects. This is due to the nanocarrier envelope and controlled release function. However, particles containing active ingredients in controlled release pesticide formulations are generally large and have wide size distributions. There have been limited studies about the effect of particle size on the controlled release properties and biological activities of pesticide delivery systems. In the current study, avermectin (Av) nano-delivery systems were constructed with different particle sizes and their performances were evaluated. The Av release rate in the nano-delivery system could be effectively controlled by changing the particle size. The biological activity increased with decreasing particle size. These results suggest that Av nano-delivery systems can significantly improve the controllable release, photostability, and biological activity, which will improve efficiency and reduce pesticide residues.

  15. Evaluation of an Ultrasonic Insulin Delivery System in Hyperglycemic Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameneh Sazgarnia

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sonophoresis has been assessed as a novel approach to create skin permeability and drug delivery using low frequencies of ultrasound waves in the range of 20 kHz to 3 MHz. In this study, a system including seven 40 kHz piezoelectric transducers and an insulin chamber designed by the Medical Physics Research Center has been evaluated on hyperglycemic rabbits. Materials and Methods: Thirty five rabbits became hyperglycemic through Alloxan monohydrate injection and were divided into five groups. The rabbits were treated in two main groups (with insulin and ultrasound radiation in two radiation periods, one main control group and two further control groups (one group with ultrasound radiation with longer radiation period in absence of insulin and presence of normal saline; and the other group without ultrasound radiation in presence of insulin. By filling the system chamber with insulin and placing it on the skin of the abdomen and activating the piezoelectric transducers, blood samples were drawn from the animals before ultrasound irradiation and after it in specified intervals. The glucose level was measured using a glucometer and the serum insulin level was determined using a radioimmunoassay method. Results: Maximum decrease in glucose level was recorded for a 20 minute irradiation in a 180 minute period, and the highest increase in insulin level was recorded for the10 minute radiation group in a 60 minute period. Discussion and Conclusion: Because rapid uptake and reaching a peak in a short time and its swift decrease make a good scheme for controlling glucose level after meals, the 10 minute radiation seems to be more suitable. Also, it is predicted that irradiation time in the interval between food consumption and use of the instrument is critical.

  16. Seasonal nutrient chemistry in mountainous river systems of tropical Western Peninsular India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pradhan, U.K.; Wu, Y.; Shirodkar, P.V.; Zhang, J.

    Nutrient chemistry was studied in three mountainous rivers (Mandovi, Zuari and Netravati), across western peninsular India (WPI) during south-west monsoon (SWM), post-monsoon and pre-monsoon seasons of year 2011-2012. Nutrients in rainwater were...

  17. Human Growth Hormone Delivery with a Microneedle Transdermal System: Preclinical Formulation, Stability, Delivery and PK of Therapeutically Relevant Doses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Ameri

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the feasibility of coating formulated recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH on a titanium microneedle transdermal delivery system, Zosano Pharma (ZP-hGH, and assessed preclinical patch delivery performance. Formulation rheology and surface activity were assessed by viscometry and contact angle measurement. rhGH liquid formulation was coated onto titanium microneedles by dip-coating and drying. The stability of coated rhGH was determined by size exclusion chromatography-high performance liquid chromatography (SEC-HPLC. Preclinical delivery and pharmacokinetic studies were conducted in female hairless guinea pigs (HGP using rhGH coated microneedle patches at 0.5 and 1 mg doses and compared to Norditropin® a commercially approved rhGH subcutaneous injection. Studies demonstrated successful rhGH formulation development and coating on microneedle arrays. The ZP-hGH patches remained stable at 40 °C for six months with no significant change in % aggregates. Pharmacokinetic studies showed that the rhGH-coated microneedle patches, delivered with high efficiency and the doses delivered indicated linearity with average Tmax of 30 min. The absolute bioavailability of the microneedle rhGH patches was similar to subcutaneous Norditropin® injections. These results suggest that ZP-transdermal microneedle patch delivery of rhGH is feasible and may offer an effective and patient-friendly alternative to currently marketed rhGH injectables.

  18. Human Growth Hormone Delivery with a Microneedle Transdermal System: Preclinical Formulation, Stability, Delivery and PK of Therapeutically Relevant Doses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameri, Mahmoud; Kadkhodayan, Miryam; Nguyen, Joe; Bravo, Joseph A; Su, Rebeca; Chan, Kenneth; Samiee, Ahmad; Daddona, Peter E

    2014-05-15

    This study evaluated the feasibility of coating formulated recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) on a titanium microneedle transdermal delivery system, Zosano Pharma (ZP)-hGH, and assessed preclinical patch delivery performance. Formulation rheology and surface activity were assessed by viscometry and contact angle measurement. rhGH liquid formulation was coated onto titanium microneedles by dip-coating and drying. The stability of coated rhGH was determined by size exclusion chromatography-high performance liquid chromatography (SEC-HPLC). Preclinical delivery and pharmacokinetic studies were conducted in female hairless guinea pigs (HGP) using rhGH coated microneedle patches at 0.5 and 1 mg doses and compared to Norditropin® a commercially approved rhGH subcutaneous injection. Studies demonstrated successful rhGH formulation development and coating on microneedle arrays. The ZP-hGH patches remained stable at 40 °C for six months with no significant change in % aggregates. Pharmacokinetic studies showed that the rhGH-coated microneedle patches, delivered with high efficiency and the doses delivered indicated linearity with average Tmax of 30 min. The absolute bioavailability of the microneedle rhGH patches was similar to subcutaneous Norditropin® injections. These results suggest that ZP-transdermal microneedle patch delivery of rhGH is feasible and may offer an effective and patient-friendly alternative to currently marketed rhGH injectables.

  19. Structured emulsion-based delivery systems: controlling the digestion and release of lipophilic food components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClements, David Julian; Li, Yan

    2010-09-15

    There is a need for edible delivery systems to encapsulate, protect and release bioactive and functional lipophilic constituents within the food and pharmaceutical industries. These delivery systems could be used for a number of purposes: controlling lipid bioavailability; targeting the delivery of bioactive components within the gastrointestinal tract; and designing food matrices that delay lipid digestion and induce satiety. Emulsion technology is particularly suited for the design and fabrication of delivery systems for lipids. In this article we provide an overview of a number of emulsion-based technologies that can be used as edible delivery systems by the food and other industries, including conventional emulsions, nanoemulsions, multilayer emulsions, solid lipid particles, and filled hydrogel particles. Each of these delivery systems can be produced from food-grade (GRAS) ingredients (e.g., lipids, proteins, polysaccharides, surfactants, and minerals) using relatively simple processing operations (e.g., mixing, homogenizing, and thermal processing). The structure, preparation, and utilization of each type of delivery system for controlling lipid digestion are discussed. This knowledge can be used to select the most appropriate emulsion-based delivery system for specific applications, such as encapsulation, controlled digestion, and targeted release. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The role and control of sludge age in biological nutrient removal activated sludge systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekama, G A

    2010-01-01

    The sludge age is the most fundamental and important parameter in the design, operation and control of biological nutrient removal (BNR) activated sludge (AS) systems. Generally, the better the effluent and waste sludge quality required from the system, the longer the sludge age, the larger the biological reactor and the more wastewater characteristics need to be known. Controlling the reactor concentration does not control sludge age, only the mass of sludge in the system. When nitrification is a requirement, sludge age control becomes a requirement and the secondary settling tanks can no longer serve the dual purpose of clarifier and waste activated sludge thickeners. The easiest and most practical way to control sludge age is with hydraulic control by wasting a defined proportion of the reactor volume daily. In AS plants with reactor concentration control, nitrification fails first. With hydraulic control of sludge age, nitrification will not fail, rather the plant fails by shedding solids over the secondary settling tank effluent weirs.

  1. Assessment of by-products of bioenergy systems (anaerobic digestion and gasification) as potential crop nutrient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataki, Sampriti; Hazarika, Samarendra; Baruah, D C

    2017-01-01

    Alternative fertilizer resources have drawn attention in recent times in order to cope up with ever increasing demand for fertilizer. By-products of bioenergy system are considered favourable as organic fertilizer due to their ability to recycle plant nutrients. Present study evaluates fertilizer suitability of by-products of two bioenergy systems viz. 3 types of anaerobic digestion by-products (digestate) from local surplus biomass such as cowdung, Ipomoea carnea:cowdung (60:40) and ricestraw:green gram stover:cowdung (30:30:40) and one gasification by-product (biochar) from rice husk. Digestates were assessed considering 4 different application options of each viz. whole, solid, liquid and ash from solid digestates. Digestate characteristics (organic matter, macronutrients, micronutrients and heavy metal content) were found to be a function of feedstock and processing (solid liquid separation and ashing). Ipomoea carnea based digestates in all application options showed comparatively higher N, P, K, NH 4 + -N, Ca, Mg, S and micro nutrient content than other digestates. Separation concentrated plant nutrients and organic matter in solid digestates, making these suitable both as organic amendments and fertilizer. Separated liquid digestate shared larger fraction of ammonium nitrogen (61-91% of total content), indicating their suitability as readily available N source. However, fertilizer application of liquid digestate may not match crop requirements due to lower total nutrient concentration. Higher electrical conductivity of the liquid digestates (3.4-9.3mScm -1 ) than solid digestates (1.5-2mScm -1 ) may impart phyto-toxic effect upon fertilization due to salinity. In case of by-products with unstable organic fraction i.e. whole and solid digestates of rice straw:green gram stover:cowdung digestates (Humification index 0.7), further processing (stabilization, composting) may be required to maximize their fertilizer benefit. Heavy metal contents of the by

  2. Milk—A Nutrient System of Mammalian Evolution Promoting mTORC1-Dependent Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodo C. Melnik

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Based on own translational research of the biochemical and hormonal effects of cow’s milk consumption in humans, this review presents milk as a signaling system of mammalian evolution that activates the nutrient-sensitive kinase mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1, the pivotal regulator of translation. Milk, a mammary gland-derived secretory product, is required for species-specific gene-nutrient interactions that promote appropriate growth and development of the newborn mammal. This signaling system is highly conserved and tightly controlled by the lactation genome. Milk is sufficient to activate mTORC1, the crucial regulator of protein, lipid, and nucleotide synthesis orchestrating anabolism, cell growth and proliferation. To fulfill its mTORC1-activating function, milk delivers four key metabolic messengers: (1 essential branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs; (2 glutamine; (3 palmitic acid; and (4 bioactive exosomal microRNAs, which in a synergistical fashion promote mTORC1-dependent translation. In all mammals except Neolithic humans, postnatal activation of mTORC1 by milk intake is restricted to the postnatal lactation period. It is of critical concern that persistent hyperactivation of mTORC1 is associated with aging and the development of age-related disorders such as obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, cancer, and neurodegenerative diseases. Persistent mTORC1 activation promotes endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress and drives an aimless quasi-program, which promotes aging and age-related diseases.

  3. Food Yields and Nutrient Analyses of the Three Sisters: A Haudenosaunee Cropping System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Mt.Pleasant

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Scholars have studied The Three Sisters, a traditional cropping system of the Haudenosaunee (Iroquois, from multiple perspectives. However, there is no research examining food yields, defined as the quantities of energy and protein produced per unit land area, from the cropping system within Iroquoia. This article compares food yields and other nutrient contributions from the Three Sisters, comprised of interplanted maize, bean and pumpkin, with monocultures of these same crops. The Three Sisters yields more energy (12.25 x 106 kcal/ha and more protein (349 kg/ha than any of the crop monocultures or mixtures of monocultures planted to the same area. The Three Sisters supplies 13.42 people/ha/yr. with energy and 15.86 people/ha/yr. with protein. Nutrient contents of the crops are further enhanced by nixtamalization, a traditional processing technique where maize is cooked in a high alkaline solution. This process increases calcium, protein quality, and niacin in maize.

  4. Milk—A Nutrient System of Mammalian Evolution Promoting mTORC1-Dependent Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnik, Bodo C.

    2015-01-01

    Based on own translational research of the biochemical and hormonal effects of cow’s milk consumption in humans, this review presents milk as a signaling system of mammalian evolution that activates the nutrient-sensitive kinase mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), the pivotal regulator of translation. Milk, a mammary gland-derived secretory product, is required for species-specific gene-nutrient interactions that promote appropriate growth and development of the newborn mammal. This signaling system is highly conserved and tightly controlled by the lactation genome. Milk is sufficient to activate mTORC1, the crucial regulator of protein, lipid, and nucleotide synthesis orchestrating anabolism, cell growth and proliferation. To fulfill its mTORC1-activating function, milk delivers four key metabolic messengers: (1) essential branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs); (2) glutamine; (3) palmitic acid; and (4) bioactive exosomal microRNAs, which in a synergistical fashion promote mTORC1-dependent translation. In all mammals except Neolithic humans, postnatal activation of mTORC1 by milk intake is restricted to the postnatal lactation period. It is of critical concern that persistent hyperactivation of mTORC1 is associated with aging and the development of age-related disorders such as obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, cancer, and neurodegenerative diseases. Persistent mTORC1 activation promotes endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and drives an aimless quasi-program, which promotes aging and age-related diseases. PMID:26225961

  5. Water quality, meteorological, and nutrient data collected by the the National Estuarine Research Reserve System's System-wide Monitoring Program (NERRS SWMP), 1994 - 2005 (NODC Accession 0019215)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Estuarine Research Reserve System's System-wide Monitoring Program (NERRS SWMP) collected water quality, meteorological, and nutrient data in 25...

  6. Seasonal variability in nutrient regeneration by mussel Mytilus edulis rope culture in oligotrophic systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, H.M.; Strand, O.; Strohmeier, T.; Krogness, C.; Verdegem, M.C.J.; Smaal, A.C.

    2011-01-01

    Blue mussel Mytilus edulis cultures contribute to nutrient cycling in coastal ecosystems. Mussel populations filter particulate nutrients from the water column and inorganic nutrients are regenerated by excretion of metabolic wastes and decomposition of (pseudo-)faeces. The objective of this study

  7. Testing the capacity of a Multi-Nutrient profiling system to guide food and beverage reformulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Combet, Emilie; Vlassopoulos, Antonis; Molenberg, Famke; Gressier, Mathilde; Privet, Lisa; Wratten, Craig; Sharif, Sahar; Vieux, Florent; Lehmann, Undine; Masset, Gabriel

    2017-01-01

    Nutrient profiling ranks foods based on their nutrient composition, with applications in multiple aspects of food policy. We tested the capacity of a category-specific model developed for product reformulation to improve the average nutrient content of foods, using five national food composition

  8. Environmental farm accounting: the case of the Dutch nutrients accounting system.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breembroek, J.A.; Koole, B.; Poppe, K.J.; Wossink, G.A.A.

    1996-01-01

    In the Netherlands bookkeeping of inputs and outputs at the level of individual farms has been selected as a new solution to control nutrient use and to tax nutrient surpluses in agriculture. At the same time, nutrient accounting presents important management information. This paper presents a

  9. Application of in situ polymerization for design and development of oral drug delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngwuluka, Ndidi

    2010-12-01

    Although preformed polymers are commercially available for use in the design and development of drug delivery systems, in situ polymerization has also been employed. In situ polymerization affords the platform to tailor and optimize the drug delivery properties of polymers. This review brings to light the benefits of in situ polymerization for oral drug delivery and the possibilities it provides to overcome the challenges of oral route of administration.

  10. Application of In Situ Polymerization for Design and Development of Oral Drug Delivery Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Ngwuluka, Ndidi

    2010-01-01

    Although preformed polymers are commercially available for use in the design and development of drug delivery systems, in situ polymerization has also been employed. In situ polymerization affords the platform to tailor and optimize the drug delivery properties of polymers. This review brings to light the benefits of in situ polymerization for oral drug delivery and the possibilities it provides to overcome the challenges of oral route of administration.

  11. Advanced nutrient root feeding system for conveyer-type cylindrical plant growth facilities developed for microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkovich, Yuliy A.; Smolyanina, Svetlana O.; Krivobok, Anna; Krivobok, Nikolay

    A new brand of cylindrical conveyer-type space plant growth facilities (PGF) has been created to improve of cosmonauts’ diet in the microgravity conditions. Up to date several ground prototypes of the space PGF have been made and tested: “Phytocycle”, “Vitacycle”, “Phytocycle-LED”, “Phytoconveyer”; now the space PGF “Vitacycle-T” for the Russian segment of the ISS is under developing. In the PGFs the ion-exchange salt-saturated fibrous artificial soil (AS) is used as a root medium. We have proposed the system for enrichment of irrigation water by nutrients to decrease of the AS store required for PGF working during the long space mission. The system includes root modules filled in fibrous ion-exchange AS, the enrichment column with crumble salt-saturation ion-exchange resin and the cassette with slow releasing fertilizer (SRF). Both substrates (ion-exchange resin and SRF) are necessary because of the SRF contains mostly N, P and K but another three essential elements S, Ca, Mg are provided by the ion-exchange resin. In the system water goes throw the enrichment column with ion-exchange resin fertilizing by the nutrients and comes into the mixer cell fertilize equipped with the electrical conductivity sensor. When the signal of the conductivity sensor is coming to the controller it turns on the pump directed the water flow throw the cassette with SRF until the electric conductivity of the solution in the mixer cell will reach the setpoint. The nutrient root feeding system was tested during 88 days when Chinese cabbage grew in PGF “Phytocycle-LED”. The crop has been continuously illuminated by red and blue LEDs in the PPF ratio 7 to 1; an integral PPF level has been (240 ± 10) µmol/(m2×s). There was no renewal of the used fibrous AS during the experiment. The PGF total electric power consumption was of 0,45 kW. The average fresh biomass productivity of the PGF during steady state working mode was equal 135×g/day per m2 of the illuminated

  12. Current and emerging lipid-based systems for transdermal drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singla, Sumeet K; Sachdeva, Vishal

    2015-01-01

    Developing a transdermal drug delivery system is a challenging task considering the selective permeability of the skin and the physicochemical properties the drug must possess to permeate through the skin. Lipid-based drug delivery systems have contributed a great deal in this direction in the last few decades, and thereby have helped to expand the range of therapeutic molecules that can be delivered through the skin in a safe and effective manner. Additionally, vesicular delivery systems such as nanoparticles and emulsions have also played important roles in providing alternative novel approaches for drug delivery. In this article, we will discuss some of the current and future lipid-based systems for transdermal drug delivery along with the associated challenges.

  13. Analysis and Design Information System Logistics Delivery Service in Pt Repex Wahana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Surja

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Analysis and Design of Logistic Delivery System in PT Repex Wahana aims to analyze company’s need in existing business process of logistic delivery service. This will then be used in the development of an integrated system that can address the problems in the running process of sending and tracking the whereaboutsor status of the delivered goods which are the core business processes in the enterprise. The result then will be used as basis in the development of integrated information system in pursuit of corporate solution for process business automation, delivery process, inventory, and logistic delivery tracking, which is the core of the company business process, and it will be documented using Unified Modeling Language. The information system is meant to simplify the delivery and tracking process in the company, besides will minimize lost and error of data which is often happened because of the manual and unorganized transaction data processing.

  14. Training Requirements and Training Delivery in the Total Army School System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Winkler, John

    1999-01-01

    This report analyzes training requirements and school delivery of training in the Total Army School System, focusing on the system's ability to meet its training requirements in Reserve Component Training Institutions...

  15. Computational and experimental model of transdermal iontophorethic drug delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipovic, Nenad; Saveljic, Igor; Rac, Vladislav; Graells, Beatriz Olalde; Bijelic, Goran

    2017-11-30

    The concept of iontophoresis is often applied to increase the transdermal transport of drugs and other bioactive agents into the skin or other tissues. It is a non-invasive drug delivery method which involves electromigration and electroosmosis in addition to diffusion and is shown to be a viable alternative to conventional administration routs such as oral, hypodermic and intravenous injection. In this study we investigated, experimentally and numerically, in vitro drug delivery of dexamethasone sodium phosphate to porcine skin. Different current densities, delivery durations and drug loads were investigated experimentally and introduced as boundary conditions for numerical simulations. Nernst-Planck equation was used for calculation of active substance flux through equivalent model of homogeneous hydrogel and skin layers. The obtained numerical results were in good agreement with experimental observations. A comprehensive in-silico platform, which includes appropriate numerical tools for fitting, could contribute to iontophoretic drug-delivery devices design and correct dosage and drug clearance profiles as well as to perform much faster in-silico experiments to better determine parameters and performance criteria of iontophoretic drug delivery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Silver nanoparticles delivery system based on natural rubber latex membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guidelli, Éder José; Kinoshita, Angela; Ramos, Ana Paula; Baffa, Oswaldo

    2013-01-01

    The search for new materials for biomedical applications is extremely important. Here, we present results on the performance of a silver nanoparticles delivery system using natural rubber latex (NRL) as the polymeric matrix. Our aim was to obtain an optimized wound dressing by combining materials with potential healing action. The synthesis of silver nanoparticles and their characterization by UV–Vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, zeta potential, dynamic light scattering, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) are depicted. The NRL membranes are good matrix for silver nanoparticles and allow for their gradual release. The release of 30 nm silver nanoparticles by the NRL membranes depends on their mass percentage in NRL membranes. The total concentration of AgNP released by the NRL membranes was calculated. The AgNP attached to the cis-isoprene molecules in the NRL matrix remain attached to the membrane (∼0.1 % w/w). So, only the AgNP bound to the non-rubber molecules are released. FTIR spectra suggest that non-rubber molecules, like aminoacids and proteins, associated with the serum fraction of the NRL may be attached to the surfaces of the released nanoparticles, thereby increasing the release of such molecules. The released silver nanoparticles are sterically stabilized, more stable and well dispersed. Because the serum fraction of the NRL is responsible for the angiogenic properties of the matrix, the silver nanoparticles could increment the angiogenic properties of NRL. This biomaterial has desirable properties for the fabrication of a wound dressing with potential healing action, since it combines the angiogenic and antibacterial properties of the silver nanoparticles with the increased angiogenic properties of the NRL.Graphical AbstractThe AgNP attached to the cis-isoprene molecules remain in the NRL matrix and only the AgNP bound to the non-rubber molecules (NRL serum fraction) are released. The released AgNP are sterically

  17. Silver nanoparticles delivery system based on natural rubber latex membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guidelli, Eder Jose, E-mail: ederguidelli@gmail.com [Universidade de Sao Paulo/FFCLRP-DF (Brazil); Kinoshita, Angela [Universidade do Sagrado Coracao (Brazil); Ramos, Ana Paula [Universidade de Sao Paulo/FFCLRP-DQ (Brazil); Baffa, Oswaldo [Universidade de Sao Paulo/FFCLRP-DF (Brazil)

    2013-04-15

    The search for new materials for biomedical applications is extremely important. Here, we present results on the performance of a silver nanoparticles delivery system using natural rubber latex (NRL) as the polymeric matrix. Our aim was to obtain an optimized wound dressing by combining materials with potential healing action. The synthesis of silver nanoparticles and their characterization by UV-Vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, zeta potential, dynamic light scattering, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) are depicted. The NRL membranes are good matrix for silver nanoparticles and allow for their gradual release. The release of 30 nm silver nanoparticles by the NRL membranes depends on their mass percentage in NRL membranes. The total concentration of AgNP released by the NRL membranes was calculated. The AgNP attached to the cis-isoprene molecules in the NRL matrix remain attached to the membrane ({approx}0.1 % w/w). So, only the AgNP bound to the non-rubber molecules are released. FTIR spectra suggest that non-rubber molecules, like aminoacids and proteins, associated with the serum fraction of the NRL may be attached to the surfaces of the released nanoparticles, thereby increasing the release of such molecules. The released silver nanoparticles are sterically stabilized, more stable and well dispersed. Because the serum fraction of the NRL is responsible for the angiogenic properties of the matrix, the silver nanoparticles could increment the angiogenic properties of NRL. This biomaterial has desirable properties for the fabrication of a wound dressing with potential healing action, since it combines the angiogenic and antibacterial properties of the silver nanoparticles with the increased angiogenic properties of the NRL.Graphical AbstractThe AgNP attached to the cis-isoprene molecules remain in the NRL matrix and only the AgNP bound to the non-rubber molecules (NRL serum fraction) are released. The released AgNP are

  18. Overview of Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasser, Allison M; Collins, Lauren; Pearson, Jennifer L; Abudayyeh, Haneen; Niaura, Raymond S; Abrams, David B; Villanti, Andrea C

    2017-02-01

    Rapid developments in e-cigarettes, or electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), and the evolution of the overall tobacco product marketplace warrant frequent evaluation of the published literature. The purpose of this article is to report updated findings from a comprehensive review of the published scientific literature on ENDS. The authors conducted a systematic review of published empirical research literature on ENDS through May 31, 2016, using a detailed search strategy in the PubMed electronic database, expert review, and additional targeted searches. Included studies presented empirical findings and were coded to at least one of nine topics: (1) Product Features; (2) Health Effects; (3) Consumer Perceptions; (4) Patterns of Use; (5) Potential to Induce Dependence; (6) Smoking Cessation; (7) Marketing and Communication; (8) Sales; and (9) Policies; reviews and commentaries were excluded. Data from included studies were extracted by multiple coders (October 2015 to August 2016) into a standardized form and synthesized qualitatively by topic. There were 687 articles included in this systematic review. The majority of studies assessed patterns of ENDS use and consumer perceptions of ENDS, followed by studies examining health effects of vaping and product features. Studies indicate that ENDS are increasing in use, particularly among current smokers, pose substantially less harm to smokers than cigarettes, are being used to reduce/quit smoking, and are widely available. More longitudinal studies and controlled trials are needed to evaluate the impact of ENDS on population-level tobacco use and determine the health effects of longer-term vaping. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Microparticulate drug delivery system containing tramadol hydrochloride for pain treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciurba, Adriana; Todoran, Nicoleta; Vari, C E; Lazăr, Luminita; Al Hussein, Stela; Hancu, G

    2014-01-01

    The current trend of replacing conventional pharmaceutical forms is justified because most substances administered in this form give fluctuations of therapeutic concentrations and often outside the therapeutic range. In addition, these formulations offer a reduction in the dose or the number of administrations, thus increasing patient compliance. In the experiment, we developed an appropriate technology for the preparation of gelatin microspheres containing tramadol hydrochloride by emulsification/cross-linking method. The formulated microspheres were characterized by product yield, size distribution, encapsulation efficiency and in vitro release of tramadol hydrochloride. Data obtained from in vitro release studies were fitted to various mathematical models to elucidate the transport mechanisms. The kinetic models used were zero-order, first-order, Higuchi Korsmeyer-Peppas and Hopfenberg. Spherical microspheres were obtained, with free-flowing properties. The entrapment efficiency of tramadol hydrochloride in microparticles was 79.91% and product yield -94.92%. As the microsphere size was increased, the entrapment efficiency increased. This was 67.56, 70.03, 79.91% for formulations MT80-250, MT8-500 and, MT250-500. High entrapment efficiency was observed for MT250-500 formulation. The gelatin microspheres had particle sizes ranging from 80 to 500 microm. The drug was released for a period of 12 hours with a maximum release of 96.02%. Of the three proposed formulations, MT250-500 presented desirable properties and optimal characteristics for the therapy of pain. Release of tramadol hydrochloridi was best fitted to Korsmeyer-Peppas equation because the Akaike Information Criterion had the lowest values for this kinetic model. These results suggest the opportunity to influence the therapeutic characteristics of gelatin microspheres to obtain a suitable drug delivery system for the oral administration of tramadol hydrochloride.

  20. Nutrient composition and respiration characteristics of silkworms in the Bioregenerative Life Support System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Ling; Yu, Xiaohui; Liu, Hong

    As the appropriate space animal candidate, silkworm(Bombyx Mori L.) can supply animal food for taikonauts and consume inedible parts of plants in Bioregenerative Life Support Sys-tem(BLSS). Due to the features of BLSS, the silkworm breeding method in the system differ-ent from the conventional one is feeding the silkworm in the first three developing stages with mulberry leaves and with lettuce leaves in the latter two developing stages. Therefore, it is nec-essary to investigate the biochemical components and respiration characteristics of silkworms raised with this method to supply data bases for the inclusion of silkworms in the system to conduct system experiments. The nutrient compositions of silkworm powder (SP) which are the grinded and freeze-dried silkworm on the 3rd day in the fifth developing stage containing protein, fat, vitamins, minerals and fatty acids were determined with international standard analyzing methods in this study. The results showed that SP was rich in protein and amino acids. There were twelve kinds of essential vitamins, nine kinds of minerals and twelve kinds of fatty acids in SP. In contrast, SP had much better nutrient components than snail, fish, chicken, beef and pork as animal food for crew members. Moreover, 359 kCal can be generated per 100g of SP (dry weight). The respirations of silkworm during its whole growing process under two main physiological statuses which were eating and non-eating leaves were studied. According to the results measured by the animal respiration measuring system, there were much difference among the respirations of silkworms under the two main physiological statuses. The amounts of O2 inhaled and CO2 exhaled by the silkworms when they were eating leaves were more than those under the non-eating status. Even under the same status, the respiration characteristics of silkworms in five different developing stages were also different from one an-other. The respiratory quotients of silkworms under two

  1. The Application of Isotope Techniques in Nutrient Assessment and Management in Riverine Systems. Present and Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, M.; Newman, B. D. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Isotope Hydrology Section, Vienna (Austria); Hadwen, W. L. [Australian Rivers Institute, Griffith School of Environment, Griffith University - Nathan Campus, Brisbane, Queensland (Australia); Rogers, K. [National Isotope Center, GNS Science, Lower Hutt (New Zealand); Mayer, B. [Department of Geoscience, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Hein, T. [Wasser Cluster Lunz, Interuniversitary Center for Aquatic Research, Lunz-See, and University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Institute of Hydrobiology and Aquatic Ecosystem Management, Vienna (Austria); Stellato, L. [Centre for Isotopic Research on Cultural and Environmental Heritage (CIRCE), Seconda Universita degli Studi di Napoli, Caserta (Italy); Ohte, N. [Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Mclaughlin, K. [Southern California Coastal Water Research Project, Costa Mesa, California (United States)

    2013-05-15

    A variety of sources contribute to nutrients in rivers and nutrients may subsequently take various pathways and undergo different transformation processes. We first review representative types of isotopes and the roles of isotope techniques that have been or could be used for nutrient assessment and management. We then present technical, financial and logistical matters to be considered in selecting appropriate isotope techniques for nutrient assessment and management. Lastly we propose several approaches on the application of isotope techniques to make more effective the studies and management of nutrients in rivers in the near future. (author)

  2. Including Life Cycle Assessment for decision-making in controlling wastewater nutrient removal systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corominas, Lluís; Larsen, Henrik Fred; Flores-Alsina, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on the use of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) to evaluate the performance of seventeen control strategies in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). It tackles the importance of using site-specific factors for nutrient enrichment when decision-makers have to select best operating....../or energy savings present an environmental benefit for N&P and P-deficient systems. This is not the case when addressing N-deficient systems for which the use of chemicals (even for improving N removal efficiencies) is not always beneficial for the environment. A sensitivity analysis on using weighting...... of the impact categories is conducted to assess how value choices (policy decisions) may affect the management of WWTPs. For the scenarios with only N-limitation, the LCA-based ranking of the control strategies is sensitive to the choice of weighting factors, whereas this is not the case for N&P or P...

  3. Sustaining soil productivity by integrated plant nutrient management in wheat based cropping system under rainfed conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dilshad, M.; Lone, M.I.

    2011-01-01

    The study of the use of organic (FYM) and inorganic (NPK) nutrient sources with bio fertiliser on wheat-fallow and wheat-maize cropping system under rainfed environment revealed significant increase in bio metric parameters of wheat during winter and summer seasons of two years. During both the seasons, application of half NPK + half FYM + Bio power (brand) produced the highest grain yield (3684 kg/ha) and (3781 kg/ha) of wheat with the maximum N uptake of 357 kg/ha, P uptake of 51 kg/ha and K uptake of 215 kg/ha. Wheat-maize cropping system was found to be profitable economically with integrated use of mineral and organic and/or Bio power under rainfed conditions of Pakistan. (author)

  4. Biomaterial-based drug delivery systems for the controlled release of neurotrophic factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohtaram, Nima Khadem; Montgomery, Amy; Willerth, Stephanie M

    2013-01-01

    This review highlights recent work on the use of biomaterial-based drug delivery systems to control the release of neurotrophic factors as a potential strategy for the treatment of neurological disorders. Examples of neurotrophic factors include the nerve growth factor, the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor, the brain-derived neurotrophic factor and neurotrophin-3. In particular, this review focuses on two methods of drug delivery: affinity-based and reservoir-based systems. We review the advantages and challenges associated with both types of drug delivery system and how these systems can be applied to neurological diseases and disorders. While a limited number of affinity-based delivery systems have been developed for the delivery of neurotrophic factors, we also examine the broad spectrum of reservoir-based delivery systems, including microspheres, electrospun nanofibers, hydrogels and combinations of these systems. Finally, conclusions are drawn about the current state of such drug delivery systems as applied to neural tissue engineering along with some thoughts on the future direction of the field. (topical review)

  5. Cooperation through Competition—Dynamics and Microeconomics of a Minimal Nutrient Trade System in Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Symbiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schott, Stephan; Valdebenito, Braulio; Bustos, Daniel; Gomez-Porras, Judith L.; Sharma, Tripti; Dreyer, Ingo

    2016-01-01

    In arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis, fungi and plants exchange nutrients (sugars and phosphate, for instance) for reciprocal benefit. Until now it is not clear how this nutrient exchange system works. Here, we used computational cell biology to simulate the dynamics of a network of proton pumps and proton-coupled transporters that are upregulated during AM formation. We show that this minimal network is sufficient to describe accurately and realistically the nutrient trade system. By applying basic principles of microeconomics, we link the biophysics of transmembrane nutrient transport with the ecology of organismic interactions and straightforwardly explain macroscopic scenarios of the relations between plant and AM fungus. This computational cell biology study allows drawing far reaching hypotheses about the mechanism and the regulation of nutrient exchange and proposes that the “cooperation” between plant and fungus can be in fact the result of a competition between both for the same resources in the tiny periarbuscular space. The minimal model presented here may serve as benchmark to evaluate in future the performance of more complex models of AM nutrient exchange. As a first step toward this goal, we included SWEET sugar transporters in the model and show that their co-occurrence with proton-coupled sugar transporters results in a futile carbon cycle at the plant plasma membrane proposing that two different pathways for the same substrate should not be active at the same time. PMID:27446142

  6. Cooperation through Competition-Dynamics and Microeconomics of a Minimal Nutrient Trade System in Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schott, Stephan; Valdebenito, Braulio; Bustos, Daniel; Gomez-Porras, Judith L; Sharma, Tripti; Dreyer, Ingo

    2016-01-01

    In arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis, fungi and plants exchange nutrients (sugars and phosphate, for instance) for reciprocal benefit. Until now it is not clear how this nutrient exchange system works. Here, we used computational cell biology to simulate the dynamics of a network of proton pumps and proton-coupled transporters that are upregulated during AM formation. We show that this minimal network is sufficient to describe accurately and realistically the nutrient trade system. By applying basic principles of microeconomics, we link the biophysics of transmembrane nutrient transport with the ecology of organismic interactions and straightforwardly explain macroscopic scenarios of the relations between plant and AM fungus. This computational cell biology study allows drawing far reaching hypotheses about the mechanism and the regulation of nutrient exchange and proposes that the "cooperation" between plant and fungus can be in fact the result of a competition between both for the same resources in the tiny periarbuscular space. The minimal model presented here may serve as benchmark to evaluate in future the performance of more complex models of AM nutrient exchange. As a first step toward this goal, we included SWEET sugar transporters in the model and show that their co-occurrence with proton-coupled sugar transporters results in a futile carbon cycle at the plant plasma membrane proposing that two different pathways for the same substrate should not be active at the same time.

  7. From the SAIN,LIM system to the SENS algorithm: a review of a French approach of nutrient profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharrey, Marion; Maillot, Matthieu; Azaïs-Braesco, Véronique; Darmon, Nicole

    2017-08-01

    Nutrient profiling aims to classify or rank foods according to their nutritional composition to assist policies aimed at improving the nutritional quality of foods and diets. The present paper reviews a French approach of nutrient profiling by describing the SAIN,LIM system and its evolution from its early draft to the simplified nutrition labelling system (SENS) algorithm. Considered in 2010 by WHO as the 'French model' of nutrient profiling, SAIN,LIM classifies foods into four classes based on two scores: a nutrient density score (NDS) called SAIN and a score of nutrients to limit called LIM, and one threshold on each score. The system was first developed by the French Food Standard Agency in 2008 in response to the European regulation on nutrition and health claims (European Commission (EC) 1924/2006) to determine foods that may be eligible for bearing claims. Recently, the European regulation (EC 1169/2011) on the provision of food information to consumers allowed simplified nutrition labelling to facilitate consumer information and help them make fully informed choices. In that context, the SAIN,LIM was adapted to obtain the SENS algorithm, a system able to rank foods for simplified nutrition labelling. The implementation of the algorithm followed a step-by-step, systematic, transparent and logical process where shortcomings of the SAIN,LIM were addressed by integrating specificities of food categories in the SENS, reducing the number of nutrients, ordering the four classes and introducing European reference intakes. Through the French example, this review shows how an existing nutrient profiling system can be specifically adapted to support public health nutrition policies.

  8. Temperature-sensitive microemulsion gel: an effective topical delivery system for simultaneous delivery of vitamins C and E.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozman, Branka; Zvonar, Alenka; Falson, Francoise; Gasperlin, Mirjana

    2009-01-01

    Microemulsions (ME)--nanostructured systems composed of water, oil, and surfactants--have frequently been used in attempts to increase cutaneous drug delivery. The primary objective addressed in this work has been the development of temperature-sensitive microemulsion gel (called gel-like ME), as an effective and safe delivery system suitable for simultaneous topical application of a hydrophilic vitamin C and a lipophilic vitamin E. By changing water content of liquid o/w ME (o/w ME), a gel-like ME with temperature-sensitive rheological properties was formed. The temperature-driven changes in its microstructure were confirmed by rotational rheometry, viscosity measurements, and droplet size determination. The release studies have shown that the vitamins' release at skin temperature from gel-like ME were comparable to those from o/w ME and were much faster and more complete than from o/w ME conventionally thickened with polymer (o/w ME carbomer). According to effectiveness in skin delivery of both vitamins, o/w ME was found the most appropriate, followed by gel-like ME and by o/w ME carbomer, indicating that no simple correlation between vitamins release and skin absorption could be found. The cytotoxicity studies revealed good cell viability after exposure to ME and confirmed all tested microemulsions as nonirritant.

  9. Gene delivery to skeletal muscle results in sustained expression and systemic delivery of a therapeutic protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Paul D.; Podsakoff, Gregory M.; Chen, Xiaojuan; McQuiston, Susan A.; Colosi, Peter C.; Matelis, Laura A.; Kurtzman, Gary J.; Byrne, Barry J.

    1996-01-01

    Somatic gene therapy has been proposed as a means to achieve systemic delivery of therapeutic proteins. However, there is limited evidence that current methods of gene delivery can practically achieve this goal. In this study, we demonstrate that, following a single intramuscular administration of a recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vector containing the β-galactosidase (AAV-lacZ) gene into adult BALB/c mice, protein expression was detected in myofibers for at least 32 weeks. A single intramuscular administration of an AAV vector containing a gene for human erythropoietin (AAV-Epo) into mice resulted in dose-dependent secretion of erythropoietin and corresponding increases in red blood cell production that persisted for up to 40 weeks. Primary human myotubes transduced in vitro with the AAV-Epo vector also showed dose-dependent production of Epo. These results demonstrate that rAAV vectors are able to transduce skeletal muscle and are capable of achieving sustained expression and systemic delivery of a therapeutic protein following a single intramuscular administration. Gene therapy using AAV vectors may provide a practical strategy for the treatment of inherited and acquired protein deficiencies. PMID:8943064

  10. Impact of organic nutrient load on biomass accumulation, feed channel pressure drop increase and permeate flux decline in membrane systems

    KAUST Repository

    Bucs, Szilard

    2014-12-01

    The influence of organic nutrient load on biomass accumulation (biofouling) and pressure drop development in membrane filtration systems was investigated. Nutrient load is the product of nutrient concentration and linear flow velocity. Biofouling - excessive growth of microbial biomass in membrane systems - hampers membrane performance. The influence of biodegradable organic nutrient load on biofouling was investigated at varying (i) crossflow velocity, (ii) nutrient concentration, (iii) shear, and (iv) feed spacer thickness. Experimental studies were performed with membrane fouling simulators (MFSs) containing a reverse osmosis (RO) membrane and a 31 mil thick feed spacer, commonly applied in practice in RO and nanofiltration (NF) spiral-wound membrane modules. Numerical modeling studies were done with identical feed spacer geometry differing in thickness (28, 31 and 34 mil). Additionally, experiments were done applying a forward osmosis (FO) membrane with varying spacer thickness (28, 31 and 34 mil), addressing the permeate flux decline and biofilm development. Assessed were the development of feed channel pressure drop (MFS studies), permeate flux (FO studies) and accumulated biomass amount measured by adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and total organic carbon (TOC).Our studies showed that the organic nutrient load determined the accumulated amount of biomass. The same amount of accumulated biomass was found at constant nutrient load irrespective of linear flow velocity, shear, and/or feed spacer thickness. The impact of the same amount of accumulated biomass on feed channel pressure drop and permeate flux was influenced by membrane process design and operational conditions. Reducing the nutrient load by pretreatment slowed-down the biofilm formation. The impact of accumulated biomass on membrane performance was reduced by applying a lower crossflow velocity and/or a thicker and/or a modified geometry feed spacer. The results indicate that cleanings can be delayed

  11. Gene delivery systems by the combination of lipid bubbles and ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negishi, Yoichi; Endo-Takahashi, Yoko; Maruyama, Kazuo

    2016-11-28

    Gene therapy is promising for the treatment of many diseases including cancers and genetic diseases. From the viewpoint of safety, ultrasound (US)-mediated gene delivery with nano/ microbubbles was recently developed as a novel non-viral vector system. US-mediated gene delivery using nano/microbubbles are able to produce transient changes in the permeability of the cell membrane after US-induced cavitation while reducing cellular damage and enables the tissue-specific or the site-specific intracellular delivery of gene both in vitro and in vivo. We have recently developed novel lipid nanobubbles (Lipid Bubbles). These nanobubbles can also be used to enhance the efficacy of the US-mediated genes (plasmid DNA, siRNA, and miRNA etc.) delivery. In this review, we describe US-mediated delivery systems combined with nano/microbubbles and discuss their feasibility as non-viral vector systems.

  12. Nano-scale gene delivery systems; current technology, obstacles, and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Guerra, Antonio; Dunwell, Thomas L; Trigueros, Sonia

    2018-01-07

    Within the different applications of nanomedicine currently being developed, nano-gene delivery is appearing as an exciting new technique with the possibility to overcome recognised hurdles and fulfill several biological and medical needs. The central component of all delivery systems is the requirement for the delivery of genetic material into cells, and for them to eventually reside in the nucleus where their desired function will be exposed. However, genetic material does not passively enter cells; thus, a delivery system is necessary. The emerging field of nano-gene delivery exploits the use of new materials and the properties that arise at the nanometre-scale to produce delivery vectors that can effectively deliver genetic material into a variety of different types of cells. The novel physicochemical properties of the new delivery vectors can be used to address the current challenges existing in nucleic acid delivery in vitro and in vivo. While there is a growing interest in nanostructure-based gene delivery, the field is still in its infancy, and there is yet much to discover about nanostructures and their physicochemical properties in a biological context. We carry out an organized and focused search of bibliographic databases. Our results suggest that despite new breakthroughs in nanostructure synthesis and advanced characterization techniques, we still face many barriers in producing highly efficient and non-toxic delivery systems. In this review, we overview the types of systems currently used for clinical and biomedical research applications along with their advantages and disadvantages, as well as discussing barriers that arise from nano-scale interactions with biological material. In conclusion, we hope that by bringing the far reaching multidisciplinary nature of nano-gene delivery to light, new targeted nanotechnology-bases strategies are developed to overcome the major challenges covered in this review. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For

  13. A computer-controlled conformal radiotherapy system. III: graphical simulation and monitoring of treatment delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kessler, Marc L.; McShan, Daniel L.; Fraass, Benedick A.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: Safe and efficient delivery of radiotherapy using computer-controlled machines requires new procedures to design and verify the actual delivery of these treatments. Graphical simulation and monitoring techniques for treatment delivery have been developed for this purpose. Methods and Materials: A graphics-based simulator of the treatment machine and a set of procedures for creating and manipulating treatment delivery scripts are used to simulate machine motions, detect collisions, and monitor machine positions during treatment. The treatment delivery simulator is composed of four components: a three-dimensional dynamic model of the treatment machine; a motion simulation and collision detection algorithm, user-interface widgets that mimic the treatment machine's control and readout devices; and an icon-based interface for creating and manipulating treatment delivery scripts. These components are used in a stand-alone fashion for interactive treatment delivery planning and integrated with a machine control system for treatment implementation and monitoring. Results: A graphics-based treatment delivery simulator and a set of procedures for planning and monitoring computer-controlled treatment delivery have been developed and implemented as part of a comprehensive computer-controlled conformal radiotherapy system. To date, these techniques have been used to design and help monitor computer-controlled treatments on a radiotherapy machine for more than 200 patients. Examples using these techniques for treatment delivery planning and on-line monitoring of machine motions during therapy are described. Conclusion: A system that provides interactive graphics-based tools for defining the sequence of machine motions, simulating treatment delivery including collision detection, and presenting the therapists with continual visual feedback from the treatment machine has been successfully implemented for routine clinical use as part of an overall system for computer

  14. Nano-microdelivery systems for oral delivery of an active ingredient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    A composition for oral delivery of one or more active ingredients in the form of a lipid nano-micro-delivery system comprising a lipid nano-micro-structure comprising at least one lipid and at least one active ingredient, said at least one active ingredient being immobilized in said lipid nano...

  15. Formulation and Evaluation of Two-Pulse Drug Delivery System of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To develop a pH-controlled two-pulse drug delivery system of amoxicillin in order to overcome ... delivery have lately been applied in developing a .... Note: Each tablet contained 2 mg each of magnesium stearate and colloidal silicon dioxide; total weight of each ..... and Manufacture of Medicines, 3rd edn, Elsevier,.

  16. Community feedback on the JustMilk Nipple Shield Delivery System ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Infant medication administration is a major public-health challenge, especially in rural or low-resource areas. The JustMilk Nipple Shield Delivery System (NSDS) is a novel method of infant medication delivery designed to address some of these challenges. Objective. To explore the acceptability of the JustMilk ...

  17. Pharmacokinetic characteristics of formulated alendronate transdermal delivery systems in rats and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ahyoung; Gang, Hyesil; Whang, Jiae; Gwak, Hyesun

    2010-05-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the absorption of alendronate from formulated transdermal delivery systems in rats and humans. When alendronate was applied to rats by transdermal delivery systems (7.2 mg) and oral administration (30 mg/kg), a statistically significant difference was found in the amount remaining to be excreted at time t (Ae(t)) and the amount remaining to be excreted at time 0 (Ae(infinity)) (p transdermal delivery systems. There was a linear relationship (r(2) = 0.9854) between the drug loading dose and Ae(infinity). The Ae(infinity) values from the transdermal delivery system containing 6% caprylic acid (53.8 mg as alendronate) and an oral product (Fosamax), 70 mg as alendronate) in humans were 127.0 +/- 34.2 microg and 237.2 +/- 56.3 microg, respectively. The dose-adjusted relative Ae(infinity) ratio of the transdermal delivery system to oral product was calculated to be 69.7%. The long half-life of alendronate in the transdermal delivery system (50.6 +/- 6.4 h), compared to that of the oral product (3.5 +/- 1.1 h) could allow less-frequent dosing. In conclusion, this study showed that a transdermal delivery system containing 6% caprylic acid in PG could be a favorable alternative for alendronate administration.

  18. Potential for nutrient recovery and biogas production from blackwater, food waste and greywater in urban source control systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjerstadius, H; Haghighatafshar, S; Davidsson, Å

    2015-01-01

    In the last decades, the focus on waste and wastewater treatment systems has shifted towards increased recovery of energy and nutrients. Separation of urban food waste (FW) and domestic wastewaters using source control systems could aid this increase; however, their effect on overall sustainability is unknown. To obtain indicators for sustainability assessments, five urban systems for collection, transport, treatment and nutrient recovery from blackwater, greywater and FW were investigated using data from implementations in Sweden or northern Europe. The systems were evaluated against their potential for biogas production and nutrient recovery by the use of mass balances for organic material, nutrients and metals over the system components. The resulting indicators are presented in units suitable for use in future sustainability studies or life-cycle assessment of urban waste and wastewater systems. The indicators show that source control systems have the potential to increase biogas production by more than 70% compared with a conventional system and give a high recovery of phosphorus and nitrogen as biofertilizer. The total potential increase in gross energy equivalence for source control systems was 20-100%; the greatest increase shown is for vacuum-based systems.

  19. Exploring information systems outsourcing in U.S. hospital-based health care delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diana, Mark L

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the factors associated with outsourcing of information systems (IS) in hospital-based health care delivery systems, and to determine if there is a difference in IS outsourcing activity based on the strategic value of the outsourced functions. IS sourcing behavior is conceptualized as a case of vertical integration. A synthesis of strategic management theory (SMT) and transaction cost economics (TCE) serves as the theoretical framework. The sample consists of 1,365 hospital-based health care delivery systems that own 3,452 hospitals operating in 2004. The findings indicate that neither TCE nor SMT predicted outsourcing better than the other did. The findings also suggest that health care delivery system managers may not be considering significant factors when making sourcing decisions, including the relative strategic value of the functions they are outsourcing. It is consistent with previous literature to suggest that the high cost of IS may be the main factor driving the outsourcing decision.

  20. Patient-centredness in integrated healthcare delivery systems - needs, expectations and priorities for organised healthcare systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhnke, Christin; Mühlbacher, Axel C

    2013-01-01

    Patient-centred healthcare is becoming a more significant success factor in the design of integrated healthcare systems. The objective of this study is to structure a patient-relevant hierarchy of needs and expectations for the design of organised healthcare delivery systems. A questionnaire with 84 items was conducted with N = 254 healthcare experts and N = 670 patients. Factor analyses were performed using SPSS©18. The number of factors retained was controlled by Kaiser's criterion, validation of screeplots and interpretability of the items. Cronbach's α was used to assess the internal consistency of the subscales. Exploratory factor analysis led to 24 factors in the expert sample and 20 in the patient sample. After analysing the screeplots, confirmatory factor analyses were computed for 7-factor solutions accounting for 42.963% of the total variance and Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin of 0.914 for the patients (experts: 38.427%, Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin = 0.797). Cronbach's α ranged between 0.899 and 0.756. Based on the analysis, coordinated care could be differentiated into seven dimensions: access, data and information, service and infrastructure, professional care, interpersonal care, individualised care, continuity and coordination. The study provides insight into patient and experts expectations towards the organisation of integrated healthcare delivery systems. If providers and payers can take into account patient needs and expectations while implementing innovative healthcare delivery systems, greater acceptance and satisfaction will be achieved. In the best case, this will lead to better adherence resulting in better clinical outcomes.

  1. nteraction of nutrient resource and crop diversity on resource use efficiency in different cropping systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E azizi

    2016-05-01

    of 3 soybean varieties, intercropping of millet, soybean and sesame and intercropping of millet, sesame, fenugreek and ajowan showed the highest NUE. In the two years, intercropping of millet, soybean and sesame and intercropping of millet, sesame, fenugreek and ajowan showed the highest nitrogen and phosphorus absorption efficiency (NAE. Intercropping of millet, soybean and sesame showed the highest potassium uptake efficiency. In this study, nutrient resource did not have a significant effect on water and nutrient use efficiency. The research results have indicated that often nitrogen amount and use efficiency in legume and non legume intercropping were higher than monocultures. This indicates the synergist effect in the intercroppings (Vandermeer, 1989; Szumigalski & Van Acker, 2006. In general, the different benefits of diversity and better use of available inputs are obtained by increasing the diversity of crops and proper selection of plants cultivated in intercropping systems and crop rotations in monoculture systems Acknowledgments This research (044 p was funded by the Vice Chancellor for Research of the Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, which is hereby acknowledged.

  2. The effect of VMP35 supplement ingredients encapsulated in a novel Phospholipid Prodosome SK713 SLP nutrient delivery technology on properties of live human blood.

    OpenAIRE

    Kenneth Blum; B. William Downs; Steven Kushner; Ted Aloisio; Frans J. Cronjé

    2015-01-01

    Background: In North America digestive malfunction in terms of disintegration, dissolution, and absorption of food and nutrients, is a widespread malady. Malabsorption is also an exacerbating factor in most chronic degenerative diseases that might benefit from dietary supplementation. The purpose of this experiment was to determine, as shown by changes in properties of live blood, whether, a novel soy-lecithin-phospholipid-nutrient encapsulation technology could promote rapid bioavailability ...

  3. Microneedle-based drug delivery systems for transdermal route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre, Maria Bernadete Riemma; Rossetti, Fabia Cristina

    2014-03-01

    Transdermal delivery offers an attractive, noninvasive administration route but it is limited by the skin's barrier to penetration. Minimally invasive techniques, such as the use of microneedles (MNs), bypass the stratum corneum (SC) barrier to permit the drug's direct access to the viable epidermis. These novel micro devices have been developed to puncture the skin for the transdermal delivery of hydrophilic drugs and macromolecules, including peptides, DNA and other molecules, that would otherwise have difficulty passing the outermost layer of the skin, the SC. Using the tools of the microelectronics industry, MNs have been fabricated with a range of sizes, shapes and materials. MNs have been shown to be robust enough to penetrate the skin and dramatically increase the skin permeability of several drugs. Moreover, MNs have reduced needle insertion pain and tissue trauma and provided controlled delivery across the skin. This review focuses on the current state of the art in the transdermal delivery of drugs using various types of MNs and developments in the field of microscale devices, as well as examples of their uses and clinical safety.

  4. Vaginal drug delivery systems: A Review of Current Status | Dobaria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Among the various routes of drug delivery, the vaginal route offers many advantages due to its large permeation area, rich vascularization, avoidance of first pass metabolism and relatively low enzymatic activity. Several studies have shown that the vaginal cavity is an effective route for drug administration intended mainly ...

  5. NMR characterisation and transdermal drug delivery potential of microemulsion systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreilgaard, Mads; Pedersen, E J; Jaroszewski, J W

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of structure and composition of microemulsions (Labrasol/Plurol Isostearique/isostearylic isostearate/water) on their transdermal delivery potential of a lipophilic (lidocaine) and a hydrophilic model drug (prilocaine hydrochloride), and ...

  6. Application of the British Food Standards Agency nutrient profiling system in a French food composition database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julia, Chantal; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Touvier, Mathilde; Méjean, Caroline; Fezeu, Léopold; Hercberg, Serge

    2014-11-28

    Nutrient profiling systems are powerful tools for public health initiatives, as they aim at categorising foods according to their nutritional quality. The British Food Standards Agency (FSA) nutrient profiling system (FSA score) has been validated in a British food database, but the application of the model in other contexts has not yet been evaluated. The objective of the present study was to assess the application of the British FSA score in a French food composition database. Foods from the French NutriNet-Santé study food composition table were categorised according to their FSA score using the Office of Communication (OfCom) cut-off value ('healthier' ≤ 4 for foods and ≤ 1 for beverages; 'less healthy' >4 for foods and >1 for beverages) and distribution cut-offs (quintiles for foods, quartiles for beverages). Foods were also categorised according to the food groups used for the French Programme National Nutrition Santé (PNNS) recommendations. Foods were weighted according to their relative consumption in a sample drawn from the NutriNet-Santé study (n 4225), representative of the French population. Classification of foods according to the OfCom cut-offs was consistent with food groups described in the PNNS: 97·8 % of fruit and vegetables, 90·4 % of cereals and potatoes and only 3·8 % of sugary snacks were considered as 'healthier'. Moreover, variability in the FSA score allowed for a discrimination between subcategories in the same food group, confirming the possibility of using the FSA score as a multiple category system, for example as a basis for front-of-pack nutrition labelling. Application of the FSA score in the French context would adequately complement current public health recommendations.

  7. Understanding the organization of public health delivery systems: an empirical typology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mays, Glen P; Scutchfield, F Douglas; Bhandari, Michelyn W; Smith, Sharla A

    2010-03-01

    Policy discussions about improving the U.S. health care system increasingly recognize the need to strengthen its capacities for delivering public health services. A better understanding of how public health delivery systems are organized across the United States is critical to improvement. To facilitate the development of such evidence, this article presents an empirical method of classifying and comparing public health delivery systems based on key elements of their organizational structure. This analysis uses data collected through a national longitudinal survey of local public health agencies serving communities with at least 100,000 residents. The survey measured the availability of twenty core public health activities in local communities and the types of organizations contributing to each activity. Cluster analysis differentiated local delivery systems based on the scope of activities delivered, the range of organizations contributing, and the distribution of effort within the system. Public health delivery systems varied widely in organizational structure, but the observed patterns of variation suggested that systems adhere to one of seven distinct configurations. Systems frequently migrated from one configuration to another over time, with an overall trend toward offering a broader scope of services and engaging a wider range of organizations. Public health delivery systems exhibit important structural differences that may influence their operations and outcomes. The typology developed through this analysis can facilitate comparative studies to identify which delivery system configurations perform best in which contexts.

  8. Delivery systems and local administration routes for therapeutic siRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicentini, Fabiana Testa Moura de Carvalho; Borgheti-Cardoso, Lívia Neves; Depieri, Lívia Vieira; de Macedo Mano, Danielle; Abelha, Thais Fedatto; Petrilli, Raquel; Bentley, Maria Vitória Lopes Badra

    2013-04-01

    With the increasing number of studies proposing new and optimal delivery strategies for the efficacious silencing of gene-related diseases by the local administration of siRNAs, the present review aims to provide a broad overview of the most important and latest developments of non-viral siRNA delivery systems for local administration. Moreover, the main disease targets for the local delivery of siRNA to specific tissues or organs, including the skin, the lung, the eye, the nervous system, the digestive system and the vagina, were explored.

  9. Post delivery test report for light duty utility arm optical alignment system (OAS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pardini, A.F.

    1996-04-18

    This report documents the post delivery testing of the Optical Alignment System (OAS) LDUA system, designed for use by the Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA) project. The post delivery test shows by demonstration that the optical alignment system is fully operational to perform the task of aligning the LDUA arm and mast with the entry riser during deployment operations within a Hanford Site waste tank.

  10. Low molecular mass chitosan as carrier for hydrodynamically balanced system for sustained delivery of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride

    OpenAIRE

    VERMA, ANURAG; BANSAL, ASHOK K.; GHOSH, AMITAVA; PANDIT, JAYANTA K.

    2012-01-01

    Chitosan has become a focus of major interest in recent years due to its excellent biocompatibility, biodegradability and non-toxicity. Although this material has already been extensively investigated in the design of different types of drug delivery systems, it is still little explored for stomach specific drug delivery systems. The objective of the present investigation was to explore the potential of low molecular mass chitosan (LMCH) as carrier for a hydrodynamically balanced system (HBS)...

  11. Post delivery test report for light duty utility arm optical alignment system (OAS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pardini, A.F.

    1996-01-01

    This report documents the post delivery testing of the Optical Alignment System (OAS) LDUA system, designed for use by the Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA) project. The post delivery test shows by demonstration that the optical alignment system is fully operational to perform the task of aligning the LDUA arm and mast with the entry riser during deployment operations within a Hanford Site waste tank

  12. Oral controlled release drug delivery system and Characterization of oral tablets; A review

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Zaman; Junaid Qureshi; Hira Ejaz; Rai Muhammad Sarfraz; Hafeez ullah Khan; Fazal Rehman Sajid; Muhammad Shafiq ur Rehman

    2016-01-01

    Oral route of drug administration is considered as the safest and easiest route of drug administration. Control release drug delivery system is the emerging trend in the pharmaceuticals and the oral route is most suitable for such kind of drug delivery system. Oral route is more convenient for It all age group including both pediatric and geriatrics. There are various systems which are adopted to deliver drug in a controlled manner to different target sites through oral route. It includes dif...

  13. Application of three-dimensional printing for colon targeted drug delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charbe, Nitin B; McCarron, Paul A; Lane, Majella E; Tambuwala, Murtaza M

    2017-01-01

    Orally administered solid dosage forms currently dominate over all other dosage forms and routes of administrations. However, human gastrointestinal tract (GIT) poses a number of obstacles to delivery of the drugs to the site of interest and absorption in the GIT. Pharmaceutical scientists worldwide have been interested in colon drug delivery for several decades, not only for the delivery of the drugs for the treatment of colonic diseases such as ulcerative colitis and colon cancer but also for delivery of therapeutic proteins and peptides for systemic absorption. Despite extensive research in the area of colon targeted drug delivery, we have not been able to come up with an effective way of delivering drugs to the colon. The current tablets designed for colon drug release depend on either pH-dependent or time-delayed release formulations. During ulcerative colitis the gastric transit time and colon pH-levels is constantly changing depending on whether the patient is having a relapse or under remission. Hence, the current drug delivery system to the colon is based on one-size-fits-all. Fails to effectively deliver the drugs locally to the colon for colonic diseases and delivery of therapeutic proteins and peptides for systemic absorption from the colon. Hence, to overcome the current issues associated with colon drug delivery, we need to provide the patients with personalized tablets which are specifically designed to match the individual's gastric transit time depending on the disease state. Three-dimensional (3D) printing (3DP) technology is getting cheaper by the day and bespoke manufacturing of 3D-printed tablets could provide the solutions in the form of personalized colon drug delivery system. This review provides a bird's eye view of applications and current advances in pharmaceutical 3DP with emphasis on the development of colon targeted drug delivery systems.

  14. Feasibility of Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems in Surgical Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Margaret; Leischow, Scott; Croghan, Ivana; Kadimpati, Sandeep; Hanson, Andrew; Schroeder, Darrell; Warner, David O

    2016-08-01

    Cigarette smoking is a known risk factor for postoperative complications. Quitting or cutting down on cigarettes around the time of surgery may reduce these risks. This study aimed to determine the feasibility of using electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) to help patients achieve this goal, regardless of their intent to attempt long-term abstinence. An open-label observational study was performed of cigarette smoking adults scheduled for elective surgery at Mayo Clinic Rochester and seen in the pre-operative evaluation clinic between December 2014 and June 2015. Subjects were given a supply of ENDS to use prior to and 2 weeks after surgery. They were encouraged to use them whenever they craved a cigarette. Daily use of ENDS was recorded, and patients were asked about smoking behavior and ENDS use at baseline, 14 days and 30 days. Of the 105 patients approached, 80 (76%) agreed to participate; five of these were later excluded. Among the 75, 67 (87%) tried ENDS during the study period. At 30-day follow-up, 34 (51%) who had used ENDS planned to continue using them. Average cigarette consumption decreased from 15.6 per person/d to 7.6 over the study period (P < .001). At 30 days, 11/67 (17%) reported abstinence from cigarettes. ENDS use is feasible in adult smokers scheduled for elective surgery and is associated with a reduction in perioperative cigarette consumption. These results support further exploration of ENDS as a means to help surgical patients reduce or eliminate their cigarette consumption around the time of surgery. Smoking in the perioperative period increases patients' risk for surgical complications and healing difficulties, but new strategies are needed to help patients quit or cut down during this stressful time. These pilot data suggest that ENDS use is feasible and well-accepted in surgical patients, and worthy of exploration as a harm reduction strategy in these patients. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of

  15. Nutrient supply, surface currents, and plankton dynamics predict zooplankton hotspots in coastal upwelling systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messié, Monique; Chavez, Francisco P.

    2017-09-01

    A simple combination of wind-driven nutrient upwelling, surface currents, and plankton growth/grazing equations generates zooplankton patchiness and hotspots in coastal upwelling regions. Starting with an initial input of nitrate from coastal upwelling, growth and grazing equations evolve phytoplankton and zooplankton over time and space following surface currents. The model simulates the transition from coastal (large phytoplankton, e.g., diatoms) to offshore (picophytoplankton and microzooplankton) communities, and in between generates a large zooplankton maximum. The method was applied to four major upwelling systems (California, Peru, Northwest Africa, and Benguela) using latitudinal estimates of wind-driven nitrate supply and satellite-based surface currents. The resulting zooplankton simulations are patchy in nature; areas of high concentrations coincide with previously documented copepod and krill hotspots. The exercise highlights the importance of the upwelling process and surface currents in shaping plankton communities.

  16. Efficient systemic DNA delivery to the tumor by self-assembled nanoparticle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Hailin; Xie, Xinhua; Guo, Jiaoli; Wei, Weidong; Wu, Minqing; Liu, Peng; Kong, Yanan; Yang, Lu; Hung, Mien-Chie; Xie, Xiaoming

    2014-01-01

    There are few delivery agents that could deliver gene with high efficiency and low toxicity, especially for animal experiments. Therefore, creating vectors with good delivery efficiency and safety profile is a meaningful work. We have developed a self-assembled gene delivery system (XM001), which can more efficiently deliver DNA to multiple cell lines and breast tumor, as compared to commercial delivery agents. In addition, systemically administrated XM001-BikDD (BikDD is a mutant form of proapoptotic gene Bik) significantly inhibited the growth of human breast cancer cells and prolonged the life span in implanted nude mice. This study demonstrates that XM001 is an efficient and widespread transfection agent, which could be a promising tumor delivery vector for cancer targeted therapy.

  17. A Dietary Feedback System for the Delivery of Consistent Personalized Dietary Advice in the Web-Based Multicenter Food4Me Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Hannah; Walsh, Marianne C; O'Donovan, Clare B; Woolhead, Clara; McGirr, Caroline; Daly, E J; O'Riordan, Richard; Celis-Morales, Carlos; Fallaize, Rosalind; Macready, Anna L; Marsaux, Cyril F M; Navas-Carretero, Santiago; San-Cristobal, Rodrigo; Kolossa, Silvia; Hartwig, Kai; Mavrogianni, Christina; Tsirigoti, Lydia; Lambrinou, Christina P; Godlewska, Magdalena; Surwiłło, Agnieszka; Gjelstad, Ingrid Merethe Fange; Drevon, Christian A; Manios, Yannis; Traczyk, Iwona; Martinez, J Alfredo; Saris, Wim H M; Daniel, Hannelore; Lovegrove, Julie A; Mathers, John C; Gibney, Michael J; Gibney, Eileen R; Brennan, Lorraine

    2016-06-30

    Despite numerous healthy eating campaigns, the prevalence of diets high in saturated fatty acids, sugar, and salt and low in fiber, fruit, and vegetables remains high. With more people than ever accessing the Internet, Web-based dietary assessment instruments have the potential to promote healthier dietary behaviors via personalized dietary advice. The objectives of this study were to develop a dietary feedback system for the delivery of consistent personalized dietary advice in a multicenter study and to examine the impact of automating the advice system. The development of the dietary feedback system included 4 components: (1) designing a system for categorizing nutritional intakes; (2) creating a method for prioritizing 3 nutrient-related goals for subsequent targeted dietary advice; (3) constructing decision tree algorithms linking data on nutritional intake to feedback messages; and (4) developing personal feedback reports. The system was used manually by researchers to provide personalized nutrition advice based on dietary assessment to 369 participants during the Food4Me randomized controlled trial, with an automated version developed on completion of the study. Saturated fatty acid, salt, and dietary fiber were most frequently selected as nutrient-related goals across the 7 centers. Average agreement between the manual and automated systems, in selecting 3 nutrient-related goals for personalized dietary advice across the centers, was highest for nutrient-related goals 1 and 2 and lower for goal 3, averaging at 92%, 87%, and 63%, respectively. Complete agreement between the 2 systems for feedback advice message selection averaged at 87% across the centers. The dietary feedback system was used to deliver personalized dietary advice within a multi-country study. Overall, there was good agreement between the manual and automated feedback systems, giving promise to the use of automated systems for personalizing dietary advice. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01530139

  18. Progress and Challenges in Developing Aptamer-Functionalized Targeted Drug Delivery Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Jiang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aptamers, which can be screened via systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX, are superior ligands for molecular recognition due to their high selectivity and affinity. The interest in the use of aptamers as ligands for targeted drug delivery has been increasing due to their unique advantages. Based on their different compositions and preparation methods, aptamer-functionalized targeted drug delivery systems can be divided into two main categories: aptamer-small molecule conjugated systems and aptamer-nanomaterial conjugated systems. In this review, we not only summarize recent progress in aptamer selection and the application of aptamers in these targeted drug delivery systems but also discuss the advantages, challenges and new perspectives associated with these delivery systems.

  19. Inhibited Carnitine Synthesis Causes Systemic Alteration of Nutrient Metabolism in Zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia-Min; Li, Ling-Yu; Qin, Xuan; Degrace, Pascal; Demizieux, Laurent; Limbu, Samwel M; Wang, Xin; Zhang, Mei-Ling; Li, Dong-Liang; Du, Zhen-Yu

    2018-01-01

    Impaired mitochondrial fatty acid β-oxidation has been correlated with many metabolic syndromes, and the metabolic characteristics of the mammalian models of mitochondrial dysfunction have also been intensively studied. However, the effects of the impaired mitochondrial fatty acid β-oxidation on systemic metabolism in teleost have never been investigated. In the present study, we established a low-carnitine zebrafish model by feeding fish with mildronate as a specific carnitine synthesis inhibitor [0.05% body weight (BW)/d] for 7 weeks, and the systemically changed nutrient metabolism, including carnitine and triglyceride (TG) concentrations, fatty acid (FA) β-oxidation capability, and other molecular and biochemical assays of lipid, glucose, and protein metabolism, were measured. The results indicated that mildronate markedly decreased hepatic carnitine concentrations while it had no effect in muscle. Liver TG concentrations increased by more than 50% in mildronate-treated fish. Mildronate decreased the efficiency of liver mitochondrial β-oxidation, increased the hepatic mRNA expression of genes related to FA β-oxidation and lipolysis, and decreased the expression of lipogenesis genes. Mildronate decreased whole body glycogen content, increased glucose metabolism rate, and upregulated the expression of glucose uptake and glycolysis genes. Mildronate also increased whole body protein content and hepatic mRNA expression of mechanistic target of rapamycin ( mtor ), and decreased the expression of a protein catabolism-related gene. Liver, rather than muscle, was the primary organ targeted by mildronate. In short, mildronate-induced hepatic inhibited carnitine synthesis in zebrafish caused decreased mitochondrial FA β-oxidation efficiency, greater lipid accumulation, and altered glucose and protein metabolism. This reveals the key roles of mitochondrial fatty acid β-oxidation in nutrient metabolism in fish, and this low-carnitine zebrafish model could also be

  20. Inhibited Carnitine Synthesis Causes Systemic Alteration of Nutrient Metabolism in Zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Min Li

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Impaired mitochondrial fatty acid β-oxidation has been correlated with many metabolic syndromes, and the metabolic characteristics of the mammalian models of mitochondrial dysfunction have also been intensively studied. However, the effects of the impaired mitochondrial fatty acid β-oxidation on systemic metabolism in teleost have never been investigated. In the present study, we established a low-carnitine zebrafish model by feeding fish with mildronate as a specific carnitine synthesis inhibitor [0.05% body weight (BW/d] for 7 weeks, and the systemically changed nutrient metabolism, including carnitine and triglyceride (TG concentrations, fatty acid (FA β-oxidation capability, and other molecular and biochemical assays of lipid, glucose, and protein metabolism, were measured. The results indicated that mildronate markedly decreased hepatic carnitine concentrations while it had no effect in muscle. Liver TG concentrations increased by more than 50% in mildronate-treated fish. Mildronate decreased the efficiency of liver mitochondrial β-oxidation, increased the hepatic mRNA expression of genes related to FA β-oxidation and lipolysis, and decreased the expression of lipogenesis genes. Mildronate decreased whole body glycogen content, increased glucose metabolism rate, and upregulated the expression of glucose uptake and glycolysis genes. Mildronate also increased whole body protein content and hepatic mRNA expression of mechanistic target of rapamycin (mtor, and decreased the expression of a protein catabolism-related gene. Liver, rather than muscle, was the primary organ targeted by mildronate. In short, mildronate-induced hepatic inhibited carnitine synthesis in zebrafish caused decreased mitochondrial FA β-oxidation efficiency, greater lipid accumulation, and altered glucose and protein metabolism. This reveals the key roles of mitochondrial fatty acid β-oxidation in nutrient metabolism in fish, and this low-carnitine zebrafish model