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Sample records for nutrient availability electronic

  1. Nutrient availability at Mer Bleue bog measured by PRSTM probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, M.; Moore, T. R.; Talbot, J.

    2015-12-01

    Bogs, covering ~0.7 million km2 in Canada, store a large amount of C and N. As nutrient deficient ecosystems, it's critical to examine the nutrient availabilities and seasonal dynamics. We used Plant Root Simulators (PRSTM) at Mer Bleue bog to provide some baseline data on nutrient availability and its variability. In particular, we focused on ammonium, nitrate, phosphate, calcium, magnesium and potassium, iron, sulphate and aluminum. We placed PRS probes at a depth of 5 - 15 cm in pristine plots and plots with long term N, P and K fertilization for 4 weeks and determined the availability of these nutrients, from spring through to fall. Probes were also placed beneath the water table in hummock and hollow microtopography and along a transect including part of the bog which had been drained through the creation of a ditch 80 years ago. The result showed that there was limited available ammonium, nitrate and phosphate in the bog, the seasonal variation of nutrient availabilities probably due to mineralization, an increase in the availability of some nutrients between different water table depths or as a result of drainage, and the relative availability of nutrients compared to the input from fertilization. We suggest that PRS probes could be a useful tool to examine nutrient availability and dynamics in wetlands, with careful consideration of installing condition, for example, proper exposure period, depth relative to water table etc.

  2. Plant response to nutrient availability across variable bedrock geologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castle, S.C.; Neff, J.C.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the role of rock-derived mineral nutrient availability on the nutrient dynamics of overlying forest communities (Populus tremuloides and Picea engelmanni-Abies lasiocarpa v. arizonica) across three parent materials (andesite, limestone, and sandstone) in the southern Rocky Mountains of Colorado. Broad geochemical differences were observed between bedrock materials; however, bulk soil chemistries were remarkably similar between the three different sites. In contrast, soil nutrient pools were considerably different, particularly for P, Ca, and Mg concentrations. Despite variations in nutrient stocks and nutrient availability in soils, we observed relatively inflexible foliar concentrations and foliar stoichiometries for both deciduous and coniferous species. Foliar nutrient resorption (P and K) in the deciduous species followed patterns of nutrient content across substrate types, with higher resorption corresponding to lower bedrock concentrations. Work presented here indicates a complex plant response to available soil nutrients, wherein plant nutrient use compensates for variations in supply gradients and results in the maintenance of a narrow range in foliar stoichiometry. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  3. Differences in egg nutrient availability, development, and nutrient metabolism of broiler and layer embryos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nangsuay, A.; Molenaar, R.; Meijerhof, R.; Anker, van den I.; Heetkamp, M.J.W.; Kemp, B.; Brand, van den H.

    2015-01-01

    Selection for production traits of broilers and layers leads to physiological differences, which may already be present during incubation. This study aimed to investigate the influence of strain (broiler vs layer) on egg nutrient availability, embryonic development and nutrient metabolism. A total

  4. Deeper snow alters soil nutrient availability and leaf nutrient status in high Arctic tundra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Semenchuk, Philipp R.; Elberling, Bo; Amtorp, Cecilie

    2015-01-01

    season. Changing nutrient availability may be reflected in plant N and chlorophyll content and lead to increased photosynthetic capacity, plant growth, and ultimately carbon (C) assimilation by plants. In this study, we increased snow depth and thereby cold-season soil temperatures in high Arctic...... Svalbard in two vegetation types spanning three moisture regimes. We measured growing-season availability of ammonium (NH4 (+)), nitrate (NO3 (-)), total dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and nitrogen (TON) in soil; C, N, delta N-15 and chlorophyll content in Salix polaris leaves; and leaf sizes of Salix...

  5. Ultrastructural biomarkers in symbiotic algae reflect the availability of dissolved inorganic nutrients and particulate food to the reef coral holobiont

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina eRosset

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Reef building corals associated with symbiotic algae (zooxanthellae can access environmental nutrients from different sources, most significantly via the uptake of dissolved inorganic nutrients by the algal symbiont and heterotrophic feeding of the coral host. Climate change is expected to alter the nutrient environment in coral reefs with the potential to benefit or disturb coral reef resilience. At present, the relative importance of the two major nutrient sources is not well understood, making predictions of the responses of corals to changes in their nutrient environment difficult. Therefore, we have examined the long-term effects of the availability of different concentrations of dissolved inorganic nutrients and of nutrients in particulate organic form on the model coral Euphyllia paradivisa. Coral and algal biomass showed a significantly stronger increase in response to elevated levels of dissolved inorganic nutrients as compared to the supply with particulate food. Also, changes in the zooxanthellae ultrastructure, determined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM, were mostly driven by the availability of dissolved inorganic nutrients under the present experimental conditions. The larger size of symbiont cells, their increased accumulation of lipid bodies, a higher number of starch granules and the fragmentation of their accumulation body could be established as reliable biomarkers of low availability of dissolved inorganic nutrients to the coral holobiont.

  6. Food Cost and Nutrient Availability in Urban Indonesia: Estimates for Food Policy Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Teklu, Tesfaye; Jensen, Helen H.

    1989-01-01

    Evaluating the effects of economic growth and the effectiveness of targeted government intervention requires identification of tarket groups and information on food and nutrient consumption patterns. A model of nutrient consumption linked to food choice behaviour is used to evaluate nutrient availability in urban Indonesia. Nutrient demand responses varied significantly across income levels

  7. Long term growth responses of loblolly pine to optimal nutrient and water resource availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timothy J. Albaugh; H. Lee Allen; Phillip M. Dougherty; Kurt H. Johnsen

    2004-01-01

    A factorial combination of four treatments (control (CW), optimal growing season water availability (IW), optimum nutrient availability (FW), and combined optimum water and nutrient availability (FIW)) in four replications were initiated in an 8-year- old Pinus taeda stand growing on a droughty, nutrient-poor, sandy site in Scotland County, NC and...

  8. Differences in egg nutrient availability, development, and nutrient metabolism of broiler and layer embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nangsuay, A; Molenaar, R; Meijerhof, R; van den Anker, I; Heetkamp, M J W; Kemp, B; van den Brand, H

    2015-03-01

    Selection for production traits of broilers and layers leads to physiological differences, which may already be present during incubation. This study aimed to investigate the influence of strain (broiler vs layer) on egg nutrient availability, embryonic development and nutrient metabolism. A total of 480 eggs with an egg weight range of 62.0 to 64.0 g from Lohmann Brown Lite and Ross 308 breeder flocks of 41 or 42 weeks of age were selected in two batches of 120 eggs per batch per strain. For each batch, 30 eggs per strain were used to determine egg composition, including nutrient and energy content, and 90 eggs per strain were separately incubated in one of two climate respiration chambers at an eggshell temperature of 37.8°C. The results showed that broiler eggs had a higher ratio of yolk: albumen with 2.41 g more yolk and 1.48 g less albumen than layers. The yolk energy content of broiler eggs was 46.32 kJ higher than that of layer eggs, whereas total energy content of broiler eggs was 47.85 kJ higher compared to layer eggs. Yolk-free body mass at incubation day 16 and chick weight and length at hatch were higher in broilers compared to layers. Respiration quotient of broiler embryos was higher than layer embryos during incubation day 8 to incubation day 10. A 0.24 g lower residual yolk at the hatch of broiler embryos than for the layer embryos indicated that broiler embryos used more yolk and had a higher energy utilization and energy deposition in yolk-free body mass. Heat production of broiler embryos was higher than that of layer embryos from incubation day 12 to incubation day 18, but efficiency of converting egg energy used by embryos to form yolk-free body mass was similar. In conclusion, broiler and layer embryos have different embryonic development patterns, which affect energy utilization and embryonic heat production. However, the embryos are equal in efficiency of converting the energy used to yolk-free body mass. © 2015 Poultry Science

  9. Central nervous control of nutrient availability and utilization.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steffens, A.B; Benthem, L; van der Heide, D.; Huisman, E.A.; Kanis, E.; Osse, J.W.M.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    1999-01-01

    In resting animals (rats) fed ad libitum on carbohydrate-rich food, nutrient deposition in the reserves (glycogen in liver and fat in adipocytes) is in equilibrium with utilization. In this situation, metabolic needs are covered for 50% energy by glucose and 50% energy by free fatty acids (FFA). The

  10. Food and nutrient availability in New Zealand: an analysis of supermarket sales data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Sally; Mhurchu, Cliona Ni; Priest, Patricia

    2007-12-01

    To examine food and nutrient availability in New Zealand using supermarket sales data in conjunction with a brand-specific supermarket food composition database (SFD). The SFD was developed by selecting the top-selling supermarket food products and linking them to food composition data from a variety of sources, before merging with individualised sales data. Supermarket food and nutrient data were then compared with data from national nutrition and household budget/economic surveys. A supermarket in Wellington, New Zealand. Eight hundred and eighty-two customers (73% female; mean age 38 years) who shopped regularly at the participating supermarket store and for whom electronic sales data were available for the period February 2004-January 2005. Top-selling supermarket food products included full-fat milk, white bread, sugary soft drinks and butter. Key food sources of macronutrients were similar between the supermarket sales database and national nutrition surveys. For example, bread was the major source of energy and contributed 12-13% of energy in all three data sources. Proportional expenditure on fruit, vegetables, meat, poultry, fish, farm products and oils, and cereal products recorded in the Household Economic Survey and supermarket sales data were within 2% of each other. Electronic supermarket sales data can be used to evaluate a number of important aspects of food and nutrient availability. Many of our findings were broadly comparable with national nutrition and food expenditure survey data, and supermarket sales have the advantage of being an objective, convenient, up-to-date and cost-effective measure of household food purchases.

  11. A review on beneficial effects of rhizosphere bacteria on soil nutrient availability and plant nutrient uptake.

    OpenAIRE

    Osorio Vega, Nelson Walter

    2011-01-01

    Este artículo se constituye en una revisión de los beneficios de bacterias rizosféricas sobre la nutrición vegetal. La interacción entre planta y bacterias solubilizadoras de fosfato es explicada en mayor detalle y usada como modelo para ilustrar el rol que algunas bacterias de la rizosfera juegan en la disponibilidad de nutrientes en el suelo. Las condiciones ambientales de la rizosfera también se discuten con detalle. Los beneficios de estas bacterias han sido obtenidos, y mejorados, en pre...

  12. The effect of pH on phosphorus availability and speciation in an aquaponics nutrient solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerozi, Brunno da Silva; Fitzsimmons, Kevin

    2016-11-01

    The interaction between the main ions in aquaponics nutrient solutions affects chemical composition and availability of nutrients, and nutrient uptake by plant roots. This study determined the effect of pH on phosphorus (P) speciation and availability in an aquaponics nutrient solution and used Visual MINTEQ to simulate P species and P activity. In both experimental and simulated results, P availability decreased with increase in pH of aquaponics nutrient solutions. According to simulations, P binds to several cations leaving less free phosphate ions available in solution. High pH values resulted in the formation of insoluble calcium phosphate species. The study also demonstrated the importance of organic matter and alkalinity in keeping free phosphate ions in solution at high pH ranges. It is recommended though that pH in aquaponics systems is maintained at a 5.5-7.2 range for optimal availability and uptake by plants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Predicting the profile of nutrients available for absorption: from nutrient requirement to animal response and environmental impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, J; Kebreab, E; Mills, J A N; Pellikaan, W F; López, S; Bannink, A; France, J

    2007-02-01

    Current feed evaluation systems for dairy cattle aim to match nutrient requirements with nutrient intake at pre-defined production levels. These systems were not developed to address, and are not suitable to predict, the responses to dietary changes in terms of production level and product composition, excretion of nutrients to the environment, and nutrition related disorders. The change from a requirement to a response system to meet the needs of various stakeholders requires prediction of the profile of absorbed nutrients and its subsequent utilisation for various purposes. This contribution examines the challenges to predicting the profile of nutrients available for absorption in dairy cattle and provides guidelines for further improved prediction with regard to animal production responses and environmental pollution.The profile of nutrients available for absorption comprises volatile fatty acids, long-chain fatty acids, amino acids and glucose. Thus the importance of processes in the reticulo-rumen is obvious. Much research into rumen fermentation is aimed at determination of substrate degradation rates. Quantitative knowledge on rates of passage of nutrients out of the rumen is rather limited compared with that on degradation rates, and thus should be an important theme in future research. Current systems largely ignore microbial metabolic variation, and extant mechanistic models of rumen fermentation give only limited attention to explicit representation of microbial metabolic activity. Recent molecular techniques indicate that knowledge on the presence and activity of various microbial species is far from complete. Such techniques may give a wealth of information, but to include such findings in systems predicting the nutrient profile requires close collaboration between molecular scientists and mathematical modellers on interpreting and evaluating quantitative data. Protozoal metabolism is of particular interest here given the paucity of quantitative data

  14. Effect of soil carbohydrates on nutrient availability in natural forests and cultivated lands in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnayake, R. R.; Seneviratne, G.; Kulasooriya, S. A.

    2013-05-01

    Carbohydrates supply carbon sources for microbial activities that contribute to mineral nutrient production in soil. Their role on soil nutrient availability has not yet been properly elucidated. This was studied in forests and cultivated lands in Sri Lanka. Soil organic matter (SOM) fractions affecting carbohydrate availability were also determined. Soil litter contributed to sugars of plant origin (SPO) in croplands. The negative relationship found between clay bound organic matter (CBO) and glucose indicates higher SOM fixation in clay that lower its availability in cultivated lands. In forests, negative relationships between litter and sugars of microbial origin (SMO) showed that litter fuelled microbes to produce sugars. Fucose and glucose increased the availability of Cu, Zn and Mn in forests. Xylose increased Ca availability in cultivated lands. Arabinose, the main carbon source of soil respiration reduced the P availability. This study showed soil carbohydrates and their relationships with mineral nutrients could provide vital information on the availability of limiting nutrients in tropical ecosystems.

  15. Astrocytic Insulin Signaling Couples Brain Glucose Uptake with Nutrient Availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Cáceres, Cristina; Quarta, Carmelo; Varela, Luis; Gao, Yuanqing; Gruber, Tim; Legutko, Beata; Jastroch, Martin; Johansson, Pia; Ninkovic, Jovica; Yi, Chun-Xia; Le Thuc, Ophelia; Szigeti-Buck, Klara; Cai, Weikang; Meyer, Carola W; Pfluger, Paul T; Fernandez, Ana M; Luquet, Serge; Woods, Stephen C; Torres-Alemán, Ignacio; Kahn, C Ronald; Götz, Magdalena; Horvath, Tamas L; Tschöp, Matthias H

    2016-08-11

    We report that astrocytic insulin signaling co-regulates hypothalamic glucose sensing and systemic glucose metabolism. Postnatal ablation of insulin receptors (IRs) in glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-expressing cells affects hypothalamic astrocyte morphology, mitochondrial function, and circuit connectivity. Accordingly, astrocytic IR ablation reduces glucose-induced activation of hypothalamic pro-opio-melanocortin (POMC) neurons and impairs physiological responses to changes in glucose availability. Hypothalamus-specific knockout of astrocytic IRs, as well as postnatal ablation by targeting glutamate aspartate transporter (GLAST)-expressing cells, replicates such alterations. A normal response to altering directly CNS glucose levels in mice lacking astrocytic IRs indicates a role in glucose transport across the blood-brain barrier (BBB). This was confirmed in vivo in GFAP-IR KO mice by using positron emission tomography and glucose monitoring in cerebral spinal fluid. We conclude that insulin signaling in hypothalamic astrocytes co-controls CNS glucose sensing and systemic glucose metabolism via regulation of glucose uptake across the BBB. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The influence of nutrient and water availability on carbohydrate storage in loblolly pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    K.H. Ludovici; H.L. Allen; T.J. Albaugh; P.M. Dougherty

    2002-01-01

    We quantified the effects of nutrient and water availability on monthly whole-tree carbohydrate budgets and determined allocation patterns of storage carbohydrates in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) to test site resource impacts on internal carbon (C) storage. A factorial combination of two nutrient and two irrigation treatments were imposed on a 7-year...

  17. Nutrient Composition of Locally Available Feedstuffs in Coastal Lowland Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muringa, R.W; Bimbuzi, S.; Mambo, L.C

    1999-01-01

    A study was conducted in two districts in coastal Kenya to characterise forages used for dairy cattle feeding. Four trial sites were selected in Kilifi and Kwale where farmers mainly practise mixed farming. Twelve farms were selected in each trial site. In Kilifi district, Bahari and Kaloleni divisions were selected. Farms in Kalolenin were small (less than 3 ha) compared to Bahari, a settlement area where the original land size per plot was 5 ha. In Kwale district, Matuga division had small plots of less than 3 ha each while Msambweni division had bigger plots ranging from 5 to 10 ha. Seven and fourteen of the farmers in Kwale and Kilifi respectively were women. The farms were visited biomonthly from May 1996 to February 1997. During each visit the feeds in use were visited and representative samples collected per division. The samples were analysed for dry matter, crude protein, fibre, ash, phosphorous and Calcium. Results from the evaluation indicate that farmers depended mainly on locally available feedstuffs to feed their dairy cattle. The most abundant feeds were local Panicum, Star grass, Comellina and mixture of various feeds. These were harvested by farmers from either their own farms or from neighbouring farms. Such feeds were shown to be of low quality and required protein supplementation. Most farmers supplemented their milking cows with small quantities of commercial or local maize bran and only a few farmers in Kwale purchased commercial dairy meal. The study recommends that farmers should be encouraged to grow legume forages to supplement dairy cows for increased milk production

  18. Effect of organic substrates on available elemental contents in nutrient solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ao, Y.S.; Sun, M.; Li, Y.Q. [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China). School for Agriculture & Biology

    2008-07-15

    In this paper, the changes of available elemental contents in the nutrient solution extracts of organic substrates (peat moss, charred rice husk, chicken manure, sawdust, turfgrass clipping and weathered coal) were studied and compared with that in the water extracts. Results showed that available elemental contents in the nutrient solution extracts are significantly different between organic substrates, whereas ionic concentrations are basically under steady condition after treatment for 36-108 h. Ionic contents in the nutrient solution extracts are not equal to the value of adding ionic concentrations in the supplied nutrient solution to that in the water extract. Thus, a mathematical model was proposed for adjusting the composition of supplied nutrient solution to match plant requirements in the organic soilless culture system.

  19. Probiotics for Plants? Growth Promotion by the Entomopathogenic Fungus Beauveria bassiana Depends on Nutrient Availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tall, Susanna; Meyling, Nicolai V

    2018-03-28

    Cultivation of crops requires nutrient supplements which are costly and impact the environment. Furthermore, global demands for increased crop production call for sustainable solutions to increase yield and utilize resources such as nutrients more effectively. Some entomopathogenic fungi are able to promote plant growth, but studies over such effects have been conducted under optimal conditions where nutrients are abundantly available. We studied the effects of Beauveria bassiana (strain GHA) seed treatment on the growth of maize (Zea mays) at high and low nutrient conditions during 6 weeks in greenhouse. As expected, B. bassiana seed treatment increased plant growth, but only at high nutrient conditions. In contrast, the seed treatment did not benefit plant growth at low nutrient conditions where the fungus potentially constituted a sink and tended to reduce plant growth. The occurrence of endophytic B. bassiana in experimental plant tissues was evaluated by PCR after 6 weeks, but B. bassiana was not documented in any of the above-ground plant tissues indicating that the fungus-plant interaction was independent of endophytic establishment. Our results suggest that B. bassiana seed treatment could be used as a growth promoter of maize when nutrients are abundantly available, while the fungus does not provide any growth benefits when nutrients are scarce.

  20. Nutrient Control of Yeast Gametogenesis Is Mediated by TORC1, PKA and Energy Availability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilla Weidberg

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Cell fate choices are tightly controlled by the interplay between intrinsic and extrinsic signals, and gene regulatory networks. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the decision to enter into gametogenesis or sporulation is dictated by mating type and nutrient availability. These signals regulate the expression of the master regulator of gametogenesis, IME1. Here we describe how nutrients control IME1 expression. We find that protein kinase A (PKA and target of rapamycin complex I (TORC1 signalling mediate nutrient regulation of IME1 expression. Inhibiting both pathways is sufficient to induce IME1 expression and complete sporulation in nutrient-rich conditions. Our ability to induce sporulation under nutrient rich conditions allowed us to show that respiration and fermentation are interchangeable energy sources for IME1 transcription. Furthermore, we find that TORC1 can both promote and inhibit gametogenesis. Down-regulation of TORC1 is required to activate IME1. However, complete inactivation of TORC1 inhibits IME1 induction, indicating that an intermediate level of TORC1 signalling is required for entry into sporulation. Finally, we show that the transcriptional repressor Tup1 binds and represses the IME1 promoter when nutrients are ample, but is released from the IME1 promoter when both PKA and TORC1 are inhibited. Collectively our data demonstrate that nutrient control of entry into sporulation is mediated by a combination of energy availability, TORC1 and PKA activities that converge on the IME1 promoter.

  1. Effects of liming on forage availability and nutrient content in a forest impacted by acid rain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah E Pabian

    Full Text Available Acidic deposition and subsequent forest soil acidification and nutrient depletion can affect negatively the growth, health and nutrient content of vegetation, potentially limiting the availability and nutrient content of forage for white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus and other forest herbivores. Liming is a mitigation technique that can be used to restore forest health in acidified areas, but little is known about how it affects the growth or nutrient content of deer forage. We examined the effects of dolomitic limestone application on the growth and chemical composition of understory plants in an acidified forest in central Pennsylvania, with a focus on vegetative groups included as white-tailed deer forage. We used a Before-After-Control-Impact study design with observations 1 year before liming and up to 5 years post-liming on 2 treated and 2 untreated 100-ha sites. Before liming, forage availability and several nutrients were below levels considered optimal for white-tailed deer, and many vegetative characteristics were related to soil chemistry. We observed a positive effect of liming on forb biomass, with a 2.7 fold increase on limed sites, but no biomass response in other vegetation groups. We observed positive effects of liming on calcium and magnesium content and negative effects on aluminum and manganese content of several plant groups. Responses to liming by forbs and plant nutrients show promise for improving vegetation health and forage quality and quantity for deer.

  2. Complete nutrient content of four species of commercially available feeder insects fed enhanced diets during growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finke, Mark D

    2015-11-01

    Commercially raised feeder insects used to feed captive insectivores are a good source of many nutrients but are deficient in several key nutrients. Current methods used to supplement insects include dusting and gut-loading. Here, we report on the nutrient composition of four species of commercially raised feeder insects fed a special diet to enhance their nutrient content. Crickets, mealworms, superworms, and waxworms were analyzed for moisture, crude protein, fat, ash, acid detergent fiber, total dietary fiber, minerals, amino acids, fatty acids, vitamins, taurine, carotenoids, inositol, and cholesterol. All four species contained enhanced levels of vitamin E and omega 3 fatty acids when compared to previously published data for these species. Crickets, superworms, and mealworms contained β-carotene although using standard conversion factors only crickets and superworms would likely contain sufficient vitamin A activity for most species of insectivores. Waxworms did not contain any detectable β-carotene but did contain zeaxanthin which they likely converted from dietary β-carotene. All four species contained significant amounts of both inositol and cholesterol. Like previous reports all insects were a poor source of calcium and only superworms contained vitamin D above the limit of detection. When compared to the nutrient requirements as established by the NRC for growing rats or poultry, these species were good sources of most other nutrients although the high fat and low moisture content of both waxworms and superworms means when corrected for energy density these two species were deficient in more nutrients than crickets or mealworms. These data show the value of modifying the diet of commercially available insects as they are growing to enhance their nutrient content. They also suggest that for most insectivores properly supplemented lower fat insects such as crickets, or smaller mealworms should form the bulk of the diet. © 2015 The Authors. Zoo Biology

  3. Potassium fertigation in highbush blueberry increases availability of K and other nutrients in the root zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fertigation with nitrogen (N) increases growth and production relative to granular N applications in blueberry, but little information is available on whether there is any benefit to fertigating with other nutrients. The plants were grown on raised beds and irrigated using two lines of drip tubing p...

  4. Determination of Plant-Available Nutrients in Two Wood Ashes: the Influence of Combustion Conditions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Perná, Ivana; Ochecová, P.; Száková, J.; Hanzlíček, Tomáš; Tlustoš, P.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 47, 13/14 (2016), 1664-1674 ISSN 0010-3624 R&D Projects: GA MZe QI102A207 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : combustion condition * crystal phases * fertilizer * plant-available nutrients * wood ash Subject RIV: DM - Solid Waste and Recycling Impact factor: 0.589, year: 2016

  5. The influence of savanna trees on nutrient, water and light availability and the understorey vegetation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ludwig, F.; Kroon, de H.; Berendse, F.; Prins, H.H.T.

    2004-01-01

    In an East African savanna herbaceous layer productivity and species composition were studied around Acacia tortilis trees of three different age classes, as well as around dead trees and in open grassland patches. The effects of trees on nutrient, light and water availability were measured to

  6. Predicting the profile of nutrients available for absorption: from nutrient requirement to animal response and environmental impact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, J.; Kebreab, E.; Mills, J.A.N.; Pellikaan, W.F.; López, S.; Bannink, A.; France, J.

    2007-01-01

    Current feed evaluation systems for dairy cattle aim to match nutrient requirements with nutrient intake at pre-defined production levels. These systems were not developed to address, and are not suitable to predict, the responses to dietary changes in terms of production level and product

  7. Growth of non-Saccharomyces yeasts affects nutrient availability for Saccharomyces cerevisiae during wine fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Karina; Boido, Eduardo; Dellacassa, Eduardo; Carrau, Francisco

    2012-07-02

    Yeast produces numerous secondary metabolites during fermentation that impact final wine quality. Although it is widely recognized that growth of diverse non-Saccharomyces (NS) yeast can positively affect flavor complexity during Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine fermentation, the inability to control spontaneous or co-fermentation processes by NS yeast has restricted their use in winemaking. We selected two NS yeasts from our Uruguayan native collection to study NS-S. cerevisiae interactions during wine fermentation. The selected strains of Hanseniaspora vineae and Metschnikowia pulcherrima had different yeast assimilable nitrogen consumption profiles and had different effects on S. cerevisiae fermentation and growth kinetics. Studies in which we varied inoculum size and using either simultaneous or sequential inoculation of NS yeast and S. cerevisiae suggested that competition for nutrients had a significant effect on fermentation kinetics. Sluggish fermentations were more pronounced when S. cerevisiae was inoculated 24h after the initial stage of fermentation with a NS strain compared to co-inoculation. Monitoring strain populations using differential WL nutrient agar medium and fermentation kinetics of mixed cultures allowed for a better understanding of strain interactions and nutrient addition effects. Limitation of nutrient availability for S. cerevisiae was shown to result in stuck fermentations as well as to reduce sensory desirability of the resulting wine. Addition of diammonium phosphate (DAP) and a vitamin mix to a defined medium allowed for a comparison of nutrient competition between strains. Addition of DAP and the vitamin mix was most effective in preventing stuck fermentations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The effect of cropping sequence on the crop yield and nutrient availability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sisworo, W.H.; Rasjid, H.

    1988-01-01

    A two seasons field experiment was conducted to study the carry over effect of previous crop on the succeeding crop yield and plan nutrient (N and P) availability. The experiment consisted of eight treatments were arranged in a randomized block design with six resplications. Cropping sequence was studied that was soybean followed by corn and a continuous corn system. The effect of added P to the previous crops on the succeeding crops yield was also observed. Labelled fertilizer were used in the experiment to measure dinitrogen fixation of two soybean varieties and the amount of available nutrient in the soil by using isotopic dilution technique. The result obtained showed that corn yield was significantly influenced by cropping sequence, but available nutrient was not. Corn grown after soybean produced about 22 percent more grain than those of the continuous corn system. The phosphorus applied to the first season crops increased significantly the succeeding corn yield. The highest amount of accumulation in soybean was 81 kg N/h, around 40 percent of the amount was obtained through fixation. (authors). 19 refs.; 8 tabs

  9. Dynamic Response of Plant Chlorophyll Fluorescence to Light, Water and Nutrient Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cendrero Mateo, M. D. P.; Moran, S. M.; Porcar-Castell, A.; Carmo-Silva, A. E.; Papuga, S. A.; Matveeva, M.; Wieneke, S.; Rascher, U.

    2014-12-01

    Photosynthesis is the most important exchange process of CO2 between the atmosphere and the land-surface. Spatial and temporal patterns of photosynthesis depend on dynamic plant-specific adaptation strategies to highly variable environmental conditions e.g. light, water, and nutrient availability. Chlorophyll fluorescence (ChF) has been proposed as a direct indicator of photosynthesis, and several studies have demonstrated its relationship with vegetation functioning at leaf and canopy level. In this study, two overarching questions about ChF were addressed: Q1) How water, nutrient and ambient light conditions determine the relationships between photosynthesis and ChF? Which is the optimum irradiance level for detecting water and nutrient deficit conditions with ChF?; Q2) What is the seasonal relationship between photosynthesis and ChF when nitrogen is the limiting factor? The results of this study indicated that when the differences between treatments (water or nitrogen) drive the relationship between photosynthesis and ChF, ChF has a direct relationship with photosynthesis. This study demonstrates that the light level at which plants were grown was optimum for detecting water and nutrient deficit with ChF. Further, the seasonal relation between photosynthesis and ChF with nitrogen stress was not a simple linear function due to the complex physiological relation between photosynthesis and ChF. Our study showed that at times in the season when nitrogen was sufficient and photosynthesis was highest, ChF decreased because these two processes compete for available energy. The results from this study demonstrated that ChF is a reliable indicator of plant stress and has great potential as a tool for better understand where, when, and how CO2 is exchanged between the land and atmosphere.

  10. Mathematical modelling of the influenced of diffusion rate on macro nutrient availability in paddy field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renny; Supriyanto

    2018-04-01

    Nutrition is the chemical compounds that needed by the organism for the growth process. In plants, nutrients are organic or inorganic compounds that are absorbed from the roots of the soil. It consist of macro and micro nutrient. Macro nutrients are nutrition that needed by plants in large quantities, such as, nitrogen, calcium, pottacium, magnesium, and sulfur. The total soil nutrient is the difference between the input nutrient and the output nutrients. Input nutrients are nutrient that derived from the decomposition of organic substances. Meanwhile, the output nutrient consists of the nutrients that absorbed by plant roots (uptake), the evaporated nutrients (volatilized) and leached nutrients. The nutrient transport can be done through diffusion process. The diffusion process is essential in removing the nutrient from one place to the root surface. It will cause the rate of absorption of nutrient by the roots will be greater. Nutrient concept in paddy filed can be represented into a mathematical modelling, by making compartment models. The rate of concentration change in the compartment model forms a system of homogeneous linear differential equations. In this research, we will use Laplaces transformation to solve the compartment model and determined the dynamics of macro nutrition due to diffusion process.

  11. Lignification in beech grown at elevated CO2 concentrations: interaction with nutrient availability and leaf maturation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaschke, L; Forstreuter, M.; Sheppard, L. J.; Leith, K.; Murray, M. B.; Polle, A.

    2002-01-01

    Results of a study undertaken to investigate contradictory observations reported in the literature to the effect that growth in elevated carbon dioxide affects ontogeny, are discussed. Results of this study showed that seedlings grown at elevated carbon dioxide had nitrogen concentrations of about 15 per cent lower than seedlings grown in ambient carbon dioxide. Elevated carbon dioxide caused increased growth and biomass production in trees with a medium to high nutrient supply, but had no effect on growth of trees with a low nutrient supply rate. Because elevated carbon dioxide enhanced seedling growth in the high nutrient supply treatments, the total amount of lignin produced per seedling was higher in these treatments. Overall, the results suggest that carbon dioxide availability does not directly affect lignin concentrations, but affects them indirectly through the effects on or an interaction with nitrogen supply and growth. In seedlings, elevated carbon dioxide reduced lignin concentration on a dry mass basis, indicating diminished wood quality in a carbon dioxide-enriched atmosphere. 51 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs

  12. Flower-level developmental plasticity to nutrient availability in Datura stramonium: implications for the mating system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, Iván Darío; Nattero, Julieta; Careaga, Sonia A; Núñez-Farfán, Juan

    2017-10-17

    Studies of phenotypic plasticity in plants have mainly focused on (1) the effect of environmental variation on whole-plant traits related to the number of modules rather than on (2) the phenotypic consequences of environmental variation in traits of individual modules. Since environmental and developmental factors can produce changes in traits related to the mating system, this study used the second approach to investigate whether within-individual variation in herkogamy-related traits is affected by the environment during plant development in two populations of Datura stramonium , an annual herb with a hypothesized persistent mixed mating system, and to determine which morphological traits may promote self-fertilization. Full-sib families of two Mexican populations of D. stramonium , with contrasting ecological histories, were grown under low, mid and high nutrient availability to investigate the effects of genetic, environmental and within-plant flower position on flower size, corolla, stamen and pistil lengths, and herkogamy. Populations showed differences in familial variation, plasticity and familial differences in plasticity in most floral traits analysed. In one population (Ticumán), the effect of flower position on trait variation varied among families, whereas in the other (Pedregal) the effect of flower position interacted with the nutrient environment. Flower size varied with the position of flowers, but in the opposite direction between populations in low nutrients; a systematic within-plant trend of reduction in flower size, pistil length and herkogamy with flower position increased the probability of self-fertilization in the Pedregal population. Besides genetic variation in floral traits between and within populations, environmental variation affects phenotypic floral trait values at the whole-plant level, as well as among flower positions. The interaction between flower position and nutrient environment can affect the plant's mating system, and

  13. pH relationship and nutrient availability for cacao in an Entisol from the Colombian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gelber Rosas-Patiño

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Liming is a common practice in acid soil manage-ment; however, the information on liming in cacao soils of the Colombian Amazon region is precarious. Incubation curves were built in a highly acid Typic Udorthents cultivated with cacao (Theobroma cacao L. - Malvaceae, for which increasing doses (0 - 1 - 3 - 5 - 7 - 9 -11 Mg/ha of dolomite lime (Ca M g (CO32 and calcium carbonate (CaCO3 were used, in order to establish the type and amount of liming material (ME with better reactivity, and the one that is better favored with the acidity changes: pH, Al3+, H+, total acidity. Models to estimate the ME dose needed to manage the soil in order to obtain the desired pH (≥5.5 were generated. Sub-sequently, the soil was then limed under field conditions and pH, Al3+, Al in solution (Alsol, aluminum saturation (SAI, cation exchange capacity (CEC and N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Zn, Cu, B, Fe and Mn availability were evaluated. The results show that the greatest reaction of liming materials in these soils occurs after 60 days; applications of 7 Mg/ha allowed to raise the pH from 5.5 to 6.0 and decreases Al and Fe levels. These changes improved the CECand nutrient availability (Ca, Mg, P, Zn for cacao without affecting other nutrients such as N and K.

  14. Biochar derived from corn straw affected availability and distribution of soil nutrients and cotton yield.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofei Tian

    Full Text Available Biochar application as a soil amendment has been proposed as a strategy to improve soil fertility and increase crop yields. However, the effects of successive biochar applications on cotton yields and nutrient distribution in soil are not well documented. A three-year field study was conducted to investigate the effects of successive biochar applications at different rates on cotton yield and on the soil nutrient distribution in the 0-100 cm soil profile. Biochar was applied at 0, 5, 10, and 20 t ha-1 (expressed as Control, BC5, BC10, and BC20, respectively for each cotton season, with identical doses of chemical fertilizers. Biochar enhanced the cotton lint yield by 8.0-15.8%, 9.3-13.9%, and 9.2-21.9% in 2013, 2014, and 2015, respectively, and high levels of biochar application achieved high cotton yields each year. Leaching of soil nitrate was reduced, while the pH values, soil organic carbon, total nitrogen (N, and available K content of the 0-20 cm soil layer were increased in 2014 and 2015. However, the changes in the soil available P content were less substantial. This study suggests that successive biochar amendments have the potential to enhance cotton productivity and soil fertility while reducing nitrate leaching.

  15. Effect of enhanced nitrogen input on release of nutrients and nutrient availability in stands of tall fern Athyrium distentifolium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tå¯Ma, Ivan; Holuib, Petr; Záhora, Jaroslav; Fiala, Karel

    2010-05-01

    Improved light conditions, after destruction of tree canopy, soil acidification and increased nitrogen availability, support intensive spreading of acidophilous perennial grasses and stands of tall fern (Athyrium distentifolium) on deforested sites in the Moravian-Silesian Beskydy Mts. (the Czech Republic). The aim of the study was to determine how higher inputs of nitrogen affect the release of nutrients during decomposition processes of fern litter. The experimental site was chosen on a southwest-facing slope of the Kněhyně Mt. (49o31´ N, 18o 32´E, 1170 m a.s.l.) in the Moravian-Silesin Beskydy Mts. in the Czech Republic. The area is characterized by an annual mean air temperature of 5.6 oC and annual precipitation of 1110 mm. A large fern stand was divided in four blocks (5x3 m) and on two of them higher doses of nitrogen were applied (50 kgN/ha in five doses in the course of the growing season). Similarly, mesh-bags with fresh natural litter of fern were used to determine rate of litter decomposition during one year. Samples were inserted in both nitrogen treated and untreated fern stands in autumn 2006 and 2007 collected in autumn 2007 and 2008. On the basis of litter amount estimated at the start and at the end of exposure and of actual content of minerals in original and exposed litter, the release and/or accumulation of minerals during decomposition were calculated. The availability (more or less in the case of ammonia-nitrogen) and movement of percolated nitrogen (mainly in the case of nitrate-nitrogen) was estimated in situ by the trapping of mineral N into the ion exchange resin (IER) inserted into special cover. The decomposition rate of native A. distentifolium litter was approximately the same (29-30 %) at both nitrogen availability, however the element release from decomposed litter was higher for N, P and Ca in both years and for K and Mg in the first year as well. However, decomposition rate of cellulose was two times greater in fern stands

  16. Biochar derived from corn straw affected availability and distribution of soil nutrients and cotton yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xiaofei; Zhang, Min; Wan, Yongshan; Xie, Zhihua; Chen, Baocheng; Li, Wenqing

    2018-01-01

    Biochar application as a soil amendment has been proposed as a strategy to improve soil fertility and increase crop yields. However, the effects of successive biochar applications on cotton yields and nutrient distribution in soil are not well documented. A three-year field study was conducted to investigate the effects of successive biochar applications at different rates on cotton yield and on the soil nutrient distribution in the 0–100 cm soil profile. Biochar was applied at 0, 5, 10, and 20 t ha-1 (expressed as Control, BC5, BC10, and BC20, respectively) for each cotton season, with identical doses of chemical fertilizers. Biochar enhanced the cotton lint yield by 8.0–15.8%, 9.3–13.9%, and 9.2–21.9% in 2013, 2014, and 2015, respectively, and high levels of biochar application achieved high cotton yields each year. Leaching of soil nitrate was reduced, while the pH values, soil organic carbon, total nitrogen (N), and available K content of the 0–20 cm soil layer were increased in 2014 and 2015. However, the changes in the soil available P content were less substantial. This study suggests that successive biochar amendments have the potential to enhance cotton productivity and soil fertility while reducing nitrate leaching. PMID:29324750

  17. Biochar derived from corn straw affected availability and distribution of soil nutrients and cotton yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xiaofei; Li, Chengliang; Zhang, Min; Wan, Yongshan; Xie, Zhihua; Chen, Baocheng; Li, Wenqing

    2018-01-01

    Biochar application as a soil amendment has been proposed as a strategy to improve soil fertility and increase crop yields. However, the effects of successive biochar applications on cotton yields and nutrient distribution in soil are not well documented. A three-year field study was conducted to investigate the effects of successive biochar applications at different rates on cotton yield and on the soil nutrient distribution in the 0-100 cm soil profile. Biochar was applied at 0, 5, 10, and 20 t ha-1 (expressed as Control, BC5, BC10, and BC20, respectively) for each cotton season, with identical doses of chemical fertilizers. Biochar enhanced the cotton lint yield by 8.0-15.8%, 9.3-13.9%, and 9.2-21.9% in 2013, 2014, and 2015, respectively, and high levels of biochar application achieved high cotton yields each year. Leaching of soil nitrate was reduced, while the pH values, soil organic carbon, total nitrogen (N), and available K content of the 0-20 cm soil layer were increased in 2014 and 2015. However, the changes in the soil available P content were less substantial. This study suggests that successive biochar amendments have the potential to enhance cotton productivity and soil fertility while reducing nitrate leaching.

  18. Reactivity of the Bacteria-Water Interface: Linking Nutrient Availability to Bacteria-Metal Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowle, D. A.; Daughney, C. J.; Riley, J. L.

    2002-12-01

    Identifying and quantifying the controls on metal mobilities in geologic systems is critical in order to understand processes such as global element cycling, metal transport in near-surface water-rock systems, sedimentary diagenesis, and mineral formation. Bacteria are ubiquitous in near-surface water-rock systems, and numerous laboratory and field studies have demonstrated that bacteria can facilitate the formation and dissolution of minerals, and enhance or inhibit contaminant transport. However, despite the growing evidence that bacteria play a key role in many geologic processes in low temperature systems, our understanding of the influence of the local nutrient dynamics of the system of interest on bacteria-metal interactions is limited. Here we present data demonstrating the effectiveness of coupling laboratory experiments with geochemical modeling to isolate the effect of nutrient availability on bacterially mediated proton and metal adsorption reactions. Experimental studies of metal-bacteria interactions were conducted in batch reactors as a function of pH, and solid-solute interactions after growth in a variety of defined and undefined media. Media nutrient composition (C,N,P) was quantified before and after harvesting the cells. Surface complexation models (SCM) for the adsorption reactions were developed by combining sorption data with the results of acid-base titrations, and in some cases zeta potential titrations of the bacterial surface. Our results indicate a clear change in both buffering potential and metal binding capacity of the cell walls of Bacillus subtilis as a function of initial media conditions. Combining current studies with our past studies on the effects of growth phase and others work on temperature dependence on metal adsorption we hope to develop a holistic surface complexation model for quantifying bacterial effects on metal mass transfer in many geologic systems.

  19. Hydroponics: A Versatile System to Study Nutrient Allocation and Plant Responses to Nutrient Availability and Exposure to Toxic Elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nga T; McInturf, Samuel A; Mendoza-Cózatl, David G

    2016-07-13

    Hydroponic systems have been utilized as one of the standard methods for plant biology research and are also used in commercial production for several crops, including lettuce and tomato. Within the plant research community, numerous hydroponic systems have been designed to study plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. Here we present a hydroponic protocol that can be easily implemented in laboratories interested in pursuing studies on plant mineral nutrition. This protocol describes the hydroponic system set up in detail and the preparation of plant material for successful experiments. Most of the materials described in this protocol can be found outside scientific supply companies, making the set up for hydroponic experiments less expensive and convenient. The use of a hydroponic growth system is most advantageous in situations where the nutrient media need to be well controlled and when intact roots need to be harvested for downstream applications. We also demonstrate how nutrient concentrations can be modified to induce plant responses to both essential nutrients and toxic non-essential elements.

  20. Earthworms and nutrient availability: the ecosystem engineer as (bio)chemical engineer

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Groenigen, Jan Willem; Ros, Mart; Vos, Hannah; De Deyn, Gerlinde; Hiemstra, Tjisse; Oenema, Oene; Koopmans, Gerwin

    2017-04-01

    The ability of earthworms to increase plant production has long been recognized. However, the pathways through which they do so, and the magnitude of this effect, have not been conclusively addressed. In two studies we address these issues for nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) availability to plants. In the first study, a meta-analysis, we concluded that earthworm presence increases crop yield on average with 26% and aboveground biomass with 24%. The positive effects of earthworms increase when more residue is returned to the soil, but disappear when soil N availability is high. This suggests that earthworms stimulate plant growth predominantly through N mineralization from soil organic matter or crop residue. In a second study, we tested the effect of earthworms on plant P uptake from inorganic sources. In a greenhouse experiment on a soil with low P availability we showed that presence of the anecic earthworm Lumbricus terrestris resulted in increased aboveground biomass (from 164 to 188 g dry matter m-2) and P uptake (from 0.21 to 0.27 g m-2). Concentrations of total dissolved P and dissolved inorganic P in water extractions of earthworm casts were 7-9 times higher than in those of bulk soil. Using advanced surface complexation modelling, we showed that these effects were primarily related to desorption of inorganic P due to competition with organic carbon for binding sites. We conclude that earthworms can alter nutrient cycling and increase N and P uptake by plants through a combination of biochemical and chemical pathways. Earthworms are most likely to stimulate N uptake in organic farming systems and tropical subsistence farming, which largely rely on nutrient mineralization. Additional benefits of earthworms might be expected in conventional farming systems with low levels of available P.

  1. A microbial bioassay to estimate nutrient availability in organic fertilizers; field calibration:

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salas, E.; Ramirez, C.

    2001-01-01

    A good correlation was recently shown between the increase in the microbial biomass (BM) in a mixture of soil/organic amendment and the growth of a test plant, sorghum, in the same substrate. This work reports the validation of the microbial assay as a potential guide to establish the fertilization rate for organic fertilizers such as compost under field conditions. A field trial was established with green pepper (Capsicum annum L.) and tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum L) as test plants. Treatments were soil alone or amended with 10% (W/W) of organic amendments of contrasting nutrient value, namely: chicken manure (CM), compost (C), bocashi (B), vermicompost (V) and coffe hulls (Br). A complete randomized block design with 4 replicates was used. The following variables were determined: plant dry weight (PSC) and fresh fruit weight (PFF) for green pepper, 97 days after showing; for tomato, plant dry weight (PST) was determined 32 days after showing. For the microbial biomass a complete randomized block design was also used, with 6 replicates, for the same mixtures. Microbial biomass was determined 2 days after amendment with glucose (0.8%) using the substrate- induce respiration assay. The organic amendments CM, C and B induced the highest values for BM as well as fro PSC, PFF and PST, which indicates a high nutrient availability for these organic amendments, whereas the organic amendments V and Br showed the lowest values (P [es

  2. Bacterial invasion potential in water is determined by nutrient availability and the indigenous community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Nevel, Sam; De Roy, Karen; Boon, Nico

    2013-09-01

    In drinking water (DW) and the distribution systems, bacterial growth and biofilm formation have to be controlled both for limiting taste or odour development and preventing clogging or biocorrosion problems. After a contamination with undesired bacteria, factors like nutrient availability and temperature will influence the survival of these invaders. Understanding the conditions enabling invaders to proliferate is essential for a holistic approach towards microbial risk assessment in DW. Pseudomonas putida was used as a model invader because this easy-growing bacterium can use a wide range of substrates. Invasion experiments in oligo- to eutrophic waters showed the requirement of both a carbon and phosphate source for survival of P. putida in DW. Addition of C, N and P enabled P. putida to grow in DW from 5.80 × 10(4) to 1.84 × 10(8) cells mL(-1) and survive for at least 12 days. However, in surface water with similar nutrient concentrations, P. putida did not survive, indicating the concomitant importance of the present indigenous microbial community of the specific water sample. Either extensive carbon or phosphate limitation can be used in water treatment design in order to obtain a DW which is not susceptible for unwanted bacterial growth. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Food crop production, nutrient availability, and nutrient intakes in Bangladesh: exploring the agriculture-nutrition nexus with the 2010 Household Income and Expenditure Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedler, John L

    2014-12-01

    Systematic collection of national agricultural data has been neglected in many low- and middle-income countries for the past 20 years. Commonly conducted nationally representative household surveys collect substantial quantities of highly underutilized food crop production data. To demonstrate the potential usefulness of commonly available household survey databases for analyzing the agriculture-nutrition nexus. Using household data from the 2010 Bangladesh Household Income and Expenditure Survey, the role and significance of crop selection, area planted, yield, nutrient production, and the disposition of 34 food crops in affecting the adequacy of farming households' nutrient availability and nutrient intake status are explored. The adequacy of each farming household's available energy, vitamin A, calcium, iron, and zinc and households' apparent intakes and intake adequacies are estimated. Each household's total apparent nutrient intake adequacies are estimated, taking into account the amount of each crop that households consume from their own production, together with food purchased or obtained from other sources. Even though rice contains relatively small amounts of micronutrients, has relatively low nutrient density, and is a relatively poor source of nutrients compared with what other crops can produce on a given tract of land, because so much rice is produced in Bangladesh, it is the source of 90% of the total available energy, 85% of the zinc, 67% of the calcium, and 55% of the iron produced by the agricultural sector. The domination of agriculture and diet by rice is a major constraint to improving nutrition in Bangladesh. Simple examples of how minor changes in the five most common cropping patterns could improve farming households' nutritional status are provided. Household surveys' agricultural modules can provide a useful tool for better understanding national nutrient production realities and possibilities.

  4. Agroforestry suitability analysis based upon nutrient availability mapping: a GIS based suitability mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firoz Ahmad

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Agroforestry has drawn the attention of researchers due to its capacity to reduce the poverty and land degradation, improve food security and mitigate the climate change. However, the progress in promoting agroforestry is held back due to the lack of reliable data sets and appropriate tools to accurately map and to have an adequate decision making system for agroforestry modules. Agroforestry suitability being one special form of land suitability is very pertinent to study in the current times when there is tremendous pressure on the land as it is a limited commodity. The study aims for applying the geo-spatial tools towards visualizing various soil and environmental data to reveal the trends and interrelationships and to achieve a nutrient availability and agroforestry suitability map. Using weight matrix and ranks, individual maps were developed in ArcGIS 10.1 platform to generate nutrient availability map, which was later used to develop agroforestry suitability map. Watersheds were delineated using DEM in some part of the study area and were evaluated for prioritizing it and agroforestry suitability of the watersheds were also done as per the schematic flowchart. Agroforestry suitability regions were delineated based upon the weight and ranks by integrated mapping. The total open area was identified 42.4% out of which 21.6% area was found to have high suitability towards agroforestry. Within the watersheds, 22 village points were generated for creating buffers, which were further evaluated showing its proximity to high suitable agroforestry sites thus generating tremendous opportunity to the villagers to carry out agroforestry projects locally. This research shows the capability of remote sensing in studying agroforestry practices and in estimating the prominent factors for its optimal productivity. The ongoing agroforestry projects can be potentially diverted in the areas of high suitability as an extension. The use of ancillary data in GIS

  5. Fungi benefit from two decades of increased nutrient availability in tundra heath soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rinnan, Riikka; Michelsen, Anders; Bååth, Erland

    2013-01-01

    is a predicted long-term consequence of climatic warming and mimicked by fertilization, both increase soil microbial biomass. However, while fertilization increased the relative abundance of fungi, warming caused only a minimal shift in the microbial community composition based on the phospholipid fatty acid......If microbial degradation of carbon substrates in arctic soil is stimulated by climatic warming, this would be a significant positive feedback on global change. With data from a climate change experiment in Northern Sweden we show that warming and enhanced soil nutrient availability, which...... (PLFA) and neutral lipid fatty acid (NLFA) profiles. The function of the microbial community was also differently affected, as indicated by stable isotope probing of PLFA and NLFA. We demonstrate that two decades of fertilization have favored fungi relative to bacteria, and increased the turnover...

  6. Assessing Nutrients Availability of Irradiated and Non-Irradiated Biosolids for the Agriculture Re-use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnavacca, Cecilia; Sanchez, Monica

    2003-07-01

    Irradiation provides a fast and reliable means to disinfect biosolids generated by municipal wastewater treatment processes. The chemical integrity of some substances may be altered thus change the availability of plant nutrients. Chemical analyses on the biosolids showed a release of mineral forms of Nitrogen while Phosphorus chemical forms were not altered. Higher amounts of mineralized N were indirectly demonstrated in soils with irradiated biosolids by a respiration experiment, and higher nitrate concentrations were measured in the irradiated biosolids amended soils at field experiments. Crop field experiments (lettuce and sugarcane) confirmed that irradiated biosolids have higher fertilizing capability than equal amounts of non-irradiated biosolids. Maximum dose rate had no additive effect but a depleted result, thus marking the importance of the use of moderate biosolids rates. (author)

  7. The role of Juncus effusus litter quality and nutrient availability on organic matter decomposition in restored cutover bogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agethen, Svenja; Knorr, Klaus-Holger

    2017-04-01

    More than 90% of peatlands in Europe are degraded by drainage and subsequent land use. However, beneficial effects of functioning peatlands, most of all carbon storage, have long been recognized but remain difficult to recover. Fragmentation and a surrounding of intensively used agricultural catchments with excess nutrients in air and waters further affects the recovery of sites. Under such conditions, highly competitive species such as Juncus effusus colonize restored peatlands instead of peat forming Sphagnum. While the specific stoichiometry and chemical composition makes Sphagnum litter recalcitrant in decomposition and hence, effective in carbon sequestration, we know little about dynamics involving Juncus, although this species provides organic matter in high quantity and of rather labile quality. To better understand decomposition in context of litter quality and nutrient availability, we incubated different peat types for 70 days; I) recent, II) weakly degraded fossil, and III) earthyfied nutrient rich fossil peat, amended with two 13C pulse-labelled Juncus litter types (excessively fertilized "F", and nutrient poor "NF" plants grown for three years watered with MilliQ only), respectively. We determined anaerobic decomposition rates, compared potential rates extrapolated from pure materials with measured rates of the mixtures, and tracked the 13C in the solid, liquid, and gaseous phase. To characterize the biogeochemical conditions, inorganic and organic electron acceptors, hydrogen and organic acids, and total enzyme activity were monitored. For characterization of dissolved organic matter we used UV-Vis and fluorescence spectroscopy (parallel factor analysis), and for solid organic matter elemental analysis and FTIR spectroscopy. There were two main structural differences between litter types: "F" litter and its leachates contained more proteinaceous components, the C/N ratio was 20 in contrast to 60 of the "NF" litter. However, humic components and

  8. N, P and K budgets along nutrient availability-productivity gradients in wetlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olde Venterink, H.; Pieterse, N.M.; Belgers, J.D.M.; Wassen, M.J.; Ruiter, P.C. de

    2002-01-01

    Nutrient enrichment in Western Europe is an important cause of wetland deterioration and the concomitant loss of biodiversity. We quantified nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium budgets along biomass gradients in wet meadows and fens (44 field sites) to evaluate the importance of various nutrient

  9. Effect of light and nutrient availability on the release of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) by Caribbean turf algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Benjamin; den Haan, Joost; Visser, Petra M; Vermeij, Mark J A; van Duyl, Fleur C

    2016-03-22

    Turf algae increasingly dominate benthic communities on coral reefs. Given their abundance and high dissolved organic carbon (DOC) release rates, turf algae are considered important contributors to the DOC pool on modern reefs. The release of photosynthetically fixed carbon as DOC generally, but not always, increases with increased light availability. Nutrient availability was proposed as an additional factor to explain these conflicting observations. To address this proposed but untested hypothesis, we documented the interactive contributions of light and nutrient availability on the release of DOC by turf algae. DOC release rates and oxygen production were quantified in incubation experiments at two light levels (full and reduced light) and two nutrient treatments (natural seawater and enriched seawater). In natural seawater, DOC release at full light was four times higher than at reduced light. When nutrients were added, DOC release rates at both light levels were similar to the natural seawater treatment at full light. Our results therefore show that low light in combination with low nutrient availability reduces the release of DOC by turf algae and that light and nutrient availability interactively determine DOC release rates by this important component of Caribbean reef communities.

  10. Estimating photosynthesis with high resolution field spectroscopy in a Mediterranean grassland under different nutrient availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Priego, O.; Guan, J.; Fava, F.; Rossini, M.; Wutzler, T.; Moreno, G.; Carrara, A.; Kolle, O.; Schrumpf, M.; Reichstein, M.; Migliavacca, M.

    2014-12-01

    Recent studies have shown how human induced N:P imbalances are affecting essential processes (e.g. photosynthesis, plant growth rate) that lead to important changes in ecosystem structure and function. In this regard, the accuracy of the approaches based on remotely-sensed data for monitoring and modeling gross primary production (GPP) relies on the ability of vegetation indices (VIs) to track the dynamics of vegetation physiological and biophysical properties/variables. Promising results have been recently obtained when Chlorophyll-sensitive VIs and Chlorophyll fluorescence are combined with structural indices in the framework of the Monteith's light use efficiency (LUE) model. However, further ground-based experiments are required to validate LUE model performances, and their capability to be generalized under different nutrient availability conditions. In this study, the overall objective was to investigate the sensitivity of VIs to track short- and long-term GPP variations in a Mediterranean grassland under different N and P fertilization treatments. Spectral VIs were acquired manually using high resolution spectrometers (HR4000, OceanOptics, USA) along a phenological cycle. The VIs examined included photochemical reflectance index (PRI), MERIS terrestrial-chlorophyll index (MTCI) and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). Solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence calculated at the oxygen absorption band O2-A (F760) using spectral fitting methods was also used. Simultaneously, measurements of GPP and environmental variables were conducted using a transient-state canopy chamber. Overall, GPP, F760 and VIs showed a clear seasonal time-trend in all treatments, which was driven by the phenological development of the grassland. Results showed significant differences (p<0.05) in midday GPP values between N and without N addition plots, in particular at the peak of the growing season during the flowering stage and at the end of the season during senescence. While

  11. Seasonal amounts of nutrients in Western cherry fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) and their relation to nutrient availability on cherry plant surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Wee L; Chapman, Peter S

    2008-10-01

    Relatively little is known about the nutritional ecology of fruit flies in the genus Rhagoletis. In this study, nutrient amounts in male and female western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran, and availability of nitrogen and sugar on surfaces of leaves, fruit, and extrafloral nectaries (EFNs) of sweet cherry trees, were determined from late May to late June 2005 and of sugar from EFNs from mid-May to late June 2007 in Washington state. Protein amounts in male and female flies did not differ over the season. Nitrogen was present on leaves, fruit, and EFNs during the sampling period, but amounts on leaves and fruit were lower in late May than the rest of the season. Sugar amounts in flies did not differ over the season. Sugar was present on leaf, fruit, and EFN surfaces all season, but amounts on all three were lower in late May than later in the season. Fructose and glucose were the predominant sugars on all plant surfaces, but sucrose was also present in nectar from EFNs. In outdoor and field cage experiments in 2004 and 2006, more flies survived when cherry branches with leaves and fruit were present than absent. Results suggest that R. indifferens maintains stable protein and sugar levels throughout the season because sufficient amounts of nutrients are found in cherry trees during this time and that increases in nutrient availability caused by ripening and damaged cherries later in the season do not result in increased amounts of nutrients in flies.

  12. Fungi benefit from two decades of increased nutrient availability in tundra heath soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinnan, Riikka; Michelsen, Anders; Bååth, Erland

    2013-01-01

    If microbial degradation of carbon substrates in arctic soil is stimulated by climatic warming, this would be a significant positive feedback on global change. With data from a climate change experiment in Northern Sweden we show that warming and enhanced soil nutrient availability, which is a predicted long-term consequence of climatic warming and mimicked by fertilization, both increase soil microbial biomass. However, while fertilization increased the relative abundance of fungi, warming caused only a minimal shift in the microbial community composition based on the phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) and neutral lipid fatty acid (NLFA) profiles. The function of the microbial community was also differently affected, as indicated by stable isotope probing of PLFA and NLFA. We demonstrate that two decades of fertilization have favored fungi relative to bacteria, and increased the turnover of complex organic compounds such as vanillin, while warming has had no such effects. Furthermore, the NLFA-to-PLFA ratio for (13)C-incorporation from acetate increased in warmed plots but not in fertilized ones. Thus, fertilization cannot be used as a proxy for effects on warming in arctic tundra soils. Furthermore, the different functional responses suggest that the biomass increase found in both fertilized and warmed plots was mediated via different mechanisms.

  13. Nutrient availability limits biological production in Arctic sea ice melt ponds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Heidi Louise; Thamdrup, Bo; Jeppesen, Erik

    2017-01-01

    nutrient limitation in melt ponds. We also document that the addition of nutrients, although at relative high concentrations, can stimulate biological productivity at several trophic levels. Given the projected increase in first-year ice, increased melt pond coverage during the Arctic spring and potential......Every spring and summer melt ponds form at the surface of polar sea ice and become habitats where biological production may take place. Previous studies report a large variability in the productivity, but the causes are unknown. We investigated if nutrients limit the productivity in these first...... additional nutrient supply from, e.g. terrestrial sources imply that biological activity of melt ponds may become increasingly important for the sympagic carbon cycling in the future Arctic....

  14. Plant availability of nutrients recovered as solids from human urine tested in climate chamber on Triticum aestivum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganrot, Zsófia; Dave, Göran; Nilsson, Eva; Li, Bo

    2007-11-01

    Recovered nutrients by freezing-thawing from human urine in combination with struvite precipitation and nitrogen adsorption on zeolite and activated carbon have been tested in pot trials with wheat, Triticum aestivum L., in a climate chamber during 21 days. A simple test design using sand as substrate was chosen to give a first, general evaluation of the nutrient (P and N) availability from these sources. Dry weight, plant growth morphology, total-P and total-N were analysed. The tests show a slow-release of nutrients (P and N) from struvite and from N-adsorbents. The nitrogen in all treatments was in the deficiency range for optimum yield for wheat. Higher pH than usual for soil tests contributed to the difficulties in plant uptake, especially in the pots with only struvite (with highest MgO addition) as nutrient source.

  15. Temporal-spatial dynamics in orthoptera in relation to nutrient availability and plant species richness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob J J Hendriks

    Full Text Available Nutrient availability in ecosystems has increased dramatically over the last century. Excess reactive nitrogen deposition is known to negatively impact plant communities, e.g. by changing species composition, biomass and vegetation structure. In contrast, little is known on how such impacts propagate to higher trophic levels. To evaluate how nitrogen deposition affects plants and herbivore communities through time, we used extensive databases of spatially explicit historical records of Dutch plant species and Orthoptera (grasshoppers and crickets, a group of animals that are particularly susceptible to changes in the C:N ratio of their resources. We use robust methods that deal with the unstandardized nature of historical databases to test whether nitrogen deposition levels and plant richness changes influence the patterns of richness change of Orthoptera, taking into account Orthoptera species functional traits. Our findings show that effects indeed also propagate to higher trophic levels. Differences in functional traits affected the temporal-spatial dynamics of assemblages of Orthoptera. While nitrogen deposition affected plant diversity, contrary to our expectations, we could not find a strong significant effect of food related traits. However we found that species with low habitat specificity, limited dispersal capacity and egg deposition in the soil were more negativly affected by nitrogen deposition levels. Despite the lack of significant effect of plant richness or food related traits on Orthoptera, the negative effects of nitrogen detected within certain trait groups (e.g. groups with limited disperse ability could be related to subtle changes in plant abundance and plant quality. Our results, however, suggest that the changes in soil conditions (where many Orthoptera species lay their eggs or other habitat changes driven by nitrogen have a stronger influence than food related traits. To fully evaluate the negative effects of nitrogen

  16. In the other 90%: phytoplankton responses to enhanced nutrient availability in the Great Barrier Reef Lagoon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furnas, Miles; Mitchell, Alan; Skuza, Michele; Brodie, Jon

    2005-01-01

    Our view of how water quality effects ecosystems of the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) is largely framed by observed or expected responses of large benthic organisms (corals, algae, seagrasses) to enhanced levels of dissolved nutrients, sediments and other pollutants in reef waters. In the case of nutrients, however, benthic organisms and communities are largely responding to materials which have cycled through and been transformed by pelagic communities dominated by micro-algae (phytoplankton), protozoa, flagellates and bacteria. Because GBR waters are characterised by high ambient light intensities and water temperatures, inputs of nutrients from both internal and external sources are rapidly taken up and converted to organic matter in inter-reefal waters. Phytoplankton growth, pelagic grazing and remineralisation rates are very rapid. Dominant phytoplankton species in GBR waters have in situ growth rates which range from ∼1 to several doublings per day. To a first approximation, phytoplankton communities and their constituent nutrient content turn over on a daily basis. Relative abundances of dissolved nutrient species strongly indicate N limitation of new biomass formation. Direct ( 15 N) and indirect ( 14 C) estimates of N demand by phytoplankton indicate dissolved inorganic N pools have turnover times on the order of hours to days. Turnover times for inorganic phosphorus in the water column range from hours to weeks. Because of the rapid assimilation of nutrients by plankton communities, biological responses in benthic communities to changed water quality are more likely driven (at several ecological levels) by organic matter derived from pelagic primary production than by dissolved nutrient stocks alone

  17. Availability and Utilization of Electronic Information Databases by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was undertaken to determine the Availability and Utilization of Electronic Information Database by Staff of the Agricultural Complex, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria. A survey method was used for the study. Stratified sampling method was used to select 209 respondents to accommodate the different strata of the ...

  18. The influence of soil properties and nutrients on conifer forest growth in Sweden, and the first steps in developing a nutrient availability metric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Sundert, Kevin; Horemans, Joanna A.; Stendahl, Johan; Vicca, Sara

    2018-06-01

    The availability of nutrients is one of the factors that regulate terrestrial carbon cycling and modify ecosystem responses to environmental changes. Nonetheless, nutrient availability is often overlooked in climate-carbon cycle studies because it depends on the interplay of various soil factors that would ideally be comprised into metrics applicable at large spatial scales. Such metrics do not currently exist. Here, we use a Swedish forest inventory database that contains soil data and tree growth data for > 2500 forests across Sweden to (i) test which combination of soil factors best explains variation in tree growth, (ii) evaluate an existing metric of constraints on nutrient availability, and (iii) adjust this metric for boreal forest data. With (iii), we thus aimed to provide an adjustable nutrient metric, applicable for Sweden and with potential for elaboration to other regions. While taking into account confounding factors such as climate, N deposition, and soil oxygen availability, our analyses revealed that the soil organic carbon concentration (SOC) and the ratio of soil carbon to nitrogen (C : N) were the most important factors explaining variation in normalized (climate-independent) productivity (mean annual volume increment - m3 ha-1 yr-1) across Sweden. Normalized forest productivity was significantly negatively related to the soil C : N ratio (R2 = 0.02-0.13), while SOC exhibited an empirical optimum (R2 = 0.05-0.15). For the metric, we started from a (yet unvalidated) metric for constraints on nutrient availability that was previously developed by the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA - Laxenburg, Austria) for evaluating potential productivity of arable land. This IIASA metric requires information on soil properties that are indicative of nutrient availability (SOC, soil texture, total exchangeable bases - TEB, and pH) and is based on theoretical considerations that are also generally valid for nonagricultural ecosystems

  19. FEL radiation power available in electron storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyahara, Yoshikazu

    1994-01-01

    FEL radiation power available in electron storage rings was studied in the small signal regime in considering the increase of the energy spread of the electron beam caused by the FEL interaction and the decrease of the FEL gain with the increase of the energy spread in addition to the radiation damping and the quantum excitation. All these effects were considered separately, and combined with FEL power equations. The radiation power available was expressed explicitly with the parameters of the storage ring, the wiggler and the mirrors. The transient process of FEL lasing is simulated with the power equations. A rough estimation is made of the radiation power available by the FEL at different beam energies, and optimization of FEL parameters for a higher radiation power is discussed. ((orig.))

  20. Nutrient availability constrains the hydraulic architecture and water relations of savannah trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    S.J. Bucci; F.G. Scholz; G. Goldstein; F.C. Meinzer; A.C. Franco; P.I. Campanello; R. Villalobos-Vega; M. Bustamante; F. Miralles-Wilhelm

    2006-01-01

    Several plant functional traits were studied in five dominant woody savanna species in a Brazilian savanna to determine whether removal of nutrient limitations has an effect on carbon allocation, water relations, and hydraulic architecture. Four treatments consisting of a control, and nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and N plus P additions were maintained for 5 years....

  1. Zn availability in nutrient solutions for cucumber (Cucumis sativus L) in hydroponics as affected by Fe-chelates and pH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogt, W.; Sonneveld, C.

    2017-01-01

    In soil-less culture systems Fe is usually supplied as chelate to ensure an adequate availability of this element. As chelates have affinity for many metal ions these chelates will interact with other cation nutrients in nutrient solutions. This affects the availability of Fe and other nutrients.

  2. The influence of red wood ants .i.Formica polyctena./i. on nutrient availability ant growth of spruce tree

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Frouz, Jan; Rybníček, M.; Cudlín, Pavel

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 9, - (2007) ISSN 1607-7962. [European Geosciences Union General Assembly 2007. 15.04.2007-20.04.2007, Vienna] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521; CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : Formica polyctena * nutrient availability * growth of spruce tree Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  3. Soil Nutrient Availability, Plant Nutrient Uptake, and Wild Blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium Ait. Yield in Response to N-Viro Biosolids and Irrigation Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aitazaz A. Farooque

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We compared the impact of surface broadcasted N-Viro biosolids and inorganic fertilizer (16.5% Ammonium sulphate, 34.5% Diammonium phosphate, 4.5% Potash, and 44.5% s and/or clay filler applications on soil properties and nutrients, leaf nutrient concentration, and the fruit yield of lowbush blueberry under irrigated and nonirrigated conditions during 2008-2009 at Debert, NS, Canada. Application rates of N-Viro biosolids were more than double of inorganic fertilizer applied at a recommended N rate of 32 kg ha−1. The experimental treatments NI: N-Viro with irrigation, FI: inorganic fertilizer with irrigation, N: N-Viro without irrigation, and F: inorganic fertilizer without irrigation (control were replicated four times under a randomized complete block design. The NI treatment had the highest OM (6.68% followed by FI (6.32%, N (6.18%, and F (4.43% treatments during the year 2008. Similar trends were observed during 2009 with the highest soil OM values (5.50% for NI treatment. Supplemental irrigation resulted in a 21% increase in the ripe fruit yield. Nonsignificant effect of fertilizer treatments on most of the nutrient concentrations in soil and plant leaves, and on ripe fruits yield reflects that the performance of N-Viro was comparable with that of the inorganic fertilizer used in this study.

  4. Convenience stores are the key food environment influence on nutrients available from household food supplies in Texas Border Colonias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharkey Joseph R

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have focused on the relationship between the retail food environment and household food supplies. This study examines spatial access to retail food stores, food shopping habits, and nutrients available in household food supplies among 50 Mexican-origin families residing in Texas border colonias. Methods The design was cross-sectional; data were collected in the home March to June 2010 by promotora-researchers. Ground-truthed methods enumerated traditional (supercenters, supermarkets, grocery stores, convenience (convenience stores and food marts, and non-traditional (dollar stores, discount stores retail food stores. Spatial access was computed using the network distance from each participant’s residence to each food store. Data included survey data and two household food inventories (HFI of the presence and amount of food items in the home. The Spanish language interviewer-administered survey included demographics, transportation access, food purchasing, food and nutrition assistance program participation, and the 18-item Core Food Security Module. Nutrition Data Systems for Research (NDS-R was used to calculate HFI nutrients. Adult equivalent adjustment constants (AE, based on age and gender calorie needs, were calculated based on the age- and gender composition of each household and used to adjust HFI nutrients for household composition. Data were analyzed using bivariate analysis and linear regression models to determine the association of independent variables with the availability of each AE-adjusted nutrient. Results Regression models showed that households in which the child independently purchased food from a convenience store at least once a week had foods and beverages with increased amounts of total energy, total fat, and saturated fat. A greater distance to the nearest convenience store was associated with reduced amounts of total energy, vitamin D, total sugar, added sugar, total fat, and saturated

  5. Convenience stores are the key food environment influence on nutrients available from household food supplies in Texas Border Colonias

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Few studies have focused on the relationship between the retail food environment and household food supplies. This study examines spatial access to retail food stores, food shopping habits, and nutrients available in household food supplies among 50 Mexican-origin families residing in Texas border colonias. Methods The design was cross-sectional; data were collected in the home March to June 2010 by promotora-researchers. Ground-truthed methods enumerated traditional (supercenters, supermarkets, grocery stores), convenience (convenience stores and food marts), and non-traditional (dollar stores, discount stores) retail food stores. Spatial access was computed using the network distance from each participant’s residence to each food store. Data included survey data and two household food inventories (HFI) of the presence and amount of food items in the home. The Spanish language interviewer-administered survey included demographics, transportation access, food purchasing, food and nutrition assistance program participation, and the 18-item Core Food Security Module. Nutrition Data Systems for Research (NDS-R) was used to calculate HFI nutrients. Adult equivalent adjustment constants (AE), based on age and gender calorie needs, were calculated based on the age- and gender composition of each household and used to adjust HFI nutrients for household composition. Data were analyzed using bivariate analysis and linear regression models to determine the association of independent variables with the availability of each AE-adjusted nutrient. Results Regression models showed that households in which the child independently purchased food from a convenience store at least once a week had foods and beverages with increased amounts of total energy, total fat, and saturated fat. A greater distance to the nearest convenience store was associated with reduced amounts of total energy, vitamin D, total sugar, added sugar, total fat, and saturated fat. Participation in

  6. Convenience stores are the key food environment influence on nutrients available from household food supplies in Texas Border Colonias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharkey, Joseph R; Dean, Wesley R; Nalty, Courtney C; Xu, Jin

    2013-01-17

    Few studies have focused on the relationship between the retail food environment and household food supplies. This study examines spatial access to retail food stores, food shopping habits, and nutrients available in household food supplies among 50 Mexican-origin families residing in Texas border colonias. The design was cross-sectional; data were collected in the home March to June 2010 by promotora-researchers. Ground-truthed methods enumerated traditional (supercenters, supermarkets, grocery stores), convenience (convenience stores and food marts), and non-traditional (dollar stores, discount stores) retail food stores. Spatial access was computed using the network distance from each participant's residence to each food store. Data included survey data and two household food inventories (HFI) of the presence and amount of food items in the home. The Spanish language interviewer-administered survey included demographics, transportation access, food purchasing, food and nutrition assistance program participation, and the 18-item Core Food Security Module. Nutrition Data Systems for Research (NDS-R) was used to calculate HFI nutrients. Adult equivalent adjustment constants (AE), based on age and gender calorie needs, were calculated based on the age- and gender composition of each household and used to adjust HFI nutrients for household composition. Data were analyzed using bivariate analysis and linear regression models to determine the association of independent variables with the availability of each AE-adjusted nutrient. Regression models showed that households in which the child independently purchased food from a convenience store at least once a week had foods and beverages with increased amounts of total energy, total fat, and saturated fat. A greater distance to the nearest convenience store was associated with reduced amounts of total energy, vitamin D, total sugar, added sugar, total fat, and saturated fat. Participation in the National School Lunch

  7. The texture, structure and nutrient availability of artificial soil on cut slopes restored with OSSS - Influence of restoration time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhiyu; Chen, Jiao; Ai, Xiaoyan; Li, Ruirui; Ai, Yingwei; Li, Wei

    2017-09-15

    Outside soil spray seeding (OSSS) is widely used to restore cut slopes in southwest of China, and artificial soil is often sprayed onto cut slopes to establish a soil layer for revegetation. The stability of artificial soil layer and its supply of water and nutrients for plants is crucial for successful restoration. To evaluate the long-term effectiveness of OSSS, the texture, structure and nutrient availability of artificial soil were studied, various soil samples were obtained from three cut slopes with different restoration time (restored with OSSS in 1996, 2003 and 2007 respectively) and one natural developed slope (NS). The properties measured including soil particle size distribution (PSD), texture, fractal dimension of PSD (D m ), the bias (C S ) and peak convex (C E ) coefficients of aggregate size distribution, structure failure rate, bulk density, moisture, pH, soil organic carbon (SOC), calcium carbonate content, Available nitrogen (N A ), Available phosphorus (P A ), and Available potassium (K A ). The results showed that different restoration time resulted in significant differences in soil PSD, D m , C S , C E , structure failure rate, bulk density, moisture, pH, N A , and K A . And these properties improved with increasing restoration age. However, there is still a huge disparity in soil texture, structure, and the availability of nutrients and moisture between the cut slopes and NS over a restoration period of up to 17 years, and this is caused by the little fine particles and the lack of slow release fertilizers and organic fertilizers in the artificial soil, resulting in poorer soil structure stability, retention and availability of moisture and nutrients on the cut slopes. Overall, the OSSS technique shows a long-term effectiveness in southwest of China, but there is still room for improvement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Nutrient and carbon availability influences on denitrification in the regulated Lower Colorado River, Austin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spector, J.

    2016-12-01

    The Lower Colorado River in Austin, Texas receives nitrogen-rich runoff and treated wastewater effluent and is subject to periodic water releases from the Longhorn Dam, which cause fluctuations in groundwater stage downstream. This research examined groundwater denitrification at the Hornsby Bend riparian area (located approximately 24 km downstream of downtown Austin) and characterized how dam-induced hyporheic exchange affects denitrification rates. Conductivity, temperature, water level, and dissolved oxygen concentrations were measured continuously throughout flood pulses for six months using dataloggers installed in a transect of seven monitoring wells on the river bank. Hourly samples were collected using an autosampler in one monitoring well (MW-5) during various flood conditions during the six month monitoring period. Water samples were analyzed for total organic carbon, total nitrogen, anions (NO3- and NO2-), NH4+ concentrations, alkalinity, and specific ultraviolet absorbance (SUVA) to characterize dissolved organic matter. Following large flood events (up to 4 m of water level stage increase), average conductivity increased 300 µs/centimeter in MW-5 as the water level receded. Analysis of water samples indicated that NO3- reduction occurred as conductivity and alkalinity increased. In addition, NH4+ concentrations increased during high conductivity periods. Increased denitrification activity corresponded with high SUVA. High conductivity and alkalinity increase the availability of electron donors (HCO3- and CO32-) and enhances denitrification potential. Higher SUVA values indicate increased dissolved organic carbon aromaticity and corresponding NO3- reduction. Additionally, changes in dissolved organic matter lability indicate the residence times of possible reactive organic carbon in the riparian area. This study has implications for determining advantageous geochemical conditions for hyporheic zone denitrification following large flood events.

  9. [Changes in bio-availability of immobilized Cu and Zn bound to phosphate in contaminated soils with different nutrient addition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ming-Gang; Zhang, Qian; Sun, Nan; Shen, Hua-Ping; Zhang, Wen-Ju

    2009-07-15

    Bio-availability of Cu and Zn fixed by phosphate in contaminated soils with application of nutrients were measured by pot experiment. It was simulated for the third national standardization of copper and zinc polluted soils by adding copper and zinc nitrate into red and paddy soils, respectively and together. Phosphate amendment was added to the soils to fix Cu and Zn, then added KCl and NH4Cl or K2SO4 and (NH4)2SO4 fertilizers following to plant Ryegrass, which was harvested after 40 d. Available Cu/Zn content in soils and biomass, Cu/Zn content in the shoot of Ryegrass were determined. Results showed that, compared with no nutrient application, adding KCl and NH4 Cl/K2SO4 and (NH4)2SO4 to polluted red and paddy soils increased the available Cu and Zn content in red soil significantly. The increasing order was KCl and NH4 Cl > K2SO4 and (NH4)2SO4. Especially in single Zn polluted red soil, the available Zn content increased by 133.4% in maximum. Although adding K2SO4 and (NH4)2SO4 could promote the growth of Ryegrass on red soil, and the largest increasing was up to 22.2%, it increased Cu and Zn content in the shoot of Ryegrass for 21.5%-112.6% remarkably. These nutrient effects on available Cu and Zn were not significantly in paddy soil. It was suggested that application of nitrogen and potassium fertilizers to soils could change the bioavailability of Cu/Zn. So it is necessary to take full account of the nutrient influence to the heavy metal stability which fixed by phosphate in contaminated soils when consider contaminated soils remediation by fertilization.

  10. DAF-2 and ERK Couple Nutrient Availability to Meiotic Progression during Caenorhabditis elegans Oogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Andrew L.; Chen, Jessica; Joo, Hyoe-Jin; Drake, Melanie; Shidate, Miri; Kseib, Cedric; Arur, Swathi

    2013-01-01

    Coupling the production of mature gametes and fertilized zygotes to favorable nutritional conditions improves reproductive success. In invertebrates, the proliferation of female germ line stem cells is regulated by nutritional status. But, in mammals the number of female germ line stem cells is set early in development, with oocytes progressing through meiosis later in life. Mechanisms that couple later steps of oogenesis to environmental conditions remain largely undefined. We show that in the presence of food, the DAF-2 insulin-like receptor signals through the RAS-ERK pathway to drive meiotic prophase I progression and oogenesis; in the absence of food, the resultant inactivation of insulin-like signaling leads to downregulation of RAS-ERK pathway, and oogenesis is stalled. Thus, the insulin-like signaling pathway couples nutrient sensing to meiotic I progression and oocyte production in C. elegans, ensuring that oocytes are only produced under conditions favorable for the survival of the resulting zygotes. PMID:24120884

  11. Nutrient availability affects pigment production but not growth in lichens of biological soil crusts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowker, M.A.; Koch, G.W.; Belnap, J.; Johnson, N.C.

    2008-01-01

    Recent research suggests that micronutrients such as Mn may limit growth of slow-growing biological soil crusts (BSCs) in some of the drylands of the world. These soil surface communities contribute strongly to arid ecosystem function and are easily degraded, creating a need for new restoration tools. The possibility that Mn fertilization could be used as a restoration tool for BSCs has not been tested previously. We used microcosms in a controlled greenhouse setting to investigate the hypothesis that Mn may limit photosynthesis and consequently growth in Collema tenax, a dominant N-fixing lichen found in BSCs worldwide. We found no evidence to support our hypothesis; furthermore, addition of other nutrients (primarily P, K, and Zn) had a suppressive effect on gross photosynthesis (P = 0.05). We also monitored the growth and physiological status of our microcosms and found that other nutrients increased the production of scytonemin, an important sunscreen pigment, but only when not added with Mn (P = 0.01). A structural equation model indicated that this effect was independent of any photosynthesis-related variable. We propose two alternative hypotheses to account for this pattern: (1) Mn suppresses processes needed to produce scytonemin; and (2) Mn is required to suppress scytonemin production at low light, when it is an unnecessary photosynthate sink. Although Mn fertilization does not appear likely to increase photosynthesis or growth of Collema, it could have a role in survivorship during environmentally stressful periods due to modification of scytonemin production. Thus, Mn enrichment should be studied further for its potential to facilitate BSC rehabilitation. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Discipline, availability of electronic resources and the use of Finnish National Electronic Library - FinELib

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanna Torma

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This study elaborated relations between digital library use by university faculty, users' discipline and the availability of key resources in the Finnish National Electronic Library (FinELib, Finnish national digital library, by using nationwide representative survey data. The results show that the perceived availability of key electronic resources by researchers in FinELib was a stronger predictor of the frequency and purpose of use of its services than users' discipline. Regardless of discipline a good perceived provision of central resources led to a more frequent use of FinELib. The satisfaction with the services did not vary with the discipline, but with the perceived availability of resources.

  13. Convenience stores are the key food environment influence on nutrients available from household food supplies in Texas Border Colonias

    OpenAIRE

    Sharkey, Joseph R; Dean, Wesley R; Nalty, Courtney C; Xu, Jin

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Few studies have focused on the relationship between the retail food environment and household food supplies. This study examines spatial access to retail food stores, food shopping habits, and nutrients available in household food supplies among 50 Mexican-origin families residing in Texas border colonias. Methods The design was cross-sectional; data were collected in the home March to June 2010 by promotora-researchers. Ground-truthed methods enumerated traditional (supe...

  14. Retail availability and marketing of electronic cigarettes in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, David; White, Christine M; Czoli, Christine D; Martin, Christina L; Magennis, Paul; Shiplo, Samantha

    2015-10-09

    Canada is among an increasing number of countries with restrictions on the sale of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes). In Canada, e-cigarettes containing nicotine have not been approved for sale; however, e-cigarettes that do not contain nicotine and do not make health claims can be sold. To date, there is little empirical evidence assessing the retail availability and marketing of e-cigarettes in countries such as Canada. Audits were conducted at 59 brick-and-mortar retail outlets (grocery stores, convenience stores, tobacconist shops and vape shops) in four cities (Vancouver, Toronto, Montreal and Halifax) in August-October 2014. In addition, a total of 21 e-cigarette manufacturer/retailer websites were audited, and inquiries were made as to whether the companies sold nicotine-containing products. Overall, 76% of the retail outlets sold e-cigarette products. Of convenience stores, grocery stores and tobacconist shops with e-cigarettes for sale, the vast majority (94%) sold nicotine-free products only; in contrast, all the vape shops sold at least one nicotine-containing e-cigarette product. Front counter displays were the most common form of in-store promotions and were present in virtually all convenience stores, tobacconist shops and vape shops. Nicotine-containing e-cigarettes were available for purchase at approximately half (52%) of the online e-cigarette retailers surveyed. E-cigarettes with and without nicotine are widely available and marketed at a variety of retail outlets in Canada. "Illegal" sales of nicotinecontaining e-cigarettes were predominantly found at vape shops and online outlets, suggesting limited compliance with existing regulations.

  15. Evidence of soil nutrient availability as the proximate constraint on growth of treeline trees in northwest Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Patrick F; Ellison, Sarah B Z; McNown, Robert W; Brownlee, Annalis H; Sveinbjörnsson, Bjartmar

    2015-03-01

    The position of the Arctic treeline, which is a key regulator of surface energy exchange and carbon cycling, is widely thought to be controlled by temperature. Here, we present evidence that soil nutrient availability, rather than temperature, may be the proximate control on growth of treeline trees at our study site in northwest Alaska. We examined constraints on growth and allocation of white spruce in three contrasting habitats. The habitats had similar aboveground climates, but soil temperature declined from the riverside terrace to the forest to the treeline. We identified six lines of evidence that conflict with the hypothesis of direct temperature control and/or point to the importance of soil nutrient availability. First, the magnitude of aboveground growth declined from the terrace to the forest to the treeline, along gradients of diminishing soil nitrogen (N) availability and needle N concentration. Second, peak rates of branch extension, main stem radial and fine-root growth were generally not coincident with seasonal air and soil temperature maxima. At the treeline, in particular, rates of aboveground and fine-root growth declined well before air and soil temperatures reached their seasonal peaks. Third, in contrast with the hypothesis of temperature-limited growth, growing season average net photosynthesis was positively related to the sum of normalized branch extension, main stem radial and fine-root growth across trees and sites. Fourth, needle nonstructural carbohydrate concentration was significantly higher on the terrace, where growth was greatest. Fifth, annual branch extension growth was positively related to snow depth, consistent with the hypothesis that deeper snow promotes microbial activity and greater soil nutrient availability. Finally, the tree ring record revealed a large growth increase during late 20th-century climate warming on the terrace, where soil N availability is relatively high. Meanwhile, trees in the forest and at the

  16. Effects of wheat straw incorporation on the availability of soil nutrients and enzyme activities in semiarid areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Wei

    Full Text Available Soil infertility is the main barrier to dryland agricultural production in China. To provide a basis for the establishment of a soil amelioration technical system for rainfed fields in the semiarid area of northwest China, we conducted a four-year (2007-2011 field experiment to determine the effects of wheat straw incorporation on the arid soil nutrient levels of cropland cultivated with winter wheat after different straw incorporation levels. Three wheat straw incorporation levels were tested (H: 9000 kg hm(-2, M: 6000 kg hm(-2, and L: 3000 kg hm(-2 and no straw incorporation was used as the control (CK. The levels of soil nutrients, soil organic carbon (SOC, soil labile organic carbon (LOC, and enzyme activities were analyzed each year after the wheat harvest. After straw incorporation for four years, the results showed that variable straw amounts had different effects on the soil fertility indices, where treatment H had the greatest effect. Compared with CK, the average soil available N, available P, available K, SOC, and LOC levels were higher in the 0-40 cm soil layers after straw incorporation treatments, i.e., 9.1-30.5%, 9.8-69.5%, 10.3-27.3%, 0.7-23.4%, and 44.4-49.4% higher, respectively. On average, the urease, phosphatase, and invertase levels in the 0-40 cm soil layers were 24.4-31.3%, 9.9-36.4%, and 42.9-65.3% higher, respectively. Higher yields coupled with higher nutrient contents were achieved with H, M and L compared with CK, where these treatments increased the crop yields by 26.75%, 21.51%, and 7.15%, respectively.

  17. The potential of freshwater macroalgae as a biofuels feedstock and the influence of nutrient availability on freshwater macroalgal biomass production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Jin-Ho

    Extensive efforts have been made to evaluate the potential of microalgae as a biofuel feedstock during the past 4-5 decades. However, filamentous freshwater macroalgae have numerous characteristics that favor their potential use as an alternative algal feedstock for biofuels production. Freshwater macroalgae exhibit high rates of areal productivity, and their tendency to form dense floating mats on the water surface imply significant reductions in harvesting and dewater costs compared to microalgae. In Chapter 1, I reviewed the published literature on the elemental composition and energy content of five genera of freshwater macroalgae. This review suggested that freshwater macroalgae compare favorably with traditional bio-based energy sources, including terrestrial residues, wood, and coal. In addition, I performed a semi-continuous culture experiment using the common Chlorophyte genus Oedogonium to investigate whether nutrient availability can influence its higher heating value (HHV), productivity, and proximate analysis. The experimental study suggested that the most nutrient-limited growth conditions resulted in a significant increase in the HHV of the Oedogonium biomass (14.4 MJ/kg to 16.1 MJ/kg). Although there was no significant difference in productivity between the treatments, the average dry weight productivity of Oedogonium (3.37 g/m2/day) was found to be much higher than is achievable with common terrestrial plant crops. Although filamentous freshwater macroalgae, therefore, have significant potential as a renewable source of bioenergy, the ultimate success of freshwater macroalgae as a biofuel feedstock will depend upon the ability to produce biomass at the commercial-scale in a cost-effective and sustainable manner. Aquatic ecology can play an important role to achieve the scale-up of algal crop production by informing the supply rates of nutrients to the cultivation systems, and by helping to create adaptive production systems that are resilient to

  18. AVAILABILITY, ACCESSIBILITY, PRIVACY AND SAFETY ISSUES FACING ELECTRONIC MEDICAL RECORDS

    OpenAIRE

    Nisreen Innab

    2018-01-01

    Patient information recorded in electronic medical records is the most significant set of information of the healthcare system. It assists healthcare providers to introduce high quality care for patients. The aim of this study identifies the security threats associated with electronic medical records and gives recommendations to keep them more secured. The study applied the qualitative research method through a case study. The study conducted seven interviews with medical staff and informatio...

  19. Effects of Environmental Factors and Nutrient Availability on the Biochemical Composition of Algae for Biofuels Production: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganti S. Murthy

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to significant lipid and carbohydrate production as well as other useful properties such as high production of useful biomolecular substrates (e.g., lipids and the ability to grow using non-potable water sources, algae are being explored as a potential high-yield feedstock for biofuels production. In both natural and engineered systems, algae can be exposed to a variety of environmental conditions that affect growth rate and cellular composition. With respect to the latter, the amount of carbon fixed in lipids and carbohydrates (e.g., starch is highly influenced by environmental factors and nutrient availability. Understanding synergistic interactions between multiple environmental variables and nutritional factors is required to develop sustainable high productivity bioalgae systems, which are essential for commercial biofuel production. This article reviews the effects of environmental factors (i.e., temperature, light and pH and nutrient availability (e.g., carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, and trace metals as well as cross-interactions on the biochemical composition of algae with a special focus on carbon fixation and partitioning of carbon from a biofuels perspective.

  20. Synergistic effects of pCO2 and iron availability on nutrient consumption ratio of the Bering Sea phytoplankton community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Sugie

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Little is known concerning the effect of CO2 on phytoplankton ecophysiological processes under nutrient and trace element-limited conditions, because most CO2 manipulation experiments have been conducted under elements-replete conditions. To investigate the effects of CO2 and iron availability on phytoplankton ecophysiology, we conducted an experiment in September 2009 using a phytoplankton community in the iron limited, high-nutrient, low-chlorophyll (HNLC region of the Bering Sea basin . Carbonate chemistry was controlled by the bubbling of the several levels of CO2 concentration (180, 380, 600, and 1000 ppm controlled air, and two iron conditions were established, one with and one without the addition of inorganic iron. We demonstrated that in the iron-limited control conditions, the specific growth rate and the maximum photochemical quantum efficiency (Fv/Fm of photosystem (PS II decreased with increasing CO2 levels, suggesting a further decrease in iron bioavailability under the high-CO2 conditions. In addition, biogenic silica to particulate nitrogen and biogenic silica to particulate organic carbon ratios increased from 2.65 to 3.75 and 0.39 to 0.50, respectively, with an increase in the CO2 level in the iron-limited controls. By contrast, the specific growth rate, Fv/Fm values and elemental compositions in the iron-added treatments did not change in response to the CO2 variations, indicating that the addition of iron canceled out the effect of the modulation of iron bioavailability due to the change in carbonate chemistry. Our results suggest that high-CO2 conditions can alter the biogeochemical cycling of nutrients through decreasing iron bioavailability in the iron-limited HNLC regions in the future.

  1. Fungal endophyte (Epichloë festucae alters the nutrient content of Festuca rubra regardless of water availability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz R Vázquez-de-Aldana

    Full Text Available Festuca rubra plants maintain associations with the vertically transmitted fungal endophyte Epichloë festucae. A high prevalence of infected host plants in semiarid grasslands suggests that this association could be mutualistic. We investigated if the Epichloë-endophyte affects the growth and nutrient content of F. rubra plants subjected to drought. Endophyte-infected (E+ and non-infected (E- plants of two half-sib lines (PEN and RAB were subjected to three water availability treatments. Shoot and root biomass, nutrient content, proline, phenolic compounds and fungal alkaloids were measured after the treatments. The effect of the endophyte on shoot and root biomass and dead leaves depended on the plant line. In the PEN line, E+ plants had a greater S:R ratio than E-, but the opposite occurred in RAB. In both plant lines and all water treatments, endophyte-infected plants had greater concentrations of N, P and Zn in shoots and Ca, Mg and Zn in roots than E- plants. On average, E+ plants contained in their shoots more P (62%, Zn (58% and N (19% than E- plants. While the proline in shoots increased in response to water stress, the endophyte did not affect this response. A multivariate analysis showed that endophyte status and plant line impose stronger differences in the performance of the plants than the water stress treatments. Furthermore, differences between PEN and RAB lines seemed to be greater in E- than in E+ plants, suggesting that E+ plants of both lines are more similar than those of their non-infected version. This is probably due to the endophyte producing a similar effect in both plant lines, such as the increase in N, P and Zn in shoots. The remarkable effect of the endophyte in the nutrient balance of the plants could help to explain the high prevalence of infected plants in natural grasslands.

  2. Nutrient Availability Alters the Effect of Autophagy on Sulindac Sulfide-Induced Colon Cancer Cell Apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiun-Kwei Chiou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Autophagy is a catabolic process by which a cell degrades its intracellular materials to replenish itself. Induction of autophagy under various cellular stress stimuli can lead to either cell survival or cell death via apoptotic and/or autophagic (nonapoptotic pathways. The NSAID sulindac sulfide induces apoptosis in colon cancer cells. Here, we show that inhibition of autophagy under serum-deprived conditions resulted in significant reductions of sulindac sulfide-induced apoptosis in HT-29 colon cancer cells. In contrast, inhibition of autophagy under conditions where serum is available significantly increased sulindac sulfide-induced apoptosis in HT-29 cells. We previously showed that the apoptosis inhibitor, survivin, plays a role in regulating NSAID-induced apoptosis and autophagic cell death. Here, we show that survivin protein half-life is increased in the presence of autophagy inhibitors under serum-deprived conditions, but not under conditions when serum is available. Thus, the increased levels of survivin may be a factor contributing to inhibition of sulindac sulfide-induced apoptosis under serum-deprived conditions. These results suggest that whether a cell lives or dies due to autophagy induction depends on the balance of factors that regulate both autophagic and apoptotic processes.

  3. Particle water and pH in the eastern Mediterranean: source variability and implications for nutrient availability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bougiatioti

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Particle water (liquid water content, LWC and aerosol pH are important parameters of the aerosol phase, affecting heterogeneous chemistry and bioavailability of nutrients that profoundly impact cloud formation, atmospheric composition, and atmospheric fluxes of nutrients to ecosystems. Few measurements of in situ LWC and pH, however, exist in the published literature. Using concurrent measurements of aerosol chemical composition, cloud condensation nuclei activity, and tandem light scattering coefficients, the particle water mass concentrations associated with the aerosol inorganic (Winorg and organic (Worg components are determined for measurements conducted at the Finokalia atmospheric observation station in the eastern Mediterranean between June and November 2012. These data are interpreted using the ISORROPIA-II thermodynamic model to predict the pH of aerosols originating from the various sources that influence air quality in the region. On average, closure between predicted aerosol water and that determined by comparison of ambient with dry light scattering coefficients was achieved to within 8 % (slope  =  0.92, R2  =  0.8, n  =  5201 points. Based on the scattering measurements, a parameterization is also derived, capable of reproducing the hygroscopic growth factor (f(RH within 15 % of the measured values. The highest aerosol water concentrations are observed during nighttime, when relative humidity is highest and the collapse of the boundary layer increases the aerosol concentration. A significant diurnal variability is found for Worg with morning and afternoon average mass concentrations being 10–15 times lower than nighttime concentrations, thus rendering Winorg the main form of particle water during daytime. The average value of total aerosol water was 2.19 ± 1.75 µg m−3, contributing on average up to 33 % of the total submicron mass concentration. Average aerosol water associated with

  4. Groundwater Availability Alters Soil-plant Nutrient Cycling in a Stand of Invasive, N-fixing Phreatophytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, B. D.; Miyazawa, Y.; Hughes, F.; Ostertag, R.; Kettwich, S. K.; MacKenzie, R.; Dulaiova, H.; Waters, C. A.; Bishop, J.; Giambelluca, T. W.

    2013-12-01

    N-fixing phreatophytic trees are common in arid and semi-arid regions worldwide, and can play significant roles in modifying hydrology and soil-plant nutrient cycling where they are present. In light of reductions in groundwater levels in many arid regions we estimated annual transpiration rates at a stand level, and alterations to C, N and P accretion in soils as a function of groundwater depth in a ca.120 year old stand of Prosopis pallida along an elevation gradient in coastal leeward Hawaii. We measured sapflow and stand level sapwood area to quantify transpiration, and calculated groundwater transpiration rates using P. pallida stem water δ18O values. By measuring soil resistivity, we were able to compare the volume of groundwater transpired by these trees to groundwater depth across the stand. We examined nutrient deposition and accretion in soils in lowland areas of the stand with accessible shallow groundwater, compared to upland areas with no groundwater access, as indicated by stem water δ18O values. Resistivity results suggested that groundwater was at a height close to sea level throughout the stand. Transpiration was around 1900 m3 ha-1 year-1 in the areas of the stand closest to the sea (where groundwater was at around 1-4 m below ground level) and decreased to around a tenth of that volume where groundwater was not accessible. Litterfall rates over the course of the year studied were 17 times greater at lowland sites, but this litterfall contributed ca. 24 times the N, and 35 times the P of upland sites. Thus, groundwater access contributed to the total mass of nitrogen and phosphorus deposited in the form of litter through higher litter quantity and quality. Total N content of soils was 4.7 times greater and inorganic N pools were eight times higher at lowland plots. These results suggest that groundwater depth can have strong effects on soil-plant nutrient cycling, so that reductions in the availability of shallow groundwater are likely to impact

  5. Ultrastructural biomarkers in symbiotic algae reflect the availability of dissolved inorganic nutrients and particulate food to the reef coral holobiont

    OpenAIRE

    Sabrina eRosset; Cecilia eD'Angelo; Jörg eWiedenmann; Jörg eWiedenmann

    2015-01-01

    Reef building corals associated with symbiotic algae (zooxanthellae) can access environmental nutrients from different sources, most significantly via the uptake of dissolved inorganic nutrients by the algal symbiont and heterotrophic feeding of the coral host. Climate change is expected to alter the nutrient environment in coral reefs with the potential to benefit or disturb coral reef resilience. At present, the relative importance of the two major nutrient sources is not well understood, m...

  6. Availability of Electronic Resources for Service Provision in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study also revealed that majority of the University libraries have adequate basic infrastructure for effective electronic information services. ... acquired by the library are put into maximal use by the library clientele, thereby ensuring the achievement of the library's objective which is satisfying the users, information needs.

  7. 2008 Availability and Utilization of Electronic Information Databases ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gbaje E.S

    electronic information databases include; research work, to update knowledge in their field of interest and Current awareness. ... be read by a computer device. CD ROMs are ... business and government innovation. Its ... technologies, ideas and management practices ..... sources of information and storage devices bring.

  8. Reliability & availability of wind turbine electrical & electronic components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tavner, P.; Faulstich, S.; Hahn, B.; Bussel, van G.J.W.

    2010-01-01

    Recent analysis of European onshore wind turbine reliability data has shown that whilst wind turbine mechanical subassemblies tend to have relatively low failure rates but long downtimes, electrical and electronic subassemblies have relatively high failure rates and short downtimes. For onshore wind

  9. Particle water and pH in the Eastern Mediterranean: sources variability and implications for nutrients availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaou, P.; Bougiatioti, A.; Stavroulas, I.; Kouvarakis, G.; Nenes, A.; Weber, R.; Kanakidou, M.; Mihalopoulos, N.

    2015-10-01

    during early morning, late evening and nighttime hours. The aerosol was found to be highly acidic with calculated aerosol pH varying from 0.5 to 2.8 throughout the study period. Biomass burning aerosol presented the highest values of pH in the submicron fraction and the lowest values in total water mass concentration. The low pH values observed in the submicron mode and independently of air masses origin could increase nutrient availability and especially P solubility, which is the nutrient limiting sea water productivity of the eastern Mediterranean.

  10. Particle water and pH in the eastern Mediterranean: source variability and implications for nutrient availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bougiatioti, Aikaterini; Nikolaou, Panayiota; Stavroulas, Iasonas; Kouvarakis, Giorgos; Weber, Rodney; Nenes, Athanasios; Kanakidou, Maria; Mihalopoulos, Nikolaos

    2016-04-01

    contributed about 27.5 % to the total aerosol water, mostly during early morning, late evening, and nighttime hours.The aerosol was found to be highly acidic with calculated aerosol pH varying from 0.5 to 2.8 throughout the study period. Biomass burning aerosol presented the highest values of pH in the submicron fraction and the lowest values in total water mass concentration. The low pH values observed in the submicron mode and independently of air mass origin could increase nutrient availability and especially P solubility, which is the nutrient limiting sea water productivity of the eastern Mediterranean.

  11. Comparative analysis of phytochemicals and nutrient availability in two contrasting cultivars of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekhar, Shubhendu; Mishra, Divya; Buragohain, Alak Kumar; Chakraborty, Subhra; Chakraborty, Niranjan

    2015-04-15

    Sweet potato ranks as the world's seventh most important food crop, and has major contribution to energy and phytochemical source of nutrition. To unravel the molecular basis for differential nutrient availability, and to exploit the natural genetic variation(s) of sweet potato, a series of physiochemical and proteomics experiment was conducted using two contrasting cultivars, an orange-fleshed sweet potato (OFSP) and a white-fleshed sweet potato (WFSP). Phytochemical screening revealed high percentage of carbohydrate, reducing sugar and phenolics in WFSP, whereas OFSP showed increased levels of total protein, flavonoids, anthocyanins, and carotenoids. The rate of starch and cellulose degradation was found to be less in OFSP during storage, indicating tight regulation of gene(s) responsible for starch-degradation. Comparative proteomics displayed a cultivar-dependent expression of proteins along with evolutionarily conserved proteins. These results suggest that cultivar-specific expression of proteins and/or their interacting partners might play a crucial role for nutrient acquisition in sweet potato. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Spring thaw ionic pulses boost nutrient availability and microbial growth in entombed Antarctic Dry Valley cryoconite holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon eTelling

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The seasonal melting of ice entombed cryoconite holes on McMurdo Dry Valley glaciers provides oases for life in the harsh environmental conditions of the polar desert where surface air temperatures only occasionally exceed 0°C during the Austral summer. Here we follow temporal changes in cryoconite hole biogeochemistry on Canada Glacier from fully frozen conditions through the initial stages of spring thaw towards fully melted holes. The cryoconite holes had a mean isolation age from the glacial drainage system of 3.4 years, with an increasing mass of aqueous nutrients (dissolved organic carbon, total nitrogen, total phosphorus with longer isolation age. During the initial melt there was a mean nine times enrichment in dissolved chloride relative to mean concentrations of the initial frozen holes indicative of an ionic pulse, with similar mean nine times enrichments in nitrite, ammonium, and dissolved organic matter. Nitrate was enriched twelve times and dissolved organic nitrogen six times, suggesting net nitrification, while lower enrichments for dissolved organic phosphorus and phosphate were consistent with net microbial phosphorus uptake. Rates of bacterial production were significantly elevated during the ionic pulse, likely due to the increased nutrient availability. There was no concomitant increase in photosynthesis rates, with a net depletion of dissolved inorganic carbon suggesting inorganic carbon limitation. Potential nitrogen fixation was detected in fully melted holes where it could be an important source of nitrogen to support microbial growth, but not during the ionic pulse where nitrogen availability was higher. This study demonstrates that ionic pulses significantly alter the timing and magnitude of microbial activity within entombed cryoconite holes, and adds credence to hypotheses that ionic enrichments during freeze-thaw can elevate rates of microbial growth and activity in other icy habitats, such as ice veins and

  13. Contribution of trees and grasses to ecosystem fluxes of water, carbon, and energy throughout the seasons under different nutrient availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Madany, T. S.; Migliavacca, M.; Perez-Priego, O.; Luo, Y.; Moreno, G.; Carrara, A.; Kolle, O.; Reichstein, M.

    2017-12-01

    In semi-arid savanna type ecosystems, the carbon and water cycle are closely related to each other. Water availability is the main driver for the development and phenology of the vegetation, especially for annual plants. Depending on tree density, nutrient availability and species the contribution of the tree- and the herbaceous layer to ecosystem fluxes can vary substantially. We present data from an ecosystem scale nutrient manipulation experiment within a Mediterranean savanna type ecosystem which is used for cattle. The footprint areas of two out of three ecosystem eddy co-variance (EC) towers were fertilized with nitrogen (NT) and nitrogen plus phosphorous (NPT) while the third one served as the control tower (CT). At each ecosystem EC-tower an additional herbaceous layer tower was installed that only sampled fluxes from the herbaceous layer. Under certain assumptions flux differences between the ecosystem EC and the herbaceous layer EC systems can be considered as the contribution of the trees to the ecosystem fluxes. Based on phenology of the herbaceous layer estimated through green-chromatic-coordinates from digital imagery the year was separated into spring, senescence, regreening, and winter. The focus of the analysis is (i) the evaluation of the method and how it works throughout the different seasons and (ii) the quantification of the contribution of trees and grasses to ecosystem fluxes of water, carbon, and energy under different environmental conditions and nutrient stoichiometry. The contribution of the trees to total ecosystem fluxes is variable in time. Especially, during the beginning of the senescence period high evapotranspiration rates and largest carbon uptake are measured while the contribution to sensible heat fluxes is largest during the end of the summer. During the regreening and winter the contribution of ET is relatively constant around 0.25 mm d-1. During the peak of the greenness ET and carbon flux of the herbaceous EC tower are

  14. Spring thaw ionic pulses boost nutrient availability and microbial growth in entombed Antarctic Dry Valley cryoconite holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telling, Jon; Anesio, Alexandre M; Tranter, Martyn; Fountain, Andrew G; Nylen, Thomas; Hawkings, Jon; Singh, Virendra B; Kaur, Preeti; Musilova, Michaela; Wadham, Jemma L

    2014-01-01

    The seasonal melting of ice entombed cryoconite holes on McMurdo Dry Valley glaciers provides oases for life in the harsh environmental conditions of the polar desert where surface air temperatures only occasionally exceed 0°C during the Austral summer. Here we follow temporal changes in cryoconite hole biogeochemistry on Canada Glacier from fully frozen conditions through the initial stages of spring thaw toward fully melted holes. The cryoconite holes had a mean isolation age from the glacial drainage system of 3.4 years, with an increasing mass of aqueous nutrients (dissolved organic carbon, total nitrogen, total phosphorus) with longer isolation age. During the initial melt there was a mean nine times enrichment in dissolved chloride relative to mean concentrations of the initial frozen holes indicative of an ionic pulse, with similar mean nine times enrichments in nitrite, ammonium, and dissolved organic matter. Nitrate was enriched twelve times and dissolved organic nitrogen six times, suggesting net nitrification, while lower enrichments for dissolved organic phosphorus and phosphate were consistent with net microbial phosphorus uptake. Rates of bacterial production were significantly elevated during the ionic pulse, likely due to the increased nutrient availability. There was no concomitant increase in photosynthesis rates, with a net depletion of dissolved inorganic carbon suggesting inorganic carbon limitation. Potential nitrogen fixation was detected in fully melted holes where it could be an important source of nitrogen to support microbial growth, but not during the ionic pulse where nitrogen availability was higher. This study demonstrates that ionic pulses significantly alter the timing and magnitude of microbial activity within entombed cryoconite holes, and adds credence to hypotheses that ionic enrichments during freeze-thaw can elevate rates of microbial growth and activity in other icy habitats, such as ice veins and subglacial regelation zones.

  15. Effects of light quality and nutrient availability on accumulation of mycosporine-like amino acids in Gymnodinium catenatum (Dinophycea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale, Paulo

    2015-02-01

    A Portuguese Gymnodinium catenatum Graham strain was studied for its ultraviolet (UV) photoprotective pigments. This strain presented high absorption in the UVA region, in particular in the near UVA region around 370nm, followed by the far-UVA region around 340nm. Absorption in the near-UVA increased when grown under fluorescent when compared to halogen light. This was even more relevant when grown under nutrient-limiting conditions, which even surpassed absorption in the blue region, closely resembling absorption in natural plankton assemblages reported in the literature. HPLC analysis for mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs), revealed several UV photoprotective pigments common in other marine microalgae from the northwest Atlantic. Amongst the compounds absorbing in the far-UVA region, three were identified by spectra and retention time characteristics: shinorine, porphyra-334, and mycosporine-glycine. In the near-UVA region, the unknown M-370 was usually the most abundant, followed by palythene. The proportional and absolute cellular concentrations of MAAs absorbing in the near-UVA region increased with fluorescent light when compared to halogen light. Additional experiments with light filtration suggest the set of MAAs absorbing in the near-UVA region seem to be regulated separately from the other set of MAAs absorbing in the far-UVA region, and those from the near-UVA region might be stimulated not only by UV but by blue light also. Nutrient availability affected profile: a shift towards MAAs with low nitrogen:carbon ratio (e.g.: mycosporine-glycine) was observed. As G. catenatum requires extensive UV-photoprotection over the entire UVA range, nitrogen availability might strongly restrict blooming, as MAAs are nitrogen-based. This UV sensitivity might help explaining its pronounced autumnal seasonality, tied to a reduced solar exposure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Isotope technology as applied to studies of soil fertility, nutrient availability and fertilizer use on flooded rice soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patnaik, S.; Mohanty, S.K.; Dash, R.N.

    1979-01-01

    Research is reviewed on soil fertility and nutrient availability in relation to fertilizer efficiency, especially o stimulated the mineralization of soil N. Losses of added N from oxidation, leaching, denitrification and volatilization could be minimized through placement of N fertilizer in the reduced zone or by the addition of rice straw for rapid immobilization of added N. Fe-P and, to some extent, Al-P provided P to the rice plants, particularly in P-deficient soils. Added phosphates were converted to these forms which, under waterlogged soil conditions, released more P into the soil solution through reductive solubilization of Fe-P and hydrolytic dissolution of Al-P. The rice plants generally absorbed fertilizer N during the vegetative growth period and N mineralized from soil organic matter during the reproductive growth period. 15 N studies indicated higher grain yield and utilization of applied N through fractional application of 70-80% during the vegetative growth period, and the remaining 20-30% top-dressed at the panicle initiation stage. Ammonia-containing and -forming (urea) fertilizers were superior to the nitrate form of N. In field tests, however, the crop recovery of applied N was relatively low. Phosphatic fertilizers were best applied at puddling. In general, water-soluble phosphates were superior to citrate-soluble or insoluble phosphates. The latter could be made as efficient as the water-soluble phosphate, at comparable low rates, by applying to the moist aerobic acid soil 2-3 weeks before flooding and transplanting rice. Tracer studies have been used to evaluate the nutrient-supplying capacity of the soil from the 'A' value concept. 'A' values varied with varying conditions of soil, rate, time and form of fertilizer application. Zn nutrition of the rice plant and fertilizer use with 65 Zn have been studied relatively little. Some lines of future work are suggested

  17. Effects of Pig Manure Organic Fertilizer Application on Available Nutrient Content and Soil Aggregate Distribution in Fluvo-aquic Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHI Wen-xuan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on environmental risk caused by livestock manure disorderly discharged from integrated livestock and poultry industry. 2-year pot experiment was carried out to study the effects of pig manure organic fertilizer on fluvo-aquic soil organic carbon, available nutrient content and soil aggregate distribution, which designed in 5 levels of organic fertilizer application(0, 6.7, 13.3, 26.7, 40.0 g·kg-1 soil. The results showed that the organic carbon, alkali-hydrolyzable nitrogen, available P and available K contents in soil were enhanced with organic fertilizer application increasing, and the indicators of soil were increased significantly in second year, such as organic carbon content was 2.7%~54.0% higher than that of the first year, alkali-hydrolyzable nitrogen content was higher 6.7%~34.6%, available P content was higher 36.8%~159.5% and available K content was higher 20.3%~35.7%. There was a significant linear relationship between soil organic carbon content and external organic carbon input. Organic fertilizer application could significantly improve lettuce yield, and it had a significant effect. The soil micro-aggregate contents for 0.053~0.25 mm and 0.5 mm soil macro-aggregates were increased with organic fertilizer application increasing. Organic fertilizer application could promote soil macro-aggregates formation, when the pig manure organic fertilizer applied 40.0 g·kg-1 soil, the contents of >0.25 mm soil aggregates reached maximum, and also the mean weight diameter(MWD and geometric average diameter(GWD of soil aggregates were higher than that of other treatments, the soil agglomeration became more stronger and the soil structure became more stable.

  18. Food Availability in School Stores in Seoul, South Korea after Implementation of Food- and Nutrient-Based Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seul Ki; Frongillo, Edward A.; Blake, Christine E.; Thrasher, James F.

    2017-01-01

    Background: To improve school store food environments, the South Korean government implemented 2 policies restricting unhealthy food sales in school stores. A food-based policy enacted in 2007 restricts specific food sales (soft drinks); and a nutrient-based policy enacted in 2009 restricts energy-dense and nutrient-poor (EDNP) food sales. The…

  19. Bacterioplankton Community Dynamics and Nutrient Availability in a Shallow Well Mixed Estuary of the Northern Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoch, M. P.

    2016-02-01

    Sabine Lake Estuary is a shallow, well mixed, tidal lagoon of the Northern Gulf of Mexico. This study defines the bacterioplankton community composition and factors that may influence its variation in Sabine Lake Estuary. Twenty physicochemical parameters, phytoplankton photopigments, and bacterial 16SrDNA sequences were analyzed seasonally from twelve sites ranging from the inflows of Sabine and Neches Rivers to the Sabine Pass outflow. Photopigments were used to estimate phytoplankton groups via CHEMTAX, and bacterioplankton 16SrDNA sequences of 97% similarity were quantified and taxa identified. Nutrient availability experiments were conducted on bacterioplankton. Notable seasonal differences were seen in six of the ten most common (>3% of total sequences) classes of bacterioplankton. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) of common classes was used to explore physiochemical parameters and phytoplankton groups influencing variation in the bacterioplankton. Alphaproteobacteria were most abundant throughout the year. Opitutae, Actinobacteria, Sphingobacteria, and Beta-proteobacteria were strongly influenced by conditions with higher TDN, DOC, turbidity, and Chlorophytes during winter when high river discharges reduced salinity. Planctomycetacia were most prevalent during spring and coincide with predominance of Cryptophytes. In summer and fall the aforementioned classes decline, and there is an increase in Synechococcophycideae. Nitrogen was least available to bacterioplankton during summer and fall. Clearer, warmer and more saline conditions with lower DOC reflect tidal movement of seawater into the estuary when river discharges were low, conditions favorable for Synechococcophycidea. Seasonal fluctuations in physicochemical conditions and certain phytoplankton groups influence the variation in the bacterioplankton community in Sabine Lake Estuary.

  20. Vermicomposting of herbal pharmaceutical industry waste: earthworm growth, plant-available nutrient and microbial quality of end materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Deepika; Suthar, Surindra

    2012-05-01

    Efforts were made to decompose herbal pharmaceutical industrial waste (HPIW) spiked with cow dung (CD) using Eisenia fetida. A total of five vermibeds: T(1) - HPIW (0%+CD 100%, control), T(2) - HPIW (25%), T(3) - HPIW (50%), T(4) - HPIW (75%) and T(5) - HPIW (100%) were used for vermicomposting. The changes in biology and chemistry of vermibeds were measured after ten days interval. E. fetida showed high growth and cocoon production rate in all vermibeds. The vermicomposted material contained great population of fungi 6.0-40.6 (CFU × 10(5)g(-1)), bacteria 220-1276.0 (CFU × 10(8)g(-1)) and actinomycetes 410.0-2962.0 (CFU × 10(5)g(-1)) than initial material. Vermicomposted material was rich in plant-available forms of nutrients (N-NO(3)(-),PO(4)(3-),available K and SO(4)(-2)). Results suggested that noxious industrial waste can be converted into valuable product for sustainable soil fertility programme. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Changes in the oligomerization potential of the division inhibitor UgtP co-ordinate Bacillus subtilis cell size with nutrient availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, An-Chun; Zareh, Shannon Kian Gharabiklou; Wang, Yan Mei; Levin, Petra Anne

    2012-11-01

    How cells co-ordinate size with growth and development is a major, unresolved question in cell biology. In previous work we identified the glucosyltransferase UgtP as a division inhibitor responsible for increasing the size of Bacillus subtilis cells under nutrient-rich conditions. In nutrient-rich medium, UgtP is distributed more or less uniformly throughout the cytoplasm and concentrated at the cell poles and/or the cytokinetic ring. Under these conditions, UgtP interacts directly with FtsZ to inhibit division and increase cell size. Conversely, under nutrient-poor conditions, UgtP is sequestered away from FtsZ in punctate foci, and division proceeds unimpeded resulting in a reduction in average cell size. Here we report that nutrient-dependent changes in UgtP's oligomerization potential serve as a molecular rheostat to precisely co-ordinate B. subtilis cell size with nutrient availability. Our data indicate UgtP interacts with itself and the essential cell division protein FtsZ in a high-affinity manner influenced in part by UDP glucose, an intracellular proxy for nutrient availability. These findings support a model in which UDP-glc-dependent changes in UgtP's oligomerization potential shift the equilibrium between UgtP•UgtP and UgtP•FtsZ, fine-tuning the amount of FtsZ available for assembly into the cytokinetic ring and with it cell size. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Fine particle water and pH in the Eastern Mediterranean: Sources, variability and implications for nutrients availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bougiatioti, Aikaterini; Nikolaou, Panayiota; Stavroulas, Iasonas; Kouvarakis, Giorgos; Nenes, Athanasios; Weber, Rodney; Kanakidou, Maria; Mihalopoulos, Nikolaos

    2016-04-01

    total calculated water. Particle pH is also calculated with the help of ISORROPIA-II, and during the studied period, values varied from 0.5 to 2.8, indicating that the aerosol was highly acidic. pH values were also studied depending on the source/origin of the sampled air masses and biomass burning aerosol was found to exhibit the highest values of PM1 pH and the lowest values in total water mass concentrations. The two natural sources, namely mineral and marine origin, contained the largest amounts of total submicron water and the lowest contribution of organic water, as expected. The low pH values estimated for the studied period in the submicron mode and independently of the air masses' origin could potentially have important implications for nutrient availability, especially for phosphorus solubility, which is the nutrient limiting sea water productivity of the Eastern Mediterranean.

  3. Effects of burn temperature on ash nutrient forms and availability from cattail (Typha domingensis) and sawgrass (Cladium jamaicense) in the Florida Everglades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Y; Miao, S L; Gu, B; Li, Y C

    2009-01-01

    Plant ash derived from fire plays an important role in nutrient balance and cycling in ecosystems. Factors that determine the composition and availability of ash nutrients include fire intensity (burn temperature and duration), plant species, habitat nutrient enrichment, and leaf type (live or dead leaf). We used laboratory simulation methods to evaluate temperature effects on nutrient composition and metals in the residual ash of sawgrass (Cladium jamaicense) and cattail (Typha domingensis), particularly on post-fire phosphorus (P) availability in plant ash. Live and dead leaf samples were collected from Water Conservation Area 2A in the northern Everglades along a soil P gradient, where prescribed fire may be used to accelerate recovery of this unique ecosystem. Significant decreases in total carbon and total nitrogen were detected with increasing fire temperature. Organic matter combustion was nearly complete at temperatures > or = 450 degrees C. HCl-extractable P (average, 50% of total P in the ash) and NH(4)Cl-extractable P (average, 33% of total P in the ash) were the predominant P fractions for laboratory-burned ash. Although a low-intensity fire could induce an elevation of P availability, an intense fire generally resulted in decreased water-soluble P. Significant differences in nutrient compositions were observed between species, habitat nutrient status, and leaf types. More labile inorganic P remained in sawgrass ash than in cattail ash; hence, sawgrass ash has a greater potential to release available P than cattail. Fire intensity affected plant ash nutrient composition, particularly P availability, and the effects varied with plant species and leaf type. Therefore, it is important to consider fire intensity and vegetation community when using a prescribed fire for ecosystem management.

  4. Validity of electronic diet recording nutrient estimates compared to dietitian analysis of diet records: A randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Dietary intake assessment with diet records (DR) is a standard research and practice tool in nutrition. Manual entry and analysis of DR is time-consuming and expensive. New electronic tools for diet entry by clients and research participants may reduce the cost and effort of nutrient int...

  5. Growth of mature boreal Norway spruce was not affected by elevated [CO(2)] and/or air temperature unless nutrient availability was improved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurdsson, Bjarni D; Medhurst, Jane L; Wallin, Göran; Eggertsson, Olafur; Linder, Sune

    2013-11-01

    The growth responses of mature Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) trees exposed to elevated [CO(2)] (CE; 670-700 ppm) and long-term optimized nutrient availability or elevated air temperature (TE; ±3.9 °C) were studied in situ in northern Sweden in two 3 year field experiments using 12 whole-tree chambers in ca. 40-year-old forest. The first experiment (Exp. I) studied the interactions between CE and nutrient availability and the second (Exp. II) between CE and TE. It should be noted that only air temperature was elevated in Exp. II, while soil temperature was maintained close to ambient. In Exp. I, CE significantly increased the mean annual height increment, stem volume and biomass increment during the treatment period (25, 28, and 22%, respectively) when nutrients were supplied. There was, however, no significant positive CE effect found at the low natural nutrient availability. In Exp. II, which was conducted at the natural site fertility, neither CE nor TE significantly affected height or stem increment. It is concluded that the low nutrient availability (mainly nitrogen) in the boreal forests is likely to restrict their response to the continuous rise in [CO(2)] and/or TE.

  6. Experimentally increased nutrient availability at the permafrost thaw front selectively enhances biomass production of deep-rooting subarctic peatland species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keuper, Frida; Dorrepaal, Ellen; van Bodegom, Peter M; van Logtestijn, Richard; Venhuizen, Gemma; van Hal, Jurgen; Aerts, Rien

    2017-10-01

    Climate warming increases nitrogen (N) mineralization in superficial soil layers (the dominant rooting zone) of subarctic peatlands. Thawing and subsequent mineralization of permafrost increases plant-available N around the thaw-front. Because plant production in these peatlands is N-limited, such changes may substantially affect net primary production and species composition. We aimed to identify the potential impact of increased N-availability due to permafrost thawing on subarctic peatland plant production and species performance, relative to the impact of increased N-availability in superficial organic layers. Therefore, we investigated whether plant roots are present at the thaw-front (45 cm depth) and whether N-uptake ( 15 N-tracer) at the thaw-front occurs during maximum thaw-depth, coinciding with the end of the growing season. Moreover, we performed a unique 3-year belowground fertilization experiment with fully factorial combinations of deep- (thaw-front) and shallow-fertilization (10 cm depth) and controls. We found that certain species are present with roots at the thaw-front (Rubus chamaemorus) and have the capacity (R. chamaemorus, Eriophorum vaginatum) for N-uptake from the thaw-front between autumn and spring when aboveground tissue is largely senescent. In response to 3-year shallow-belowground fertilization (S) both shallow- (Empetrum hermaphroditum) and deep-rooting species increased aboveground biomass and N-content, but only deep-rooting species responded positively to enhanced nutrient supply at the thaw-front (D). Moreover, the effects of shallow-fertilization and thaw-front fertilization on aboveground biomass production of the deep-rooting species were similar in magnitude (S: 71%; D: 111% increase compared to control) and additive (S + D: 181% increase). Our results show that plant-available N released from thawing permafrost can form a thus far overlooked additional N-source for deep-rooting subarctic plant species and increase their

  7. Nutrient Profiles and Volatile Odorous Compounds of Raw Milk After Exposure to Electron Beam Pasteurizing Doses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Lindsay R; Kerth, Chris R; Pillai, Suresh D

    2017-07-01

    Raw milk is known to contain relatively high numbers of microorganisms, some of which include microbial pathogens. Electron beam (eBeam) processing is a nonthermal pasteurization food processing technology. The underlying hypothesis was that eBeam processing will not negatively influence the composition, nutrient content, and aroma profile of raw milk. Raw milk samples were exposed to eBeam doses of 1 and 2 kGy, since our studies had shown that 2 kGy is suitable for raw milk pasteurization. The untreated and eBeam-treated raw milk samples were analyzed to detect changes in lactose, vitamin B 2 , vitamin B 12 , and calcium concentrations. The possible breakdown of casein and whey proteins and lipid oxidation were investigated along with the formation of volatile aroma compounds. Even though vitamin B 2 showed a 31.6% decrease in concentration, the B 2 content in eBeam-pasteurized raw milk met all USDA nutritional guidelines. Even though there were no indications of lipid oxidation after the 2.0-kGy eBeam treatment, there was lipid oxidation (58%) after 7 d of refrigerated storage. However, based on the GC-olfactory analysis, the lipid oxidation did not necessarily result in the development of a wide variety of off-odors. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  8. 76 FR 66311 - Draft Documents To Support Submission of an Electronic Common Technical Document; Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-26

    ...] Draft Documents To Support Submission of an Electronic Common Technical Document; Availability AGENCY... making regulatory submissions in electronic format using the electronic Common Technical Document (eCTD....S. regional document type definition, version 3.0) and ``Comprehensive Table of Contents Headings...

  9. A new tool for converting food frequency questionnaire data into nutrient and food group values: FETA research methods and availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Angela A; Luben, Robert N; Bhaniani, Amit; Parry-Smith, David J; O'Connor, Laura; Khawaja, Anthony P; Forouhi, Nita G; Khaw, Kay-Tee

    2014-03-27

    To describe the research methods for the development of a new open source, cross-platform tool which processes data from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Norfolk Food Frequency Questionnaire (EPIC-Norfolk FFQ). A further aim was to compare nutrient and food group values derived from the current tool (FETA, FFQ EPIC Tool for Analysis) with the previously validated but less accessible tool, CAFÉ (Compositional Analyses from Frequency Estimates). The effect of text matching on intake data was also investigated. Cross-sectional analysis of a prospective cohort study-EPIC-Norfolk. East England population (city of Norwich and its surrounding small towns and rural areas). Complete FFQ data from 11 250 men and 13 602 women (mean age 59 years; range 40-79 years). Nutrient and food group intakes derived from FETA and CAFÉ analyses of EPIC-Norfolk FFQ data. Nutrient outputs from FETA and CAFÉ were similar; mean (SD) energy intake from FETA was 9222 kJ (2633) in men, 8113 kJ (2296) in women, compared with CAFÉ intakes of 9175 kJ (2630) in men, 8091 kJ (2298) in women. The majority of differences resulted in one or less quintile change (98.7%). Only mean daily fruit and vegetable food group intakes were higher in women than in men (278 vs 212 and 284 vs 255 g, respectively). Quintile changes were evident for all nutrients, with the exception of alcohol, when text matching was not executed; however, only the cereals food group was affected. FETA produces similar nutrient and food group values to the previously validated CAFÉ but has the advantages of being open source, cross-platform and complete with a data-entry form directly compatible with the software. The tool will facilitate research using the EPIC-Norfolk FFQ, and can be customised for different study populations.

  10. Effects of feeding frequency on apparent energy and nutrient digestibility/availability of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, reared at optimal and suboptimal temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study examined the effects of feeding frequency (daily versus every other day [EOD]) on nutrient digestibility/availability of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, reared at optimal (30 C) and suboptimal (24 C) temperatures. A 28% protein practical diet was used as the test diet, and chromic o...

  11. Ultra-processed foods have the worst nutrient profile, yet they are the most available packaged products in a sample of New Zealand supermarkets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luiten, Claire M; Steenhuis, Ingrid Hm; Eyles, Helen; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; Waterlander, Wilma E

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the availability of packaged food products in New Zealand supermarkets by level of industrial processing, nutrient profiling score (NPSC), price (energy, unit and serving costs) and brand variety. DESIGN: Secondary analysis of cross-sectional survey data on packaged supermarket

  12. Radiation-use efficiency and gas exchange responses to water and nutrient availability in irrigated and fertilized stands of sweetgum and sycamore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher B. Allen; Rodney E. Will; Robert C. McGravey; David R. Coyle; Mark D. Coleman

    2005-01-01

    We investigated how water and nutrient availability affect radiation-use effeciency (e) and assessed leaf gas exchange as a possible mechanism for shifts in e. We measured aboveground net primary production (ANPP) and annual photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) capture to calculate e as well as leaf-level physiological variables (light-saturated net photosynthesis...

  13. Microbial planktonic communities in the Red Sea: high levels of spatial and temporal variability shaped by nutrient availability and turbulence

    KAUST Repository

    Pearman, John K.; Ellis, Joanne; Irigoien, Xabier; Yellepeddi, Sarma B.; Jones, Burton; Carvalho, Susana

    2017-01-01

    The semi-enclosed nature of the Red Sea (20.2°N-38.5°N) makes it a natural laboratory to study the influence of environmental gradients on microbial communities. This study investigates the composition and structure of microbial prokaryotes and eukaryotes using molecular methods, targeting ribosomal RNA genes across different regions and seasons. The interaction between spatial and temporal scales results in different scenarios of turbulence and nutrient conditions allowing for testing of ecological theory that categorizes the response of the plankton community to these variations. The prokaryotic reads are mainly comprised of Cyanobacteria and Proteobacteria (Alpha and Gamma), with eukaryotic reads dominated by Dinophyceae and Syndiniophyceae. Periodic increases in the proportion of Mamiellophyceae and Bacillariophyceae reads were associated with alterations in the physical oceanography leading to nutrient increases either through the influx of Gulf of Aden Intermediate Water (south in the fall) or through water column mixing processes (north in the spring). We observed that in general dissimilarity amongst microbial communities increased when nutrient concentrations were higher, whereas richness (observed OTUs) was higher in scenarios of higher turbulence. Maximum abundance models showed the differential responses of dominant taxa to temperature giving an indication how taxa will respond as waters become warmer and more oligotrophic.

  14. Microbial planktonic communities in the Red Sea: high levels of spatial and temporal variability shaped by nutrient availability and turbulence

    KAUST Repository

    Pearman, John K.

    2017-07-20

    The semi-enclosed nature of the Red Sea (20.2°N-38.5°N) makes it a natural laboratory to study the influence of environmental gradients on microbial communities. This study investigates the composition and structure of microbial prokaryotes and eukaryotes using molecular methods, targeting ribosomal RNA genes across different regions and seasons. The interaction between spatial and temporal scales results in different scenarios of turbulence and nutrient conditions allowing for testing of ecological theory that categorizes the response of the plankton community to these variations. The prokaryotic reads are mainly comprised of Cyanobacteria and Proteobacteria (Alpha and Gamma), with eukaryotic reads dominated by Dinophyceae and Syndiniophyceae. Periodic increases in the proportion of Mamiellophyceae and Bacillariophyceae reads were associated with alterations in the physical oceanography leading to nutrient increases either through the influx of Gulf of Aden Intermediate Water (south in the fall) or through water column mixing processes (north in the spring). We observed that in general dissimilarity amongst microbial communities increased when nutrient concentrations were higher, whereas richness (observed OTUs) was higher in scenarios of higher turbulence. Maximum abundance models showed the differential responses of dominant taxa to temperature giving an indication how taxa will respond as waters become warmer and more oligotrophic.

  15. Leaf and soil nitrogen and phosphorus availability in a neotropical rain forest of nutrient-rich soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Martínez-Sánchez

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The nitrogen and phosphorus supply in a lowland rain forest with a nutrient-rich soil was investigated by means of the leaf N/P quotient. It was hypothesised a high N and P supply to the forest ecosystem with a N and P rich soil. Total N and extractable P were determined in the surface (10 cm soil of three plots of the forest. Total N was analysed by the Kjeldahl method, and P was extracted with HCl and NH4F. The leaf N/P quotient was evaluated from the senesced leaves of 11 dominant tree species from the mature forest. Samples of 5 g of freshly fallen leaves were collected from three trees of each species. Nitrogen was analysed by microkjeldahl digestion with sulphuric acid and distilled with boric acid, and phosphorus was analysed by digestion with nitric acid and perchloric acid, and determined by photometry. Concentrations of total N (0.50%, n = 30 and extractable P (4.11 μg g-1, n = 30 in the soil were high. As expected, P supply was sufficient, but contrary to expected, N supply was low (N/P = 11.8, n = 11. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54(2: 357-361. Epub 2006 Jun 01.A través del cociente foliar N/P, se investigó la disponibilidad de nitrógeno y fósforo en una selva húmeda tropical con suelo fértil. Como hipótesis se esperaba encontrar una alta disponibilidad de N y P en el ecosistema debido a un suelo rico en N y P. Se determinó el N total y el P extraible en el suelo superficial (10 cm en tres sitios de la selva. El N total se analizó por el método Kjeldahl y el P por extracción con HCl y NH4F. El cociente foliar N/P se evaluó a partir de hojas seniles de 11 especies arbóreas dominantes de la selva madura. Se recolectaron muestras de 5 g de hojas recién caídas de tres árboles de cada especie. El nitrógeno se analizó por digestión microkjeldahl con ácido sulfúrico y destilación con ácido bórico, y el fósforo por digestión con ácido nítrico y ácido perclórico, y determinación con fotometría. Las concetraciones de N

  16. Electrochemical attributes and availability of nutrients, toxic elements, and heavy metals in tropical soils Atributos eletroquímicos e disponibilidade de nutrientes, elementos tóxicos e metais pesados em solos tropicais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Paulo Ferreira Fontes

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Electrochemical properties of soils are very important for the understanding of the physico-chemical phenomena which affect soil fertility and the availability of nutrients for plants. This review highlights the electrochemical properties of tropical soils, the behavior and the availability of nutrients, toxic elements and heavy metals in the soil, especially for soils with predominant variable charge minerals. Availability of the elements is related to ionic exchange, solution speciation, and electrostatic and specific adsorptive soil properties. Empirical and surface complexation models are briefly described, and some results of their application in tropical soils are presented. A better understanding of the role of the double diffuse layer of charges and CEC on nutrient cation availability for highly weathered soils is required, as well as a solid comprehension of surface complexation models, in order to improve the knowledge regarding the behavior of anions in soils. More studies have to be conducted to generate results that enable the use of chemical speciation concepts and calculation of several constants used in surface complexation models, especially for highly weathered soils from the humid tropics. There has to be a continuing development and use of computer softwares that have already incorporated the concepts of chemical speciation and adsorption models in the study of nutrients, toxic elements and heavy metal availability in the soil-plant system.As propriedades eletroquímicas dos solos tropicais são muito importantes para entendimento dos fenômenos físico-químicos que afetam a fertilidade do solo e a disponibilidade dos nutrientes das plantas. Essa revisão destaca os atributos eletroquímicos de solos e o comportamento e a disponibilidade de nutrientes, elementos tóxicos e metais pesados no solo, especialmente aqueles com predominância de minerais com cargas variáveis. A disponibilidade dos elementos é relacionada com a

  17. Electronic cigarettes in the USA: a summary of available toxicology data and suggestions for the future

    OpenAIRE

    Orr, Michael S

    2014-01-01

    Objective To review the available evidence evaluating the toxicological profiles of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) in order to understand the potential impact of e-cigarettes on individual users and the public health. Methods Systematic literature searches were conducted between October 2012 and October 2013 using five electronic databases. Search terms such as ‘e-cigarettes’ and ‘electronic delivery devices’ were used to identify the toxicology information for e-cigarettes. Results As ...

  18. Efficiency evaluation of an electronic equipment: availability,reliability and maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guyot, C.

    1966-01-01

    This concept of efficiency often called ''system effectiveness'', is presented and analyzed in terms of reliability and maintenance. It allows to define the availability factor of an electronic equipment. A procedure of evaluation is proposed. (A.L.B.)

  19. Nutrient requirements and low-cost balanced diets, based on seasonally available local feedstuffs, for local pigs on smallholder farms in Western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Natalie Ann; Dewey, Catherine Elizabeth; Thomas, Lian Francesca; Lukuyu, Ben; Grace, Delia; de Lange, Cornelis

    2016-02-01

    Growth performance of pigs on smallholder farms in the tropics is low. Lack of feedstuffs, seasonal feed shortages, and feeding nutritionally unbalanced diets contribute to slow growth. Low-cost balanced diets are needed to improve pig performance. In this study, we estimated the nutrient requirements of local pigs on smallholder farms in Kenya and developed balanced low-cost diets using seasonally available local feedstuffs. Diets were formulated to provide pigs with 80 % of the nutrient density in corn and soybean meal-based (reference) diets to minimize the cost per unit of energy and other nutrients. Estimated requirements for starting and growing pigs (8 to 35 kg body weight) were as follows: digestible energy (DE) 2960 kcal/kg of dry matter (DM), standardized ileal digestibility (SID) lysine 5.8 g/kg of DM, calcium 2.8 g/kg of DM, standardized total tract digestible (STTD) phosphorous 1.4 g/kg of DM, and crude protein 85 g/kg of DM. Nutrient requirements of local pigs on smallholder farms in Kenya were lower than those of exotic breed pigs raised in commercial settings. Seasonally available local feedstuffs were used to develop low-cost balanced diets. Twenty-two diets are presented based on season, cost, and feedstuff availability. This study has broad applicability as a case study of an approach that could be applied in other tropical regions in which smallholder pig keeping is practiced and where local feedstuffs for pigs are available seasonally.

  20. Zooplankton taxonomic and size diversity in Mediterranean coastal lagoons (NE Iberian Peninsula): Influence of hydrology, nutrient composition, food resource availability and predation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badosa, Anna; Boix, Dani; Brucet, Sandra; López-Flores, Rocío; Gascón, Stéphanie; Quintana, Xavier D.

    2007-01-01

    The influence of hydrology, nutrient composition, food resource availability and predation on zooplankton taxonomic and size diversity was analyzed in several shallow lagoons of a Mediterranean salt marsh (Baix Ter Wetlands, NE Iberian Peninsula). Taxonomic diversity correlated better with variables related to the trophic state, such as nutrient concentrations, whereas size diversity was more sensitive to fish predation. However, the fish predation influence on the size diversity was only significant when fishes reached high densities. Under low fish densities no predation effects were observed and the food resource availability (FR a) appeared to be more important in structuring the zooplankton community. Nevertheless, the two diversity indexes showed opposite responses to this factor. With increasing FR a the taxonomic diversity increased and the size diversity decreased. Neither taxonomic nor size diversity of the zooplankton community correlated with other physical or biotic factors such as hydrological variability or macroinvertebrate predation. The relationships found suggest that the size diversity is mainly related to biotic interactions, such as fish predation or inter/intraspecific competition, while the taxonomic diversity appears to be more sensitive to abiotic factors such as the nutrient composition.

  1. 41 CFR 101-26.603 - Electronic items available from the Defense Logistics Agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Electronic items available from the Defense Logistics Agency. 101-26.603 Section 101-26.603 Public Contracts and Property... items available from the Defense Logistics Agency. Executive agencies shall satisfy their requirements...

  2. Home availability of fruit and vegetables and obesogenic foods as an indicator of nutrient intake in 50 year olds from Canterbury, New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Emily; Gearry, Richard Blair; Wilson, Renée; Pearson, John; Skidmore, Paula Marie Louise

    2017-05-01

    The home food environment is known to influence children's diet and selected health outcomes. However, similar research in adults is scarce. The home is arguably the most important food environment for New Zealand adults as the majority of food consumed is stored and prepared in the home. Therefore we investigated relationships between home food availability and nutrient intake in 50 year olds from Canterbury, New Zealand. A cross-sectional study where participants completed a home food inventory and a four-day estimated food diary. Regression analysis was used to investigate relationships between home availability of 'Fruit and Vegetables' and 'Obesogenic Foods' and intake of selected nutrients, adjusting for Body Mass Index and demographic factors. Men and women (n=216) aged 50 were randomly selected from Canterbury District Health Board area electoral rolls. Women with a high 'Obesogenic Foods' score were significantly more likely to have a high intake of saturated fat (OR 5.8, CI: 1.67, 19.6) and high sugar intake (OR 3.1, CI: 1.23, 7.58). Men with a high 'Obesogenic Foods' score were less likely to have high folate (OR 0.14, CI: 0.05, 0.40) and fibre intake (OR 0.21, CI: 0.07, 0.60). Men and women with a higher 'Fruit and Vegetables' score were more likely to have high vitamin C intake (OR 5.6 and 4.5 respectively). Home Food Inventory scores are associated with selected nutrient intakes, particularly in women, suggesting that they are useful for identifying those groups with less favourable nutrient intakes. Future research should investigate whether these scores can predict health outcomes.

  3. School and district wellness councils and availability of low-nutrient, energy-dense vending fare in Minnesota middle and high schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubik, Martha Y; Lytle, Leslie A; Farbakhsh, Kian

    2011-01-01

    The Child Nutrition and WIC Reauthorization Act of 2004 required school districts participating in the federal school meals program to establish by the start of the 2006-2007 school year policies that included nutrition guidelines for all foods sold on school campus during the school day and policy development involving key stakeholders. For many schools, policy development was done by wellness councils. This study examined the association between having a wellness council and availability of low-nutrient, energy-dense foods/beverages in school vending machines following enactment of the federal legislation. In 2006-2007, Minnesota middle (n=35) and high (n=54) school principals reported whether their school and district had a wellness council. Trained research staff observed foods/beverages in vending machines accessible to students. Low-nutrient, energy-dense foods/beverages (snacks >3 g fat or >200 calories/serving, and soda, fruit/sport drinks and reduced-fat/whole milk) were grouped into seven categories (eg, high-fat baked goods) and a food score was calculated. Higher scores indicated more low-nutrient, energy-dense vending fare. Multivariate linear regression, adjusted for school characteristics, was used to examine associations between scores and a three-category council variable (district-only; district and school; no council). Among schools, 53% had district-only councils, 38% district and school councils, and 9% had no council. Schools with both a district and school council had a significantly lower mean food score than schools without councils (P=0.03). The potential of wellness councils to impact availability of low-nutrient, energy-dense vending fare is promising. There may be an added benefit to having both a school and district council. Copyright © 2011 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Established native perennial grasses out-compete an invasive annual grass regardless of soil water and nutrient availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher M. McGlone; Carolyn Hull Sieg; Thomas E. Kolb; Ty Nietupsky

    2012-01-01

    Competition and resource availability influence invasions into native perennial grasslands by nonnative annual grasses such as Bromus tectorum. In two greenhouse experiments we examined the influence of competition, water availability, and elevated nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) availability on growth and reproduction of the invasive annual grass B. tectorum and two...

  5. Nutrient critical levels and availability in soils cultivated with peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth. in Santo Domingo de Los Tsáchilas, Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Julio Quezada Crespo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Ecuador is the most important exporter of canned peach palm, however, to date ideal soil fertility characteristics for peach palm growers remain unknown. The aim of this research was to determine optimal levels of soil nutrients for the cultivation of peach palm, specifically with regards to soil cation exchange capacity in order to obtain higher yields. We worked with 20 farmsteads and their soils from the province of Santo Domingo de los Tsáchilas during the second half of 2014. Fields were evaluated based on a relative yield and extractable (modified Olsen nutrient contents in each soil were determined using regression modeling to determine critical levels of each nutrient and specifically to determine the ideal soil cation exchange capacity under peach palm cultivation. Our analysis established critical levels of soil pH (6.3; OM 6.5%; P 12.3 mg.dm-3; K 0.67 cmol.dm-3 K; Ca 5.1 cmol.dm-3 ; Mg 0.97 cmol.dm-3; and S 7.5 mg.dm-3. The ideal Ca: Mg: K soil cation exchange capacity was determined to be 76:14:10.

  6. Calagem em solos de várzea e a disponibilidade de nutrientes na solução do solo após o alagamento Liming in lowland soils and nutrient availability in soil solution after flooding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Souza da Silva

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available A calagem do solo altera o pH e, conseqüentemente, influencia no processo de redução dos solos submetidos ao alagamento para o cultivo do arroz irrigado, alterando a disponibilidade de nutrientes na solução do solo. Entretanto, a recomendação de calcário para o arroz irrigado é variável, implicando em diferentes quantidades a aplicar, dependendo da situação. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a liberação de nutrientes para a solução do solo após o alagamento, em três solos de várzea com diferentes valores de pH, resultantes da aplicação de diferentes quantidades de calcário. Amostras de solos de várzea foram coletadas da camada de 0 a 20 cm em áreas de produção de arroz nos municípios de Cachoeirinha/RS (Gleissolo, Faxinal do Soturno (Planossolo 1 e Santa Maria (Planossolo 2, as quais foram misturadas com calcário para comporem os seguintes tratamentos: zero; ½ SMP e 1 SMP para pH 5,5 e 1 SMP para pH 6,0. Após 90 dias de incubação, as amostras foram acondicionadas em vasos plásticos com um dispositivo para coleta da solução do solo e alagadas. Aos 2, 8, 15, 22, 28, 42 e 56 dias de alagamento foram retiradas amostras da solução do solo e determinados os teores de Fe, Ca, Mg, K e P. Com os maiores valores de pH, diminuíram os teores de ferro na solução, aumentaram os de cálcio e magnésio e não afetaram os teores de fósforo e potássio. As concentrações dos nutrientes e as mudanças provocadas pela calagem foram diferentes nos três solos.Liming changes soil pH, reduction process and nutrient availability in flooded soils used for rice production. However, the lime requirement for rice production is variable, depending on the situation. The objective of the experiment was to evaluate the nutrient release to soil solution after flooding of three lowland soils with different pH values resulting from different lime application. Soils samples from 0 to 20 cm were collected in three places and

  7. Ultra-processed foods have the worst nutrient profile, yet they are the most available packaged products in a sample of New Zealand supermarkets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luiten, Claire M; Steenhuis, Ingrid Hm; Eyles, Helen; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; Waterlander, Wilma E

    2016-02-01

    To examine the availability of packaged food products in New Zealand supermarkets by level of industrial processing, nutrient profiling score (NPSC), price (energy, unit and serving costs) and brand variety. Secondary analysis of cross-sectional survey data on packaged supermarket food and non-alcoholic beverages. Products were classified according to level of industrial processing (minimally, culinary and ultra-processed) and their NPSC. Packaged foods available in four major supermarkets in Auckland, New Zealand. Packaged supermarket food products for the years 2011 and 2013. The majority (84% in 2011 and 83% in 2013) of packaged foods were classified as ultra-processed. A significant positive association was found between the level of industrial processing and NPSC, i.e., ultra-processed foods had a worse nutrient profile (NPSC=11.63) than culinary processed foods (NPSC=7.95), which in turn had a worse nutrient profile than minimally processed foods (NPSC=3.27), Pprice measures and level of processing. The study observed many variations of virtually the same product. The ten largest food manufacturers produced 35% of all packaged foods available. In New Zealand supermarkets, ultra-processed foods comprise the largest proportion of packaged foods and are less healthy than less processed foods. The lack of significant price difference between ultra- and less processed foods suggests ultra-processed foods might provide time-poor consumers with more value for money. These findings highlight the need to improve the supermarket food supply by reducing numbers of ultra-processed foods and by reformulating products to improve their nutritional profile.

  8. Experimentally increased nutrient availability at the permafrost thaw front selectively enhances biomass production of deep-rooting subarctic peatland species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keuper, Frida; Dorrepaal, Ellen; van Bodegom, Peter M.; van Logtestijn, Richard; Venhuizen, Gemma; van Hal, Jurgen; Aerts, Rien

    2017-01-01

    Climate warming increases nitrogen (N) mineralization in superficial soil layers (the dominant rooting zone) of subarctic peatlands. Thawing and subsequent mineralization of permafrost increases plant-available N around the thaw-front. Because plant production in these peatlands is N-limited, such

  9. The availability of electronic cigarettes in US retail outlets, 2012: results of two national studies

    OpenAIRE

    Rose, Shyanika W; Barker, Dianne C; D'Angelo, Heather; Khan, Tamkeen; Huang, Jidong; Chaloupka, Frank J; Ribisl, Kurt M

    2014-01-01

    Background Since their introduction in 2007, electronic cigarette (‘e-cigarette’) awareness and use has grown rapidly. Little is known about variation in e-cigarette availability across areas with different levels of tobacco taxes and smoke-free air policies. This paper looks at US retail availability of e-cigarettes and factors at the store, neighbourhood and policy levels associated with it. Methods In-person store audit data collected in 2012 came from two national samples of tobacco retai...

  10. Nutrient Availability and Changes on Chemical Attributes of a Paleudult Soil Amended with Liquid Sewage Sludge and Cropped with Surinam Grass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Ceolato

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The liquid sewage sludge (LSS was applied on a field experiment during four years at successive applications to evaluate the changes in soil attributes and on Surinam grass (Brachiaria decumbens uptake of nutrients. A randomized blocks experimental design, with two treatments (with and without LSS and three repetitions, was used. Land application of LSS did not alter soil organic matter and exchangeable K until 40 cm depth. However, it increased soil pH, base saturation, labile P, and available Zn and did not change the concentrations of available B (hot water and Cu, Fe, and Mn (DTPA at 0–20 cm and 20–40 cm depths and LSS was a source of N, K, P, Ca, Mg, and Zn for the grass, but decreased leaf Mn concentration.

  11. Assessing biochar and compost from the organic fraction of municipal solid waste on nutrient availability and plant growth of lettuce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regkouzas, Panagiotis; Manolikaki, Ioanna; Diamadopoulos, Evan

    2017-04-01

    Biochars have a high variability in chemical composition, which is determined by types of feedstock and pyrolysis conditions. Inorganic compounds, such as N, P, K and Ca, retained in biochar could be released and become available to plants. The aim of this study was to understand the effect of biochar and compost addition, derived from the organic fraction of municipal solid wastes at two different pyrolysis temperatures 3000C (BC300) and 6000C (BC600), on phosphorus availability and plant growth of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) grown in an alkaline loam soil. This type of soil is widely available in Greece, leading us to investigate ways to increase its fertility. A 39 d growth period of lettuce was studied in a greenhouse in triplicate. Treatments comprised of control soils (no addition of biochar or compost), soils treated only with compost (5%) or biochar (5%), and combinations of biochar (5%) plus compost (5%). No fertilization was added to any of the treatments. One biomass cut was obtained. Plant shoot yield and height were determined along with elemental concentration (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Mn, Fe, Zn, Cu) and uptake of shoots. Results showed that BC300 combined with compost significantly increased P uptake of lettuce. On the other hand, BC600 plus compost, along with the two biochar-only treatments, significantly decreased Ca and Mg uptake of lettuce. N, K, Fe, Zn, Mn and Cu uptakes were not affected by the application of biochar, compost or the combined treatments. Despite the significant increase of P uptake, plant height and shoot yield were not significantly influenced by any of the treatments.

  12. Soil nutrient availability and its impact on fruit quality of Tahiti acid lime Disponibilidade de nutrientes no solo e impactos na qualidade de frutos da lima-ácida Tahiti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirceu Mattos Junior

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The Tahiti acid lime in Brazil is mostly grown in the São Paulo State. The value of this crop production ranks among the ten most important fruits in the country. The Brazilian exports of Tahiti limes have increased in the last years with a corresponding increased demand for superior quality of fresh fruits, which is affected by mineral nutrients. Therefore, this study evaluated nutrient soil availability and its influence on nutritional status of trees based on the determination of leaf and fruit nutrient concentrations, fruit characteristics, and post harvest quality. Eleven commercial groves with trees older than 4-yr and differently managed were studied. Plots with six trees in each grove were sampled for soil (0-20 cm depth layer, leaf and fruit analyses with three replicates. Correlation coefficients were pair wised established for all variables. The results showed that N leaf concentration was well correlated with green color of fruit peel as measured by a color index (r = -0.71**, and which was optimum with Leaf-N around 22 g kg-1. Leaf-Ca was inversely correlated with fruit water loss after 14-day interval from harvest (r = -0.54* demonstrating that Ca plays an important role in Tahiti fruit shelf-life. Data also suggested that increased fruit K concentration correlated with increased fruit water losses during storage (r >0.58*.No Brasil, a lima-ácida Tahiti é produzida principalmente em São Paulo. O valor dessa produção situa-se entre as dez variedades de frutas mais importantes no País. As exportações brasileiras de Tahiti in natura aumentaram significativamente nos últimos anos e têm demandado frutas de qualidade superior. Essas características são afetadas pelos nutrientes minerais. Assim, o trabalho avaliou os efeitos da disponibilidade de nutrientes no solo, sua influência no estado nutricional das plantas e no teor desses nos frutos, e correlações sobre a qualidade de Tahiti, como maneira de criar subsídios para

  13. Amazon forest ecosystem responses to elevated atmospheric CO2 and alterations in nutrient availability: filling the gaps with model-experiment integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian eHofhansl

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The impacts of elevated CO2 (eCO2 and alterations in nutrient availability on the carbon (C storage capacity and resilience of the Amazon forest remain highly uncertain. Carbon dynamics are controlled by multiple eco-physiological processes responding to environmental change, but we lack solid experimental evidence, hampering theory development and thus representation in ecosystem models. Here, we present two ecosystem-scale manipulation experiments, to be carried out in the Amazon, that examine tropical ecosystem responses to eCO2 and nutrient addition and thus will elucidate the representation of crucial ecological processes by ecosystem models. We highlight current gaps in our understanding of tropical ecosystem responses to projected global changes in light of the eco-physiological assumptions considered by current ecosystem models. We conclude that a more detailed process-based representation of the spatial (e.g. soil type; plant functional type and temporal (seasonal and inter-annual variation diversity of tropical forests is needed to enhance model predictions of ecosystem responses to projected global environmental change.

  14. Nutrient availability and the ultimate control of the biological carbon pump in the western tropical South Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moutin, Thierry; Wagener, Thibaut; Caffin, Mathieu; Fumenia, Alain; Gimenez, Audrey; Baklouti, Melika; Bouruet-Aubertot, Pascale; Pujo-Pay, Mireille; Leblanc, Karine; Lefevre, Dominique; Helias Nunige, Sandra; Leblond, Nathalie; Grosso, Olivier; de Verneil, Alain

    2018-05-01

    Surface waters (0-200 m) of the western tropical South Pacific (WTSP) were sampled along a longitudinal 4000 km transect (OUTPACE cruise, DOI: 10.17600/15000900) during the austral summer (stratified) period (18 February to 3 April 2015) between the Melanesian Archipelago (MA) and the western part of the SP gyre (WGY). Two distinct areas were considered for the MA, the western MA (WMA), and the eastern MA (EMA). The main carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) pools and fluxes provide a basis for the characterization of the expected trend from oligotrophy to ultra-oligotrophy, and the building of first-order budgets at the daily and seasonal timescales (using climatology). Sea surface chlorophyll a well reflected the expected oligotrophic gradient with higher values obtained at WMA, lower values at WGY, and intermediate values at EMA. As expected, the euphotic zone depth, the deep chlorophyll maximum, and nitracline depth deepen from west to east. Nevertheless, phosphaclines and nitraclines did not match. The decoupling between phosphacline and nitracline depths in the MA allows for excess P to be locally provided in the upper water by winter mixing. We found a significant biological soft tissue carbon pump in the MA sustained almost exclusively by dinitrogen (N2) fixation and essentially controlled by phosphate availability in this iron-rich environment. The MA appears to be a net sink for atmospheric CO2, while the WGY is in quasi-steady state. We suggest that the necessary excess P, allowing the success of nitrogen fixers and subsequent carbon production and export, is mainly brought to the upper surface by local deep winter convection at an annual timescale rather than by surface circulation. While the origin of the decoupling between phosphacline and nitracline remains uncertain, the direct link between local P upper water enrichment, N2 fixation, and organic carbon production and export, offers a possible shorter timescale than previously thought between

  15. The growth of Scots pine and the availability of nutrients in old Finnish liming experiments on drained peatlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieminen, M.; Paetilae, A.

    1994-01-01

    Liming (with applications of 1000 to 8000 kg/ha) had no long- term (1929-1985) effect on the growth of Scots pine on drained oligotrophic peatlands. Liming plus NPK fertilization had a variable effect on the growth of stands. The same treatment could result in a very different response in different experimental areas. Both liming alone and liming plus NPK fertilization increased the calcium, magnesium and nitrogen contents of peat and decreased the C/Nratio and acidity. Liming plus fertilization decreased needle boron and manganese and increased calcium and nitrogen concentrations. The results of peat and needle analysis indicated that the changes in nitrogen availability to trees caused by liming have not been sufficient enough to affect tree growth. It was also concluded that boron deficiency was the main reason for the lowered yield. (26 refs., 6 tabs., 8 figs.) (author)

  16. Nutrient Availability and Changes on Chemical Attributes of a Paleudult Soil Amended with Liquid Sewage Sludge and Cropped with Surinam Grass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceolato, L.C.; Berton, R.S.; Coscione, A.R.

    2011-01-01

    The liquid sewage sludge (LSS) was applied on a field experiment during four years at successive applications to evaluate the changes in soil attributes and on Surinam grass (Brachiaria decumbens) uptake of nutrients. A randomized blocks experimental design, with two treatments (with and without LSS) and three repetitions, was used. Land application of LSS did not alter soil organic matter and exchangeable K until 40 cm depth. However, it increased soil ph, base saturation, labile P, and available Zn and did not change the concentrations of available B (hot water) and Cu, Fe, and Mn (DTPA) at 0-20 cm and 20-40 cm depths and LSS was a source of N, K, P, Ca, Mg, and Zn for the grass, but decreased leaf Mn concentration.

  17. Biochar from sugarcane filtercake reduces soil CO2 emissions relative to raw residue and improves water retention and nutrient availability in a highly-weathered tropical soil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Joy Eykelbosh

    Full Text Available In Brazil, the degradation of nutrient-poor Ferralsols limits productivity and drives agricultural expansion into pristine areas. However, returning agricultural residues to the soil in a stabilized form may offer opportunities for maintaining or improving soil quality, even under conditions that typically promote carbon loss. We examined the use of biochar made from filtercake (a byproduct of sugarcane processing on the physicochemical properties of a cultivated tropical soil. Filtercake was pyrolyzed at 575°C for 3 h yielding a biochar with increased surface area and porosity compared to the raw filtercake. Filtercake biochar was primarily composed of aromatic carbon, with some residual cellulose and hemicellulose. In a three-week laboratory incubation, CO2 effluxes from a highly weathered Ferralsol soil amended with 5% biochar (dry weight, d.w. were roughly four-fold higher than the soil-only control, but 23-fold lower than CO2 effluxes from soil amended with 5% (d.w. raw filtercake. We also applied vinasse, a carbon-rich liquid waste from bioethanol production typically utilized as a fertilizer on sugarcane soils, to filtercake- and biochar-amended soils. Total CO2 efflux from the biochar-amended soil in response to vinasse application was only 5% of the efflux when vinasse was applied to soil amended with raw filtercake. Furthermore, mixtures of 5 or 10% biochar (d.w. in this highly weathered tropical soil significantly increased water retention within the plant-available range and also improved nutrient availability. Accordingly, application of sugarcane filtercake as biochar, with or without vinasse application, may better satisfy soil management objectives than filtercake applied to soils in its raw form, and may help to build soil carbon stocks in sugarcane-cultivating regions.

  18. Overview of laboratory data tools available in a single electronic medical record

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil R Kudler

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Laboratory data account for the bulk of data stored in any given electronic medical record (EMR. To best serve the user, electronic laboratory data needs to be flexible and customizable. Our aim was to determine the various ways in which laboratory data get utilized by clinicians in our health system′s EMR. Method: All electronic menus, tabs, flowsheets, notes and subsections within the EMR (Millennium v2007.13, Cerner Corporation, Kansas City, MO, US were explored to determine how clinicians utilize discrete laboratory data. Results: Laboratory data in the EMR were utilized by clinicians in five distinct ways: within flowsheets, their personal inbox (EMR messaging, with decision support tools, in the health maintenance tool, and when incorporating laboratory data into their clinical notes and letters. Conclusions : Flexible electronic laboratory data in the EMR hava many advantages. Users can view, sort, pool, and appropriately route laboratory information to better support trend analyses, clinical decision making, and clinical charting. Laboratory data in the EMR can also be utilized to develop clinical decision support tools. Pathologists need to participate in the creation of these EMR tools in order to better support the appropriate utilization of laboratory information in the EMR.

  19. Sun-induced Chlorophyll fluorescence and PRI improve remote sensing GPP estimates under varying nutrient availability in a typical Mediterranean savanna ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Priego, O.; Guan, J.; Rossini, M.; Fava, F.; Wutzler, T.; Moreno, G.; Carvalhais, N.; Carrara, A.; Kolle, O.; Julitta, T.; Schrumpf, M.; Reichstein, M.; Migliavacca, M.

    2015-07-01

    This study investigates the performances of different optical indices to estimate gross primary production (GPP) of herbaceous stratum in a Mediterranean savanna with different Nitrogen (N) and Phosphorous (P) availability. Sun-induced chlorophyll Fluorescence yield computed at 760 nm (Fy760), scaled-photochemical reflectance index (sPRI), MERIS terrestrial-chlorophyll index (MTCI) and Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) were computed from near-surface field spectroscopy measurements collected using high spectral resolution spectrometers covering the visible near-infrared regions. GPP was measured using canopy-chambers on the same locations sampled by the spectrometers. We hypothesized that light-use efficiency (LUE) models driven by remote sensing quantities (RSM) can better track changes in GPP caused by nutrient supplies compared to those driven exclusively by meteorological data (MM). Particularly, we compared the performances of different RSM formulations - relying on the use of Fy760 or sPRI as proxy for LUE and NDVI or MTCI as fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (fAPAR) - with those of classical MM. Results showed significantly higher GPP in the N fertilized experimental plots during the growing period. These differences in GPP disappeared in the drying period when senescence effects masked out potential differences due to plant N content. Consequently, although MTCI was tightly related to plant N content (r2 = 0.86, p < 0.01), it was poorly related to GPP (r2 = 0.45, p < 0.05). On the contrary sPRI and Fy760 correlated well with GPP during the whole measurement period. Results revealed that the relationship between GPP and Fy760 is not unique across treatments but it is affected by N availability. Results from a cross validation analysis showed that MM (AICcv = 127, MEcv = 0.879) outperformed RSM (AICcv = 140, MEcv = 0.8737) when soil moisture was used to constrain the seasonal dynamic of LUE. However, residual analyses

  20. Sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence and photochemical reflectance index improve remote-sensing gross primary production estimates under varying nutrient availability in a typical Mediterranean savanna ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Priego, O.; Guan, J.; Rossini, M.; Fava, F.; Wutzler, T.; Moreno, G.; Carvalhais, N.; Carrara, A.; Kolle, O.; Julitta, T.; Schrumpf, M.; Reichstein, M.; Migliavacca, M.

    2015-11-01

    This study investigates the performances of different optical indices to estimate gross primary production (GPP) of herbaceous stratum in a Mediterranean savanna with different nitrogen (N) and phosphorous (P) availability. Sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence yield computed at 760 nm (Fy760), scaled photochemical reflectance index (sPRI), MERIS terrestrial-chlorophyll index (MTCI) and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) were computed from near-surface field spectroscopy measurements collected using high spectral resolution spectrometers covering the visible near-infrared regions. GPP was measured using canopy chambers on the same locations sampled by the spectrometers. We tested whether light-use efficiency (LUE) models driven by remote-sensing quantities (RSMs) can better track changes in GPP caused by nutrient supplies compared to those driven exclusively by meteorological data (MM). Particularly, we compared the performances of different RSM formulations - relying on the use of Fy760 or sPRI as a proxy for LUE and NDVI or MTCI as a fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (fAPAR) - with those of classical MM. Results showed higher GPP in the N-fertilized experimental plots during the growing period. These differences in GPP disappeared in the drying period when senescence effects masked out potential differences due to plant N content. Consequently, although MTCI was closely related to the mean of plant N content across treatments (r2 = 0.86, p < 0.01), it was poorly related to GPP (r2 = 0.45, p < 0.05). On the contrary sPRI and Fy760 correlated well with GPP during the whole measurement period. Results revealed that the relationship between GPP and Fy760 is not unique across treatments, but it is affected by N availability. Results from a cross-validation analysis showed that MM (AICcv = 127, MEcv = 0.879) outperformed RSM (AICcv =140, MEcv = 0.8737) when soil moisture was used to constrain the seasonal dynamic of LUE. However

  1. Electronic cigarettes in the USA: a summary of available toxicology data and suggestions for the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Michael S

    2014-05-01

    To review the available evidence evaluating the toxicological profiles of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) in order to understand the potential impact of e-cigarettes on individual users and the public health. Systematic literature searches were conducted between October 2012 and October 2013 using five electronic databases. Search terms such as 'e-cigarettes' and 'electronic delivery devices' were used to identify the toxicology information for e-cigarettes. As of October 2013, the scientific literature contains very limited information regarding the toxicity of e-cigarettes commercially available in the USA. While some preliminary toxicology data suggests that e-cigarette users are exposed to lower levels of toxicants relative to cigarette smokers, the data available is extremely limited at this time. At present, there is insufficient toxicological data available to perform thorough risk assessment analyses for e-cigarettes; few toxicology studies evaluating e-cigarettes have been conducted to date, and standard toxicological testing paradigms have not been developed for comparing disparate types of tobacco products such as e-cigarettes and traditional cigarettes. Overall, the limited toxicology data on e-cigarettes in the public domain is insufficient to allow a thorough toxicological evaluation of this new type of tobacco product. In the future, the acquisition of scientific datasets that are derived from scientifically robust standard testing paradigms, include comprehensive chemical characterisation of the aerosol, provide information on users' toxicant exposure levels, and from studies replicated by independent researchers will improve the scientific community's ability to perform robust toxicological evaluations of e-cigarettes.

  2. Biochar from sugarcane filtercake reduces soil CO2 emissions relative to raw residue and improves water retention and nutrient availability in a highly-weathered tropical soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eykelbosh, Angela Joy; Johnson, Mark S; Santos de Queiroz, Edmar; Dalmagro, Higo José; Guimarães Couto, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    In Brazil, the degradation of nutrient-poor Ferralsols limits productivity and drives agricultural expansion into pristine areas. However, returning agricultural residues to the soil in a stabilized form may offer opportunities for maintaining or improving soil quality, even under conditions that typically promote carbon loss. We examined the use of biochar made from filtercake (a byproduct of sugarcane processing) on the physicochemical properties of a cultivated tropical soil. Filtercake was pyrolyzed at 575°C for 3 h yielding a biochar with increased surface area and porosity compared to the raw filtercake. Filtercake biochar was primarily composed of aromatic carbon, with some residual cellulose and hemicellulose. In a three-week laboratory incubation, CO2 effluxes from a highly weathered Ferralsol soil amended with 5% biochar (dry weight, d.w.) were roughly four-fold higher than the soil-only control, but 23-fold lower than CO2 effluxes from soil amended with 5% (d.w.) raw filtercake. We also applied vinasse, a carbon-rich liquid waste from bioethanol production typically utilized as a fertilizer on sugarcane soils, to filtercake- and biochar-amended soils. Total CO2 efflux from the biochar-amended soil in response to vinasse application was only 5% of the efflux when vinasse was applied to soil amended with raw filtercake. Furthermore, mixtures of 5 or 10% biochar (d.w.) in this highly weathered tropical soil significantly increased water retention within the plant-available range and also improved nutrient availability. Accordingly, application of sugarcane filtercake as biochar, with or without vinasse application, may better satisfy soil management objectives than filtercake applied to soils in its raw form, and may help to build soil carbon stocks in sugarcane-cultivating regions.

  3. Biochar from Sugarcane Filtercake Reduces Soil CO2 Emissions Relative to Raw Residue and Improves Water Retention and Nutrient Availability in a Highly-Weathered Tropical Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eykelbosh, Angela Joy; Johnson, Mark S.; Santos de Queiroz, Edmar; Dalmagro, Higo José; Guimarães Couto, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    In Brazil, the degradation of nutrient-poor Ferralsols limits productivity and drives agricultural expansion into pristine areas. However, returning agricultural residues to the soil in a stabilized form may offer opportunities for maintaining or improving soil quality, even under conditions that typically promote carbon loss. We examined the use of biochar made from filtercake (a byproduct of sugarcane processing) on the physicochemical properties of a cultivated tropical soil. Filtercake was pyrolyzed at 575°C for 3 h yielding a biochar with increased surface area and porosity compared to the raw filtercake. Filtercake biochar was primarily composed of aromatic carbon, with some residual cellulose and hemicellulose. In a three-week laboratory incubation, CO2 effluxes from a highly weathered Ferralsol soil amended with 5% biochar (dry weight, d.w.) were roughly four-fold higher than the soil-only control, but 23-fold lower than CO2 effluxes from soil amended with 5% (d.w.) raw filtercake. We also applied vinasse, a carbon-rich liquid waste from bioethanol production typically utilized as a fertilizer on sugarcane soils, to filtercake- and biochar-amended soils. Total CO2 efflux from the biochar-amended soil in response to vinasse application was only 5% of the efflux when vinasse was applied to soil amended with raw filtercake. Furthermore, mixtures of 5 or 10% biochar (d.w.) in this highly weathered tropical soil significantly increased water retention within the plant-available range and also improved nutrient availability. Accordingly, application of sugarcane filtercake as biochar, with or without vinasse application, may better satisfy soil management objectives than filtercake applied to soils in its raw form, and may help to build soil carbon stocks in sugarcane-cultivating regions. PMID:24897522

  4. 75 FR 63434 - Availability of Compliance Guide for the Use of Video or Other Electronic Monitoring or Recording...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-15

    ...] Availability of Compliance Guide for the Use of Video or Other Electronic Monitoring or Recording Equipment in... the availability of a compliance guide on the use of video or other electronic monitoring or recording... providing this draft guide to advise establishments that video or other electronic monitoring or recording...

  5. EFECTOS BENEFICOS DE BACTERIAS RIZOSFÉRICAS EN LA DISPONIBILIDAD DE NUTRIENTES EN EL SUELO Y LA ABSORCIÓN DE NUTRIENTES POR LAS PLANTAS A REVIEW ON BENEFICIAL EFFECTS OF RHIZOSPHERE BACTERIA ON SOIL NUTRIENT AVAILABILITY AND PLANT NUTRIENT UPTAKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Walter Osorio Vega

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo se constituye en una revisión de los beneficios de bacterias rizosféricas sobre la nutrición vegetal. La interacción entre planta y bacterias solubilizadoras de fosfato es explicada en mayor detalle y usada como modelo para ilustrar el rol que algunas bacterias de la rizosfera juegan en la disponibilidad de nutrientes en el suelo. Las condiciones ambientales de la rizosfera también se discuten con detalle. Los beneficios de estas bacterias han sido obtenidos, y mejorados, en presencia de hongos formadores de micorrizas. Algunos autores han acuñado el termino “micorrizosfera” para describir la parte del suelo afectada por estas interacciones. Las plantas pueden liberar carbohidratos, aminoácidos, lípidos y vitaminas, entre otros, a través de sus raíces y estimular con ello la actividad y el número de microorganismos del suelo que las rodea. Este volumen de suelo afectado por tales exudados, aproximadamente 2 mm desde la superficie de la raíz, es llamado rizosfera. Las bacterias rizosfericas participan en el ciclo geoquímico de nutrientes y determinan su disponibilidad para las plantas y la comunidad microbial del suelo. Por ejemplo, en la rizosfera algunas bacterias fijan N2 simbiótica o asociativamente, otras son importantes en la conversión del nitrógeno de compuestos orgánicos a formas inorgánicas (NH4+ y NO3- disponibles para las plantas. También es relevante la habilidad de algunas bacterias rizosféricas para disolver fosfatos insolubles (nativo y aplicado a través de ácidos orgánicos, mientras que otras son más activas en la liberación de fosfato de compuestos orgánicos mediante enzimas fosfatasas. Por otro lado, la disponibilidad del azufre, hierro, manganeso es afectada por reacciones bioquímicas de oxido-reducción llevadas a cabo por bacterias de la rizosfera. De la misma manera, agentes quelatantes liberados por estas bacterias controlan la disponibilidad y absorción de micronutrientes y

  6. Measures to increase the availability of electronic control units, illustrated by examples from power plant engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, R.

    1976-01-01

    The availibility of electric control units in the power plant engineering is increased by a decentralized construction, redundant current supply. miniaturized electronic modules, short-circuit-safe outputs, efficient protection of the wiring against over-voltage and intensive control of the afferent cables against wire break and short circuits. To reduce disturbing and damaging influences on the control multiple earthings should be avoided, the inductive coupling of distrubances should be reduced by parallel earth wires, and cable shields handled according to the prescriptions should reduce influences on the capacity. (orig.) [de

  7. Evaluation of Two Commercially Available Cannabidiol Formulations for use in Electronic Cigarettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle R Peace

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available With 24 states and the District of Columbia with laws legalizing marijuana in some form, suppliers of legal marijuana have developed Cannabis sativa products for use in electronic cigarettes. Personal battery powered vaporizers or electronic cigarettes were developed to deliver a nicotine vapor such that smokers could simulate smoking tobacco without the inherent pathology of inhaled tobacco smoke. The liquid formulations used in these devices are comprised of an active ingredient such as nicotine mixed with glycerin and/or propylene glycol and flavorings. A significant active ingredient of Cannabis sativa, cannabidiol, has been purported to have anti-convulsant, anti-nociceptive, and anti-psychotic properties. These properties have potential medical therapies such as intervention of addictive behaviors, treatments for epilepsy, management of pain for cancer patients, and treatments for schizophrenia. However, cannabidiol extracted from Cannabis sativa remains a DEA Schedule I drug since it has not been approved by the FDA for medical purposes. Two commercially available e-cigarette liquid formulations reported to contain 3.3 mg/mL of cannabidiol as the active ingredient were evaluated. These products are not regulated by the Food and Drug Administration in manufacturing or in labeling of the products and were found to contain 6.5 mg/mL and 7.6 mg/mL of cannabidiol in propylene glycol with a variety of flavoring agents. Presently, while labeled as to content, the quality control of manufacturers and the relative safety of these products is uncertain.

  8. A review of electronic laboratory notebooks available in the market today.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubacha, Michael; Rattan, Anil K; Hosselet, Stephen C

    2011-02-01

    Electronic laboratory notebooks are becoming an increasingly popular tool for research and routine laboratories as part of a way to optimize workflow and minimize cost while realizing time-saving benefits. The number and variety of available solutions are quickly increasing; making selection of the right notebook a cumbersome process. To allay some of the strain associated with an exhaustive search through notebook technologies, this paper details some key features from a pool of 35 electronic notebooks available today. This review effectively classifies these notebooks into five categories based on market audience as follows: notebooks suited for a Quality environment can be found within the Quality Assurance/Quality Control pool. Notebooks suited for specialized tasks in Biology or Chemistry can be found within the Biology or Chemistry pools, respectively. Notebooks that are suitable for general science functionalities can be found under either the Research and Development or the Multidiscipline pools. Lastly, notebooks that are designed and developed for the spectrum of stringent Quality laboratories to free-form research laboratories can be found within the Multidiscipline pool. The guidelines put forth in this paper eliminate the need to perform an exhaustive search for a suitable notebook. Copyright © 2011 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Production of Short-Rotation Woody Crops Grown with a Range of Nutrient and Water Availability: Establishment Report and First-Year Responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.R. Coyle; J. Blake; K. Britton; M.; R.G. Campbell; J. Cox; B. Cregg; D. Daniels; M. Jacobson; K. Johnsen; T. McDonald; K. McLeod; E.; D. Robison; R. Rummer; F. Sanchez; J.; B. Stokes; C. Trettin; J. Tuskan; L. Wright; S. Wullschleger

    2003-12-31

    Coleman, M.D., et. al. 2003. Production of Short-Rotation Woody Crops Grown with a Range of Nutrient and Water Availability: Establishment Report and First-Year Responses. Report. USDA Forest Service, Savannah River, Aiken, SC. 26 pp. Abstract: Many researchers have studied the productivity potential of intensively managed forest plantations. However, we need to learn more about the effects of fundamental growth processes on forest productivity; especially the influence of aboveground and belowground resource acquisition and allocation. This report presents installation, establishment, and first-year results of four tree species (two cottonwood clones, sycamore, sweetgum, and loblolly pine) grown with fertilizer and irrigation treatments. At this early stage of development, irrigation and fertilization were additive only in cottonwood clone ST66 and sweetgum. Leaf area development was directly related to stem growth, but root production was not always consistent with shoot responses, suggesting that allocation of resources varies among treatments. We will evaluate the consequences of these early responses on resource availability in subsequent growing seasons. This information will be used to: (1) optimize fiber and bioenergy production; (2) understand carbon sequestration; and (3) develop innovative applications such as phytoremediation; municipal, industrial, and agricultural wastes management; and protection of soil, air, and water resources.

  10. Reductive dechlorination of trichloroethene DNAPL source zones: source zone architecture versus electron donor availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krol, M.; Kokkinaki, A.; Sleep, B.

    2014-12-01

    The persistence of dense-non-aqueous-phase liquids (DNAPLs) in the subsurface has led practitioners and regulatory agencies to turn towards low-maintenance, low-cost remediation methods. Biological degradation has been suggested as a possible solution, based on the well-proven ability of certain microbial species to break down dissolved chlorinated ethenes under favorable conditions. However, the biodegradation of pure phase chlorinated ethenes is subject to additional constraints: the continuous release of electron acceptor at a rate governed by mass transfer kinetics, and the temporal and spatial heterogeneity of DNAPL source zones which leads to spatially and temporally variable availability of the reactants for reductive dechlorination. In this work, we investigate the relationship between various DNAPL source zone characteristics and reaction kinetics using COMPSIM, a multiphase groundwater model that considers non-equilibrium mass transfer and Monod-type kinetics for reductive dechlorination. Numerical simulations are performed for simple, homogeneous trichloroethene DNAPL source zones to demonstrate the effect of single source zone characteristics, as well as for larger, more realistic heterogeneous source zones. It is shown that source zone size, and mass transfer kinetics may have a decisive effect on the predicted bio-enhancement. Finally, we evaluate the performance of DNAPL bioremediation for realistic, thermodynamically constrained, concentrations of electron donor. Our results indicate that the latter may be the most important limitation for the success of DNAPL bioremediation, leading to reduced bio-enhancement and, in many cases, comparable performance with water flooding.

  11. Role of physical forcings and nutrient availability on the control of satellite-based chlorophyll a concentration in the coastal upwelling area of the Sicilian Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Patti

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The northern sector of the Sicilian Channel is an area of favourable upwelling winds, which ought to support primary production. However, the values for primary production are low when compared with other Mediterranean areas and very low compared with the most biologically productive regions of the world’s oceans: California, the Canary Islands, Humboldt and Benguela. The aim of this study was to identify the main factors that limit phytoplankton biomass in the Sicilian Channel and modulate its monthly changes. We compared satellite-based estimates of chlorophyll a concentration in the Strait of Sicily with those observed in the four Eastern Boundary Upwelling Systems mentioned above and in other Mediterranean wind-induced coastal upwelling systems (the Alboran Sea, the Gulf of Lions and the Aegean Sea. Our results show that this low level of chlorophyll is mainly due to the low nutrient level in surface and sub-surface waters, independently of wind-induced upwelling intensity. Further, monthly changes in chlorophyll are mainly driven by the mixing of water column and wind-induced and/or circulation-related upwelling processes. Finally, primary production limitation due to the enhanced stratification processes resulting from the general warming trend of Mediterranean waters is not active over most of the coastal upwelling area off the southern Sicilian coast.

  12. Influence of Nutrient Availability and Quorum Sensing on the Formation of Metabolically Inactive Microcolonies Within Structurally Heterogeneous Bacterial Biofilms: An Individual-Based 3D Cellular Automata Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machineni, Lakshmi; Rajapantul, Anil; Nandamuri, Vandana; Pawar, Parag D

    2017-03-01

    The resistance of bacterial biofilms to antibiotic treatment has been attributed to the emergence of structurally heterogeneous microenvironments containing metabolically inactive cell populations. In this study, we use a three-dimensional individual-based cellular automata model to investigate the influence of nutrient availability and quorum sensing on microbial heterogeneity in growing biofilms. Mature biofilms exhibited at least three structurally distinct strata: a high-volume, homogeneous region sandwiched between two compact sections of high heterogeneity. Cell death occurred preferentially in layers in close proximity to the substratum, resulting in increased heterogeneity in this section of the biofilm; the thickness and heterogeneity of this lowermost layer increased with time, ultimately leading to sloughing. The model predicted the formation of metabolically dormant cellular microniches embedded within faster-growing cell clusters. Biofilms utilizing quorum sensing were more heterogeneous compared to their non-quorum sensing counterparts, and resisted sloughing, featuring a cell-devoid layer of EPS atop the substratum upon which the remainder of the biofilm developed. Overall, our study provides a computational framework to analyze metabolic diversity and heterogeneity of biofilm-associated microorganisms and may pave the way toward gaining further insights into the biophysical mechanisms of antibiotic resistance.

  13. Availability, Level of Use and Constraints to Use of Electronic Resources by Law Lecturers in Public Universities in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amusa, Oyintola Isiaka; Atinmo, Morayo

    2016-01-01

    (Purpose) This study surveyed the level of availability, use and constraints to use of electronic resources among law lecturers in Nigeria. (Methodology) Five hundred and fifty-two law lecturers were surveyed and four hundred and forty-two responded. (Results) Data analysis revealed that the level of availability of electronic resources for the…

  14. 78 FR 57395 - Guidance for Industry on Electronic Source Data in Clinical Investigations; Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-18

    ... providers and institutions, electronic laboratory reports, electronic medical images from devices, and... operating and maintenance costs, because sponsors and others already have and are experienced with using the computer-based equipment and software necessary to be consistent with the guidance. IV. Electronic Access...

  15. Availability of nuclear decay data in electronic form, including beta spectra not previously published

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckerman, K.F.; Westfall, R.J.; Ryman, J.C.; Cristy, M.

    1994-01-01

    The unabridged data used in preparing ICRP Publication 38 (1983) and a monograph of the Medical Internal Radiation Dose (MIRD) Committee are now available in electronic form. The open-quotes ICRP38 collectionclose quotes contains data on the energies and intensities of radiations emitted by 825 radionuclides (those in ICRP Publication 38 plus 13 from the MIRD monograph), and the open-quotes MIRD collectionclose quotes contains data on 242 radionuclides. Each collection consists of a radiations data file and a beta spectra data file. The radiations data file contains the complete listing of the emitted radiations, their types, mean or unique energies, and absolute intensities for each radionuclide, the probability that a beta particle will be emitted with kinetic energies defined by a standard energy grid. Although summary information from the radiation data files has been published, neither the unabridged data nor the beta spectra have been published. These data files and a data extraction utility, which runs on a personal computer, are available from the Radiation Shielding Information Center at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. 13 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs

  16. Investigation of the effects of aluminum stress on some macro and micro-nutrient contents of the seedlings of lycopersicon esculentum mill. by using scanning electron microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colak, G.; Catak, E.; Baykul, M.C.

    2014-01-01

    This study was planned to see the affect of aluminum stress on plant nutrition and metabolism. The effects of aluminum stress on uptake level of some macro- and micro-nutrients from the nutrition solution into the seedlings of Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. and on mobilization of some nutrient elements in the seedlings were examined at the level of epidermal cells. The elemental structure of root, hypocotyl and cotyledon epidermal cells were determined by Energy Dispersive Xray Microanalysis (EDX) performed in a local area 50 nm in diameter at the level of a single epidermal cell cytoplasm by using low vacuum (24 pascal ) Scanning Electron Microscope. EDX analysis revealed that aluminum content of the cells was increasing with the increased concentrations of aluminum in the nutrient solution and that aluminum largelyaccumulated in the roots. Aluminum concentration was much higher in the root epidermal cells of the seedlings incubated in aluminum containing media for 17 days without adding any nutrient solution; it was also true for the local EDX analysis of radicle epidermal cells from the same series. Aluminum stress was found to tend to modify the plant nutritional element content of the cells and this was particularly of critical importance in terms of some macro- and micro-nutrients. The assessments performed at the level of epidermal cells of young seedlings of Lycopersicon esculentum suggest that aluminum stress leads to an absolute change in the plant nutritional element composition of the cells and in the mobilization of some nutritional elements in the seedlings. (author)

  17. Availability, Price, and Packaging of Electronic Cigarettes and E-Liquids in Guatemala City Retailers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacon, Violeta; Arriaza, Astrid; Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia; Barnoya, Joaquin

    2018-01-05

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have the potential to normalize smoking and undermine tobacco control efforts. However, if well regulated, they also have a potential as smoking cessation aids. This study sought to determine the availability and types of e-cigarettes and e-liquids in Guatemala. We also assessed packaging characteristics and price. We surveyed a convenient sample of 39 Guatemala City retailers and purchased all e-cigarettes and e-liquids available. Duplicate samples (same brand, e-liquid type, flavor, nicotine content, or packaging) were purchased when prices were different between each other. Country of manufacture, flavor, expiration date, nicotine concentration, and price were recorded. We also documented package marketing strategies and warning labels. We purchased 64 e-cigarettes (53 unique and 11 duplicates) and 57 e-liquids (52 unique and 5 duplicates), mostly found on mall retailers. Most e-cigarettes (42, 66%) were first generation, followed by second (18, 28%) and third generations (4, 6%). Price of e-cigarettes differed significantly by generation. Most e-cigarettes (31, 58%) and 24 (46%) e-liquids did not include warning labels. Nicotine content was reported in 21 (39%) e-cigarettes that included e-liquids and 41 (79%) e-liquids' packages. E-cigarettes and e-liquids are available among a variety of retailers in Guatemala City and the industry is taking advantage of the fact that they are not regulated (eg, health claims, minimum sales age, and taxation). Our findings support the need for further research on e-cigarettes and e-liquids in Guatemala. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study describing e-cigarettes and e-liquids available in retailers in a low/middle-income country like Guatemala. E-cigarettes and e-liquids were found in a variety of types, flavors, and nicotine concentrations in Guatemalan retailers. Our findings support the need for further research on e-cigarettes and e-liquids in Guatemala. © The Author

  18. Evaluation of Two Commercially Available Cannabidiol Formulations for Use in Electronic Cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peace, Michelle R; Butler, Karen E; Wolf, Carl E; Poklis, Justin L; Poklis, Alphonse

    2016-01-01

    Since 24 states and the District of Columbia have legalized marijuana in some form, suppliers of legal marijuana have developed Cannabis sativa products for use in electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes). Personal battery powered vaporizers, or e-cigarettes, were developed to deliver a nicotine vapor such that smokers could simulate smoking tobacco without the inherent pathology of inhaled tobacco smoke. The liquid formulations used in these devices are comprised of an active ingredient such as nicotine mixed with vegetable glycerin (VG) and/or propylene glycol (PG) and flavorings. A significant active ingredient of C. sativa, cannabidiol (CBD), has been purported to have anti-convulsant, anti-nociceptive, and anti-psychotic properties. These properties have potential medical therapies such as intervention of addictive behaviors, treatments for epilepsy, management of pain for cancer patients, and treatments for schizophrenia. However, CBD extracted from C. sativa remains a DEA Schedule I drug since it has not been approved by the FDA for medical purposes. Two commercially available e-cigarette liquid formulations reported to contain 3.3 mg/mL of CBD as the active ingredient were evaluated. These products are not regulated by the FDA in manufacturing or in labeling of the products and were found to contain 6.5 and 7.6 mg/mL of CBD in VG and PG with a variety of flavoring agents. Presently, while labeled as to content, the quality control of manufacturers and the relative safety of these products is uncertain.

  19. The effect of diets containing pistachio by products treated with electron irradiation, NaOH, and PEG on nutrients digestibility and performance of finishing Zandi lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Moradi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction It has been estimated that PBP production based on fresh weight in Iran is over 400,000 MT annually. Pistachio by-products consist of 53.50% external hull (epicarp with the remaining composed of leaves, mesocarp and kernel. The results of few studies showed feeding of low levels of PBP had no effects on sheep, dairy cow and goat performance. Ensiled of PBP with PEG, NaOH and urea then treated by electron irradiation could be caused to better nutrition value via deactivation of tannins. The aim of this study was to survey the effect of diets containing pistachio by products treated by electron irradiation, NaOH, and PEG on nutrients digestibility and performance of finishing Zandi lambs. Materials and methods Twenty male Zandi lambs with the initial average body weight of 21±1.52 kg were housed in individual pens and were allocated to four dietary treatments in a completely randomized design for 70 days. The basal diet consisted of 220 g/kg DM PBP, 130 g/kg DM wheat straw and 650 g/kg DM barley based concentrate. The four dietary treatments included control diet (Treatment 1; basal diet containing 22% PB, ER-PBP (Treatment 2; containing 22% electron irradiated PBP, NaOH-PBP (Treatment 3; containing 22% NaOH treated PBP and PEG-PBP (Treatment 4; PEG added to basal diet as 15 g/kg of diets DM. Throughout the 70 d experiment, body weight was measured weekly. Feed intake and ort of lambs were recorded and sampled daily for determination of nutrient intake of DM, CP (N × 6.25, EE and NDF as describes before. Apparent total digestibility of nutrients was estimated by the marker ratio technique using acid insoluble ash (AIA as an internal marker. Blood samples (10 ml were taken from jugular vein of lambs before morning feeding on d 70 of experiment. The serum concentrations of total protein (TP, albumin, creatinine, glucose and urea were determined using commercial laboratory kits (Pars Azmun Laboratory, Tehran, Iran and an auto analyzer

  20. Low-temperature hydrothermal pretreatment followed by dry anaerobic digestion: A sustainable strategy for manure waste management regarding energy recovery and nutrients availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Weiwei; Zhao, Ziwen; Yuan, Tian; Huang, Wenli; Lei, Zhongfang; Zhang, Zhenya

    2017-12-01

    This study evaluated the feasibility of low-temperature hydrothermal (HT) pretreatment for improving dry anaerobic digestion (AD) of swine manure (SM) and nutrient elements reclamation, with specific goals to minimize the drawbacks of conventional HT process including high energy consumption, inhibitory compounds formation and unfavorable pH/alkalinity decrease. Pretreatment at 110-130°C for holding 30min increased the soluble organic carbon (SOC) concentration in SM by 13-26%. After being mixed with inocula, the pretreated SM was applied for dry AD tests successfully without initial pH adjustment, achieving a CH 4 yield of 280.18-328.93ml/g-VS fed (14-34% increase compared to that from raw SM). Energy assessment indicated a positive net gain of 0.95kJ/g-VS by adopting HT pretreatment at 130°C. Except for increment in CH 4 yield, low-temperature HT pretreatment also promoted organic-N mineralization, increasing N fractions in the digestate available for plants. After 70days' dry AD, a high ammonia-N to total nitrogen (TN) ratio of 71% was obtained for the SM sample pretreated at 130°C, in sharp contrast to that of 38% in raw SM. P bioavailability in the final digestate was not greatly affected by the HT pretreatment since the labile organics were mostly degraded after AD, in which P existing forms were influenced by the multivalent metals content in SM. Overall, 23-27% of the total P was potentially bioavailable in all digestates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. [Associated factors to availability and use of electronic media in children from preschool to 4th grade].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, Diana Marina; Orozco, Luis Carlos

    2013-01-01

    The increased availability of electronic media has changed the behavior in children and young people by encouraging sedentary lifestile, with health effects from a very young age. To characterize the availability and use of electronic media and its associated factors in children from preschool through 4 th grade. A cross-sectional study with cluster sampling was carried out. Parents filled out the demographic survey, the availability and use of electronic media at home and in the child´s room. Log-binomial regression models were applied to estimate prevalence ratios adjusted for the sampling. Seven hundred and ten parents answered. The average age of the children was 6.7 years and 49.7% were male. Factors such as the mother working out of the house and family income were positively associated with the availability of electronic media at home and in the child´s room. The availability of a TV, computer and console in the child´s room, contributes to longer use of these electronic media. Both, the male gender and age of the child, were positively associated with the availability and use of electronic media. This is the first study in Colombia that reports the availability and use of electronic media in children. It is clear that modern life encourages sedentary behavior from the earliest years of life, which has been associated with health problems from early childhood. Intervention studies are needed aimed at reducing these behaviors in our context.

  2. Availability and Placement of Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems at the Point-of-Sale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagoner, Kimberly G; Song, Eunyoung; King, Jessica; Egan, Kathleen L; Debinski, Beata; Wolfson, Mark; Spangler, John; Sutfin, Erin L

    2017-09-09

    Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) are widely available and come in a variety of forms, including disposable cigalikes and refillable tank systems. However, little is known about their placement at the point-of-sale. We explored the placement of various ENDS types among tobacco retailers. Systematic assessments at the point-of-sale were completed by trained data collectors in 90 tobacco retailers, including grocery stores, convenience stores, and pharmacies in North Carolina, U.S. Availability and placement of various ENDS types including cigalikes, e-hookahs, tank systems and e-liquids was recorded. Almost all retailers (97.8%) sold cigalikes; 41.4% sold devices labeled as e-hookahs; 54.4% sold tank systems and 56.2% sold e-liquids. Fewer than half of stores placed ENDS exclusively behind the counter; significant differences in ENDS placement were found by store type. Grocery stores carried cigalikes, tank systems and e-liquids and placed them exclusively behind the counter. Pharmacies only sold cigalikes; most placed them exclusively behind the counter (91.7%) with cessation aids and other tobacco products. Convenience stores carried all ENDS types and placed them with other tobacco products (55.1%) and candy (17.4%). Only about one-third of convenience stores placed ENDS exclusively behind the counter. This exploratory study shows ENDS availability and placement at the point-of-sale varies by retailer type. Pharmacies placed cigalikes with cessation aids behind the counter suggesting their ability to aid in smoking cessation. Most convenience stores placed ENDS in self-service locations, making them easily accessible to youth. Findings highlight the need for ENDS regulation at the point-of-sale. Our study highlights the need for regulatory efforts aimed at ENDS placement at the point-of-sale. While pharmacies and grocery stores offered fewer ENDS types and typically placed them in clerk-assisted locations, all ENDS types were found at convenience stores

  3. Plant litter effects on soil nutrient availability and vegetation dynamics: changes that occur when annual grasses invade shrub-steppe communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheel Bansal; Roger L. Sheley; Bob Blank; Edward A. Vasquez

    2014-01-01

    Changes in the quantity and quality of plant litter occur in many ecosystems as they are invaded by exotic species, which impact soil nutrient cycling and plant community composition. Such changes in sagebrush-steppe communities are occurring with invasion of annual grasses (AG) into a perennial grass (PG) dominated system. We conducted a 5-year litter manipulation...

  4. Effect of nutrient availability on carbon and nitrogen incorporation and flows through benthic algae and bacteria in near-shore sandy sediment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cook, P.; Veuger, B.; Böer, S.; Middelburg, J.J.

    2007-01-01

    Carbon and nitrogen uptake in a microbial community comprising bacteria and microalgae in a sandy marine sediment under nutrient-limited and -replete conditions was studied using a mesocosm approach. After 2 wk of incubation, a pulse of H13CO3– and 15NH4+ was added to the mesocosms, and subsequent

  5. Evaluation of Two Commercially Available Cannabidiol Formulations for use in Electronic Cigarettes

    OpenAIRE

    Michelle R Peace; Karen E Butler; Carl E. Wolf; Carl E. Wolf; Justin L Poklis; Alphonse Poklis; Alphonse Poklis; Alphonse Poklis

    2016-01-01

    With 24 states and the District of Columbia with laws legalizing marijuana in some form, suppliers of legal marijuana have developed Cannabis sativa products for use in electronic cigarettes. Personal battery powered vaporizers or electronic cigarettes were developed to deliver a nicotine vapor such that smokers could simulate smoking tobacco without the inherent pathology of inhaled tobacco smoke. The liquid formulations used in these devices are comprised of an active ingredient such as ni...

  6. Evaluation of commercially available enzymes, probiotics, or yeast on apparent total-tract nutrient digestion and growth in nursery and finishing pigs fed diets containing corn dried distillers grains with solubles

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ability of enzymes, direct fed microbials, or yeast to enhance nutrient utilization or growth performance in nursery or finishing pigs fed diets containing increased levels of corn fiber from dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) is largely unknown. Ten commercially available feed additiv...

  7. Instant availability of patient records, but diminished availability of patient information: A multi-method study of GP's use of electronic patient records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grimsmo Anders

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In spite of succesful adoption of electronic patient records (EPR by Norwegian GPs, what constitutes the actual benefits and effects of the use of EPRs in the perspective of the GPs and patients has not been fully characterized. We wanted to study primary care physicians' use of electronic patient record (EPR systems in terms of use of different EPR functions and the time spent on using the records, as well as the potential effects of EPR systems on the clinician-patient relationship. Methods A combined qualitative and quantitative study that uses data collected from focus groups, observations of primary care encounters and a questionnaire survey of a random sample of general practitioners to describe their use of EPR in primary care. Results The overall availability of individual patient records had improved, but the availability of the information within each EPR was not satisfactory. GPs' use of EPRs were efficient and comprehensive, but have resulted in transfer of administrative work from secretaries to physicians. We found no indications of disturbance of the clinician-patient relationship by use of computers in this study. Conclusion Although GPs are generally satisfied with their EPRs systems, there are still unmet needs and functionality to be covered. It is urgent to find methods that can make a better representation of information in large patient records as well as prevent EPRs from contributing to increased administrative workload of physicians.

  8. 77 FR 69632 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Electronic Source Data in Clinical Investigations; Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-20

    ...., Bldg. 51, Rm. 2201, Silver Spring, MD 20993-0002; Office of Communication, Outreach and Development...., Bldg. 66, Rm. 4613, Silver Spring, MD 20993-0002; and Office of Critical Path Programs, Office of the... finalized, will represent the Agency's current thinking on capturing, using, and archiving electronic data...

  9. A benchmark study of commercially available copper nanoparticle inks for application in organic electronic devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polino, G.; Abbel, R.; Shanmugam, S.; Bex, G.J.P.; Hendriks, R.; Brunetti, F.; Di Carlo, A.; Andriessen, R.; Galagan, Y.

    2016-01-01

    A set of three commercial copper nanoparticle based inkjet inks has been benchmarked with respect to their potential to form conducting printed structures for future applications in organic electronic devices. Significant differences were observed in terms of jetting properties, spreading behaviour

  10. Nutrient synchrony in preruminant calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borne, van den J.J.G.C.

    2006-01-01

    In animal nutrition, the nutrient composition of the daily feed supply is composed to match the nutrient requirements for the desired performance. The time of nutrient availability within a day is usually considered not to affect the fate of nutrients. The aim of this thesis was to evaluate effects

  11. 41 CFR 101-26.605 - Items other than petroleum products and electronic items available from the Defense Logistics...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... petroleum products and electronic items available from the Defense Logistics Agency. 101-26.605 Section 101... available from the Defense Logistics Agency. Agencies required to use GSA supply sources should also use... Logistics Agency, the catalog will contain only those items in Federal supply classification classes which...

  12. Availability, Use and Constraints to Use of Electronic Information Resources by Postgraduates Students at the University of Ibadan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dare Samuel Adeleke

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Availability, awareness and use of electronic resources provide access to authoritative, reliable, accurate and timely access to information. The use of electronic information resources (EIRs can enable innovation in teaching and increase timeliness in research of postgraduate students which will eventual result into encouragement of the expected research-led enquiry in this digital age. The study adopted a descriptive survey design. Samples of 300 of postgraduate students within seven out 13 Faculties were randomly selected. Data were collected using questionnaire designed to elicit response from respondents and data were analyzed using descriptive statistics methods percentages, mean, and standard deviation. Results indicated that internet was ranked most available and used in the university. Low level of usage of electronic resources, in particular, full texts data bases is linked to a number of constraints: Interrupted power supply was ranked highest among other factors as speed and capacity of computers, retrieval of records with high recall and low precision, retrieving records relevant to information need, lack of knowledge of search techniques to retrieve information effectively, non possession of requisite IT skills and problems accessing the internet. The study recommended that usage of electronic resources be made compulsory, intensifying awareness campaigns concerning the availability, training on use of electronic resources and the problem of power outage be addressed.

  13. Klystron-modulator system availability of PLS 2 GeV electron linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, M.H.; Park, S.S.; Oh, J.S.; Namkung, W.

    1996-01-01

    PLS Linac has been injecting 2 GeV electron beams to the Pohang Light Source (PLS) storage ring since September 1994. PLS 2 GeV linac employs 11 sets of high power klystron-modulator (K and M) system for the main RF source for the beam acceleration. The klystron has rated output peak power of 80 MW at 4 microsec pulse width and at 60 pps. The matching modulator has 200 MW peak output power. The total accumulated high voltage run time of the oldest unit has reached beyond 23,000 hour and the sum of all the high voltage run time is approximately 230,000 hour as of May 1996. In this paper, we review overall system performance of the high-power K and M system. A special attention is paid on the analysis of all failures and troubles of the K and M system which affected the linac high power RF operations as well as beam injection operations for the period of 1994 to May 1996. (author)

  14. The effect of light and nutrient availability on growth, nitrogen and pigment contents of Saccharina latissima (Phaeophyceae) grown in outdoor tanks, under natural variation of sunlight and temperature, during autumn and early winter in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boderskov, Teis; Schmedes, Peter Søndergaard; Bruhn, Annette

    2016-01-01

    counterbalance the loss of biomass, and increase the absolute harvestable amount of protein and pigments. The hypothesis was tested in a land-based, factorial-designed, pilot-scale experiment using whole algae individuals exposed to naturally relevant high or low availability of nutrients and light...... bioremediation, and has an improved biomass quality in regards of increased concentrations of pigments and nitrogen rich compounds...

  15. SAGES: a suite of freely-available software tools for electronic disease surveillance in resource-limited settings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheri L Lewis

    Full Text Available Public health surveillance is undergoing a revolution driven by advances in the field of information technology. Many countries have experienced vast improvements in the collection, ingestion, analysis, visualization, and dissemination of public health data. Resource-limited countries have lagged behind due to challenges in information technology infrastructure, public health resources, and the costs of proprietary software. The Suite for Automated Global Electronic bioSurveillance (SAGES is a collection of modular, flexible, freely-available software tools for electronic disease surveillance in resource-limited settings. One or more SAGES tools may be used in concert with existing surveillance applications or the SAGES tools may be used en masse for an end-to-end biosurveillance capability. This flexibility allows for the development of an inexpensive, customized, and sustainable disease surveillance system. The ability to rapidly assess anomalous disease activity may lead to more efficient use of limited resources and better compliance with World Health Organization International Health Regulations.

  16. Effects of different external carbon sources and electron acceptors on interactions between denitrification and phosphorus removal in biological nutrient removal processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiang; Sobotka, Dominika; Czerwionka, Krzysztof; Zhou, Qi; Xie, Li; Makinia, Jacek

    The effects of two different external carbon sources (acetate and ethanol) and electron acceptors (dissolved oxygen, nitrate, and nitrite) were investigated under aerobic and anoxic conditions with non-acclimated process biomass from a full-scale biological nutrient removal-activated sludge system. When acetate was added as an external carbon source, phosphate release was observed even in the presence of electron acceptors. The release rates were 1.7, 7.8, and 3.5 mg P/(g MLVSS·h) (MLVSS: mixed liquor volatile suspended solids), respectively, for dissolved oxygen, nitrate, and nitrite. In the case of ethanol, no phosphate release was observed in the presence of electron acceptors. Results of the experiments with nitrite showed that approximately 25 mg NO 2 -N/L of nitrite inhibited anoxic phosphorus uptake regardless of the concentration of the tested external carbon sources. Furthermore, higher denitrification rates were obtained with acetate (1.4 and 0.8 mg N/(g MLVSS·h)) compared to ethanol (1.1 and 0.7 mg N/ (g MLVSS·h)) for both anoxic electron acceptors (nitrate and nitrite).

  17. Three-Input Single-Output Voltage-Mode Multifunction Filter with Electronic Controllability Based on Single Commercially Available IC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supachai Klungtong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a second-order voltage-mode filter with three inputs and single-output voltage using single commercially available IC, one resistor, and two capacitors. The used commercially available IC, called LT1228, is manufactured by Linear Technology Corporation. The proposed filter is based on parallel RLC circuit. The filter provides five output filter responses, namely, band-pass (BP, band-reject (BR, low-pass (LP, high-pass (HP, and all-pass (AP functions. The selection of each filter response can be done without the requirement of active and passive component matching condition. Furthermore, the natural frequency and quality factor are electronically controlled. Besides, the nonideal case is also investigated. The output voltage node exhibits low impedance. The experimental results can validate the theoretical analyses.

  18. The use of radioisotopes in the study of soil fertility III. Comparison between different formula used for the calculation of the available nutrient contents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mello, F. de A.F.

    1976-01-01

    Data on available phosphorus in soils published by Neptune et Campanelli (1961) and Campanelli (1962) were used by the author to show the identity of the formulas used by fried et Dean (1952), Larsen (1952), Barbier, Lesaint et Tyszkeiwicz (1954) and Mello (1967-1969) [pt

  19. Temperature, salinity, and nutrient observations collected in the Mediterranean and Black Seas available as part of the MEDAR/MEDATLAS project (NODC Accession 0000996)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The overall objective of the EU concerted action MEDAR/MEDATLAS (MAS3-CT98-0174 & ERBIC20-CT98-0103) was to make available a comprehensive data product of such...

  20. Responses of commercially available neutron electronic personal dosemeters in neutron fields simulating workplaces at MOX fuel fabrication facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsujimura, N.; Yoshida, T.; Takada, C.

    2011-01-01

    The authors investigated the performance of three commercially available electronic personal dosemeters (EPDs) in evaluating neutron dose equivalents and discussed their suitability to work environments in MOX fuel fabrication facilities. The EPDs selected for this study were NRY21 (Fuji Electric Systems), PDM-313 (Aloka) and DMC 2000 GN (MGP Instruments). All tests were conducted in moderated 252 Cf neutron fields with neutron spectral and dosimetric characteristics similar to those found in MOX fuel facilities. The test results revealed trends and the magnitude of response variations in relation to neutron spectral changes expected in work environments.

  1. Towards Biochar and Hydrochar Engineering—Influence of Process Conditions on Surface Physical and Chemical Properties, Thermal Stability, Nutrient Availability, Toxicity and Wettability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba Dieguez-Alonso

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The impact of conversion process parameters in pyrolysis (maximum temperature, inert gas flow rate and hydrothermal carbonization (maximum temperature, residence time and post-washing on biochar and hydrochar properties is investigated. Pine wood (PW and corn digestate (CD, with low and high inorganic species content respectively, are used as feedstock. CD biochars show lower H/C ratios, thermal recalcitrance and total specific surface area than PW biochars, but higher mesoporosity. CD and PW biochars present higher naphthalene and phenanthrene contents, respectively, which may indicate different reaction pathways. High temperatures (>500 °C lead to lower PAH (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons content (<12 mg/kg and higher specific surface area. With increasing process severity the biochars carbon content is also enhanced, as well as the thermal stability. High inert gas flow rates increase the microporosity and wettability of biochars. In hydrochars the high inorganic content favor decarboxylation over dehydration reactions. Hydrochars show mainly mesoporosity, with a higher pore volume but generally lower specific surface area than biochars. Biochars present negligible availability of NO 3 − and NH 4 + , irrespective of the nitrogen content of the feedstock. For hydrochars, a potential increase in availability of NO 3 − , NH 4 + , PO 4 3 − , and K + with respect to the feedstock is possible. The results from this work can be applied to “engineer” appropriate biochars with respect to soil demands and certification requirements.

  2. Readability of patient discharge instructions with and without the use of electronically available disease-specific templates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Stephanie K; Giannelli, Kyla; Boxer, Robert; Schnipper, Jeffrey L

    2015-07-01

    Low health literacy is common, leading to patient vulnerability during hospital discharge, when patients rely on written health instructions. We aimed to examine the impact of the use of electronic, patient-friendly, templated discharge instructions on the readability of discharge instructions provided to patients at discharge. We performed a retrospective cohort study of 233 patients discharged from a large tertiary care hospital to their homes following the implementation of a web-based "discharge module," which included the optional use of diagnosis-specific templated discharge instructions. We compared the readability of discharge instructions, as measured by the Flesch Reading Ease Level test (FREL, on a 0-100 scale, with higher scores indicating greater readability) and the Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level test (FKGL, measured in grade levels), between discharges that used templated instructions (with or without modification) versus discharges that used clinician-generated instructions (with or without available templated instructions for the specific discharge diagnosis). Templated discharge instructions were provided to patients in 45% of discharges. Of the 55% of patients that received clinician-generated discharge instructions, the majority (78.1%) had no available templated instruction for the specific discharge diagnosis. Templated discharge instructions had higher FREL scores (71 vs. 57, P readability (a higher FREL score and a lower FKGL score) than the use of clinician-generated discharge instructions. The main reason for clinicians to create discharge instructions was the lack of available templates for the patient's specific discharge diagnosis. Use of electronically available templated discharge instructions may be a viable option to improve the readability of written material provided to patients at discharge, although the library of available templates requires expansion. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the

  3. The availability of electronic cigarettes in U.S. retail outlets, 2012: results of two national studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Shyanika W; Barker, Dianne C; D'Angelo, Heather; Khan, Tamkeen; Huang, Jidong; Chaloupka, Frank J; Ribisl, Kurt M

    2014-07-01

    Since their introduction in 2007, electronic cigarette ('e-cigarette') awareness and use has grown rapidly. Little is known about variation in e-cigarette availability across areas with different levels of tobacco taxes and smoke-free air policies. This paper looks at US retail availability of e-cigarettes and factors at the store, neighbourhood and policy levels associated with it. In-person store audit data collected in 2012 came from two national samples of tobacco retailers in the contiguous US. Study 1 collected data from a nationally representative sample of tobacco retailers (n=2165). Study 2 collected data from tobacco retailers located in school enrolment zones for nationally representative samples of 8th, 10th and 12th grade public school students (n=2526). In 2012, e-cigarette retail availability was 34% in study 1 and 31% in study 2. Tobacco, pharmacy and gas/convenience stores were more likely to sell e-cigarettes than beer/wine/liquor stores. Retail availability of e-cigarettes was more likely in neighbourhoods with higher median household income (study 1), and lower percent of African-American (studies 1 and 2) and Hispanic residents (study 2). Price of traditional cigarettes was inversely related to e-cigarette availability. Stores in states with an American Lung Association Smoke-Free Air grade of F (study 1) or D (study 2) compared with A had increased likelihood of having e-cigarettes. Currently, e-cigarette availability appears more likely in areas with weak tax and smoke-free air policies. Given the substantial availability of e-cigarettes at tobacco retailers nationwide, states and localities should monitor the sales and marketing of e-cigarettes at point of sale (POS). Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  4. Effects of increasing soil acidity and decreasing nutrient availability on the growth of Vochysiafe""ginea a secondary rain forest of Northern Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernal Herrera

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Efecto del aumento en la acidez del sue- 10 y la disminucion en la disponibilidad de nu- trimentos sobre el crecimiento de Vochysiafe- rruginea en el bosque humedo de la region Norte de Costa Rica. En el presente trabajo se compara el crecimiento de la especie ~ ferrugi- varianea en 3 sitios del bosque humedo secundario de edad avanzada, ubicados en la zona norte de Costa Rica, bajo condiciones crecientes de aci- dez y de menor disponibilidad de nutrimentos en parael suelo. Se instalaron un total de 28 parcelas temporales de muestreo (20x20m, de tal forma que cubrieran toda la variacion del sustrato pre- sente en los sitios de estudio. Como parametros indicadores de la capacidad productiva del sitio bese utilizaron la altura esperada de un arbol a los 25 cm de dap (estimada en una investigacion condiprevia, el area basaVha y la altura total. Las comparaciones estadfsticas (P<0.05 mostraron diferencias significativas en cuanto a la produc- tividad de los sitios. Los sitios con mayor pro- ductividad presentaron el menor grado de pen- indiente, el mayor porcentaje de saturaci6n de AI, los mayores contenidos de Fe y P, asf como las menores concentraciones de bases intercambia-

  5. A buoyancy-based screen of Drosophila larvae for fat-storage mutants reveals a role for Sir2 in coupling fat storage to nutrient availability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Reis

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Obesity has a strong genetic component, but few of the genes that predispose to obesity are known. Genetic screens in invertebrates have the potential to identify genes and pathways that regulate the levels of stored fat, many of which are likely to be conserved in humans. To facilitate such screens, we have developed a simple buoyancy-based screening method for identifying mutant Drosophila larvae with increased levels of stored fat. Using this approach, we have identified 66 genes that when mutated increase organismal fat levels. Among these was a sirtuin family member, Sir2. Sirtuins regulate the storage and metabolism of carbohydrates and lipids by deacetylating key regulatory proteins. However, since mammalian sirtuins function in many tissues in different ways, it has been difficult to define their role in energy homeostasis accurately under normal feeding conditions. We show that knockdown of Sir2 in the larval fat body results in increased fat levels. Moreover, using genetic mosaics, we demonstrate that Sir2 restricts fat accumulation in individual cells of the fat body in a cell-autonomous manner. Consistent with this function, changes in the expression of metabolic enzymes in Sir2 mutants point to a shift away from catabolism. Surprisingly, although Sir2 is typically upregulated under conditions of starvation, Sir2 mutant larvae survive better than wild type under conditions of amino-acid starvation as long as sugars are provided. Our findings point to a Sir2-mediated pathway that activates a catabolic response to amino-acid starvation irrespective of the sugar content of the diet.

  6. Invasiveness of Cut-Leaf Ground-Cherry (Physalis angulata L. Populations and Impact of Soil Water and Nutrient Availability Potencial Invasor de Poblaciones de Tomatillos de Brihuega (Physalis angulata L. e Impacto del Contenido de Agua y Disponibilidad de Nutrientes del Suelo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilias S Travlos

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Biological invasions are a major threat to natural ecosystems and agroecosystems, while weed flora is noticeably changing globally. In this study we evaluated the potential of cut-leaf ground-cherry (Physalis angulata L., a species native to America, to invade the semi-arid regions of Greece. Greenhouse and laboratory experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of different environmental resources (nutrient and water availability on seedling growth, biomass production, fecundity, and seed germination of four populations of cut-leaf ground-cherry. Our results suggest that cut-leaf ground-cherry does not tolerate extreme drought during the first growth stages, while it can survive and produce adequate and rapidly germinated seed (> 85% under low soil moisture conditions. Moreover, high water and nutrient availability results in high growth and biomass production and ensures high seed production, reaching more than 4000 seeds plant-1. We suggest that soil water content and nutrient availability are the two critical factors affecting the invasive potential of cut-leaf ground-cherry in semi-arid environments. Understanding the plant's ecological features through a study conducted at an early stage rather than a late stage of invasion will help us to take appropriate control measures for this species, which should primarily target frequently fertilized fields after precipitation events.Las invasiones biológicas son una amenaza importante para los ecosistemas naturales y agroecosistemas, mientras que, globalmente, la flora de malezas parece cambiar notablemente. En este estudio se evaluó el potencial de una especie nativa de América, tomatillos de Brihuega (Physalis angulata L., para invadir las regiones semiáridas de Grecia. Se realizaron experimentos de invernadero y laboratorio para evaluar los efectos de diferentes recursos ambientales (disponibilidad de nutrientes y agua, crecimiento de las plántulas, producción de biomasa, fecundidad

  7. Are Metals Emitted from Electronic Cigarettes a Reason for Health Concern? A Risk-Assessment Analysis of Currently Available Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos E. Farsalinos

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies have found that metals are emitted to the electronic cigarette (EC aerosol. However, the potential health impact of exposure to such metals has not been adequately defined. The purpose of this study was to perform a risk assessment analysis, evaluating the exposure of electronic cigarette (EC users to metal emissions based on findings from the published literature. Methods: Two studies were found in the literature, measuring metals emitted to the aerosol from 13 EC products. We estimated that users take on average 600 EC puffs per day, but we evaluated the daily exposure from 1200 puffs. Estimates of exposure were compared with the chronic Permissible Daily Exposure (PDE from inhalational medications defined by the U.S. Pharmacopeia (cadmium, chromium, copper, lead and nickel, the Minimal Risk Level (MRL defined by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (manganese and the Recommended Exposure Limit (REL defined by the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (aluminum, barium, iron, tin, titanium, zinc and zirconium. Results: The average daily exposure from 13 EC products was 2.6 to 387 times lower than the safety cut-off point of PDEs, 325 times lower than the safety limit of MRL and 665 to 77,514 times lower than the safety cut-off point of RELs. Only one of the 13 products was found to result in exposure 10% higher than PDE for one metal (cadmium at the extreme daily use of 1200 puffs. Significant differences in emissions between products were observed. Conclusions: Based on currently available data, overall exposure to metals from EC use is not expected to be of significant health concern for smokers switching to EC use, but is an unnecessary source of exposure for never-smokers. Metal analysis should be expanded to more products and exposure can be further reduced through improvements in product quality and appropriate choice of materials.

  8. Fisheries management under nutrient influence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammarlund, Cecilia; Nielsen, Max; Waldo, Staffan

    2018-01-01

    A fisheries management model that identifies the economic optimal management of fisheries under the influence of nutrients is presented. The model starts from the idea that growth in fish biomass increases with increasing availability of nutrients owing to higher food availability up to a peak...

  9. Electronic Nicotine Delivery System (E-cigarettes marketing, sale and availability - an emerging challenge for tobacco control in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravinder Kumar

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Electronic Nicotine Delivery System (E-cigarettes are being advertised as novel products in all media and platforms across the globe. Despite the fact that these products are still not evaluated for safety and effectiveness by any regulatory body in most countries including India; their advertisements claiming the e-cigarettes to be health friendly is on rampant especially in the internet media.To explore the availability of e-cigarette brands for Indian existing and potential consumers and to understand their distribution network and marketing tactics, the investigator did the internet search. Methods Investigator performed the keyword search on Google in May 2014 and November 2016. Brand websites were examined for specifics about each product (flavor and nicotine strength, ingredients, and their claims about the safety of the products and usefulness in smoking cessation. Distributor's network and kiosk selling these products were also searched for. Results Total 112 brands of different flavor (12 types and different nicotine strengths (9 types of the e-cigarettes were found. In majority brands (95%, most common ingredients were chemical nicotine, propylene glycol, water and flavours. 10% websites claimed that their product are useful as smoking cessation devices. Most brands claimed their product to be healthier and safer (90%, suitable to use in public places (92% and an economical option (70% than conventional cigarettes. Near half of the websites gave their distribution details in the websites. 12 websites offer free shipping services, 27 websites offers the web chat options for marketing the products. Conclusions ENDS (e-cigarette poses another challenge for tobacco control in India. The claims (especially healthier option and useful for cessation of the websites marketing these products are questionable and needs further research. Ongoing advertisements on internet are the gross violations of Indian tobacco control legislation

  10. Presentation of various types of electronic business available on the Internet, Advantages, Disadvantages, Key Requirements and Security, Implementation Model of an Electronic Business

    OpenAIRE

    Andreea A.S. Ionescu; Raul Serban

    2012-01-01

    This paper speaks about the advantages, disadvantages, key requirements necessary of an electronic business, the infrastructure of the Internet, the existing main networks on the Internet, standards used to develop electronic business and the security of an e-business environment. As we know in an organization the information is an asset that has value and should be protected and diversified. We also propose an implementation model of an electronic business that interconnects two concepts: ER...

  11. Efficiency evaluation of an electronic equipment: availability,reliability and maintenance; Notion d'efficacite d'un equipement electronique: disponibilite, fiabilite et maintenabilite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guyot, C

    1966-07-01

    This concept of efficiency often called ''system effectiveness'', is presented and analyzed in terms of reliability and maintenance. It allows to define the availability factor of an electronic equipment. A procedure of evaluation is proposed. (A.L.B.)

  12. Effects of exogenous phytase and xylanase, individually or in combination, and pelleting on nutrient digestibility, available energy content of wheat and performance of growing pigs fed wheat-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y Y; Fan, Y F; Cao, Y H; Guo, P P; Dong, B; Ma, Y X

    2017-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of adding exogenous phytase and xylanase, individually or in combination, as well as pelleting on nutrient digestibility, available energy content of wheat and the performance of growing pigs fed wheat-based diets. In Experiment 1, forty-eight barrows with an initial body weight of 35.9±0.6 kg were randomly assigned to a 2×4 factorial experiment with the main effects being feed form (pellet vs meal) and enzyme supplementation (none, 10,000 U/kg phytase, 4,000 U/kg xylanase or 10,000 U/kg phytase plus 4,000 U/kg xylanase). The basal diet contained 97.8% wheat. Pigs were placed in metabolic cages for a 7-d adaptation period followed by a 5-d total collection of feces and urine. Nutrient digestibility and available energy content were determined. Experiment 2 was conducted to evaluate the effects of pelleting and enzymes on performance of wheat for growing pigs. In this experiment, 180 growing pigs (35.2±9.0 kg BW) were allocated to 1 of 6 treatments according to a 2×3 factorial treatment arrangement with the main effects being feed form (meal vs pellet) and enzyme supplementation (0, 2,500 or 5,000 U/kg xylanase). In Experiment 1, there were no interactions between feed form and enzyme supplementation. Pelleting reduced the digestibility of acid detergent fiber (ADF) by 6.4 percentage units (pdigestibility of energy by 0.6 percentage units (pdigestibility of crude protein by 0.5 percentage units (p = 0.07) compared with diets in mash form. The addition of phytase improved the digestibility of phosphorus (pdigestibility of crude protein by 1.0 percentage units (p = 0.09) and increased the digestibility of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) (pdigestibility of phosphorus (pdigestibility (pdigestibility but decreased ADF digestibility. Adding xylanase increased crude protein digestibility and pig performance. Phytase increased the apparent total tract digestibility of phosphorus and calcium. The combination of

  13. Measuring nutrient spiralling in streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newbold, J D; Elwood, J W; O' Neill, R V; Van Winkle, W

    1981-01-01

    Nutrient cycling in streams involves some downstream transport before the cycle is completed. Thus, the path traveled by a nutrient atom in passing through the cycle can be visualized as a spiral. As an index of the spiralling process, we introduce spiralling length, defined as the average distance associated with one complete cycle of a nutrient atom. This index provides a measure of the utilization of nutrients relative to the available supply from upstream. Using /sup 32/p as a tracer, we estimated a spiralling length of 193 m for phosphorus in a small woodland stream.

  14. 76 FR 54194 - Availability of Final Compliance Guide for the Use of Video or Other Electronic Monitoring or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-31

    ... state the importance of effective implementation of video monitoring to result in trustworthy and... apply to all programs.) Persons with disabilities who require alternative means for communication of... communicated via Listserv, a free electronic mail subscription service for industry, trade groups, consumer...

  15. Dose response of commercially available optically stimulated luminescent detector, Al2O3:C for megavoltage photons and electrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong Wook; Chung, Weon Kuu; Shin, Dong Oh; Yoon, Myonggeun; Hwang, Ui-Jung; Rah, Jeong-Eun; Jeong, Hojin; Lee, Sang Yeob; Shin, Dongho; Lee, Se Byeong; Park, Sung Yong

    2012-04-01

    This study examined the dose response of an optically stimulated luminescence dosemeter (OSLD) to megavoltage photon and electron beams. A nanoDot™ dosemeter was used to measure the dose response of the OSLD. Photons of 6-15 MV and electrons of 9-20 MeV were delivered by a Varian 21iX machine (Varian Medical System, Inc. Milpitas, CA, USA). The energy dependency was dose was linear until 200 cGy. The superficial dose measurements revealed photon irradiation to have an angular dependency. The nanoDot™ dosemeter has potential use as an in vivo dosimetric tool that is independent of the energy, has dose linearity and a rapid response compared with normal in vivo dosimetric tools, such as thermoluminescence detectors. However, the OSLD must be treated very carefully due to the high angular dependency of the photon beam.

  16. The subtropical nutrient spiral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, William J.; Doney, Scott C.

    2003-12-01

    We present an extended series of observations and more comprehensive analysis of a tracer-based measure of new production in the Sargasso Sea near Bermuda using the 3He flux gauge technique. The estimated annually averaged nitrate flux of 0.84 ± 0.26 mol m-2 yr-1 constitutes only that nitrate physically transported to the euphotic zone, not nitrogen from biological sources (e.g., nitrogen fixation or zooplankton migration). We show that the flux estimate is quantitatively consistent with other observations, including decade timescale evolution of the 3H + 3He inventory in the main thermocline and export production estimates. However, we argue that the flux cannot be supplied in the long term by local diapycnal or isopycnal processes. These considerations lead us to propose a three-dimensional pathway whereby nutrients remineralized within the main thermocline are returned to the seasonally accessible layers within the subtropical gyre. We describe this mechanism, which we call "the nutrient spiral," as a sequence of steps where (1) nutrient-rich thermocline waters are entrained into the Gulf Stream, (2) enhanced diapycnal mixing moves nutrients upward onto lighter densities, (3) detrainment and enhanced isopycnal mixing injects these waters into the seasonally accessible layer of the gyre recirculation region, and (4) the nutrients become available to biota via eddy heaving and wintertime convection. The spiral is closed when nutrients are utilized, exported, and then remineralized within the thermocline. We present evidence regarding the characteristics of the spiral and discuss some implications of its operation within the biogeochemical cycle of the subtropical ocean.

  17. Nutrient and Coliform Loading (NCL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is a database of available fecal coliform bacteria, fecal streptococci bacteria, and nutrient loading data. Loading for contaminants other than fecal coliform...

  18. Interacting Effects of Light and Iron Availability on the Coupling of Photosynthetic Electron Transport and CO2-Assimilation in Marine Phytoplankton.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Schuback

    Full Text Available Iron availability directly affects photosynthesis and limits phytoplankton growth over vast oceanic regions. For this reason, the availability of iron is a crucial variable to consider in the development of active chlorophyll a fluorescence based estimates of phytoplankton primary productivity. These bio-optical approaches require a conversion factor to derive ecologically-relevant rates of CO2-assimilation from estimates of electron transport in photosystem II. The required conversion factor varies significantly across phytoplankton taxa and environmental conditions, but little information is available on its response to iron limitation. In this study, we examine the role of iron limitation, and the interacting effects of iron and light availability, on the coupling of photosynthetic electron transport and CO2-assimilation in marine phytoplankton. Our results show that excess irradiance causes increased decoupling of carbon fixation and electron transport, particularly under iron limiting conditions. We observed that reaction center II specific rates of electron transport (ETR(RCII, mol e- mol RCII(-1 s(-1 increased under iron limitation, and we propose a simple conceptual model for this observation. We also observed a strong correlation between the derived conversion factor and the expression of non-photochemical quenching. Utilizing a dataset from in situ phytoplankton assemblages across a coastal--oceanic transect in the Northeast subarctic Pacific, this relationship was used to predict ETR(RCII: CO2-assimilation conversion factors and carbon-based primary productivity from FRRF data, without the need for any additional measurements.

  19. The Nutrient Density of Snacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Hess BA

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although Americans receive almost a quarter of their daily energy from snacks, snacking remains a poorly defined and understood eating occasion. However, there is little dietary guidance about choosing snacks. Families, clinicians, and researchers need a comprehensive approach to assessing their nutritional value. Objective: To quantify and compare the nutrient density of commonly consumed snacks by their overall nutrient profiles using the Nutrient-Rich Foods (NRF Index 10.3. Methods: NRF Index scores were calculated for the top 3 selling products (based on 2014 market research data in different snack categories. These NRF scores were averaged to provide an overall nutrient-density score for each category. Results: Based on NRF scores, yogurt (55.3, milk (52.5, and fruit (30.1 emerged as the most nutrient-dense snacks. Ice cream (−4.4, pies and cakes (−11.1, and carbonated soft drinks (−17.2 emerged as the most nutrient-poor snacks. Conclusions: The NRF Index is a useful tool for assessing the overall nutritional value of snacks based on nutrients to limit and nutrients to encourage.

  20. Interacting Effects of Light and Iron Availability on the Coupling of Photosynthetic Electron Transport and CO2-Assimilation in Marine Phytoplankton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuback, Nina; Schallenberg, Christina; Duckham, Carolyn; Maldonado, Maria T; Tortell, Philippe D

    2015-01-01

    Iron availability directly affects photosynthesis and limits phytoplankton growth over vast oceanic regions. For this reason, the availability of iron is a crucial variable to consider in the development of active chlorophyll a fluorescence based estimates of phytoplankton primary productivity. These bio-optical approaches require a conversion factor to derive ecologically-relevant rates of CO2-assimilation from estimates of electron transport in photosystem II. The required conversion factor varies significantly across phytoplankton taxa and environmental conditions, but little information is available on its response to iron limitation. In this study, we examine the role of iron limitation, and the interacting effects of iron and light availability, on the coupling of photosynthetic electron transport and CO2-assimilation in marine phytoplankton. Our results show that excess irradiance causes increased decoupling of carbon fixation and electron transport, particularly under iron limiting conditions. We observed that reaction center II specific rates of electron transport (ETR(RCII), mol e- mol RCII(-1) s(-1)) increased under iron limitation, and we propose a simple conceptual model for this observation. We also observed a strong correlation between the derived conversion factor and the expression of non-photochemical quenching. Utilizing a dataset from in situ phytoplankton assemblages across a coastal--oceanic transect in the Northeast subarctic Pacific, this relationship was used to predict ETR(RCII): CO2-assimilation conversion factors and carbon-based primary productivity from FRRF data, without the need for any additional measurements.

  1. Interacting Effects of Light and Iron Availability on the Coupling of Photosynthetic Electron Transport and CO2-Assimilation in Marine Phytoplankton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuback, Nina; Schallenberg, Christina; Duckham, Carolyn; Maldonado, Maria T.; Tortell, Philippe D.

    2015-01-01

    Iron availability directly affects photosynthesis and limits phytoplankton growth over vast oceanic regions. For this reason, the availability of iron is a crucial variable to consider in the development of active chlorophyll a fluorescence based estimates of phytoplankton primary productivity. These bio-optical approaches require a conversion factor to derive ecologically-relevant rates of CO2-assimilation from estimates of electron transport in photosystem II. The required conversion factor varies significantly across phytoplankton taxa and environmental conditions, but little information is available on its response to iron limitation. In this study, we examine the role of iron limitation, and the interacting effects of iron and light availability, on the coupling of photosynthetic electron transport and CO2-assimilation in marine phytoplankton. Our results show that excess irradiance causes increased decoupling of carbon fixation and electron transport, particularly under iron limiting conditions. We observed that reaction center II specific rates of electron transport (ETRRCII, mol e- mol RCII-1 s-1) increased under iron limitation, and we propose a simple conceptual model for this observation. We also observed a strong correlation between the derived conversion factor and the expression of non-photochemical quenching. Utilizing a dataset from in situ phytoplankton assemblages across a coastal – oceanic transect in the Northeast subarctic Pacific, this relationship was used to predict ETRRCII: CO2-assimilation conversion factors and carbon-based primary productivity from FRRF data, without the need for any additional measurements. PMID:26171963

  2. [German physicians' access to professional knowledge. Acceptance, quality and availability of professional information with special reference to electronic information media].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reng, Carl-Michael; Friedrich, Hans-Jürgen; Timmer, Antje; Schölmerich, Jürgen

    2003-11-15

    The growing relevance of continuous medical education is evident. Also information retrieval helping to solve clinical problems yet at the patient's bedside becomes more and more important. This study challenges common and coming methods of information retrieval applied by German physicians. It helps answering the question which advantage or disadvantage due to the chosen method of information acquisition may arise. It also shows which practical relevance and which grade of quality the information seeking doctor may anticipate. A questionnaire was sent out to all registered clinicians in hospital and practice in Germany. Not only traditional means of information retrieval were analyzed. Also, a lot of the questions posed focused on the acceptance and use of new media in the professional context. About 16,000 colleagues answered by filling in the complete form therewith allowing a deep insight into their informational needs and habits. While traditional media like books and scientific papers enjoy wide public confidence, the acceptance and estimated reliability of virtual sources of information today still remain restrained. The lack of transparency of the virtual sources and ways of information within the web according to often imprecise rules for quality assurance lead to major complaint. Information offered directly by the industry has a very low rate of acceptance. To gain higher confidence in electronic media presenting professional knowledge and advanced medical training, the development of technological advantages today seems to be less relevant. Work on the transparency of the informational structures including clear definition of resources and clear indication of possible conflicts of interest are just as important as a comprehensible quality of forthcoming medical content.

  3. Nutrient supply of plants in aquaponic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andras Bittsanszky

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this preliminary article we present data on plant nutrient concentrations in aquaponics systems, and we compare them to nutrient concentrations in “standard” hydroponic solutions. Our data shows that the nutrient concentrations supplied by the fish in the aquaponics system are significantly lower for most nutrients compared to hydroponic systems. Nevertheless, plants do thrive in solutions that have lower nutrient levels compared to “standard” hydroponic solutions. This is especially true for green leafy vegetables that rarely need additional nutritional supplementation. It is concluded that in the highly complex system of aquaponics, special care has to be taken, via continuous monitoring of the chemical composition of the circulating water, to provide adequate concentrations and ratios of nutrients, and especially for the potentially toxic component, ammonium. If certain plants require nutrient supplementation, we consider that one based on organic substances would be most beneficial. However, protocols for the application of such nutrient amendments still need to be developed.

  4. Plant functional traits and canopy structure control the relationship between photosynthetic CO2 uptake and far-red sun-induced fluorescence in a Mediterranean grassland under different nutrient availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliavacca, Mirco; Perez-Priego, Oscar; Rossini, Micol; El-Madany, Tarek S; Moreno, Gerardo; van der Tol, Christiaan; Rascher, Uwe; Berninger, Anna; Bessenbacher, Verena; Burkart, Andreas; Carrara, Arnaud; Fava, Francesco; Guan, Jin-Hong; Hammer, Tiana W; Henkel, Kathrin; Juarez-Alcalde, Enrique; Julitta, Tommaso; Kolle, Olaf; Martín, M Pilar; Musavi, Talie; Pacheco-Labrador, Javier; Pérez-Burgueño, Andrea; Wutzler, Thomas; Zaehle, Sönke; Reichstein, Markus

    2017-05-01

    Sun-induced fluorescence (SIF) in the far-red region provides a new noninvasive measurement approach that has the potential to quantify dynamic changes in light-use efficiency and gross primary production (GPP). However, the mechanistic link between GPP and SIF is not completely understood. We analyzed the structural and functional factors controlling the emission of SIF at 760 nm (F 760 ) in a Mediterranean grassland manipulated with nutrient addition of nitrogen (N), phosphorous (P) or nitrogen-phosphorous (NP). Using the soil-canopy observation of photosynthesis and energy (SCOPE) model, we investigated how nutrient-induced changes in canopy structure (i.e. changes in plant forms abundance that influence leaf inclination distribution function, LIDF) and functional traits (e.g. N content in dry mass of leaves, N%, Chlorophyll a+b concentration (Cab) and maximum carboxylation capacity (V cmax )) affected the observed linear relationship between F 760 and GPP. We conclude that the addition of nutrients imposed a change in the abundance of different plant forms and biochemistry of the canopy that controls F 760 . Changes in canopy structure mainly control the GPP-F 760 relationship, with a secondary effect of Cab and V cmax . In order to exploit F 760 data to model GPP at the global/regional scale, canopy structural variability, biodiversity and functional traits are important factors that have to be considered. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  5. Why Nutrients?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Howe

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The field of nutrition continues to attract increasing interest from health professionals, including dietitians, sports nutritionists and medical practitioners, from biomedical, agricultural, nutritional and food scientists and from health conscious consumers alike. [...

  6. Higher Household Income and the Availability of Electronic Devices and Transport at Home Are Associated with Higher Waist Circumference in Colombian Children: The ACFIES Study

    OpenAIRE

    Diego Gómez-Arbeláez; Paul A. Camacho; Daniel D. Cohen; Katherine Rincón-Romero; Laura Alvarado-Jurado; Sandra Pinzón; John Duperly; Patricio López-Jaramillo

    2014-01-01

    Background: The current “epidemic” of childhood obesity is described as being driven by modern lifestyles with associated socioeconomic and environmental changes that modify dietary habits, discourage physical activity and encourage sedentary behaviors. Objective: To evaluate the association between household income and the availability of electronic devices and transport at home, and the values of waist circumference (WC), as an indicator of abdominal obesity, in children and adolescents fro...

  7. Places available**

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an "application for training" form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. TECHNICAL TRAINING Monique Duval tel. 74924 technical.training@cern.ch ** The number of places available may vary. Please check our Web site to find out the current availability. Places are available in the following courses: ACCESS 2000 - niveau 1 : 13 & 14.11.03 (2 jours) C++ for Particle Physicists : 17 – 21.11.03 (6 X 3-hour lectures) Programmation automate Schneider TSX Premium – niveau 2 : 18 – 21.11.03 (4 jours) JAVA 2 Enterprise Edition – Part 1 : WEB Applications : 20 & ...

  8. Nutrient cycling strategies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breemen, van N.

    1995-01-01

    This paper briefly reviews pathways by which plants can influence the nutrient cycle, and thereby the nutrient supply of themselves and of their competitors. Higher or lower internal nutrient use efficiency positively feeds back into the nutrient cycle, and helps to increase or decrease soil

  9. Higher Household Income and the Availability of Electronic Devices and Transport at Home Are Associated with Higher Waist Circumference in Colombian Children: The ACFIES Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Gómez-Arbeláez

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The current “epidemic” of childhood obesity is described as being driven by modern lifestyles with associated socioeconomic and environmental changes that modify dietary habits, discourage physical activity and encourage sedentary behaviors. Objective: To evaluate the association between household income and the availability of electronic devices and transport at home, and the values of waist circumference (WC, as an indicator of abdominal obesity, in children and adolescents from Bucaramanga, Colombia. Methods: Cross-sectional study of public elementary and high school population, of low-middle socioeconomic status. Results: A total of 668 schoolchildren were recruited. After adjusting for potential confounders, significant positive associations between waist circumference and higher household income (p = 0.011, and waist circumference and the availability of electronic devices and transport at home (p = 0.026 were found. Conclusions: In low-middle socioeconomic status schoolchildren in a developing country, those from relatively more affluent families had greater waist circumference, an association that is opposite to that observed in developed countries. This finding could be related to higher income family’s ability to purchase electronic devices and motorized transport which discourage physical activity and for their children to buy desirable and more costly western fast food.

  10. Trends in nutrients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heathwaite, A.L.; Johnes, P.J.; Peters, N.E.

    1996-01-01

    The roles of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) as key nutrients determining the trophic status of water bodies are examined, and evidence reviewed for trends in concentrations of N and P species which occur in freshwaters, primarily in northern temperate environments. Data are reported for water bodies undergoing eutrophication and acidification, especially water bodies receiving increased nitrogen inputs through the atmospheric deposition of nitrogen oxides (NOx). Nutrient loading on groundwaters and surface freshwaters is assessed with respect to causes and rates of (change, relative rates of change for N and P, and implications of change for the future management of lakes, rivers and groundwaters. In particular, the nature and emphasis of studies for N species and P fractions in lakes versus rivers and groundwaters are contrasted. This review paper primarily focuses on results from North America and Europe, particularly for the UK where a wide range of data sets exists. Few nutrient loading data have been published on water bodies in less developed countries; however, some of the available data are presented to provide a global perspective. In general, N and P concentrations have increased dramatically (>20 times background concentrations) in many areas and causes vary considerably, ranging from urbanization to changes in agricultural practices.

  11. Consumo, digestibilidade aparente de nutrientes e disponibilidade de minerais em ovinos, em função de diferentes níveis de cama de frango na dieta Intake, apparent digestibility of nutrients and availability of minerals in sheep as a function of different levels of poultry litter in the diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Vidal Oliveira

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Foram confinados 20 ovinos em gaiolas metálicas, durante 15 dias, com o objetivo de determinar os efeitos de diferentes níveis de cama de frango sobre o consumo e a digestibilidade de nutrientes, o balanço de nitrogênio e a disponibilidade aparente dos macrominerais. Os animais foram distribuídos em quatro tratamentos em delineamento em blocos casualizados, com cinco repetições. O volumoso foi composto de feno de capim-tifton 85 (Cynodon spp e a cama de frango, constituída de sabugo de milho triturado e casca de café, numa relação 1:1. As dietas foram isoprotéicas contendo quatro níveis de feno (80, 60, 40 e 20%, quatro níveis de cama de frango (0, 20, 40 e 60% e 20% de concentrado, na base da matéria natural. Os consumos de MS, MO, NDT, CHOT, CNE, PB e EE na dieta total não foram afetados pelos tratamentos, enquanto os consumos de FDN e FDA reduziram com o aumento do nível de cama de frango na dieta. Os coeficientes de digestibilidade do CHOT, CNE e EE elevaram de 59,7 para 64,6%, 88,5 para 93,2% e 1,5 para 30,2%, respectivamente, com o aumento do nível de cama de frango (de 0 para 60% da dieta. Os coeficientes de digestibilidade da MS e MO não sofreram efeito, com valores médios de 55,8 e 61,9%, e da FDN e PB diminuíram de 52,0 para 39,4% e 77,5 para 58,0%, respectivamente, com o aumento do nível de cama de frango de 0 para 60% da dieta. O balanço de nitrogênio passou de negativo para ligeiramente positivo, com a inclusão da cama de frango, embora tenha ocorrido alta excreção urinária de nitrogênio em todos os tratamentos. A cama de frango presente em 40 e 60% da dieta apresentou alta participação no suprimento de proteína bruta e magnésio, comparada ao volumoso, além de suprir mais de 100% dos requerimentos de Ca, P, Na e K dos animais. Entretanto, a disponibilidade aparente do Ca foi baixa e do P, negativa.Twenty sheep were allotted in metallic crates during 15 days, to determine the effects of different

  12. Higher household income and the availability of electronic devices and transport at home are associated with higher waist circumference in Colombian children: the ACFIES study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Arbeláez, Diego; Camacho, Paul A; Cohen, Daniel D; Rincón-Romero, Katherine; Alvarado-Jurado, Laura; Pinzón, Sandra; Duperly, John; López-Jaramillo, Patricio

    2014-02-07

    The current "epidemic" of childhood obesity is described as being driven by modern lifestyles with associated socioeconomic and environmental changes that modify dietary habits, discourage physical activity and encourage sedentary behaviors. To evaluate the association between household income and the availability of electronic devices and transport at home, and the values of waist circumference (WC), as an indicator of abdominal obesity, in children and adolescents from Bucaramanga, Colombia. Cross-sectional study of public elementary and high school population, of low-middle socioeconomic status. A total of 668 schoolchildren were recruited. After adjusting for potential confounders, significant positive associations between waist circumference and higher household income (p = 0.011), and waist circumference and the availability of electronic devices and transport at home (p = 0.026) were found. In low-middle socioeconomic status schoolchildren in a developing country, those from relatively more affluent families had greater waist circumference, an association that is opposite to that observed in developed countries. This finding could be related to higher income family's ability to purchase electronic devices and motorized transport which discourage physical activity and for their children to buy desirable and more costly western fast food.

  13. PLACES AVAILABLE

    CERN Multimedia

    Technical Training; Tel. 74924

    2001-01-01

    Places are available in the following courses: Introduction to Databases :  3 - 4.7.01 (2 days) The JAVA programming language Level 2 : 4 - 6.7.01 (3 days) Enterprise JavaBeans :  9 - 11.7.01 (3 days) Design Patterns :  10 - 12.7.01 (3 days) C++ for Particle Physicists :  23 - 27.7.01 (6 3-hour lectures) If you wish to participate in one of these courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at : http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an 'application for training' form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt.

  14. PLACES AVAILABLE

    CERN Multimedia

    Technical Training; Tel. 74924

    2001-01-01

    Places are available in the following courses: Introduction to Perl 5 : 2 - 3.7.01 (2 days) Introduction to Databases :  3 - 4.7.01 (2 days) JAVA programming language Level 2 : 4 - 6.7.01 (3 days) Enterprise JavaBeans :  9 - 11.7.01 (3 days) Design Patterns :  10 - 12.7.01 (3 days) C++ for Particle Physicists :  23 - 27.7.01 (6 3-hour lectures) If you wish to participate in one of these courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at : http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an 'application for training' form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt.

  15. PLACES AVAILABLE

    CERN Multimedia

    Monique Duval

    2002-01-01

    Places are available in the following courses: CLEAN-2002 : Travailler en salle blanche (cours gratuit) : 13.08.2002 (matin) Introduction to the CERN Enginnering Data Management System :  27.8.02  (1 day) The CERN Engineering Data Management System for Advanced Users :  28.8.02  (1 day) If you wish to participate in one of these courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at : Technical Training or fill in an 'application for training' form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. Technical Training Monique Duval Tel.74924 monique.duval@cern.ch    

  16. PLACES AVAILABLE

    CERN Multimedia

    Monique Duval

    2002-01-01

    Places are available in the following courses: C++ Programming Level 2 - Traps & Pitfalls:  16 - 19.7.02 (4 days) Frontpage 2000 - level 1 :  22 - 23.7.02  (2 days) Introduction à Windows 2000 au CERN : 24.7.02 (après-midi) CLEAN-2002 : Travailler en salle blanche (cours gratuit) : 13.08.2002 (matin) If you wish to participate in one of these courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at : Technical Training or fill in an 'application for training' form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. Technical Training Monique Duval Tel.74924 monique.duval@cern.ch

  17. PLACES AVAILABLE

    CERN Multimedia

    Monique Duval

    2002-01-01

    Places are available in the following courses: December 2002   PCAD Schémas - Débutants :  5 & 6.12.02  (2 jours) PCAD PCB - Débutants :  9 - 11.12.02  (3 jours) FrontPage 2000 - level 1:  9 & 10.12.02  (2 days) Introduction à la CAO Cadence (cours gratuit) :  10 & 11.12.02  (2 jours) If you wish to participate in one of these courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at : Technical Training or fill in an 'application for training' form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. Technical Training Monique Duval Tel.74924 monique.duval@cern.ch

  18. Places available

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an "application for training" form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. Places available The number of places available may vary. Please check our Web site to find out the current availability. Places are available in the following courses : Introduction à Outlook : 19.8.2004 (1 journée) Outlook (short course I) : E-mail : 31.8.2004 (2 hours, morning) Outlook (short course II) : Calendar, Tasks and Notes : 31.8.2004 (2 hours, afternoon) Instructor-led WBTechT Study or Follow-up for Microsoft Applications : 7.9.2004 (morning) Outlook (short course III) : Meetings and Delegation : 7.9.2004 (2 hours, afternoon) Introduction ...

  19. Effects of mineral nutrients on ozone susceptibility of Lemna minor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craker, L E

    1971-01-01

    Susceptibility of Lemna minor L. to ozone injury was influenced by the mineral nutrients available to the Lemna plants. Additional nitrogen or additional iron in the nutrient media respectively enhanced or reduced chlorophyll loss of Lemna plants fumigated with ozone. Lemna plants growing on a nutrient medium lacking copper had significantly less injury from ozone fumigation than Lemna plants growing on a complete nutrient medium. There were apparent interactions among phosphorus and potassium nutrient levels in determing the Lemna plant's susceptibility to ozone.

  20. Places available**

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an "application for training" form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. TECHNICAL TRAINING Monique Duval Tel. 74924technical.training@cern.ch ** The number of places available may vary. Please check our Web site to find out the current availability. Places are available in the following courses: MATLAB Fundamentals and Programming Techniques (ML01) : 2 & 3.12.03 (2 days) Oracle 8i : SQL : 3 - 5.12.03 (3 days) The EDMS MTF in practice : 5.12.03 (afternoon, free of charge) Modeling Dynamic Systems with Simulink (SL01) : 8 & 9.12.03 (2 days) Signal Processing with MATLAB (SG01) : 11 & 12.12.03 (2 days) The JAVA Programming Language - l...

  1. Places available**

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an "application for training" form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. TECHNICAL TRAINING Monique Duval tel. 74924 technical.training@cern.ch ** The number of places available may vary. Please check our Web site to find out the current availability. Places are available in the following courses: MATLAB Fundamentals and Programming Techniques (ML01) :2 & 3.12.03 (2 days) Oracle 8i : SQL : 3 - 5.12.03 (3 days) The EDMS MTF in practice : 5.12.03 (afternoon, free of charge) Modeling Dynamic Systems with Simulink (SL01) : 8 & 9.12.03 (2 days) Signal Processing with MATLAB (SG01) : 11 & ...

  2. Places available**

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an "application for training" form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt.TECHNICAL TRAINING Monique Duval tel. 74924 technical.training@cern.ch ** The number of places available may vary. Please check our Web site to find out the current availability. Places are available in the following courses: The JAVA Programming Language Level 1 : 9 & 10.1.2004 (2 days) The JAVA Programming Language Level 2 : 11 to 13.1.2004 (3 days) LabVIEW base 1 : 25 - 27.2.2004 (3 jours) CLEAN-2002 : Working in a Cleanroom : 10.3.2004 (afternoon - free of charge) C++ for Particle Physicists : 8 - 12.3.2004 ( 6 X 4-hour sessions) LabVIEW Basics 1 : 22 - 24.3.20...

  3. Places available**

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an "application for training" form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. TECHNICAL TRAINING Monique Duval tel. 74924 technical.training@cern.ch ** The number of places available may vary. Please check our Web site to find out the current availability. Places are available in the following courses: The JAVA Programming Language Level 1 :9 & 10.1.2004 (2 days) The JAVA Programming Language Level 2 : 11 to 13.1.2004 (3 days) Hands-on Introduction to Python Programming : 16 - 18.2.2004 (3 days - free of charge) CLEAN-2002 : Working in a Cleanroom : 10.3.2004 (afternoon - free of charge) C++ for Particle Physicists : 8 - 12.3.2004...

  4. Places available**

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an "application for training" form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. TECHNICAL TRAINING Monique Duval Tel. 74924 technical.training@cern.ch ** The number of places available may vary. Please check our Web site to find out the current availability. Places are available in the following courses: JAVA 2 Enterprise Edition - Part 1 : WEB Applications : 20 & 21.11.03(2 days) FrontPage 2000 - niveau 1 : 20 & 21.11.03 (2 jours) Oracle 8i : SQL : 3 - 5.12.03 (3 days) Oracle 8i : Programming with PL/SQL : 8 - 10.12.03 (3 days) The JAVA Programming Language - leve...

  5. Places available**

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an "application for training" form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. TECHNICAL TRAINING Monique Duval tel. 74924 technical.training@cern.ch ** The number of places available may vary. Please check our Web site to find out the current availability. Places are available in the following courses: Project Planning with MS-Project : 15 & 22.1.2004 (2 days) Joint PVSS JCOP Framework Course : 2 sessions : 2 - 6.2.2004 and 16 - 20-2-2004 (5 days) Hands-on Introduction to Python Programming : 16 - 18.2.2004 (3 days - free of charge) C++ for Particle Physicists : 8 - 12.3.2004 ( 6 X 4-hour sessions)

  6. Places available**

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of these courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an "application for training" form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. ** The number of places available may vary. Please check our Web site to find out the current availability. Places are available in the following courses : EXCEL 2000 - niveau 1 : 20 & 22.10.03 (2 jours) CLEAN-2002 : Working in a Cleanroom (free of charge) : 23.10.03 (half day) The EDMS-MTF in practice (free of charge) :  28 -  30.10.03 (6 half-day sessions) AutoCAD 2002 - Level 1 : 3, 4, 12, 13.11.03 (4 days) LabVIEW TestStand ver. 3 : 4 & 5.11.03 (2 days) Introduction to Pspice : 4.11.03 p.m. (half-day) Hands-on Introduction to Python Programm...

  7. Soluble organic nutrient fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert G. Qualls; Bruce L. Haines; Wayne Swank

    2014-01-01

    Our objectives in this study were (i) compare fluxes of the dissolved organic nutrients dissolved organic carbon (DOC), DON, and dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP) in a clearcut area and an adjacent mature reference area. (ii) determine whether concentrations of dissolved organic nutrients or inorganic nutrients were greater in clearcut areas than in reference areas,...

  8. PLACES AVAILABLE

    CERN Multimedia

    Enseignement Technique; Tél. 74924; Technical Training; Monique Duval; Tel. 74924

    2000-01-01

    Places available Places are available in the following courses:   LabView hands-on 13.11.00 4 hours LabView Basics 1 14 - 16.11.00 3 days Nouveautés de WORD 19 et 20.10.00 2 jours ACCESS 1er niveau 30 - 31.10.00 2 jours Advanced aspects of the C language 2 - 3.11.00 2 days Introduction to Oracle SQL and PL/SQL 13 - 17.11.00 5 days C++ for Particle Physicists 20 - 24.11.00 6 lectures Develop PL/SQL Program Units 20 - 22.11.00 3 days Oracle Application Server Develop Web-Based Applications with PL/SQL 27 - 28.11.00 2 days Programmation TSX Premium 1 28.11 - 1.12.00 4 jours Programmation TSX Premium 2 12 - 15.12.00 4 jours If you wish to participate in one of these courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at : http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an “application for training” form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Offi...

  9. TOR Signaling and Nutrient Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrenel, Thomas; Caldana, Camila; Hanson, Johannes; Robaglia, Christophe; Vincentz, Michel; Veit, Bruce; Meyer, Christian

    2016-04-29

    All living organisms rely on nutrients to sustain cell metabolism and energy production, which in turn need to be adjusted based on available resources. The evolutionarily conserved target of rapamycin (TOR) protein kinase is a central regulatory hub that connects environmental information about the quantity and quality of nutrients to developmental and metabolic processes in order to maintain cellular homeostasis. TOR is activated by both nitrogen and carbon metabolites and promotes energy-consuming processes such as cell division, mRNA translation, and anabolism in times of abundance while repressing nutrient remobilization through autophagy. In animals and yeasts, TOR acts antagonistically to the starvation-induced AMP-activated kinase (AMPK)/sucrose nonfermenting 1 (Snf1) kinase, called Snf1-related kinase 1 (SnRK1) in plants. This review summarizes the immense knowledge on the relationship between TOR signaling and nutrients in nonphotosynthetic organisms and presents recent findings in plants that illuminate the crucial role of this pathway in conveying nutrient-derived signals and regulating many aspects of metabolism and growth.

  10. Dynamics of inorganic nutrients in intertidal sediments: porewater, exchangeable and intracellular pools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio eGarcia-Robledo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The study of inorganic nutrients dynamics in shallow sediments usually focuses on two main pools: the porewater (PW nutrients and the exchangeable (EX ammonium and phosphate. Recently, it has been found that microphytobenthos (MPB and other microorganisms can accumulate large amounts of nutrients intracellularly (IC, highlighting the biogeochemical importance of this nutrient pool. Storing nutrients could support the growth of autotrophs when nutrients are not available, and could also provide alternative electron acceptors for dissimilatory processes such as nitrate reduction. Here, we studied the magnitude and relative importance of these three nutrient pools (PW, IC and EX and their relation to chlorophylls (used as a proxy for MPB abundance and organic matter (OM contents in an intertidal mudflat of Cadiz Bay (Spain. MPB was localized in the first 4 mm of the sediment and showed a clear seasonal pattern; highest chlorophylls content was found during autumn and lowest during spring-summer. The temporal and spatial distribution of nutrients pools and MPB were largely correlated. Ammonium was higher in the IC and EX fractions, representing on average 59 and 37% of the total ammonium pool, respectively. Similarly, phosphate in the IC and EX fractions accounted on average for 40 and 31% of the total phosphate pool, respectively. Nitrate in the PW was low, suggesting low nitrification activity and rapid consumption. Nitrate accumulated in the IC pool during periods of moderate MPB abundance, being up to 66% of the total nitrate pool, whereas it decreased when chlorophyll concentration peaked likely due to a high nitrogen demand. EX-Nitrate accounted for the largest fraction of total sediment nitrate, 66% on average. The distribution of EX-Nitrate was significantly correlated with chlorophyll and OM, which probably indicates a relation of this pool to an increased availability of sites for ionic adsorption. This EX-Nitrate pool could represent an

  11. Parasite and nutrient enrichment effects on Daphnia interspecific competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Decaestecker, Ellen; Verreydt, Dino; De Meester, Luc; Declerck, Steven A.J.

    2015-01-01

    Increased productivity due to nutrient enrichment is hypothesized to affect density-dependent processes, such as transmission success of horizontally transmitting parasites. Changes in nutrient availability can also modify the stoichiometry and condition of individual hosts, which may affect their

  12. PLACES AVAILABLE

    CERN Multimedia

    Monique Duval

    2002-01-01

    Places are available in the following courses: LabView Hands-on (bilingue/bilingual - gratuit/free of charge) : 13.9.02 (a.m.) LabView DAQ Hands-on (bilingue/bilingual - gratuit/free of charge) : 13.9.02 (p.m.) AutoCAD 2002 - niveau 1 : 19, 20, 26, 27.9.02 (4 jours) LabView Base 1 : 23 - 25.9.02 (3 jours) LabView DAQ (E) : 26 - 27.9.02 (2 days) AutoCAD Mechanical 6 PowerPack (F) : 30.9, 1, 2, 9, 10, 11.10.02 (6 jours) CLEAN-2002 : Working in a Cleanroom (free of charge) : 10.10.02 (half-day, p.m.) AutoCAD 2002 - niveau 2 : 14 - 15.10.02 (2 jours) AutoCAD 2002 - Level 1 : 17, 18, 24, 25.10.02 (4 days) If you wish to participate in one of these courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at : Technical Training or fill in an 'application for training' form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Of...

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    2002-01-01

    Places are available in the following courses: LabView hands-on : 21.01.02 (1/2 journée) LabView DAQ hands-on : 21.01.02 (1/2 journée) FileMaker Pro : 22 - 25.1.02 (4 jours) MS-Project 2000 : 24 & 25.01.02 (2 jours) Introduction au PC et à Windows 2000 au CERN : 29 - 30.1.02 (2 jours) LabView Base 1 : 4 - 6.2.02 (3 jours) LabView DAQ (E) : 7 & 8.02.02 (2 days) Hands-on Object-Oriented Design & Programming with Java : 11 - 13.02.02 (3 days) C++ for Particle Physicists : 11 - 15.3.2002 (6 * 3 hour lectures) Cours sur la migration AutoCAD : AutoCAD : Mise à jour AutoCAD r-14 vers 2002 (2 jours) AutoCAD Mechanical PowerPack 6 basé sur AutoCAD 2002 (5 jours) If you wish to participate in one of these courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at : Technical Training or fill in an 'application for training' form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO ...

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    TECHNICAL TRAINING; Tel. 74460

    2001-01-01

    Places are available in the following courses: MS-Project 1er niveau : 20 - 23.2.01 (4 matins) Architecture d'automatisme : 20 - 21.2.01 (2 jours) Introduction à PowerPoint : 26.2.01 (1 journée) Programmation TSX Premium 1 (Schneider) : 26.2 - 2.3.01 (5 jours) Premiers pas avec votre PC : 27.2 - 2.3.01 (4 matins) C++ for Particle Physicists : 5 - 9.3.01 (6*3 hour lectures) EXCEL : 6, 7 et 13, 14.3.01 (4 jours) The JAVA programming language level 2 :  12 - 14.3.01 (3 days) Nouveautés de FileMaker :  20 - 23.03.01 (4 matins) If you wish to participate in one of these courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at : http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an 'application for training' form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt.

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    Monique Duval

    2002-01-01

    Places are available in the following courses: Habilitation électrique : recyclage HT/BT : 11 - 15.3.2002  (2 * 2 heures) PVSS Basics :  8 - 12.4.02  (5 days) ELEC-2002 : Spring Term :  9, 11, 16, 18, 23, 25, 30.4.02 (7 * 2.5 hours) LabVIEW base 1 : 22 - 24.4.02 (3 jours) LabVIEW DSC (F) 25 & 26.4.02 (2 jours) LabVIEW Basics 2 : 13 & 14.5.02 (2 days) LabVIEW DAQ (F) : 15 & 16.5.02 (2 jours) Cours sur la migration AutoCAD :   AutoCAD : Mise à jour AutoCAD r-14 vers 2002 (2 jours) AutoCAD Mechanical PowerPack 6 basé sur AutoCAD 2002 (5 jours) If you wish to participate in one of these courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at : Technical Training or fill in an 'application for training' form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applica...

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    Monique Duval

    2002-01-01

    Places are available in the following courses: November 2002   Hands-on Object-Oriented Design and Programming with C++:  19 - 21.11.02  (3 days)  December 2002   LabVIEW - DSC (English) :  2 - 3.12.02  (2 days) AutoCAD 2002 - niveau 2 :  2 & 3.12.02  (2 jours) FileMaker (Français) :  2 - 5.12.02  (4 jours) PCAD Schémas - Débutants :  5 & 6.12.02  (2 jours) PCAD PCB - Débutants :  9 - 11.12.02  (3 jours) FrontPage 2000 - level 1:  9 & 10.12.02  (2 days) If you wish to participate in one of these courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at : Technical Training or fill in an 'application for training' form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisiona...

  17. PLACES AVAILABLE

    CERN Multimedia

    Monique Duval

    2002-01-01

    Places are available in the following courses: November 2002   Java Programming Language level 1 :  28 & 29.11.02  (2 days) December 2002   LabVIEW - DSC (English) :  2 - 3.12.02  (2 days) FileMaker (Français) :  2 - 5.12.02  (4 jours) PCAD Schémas - Débutants :  5 & 6.12.02  (2 jours) PCAD PCB - Débutants :  9 - 11.12.02  (3 jours) FrontPage 2000 - level 1:  9 & 10.12.02  (2 days) If you wish to participate in one of these courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at : Technical Training or fill in an 'application for training' form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. Technical Training M...

  18. Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    International Acer Incorporated, Hsin Chu, Taiwan Aerospace Industrial Development Corporation, Taichung, Taiwan American Institute of Taiwan, Taipei, Taiwan...Singapore and Malaysia .5 - 4 - The largest market for semiconductor products is the high technology consumer electronics industry that consumes up...Singapore, and Malaysia . A new semiconductor facility costs around $3 billion to build and takes about two years to become operational

  19. Plant species occurrence patterns in Eurasian grasslands reflect adaptation to nutrient ratios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roeling, Ineke S.; Ozinga, Wim A.; van Dijk, Jerry; Eppinga, Maarten B.; Wassen, Martin J.

    2018-01-01

    Previous studies of Eurasian grasslands have suggested that nutrient ratios, rather than absolute nutrient availabilities and associated productivity, may be driving plant species richness patterns. However, the underlying assumption that species occupy distinct niches along nutrient ratio gradients

  20. Successional dynamics drive tropical forest nutrient limitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, C.; Hedin, L. O. O.

    2017-12-01

    It is increasingly recognized that nutrients such as N and P may significantly constrain the land carbon sink. However, we currently lack a complete understanding of these nutrient cycles in forest ecosystems and how to incorporate them into Earth System Models. We have developed a framework of dynamic forest nutrient limitation, focusing on the role of secondary forest succession and canopy gap disturbances as bottlenecks of high plant nutrient demand and limitation. We used succession biomass data to parameterize a simple ecosystem model and examined the dynamics of nutrient limitation throughout tropical secondary forest succession. Due to the patterns of biomass recovery in secondary tropical forests, we found high nutrient demand from rapid biomass accumulation in the earliest years of succession. Depending on previous land use scenarios, soil nutrient availability may also be low in this time period. Coupled together, this is evidence that there may be high biomass nutrient limitation early in succession, which is partially met by abundant symbiotic nitrogen fixation from certain tree species. We predict a switch from nitrogen limitation in early succession to one of three conditions: (i) phosphorus only, (ii) phosphorus plus nitrogen, or (iii) phosphorus, nitrogen, plus light co-limitation. We will discuss the mechanisms that govern the exact trajectory of limitation as forests build biomass. In addition, we used our model to explore scenarios of tropical secondary forest impermanence and the impacts of these dynamics on ecosystem nutrient limitation. We found that secondary forest impermanence exacerbates nutrient limitation and the need for nitrogen fixation early in succession. Together, these results indicate that biomass recovery dynamics early in succession as well as their connection to nutrient demand and limitation are fundamental for understanding and modeling nutrient limitation of the tropical forest carbon sink.

  1. PLACES AVAILABLE

    CERN Multimedia

    Technical Training; Tel. 74924

    2001-01-01

    Places are available in the following courses: LabVIEW - Basics 1 :  10 - 12.12.01 (3 days) Introduction to XML :  12 & 13.12.01 (2 days) Introduction au PC et Windows 2000 : 12 & 14.12.01 (2 jours) LabVIEW - Basics 2 :  13 - 14.12.01 (2 days) Habilitation électrique : superviseurs : 17.12.2001 (1/2 journée) MS-Project 2000 : 10 & 11.01.02 (2 jours) EXCEL 2000 - niveau 2 : 15 - 16.1.02 (2 jours) Sécurité dans les installations cryogéniques: 15-17.1.2002 (2 demi-journées) C++ Programming Level 2 - Traps and Pitfalls :  15 - 18.1.2002  (4 days) ELEC-2002 Winter Term: Readout and system electronics for Physics  15.1.2002 - 7.2.2002 (8 half- days) Nouveautés de WORD 2000 : 18.1.02 (1/2 journée) LabView hands-on : 21.01.02 (1/2 journée) LabView DAQ hands-on : 21.01.02 (1/2 journée) FileMaker Pro : 22 -...

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    Enseignement Technique; Tel. 74924

    2001-01-01

    Places are available in the following courses: MS-Project 2000 : 10 & 11.01.02 (2 jours) EXCEL 2000 - niveau 2 : 15 - 16.1.02 (2 jours) Sécurité dans les installations cryogéniques: 15-17.1.2002 (2 demi-journées) C++ Programming Level 2 - Traps and Pitfalls :  15 - 18.1.2002  (4 days) ELEC-2002 Winter Term: Readout and system electronics for Physics  15.1.2002 - 7.2.2002 (8 half- days) Nouveautés de WORD 2000 : 18.1.02 (1/2 journée) LabView hands-on : 21.01.02 (1/2 journée) LabView DAQ hands-on : 21.01.02 (1/2 journée) FileMaker Pro : 22 - 25.1.02 (4 jours) MS-Project 2000 : 24 & 25.01.02 (2 jours) Introduction au PC et à Windows 2000 au CERN : 29 - 30.1.02 (2 jours) LabView Base 1 : 4 - 6.2.02 (3 jours) LabView DAQ  (E) :  7 & 8.02.02 (2 days) Hands-on Object-Oriented Design & Programming with Java :&nbs...

  3. Places available**

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Places are available in the following courses : DISP-2003 - Spring II Term : Advanced Digital Signal Processing : 30.4, 7, 14, 21.5.03 (4 X 2-hour lectures) Oracle iDS Reports : Build Internet Reports : 5 - 9.5.03 (5 days) LabView DAQ (language to be defined) : 8 & 9.5.03 AutoCAD Mechanical 6 PowerPack (F) : 12, 13, 20, 21, 27 & 28.5.03 (6 jours) AutoCAD 2002 - niveau 2 : 3 & 4.6.03 (2 jours) LabView DSC (language to be defined) : 19 & 20.6.03 Siemens SIMATIC Training : Introduction to STEP7 : 3 & 4.6.03 (2 days) STEP7 Programming : 16 - 20.6.03 (5 days) Simatic Net Network : 15 & 16.4.03 / 26 & 27.6.03 (sessions of 2 days) These courses will be given in French or English following the requests. Cours de sécurité : Etre TSO au CERN : Prochaines sessions : 24, 25 & 27.6.03 - 4, 5 & 7.11.03 (session de 3 jours) If you wish to participate in one of these courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description ...

  4. PLACES AVAILABLE

    CERN Multimedia

    Technical Training; Tel. 74924

    2001-01-01

    Places are available in the following courses: Cadence Board Design tools : Upgrading to release 14 :  3 1-day sessions on 9, 10 & 11.10.01 MS-Project 2000 - niveau 1 : 15 - 18.10.01 (4 demi-journées) LabView Base 2 : 18 & 19.10.01 (2 jours) WORD 2000 : importer et manipuler des images : 19.10.01 (1 journée) Contract Follow-up (F) :  30.10.01 (1/2 journée) The CERN Engineering Data Management System for Electronics Design :  30.10.01 (1 day) UNIX pour non-programmeurs : 5 - 7.11.01 (3 jours) The Java programming language Level 1: 8 - 9.11.01 (2 days) LabView Base 1 : 12 - 14.11.01 (3 jours) Introduction to PERL 5 :  15 - 16.11.01  (2 days) Introduction to XML :  19 - 20.11.01 (2 days) Programming TSX Premium 1 :  19 - 23.11.01  (5 days) Introduction to C Programming :  21- 23.11.01 (3 days) The Java programming language Level 2:  26 - 28.11.01 (...

  5. PLACES AVAILABLE

    CERN Multimedia

    Technical Training; Tel. 74924

    2001-01-01

    Places are available in the following courses: EXCEL 2000 - niveau 1 : 3 et 4.10.01 (2 jours) Automates et réseaux de terrain : 3 - 4.10.2001 (2 jours) Introduction à Outlook : 5.10.01 (1 journée) C++ for Particle Physicists : 8 - 12.10.01 (6 lectures) Cadence Board Design tools : Upgrading to release 14 : 3 1-day sessions on 9, 10 & 11.10.01 MS-Project 2000 - niveau 1 : 15 - 18.10.01 (4 demi-journées) LabView Base 2 : 18 & 19.10.01 (2 jours) WORD 2000 : importer et manipuler des images : 19.10.01 (1 journée) The CERN Engineering Data Management System for Electronics Design :  30.10.01 (1 day) UNIX pour non-programmeurs : 5 - 7.11.01 (3 jours) The Java programming language Level 1: 8 - 9.11.01 (2 days) Introduction to PERL 5 :  15 - 16.11.01  (2 days) Introduction to XML :  19 - 20.11.01 (2 days) Programming TSX Premium 1 :  19 - 23.11.01  (5 days) Introd...

  6. PLACES AVAILABLE

    CERN Multimedia

    Technical Training; Tel. 74924

    2001-01-01

    Places are available in the following courses: MS-Project 2000 - niveau 1 : 15 - 18.10.01 (4 demi-journées) LabView Base 2 : 18 & 19.10.01 (2 jours) WORD 2000 : importer et manipuler des images : 19.10.01 (1 journée) Contract Follow-up (F) : 30.10.01 (1/2 journée) The CERN Engineering Data Management System for Electronics Design :  30.10.01 (1 day) UNIX pour non-programmeurs : 5 - 7.11.01 (3 jours) The Java programming language Level 1: 8 - 9.11.01 (2 days) LabView Base 1 : 12 - 14.11.01 (3 jours) Automates et réseaux de terrain : 13 & 14.11.01 (2 jours) Introduction to PERL 5 :  15 - 16.11.01  (2 days) Introduction to XML :  19 - 20.11.01 (2 days) Programming TSX Premium 1 :  19 - 23.11.01  (5 days) Introduction to C Programming :  21- 23.11.01 (3 days) The Java programming language Level 2:  26 - 28.11.01 (3 days) Programmation TSX Premium 2 : 26 ...

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    Technical Training; Tel. 74924

    2001-01-01

    Places are available in the following courses: Contract Follow-up (F) : 30.10.01 (1/2 journée) The CERN Engineering Data Management System for Electronics Design :  30.10.01 (1 day) UNIX pour non-programmeurs : 5 - 7.11.01 (3 jours) Nouveautés d'EXCEL : 5.11.01 (1/2 journée) Introduction a Windows 2000 au CERN : 6.11.01 (1/2 journée) The Java programming language Level 1: 8 - 9.11.01 (2 days) LabView Base 1 : 12 - 14.11.01 (3 jours) Automates et réseaux de terrain : 13 & 14.11.01 (2 jours) Introduction to PERL 5 :  15 - 16.11.01  (2 days) Introduction to XML :  19 - 20.11.01 (2 days) Programming TSX Premium 1 :  19 - 23.11.01  (5 days) Introduction to C Programming :  21- 23.11.01 (3 days) The Java programming language Level 2:  26 - 28.11.01 (3 days) Programmation TSX Premium 2 : 26 - 30.11.01 (5 jours) Autocad Migration support courses: a detail...

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    2001-01-01

    Places are available in the following courses: Contract Follow-up (F) : 30.10.01 (1/2 journée) The CERN Engineering Data Management System for Electronics Design :  30.10.01 (1 day) Nouveautés d'Excel 2000 : 5.11.01 (1/2 journée) UNIX pour non-programmeurs : 5 - 7.11.01 (3 jours) Introduction à Windows 2000 au CERN : 6.11.01 (1/2 journée) The Java programming language Level 1: 8 - 9.11.01 (2 days) LabView Base 1 : 12 - 14.11.01 (3 jours) LabVIEW DAQ (F) : 15 & 16.11.01 (2 jours) Automates et réseaux de terrain : 13 & 14.11.01 (2 jours) Introduction to PERL 5 :  15 - 16.11.01  (2 days) LabVIEW - DAQ : 15 - 16.11.01 (2 jours) Introduction to XML :  19 - 20.11.01 (2 days) Introduction to C Programming :  21- 23.11.01 (3 days) Programmation TSX Premium 2 : 26 - 30.11.01 (5 jours) Object-Oriented Analysis and Design :  27 - 30.11.2001 (4 days) Hands...

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    CERN Multimedia

    Monique Duval

    2002-01-01

    Places are available in the following courses: LabVIEW Basics 2: 13 & 14.5.02 (2 days) WorldFIP - Généralités : 14.5.2002 (1/2 journée) WorldFIP - Développer avec MicroFIP HANDLER : 14.5 - après-midi, 15.5.02 - matin (1 jour) WorldFIP - FullFIP FDM : FIP Device Manager (F) : 15.5 - après-midi, 16.5.02 - matin (1 jour) LabVIEW DAQ (F) : 15 & 16.5.02 (2 jours) EXCEL 2000 - niveau 2 : 22 & 23.5.02 (2 jours) The CERN Engineering Data Management System for Advanced users:  30.5.02  (1 day) LabVIEW Basics 1:  3 - 5.6.02  (3 days) AutoCAD 2002 - condensé : 4 - 6.6.02 (3 jours) LabVIEW DAQ (E):  6 & 7.6.02  (2 days) AutoCAD 2002 - Level 1:  10 - 12 and 24 - 26.6.02  (6 days) If you wish to participate in one of these courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the c...

  10. Availability and night-time use of electronic entertainment and communication devices are associated with short sleep duration and obesity among Canadian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahal, H; Fung, C; Kuhle, S; Veugelers, P J

    2013-02-01

    What is already known about this subject Short sleep duration is a risk factor for obesity. Television (TV) in the bedroom has been shown to be associated with excess body weight in children. Children increasingly use other electronic entertainment and communication devices (EECDs) such as video games, computers, and smart phones. What this study adds Access to and night-time use of EECDs are associated with shortened sleep duration, excess body weight, poorer diet quality, and lower physical activity levels. Our findings reinforce existing recommendations pertaining to TV and Internet access by the American Academy of Pediatrics and suggest to have these expanded to restricted availability of video games and smart phones in children's bedrooms. While the prevalence of childhood obesity and access to and use of electronic entertainment and communication devices (EECDs) have increased in the past decades, no earlier study has examined their interrelationship. To examine whether night-time access to and use of EECDs are associated with sleep duration, body weights, diet quality, and physical activity of Canadian children. A representative sample of 3398 grade 5 children in Alberta, Canada, was surveyed. The survey included questions on children's lifestyles and health behaviours, the Harvard Youth/Adolescent Food Frequency questionnaire, a validated questionnaire on physical activity, and measurements of heights and weights. Random effect models were used to assess the associations of night-time access to and use of EECDs with sleep, diet quality, physical activity, and body weights. Sixty-four percent of parents reported that their child had access to one or more EECDs in their bedroom. Access to and night-time use of EECDs were associated with shortened sleep duration, excess body weight, poorer diet quality, and lower physical activity levels in a statistically significant manner. Limiting the availability of EECDs in children's bedrooms and discouraging their

  11. Nutrients for the aging eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasmussen HM

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Helen M Rasmussen,1 Elizabeth J Johnson2 1Educational Studies, Lesley University, Cambridge, MA, USA; 2Carotenoid and Health Laboratory, Jean Mayer US Department of Agriculture Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University, Boston, MA, USA Abstract: The incidence of age-related eye diseases is expected to rise with the aging of the population. Oxidation and inflammation are implicated in the etiology of these diseases. There is evidence that dietary antioxidants and anti-inflammatories may provide benefit in decreasing the risk of age-related eye disease. Nutrients of interest are vitamins C and E, β-carotene, zinc, lutein, zeaxanthin, and the omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. While a recent survey finds that among the baby boomers (45–65 years old, vision is the most important of the five senses, well over half of those surveyed were not aware of the important nutrients that play a key role in eye health. This is evident from a national survey that finds that intake of these key nutrients from dietary sources is below the recommendations or guidelines. Therefore, it is important to educate this population and to create an awareness of the nutrients and foods of particular interest in the prevention of age-related eye disease. Keywords: nutrition, aging, eye health

  12. Water data to answer urgent water policy questions: Monitoring design, available data and filling data gaps for determining the effectiveness of agricultural management practices for reducing tributary nutrient loads to Lake Erie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentanzo, Elin A.; Choquette, Anne F.; Reckhow, Kenneth H.; Hayes, Laura; Hagan, Erik R; Argue, Denise M.; Cangelosi, A.A.

    2015-01-01

    Throughout its history, the United States has made major investments in assessing natural resources, such as soils, timber, oil and gas, and water. These investments allow policy makers, the private sector and the American public to make informed decisions about cultivating, harvesting or conserving these resources to maximize their value for public welfare, environmental conservation and the economy. As policy issues evolve, new priorities and challenges arise for natural resource assessment, and new approaches to monitoring are needed. For example, informed conservation and use of the nation’s finite fresh water resources in the context of increasingly intensive land development is a priority for today’s policy decisionmakers. There is a need to evaluate whether today’s water monitoring programs are generating the information needed to answer questions surrounding these new policy priorities. The Northeast-Midwest Institute (NEMWI), in cooperation with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program, initiated this project to explore the types and amounts of water data needed to address water-quality related policy questions of critical concern to today’s policy makers. The collaborating entities identified two urgent water policy questions and conducted case studies in the Northeast-Midwest region to determine the water data needed, water data available, and the best ways to fill the data gaps relative to those questions. This report details the output from one case study and focuses on the Lake Erie drainage basin, a data-rich area expected to be a best-case scenario in terms of water data availability.

  13. Nutrient enrichment increases mortality of mangroves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine E Lovelock

    Full Text Available Nutrient enrichment of the coastal zone places intense pressure on marine communities. Previous studies have shown that growth of intertidal mangrove forests is accelerated with enhanced nutrient availability. However, nutrient enrichment favours growth of shoots relative to roots, thus enhancing growth rates but increasing vulnerability to environmental stresses that adversely affect plant water relations. Two such stresses are high salinity and low humidity, both of which require greater investment in roots to meet the demands for water by the shoots. Here we present data from a global network of sites that documents enhanced mortality of mangroves with experimental nutrient enrichment at sites where high sediment salinity was coincident with low rainfall and low humidity. Thus the benefits of increased mangrove growth in response to coastal eutrophication is offset by the costs of decreased resilience due to mortality during drought, with mortality increasing with soil water salinity along climatic gradients.

  14. Rhizosphere priming: a nutrient perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feike Auke Dijkstra

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Rhizosphere priming is the change in decomposition of soil organic matter (SOM caused by root activity. Rhizosphere priming plays a crucial role in soil carbon (C dynamics and their response to global climate change. Rhizosphere priming may be affected by soil nutrient availability, but rhizosphere priming itself can also affect nutrient supply to plants. These interactive effects may be of particular relevance in understanding the sustained increase in plant growth and nutrient supply in response to a rise in atmospheric CO2 concentration. We examined how these interactions were affected by elevated CO2 in two similar semiarid grassland field studies. We found that an increase in rhizosphere priming enhanced the release of nitrogen (N through decomposition of a larger fraction of SOM in one study, but not in the other. We postulate that rhizosphere priming may enhance N supply to plants in systems that are N limited, but that rhizosphere priming may not occur in systems that are phosphorus (P limited. Under P limitation, rhizodeposition may be used for mobilisation of P, rather than for decomposition of SOM. Therefore, with increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations, rhizosphere priming may play a larger role in affecting C sequestration in N poor than in P poor soils.

  15. Impacts of water and nutrient availability on loblolly pine function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell Wightman; Timothy Martin; Eric Jokela; Carlos Gonzalez-Benecke

    2015-01-01

    The impact of climate change on temperature and precipitation patterns in the southeastern United States are likely to have important effects on southern pine systems. A 2009 summary from the U.S. Global Change Research Program indicated that the southeastern U.S. will experience an increase in average temperature of 2.5 to 5 °C by the 2080s.

  16. Astrocytic Insulin Signaling Couples Brain Glucose Uptake with Nutrient Availability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    García-Cáceres, Cristina; Quarta, Carmelo; Varela, Luis; Gao, Yuanqing; Gruber, Tim; Legutko, Beata; Jastroch, Martin; Johansson, Pia; Ninkovic, Jovica; Yi, Chun-Xia; Le Thuc, Ophelia; Szigeti-Buck, Klara; Cai, Weikang; Meyer, Carola W.; Pfluger, Paul T.; Fernandez, Ana M.; Luquet, Serge; Woods, Stephen C.; Torres-Alemán, Ignacio; Kahn, C. Ronald; Götz, Magdalena; Horvath, Tamas L.; Tschöp, Matthias H.

    2016-01-01

    We report that astrocytic insulin signaling co-regulates hypothalamic glucose sensing and systemic glucose metabolism. Postnatal ablation of insulin receptors (IRs) in glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-expressing cells affects hypothalamic astrocyte morphology, mitochondrial function, and

  17. Cotton photosynthetic regulation through nutrient and water availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Photosynthesis is an extremely complicated process that is fundamental to supporting plant growth. It is regulated by multiple internal and external factors. Three factors regulating photosynthesis over which cotton producers can exert some influence are the levels of nitrogen, potassium, and soil...

  18. Reduction of mineral nutrient availability accelerates flowering of Arabidopsis thaliana

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kolář, Jan; Seňková, J.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 165, č. 15 (2008), s. 1601-1609 ISSN 0176-1617 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB600380510 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Arabidopsis thaliana * Flowering * Landsberg erecta Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.437, year: 2008

  19. Effects of mineral nutrients on ozone susceptibility of Lemna minor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craker, L.E.

    1971-01-01

    Susceptibility of Lemna minor L. to ozone injury was influenced by the mineral nutrients available to the Lemna plants. Additional nitrogen or additional iron in the nutrient media respectively enhanced or reduced chlorophyll loss of Lemna plants fumigated with ozone. Lemna plants growing on a nutrient medium lacking copper had significantly less injury from ozone fumigation than Lemna plants growing on a complete nutrient medium. There were apparent interactions among phosphorus and potassium nutrient levels in determing the Lemna plant's susceptibility to ozone.

  20. Nutrient management for rice production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.R.; Chandra, D.; Nanda, P.; Singh, S.S.; Singh, S.R.; Ghorai, A.K.

    2002-06-01

    The nutrient removed by the crops far exceeds the amounts replenished through fertilizer, causing a much greater strain on the native soil reserves. The situation is further aggravated in countries like India, where sub-optimal fertilizer used by the farmers is a common phenomenon rather than an exception. The total consumption of nutrients of all crops in India, even though reached 15 million tons in 1997, remains much below the estimated nutrient removal of 25 million tons (Swarup and Goneshamurthy, 1998). The gap between nutrient removal supplied through fertilizer has widened further in 2000 to 34 million tons of plant nutrients from the soil against an estimated fertilizer availability of 18 million tons (Singh and Dwivedi, 1996). Nitrogen is the nutrient which limits the most the rice production worldwide. In Asia, where more than 90 percent of the world's rice is produced, about 60 percent of the N fertilizer consumed is used on rice (Stangel and De Dutta, 1985). Conjunctive use of organic material along with fertilizer has been proved an efficient source of nitrogen. Organic residue recycling is becoming an increasingly important aspect of environmentally sound sustainable agriculture. Returning residues like green manure to the soil is necessary for maintaining soil organic matter, which is important for favourable soil structure, soil water retention and soil microbial flora and fauna activities. Use of organic manures in conjunction or as an alternative to chemical fertilizer is receiving attention. Green manure, addition to some extent, helps not only in enhancing the yield but also in improving the physical and chemical nature of soils. The excessive application of chemical fertilizers made it imperative that a part of inorganic fertilizer may be substituted with the recycling of organic wastes. Organic manure has been recorded to enhance the efficiency and reduce the requirement of chemical fertilizers. Partial nitrogen substitution through organic

  1. Nutrient sensing and TOR signaling in yeast and mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Asier; Hall, Michael N

    2017-02-15

    Coordinating cell growth with nutrient availability is critical for cell survival. The evolutionarily conserved TOR (target of rapamycin) controls cell growth in response to nutrients, in particular amino acids. As a central controller of cell growth, mTOR (mammalian TOR) is implicated in several disorders, including cancer, obesity, and diabetes. Here, we review how nutrient availability is sensed and transduced to TOR in budding yeast and mammals. A better understanding of how nutrient availability is transduced to TOR may allow novel strategies in the treatment for mTOR-related diseases. © 2017 The Authors.

  2. Disponibilidade de nutrientes e teor de matéria orgânica em função de sistemas de cultivo e de manejo de solo Nutrient availability and organic matter content as affected by cropping systems and soil management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Pereira dos Santos

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Sistemas de cultivo e de manejo de solo podem alterar as propriedades químicas do solo. Após oito anos (1985 a 1993, a fertilidade do solo foi avaliada, num Latossolo Vermelho Distrófico típico, em Passo Fundo, RS, em quatro sistemas de manejo do solo: 1 semeadura direta (SD; 2 cultivo mínimo (CM; 3 preparo convencional do solo com arado e grade de discos (PCD; e 4 preparo convencional do solo com arado de aivecas e grade de discos (PCA, e em três sistemas de cultivo: sistema I (trigo/soja, sistema II (trigo/soja e ervilhaca/milho e sistema III (trigo/soja, ervilhaca/milho e aveia branca/soja. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos completos ao acaso, com parcelas subdivididas, e três repetições. A parcela principal (4 x 90m foi constituída pelos sistemas de manejo do solo e a subparcelas (4 x 10m, pelos sistemas de cultivo. Os valores de pH, Al, Ca + Mg trocáveis, matéria orgânica (MO, P extraível e K disponível diferiram entre os sistemas de manejo e de cultivo do solo. Os teores de MO, P e K, na camada 0-5cm, foram mais elevados nos sistemas conservacionistas (CM e SD em relação àqueles observados nos preparos convencionais do solo (PCD e PCA. Os valores de MO, P e K foram mais elevados na camada 0-5 cm, quando comparada com a observada de 15 a 20cm de profundidade, em todos os sistemas de manejo e cultivo do solo.Cropping systems and soil managment can change soil chemical properties. Soil fertility characteriscs were assessed after eight years (1985 to 1993 on a typical dystrophic red latosol located in Passo Fundo, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Four soil management systems - 1 no-tillage, 2 minimum tillage, 3 conventional tillage using a disk plow plus disk harrow, and 4 conventional tillage using a moldboard plow plus disk harrow - and three cropping systems [I (wheat/soybean, II (wheat/soybean and common vetch/corn, and III (wheat/soybean, common vetch/corn and white oat/soybean] were evaluated. A randomized

  3. ENVIRONMENTAL ACCOUNTING IN AGRICULTURE: NUTRIENT ACCOUNTING AND OTHER ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P URFI

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available While traditional accounting focuses on accounting for capital assets, costs, yields valued and sold in the market, environmental accounting intends to do the same with non-marketed capital assets, costs and yields, that is, externalities. The farm level nutrient balances are based on an input-output comparison, in which the nutrients entering the farm within inputs are compared to nutrients leaving the farm within the sold products. The method considers the amounts of nutrients entering the farm but not leaving it with the products to be wastes polluting the environment. The weakness of this approach is the handling of stock changes. In a farming year high amounts of nutrients contained in unsold products are not wastes, nor are they stored in the soil, but are stored in the stocks. To handle this problem the concepts of external nutrient balance and internal nutrient balance are introduced, and are tested in case studies of two Hungarian mixed farms.

  4. Diagnosis of the nutrient compositional space of fruit crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Léon-Étienne Parent

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Tissue analysis is a useful tool for the nutrient management of fruit orchards. The mineral composition of diagnostic tissues expressed as nutrient concentration on a dry weight basis has long been used to assess the status of 'pure' nutrients. When nutrients are mixed and interact in plant tissues, their proportions or concentrations change relatively to each other as a result of synergism, antagonism, or neutrality, hence producing resonance within the closed space of tissue composition. Ternary diagrams and nutrient ratios are early representations of interacting nutrients in the compositional space. Dual and multiple interactions were integrated by the Diagnosis and Recommendation Integrated System (DRIS into nutrient indexes and by Compositional Nutrient Diagnosis into centered log ratios (CND-clr. DRIS has some computational flaws such as using a dry matter index that is not a part as well as nutrient products (e.g. NxCa instead of ratios. DRIS and CND-clr integrate all possible nutrient interactions without defining an ad hoc interactive model. They diagnose D components while D-1 could be diagnosed in the D-compositional Hilbert space. The isometric log ratio (ilr coordinates overcome these problems using orthonormal binary nutrient partitions instead of dual ratios. In this study, it is presented a nutrient interactive model as well as computation methods for DRIS and CND-clr and CND-ilr coordinates (CND-ilr using leaf analytical data from an experimental apple orchard in Southwestern Quebec, Canada. It was computed the Aitchison and Mahalanobis distances across ilr coordinates as measures of nutrient imbalance. The effect of changing nutrient concentrations on ilr coordinates are simulated to identify the ones contributing the most to nutrient imbalance.

  5. Impact of Temperature and Nutrients on Carbon: Nutrient Tissue Stoichiometry of Submerged Aquatic Plants: An Experiment and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandy Velthuis

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Human activity is currently changing our environment rapidly, with predicted temperature increases of 1–5°C over the coming century and increased nitrogen and phosphorus inputs in aquatic ecosystems. In the shallow parts of these ecosystems, submerged aquatic plants enhance water clarity by resource competition with phytoplankton, provide habitat, and serve as a food source for other organisms. The carbon:nutrient stoichiometry of submerged aquatic plants can be affected by changes in both temperature and nutrient availability. We hypothesized that elevated temperature leads to higher carbon:nutrient ratios through enhanced nutrient-use efficiency, while nutrient addition leads to lower carbon:nutrient ratios by the luxurious uptake of nutrients. We addressed these hypotheses with an experimental and a meta-analytical approach. We performed a full-factorial microcosm experiment with the freshwater plant Elodea nuttallii grown at 10, 15, 20, and 25°C on sediment consisting of pond soil/sand mixtures with 100, 50, 25, and 12.5% pond soil. To address the effect of climatic warming and nutrient addition on the carbon:nutrient stoichiometry of submerged freshwater and marine plants we performed a meta-analysis on experimental studies that elevated temperature and/or added nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus. In the microcosm experiment, C:N ratios of Elodea nuttallii decreased with increasing temperature, and this effect was most pronounced at intermediate nutrient availability. Furthermore, higher nutrient availability led to decreased aboveground C:P ratios. In the meta-analysis, nutrient addition led to a 25, 22, and 16% reduction in aboveground C:N and C:P ratios and belowground C:N ratios, accompanied with increased N content. No consistent effect of elevated temperature on plant stoichiometry could be observed, as very few studies were found on this topic and contrasting results were reported. We conclude that while nutrient addition

  6. Late gestational nutrient restriction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tygesen, Malin Plumhoff; Nielsen, Mette Olaf; Nørgaard, Peder

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the effect of 50% nutrient restriction during the last 6 weeks of gestation on twin-pregnant ewes' plasma glucose, non-esterified fatty acid, ß-hydroxybutyrate, insulin, IGF-1 and leptin concentrations and the effects on lamb birth weight and ewes' lactation performance. Plasma...

  7. Nutrient budgets for large Chinese estuaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Liu

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Chinese rivers deliver about 5–10% of global freshwater input and 15–20% of the global continental sediment to the world ocean. We report the riverine fluxes and concentrations of major nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus, and silicon in the rivers of the contiguous landmass of China and Korea in the northeast Asia. The rivers are generally enriched with dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN and depleted in dissolved inorganic phosphate (PO43− with very high DIN: PO43− concentration ratios. DIN, phosphorus, and silicon levels and loads in rivers are mainly affected by agriculture activities and urbanization, anthropogenic activities and adsorption on particulates, and rock types, climate and physical denudation intensity, respectively. Nutrient transports by rivers in the summer are 3–4 times higher than those in the winter with the exception of NH4+. The flux of NH4+ is rather constant throughout the year due to the anthropogenic sources such as the sewer discharge. As nutrient composition has changed in the rivers, ecosystems in estuaries and coastal sea have also changed in recent decades. Among the changes, a shift of limiting nutrients from phosphorus to nitrogen for phytoplankton production with urbanization is noticeable and in some areas silicon becomes the limiting nutrient for diatom productivity. A simple steady-state mass-balance box model was employed to assess nutrient budgets in the estuaries. The major Chinese estuaries export <15% of nitrogen, <6% of phosphorus required for phytoplankton production and ~4% of silicon required for diatom growth in the Chinese Seas (Bohai, Yellow Sea, East China Sea, South China Sea. This suggests that land-derived nutrients are largely confined to the immediate estuaries, and ecosystem in the coastal sea beyond the estuaries is mainly supported by other nutrient sources such as regeneration, open ocean and

  8. [Not Available].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valença, Mariana Soares; Possuelo, Lia Gonçalves; Cezar-Vaz, Marta Regina; Silva, Pedro Eduardo Almeida da

    2016-06-01

    The scope of this study was to organize the knowledge produced on tuberculosis in Brazilian prisons in a systematic manner. A comprehensive review was conducted in the Medline and Lilacs databases and the SciELO electronic library using the key words: "Tuberculosis," "Prisons" and "Brazil." Of the 61 records found, 33 were evaluated (28 duplicated records) and 21 included in the review (12 excluded according to the criteria adopted). These studies contribute effectively to improve the knowledge regarding the scale of the disease among inmates, as well as to the choice of screening and diagnostic methods most appropriate to the prison setting. The incidence rates and prevalence of active and latent tuberculosis are presented, in addition to data on the profile of drug and genotype susceptibility of the clinical results. Awareness of the data presented highlights the need to adopt measures aimed at case detection, treatment and follow-up. It is suggested that the new challenges for scientific research should be linked to the development of specific knowledge about dealing with the problem in an environment full of specificities such as a prison.

  9. Places available**

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Places are available in the following courses: Conception de PCB rapides dans le flot Cadence : 11.6.03 (matin) EXCEL 2000 - level 1 : 12 & 13.6.03 (2 days) Introduction to PVSS : 16.6.03 (p.m.) Basic PVSS : 17 - 19.6.03 (3 days) Réalisation de PCB rapides dans le flot Cadence : 17.6.03 (matin) PVSS - JCOP Framework Tutorial : 20.6.03 (1 day) Programmation automate Schneider : Programmation automate Schneider TSX Premium - 2ème niveau : 24 - 27.6.03 (4 jours) - audience : toute personne qui veux maitriser la mise en uvre et la programmation des fonctions spécialisées d'un automate TSX Premium - objectifs : maitriser la mise en uvre et la programmation des fonctions spécialisées d'un automate TSX Premium Cours de sécurité : Etre TSO au CERN : Prochaines sessions : 24, 25 & 27.6.03 - 4, 5 & 7.11.03 (session de 3 jours) ** The number of places available may vary. Please check our Web site to find out the current availability. If you wish to participate in one of these courses, pl...

  10. Failure mode and effect analysis oriented to risk-reduction interventions in intraoperative electron radiation therapy: The specific impact of patient transportation, automation, and treatment planning availability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    López-Tarjuelo, Juan; Bouché-Babiloni, Ana; Santos-Serra, Agustín; Morillo-Macías, Virginia; Calvo, Felipe A.; Kubyshin, Yuri

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose: Industrial companies use failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) to improve quality. Our objective was to describe an FMEA and subsequent interventions for an automated intraoperative electron radiotherapy (IOERT) procedure with computed tomography simulation, pre-planning, and a fixed conventional linear accelerator. Material and methods: A process map, an FMEA, and a fault tree analysis are reported. The equipment considered was the radiance treatment planning system (TPS), the Elekta Precise linac, and TN-502RDM-H metal–oxide-semiconductor-field-effect transistor in vivo dosimeters. Computerized order-entry and treatment-automation were also analyzed. Results: Fifty-seven potential modes and effects were identified and classified into ‘treatment cancellation’ and ‘delivering an unintended dose’. They were graded from ‘inconvenience’ or ‘suboptimal treatment’ to ‘total cancellation’ or ‘potentially wrong’ or ‘very wrong administered dose’, although these latter effects were never experienced. Risk priority numbers (RPNs) ranged from 3 to 324 and totaled 4804. After interventions such as double checking, interlocking, automation, and structural changes the final total RPN was reduced to 1320. Conclusions: FMEA is crucial for prioritizing risk-reduction interventions. In a semi-surgical procedure like IOERT double checking has the potential to reduce risk and improve quality. Interlocks and automation should also be implemented to increase the safety of the procedure

  11. Failure mode and effect analysis oriented to risk-reduction interventions in intraoperative electron radiation therapy: the specific impact of patient transportation, automation, and treatment planning availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Tarjuelo, Juan; Bouché-Babiloni, Ana; Santos-Serra, Agustín; Morillo-Macías, Virginia; Calvo, Felipe A; Kubyshin, Yuri; Ferrer-Albiach, Carlos

    2014-11-01

    Industrial companies use failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) to improve quality. Our objective was to describe an FMEA and subsequent interventions for an automated intraoperative electron radiotherapy (IOERT) procedure with computed tomography simulation, pre-planning, and a fixed conventional linear accelerator. A process map, an FMEA, and a fault tree analysis are reported. The equipment considered was the radiance treatment planning system (TPS), the Elekta Precise linac, and TN-502RDM-H metal-oxide-semiconductor-field-effect transistor in vivo dosimeters. Computerized order-entry and treatment-automation were also analyzed. Fifty-seven potential modes and effects were identified and classified into 'treatment cancellation' and 'delivering an unintended dose'. They were graded from 'inconvenience' or 'suboptimal treatment' to 'total cancellation' or 'potentially wrong' or 'very wrong administered dose', although these latter effects were never experienced. Risk priority numbers (RPNs) ranged from 3 to 324 and totaled 4804. After interventions such as double checking, interlocking, automation, and structural changes the final total RPN was reduced to 1320. FMEA is crucial for prioritizing risk-reduction interventions. In a semi-surgical procedure like IOERT double checking has the potential to reduce risk and improve quality. Interlocks and automation should also be implemented to increase the safety of the procedure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Places available**

    CERN Multimedia

    Places are available in the following courses: Hands-on Introduction to Python Programming: 11-13.08.2003 (3 days) Introduction to the CERN Engineering Data Management System (EDMS): 26.08.2003 (1 day) The CERN Engineering Data Management System (EDMS) for Engineers: 27.08.2003 (1 day) CLEAN-2002 : Travailler en salle blanche : 4.09.2003 (une demi-journée) AutoCAD 2002 - Level 1: 4, 5, 15, 16.09.2003 (2 x 2 days) AutoCAD Mechanical 6 PowerPack : 17, 18, 25, 26.09.2003 et 2, 3.10.2003 (3 x 2 journées, français) AutoCAD 2002 - niveau 1 : 23, 24, 30.09.2003 et 1.10.2003 (2 x 2 journées) Introduction to the CERN Engineering Data Management System (EDMS): 23.09.2003 (1 day) The CERN Engineering Data Management System (EDMS) for Local Administrators: 24-25.09.2003 (2 days) AutoCAD 2002 - niveau 2 : 8 et 10.10.2003 (2 journées) CLEAN-2002: Working in a Cleanroom: 23.10.2003 (half day, p.m.) ** The number of places available may vary. Please check our Web site to find out the current availabili...

  13. Places available**

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Places are available in the following courses: Hands-on Introduction to Python Programming: 11-13.08.2003(3 days) Introduction to the CERN Engineering Data Management System (EDMS): 26.08.2003 (1 day) The CERN Engineering Data Management System (EDMS) for Engineers: 27.08.2003 (1 day) CLEAN-2002 : Travailler en salle blanche : 4.09.2003 (une demi-journée) AutoCAD 2002 - Level 1: 4, 5, 15, 16.09.2003 (2 x 2 days) AutoCAD Mechanical 6 PowerPack : 17, 18, 25, 26.09.2003 et 2, 3.10.2003 (3 x 2 journées, français) AutoCAD 2002 - niveau 1 : 23, 24, 30.09.2003 et 1.10.2003 (2 x 2 journées) Introduction to the CERN Engineering Data Management System (EDMS): 23.09.2003 (1 day) The CERN Engineering Data Management System (EDMS) for Local Administrators: 24-25.09.2003 (2 days) AutoCAD 2002 - niveau 2 : 8 et 10.10.2003 (2 journées) CLEAN-2002: Working in a Cleanroom: 23.10.2003 (half day, p.m.) ** The number of places available may vary. Please ch...

  14. Plants may alter competition by modifying nutrient bioavailability in rhizosphere: a modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynaud, Xavier; Jaillard, Benoît; Leadley, Paul W

    2008-01-01

    Plants modify nutrient availability by releasing chemicals in the rhizosphere. This change in availability induced by roots (bioavailability) is known to improve nutrient uptake by individual plants releasing such compounds. Can this bioavailability alter plant competition for nutrients and under what conditions? To address these questions, we have developed a model of nutrient competition between plant species based on mechanistic descriptions of nutrient diffusion, plant exudation, and plant uptake. The model was parameterized using data of the effects of root citrate exudation on phosphorus availability. We performed a sensitivity analysis for key parameters to test the generality of these effects. Our simulations suggest the following. (1) Nutrient uptake depends on the number of roots when nutrients and exudates diffuse little, because individual roots are nearly independent in terms of nutrient supply. In this case, bioavailability profits only species with exudates. (2) Competition for nutrients depends on the spatial arrangement of roots when nutrients diffuse little but exudates diffuse widely. (3) Competition for nutrients depends on the nutrient uptake capacity of roots when nutrients and exudates diffuse widely. In this case, bioavailability profits all species. Mechanisms controlling competition for bioavailable nutrients appear to be diverse and strongly depend on soil, nutrient, and plant properties.

  15. Which functionalities are available in the electronic health record systems used by French general practitioners? An assessment study of 15 systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmon, David; Sauvant, Rémy; Staccini, Pascal; Letrilliart, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    Whereas an unprecedented effort is currently under way worldwide for the implementation of electronic health record (EHR) systems, their capabilities are poorly understood, especially in primary care. The objective of this study was to assess the main functionalities of the EHR systems used in French general practices. Among the 20 EHR systems marketed in France, we assessed the 15 systems used by more than 1500 general practitioners in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region in the southeast part of France. Each EHR system was assessed in a general practice office, using two clinical vignettes describing virtual patient consultations. The evaluation criteria were derived from the EuroRec requirements for EHR system quality. The assessment scale included 37 criteria grouped into three sets: background data, consultation data, and exchange functionalities. The scoring system used, totalling 64 points, was based on the validation of the criteria and was adjusted based on the possibility of standardising the data. A high score indicated a good EHR system quality. The median global score was 32 points out of a possible 64 (range: 20-39). The median score was 12 points out of 22 (range: 6-15) for the background data set, 16 points out of 32 (range: 9-22) for the consultation data set, and four points out of 10 (range: 0-6) for the exchange functionalities. No association was found between the number of users and the assessment score of the EHR systems (p=0.79). One third of the EHR systems lacked a problem list and only one of them supported the episode of care. Functionalities noticeably vary among the EHR systems currently used in French primary care. Whereas these systems are globally very focused on drug prescriptions, several core functionalities are frequently lacking. They are also poorly interoperable for healthcare professionals and patients. Further research is necessary to assess their actual use. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Characterization of nutrient deficiency in Hancornia speciosa Gomes seedlings by omitting micronutrients from the nutrient solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Layara Alexandre Bessa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Hancornia speciosa Gomes (Mangaba tree is a fruit tree belonging to the Apocynaceae family and is native to Brazil. The production of seedlings of this species is limited by a lack of technical and nutritional expertise. To address this deficiency, this study aimed to characterize the visual symptoms of micronutrient deficiency and to assess growth and leaf nutrient accumulation in H. speciosa seedlings supplied with nutrient solutions that lack individual micronutrients. H. speciosa plants were grown in nutrient solution in a greenhouse according to a randomized block design, with four replicates. The treatments consisted of a group receiving complete nutrient solution and groups treated with a nutrient solution lacking one of the following micronutrients: boron (B, copper (Cu, iron (Fe, manganese (Mn, zinc (Zn, and molybdenum (Mo. The visual symptoms of nutrient deficiency were generally easy to characterize. Dry matter production was affected by the omission of micronutrients, and the treatment lacking Fe most limited the stem length, stem diameter, root length, and number of leaves in H. speciosa seedlings as well as the dry weight of leaves, the total dry weight, and the relative growth in H. speciosa plants. The micronutrient contents of H. speciosa leaves from plants receiving the complete nutrient solution treatment were, in decreasing order, Fe>Mn>Cu>Zn>B.

  17. Nutrients in the nexus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Eric A.; Niphong, Rachel; Ferguson, Richard B.; Palm, Cheryl; Osmond, Deanna L.; Baron, Jill S.

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic nitrogen (N) fertilizer has enabled modern agriculture to greatly improve human nutrition during the twentieth century, but it has also created unintended human health and environmental pollution challenges for the twenty-first century. Averaged globally, about half of the fertilizer-N applied to farms is removed with the crops, while the other half remains in the soil or is lost from farmers’ fields, resulting in water and air pollution. As human population continues to grow and food security improves in the developing world, the dual development goals of producing more nutritious food with low pollution will require both technological and socio-economic innovations in agriculture. Two case studies presented here, one in sub-Saharan Africa and the other in Midwestern United States, demonstrate how management of nutrients, water, and energy is inextricably linked in both small-scale and large-scale food production, and that science-based solutions to improve the efficiency of nutrient use can optimize food production while minimizing pollution. To achieve the needed large increases in nutrient use efficiency, however, technological developments must be accompanied by policies that recognize the complex economic and social factors affecting farmer decision-making and national policy priorities. Farmers need access to affordable nutrient supplies and support information, and the costs of improving efficiencies and avoiding pollution may need to be shared by society through innovative policies. Success will require interdisciplinary partnerships across public and private sectors, including farmers, private sector crop advisors, commodity supply chains, government agencies, university research and extension, and consumers.

  18. Mixed nano/micro-sized calcium phosphate composite and EDTA root surface etching improve availability of graft material in intrabony defects: an in vivo scanning electron microscopy evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamal, Ahmed Y; Iacono, Vincent J

    2013-12-01

    The use of nanoparticles of graft materials may lead to breakthrough applications for periodontal regeneration. However, due to their small particle size, nanoparticles may be eliminated from periodontal defects by phagocytosis. In an attempt to improve nanoparticle retention in periodontal defects, the present in vivo study uses scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to evaluate the potential of micrograft particles of β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) to enhance the binding and retention of nanoparticles of hydroxyapatite (nHA) on EDTA-treated and non-treated root surfaces in periodontal defects after 14 days of healing. Sixty patients having at least two hopeless periodontally affected teeth designated for extraction were randomly divided into four treatment groups (15 patients per group). Patients in group 1 had selected periodontal intrabony defects grafted with nHA of particle size 10 to 100 nm. Patients in group 2 were treated in a similar manner but had the affected roots etched for 2 minutes with a neutral 24% EDTA gel before grafting of the associated vertical defects with nHA. Patients in group 3 had the selected intrabony defects grafted with a composite graft consisting of equal volumes of nHA and β-TCP (particle size 63 to 150 nm). Patients in group 4 were treated as in group 3 but the affected roots were etched with neutral 24% EDTA as in group 2. For each of the four groups, one tooth was extracted immediately, and the second tooth was extracted after 14 days of healing for SEM evaluation. Fourteen days after surgery, all group 1 samples were devoid of any nanoparticles adherent to the root surfaces. Group 2 showed root surface areas 44.7% covered by a single layer of clot-blended grafted particles 14 days following graft application. After 14 days, group 3 samples appeared to retain fibrin strands devoid of grafted particles. Immediately extracted root samples of group 4 had adherent graft particles that covered a considerable area of the root surfaces

  19. Places available **

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Places are available in the following courses: PIPES-2003 - Pratique du Sertissage de tubes métalliques et multicouches : 26.8.03 (stage pratique) The CERN Engineering Data Management System (EDMS) for Engineers : 27.8.03 (1 day, free of charge) CLEAN-2002 : Travailler en salle blanche : 4.9.03 (une demi-journée, séminaire gratuit) The CERN Engineering Data Management System (EDMS) for Local Administrators : 24 & 25.9.03 (2 days, free of charge) Siemens SIMATIC Training : Programmation STEP7 - niveau 1 : 29 - 2.10.03 (4 jours) - ouverture des inscriptions fin août Programmation STEP7 - niveau 2 : 13 - 17.10.03 (5 jours) - ouverture des inscriptions fin août Réseau Simatic Net : 22 & 23.10.03 (2 jours) - ouverture des inscriptions fin août CLEAN-2002 : Working in a Cleanroom : 23.20.03 (half day, free of charge) These courses will be given in French or Englis...

  20. Places available**

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    Places are available in the following courses : FrontPage 2000 - niveau 1: 20 & 21.5.03 (2 jours) PIPES-2003 : Pratique du sertissage de tubes métalliques et multicouches: 21.5.03 (1 jour) Introduction à la CAO Cadence: de la saisie de schéma Concept-HDL au PCB : 20 & 22.5.03 (2 jours) AutoCAD Mechanical 6 PowerPack (E): 5, 6, 12, 13, 26, 27.6.03 (6 days) EXCEL 2000 - niveau 1: 10 & 11.6.03 (2 jours) Conception de PCB rapides dans le flot Cadence: 11.6.03 (matin) EXCEL 2000 - level 1: 12 & 13.6.03 (2 days) Introduction to PVSS: 16.6.03 (half-day, pm) Basic PVSS: 17 - 19.6.03 (3 days) Réalisation de PCB rapides dans le flot Cadence: 17.6.03 (matin) LabView DSC (language to be defined): 19 & 20.6.03 PVSS - JCOP Framework Tutorial: 20.6.03 (1 day) EXCEL 2000 - niveau 2: 24 & 25.6.03 (2 jours) Siemens SIMATIC Training: Introduction to STEP7: 3 & 4.6.03 (2 days) STEP7 Programming: 16 - 20.6.03 (5 days) Simatic Net Network: 26 & 27.6.03 (2 days) These courses will be given...

  1. PLACES AVAILABLE

    CERN Multimedia

    Monique Duval

    2002-01-01

    Places are available in the following courses: Introduction to Oracle 8i : SQL and PL/SQL:  7 - 11.10.02  (5 days) CLEAN-2002 : Working in a Cleanroom (free of charge):  10.10.02  (half-day, p.m.) AutoCAD 2002 - niveau 2 :  14 - 15.10.02  (2 jours) Introduction à DesignSpace :  16.10.02  (1 journée) Introduction to DesignSpace:  17.10.02  (1 day) AutoCAD 2002 - Level 1:  17, 18, 24, 25.10.02  (4 days) AutoCAD Mechanical 6 PowerPack (F) :  21, 22, 23.10 et 4, 5, 6.11.02  (6 jours) Introduction à ANSYS/Introduction to ANSYS (langue à définir suivant demande/ Language to be chosen according to demand):  21 - 25.10.02  (5 jours/days) HREF-2002: Helium Refrigeration Techniques (English-French, bilingual) :  21 - 25.10.2002  (7 half days) HREF-2002: Techniques de la Réfri...

  2. Places available**

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    Places are available in the following courses : The CERN EDMS for Local Administrators : 24 & 25.9.03 (2 days, free of charge) HeREF-2003 : Techniques de la réfrigération Hélium (cours en français avec support en anglais) : 6 - 10.10.2003 (7 demi-journées) The Java Programming Language Level 1 : 6 - 7.10.2003 (2 days) Java 2 Enterprise Edition - Part 2 : Enterprise JavaBeans : 8 - 10.10.2003 (3 days) FileMaker - niveau 1 : 9 & 10.10.03 (2 jours) EXCEL 2000 - niveau 1 : 20 & 22.10.03 (2 jours) AutoCAD 2002 - niveau 1 : 20, 21, 27, 28.10.03 (4 jours) CLEAN-2002 : Working in a Cleanroom : 23.10.03 (half day, free of charge) AutoCAD 2002 - Level 1 : 3, 4, 12, 13.11.03 (4 days) AutoCAD 2002 - niveau 2 : 10 & 11.11.03 (2 jours) ACCESS 2000 - niveau 1 : 13 & 14.11.03 (2 jours) AutoCAD Mechanical 6 PowerPack (E) : 17, 18, 24, 25.11 & 1, 2.12.03 (6...

  3. PLACES AVAILABLE

    CERN Multimedia

    Monique Duval

    2002-01-01

    Places are available in the following courses: Introduction à DesignSpace :  16.10.02  (1 journée) AutoCAD Mechanical 6 PowerPack (F) :  21, 22, 23.10 et 4, 5, 6.11.02  (6 jours) Introduction à ANSYS 21 - 25.10.02  (5 jours/days) HREF-2002: Helium Refrigeration Techniques (English-French, bilingual) :  21 - 25.10.2002  (7 half days) LabVIEW Basics 1 (English):  21 - 23.10.02  (3 days) LabVIEW Basics 2 (English):  24 & 25.10.02  (2 days) Oracle 8i : Access the Database with Java:  7 & 8.11.02  (2 days) AutoCAD 2002 - niveau 2 :  7 & 8.11.02  (2 jours) AutoCAD 2002 - Level 1:  14, 15, 21, 22.11.02  (4 days) LabVIEW - Advanced (English) :  18 - 20.11.2002  (3 days) AutoCAD 2002 - niveau 1 :  19, 20, 25, 26.11.02 (4 jours) Oracle iDS Designer: First Class:&...

  4. Places available**

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    Places are available in the following courses: CLEAN-2002 : Travailler en salle blanche (séminaire gratuit) : 4.9.03 (une demi-journée) The CERN EDMS for Local Administrators (free of charge) : 24 & 25.9.03 (2 days) HeREF-2003 : Techniques de la réfrigération Hélium (cours en français avec support en anglais) : 6 - 10.10.2003 (7 demi-journées) The Java Programming Language Level 1 : 6 - 7.10.2003 (2 days) Java 2 Enterprise Edition - Part 2 : Enterprise JavaBeans : 8 - 10.10.2003 (3 days) FileMaker - niveau 1 : 9 & 10.10.03 (2 jours) EXCEL 2000 - niveau 1 : 20 & 22.10.03 (2 jours) AutoCAD 2002 - niveau 1 : 20, 21, 27, 28.10.03 (4 jours) CLEAN-2002 : Working in a Cleanroom (free of charge) : 23.10.03 (half day) AutoCAD Mechanical 6 PowerPack (E) : 23, 24, 30, 31.10 & 12, 13.11.03 (6 days) AutoCAD 2002 - niveau 2 : 10 & 11.11.03 (2 jours)...

  5. Places available**

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Places are available in the following courses: The CERN EDMS for Local Administrators : 24 & 25.9.03 (2 days, free of charge) HeREF-2003 : Techniques de la réfrigération Hélium cours en français avec support en anglais) : 6 - 10.10.2003 (7 demi-journées) The Java Programming Language Level 1 : 6 - 7.10.2003 (2 days) Java 2 Enterprise Edition - Part 2 : Enterprise JavaBeans : 8 - 10.10.2003 (3 days) FileMaker - niveau 1 : 9 & 10.10.03 (2 jours) EXCEL 2000 - niveau 1 : 20 & 22.10.03 (2 jours) AutoCAD 2002 - niveau 1 : 20, 21, 27, 28.10.03 (4 jours) CLEAN-2002 : Working in a Cleanroom : 23.10.03 (half day, free of charge) AutoCAD 2002 - Level 1 : 3, 4, 12, 13.11.03 (4 days) AutoCAD 2002 - niveau 2 : 10 & 11.11.03 (2 jours) ACCESS 2000 - niveau 1 : 13 & 14.11.03 (2 jours) AutoCAD Mechanical 6 PowerPack (E) : 17, 18, 24, 25.11 & 1, 2.12.03 (6 days) FrontPage 2000 - niveau 1 : 20 & 21.11.03 (2 jours) MAGNE-03 : Magnétisme pour l'électrotechnique : 25 - 27.11.03 (3 jours) ...

  6. PLACES AVAILABLE

    CERN Multimedia

    Monique Duval

    2002-01-01

    Places are available in the following courses: LabView hands-on (bilingue/bilingual): 5.11.02 (matin/morning) LabView DAQ hands-on (bilingue/bilingual):  5.11.02  (après-midi afternoon) Introduction au PC et Windows 2000 au CERN:  6 & 7.11.02  (2 jours) Oracle 8i : Access the Database with Java:  7 & 8.11.02  (2 days) AutoCAD 2002 - niveau 2:  7 & 8.11.02  (2 jours) Introduction to PVSS (free of charge):  11.11.2002 pm  (1/2 day) Basic PVSS:  12 - 14.11.02  (3 days) EXCEL 2000 - niveau 1:  12 & 13.11.02  (2 jours) CLEAN-2002: Working in a Cleanroom (English, free of charge):  13.11.2002  (afternoon) LabView Base 1 :  13 - 15.11.02  (3 jours) AutoCAD 2002 - Level 1:  14, 15, 21, 22.11.2002  (4 days) LabVIEW - Advanced:  18 - 20.11.02  (3 days) Auto...

  7. Places available**

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Places are available in the following courses: PIPES-2003 - Pratique du sertissage de tubes métalliques et multicouches :26.8.03(stage pratique) The CERN EDMS for Engineers (free of charge) : 27.8.03 (1 day) CLEAN-2002 : Travailler en salle blanche (séminaire gratuit) : 4.9.03(une demi-journée) The CERN EDMS for Local Administrators (free of charge) : 24 & 25.9.03 (2 days) HeREF-2003 : Techniques de la réfrigération Hélium (cours en français avec support en anglais) : 6 - 10.10.2003 (7 demi-journées) The Java Programming Language Level 1 : 6 - 7.10.2003 (2 days) Java 2 Enterprise Edition - Part 2 : Enterprise JavaBeans : 8 - 10.10.2003 (3 days) FileMaker - niveau 1 : 9 & 10.10.03 (2 jours) EXCEL 2000 - niveau 1 : 20 & 22.10.03 (2 jours) AutoCAD 2002 - niveau 1 : 20, 21, 27, 28.10.03 (4 jours) CLEAN-2002 : Working in a Cleanroom (free of charge) : 23.10.03 (half day) AutoCAD Mechanical 6 PowerPack (E) : 23, 24, 30, 31.10 & 12, 13.11.03 (6 days) AutoCAD 2002 - niveau 2...

  8. Places available**

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Places are available in the following courses: The CERN EDMS for Local Administrators (free of charge) : 24 & 25.9.03 (2 days) HeREF-2003 : Techniques de la réfrigération Hélium (cours en français avec support en anglais) : 6 - 10.10.2003 (7 demi-journées) The Java Programming Language Level 1 : 6 - 7.10.2003 (2 days) Java 2 Enterprise Edition - Part 2 : Enterprise JavaBeans : 8 - 10.10.2003 (3 days) FileMaker - niveau 1 : 9 & 10.10.03 (2 jours) EXCEL 2000 - niveau 1 : 20 & 22.10.03 (2 jours) AutoCAD 2002 - niveau 1 : 20, 21, 27, 28.10.03 (4 jours) CLEAN-2002 : Working in a Cleanroom (free of charge) : 23.10.03 (half day) AutoCAD Mechanical 6 PowerPack (E) : 23, 24, 30, 31.10 & 12, 13.11.03 (6 days) AutoCAD 2002 - niveau 2 : 10 & 11.11.03 (2 jours) ACCESS 2000 - niveau 1 : 13 & 14.11.03 (2 jours) FrontPage 2000 - niveau 1 : 20...

  9. PLACES AVAILABLE

    CERN Multimedia

    Monique Duval

    2002-01-01

    Places are available in the following courses: October 2002   Introduction to the CERN Engineering Data Management System (free of charge):  29.10.2002  (1 day) The CERN EDMS for Advanced users (free of charge):  30.10.2002  (1 day) November 2002   LabView hands-on (bilingue/bilingual): 5.11.02 (matin/morning) LabView DAQ hands-on (bilingue/bilingual):  5.11.02  (après-midi afternoon) Introduction au PC et Windows 2000 au CERN :  6 & 7.11.02  (2 jours) Oracle 8i : Access the Database with Java:  7 & 8.11.02  (2 days) AutoCAD 2002 - niveau 2 :  7 & 8.11.02  (2 jours) Introduction to PVSS (free of charge):  11.11.2002 pm  (1/2 day) Basic PVSS:  12 - 14.11.02  (3 days) EXCEL 2000 - niveau 1 :  12 & 13.11.02  (2 jours) CLEAN-2002: Working in a Cleanroom (English, free ...

  10. PLACES AVAILABLE

    CERN Multimedia

    Monique Duval

    2002-01-01

    Places are available in the following courses: Introduction to Oracle 8i : SQL and PL/SQL:  7 - 11.10.02  (5 days) CLEAN-2002 : Working in a Cleanroom (free of charge):  10.10.02  (half-day, p.m.) LabView Hands-on (bilingue/bilingual) : 10.10.02 (matin/morning) LabView DAQ Hands-on (bilingue/bilingual)  10.10.02 (après-midi /afternoon) Introduction à DesignSpace :  16.10.02  (1 journée) Introduction to DesignSpace:  17.10.02  (1 day) AutoCAD Mechanical 6 PowerPack (F) :  21, 22, 23.10 et 4, 5, 6.11.02  (6 jours) Introduction à ANSYS/Introduction to ANSYS (langue à définir suivant demande/ Language to be chosen according to demand):  21 - 25.10.02  (5 jours/days) HREF-2002: Helium Refrigeration Techniques (English-French, bilingual) :  21 - 25.10.2002  (7 half days) HREF-2002: Techniques de la...

  11. PLACES AVAILABLE

    CERN Multimedia

    Enseignement Technique; Tél. 74924; Technical Training; Monique Duval; Tel. 74924

    2000-01-01

    Places are available in the following courses : Premiers pas avec votre PC 12 - 15.9.00 (4 demi-journées) WORD 20, 21 et 26, 27.9.2000 (4 jours) JAVA programming level 1 25 - 26.9.2000 (2 days) Gaz inflammables 1 26.9.2000 (1 journée) Advanced aspects of PERL 5 6.10.2000 (1 day) Initiation au WWW 10 - 12.10.00 (3 demi-journées) WORD : importer et manipuler des images 16.10.2000 (1 journée) FileMaker 17, 18 et 24, 25.10.00 (4 jours) Nouveautés de WORD 19 et 20.10.2000 (2 jours) ACCESS 1er niveau 30 - 31.10.00 (2 jours)Introduction à PowerPoint 6.11.00 (1 journée)Nouveautés d’EXCEL 7.11.2000(4 demi-journées)Excel 13, 14 et 20, 21.11.00 (4 jours) LabView hands-on 13.11.2000(4 hours)LabView Basics 1 14 - 16.11.2000 (3 days) MS-Project 1er niveau 14-17.11.00 (4 demi-journées) If you wish to participate in one of these courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply elec...

  12. PLACES AVAILABLE

    CERN Multimedia

    Technical Training; Tel. 74924

    2002-01-01

    Places are available in the following courses: LabView hands-on : 21.01.02 (1/2 journée) LabView DAQ hands-on : 21.01.02 (1/2 journée) FileMaker Pro : 22 - 25.1.02 (4 jours) MS-Project 2000 : 22, 24 & 25.01.02 (3 jours) Introduction au PC et à Windows 2000 au CERN : 29 - 30.1.02 (2 jours) LabView Base 1 : 4 - 6.2.02 (3 jours) LabView DAQ  (E) :  7 & 8.02.02 (2 days) Hands-on Object-Oriented Design & Programming with Java :  11 - 13.02.02 (3 days) PVSS basics :  11 - 15.2.02 (5 days) Introduction à Windows 2000 : 18.2.02 (1 demi-journée) Introduction to the CERN Engineering Data Management System :  20.2.02 (1 day) The CERN Engineering Data Management System for Advanced users :  21.2.02  (1 day) C++ for Particle Physicists :  11 - 15.3.2002  (6 * 3 hour lectures) Cours sur la migration AutoCAD : AutoCAD : Mise à...

  13. Places available **

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Des places sont disponibles dans les cours suivants : Places are available in the following courses : WorldFIP 2003 pour utilisateurs : 11-14.2.03 (4 jours) DISP-2003 ? Spring I Term : Introduction to Digital Signal Processing : 20, 27.2, 6, 13, 20, 27.3, 3.4.03 (7 X 2-hour lectures) AXEL-2003 - Introduction to Accelerators : 24-28.2.03 (10 X 1-hour lectures) AutoCAD 2002 - niveau 1 : 24, 25.2 & 3, 4.3.03 (4 jours) Introduction à Windows 2000 au CERN : 25.2.03 (1/2 journée) LabView base 2/LabView Basics 2 : 10 & 11.3.03 (2 jours/2 days) langue à définir/Language to be decided C++ for Particle Physicists : 10 ? 14.3.03 (6 X 3-hour lectures) Introduction to PVSS : 10.3.03 (half day, afternoon) Basic PVSS : 11 - 13.3.03 (3 days) LabView avancé /LabView Advanced : 12 - 14.3.03 (3 jours/3days) Langue à définir/language to be decided AutoCAD Mechanical 6 PowerPack (F) : 12, 13, 17, 18, 24 & 25.3.03 (6 jours) PVSS - JCOP Framework Tutorial : 14.3.03 (1 day) MAGNE-03 - Magnetism for Technical Ele...

  14. Places available **

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Des places sont disponibles dans les cours suivants : Places are available in the following courses : Introduction à Windows 2000 au CERN : 25.2.03 (1/2 journée) LabView base 2/LabView Basics 2 : 10 & 11.3.03 (2 jours/2 days) langue à définir/Language to be decided C++ for Particle Physicists : 10 - 14.3.03 (6 X 3-hour lectures) Introduction to PVSS : 10.3.03 (half day, afternoon) Basic PVSS : 11 - 13.3.03 (3 days) LabView avancé /LabView Advanced : 12 - 14.3.03 (3 jours/3days) Langue à définir/Language to be decided AutoCAD Mechanical 6 PowerPack (F) : 12, 13, 17, 18, 24 & 25.3.03 (6 jours) PVSS - JCOP Framework Tutorial : 14.3.03 (1 day) CLEAN-2002 : Working in a cleanroom : 2.4.03 (half-day, afternoon, free course, registration required) LabView base 1/LabView Basics 1 : 9 - 11.4.03 (3 jours/3 days) Langue à définir/Language to be decided DISP-2003 - Spring II Term : Advanced Digital Signal Processing : 30.4, 7, 14, 21.5.03 (4 X 2-hour lectures) AutoCAD 2002 - niveau 2 : 5 & 6.5.03 (...

  15. Places available**

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Places are available in the following courses : CLEAN-2002 : Working in a cleanroom (free course, registration required) : 2.4.03 (half-day, afternoon) LabView base 1/LabView Basics 1 (Langue à définir/ language to be decided) : 9 - 11.4.03 (3 jours/3 days) DISP-2003 - Spring II Term : Advanced Digital Signal Processing : 30.4, 7, 14, 21.5.03 (4 X 2-hour lectures) AutoCAD 2002 - niveau 1 : 29, 30.4 et 7, 8.5.03 (4 jours) AutoCAD 2002 - niveau 2 : 5 & 6.5.03 (2 jours) AutoCAD Mechanical 6 PowerPack (F) : 12, 13, 20, 21, 27 & 28.5.03(6 jours) Formation Siemens SIMATIC /Siemens SIMATIC Training : Introduction à STEP7 /Introduction to STEP7 : 3 & 4.6.03 (2 jours/2 days) Programmation STEP7/STEP7 Programming : 31.3 - 4.4.03 / 16 - 20.6.03 (5 jours/5 days) Réseau Simatic Net /Simatic Net Network : 15 & 16.4.03 / 26 & 27.6.03 These courses will be given in French or English following the requests. Cours de sécurité : Etre TSO au CERN : 3 sessions sont programmées pour 2003 : 25...

  16. Places available **

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Places are available in the following courses : CLEAN-2002 : Working in a cleanroom (free course, registration required): 11.4.03 (half-day, afternoon, ) LabView Basics 2 : 10 - 11.4.03 (3 days) DISP-2003 - Spring II Term : Advanced Digital Signal Processing : 30.4, 7, 14, 21.5.03 (4 X 2-hour lectures) AutoCAD 2002 - niveau 1 : 29, 30.4 et 7, 8.5.03 (4 jours) Oracle iDS Reports : Build Internet Reports : 5 - 9.5.03 (5 days) AutoCAD 2002 - niveau 2 : 5 & 6.5.03 (2 jours) AutoCAD Mechanical 6 PowerPack (F) : 12, 13, 20, 21, 27 & 28.5.03 (6 jours) Formation Siemens SIMATIC /Siemens SIMATIC Training : Introduction à STEP7 /Introduction to STEP7 : 3 & 4.6.03 (2 jours/2 days) Programmation STEP7/STEP7 Programming : 31.3 - 4.4.03 / 16 - 20.6.03 (5 jours/5 days) Réseau Simatic Net /Simatic Net Network : 15 & 16.4.03 / 26 & 27.6.03 These courses will be given in French or English following the requests. Cours de sécurité : Etre TSO au CERN : Prochaines sessions : 24, 25 & 27.6....

  17. Places available**

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Places are available in the following courses : CLEAN-2002 : Working in a cleanroom (free course, registration required): 11.4.03 (half-day, afternoon, ) LabView Basics 2 : 10 - 11.4.03 (3 days) DISP-2003 - Spring II Term : Advanced Digital Signal Processing : 30.4, 7, 14, 21.5.03 (4 X 2-hour lectures) AutoCAD 2002 - niveau 1 : 29, 30.4 et 7, 8.5.03 (4 jours) Oracle iDS Reports : Build Internet Reports : 5 - 9.5.03 (5 days) AutoCAD 2002 - niveau 2 : 5 & 6.5.03 (2 jours) AutoCAD Mechanical 6 PowerPack (F) : 12, 13, 20, 21, 27 & 28.5.03(6 jours) Formation Siemens SIMATIC /Siemens SIMATIC Training : Introduction à STEP7 /Introduction to STEP7 : 3 & 4.6.03 (2 jours/2 days) Programmation STEP7/STEP7 Programming : 31.3 - 4.4.03 / 16 - 20.6.03 (5 jours/5 days) Réseau Simatic Net /Simatic Net Network : 15 & 16.4.03 / 26 & 27.6.03 These courses will be given in French or English following the requests. Cours de sécurité : Etre TSO au CERN : Prochaines sessions : 24, 25 & 27.6...

  18. Places available**

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Places are available in the following courses : DISP-2003 - Spring II Term : Advanced Digital Signal Processing : 30.4, 7, 14, 21.5.03 (4 X 2-hour lectures) Programmation de pilotes périphériques : 5 - 8.5.03 (4 jours) Oracle iDS Reports : Build Internet Reports : 5 - 9.5.03 (5 days) LabView DAQ (language to be defined) : 8 & 9.5.03 AutoCAD Mechanical 6 PowerPack (F) : 12, 13, 20, 21, 27 & 28.5.0 (6 jours) FrontPage 2000 - niveau 1 : 20 & 21.5.03 (2 jours) AutoCAD 2002 - niveau 2 : 3 & 4.6.03 (2 jours) EXCEL 2000 - niveau 1 : 10 & 11.6.03 (2 jours) EXCEL 2000 - level 1 : 12 & 13.6.03 (2 days) PowerPoint 2000 (F) : 17 & 18.6.03 (2 jours) FrontPage 2000 - niveau 2 : 19 & 20.6.03 (2 jours) LabView DSC (langue à décider/language to be defined) : 19 & 20.6.03 EXCEL 2000 - niveau 2 : 24 & 25.6.03 (2 jours) Siemens SIMATIC Training : Introduction to STEP7 : 3 & 4.6.03 (2 days) STEP7 Programming : 16 - 20.6.03 (5 days) Simatic Net Network : 26 & 27.6.03 ...

  19. Places available **

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Des places sont disponibles dans les cours suivants : Places are available in the following courses : DISP-2003 - Spring I Term : Introduction to Digital Signal Processing : 20, 27.2, 6, 13, 20, 27.3, 3.4.03 (7 X 2-hour lectures) AXEL-2003 - Introduction to Accelerators : 24 - 28.2.03 (10 X 1-hour lectures) AutoCAD 2002 - niveau 1 : 24, 25.2 & 3, 4.3.03 (4 jours) Introduction à Windows 2000 au CERN : 25.2.03 (1/2 journée) LabView base 2/LabView Basics 2 : 10 & 11.3.03 (2 jours/2 days) langue à définir/Language to be decided C++ for Particle Physicists : 10 - 14.3.03 (6 X 3-hour lectures) Introduction to PVSS : 10.3.03 (half day, afternoon) Basic PVSS : 11 - 13.3.03 (3 days) LabView avancé /LabView Advanced : 12 - 14.3.03 (3 jours/3days) Langue à définir/language to be decided AutoCAD Mechanical 6 PowerPack (F) : 12, 13, 17, 18, 24 & 25.3.03 (6 jours) PVSS - JCOP Framework Tutorial : 14.3.03 (1 day) CLEAN-2002 : Working in a cleanroom : 2.4.03 (half-day, afternoon, free course, regis...

  20. Places available**

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Places are available in the following courses : CLEAN-2002 : Working in a cleanroom (free course, registration required): 11.4.03 (half-day, afternoon) LabView Basics 2 : 10 - 11.4.03 (3 days) DISP-2003 - Spring II Term : Advanced Digital Signal Processing : 30.4, 7, 14, 21.5.03 (4 X 2-hour lectures) AutoCAD 2002 - niveau 1 : 29, 30.4 et 7, 8.5.03 (4 jours) Oracle iDS Reports : Build Internet Reports : 5 - 9.5.03 (5 days) AutoCAD 2002 - niveau 2 : 5 & 6.5.03 (2 jours) AutoCAD Mechanical 6 PowerPack (F) : 12, 13, 20, 21, 27 & 28.5.03(6 jours) Formation Siemens SIMATIC /Siemens SIMATIC Training : Introduction à STEP7 /Introduction to STEP7 : 3 & 4.6.03 (2 jours/2 days) Programmation STEP7/STEP7 Programming : 16 - 20.6.03 (5 jours/5 days) Réseau Simatic Net /Simatic Net Network : 15 & 16.4.03 / 26 & 27.6.03 These courses will be given in French or English following the requests. Cours de sécurité : Etre TSO au CERN : Prochaines sessions : 24, 25 & 27.6.03 - 4, 5 & 7....

  1. Places available **

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Des places sont disponibles dans les cours suivants : Places are available in the following courses : C++ for Particle Physicists : 10 - 14.3.03 (6 X 3-hour lectures) Introduction to PVSS : 10.3.03 (half day, afternoon) Basic PVSS : 11 - 13.3.03 (3 days) PVSS - JCOP Framework Tutorial : 14.3.03 (1 day) CLEAN-2002 : Working in a cleanroom : 2.4.03 (half-day, afternoon, free course, registration required) LabView base 1/LabView Basics 1 : 9 - 11.4.03 (3 jours/3 days) Langue à définir/language to be decided DISP-2003 - Spring II Term : Advanced Digital Signal Processing : 30.4, 7, 14, 21.5.03 (4 X 2-hour lectures) AutoCAD 2002 - niveau 1 : 29, 30.4 et 7, 8.5.03 (4 jours) AutoCAD 2002 - niveau 2 : 5 & 6.5.03 (2 jours) AutoCAD Mechanical 6 PowerPack (F) : 12, 13, 20, 21, 27 & 28.5.03 (6 jours) Formation Siemens SIMATIC /Siemens SIMATIC Training : Introduction à STEP7 /Introduction to STEP7 : 11 & 12.3.03 / 3 & 4.6.03 (2 jours/2 days) Programmation STEP7/STEP7 Programming : 31.3 - 4.4.03 / 16...

  2. Places available**

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Places are available in the following courses : Introduction to PVSS : 10.3.03 (half-day, afternoon) CLEAN-2002 : Working in a cleanroom : 2.4.03 (half-day, afternoon, free course, registration required) LabView Basics 1 : 9 - 11.4.03 (3 days) Language to be decided. DISP-2003 - Spring II Term : Advanced Digital Signal Processing : 30.4, 7, 14, 21.5.03 (4 X 2-hour lectures). AutoCAD 2002 - niveau 1 : 29, 30.4 et 7, 8.5.03 (4 jours) AutoCAD 2002 - niveau 2 : 5 & 6.5.03 (2 jours) AutoCAD Mechanical 6 PowerPack (F) : 12, 13, 20, 21, 27 & 28.5.03 (6 jours) Siemens SIMATIC Training: Introduction to STEP7 : 3 & 4.6.03 (2 days) STEP7 Programming : 31.3 - 4.4.03 / 16 - 20.6.03 (5 days) Simatic Net Network : 15 & 16.4.03 / 26 & 27.6.03 These courses will be given in French or English following the requests. Cours de sécurité: Etre TSO au CERN : 3 sessions sont programmées pour 2003 : 25, 26 & 28.3.03 - 24, 25 & 27.6.03 - 4, 5 & 7.11.03 (sessions de 3 jours) ** The number o...

  3. PLACES AVAILABLE

    CERN Multimedia

    Monique Duval

    2002-01-01

    Places are available in the following courses: November 2002   Introduction to PVSS (free of charge): 11.11.02  (afternoon) EXCEL 2000 - niveau 1 :  12 & 13.11.02  (2 jours) CLEAN-2002: Working in a Cleanroom (English, free of charge):  13.11.2002  (afternoon) AutoCAD 2002 - niveau 1 :  14, 15, 21, 22.11.02  (4 jours) Hands-on Object-Oriented Design and Programming with C++:  19 - 21.11.02  (3 days)  EXCEL 2000 - niveau 2 :  25 & 26.11.02  (2 jours) FrontPage 2000 - niveau 1 :  27 & 28.11.02  (2 jours) December 2002   LabVIEW - DSC (English) :  2 - 3.12.02  (2 days) AutoCAD 2002 - niveau 2 :  2 & 3.12.02  (2 jours) FileMaker (Français) :  2 - 5.12.02  (4 jours) PCAD Schémas - Débutants :  5 & 6.12.02 ...

  4. PLACES AVAILABLE

    CERN Multimedia

    Technical training; Tel. 74924

    2001-01-01

    Places are available in the following courses: PROFIBUS : 25 - 26.9.01 (2 jours) PROFIBUS : 27 - 28.9.01 (2 days) Automates et réseaux de terrain : 3 - 4.10.2001 (2 jours) PCAD Schémas - débutants : 4 - 5.10.01 (2 jours) PCAD PCB - débutants : 8 - 10.10.01 (3 jours) Programmation TSX Premium 1 : 15 - 19.10.01 (5 jours) Programmation TSX Premium 1 : 22 - 26.10.01 (5 jours) Programming TSX Premium 2: 19 - 23.11.01 (5 days) Programmation TSX Premium 2 : 26 - 30.11.01 (5 jours) Autocad Migration support courses: a detailed calendar will be published shortly for this series of sessions which will start on 15.10.2001. Registration is already open AutoCAD : Mise à jour AutoCAD r-14 vers 2002 (2 jours) AutoCAD Mechanical PowerPack 6 basé sur AutoCAD 2002 (5 jours) The following LabView courses will be given in either English or French according to demand LabVIEW - Base 1 / LabVIEW - Basics 1 : 10 - 12.9.01 (3 jours / 3 days)...

  5. PLACES AVAILABLES

    CERN Multimedia

    Technical Training; Tel. 74924

    2001-01-01

    Places are available in the following courses: PVSS Basics : 20 - 24.8.01 (5 days) PROFIBUS : 25 - 26.9.01 (2 jours) PROFIBUS : 27 - 28.9.01 (2 days) PCAD Schémas - débutants : 4 - 5.10.01 (2 jours) PCAD PCB - débutants : 8 - 10.10.01 (3 jours) Programming TSX Premium 1: 15 - 19.10.01 (5 days) Programmation TSX Premium 1 : 22 - 26.10.01 (5 jours) Programming TSX Premium 2: 19 - 23.11.01 (5 days) Programmation TSX Premium 2 : 26 - 30.11.01 (5 jours) The following LabView courses will be given in either English or French according to demand LabVIEW - Base 1 / LabVIEW - Basics 1 : 10 - 12.9.01 (3 jours / 3 days) LabVIEW - DAQ / LabVIEW - DAQ : 13 - 14.9.01 (2 jours / 2 days) LabVIEW - Base 1 / LabVIEW - Basics 1 : 15 - 17.10.01 (3 jours / 3 days) LabVIEW - Base 2 / LabVIEW - Basics 2 : 18 - 19.10.01 (2 jours / 2 days) LabVIEW - Base 1 / LabVIEW - Basics 1 : 12 - 14.11.01 (3 jours / 3 days) LabVIEW - DAQ / LabVIEW - DAQ : 15 - 16.11.01 (2 jours / 2...

  6. PLACES AVAILABLE

    CERN Multimedia

    Monique Duval

    2002-01-01

    Places are available in the following courses: November 2002   LabView hands-on (bilingue/bilingual): 5.11.02 (matin/morning) LabView DAQ hands-on (bilingue/bilingual):  5.11.02  (après-midi afternoon) PCAD Schémas - Débutants :  5 & 6.11.02  (2 jours) PCAD PCB - Débutants :  9 - 11.11.02  (3 jours) Introduction au PC et Windows 2000 au CERN :  6 & 7.11.02  (2 jours) Oracle 8i : Access the Database with Java :  7 & 8.11.02  (2 days) Introduction to PVSS (free of charge):  11.11.2002 pm  (1/2 day) Basic PVSS:  12 - 14.11.02  (3 days) EXCEL 2000 - niveau 1 :  12 & 13.11.02  (2 jours) CLEAN-2002: Working in a Cleanroom (English, free of charge):  13.11.2002  (afternoon) LabView Base 1 :  13 - 15.11.02  (3 jours) AutoCAD 2002 - niveau 1 :  14, 15, 21, 22.11.02  (4 jours) LabVIEW - Advanced:  18 - 20.11.02  (3 days) Hands-on Object-Oriented Design and Programming with C++ :  19 - 21.11.02  (3 days)  LabVIEW - Basics 2:  21 - 22.11.02 ...

  7. Places available**

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Places are available in the following courses : EXCEL 2000 - niveau 1 : 10 & 11.6.03 (2 jours) Conception de PCB rapides dans le flot Cadence : 11.6.03 (matin) EXCEL 2000 - level 1 : 12 & 13.6.03 (2 days) Introduction to PVSS : 16.6.03 (p.m.) Basic PVSS : 17 - 19.6.03 (3 days) Réalisation de PCB rapides dans le flot Cadence : 17.6.03 (matin) PVSS - JCOP Framework Tutorial : 20.6.03 (1 day) EXCEL 2000 - niveau 2 : 24 & 25.6.03 (2 jours) Siemens SIMATIC Training : Introduction to STEP7 : 3 & 4.6.03 (2 jours/2 days) STEP7 Programming : 16 - 20.6.03 (5 jours/5 days) Simatic Net Network : 26 & 27.6.03 (2 jours/2 days) These courses will be given in French or English following the requests. Programmation automate Schneider : Programmation automate Schneider TSX Premium - 1er niveau : 10 - 13.6.03 (4 jours) - audience : toute personne qui veux maitriser la msie en uvre et la programmation d'un automate TSX Premium - objectifs : maitriser la mise en uvre et la programmation d'un autom...

  8. Places available**

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Places are available in the following courses : FrontPage 2000 - niveau 1 : 20 & 21.5.03 (2 jours) PIPES-2003 : Pratique du sertissage de tubes métalliques et multicouches : 21.5.03 (1 jour) Introduction à la CAO Cadence : de la saisie de schéma Concept-HDL au PCB : 20 & 22.5.03 (2 jours) AutoCAD 2002 - niveau 2 : 3 & 4.6.03 (2 jours) AutoCAD Mechanical 6 PowerPack (F) : 5, 6, 12, 13, 26, 27.6.03 (6 jours) EXCEL 2000 - niveau 1 : 10 & 11.6.03 (2 jours) Conception de PCB rapides dans le flot Cadence : 11.6.03 (matin) EXCEL 2000 - level 1 : 12 & 13.6.03 (2 days) PowerPoint 2000 (F) : 17 & 18.6.03 (2 jours) Réalisation de PCB rapides dans le flot Cadence : 17.6.03 (matin) FrontPage 2000 - niveau 2 : 19 & 20.6.03 (2 jours) LabView DSC (langue à décider/language to be defined) : 19 & 20.6.03 EXCEL 2000 - niveau 2 : 24 & 25.6.03 (2 jours) Siemens SIMATIC Training: Introduction to STEP7 : 3 & 4.6.03 (2 days) STEP7 Programming : 16 - 20.6.03 (5 days) Simatic...

  9. PLACES AVAILABLE

    CERN Multimedia

    Technical Training; Tel. 74924

    2001-01-01

    Places are available in the following courses: PVSS Basics : 20 - 24.8.01 (5 days) PROFIBUS : 25 - 26.9.01 (2 jours) PROFIBUS : 27 - 28.9.01 (2 days) PCAD Schémas - débutants : 4 - 5.10.01 (2 jours) PCAD PCB - débutants : 8 - 10.10.01 (3 jours) Programming TSX Premium 1: 15 - 19.10.01 (5 days) Programmation TSX Premium 1 : 22 - 26.10.01 (5 jours) Programming TSX Premium 2: 19 - 23.11.01 (5 days) Programmation TSX Premium 2 : 26 - 30.11.01 (5 jours) The following LabView courses will be given in either English or French according to demand LabVIEW - Base 1 / LabVIEW - Basics 1 : 10 - 12.9.01 (3 jours / 3 days) LabVIEW - DAQ / LabVIEW - DAQ : 13 - 14.9.01 (2 jours / 2 days) LabVIEW - Base 1 / LabVIEW - Basics 1 : 15 - 17.10.01 (3 jours / 3 days) LabVIEW - Base 2 / LabVIEW - Basics 2 : 18 - 19.10.01 (2 jours / 2 days) LabVIEW - Base 1 / LabVIEW - Basics 1 : 12 - 14.11.01 (3 jours / 3 days) LabVIEW - DAQ / LabVIEW - DAQ : 15 - 16.11.01 (2 jours / 2...

  10. PLACES AVAILABLE

    CERN Multimedia

    Technical Training; Tel. 74924

    2001-01-01

    Places are available in the following courses: Introduction à Windows 2000 au CERN : 2 sessions de _ journée les 24 et 25.9.01 PROFIBUS : 25 - 26.9.01 (2 jours) PROFIBUS : 27 - 28.9.01 (2 days) PowerPoint 2000 : 1 et 2.10.01 (2 jours) EXCEL 2000 - niveau 1 : 3 et 4.10.01 (2 jours) Automates et réseaux de terrain : 3 - 4.10.2001 (2 jours) PCAD Schémas - débutants : 4 - 5.10.01 (2 jours) Introduction à Outlook : 5.10.01 (1 journée) Frontpage 2000 - niveau 1 : 8 et 9.10.01 (2 jours) PCAD PCB - débutants : 8 - 10.10.01 (3 jours) C++ for Particle Physicists : 8 - 12.10.01 (6 3-hour lectures) MS-Project 2000 - niveau 1 : 15 - 18.10.01 (4 demi-journées) LabView Basics 1 :  15 - 17.10.01  (3 days) Programmation TSX Premium 1 : 15 - 19.10.01 (5 jours) WORD 2000 : importer et manipuler des images : 19.10.01 (1 journée) Programmation TSX Premium 1 : 22 - 26.10.01...

  11. PLACES AVAILABLE

    CERN Multimedia

    Technical Training; Tel. 74924

    2001-01-01

    Places are available in the following courses: Introduction à Windows 2000 au CERN : 2 sessions de _ journée les 24 et 25.9.01 PROFIBUS : 25 - 26.9.01 (2 jours) PROFIBUS : 27 - 28.9.01 (2 days) EXCEL 2000 - niveau 1 : 3 et 4.10.01 (2 jours) Automates et réseaux de terrain : 3 - 4.10.2001 (2 jours) Introduction à Outlook : 5.10.01 (1 journée) Frontpage 2000 - niveau 1 : 8 et 9.10.01 (2 jours) C++ for Particle Physicists : 8 - 12.10.01 (6 lectures) MS-Project 2000 - niveau 1 : 15 - 18.10.01 (4 demi-journées) Programmation TSX Premium 1 : 15 - 19.10.01 (5 jours) WORD 2000 : importer et manipuler des images : 19.10.01 (1 journée) Programmation TSX Premium 1 : 22 - 26.10.01 (5 jours) UNIX pour non-programmeurs : 5 - 7.11.01 (3 jours) The Java programming language Level 1: 8 - 9.11.01 (2 days) Introduction to PERL 5 :  15 - 16.11.01  (2 days) Introduction to XML :  19 - 20.11.01 (2...

  12. PLACES AVAILABLE

    CERN Multimedia

    Monique Duval

    2002-01-01

    Places are available in the following courses: LabView Base 1 :  23 - 25.9.02  (3 jours) Object-Oriented Analysis & Design using UML:  25 - 27.9.02  (3 days) LabView DAQ (E):  26 - 27.9.02  (2 days) Introduction to Oracle 8i : SQL and PL/SQL:  7 - 11.10.02  (5 days) CLEAN-2002 : Working in a Cleanroom (free of charge):  10.10.02  (half-day, p.m.) AutoCAD 2002 - niveau 2 :  14 - 15.10.02  (2 jours) Introduction à DesignSpace :  16.10.02  (1 journée) Introduction to DesignSpace:  17.10.02  (1 day) AutoCAD 2002 - Level 1:  17, 18, 24, 25.10.02  (4 days) AutoCAD Mechanical 6 PowerPack (F) :  21, 22, 23.10 et 4, 5, 6.11.02  (6 jours) Introduction à ANSYS/Introduction to ANSYS (langue à définir suivant demande/ Language to be chosen according to demand):...

  13. PLACES AVAILABLE

    CERN Multimedia

    Monique Duval

    2002-01-01

    Places are available in the following courses: Java 2 Enterprise Edition - Part 2: Enterprise JavaBeans:  18 - 20.9.02  (3 days) AutoCAD 2002 - niveau 1 :  19, 20, 26, 27.9.02  (4 jours) LabView Base 1 :  23 - 25.9.02  (3 jours) Object-Oriented Analysis & Design using UML:  25 - 27.9.02  (3 days) LabView DAQ (E):  26 - 27.9.02  (2 days) Introduction to Oracle 8i : SQL and PL/SQL:  7 - 11.10.02  (5 days) CLEAN-2002 : Working in a Cleanroom (free of charge):  10.10.02  (half-day, p.m.) AutoCAD 2002 - niveau 2 :  14 - 15.10.02  (2 jours) Introduction à DesignSpace :  16.10.02  (1 journée) Introduction to DesignSpace:  17.10.02  (1 day) AutoCAD 2002 - Level 1:  17, 18, 24, 25.10.02  (4 days) AutoCAD Mechanical 6 PowerPack (F) :  21, 22, 23.10 et 4, 5, 6.11....

  14. PLACES AVAILABLE

    CERN Multimedia

    Technical Training; Tel. 74924

    2001-01-01

    Places are available in the following courses: Automates et réseaux de terrain : 13 & 14.11.01 (3 jours) Introduction à Windows 2000 au CERN : 12 - 14.11.01 (1/2 journée) Introduction to Windows 2000 at CERN :  14.11.01  (half-day) Introduction to PERL 5 :  15 - 16.11.01  (2 days) Sécurité dans les installations cryogéniques : 21 - 22.11.2001 (2 demi-journées) Introduction to C Programming :  21- 23.11.01 (3 days) Programmation TSX Premium 2 : 26 - 30.11.01 (5 jours) Contract Follow-up (F) : 26.11.01 (1/2 journée) Object-Oriented Analysis and Design :  27 - 30.11.2001  (4 days) Introduction to the CERN Engineering Data Management System :  30.11.2001 (1 day) Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC): Introduction (bilingual) :  3.12.01 (half-day) Introduction to the CERN Engineering Data Management System : 07.12.2001...

  15. PLACES AVAILABLE

    CERN Multimedia

    Technical Training; Tel. 74924

    2001-01-01

    Places are available in the following courses: Nouveautés d'EXCEL : 5.11.01 (1/2 journée) Introduction a Windows 2000 au CERN : 6.11.01 (1/2 journée) UNIX pour non-programmeurs : 5 - 7.11.01 (3 jours) Design Patterns :  7 - 8.11.01 (2 days) The Java programming language Level 1: 8 - 9.11.01 (2 days) Automates et réseaux de terrain : 13 & 14.11.01 (3 jours) Introduction à Windows 2000 au CERN : 12 - 14.11.01 (1/2 journée) Introduction to Windows 2000 at CERN :  14.11.01  (half-day) Introduction to PERL 5 :  15 - 16.11.01  (2 days) Introduction to C Programming :  21- 23.11.01 (3 days) Programmation TSX Premium 2 : 26 - 30.11.01 (5 jours) Contract Follow-up (F) : 26.11.01 (1/2 journée) Object-Oriented Analysis and Design :  27 - 30.11.2001  (4 days) Hands-on Object-Oriented Design and Programming with C++ :  11 - 13.12.2...

  16. PLACES AVAILABLE

    CERN Multimedia

    Monique Duval

    2002-01-01

    Places are available in the following courses: ELEC-2002 : Spring Term :  9, 11, 16, 18, 23, 25, 30.4.02 (7 * 2.5 hours) Object-Oriented Analysis & Design: 16 - 19.4.02  (4 days) The CERN Engineering Data Management System for Advanced users:  16.4.02  (1 day) Migration from AutoCAD 14 towards AutoCAD Mechanical6 PowerPack:  17 - 19.4 and 2 &3.5.02  (5 days) AutoCAD - niveau 1 : 22, 23, 29, 30.4 et 6, 7.5.02 (6 jours) LabVIEW base 1 : 22 - 24.4.02 (3 jours) CLEAN 2002 : working in a cleanroom:  24.4.02  (half-day, pm) LabVIEW DSC (F) 25 & 26.4.02 (2 jours) AutoCAD : Mise à jour AutoCAD r-14 vers 2002 : 25 & 26.4.02 (2 jours) Cotations selon les normes GPS de l'ISO : 29 - 30.4.02 (2 jours) Introduction to the CERN Engineering Data Management System:  7.5.02  (1 day) LabVIEW Basics 2 : 13 & 14.5.02 (2 days) AutoCAD Mechanical 6 PowerPack (F) : 13-...

  17. PLACES AVAILABLE

    CERN Multimedia

    Monique Duval

    2002-01-01

    Places are available in the following courses: Introduction to the CERN Engineering Data Management System:  7.5.02  (1 day) LabVIEW Basics 2: 13 & 14.5.02 (2 days) AutoCAD Mechanical 6 PowerPack (F) : 13-14, 17, 21, 27-28.5.02 (6 jours) WorldFIP - Généralités : 14.5.2002 (1/2 journée) WorldFIP - Développer avec MicroFIP HANDLER : 14.5 - après-midi, 15.5.02 - matin (1 jour) WorldFIP - FullFIP FDM : FIP Device Manager (F) : 15.5 - après-midi, 16.5.02 - matin (1 jour) LabVIEW DAQ (F) : 15 & 16.5.02 (2 jours) EXCEL 2000 - niveau 2 : 22 & 23.5.02 (2 jours) The CERN Engineering Data Management System for Advanced users:  30.5.02  (1 day) LabVIEW Basics 1:  3 - 5.6.02  (3 days) AutoCAD 2002 - condensé : 4 - 6.6.02 (3 jours) LabVIEW DAQ (E):  6 & 7.6.02  (2 days) AutoCAD 2002 - Level 1:  10 - ...

  18. PLACES AVAILABLE

    CERN Multimedia

    Monique Duval

    2002-01-01

    Places are available in the following courses: The CERN Engineering Data Management System for Advanced users : 16.4.02  (1 day) Migration from AutoCAD 14 towards AutoCAD Mechanical6 PowerPack:  17 - 19.4 and 2 &3.5.02  (5 days) AutoCAD - niveau 1 : 22, 23, 29, 30.4 et 6, 7.5.02 (6 jours) LabVIEW base 1 : 22 - 24.4.02 (3 jours) CLEAN 2002 : working in a cleanroom:  24.4.02  (half-day, pm) LabVIEW DSC (F) 25 & 26.4.02 (2 jours) AutoCAD : Mise à jour AutoCAD r-14 vers 2002 : 25 & 26.4.02 (2 jours) Cotations selon les normes GPS de l'ISO : 29 - 30.4.02 (2 jours) Introduction to the CERN Engineering Data Management System:  7.5.02  (1 day) LabVIEW Basics 2: 13 & 14.5.02 (2 days) AutoCAD Mechanical 6 PowerPack (F) : 13-14, 17, 21, 27-28.5.02 (6 jours) WorldFIP - Généralités : 14.5.2002 (1/2 journée) WorldFIP - Développer avec Micr...

  19. PLACES AVAILABLE

    CERN Multimedia

    Monique Duval

    2002-01-01

    Places are available in the following courses: LabVIEW base 1 : 22 - 24.4.02 (3 jours) CLEAN 2002 : working in a cleanroom:  24.4.02  (half-day, pm) LabVIEW DSC (F) 25 & 26.4.02 (2 jours) AutoCAD : Mise à jour AutoCAD r-14 vers 2002 : 25 & 26.4.02 (2 jours) Cotations selon les normes GPS de l'ISO : 29 - 30.4.02 (2 jours) Introduction to the CERN Engineering Data Management System:  7.5.02  (1 day) LabVIEW Basics 2: 13 & 14.5.02 (2 days) AutoCAD Mechanical 6 PowerPack (F) : 13-14, 17, 21, 27-28.5.02 (6 jours) WorldFIP - Généralités : 14.5.2002 (1/2 journée) WorldFIP - Développer avec MicroFIP HANDLER : 14.5 - après-midi, 15.5.02 - matin (1 jour) WorldFIP - FullFIP FDM : FIP Device Manager (F) : 15.5 - après-midi, 16.5.02 - matin (1 jour) LabVIEW DAQ (F) : 15 & 16.5.02 (2 jours) EXCEL 2000 - niveau 2 : 22 & 23.5.02 (2 jours)...

  20. Peran Information Conciousness dan Nutrient Information dalam Meningkatkan Kinerja Individual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niken Wahyu Wilujeng

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to analyze nutrient information and information consciousness as factors that influence employee’s performance and job satisfication as intervening variable for finance employee in Brawijaya University. By employing Partial Least Square technique, it was indicated that nutrient information and information consciousness have positive effect to job satisfication, while job satisfication can also fully mediate nutrient information and information consciousness to employee’s performance. This research also indicated that information consciousness and nutrient information are factors that influence finance employee’s performance through intelectual emphasis.

  1. Recovery of Nutrients from Biogas Digestate with Biochar and Clinoptilolite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kocatürk, Nazli Pelin

    in recovery of nutrients whose natural reserves are being depleted such as phosphorus and potassium. In this thesis I propose the use of sorbents i.e. biochar and clinoptilolite to concentrate nutrients and subsequently the application of digestate-enriched biochar and clinoptilolite as fertiliser. Therefore...... the overall objective of this thesis is to investigate the use of clinoptilolite and biochar to recover plant nutrients from the liquid fraction of digestate resulting from anaerobic digestion of animal manure and investigate the plant-availability of the recovered form of nutrients. In Chapter 1 (General...... of nutrients on sorbent) but decreasing efficiencies of clinoptilolite to remove nutrients from the liquid fraction of digestate. In Chapter 3, I studied the chemical activation of biochar by treating the biochar with deionised water, hydrogen peroxide, sulfuric acid and sodium hydroxide solutions...

  2. Nutrient fluxes at the landscape level and the R* rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Shu; DeAngelis, Donald L.

    2010-01-01

    Nutrient cycling in terrestrial ecosystems involves not only the vertical recycling of nutrients at specific locations in space, but also biologically driven horizontal fluxes between different areas of the landscape. This latter process can result in net accumulation of nutrients in some places and net losses in others. We examined the effects of such nutrient-concentrating fluxes on the R* rule, which predicts that the species that can survive in steady state at the lowest level of limiting resource, R*, can exclude all competing species. To study the R* rule in this context, we used a literature model of plant growth and nutrient cycling in which both nutrients and light may limit growth, with plants allocating carbon and nutrients between foliage and roots according to different strategies. We incorporated the assumption that biological processes may concentrate nutrients in some parts of the landscape. We assumed further that these processes draw nutrients from outside the zone of local recycling at a rate proportional to the local biomass density. Analysis showed that at sites where there is a sufficient biomass-dependent accumulation of nutrients, the plant species with the highest biomass production rates (roughly corresponding to the best competitors) do not reduce locally available nutrients to a minimum concentration level (that is, minimum R*), as expected from the R* rule, but instead maximize local nutrient concentration. These new results require broadening of our understanding of the relationships between nutrients and vegetation competition on the landscape level. The R* rule is replaced by a more complex criterion that varies across a landscape and reduces to the R* rule only under certain limiting conditions.

  3. Biological Nutrient Removal in Compact Biofilm Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bassin, J.P.

    2012-01-01

    The removal of nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus from both domestic and industrial wastewaters is imperative since they potentially harm the environment. One of the main consequences of excessive availability of nitrogen and phosphorus in aquatic ecosystems (freshwater, marine and estuarine)

  4. Improving crop nutrient efficiency through root architecture modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinxin; Zeng, Rensen; Liao, Hong

    2016-03-01

    Improving crop nutrient efficiency becomes an essential consideration for environmentally friendly and sustainable agriculture. Plant growth and development is dependent on 17 essential nutrient elements, among them, nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) are the two most important mineral nutrients. Hence it is not surprising that low N and/or low P availability in soils severely constrains crop growth and productivity, and thereby have become high priority targets for improving nutrient efficiency in crops. Root exploration largely determines the ability of plants to acquire mineral nutrients from soils. Therefore, root architecture, the 3-dimensional configuration of the plant's root system in the soil, is of great importance for improving crop nutrient efficiency. Furthermore, the symbiotic associations between host plants and arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi/rhizobial bacteria, are additional important strategies to enhance nutrient acquisition. In this review, we summarize the recent advances in the current understanding of crop species control of root architecture alterations in response to nutrient availability and root/microbe symbioses, through gene or QTL regulation, which results in enhanced nutrient acquisition. © 2015 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  5. Nutrients affecting brain composition and behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurtman, R. J.

    1987-01-01

    This review examines the changes in brain composition and in various brain functions, including behavior, that can follow the ingestion of particular foods or nutrients. It details those that are best understood: the increases in serotonin, catecholamine, or acetylcholine synthesis that can occur subsequent to food-induced increases in brain levels of tryptophan, tyrosine, or choline; it also discusses the various processes that must intervene between the mouth and the synapse, so to speak, in order for a nutrient to affect neurotransmission, and it speculates as to additional brain chemicals that may ultimately be found to be affected by changes in the availability of their nutrient precursors. Because the brain chemicals best known to be nutrient dependent overlap with those thought to underlie the actions of most of the drugs used to treat psychiatric diseases, knowledge of this dependence may help the psychiatrist to understand some of the pathologic processes occurring in his/her patients, particularly those with appetitive symptoms. At the very least, such knowledge should provide the psychiatrist with objective criteria for judging when to take seriously assertions that particular foods or nutrients do indeed affect behavior (e.g., in hyperactive children). If the food can be shown to alter neurotransmitter release, it may be behaviorally-active; however, if it lacks a discernible neurochemical effect, the likelihood that it really alters behavior is small.

  6. Food web interactions and nutrients dynamics in polyculture ponds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahman, M.M.

    2006-01-01

    Artificial feed and fertilizers are the main sources of nutrients supporting fish growth in aquaculture ponds. The majority of the added nutrients are lost to the sediment, where they are no longer available for natural food production. By increasing resuspension of the sediment through the

  7. Exponential Nutrient Loading as a Means to Optimize Bareroot Nursery Fertility of Oak Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zonda K. D. Birge; Douglass F. Jacobs; Francis K. Salifu

    2006-01-01

    Conventional fertilization in nursery culture of hardwoods may involve supply of equal fertilizer doses at regularly spaced intervals during the growing season, which may create a surplus of available nutrients in the beginning and a deficiency in nutrient availability by the end of the growing season. A method of fertilization termed “exponential nutrient loading” has...

  8. Economic benefits of combining soil and water conservation measures with nutrient management in semiarid Burkina Faso

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zougmoré, R.; Mando, A.; Stroosnijder, L.; Ouédraogo, E.

    2004-01-01

    Nutrient limitation is the main cause of per capita decline in crop production in the Sahel, where water shortage also limits an efficient use of available nutrients. Combining soil and water conservation measures with locally available nutrient inputs may optimize crop production and economic

  9. Towards regional mapping of grass nutrients using remote sensing in Greater Kruger National Park

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ramoelo, Abel

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Regional maps of grass nutrients are important to inform decision making regarding the management of savanna ecosystems. Grass nutrients plays a crucial role in understanding the distribution, densities and feeding patterns of both wild herbivores...

  10. Hyperspectral remote sensing techniques for grass nutrient estimations in savannah ecosystems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ramoelo, Abel

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Information on the distribution of grass quality (nutrient concentration) is crucial in understanding rangeland vitality and facilitates effective management of wildlife and livestock. The spatial distribution of grass nutrient concentration occurs...

  11. The Structural Characteristics of Biochar and Its Effects on Soil Available Nutrients and Humus Composition%生物质炭结构性质及其对土壤有效养分和腐殖质组成的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周桂玉; 窦森; 刘世杰

    2011-01-01

    Bioraass-derived charcoal, also named biochar, has the characteristics of high stability against decay and high capability of adsorption, so it can influence the environment through interaction with climate and geology. There is significant difference in structural characteristics of biochar which is obtained from wood and agricultural residues by means of different procedures. As one possible source of the components with high aromatic structure in soil humus, biochar is of great importance in improving soil fertility, and in maintaining the balance of soil ecosystem. The aim of the research is to investigate the structural characteristics of biochar and the effects of it when applied to soil on available nutrients and humus composition. The results showed that there was great difference between chemical structures of biochar which was produced by different biomass. Aliphatic property of maize straw-derived biochar was stronger than that of pine-derived biochar and commercial black carbon; Aromaticity and thermal stability was on the contrary; Properties of pine-derived biochar was just intermediate. Biochar could influence the soil properties, after being added to soil and incubated for 45 days, and the content of soil organic matter, humic acid and fulvic acid were more or less increased to different levels. However, humification degree decreased with the increase of incubated time. The application of biochar could also increase the content of available nutrients, especially the content of phosphorus, alcium and magnesium. The decreased △lgK of humic acid had a positive impact on the long-term preservation of soil organic carbon.%生物质炭是具有高度热稳定性和较强吸附特性的含碳物质,不同来源生物质炭的结构性质可能存在着很大的差异.为此对2种自制的不同来源生物质炭和1种商业黑炭进行了结构表征,并研究了添加生物质炭对土壤有效养分和腐殖质组成的影响.结果表明,不同来

  12. WERF Nutrient Challenge investigates limits of nutrient removal technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neethling, J B; Clark, D; Pramanik, A; Stensel, H D; Sandino, J; Tsuchihashi, R

    2010-01-01

    The WERF Nutrient Challenge is a multi-year collaborative research initiative established in 2007 to develop and provide current information about wastewater treatment nutrients (specifically nitrogen and phosphorus in wastewater), their characteristics, and bioavailability in aquatic environments to help regulators make informed decisions. The Nutrient Challenge will also provide data on nutrient removal so that treatment facilities can select sustainable, cost-effective methods and technologies to meet permit limits. To meet these goals, the Nutrient Challenge has teamed with a wide array of utilities, agencies, consultants, universities and other researchers and practitioners to collaborate on projects that advance these goals. The Nutrient Challenge is focusing on a different approach to collaborating and leveraging resources (financial and intellectual) on research projects by targeting existing projects and research that correspond with its goals and funding those aspects that the Nutrient Challenge identified as a priority. Because the Nutrient Challenge is focused on collaboration, outreach is an absolutely necessary component of its effectiveness. Through workshops, webinars, a web portal and online compendium, published papers, and conference lectures, the Nutrient Challenge is both presenting important new information, and soliciting new partnerships.

  13. Nutrient allocation among stem, leaf and inflorescence of jatropha plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosiane L. S. de Lima

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTInformation on the partitioning of nutrients among various organs in jatropha plants, as a complementary tool for the recommendation of fertilization, is still not available. This study aimed to evaluate the contents of macro and micronutrients in stems, leaves and inflorescences of jatropha branches at the beginning of flowering. At the beginning of flowering, adult jatropha plants were sampled and divided into five compartments: inflorescences, leaves from vegetative branches, leaves from flowering branches, stems from vegetative branches and stems from flowering branches. Jatropha inflorescences are a drain of nutrients. Leaves are important sources of nutrients demanded by the inflorescences at the beginning of flowering. The higher allocation of nutrients in the inflorescences suggests the need for preventive/corrective fertilizations, which must be performed at least 30 days before flowering, providing plants with nutrients in adequate amounts for a good yield.

  14. Nutrient balances in the forest energy cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsson, Bengt

    2006-02-01

    or wood in fuel mixture). Losses of P at harvesting, fuel storage or transportation, and contamination (soil) or additions of lime are possible causes. To a less extent, also K losses seem to occur in the process. On average, the recommended highest dose of ash to forest (3000 kg d.w./ha) over-compensate for alkalinity but under-compensate for K and P. There is thus a risk that standard values of ash doses will not result in the target compensation, in particular if the aim is to compensate for specific elements. The nutrient compensation needs can be defined to two levels (compensate for slash, or for slash and stem harvesting, respectively), and to four aims: (1) improve forest tree nutrient status and growth, (2) increase base saturation of forest soils and increase soil nutrient pools, (3) increase alkalinity in run-off water to counteract acidification of surface waters, and (4) as a complement to nitrogen fertilisation. Increasing the alkalinity of soils and soil water is the aim that can be most easily reached by ash application, due to the relatively high Ca and Mg contents in ashes. Compensation of ash for K losses is complicated by the high mobility of K ion in ecosystems and because its high solubility even in stabilised ashes. K in logging residues and ashes tend to be leached out and lost. Management for maintaining high availability of K in forest ecosystems should include several aspects, in particular the de sign of clear-fellings, timing of ash recycling and handling of slash and ashes. Compensation for P by application of stabilised wood-ashes is normally in efficient in the short time perspective, due to low P content in ashes and the bonding of P into poorly soluble apatite. However, in the long run P in ashes may improve forest P nutrition. New research is needed to estimate P-fluxes associated with harvesting, storage and transport of forest biomass in realistic situations, and to evaluate if P availability will be deteriorated in the long run

  15. Fructose-asparagine is a primary nutrient during growth of Salmonella in the inflamed intestine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed M Ali

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (Salmonella is one of the most significant food-borne pathogens affecting both humans and agriculture. We have determined that Salmonella encodes an uptake and utilization pathway specific for a novel nutrient, fructose-asparagine (F-Asn, which is essential for Salmonella fitness in the inflamed intestine (modeled using germ-free, streptomycin-treated, ex-germ-free with human microbiota, and IL10-/- mice. The locus encoding F-Asn utilization, fra, provides an advantage only if Salmonella can initiate inflammation and use tetrathionate as a terminal electron acceptor for anaerobic respiration (the fra phenotype is lost in Salmonella SPI1- SPI2- or ttrA mutants, respectively. The severe fitness defect of a Salmonella fra mutant suggests that F-Asn is the primary nutrient utilized by Salmonella in the inflamed intestine and that this system provides a valuable target for novel therapies.

  16. Technical training - places available

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    If you would like more information on a course, or for any other inquiry/suggestions, please contact Technical.Training@cern.ch Valeria Perez Reale, Learning Specialist, Technical Programme Coordinator (Tel.: 62424) Eva Stern and Elise Romero, Technical Training Administration (Tel.: 74924) HR Department »Electronics design Next Session Duration Language Availability Comprehensive VHDL for FPGA Design 08-Oct-12 to 12-Oct-12 5 days English 3 places available Foundations of Electromagnetism and Magnet Design (EMAG) 14-Nov-12 to 27-Nov-12 6 days English 20 places available Impacts de la suppression du plomb (RoHS) en électronique 26-Oct-12 to 26-Oct-12 8 hours French 15 places available Introduction to VHDL 10-Oct-12 to 11-Oct-12 2 days English 7 places available LabVIEW Real Time and FPGA 13-Nov-12 to 16-Nov-12 5 days French 5 places available »Mechanical design Next Se...

  17. Nutrient uptake dynamics across a gradient of nutrient concentrations and ratios at the landscape scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Catherine A.; O'Reilly, Catherine M.; Conine, Andrea L.; Lipshutz, Sondra M.

    2015-02-01

    Understanding interactions between nutrient cycles is essential for recognizing and remediating human impacts on water quality, yet multielemental approaches to studying nutrient cycling in streams are currently rare. Here we utilized a relatively new approach (tracer additions for spiraling curve characterization) to examine uptake dynamics for three essential nutrients across a landscape that varied in absolute and relative nutrient availability. We measured nutrient uptake for soluble reactive phosphorous, ammonium-nitrogen, and nitrate-nitrogen in 16 headwater streams in the Catskill Mountains, New York. Across the landscape, ammonium-nitrogen and soluble reactive phosphorus had shorter uptake lengths and higher uptake velocities than nitrate-nitrogen. Ammonium-nitrogen and soluble reactive phosphorus uptake velocities were tightly correlated, and the slope of the relationship did not differ from one, suggesting strong demand for both nutrients despite the high ambient water column dissolved inorganic nitrogen: soluble reactive phosphorus ratios. Ammonium-nitrogen appeared to be the preferred form of nitrogen despite much higher nitrate-nitrogen concentrations. The uptake rate of nitrate-nitrogen was positively correlated with ambient soluble reactive phosphorus concentration and soluble reactive phosphorus areal uptake rate, suggesting that higher soluble reactive phosphorus concentrations alleviate phosphorus limitation and facilitate nitrate-nitrogen uptake. In addition, these streams retained a large proportion of soluble reactive phosphorus, ammonium-nitrogen, and nitrate-nitrogen supplied by the watershed, demonstrating that these streams are important landscape filters for nutrients. Together, these results (1) indicated phosphorus limitation across the landscape but similarly high demand for ammonium-nitrogen and (2) suggested that nitrate-nitrogen uptake was influenced by variability in soluble reactive phosphorus availability and preference for

  18. Studies on the chemical compositions and anti nutrients of some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-11-05

    Nov 5, 2008 ... fruit parts with low level of anti nutrient, high elemental composition, protein, lipid, carbohydrates and ascorbic acid could ... stored in airtight plastic containers inside the refrigerator. B. glabra .... vitamin and mineral availability.

  19. Lateral diffusion of nutrients by mammalian herbivores in terrestrial ecosystems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Wolf

    Full Text Available Animals translocate nutrients by consuming nutrients at one point and excreting them or dying at another location. Such lateral fluxes may be an important mechanism of nutrient supply in many ecosystems, but lack quantification and a systematic theoretical framework for their evaluation. This paper presents a mathematical framework for quantifying such fluxes in the context of mammalian herbivores. We develop an expression for lateral diffusion of a nutrient, where the diffusivity is a biologically determined parameter depending on the characteristics of mammals occupying the domain, including size-dependent phenomena such as day range, metabolic demand, food passage time, and population size. Three findings stand out: (a Scaling law-derived estimates of diffusion parameters are comparable to estimates calculated from estimates of each coefficient gathered from primary literature. (b The diffusion term due to transport of nutrients in dung is orders of magnitude large than the coefficient representing nutrients in bodymass. (c The scaling coefficients show that large herbivores make a disproportionate contribution to lateral nutrient transfer. We apply the diffusion equation to a case study of Kruger National Park to estimate the conditions under which mammal-driven nutrient transport is comparable in magnitude to other (abiotic nutrient fluxes (inputs and losses. Finally, a global analysis of mammalian herbivore transport is presented, using a comprehensive database of contemporary animal distributions. We show that continents vary greatly in terms of the importance of animal-driven nutrient fluxes, and also that perturbations to nutrient cycles are potentially quite large if threatened large herbivores are driven to extinction.

  20. Mass-Balance Constraints on Nutrient Cycling in Tropical Seagrass Beds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erftemeijer, P.L.A.; Middelburg, J.J.

    1995-01-01

    A relatively simple mass balance model is presented to study the cycling of nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) in tropical seagrass beds. The model is based on quantitative data on nutrient availability, seagrass primary production, community oxygen metabolism, seagrass tissue nutrient contents,

  1. Technical training - Places available

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    If you would like more information on a course, or for any other inquiry/suggestions, please contact Technical.Training@cern.ch Valeria Perez Reale, Learning Specialist, Technical Programme Coordinator (Tel.: 62424) Eva Stern and Elise Romero, Technical Training Administration (Tel.: 74924)   Electronics design Next Session Duration Language Availability Certified LabVIEW Associate Developer (CLAD) 06-Dec-12 to 06-Dec-12 1 hour English One more place available Compatibilité électromagnetique (CEM): Applications 23-Nov-12 to 23-Nov-12 3.5 hours English 3 places available Compatibilité électromagnétique (CEM): Introduction 23-Nov-12 to 23-Nov-12 3 hours English 43 places available Effets des Radiations sur les composants et systèmes électroniques 11-Dec-12 to 12-Dec-12 1 day 4 hours French 9 places available LabVIEW for beginners ...

  2. Nutrient management in substrate systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonneveld, C.; Voogt, W.

    2009-01-01

    Speaking about nutrient solutions in soilless cultivation, different solutions can be discerned. Originally, in soilless culture only one nutrient solution was taken into account, being the solution in the containers in which the plants were grown. Such solutions were intensively moved by air

  3. Patterns of nutrient utilization. Implications for nitrogen metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oldham, J.D.

    1983-01-01

    Nutrients react within both the rumen and the ruminant body, and the patterns of availability of different nutrients greatly influence their net utilization. In the rumen, microbial capture of N substrates, especially ammonia, depends on the degree of synchronization between rates of production of N substrates and of ATP to drive microbial protein synthesis. The form of dietary carbohydrate and of dietary N and the frequency of feeding can all affect the efficiency of microbial growth and digestion. The pattern of supply of nutrients to the body will also influence nutrient utilization. Disparities between diurnal patterns of supply of volatile fatty acids from the rumen and amino acids from the intestines will result in changes in balance of metabolic pathways. The balance between supply of glucogenic and lipogenic nutrients will influence efficiency of fattening. A major factor determining the pattern of utilization/metabolism of amino acids is the metabolic demand for protein synthesis, which varies with physiological state. (author)

  4. Nutrient Film Technique (NFT Hydroponic Monitoring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmy Helmy

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Plant cultivation using hydroponic is very popular today. Nutrient Film Technique (NFT hydroponic system is commonly used by people. It can be applied indoor or outdoor. Plants in this systemneed nutrient solution to grow well. pH, TDS and temperature of the nutrient solution must be check to ensure plant gets sufficient nutrients. This research aims todevelop monitoring system of NFT hydroponic. Farmer will be able to monitor pH, TDS and temperature online. It will ease farmer to decide which plant is suitable to be cultivated and time to boost growth.Delay of the system will be measured to know system performance. Result shows that pH is directly proportional with TDS. Temperature value has no correlation with pH and TDS. System has highest delay during daylight and afternoon but it will decline in the night and morning. Average of delay in the morning is 11 s, 28.5 s in daylight, 32 s in the afternoon and 17.5 s in the night.

  5. NUTRIENT BALANCE IN WATER HARVESTING SOILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Díaz, F

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Dryland farming on Fuerteventura and Lanzarote (Canary Islands, Spain, which has an annual rainfall of less than 150 mm/year, has been based traditionally on water harvesting techniques (known locally as “gavias”. Periods of high productivity alternate with those of very low yield. The systems are sustainable in that they reduce erosive processes, contribute to soil and soil-water conservation and are largely responsible for maintaining the soil’s farming potential. In this paper we present the chemical fertility status and nutrient balance of soils in five “gavia” systems. The results are compared with those obtained in adjacent soils where this water harvesting technique is not used. The main crops are wheat, barley, maize, lentils and chick-peas. Since neither organic nor inorganic fertilisers are used, nutrients are derived mainly from sediments carried by runoff water. Nutrients are lost mainly through crop harvesting and harvest residues. The soils where water harvesting is used have lower salt and sodium in the exchange complex, are higher in carbon, nitrogen, copper and zinc and have similar phosphorous and potassium content. It is concluded that the systems improve the soil’s natural fertility and also that natural renovation of nutrients occurs thanks to the surface deposits of sediments, which mix with the arable layer. The system helps ensure adequate fertility levels, habitual in arid regions, thus allowing dryland farming to be carried out.

  6. Yield Gap, Indigenous Nutrient Supply and Nutrient Use Efficiency for Maize in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinpeng Xu

    Full Text Available Great achievements have been attained in agricultural production of China, while there are still many difficulties and challenges ahead that call for put more efforts to overcome to guarantee food security and protect environment simultaneously. Analyzing yield gap and nutrient use efficiency will help develop and inform agricultural policies and strategies to increase grain yield. On-farm datasets from 2001 to 2012 with 1,971 field experiments for maize (Zea mays L. were collected in four maize agro-ecological regions of China, and the optimal management (OPT, farmers' practice (FP, a series of nutrient omission treatments were used to analyze yield gap, nutrient use efficiency and indigenous nutrient supply by adopting meta-analysis and ANOVA analysis. Across all sites, the average yield gap between OPT and FP was 0.7 t ha-1, the yield response to nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P, and potassium (K were 1.8, 1.0, and 1.2 t ha-1, respectively. The soil indigenous nutrient supply of N, P, and K averaged 139.9, 33.7, and 127.5 kg ha-1, respectively. As compared to FP, the average recovery efficiency (RE of N, P, and K with OPT increased by percentage point of 12.2, 5.5, and 6.5, respectively. This study indicated that there would be considerable potential to further improve yield and nutrient use efficiency in China, and will help develop and inform agricultural policies and strategies, while some management measures such as soil, plant and nutrient are necessary and integrate with advanced knowledge and technologies.

  7. Absorção de nutrientes pelo trigo Absorption of nutrients by wheat plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermano Gargantini

    1973-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a absorção dos nutrientes essenciais das variedades de trigo (Triticum aestivum L. BH 1146 e IAS 3795, cultivadas em vasos de Mitscherlich em casa de vegetação, empregaudo-se Latossolo Vermelho-Escuro fase arenosa, proveniente do município de Capão Bonito. Durante todo o ciclo vegetativo da cultura, a cada 10 dias, colheram-se plantas, para serem analisados os elementos N, P, K, Ca, Mg e S. Verificou-se sensível diferença na entração dos nutrientes, entre ambas as variedades. Assim, enquanto na BH o nitrogênio e, a seguir, o potássio foram os nutrientes absorvidos em maiores quantidades, seguindo-se, em quantidades menores, o fósforo, o cálcio, o ennofre e o magnésio, na variedade IAS o potássio foi absorvido em muito maior quantidade que o nitrogênio, e depois dele, na ordem, o cálcio, o fósforo, o ennofre e o magnésio.In this paper the nutrient absorption by wheat plants is presented. Two varieties of wheat, BH 1146 and IAS 3795, were grown in Mitscherlich pots under greenhouse conditions and supplied with all nutrients, including micronutrients. Plant samples, obtained at 10-day intervals, were analysed for N, P, K, Ca, Mg and S. The amounts of nutrients absorbed were diferent between the two varieties. Furthermore, the BH variety absorbed more nitrogen than other nutrients, while for the IAS variety potassium was the element absorbed in larger amounts. Absorption of P, S, Ca, Mg was small for both varieties.

  8. A comparison of nutrient dynamics in forest ecosystems along with the Warmth Index Gradient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwatsubo, Goro; Li Changhua; Katagiri, Shigeo.

    1993-01-01

    Nutrient elements contained in litter fall flux, that of uptake flux and turnover rate had generally tended to increase with the increase in the Warmth Index, while the amount of nutrient in the A 0 horizon and nutrient use efficiency did not. However, it is suggested that topographic and climatic aridity, and the amount of available and exchangeable phosphorus, calcium and magnesium greatly affect the nutrient dynamics in a each forest ecosystem as the Warmth Index increases. (J.P.N.)

  9. Nutrient cycling in a RRIM 600 clone rubber plantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murbach Marcos Roberto

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Few reports have been presented on nutrient cycling in rubber tree plantations (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg.. This experiment was carried out to evaluate: the effect of K rates on the amount of nutrients transfered to the soil in a 13-year old Hevea brasilensis RRIM 600 clone plantation, nutrient retranslocation from the leaves before falling to the soil, and nutrient loss by dry rubber export. The experiment started in 1998 and potassium was applied at the rates of 0, 40, 80 and 160 kg ha-1 of K2O under the crowns of 40 rubber trees of each plot. Literfall collectors, five per plot, were randomly distributed within the plots under the trees. The accumulated literfall was collected monthly during one year. The coagulated rubber latex from each plot was weighed, and samples were analyzed for nutrient content. Increasing K fertilization rates also increased the K content in leaf literfall. Calcium and N were the most recycled leaf nutrients to the soil via litterfall. Potassium, followed by P were the nutrients with the highest retranslocation rates. Potassium was the most exported nutrient by the harvested rubber, and this amount was higher than that transfered to the soil by the leaf literfall.

  10. Seasonality of nutrients in leaves and fruits of apple trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nachtigall Gilmar Ribeiro

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The nutrient accumulation curves of apple trees are good indicators of plant nutrient demand for each developmental stage. They are also a useful tool to evaluate orchard nutritional status and to estimate the amount of soil nutrient removal. This research aimed at evaluating the seasonality of nutrients in commercial apple orchards during the agricultural years of 1999, 2000, and 2001. Therefore, apple tree leaves and fruits of three cultivars 'Gala', 'Golden Delicious' and 'Fuji' were weekly collected and evaluated for fresh and dry matter, fruit diameter and macronutrient (N, P, K, Ca and Mg and micronutrient (B, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn concentrations. Leaf and fruit sampling started one or two weeks after full bloom, depending on the cultivar, and ended at fruit harvest or four weeks later (in the case of leaf sampling. In general, leaf concentrations of N, P, K, Cu, and B decreased; Ca increased; and Mg, Fe, Mn, and Zn did vary significantly along the plant vegetative cycle. In fruits, the initial nutrient concentrations decreased quickly, undergoing slow and continuous decreases and then remaining almost constant until the end of fruit maturation, indicating nutrient dilution, once the total nutrient accumulation increased gradually with fruit growth. Potassium was the nutrient present in highest quantities in apple tree fruits and thus, the most removed from the soil.

  11. Mariculture: significant and expanding cause of coastal nutrient enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouwman, Lex; Beusen, Arthur; Glibert, Patricia M; Overbeek, Ciska; Pawlowski, Marcin; Herrera, Jorge; Mulsow, Sandor; Yu, Rencheng; Zhou, Mingjiang

    2013-01-01

    Mariculture (marine aquaculture) generates nutrient waste either through the excretion by the reared organisms, or through direct enrichment by, or remineralization of, externally applied feed inputs. Importantly, the waste from fish or shellfish cannot easily be managed, as most is in dissolved form and released directly to the aquatic environment. The release of dissolved and particulate nutrients by intensive mariculture results in increasing nutrient loads (finfish and crustaceans), and changes in nutrient stoichiometry (all mariculture types). Based on different scenarios, we project that nutrients from mariculture will increase up to six fold by 2050 with exceedance of the nutrient assimilative capacity in parts of the world where mariculture growth is already rapid. Increasing nutrient loads and altered nutrient forms (increased availability of reduced relative to oxidized forms of nitrogen) and/or stoichiometric proportions (altered nitrogen:phosphorus ratios) may promote an increase in harmful algal blooms (HABs) either directly or via stimulation of algae on which mixotrophic HABs may feed. HABs can kill or intoxicate the mariculture product with severe economic losses, and can increase risks to human health. (letter)

  12. Nutrient composition of important fish species in Bangladesh and potential contribution to recommended nutrient intakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogard, Jessica R.; Thilsted, Shakuntala H.; Marks, Geoffrey C.

    2015-01-01

    Fish, in Bangladesh where malnutrition remains a significant development challenge, is an irreplaceable animal-source food in the diet of millions. However, existing data on the nutrient composition of fish do not reflect the large diversity available and have focused on only a few select nutrien...... indigenous species, which should guide policy and programmes to improve food and nutrition security in Bangladesh....

  13. Approaches and uncertainties in nutrient budgets; Implications for nutrient management and environmental policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oenema, O.; Kros, J.; Vries, de W.

    2003-01-01

    Nutrient budgets of agroecosystems are constructed either (i) to increase the understanding of nutrient cycling, (ii) as performance indicator and awareness raiser in nutrient management and environmental policy, or (iii) as regulating policy instrument to enforce a certain nutrient management

  14. Biological Nutrient Removal in Compact Biofilm Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Bassin, J.P.

    2012-01-01

    The removal of nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus from both domestic and industrial wastewaters is imperative since they potentially harm the environment. One of the main consequences of excessive availability of nitrogen and phosphorus in aquatic ecosystems (freshwater, marine and estuarine) is the overgrowth of algae and other aquatic plants, a phenomenon designated as eutrophication. Algae and aquatic plants induce depletion of oxygen in water basins, resulting in massive death of e...

  15. Technical Training: Places available

    CERN Multimedia

    Monique Duval

    2004-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an 'application for training' form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. The number of places available may vary. Please check our Web site to find out the current availability. Places are available in the following courses: The Joint PVSS JCOP Framework: 14 - 18.6.2004 (5 days) EXCEL 2003 - niveau 2 : 17 & 18.6.2004 (2 jours) MAGNE-04 : Magnétisme pour l'électrotechnique : 6 au 8.7.2004 (3 jours) Technical Training Monique Duval - Tel.74924 technical.training@cern.ch

  16. Leaf mineral nutrient remobilization during leaf senescence and modulation by nutrient deficiency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne eMaillard

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Higher plants have to cope with fluctuating mineral resource availability. However strategies such as stimulation of root growth, increased transporter activities, and nutrient storage and remobilization have been mostly studied for only a few macronutrients. Leaves of cultivated crops (Zea mays, Brassica napus, Pisum sativum, Triticum aestivum, Hordeum vulgare and tree species (Quercus robur, Populus nigra, Alnus glutinosa grown under field conditions were harvested regularly during their life span and analysed to evaluate the net mobilization of 13 nutrients during leaf senescence. While N was remobilized in all plant species with different efficiencies ranging from 40% (maize to 90% (wheat, other macronutrients (K-P-S-Mg were mobilized in most species. Ca and Mn, usually considered as having low phloem mobility were remobilized from leaves in wheat and barley. Leaf content of Cu-Mo-Ni-B-Fe-Zn decreased in some species, as a result of remobilization. Overall, wheat, barley and oak appeared to be the most efficient at remobilization while poplar and maize were the least efficient. Further experiments were performed with rapeseed plants subjected to individual nutrient deficiencies. Compared to field conditions, remobilization from leaves was similar (N-S-Cu or increased by nutrient deficiency (K-P-Mg while nutrient deficiency had no effect on Mo-Zn-B-Ca-Mn, which seemed to be non-mobile during leaf senescence under field conditions. However, Ca and Mn were largely mobilized from roots (-97 and -86% of their initial root contents, respectively to shoots. Differences in remobilization between species and between nutrients are then discussed in relation to a range of putative mechanisms.

  17. The combination of energy-dependent internal adaptation mechanisms and external factors enables Listeria monocytogenes to express a strong starvation survival response during multiple-nutrient starvation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lungu, Bwalya; Saldivar, Joshua C; Story, Robert; Ricke, Steven C; Johnson, Michael G

    2010-05-01

    The goal of this study was to characterize the starvation survival response (SSR) of a wild-type Listeria monocytogenes 10403S and an isogenic DeltasigB mutant strain during multiple-nutrient starvation conditions over 28 days. This study examined the effects of inhibitors of protein synthesis, the proton motive force, substrate level phosphorylation, and oxidative phosphorylation on the SSR of L. monocytogenes 10403S and a DeltasigB mutant during multiple-nutrient starvation. The effects of starvation buffer changes on viability were also examined. During multiple-nutrient starvation, both strains expressed a strong SSR, suggesting that L. monocytogenes possesses SigB-independent mechanism(s) for survival during multiple-nutrient starvation. Neither strain was able to express an SSR following starvation buffer changes, indicating that the nutrients/factors present in the starvation buffer could be a source of energy for cell maintenance and survival. Neither the wild-type nor the DeltasigB mutant strain was able to elicit an SSR when exposed to the protein synthesis inhibitor chloramphenicol within the first 4 h of starvation. However, both strains expressed an SSR when exposed to chloramphenicol after 6 h or more of starvation, suggesting that the majority of proteins required to elicit an effective SSR in L. monocytogenes are likely produced somewhere between 4 and 6 h of starvation. The varying SSRs of both strains to the different metabolic inhibitors under aerobic or anaerobic conditions suggested that (1) energy derived from the proton motive force is important for an effective SSR, (2) L. monocytogenes utilizes an anaerobic electron transport during multiple-nutrient starvation conditions, and (3) the glycolytic pathway is an important energy source during multiple-nutrient starvation when oxygen is available, and less important under anaerobic conditions. Collectively, the data suggest that the combination of energy-dependent internal adaptation mechanisms

  18. Interactions between temperature and nutrients across levels of ecological organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Wyatt F; Hood, James M; Benstead, Jonathan P; Huryn, Alexander D; Nelson, Daniel

    2015-03-01

    Temperature and nutrient availability play key roles in controlling the pathways and rates at which energy and materials move through ecosystems. These factors have also changed dramatically on Earth over the past century as human activities have intensified. Although significant effort has been devoted to understanding the role of temperature and nutrients in isolation, less is known about how these two factors interact to influence ecological processes. Recent advances in ecological stoichiometry and metabolic ecology provide a useful framework for making progress in this area, but conceptual synthesis and review are needed to help catalyze additional research. Here, we examine known and potential interactions between temperature and nutrients from a variety of physiological, community, and ecosystem perspectives. We first review patterns at the level of the individual, focusing on four traits--growth, respiration, body size, and elemental content--that should theoretically govern how temperature and nutrients interact to influence higher levels of biological organization. We next explore the interactive effects of temperature and nutrients on populations, communities, and food webs by synthesizing information related to community size spectra, biomass distributions, and elemental composition. We use metabolic theory to make predictions about how population-level secondary production should respond to interactions between temperature and resource supply, setting up qualitative predictions about the flows of energy and materials through metazoan food webs. Last, we examine how temperature-nutrient interactions influence processes at the whole-ecosystem level, focusing on apparent vs. intrinsic activation energies of ecosystem processes, how to represent temperature-nutrient interactions in ecosystem models, and patterns with respect to nutrient uptake and organic matter decomposition. We conclude that a better understanding of interactions between temperature and

  19. Plasma nutrient status of patients with Alzheimer's disease: Systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes da Silva, Sofia; Vellas, Bruno; Elemans, Saskia; Luchsinger, José; Kamphuis, Patrick; Yaffe, Kristine; Sijben, John; Groenendijk, Martine; Stijnen, Theo

    2014-07-01

    Alzheimer disease (AD) patients are at risk of nutritional insufficiencies because of physiological and psychological factors. Nutritional compounds are postulated to play a role in the pathophysiological processes that are affected in AD. We here provide the first systematic review and meta-analysis that compares plasma levels of micronutrients and fatty acids in AD patients to those in cognitively intact elderly controls. A secondary objective was to explore the presence of different plasma nutrient levels between AD and control populations that did not differ in measures of protein/energy nourishment. We screened literature published after 1990 in the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Medline, and Embase electronic databases using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines for AD patients, controls, micronutrient, vitamins, and fatty acids, resulting in 3397 publications, of which 80 met all inclusion criteria. Status of protein/energy malnutrition was assessed by body mass index, mini nutritional assessment score, or plasma albumin. Meta-analysis, with correction for differences in mean age between AD patients and controls, was performed when more than five publications were retrieved for a specific nutrient. We identified five or more studies for folate, vitamin A, vitamin B12, vitamin C, vitamin D, vitamin E, copper, iron, and zinc but fewer than five studies for vitamins B1 and B6, long-chain omega-3 fatty acids, calcium, magnesium, manganese, and selenium (the results of the individual publications are discussed). Meta-analysis showed significantly lower plasma levels of folate and vitamin A, vitamin B12, vitamin C, and vitamin E (P vitamin D (P = .075) were found in AD patients. No significant differences were observed for plasma levels of copper and iron. A meta-analysis that was limited to studies reporting no differences in protein/energy malnourishment between AD and control populations yielded

  20. Gustatory and metabolic perception of nutrient stress in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linford, Nancy J; Ro, Jennifer; Chung, Brian Y; Pletcher, Scott D

    2015-02-24

    Sleep loss is an adaptive response to nutrient deprivation that alters behavior to maximize the chances of feeding before imminent death. Organisms must maintain systems for detecting the quality of the food source to resume healthy levels of sleep when the stress is alleviated. We determined that gustatory perception of sweetness is both necessary and sufficient to suppress starvation-induced sleep loss when animals encounter nutrient-poor food sources. We further find that blocking specific dopaminergic neurons phenocopies the absence of gustatory stimulation, suggesting a specific role for these neurons in transducing taste information to sleep centers in the brain. Finally, we show that gustatory perception is required for survival, specifically in a low nutrient environment. Overall, these results demonstrate an important role for gustatory perception when environmental food availability approaches zero and illustrate the interplay between sensory and metabolic perception of nutrient availability in regulating behavioral state.

  1. Nutrient imbalance in Norway spruce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thelin, Gunnar

    2000-11-01

    The studies presented in my thesis indicate that growing Norway spruce in monoculture does not constitute sustainable forest management in a high N and S deposition environment, such as in southern Sweden. The combination of N-induced high growth rates and leaching due to soil acidification causes soil reserves of nutrients to decrease. This will increase the risk of nutrient imbalance within the trees when nutrient demands are not met. The development of nutrient imbalance in Scania, southern Sweden, was shown as negative trends in needle and soil nutrient status from the mid-80s to the present in Norway spruce and Scots pine stands. This imbalance appears to be connected to high levels of N and S deposition. Clear negative effects on tree vitality were found when using a new branch development method. Today, growth and vitality seems to be limited by K, rather than N, in spruce stands older than 40 years. However, younger stands appear to be able to absorb the deposited N without negative effects on growth and vitality. When investigating effects of nutrient stress on tree vitality, indicators such as branch length and shoot multiplication rate, which include effects accumulated over several years, are suitable. Countermeasures are needed in order to maintain the forest production at a high level. Positive effects on tree nutrient status after vitality fertilization (N-free fertilization) was shown in two micronutrient deficient stands in south-central Sweden. In addition, tree vitality was positively affected after the application of a site-adapted fertilizer to the canopy. Site-adaption of fertilizers will most likely improve the possibilities of a positive response on tree growth and vitality in declining stands. In a survey of Norway spruce in mixtures with beech, birch, or oak compared to monocultures it was shown that spruce nutrient status was higher in mixtures with deciduous species than in monocultures. By using mixed-species stands the need for

  2. Nutrient imbalance in Norway spruce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thelin, Gunnar

    2000-11-01

    The studies presented in my thesis indicate that growing Norway spruce in monoculture does not constitute sustainable forest management in a high N and S deposition environment, such as in southern Sweden. The combination of N-induced high growth rates and leaching due to soil acidification causes soil reserves of nutrients to decrease. This will increase the risk of nutrient imbalance within the trees when nutrient demands are not met. The development of nutrient imbalance in Scania, southern Sweden, was shown as negative trends in needle and soil nutrient status from the mid-80s to the present in Norway spruce and Scots pine stands. This imbalance appears to be connected to high levels of N and S deposition. Clear negative effects on tree vitality were found when using a new branch development method. Today, growth and vitality seems to be limited by K, rather than N, in spruce stands older than 40 years. However, younger stands appear to be able to absorb the deposited N without negative effects on growth and vitality. When investigating effects of nutrient stress on tree vitality, indicators such as branch length and shoot multiplication rate, which include effects accumulated over several years, are suitable. Countermeasures are needed in order to maintain the forest production at a high level. Positive effects on tree nutrient status after vitality fertilization (N-free fertilization) was shown in two micronutrient deficient stands in south-central Sweden. In addition, tree vitality was positively affected after the application of a site-adapted fertilizer to the canopy. Site-adaption of fertilizers will most likely improve the possibilities of a positive response on tree growth and vitality in declining stands. In a survey of Norway spruce in mixtures with beech, birch, or oak compared to monocultures it was shown that spruce nutrient status was higher in mixtures with deciduous species than in monocultures. By using mixed-species stands the need for

  3. Competition under high and low nutrient levels among three grassland species occupying different positions in a successional sequence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schippers, P.; Snoeijing, I.; Kropff, M.J.

    1999-01-01

    To clarify the role of seasonal change, competitive response and nutrient availability in the competitive asymmetry of grassland species a competition experiment was conducted on Holcus lanatus, Anthoxanthum odoratum and Festuca ovina, which represent a successional sequence of decreasing nutrient

  4. Nutrient Administration and Resistance Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leutholtz Brian

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Skeletal muscle tissue is tightly regulated throughout our bodies by balancing its synthesis and breakdown. Many factors are known to exist that cause profound changes on the overall status of skeletal muscle, some of which include exercise, nutrition, hormonal influences and disease. Muscle hypertrophy results when protein synthesis is greater than protein breakdown. Resistance training is a popular form of exercise that has been shown to increase muscular strength and muscular hypertrophy. In general, resistance training causes a stimulation of protein synthesis as well as an increase in protein breakdown, resulting in a negative balance of protein. Providing nutrients, specifically amino acids, helps to stimulate protein synthesis and improve the overall net balance of protein. Strategies to increase the concentration and availability of amino acids after resistance exercise are of great interest and have been shown to effectively increase overall protein synthesis. 123 After exercise, providing carbohydrate has been shown to mildly stimulate protein synthesis while addition of free amino acids prior to and after exercise, specifically essential amino acids, causes a rapid pronounced increase in protein synthesis as well as protein balance.13 Evidence exists for a dose-response relationship of infused amino acids while no specific regimen exists for optimal dosing upon ingestion. Ingestion of whole or intact protein sources (e.g., protein powders, meal-replacements has been shown to cause similar improvements in protein balance after resistance exercise when compared to free amino acid supplements. Future research should seek to determine optimal dosing of ingested intact amino acids in addition to identifying the cellular mechanistic machinery (e.g. transcriptional and translational mechanisms for causing the increase in protein synthesis.

  5. Long Term Large Scale river nutrient changes across the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Victoria; Naden, Pam; Tipping, Ed; Davies, Helen; Davies, Jessica; Dragosits, Ulli; Muhammed, Shibu; Quinton, John; Stuart, Marianne; Whitmore, Andy; Wu, Lianhai

    2017-04-01

    During recent decades and centuries, pools and fluxes of Carbon, Nitrogen and Phosphorus (C, N and P) in UK rivers and ecosystems have been transformed by the spread and fertiliser-based intensification of agriculture (necessary to sustain human populations), by atmospheric pollution, by human waste (rising in line with population growth), and now by climate change. The principal objective of the UK's NERC-funded Macronutrients LTLS research project has been to account for observable terrestrial and aquatic pools, concentrations and fluxes of C, N and P on the basis of past inputs, biotic and abiotic interactions, and transport processes. More specifically, over the last 200 years, what have been the temporal responses of plant and soil nutrient pools in different UK catchments to nutrient enrichment, and what have been the consequent effects on nutrient transfers from land to the atmosphere, freshwaters and estuaries? The work described here addresses the second question by providing an integrated quantitative description of the interlinked land and water pools and annual fluxes of C, N and P for UK catchments over time. A national-scale modelling environment has been developed, combining simple physically-based gridded models that can be parameterised using recent observations before application to long timescales. The LTLS Integrated Model (LTLS-IM) uses readily-available driving data (climate, land-use, nutrient inputs, topography), and model estimates of both terrestrial and freshwater nutrient loads have been compared with measurements from sites across the UK. Here, the focus is on the freshwater nutrient component of the LTLS-IM, but the terrestrial nutrient inputs required for this are provided by models of nutrient processes in semi-natural and agricultural systems, and from simple models of nutrients arising from human waste. In the freshwater model, lateral routing of dissolved and particulate nutrients and within-river processing such as

  6. Diagnosis of nutrient imbalances with vector analysis in agroforestry systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac, Marney E; Kimaro, Anthony A

    2011-01-01

    Agricultural intensification has had unintended environmental consequences, including increased nutrient leaching and surface runoff and other agrarian-derived pollutants. Improved diagnosis of on-farm nutrient dynamics will have the advantage of increasing yields and will diminish financial and environmental costs. To achieve this, a management support system that allows for site-specific rapid evaluation of nutrient production imbalances and subsequent management prescriptions is needed for agroecological design. Vector diagnosis, a bivariate model to depict changes in yield and nutritional response simultaneously in a single graph, facilitates identification of nutritional status such as growth dilution, deficiency, sufficiency, luxury uptake, and toxicity. Quantitative data from cocoa agroforestry systems and pigeonpea intercropping trials in Ghana and Tanzania, respectively, were re-evaluated with vector analysis. Relative to monoculture, biomass increase in cocoa ( L.) under shade (35-80%) was accompanied by a 17 to 25% decline in P concentration, the most limiting nutrient on this site. Similarly, increasing biomass with declining P concentrations was noted for pigeonpea [ (L). Millsp.] in response to soil moisture availability under intercropping. Although vector analysis depicted nutrient responses, the current vector model does not consider non-nutrient resource effects on growth, such as ameliorated light and soil moisture, which were particularly active in these systems. We revisit and develop vector analysis into a framework for diagnosing nutrient and non-nutrient interactions in agroforestry systems. Such a diagnostic technique advances management decision-making by increasing nutrient precision and reducing environmental issues associated with agrarian-derived soil contamination. American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America.

  7. Octopamine connects nutrient cues to lipid metabolism upon nutrient deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Jun; Ma, Yi-Cheng; Yang, Zhong-Shan; Zou, Cheng-Gang; Zhang, Ke-Qin

    2016-05-01

    Starvation is probably the most common stressful situation in nature. In vertebrates, elevation of the biogenic amine norepinephrine levels is common during starvation. However, the precise role of norepinephrine in nutrient deprivation remains largely unknown. We report that in the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, up-regulation of the biosynthesis of octopamine, the invertebrate counterpart of norepinephrine, serves as a mechanism to adapt to starvation. During nutrient deprivation, the nuclear receptor DAF-12, known to sense nutritional cues, up-regulates the expression of tbh-1 that encodes tyramine β-hydroxylase, a key enzyme for octopamine biosynthesis, in the RIC neurons. Octopamine induces the expression of the lipase gene lips-6 via its receptor SER-3 in the intestine. LIPS-6, in turn, elicits lipid mobilization. Our findings reveal that octopamine acts as an endocrine regulator linking nutrient cues to lipolysis to maintain energy homeostasis, and suggest that such a mechanism may be evolutionally conserved in diverse organisms.

  8. Essential nutrient requirements of the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skully R

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Robert Skully Department of Family Medicine, Grant Medical Center, OhioHealth, Columbus, OH, USA Abstract: Government-sponsored medical organizations in developed countries have established guidelines for daily nutritional requirements. For most nutrients there is general agreement surrounding these requirements, which are based on exhaustive scientific literature review. Differences in these recommendations exist because of genetic and environmental factors that result in differences in disease susceptibility, but also due to incomplete understanding of the roles of nutrients in disease prevention. This review briefly summarizes nutrient recommendations for older adults such as where those recommendations differ from those of younger adults; and includes areas of developing understanding such as the possible role of thiamine deficiency in patients with congestive heart failure, the need for some older adults to ingest absorbable forms of vitamin B12, the high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency, the potential role of vitamin K in bone health, the need for higher levels of protein intake in order to stimulate muscle protein synthesis as one ages, the role of calcium in osteoporosis, and the possible need for zinc supplementation in hospitalized patients. Keywords: vitamins, nutritional requirements, energy expenditure, energy consumption

  9. Nutrient acquisition strategies of mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm, Wilhelm; Thompson, Craig B

    2017-06-07

    Mammalian cells are surrounded by diverse nutrients, such as glucose, amino acids, various macromolecules and micronutrients, which they can import through transmembrane transporters and endolysosomal pathways. By using different nutrient sources, cells gain metabolic flexibility to survive periods of starvation. Quiescent cells take up sufficient nutrients to sustain homeostasis. However, proliferating cells depend on growth-factor-induced increases in nutrient uptake to support biomass formation. Here, we review cellular nutrient acquisition strategies and their regulation by growth factors and cell-intrinsic nutrient sensors. We also discuss how oncogenes and tumour suppressors promote nutrient uptake and thereby support the survival and growth of cancer cells.

  10. Review on Periphyton as Mediator of Nutrient Transfer in Aquatic Ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surjya K. Saikia

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In the studies of aquatic ecology, periphyton has been uncared for despite its vital role in nutrient uptake and transfer to the upper trophic organisms. Being the component of food chain as attached organism it takes part in nutrient cycling in the ecosystem like that of suspended planktonic counterparts. The present review, with an aim to understand the role of periphyton in nutrient transfer from benthic environment to upper trophic level, focuses many aspects of periphyton-nutrient relationship based on available literatures. It also attempts to redefine periphyton, as a part of biofilm, harboring nutrient components like protein, fat and carbohydrate preferably in its extracellular polymeric substance (EPS, cyanobacteria, diatom and other algal communities. In addition to physical processes, nutrient uptake by periphyton is catalyzed by enzymes like Nitrogen Reductase and Alkaline Phosphatase from the environment. This uptake and transfer is further regulated by periphytic C: nutrient (N or P stoichiometry, colonization time, distribution of periphyton cover on sediments and macrophytes, macronutrient concentration, grazing, sloughing, temperature, and advective transport. The Carbon (C sources of periphyton are mainly dissolve organic matter and photosynthetic C that enters into higher trophic levels through predation and transfers as C-rich nutrient components. Despite of emerging interests on utilizing periphyton as nutrient transfer tool in aquatic ecosystem, the major challenges ahead for modern aquatic biologists lies on determining nutrient uptake and transfer rate of periphyton, periphytic growth and simulating nutrient models of periphyton to figure a complete energy cycle in aquatic ecosystem.

  11. Context-dependent effects of nutrient loading on the coral-algal mutualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shantz, Andrew A; Burkepile, Deron E

    2014-07-01

    Human-mediated increases in nutrient availability alter patterns of primary production, impact species diversity, and threaten ecosystem function. Nutrients can also alter community structure by disrupting the relationships between nutrient-sharing mutualists that form the foundation of communities. Given their oligotrophic nature and the dependence of reef-building corals on symbiotic relationships, coral reefs may be particularly vulnerable to excess nutrients. However, individual studies suggest complex, even contradictory, relationships among nutrient availability, coral physiology, and coral growth. Here, we used meta-analysis to establish general patterns of the impact of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) on coral growth and photobiology. Overall, we found that over a wide range of concentrations, N reduced coral calcification 11%, on average, but enhanced metrics of coral photobiology, such as photosynthetic rate. In contrast, P enrichment increased average calcification rates by 9%, likely through direct impacts on the calcification process, but minimally impacted coral photobiology. There were few synergistic impacts of combined N and P on corals, as the nutrients impact corals via different pathways. Additionally, the response of corals to increasing nutrient availability was context dependent, varying with coral taxa and morphology, enrichment source, and nutrient identity. For example, naturally occurring enrichment from fish excretion increased coral growth, while human-mediated enrichment tended to decrease coral growth. Understanding the nuances of the relationship between nutrients and corals may allow for more targeted remediation strategies and suggest how other global change drivers such as overfishing and climate change will shape how nutrient availability impacts corals.

  12. Managing Soil Biota-Mediated Decomposition and Nutrient Mineralization in Sustainable Agroecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joann K. Whalen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Transformation of organic residues into plant-available nutrients occurs through decomposition and mineralization and is mediated by saprophytic microorganisms and fauna. Of particular interest is the recycling of the essential plant elements—N, P, and S—contained in organic residues. If organic residues can supply sufficient nutrients during crop growth, a reduction in fertilizer use is possible. The challenge is synchronizing nutrient release from organic residues with crop nutrient demands throughout the growing season. This paper presents a conceptual model describing the pattern of nutrient release from organic residues in relation to crop nutrient uptake. Next, it explores experimental approaches to measure the physical, chemical, and biological barriers to decomposition and nutrient mineralization. Methods are proposed to determine the rates of decomposition and nutrient release from organic residues. Practically, this information can be used by agricultural producers to determine if plant-available nutrient supply is sufficient to meet crop demands at key growth stages or whether additional fertilizer is needed. Finally, agronomic practices that control the rate of soil biota-mediated decomposition and mineralization, as well as those that facilitate uptake of plant-available nutrients, are identified. Increasing reliance on soil biological activity could benefit crop nutrition and health in sustainable agroecosystems.

  13. Herbivores and nutrients control grassland plant diversity via light limitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borer, Elizabeth T.; Seabloom, Eric W.; Gruner, Daniel S.; Harpole, W. Stanley; Hillebrand, Helmut; Lind, Eric M.; Alder, Peter B.; Alberti, Juan; Anderson, T. Michael; Bakker, Jonathan D.; Biederman, Lori; Blumenthal, Dana; Brown, Cynthia S.; Brudvig, Lars A.; Buckley, Yvonne M.; Cadotte, Marc; Chu, Cheng-Jin; Cleland, Elsa E.; Crawley, Michael J.; Daleo, Pedro; Damschen, Ellen Ingman; Davies, Kendi F.; DeCrappeo, Nicole M.; Du, Guozhen; Firn, Jennifer; Hautier, Yann; Heckman, Robert W.; Hector, Andy; HilleRisLambers, Janneke; Iribarne, Oscar; Klein, Julia A.; Knops, Johannes M.H.; La Pierre, Kimberly J.; Leakey, Andrew D.B.; Li, Wei; MacDougall, Andrew S.; McCulley, Rebecca L.; Melbourne, Brett A.; Mitchell, Charles E.; Moore, Joslin L.; Mortensen, Brent; O'Halloran, Lydia R.; Orrock, John L.; Pascual, Jesús; Prober, Suzanne M.; Pyke, David A.; Risch, Anita C.; Schuetz, Martin; Smith, Melinda D.; Stevens, Carly J.; Sullivan, Lauren L.; Williams, Ryan J.; Wragg, Peter D.; Wright, Justin P.; Yang, Louie H.

    2014-01-01

    Human alterations to nutrient cycles and herbivore communities are affecting global biodiversity dramatically. Ecological theory predicts these changes should be strongly counteractive: nutrient addition drives plant species loss through intensified competition for light, whereas herbivores prevent competitive exclusion by increasing ground-level light, particularly in productive systems. Here we use experimental data spanning a globally relevant range of conditions to test the hypothesis that herbaceous plant species losses caused by eutrophication may be offset by increased light availability due to herbivory. This experiment, replicated in 40 grasslands on 6 continents, demonstrates that nutrients and herbivores can serve as counteracting forces to control local plant diversity through light limitation, independent of site productivity, soil nitrogen, herbivore type and climate. Nutrient addition consistently reduced local diversity through light limitation, and herbivory rescued diversity at sites where it alleviated light limitation. Thus, species loss from anthropogenic eutrophication can be ameliorated in grasslands where herbivory increases ground-level light.

  14. Soil nutrient assessment for urban ecosystems in Hubei, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Guo Li

    Full Text Available Recent urban landscape vegetation surveys conducted in many cities in China identified numerous plant nutrient deficiencies, especially in newly developed cities. Soil nutrients and soil nutrient management in the cities of Hubei province have not received adequate attention to date. The aims of this study were to characterize the available nutrients of urban soils from nine cities in Hubei province, China, and to assess how soil nutrient status is related to land use type and topography. Soil nutrients were measured in 405 sites from 1,215 soil samples collected from four land use types (park, institutional [including government building grounds, municipal party grounds, university grounds, and garden city institutes], residential, and roadside verges and three topographies (mountainous [142-425 m a.s.l], hilly [66-112 m a.s.l], and plain [26-30 m a.s.l]. Chemical analyses showed that urban soils in Hubei had high pH and lower soil organic matter, available nitrogen (N, available phosphorus (P, and available boron (B concentrations than natural soils. Nutrient concentrations were significantly different among land use types, with the roadside and residential areas having greater concentrations of calcium (Ca, sulfur (S, copper (Cu, manganese (Mn, and zinc (Zn that were not deficient against the recommended ranges. Topographic comparisons showed statistically significant effects for 8 of the 11 chemical variables (p < 0.05. Concentrations of N, Ca, Mg, S, Cu, and Mn in plain cities were greater than those in mountainous cities and show a negative correlation with city elevation. These results provide data on urban soils characteristics in land use types and topography, and deliver significant information for city planners and policy makers.

  15. Detecting terrestrial nutrient limitation: a global meta-analysis of foliar nutrient concentrations after fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca eOstertag

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Examining foliar nutrient concentrations after fertilization provides an alternative method for detecting nutrient limitation of ecosystems, which is logistically simpler to measure than biomass change. We present a meta-analysis of response ratios of foliar nitrogen and phosphorus (RRN, RRP after addition of fertilizer of nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P, or the two elements in combination, in relation to climate, ecosystem type, life form, family, and methodological factors. Results support other meta-analyses using biomass, and demonstrate there is strong evidence for nutrient limitation in natural communities. However, because N fertilization experiments greatly outnumber P fertilization trials, it is difficult to discern the absolute importance of N vs. P vs. co-limitation across ecosystems. Despite these caveats, it is striking that results did not follow conventional wisdom that temperate ecosystems are N-limited and tropical ones are P-limited. In addition, the use of ratios of N-to-P rather than response ratios also are a useful index of nutrient limitation, but due to large overlap in values, there are unlikely to be universal cutoff values for delimiting N vs. P limitation. Differences in RRN and RRP were most significant across ecosystem types, plant families, life forms, and between competitive environments, but not across climatic variables.

  16. Nutrient supply of plants in aquaponic systems

    OpenAIRE

    Bittsánszky, András; Uzinger, Nikolett; Gyulai, Gábor; Mathis, Alex; Junge, Ranka; Villarroel, Morris; Kotzen, Benzion; Komives, Tamas

    2016-01-01

    In this preliminary article we present data on plant nutrient concentrations in aquaponic systems, and compare them to nutrient concentrations in “standard” hydroponic solutions. Our data shows that the nutrient concentrations supplied by the fish in aquaponic system are significantly lower for most nutrients, compared to hydroponic systems. Nevertheless, plants do thrive in solutions that have lower nutrient levels than “standard” hydroponic solutions. This is especially true for green leafy...

  17. Technical Training: Places available

    CERN Multimedia

    Monique Duval

    2004-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an "application for training" form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. TECHNICAL TRAINING Monique Duval tel. 74924 technical.training@cern.ch The number of places available may vary. Please check our Web site to find out the current availability. Places are available in the following courses: C++ for Particle Physicists : 8 - 12.3.2004 (6 X 4-hour sessions) Introduction to the CERN EDMS : 9.3.2004 (1 day, free of charge) The EDMS MTF in Practice : 10.3.2004 (morning, free of charge) CLEAN-2002: Working in a Cleanroom : 10.3.2004 (afternoon, free of charge) The CERN EDMS for Engineers : 11.3.2004 (1 day, free of charge) LabVIEW hands-on (E):...

  18. Technical Training: Places available

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an "application for training" form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. TECHNICAL TRAINING Monique Duval tel. 74924 technical.training@cern.ch The number of places available may vary. Please check our Web site to find out the current availability. Places are available in the following courses: LabVIEW base 1 : 25 - 27.2.2004(3 jours) Instructor-led WBTechT study or follow-up for Microsoft applications : 26.2.2004 (morning) CLEAN-2002 : Working in a Cleanroom : 10.3.2004 (afternoon - free of charge) C++ for Particle Physicists : 8 - 12.3.2004 (6 X 4-hour sessions) LabVIEW hands-on (E) : 16.3.2004 (afternoon) LabVIEW Basics 1 : 22 - 24.3.2004 ...

  19. Technical Training: Places available

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an "application for training" form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. TECHNICAL TRAINING Monique Duval tel. 74924 technical.training@cern.ch The number of places available may vary. Please check our Web site to find out the current availability. Places are available in the following courses: Instructor-led WBTechT study for Microsoft applications :12.2.2004 (morning) Instructor-led WBTechT study or follow-up for Microsoft applications : 19.2.2004 (morning) LabVIEW TestStand I (E) : 23 & 24.2.2004 (2 days) LabVIEW base 1 : 25 - 27.2.2004 (3 jours) Instructor-led WBTechT study or follow-up for Microsoft applications : 19.2.2004 (morning) CLEAN-2002 ...

  20. Technical Training: Places available

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an "application for training" form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. TECHNICAL TRAINING Monique Duval tel. 74924 technical.training@cern.ch The number of places available may vary. Please check our Web site to find out the current availability. Places are available in the following courses: Instructor-led WBTechT study or follow-up for Microsoft applications : 19.2.2004 (morning) LabVIEW TestStand I (E) : 23 & 24.2.2004 (2 days) LabVIEW base 1 : 25 - 27.2.2004 (3 jours) Instructor-led WBTechT study or follow-up for Microsoft applications : 26.2.2004 (morning) CLEAN-2002 : Working in a Cleanroom : 10.3.2004 (afternoon - free of charge) C++ for Pa...

  1. Technical Training: Places available

    CERN Multimedia

    Monique Duval

    2004-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an 'application for training' form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. The number of places available may vary. Please check our Web site to find out the current availability. Places are available in the following courses: Outlook (short course I) : E-mail : 31.8.2004 (2 hours, morning) Introduction à Outlook : Outlook (short course II) : Calendar, Tasks and Notes : 31.8.2004 (2 hours, afternoon) Instructor-led WBTechT Study or Follow-up for Microsoft Applications : 7.9.2004 (morning) Outlook (short course III) : Meetings and Delegation : 7.9.2004 (2 hours, afternoon) Introduction au VHDL et utilisation du simulateur ...

  2. Technical Training: Places available

    CERN Multimedia

    Monique Duval

    2004-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an 'application for training' form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. The number of places available may vary. Please check our Web site to find out the current availability. Places are available in the following courses: Joint PVSS JCOP Framework : 9 - 13.8.2004 (5 days) Introduction à Outlook : 19.8.2004 (1 jour) Outlook (Short Course I): E-mail: 31.8.2004 (2 hours, morning) Outlook (Short Course II): Calendar, Tasks and Notes: 31.8.2004 (2 hours, afternoon) Instructor-led WBTechT Study or Follow-up for Microsoft Applications: 7.9.2004 (morning) Outlook (Short Course III): Meetings and Delegation: 7.9.2004 (2 hours, afternoon) I...

  3. Technical Training: Places available

    CERN Multimedia

    Monique Duval

    2004-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an 'application for training' form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. The number of places available may vary. Please check our Web site to find out the current availability. Places are available in the following courses: Joint PVSS JCOP Framework : 9 - 13.8.2004 (5 days) Introduction à Outlook : 19.8.2004 (1 jour) Outlook (Short Course I): E-mail: 31.8.2004 (2 hours, morning) Outlook (Short Course II): Calendar, Tasks and Notes: 31.8.2004 (2 hours, afternoon) Hands-on Introduction to Python Programming: 1 - 3.9.2004 (3 days - free course) Instructor-led WBTechT Study or Follow-up for Microsoft Applications: 7.9.20...

  4. Technical Training: Places available

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an "application for training" form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. TECHNICAL TRAINING Monique Duval tel. 74924 technical.training@cern.ch The number of places available may vary. Please check our Web site to find out the current availability. Places are available in the following courses: C++ for Particle Physicists : 8 - 12.3.2004 (6 X 4-hour sessions) Introduction to the CERN EDMS : 9.3.2004 (1 day, free of charge) The EDMS MTF in Practice : 10.3.2004 (morning, free of charge) CLEAN-2002 : Working in a Cleanroom : 10.3.2004 (afternoon, free of charge) The CERN EDMS for Engineers : 11.3.2004 (1 day, free of charge) LabVIEW...

  5. Technical Training: Places available

    CERN Multimedia

    Monique Duval

    2004-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an 'application for training' form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. The number of places available may vary. Please check our Web site to find out the current availability. Places are available in the following courses: AutoCAD 2002 - niveau 1 : 13, 14, 23, 24.09.2004 (4 jours) Introduction to the CERN EDMS : 22.6.2004 (1 day) The CERN EDMS for local administrators : 23 & 24.6.2004 (2 days) MAGNE-04 : Magnétisme pour l'électrotechnique : 6 - 8.7.2004 (3 jours) Introduction au VHDL et utilisation du simulateur NCVHDL de CADENCE : 7 & 8.9.2004 (2 jours) ENSEIGNEMENT TECHNIQUE TECHNICAL TRAINING...

  6. Technical Training: Places available

    CERN Document Server

    Monique Duval

    2004-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an 'application for training' form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. The number of places available may vary. Please check our Web site to find out the current availability. Places are available in the following courses: Joint PVSS JCOP Programming : 9 - 13.8.2004 (5 days) Hands-on Introduction to Python Programming: 1 - 3.9.2004 (3 days - free course) Introduction au VHDL et utilisation du simulateur NCVHDL de CADENCE : 7 & 8.9.2004 (2 jours) Joint PVSS JCOP Programming : 13 - 17.9.2004 (5 days) AutoCAD 2002 - niveau 1 : 13, 14, 23, 24.9.2004 (4 jours) Programmation STEP7 niveau 1 : 14-17.9.2004 (4...

  7. Technical Training: Places available**

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an "application for training" form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. TECHNICAL TRAINING Monique Duval tel. 74924 technical.training@cern.ch ** The number of places available may vary. Please check our Web site to find out the current availability. Places are available in the following courses: The JAVA Programming Language Level 1 : 9 & 10.1.2004 (2 days) LabVIEW TestStand I (E) : 23 & 24.2.2004 (2 days) LabVIEW base 1 : 25 - 27.2.2004 (3 jours) CLEAN-2002 : Working in a Cleanroom : 10.3.2004 (afternoon - free of charge) C++ for Particle Physicists : 8 - 12.3.2004 ( 6 X 4-hour sessions) LabVIEW hands-on (E) 16.3...

  8. Technical Training: Places available

    CERN Multimedia

    Monique Duval

    2004-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an 'application for training' form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. The number of places available may vary. Please check our Web site to find out the current availability. Places are available in the following courses: Hands-on Introduction to Python Programming: 1 - 3.9.2004 (3 days - free course) Introduction au VHDL et utilisation du simulateur NCVHDL de CADENCE : 7 & 8.9.2004 (2 jours) AutoCAD 2002 - niveau 1 : 13, 14, 23, 24.9.2004 (4 jours) Programmation STEP7 niveau 1 : 14-17.9.2004 (4 jours) FrontPage 2003 - niveau 1 : 20 & 21.9.2004 (2 jours) Word 2003 - niveau 2 : 27 & 28.9.2004 (2 jours) Introduction à Wind...

  9. Technical Training: Places available

    CERN Multimedia

    Monique Duval

    2004-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an 'application for training' form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. The number of places available may vary. Please check our Web site to find out the current availability. Places are available in the following courses: Introduction to the CERN EDMS : 22.6.2004 (1 day) The CERN EDMS for local administrators : 23 & 24.6.2004 (2 days) Compatibilité électromagnétique (CEM) - Introduction / Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) - Introduction: 7.7.2004 (morning) Introduction au VHDL et utilisation du simulateur NCVHDL de CADENCE : 7 & 8.9.2004 (2 jours) AutoCAD 2002 - niveau 1 : 13, 14, 23, 24.9.2004 (4 jours) Programmation STEP...

  10. Technical Training: Places available

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an "application for training" form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. TECHNICAL TRAINING Monique Duval tel. 74924 technical.training@cern.ch The number of places available may vary. Please check our Web site to find out the current availability. Places are available in the following courses: Project Planning with MS-Project :6 & 13.5.2004 (2 days) Word 2003 - niveau 1 : 10 & 11.5.2004 (2 jours) Oracle 9i : SQL : 17 - 19.5.2004 (3 days) Word 2003 - niveau 2 : 24 & 25.5.2004 (2 jours) EXCEL 2003 - niveau 1: 27 & 28.5.2004 (2 jours) STEP7 Programming Level 1 : 1 - 4.6.2004 (4 days) Oracle 9i : Programming with PL/SQL : 2 - 4.6.2...

  11. Technical Training: Places available

    CERN Multimedia

    Monique Duval

    2004-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an 'application for training' form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. The number of places available may vary. Please check our Web site to find out the current availability. Places are available in the following courses: Oracle 9i : New features for developers : 14 - 16.6.2004 (3 days) The Joint PVSS JCOP Framework: 14 - 18.6.2004 (5 days) Introduction au VHDL et utilisation du simulateur NCVHDL de CADENCE : 15 & 16.6.2004 (2 jours) EXCEL 2003 - niveau 2 : 17 & 18.6.2004 (2 jours) MAGNE-04 : Magnétisme pour l'électrotechnique : 6 au 8.7.2004 (3 jours) AutoCAD 2002 - niveau 1 : 13, 14, 23, 24.09.2004 (4 jours) ENSEIGNEMEN...

  12. Technical Training: Places Available

    CERN Multimedia

    Monique Duval

    2004-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an 'application for training' form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. Technical Training Monique Duval - Tel.74924 technical.training@cern.ch The number of places available may vary. Please check our Web site to find out the current availability. Places are available in the following courses: Oracle 9i: SQL: 17 - 19.5.2004 (3 days) Word 2003 - niveau 2 : 24 & 25.5.2004 (2 jours) EXCEL 2003 - niveau 1 : 27 & 28.5.2004 (2 jours) STEP7 Programming Level 1: 1 - 4.6.2004 (4 days) Oracle 9i : Programming with PL/SQL: 2 - 4.6.2004 (3 days) CST Microwave Studio: 3 & 4.6.2004 (2 days) Oracle 9i : New f...

  13. Technical Training: Places available

    CERN Multimedia

    Monique Duval

    2004-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an 'application for training' form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. Technical Training Monique Duval - Tel.74924 technical.training@cern.ch The number of places available may vary. Please check our Web site to find out the current availability. Places are available in the following courses: Word 2003 - niveau 2 : 24 & 25.5.2004 (2 jours) VisualEliteHDL : 25 & 26.5.2004 (2 days) EXCEL 2003 - niveau 1 : 27 & 28.5.2004 (2 jours) STEP7 Programming Level 1: 1 - 4.6.2004 (4 days) Oracle 9i : Programming with PL/SQL: 2 - 4.6.2004 (3 days) CST Microwave Studio: 3 & 4.6.2004 (2 days) Oracle 9...

  14. Technical Training: Places available

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an "application for training" form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. TECHNICAL TRAINING Monique Duval tel. 74924 technical.training@cern.ch The number of places available may vary. Please check our Web site to find out the current availability. Places are available in the following courses: Instructor-led WBTechT study or follow-up for Microsoft applications : 1.4.2004 (morning) FrontPage XP - niveau 1 : 5 & 6.4.2004 (2 jours) AutoCAD 2002 - niveau 1 : 19, 20.4 et 3, 4.5.2004 (4 jours) Oracle 8i/9i - Develop Web-based Applications with PL/SQL : 19 & 20.4.2004 (2 days) Introduction to ANSYS : 20 - 23.4.2004 (4 day...

  15. Technical Training: Places available

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an "application for training" form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. TECHNICAL TRAINING Monique Duval tel. 74924 technical.training@cern.ch The number of places available may vary. Please check our Web site to find out the current availability. Places are available in the following courses: FrontPage XP - niveau 2 : 26 & 27.4.2004 (2 jours) The Joint PVSS JCOP Framework : 26 - 30.4.2004 (5 days) Computational Electromagnetics with the ELEKTRA Module of OPERA-3D : 27 & 28.4.2004 (2 days) Hands-on Introduction to Python Programming : 3 - 5.5.2004 (3 days) LabVIEW Base 2 : 6 & 7.5.2004 (2 jours) Project Pla...

  16. Technical Training: Places available

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an "application for training" form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. TECHNICAL TRAINING Monique Duval tel. 74924 technical.training@cern.ch The number of places available may vary. Please check our Web site to find out the current availability. Places are available in the following courses: Computational Electromagnetics with the ELEKTRA Module of OPERA-3D : 27 & 28.4.2004 (2 days) Hands-on Introduction to Python Programming : 3 - 5.5.2004 (3 days) LabVIEW Base 2 : 6 & 7.5.2004 (2 jours) Project Planning with MS-Project : 6 & 13.5.2004 (2 days) Word 2003 - niveau 1 : 10 & 11.5.2004 (2 jours) Oracle 9i : SQL : 10 - 12.5.2004 (3...

  17. Technical Training: Places available

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an "application for training" form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. TECHNICAL TRAINING Monique Duval tel. 74924 technical.training@cern.ch The number of places available may vary. Please check our Web site to find out the current availability. Places are available in the following courses: AutoCAD 2002 - niveau 1 : 19, 20.4 et 3, 4.5.2004 (4 jours) Oracle 8i/9i - Develop Web-based Applications with PL/SQL : 19 & 20.4.2004 (2 days) Introduction to ANSYS : 20 - 23.4.2004 (4 days) LabVIEW Hands-on : 20.4.2004 (half-day, p.m.) FrontPage XP - niveau 2 : 26 & 27.4.2004 (2 jours) The Joint PVSS JCOP Framework : 26 -...

  18. TECHNICAL TRAINING: Places available**

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an "application for training" form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. TECHNICAL TRAINING Monique Duval tel. 74924 technical.training@cern.ch ** The number of places available may vary. Please check our Web site to find out the current availability. Places are available in the following courses: Hands-on Introduction to Python Programming : 12 - 14.11.03(3 days) ACCESS 2000 - niveau 1 : 13 & 14.11.03 (2 jours) C++ for Particle Physicists : 17 - 21.11.03 (6 X 3-hour lectures) Programmation automate Schneider TSX Premium - niveau 2 : 18 - 21.11.03 (4 jours) Project Planning with MS-Project  (free of charg...

  19. TECHNICAL TRAINING: Places available**

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an "application for training" form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. TECHNICAL TRAINING Monique Duval Tel. 74924 technical.training@cern.ch ** The number of places available may vary. Please check our Web site to find out the current availability. Places are available in the following courses: The EDMS-MTF in practice (free of charge) : 28 -  30.10.03 (6 half-day sessions) AutoCAD 2002 – Level 1 : 3, 4, 12, 13.11.03 (4 days) LabVIEW TestStand ver. 3 : 4 & 5.11.03 (2 days) Introduction to PSpice : 4.11.03 p.m. (half-day) Hands-on Introduction to Python Programming : 12 – 14.11.03 (3 days) ACCESS ...

  20. CADDIS Volume 2. Sources, Stressors and Responses: Nutrients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction to the nutrients module, when to list nutrients as a candidate cause, ways to measure nutrients, simple and detailed conceptual diagrams for nutrients, nutrients module references and literature reviews.

  1. Nutrient Acquisition and the Metabolic Potential of Photoferrotrophic Chlorobi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine J. Thompson

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Anoxygenic photosynthesis evolved prior to oxygenic photosynthesis and harnessed energy from sunlight to support biomass production on the early Earth. Models that consider the availability of electron donors predict that anoxygenic photosynthesis using Fe(II, known as photoferrotrophy, would have supported most global primary production before the proliferation of oxygenic phototrophs at approximately 2.3 billion years ago. These photoferrotrophs have also been implicated in the deposition of banded iron formations, the world’s largest sedimentary iron ore deposits that formed mostly in late Archean and early Proterozoic Eons. In this work we present new data and analyses that illuminate the metabolic capacity of photoferrotrophy in the phylum Chlorobi. Our laboratory growth experiments and biochemical analyses demonstrate that photoferrotrophic Chlorobi are capable of assimilatory sulfate reduction and nitrogen fixation under sulfate and nitrogen limiting conditions, respectively. Furthermore, the evolutionary histories of key enzymes in both sulfur (CysH and CysD and nitrogen fixation (NifDKH pathways are convoluted; protein phylogenies, however, suggest that early Chlorobi could have had the capacity to assimilate sulfur and fix nitrogen. We argue, then, that the capacity for photoferrotrophic Chlorobi to acquire these key nutrients enabled them to support primary production and underpin global biogeochemical cycles in the Precambrian.

  2. THE INFORMATION CONTENT OF THE FARM AND UNIT LEVEL NUTRIENT BALANCES FOR THE MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T SOMOGYI

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The farm gate balance is well known from the environmental literature. This method is not suitable in every case to show the nutrient load for the environment of agricultural companies that is the reason why unit level internal nutrient balances are applied to express the level of nutrient pollution on the environment. These also help to determine the source of the pollution. With the survey of the nutrient flows within the farm we determine the keystones of nutrient management to control the nutrient load of the pollution sources. On the basis of the results and the controlled data of the unit level internal balances we make recommendations for the most appropriate environmental policy instrument to reduce the nutrient pollution.

  3. Nutrient-enhancement of Matooke banana for improved nutrient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 173 PLHIVregistered with Rakai Health Science Project were chosen and interviewed using structured questionnaires to determine the current contribution of banana to the household food security. Nutrient intake data were collected using Gibson s 24-hour recall method and food frequency questionnaires.

  4. Nutrients, phytoplankton, zooplankton, and macrobenthos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudstam, Lars G.; Holeck, Kristen T.; Watkins, James M.; Hotaling, Christopher; Lantry, Jana R.; Bowen, Kelly L.; Munawar, Mohi; Weidel, Brian C.; Barbiero, Richard; Luckey, Frederick J.; Dove, Alice; Johnson, Timothy B.; Biesinger, Zy

    2017-01-01

    Lower trophic levels support the prey fish on which most sport fish depend. Therefore, understanding the production potential of lower trophic levels is integral to the management of Lake Ontario’s fishery resources. Lower trophic-level productivity differs among offshore and nearshore waters. In the offshore, there is concern about the ability of the lake to support Alewife (Table 1) production due to a perceived decline in productivity of phytoplankton and zooplankton whereas, in the nearshore, there is a concern about excessive attached algal production (e.g., Cladophora) associated with higher nutrient concentrations—the oligotrophication of the offshore and the eutrophication of the nearshore (Mills et al. 2003; Holeck et al. 2008; Dove 2009; Koops et al. 2015; Stewart et al. 2016). Even though the collapse of the Alewife population in Lake Huron in 2003 (and the associated decline in the Chinook Salmon fishery) may have been precipitated by a cold winter (Dunlop and Riley 2013), Alewife had not returned to high abundances in Lake Huron as of 2014 (Roseman et al. 2015). Failure of the Alewife population to recover from collapse has been attributed to declines in lower trophic-level production (Barbiero et al. 2011; Bunnell et al. 2014; but see He et al. 2015). In Lake Michigan, concerns of a similar Alewife collapse led to a decrease in the number of Chinook Salmon stocked. If lower trophic-level production declines in Lake Ontario, a similar management action could be considered. On the other hand, in Lake Erie, which supplies most of the water in Lake Ontario, eutrophication is increasing and so are harmful algal blooms. Thus, there is also a concern that nutrient levels and algal blooms could increase in Lake Ontario, especially in the nearshore. Solutions to the two processes of concern—eutrophication in the nearshore and oligotrophication in the offshore—may be mutually exclusive. In either circumstance, fisheries management needs information on

  5. Programming 2D/3D shape-shifting with hobbyist 3D printers† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c7mh00269f

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Manen, Teunis; Janbaz, Shahram

    2017-01-01

    Materials and devices with advanced functionalities often need to combine complex 3D shapes with functionality-inducing surface features. Precisely controlled bio-nanopatterns, printed electronic components, and sensors/actuators are all examples of such surface features. However, the vast majority of the refined technologies that are currently available for creating functional surface features work only on flat surfaces. Here we present initially flat constructs that upon triggering by high temperatures change their shape to a pre-programmed 3D shape, thereby enabling the combination of surface-related functionalities with complex 3D shapes. A number of shape-shifting materials have been proposed during the last few years based on various types of advanced technologies. The proposed techniques often require multiple fabrication steps and special materials, while being limited in terms of the 3D shapes they could achieve. The approach presented here is a single-step printing process that requires only a hobbyist 3D printer and inexpensive off-the-shelf materials. It also lends itself to a host of design strategies based on self-folding origami, instability-driven pop-up, and ‘sequential’ shape-shifting to unprecedentedly expand the space of achievable 3D shapes. This combination of simplicity and versatility is a key to widespread applications. PMID:29308207

  6. Technical Training: Places available

    CERN Multimedia

    Monique Duval

    2005-01-01

    The number of places available may vary. Please check our Web site to find out the current availability. Places are available on the following courses: Hands-on Object-Oriented Design and Programming with C++ : 22 - 24.3.2005 (3 days) FileMaker - niveau 2 : 4 & 5.4.2005 (2 jours) EMAG-2004 - Electromagnetic Design and Mathematical Optimization in Magnet Technology: 4- 14.4.2005 (8 x 3h) EXCEL 2003 - niveau 2 : 11 & 12.4.2005 (2 jours) LabVIEW Intermediate 1: 11 - 13.4.2005 (3 days) ACCESS 2003 - Level 2 - ECDL AM5: 13 & 14.4.2005 (2 days) LabVIEW Intermediate 2: 14 & 15.4.2005 (2 days) PowerPoint 2003 (F) : 18.4.2005 (1 jour) Joint PVSS JCOP Framework : 25 - 29.4.2005 (5 days) WORD 2003 - niveau 1 : 2 & 3.5.2005 (2 jours) ELEC-2005 - Summer Term: System electronics for physics - Issues : 10, 12, 17, 19, 24, 26 & 31.5.2005 (7 x 2h lectures) AutoCAD 2002 - niveau 1 : 11, 12, 18 & 19.5.2005 (4 jour...

  7. Technical Training: Places available

    CERN Multimedia

    Monique Duval

    2004-01-01

    The number of places available may vary. Please check our Web site to find out the current availability. Places are available in the following courses: The JAVA Programming Language Level 1: 11 & 12.1.2005 (2 days) Introduction to XML : 13 & 14.1.2005 (2 days) ELEC-2005.:Winter term: Introduction to electronics in HEP: 18, 20, 25, 27.1, 1 & 3.2.2005 (6 x 2h lectures) The CERN EDMS for Local Administrators: 19 & 20.1.2005 (2 days - free course) Programmation Unity-Pro pour utilisateurs de Schneider PL7-Pro : 24 - 28.1.2005 (8 demi-journées) CLEAN-2002 : Travailler en salle propre : 25.1.2005 (après-midi, cours gratuit) Compatibilité électromagnétique (CEM) : installation et remèdes : 25 - 27.1.2005 (3 jours) Finite State Machines in the JCOP Framework: 1 - 3.2.2005 (3 days - free course) The JAVA Programming Language Level 2: 7 - 9...

  8. Technical Training: Places available

    CERN Multimedia

    Monique Duval

    2005-01-01

    The number of places available may vary. Please check our Web site to find out the current availability. Places are available on the following courses: FrontPage 2003 - niveau 1 : 9 & 10.5.2005 (2 jours) ELEC-2005 - Summer Term: System electronics for physics - Issues : 10, 12, 17, 19, 24, 26 & 31.5.2005 (7 x 2h lectures) AutoCAD 2005 - niveau 1 : 12, 13, 18, 19.5.2005 (4 jours) ACCESS 2003 - Level 1: ECDL M5 : 11 & 12.5.2005 (2 days) Object-Oriented Analysis and Design using UML: 17 - 19.5.2005 (3 days) Synplify Pro Training: 18.5.2005 (1 day) Finite State Machines in the JCOP Framework: 24 - 26.5.2005 (3 days) The Joint PVSS JCOP Framework: 30.5 - 3.6.2005 (5 days) Introduction à la CAO CADENCE : 31.5 - 1.6.2005 (2 jours) LabVIEW Real-Time (F) : 7 - 9.6.2005 (3 jours) LabVIEW Migration 6 to 7: 14.6.2005 (1 day) FrontPage 2003 - niveau 2 : 16 & 17.6.2005 (2 jours) Utilisation de fichiers PDF avec ACROBAT 6.0 : 20.6.2005 (1journée) Intr...

  9. Technical Training: Places available

    CERN Multimedia

    Monique Duval

    2005-01-01

    The number of places available may vary. Please check our Web site to find out the current availability. Places are available on the following courses: FrontPage 2003 - niveau 1 : 9 & 10.5.2005 (2 jours) ELEC-2005 - Summer Term: System electronics for physics - Issues : 10, 12, 17, 19, 24, 26 & 31.5.2005 (7 x 2h lectures) AutoCAD 2005 - niveau 1 : 11, 12, 18, 19.5.2005 (4 jours) Object-Oriented Analysis and Design using UML: 17 - 19.5.2005 (3 days) Synplify Pro Training: 18.5.2005 (1 day) Finite State Machines in the JCOP Framework: 24 - 26.5.2005 (3 days) The Joint PVSS JCOP Framework: 30.5 - 3.6.2005 (5 days) Introduction à la CAO CADENCE : 31.5 - 1.6.2005 (2 jours) LabVIEW Real-Time (F) : 7 - 9.6.2005 (3 jours) LabVIEW Migration 6 to 7: 14.6.2005 (1 day) FrontPage 2003 - niveau 2 : 16 & 17.6.2005 (2 jours) Utilisation de fichiers PDF avec ACROBAT 6.0 : 20.6.2005 (1journée) Introductio...

  10. Technical Training: Places available

    CERN Multimedia

    Davide Vitè

    2005-01-01

    The number of places available may vary. Please check our Web site to find out the current availability. Places are available on the following courses: ELEC-2005 Autumn Term - Electronics applications in HEP experiments: 8.11 - 8.12.2005 (10 x 2h lectures) The CERN EDMS for Local Administrators: 15-16.11.2005 (2 days, free of charge) OUTLOOK (Short Course II) - Calendar, Tasks and Notes: 16.11.2005 (morning) Hands-On Object Oriented Design and Programming with C++ : 16 - 18.11.2005 (3 days) The CERN EDMS for Engineers: 17.11.2005 (1 day, free of charge) The Java Programming Language Level 1: 21 - 23.11.2005 (3 days) Hands-on Introduction to Python Programming: 28 - 30.11.2005 (3 days) OUTLOOK (Short Course III) - Meetings and Delegation: 30.11.2005 (morning) WORD 2003 (Short Course III) - HowTo... Work with long documents : 30.11.2005 (afternoon) FrontPage 2003 - niveau 2 : 5 - 6.12.2005 (2 jours) LabVIEW Application Development (Intermediate 1): 5 - 7.12.2005 (3 d...

  11. Technical Training: Places available

    CERN Multimedia

    Davide Vitè

    2005-01-01

    The number of places available may vary. Please check our Web site to find out the current availability. Places are available on the following courses: Joint PVSS JCOP Framework : 7 - 11.11.2005 (5 days) ELEC-2005 Autumn Term - Electronics applications in HEP experiments: 8.11 - 8.12.2005 (10 x 2h lectures) The EDMS-MTF in practice: 9.11.2005 (morning, free of charge) The CERN EDMS for Local Administrators: 15-16.11.2005 (2 days, free of charge) OUTLOOK (Short Course II) - Calendar, Tasks and Notes: 16.11.2005 (morning) Hands-On Object Oriented Design and Programming with C++ : 16 - 18.11.2005 (3 days) The CERN EDMS for Engineers: 17.11.2005 (1 day, free of charge) The Java Programming Language Level 1: 21 - 23.11.2005 (3 days) Hands-on Introduction to Python Programming: 28 - 30.11.2005 (3 days) OUTLOOK (Short Course III) - Meetings and Delegation: 30.11.2005 (morning) WORD 2003 (Short Course III) - HowTo... Work with long documents : 30.11.2005 (afternoon) Fron...

  12. Nutrient density of beverages in relation to climate impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annika Smedman

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The food chain contributes to a substantial part of greenhouse gas (GHG emissions and growing evidence points to the urgent need to reduce GHGs emissions worldwide. Among suggestions were proposals to alter food consumption patterns by replacing animal foods with more plant-based foods. However, the nutritional dimensions of changing consumption patterns to lower GHG emissions still remains relatively unexplored. This study is the first to estimate the composite nutrient density, expressed as percentage of Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (NNR for 21 essential nutrients, in relation to cost in GHG emissions of the production from a life cycle perspective, expressed in grams of CO2-equivalents, using an index called the Nutrient Density to Climate Impact (NDCI index. The NDCI index was calculated for milk, soft drink, orange juice, beer, wine, bottled carbonated water, soy drink, and oat drink. Due to low-nutrient density, the NDCI index was 0 for carbonated water, soft drink, and beer and below 0.1 for red wine and oat drink. The NDCI index was similar for orange juice (0.28 and soy drink (0.25. Due to a very high-nutrient density, the NDCI index for milk was substantially higher (0.54 than for the other beverages. Future discussion on how changes in food consumption patterns might help avert climate change need to take both GHG emission and nutrient density of foods and beverages into account.

  13. Regulating nutrient allocation in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udvardi, Michael; Yang, Jiading; Worley, Eric

    2014-12-09

    The invention provides coding and promoter sequences for a VS-1 and AP-2 gene, which affects the developmental process of senescence in plants. Vectors, transgenic plants, seeds, and host cells comprising heterologous VS-1 and AP-2 genes are also provided. Additionally provided are methods of altering nutrient allocation and composition in a plant using the VS-1 and AP-2 genes.

  14. Nutrient resorption from seagrass leaves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stapel, J.; Hemminga, M.A.

    1997-01-01

    The resorption of nutrients (C, N and P) from senescent leaves of six seagrass species from nine different locations in tropical (Indonesia and Kenya), Mediterranean (Spain) and temperate (The Netherlands) regions has been investigated. Resorption was quantitatively assessed by calculating the

  15. Recycling nutrients in algae biorefinery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia Alba, Laura; Vos, M.P.; Torri, C.; Fabbri, D.; Kersten, Sascha R.A.; Brilman, Derk Willem Frederik

    2013-01-01

    Algal fuel cells: Repeated nutrient recycling is demonstrated by reusing the aqueous phase obtained from the hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of microalgae. This is achieved, for the first time, by performing a complete set of four continuous growth–HTL cycles. Results show similar growth rates in

  16. Nutrient Management in Pine Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan E. Tiarks

    1999-01-01

    Coastal plain soils are naturally low in fertility and many pine stands will give an economic response to fertilization, especially phosphorus. Maintaining the nutrients that are on the site by limiting displacement of logging slash during and after the harvest can be important in maintaining the productivity of the site and reducing the amount of fertilizer required...

  17. The Stoichiometry of Nutrient Release by Terrestrial Herbivores and Its Ecosystem Consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Sitters

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available It is widely recognized that the release of nutrients by herbivores via their waste products strongly impacts nutrient availability for autotrophs. The ratios of nitrogen (N and phosphorus (P recycled through herbivore release (i.e., waste N:P are mainly determined by the stoichiometric composition of the herbivore's food (food N:P and its body nutrient content (body N:P. Waste N:P can in turn impact autotroph nutrient limitation and productivity. Herbivore-driven nutrient recycling based on stoichiometric principles is dominated by theoretical and experimental research in freshwater systems, in particular interactions between algae and invertebrate herbivores. In terrestrial ecosystems, the impact of herbivores on nutrient cycling and availability is often limited to studying carbon (C:N and C:P ratios, while the role of terrestrial herbivores in mediating N:P ratios is also likely to influence herbivore-driven nutrient recycling. In this review, we use rules and predictions on the stoichiometry of nutrient release originating from algal-based aquatic systems to identify the factors that determine the stoichiometry of nutrient release by herbivores. We then explore how these rules can be used to understand the stoichiometry of nutrient release by terrestrial herbivores, ranging from invertebrates to mammals, and its impact on plant nutrient limitation and productivity. Future studies should focus on measuring both N and P when investigating herbivore-driven nutrient recycling in terrestrial ecosystems, while also taking the form of waste product (urine or feces and other pathways by which herbivores change nutrients into account, to be able to quantify the impact of waste stoichiometry on plant communities.

  18. Determination of zinc nutrient in the soil using isotope technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suwadji, E.

    1975-01-01

    In this experiment the availability of soil Zn nutrient in various soil conditions (dry and submerged), and the efficiency of the application of Zn fertilizer in rice nutrition were measured in glasshouse using isotope dilution technique. The amount of soil Zn nutrient available to plants can be expressed in 'E' and 'L' values. Submerged conditions generally showed an increase in the 'E' and 'L' value compared to dry conditions. Mixed treatment with ZnSO 4 fertilizer is more efficient for Zn absorption than surface treatment. (author)

  19. Coastal Acidification as Nutrients Over Enrichment Impact: A Case Study in Ambon Bay, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idha Yulia Ikhsani

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Ambon Bay is a silled bay on Ambon Island consisting of two regions, Inner Ambon Bay (IAB and Outer Ambon Bay (OAB that are separated by shallow sill. Ambon bay and its surrounding have economically important ecosystem since the utilization for many activities. The bay is affected by anthropogenic impacts associated with urbanization, climate change, and nutrients over enrichment. The “deep water-rich nutrients” from Banda Sea that enter the bay during Southeast monsoon also contribute to this enrichment as well as the nutrients transport from the land. The high concentration of nutrients increases carbon dioxide level and promotes acidifications. There are literatures about nutrients over enrichment in Ambon Bay, however, little is known about coastal acidification as nutrients over enrichment impact. In order to study the effect of nutrients distribution on the acidity of Ambon Bay, the researchers measured pH and concentrations of nutrients {nitrate + nitrite (N+N and Soluble Reactive Phosphate (SRP} from water samples collected in 7 stations on both IAB and OAB during Southeast monsoon. The results showed that in surface water, nutrients concentrations is increased from May to June due to the “deep water flushing” occurrence on May and increased precipitations from May to June. From July to August, the nutrients concentrations on surface layer decreased, due to the decreased precipitations. In column and bottom water, the nutrients concentrations were increased from May to August. While the acidity have reverse pattern from the nutrients, when nutrient concentrations increased the acidity was decreased. From correlation test, pH was not significantly correlated with the concentrations of nutrients on surface water, but showed significantly correlated on column and bottom water. The results indicated that the distribution of nutrients on column and bottom water might be an important environmental factor affecting the acidification of

  20. Increased Sporulation of Vesicular-Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi by Manipulation of Nutrient Regimens †

    OpenAIRE

    Douds, David D.; Schenck, N. C.

    1990-01-01

    Adjustment of pot culture nutrient solutions increased root colonization and sporulation of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungi. Paspalum notatum Flugge and VAM fungi were grown in a sandy soil low in N and available P. Hoagland nutrient solution without P enhanced sporulation in soil and root colonization of Acaulospora longula, Scutellospora heterogama, Gigaspora margarita, and a wide range of other VAM fungi over levels produced by a tap water control or nutrient solutions contain...

  1. Nutrient Limitation in Central Red Sea Mangroves

    KAUST Repository

    Almahasheer, Hanan; Duarte, Carlos M.; Irigoien, Xabier

    2016-01-01

    Red Sea have characteristic heights of ~2 m, suggesting nutrient limitation. We assessed the nutrient status of mangrove stands in the Central Red Sea and conducted a fertilization experiment (N, P and Fe and various combinations thereof) on 4-week

  2. Nutrient patterns and their food sources in an International Study Setting: report from the EPIC study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelie Moskal

    Full Text Available Compared to food patterns, nutrient patterns have been rarely used particularly at international level. We studied, in the context of a multi-center study with heterogeneous data, the methodological challenges regarding pattern analyses.We identified nutrient patterns from food frequency questionnaires (FFQ in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC Study and used 24-hour dietary recall (24-HDR data to validate and describe the nutrient patterns and their related food sources. Associations between lifestyle factors and the nutrient patterns were also examined. Principal component analysis (PCA was applied on 23 nutrients derived from country-specific FFQ combining data from all EPIC centers (N = 477,312. Harmonized 24-HDRs available for a representative sample of the EPIC populations (N = 34,436 provided accurate mean group estimates of nutrients and foods by quintiles of pattern scores, presented graphically. An overall PCA combining all data captured a good proportion of the variance explained in each EPIC center. Four nutrient patterns were identified explaining 67% of the total variance: Principle component (PC 1 was characterized by a high contribution of nutrients from plant food sources and a low contribution of nutrients from animal food sources; PC2 by a high contribution of micro-nutrients and proteins; PC3 was characterized by polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin D; PC4 was characterized by calcium, proteins, riboflavin, and phosphorus. The nutrients with high loadings on a particular pattern as derived from country-specific FFQ also showed high deviations in their mean EPIC intakes by quintiles of pattern scores when estimated from 24-HDR. Center and energy intake explained most of the variability in pattern scores.The use of 24-HDR enabled internal validation and facilitated the interpretation of the nutrient patterns derived from FFQs in term of food sources. These outcomes open research

  3. A dual porosity model of nutrient uptake by root hairs

    KAUST Repository

    Zygalakis, K. C.; Kirk, G. J. D.; Jones, D. L.; Wissuwa, M.; Roose, T.

    2011-01-01

    Summary: • The importance of root hairs in the uptake of sparingly soluble nutrients is understood qualitatively, but not quantitatively, and this limits efforts to breed plants tolerant of nutrient-deficient soils. • Here, we develop a mathematical model of nutrient uptake by root hairs allowing for hair geometry and the details of nutrient transport through soil, including diffusion within and between soil particles. We give illustrative results for phosphate uptake. • Compared with conventional 'single porosity' models, this 'dual porosity' model predicts greater root uptake because more nutrient is available by slow release from within soil particles. Also the effect of soil moisture is less important with the dual porosity model because the effective volume available for diffusion in the soil is larger, and the predicted effects of hair length and density are different. • Consistent with experimental observations, with the dual porosity model, increases in hair length give greater increases in uptake than increases in hair density per unit main root length. The effect of hair density is less in dry soil because the minimum concentration in solution for net influx is reached more rapidly. The effect of hair length is much less sensitive to soil moisture. © 2011 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2011 New Phytologist Trust.

  4. A dual porosity model of nutrient uptake by root hairs

    KAUST Repository

    Zygalakis, K. C.

    2011-08-09

    Summary: • The importance of root hairs in the uptake of sparingly soluble nutrients is understood qualitatively, but not quantitatively, and this limits efforts to breed plants tolerant of nutrient-deficient soils. • Here, we develop a mathematical model of nutrient uptake by root hairs allowing for hair geometry and the details of nutrient transport through soil, including diffusion within and between soil particles. We give illustrative results for phosphate uptake. • Compared with conventional \\'single porosity\\' models, this \\'dual porosity\\' model predicts greater root uptake because more nutrient is available by slow release from within soil particles. Also the effect of soil moisture is less important with the dual porosity model because the effective volume available for diffusion in the soil is larger, and the predicted effects of hair length and density are different. • Consistent with experimental observations, with the dual porosity model, increases in hair length give greater increases in uptake than increases in hair density per unit main root length. The effect of hair density is less in dry soil because the minimum concentration in solution for net influx is reached more rapidly. The effect of hair length is much less sensitive to soil moisture. © 2011 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2011 New Phytologist Trust.

  5. Determination of essential nutrients in raw milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penphimon Phongphanphanee

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Milk production in Thailand has gradually increased since 1961. Occasional oversupply of raw milk has become one of dairy farmers' major problems. Increasing the consumption of milk by making use of its separated nutrients may offer a solution. This study was to assess the composition of raw milk produced in Thailand, which included fat, protein, lactose, solid-not-fat (SNF and total solid (TS. A large dairy cooperatives in Saraburi Province was selected for the study. About 9% of its total members, constituting 108 farms, were randomly chosen. They consisted of small size (less than 20 cows/farm, medium size (21-100 cows/farm and large size (>100 cows/farm. The majority was medium-size. Raw milk from each farm was sampled at the delivery site of the cooperatives in the morning. Milk data of the 108 farms were compiled at 3 different periods between February and July 2003. The raw milk was analyzed by the Fourier Transform Infrared Analysis (FTIR using MilkoScan FT6000. The results showed the average fat content of 3.50±0.47%, protein of 3.13±0.16%, lactose of 4.59±0.12%, SNF of 8.42±0.20%, and TS of 11.92±0.54%. The samples were superior in all of the nutrients as compared to the standard levels set by the Department of Livestock Development, except for TS. This indicates the possibility of a local production of milk nutrients such as lactose and protein as ingredients for the pharmaceutical and health food industries.

  6. Automated nutrient analyses in seawater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitledge, T.E.; Malloy, S.C.; Patton, C.J.; Wirick, C.D.

    1981-02-01

    This manual was assembled for use as a guide for analyzing the nutrient content of seawater samples collected in the marine coastal zone of the Northeast United States and the Bering Sea. Some modifications (changes in dilution or sample pump tube sizes) may be necessary to achieve optimum measurements in very pronounced oligotrophic, eutrophic or brackish areas. Information is presented under the following section headings: theory and mechanics of automated analysis; continuous flow system description; operation of autoanalyzer system; cookbook of current nutrient methods; automated analyzer and data analysis software; computer interfacing and hardware modifications; and trouble shooting. The three appendixes are entitled: references and additional reading; manifold components and chemicals; and software listings. (JGB)

  7. Nutrients requirements in biological industrial wastewater treatment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In both these wastewaters nutrients were not added. A simple formula is introduced to calculate nutrient requirements based on removal efficiency and observed biomass yield coefficient. Key Words: Olive mill wastewater; anaerobic treatment; aerobic treatment; sequencing batch reactor; biomass yield; nutrient requirement.

  8. Nutrient quality of fast food kids meals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure of children to kids’ meals at fast food restaurants is high; however, the nutrient quality of such meals has not been systematically assessed. We assessed the nutrient quality of fast food meals marketed to young children, i.e., "kids meals". The nutrient quality of kids’ meals was assessed...

  9. Nutrient surpluses on integrated arable farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schröder, J.J.; Asperen, van P.; Dongen, van G.J.M.; Wijnands, F.G.

    1996-01-01

    From 1990 to 1993 nutrient fluxes were monitored on 38 private arable farms that had adopted farming strategies aiming at reduced nutrient inputs and substitution of mineral fertilizers by organic fertilizers. The nutrient surplus was defined as the difference between inputs (including inputs

  10. Two-Phase Flow Modeling of Solid Dissolution in Liquid for Nutrient Mixing Improvement in Algal Raceway Ponds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haider Ali

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Achieving optimal nutrient concentrations is essential to increasing the biomass productivity of algal raceway ponds. Nutrient mixing or distribution in raceway ponds is significantly affected by hydrodynamic and geometric properties. The nutrient mixing in algal raceway ponds under the influence of hydrodynamic and geometric properties of ponds is yet to be explored. Such a study is required to ensure optimal nutrient concentrations in algal raceway ponds. A novel computational fluid dynamics (CFD model based on the Euler–Euler numerical scheme was developed to investigate nutrient mixing in raceway ponds under the effects of hydrodynamic and geometric properties. Nutrient mixing was investigated by estimating the dissolution of nutrients in raceway pond water. Experimental and CFD results were compared and verified using solid–liquid mass transfer coefficient and nutrient concentrations. Solid–liquid mass transfer coefficient, solid holdup, and nutrient concentrations in algal pond were estimated with the effects of pond aspect ratios, water depths, paddle wheel speeds, and particle sizes of nutrients. From the results, it was found that the proposed CFD model effectively simulated nutrient mixing in raceway ponds. Nutrient mixing increased in narrow and shallow raceway ponds due to effective solid–liquid mass transfer. High paddle wheel speeds increased the dissolution rate of nutrients in raceway ponds.

  11. Spectral Quantitation Of Hydroponic Nutrients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlager, Kenneth J.; Kahle, Scott J.; Wilson, Monica A.; Boehlen, Michelle

    1996-01-01

    Instrument continuously monitors hydroponic solution by use of absorption and emission spectrometry to determine concentrations of principal nutrients, including nitrate, iron, potassium, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, sodium, and others. Does not depend on extraction and processing of samples, use of such surrograte parameters as pH or electrical conductivity for control, or addition of analytical reagents to solution. Solution not chemically altered by analysis and can be returned to hydroponic process stream after analysis.

  12. Root morphology and mycorrhizal symbioses together shape nutrient foraging strategies of temperate trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weile; Koide, Roger T; Adams, Thomas S; DeForest, Jared L; Cheng, Lei; Eissenstat, David M

    2016-08-02

    Photosynthesis by leaves and acquisition of water and minerals by roots are required for plant growth, which is a key component of many ecosystem functions. Although the role of leaf functional traits in photosynthesis is generally well understood, the relationship of root functional traits to nutrient uptake is not. In particular, predictions of nutrient acquisition strategies from specific root traits are often vague. Roots of nearly all plants cooperate with mycorrhizal fungi in nutrient acquisition. Most tree species form symbioses with either arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) or ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi. Nutrients are distributed heterogeneously in the soil, and nutrient-rich "hotspots" can be a key source for plants. Thus, predicting the foraging strategies that enable mycorrhizal root systems to exploit these hotspots can be critical to the understanding of plant nutrition and ecosystem carbon and nutrient cycling. Here, we show that in 13 sympatric temperate tree species, when nutrient availability is patchy, thinner root species alter their foraging to exploit patches, whereas thicker root species do not. Moreover, there appear to be two distinct pathways by which thinner root tree species enhance foraging in nutrient-rich patches: AM trees produce more roots, whereas EM trees produce more mycorrhizal fungal hyphae. Our results indicate that strategies of nutrient foraging are complementary among tree species with contrasting mycorrhiza types and root morphologies, and that predictable relationships between below-ground traits and nutrient acquisition emerge only when both roots and mycorrhizal fungi are considered together.

  13. Sensitivity analysis of a pulse nutrient addition technique for estimating nutrient uptake in large streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurence Lin; J.R. Webster

    2012-01-01

    The constant nutrient addition technique has been used extensively to measure nutrient uptake in streams. However, this technique is impractical for large streams, and the pulse nutrient addition (PNA) has been suggested as an alternative. We developed a computer model to simulate Monod kinetics nutrient uptake in large rivers and used this model to evaluate the...

  14. Modeling farm nutrient flows in the North China Plain to reduce nutrient losses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Zhanqing; Bai, Zhaohai; Wei, Sha; Ma, Wenqi; Wang, Mengru; Kroeze, Carolien; Ma, Lin

    2017-01-01

    Years of poor nutrient management practices in the agriculture industry in the North China Plain have led to large losses of nutrients to the environment, causing severe ecological consequences. Analyzing farm nutrient flows is urgently needed in order to reduce nutrient losses. A farm-level

  15. Improving Lowland Rice (O. sativa L. cv. MR219 Plant Growth Variables, Nutrients Uptake, and Nutrients Recovery Using Crude Humic Substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perumal Palanivell

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available High cation exchange capacity and organic matter content of crude humic substances from compost could be exploited to reduce ammonia loss from urea and to as well improve rice growth and soil chemical properties for efficient nutrients utilization in lowland rice cultivation. Close-dynamic air flow system was used to determine the effects of crude humic substances on ammonia volatilization. A pot experiment was conducted to determine the effects of crude humic substances on rice plant growth, nutrients uptake, nutrients recovery, and soil chemical properties using an acid soil mixed with three rates of crude humic substances (20, 40, and 60 g pot−1. Standard procedures were used to evaluate rice plant dry matter production, nutrients uptake, nutrients recovery, and soil chemical properties. Application of crude humic substances increased ammonia volatilization. However, the lowest rate of crude humic substances (20 g pot−1 significantly improved total dry matter, nutrients uptake, nutrients recovery, and soil nutrients availability compared with crude humic substances (40 and 60 g pot−1 and the normal fertilization. Apart from improving growth of rice plants, crude humic substances can be used to ameliorate acid soils in rice cultivation. The findings of this study are being validated in our ongoing field trials.

  16. Technical training - Places available

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    If you would like more information on a course, or for any other inquiry/suggestions, please contact Technical.Training@cern.ch Valeria Perez Reale, Learning Specialist, Technical Programme Coordinator (Tel.: 62424) Eva Stern and Elise Romero, Technical Training Administration (Tel.: 74924) HR Department Electronic Design Next Session Duration Language Availability Comprehensive VHDL for FPGA Design 08-Oct-12 to 12-Oct-12 5 days English 4 places Electrostatique / Protection ESD 28-Sep-12 to 28-Sep-12 3 hours French 25 places Impacts de la suppression du plomb (RoHS) en électronique 26-Oct-12 to 26-Oct-12 8 hours French 14 places Introduction to VHDL 10-Oct-12 to 11-Oct-12 2 days English 9 places LabVIEW Real Time and FPGA 13-Nov-12 to 16-Nov-12 5 days French 5 places LabVIEW for Experts 24-Sep-12 to 28-Sep-12 5 days English 6 places LabVIEW for beginners 15-Oct-12 to 17-...

  17. Scale and legacy controls on catchment nutrient export regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howden, N. J. K.; Burt, T.; Worrall, F.

    2017-12-01

    Nutrient dynamics in river catchments are complex: water and chemical fluxes are highly variable in low-order streams, but this variability declines as fluxes move through higher-order reaches. This poses a major challenge for process understanding as much effort is focussed on long-term monitoring of the main river channel (a high-order reach), and therefore the data available to support process understanding are predominantly derived from sites where much of the transient response of nutrient export is masked by the effect of averaging over both space and time. This may be further exacerbated at all scales by the accumulation of legacy nutrient sources in soils, aquifers and pore waters, where historical activities have led to nutrient accumulation where the catchment system is transport limited. Therefore it is of particular interest to investigate how the variability of nutrient export changes both with catchment scale (from low to high-order catchment streams) and with the presence of legacy sources, such that the context of infrequent monitoring on high-order streams can be better understood. This is not only a question of characterising nutrient export regimes per se, but also developing a more thorough understanding of how the concepts of scale and legacy may modify the statistical characteristics of observed responses across scales in both space and time. In this paper, we use synthetic data series and develop a model approach to consider how space and timescales combine with impacts of legacy sources to influence observed variability in catchment export. We find that: increasing space and timescales tend to reduce the observed variance in nutrient exports, due to an increase in travel times and greater mixing, and therefore averaging, of sources; increasing the influence of legacy sources inflates the variance, with the level of inflation dictated by the residence time of the respective sources.

  18. Soil Nutrient Stocks in Sub-Saharan Africa: Modeling Soil Nutrients Using Machine Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, M. W.; Hengl, T.; Shepherd, K.; Heuvelink, G. B. M.

    2017-12-01

    We present the results of our work modeling 15 target soil nutrients at 250 meter resolution across Sub-Saharan Africa. We used a large stack of GIS layers as covariates, including layers on topography, climate, geology, hydrology and land cover. As training data we used ca. 59,000 soil samples harmonized across a number of projects and datasets, and we modeled each nutrient using an ensemble of random forest and gradient boosting algorithms, implemented using the R packages ranger and xgboost. Using cross validation, we determined that significant models can be produced for organic Carbon, total (organic) Nitrogen, total Phosphorus, and extractable Phosphorous, Potassium, Calcium, Magnesium, Sulfur, Sodium, Iron, Manganese, Zinc, Copper, Aluminum and Boron, with an R-square value between 40 and 95%. The main covariates explaining spatial distribution of nutrients were precipitation and land form parameters. However, we were unable to significantly predict Sulfur, Phosphorus and Boron as these could not be correlated with any environmental covariates we used. Although the accuracy of predictions looks promising, our predictions likely suffer from the significant spatial clustering of the sampling locations, as well as a lack of more detailed data on geology and parent material at a continental scale. These results will contribute to targeting agricultural investments and interventions, as well as targeting restoration efforts and estimating yield potential and yield gaps. These results were recently published in the journal Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems (DOI: 10.1007/s10705-017-9870-x) and the maps are available for download under the ODC Open Database License.

  19. A REVIEW ON DIAGNOSIS OF NUTRIENT DEFICIENCY SYMPTOMS IN PLANT LEAF IMAGE USING DIGITAL IMAGE PROCESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Jeyalakshmi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Plants, for their growth and survival, need 13 mineral nutrients. Toxicity or deficiency in any one or more of these nutrients affects the growth of plant and may even cause the destruction of the plant. Hence, a constant monitoring system for tracking the nutrient status in plants becomes essential for increase in production as well as quality of yield. A diagnostic system using digital image processing would diagnose the deficiency symptoms much earlier than human eyes could recognize. This will enable the farmers to adopt appropriate remedial action in time. This paper focuses on the review of work using image processing techniques for diagnosing nutrient deficiency in plants.

  20. Nutrient patterns and their food sources in an International Study Setting: report from the EPIC study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskal, Aurelie; Pisa, Pedro T; Ferrari, Pietro; Byrnes, Graham; Freisling, Heinz; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Cadeau, Claire; Nailler, Laura; Wendt, Andrea; Kühn, Tilman; Boeing, Heiner; Buijsse, Brian; Tjønneland, Anne; Halkjær, Jytte; Dahm, Christina C; Chiuve, Stephanie E; Quirós, Jose R; Buckland, Genevieve; Molina-Montes, Esther; Amiano, Pilar; Huerta Castaño, José M; Gurrea, Aurelio Barricarte; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Lentjes, Marleen A; Key, Timothy J; Romaguera, Dora; Vergnaud, Anne-Claire; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Bamia, Christina; Orfanos, Philippos; Palli, Domenico; Pala, Valeria; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; de Magistris, Maria Santucci; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Ocké, Marga C; Beulens, Joline W J; Ericson, Ulrika; Drake, Isabel; Nilsson, Lena M; Winkvist, Anna; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Hjartåker, Anette; Riboli, Elio; Slimani, Nadia

    2014-01-01

    Compared to food patterns, nutrient patterns have been rarely used particularly at international level. We studied, in the context of a multi-center study with heterogeneous data, the methodological challenges regarding pattern analyses. We identified nutrient patterns from food frequency questionnaires (FFQ) in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Study and used 24-hour dietary recall (24-HDR) data to validate and describe the nutrient patterns and their related food sources. Associations between lifestyle factors and the nutrient patterns were also examined. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied on 23 nutrients derived from country-specific FFQ combining data from all EPIC centers (N = 477,312). Harmonized 24-HDRs available for a representative sample of the EPIC populations (N = 34,436) provided accurate mean group estimates of nutrients and foods by quintiles of pattern scores, presented graphically. An overall PCA combining all data captured a good proportion of the variance explained in each EPIC center. Four nutrient patterns were identified explaining 67% of the total variance: Principle component (PC) 1 was characterized by a high contribution of nutrients from plant food sources and a low contribution of nutrients from animal food sources; PC2 by a high contribution of micro-nutrients and proteins; PC3 was characterized by polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin D; PC4 was characterized by calcium, proteins, riboflavin, and phosphorus. The nutrients with high loadings on a particular pattern as derived from country-specific FFQ also showed high deviations in their mean EPIC intakes by quintiles of pattern scores when estimated from 24-HDR. Center and energy intake explained most of the variability in pattern scores. The use of 24-HDR enabled internal validation and facilitated the interpretation of the nutrient patterns derived from FFQs in term of food sources. These outcomes open research opportunities and

  1. Nutrient Partitioning and Stoichiometry in Unburnt Sugarcane Ratoon at Varying Yield Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Marcos Leite

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Unraveling nutrient imbalances in contemporary agriculture is a research priority to improve whenever possible yield and nutrient use efficiency in sugarcane (Saccharum spp. systems while minimizing the costs of cultivation (e.g., use of fertilizers and environmental concerns. The main goal of this study was therefore to investigate biomass and nutrient [nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P, and potassium (K] content, partitioning, stoichiometry and internal efficiencies in sugarcane ratoon at varying yield levels. Three sites were established on highly weathered tropical soils located in the Southeast region of Brazil. At all sites, seasonal biomass and nutrient uptake patterns were synthesized from four sampling times taken throughout the sugarcane ratoon season. At all sites, in-season nutrient partitioning (in diverse plant components, internal efficiencies (yield to nutrient content ratio and nutrient ratios (N:P and N:K were determined at harvesting. Sugarcane exhibited three distinct phases of plant growth, as follows: lag, exponential-linear, and stationary. Across sites, nutrient requirement per unit of yield was 1.4 kg N, 0.24 kg P, and 2.7 kg K per Mg of stalk produced, but nutrient removal varied with soil nutrient status (based on soil plus fertilizer nutrient supply and crop demand (potential yield. Dry leaves had lower nutrient content (N, P, and K and broader N:P and N:K ratios when compared with tops and stalks plant fractions. Greater sugarcane yield and narrowed N:P ratio (6:1 were verified for tops of sugarcane when increasing both N and P content. High-yielding sugarcane systems were related to higher nutrient content and more balanced N:P (6:1 and N:K (0.5:1 ratios.

  2. Data-driven nutrient analysis and reality check: Human inputs, catchment delivery and management effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Destouni, G.

    2017-12-01

    Measures for mitigating nutrient loads to aquatic ecosystems should have observable effects, e.g, in the Baltic region after joint first periods of nutrient management actions under the Baltic Sea Action Plan (BASP; since 2007) and the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD; since 2009). Looking for such observable effects, all openly available water and nutrient monitoring data since 2003 are compiled and analyzed for Sweden as a case study. Results show that hydro-climatically driven water discharge dominates the determination of waterborne loads of both phosphorus and nitrogen. Furthermore, the nutrient loads and water discharge are all similarly well correlated with the ecosystem status classification of Swedish water bodies according to the WFD. Nutrient concentrations, which are hydro-climatically correlated and should thus reflect human effects better than loads, have changed only slightly over the study period (2003-2013) and even increased in moderate-to-bad status waters, where the WFD and BSAP jointly target nutrient decreases. These results indicate insufficient distinction and mitigation of human-driven nutrient components by the internationally harmonized applications of both the WFD and the BSAP. Aiming for better general identification of such components, nutrient data for the large transboundary catchments of the Baltic Sea and the Sava River are compared. The comparison shows cross-regional consistency in nutrient relationships to driving hydro-climatic conditions (water discharge) for nutrient loads, and socio-economic conditions (population density and farmland share) for nutrient concentrations. A data-driven screening methodology is further developed for estimating nutrient input and retention-delivery in catchments. Its first application to nested Sava River catchments identifies characteristic regional values of nutrient input per area and relative delivery, and hotspots of much larger inputs, related to urban high-population areas.

  3. Electronic Commerce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko Đerić

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Electronic commerce can be defined in different ways. Any definition helps to understand and explain that concept as better as possible.. Electronic commerce is a set of procedures and technologies that automate the tasks of financial transactions using electronic means. Also, according to some authors, electronic commerce is defined as a new concept, which is being developed and which includes process of buying and selling or exchanging products, services or information via computer networks, including the Internet. Electronic commerce is not limited just to buying and selling, but it also includes all pre-sales and after-sales ongoing activities along the supply chain. Introducing electronic commerce, using the Internet and Web services in business, realizes the way to a completely new type of economy - internet economy.

  4. Nutrients, Microglia Aging, and Brain Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Wu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As the life expectancy continues to increase, the cognitive decline associated with Alzheimer’s disease (AD becomes a big major issue in the world. After cellular activation upon systemic inflammation, microglia, the resident immune cells in the brain, start to release proinflammatory mediators to trigger neuroinflammation. We have found that chronic systemic inflammatory challenges induce differential age-dependent microglial responses, which are in line with the impairment of learning and memory, even in middle-aged animals. We thus raise the concept of “microglia aging.” This concept is based on the fact that microglia are the key contributor to the acceleration of cognitive decline, which is the major sign of brain aging. On the other hand, inflammation induces oxidative stress and DNA damage, which leads to the overproduction of reactive oxygen species by the numerous types of cells, including macrophages and microglia. Oxidative stress-damaged cells successively produce larger amounts of inflammatory mediators to promote microglia aging. Nutrients are necessary for maintaining general health, including the health of brain. The intake of antioxidant nutrients reduces both systemic inflammation and neuroinflammation and thus reduces cognitive decline during aging. We herein review our microglia aging concept and discuss systemic inflammation and microglia aging. We propose that a nutritional approach to controlling microglia aging will open a new window for healthy brain aging.

  5. Placental Nutrient Transport in Gestational Diabetic Pregnancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisol Castillo-Castrejon

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Maternal obesity during pregnancy is rising and is associated with increased risk of developing gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM, defined as glucose intolerance first diagnosed in pregnancy (1. Fetal growth is determined by the maternal nutrient supply and placental nutrient transfer capacity. GDM-complicated pregnancies are more likely to be complicated by fetal overgrowth or excess adipose deposition in utero. Infants born from GDM mothers have an increased risk of developing cardiovascular and metabolic disorders later in life. Diverse factors, such as ethnicity, age, fetal sex, clinical treatment for glycemic control, gestational weight gain, and body mass index among others, represent a challenge for studying underlying mechanisms in GDM subjects. Determining the individual roles of glucose intolerance, obesity, and other factors on placental function and fetal growth remains a challenge. This review provides an overview of changes in placental macronutrient transport observed in human pregnancies complicated by GDM. Improved knowledge and understanding of the alterations in placenta function that lead to pathological fetal growth will allow for development of new therapeutic interventions and treatments to improve pregnancy outcomes and lifelong health for the mother and her children.

  6. Modelling concept of lettuce breeding for nutrient efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerbiriou, P.J.; Stomph, T.J.; Lammerts Van Bueren, E.; Struik, P.C.

    2014-01-01

    Modern lettuce cultivars are bred for use under high levels of input of water and nutrients, and therefore less adapted to low-input or organic conditions in which nitrate availability varies over time and within the soil profile. To create robust cultivars it is necessary to assess which traits

  7. Proximate and nutrient analysis of selected vegetable species: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-06-17

    Jun 17, 2009 ... Karak, an arid region, have limited water and land resources to cultivate various crops specially vegetables. However, a few seasonal vegetable are available to the local communities in meager quantities. The ash, carbohydrate, protein, moisture, fat, fiber contents, energy values and nutrient composition ...

  8. Proximate and nutrient analysis of selected vegetable species: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Karak, an arid region, have limited water and land resources to cultivate various crops specially vegetables. However, a few seasonal vegetable are available to the local communities in meager quantities. The ash, carbohydrate, protein, moisture, fat, fiber contents, energy values and nutrient composition of eight ...

  9. A Nutrient-In-Water Resource for Sustainable Crop

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sys01

    2011-09-03

    Sep 3, 2011 ... calcium in the “Acid Sands” soils of south-eastern Nigeria. Two types of .... some forty-eight perforated plastic pots and laid out in the University Teaching ..... capable of stabilizing soil reactions, availability of essential nutrients ...

  10. Plant community development is affected by nutrients and soil biota

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Deyn, G.B.; Raaijmakers, C.E.; Van der Putten, W.H.

    2004-01-01

    1 Plant community development depends to a great extent on the availability of soil nutrients, but recent studies underline the role of symbiotic, herbivorous and pathogenic soil biota. We tested for interactions between these biotic and abiotic factors by studying the effects of additional

  11. Nutrient limitation of soil microbial activity during the earliest stages of ecosystem development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castle, Sarah C; Sullivan, Benjamin W; Knelman, Joseph; Hood, Eran; Nemergut, Diana R; Schmidt, Steven K; Cleveland, Cory C

    2017-11-01

    A dominant paradigm in ecology is that plants are limited by nitrogen (N) during primary succession. Whether generalizable patterns of nutrient limitation are also applicable to metabolically and phylogenetically diverse soil microbial communities, however, is not well understood. We investigated if measures of N and phosphorus (P) pools inform our understanding of the nutrient(s) most limiting to soil microbial community activities during primary succession. We evaluated soil biogeochemical properties and microbial processes using two complementary methodological approaches-a nutrient addition microcosm experiment and extracellular enzyme assays-to assess microbial nutrient limitation across three actively retreating glacial chronosequences. Microbial respiratory responses in the microcosm experiment provided evidence for N, P and N/P co-limitation at Easton Glacier, Washington, USA, Puca Glacier, Peru, and Mendenhall Glacier, Alaska, USA, respectively, and patterns of nutrient limitation generally reflected site-level differences in soil nutrient availability. The activities of three key extracellular enzymes known to vary with soil N and P availability developed in broadly similar ways among sites, increasing with succession and consistently correlating with changes in soil total N pools. Together, our findings demonstrate that during the earliest stages of soil development, microbial nutrient limitation and activity generally reflect soil nutrient supply, a result that is broadly consistent with biogeochemical theory.

  12. Nutrient Management in Recirculating Hydroponic Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugbee, Bruce

    2004-01-01

    There is an increasing need to recirculate and reuse nutrient solutions in order to reduce environmental and economic costs. However, one of the weakest points in hydroponics is the lack of information on managing the nutrient solution. Many growers and research scientists dump out nutrient solutions and refill at weekly intervals. Other authors have recommended measuring the concentrations of individual nutrients in solution as a key to nutrient control and maintenance. Dumping and replacing solution is unnecessary. Monitoring ions in solution is not always necessary; in fact the rapid depletion of some nutrients often causes people to add toxic amounts of nutrients to the solution. Monitoring ions in solution is interesting, but it is not the key to effective maintenance.

  13. Nutrient management strategies on Dutch dairy farms: an empirical analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ondersteijn, C.J.M.

    2002-01-01

    Key Words: MINAS; nitrogen surplus; phosphate surplus; nutrient efficiency; nutrient productivity; financial consequences; strategic management; perceived environmental uncertainty; nutrient management planning; dairy farming; The Netherlands.

    Agricultural nutrients are a

  14. Nutrientes no mantilho em pastagem nativa sob distintos manejos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heringer Ingrid

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A avaliação da quantidade de nutrientes no mantilho é importante para verificar a ciclagem de nutrientes e a preservação da fertilidade do solo. O teor e a quantidade de nutrientes no mantilho e material senescente foram estudados em pastagem nativa sob pastejo, sujeita à queima e manejos alternativos, durante um ano, nos Campos de Cima da Serra, no Rio Grande do Sul. O acúmulo de mantilho foi coletado em gaiolas de exclusão ao pastejo, a cada 90 dias. O mantilho representou o material morto desprendido da planta existente junto à superfície do solo. A esta fração foi adicionado o material senescente ligado à planta. Os tratamentos foram pastagem nativa sob pastejo sem queima e sem roçada há 32 anos, melhorada há sete anos e com queima bienal há mais de 100 anos. O delineamento experimental foi completamente casualizado com três repetições. Os teores de Ca e Mg no mantilho mais material senescente foram inferiores no tratamento queimado em relação às áreas sem queima. O melhoramento da pastagem aumentou os teores de nutrientes nos tecidos. A quantidade acumulada de nutrientes, reflexo da produção de mantilho e material senescente, foi maior nos sistemas sem queima.

  15. Phytomass production and nutrient accumulation by green manure species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Soares Mangaravite

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Green manuring is recognized as a viable alternative to improve nutrient cycling in soils. The aim of this study was to evaluate the phytomass production and nutrient accumulation in shoots of the summer green manures jack bean [Canavalia ensiformis (L. DC.], dwarf pigeon pea (Cajanus cajanvar var. Flavus DC., dwarf mucuna [Mucuna deeringiana (Bort Merr] and sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L., under nitrogen fertilization and/or inoculation with N-fixing bacteria. A split plot design was arranged with the four Fabaceae species as main plots and nitrogen fertilization (with and without and inoculation with diazotrophic bacteria (with and without as the subplots, in a 2² factorial. The experiment was arranged as a randomized complete block design with four replications. In the conditions of this trial, the sunn hemp had the highest production of shoot phytomass (12.4 Mg ha-1 and nutrient accumulation, while the dwarf mucuna had the lowest production of shoot phytomass (3.9 Mg ha-1 and nutrient accumulation. The results showed no effect of nitrogen fertilization or inoculation with N-fixing bacteria on the production of shoot phytomass and nutrient accumulation, except for inoculation without nitrogen fertilization, resulting in greater P accumulation (p <0.05 in the sunn hemp and greater Zn and Mn accumulation in the dwarf mucuna. These findings indicate that N fertilization or inoculation with N2-fixing bacteria for Fabaceae are low efficiency practices in the edaphoclimatic conditions of this study.

  16. Effects of Soil Texture on Belowground Carbon and Nutrient Storage in a Lowland Amazonian Forest Ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whendee L. Silver; Jason Neff; Megan McGroddy; Ed Veldkamp; Michael Keller; Raimundo Cosme

    2000-01-01

    Soil texture plays a key role in belowground C storage in forest ecosystems and strongly influences nutrient availability and retention, particularly in highly weathered soils. We used field data and the Century ecosystem model to explore the role of soil texture in belowground C storage, nutrient pool sizes, and N fluxes in highly weathered soils in an Amazonian...

  17. Human skin condition and its associations with nutrient concentrations in serum and diet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelsma, E.; Vijver, L.P.L. van de; Goldbohm, R.A.; Klöpping-Ketelaars, I.A.A.; Hendriks, H.F.J.; Roza, L.

    2003-01-01

    Background: Nutritional factors exert promising actions on the skin, but only scant information is available on the modulating effects of physiologic concentrations of nutrients on the skin condition of humans. Objective: The objective was to evaluate whether nutrient concentrations in serum and

  18. Effects of site management operations on the nutrient capital of a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Karkloof Project is a case study of the effects of intensive site management operations during the interrotational period, on (a) the nutrient capital of the system, and (b) the availability of growth resources (nutrients and water) in a commercial Eucalyptus grandis stand in South Africa. This paper specifically focuses on the ...

  19. Maternal–Fetal Nutrient Transport in Pregnancy Pathologies: The Role of the Placenta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kendra Elizabeth Brett

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Appropriate in utero growth is essential for offspring development and is a critical contributor to long-term health. Fetal growth is largely dictated by the availability of nutrients in maternal circulation and the ability of these nutrients to be transported into fetal circulation via the placenta. Substrate flux across placental gradients is dependent on the accessibility and activity of nutrient-specific transporters. Changes in the expression and activity of these transporters is implicated in cases of restricted and excessive fetal growth, and may represent a control mechanism by which fetal growth rate attempts to match availability of nutrients in maternal circulation. This review provides an overview of placenta nutrient transport with an emphasis on macro-nutrient transporters. It highlights the changes in expression and activity of these transporters associated with common pregnancy pathologies, including intrauterine growth restriction, macrosomia, diabetes and obesity, as well as the potential impact of maternal diet. Molecular signaling pathways linking maternal nutrient availability and placenta nutrient transport are discussed. How sexual dimorphism affects fetal growth strategies and the placenta’s response to an altered intrauterine environment is considered. Further knowledge in this area may be the first step in the development of targeted interventions to help optimize fetal growth.

  20. Combined Influence of Landscape Composition and Nutrient Inputs on Lake Trophic Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    The concentration of chlorophyll a is a measure of the biological productivity of a lake and is largely (but not exclusively) determined by available nutrients. As nutrient inputs increase, productivity increases and lakes transition from low trophic state (e.g. oligotrophic) to...

  1. Micro nutrient status and their distribution in aggregate-size fractions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Micro nutrients are particularly sensitive to changes in land use and their availability in soil is influenced by their distribution and storage in stable aggregate fractions. Micro nutrient, (Fe, Mn and Zn) status and their storage in stable aggregate-size fractions in forested, rubber plantation, oil palm plantation, plantain plantation ...

  2. Nutrient and antinutrient composition of yellow yam (Dioscorea cayenensis products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oladejo Thomas Adepoju

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The data presented in this article are related to research article titled “Effects of processing methods on nutrient and antinutrient composition of yellow yam (Dioscorea cayenensis products” (Adepoju et al., 2016 [1]. This article documented information on nutrient and antinutrient composition as well as nutrient retention of Dioscorea cayenensis products. Fresh Dioscorea cayenensis tubers obtained from Bodija market were prepared into raw sample and local delicacies and analysed for proximate, mineral, vitamin and antinutrient composition using AOAC methods [2]. Data obtained were analysed using ANOVA, and level of significance set at p<0.05. Processing significantly improved macronutrients and energy content of yam products, and led to significant reduction in values of all antinutrient content of the products (p<0.05.

  3. Supplementing the energy and plant nutrient requirements through organic recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahdi, S. S.; Misra, R. V.

    1980-03-15

    In context of dwindling non-renewable energy resources and increasing health hazards because of environmental pollution, recycling of organic residues obtained through various sources like crops, animals, and human beings is becoming increasingly important. The organic residues obtained as wastes through these sources can be recycled effectively to meet scarce resources of energy and the plant nutrients, so vitally needed for our day-to-day activities and for raising agricultural production. Agriculture is the main stay of the Indian economy. Considerable quantities of crop residues available from agriculture can be utilized to serve as a source of organic fertilizers which not only provide plant nutrients but also improve soil health. The country has a large animal and human population. The animal and human wastes can be successfully used for production of energy and organic fertilizer by routing through biogas system. There is a need to develop an integrated energy and nutrient supply program. An action program is outlined.

  4. Global Expanded Nutrient Supply (GENuS Model: A New Method for Estimating the Global Dietary Supply of Nutrients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew R Smith

    Full Text Available Insufficient data exist for accurate estimation of global nutrient supplies. Commonly used global datasets contain key weaknesses: 1 data with global coverage, such as the FAO food balance sheets, lack specific information about many individual foods and no information on micronutrient supplies nor heterogeneity among subnational populations, while 2 household surveys provide a closer approximation of consumption, but are often not nationally representative, do not commonly capture many foods consumed outside of the home, and only provide adequate information for a few select populations. Here, we attempt to improve upon these datasets by constructing a new model--the Global Expanded Nutrient Supply (GENuS model--to estimate nutrient availabilities for 23 individual nutrients across 225 food categories for thirty-four age-sex groups in nearly all countries. Furthermore, the model provides historical trends in dietary nutritional supplies at the national level using data from 1961-2011. We determine supplies of edible food by expanding the food balance sheet data using FAO production and trade data to increase food supply estimates from 98 to 221 food groups, and then estimate the proportion of major cereals being processed to flours to increase to 225. Next, we estimate intake among twenty-six demographic groups (ages 20+, both sexes in each country by using data taken from the Global Dietary Database, which uses nationally representative surveys to relate national averages of food consumption to individual age and sex-groups; for children and adolescents where GDD data does not yet exist, average calorie-adjusted amounts are assumed. Finally, we match food supplies with nutrient densities from regional food composition tables to estimate nutrient supplies, running Monte Carlo simulations to find the range of potential nutrient supplies provided by the diet. To validate our new method, we compare the GENuS estimates of nutrient supplies against

  5. Predator-driven nutrient recycling in California stream ecosystems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin G Munshaw

    Full Text Available Nutrient recycling by consumers in streams can influence ecosystem nutrient availability and the assemblage and growth of photoautotrophs. Stream fishes can play a large role in nutrient recycling, but contributions by other vertebrates to overall recycling rates remain poorly studied. In tributaries of the Pacific Northwest, coastal giant salamanders (Dicamptodon tenebrosus occur at high densities alongside steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss and are top aquatic predators. We surveyed the density and body size distributions of D. tenebrosus and O. mykiss in a California tributary stream, combined with a field study to determine mass-specific excretion rates of ammonium (N and total dissolved phosphorus (P for D. tenebrosus. We estimated O. mykiss excretion rates (N, P by bioenergetics using field-collected data on the nutrient composition of O. mykiss diets from the same system. Despite lower abundance, D. tenebrosus biomass was 2.5 times higher than O. mykiss. Mass-specific excretion summed over 170 m of stream revealed that O. mykiss recycle 1.7 times more N, and 1.2 times more P than D. tenebrosus, and had a higher N:P ratio (8.7 than that of D. tenebrosus (6.0, or the two species combined (7.5. Through simulated trade-offs in biomass, we estimate that shifts from salamander biomass toward fish biomass have the potential to ease nutrient limitation in forested tributary streams. These results suggest that natural and anthropogenic heterogeneity in the relative abundance of these vertebrates and variation in the uptake rates across river networks can affect broad-scale patterns of nutrient limitation.

  6. Reallocation and nutrient use efficiency in Antioquia central forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leon Pelaez, Juan; Gonzalez Hernandez, Maria; Gallardo Lancho, Juan

    2009-01-01

    We have studied nutrient related variables such as reallocation, nutrient use efficiency (NUE) and fine litter fall for three years in an oak forest Quercus humboldtii Bonpl. and also in some other forest plantations like pine, Pinus patula, and cypress, Cupressus lusitanica, in Antioquia, Colombia. Leaf litter quantities returned to the soil followed a falling sequence: oak (5313.3 kg ha-1 year-1) > pine (4866.5 kg ha-1 year-1) > cypress (2460.3 kg ha-1 year-1). The coniferous species showed the highest NUE for the majority of elements that were examined, except for P, which reached its absolute maximum in the oak forest -where a clear reallocation of this nutrient was also recorded-, probably because of its reduced availability in these volcanic ash-derived soils. Nutrient reallocation allows the conservation of the nutrients by reducing its loss from leaching and litter-fall, thereby closing the nutrient cycle in this native forest. In fact, P gains from net deposition were found there -this includes foliar leaching and atmospheric deposition-, which indicates that the species absorbs the P contained in rainfall from the leaves before it reaches the forest ground. N slow-efficiency use was probably due to its low availability in soil, given its low mineralization rates in these montane forests. K showed the highest reallocation values. Such figures are influenced by its clearly mobile character, according to the highest net deposition levels also verified for this element. With the exception of Mg, there was no clear relationship between the reallocation process and NUE.

  7. Assessing Nutrient Intake and Nutrient Status of HIV Seropositive Patients Attending Clinic at Chulaimbo Sub-District Hospital, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agatha Christine Onyango

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Nutritional status is an important determinant of HIV outcomes. Objective. To assess the nutrient intake and nutrient status of HIV seropositive patients attending an AIDS outpatient clinic, to improve the nutritional management of HIV-infected patients. Design. Prospective cohort study. Setting. Comprehensive care clinic in Chulaimbo Sub-District Hospital, Kenya. Subjects. 497 HIV sero-positive adults attending the clinic. Main Outcome Measures. Evaluation of nutrient intake using 24-hour recall, food frequency checklist, and nutrient status using biochemical assessment indicators (haemoglobin, creatinine, serum glutamate pyruvate (SGPT and mean corpuscular volume (MCV. Results. Among the 497 patients recruited (M : F sex ratio: 1.4, mean age: 39 years ± 10.5 y, Generally there was inadequate nutrient intake reported among the HIV patients, except iron (10.49 ± 3.49 mg. All the biochemical assessment indicators were within normal range except for haemoglobin 11.2 g/dL (11.4 ± 2.60 male and 11.2 ± 4.25 female. Conclusions. Given its high frequency, malnutrition should be prevented, detected, monitored, and treated from the early stages of HIV infection among patients attending AIDS clinics in order to improve survival and quality of life.

  8. Algal remediation of CO₂ and nutrient discharges: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judd, Simon; van den Broeke, Leo J P; Shurair, Mohamed; Kuti, Yussuf; Znad, Hussein

    2015-12-15

    The recent literature pertaining to the application of algal photobioreactors (PBRs) to both carbon dioxide mitigation and nutrient abatement is reviewed and the reported data analysed. The review appraises the influence of key system parameters on performance with reference to (a) the absorption and biological fixation of CO2 from gaseous effluent streams, and (b) the removal of nutrients from wastewaters. Key parameters appraised individually with reference to CO2 removal comprise algal speciation, light intensity, mass transfer, gas and hydraulic residence time, pollutant (CO2 and nutrient) loading, biochemical and chemical stoichiometry (including pH), and temperature. Nutrient removal has been assessed with reference to hydraulic residence time and reactor configuration, along with C:nutrient ratios and other factors affecting carbon fixation, and outcomes compared with those reported for classical biological nutrient removal (BNR). Outcomes of the review indicate there has been a disproportionate increase in algal PBR research outputs over the past 5-8 years, with a significant number of studies based on small, bench-scale systems. The quantitative impacts of light intensity and loading on CO2 uptake are highly dependent on the algal species, and also affected by solution chemical conditions such as temperature and pH. Calculations based on available data for biomass growth rates indicate that a reactor CO2 residence time of around 4 h is required for significant CO2 removal. Nutrient removal data indicate residence times of 2-5 days are required for significant nutrient removal, compared with PBR configuration (the high rate algal pond, HRAP) means that its footprint is at least two orders of magnitude greater than a classical BNR plant. It is concluded that the combined carbon capture/nutrient removal process relies on optimisation of a number of process parameters acting synergistically, principally microalgal strain, C:N:P load and balance, CO2 and liquid

  9. Improving Lowland Rice (O. sativa L. cv. MR219) Plant Growth Variables, Nutrients Uptake, and Nutrients Recovery Using Crude Humic Substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palanivell, Perumal; Ahmed, Osumanu Haruna; Ab Majid, Nik Muhamad; Jalloh, Mohamadu Boyie; Susilawati, Kasim

    2015-01-01

    High cation exchange capacity and organic matter content of crude humic substances from compost could be exploited to reduce ammonia loss from urea and to as well improve rice growth and soil chemical properties for efficient nutrients utilization in lowland rice cultivation. Close-dynamic air flow system was used to determine the effects of crude humic substances on ammonia volatilization. A pot experiment was conducted to determine the effects of crude humic substances on rice plant growth, nutrients uptake, nutrients recovery, and soil chemical properties using an acid soil mixed with three rates of crude humic substances (20, 40, and 60 g pot(-1)). Standard procedures were used to evaluate rice plant dry matter production, nutrients uptake, nutrients recovery, and soil chemical properties. Application of crude humic substances increased ammonia volatilization. However, the lowest rate of crude humic substances (20 g pot(-1)) significantly improved total dry matter, nutrients uptake, nutrients recovery, and soil nutrients availability compared with crude humic substances (40 and 60 g pot(-1)) and the normal fertilization. Apart from improving growth of rice plants, crude humic substances can be used to ameliorate acid soils in rice cultivation. The findings of this study are being validated in our ongoing field trials.

  10. Frequent Canned Food Use is Positively Associated with Nutrient-Dense Food Group Consumption and Higher Nutrient Intakes in US Children and Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin B. Comerford

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In addition to fresh foods, many canned foods also provide nutrient-dense dietary options, often at a lower price, with longer storage potential. The aim of this study was to compare nutrient-dense food group intake and nutrient intake between different levels of canned food consumption in the US. Consumption data were collected for this cross-sectional study from 9761 American canned food consumers (aged two years and older from The NPD Group’s National Eating Trends® (NET® database during 2011–2013; and the data were assessed using The NPD Group’s Nutrient Intake Database. Canned food consumers were placed into three groups: Frequent Can Users (≥6 canned items/week; n = 2584, Average Can Users (3–5 canned items/week; n = 4445, and Infrequent Can Users (≤2 canned items/week; n = 2732. The results provide evidence that Frequent Can Users consume more nutrient-dense food groups such as fruits, vegetables, dairy products, and protein-rich foods, and also have higher intakes of 17 essential nutrients including the shortfall nutrients—potassium, calcium and fiber—when compared to Infrequent Can Users. Therefore, in addition to fresh foods, diets higher in nutrient-dense canned food consumption can also offer dietary options which improve nutrient intakes and the overall diet quality of Americans.

  11. Alocação de nutrientes em plantios de eucalipto no Brasil Nutrient allocation in eucalypt plantations in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reynaldo Campos Santana

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Práticas de manejo florestal podem alterar a exportação de nutrientes do sítio. Este trabalho teve por objetivo estimar o conteúdo de nutrientes em árvores de eucalipto, em diferentes regiões do Brasil. Avaliou-se a influência de algumas características climáticas na produção e no conteúdo de nutrientes na biomassa, utilizando-se o banco de dados do Programa de Pesquisa em Solos e Nutrição de Eucalipto do Departamento de Solos - UFV. As características climáticas foram um importante componente dos modelos. A produção de biomassa e o conteúdo de nutrientes foram positivamente relacionados entre si e ambos foram menores nas regiões com menor disponibilidade de água. As estimativas apontaram que até à idade de 4,5 anos pós-plantio acumulam-se as maiores proporções de nutrientes (68 % do N, 69 % do P, 67 % do K, 63 % do Ca e 68 % do Mg para a idade de corte de 6,5 anos. Isto indica que, após 4,5 anos, o potencial de resposta à aplicação de fertilizantes é menor. O conteúdo estimado de nutrientes acumulados na copa e na casca representou 65, 70, 64, 79 e 79 %, de N, P, K, Ca e Mg, respectivamente, até 6,5 anos de idade. Assim, a colheita apenas do lenho representa expressiva redução na exportação desses nutrientes proporcionando maior sustentabilidade da produção nas plantações de eucalipto.Forest management practices can alter nutrient exportation from the site. The purpose of this study was to estimate nutrient contents in the aboveground biomass of eucalyptus plantations in Brazil. The influence of key climatic variables on eucalypt productivity and nutrient content was evaluated, using the database from the Reserch Programa on Soil and Eucalyptus Nutrition of the Soil Science, Departament - Federal University of Viçosa, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Climatic characteristics were an important component of the models. In regions with low water availability the nutrient accumulation in aboveground biomass as

  12. Incorporating hydrologic variability into nutrient spiraling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Martin W.

    2005-09-01

    Nutrient spiraling describes the path of a nutrient molecule within a stream ecosystem, combining the biochemical cycling processes with the downstream driving force of stream discharge. To date, nutrient spiraling approaches have been hampered by their inability to deal with fluctuating flows, as most studies have characterized nutrient retention within only a small range of discharges near base flow. Here hydrologic variability is incorporated into nutrient spiraling theory by drawing on the fluvial geomorphic concept of effective discharge. The effective discharge for nutrient retention is proposed to be that discharge which, over long periods of time, is responsible for the greatest portion of nutrient retention. A developed analytical model predicts that the effective discharge for nutrient retention will equal the modal discharge for small streams or those with little discharge variability. As modal discharge increases or discharge variability increases, the effective discharge becomes increasingly less than the modal discharge. In addition to the effective discharge, a new metric is proposed, the functionally equivalent discharge, which is the single discharge that will reproduce the magnitude of nutrient retention generated by the full hydrologic frequency distribution when all discharge takes place at that rate. The functionally equivalent discharge was found to be the same as the modal discharge at low hydrologic variability, but increasingly different from the modal discharge at large hydrologic variability. The functionally equivalent discharge provides a simple quantitative means of incorporating hydrologic variability into long-term nutrient budgets.

  13. The influence of dietary and whole-body nutrient content on the excretion of a vertebrate consumer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher M Dalton

    Full Text Available In many contexts, nutrient excretion by consumers can impact ecosystems by altering the availability of limiting nutrients. Variation in nutrient excretion can be predicted by mass balance models, most of which are premised on two key ideas: (1 consumers maintain fixed whole-body nutrient content (i.e., %N and %P, so-called fixed homeostasis; (2 if dietary nutrients are not matched to whole-body nutrients, excesses of any nutrient are released as excretion to maintain fixed homeostasis. Mass balance models thus predict that consumer excretion should be positively correlated with diet nutrients and negatively correlated with whole-body nutrients. Recent meta-analyses and field studies, however, have often failed to find these expected patterns, potentially because of a confounding influence-flexibility in whole-body nutrient content with diet quality (flexible homeostasis. Here, we explore the impact of flexible homeostasis on nutrient excretion by comparing the N and P excretion of four genetically diverged Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata populations when reared on diets of variable P content. As predicted by mass balance, P excretion increased on the high-P diet, but, contrary to the notion of fixed homeostasis, guppy whole-body %P also increased on the high-P diet. While there was no overall correlation between excretion nutrients and whole-body nutrients, when the effect of diet on both whole-body and excretion nutrients was included, we detected the expected negative correlation between whole-body N:P and excretion N:P. This last result suggests that mass balance can predict excretion rates within species, but only if dietary effects on whole-body nutrient content are controlled. Flexible homeostasis can obscure patterns predicted by mass balance, creating an imperative to accurately capture an organism's diet quality in predicting its excretion rate.

  14. Phytoplankton Diversity Effects on Community Biomass and Stability along Nutrient Gradients in a Eutrophic Lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Tian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning is a central issue in ecology, but how this relationship is affected by nutrient stress is still unknown. In this study, we analyzed the phytoplankton diversity effects on community biomass and stability along nutrient gradients in an artificial eutrophic lake. Four nutrient gradients, varying from slightly eutrophic to highly eutrophic states, were designed by adjusting the amount of polluted water that flowed into the lake. Mean phytoplankton biomass, species richness, and Shannon diversity index all showed significant differences among the four nutrient gradients. Phytoplankton community biomass was correlated with diversity (both species richness and Shannon diversity index, varying from positive to negative along the nutrient gradients. The influence of phytoplankton species richness on resource use efficiency (RUE also changed from positive to negative along the nutrient gradients. However, the influence of phytoplankton Shannon diversity on RUE was not significant. Both phytoplankton species richness and Shannon diversity had a negative influence on community turnover (measured as community dissimilarity, i.e., a positive diversity–stability relationship. Furthermore, phytoplankton spatial stability decreased along the nutrient gradients in the lake. With increasing nutrient concentrations, the variability (standard deviation of phytoplankton community biomass increased more rapidly than the average total biomass. Results in this study will be helpful in understanding the phytoplankton diversity effects on ecosystem functioning and how these effects are influenced by nutrient conditions in aquatic ecosystems.

  15. Aeolian dust nutrient contributions increase with substrate age in semi-arid ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coble, A. A.; Hart, S. C.; Ketterer, M. E.; Newman, G. S.

    2013-12-01

    Rock-derived nutrients supplied by mineral weathering become depleted over time, and without an additional nutrient source the ecosystem may eventually regress or reach a terminal steady state. Previous studies have demonstrated that aeolian dust act as parent materials of soils and important nutrients to plants in arid regions, but the relative importance of these exogenous nutrients to the function of dry ecosystems during soil development is uncertain. Here, using strontium isotopes as a tracer and a well-constrained, three million year old substrate age gradient, we show that aeolian-derived nutrients become increasingly important to plant-available soil pools and tree (Pinus edulis) growth during the latter stages of soil development in a semi-arid climate. Furthermore, the depth of nutrient uptake increased on older substrates, suggesting that trees in arid regions acquire nutrients from greater depths as ecosystem development progresses presumably in response to nutrient depletion in the more weathered surface soils. Our results contribute to the unification of biogeochemical theory by demonstrating the similarity in roles of atmospheric nutrient inputs during ecosystem development across contrasting climates.

  16. Advances and challenges for nutrient management in china in the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, J T; Ma, L; Oenema, O; Dou, Z; Zhang, F S

    2013-07-01

    Managing agricultural nutrients to provide a safe and secure food supply while protecting the environment remains one of the great challenges for the 21st century. The fourth International Nutrient Management Symposium (INMS), held in 2011 at the University of Delaware, addressed these issues via presentations, panel sessions, and field tours focused on latest technologies and policies available to increase nutrient use efficiency. Participants from the United States, Europe, Canada, and China discussed global trends and challenges, balancing food security and the environment in countries with struggling and emerging economics, nutrient management and transport at the catchment scale, new technologies for managing fertilizer and manure nutrients, and adaptive nutrient management practices for farm to watershed scales. A particular area of interest at the fourth INMS was nutrient management progress and challenges in China over the past 40 years. China's food security challenges and rapidly growing economy have led to major advances in agricultural production systems but also created severe nutrient pollution problems. This special collection of papers from the fourth INMS gives an overview of the remarkable progress China has made in nutrient management and highlights major challenges and changes in agri-environmental policies and practices needed today. Lessons learned in China are of value to both developing and developed countries facing the common task of providing adequate food for an expanding world population, while protecting air and water quality and restoring damaged ecosystems. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  17. The effects of leaf litter nutrient pulses on Alliaria petiolata performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert W. Heckman

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Nutrient pulses can facilitate species establishment and spread in new habitats, particularly when one species more effectively uses that nutrient pulse. Biological differences in nutrient acquisition between native and exotic species may facilitate invasions into a variety of habitats including deciduous forest understories. Alliaria petiolata (Bieb. Cavara & Grande is an important invader of deciduous forest understories throughout much of North America. These understory communities contain many species which perform the majority of their growth and reproduction before canopy closure in spring. Because A. petiolata is a wintergreen biennial that can be active during autumn and winter, it may utilize nutrients released from decaying leaf litter before its competitors. To investigate this we manipulated the timing of leaf litter addition (fall or spring and experimentally simulated the nutrient pulse from decaying leaves using artificial fertilizer. To determine whether A. petiolata affected the abundance of understory competitors, we also removed A. petiolata from one treatment. A. petiolata that received early nutrients exhibited greater growth. Treatments receiving fall leaf litter or artificial nutrients had greater A. petiolata adult biomass than plots receiving spring nutrient additions (leaf litter or artificial nutrients. However, fall leaf litter addition had no effect on the richness of competitor species. Thus, wintergreen phenology may contribute to the spread of A. petiolata through deciduous forest understories, but may not explain community-level impacts of A. petiolata in deciduous forests.

  18. Proposal for a method to estimate nutrient shock effects in bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azevedo Nuno F

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plating methods are still the golden standard in microbiology; however, some studies have shown that these techniques can underestimate the microbial concentrations and diversity. A nutrient shock is one of the mechanisms proposed to explain this phenomenon. In this study, a tentative method to assess nutrient shock effects was tested. Findings To estimate the extent of nutrient shock effects, two strains isolated from tap water (Sphingomonas capsulata and Methylobacterium sp. and two culture collection strains (E. coli CECT 434 and Pseudomonas fluorescens ATCC 13525 were exposed both to low and high nutrient conditions for different times and then placed in low nutrient medium (R2A and rich nutrient medium (TSA. The average improvement (A.I. of recovery between R2A and TSA for the different times was calculated to more simply assess the difference obtained in culturability between each medium. As expected, A.I. was higher when cells were plated after the exposition to water than when they were recovered from high-nutrient medium showing the existence of a nutrient shock for the diverse bacteria used. S. capsulata was the species most affected by this phenomenon. Conclusions This work provides a method to consistently determine the extent of nutrient shock effects on different microorganisms and hence quantify the ability of each species to deal with sudden increases in substrate concentration.

  19. Response of Vallisneria natans to Increasing Nitrogen Loading Depends on Sediment Nutrient Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiao Gu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available High nitrogen (N loading may contribute to recession of submerged macrophytes in shallow lakes; yet, its influences vary depending on environmental conditions. In August 2013, we conducted a 28-day factorial-designed field mesocosm experiment in Lake Taihu at the Taihu Laboratory for Lake Ecosystem Research (TLLER to examine the effects of high N loading on the growth of Vallisneria natans in systems with contrasting sediment types. We ran the experiments with two levels of nutrient loading—present-day external nutrient loading (average P: 5 μg·L−1·day−1, N: 130 μg·L−1·day−1 and P: 5 μg·L−1·day−1, and with three times higher N loading (N: 390 μg·L−1·day−1 and used sediment with two contrasting nutrient levels. V. natans growth decreased significantly with increasing N loading, the effect being dependent, however, on the nutrient status of the sediment. In low nutrient sediment, relative growth rates, leaf biomass and root biomass decreased by 11.9%, 18.2% and 23.3%, respectively, at high rather than low N loading, while the decline was larger (44.0%, 32.7% and 41.8%, respectively when using high nutrient sediment. The larger effect in the nutrient-rich sediment may reflect an observed higher shading of phytoplankton and excess nutrient accumulation in plant tissue, though potential toxic effects of the high-nutrient sediment may also have contributed. Our study confirms the occurrence of a negative effect of increasing N loading on submerged plant growth in shallow nutrient-enriched lakes and further shows that this effect is augmented when the plants grow in nutrient-rich sediment. External N control may, therefore, help to protect or restore submerged macrophytes, especially when the sediment is enriched with nutrients and organic matter.

  20. Our Nutrient World. The challenge to produce more food and energy with less pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutton, M.A.; Bleeker, A.; Howard, C.M.; Bekunda, M.; Grizzetti, B.; De Vries, W.; Van Grinsven, H.J.M.; Abrol, Y.P.; Adhya, T.K.; Billen, G.; Davidson, E.A.; Datta, A.; Diaz, R.; Erisman, J.W.; Liu, X.J.; Oenema, O.; Palm, C.; Raghuram, N.; Reis, S.; Scholz, R.W.; Sims, T.; Westhoek, H.; Zhang, F.S.

    2013-06-01

    This report draws attention to the multiple benefits and threats of human nutrient use. It highlights how nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers are estimated to feed half the human population alive today, and how they will remain critical in the future, especially given increasing population and potential bioenergy needs. Yet high nutrient use has created a web of pollution affecting the environment and human health, while insufficient access to nutrients has led to soil degradation, causing food insecurity and exacerbating loss of natural ecosystems. The report shows how these problems cross all global change challenges, threatening water, air and soil quality, climate balance, stratospheric ozone and biodiversity. The risk of depleting global phosphorus sources over the next century is examined and concluded to be much less than suggested by some previous publications. Remaining risks concern the distribution of available nutrient reserves and the long-term needs of humanity (including for potassium, zinc and other nutrients), all of which support the environmental and food-security case for better nutrient stewardship. Ten key actions are identified that would help maximize nutrient benefits for humanity, while minimizing the many threats. Improving nutrient use efficiency across the full supply chain is identified as a shared challenge for all countries that links these key actions, while contributing to the Green Economy. Examples of current national and regional nutrient policies are illustrated showing many positive actions. However, it is concluded that a more joined-up approach addressing the 'Nutrient Nexus' would be expected to deliver substantial synergies, motivating common action while minimizing trade-offs. The report highlights that there is still no intergovernmental framework to address the multiple challenges for nitrogen, phosphorus and other nutrients. A blueprint for such a framework is outlined, considering the institutional options

  1. Our Nutrient World. The challenge to produce more food and energy with less pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutton, M. A.; Bleeker, A.; Howard, C. M.; Bekunda, M.; Grizzetti, B.; De Vries, W.; Van Grinsven, H. J.M.; Abrol, Y. P.; Adhya, T. K.; Billen, G.; Davidson, E. A.; Datta, A.; Diaz, R.; Erisman, J. W.; Liu, X. J.; Oenema, O.; Palm, C.; Raghuram, N.; Reis, S.; Scholz, R. W.; Sims, T.; Westhoek, H.; Zhang, F. S.

    2013-06-01

    This report draws attention to the multiple benefits and threats of human nutrient use. It highlights how nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers are estimated to feed half the human population alive today, and how they will remain critical in the future, especially given increasing population and potential bioenergy needs. Yet high nutrient use has created a web of pollution affecting the environment and human health, while insufficient access to nutrients has led to soil degradation, causing food insecurity and exacerbating loss of natural ecosystems. The report shows how these problems cross all global change challenges, threatening water, air and soil quality, climate balance, stratospheric ozone and biodiversity. The risk of depleting global phosphorus sources over the next century is examined and concluded to be much less than suggested by some previous publications. Remaining risks concern the distribution of available nutrient reserves and the long-term needs of humanity (including for potassium, zinc and other nutrients), all of which support the environmental and food-security case for better nutrient stewardship. Ten key actions are identified that would help maximize nutrient benefits for humanity, while minimizing the many threats. Improving nutrient use efficiency across the full supply chain is identified as a shared challenge for all countries that links these key actions, while contributing to the Green Economy. Examples of current national and regional nutrient policies are illustrated showing many positive actions. However, it is concluded that a more joined-up approach addressing the 'Nutrient Nexus' would be expected to deliver substantial synergies, motivating common action while minimizing trade-offs. The report highlights that there is still no intergovernmental framework to address the multiple challenges for nitrogen, phosphorus and other nutrients. A blueprint for such a framework is outlined, considering the institutional options. The

  2. Seasonal changes in temperature and nutrient control of photosynthesis, respiration and growth of natural phytoplankton communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stæhr, P. A.; Sand-Jensen, K.

    2006-01-01

    cultures in seasons of low ambient nutrient availability. 3. Temperature stimulation of growth and metabolism was higher at low than high ambient temperature showing that long-term temperature acclimation of the phytoplankton community before the experiments was of great importance for the measured rates...... +2, +4 and +6 °C for 2 weeks with and without addition of extra inorganic nutrients. 2. Rates of photosynthesis, respiration and growth generally increased with temperature, but this effect was strongly enhanced by high nutrient availability, and therefore was most evident for nutrient amended......1. To investigate the influence of elevated temperatures and nutrients on photosynthesis, respiration and growth of natural phytoplankton assemblages, water was collected from a eutrophic lake in spring, summer, autumn, winter and the following spring and exposed to ambient temperature and ambient...

  3. Response of tropical peat swamp forest tree species seedlings to macro nutrients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Wira Yuwati

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Efforts of restoration of degraded tropical peat swamp forest were facing constraints due to the low available nutrient level of peat. The transplanted peat swamp forest species seedlings experienced low survival rate and poor growth performance. This study aimed to demonstrate the response of ten tropical peat swamp forest species seedlings whether climax and pioneer species to macro-nutrients addition in the nursery. The growth performance of climax and pioneer tropical peat swamp species seedlings was recorded following addition of macro nutrients of Nitrogen (N, Phosphorus(P, Potassium(K and Dolomitic limestone (CaMg. The result showed that Alstonia spatulata and Parartocarpus venenosus showed positive growth response following macro nutrients addition. This study concluded that tropical peat swamp pioneer species has lower necessity for macro-nutrients addition than tropical peat swamp climax species.

  4. Unravelling the pH-dependence of a molecular photocatalytic system for hydrogen production† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5sc01349f Click here for additional data file.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor, Ernest; Gross, Manuela A.; Selim, Shababa

    2015-01-01

    Photocatalytic systems for the reduction of aqueous protons are strongly pH-dependent, but the origin of this dependency is still not fully understood. We have studied the effect of different degrees of acidity on the electron transfer dynamics and catalysis taking place in a homogeneous photocatalytic system composed of a phosphonated ruthenium tris(bipyridine) dye (RuP) and a nickel bis(diphosphine) electrocatalyst (NiP) in an aqueous ascorbic acid solution. Our approach is based on transient absorption spectroscopy studies of the efficiency of photo-reduction of RuP and NiP correlated with pH-dependent photocatalytic H2 production and the degree of catalyst protonation. The influence of these factors results in an observed optimum photoactivity at pH 4.5 for the RuP–NiP system. The electron transfer from photo-reduced RuP to NiP is efficient and independent of the pH value of the medium. At pH RuP photo-reduction by the sacrificial electron donor, ascorbic acid. At pH >4.5, the efficiency of the system is limited by the poor protonation of NiP, which inhibits its ability to reduce protons to hydrogen. We have therefore developed a rational strategy utilising transient absorption spectroscopy combined with bulk pH titration, electrocatalytic and photocatalytic experiments to disentangle the complex pH-dependent activity of the homogenous RuP–NiP photocatalytic system, which can be widely applied to other photocatalytic systems. PMID:28717491

  5. Optimizing nutrient management for farm systems

    OpenAIRE

    Goulding, Keith; Jarvis, Steve; Whitmore, Andy

    2007-01-01

    Increasing the inputs of nutrients has played a major role in increasing the supply of food to a continually growing world population. However, focusing attention on the most important nutrients, such as nitrogen (N), has in some cases led to nutrient imbalances, some excess applications especially of N, inefficient use and large losses to the environment with impacts on air and water quality, biodiversity and human health. In contrast, food exports from the developing to the developed world ...

  6. Methane productivity and nutrient recovery from manure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, H.B.

    2003-07-01

    The efficient recovery of energy and improvements in the handling of nutrients from manure have attracted increased research focus during recent decades. Anaerobic digestion is a key process in any strategy for the recovery of energy, while slurry separation is an important component in an improved nutrient-handling strategy. This thesis is divided into two parts: the first deals mainly with nutrient recovery strategies and the second examines biological degradation processes, including controlled anaerobic digestion. (au)

  7. FOLIAR NUTRIENT CONTENTS AND FRUIT YIELD IN CUSTARD APPLE PROGENIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Sérgio Lima e Silva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Foliar nutrient contents are evaluated in several fruit trees with many objectives. Leaf analysis constitutes a way of evaluating the nutritional requirements of crops. Due to the positive impact that fertilizers have on crop yields, researchers frequently try to evaluate the correlations between yield and foliar nutrient contents. This work's objective was to present fruit yields from the 4th to the 6th cropping seasons, evaluate foliar nutrient contents (on the 5th cropping season, and estimate the correlations between these two groups of traits for 20 half-sibling custard apple tree progenies. The progenies were evaluated in a random block design with five replicates and four plants per plot. One hundred leaves were collected from the middle third of the canopy (in height of each of four plants in each plot. The leaves were collected haphazardly, i.e., in a random manner, but without using a drawing mechanism. In the analysis of variance, the nutrient concentrations in the leaves from plants of each plot were represented by the average of four plants in the plot. Fruit yield in the various progenies did not depend on cropping season; progeny A4 was the most productive. No Spearman correlation was found between leaf nutrient concentrations and fruit yield. Increased nutrient concentrations in the leaves were progeny-dependent, i.e., with regard to Na (progenies FE5 and JG1, Ca (progeny A4, Mg (progeny SM7, N (progeny A3, P (progeny M, and K contents (progeny JG3. Spearman's correlation was negative between Na-Mg, Na-Ca, and Mg-P contents, and positive between Mg-Ca and N-K contents.

  8. Understanding Stoichiometric Controls in Nutrient Processing Along the River Continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garayburu-Caruso, V. A.; Gonzalez-Pinzon, R.; Van Horn, D. J.; Covino, T. P.

    2016-12-01

    Eutrophication is the second most common cause of water impairment across the U.S. Nutrient retention in streams is controlled by physical and biochemical processes, including biomass availability and stoichiometric limitations. Decoupling the interactions between hydrology, nutrient supply and biogeochemical processes remains challenging for the scientific community due to lack of mechanistic understanding. Consequently, more knowledge regarding optimal controls for nutrient retention is needed to implement better management and restoration practices. We conducted column experiments to investigate how stoichiometric limitations influence nutrient spiraling in shallow sediment-water interactions along representative sites of the Jemez River-Rio Grande continuum (which spans eight stream orders), in New Mexico, USA. In each stream order we incubated six columns packed with different sediments (i.e., Silica Cone Density Sand ASTM D 1556 (0.075-2.00 mm), gravel (>2mm) and native sediments) from each site for three months. We performed two laboratory tracer experiments using columns of each substrate under identical flow conditions. In the first experiment we added a short-term pulse of reactive and conservative tracers (i.e. NaNO3 and NaBr). In the second experiment we added a short-term pulse of NaBr and nutrients following Redfield's ratio (106C:16N:1P). We estimated uptake kinetics using the Tracer Additions for Spiraling Curve Characterization (TASCC) method and evaluated how ideal stoichiometric conditions controlled efficient nutrient retention along fluvial networks. Our results suggest that biological uptake of nitrate is limited by nitrogen in headwater streams and by phosphorus and carbon in larger stream orders.

  9. Nutrient-dependent/pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution: a model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Vaughn Kohl

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prenatal migration of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH neurosecretory neurons allows nutrients and human pheromones to alter GnRH pulsatility, which modulates the concurrent maturation of the neuroendocrine, reproductive, and central nervous systems, thus influencing the development of ingestive behavior, reproductive sexual behavior, and other behaviors. Methods: This model details how chemical ecology drives adaptive evolution via: (1 ecological niche construction, (2 social niche construction, (3 neurogenic niche construction, and (4 socio-cognitive niche construction. This model exemplifies the epigenetic effects of olfactory/pheromonal conditioning, which alters genetically predisposed, nutrient-dependent, hormone-driven mammalian behavior and choices for pheromones that control reproduction via their effects on luteinizing hormone (LH and systems biology. Results: Nutrients are metabolized to pheromones that condition behavior in the same way that food odors condition behavior associated with food preferences. The epigenetic effects of olfactory/pheromonal input calibrate and standardize molecular mechanisms for genetically predisposed receptor-mediated changes in intracellular signaling and stochastic gene expression in GnRH neurosecretory neurons of brain tissue. For example, glucose and pheromones alter the hypothalamic secretion of GnRH and LH. A form of GnRH associated with sexual orientation in yeasts links control of the feedback loops and developmental processes required for nutrient acquisition, movement, reproduction, and the diversification of species from microbes to man. Conclusion: An environmental drive evolved from that of nutrient ingestion in unicellular organisms to that of pheromone-controlled socialization in insects. In mammals, food odors and pheromones cause changes in hormones such as LH, which has developmental affects on pheromone-controlled sexual behavior in nutrient-dependent reproductively

  10. Nutrient content of biomass components of Hamlin sweet orange trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattos Jr. Dirceu

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of the nutrient distribution in trees is important to establish sound nutrient management programs for citrus production. Six-year-old Hamlin orange trees [Citrus sinensis (L. Osb.] on Swingle citrumelo [Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf. x Citrus paradisi Macfad.] rootstock, grown on a sandy Entisol in Florida were harvested to investigate the macro and micronutrient distributions of biomass components. The biomass of aboveground components of the tree represented the largest proportion of the total. The distribution of the total tree dry weight was: fruit = 30.3%, leaf = 9.7%, twig = 26.1%, trunk = 6.3%, and root = 27.8%. Nutrient concentrations of recent mature leaves were in the adequate to optimal range as suggested by interpretation of leaf analysis in Florida. Concentrations of Ca in older leaves and woody tissues were much greater than those in the other parts of the tree. Concentrations of micronutrients were markedly greater in fibrous root as compared to woody roots. Calcium made up the greatest amount of nutrient in the citrus tree (273.8 g per tree, followed by N and K (234.7 and 181.5 g per tree, respectively. Other macronutrients comprised about 11% of the total nutrient content of trees. The contents of various nutrients in fruits were: N = 1.20, K = 1.54, P = 0.18, Ca = 0.57, Mg = 0.12, S = 0.09, B = 1.63 x 10-3, Cu = 0.39 x 10-3, Fe = 2.1 x 10-3, Mn = 0.38 10-3, and Zn = 0.40 10-3 (kg ton-1. Total contents of N, K, and P in the orchard corresponded to 66.5, 52.0, and 8.3 kg ha-1, respectively, which were equivalent to the amounts applied annually by fertilization.

  11. Numerical simulations of river discharges, nutrient flux and nutrient dispersal in Jakarta Bay, Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wulp, Simon A. van der; Damar, Ario; Ladwig, Norbert; Hesse, Karl-J.

    2016-01-01

    The present application of numerical modelling techniques provides an overview of river discharges, nutrient flux and nutrient dispersal in Jakarta Bay. A hydrological model simulated river discharges with a total of 90 to 377 m 3 s −1 entering Jakarta Bay. Daily total nitrogen and total phosphorus loads ranged from 40 to 174 tons and 14 to 60 tons, respectively. Flow model results indicate that nutrient gradients are subject to turbulent mixing by tides and advective transport through circulation driven by wind, barotropic and baroclinic pressure gradients. The bulk of nutrient loads originate from the Citarum and Cisadane rivers flowing through predominantly rural areas. Despite lower nutrient loads, river discharges from the urban area of Jakarta exhibit the highest impact of nutrient concentrations in the near shore area of Jakarta Bay and show that nutrient concentrations were not only regulated by nutrient loads but were strongly regulated by initial river concentrations and local flow characteristics. - Highlights: • Full overview of river discharges, nutrient flux and nutrient levels in Jakarta Bay • Important overview of nutrient flux from individual rivers • Simulations identify the principal drivers of water circulation and nutrient gradient. • Nutrient dispersion model includes the local effects of the Java Sea current system.

  12. Hydrothermal carbonization of food waste for nutrient recovery and reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idowu, Ifeolu; Li, Liang; Flora, Joseph R V; Pellechia, Perry J; Darko, Samuel A; Ro, Kyoung S; Berge, Nicole D

    2017-11-01

    Food waste represents a rather large and currently underutilized source of potentially available and reusable nutrients. Laboratory-scale experiments evaluating the hydrothermal carbonization of food wastes collected from restaurants were conducted to understand how changes in feedstock composition and carbonization process conditions influence primary and secondary nutrient fate. Results from this work indicate that at all evaluated reaction times and temperatures, the majority of nitrogen, calcium, and magnesium remain integrated within the solid-phase, while the majority of potassium and sodium reside in the liquid-phase. The fate of phosphorus is dependent on reaction times and temperatures, with solid-phase integration increasing with higher reaction temperature and longer time. A series of leaching experiments to determine potential solid-phase nutrient availability were also conducted and indicate that, at least in the short term, nitrogen release from the solids is small, while almost all of the phosphorus present in the solids produced from carbonizing at 225 and 250°C is released. At a reaction temperature of 275°C, smaller fractions of the solid-phase total phosphorus are released as reaction times increase, likely due to increased solids incorporation. Using these data, it is estimated that up to 0.96% and 2.30% of nitrogen and phosphorus-based fertilizers, respectively, in the US can be replaced by the nutrients integrated within hydrochar and liquid-phases generated from the carbonization of currently landfilled food wastes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Electronic identity

    CERN Document Server

    de Andrade, Norberto Nuno Gomes; Argles, David

    2014-01-01

    With the increasing availability of electronic services, security and a reliable means by which identity is verified is essential.Written by Norberto Andrade the first chapter of this book provides an overview of the main legal and regulatory aspects regarding electronic identity in Europe and assesses the importance of electronic identity for administration (public), business (private) and, above all, citizens. It also highlights the role of eID as a key enabler of the economy.In the second chapter Lisha Chen-Wilson, David Argles, Michele Schiano di Zenise and Gary Wills discuss the user-cent

  14. Experiences with a researcher-centric ELN† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4sc02128b Click here for additional data file.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badiola, Katrina A.; Bird, Colin; Brocklesby, William S.; Casson, John; Chapman, Richard T.; Coles, Simon J.; Cronshaw, James R.; Fisher, Adam; Gloria, Danmar; Grossel, Martin C.; Hibbert, D. Brynn; Knight, Nicola; Mapp, Lucy K.; Marazzi, Luke; Matthews, Brian; Milsted, Andy; Minns, Russell S.; Mueller, Karl T.; Murphy, Kelly; Parkinson, Tim; Quinnell, Rosanne; Robinson, John S.; Robertson, Murray N.; Robins, Michael; Springate, Emma; Tizzard, Graham; Todd, Matthew H.; Williamson, Alice E.; Willoughby, Cerys; Yang, Erica; Ylioja, Paul M.

    2015-01-01

    Electronic Laboratory Notebooks (ELNs) are progressively replacing traditional paper books in both commercial research establishments and academic institutions. University researchers require specific features from ELNs, given the need to promote cross-institutional collaborative working, to enable the sharing of procedures and results, and to facilitate publication. The LabTrove ELN, which we use as our exemplar, was designed to be researcher-centric (i.e., not only aimed at the individual researcher's basic needs rather than to a specific institutional or subject or disciplinary agenda, but also able to be tailored because it is open source). LabTrove is being used in a heterogeneous set of academic laboratories, for a range of purposes, including analytical chemistry, X-ray studies, drug discovery and a biomaterials project. Researchers use the ELN for recording experiments, preserving data collected, and for project coordination. This perspective article describes the experiences of those researchers from several viewpoints, demonstrating how a web-based open source electronic notebook can meet the diverse needs of academic researchers. PMID:29308130

  15. Reducing Runoff Loss of Applied Nutrients in Oil Palm Cultivation Using Controlled-Release Fertilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Controlled-release fertilizers are expected to minimize nutrient loss from crop fields due to their potential to supply plant-available nutrients in synchrony with crop requirements. The evaluation of the efficiency of these fertilizers in tropical oil palm agroecological conditions is not yet fully explored. In this study, a one-year field trial was conducted to determine the impact of fertilization with water soluble conventional mixture and controlled-release fertilizers on runoff loss of nutrients from an immature oil palm field. Soil and nutrient loss were monitored for one year in 2012/2013 under erosion plots of 16 m2 on 10% slope gradient. Mean sediments concentration in runoff amounted to about 6.41 t ha−1. Conventional mixture fertilizer posed the greatest risk of nutrient loss in runoff following fertilization due to elevated nitrogen (6.97%, potassium (13.37%, and magnesium (14.76% as percentage of applied nutrients. In contrast, this risk decreased with the application of controlled-release fertilizers, representing 0.75–2.44% N, 3.55–5.09% K, and 4.35–5.43% Mg loss. Meanwhile, nutrient loss via eroded sediments was minimal compared with loss through runoff. This research demonstrates that the addition of controlled-release fertilizers reduced the runoff risks of nutrient loss possibly due to their slow-release properties.

  16. Numerical simulations of river discharges, nutrient flux and nutrient dispersal in Jakarta Bay, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Wulp, Simon A; Damar, Ario; Ladwig, Norbert; Hesse, Karl-J

    2016-09-30

    The present application of numerical modelling techniques provides an overview of river discharges, nutrient flux and nutrient dispersal in Jakarta Bay. A hydrological model simulated river discharges with a total of 90 to 377m(3)s(-1) entering Jakarta Bay. Daily total nitrogen and total phosphorus loads ranged from 40 to 174tons and 14 to 60tons, respectively. Flow model results indicate that nutrient gradients are subject to turbulent mixing by tides and advective transport through circulation driven by wind, barotropic and baroclinic pressure gradients. The bulk of nutrient loads originate from the Citarum and Cisadane rivers flowing through predominantly rural areas. Despite lower nutrient loads, river discharges from the urban area of Jakarta exhibit the highest impact of nutrient concentrations in the near shore area of Jakarta Bay and show that nutrient concentrations were not only regulated by nutrient loads but were strongly regulated by initial river concentrations and local flow characteristics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Electronics and electronic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Olsen, George H

    1987-01-01

    Electronics and Electronic Systems explores the significant developments in the field of electronics and electronic devices. This book is organized into three parts encompassing 11 chapters that discuss the fundamental circuit theory and the principles of analog and digital electronics. This book deals first with the passive components of electronic systems, such as resistors, capacitors, and inductors. These topics are followed by a discussion on the analysis of electronic circuits, which involves three ways, namely, the actual circuit, graphical techniques, and rule of thumb. The remaining p

  18. Single-atom catalysts for CO2 electroreduction with significant activity and selectivity improvements† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c6sc03911a Click here for additional data file.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, Seoin; Lim, Juhyung; Kim, Na-Young; Kim, Yong-Hyun

    2017-01-01

    A single-atom catalyst (SAC) has an electronic structure that is very different from its bulk counterparts, and has shown an unexpectedly high specific activity with a significant reduction in noble metal usage for CO oxidation, fuel cell and hydrogen evolution applications, although physical origins of such performance enhancements are still poorly understood. Herein, by means of density functional theory (DFT) calculations, we for the first time investigate the great potential of single atom catalysts for CO2 electroreduction applications. In particular, we study a single transition metal atom anchored on defective graphene with single or double vacancies, denoted M@sv-Gr or M@dv-Gr, where M = Ag, Au, Co, Cu, Fe, Ir, Ni, Os, Pd, Pt, Rh or Ru, as a CO2 reduction catalyst. Many SACs are indeed shown to be highly selective for the CO2 reduction reaction over a competitive H2 evolution reaction due to favorable adsorption of carboxyl (*COOH) or formate (*OCHO) over hydrogen (*H) on the catalysts. On the basis of free energy profiles, we identified several promising candidate materials for different products; Ni@dv-Gr (limiting potential U L = –0.41 V) and Pt@dv-Gr (–0.27 V) for CH3OH production, and Os@dv-Gr (–0.52 V) and Ru@dv-Gr (–0.52 V) for CH4 production. In particular, the Pt@dv-Gr catalyst shows remarkable reduction in the limiting potential for CH3OH production compared to any existing catalysts, synthesized or predicted. To understand the origin of the activity enhancement of SACs, we find that the lack of an atomic ensemble for adsorbate binding and the unique electronic structure of the single atom catalysts as well as orbital interaction play an important role, contributing to binding energies of SACs that deviate considerably from the conventional scaling relation of bulk transition metals. PMID:28451248

  19. Microbial enzyme activity, nutrient uptake and nutrient limitation in forested streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian H. Hill; Frank H. McCormick; Bret C. Harvey; Sherri L. Johnson; Melvin L. Warren; Colleen M. Elonen

    2010-01-01

    The flow of organic matter and nutrients from catchments into the streams draining them and the biogeochemical transformations of organic matter and nutrients along flow paths are fundamental processes instreams (Hynes,1975; Fisher, Sponseller & Heffernan, 2004). Microbial biofilms are often the primary interface for organic matter and nutrient uptake and...

  20. Assessment of Soil Nutrient Status of Identified Soil Units in Selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Technology and Education in Nigeria ... Assessment of Soil Nutrient Status of Identified Soil Units in Selected Communities in Three Local Government Areas ... Available phosphorus content in the soils is generally high with values ...