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Sample records for nutrient amendments stimulated

  1. Organic amendments and nutrient leaching in soil columns

    Science.gov (United States)

    The lack of nutrient build up in reclaimed coal mine soils would therefore require additional inputs to maintain plant productivity and establishment of a healthy ecosystem. In a greenhouse experiment, reclaimed coal mine soil were amended with fresh and composted poultry manure at the rates based ...

  2. Enhancement of microbial 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene transformation with increased toxicity by exogenous nutrient amendment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Shih-Hsiung; Hsu, Duen-Wei; Lin, Chia-Ying; Kao, Chih-Ming; Huang, Da-Ji; Chien, Chih-Ching; Chen, Ssu-Ching; Tsai, Isheng Jason; Chen, Chien-Cheng

    2017-04-01

    In this study, the bacterial strain Citrobacter youngae strain E4 was isolated from 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT)-contaminated soil and used to assess the capacity of TNT transformation with/without exogenous nutrient amendments. C. youngae E4 poorly degraded TNT without an exogenous amino nitrogen source, whereas the addition of an amino nitrogen source considerably increased the efficacy of TNT transformation in a dose-dependent manner. The enhanced TNT transformation of C. youngae E4 was mediated by increased cell growth and up-regulation of TNT nitroreductases, including NemA, NfsA and NfsB. This result indicates that the increase in TNT transformation by C. youngae E4 via nitrogen nutrient stimulation is a cometabolism process. Consistently, TNT transformation was effectively enhanced when C. youngae E4 was subjected to a TNT-contaminated soil slurry in the presence of an exogenous amino nitrogen amendment. Thus, effective enhancement of TNT transformation via the coordinated inoculation of the nutrient-responsive C. youngae E4 and an exogenous nitrogen amendment might be applicable for the remediation of TNT-contaminated soil. Although the TNT transformation was significantly enhanced by C. youngae E4 in concert with biostimulation, the 96-h LC50 value of the TNT transformation product mixture on the aquatic invertebrate Tigriopus japonicas was higher than the LC50 value of TNT alone. Our results suggest that exogenous nutrient amendment can enhance microbial TNT transformation; however, additional detoxification processes may be needed due to the increased toxicity after reduced TNT transformation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Compost amendment, enhanced nutrient uptake and dry matter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Field trial was conducted to assess the influence of Compost and inorganic fertilizer as well as plant growth stage on growth, nutrient uptake, dry matter accumulation and partitioning in maize crop grown on the battery waste contaminated site. Two types of compost (Mexican Sunflower (MSC) and Cassava peels (CPC) ...

  4. Summer cover crops and soil amendments to improve growth and nutrient uptake of okra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Q.R.; Li, Y.C.; Klassen, W. [University of Florida, Homestead, FL (United States). Center for Tropical Research & Education

    2006-04-15

    A pot experiment with summer cover crops and soil amendments was conducted in two consecutive years to elucidate the effects of these cover crops and soil amendments on 'Clemson Spineless 80' okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) yields and biomass production, and the uptake and distribution of soil nutrients and trace elements. The cover crops were sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), velvetbean (Mucuna deeringiana), and sorghum sudan-grass (Sorghum bicolor x S. bicolor var. sudanense) with fallow as the control. The organic soil amendments were biosolids (sediment from wastewater plants), N-Viro Soil (a mixture of biosolids and coal ash), coal ash (a combustion by-product from power plants), co-compost (a mixture of 3 biosolids: 7 yard waste), and yard waste compost (mainly from leaves and branches of trees and shrubs, and grass clippings) with a soil-incorporated cover crop as the control. As a subsequent vegetable crop, okra was grown after the cover crops, alone or together with the organic soil amendments, had been incorporated. All of the cover crops, except sorghum sudangrass in 2002-03, significantly improved okra fruit yields and the total biomass production. Both cover crops and soil amendments can substantially improve nutrient uptake and distribution. The results suggest that cover crops and appropriate amounts of soil amendments can be used to improve soil fertility and okra yield without adverse environmental effects or risk of contamination of the fruit. Further field studies will be required to confirm these findings.

  5. Comparative growth behaviour and leaf nutrient status of native trees planted on mine spoil with and without nutrient amendment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, A.; Singh, J.S. [Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi (India). Dept. of Botany

    2001-07-01

    The effect of nutrient amendment on growth of nine indigenous tree species planted on coal mine spoil was studied. Greater growth in fertilized plots was accompanied by greater foliar N and P concentrations in all species. The response to fertilization varied among species and was greater in non-leguminous than in leguminous species. Furthermore, leguminous species exhibited higher growth rates compared to non-leguminous species. Acacia catechu, Dalbergia sissoo, Gmelina arborea and Azadirachta indica fitted the elastic similarity model of tree growth; whereas Pongamia pinnata and Phyllanthus emblica followed the constant stress model. Tectona grandis was the only species which fitted the geometric similarity model.

  6. Nitrogenase (nifH gene expression in diazotrophic cyanobacteria in the Tropical North Atlantic in response to nutrient amendments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kendra A Turk-Kubo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The Tropical North Atlantic (TNAtl plays a critical role in the marine nitrogen cycle, as it supports high rates of biological nitrogen (N2 fixation, yet it is unclear whether this process is limited by the availability of iron (Fe, phosphate (P or is co-limited by both. In order to investigate the impact of nutrient limitation on the N2-fixing microorganisms (diazotrophs in the TNAtl, trace metal clean nutrient amendment experiments were conducted, and the expression of nitrogenase (nifH in cyanobacterial diazotrophs in response to the addition of Fe, P, or Fe+P was measured using quantitative PCR. To provide context, N2 fixation rates associated with the <10 μm community and diel nifH expression in natural cyanobacterial populations were measured. In the western TNAtl, nifH expression in Crocosphaera, Trichodesmium, and Richelia was stimulated by Fe and Fe+P additions, but not by P, implying that diazotrophs may be Fe-limited in this region. In the eastern TNAtl, nifH expression in unicellular cyanobacteria UCYN-A and Crocosphaera was stimulated by P, implying P-limitation. In equatorial waters, nifH expression in Trichodesmium was highest in Fe+P treatments, implying co-limitation in this region. Nutrient additions did not measurably stimulate N2 fixation rates in the <10 μm fraction in most of the experiments, even when upregulation of nifH expression was evident. These results demonstrate the utility of using gene expression to investigate the physiological state of natural populations of microorganisms, while underscoring the complexity of nutrient limitation on diazotrophy, and providing evidence that diazotroph populations are slow to respond to the addition of limiting nutrients and may be limited by different nutrients on basin-wide spatial scales. This has important implications for our current understanding of controls on N2 fixation in the TNAtl and may partially explain why it appears to be intermittently limited by Fe, P, or

  7. Influence of activated charcoal amendment to contaminated soil on dieldrin and nutrient uptake by cucumbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilber, Isabel [Research Institute of Organic Agriculture, Ackerstrasse, CH-5070 Frick (Switzerland); Wyss, Gabriela S., E-mail: gabriela.wyss@fibl.or [Research Institute of Organic Agriculture, Ackerstrasse, CH-5070 Frick (Switzerland); Maeder, Paul [Research Institute of Organic Agriculture, Ackerstrasse, CH-5070 Frick (Switzerland); Bucheli, Thomas D. [Agroscope Reckenholz-Taenikon Research Station ART, Reckenholzstr. 191, CH-8046 Zuerich (Switzerland); Meier, Isabel; Vogt, Lea; Schulin, Rainer [Institute of Terrestrial Ecosystems, ETH Zuerich, Universitaetstr. 16, CH-8092 Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2009-08-15

    Activated charcoal (AC) amendments have been suggested as a promising, cost-effective method to immobilize organic contaminants in soil. We performed pot experiments over two years with cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) grown in agricultural soil with 0.07 mg kg{sup -1} of weathered dieldrin and 0, 200, 400, and 800 mg AC per kg soil. Dieldrin fresh weight concentrations in cucumber fruits were significantly reduced from 0.012 to an average of 0.004 mg kg{sup -1}, and total uptake from 2 to 1 mug in the 800 mg kg{sup -1} AC treatment compared to the untreated soil. The treatment effects differed considerably between the two years, due to different meteorological conditions. AC soil treatments did neither affect the availability of nutrients to the cucumber plants nor their yield (total fruit wet weight per pot). Thus, some important prerequisites for the successful application of AC amendments to immobilize organic pollutants in agricultural soils can be considered fulfilled. - The addition of activated charcoal to soil reduced dieldrin residues in cucumbers and did not affect nutrients availability.

  8. Influence of activated charcoal amendment to contaminated soil on dieldrin and nutrient uptake by cucumbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilber, Isabel; Wyss, Gabriela S.; Maeder, Paul; Bucheli, Thomas D.; Meier, Isabel; Vogt, Lea; Schulin, Rainer

    2009-01-01

    Activated charcoal (AC) amendments have been suggested as a promising, cost-effective method to immobilize organic contaminants in soil. We performed pot experiments over two years with cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) grown in agricultural soil with 0.07 mg kg -1 of weathered dieldrin and 0, 200, 400, and 800 mg AC per kg soil. Dieldrin fresh weight concentrations in cucumber fruits were significantly reduced from 0.012 to an average of 0.004 mg kg -1 , and total uptake from 2 to 1 μg in the 800 mg kg -1 AC treatment compared to the untreated soil. The treatment effects differed considerably between the two years, due to different meteorological conditions. AC soil treatments did neither affect the availability of nutrients to the cucumber plants nor their yield (total fruit wet weight per pot). Thus, some important prerequisites for the successful application of AC amendments to immobilize organic pollutants in agricultural soils can be considered fulfilled. - The addition of activated charcoal to soil reduced dieldrin residues in cucumbers and did not affect nutrients availability.

  9. Leaf absorption of mineral nutrients in carnivorous plants stimulates root nutrient uptake

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Adamec, Lubomír

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 155, - (2002), s. 89-100 ISSN 0028-646X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6005905 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6005908 Keywords : terrestrial carnivorous plant s * utilization of prey * mineral nutrient re-utilization * leaf nutrient supply Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.945, year: 2002

  10. Characterization of biomass residues and their amendment effects on water sorption and nutrient leaching in sandy soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Letian; Tong, Zhaohui; Liu, Guodong; Li, Yuncong

    2014-07-01

    In this study, we evaluated the efficiency of two types of biomass residues (fermentation residues from a bioethanol process, FB; brown mill residues from a papermaking process, BM) as amendments for a sandy soil. The characteristics of these residues including specific surface areas, morphologies and nutrient sorption capacity were measured. The effects of biorefinery residues on water and nutrient retention were investigated in terms of different particle sizes and loadings. The results indicated that bio-based wastes FB and BM were able to significantly improve water and nutrient retention of sandy soil. The residues with larger surface areas had better water and nutrient retention capability. Specifically, in the addition of 10% loading, FB and BM was able to improve water retention by approximately 150% and 300%, while reduce 99% of ammonium and phosphate concentration in the leachate compare to the soil control, respectively. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Protection from wintertime rainfall reduces nutrient losses and greenhouse gas emissions during the decomposition of poultry and horse manure-based amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltais-Landry, Gabriel; Neufeld, Katarina; Poon, David; Grant, Nicholas; Nesic, Zoran; Smukler, Sean

    2018-04-01

    Manure-based soil amendments (herein "amendments") are important fertility sources, but differences among amendment types and management can significantly affect their nutrient value and environmental impacts. A 6-month in situ decomposition experiment was conducted to determine how protection from wintertime rainfall affected nutrient losses and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in poultry (broiler chicken and turkey) and horse amendments. Changes in total nutrient concentration were measured every 3 months, changes in ammonium (NH 4 + ) and nitrate (NO 3 - ) concentrations every month, and GHG emissions of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), methane (CH 4 ), and nitrous oxide (N 2 O) every 7-14 days. Poultry amendments maintained higher nutrient concentrations (except for K), higher emissions of CO 2 and N 2 O, and lower CH 4 emissions than horse amendments. Exposing amendments to rainfall increased total N and NH 4 + losses in poultry amendments, P losses in turkey and horse amendments, and K losses and cumulative N 2 O emissions for all amendments. However, it did not affect CO 2 or CH 4 emissions. Overall, rainfall exposure would decrease total N inputs by 37% (horse), 59% (broiler chicken), or 74% (turkey) for a given application rate (wet weight basis) after 6 months of decomposition, with similar losses for NH 4 + (69-96%), P (41-73%), and K (91-97%). This study confirms the benefits of facilities protected from rainfall to reduce nutrient losses and GHG emissions during amendment decomposition. The impact of rainfall protection on nutrient losses and GHG emissions was monitored during the decomposition of broiler chicken, turkey, and horse manure-based soil amendments. Amendments exposed to rainfall had large ammonium and potassium losses, resulting in a 37-74% decrease in N inputs when compared with amendments protected from rainfall. Nitrous oxide emissions were also higher with rainfall exposure, although it had no effect on carbon dioxide and methane emissions

  12. Nutrient depletion from rhizosphere solution by maize grown in soil with long-term compost amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Improved understanding of rhizosphere chemistry will enhance our ability to model nutrient dynamics and on a broader scale, to develop effective management strategies for applied plant nutrients. With a controlled-climate study, we evaluated in situ changes in macro-nutrient concentrations in the rh...

  13. Composting and gypsum amendment of broiler litter to reduce nutrient leaching loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Relative to fresh broiler litter, little is known about the dynamics of composted litter derived-nutrient in the ecosystem. In this study, the potential leaching losses of nutrients from compost relative to fresh broiler litter along with flue gas desulfurization (FGD gypsum), as a nutrient immobil...

  14. Insights into the biodegradation of weathered hydrocarbons in contaminated soils by bioaugmentation and nutrient stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ying; Brassington, Kirsty J; Prpich, George; Paton, Graeme I; Semple, Kirk T; Pollard, Simon J T; Coulon, Frédéric

    2016-10-01

    The potential for biotransformation of weathered hydrocarbon residues in soils collected from two commercial oil refinery sites (Soil A and B) was studied in microcosm experiments. Soil A has previously been subjected to on-site bioremediation and it was believed that no further degradation was possible while soil B has not been subjected to any treatment. A number of amendment strategies including bioaugmentation with hydrocarbon degrader, biostimulation with nutrients and soil grinding, were applied to the microcosms as putative biodegradation improvement strategies. The hydrocarbon concentrations in each amendment group were monitored throughout 112 days incubation. Microcosms treated with biostimulation (BS) and biostimulation/bioaugmentation (BS + BA) showed the most significant reductions in the aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon fractions. However, soil grinding was shown to reduce the effectiveness of a nutrient treatment on the extent of biotransformation by up to 25% and 20% for the aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon fractions, respectively. This is likely due to the disruption to the indigenous microbial community in the soil caused by grinding. Further, ecotoxicological responses (mustard seed germination and Microtox assays) showed that a reduction of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) concentration in soil was not directly correlable to reduction in toxicity; thus monitoring TPH alone is not sufficient for assessing the environmental risk of a contaminated site after remediation. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Biochar soil amendment for waste-stream diversion, nutrient holding capacity, and carbon sequestration in two contrasting soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deem, L. M.; Crow, S. E.; Deenik, J. L.; Penton, C. R.; Yanagida, J.

    2013-12-01

    Biochar is organic matter that has been pyrolized under low oxygen conditions for use as a soil amendment. Currently biochar is viewed as a way to improve soil quality (e.g., increased nutrient and water holding capacity) and increase in soil carbon (C) sequestration. The use of biochar in soil is not new, yet little is known about the underlying mechanisms that control the interactions between biochar and soil following amendment. In the past, the effects of biochar addition on crop yields, soil properties and greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes in both in-situ and controlled experiments have produced inconsistent results. These discrepancies may be uncovered in part by chemical and physical characterization of the biochar prior to amendment and identification of soil- and biochar-specific interactions. Furthermore, a more holistic consideration of the system may demonstrate the virtues of biochar amendment beyond the typical considerations of yield and gas flux. We expect that as the differences between the physical and chemical properties of the biochar and the soil increase, the impact on the soil quality metrics will also increase. For this study, we used a waste product (i.e., anaerobic digester sludge) biochar with 81.5% C, pH of 10.44, pH-independent charge for anion exchange capacity (AEC) and a pH-dependent charge for cation exchange capacity (CEC), 4.14% moisture content and 25.75 cmol¬c /kg exchangeable base cations. This biochar was incorporated into both a low and a high fertility Hawaiian field soil to quantitate biochar effects on crop yield, soil pH, CEC, AEC, hot and cold water extractable C and nitrogen, bulk density, phosphorus, soil microbial ecology, and GHG flux in varying soil conditions. Compared to the higher fertility soil, we hypothesized that the low fertility soil would demonstrate a greater increase in soil quality, including higher pH, CEC and water holding capacity. Two crop management practices were included with each soil: traditional

  16. Nutrient amendment does not increase mineralisation of sequestered carbon during incubation of a nitrogen limited mangrove soil

    KAUST Repository

    Keuskamp, Joost A.

    2013-02-01

    Mangrove forests are sites of intense carbon and nutrient cycling, which result in soil carbon sequestration on a global scale. Currently, mangrove forests receive increasing quantities of exogenous nutrients due to coastal development. The present paper quantifies the effects of nutrient loading on microbial growth rates and the mineralisation of soil organic carbon (SOC) in two mangrove soils contrasting in carbon content. An increase in SOC mineralisation rates would lead to the loss of historically sequestered carbon and an enhanced CO2 release from these mangrove soils.In an incubation experiment we enriched soils from Avicennia and Rhizophora mangrove forests bordering the Red Sea with different combinations of nitrogen, phosphorus and glucose to mimic the effects of wastewater influx. We measured microbial growth rates as well as carbon mineralisation rates in the natural situation and after enrichment. The results show that microbial growth is energy limited in both soils, with nitrogen as a secondary limitation. Nitrogen amendment increased the rate at which labile organic carbon was decomposed, while it decreased SOC mineralisation rates. Such an inhibitory effect on SOC mineralisation was not found for phosphorus enrichment.Our data confirm the negative effect of nitrogen enrichment on the mineralisation of recalcitrant carbon compounds found in other systems. Based on our results it is not to be expected that nutrient enrichment by itself will cause degradation of historically sequestered soil organic carbon in nitrogen limited mangrove forests. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Evaluation of biochar amended biosolids co-composting to improve the nutrient transformation and its correlation as a function for the production of nutrient-rich compost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awasthi, Mukesh Kumar; Wang, Quan; Chen, Hongyu; Wang, Meijing; Ren, Xiuna; Zhao, Junchao; Li, Jiao; Guo, Di; Li, Dong-Sheng; Awasthi, Sanjeev Kumar; Sun, Xining; Zhang, Zengqiang

    2017-08-01

    The influence of biochar amended dewatered fresh sewage sludge (DFSS)-wheat straw co-composting on nutrients transformation and end products quality was investigated. This is the first study to examine the biochar applied compost quality with different kgha -1 TKN on Brassica rapa L. growth. Seven mixtures were composted over 8-weeks period in 130-L reactor using the same DFSS with different concentration of biochar (2%, 4%, 6%, 8%, 12% and 18% on dry weight basis) and without additive added treatment served as control. The results indicated that compost with 8-12% biochar became more humified within 35days of composting, and the compost maturity parameters also showed that this could be much more feasible approach to increased water-soluble nutrients including NO 3 , DOC, DON, PO 4 3- , K + and Na + , but bioavailability of Cu, Zn, Ni and Pb content reduced as compared to control. Finally, results showed that 8-12% biochar was recommended for DFSS composting and 150kgha -1 TKN of compost dosages for organic farming. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Contaminant Immobilization and Nutrient Release by Biochar Soil Amendment: Roles of Natural Organic Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contamination of soil interstitial waters by labile heavy metals such as CuII, CdII, and NiII is of worldwide concern. Carbonaceous materials such as char and activated carbon have received considerable attention in recent years as soil amendment for both sequestering heavy metal contaminants and r...

  19. Enhancement and inhibition of microbial activity in hydrocarbon- contaminated arctic soils: Implications for nutrient-amended bioremediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braddock, J.F.; Ruth, M.L.; Catterall, P.H.; Walworth, J.L.; McCarthy, K.A.

    1997-01-01

    Bioremediation is being used or proposed as a treatment option at many hydrocarbon-contaminated sites. One such site is a former bulk-fuel storage facility near Barrow, AK, where contamination persists after approximately 380 m3 of JP-5 was spilled in 1970. The soil at the site is primarily coarse sand with low organic carbon (soil from this site in laboratory microcosms and in mesocosms incubated for 6 weeks in the field. Nitrogen was the major limiting nutrient in this system, but microbial populations and activity were maximally enhanced by additions of both nitrogen and phosphorus. When nutrients were added to soil in the field at three levels of N:P (100:45, 200:90, and 300:135 mg/kg soil), the greatest stimulation in microbial activity occurred at the lowest, rather than the highest, level of nutrient addition. The total soil-water potentials ranged from -2 to -15 bar with increasing levels of fertilizer. Semivolatile hydrocarbon concentrations declined significantly only in the soils treated at the low fertilizer level. These results indicate that an understanding of nutrient effects at a specific site is essential for successful bioremediation.Bioremediation is being used or proposed as a treatment option at many hydrocarbon-contaminated sites. One such site is a former bulk-fuel storage facility near Barrow, AK, where contamination persists after approximately 380 m3 of JP-5 was spilled in 1970. The soil at the site is primarily coarse sand with low organic carbon (soil from this site in laboratory microcosms and in mesocosms incubated for 6 weeks in the field. Nitrogen was the major limiting nutrient in this system, but microbial populations and activity were maximally enhanced by additions of both nitrogen and phosphorus. When nutrients were added to soil in the field at three levels of N:P (100:45, 200:90, and 300:135 mg/kg soil), the greatest stimulation in microbial activity occurred at the lowest, rather than the highest, level of nutrient addition

  20. Nutrient-stimulated GLP-2 release and crypt cell proliferation in experimental short bowel syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin, G R; Wallace, L E; Hartmann, B

    2005-01-01

    over time with adaptation to a 90% resection was examined by determining GLP-2 levels on days 7, 14, and 28, and correlating this with intestinal adaptation, as assessed by morphology and CCP rate. A 90% resection significantly increased basal and postprandial GLP-2 levels, with a net increase...... in nutrient-stimulated exposure over 90 min; GLP-2 exposure (integrated levels vs. time) increased 12.7-fold in resected animals (P significantly correlated with the magnitude of intestinal resection (r(2) = 0.71; P

  1. Use of alkaline flyash-based products to amend acid soils: Plant growth response and nutrient uptake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spark, K.M.; Swift, R.S. [University of Queensland, Gatton, Qld. (Australia)

    2008-07-01

    Vast quantities of flyash are generated annually by the burning of coal in the power industry, with most of this material being stockpiled with little prospect of being utilised at present. Two alkaline flyash-based products (FAP) for use as soil amendments (FAP1 and FAP2) have been assessed using glasshouse pot trials to determine the suitability of using these products to treat acid soils. The products both contain about 80% flyash which originated from coal-fired electricity generation. The acid soils used in the study were 2 Podsols and a Ferrosol, all originating from south-east Queensland and ranging in pH (1 : 5 suspension in water) from 4 to 5.5. The flyash products when applied to the soil significantly enhanced growth of maize plants (Zea mays L.), with optimal application rates in the range 1.25-5% w/w. The FAP/soil mixtures and plants were analysed using a range of methods including extraction with DTPA, and plant biomass (aboveground dry matter). The results indicate that in addition to the liming effect, the flyash in the alkaline flyash products may enhance plant growth as a result of increasing the uptake of micro-nutrients such as copper, zinc, and manganese. The study suggests that flyash has the potential to be used as a base material in the production of soil amendment materials that can change soil pH and act as a fertiliser for certain soil micro-nutrients such as Cu, Mn, and Zn.

  2. Effects of biochar and clay amendment on nutrient sorption of an Arenosol in semi-arid NE-Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beusch, Christine; Kaupenjohann, Martin

    2014-05-01

    In the semi-arid Northeast of Brazil nutrient-poor Arenosol with a low capacity to retain water and nutrients is the predominant soil type. Our aim is to provide a long-term melioration of the soils with locally available and inexpensive materials. We hypothesize an increase in nutrient sorption by the addition of biochar and clay. We conducted adsorption experiments according to OECD 106 batch equilibrium method in order to test this hypothesis. Sandy Arenosol, locally produced pyrolized biochar made of Prosopis juliflora, and a clayey Vertisol with a clay content of 69.8 %, all from our project area in Pernambuco, NE-Brazil, were used. The percentage of biochar and Vertisol added were 0 % (pure Arenosol), 1 %, 2.5 %, 5 %, 10 %, 100 % (pure biochar respectively Vertisol). Samples were shaken for 24 hours in a 1:5 solid-solution ratio in six different concentrations of Ammonium-N, Nitrate-N (0 - 25 mg L-1 each), Phosphorus (0 - 19.8 mg L-1) and Potassium (0 - 50 mg L-1). These concentrations were chosen to represent a common range of nutrients in a prevalent quaternary fertilization scheme of N:P:K of 1:0.4:1, with half NH4-N and NO3-N each. Then, where possible, sorption isotherms according to Langmuir were derived. Addition of biochar and Vertisol only showed marginal effects on Ammonium sorption. We detected a high loss of Ammonium with pure biochar, we assume loss of gaseous NH3. High rates of biochar addition caused Nitrate retention. Biochar increased P sorption with a maximum adsorption capacity (qmax) of 27.35 mg kg-1 for the 5 % amendment, although some P was leached out (up to 1.58 mg kg-1 for the 10 % addition). Phosphate sorption on Vertisol was even higher with a qmax for the 5 % addition of 60.77 mg kg-1. Potassium did not sorb to biochar, but was strongly leached out (84.19 mg kg-1 out of the 5 % addition). For Vertisol we observed a strong Potassium sorption that is linear within the concentration range we tested. A possible enhancement of nutrient

  3. Optimizing the vermicomposting of organic wastes amended with inorganic materials for production of nutrient-rich organic fertilizers: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mupambwa, Hupenyu Allan; Mnkeni, Pearson Nyari Stephano

    2018-04-01

    Vermicomposting is a bio-oxidative process that involves the action of mainly epigeic earthworm species and different micro-organisms to accelerate the biodegradation and stabilization of organic materials. There has been a growing realization that the process of vermicomposting can be used to greatly improve the fertilizer value of different organic materials, thus, creating an opportunity for their enhanced use as organic fertilizers in agriculture. The link between earthworms and micro-organisms creates a window of opportunity to optimize the vermi-degradation process for effective waste biodegradation, stabilization, and nutrient mineralization. In this review, we look at up-to-date research work that has been done on vermicomposting with the intention of highlighting research gaps on how further research can optimize vermi-degradation. Though several researchers have studied the vermicomposting process, critical parameters that drive this earthworm-microbe-driven process which are C/N and C/P ratios; substrate biodegradation fraction, earthworm species, and stocking density have yet to be adequately optimized. This review highlights that optimizing the vermicomposting process of composts amended with nutrient-rich inorganic materials such as fly ash and rock phosphate and inoculated with microbial inoculants can enable the development of commercially acceptable organic fertilizers, thus, improving their utilization in agriculture.

  4. Feasibility of medical stone amendment for sewage sludge co-composting and production of nutrient-rich compost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awasthi, Mukesh Kumar; Wang, Quan; Awasthi, Sanjeev Kumar; Li, Ronghua; Zhao, Junchao; Ren, Xiuna; Wang, Meijing; Chen, Hongyu; Zhang, Zengqiang

    2018-06-15

    The feasibility of medical stone (MS) amendment as an innovative additive for dewatered fresh sewage sludge (DFSS) co-composting was assessed using a 130-L vessel-scale composter. To verify successful composting, five treatments were designed with four different dosages (2, 4, 6, and 10) % of MS with a 1:1 mixture (dry weight) of DFSS + wheat straw (WS). The WS was used as a bulking agent. A control without any amendment treatment was carried out for the purpose of comparison. For DFSS co-composting, the amendment with MS improved the mineralization efficiency and compost quality in terms of CO 2 emissions, dehydrogenase enzyme (DE), electrical conductivity (EC), water-solubility, and total nutrients transformation. The DTPA-extractable Cu and Zn were also estimated to confirm the immobilization ability of the applied MS. Seed germination and plant growth tests were conducted to ensure the compost stability and phytotoxicity for Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa chinensis L.) growth and biomass, as well as chlorophyll content. The results showed that during the bio-oxidative phase, DOC, DON, AP, NH 4 + -N, and NO 3 - -N increased drastically in all the MS-blended treatments, except the application of 2% MS and the control treatment; significantly lower water-soluble nutrients were observed in the 2% MS and control treatments. A novel additive with 6-10% MS dosages considerably enhanced the organic matter conversion in the stable end-product (compost) and reduced the maturity period by two weeks compared to the 2% MS and control treatments. Consequently, the maturity parameters (e.g., EC, SGI, NH 4 + -N, DOC, and DON) confirmed that compost with 6-10% MS became more stable and mature within four weeks of DFSS co-composting. At the end of composting, significantly higher DTPA-extractable Cu and Zn contents were observed in the control treatment, and subsequently, in the very low application (10%) of MS. Higher MS dosage lowered the pH and EC to within the permissible

  5. Prey selectivity of bacterivorous protists in different size fractions of reservoir water amended with nutrients

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jezbera, Jan; Horňák, Karel; Šimek, Karel

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 8 (2006), s. 1330-1339 ISSN 1462-2912. [SAME /9./. Helsinky, 21.08.2005-26.08.2005] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA206/05/0007 Grant - others:MŠM(CZ) 60076658/01 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60170517 Keywords : selectivity * flagellates * grazing * fluorescence * reservoir * nutrients Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 4.630, year: 2006

  6. Nutrient uptake by agricultural crops from biochar-amended soils: results from two field experiments in Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karer, Jasmin; Zehetner, Franz; Kloss, Stefanie; Wimmer, Bernhard; Soja, Gerhard

    2013-04-01

    The use of biochar as soil amendment is considered as a promising agricultural soil management technique, combining carbon sequestration and soil fertility improvements. These expectations are largely founded on positive experiences with biochar applications to impoverished or degraded tropical soils. The validity of these results for soils in temperate climates needs confirmation from field experiments with typical soils representative for intensive agricultural production areas. Frequently biochar is mixed with other organic additives like compost. As these two materials interact with each other and each one may vary considerably in its basic characteristics, it is difficult to attribute the effects of the combined additive to one of its components and to a specific physico-chemical parameter. Therefore investigations of the amendment efficacy require the study of the pure components to characterize their specific behavior in soil. This is especially important for adsorption behavior of biochar for macro- and micronutrients because in soil there are multiple nutrient sinks that compete with plant roots for vital elements. Therefore this contribution presents results from a field amendment study with pure biochar that had the objective to characterize the macro- and microelement uptake of crops from different soils in two typical Austrian areas of agricultural production. At two locations in North and South-East Austria, two identical field experiments on different soils (Chernozem and Cambisol) were installed in 2011 with varying biochar additions (0, 30 and 90 t/ha) and two nitrogen levels. The biochar was a product from slow pyrolysis of wood (SC Romchar SRL). During the installation of the experiments, the biochar fraction of corn). An omission of biochar addition at the same nitrogen addition rate resulted in a yield decrease of 10 % for barley although the total N uptake was 11 % higher but P and K uptake decreased by 14 and 6 %. This indicates that the

  7. Changes in algal stable isotopes following nutrient and peat amendments in oil sands aquatic reclamation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farwell, A.; Chen, H.; Boutsivongskad, M.; Dixon, D.

    2010-01-01

    The processing of oil sands in Alberta generates large volumes of processed material that must be reclaimed. Processed water and solids (PW/S) contain higher levels of naturally occurring compounds such as naphthenic acids (NAs) and polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs). Organic carbon and nitrogen are some of the constituents in PW/S that may provide nutrient sources for aquatic reclamation sites as they develop into viable ecosystems. This study was conducted to assess the modifying factors that may affect the stable carbon and nitrogen isotope values of primary production in oil sands aquatic reclamation. Both field-based microcosm studies and laboratory studies were used to evaluate the changes in the growth and stable isotope values of phytoplankton, periphyton and/or filamentous algae along gradients of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), nitrogen and phosphorus. Various types of reclamation substrates were used in the study, including various combinations of sand, mature fine tailings, peat and process water. Results showed different levels of growth depending on both the water and substrate type. Typically, periphyton from oil sands reclamation sites were more enriched in 15N than the reference site. Periphyton from one site known as the MP site was more enriched in 13C than periphyton from another site know as the Shallow Wetland South Ditch (SWSD). However, periphyton in the demonstration pond (DP) was more 13C depleted than the reference site. Findings from this study indicate that carbon isotopes are influenced by other factors, such as nutrients.

  8. Carbon amendment stimulates benthic nitrogen cycling during the bioremediation of particulate aquaculture waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Georgina; MacTavish, Thomas; Savage, Candida; Caldwell, Gary S.; Jones, Clifford L. W.; Probyn, Trevor; Eyre, Bradley D.; Stead, Selina M.

    2018-03-01

    The treatment of organic wastes remains one of the key sustainability challenges facing the growing global aquaculture industry. Bioremediation systems based on coupled bioturbation-microbial processing offer a promising route for waste management. We present, for the first time, a combined biogeochemical-molecular analysis of the short-term performance of one such system that is designed to receive nitrogen-rich particulate aquaculture wastes. Using sea cucumbers (Holothuria scabra) as a model bioturbator we provide evidence that adjusting the waste C : N from 5 : 1 to 20 : 1 promoted a shift in nitrogen cycling pathways towards the dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA), resulting in net NH4+ efflux from the sediment. The carbon amended treatment exhibited an overall net N2 uptake, whereas the control receiving only aquaculture waste exhibited net N2 production, suggesting that carbon supplementation enhanced nitrogen fixation. The higher NH4+ efflux and N2 uptake was further supported by meta-genome predictions that indicate that organic-carbon addition stimulated DNRA over denitrification. These findings indicate that carbon addition may potentially result in greater retention of nitrogen within the system; however, longer-term trials are necessary to determine whether this nitrogen retention is translated into improved sea cucumber biomass yields. Whether this truly constitutes a remediation process is open for debate as there remains the risk that any increased nitrogen retention may be temporary, with any subsequent release potentially raising the eutrophication risk. Longer and larger-scale trials are required before this approach may be validated with the complexities of the in-system nitrogen cycle being fully understood.

  9. Yield, nutrient utilization and soil properties in a melon crop amended with wine-distillery waste compost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Requejo Mariscal, María Isabel; Villena Gordo, Raquel; Cartagena Causapé, María Carmen; Arce Martínez, Augusto; Ribas Elcorobarrutia, Francisco; Jesús Cabello Cabello, María; Castellanos Serrano, María Teresa

    2014-05-01

    In Spain, large quantities of wine are produced every year (3,339,700 tonnes in 2011) (FAO, 2011) with the consequent waste generation. During the winemaking process, solid residues like grape stalks are generated, as well as grape marc and wine lees as by-products. According to the Council Regulation (EC) 1493/1999 on the common organization of the wine market, by-products coming from the winery industry must be sent to alcohol-distilleries to generate exhausted grape marc and vinasses. With an adequate composting treatment, these wastes can be applied to soils as a source of nutrients and organic matter. A three-year field experiment (2011, 2012 and 2013) was carried out in Ciudad Real (central Spain) to study the effects of wine-distillery waste compost application in a melon crop (Cucumis melo L.). Melon crop has been traditionally cultivated in this area with high inputs of water and fertilizers, but no antecedents of application of winery wastes are known. In a randomized complete block design, four treatments were compared: three compost doses consisted of 6.7 (D1), 13.3 (D2) and 20 t compost ha-1 (D3), and a control treatment without compost addition (D0). The soil was a shallow sandy-loam (Petrocalcic Palexeralfs) with a depth of 0.60 m and a discontinuous petrocalcic horizon between 0.60 and 0.70 m, slightly basic (pH 8.4), poor in organic matter (0.24%), rich in potassium (410 ppm) and with a medium level of phosphorus (22.1 ppm). During each growing period four harvests were carried out and total and marketable yield (fruits weighting cycle, four plants per treatment were sampled and the nutrient content (N, P and K) was determined. Soil samplings (0-30 cm depth) were carried before the application of compost and at the end of each growing season and available N and P, as well as exchangeable K content were analyzed. With this information, an integrated analysis was carried out with the aim to evaluate the suitability of this compost as organic

  10. Soil strength and maize yield after topsoil removal and application of nutrient amendments on a gravelly Alfisol toposequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salako, F.K.; Dada, P.O.; Adejuyigbe, C.O.; Adedire, M.O.; Martins, O.; Akwuebu, C.A.; Williams, O.E.

    2006-04-01

    Vast areas of degraded soils exist in southwestern Nigeria due to topsoil removal by soil erosion and gravel/stone mining operators. The restoration of such soils has become imperative to sustain food production in most rural communities. Therefore, a factorial field experiment was designed in 2003 and 2004 with the factors being slope positions (upper and lower slopes), topsoil removal (0, 15 and 25 cm depths) and nutrient amendments (0, 10 t ha -1 poultry manure and 60:30:30 N: P 2 O 5 : K 2 O as NPK + urea). This was complemented with a laboratory study to determine the effects of soil water, gravel concentration and gravel size on soil strength. Maize was planted. Soil strength was measured with a self-recoding penetrometer at soil depth interval of 2.5 cm up to 50 cm depth. Soil bulk density, water content, maize root and shoot biomass and grain yield were measured. In the laboratory, soil strength decreased from 483-314 kPa as water content increased from 0.05-0.62 cm 3 cm - 3 while it increased from 294-469 kPa as gravel concentration increased from 100-500 g kg -1 . Soil strength was affected more by water content and gravel concentration than gravel size. Under various moist conditions in the field, soil strength increased with soil depth from 1177-5000 kPa at the upper slope and from 526-5000 kPa at the lower slope. Thus, the lower slope had significantly lower soil strength than the upper slope. Soil strength increased with increasing soil depth removal and was significantly reduced by poultry manure. For the 2 years of study, high grain yields were sustained with poultry manure/no topsoil removal (1784-3571 kg ha -1 ) and NPK + urea/no topsoil removal (2371-2600 kPa) at the lower slope. However, soil at the upper slope was more resistant to degradation as 16-67% loss in yield was observed compared to 65-75% for lower slope when no nutrients were applied. Nonetheless, both the upper and lower slope positions were productive with the application of

  11. Nutrient amendment does not increase mineralisation of sequestered carbon during incubation of a nitrogen limited mangrove soil

    KAUST Repository

    Keuskamp, Joost A.; Schmitt, Heike; Laanbroek, Hendrikus J.; Verhoeven, Jos T.A.; Hefting, Mariet M.

    2013-01-01

    Mangrove forests are sites of intense carbon and nutrient cycling, which result in soil carbon sequestration on a global scale. Currently, mangrove forests receive increasing quantities of exogenous nutrients due to coastal development. The present

  12. Amendments with organic and industrial wastes stimulate soil formation in mine tailings as revealed by micromorphology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zanuzzi, A.; Arocena, J.M.; van Mourik, J.M.; Faz Cano, A.

    2009-01-01

    Mine tailings are inhospitable to plants and soil organisms, because of low pH and poor soil organic matter contents. Vegetation establishment requires a soil system capable of supporting the nutrient and water requirements of plants and associated organisms. The objective of this study was to

  13. The Sum of Its Parts—Effects of Gastric Distention, Nutrient Content and Sensory Stimulation on Brain Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spetter, Maartje S.; de Graaf, Cees; Mars, Monica; Viergever, Max A.; Smeets, Paul A. M.

    2014-01-01

    During food consumption the brain integrates multiple interrelated neural and hormonal signals involved in the regulation of food intake. Factors influencing the decision to stop eating include the foods' sensory properties, macronutrient content, and volume, which in turn affect gastric distention and appetite hormone responses. So far, the contributions of gastric distention and oral stimulation by food on brain activation have not been studied. The primary objective of this study was to assess the effect of gastric distention with an intra-gastric load and the additional effect of oral stimulation on brain activity after food administration. Our secondary objective was to study the correlations between hormone responses and appetite-related ratings and brain activation. Fourteen men completed three functional magnetic resonance imaging sessions during which they either received a naso-gastric infusion of water (stomach distention), naso-gastric infusion of chocolate milk (stomach distention + nutrients), or ingested chocolate-milk (stomach distention + nutrients + oral exposure). Appetite ratings and blood parameters were measured at several time points. During gastric infusion, brain activation was observed in the midbrain, amygdala, hypothalamus, and hippocampus for both chocolate milk and water, i.e., irrespective of nutrient content. The thalamus, amygdala, putamen and precuneus were activated more after ingestion than after gastric infusion of chocolate milk, whereas infusion evoked greater activation in the hippocampus and anterior cingulate. Moreover, areas involved in gustation and reward were activated more after oral stimulation. Only insulin responses following naso-gastric infusion of chocolate milk correlated with brain activation, namely in the putamen and insula. In conclusion, we show that normal (oral) food ingestion evokes greater activation than gastric infusion in stomach distention and food intake-related brain areas. This provides neural

  14. The sum of its parts--effects of gastric distention, nutrient content and sensory stimulation on brain activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spetter, Maartje S; de Graaf, Cees; Mars, Monica; Viergever, Max A; Smeets, Paul A M

    2014-01-01

    During food consumption the brain integrates multiple interrelated neural and hormonal signals involved in the regulation of food intake. Factors influencing the decision to stop eating include the foods' sensory properties, macronutrient content, and volume, which in turn affect gastric distention and appetite hormone responses. So far, the contributions of gastric distention and oral stimulation by food on brain activation have not been studied. The primary objective of this study was to assess the effect of gastric distention with an intra-gastric load and the additional effect of oral stimulation on brain activity after food administration. Our secondary objective was to study the correlations between hormone responses and appetite-related ratings and brain activation. Fourteen men completed three functional magnetic resonance imaging sessions during which they either received a naso-gastric infusion of water (stomach distention), naso-gastric infusion of chocolate milk (stomach distention + nutrients), or ingested chocolate-milk (stomach distention + nutrients + oral exposure). Appetite ratings and blood parameters were measured at several time points. During gastric infusion, brain activation was observed in the midbrain, amygdala, hypothalamus, and hippocampus for both chocolate milk and water, i.e., irrespective of nutrient content. The thalamus, amygdala, putamen and precuneus were activated more after ingestion than after gastric infusion of chocolate milk, whereas infusion evoked greater activation in the hippocampus and anterior cingulate. Moreover, areas involved in gustation and reward were activated more after oral stimulation. Only insulin responses following naso-gastric infusion of chocolate milk correlated with brain activation, namely in the putamen and insula. In conclusion, we show that normal (oral) food ingestion evokes greater activation than gastric infusion in stomach distention and food intake-related brain areas. This provides neural

  15. The sum of its parts--effects of gastric distention, nutrient content and sensory stimulation on brain activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maartje S Spetter

    Full Text Available During food consumption the brain integrates multiple interrelated neural and hormonal signals involved in the regulation of food intake. Factors influencing the decision to stop eating include the foods' sensory properties, macronutrient content, and volume, which in turn affect gastric distention and appetite hormone responses. So far, the contributions of gastric distention and oral stimulation by food on brain activation have not been studied. The primary objective of this study was to assess the effect of gastric distention with an intra-gastric load and the additional effect of oral stimulation on brain activity after food administration. Our secondary objective was to study the correlations between hormone responses and appetite-related ratings and brain activation. Fourteen men completed three functional magnetic resonance imaging sessions during which they either received a naso-gastric infusion of water (stomach distention, naso-gastric infusion of chocolate milk (stomach distention + nutrients, or ingested chocolate-milk (stomach distention + nutrients + oral exposure. Appetite ratings and blood parameters were measured at several time points. During gastric infusion, brain activation was observed in the midbrain, amygdala, hypothalamus, and hippocampus for both chocolate milk and water, i.e., irrespective of nutrient content. The thalamus, amygdala, putamen and precuneus were activated more after ingestion than after gastric infusion of chocolate milk, whereas infusion evoked greater activation in the hippocampus and anterior cingulate. Moreover, areas involved in gustation and reward were activated more after oral stimulation. Only insulin responses following naso-gastric infusion of chocolate milk correlated with brain activation, namely in the putamen and insula. In conclusion, we show that normal (oral food ingestion evokes greater activation than gastric infusion in stomach distention and food intake-related brain areas. This

  16. Electrical stimulation of the isolated rat intestine in the presence of nutrient stimulus enhances glucagon-like peptide-1 release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, Ann; Ort, Tatiana; Kajekar, Radhika; Hornby, Pamela J; Wade, Paul R

    2010-01-01

    The release of small intestinal hormones by constituents of ingested food, such as fatty acids, is integral to post-prandial responses that reduce food intake. Recent evidence suggests that small intestinal electrical stimulation reduces food intake, although the mechanism of action is debated. To test the hypothesis that intestinal stimulation directly alters hormone release locally we used isolated rat distal ileum and measured glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) released in the presence or absence of linoleic acid (LA) and electrical field stimulation (EFS). Intact segments were oriented longitudinally between bipolar stimulating electrodes in organ bath chambers containing modified Krebs–Ringers bicarbonate (KRB) buffer including protease inhibitors. Incubation in LA (3 mg ml −1 ) for 45 min increased GLP-1 concentration (21.9 ± 2.6 pM versus KRB buffer alone 3.6 ± 0.1 pM). Eleven electrical stimulation conditions were tested. In the presence of LA none of the stimulation conditions inhibited LA-evoked GLP-1 release, whereas two high frequency short pulse widths (14 V, 20 Hz, 5 ms and 14 V, 40 Hz, 5 ms) and one low frequency long pulse width (14 V, 0.4 Hz, 300 ms) EFS conditions enhanced LA-evoked GLP-1 release by >250%. These results are consistent with a local effect of intestinal electrical stimulation to enhance GLP-1 release in response to luminal nutrients in the intestines. Enhancing hormone release could improve the efficacy of intestinal electrical stimulation and provide a potential treatment for obesity and metabolic conditions

  17. Dolomitic lime amendment affects pine bark substrate pH, nutrient availability, and plant growth: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolomitic lime (DL) is one of the most commonly used fertilizer amendments in nursery container substrates. It is used to adjust pH of pine bark substrates from their native pH, 4.1 to 5.1, up to about pH 6. Additions of DL have been shown to be beneficial, inconsequential, or detrimental dependin...

  18. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and mycorrhizal stimulant affect dry matter and nutrient accumulation in bean and soybean plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício Henrique Moreira Salgado

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The adoption of biological resources in agriculture may allow less dependence and better use of finite resources. This study aimed at evaluating the effects of inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi native to the Brazilian Savannah associated with the application of mycorrhizal stimulant (7-hydroxy, 4'-methoxy-isoflavone, in the early growth of common bean and soybean. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse, in a completely randomized design, with a 7 x 2 factorial arrangement, consisting of five arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi species, joint inoculation (junction of all species in equal proportions and native fungi (without inoculation, in the presence and absence of stimulant. The following traits were evaluated: shoot dry matter, root dry matter, mycorrhizal colonization, nodules dry matter and accumulation of calcium, zinc and phosphorus in the shoot dry matter. The increase provided by the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and the use of stimulant reached over 200 % in bean and over 80 % in soybean plants. The fungi Acaulospora scrobiculata, Dentiscutata heterogama, Gigaspora margarita and Rhizophagus clarus, for bean, and Claroideoglomus etunicatum, Dentiscutata heterogama, Rhizophagus clarus and the joint inoculation, for soybean, increased the dry matter and nutrients accumulation.

  19. Associations between soil bacterial community structure and nutrient cycling functions in long-term organic farm soils following cover crop and organic fertilizer amendment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Adria L; Sheaffer, Craig C; Wyse, Donald L; Staley, Christopher; Gould, Trevor J; Sadowsky, Michael J

    2016-10-01

    Agricultural management practices can produce changes in soil microbial populations whose functions are crucial to crop production and may be detectable using high-throughput sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA. To apply sequencing-derived bacterial community structure data to on-farm decision-making will require a better understanding of the complex associations between soil microbial community structure and soil function. Here 16S rRNA sequencing was used to profile soil bacterial communities following application of cover crops and organic fertilizer treatments in certified organic field cropping systems. Amendment treatments were hairy vetch (Vicia villosa), winter rye (Secale cereale), oilseed radish (Raphanus sativus), buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum), beef manure, pelleted poultry manure, Sustane(®) 8-2-4, and a no-amendment control. Enzyme activities, net N mineralization, soil respiration, and soil physicochemical properties including nutrient levels, organic matter (OM) and pH were measured. Relationships between these functional and physicochemical parameters and soil bacterial community structure were assessed using multivariate methods including redundancy analysis, discriminant analysis, and Bayesian inference. Several cover crops and fertilizers affected soil functions including N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase and β-glucosidase activity. Effects, however, were not consistent across locations and sampling timepoints. Correlations were observed among functional parameters and relative abundances of individual bacterial families and phyla. Bayesian analysis inferred no directional relationships between functional activities, bacterial families, and physicochemical parameters. Soil functional profiles were more strongly predicted by location than by treatment, and differences were largely explained by soil physicochemical parameters. Composition of soil bacterial communities was predictive of soil functional profiles. Differences in soil function were

  20. Nitrogen Amendment Stimulated Decomposition of Maize Straw-Derived Biochar in a Sandy Loam Soil: A Short-Term Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwei Lu

    Full Text Available This study examined the effect of nitrogen (N on biochar stability in relation to soil microbial community as well as biochar labile components using δ13C stable isotope technology. A sandy loam soil under a long-term rotation of C3 crops was amended with biochar produced from maize (a C4 plant straw in absence (BC0 and presence (BCN of N and monitored for dynamics of carbon dioxide (CO2 flux, phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs profile and dissolved organic carbon (DOC content. N amendment significantly increased the decomposition of biochar during the first 5 days of incubation (P < 0.05, and the proportions of decomposed biochar carbon (C were 2.30% and 3.28% in BC0 and BCN treatments, respectively, during 30 days of incubation. The magnitude of decomposed biochar C was significantly (P < 0.05 higher than DOC in biochar (1.75% and part of relatively recalcitrant biochar C was mineralized in both treatments. N amendment increased soil PLFAs concentration at the beginning of incubation, indicating that microorganisms were N-limited in test soil. Furthermore, N amendment significantly (P < 0.05 increased the proportion of gram-positive (G+ bacteria and decreased that of fungi, while no noticeable changes were observed for gram-negative (G- bacteria and actinobacteria at the early stage of incubation. Our results indicated that N amendment promoted more efficiently the proliferation of G+ bacteria and accelerated the decomposition of relatively recalcitrant biochar C, which in turn reduced the stability of maize straw-derived biochar in test soil.

  1. Out of sight - Profiling soil characteristics, nutrients and microbial communities affected by organic amendments down to one meter in a long-term maize cultivation experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtinen, Taru; Mikkonen, Anu; Zavattaro, Laura; Grignani, Carlo; Baumgarten, Andreas; Spiegel, Heide

    2016-04-01

    Soil characteristics, nutrients and microbial activity in the deeper soil layers are topics not of-ten covered in agricultural studies since the main interest lies within the most active topsoils and deep soils are more time-consuming to sample. Studies have shown that deep soil does matter, although biogeochemical cycles are not fully understood yet. The main aim of this study is to investigate the soil organic matter dynamics, nutrients and microbial community composition in the first meter of the soil profiles in the long-term maize cropping system ex-periment Tetto Frati, in the vicinity of the Po River in Northern Italy. The trial site lies on a deep, calcareous, free-draining soil with a loamy texture. The following treatments have been applied since 1992: 1) maize for silage with 250 kg mineral N ha-1 (crop residue removal, CRR), 2) maize for grain with 250 kg mineral N ha-1 (crop residue incorporation, CRI), 3) maize for silage with 250 kg bovine slurry N ha-1 (SLU), 4) maize for silage with 250 kg farm yard manure N ha-1 (FYM). Soil characteristics (pH, carbonate content, soil organic carbon (SOC), aggregate stability (WSA)), and nutrients (total nitrogen (Nt), CAL-extractable phos-phorous (P) and potassium (K), potential N mineralisation) were investigated. Bacteri-al community composition was investigated with Ion PGM high-throughput sequencing at the depth of 8000 sequences per sample. Soil pH was moderately alkaline in all soil samples, in-creasing with increasing soil depth, as the carbonate content increased. SOC was significantly higher in the treatments with organic amendments (CRI, SLU and FYM) compared to CRR in 0-25 cm (11.1, 11.6, 14.7 vs. 9.8 g kg-1, respectively), but not in the deeper soil. At 50-75 cm soil depth FYM treatment revealed higher WSA compared to CRR, as well as higher CAL-extractable K (25 and 15 mg kg-1, respectively) and potential N mineralisation (11.30 and 8.78 mg N kg-1 7d-1, respectively). At 75-100 cm soil depth, SLU and

  2. Nutrient-induced stimulation of protein synthesis in mouse skeletal muscle is limited by the mTORC1 repressor REDD1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Bradley S; Williamson, David L; Lang, Charles H; Jefferson, Leonard S; Kimball, Scot R

    2015-04-01

    In skeletal muscle, the nutrient-induced stimulation of protein synthesis requires signaling through the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). Expression of the repressor of mTORC1 signaling, regulated in development and DNA damage 1 (REDD1), is elevated in muscle during various atrophic conditions and diminished under hypertrophic conditions. The question arises as to what extent REDD1 limits the nutrient-induced stimulation of protein synthesis. The objective was to examine the role of REDD1 in limiting the response of muscle protein synthesis and mTORC1 signaling to a nutrient stimulus. Wild type REDD1 gene (REDD1(+/+)) and disruption in the REDD1 gene (REDD1(-/-)) mice were feed deprived for 16 h and randomized to remain feed deprived or refed for 15 or 60 min. The tibialis anterior was then removed for analysis of protein synthesis and mTORC1 signaling. In feed-deprived mice, protein synthesis and mTORC1 signaling were significantly lower in REDD1(+/+) than in REDD1(-/-) mice. Thirty minutes after the start of refeeding, protein synthesis in REDD1(+/+) mice was stimulated by 28%, reaching a value similar to that observed in feed-deprived REDD1(-/-) mice, and was accompanied by increased phosphorylation of mTOR (Ser2448), p70S6K1 (Thr389), and 4E-BP1 (Ser65) by 81%, 167%, and 207%, respectively. In refed REDD1(-/-) mice, phosphorylation of mTOR (Ser2448), p70S6K1 (Thr389), and 4E-BP1 (Ser65) were significantly augmented above the values observed in refed REDD1(+/+) mice by 258%, 405%, and 401%, respectively, although protein synthesis was not coordinately increased. Seventy-five minutes after refeeding, REDD1 expression in REDD1(+/+) mice was reduced (∼15% of feed-deprived REDD1(+/+) values), and protein synthesis and mTORC1 signaling were not different between refed REDD1(+/+) mice and REDD1(-/-) mice. The results show that REDD1 expression limits protein synthesis in mouse skeletal muscle by inhibiting mTORC1 signaling during periods of feed

  3. Effects of luminal nutrient absorption, intraluminal physical stimulation, and intravenous parenteral alimentation on the recovery responses of duodenal villus morphology following feed withdrawal in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarachai, P; Yamauchi, K

    2000-11-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify which of the following three factors induces villus morphological recovery best: enteral nutrient absorption, intraluminal physical stimulation, or intravenous parenteral alimentation. At 142 d, male White Leghorn chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) were divided into eight groups of five birds each as follows: 1) access given ad libitum to a commercial layer mash diet (CP, 17.5%; ME, 2,830 kcal/kg) (control), 2) 5-d feed withdrawal (feed withdrawal), 3) 3-d feed withdrawal (3-FW), followed by refeeding the same diet as the control for 2 d (refeeding), 4) 3-FW followed by force-feeding enteral hyperalimentation (enteral), 5) 3-FW followed by force-feeding an indigestible (nonabsorbable) substance (kaolin), 6) 3-FW followed by force-feeding water for 2 d (force-fed control), 7) 3-FW followed by parenteral hyperalimentation (parenteral), and 8) 3-FW followed by no alimentation (sham control) for 2 d. In the refeeding and enteral groups, BW significantly recovered (P alimentation, but by enteral nutrient absorption.

  4. Synthesis of Copper-Chelates Derived from Amino Acids and Evaluation of Their Efficacy as Copper Source and Growth Stimulator for Lactuca sativa in Nutrient Solution Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewchangwat, Narongpol; Dueansawang, Sattawat; Tumcharern, Gamolwan; Suttisintong, Khomson

    2017-11-15

    Five tetradentate ligands were synthesized from l-amino acids and utilized for the synthesis of Cu(II)-chelates 1-5. The efficacy of Cu(II)-chelates as copper (Cu) source and growth stimulator in hydroponic cultivation was evaluated with Lactuca sativa. Their stability test was performed at pH 4-10. The results suggested that Cu(II)-chelate 3 is the most pH tolerant complex. Levels of Cu, Zn, and Fe accumulated in plants supplied with Cu(II)-chelates were compared with those supplied with CuSO 4 at the same Cu concentration of 8.0 μM. The results showed that Cu(II)-chelate 3 significantly enhanced Cu, Zn, and Fe content in shoot by 35, 15, and 48%, respectively. Application of Cu(II)-chelate 3 also improved plant dry matter yield by 54%. According to the results, Cu(II)-chelate 3 demonstrated the highest stimulating effect on plant growth and plant mineral accumulation so that it can be used as an alternative to CuSO 4 for supplying Cu in nutrient solutions and enhancing the plant growth.

  5. Seasonal changes in temperature and nutrient control of photosynthesis, respiration and growth of natural phytoplankton communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stæhr, P. A.; Sand-Jensen, K.

    2006-01-01

    cultures in seasons of low ambient nutrient availability. 3. Temperature stimulation of growth and metabolism was higher at low than high ambient temperature showing that long-term temperature acclimation of the phytoplankton community before the experiments was of great importance for the measured rates...... +2, +4 and +6 °C for 2 weeks with and without addition of extra inorganic nutrients. 2. Rates of photosynthesis, respiration and growth generally increased with temperature, but this effect was strongly enhanced by high nutrient availability, and therefore was most evident for nutrient amended......1. To investigate the influence of elevated temperatures and nutrients on photosynthesis, respiration and growth of natural phytoplankton assemblages, water was collected from a eutrophic lake in spring, summer, autumn, winter and the following spring and exposed to ambient temperature and ambient...

  6. Nutrient Availability and Changes on Chemical Attributes of a Paleudult Soil Amended with Liquid Sewage Sludge and Cropped with Surinam Grass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceolato, L.C.; Berton, R.S.; Coscione, A.R.

    2011-01-01

    The liquid sewage sludge (LSS) was applied on a field experiment during four years at successive applications to evaluate the changes in soil attributes and on Surinam grass (Brachiaria decumbens) uptake of nutrients. A randomized blocks experimental design, with two treatments (with and without LSS) and three repetitions, was used. Land application of LSS did not alter soil organic matter and exchangeable K until 40 cm depth. However, it increased soil ph, base saturation, labile P, and available Zn and did not change the concentrations of available B (hot water) and Cu, Fe, and Mn (DTPA) at 0-20 cm and 20-40 cm depths and LSS was a source of N, K, P, Ca, Mg, and Zn for the grass, but decreased leaf Mn concentration.

  7. Nutrient Availability and Changes on Chemical Attributes of a Paleudult Soil Amended with Liquid Sewage Sludge and Cropped with Surinam Grass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Ceolato

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The liquid sewage sludge (LSS was applied on a field experiment during four years at successive applications to evaluate the changes in soil attributes and on Surinam grass (Brachiaria decumbens uptake of nutrients. A randomized blocks experimental design, with two treatments (with and without LSS and three repetitions, was used. Land application of LSS did not alter soil organic matter and exchangeable K until 40 cm depth. However, it increased soil pH, base saturation, labile P, and available Zn and did not change the concentrations of available B (hot water and Cu, Fe, and Mn (DTPA at 0–20 cm and 20–40 cm depths and LSS was a source of N, K, P, Ca, Mg, and Zn for the grass, but decreased leaf Mn concentration.

  8. Clarifying amendments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    When Section 20.103 of the Commission's Standards for Protection Against Radiation was amended recently the amendments did not indicate that radon-222 and its daughters may be averaged over 1 year, as specified in footnote 3 to appendix B of the Standards for Protection Against Radiation. This is clarified by the (amendments set forth below. Minor editorial changes also are made

  9. Evaluation of Biostimulation (Nutrients) in hydrocarbons contaminated soils by respirometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Erika; Roldan, Fabio; Garzon, Laura

    2011-01-01

    The biostimulation process was evaluated in a hydrocarbon contaminated soil by respirometry after amendment with inorganic compound fertilizer (ICF) (N: P: K 28:12:7) and simple inorganic salts (SIS) (NH 4 NO 3 and K 2 HPO 4 ). The soil was contaminated with oily sludge (40.000 MgTPH/Kgdw). The oxygen uptake was measured using two respirometers (HACH 2173b and OXITOP PF 600) during thirteen days (n=3). Two treatments (ICF and SIS) and three controls (abiotic, reference substance and without nutrients) were evaluated during the study. Physicochemical (pH, nutrients, and TPH) and microbiological analysis (heterotrophic and hydrocarbon-utilizing microorganisms) were obtained at the beginning and at the end of each assay. Higher respiration rates were recorded in sis and without nutrient control. Results were 802.28 and 850.72- 1 d-1, MgO 2 kgps - 1d i n HACH, while in OXITOP were 936.65 and 502.05 MgO 2 Kgps respectively. These data indicate that amendment of nutrients stimulated microbial metabolism. ICF had lower respiration rates (188.18 and 139.87 MgO 2 kgps - 1d - 1 i n HACH and OXITOP, respectively) as well as counts; this could be attributed to ammonia toxicity.

  10. Bio stimulation for the Enhanced Degradation of Herbicides in Soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanissery, R.G; Sims, G.K

    2011-01-01

    Cleanup of herbicide-contaminated soils has been a dire environmental concern since the advent of industrial era. Although microorganisms are excellent degraders of herbicide compounds in the soil, some reparation may need to be brought about, in order to stimulate them to degrade the herbicide at a faster rate in a confined time frame. Bio stimulation through the appropriate utilization of organic amendments and nutrients can accelerate the degradation of herbicides in the soil. However, effective use of bio stimulants requires thorough comprehension of the global redox cycle during the microbial degradation of the herbicide molecules in the soil. In this paper, we present the prospects of using bio stimulation as a powerful remediation strategy for the rapid cleanup of herbicide-polluted soils.

  11. Effect of nutrient and selective inhibitor amendments on methane oxidation, nitrous oxide production, and key gene presence and expression in landfill cover soils: characterization of the role of methanotrophs, nitrifiers, and denitrifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung-Woo; Im, Jeongdae; Dispirito, Alan A; Bodrossy, Levente; Barcelona, Michael J; Semrau, Jeremy D

    2009-11-01

    Methane and nitrous oxide are both potent greenhouse gasses, with global warming potentials approximately 25 and 298 times that of carbon dioxide. A matrix of soil microcosms was constructed with landfill cover soils collected from the King Highway Landfill in Kalamazoo, Michigan and exposed to geochemical parameters known to affect methane consumption by methanotrophs while also examining their impact on biogenic nitrous oxide production. It was found that relatively dry soils (5% moisture content) along with 15 mg NH (4) (+) (kg soil)(-1) and 0.1 mg phenylacetylene(kg soil)(-1) provided the greatest stimulation of methane oxidation while minimizing nitrous oxide production. Microarray analyses of pmoA showed that the methanotrophic community structure was dominated by Type II organisms, but Type I genera were more evident with the addition of ammonia. When phenylacetylene was added in conjunction with ammonia, the methanotrophic community structure was more similar to that observed in the presence of no amendments. PCR analyses showed the presence of amoA from both ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and archaea, and that the presence of key genes associated with these cells was reduced with the addition of phenylacetylene. Messenger RNA analyses found transcripts of pmoA, but not of mmoX, nirK, norB, or amoA from either ammonia-oxidizing bacteria or archaea. Pure culture analyses showed that methanotrophs could produce significant amounts of nitrous oxide, particularly when expressing the particulate methane monooxygenase (pMMO). Collectively, these data suggest that methanotrophs expressing pMMO played a role in nitrous oxide production in these microcosms.

  12. Nutrient supply of plants in aquaponic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andras Bittsanszky

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this preliminary article we present data on plant nutrient concentrations in aquaponics systems, and we compare them to nutrient concentrations in “standard” hydroponic solutions. Our data shows that the nutrient concentrations supplied by the fish in the aquaponics system are significantly lower for most nutrients compared to hydroponic systems. Nevertheless, plants do thrive in solutions that have lower nutrient levels compared to “standard” hydroponic solutions. This is especially true for green leafy vegetables that rarely need additional nutritional supplementation. It is concluded that in the highly complex system of aquaponics, special care has to be taken, via continuous monitoring of the chemical composition of the circulating water, to provide adequate concentrations and ratios of nutrients, and especially for the potentially toxic component, ammonium. If certain plants require nutrient supplementation, we consider that one based on organic substances would be most beneficial. However, protocols for the application of such nutrient amendments still need to be developed.

  13. Effects of Amendment of Agricultural Bye Products with Animal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of Amendment of Agricultural Bye Products with Animal Manures on Soil ... Discovery and Innovation ... Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ... into the effectiveness of locally available agricultural by-products as source of nutrient.

  14. Maintaining adequate nutrient supply - Principles, decision-support tools, and best management practices [Chapter 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert B. Harrison; Douglas A. Maguire; Deborah Page-Dumroese

    2011-01-01

    Maintaining adequate nutrient supply to maintain or enhance tree vigor and forest growth requires conservation of topsoil and soil organic matter. Sometimes nutrient amendments are also required to supplement inherent nutrient-pool limitations or replenish nutrients removed in harvested material. The goal is to maintain the productive potential of the soil and, when...

  15. Alternatives to crop residues for soil amendment

    OpenAIRE

    Powell, J.M.; Unger, P.W.

    1997-01-01

    Metadata only record In semiarid agroecosystems, crop residues can provide important benefits of soil and water conservation, nutrient cycling, and improved subsequent crop yields. However, there are frequently multiple competing uses for residues, including animal forage, fuel, and construction material. This chapter discusses the various uses of crop residues and examines alternative soil amendments when crop residues cannot be left on the soil.

  16. The roles of nematodes in nitrogen and phosphorous availability, plant uptake and growth in organically amended soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebremikael, Mesfin; Buchan, David; De Neve, Stefaan

    2017-04-01

    , and their contribution was calculated by simple differences between +Nem and Nem treatments. Nematode reinoculation generally increased the amount of N mineralized from the amendment in bare microcosms, the maximal mineralization being greater and occurring earlier for amendments with high bioavailable N (CLO and COV). Nematode reinoculation also clearly stimulated nitrification in all amendments. The abundance of both bacteria and fungi increased the most with MAN and CLO amendments which have the lowest C:N. In planted microcosms, nematodes increased net N mineralization and P availability by +25 and +23% respectively in CLO amended microcosms. Dry plant biomass and total PLFA concentration were also significantly higher during most of the incubation periods in +Nem compared to -Nem in CLO amended microcosms. Our results show that different functional groups of nematodes collectively exert significant influence on OM decomposition, nutrient availability and plant growth.

  17. Assessing Soil Nutrient Additions through Different Composting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bheema

    is potentially better growth medium amendment when compared with traditional compost types. The use of vermi-compost is, therefore, very helpful in terms of providing beneficial soil nutrients as compared to other compost types. In contrast to the other chemical and biological properties, the highest pH was recorded in the.

  18. Predictable bacterial composition and hydrocarbon degradation in Arctic soils following diesel and nutrient disturbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Terrence H; Yergeau, Etienne; Maynard, Christine; Juck, David; Whyte, Lyle G; Greer, Charles W

    2013-06-01

    Increased exploration and exploitation of resources in the Arctic is leading to a higher risk of petroleum contamination. A number of Arctic microorganisms can use petroleum for growth-supporting carbon and energy, but traditional approaches for stimulating these microorganisms (for example, nutrient addition) have varied in effectiveness between sites. Consistent environmental controls on microbial community response to disturbance from petroleum contaminants and nutrient amendments across Arctic soils have not been identified, nor is it known whether specific taxa are universally associated with efficient bioremediation. In this study, we contaminated 18 Arctic soils with diesel and treated subsamples of each with monoammonium phosphate (MAP), which has successfully stimulated degradation in some contaminated Arctic soils. Bacterial community composition of uncontaminated, diesel-contaminated and diesel+MAP soils was assessed through multiplexed 16S (ribosomal RNA) rRNA gene sequencing on an Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine, while hydrocarbon degradation was measured by gas chromatography analysis. Diversity of 16S rRNA gene sequences was reduced by diesel, and more so by the combination of diesel and MAP. Actinobacteria dominated uncontaminated soils with diesel degradation in MAP-treated soils, suggesting this may be an important group to stimulate. The predictability with which bacterial communities respond to these disturbances suggests that costly and time-consuming contaminated site assessments may not be necessary in the future.

  19. Amendment 80 Permit Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Amendment 80 Program was adopted by the North Pacific Fishery Management Council (Council) in June 2006. The final rule implementing Amendment 80 published in...

  20. The Constitutional Amendment Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chism, Kahlil

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses the constitutional amendment process. Although the process is not described in great detail, Article V of the United States Constitution allows for and provides instruction on amending the Constitution. While the amendment process currently consists of six steps, the Constitution is nevertheless quite difficult to change.…

  1. Effects of alkaline and bioorganic amendments on cadmium, lead, zinc, and nutrient accumulation in brown rice and grain yield in acidic paddy fields contaminated with a mixture of heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Huaidong; Tam, Nora F Y; Yao, Aijun; Qiu, Rongliang; Li, Wai Chin; Ye, Zhihong

    2016-12-01

    Paddy soils and rice (Oryza sativa L.) contaminated by mixed heavy metals have given rise to great concern. Field experiments were conducted over two cultivation seasons to study the effects of steel slag (SS), fly ash (FA), limestone (LS), bioorganic fertilizer (BF), and the combination of SS and BF (SSBF) on rice grain yield, Cd, Pb, and Zn and nutrient accumulation in brown rice, bioavailability of Cd, Pb, and Zn in soil as well as soil properties (pH and catalase), at two acidic paddy fields contaminated with mixed heavy metals (Cd, Pb, and Zn). Compared to the controls, SS, LS, and SSBF at both low and high additions significantly elevated soil pH over both cultivation seasons. The high treatments of SS and SSBF markedly increased grain yields, the accumulation of P and Ca in brown rice and soil catalase activities in the first cultivation season. The most striking result was from SS application (4.0 t ha -1 ) that consistently and significantly reduced the soil bioavailability of Cd, Pb, and Zn by 38.5-91.2 % and the concentrations of Cd and Pb in brown rice by 20.9-50.9 % in the two soils over both cultivation seasons. LS addition (4.0 t ha -1 ) also markedly reduced the bioavailable Cd, Pb, and Zn in soil and the Cd concentrations in brown rice. BF remobilized soil Cd and Pb leading to more accumulation of these metals in brown rice. The results showed that steel slag was most effective in the remediation of acidic paddy soils contaminated with mixed heavy metals.

  2. Nutrient Release from Disturbance of Infiltration System Soils during Construction

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel P. Treese; Shirley E. Clark; Katherine H. Baker

    2012-01-01

    Subsurface infiltration and surface bioretention systems composed of engineered and/or native soils are preferred tools for stormwater management. However, the disturbance of native soils, especially during the process of adding amendments to improve infiltration rates and pollutant removal, may result in releases of nutrients in the early life of these systems. This project investigated the nutrient release from two soils, one disturbed and one undisturbed. The disturbed soil was collected i...

  3. Nitrogen Mineralization and Released Nutrients in a Volcanic Soil Amended with Poultry Litter Mineralización de Nitrógeno y Liberación de Nutrientes en un Suelo Volcánico Enmendado con Cama de Broiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Hirzel

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Optimum application rates of poultry litter (PL spread out on the farmer´s field is a valuable source of available plant nutrients. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of two rates of PL and conventional fertilization (CF on N mineralization and P, K, Zn, and Cu availability in an Andisol from Southern Chile under controlled conditions. Aerobic incubation was carried out for a 16-wk period. N mineralization rates were higher (61.5% with the two PL treatments than with conventional fertilizer (23%. CF was associated with high N availability prior to the start of incubation and slight immobilization during the first week, perhaps due to a more rapid conversion of urea into NH4 which was then temporarily immobilized by the microbial biomass. At the start and end of the incubation period, Olsen-extractable P content was generally higher in CF. Due to the high fixation capacity of the soil studied, extractable P values were slightly increased suggesting that PL mineralization is only associated with a low risk of P contamination in volcanic soil. In PL, K, Zn, and Cu availability were higher than in CF. However, values obtained for Cu and Zn were average in relation to referential values used in agricultural soil. The results indicated that PL could be an alternative to conventional fertilizer under the conditions of the present study.En sistemas agrícolas que utilizan dosis correctas de insumos, la cama de broiler (CB puede constituir una fuente económica de nutrientes para las plantas. El objetivo de este trabajo fue estudiar el efecto de CB en dos dosis y fertilización convencional (FC sobre la mineralización de N y la disponibilidad de P, K, Zn y Cu en un suelo volcánico de la zona centro-sur de Chile en condiciones controladas. Una incubación aeróbica fue realizada durante un período de 16 semanas. Las tasas de mineralización de N fueron mayores con los tratamientos de CB utilizados (61,5% respecto al uso de FC (23%. La FC

  4. Nutrient cycling strategies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breemen, van N.

    1995-01-01

    This paper briefly reviews pathways by which plants can influence the nutrient cycle, and thereby the nutrient supply of themselves and of their competitors. Higher or lower internal nutrient use efficiency positively feeds back into the nutrient cycle, and helps to increase or decrease soil

  5. Cd toxicity in Ash amended to plantations; the dilemma of different answers at different levels of description

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Søren; Ekelund, Flemming; Kjøller, Rasmus

    2018-01-01

    . Other more abundant cations like Zn regulate Cd uptake. Mycorrhiza reduce Cd uptake in several plants. In barley Cd gradually decrease from root via stem to seeds. In conclusion for ash amounts up to 10 t/ha, we do not find metal toxicity of ash or evidence for bioaccumulation of metals in soil...... growth, equally because of the pH increase and the nutrients added. The pH increase stimulates decomposition activity. Soil carbon availability is not permanently increased with ash amendment, however, which may suggest that decomposition increase is coupled to primary production increase. Plantation....... Wood ash increase plantation soil Cd, and so did Cd in grass although at a very low level, Cd in lichens and Cd in the small biomass of earthworms. The toxicity of Cd is regulated by metal binding to soil being several orders of magnitude lower than in pure liquid. Ash is toxic towards microarthropods...

  6. Predictable bacterial composition and hydrocarbon degradation in Arctic soils following diesel and nutrient disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Terrence H; Yergeau, Etienne; Maynard, Christine; Juck, David; Whyte, Lyle G; Greer, Charles W

    2013-01-01

    Increased exploration and exploitation of resources in the Arctic is leading to a higher risk of petroleum contamination. A number of Arctic microorganisms can use petroleum for growth-supporting carbon and energy, but traditional approaches for stimulating these microorganisms (for example, nutrient addition) have varied in effectiveness between sites. Consistent environmental controls on microbial community response to disturbance from petroleum contaminants and nutrient amendments across Arctic soils have not been identified, nor is it known whether specific taxa are universally associated with efficient bioremediation. In this study, we contaminated 18 Arctic soils with diesel and treated subsamples of each with monoammonium phosphate (MAP), which has successfully stimulated degradation in some contaminated Arctic soils. Bacterial community composition of uncontaminated, diesel-contaminated and diesel+MAP soils was assessed through multiplexed 16S (ribosomal RNA) rRNA gene sequencing on an Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine, while hydrocarbon degradation was measured by gas chromatography analysis. Diversity of 16S rRNA gene sequences was reduced by diesel, and more so by the combination of diesel and MAP. Actinobacteria dominated uncontaminated soils with soils, and this pattern was exaggerated following disturbance. Degradation with and without MAP was predictable by initial bacterial diversity and the abundance of specific assemblages of Betaproteobacteria, respectively. High Betaproteobacteria abundance was positively correlated with high diesel degradation in MAP-treated soils, suggesting this may be an important group to stimulate. The predictability with which bacterial communities respond to these disturbances suggests that costly and time-consuming contaminated site assessments may not be necessary in the future. PMID:23389106

  7. Nutrients and temperature additively increase stream microbial respiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    David W. P. Manning; Amy D. Rosemond; Vladislav Gulis; Jonathan P. Benstead; John S. Kominoski

    2017-01-01

    Rising temperatures and nutrient enrichment are co‐occurring global‐change drivers that stimulate microbial respiration of detrital carbon, but nutrient effects on the temperature dependence of respiration in aquatic ecosystems remain uncertain. We measured respiration rates associated with leaf litter, wood, and fine benthic organic matter (FBOM) across...

  8. Nutrient additions to mitigate for loss of Pacific salmon: consequences for stream biofilm and nutrient dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcarelli, Amy M.; Baxter, Colden V.; Wipfli, Mark S.

    2014-01-01

    Mitigation activities designed to supplement nutrient and organic matter inputs to streams experiencing decline or loss of Pacific salmon typically presuppose that an important pathway by which salmon nutrients are moved to fish (anadromous and/or resident) is via nutrient incorporation by biofilms and subsequent bottom-up stimulation of biofilm production, which is nutrient-limited in many ecosystems where salmon returns have declined. Our objective was to quantify the magnitude of nutrient incorporation and biofilm dynamics that underpin this indirect pathway in response to experimental additions of salmon carcasses and pelletized fish meal (a.k.a., salmon carcass analogs) to 500-m reaches of central Idaho streams over three years. Biofilm standing crops increased 2–8-fold and incorporated marine-derived nutrients (measured using 15N and 13C) in the month following treatment, but these responses did not persist year-to-year. Biofilms were nitrogen (N) limited before treatments, and remained N limited in analog, but not carcass-treated reaches. Despite these biofilm responses, in the month following treatment total N load was equal to 33–47% of the N added to the treated reaches, and N spiraling measurements suggested that as much as 20%, but more likely 2–3% of added N was taken up by microbes. Design of biologically and cost-effective strategies for nutrient addition will require understanding the rates at which stream microbes take up nutrients and the downstream distance traveled by exported nutrients.

  9. Soluble organic nutrient fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert G. Qualls; Bruce L. Haines; Wayne Swank

    2014-01-01

    Our objectives in this study were (i) compare fluxes of the dissolved organic nutrients dissolved organic carbon (DOC), DON, and dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP) in a clearcut area and an adjacent mature reference area. (ii) determine whether concentrations of dissolved organic nutrients or inorganic nutrients were greater in clearcut areas than in reference areas,...

  10. Atomic Act amended

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drabova, D.

    2002-01-01

    In the paper by the chairwoman of the Czech nuclear regulatory authority, the history of Czech nuclear legislation is outlined, the reasons for the amendment of the Atomic Act (Act No. 18/1997) are explained, and the amendments themselves are highlighted. The Act No. 13/2002 of 18 December 2001 is reproduced from the official Collection of Acts of the Czech Republic in the facsimile form. The following acts were thereby amended: Atomic Act No. 18/1997, Metrology Act No. 505/1990, Public Health Protection Act No. 258/2000, and Act No. 2/1969 on the Establishment of Ministries and Other Governmental Agencies of the Czech Republic. (P.A.)

  11. Biogenic coal-to-methane conversion efficiency decreases after repeated organic amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Katherine J.; Barnhart, Elliott P.; Fields, Matthew W.; Gerlach, Robin

    2018-01-01

    Addition of organic amendments to coal-containing systems can increase the rate and extent of biogenic methane production for 60–80 days before production slows or stops. Understanding the effect of repeated amendment additions on the rate and extent of enhanced coal-dependent methane production is important if biological coal-to-methane conversion is to be enhanced on a commercial scale. Microalgal biomass was added at a concentration of 0.1 g/L to microcosms with and without coal on days 0, 76, and 117. Rates of methane production were enhanced after the initial amendment but coal-containing treatments produced successively decreasing amounts of methane with each amendment. During the first amendment period, 113% of carbon added as amendment was recovered as methane, whereas in the second and third amendment periods, 39% and 32% of carbon added as amendment was recovered as methane, respectively. Additionally, algae-amended coal treatments produced ∼38% more methane than unamended coal treatments and ∼180% more methane than amended coal-free treatments after one amendment. However, a second amendment addition resulted in only an ∼25% increase in methane production for coal versus noncoal treatments and a third amendment addition resulted in similar methane production in both coal and noncoal treatments. Successive amendment additions appeared to result in a shift from coal-to-methane conversion to amendment-to-methane conversion. The reported results indicate that a better understanding is needed of the potential impacts and efficiencies of repeated stimulation for enhanced coal-to-methane conversion.

  12. Crop residue decomposition in Minnesota biochar amended plots

    OpenAIRE

    S. L. Weyers; K. A. Spokas

    2014-01-01

    Impacts of biochar application at laboratory scales are routinely studied, but impacts of biochar application on decomposition of crop residues at field scales have not been widely addressed. The priming or hindrance of crop residue decomposition could have a cascading impact on soil processes, particularly those influencing nutrient availability. Our objectives were to evaluate biochar effects on field decomposition of crop residue, using plots that were amended with ...

  13. Carrot, Corn, Lettuce and Soybean Nutrient Contents are ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biochar, the carbon-rich material remaining after pyrolysis of cellulosic and manure feedstocks, has the potential as a soil amendment to sequester carbon and to improve soil water-holding and nutrient properties- thereby enhancing plant growth. However, biochar produced from some feedstocks also could adversely affect crop quality by changing soil pH and reducing nutrients (e.g., Ca, K, Mg, N, Na, and P) in plant tissues. To evaluate effects of biochar on the nutrient quality of four crops, we conducted a greenhouse study using pots with: carrot (Daucus carota cv. Tendersweet), corn (Zea mays, cv. Golden Bantam), lettuce (Lactuca sativa, cv. Black-Seeded Simpson) and soybean (Glycine max cv. Viking 2265). Plants were grown in one of two South Carolina sandy Coastal Plain soils (Norfolk and Coxville Soil Series), along with biochar (1% by weight) produced from pine chips (PC), poultry litter (PL), swine solids (SS), switchgrass (SG), and two blends of pine chips plus poultry litter (PC/PL, 50/50% and 80/20%). Each of the feedstocks and feedstock blends was pyrolyzed at 350, 500, and 700 ̊ C to produce the biochar used to amend the Norfolk and Coxville soils. Effects of biochar on leaf nutrients (% dry weight) statistically varied with species, soil, feedstock and temperature and nutrient. For carrot and lettuce, the PL, PL/PC, and SS biochars generally decreased leaf N, Ca, Mg, and P; while PL and PL/PC increased K and Na. Biochars had little effect on lea

  14. Directed Selection of Biochars for Amending Metal ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Approximately 500,000 abandoned mines across the U.S. pose a considerable, pervasive risk to human health and the environment. World-wide the problem is even larger. Lime, organic matter, biosolids and other amendments have been used to decrease metal bioavailability in contaminated mine wastes and to promote the development of a mine waste stabilizing plant cover. The demonstrated properties of biochar make it a viable candidate as an amendment for remediating metal contaminated mine soils. In addition to sequestering potentially toxic metals, biochar can also be a source of plant nutrients, used to adjust soil pH, improve soil water holding characteristics, and increase soil carbon content. However, methods are needed for matching biochar beneficial properties with mine waste toxicities and soil health deficiencies. In this presentation we will report on a study in which we used mine soil from an abandoned Cu and Zn mine to develop a three-step procedure for identifying biochars that are most effective at reducing heavy metal bioavailability. Step 1: a slightly acidic extract of the mine spoil soil was produced, representing the potentially available metals, and used to identify metal removal properties of a library of 38 different biochars (e.g., made from a variety of feedstocks and pyrolysis or gasification conditions). Step 2: evaluation of how well these biochars retained (i.e., did not desorb) previously sorbed metals. Step 3: laboratory evalua

  15. A microbial bioassay to estimate nutrient availability in organic fertilizers; field calibration:

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salas, E.; Ramirez, C.

    2001-01-01

    A good correlation was recently shown between the increase in the microbial biomass (BM) in a mixture of soil/organic amendment and the growth of a test plant, sorghum, in the same substrate. This work reports the validation of the microbial assay as a potential guide to establish the fertilization rate for organic fertilizers such as compost under field conditions. A field trial was established with green pepper (Capsicum annum L.) and tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum L) as test plants. Treatments were soil alone or amended with 10% (W/W) of organic amendments of contrasting nutrient value, namely: chicken manure (CM), compost (C), bocashi (B), vermicompost (V) and coffe hulls (Br). A complete randomized block design with 4 replicates was used. The following variables were determined: plant dry weight (PSC) and fresh fruit weight (PFF) for green pepper, 97 days after showing; for tomato, plant dry weight (PST) was determined 32 days after showing. For the microbial biomass a complete randomized block design was also used, with 6 replicates, for the same mixtures. Microbial biomass was determined 2 days after amendment with glucose (0.8%) using the substrate- induce respiration assay. The organic amendments CM, C and B induced the highest values for BM as well as fro PSC, PFF and PST, which indicates a high nutrient availability for these organic amendments, whereas the organic amendments V and Br showed the lowest values (P [es

  16. How Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Responds to Elevated As under Different Si-Rich Soil Amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teasley, William A; Limmer, Matthew A; Seyfferth, Angelia L

    2017-09-19

    Several strategies exist to mitigate As impacts on rice and each has its set of trade-offs with respect to yield, inorganic As content in grain, and CH 4 emissions. The addition of Si to paddy soil can decrease As uptake by rice but how rice will respond to elevated As when soil is amended with Si-rich materials is unresolved. Here, we evaluated yield impacts and grain As content and speciation in rice exposed to elevated As in response to different Si-rich soil amendments including rice husk, rice husk ash, and CaSiO 3 in a pot study. We found that As-induced yield losses were alleviated by Husk amendment, partially alleviated by Ash amendment, and not affected by CaSiO 3 amendment. Furthermore, Husk was the only tested Si-amendment to significantly decrease grain As concentrations. Husk amendment was likely effective at decreasing grain As and improving yield because it provided more plant-available Si, particularly during the reproductive and ripening phases. Both Husk and Ash provided K, which also played a role in yield improvement. This study demonstrates that while Si-rich amendments can affect rice uptake of As, the kinetics of Si dissolution and nutrient availability can also affect As uptake and toxicity in rice.

  17. Amendment of Atomic Ordinance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-10-01

    This amendment to the 1984 Ordinance on definitions and licences in the atomic energy field aims essentially to ensure that the commitments under the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons are complied with in Switzerland. The goods and articles involving uranium enrichment by the gas centrifuge process and nuclear fuel reprocessing as specified by the competent international bodies, are henceforth included in the goods subject to notification or licensing listed in the Annex to the Ordinance. Also, it is provided that a construction and an operating licence for a nuclear installation may be granted simultaneously in cases where safe operating conditions can be fully assessed. (NEA) [fr

  18. growth stimulant

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of timing and duration of supplementation of LIVFIT VET ® (growth stimulant) as substitute for fish meal on the growth performance, haematology and clinical enzymes concentration of growing pigs.

  19. Soil biochar amendment in a nature restoration area: effects on plant productivity and community composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Voorde, T.F.J.; Bezemer, T.M.; Van Groenigen, J.W.; Jeffery, S.; Mommer, Liesje

    2014-01-01

    Biochar (pyrolyzed biomass) amendment to soils has been shown to have a multitude of positive effects, e.g., on crop yield, soil quality, nutrient cycling, and carbon sequestration. So far the majority of studies have focused on agricultural systems, typically with relatively low species diversity

  20. Substrate pH and butterfly bush response to dolomitic lime or steel slag amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steel slag is a fertilizer amendment with a high concentration of calcium oxide, and thus capable of raising substrate pH similar to dolomitic lime. Steel slag, however, contains higher concentrations of some nutrients, such as iron, manganese, and silicon, compared to dolomitic lime. The objectiv...

  1. Plant biomass, soil microbial community structure and nitrogen cycling under different organic amendment regimes; a

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijboer, Amber; Berge, ten Hein F.M.; Ruiter, de Peter C.; Jørgensen, Helene Bracht; Kowalchuk, George A.; Bloem, Jaap

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable agriculture requires nutrient management options that lead to a profitable crop yield with relatively low nitrogen (N) losses to the environment. We studied whether the addition of contrasting organic amendments together with inorganic fertilizer can promote both requirements

  2. Phytoplankton biomass and pigment responses to Fe amendments in the Pine Island and Amundsen polynyas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mills, M.M.; Alderkamp, A.C.; Thuróczy, C.E.; van Dijken, G.L.; Laan, P.; de Baar, H.J.W.; Arrigo, K.R.

    2012-01-01

    Nutrient addition experiments were performed during the austral summer in the Amundsen Sea (Southern Ocean) to investigate the availability of organically bound iron (Fe) to the phytoplankton communities, as well as assess their response to Fe amendment. Changes in autotrophic biomass, pigment

  3. Sugarcane Yield Response to Furrow-Applied Organic Amendments on Sand Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Mabry McCray

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic amendments have been shown to increase sugarcane yield on sand soils in Florida. These soils have very low water and nutrient-holding capacities because of the low content of organic matter, silt, and clay. Because of high costs associated with broadcast application, this field study was conducted to determine sugarcane yield response to furrow application of two organic amendments on sand soils. One experiment compared broadcast application (226 m3 ha−1 of mill mud and yard waste compost, furrow application (14, 28, and 56 m3 ha−1 of these materials, and no amendment. Another experiment compared furrow applications (28 and 56 m3 ha−1 of mill mud and yard waste compost with no amendment. There were significant yield (t sucrose ha−1 responses to broadcast and furrow-applied mill mud but responses to furrow applications were not consistent across sites. There were no significant yield responses to yard waste compost suggesting that higher rates or repeated applications of this amendment will be required to achieve results comparable to mill mud. Results also suggest that enhancing water and nutrient availability in the entire volume of the root zone with broadcast incorporation of organic amendments is the more effective approach for low organic matter sands.

  4. Draft Mission Plan Amendment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-09-01

    The Department of Energy`s Office Civilian Radioactive Waste Management has prepared this document to report plans for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program, whose mission is to manage and dispose of the nation`s spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste in a manner that protects the health and safety of the public and of workers and the quality of the environment. The Congress established this program through the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. Specifically, the Congress directed us to isolate these wastes in geologic repositories constructed in suitable rock formations deep beneath the surface of the earth. In the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987, the Congress mandated that only one repository was to be developed at present and that only the Yucca Mountain candidate site in Nevada was to be characterized at this time. The Amendments Act also authorized the construction of a facility for monitored retrievable storage (MRS) and established the Office of the Nuclear Waste Negotiator and the Nuclear Waste Technical Review Board. After a reassessment in 1989, the Secretary of Energy restructured the program, focusing the repository effort scientific evaluations of the Yucca Mountain candidate site, deciding to proceed with the development of an MRS facility, and strengthening the management of the program. 48 refs., 32 figs.

  5. Draft Mission Plan Amendment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-09-01

    The Department of Energy's Office Civilian Radioactive Waste Management has prepared this document to report plans for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program, whose mission is to manage and dispose of the nation's spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste in a manner that protects the health and safety of the public and of workers and the quality of the environment. The Congress established this program through the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. Specifically, the Congress directed us to isolate these wastes in geologic repositories constructed in suitable rock formations deep beneath the surface of the earth. In the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987, the Congress mandated that only one repository was to be developed at present and that only the Yucca Mountain candidate site in Nevada was to be characterized at this time. The Amendments Act also authorized the construction of a facility for monitored retrievable storage (MRS) and established the Office of the Nuclear Waste Negotiator and the Nuclear Waste Technical Review Board. After a reassessment in 1989, the Secretary of Energy restructured the program, focusing the repository effort scientific evaluations of the Yucca Mountain candidate site, deciding to proceed with the development of an MRS facility, and strengthening the management of the program. 48 refs., 32 figs

  6. Nutrient Administration and Resistance Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leutholtz Brian

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Skeletal muscle tissue is tightly regulated throughout our bodies by balancing its synthesis and breakdown. Many factors are known to exist that cause profound changes on the overall status of skeletal muscle, some of which include exercise, nutrition, hormonal influences and disease. Muscle hypertrophy results when protein synthesis is greater than protein breakdown. Resistance training is a popular form of exercise that has been shown to increase muscular strength and muscular hypertrophy. In general, resistance training causes a stimulation of protein synthesis as well as an increase in protein breakdown, resulting in a negative balance of protein. Providing nutrients, specifically amino acids, helps to stimulate protein synthesis and improve the overall net balance of protein. Strategies to increase the concentration and availability of amino acids after resistance exercise are of great interest and have been shown to effectively increase overall protein synthesis. 123 After exercise, providing carbohydrate has been shown to mildly stimulate protein synthesis while addition of free amino acids prior to and after exercise, specifically essential amino acids, causes a rapid pronounced increase in protein synthesis as well as protein balance.13 Evidence exists for a dose-response relationship of infused amino acids while no specific regimen exists for optimal dosing upon ingestion. Ingestion of whole or intact protein sources (e.g., protein powders, meal-replacements has been shown to cause similar improvements in protein balance after resistance exercise when compared to free amino acid supplements. Future research should seek to determine optimal dosing of ingested intact amino acids in addition to identifying the cellular mechanistic machinery (e.g. transcriptional and translational mechanisms for causing the increase in protein synthesis.

  7. Educating for the First Amendment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Click, J. William

    1995-01-01

    This paper stresses the importance of researching, teaching, discussing, practicing, and understanding the First Amendment to the Constitution of the United States. The paper also examines what the First Amendment means to students in America's schools and colleges and discusses freedom of expression and censorship for students and student…

  8. Nutrient synchrony in preruminant calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borne, van den J.J.G.C.

    2006-01-01

    In animal nutrition, the nutrient composition of the daily feed supply is composed to match the nutrient requirements for the desired performance. The time of nutrient availability within a day is usually considered not to affect the fate of nutrients. The aim of this thesis was to evaluate effects

  9. Soil contamination with cadmium, consequences and remediation using organic amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Amjad; Khan, Sardar; Khan, Anwarzeb; Alam, Mehboob

    2017-12-01

    Cadmium (Cd) contamination of soil and food crops is a ubiquitous environmental problem that has resulted from uncontrolled industrialization, unsustainable urbanization and intensive agricultural practices. Being a toxic element, Cd poses high threats to soil quality, food safety, and human health. Land is the ultimate source of waste disposal and utilization therefore, Cd released from different sources (natural and anthropogenic), eventually reaches soil, and then subsequently bio-accumulates in food crops. The stabilization of Cd in contaminated soil using organic amendments is an environmentally friendly and cost effective technique used for remediation of moderate to high contaminated soil. Globally, substantial amounts of organic waste are generated every day that can be used as a source of nutrients, and also as conditioners to improve soil quality. This review paper focuses on the sources, generation, and use of different organic amendments to remediate Cd contaminated soil, discusses their effects on soil physical and chemical properties, Cd bioavailability, plant uptake, and human health risk. Moreover, it also provides an update of the most relevant findings about the application of organic amendments to remediate Cd contaminated soil and associated mechanisms. Finally, future research needs and directions for the remediation of Cd contaminated soil using organic amendments are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Plant growth inhibition by soluble salts in sewage sludge-amended mine spoils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodgers, C.S.; Anderson, R.C. [Illinois State University, Normal, IL (United States). Dept. of Biological Sciences

    1995-07-01

    The growth response of prairie switchgrass {ital Panicum virgatum}L was compared in strip mine spoil amended with various levels of anaerobically digested waste-activated sewage sludge (0, 56, 111, 222, or 333 dry Mg ha{sup -1}) and commercial fertilizer, pure sludge, and glasshouse soil. Plants were grown in a growth chamber and substrates were maintained at field capacity during the study. Soluble salt concentrations of the substrates increased linearly as a function of sludge amendment and were within the range known to inhibit the growth of many plant species at the high levels of sludge application. There was, however, a linear response of biomass production to increasing levels of sludge amendment. Maintaining substrates at field capacity apparently prevented the high concentration of soluble salts from inhibiting plant growth. The increased biomass yield associated with sludge application was likely due to the increased availability of inorganic nutrients associated with sludge amendment. 22 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Amending Contracts for Choreographies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Bocchi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Distributed interactions can be suitably designed in terms of choreographies. Such abstractions can be thought of as global descriptions of the coordination of several distributed parties. Global assertions define contracts for choreographies by annotating multiparty session types with logical formulae to validate the content of the exchanged messages. The introduction of such constraints is a critical design issue as it may be hard to specify contracts that allow each party to be able to progress without violating the contract. In this paper, we propose three methods that automatically correct inconsistent global assertions. The methods are compared by discussing their applicability and the relationships between the amended global assertions and the original (inconsistent ones.

  12. Effects of sulfur and nitrogen on nutrients uptake of corn using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-08

    Aug 8, 2011 ... Sulfur uptake efficiency increases, and the deficiency symptom disappears, upon application of N fertilizer in the form of urea in S deficient soil (Murphy, 1999). Sulfur is considered one of the major essential plant nutrients and an amendment used for reclaiming alkaline and calcareous soils (Marschner ...

  13. Soil nutrient enhancement by rice husk in smallholder farms of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soil fertility management is one of the most cherished natural resource that requires being safeguard at all cost. An adequate and better solution to combat soil constraint arising from nutrient depletion has been developed; a low external input technology, amending soils with an organic base fertilizer (rice husk) as it is high ...

  14. Carrot, Corn, Lettuce and Soybean Nutrient Contents are Affected by Biochar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biochar, the carbon-rich material remaining after pyrolysis of cellulosic and manure feedstocks, has the potential as a soil amendment to sequester carbon and to improve soil water-holding and nutrient properties- thereby enhancing plant growth. However, biochar produced from so...

  15. The subtropical nutrient spiral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, William J.; Doney, Scott C.

    2003-12-01

    We present an extended series of observations and more comprehensive analysis of a tracer-based measure of new production in the Sargasso Sea near Bermuda using the 3He flux gauge technique. The estimated annually averaged nitrate flux of 0.84 ± 0.26 mol m-2 yr-1 constitutes only that nitrate physically transported to the euphotic zone, not nitrogen from biological sources (e.g., nitrogen fixation or zooplankton migration). We show that the flux estimate is quantitatively consistent with other observations, including decade timescale evolution of the 3H + 3He inventory in the main thermocline and export production estimates. However, we argue that the flux cannot be supplied in the long term by local diapycnal or isopycnal processes. These considerations lead us to propose a three-dimensional pathway whereby nutrients remineralized within the main thermocline are returned to the seasonally accessible layers within the subtropical gyre. We describe this mechanism, which we call "the nutrient spiral," as a sequence of steps where (1) nutrient-rich thermocline waters are entrained into the Gulf Stream, (2) enhanced diapycnal mixing moves nutrients upward onto lighter densities, (3) detrainment and enhanced isopycnal mixing injects these waters into the seasonally accessible layer of the gyre recirculation region, and (4) the nutrients become available to biota via eddy heaving and wintertime convection. The spiral is closed when nutrients are utilized, exported, and then remineralized within the thermocline. We present evidence regarding the characteristics of the spiral and discuss some implications of its operation within the biogeochemical cycle of the subtropical ocean.

  16. Nitrate capture and slow release in biochar amended compost and soil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolas Hagemann

    Full Text Available Slow release of nitrate by charred organic matter used as a soil amendment (i.e. biochar was recently suggested as potential mechanism of nutrient delivery to plants which may explain some agronomic benefits of biochar. So far, isolated soil-aged and composted biochar particles were shown to release considerable amounts of nitrate only in extended (>1 h extractions ("slow release". In this study, we quantified nitrate and ammonium release by biochar-amended soil and compost during up to 167 h of repeated extractions in up to six consecutive steps to determine the effect of biochar on the overall mineral nitrogen retention. We used composts produced from mixed manures amended with three contrasting biochars prior to aerobic composting and a loamy soil that was amended with biochar three years prior to analysis and compared both to non-biochar amended controls. Composts were extracted with 2 M KCl at 22°C and 65°C, after sterilization, after treatment with H2O2, after removing biochar particles or without any modification. Soils were extracted with 2 M KCl at 22°C. Ammonium was continuously released during the extractions, independent of biochar amendment and is probably the result of abiotic ammonification. For the pure compost, nitrate extraction was complete after 1 h, while from biochar-amended composts, up to 30% of total nitrate extracted was only released during subsequent extraction steps. The loamy soil released 70% of its total nitrate amount in subsequent extractions, the biochar-amended soil 58%. However, biochar amendment doubled the amount of total extractable nitrate. Thus, biochar nitrate capture can be a relevant contribution to the overall nitrate retention in agroecosystems. Our results also indicate that the total nitrate amount in biochar amended soils and composts may frequently be underestimated. Furthermore, biochars could prevent nitrate loss from agroecosystems and may be developed into slow-release fertilizers to

  17. Draft 1988 mission plan amendment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-06-01

    This draft 1988 amendment to the Mission Plan for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program has been prepared by the US Department of Energy (DOE). The purpose is to inform the Congress of the DOE's plans for implementing the provisions of the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987 (P.L. 100-203) for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. This document is being submitted in draft form to Federal agencies, states, previously affected Indian Tribes, affected units of local government, and the public. After the consideration of comments, this amendment will be revised as appropriate and submitted to the Congress. 39 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs

  18. Mariculture: significant and expanding cause of coastal nutrient enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouwman, Lex; Beusen, Arthur; Glibert, Patricia M; Overbeek, Ciska; Pawlowski, Marcin; Herrera, Jorge; Mulsow, Sandor; Yu, Rencheng; Zhou, Mingjiang

    2013-01-01

    Mariculture (marine aquaculture) generates nutrient waste either through the excretion by the reared organisms, or through direct enrichment by, or remineralization of, externally applied feed inputs. Importantly, the waste from fish or shellfish cannot easily be managed, as most is in dissolved form and released directly to the aquatic environment. The release of dissolved and particulate nutrients by intensive mariculture results in increasing nutrient loads (finfish and crustaceans), and changes in nutrient stoichiometry (all mariculture types). Based on different scenarios, we project that nutrients from mariculture will increase up to six fold by 2050 with exceedance of the nutrient assimilative capacity in parts of the world where mariculture growth is already rapid. Increasing nutrient loads and altered nutrient forms (increased availability of reduced relative to oxidized forms of nitrogen) and/or stoichiometric proportions (altered nitrogen:phosphorus ratios) may promote an increase in harmful algal blooms (HABs) either directly or via stimulation of algae on which mixotrophic HABs may feed. HABs can kill or intoxicate the mariculture product with severe economic losses, and can increase risks to human health. (letter)

  19. Brain Stimulation Therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Magnetic Seizure Therapy Deep Brain Stimulation Additional Resources Brain Stimulation Therapies Overview Brain stimulation therapies can play ... for a shorter recovery time than ECT Deep Brain Stimulation Deep brain stimulation (DBS) was first developed ...

  20. Late gestational nutrient restriction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tygesen, Malin Plumhoff; Nielsen, Mette Olaf; Nørgaard, Peder

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the effect of 50% nutrient restriction during the last 6 weeks of gestation on twin-pregnant ewes' plasma glucose, non-esterified fatty acid, ß-hydroxybutyrate, insulin, IGF-1 and leptin concentrations and the effects on lamb birth weight and ewes' lactation performance. Plasma...

  1. Whole-system nutrient enrichment increases secondary production in a detritus-based ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    W.F. Cross; J.B. Wallace; A.D. Rosemond; S.L. Eggert

    2006-01-01

    Although the effects of nutrient enrichment on consumer-resource dynamics are relatively well studied in ecosystems based on living plants, little is known about the manner in which enrichment influences the dynamics and productivity of consumers and resources in detritus-based ecosystems. Because nutrients can stimulate loss of carbon at the base of detrital food webs...

  2. Reducing Nutrient Losses with Directed Fertilization of Degraded Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzies, E.; Walter, M. T.; Schneider, R.

    2016-12-01

    Degraded soils around the world are stunting agricultural productivity in places where people need it the most. In China, hundreds of years of agriculture and human activity have turned large swaths of productive grasslands into expanses of sandy soils where nothing can grow. Returning soils such as these to healthy productive landscapes is crucial to the livelihoods of rural families and to feeding the expanding population of China and the world at large. Buried wood chips can be used to improve the soils' water holding capacity but additional nutrient inputs are crucial to support plant growth and completely restore degraded soils in China and elsewhere. Improperly applied fertilizer can cause large fluxes of soluble nutrients such as nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) to pollute groundwater, and reach surface water bodies causing harmful algal blooms or eutrophication. Similarly, fertilization can create increases in nutrient losses in the form of greenhouse gases (GHGs). It is imperative that nutrient additions to this system be done in a way that fosters restoration and a return to productivity, but minimizes nutrient losses to adjacent surface water bodies and the atmosphere. The primary objective of this study is to characterize soluble and gaseous N and P losses from degraded sandy soils with wood chip and fertilizer amendments in order to identify optimal fertilization methods, frequencies, and quantities for soil restoration. A laboratory soil column study is currently underway to begin examining these questions results of this study will be presented at the Fall Meeting.

  3. Gustatory and metabolic perception of nutrient stress in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linford, Nancy J; Ro, Jennifer; Chung, Brian Y; Pletcher, Scott D

    2015-02-24

    Sleep loss is an adaptive response to nutrient deprivation that alters behavior to maximize the chances of feeding before imminent death. Organisms must maintain systems for detecting the quality of the food source to resume healthy levels of sleep when the stress is alleviated. We determined that gustatory perception of sweetness is both necessary and sufficient to suppress starvation-induced sleep loss when animals encounter nutrient-poor food sources. We further find that blocking specific dopaminergic neurons phenocopies the absence of gustatory stimulation, suggesting a specific role for these neurons in transducing taste information to sleep centers in the brain. Finally, we show that gustatory perception is required for survival, specifically in a low nutrient environment. Overall, these results demonstrate an important role for gustatory perception when environmental food availability approaches zero and illustrate the interplay between sensory and metabolic perception of nutrient availability in regulating behavioral state.

  4. Enzyme Sorption onto Soil and Biocarbon Amendments Alters Catalytic Capacity and Depends on the Specific Protein and pH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, E.; Fogle, E. J.; Cotrufo, M. F.

    2017-12-01

    Enzymes catalyze biogeochemical reactions in soils and play a key role in nutrient cycling in agricultural systems. Often, to increase soil nutrients, agricultural managers add organic amendments and have recently experimented with charcoal-like biocarbon products. These amendments can enhance soil water and nutrient holding capacity through increasing porosity. However, the large surface area of the biocarbon has the potential to sorb nutrients and other organic molecules. Does the biocarbon decrease nutrient cycling through sorption of enzymes? In a laboratory setting, we compared the interaction of two purified enzymes β-glucosidase and acid phosphatase with a sandy clay loam and two biocarbons. We quantified the sorbed enzymes at three different pHs using a Bradford protein assay and then measured the activity of the sorbed enzyme via high-throughput fluorometric analysis. Both sorption and activity depended upon the solid phase, pH, and specific enzyme. Overall the high surface area biocarbon impacted the catalytic capacity of the enzymes more than the loam soil, which may have implications for soil nutrient management with these organic amendments.

  5. Nutrients in the nexus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Eric A.; Niphong, Rachel; Ferguson, Richard B.; Palm, Cheryl; Osmond, Deanna L.; Baron, Jill S.

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic nitrogen (N) fertilizer has enabled modern agriculture to greatly improve human nutrition during the twentieth century, but it has also created unintended human health and environmental pollution challenges for the twenty-first century. Averaged globally, about half of the fertilizer-N applied to farms is removed with the crops, while the other half remains in the soil or is lost from farmers’ fields, resulting in water and air pollution. As human population continues to grow and food security improves in the developing world, the dual development goals of producing more nutritious food with low pollution will require both technological and socio-economic innovations in agriculture. Two case studies presented here, one in sub-Saharan Africa and the other in Midwestern United States, demonstrate how management of nutrients, water, and energy is inextricably linked in both small-scale and large-scale food production, and that science-based solutions to improve the efficiency of nutrient use can optimize food production while minimizing pollution. To achieve the needed large increases in nutrient use efficiency, however, technological developments must be accompanied by policies that recognize the complex economic and social factors affecting farmer decision-making and national policy priorities. Farmers need access to affordable nutrient supplies and support information, and the costs of improving efficiencies and avoiding pollution may need to be shared by society through innovative policies. Success will require interdisciplinary partnerships across public and private sectors, including farmers, private sector crop advisors, commodity supply chains, government agencies, university research and extension, and consumers.

  6. Activated carbon amendment to sequester PAHs in contaminated soil: a lysimeter field trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Sarah E; Elmquist, Marie; Brändli, Rahel; Hartnik, Thomas; Jakob, Lena; Henriksen, Thomas; Werner, David; Cornelissen, Gerard

    2012-04-01

    Activated carbon (AC) amendment is an innovative method for the in situ remediation of contaminated soils. A field-scale AC amendment of either 2% powder or granular AC (PAC and GAC) to a PAH contaminated soil was carried out in Norway. The PAH concentration in drainage water from the field plot was measured with a direct solvent extraction and by deploying polyoxymethylene (POM) passive samplers. In addition, POM samplers were dug directly in the AC amended and unamended soil in order to monitor the reduction in free aqueous PAH concentrations in the soil pore water. The total PAH concentration in the drainage water, measured by direct solvent extraction of the water, was reduced by 14% for the PAC amendment and by 59% for GAC, 12 months after amendment. Measurements carried out with POM showed a reduction of 93% for PAC and 56% for GAC. The free aqueous PAH concentration in soil pore water was reduced 93% and 76%, 17 and 28 months after PAC amendment, compared to 84% and 69% for GAC. PAC, in contrast to GAC, was more effective for reducing freely dissolved concentrations than total dissolved ones. This could tentatively be explained by leaching of microscopic AC particles from PAC. Secondary chemical effects of the AC amendment were monitored by considering concentration changes in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and nutrients. DOC was bound by AC, while the concentrations of nutrients (NO(3), NO(2), NH(4), PO(4), P-total, K, Ca and Mg) were variable and likely affected by external environmental factors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Fate of diuron and terbuthylazine in soils amended with two-phase olive oil mill waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, A; Cox, Lucia; Velarde, P; Koskinen, William C; Cornejo, Juan

    2007-06-13

    The addition of organic amendments to soil increases soil organic matter content and stimulates soil microbial activity. Thus, processes affecting herbicide fate in the soil should be affected. The objective of this work was to investigate the effect of olive oil production industry organic waste (alperujo) on soil sorption-desorption, degradation, and leaching of diuron [3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea] and terbuthylazine [N2-tert-butyl-6-chloro-N4-ethyl-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine], two herbicides widely used in olive crops. The soils used in this study were a sandy soil and a silty clay soil from two different olive groves. The sandy soil was amended in the laboratory with fresh (uncomposted) alperujo at the rate of 10% w/w, and the silty clay soil was amended in the field with fresh alperujo at the rate of 256 kg per tree during 4 years and in the laboratory with fresh or composted alperujo. Sorption of both herbicides increased in laboratory-amended soils as compared to unamended or field-amended soils, and this process was less reversible in laboratory-amended soils, except for diuron in amended sandy soil. Addition of alperujo to soils increased half-lives of the herbicides in most of the soils. Diuron and terbuthylazine leached through unamended sandy soil, but no herbicide was detected in laboratory-amended soil. Diuron did not leach through amended or unamended silty clay soil, whereas small amounts of terbuthylazine were detected in leachates from unamended soil. Despite their higher sorption capacity, greater amounts of terbuthylazine were found in the leachates from amended silty clay soils. The amounts of dissolved organic matter from alperujo and the degree of humification can affect sorption, degradation, and leaching of these two classes of herbicides in soils. It appears that adding alperujo to soil would not have adverse impacts on the behavior of herbicides in olive production.

  8. Trends in nutrients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heathwaite, A.L.; Johnes, P.J.; Peters, N.E.

    1996-01-01

    The roles of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) as key nutrients determining the trophic status of water bodies are examined, and evidence reviewed for trends in concentrations of N and P species which occur in freshwaters, primarily in northern temperate environments. Data are reported for water bodies undergoing eutrophication and acidification, especially water bodies receiving increased nitrogen inputs through the atmospheric deposition of nitrogen oxides (NOx). Nutrient loading on groundwaters and surface freshwaters is assessed with respect to causes and rates of (change, relative rates of change for N and P, and implications of change for the future management of lakes, rivers and groundwaters. In particular, the nature and emphasis of studies for N species and P fractions in lakes versus rivers and groundwaters are contrasted. This review paper primarily focuses on results from North America and Europe, particularly for the UK where a wide range of data sets exists. Few nutrient loading data have been published on water bodies in less developed countries; however, some of the available data are presented to provide a global perspective. In general, N and P concentrations have increased dramatically (>20 times background concentrations) in many areas and causes vary considerably, ranging from urbanization to changes in agricultural practices.

  9. The role of Juncus effusus litter quality and nutrient availability on organic matter decomposition in restored cutover bogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agethen, Svenja; Knorr, Klaus-Holger

    2017-04-01

    aromaticity were higher in "F" litter. Generally, decomposition rates of litter were 5-30 times higher than of peat. Rates in batches amended with "F" were lower compared to "NF" for the respective peat, opposing typically reported observations. Nevertheless, the 13C label suggested that in case of peat I and III preferably the litter was decomposed, decomposition of peat II was apparently stimulated when "NF" was added, albeit this litter was poor in nutrients. Multiple linear regression identified specific absorption at 254 nm (SUVA), a measure of aromaticity representative for an array of inter-correlating spectroscopic features, and enzyme activity as most important predictors for C-mineralization rates. These two parameters explained 88% of the variance. Although enzyme activity and SUVA did not correlate in the mixed assays, this was the case for the pure materials (R2=0.95), suggesting an inhibitory effect of aromatic components on enzyme activity. This study confirms that generally litter quality is a major control for mineralization and hence, carbon storage in peatlands. Interestingly, in the case of Juncus effusus, high nutrient availability in peat and litter did not lead to enhanced degradation of the litter itself or priming of decomposition of the surrounding peat. Furthermore, the results underline the substantial contribution of Juncus biomass to C-cycling and potentially high C-emissions in restored peatlands.

  10. Leaf mineral nutrient remobilization during leaf senescence and modulation by nutrient deficiency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne eMaillard

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Higher plants have to cope with fluctuating mineral resource availability. However strategies such as stimulation of root growth, increased transporter activities, and nutrient storage and remobilization have been mostly studied for only a few macronutrients. Leaves of cultivated crops (Zea mays, Brassica napus, Pisum sativum, Triticum aestivum, Hordeum vulgare and tree species (Quercus robur, Populus nigra, Alnus glutinosa grown under field conditions were harvested regularly during their life span and analysed to evaluate the net mobilization of 13 nutrients during leaf senescence. While N was remobilized in all plant species with different efficiencies ranging from 40% (maize to 90% (wheat, other macronutrients (K-P-S-Mg were mobilized in most species. Ca and Mn, usually considered as having low phloem mobility were remobilized from leaves in wheat and barley. Leaf content of Cu-Mo-Ni-B-Fe-Zn decreased in some species, as a result of remobilization. Overall, wheat, barley and oak appeared to be the most efficient at remobilization while poplar and maize were the least efficient. Further experiments were performed with rapeseed plants subjected to individual nutrient deficiencies. Compared to field conditions, remobilization from leaves was similar (N-S-Cu or increased by nutrient deficiency (K-P-Mg while nutrient deficiency had no effect on Mo-Zn-B-Ca-Mn, which seemed to be non-mobile during leaf senescence under field conditions. However, Ca and Mn were largely mobilized from roots (-97 and -86% of their initial root contents, respectively to shoots. Differences in remobilization between species and between nutrients are then discussed in relation to a range of putative mechanisms.

  11. Essential nutrient requirements of the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skully R

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Robert Skully Department of Family Medicine, Grant Medical Center, OhioHealth, Columbus, OH, USA Abstract: Government-sponsored medical organizations in developed countries have established guidelines for daily nutritional requirements. For most nutrients there is general agreement surrounding these requirements, which are based on exhaustive scientific literature review. Differences in these recommendations exist because of genetic and environmental factors that result in differences in disease susceptibility, but also due to incomplete understanding of the roles of nutrients in disease prevention. This review briefly summarizes nutrient recommendations for older adults such as where those recommendations differ from those of younger adults; and includes areas of developing understanding such as the possible role of thiamine deficiency in patients with congestive heart failure, the need for some older adults to ingest absorbable forms of vitamin B12, the high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency, the potential role of vitamin K in bone health, the need for higher levels of protein intake in order to stimulate muscle protein synthesis as one ages, the role of calcium in osteoporosis, and the possible need for zinc supplementation in hospitalized patients. Keywords: vitamins, nutritional requirements, energy expenditure, energy consumption

  12. Crop residue decomposition in Minnesota biochar-amended plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyers, S. L.; Spokas, K. A.

    2014-06-01

    Impacts of biochar application at laboratory scales are routinely studied, but impacts of biochar application on decomposition of crop residues at field scales have not been widely addressed. The priming or hindrance of crop residue decomposition could have a cascading impact on soil processes, particularly those influencing nutrient availability. Our objectives were to evaluate biochar effects on field decomposition of crop residue, using plots that were amended with biochars made from different plant-based feedstocks and pyrolysis platforms in the fall of 2008. Litterbags containing wheat straw material were buried in July of 2011 below the soil surface in a continuous-corn cropped field in plots that had received one of seven different biochar amendments or a uncharred wood-pellet amendment 2.5 yr prior to start of this study. Litterbags were collected over the course of 14 weeks. Microbial biomass was assessed in treatment plots the previous fall. Though first-order decomposition rate constants were positively correlated to microbial biomass, neither parameter was statistically affected by biochar or wood-pellet treatments. The findings indicated only a residual of potentially positive and negative initial impacts of biochars on residue decomposition, which fit in line with established feedstock and pyrolysis influences. Overall, these findings indicate that no significant alteration in the microbial dynamics of the soil decomposer communities occurred as a consequence of the application of plant-based biochars evaluated here.

  13. Crop residue decomposition in Minnesota biochar amended plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyers, S. L.; Spokas, K. A.

    2014-02-01

    Impacts of biochar application at laboratory scales are routinely studied, but impacts of biochar application on decomposition of crop residues at field scales have not been widely addressed. The priming or hindrance of crop residue decomposition could have a cascading impact on soil processes, particularly those influencing nutrient availability. Our objectives were to evaluate biochar effects on field decomposition of crop residue, using plots that were amended with biochars made from different feedstocks and pyrolysis platforms prior to the start of this study. Litterbags containing wheat straw material were buried below the soil surface in a continuous-corn cropped field in plots that had received one of seven different biochar amendments or a non-charred wood pellet amendment 2.5 yr prior to start of this study. Litterbags were collected over the course of 14 weeks. Microbial biomass was assessed in treatment plots the previous fall. Though first-order decomposition rate constants were positively correlated to microbial biomass, neither parameter was statistically affected by biochar or wood-pellet treatments. The findings indicated only a residual of potentially positive and negative initial impacts of biochars on residue decomposition, which fit in line with established feedstock and pyrolysis influences. Though no significant impacts were observed with field-weathered biochars, effective soil management may yet have to account for repeat applications of biochar.

  14. Mechanisms of distinct activated carbon and biochar amendment effects on petroleum vapour biofiltration in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushnaf, Khaled M; Mangse, George; Meynet, Paola; Davenport, Russell J; Cirpka, Olaf A; Werner, David

    2017-10-18

    We studied the effects of two percent by weight activated carbon versus biochar amendments in 93 cm long sand columns on the biofiltration of petroleum vapours released by a non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) source. Activated carbon greatly enhanced, whereas biochar slightly reduced, the biofiltration of volatile petroleum hydrocarbons (VPHs) over 430 days. Sorbent amendment benefitted the VPH biofiltration by retarding breakthrough during the biodegradation lag phase. Subsequently, sorbent amendment briefly reduced the mineralization of petroleum hydrocarbons by limiting their bioavailability. During the last and longest study period, when conditions became less supportive of microbial growth, because of inorganic nutrient scarcity, the sorbents again improved the pollution attenuation by preventing the degrading microorganisms from being overloaded with VPHs. A 16S rRNA gene based analysis showed sorbent amendment effects on soil microbial communities. Nocardioidaceae benefitted the most from petroleum hydrocarbons in activated carbon amended soil, whereas Pseudomonadacea predominated in unamended soil. Whilst the degrading microorganisms were overloaded with VPHs in the unamended soil, the reduced mobility and bioavailability of VPHs in the activated carbon amended soil led to the emergence of communities with higher specific substrate affinity, which removed bioavailable VPHs effectively at low concentrations. A numerical pollutant fate model reproduced these experimental observations by considering sorption effects on the pollutant migration and bioavailability for growth of VPH degrading biomass, which is limited by a maximum soil biomass carrying capacity. Activated carbon was a much stronger sorbent for VPHs than biochar, which explained the diverging effects of the two sorbents in this study.

  15. The draft Mission Plan Amendment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gale, R.W.

    1987-01-01

    The draft Mission Plan Amendment provides an opportunity for States and Indian Tribes and other involved parties to participate in a process that no other nation affords its citizens. More than just a comment period on a Department of Energy document, the amendment that is to be submitted later this year will lay before Congress, the documentary basis on which to make decisions about the scope and timing of the high-level waste program in what Secretary Herrington has called a ''crossroads'' years. The Amendment will distill the view of the participants and also preset them to Congress as an integral part of the document. After four years of effort, the Nation is being afforded an opportunity to ask itself again whether the Act passed in 1982 is working and remains the best way to protect the public interest

  16. Spatiotemporal dynamics of phosphorus release, oxygen consumption and greenhouse gas emissions after localised soil amendment with organic fertilisers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christel, Wibke [Department for Plant and Environmental Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Thorvaldsensvej 40, 1871 Frederiksberg C (Denmark); Department of Commerce, Industry and Agriculture, Danish Environmental Protection Agency, 1401 Copenhagen C (Denmark); Zhu, Kun [Department for Plant and Environmental Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Thorvaldsensvej 40, 1871 Frederiksberg C (Denmark); College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); Hoefer, Christoph [Rhizosphere Ecology and Biogeochemistry Group, Department of Forest and Soil Sciences, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, Konrad-Lorenz-Strasse 24, 3430 Tulln (Austria); Kreuzeder, Andreas [Rhizosphere Ecology and Biogeochemistry Group, Department of Forest and Soil Sciences, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, Konrad-Lorenz-Strasse 24, 3430 Tulln (Austria); Land Salzburg, Natur- und Umweltschutz, Gewerbe (Abteilung 5), Michael-Pacher-Straße 36, 5020 Salzburg (Austria); Santner, Jakob [Rhizosphere Ecology and Biogeochemistry Group, Department of Forest and Soil Sciences, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, Konrad-Lorenz-Strasse 24, 3430 Tulln (Austria); Division of Agronomy, Department of Crop Sciences, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, Konrad-Lorenz-Strasse 24, 3430 Tulln (Austria); Bruun, Sander; Magid, Jakob [Department for Plant and Environmental Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Thorvaldsensvej 40, 1871 Frederiksberg C (Denmark); Jensen, Lars Stoumann, E-mail: lsj@plen.ku.dk [Department for Plant and Environmental Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Thorvaldsensvej 40, 1871 Frederiksberg C (Denmark)

    2016-06-01

    Organic fertilisation inevitably leads to heterogeneous distribution of organic matter and nutrients in soil, i.e. due to uneven surface spreading or inhomogeneous incorporation. The resulting localised hotspots of nutrient application will induce various biotic and abiotic nutrient turnover processes and fixation in the residuesphere, giving rise to distinct differences in nutrient availability, soil oxygen content and greenhouse gas (GHG) production. In this study we investigated the spatiotemporal dynamics of the reaction of manure solids and manure solids char with soil, focusing on their phosphorus (P) availability, as current emphasis on improving societal P efficiency through recycling waste or bio-based fertilisers necessitates a sound understanding of their behaviour. Soil layers amended at a constant P application rate with either pig manure solids or char made from pig manure solids were incubated for three weeks between layers of non-amended, P-depleted soil. Spatial and temporal changes in and around the amendment layers were simultaneously investigated in this study using a sandwich sensor consisting of a planar oxygen optode and multi-element diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) gels, combined with GHG emission measurements. After three weeks of incubation, the soil containing a layer amended with manure solids had a lower overall O{sub 2} content and had emitted significantly more CO{sub 2} than the non-amended control or the char-amended soil. The P availability from manure solids was initially higher than that from the char, but decreased over time, whereas from the char-amended layer P availability increased in the same period. In both treatments, increases in P availability were confined to the amended soil layer and did not greatly affect P availability in the directly adjacent soil layers during the three-week incubation. These results highlight the importance of placing organic P fertilisers close to where the plant roots will grow in

  17. Spatiotemporal dynamics of phosphorus release, oxygen consumption and greenhouse gas emissions after localised soil amendment with organic fertilisers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christel, Wibke; Zhu, Kun; Hoefer, Christoph; Kreuzeder, Andreas; Santner, Jakob; Bruun, Sander; Magid, Jakob; Jensen, Lars Stoumann

    2016-01-01

    Organic fertilisation inevitably leads to heterogeneous distribution of organic matter and nutrients in soil, i.e. due to uneven surface spreading or inhomogeneous incorporation. The resulting localised hotspots of nutrient application will induce various biotic and abiotic nutrient turnover processes and fixation in the residuesphere, giving rise to distinct differences in nutrient availability, soil oxygen content and greenhouse gas (GHG) production. In this study we investigated the spatiotemporal dynamics of the reaction of manure solids and manure solids char with soil, focusing on their phosphorus (P) availability, as current emphasis on improving societal P efficiency through recycling waste or bio-based fertilisers necessitates a sound understanding of their behaviour. Soil layers amended at a constant P application rate with either pig manure solids or char made from pig manure solids were incubated for three weeks between layers of non-amended, P-depleted soil. Spatial and temporal changes in and around the amendment layers were simultaneously investigated in this study using a sandwich sensor consisting of a planar oxygen optode and multi-element diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) gels, combined with GHG emission measurements. After three weeks of incubation, the soil containing a layer amended with manure solids had a lower overall O_2 content and had emitted significantly more CO_2 than the non-amended control or the char-amended soil. The P availability from manure solids was initially higher than that from the char, but decreased over time, whereas from the char-amended layer P availability increased in the same period. In both treatments, increases in P availability were confined to the amended soil layer and did not greatly affect P availability in the directly adjacent soil layers during the three-week incubation. These results highlight the importance of placing organic P fertilisers close to where the plant roots will grow in order to

  18. Fly ash for soil amelioration: A review on the influence of ash blending with inorganic and organic amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram, L. C.; Masto, R. E.

    2014-01-01

    Globally, fly ash (FA), generated in huge quantities from coal fired power plants is a problematic solid waste. Utilization of FA as an ameliorant for improving soil quality has received a great deal of attention over the past four decades, and many studies have been carried out worldwide. The silt-sized particles, low bulk density (BD), higher water holding capacity (WHC), favorable pH, and significant presence of plant nutrients in FA, make it a potential amendment for soils. The studies suggest enormous potential for the use of FA to improve cultivable, degraded/waste land, mine soil, landfills, and also to reclaim abandoned ash ponds, for agriculture and forestry. FA application improves the physical, chemical and biological qualities of soils to which it is applied. However, in some cases, depending on the characteristics of FA, the release of trace elements and soluble salts from FA to a soil-plant-human system could be a constraint. The effect is minimal in the case of weathered FA. The findings reflected the heterogeneity of ash characteristics, soil types, and agro-climatic conditions, thus a generalized conclusion on the impact of FA on plant species and soil quality is difficult. It is very important that the application of FA to soil must be very specific depending on the properties of the FA and soil. A considerable amount of research has been carried out to blend FA with varieties of organic and inorganic materials, like lime, gypsum, red mud, animal manure, poultry manure, sewage sludge, composts, press mud, vermicompost, biochar, bioinoculants, etc. Co-application of FA with these materials has much advantage: enhanced nutrient availability, decreased bioavailability of toxic metals, pH buffering, organic matter addition, microbial stimulation, overall improvement in the general health of the soil, etc. The performance of FA blending with organic and inorganic materials is better than FA alone treatments. Farm manure was found to be the most

  19. Zinc and Copper Release Kinetics in a Calcareous Soil amended with Manure and Vermicompost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hamid reza motaghian

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Use of organic fertilizers such as vermicompost in agricultural soils with low organic matter content is almost considered as a one way for adding nutrients in these soils. However, application of these fertilizers may affect micronutrient release characteristics. Micronutrient release Kinetics in soils especially in amended soils give information about potential of amended soils to release these elements into solution. Although it is important to study kinetics of micronutrient release from soils to identify soil micronutrients buffering capacity, little attention has been paid to micronutrients desorption rate studies especially in amended soils. The rate of release micronutrients from soil solid phase by considering micronutrients as adsorbed ions or in mineral forms is an important parameter in nutrition of plants by microelements and a dynamic factor that regulates its continuous supply to growing plants; nonetheless, little attention has been paid to micronutrients kinetics inrelease studies. Material and Methods: In this study, kinetics of zinc (Zn and copper (Cu were compared in one calcareous soil amended with 0, 0.5, and 1% (w/w of manure and vermicompost in a completely randomized design and then amended and un-amended soils were incubated at field capacity, for 30 days. After incubation period, amended and un-amended soils were air-dried and were prepared to kinetics study. Kinetics of Zn and Cu release were studied by successive extraction with DTPA-TEA solution. Two grams of the amended and un-amended soils, in triplicate, suspended in 20 ml DTPA-TEA solution were equilibrated at 25±10C for 1, 8, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120, 144, 168, 336 and 504 h by shaking for 15 min. before incubation and 15 min. before the suspensions were centrifuged. Seven drops of toluene were added to each 1000 ml of extractant to inhibit microbial activity. Zinc and copper desorption with time was fitted by using different equations (Zero

  20. Nutrient Excess in AMPK Downregulation and Insulin Resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Coughlan, Kimberly A.; Valentine, Rudy J.; Ruderman, Neil B.; Saha, Asish K.

    2013-01-01

    It is well established that chronic exposure to excess nutrients leads to insulin resistance (IR) in skeletal muscle. Since skeletal muscle is responsible for 70-80% of insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, skeletal muscle IR is a key pathological component of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Recent evidence suggests that inhibition of the nutrient-sensing enzyme AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an early event in the development of IR in response to high glucose, branched chain amino acids (BCAA), o...

  1. Major nutrients, heavy metals and PBDEs in soils after long-term sewage sludge application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Longhua; Li, Zhu; Ren, Jing; Shen, Libo; Wang, Songfeng; Luo, Yongming [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing (China). Key Lab. of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation; Cheng, Miaomiao [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing (China). Key Lab. of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Graduate School; Christie, Peter [Agri-Food and Biosciences Institute, Belfast (United Kingdom). Agri-Environment Branch

    2012-04-15

    Purpose: Two contrasting soils receiving long-term application of commercial sewage sludge fertilizers in China were investigated to determine the concentrations of selected nutrients, heavy metals (HMs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) present to evaluate the impact of sewage sludge fertilizer on soil fertility and environmental risk. Materials and methods: Soil samples were collected from Tangshan City, Hebei province and Ningbo City, Zhejiang province and divided into two portions, one of which was air-dried and sieved through 2-, 0.25- and 0.149-mm nylon mesh for determination of nutrients and heavy metals. The other portion was frozen at -20 C, freeze-dried and sieved through 2-mm nylon mesh for PBDE analysis. The concentrations of nutrients, heavy metals and PBDEs were determined in all samples. Results and discussion: Concentrations of nutrients and heavy metals in soils amended with low rates of sewage sludge fertilizer (SSF) and conventional fertilizer were compared. After long-term excessive amendment with SSF from Ningbo City (SSF-N), the concentrations of soil total N, P, aqua regia-extractable HMs and DTPA extractable HMs were higher than the control, especially in the arable layer. Moreover, the concentration of aqua regia-extractable Zn (457 mg kg{sup -1}) exceeded the recommended China Environmental Quality Standard for soils (GB15618-1995). All 8 target PBDE congeners were found in fertilizer SSF-N and soil with excessive amendment with SSF-N for 12 years, but the concentrations of 8 different PBDEs in SSF-N-amended soil were not significantly different from control soil. Conclusions: Both economic and environmental benefits can be obtained by careful application of sewage sludge fertilizer to recycle plant nutrients. Repeated and excessive application rates of sewage sludge fertilizer may pose environmental risk, especially in respect of soil heavy metal and PBDE contamination, and high concentrations of phosphorus may also be

  2. Human Rights in Indonesian Constitutional Amendments

    OpenAIRE

    Kharlie, Ahmad Tholabi

    2013-01-01

    Human Rights in Indonesian Constitutional Amendments. Indonesian constitutional amendments incorporated human rights principles into the Constitution of the Republic of Indonesia 1945 (UUD NRI), especially in the second amendment in 2000. Under that amendment, the UUD NRI currently stipulates human rights principles as provided for in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR). However, there are some important notes, which at its core is a lack of emphasis on the vision and mission of ...

  3. WERF Nutrient Challenge investigates limits of nutrient removal technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neethling, J B; Clark, D; Pramanik, A; Stensel, H D; Sandino, J; Tsuchihashi, R

    2010-01-01

    The WERF Nutrient Challenge is a multi-year collaborative research initiative established in 2007 to develop and provide current information about wastewater treatment nutrients (specifically nitrogen and phosphorus in wastewater), their characteristics, and bioavailability in aquatic environments to help regulators make informed decisions. The Nutrient Challenge will also provide data on nutrient removal so that treatment facilities can select sustainable, cost-effective methods and technologies to meet permit limits. To meet these goals, the Nutrient Challenge has teamed with a wide array of utilities, agencies, consultants, universities and other researchers and practitioners to collaborate on projects that advance these goals. The Nutrient Challenge is focusing on a different approach to collaborating and leveraging resources (financial and intellectual) on research projects by targeting existing projects and research that correspond with its goals and funding those aspects that the Nutrient Challenge identified as a priority. Because the Nutrient Challenge is focused on collaboration, outreach is an absolutely necessary component of its effectiveness. Through workshops, webinars, a web portal and online compendium, published papers, and conference lectures, the Nutrient Challenge is both presenting important new information, and soliciting new partnerships.

  4. Agriculture: Nutrient Management and Fertilizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fertilizers and soil amendments can be derived from raw materials, composts and other organic matter, and wastes, such as sewage sludge and certain industrial wastes. Overuse of fertilizers can result in contamination of surface water and groundwater.

  5. 21 CFR 312.31 - Information amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... amendment essential information on the IND that is not within the scope of a protocol amendment, IND safety... toxicology, chemistry, or other technical information; or (2) A report regarding the discontinuance of a... required to bear prominent identification of its contents (e.g., “Information Amendment: Chemistry...

  6. Trichoderma harzianum in combination with sheep manure amendment enhances soil suppressiveness of Fusarium wilt of tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Barakat

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect that the biocontrol agent Trichoderma harzianum (isolate Jn14 in combination with an amendment of sheep manure has on the soil suppressiveness of Fusarium wilt of tomato was investigated over a 28-month period. A combination of T. harzianum and organic amendment at concentrations (w:w of 6 and 10% reduced tomato wilt by 21–36 % and 29–36% respectively, after 0–28 months of soil incubation. When the amendment was added at concentration of 2%, the wilt was suppressed only after 18–28 months. A combination of T. harzianum and the amendment at 6% also increased tomato plant fresh weights by 52% after 28 months, and the 10% amendment increased fresh weights by 56, 40, and 63%, after 18, 24, and 28 months respectively, compared to the experimental controls. Organic amendment at the higher concentrations further stimulated T. harzianum populations, enhanced microbial activity against Fusarium oxysporum in the soil and reduced pathogen populations. Without T. harzianum, the organic amendment at a concentration of 10% reduced disease by only 22, 24, and 23% and only after 18, 24 and 28 months of soil incubation respectively, compared with the controls. However, tomato wilt was not reduced at a 2% manure concentration in less than 12 months of incubation. Organic amendment alone at 6 and 10% reduced the pathogen population by 25% and 37% respectively after 28 months of soil incubation compared with the control. T. harzianum produced fungitoxic metabolites that reduced mycelial growth of Fusarium by 37% and conidium germination by 55% when the pathogen was grown on potato dextrose agar amended with a T. harzianum culture filtrate.

  7. Why the Equal Rights Amendment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denmark, Florence L.

    The Equal Rights Amendment proposes to ensure constitutional protection against all legislative sex discrimination. "Separate but Equal" standards, be they legal, social or psychological, are inevitably incompatable with equal protection under the law and act as a barrier to each individual's freedom for self determination. Equal rights,…

  8. 78 FR 77563 - Technical Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-24

    ... now amending Sec. Sec. 700.2, 701.14, and 704.4,\\1\\ which still reference the former CRIS rating... Administrative Procedure Act (APA) requires a federal agency to provide the public with notice and the... unions. The APA permits an agency to forego the notice and comment period under certain circumstances...

  9. Automated Clustering of Similar Amendments

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    The Italian Senate is clogged by computer-generated amendments. This talk will describe a simple strategy to cluster them in an automated fashion, so that the appropriate Senate procedures can be used to get rid of them in one sweep.

  10. Amended Silicated for Mercury Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James Butz; Thomas Broderick; Craig Turchi

    2006-12-31

    Amended Silicates{trademark}, a powdered, noncarbon mercury-control sorbent, was tested at Duke Energy's Miami Fort Station, Unit 6 during the first quarter of 2006. Unit 6 is a 175-MW boiler with a cold-side electrostatic precipitator (ESP). The plant burns run-of-the-river eastern bituminous coal with typical ash contents ranging from 8-15% and sulfur contents from 1.6-2.6% on an as-received basis. The performance of the Amended Silicates sorbent was compared with that for powdered activated carbon (PAC). The trial began with a period of baseline monitoring during which no sorbent was injected. Sampling during this and subsequent periods indicated mercury capture by the native fly ash was less than 10%. After the baseline period, Amended Silicates sorbent was injected at several different ratios, followed by a 30-day trial at a fixed injection ratio of 5-6 lb/MMACF. After this period, PAC was injected to provide a comparison. Approximately 40% mercury control was achieved for both the Amended Silicates sorbent and PAC at injection ratios of 5-6 lbs/MMACF. Higher injection ratios did not achieve significantly increased removal. Similar removal efficiencies have been reported for PAC injection trials at other plants with cold-side ESPs, most notably for plants using medium to high sulfur coal. Sorbent injection did not detrimentally impact plant operations and testing confirmed that the use of Amended Silicates sorbent does not degrade fly ash quality (unlike PAC). The cost for mercury control using either PAC or Amended Silicates sorbent was estimated to be equivalent if fly ash sales are not a consideration. However, if the plant did sell fly ash, the effective cost for mercury control could more than double if those sales were no longer possible, due to lost by-product sales and additional cost for waste disposal. Accordingly, the use of Amended Silicates sorbent could reduce the overall cost of mercury control by 50% or more versus PAC for locations where

  11. Impact of organic carbon and nutrients mobilized during chemical oxidation on subsequent bioremediation of a diesel-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Nora B; Grotenhuis, Tim; Rijnaarts, Huub H M

    2014-02-01

    Remediation with in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) impacts soil organic matter (SOM) and the microbial community, with deleterious effects on the latter being a major hurdle to coupling ISCO with in situ bioremediation (ISB). We investigate treatment of a diesel-contaminated soil with Fenton's reagent and modified Fenton's reagent coupled with a subsequent bioremediation phase of 187d, both with and without nutrient amendment. Chemical oxidation mobilized SOM into the liquid phase, producing dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations 8-16 times higher than the untreated field sample. Higher aqueous concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorous species were also observed following oxidation; NH4(+) increased 14-172 times. During the bioremediation phase, dissolved carbon and nutrient species were utilized for microbial growth-yielding DOC concentrations similar to field sample levels within 56d of incubation. In the absence of nutrient amendment, the highest microbial respiration rates were correlated with higher availability of nitrogen and phosphorus species mobilized by oxidation. Significant diesel degradation was only observed following nutrient amendment, implying that nutrients mobilized by chemical oxidation can increase microbial activity but are insufficient for bioremediation. While all bioremediation occurred in the first 28d of incubation in the biotic control microcosm with nutrient amendment, biodegradation continued throughout 187d of incubation following chemical oxidation, suggesting that chemical treatment also affects the desorption of organic contaminants from SOM. Overall, results indicate that biodegradation of DOC, as an alternative substrate to diesel, and biological utilization of mobilized nutrients have implications for the success of coupled ISCO and ISB treatments. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Measuring nutrient spiralling in streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newbold, J D; Elwood, J W; O' Neill, R V; Van Winkle, W

    1981-01-01

    Nutrient cycling in streams involves some downstream transport before the cycle is completed. Thus, the path traveled by a nutrient atom in passing through the cycle can be visualized as a spiral. As an index of the spiralling process, we introduce spiralling length, defined as the average distance associated with one complete cycle of a nutrient atom. This index provides a measure of the utilization of nutrients relative to the available supply from upstream. Using /sup 32/p as a tracer, we estimated a spiralling length of 193 m for phosphorus in a small woodland stream.

  13. EOR by stimulated microflora

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svarovskaya, L.I.; Altunina, L.K.; Rozhenkova, Z.A.; Bulavin, V.D. [Institute of Petroleum Chemistry, Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    A combined microbiological and physico-chemical method for EOR has been developed for flooded West Siberia oil fields with formation temperature of 45{degrees}-95{degrees}C (318-365K). Formation water includes rich and various biocenoses numbering up to 2 x 10{sup 7} cells per ml. Representatives of genera, i.e, Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Actinomyces, Micrococcus, Mycobacterium, Sarcina, etc. were found to be the most widely distributed microorganisms. The method is based on injection of systems exhibiting high oil displacing capacity and at the same time being an additional nitrous nutrient for endemic populations of microorganisms. Their injection into formation water favors biomass growth by 4-6 orders and promotes syntheses of biosurfactants, biopolymers, acids, etc., and gaseous products. The features of residual oil displacement have been studied on laboratory models using a combined microbiological and physico-chemical method. A curve for the yield of residual oil is presented by two peaks. The first peak is stipulated by the washing action of oil displacement system, and the second one by the effect of metabolites produced at stimulation of biogenic processes. Oil displacement index increases by 15%-30%.

  14. Behavior of oxyfluorfen in soils amended with different sources of organic matter. Effects on soil biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Isidoro; Rodríguez-Morgado, Bruno; Parrado, Juan; García, Carlos; Hernández, Teresa; Tejada, Manuel

    2014-05-30

    We performed a laboratory study on the effect of oxyfluorfen at a rate of 4lha(-1) on biological properties of a soil amended with four organic wastes (two biostimulants/biofertilizers, obtained from rice bran, RB1 and RB2; municipal solid waste, MSW; and sheep manure, SM). Soil was mixed with SM at a rate of 1%, MSW at a rate of 0.52%, RB1 at a rate of 0.39% and RB2 at a rate of 0.30%, in order to apply the same amount of organic matter to the soil. The enzymatic activities and microbial community in the soil were determined during the incubation times. The application of RB1 and RB2 to soil without oxyfluorfen increased the enzymatic activities and biodiversity, peaking at day 10 of the incubation period. This stimulation was higher in the soil amended with RB2 than in that amended with RB1. In SM and CF-amended soils, the stimulation of enzymatic activities and soil biodiversity increased during the experiment. The application of herbicide in organic-amended soils decreased the inhibition of soil enzymatic activities and soil biodiversity. Possibly the low molecular weight protein content easily assimilated by soil microorganisms and the higher fat content in the biostimulants/biofertilizers are responsible for the lower inhibition of these soil biological properties. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of Two Soil Amendments from Steel Slag on Rice Growth and Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium Uptake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Lu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of two soil amendments(W and Y derived from steel slag and their application rates(0.74, 1.47, 2.94, 5.88 g·kg-1 and 11.76 g·kg-1 for W; 1.47, 2.94, 5.88, 11.76 g·kg-1 and 23.52 g·kg-1 for Y on rice growth. The results showed that no significant change in rice yield was found following W amendments; conversely, a 20% increase in rice yield was observed following Y amendments at rates of 11.76 g·kg-1 and 23.52 g·kg-1 as compared with NPK treatments. Y amendment at rates of 5.88~23.52 g·kg-1 increased straw mass by 24.02%~35.23% when compared with NPK treatments. Combined application of Y amendments and NPK fertilizers increased subsequent N, P and K uptake by rice by 12.61%~21.55%, 7.63%~38.31% and 11.89%~54.13%, respectively. The results indicated Y amendments could effectively accelerate subsequent rice growth at high application rates by increasing nutrient uptake in the soil studied(pH 6.51; Conversely, we observed no significant effects with W amendments.

  16. Activated carbon amendment for in-situ remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmquist, M.; Brändli, R.; Henriksen, T.; Hartnik, T.; Cornelissen, G.

    2009-04-01

    For the first time in Europe, a novel and innovative remediation technique is used in a field pilot study. This technique is amendment of the soil with two types of activated carbon (AC). Here, one pulverized AC (PAC, 50% 150 µm) and one granular AC (GAC, 1.7-0.43 mm) is tested. The idea of this technique is that the added AC binds organic contaminants so strongly that they cannot be taken up in living organisms or transported to other environmental compartments. Laboratory studies with 2% (wt %) AC amendment to an urban soil reduced the freely dissolved pore water concentrations of PAH by 17% to 99% (Brändli et al. 2008). Several parameters such as dissolved organic carbon (DOC), K, NO2, NO3, NH4, PO4 and PAH, are being measured in this field study. Plant growth and earthworm bioaccumulation tests were also carried out during the summer months. DOC showed a 70% reduction between untreated soil and soil with PAC about one year after the amendment. In the soil mixed with GAC, a 55% reduction could be measured. For K, a 40% lowering value was observed for the soil with GAC compared to no affect for the soil with PAC. NH4 was reduced by 50% for both GAC and PAC amended soils compared to the untreated soil, whereas NO2 and NO3 increased with 2-4 times for the soil with GAC and no effect were seen for the soil with PAC. The freely dissolved PAH concentrations were reduced by 49-78% for the soil with GAC and 82-96% for the soil with PAC. The plant experiment showed best growth rate in the soil with GAC, followed by the untreated soil and least growth was measured on the PAC treated soil. The low growth rate seen in the soil with PAC may come from the fact that DOC and some other nutrients are also being sorbed to the PAC surface together with the organic pollutants and are thereby taken away from the biological cycle. Amendment of soil with AC remediates the soil from organic contaminants when these pollutants are sorbed to the AC surface. This is an easy technique

  17. The Nutrient Density of Snacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Hess BA

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although Americans receive almost a quarter of their daily energy from snacks, snacking remains a poorly defined and understood eating occasion. However, there is little dietary guidance about choosing snacks. Families, clinicians, and researchers need a comprehensive approach to assessing their nutritional value. Objective: To quantify and compare the nutrient density of commonly consumed snacks by their overall nutrient profiles using the Nutrient-Rich Foods (NRF Index 10.3. Methods: NRF Index scores were calculated for the top 3 selling products (based on 2014 market research data in different snack categories. These NRF scores were averaged to provide an overall nutrient-density score for each category. Results: Based on NRF scores, yogurt (55.3, milk (52.5, and fruit (30.1 emerged as the most nutrient-dense snacks. Ice cream (−4.4, pies and cakes (−11.1, and carbonated soft drinks (−17.2 emerged as the most nutrient-poor snacks. Conclusions: The NRF Index is a useful tool for assessing the overall nutritional value of snacks based on nutrients to limit and nutrients to encourage.

  18. Nutrient management in substrate systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonneveld, C.; Voogt, W.

    2009-01-01

    Speaking about nutrient solutions in soilless cultivation, different solutions can be discerned. Originally, in soilless culture only one nutrient solution was taken into account, being the solution in the containers in which the plants were grown. Such solutions were intensively moved by air

  19. Fisheries management under nutrient influence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammarlund, Cecilia; Nielsen, Max; Waldo, Staffan

    2018-01-01

    A fisheries management model that identifies the economic optimal management of fisheries under the influence of nutrients is presented. The model starts from the idea that growth in fish biomass increases with increasing availability of nutrients owing to higher food availability up to a peak...

  20. Revegetating fly ash landfills with Prosopis juliflora L.: impact of different amendments and Rhizobium inoculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, U N; Pandey, K; Sinha, S; Singh, A; Saxena, R; Gupta, D K

    2004-05-01

    A revegetation trial was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of growing a legume species, Prosopis juliflora L., on fly ash ameliorated with combination of various organic amendments, blue-green algal biofertilizer and Rhizobium inoculation. Significant enhancements in plant biomass, photosynthetic pigments, protein content and in vivo nitrate reductase activity were found in the plants grown on ameliorated fly ash in comparison to the plants growing in unamended fly ash or garden soil. Higher growth was obtained in fly ash amended with blue-green algae (BGA) than farmyard manure or press mud (PM), a waste from sugar-processing industry, due to the greater contribution of plant nutrients, supply of fixed nitrogen and increased availability of phosphorus. Nodulation was suppressed in different amendments of fly ash with soil in a concentration-duration-dependent manner, but not with other amendments. Plants accumulated higher amounts of Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn and Cr in various fly ash amendments than in garden soil. Further, inoculation of the plant with a fly ash tolerant Rhizobium strain conferred tolerance for the plant to grow under fly ash stress conditions with more translocation of metals to the above ground parts. The results showed the potential of P. juliflora to grow in plantations on fly ash landfills and to reduce the metal contents of fly ash by bioaccumulation in its tissues.

  1. Rhizosphere Environment and Labile Phosphorus Release from Organic Waste-Amended Soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dao, Thanh H.

    2015-04-01

    Crop residues and biofertilizers are primary sources of nutrients for organic crop production. However, soils treated with large amounts of nutrient-enriched manure have elevated phosphorus (P) levels in regions of intensive animal agriculture. Surpluses occurred in these amended soils, resulting in large pools of exchangeable inorganic P (Pi) and enzyme-labile organic P (Po) that averaging 30.9 and 68.2 mg kg-1, respectively. Organic acids produced during crop residue decomposition can promote the complexation of counter-ions and decouple and release unbound Pi from metal and alkali metal phosphates. Animal manure and cover crop residues also contain large amounts of soluble organic matter, and likely generate similar ligands. However, a high degree of heterogeneity in P spatial distribution in such amended fields, arising from variances in substrate physical forms ranging from slurries to dried solids, composition, and diverse application methods and equipment. Distinct clusters of Pi and Po were observed, where accumulation of the latter forms was associated with high soil microbial biomass C and reduced phosphomonoesterases' activity. Accurate estimates of plant requirements and lability of soil P pools, and real-time plant and soil P sensing systems are critical considerations to optimally manage manure-derived nutrients in crop production systems. An in situ X-ray fluorescence-based approach to sensing canopy and soil XRFS-P was developed to improve the yield-soil P relationship for optimal nutrient recommendations in addition to allowing in-the-field verification of foliar P status.

  2. Approaches and uncertainties in nutrient budgets; Implications for nutrient management and environmental policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oenema, O.; Kros, J.; Vries, de W.

    2003-01-01

    Nutrient budgets of agroecosystems are constructed either (i) to increase the understanding of nutrient cycling, (ii) as performance indicator and awareness raiser in nutrient management and environmental policy, or (iii) as regulating policy instrument to enforce a certain nutrient management

  3. Sand amendment enhances bioelectrochemical remediation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaojing; Wang, Xin; Ren, Zhiyong Jason; Zhang, Yueyong; Li, Nan; Zhou, Qixing

    2015-12-01

    Bioelectrochemical system is an emerging technology for the remediation of soils contaminated by petroleum hydrocarbons. However, performance of such systems can be limited by the inefficient mass transport in soil. Here we report a new method of sand amendment, which significantly increases both oxygen and proton transports, resulting to increased soil porosity (from 44.5% to 51.3%), decreased Ohmic resistance (by 46%), and increased charge output (from 2.5 to 3.5Cg(-1)soil). The degradation rates of petroleum hydrocarbons increased by up to 268% in 135d. The degradation of n-alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with high molecular weight was accelerated, and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis showed that the microbial community close to the air-cathode was substantially stimulated by the induced current, especially the hydrocarbon degrading bacteria Alcanivorax. The bioelectrochemical stimulation imposed a selective pressure on the microbial community of anodes, including that far from the cathode. These results suggested that sand amendment can be an effective approach for soil conditioning that will enhances the bioelectrochemical removal of hydrocarbons in contaminated soils. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Dynamics of indigenous bacterial communities associated with crude oil degradation in soil microcosms during nutrient-enhanced bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikere, Chioma B; Surridge, Karen; Okpokwasili, Gideon C; Cloete, Thomas E

    2012-03-01

    Bacterial population dynamics were examined during bioremediation of an African soil contaminated with Arabian light crude oil and nutrient enrichment (biostimulation). Polymerase chain reaction followed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) were used to generate bacterial community fingerprints of the different treatments employing the 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) gene as molecular marker. The DGGE patterns of the nutrient-amended soils indicated the presence of distinguishable bands corresponding to the oil-contaminated-nutrient-enriched soils, which were not present in the oil-contaminated and pristine control soils. Further characterization of the dominant DGGE bands after excision, reamplification and sequencing revealed that Corynebacterium spp., Dietzia spp., Rhodococcus erythropolis sp., Nocardioides sp., Low G+C (guanine plus cytosine) Gram positive bacterial clones and several uncultured bacterial clones were the dominant bacterial groups after biostimulation. Prominent Corynebacterium sp. IC10 sequence was detected across all nutrient-amended soils but not in oil-contaminated control soil. Total heterotrophic and hydrocarbon utilizing bacterial counts increased significantly in the nutrient-amended soils 2 weeks post contamination whereas oil-contaminated and pristine control soils remained fairly stable throughout the experimental period. Gas chromatographic analysis of residual hydrocarbons in biostimulated soils showed marked attenuation of contaminants starting from the second to the sixth week after contamination whereas no significant reduction in hydrocarbon peaks were seen in the oil-contaminated control soil throughout the 6-week experimental period. Results obtained indicated that nutrient amendment of oil-contaminated soil selected and enriched the bacterial communities mainly of the Actinobacteria phylogenetic group capable of surviving in toxic contamination with concomitant biodegradation of the hydrocarbons. The

  5. Maize (Zea mays L.) performance in organically amended mine site soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oladipo, Oluwatosin Gbemisola; Olayinka, Akinyemi; Awotoye, Olusegun Olufemi

    2016-10-01

    Organic amendments play an important role in the eco-friendly remediation of degraded mine site soils. This study investigated the quality (essential nutrients and heavy metal content) of maize grown on organically amended soils from three active mines in Nigeria. Soil samples were collected randomly at 0-15 cm depth, air-dried and sieved. Five kg of soil were amended with poultry manure and sawdust (poultry manure only, sawdust only, poultry manure-sawdust mixtures in 3:1, 2:1 and 1:1 ratios) at 10 g kg(-1). Maize (Zea mays L.) seeds were planted and watered for two consecutive periods of 8 weeks, with the control and treatment experiments set up in the screenhouse in quadruples. Harvested tissues were weighed, dried, ground and digested. Chemical properties were determined using standard methods while atomic absorption spectrophotometry was used to determine total metal concentrations (Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Pb, Cd and Cu). ANOVA was used to test for significant differences among treatment groups in the various parameters. Application of poultry manure-sawdust mixtures significantly (p < 0.05) enhanced tissue dry matter yield, as well as N, P, K, and Na contents while Zn, Cd, Cu and Pb were immobilized to approximately 50-100%. Treatment with sawdust alone reduced tissue nutrient content resulting in depressed plant yield while poultry manure only though enhanced crop yield, contained higher heavy metal contents. Soil amendments comprised of poultry manure-sawdust mixtures can be effective remediation strategy for mine site soils, as these organic materials help replenish soil nutrients, immobilize heavy metals, and enhance food productivity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. 1990 Amendments: The federal partner steps forward

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    In October of 1990, Congress enacted a new set of amendments to the Clean Air Act. These amendments are longer and more complex than any previous environmental legislation. In enacting the 1990 Amendments, Congress did not evaluate the results of earlier efforts at air quality regulation. Rather, Congress accepted what it had created in 1970 and reinforced in 1977, and proceeded to build on that foundation. As a result, the 1990 Amendments create substantial new regulatory responsibilities, while leaving in place most of the pre-existing system of air quality control. The chapter highlights the key provisions of the 1990 Amendments, and discusses their relationship to the 1970 and 1977 Amendments to the Act. Included are changes in the requirements for the control of carbon monoxide, ozone, nitrogen oxides, particulates, mobile sources, air toxics and acid rain

  7. Atomic ordinance - amendment of 28 october 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-10-01

    This Ordinance amends certain provisions of the 1984 Ordinance on licences for the construction and operation of nuclear installations, import, export and transit of nuclear fuel, as well as the export of nuclear reactors, equipment and technical data. The Order also amends the provisions on the delivery procedure for these licences and makes minor amendments to the 1983 Order on nuclear third party liability [fr

  8. Atomic Energy Commission (Amendment) Law, 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-02-01

    The Atomic Energy Commission (Amendment) Law, 1993 (P.N.D.C.L. 308) seeks to amend the Atomic Energy Commission Act of 1963 (Act 204) so as to provide for the establishment of a Radiation Protection Board and other institutes under the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission. The Law further repeats the Atomic Energy Commission (Amendment) Law of 1982 (P.N.D.C.L. 37). (EAA)

  9. Effect of biochar amendment on compost organic matter composition following aerobic composting of manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagemann, Nikolas; Subdiaga, Edisson; Orsetti, Silvia; de la Rosa, José María; Knicker, Heike; Schmidt, Hans-Peter; Kappler, Andreas; Behrens, Sebastian

    2018-02-01

    Biochar, a material defined as charred organic matter applied in agriculture, is suggested as a beneficial additive and bulking agent in composting. Biochar addition to the composting feedstock was shown to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and nutrient leaching during the composting process, and to result in a fertilizer and plant growth medium that is superior to non-amended composts. However, the impact of biochar on the quality and carbon speciation of the organic matter in bulk compost has so far not been the focus of systematic analyses, although these parameters are key to determine the long-term stability and carbon sequestration potential of biochar-amended composts in soil. In this study, we used different spectroscopic techniques to compare the organic carbon speciation of manure compost amended with three different biochars. A non-biochar-amended compost served as control. Based on Fourier-transformed infrared (FTIR) and 13 C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy we did not observe any differences in carbon speciation of the bulk compost independent of biochar type, despite a change in the FTIR absorbance ratio 2925cm -1 /1034cm -1 , that is suggested as an indicator for compost maturity. Specific UV absorbance (SUVA) and emission-excitation matrixes (EEM) revealed minor differences in the extractable carbon fractions, which only accounted for ~2-3% of total organic carbon. Increased total organic carbon content of biochar-amended composts was only due to the addition of biochar-C and not enhanced preservation of compost feedstock-C. Our results suggest that biochars do not alter the carbon speciation in compost organic matter under conditions optimized for aerobic decomposition of compost feedstock. Considering the effects of biochar on compost nutrient retention, mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions and carbon sequestration, biochar addition during aerobic composting of manure might be an attractive strategy to produce a sustainable, slow

  10. Effect of liquid amendments on sorghum growth in an ultisol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camacho, Manuel E.; Cabalceta-Aguilar, Gilberto; Molina-Rojas, Eloy

    2015-01-01

    The effect of the application of liquid amendments was evaluated in a Ultisol cultivated with sorghum. The research was conducted between August and November 2011 at the Centro de Investigaciones Agronomicas, San Jose, Costa Rica. In 800 ml pots of Ultisol seeded with sorghum, the following treatments were applied: control were lime, calcium carbonate in doses of 10 and 20 l/ha, magnesium oxide in doses of 10 and 20 l/ha, carbonate calcium + magnesium oxide in doses of 5 + 5 and 10 + 10 l/ha, respectively. The plants were harvested at six weeks, which were determined leaf area, dry and fresh weight of aerial and root biomass, nutrient absorption and soil chemical characteristics. The treatments of calcium carbonate and in mixture with magnesium oxide obtained the best values of leaf area and the highest values of fresh and dry weight both for both root and aerial part of the sorghum. Little significant differences were found between treatments of liquid lime but there were important differences with respect to the control with no lime with the variables of weight of biomass. Liquid calcium carbonate increased the Ca uptake significantly, and the treatment of carbon + oxides in doses of 10 l/ha showed the highest absorption of Mg. An improvement in soil fertility was caused by all treatments of amendments, the most outstanding being the treatment of magnesium oxide in doses of 20 l/ha, which decreased the exchangeable acidity from 9.02 to 0.36 cmol (+)/l, the percentage of acid saturation was low from 95 to 3.3% and the pH increased from 5.0 to 5.7. The net amendments had a positive effect on the indicator crop and soil fertility. (author) [es

  11. Nitrous oxide emission reduction in temperate biochar-amended soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felber, R.; Hüppi, R.; Leifeld, J.; Neftel, A.

    2012-01-01

    Biochar, a pyrolysis product of organic residues, is an amendment for agricultural soils to improve soil fertility, sequester CO2 and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In highly weathered tropical soils laboratory incubations of soil-biochar mixtures revealed substantial reductions for nitrous oxide (N2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2). In contrast, evidence is scarce for temperate soils. In a three-factorial laboratory incubation experiment two different temperate agricultural soils were amended with green waste and coffee grounds biochar. N2O and CO2 emissions were measured at the beginning and end of a three month incubation. The experiments were conducted under three different conditions (no additional nutrients, glucose addition, and nitrate and glucose addition) representing different field conditions. We found mean N2O emission reductions of 60 % compared to soils without addition of biochar. The reduction depended on biochar type and soil type as well as on the age of the samples. CO2 emissions were slightly reduced, too. NO3- but not NH4+ concentrations were significantly reduced shortly after biochar incorporation. Despite the highly significant suppression of N2O emissions biochar effects should not be transferred one-to-one to field conditions but need to be tested accordingly.

  12. Nutrient and Coliform Loading (NCL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is a database of available fecal coliform bacteria, fecal streptococci bacteria, and nutrient loading data. Loading for contaminants other than fecal coliform...

  13. Nutrient imbalance in Norway spruce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thelin, Gunnar

    2000-11-01

    The studies presented in my thesis indicate that growing Norway spruce in monoculture does not constitute sustainable forest management in a high N and S deposition environment, such as in southern Sweden. The combination of N-induced high growth rates and leaching due to soil acidification causes soil reserves of nutrients to decrease. This will increase the risk of nutrient imbalance within the trees when nutrient demands are not met. The development of nutrient imbalance in Scania, southern Sweden, was shown as negative trends in needle and soil nutrient status from the mid-80s to the present in Norway spruce and Scots pine stands. This imbalance appears to be connected to high levels of N and S deposition. Clear negative effects on tree vitality were found when using a new branch development method. Today, growth and vitality seems to be limited by K, rather than N, in spruce stands older than 40 years. However, younger stands appear to be able to absorb the deposited N without negative effects on growth and vitality. When investigating effects of nutrient stress on tree vitality, indicators such as branch length and shoot multiplication rate, which include effects accumulated over several years, are suitable. Countermeasures are needed in order to maintain the forest production at a high level. Positive effects on tree nutrient status after vitality fertilization (N-free fertilization) was shown in two micronutrient deficient stands in south-central Sweden. In addition, tree vitality was positively affected after the application of a site-adapted fertilizer to the canopy. Site-adaption of fertilizers will most likely improve the possibilities of a positive response on tree growth and vitality in declining stands. In a survey of Norway spruce in mixtures with beech, birch, or oak compared to monocultures it was shown that spruce nutrient status was higher in mixtures with deciduous species than in monocultures. By using mixed-species stands the need for

  14. Nutrient imbalance in Norway spruce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thelin, Gunnar

    2000-11-01

    The studies presented in my thesis indicate that growing Norway spruce in monoculture does not constitute sustainable forest management in a high N and S deposition environment, such as in southern Sweden. The combination of N-induced high growth rates and leaching due to soil acidification causes soil reserves of nutrients to decrease. This will increase the risk of nutrient imbalance within the trees when nutrient demands are not met. The development of nutrient imbalance in Scania, southern Sweden, was shown as negative trends in needle and soil nutrient status from the mid-80s to the present in Norway spruce and Scots pine stands. This imbalance appears to be connected to high levels of N and S deposition. Clear negative effects on tree vitality were found when using a new branch development method. Today, growth and vitality seems to be limited by K, rather than N, in spruce stands older than 40 years. However, younger stands appear to be able to absorb the deposited N without negative effects on growth and vitality. When investigating effects of nutrient stress on tree vitality, indicators such as branch length and shoot multiplication rate, which include effects accumulated over several years, are suitable. Countermeasures are needed in order to maintain the forest production at a high level. Positive effects on tree nutrient status after vitality fertilization (N-free fertilization) was shown in two micronutrient deficient stands in south-central Sweden. In addition, tree vitality was positively affected after the application of a site-adapted fertilizer to the canopy. Site-adaption of fertilizers will most likely improve the possibilities of a positive response on tree growth and vitality in declining stands. In a survey of Norway spruce in mixtures with beech, birch, or oak compared to monocultures it was shown that spruce nutrient status was higher in mixtures with deciduous species than in monocultures. By using mixed-species stands the need for

  15. Nutrient-induced glucagon like peptide-1 release is modulated by serotonin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripken, Dina; van der Wielen, Nikkie; Wortelboer, Heleen M; Meijerink, Jocelijn; Witkamp, Renger F; Hendriks, Henk F J

    2016-06-01

    Glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and serotonin are both involved in food intake regulation. GLP-1 release is stimulated upon nutrient interaction with G-protein coupled receptors by enteroendocrine cells (EEC), whereas serotonin is released from enterochromaffin cells (ECC). The central hypothesis for the current study was that nutrient-induced GLP-1 release from EECs is modulated by serotonin through a process involving serotonin receptor interaction. This was studied by assessing the effects of serotonin reuptake inhibition by fluoxetine on nutrient-induced GLP-1, PYY and CCK release from isolated pig intestinal segments. Next, serotonin-induced GLP-1 release was studied in enteroendocrine STC-1 cells, where effects of serotonin receptor inhibition were studied using specific and non-specific antagonists. Casein (1% w/v), safflower oil (3.35% w/v), sucrose (50mM) and rebaudioside A (12.5mM) stimulated GLP-1 release from intestinal segments, whereas casein only stimulated PYY and CCK release. Combining nutrients with fluoxetine further increased nutrient-induced GLP-1, PYY and CCK release. Serotonin release from intestinal tissue segments was stimulated by casein and safflower oil while sucrose and rebaudioside A had no effect. The combination with fluoxetine (0.155μM) further enhanced casein and safflower oil induced-serotonin release. Exposure of ileal tissue segments to serotonin (30μM) stimulated GLP-1 release whereas it did not induce PYY and CCK release. Serotonin (30 and 100μM) also stimulated GLP-1 release from STC-1 cells, which was inhibited by the non-specific 5HT receptor antagonist asenapine (1 and 10μM). These data suggest that nutrient-induced GLP-1 release is modulated by serotonin through a receptor mediated process. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The Effect of Chemical Amendments Used for Phosphorus Abatement on Greenhouse Gas and Ammonia Emissions from Dairy Cattle Slurry: Synergies and Pollution Swapping.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond B Brennan

    Full Text Available Land application of cattle slurry can result in incidental and chronic phosphorus (P loss to waterbodies, leading to eutrophication. Chemical amendment of slurry has been proposed as a management practice, allowing slurry nutrients to remain available to plants whilst mitigating P losses in runoff. The effectiveness of amendments is well understood but their impacts on other loss pathways (so-called 'pollution swapping' potential and therefore the feasibility of using such amendments has not been examined to date. The aim of this laboratory scale study was to determine how the chemical amendment of slurry affects losses of NH3, CH4, N2O, and CO2. Alum, FeCl2, Polyaluminium chloride (PAC- and biochar reduced NH3 emissions by 92, 54, 65 and 77% compared to the slurry control, while lime increased emissions by 114%. Cumulative N2O emissions of cattle slurry increased when amended with alum and FeCl2 by 202% and 154% compared to the slurry only treatment. Lime, PAC and biochar resulted in a reduction of 44, 29 and 63% in cumulative N2O loss compared to the slurry only treatment. Addition of amendments to slurry did not significantly affect soil CO2 release during the study while CH4 emissions followed a similar trend for all of the amended slurries applied, with an initial increase in losses followed by a rapid decrease for the duration of the study. All of the amendments examined reduced the initial peak in CH4 emissions compared to the slurry only treatment. There was no significant effect of slurry amendments on global warming potential (GWP caused by slurry land application, with the exception of biochar. After considering pollution swapping in conjunction with amendment effectiveness, the amendments recommended for further field study are PAC, alum and lime. This study has also shown that biochar has potential to reduce GHG losses arising from slurry application.

  17. The Effect of Chemical Amendments Used for Phosphorus Abatement on Greenhouse Gas and Ammonia Emissions from Dairy Cattle Slurry: Synergies and Pollution Swapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Raymond B; Healy, Mark G; Fenton, Owen; Lanigan, Gary J

    2015-01-01

    Land application of cattle slurry can result in incidental and chronic phosphorus (P) loss to waterbodies, leading to eutrophication. Chemical amendment of slurry has been proposed as a management practice, allowing slurry nutrients to remain available to plants whilst mitigating P losses in runoff. The effectiveness of amendments is well understood but their impacts on other loss pathways (so-called 'pollution swapping' potential) and therefore the feasibility of using such amendments has not been examined to date. The aim of this laboratory scale study was to determine how the chemical amendment of slurry affects losses of NH3, CH4, N2O, and CO2. Alum, FeCl2, Polyaluminium chloride (PAC)- and biochar reduced NH3 emissions by 92, 54, 65 and 77% compared to the slurry control, while lime increased emissions by 114%. Cumulative N2O emissions of cattle slurry increased when amended with alum and FeCl2 by 202% and 154% compared to the slurry only treatment. Lime, PAC and biochar resulted in a reduction of 44, 29 and 63% in cumulative N2O loss compared to the slurry only treatment. Addition of amendments to slurry did not significantly affect soil CO2 release during the study while CH4 emissions followed a similar trend for all of the amended slurries applied, with an initial increase in losses followed by a rapid decrease for the duration of the study. All of the amendments examined reduced the initial peak in CH4 emissions compared to the slurry only treatment. There was no significant effect of slurry amendments on global warming potential (GWP) caused by slurry land application, with the exception of biochar. After considering pollution swapping in conjunction with amendment effectiveness, the amendments recommended for further field study are PAC, alum and lime. This study has also shown that biochar has potential to reduce GHG losses arising from slurry application.

  18. 77 FR 14979 - Transportation Conformity Rule Restructuring Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-14

    ... Transportation Conformity Rule Restructuring Amendments AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is amending the transportation conformity rule to finalize provisions that were proposed on August 13, 2010. These amendments restructure several sections of the transportation conformity...

  19. The implications of phasing out conventional nutrient supply in organic agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oelofse, Myles; Jensen, Lars Stoumann; Magid, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    Soil fertility management in organic systems, regulated by the organic standards, should seek to build healthy, fertile soils and reduce reliance on external inputs. The use of nutrients from conventional sources, such as animal manures from conventional farms, is currently permitted......, with restrictions, in the organic regulations. However, the reliance of organic agriculture on the conventional system is considered problematic. In light of this, the organic sector in Denmark has recently decided to gradually phase out, and ultimately ban, the use of conventional manures and straws in organic...... agriculture in Denmark. Core focal areas for phasing out conventional nutrients are as follows: (1) amendments to crop selection and rotations, (2) alternative nutrient sources (organic wastes) and (3) increased cooperation between organic livestock and arable farmers. Using Denmark as a case, this article...

  20. Biocorrosion and biofilm formation in a nutrient limited heating system subjected to alternating microaerophilic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjellerup, B V; Kjeldsen, K U; Lopes, F; Abildgaard, L; Ingvorsen, K; Frølund, B; Sowers, K R; Nielsen, P H

    2009-11-01

    Severe biofilm formation and biocorrosion have been observed in heating systems even when the water quality complied with existing standards. The coupling between water chemistry, biofilm formation, species composition, and biocorrosion in a heating system was investigated by adding low concentrations of nutrients and oxygen under continuous and alternating dosing regimes. Molecular analysis of 16S rRNA gene fragments demonstrated that the amendments did not cause changes in the overall bacterial community composition. The combined alternating dosing of nutrients and oxygen caused increased rates of pitting (bio-) corrosion. Detection of bacteria involved in sulfide production and oxidation by retrieval of the functional dsrAB and apsA genes revealed the presence of Gram-positive sulfate- and sulfite-reducers and an unknown sulfur-oxidizer. Therefore, to control biocorrosion, sources of oxygen and nutrients must be limited, since the effect of the alternating operational conditions apparently is more important than the presence of potentially corrosive biofilm bacteria.

  1. Restoration of rare earth mine areas: organic amendments and phytoremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lingyan; Li, Zhaolong; Liu, Wen; Liu, Shenghong; Zhang, Limin; Zhong, Liyan; Luo, Ximei; Liang, Hong

    2015-11-01

    Overexploitation of rare earth mine has caused serious desertification and various environmental issues, and ecological restoration of a mining area is an important concern in China. In this study, experiments involving dry grass landfilling, chicken manure broadcasting, and plant cultivation were carried out to reclaim a rare earth mine area located in Heping County, Guangdong Province, China. The prime focus was to improve soil quality in terms of nutrients, microbial community, enzyme activity, and physicochemical properties so as to reclaim the land. After 2 years of restoration, an increase of organic matter (OM), available potassium (K), available phosphorus (P) levels, and acid phosphatase (ACP) activity and a reduction of the available nitrogen (N) level and urease (URE) activity in soil were achieved compared to the original mined land. The nutrients and enzyme activities in soil with 5 years of restoration were close to or surpass those in the unexploited land as control. The bulk density, total porosity, water holding capacity, pH, and electrical conductivity (EC) of soil were improved, and the number of cultivable microorganisms and the bacterial diversity in soil were greatly increased with time during ecological restoration, especially for surface soil. Furthermore, the artificial vegetation stably grew at the restored mining sites. The results indicated that organic amendments and phytoremediation could ecologically restore the rare earth mining sites and the mined land could finally be planted as farmland.

  2. 75 FR 24790 - IFR Altitudes; Miscellaneous Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-06

    ... 14 CFR Part 95 Airspace, Navigation (air). Issued in Washington, DC, on April 30, 2010. James J....6102 VOR Federal Airway V102 is Amended to Read in Part Ralls, TX FIX Guthrie, TX VORTAC...... *5000... VORTAC 40 Napoleon V278 is Amended to Add Changeover Point Guthrie, TX VORTAC Bowie, TX VORTAC 64 Guthrie...

  3. 77 FR 38477 - IFR Altitudes; Miscellaneous Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-28

    ... MEA Sec. 95.6001 Victor Routes--U.S. Sec. 95.6016 VOR Federal Airway V16 is Amended to Delete TUCSON... NW 16500 Sec. 95.6366 VOR Federal Airway V366 is Amended to Read in Part HUGO, CO VOR/DME FALCON, CO...

  4. Octopamine connects nutrient cues to lipid metabolism upon nutrient deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Jun; Ma, Yi-Cheng; Yang, Zhong-Shan; Zou, Cheng-Gang; Zhang, Ke-Qin

    2016-05-01

    Starvation is probably the most common stressful situation in nature. In vertebrates, elevation of the biogenic amine norepinephrine levels is common during starvation. However, the precise role of norepinephrine in nutrient deprivation remains largely unknown. We report that in the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, up-regulation of the biosynthesis of octopamine, the invertebrate counterpart of norepinephrine, serves as a mechanism to adapt to starvation. During nutrient deprivation, the nuclear receptor DAF-12, known to sense nutritional cues, up-regulates the expression of tbh-1 that encodes tyramine β-hydroxylase, a key enzyme for octopamine biosynthesis, in the RIC neurons. Octopamine induces the expression of the lipase gene lips-6 via its receptor SER-3 in the intestine. LIPS-6, in turn, elicits lipid mobilization. Our findings reveal that octopamine acts as an endocrine regulator linking nutrient cues to lipolysis to maintain energy homeostasis, and suggest that such a mechanism may be evolutionally conserved in diverse organisms.

  5. Nutrient acquisition strategies of mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm, Wilhelm; Thompson, Craig B

    2017-06-07

    Mammalian cells are surrounded by diverse nutrients, such as glucose, amino acids, various macromolecules and micronutrients, which they can import through transmembrane transporters and endolysosomal pathways. By using different nutrient sources, cells gain metabolic flexibility to survive periods of starvation. Quiescent cells take up sufficient nutrients to sustain homeostasis. However, proliferating cells depend on growth-factor-induced increases in nutrient uptake to support biomass formation. Here, we review cellular nutrient acquisition strategies and their regulation by growth factors and cell-intrinsic nutrient sensors. We also discuss how oncogenes and tumour suppressors promote nutrient uptake and thereby support the survival and growth of cancer cells.

  6. The interactions of composting and biochar and their implications for soil amendment and pollution remediation: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haipeng; Lai, Cui; Zeng, Guangming; Liang, Jie; Chen, Jin; Xu, Jijun; Dai, Juan; Li, Xiaodong; Liu, Junfeng; Chen, Ming; Lu, Lunhui; Hu, Liang; Wan, Jia

    2017-09-01

    Compost and biochar, used for the remediation of soil, are seen as attractive waste management options for the increasing volume of organic wastes being produced. This paper reviews the interaction of biochar and composting and its implication for soil amendment and pollution remediation. The interaction of biochar and composting affect each other's properties. Biochar could change the physico-chemical properties, microorganisms, degradation, humification and gas emission of composting, such as the increase of nutrients, cation exchange capacity (CEC), organic matter and microbial activities. The composting could also change the physico-chemical properties and facial functional groups of biochar, such as the improvement of nutrients, CEC, functional groups and organic matter. These changes would potentially improve the efficiency of the biochar and composting for soil amendment and pollution remediation. Based on the above review, this paper also discusses the future research required in this field.

  7. TOR Signaling and Nutrient Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrenel, Thomas; Caldana, Camila; Hanson, Johannes; Robaglia, Christophe; Vincentz, Michel; Veit, Bruce; Meyer, Christian

    2016-04-29

    All living organisms rely on nutrients to sustain cell metabolism and energy production, which in turn need to be adjusted based on available resources. The evolutionarily conserved target of rapamycin (TOR) protein kinase is a central regulatory hub that connects environmental information about the quantity and quality of nutrients to developmental and metabolic processes in order to maintain cellular homeostasis. TOR is activated by both nitrogen and carbon metabolites and promotes energy-consuming processes such as cell division, mRNA translation, and anabolism in times of abundance while repressing nutrient remobilization through autophagy. In animals and yeasts, TOR acts antagonistically to the starvation-induced AMP-activated kinase (AMPK)/sucrose nonfermenting 1 (Snf1) kinase, called Snf1-related kinase 1 (SnRK1) in plants. This review summarizes the immense knowledge on the relationship between TOR signaling and nutrients in nonphotosynthetic organisms and presents recent findings in plants that illuminate the crucial role of this pathway in conveying nutrient-derived signals and regulating many aspects of metabolism and growth.

  8. Use of nuclear receptor luciferase-based bioassays to detect endocrine active chemicals in a biosolids-biochar amended soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Carolyn G; Joshi, Geetika; Bair, Daniel A; Oriol, Charlotte; He, Guochun; Parikh, Sanjai J; Denison, Michael S; Scow, Kate M

    2017-08-01

    Biosolids are a potentially valuable source of carbon and nutrients for agricultural soils; however, potential unintended impacts on human health and the environment must be considered. Virtually all biosolids contain trace amounts endocrine-disrupting chemicals derived from human use of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs). One potential way to reduce the bioavailability of PPCPs is to co-apply biosolids with biochar to soil, because biochar's chemical (e.g., aromaticity) and physical properties (e.g., surface area) give it a high affinity to bind many organic chemicals in the environment. We developed a soil-specific extraction method and utilized a luciferase-based bioassay (CALUX) to detect endocrine active chemicals in a biosolids-biochar co-amendment soil greenhouse study. Both biochar (walnut shell, 900 °C) and biosolids had positive impacts on carrot and lettuce biomass accumulation over our study period. However, the walnut shell biochar stimulated aryl hydrocarbon receptor activity, suggesting the presence of potential endocrine active chemicals in the biochar. Since the biochar rate tested (100 t ha -1 ) is above the average agronomic rate (10-20 t ha -1 ), endocrine effects would not be expected in most environmental applications. The effect of high temperature biochars on endocrine system pathways must be explored further, using both quantitative analytical tools to identify potential endocrine active chemicals and highly sensitive bioanalytical assays such as CALUX to measure the resulting biological activity of such compounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Nutrient supply of plants in aquaponic systems

    OpenAIRE

    Bittsánszky, András; Uzinger, Nikolett; Gyulai, Gábor; Mathis, Alex; Junge, Ranka; Villarroel, Morris; Kotzen, Benzion; Komives, Tamas

    2016-01-01

    In this preliminary article we present data on plant nutrient concentrations in aquaponic systems, and compare them to nutrient concentrations in “standard” hydroponic solutions. Our data shows that the nutrient concentrations supplied by the fish in aquaponic system are significantly lower for most nutrients, compared to hydroponic systems. Nevertheless, plants do thrive in solutions that have lower nutrient levels than “standard” hydroponic solutions. This is especially true for green leafy...

  10. CADDIS Volume 2. Sources, Stressors and Responses: Nutrients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction to the nutrients module, when to list nutrients as a candidate cause, ways to measure nutrients, simple and detailed conceptual diagrams for nutrients, nutrients module references and literature reviews.

  11. Role of organic amendments on enhanced bioremediation of heavy metal(loid) contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin Hee; Lamb, Dane; Paneerselvam, Periyasamy; Choppala, Girish; Bolan, Nanthi; Chung, Jae-Woo

    2011-01-30

    As land application becomes one of the important waste utilization and disposal practices, soil is increasingly being seen as a major source of metal(loid)s reaching food chain, mainly through plant uptake and animal transfer. With greater public awareness of the implications of contaminated soils on human and animal health there has been increasing interest in developing technologies to remediate contaminated sites. Bioremediation is a natural process which relies on soil microorganisms and higher plants to alter metal(loid) bioavailability and can be enhanced by addition of organic amendments to soils. Large quantities of organic amendments, such as manure compost, biosolid and municipal solid wastes are used as a source of nutrients and also as a conditioner to improve the physical properties and fertility of soils. These organic amendments that are low in metal(loid)s can be used as a sink for reducing the bioavailability of metal(loid)s in contaminated soils and sediments through their effect on the adsorption, complexation, reduction and volatilization of metal(loid)s. This review examines the mechanisms for the enhanced bioremediation of metal(loid)s by organic amendments and discusses the practical implications in relation to sequestration and bioavailability of metal(loid)s in soils. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Enhancing growth performance of chromolaena odorata in two soil samples by using cow manure as amendment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anyasi, R.

    2014-01-01

    A greenhouse experiment was conducted to study the effect of cow manure on the growth of Chromolaena odorata propagated for the purpose of phytoremediation of organic contaminant in soil. Cow manure was mixed separately with two soil types: clay soil and sandy-loam soils in a ratio of 9:1 (soil:manure) and put into 2 L PVC pots, the homogenized soil types were measured into 2 L PVC planting pots. Selected sprouting stem cuttings of Chromolaena odorata were transplanted into the pots containing the soil-manure mixture. Nutrient status of the soil was monitored weekly through the period of experimentation and the growth of the plants and biomass accumulation were measured. Control experiment was set up with manure. Survival of plants after transplanting was highest for cuttings transplanting after 3 weeks (95%) and 5 weeks (50%) of sprouting in the nursery. Profuse growth of plants in the both amended soil types were observed when compared with the control. Biomass accumulation was significantly higher in amended soils compared to the control. This study has shown that organic manure amendment to both soil types can enhance the growth and biomass accumulation of Chromolaena odorata. This is a good indication that the amendment could be beneficial in soil phytoremediation studies involving C. odorata. (author)

  13. Spinal cord stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007560.htm Spinal cord stimulation To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Spinal cord stimulation is a treatment for pain that uses ...

  14. Feldspar, Infrared Stimulated Luminescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jain, Mayank

    2014-01-01

    This entry primarily concerns the characteristics and the origins of infrared-stimulated luminescence in feldspars.......This entry primarily concerns the characteristics and the origins of infrared-stimulated luminescence in feldspars....

  15. Growth hormone stimulation test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003377.htm Growth hormone stimulation test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The growth hormone (GH) stimulation test measures the ability of ...

  16. Seasonal variations and effects of nutrient applications on N and P and microbial biomass under two temperate heathland plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Pia Lund; Andresen, Louise Christoffersen; Michelsen, Anders

    2009-01-01

    . The microbial biomass on the other hand was positively related to soil water content in fertilized plots indicating that this was due to an indirect effect of enhanced nutrient availability. Microbial N and P pools were respectively 1000 and 100 times higher than the pool of inorganic N and P, and microbes...... this process. In this study the soil properties under two dominant heathland plants, the dwarf shrub Calluna vulgaris and the grass Deschampsia flexuosa, were investigated, with focus on nutrient content in the organic top soil and soil microbes during the main growing season and effects of nutrient amendments...... therefore may play an important role in regulating plant nutrient supply. Judged from responses of inorganic and microbial N and P concentrations to added N and P, N seemed to limit C. vulgaris and soil microbes below while P seemed to limit D. flexuosa and soil microbes below this species. There were lower...

  17. Nutrient-enhancement of Matooke banana for improved nutrient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 173 PLHIVregistered with Rakai Health Science Project were chosen and interviewed using structured questionnaires to determine the current contribution of banana to the household food security. Nutrient intake data were collected using Gibson s 24-hour recall method and food frequency questionnaires.

  18. Amendment in phosphorus levels moderate the chromium toxicity in Raphanus sativus L. as assayed by antioxidant enzymes activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayantan, D; Shardendu

    2013-09-01

    Chromium (Z=24), a d-block element, is a potent carcinogen, whereas phosphorus is an essential and limiting nutrient for the plant growth and development. This study undertakes the role of phosphorus in moderating the chromium toxicity in Raphanus sativus L., as both of them compete with each other during the uptake process. Two-factor complete randomized experiment (5 chromium × 5 phosphorus concentrations) was conducted for twenty eight days in green house. The individuals of R. sativus were grown in pots supplied with all essential nutrients. The toxic effects of chromium and the moderation of toxicity due to phosphorus amendment were determined as accumulation of chromium, nitrogen, phosphorus in root tissues and their effects were also examined in the changes in biomass, chlorophyll and antioxidant enzyme levels. Cr and N accumulation were almost doubled at the highest concentration of Cr supply, without any P amendment, whereas at the highest P concentration (125 mM), the accumulation was reduced to almost half. A significant reduction in toxic effects of Cr was determined as there was three-fold increase in total chlorophyll and biomass at the highest P amendment. Antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase and lipid peroxidation were analyzed at various levels of Cr each amended with five levels of P. It was observed that at highest level of P amendment, the reduction percentage in toxicity was 33, 44, 39 and 44, correspondingly. Conclusively, the phosphorus amendment moderates the toxicity caused by the supplied chromium in R. sativus. This finding can be utilized to develop a novel technology for the amelioration of chromium stressed fields. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Cu retention in an acid soil amended with perlite winery waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Salgado, Isabel; Pérez-Rodríguez, Paula; Gómez-Armesto, Antía; Nóvoa-Muñoz, Juan Carlos; Arias-Estévez, Manuel; Fernández-Calviño, David

    2016-02-01

    The effect of perlite waste from a winery on general soil characteristics and Cu adsorption was assessed. The studied soil was amended with different perlite waste concentrations corresponding to 10, 20, 40 and 80 Mg ha(-1). General soil characteristics and Cu adsorption and desorption curves were determined after different incubation times (from 1 day to 8 months). The addition of perlite waste to the soil increased the amounts of organic matter as well as soil nutrients such as phosphorus and potassium, and these increments were stable with time. An increase in Cu adsorption capacity was also detected in the perlite waste-amended soils. The effect of perlite waste addition to the soil had special relevance on its Cu adsorption capacity at low coverage concentrations and on the energy of the soil-Cu bonds.

  20. Assessing Cross-disciplinary Efficiency of Soil Amendments for Agro-biologically, Economically, and Ecologically Integrated Soil Health Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Preventive and/or manipulative practices will be needed to maintain soil's biological, physiochemical, nutritional, and structural health in natural, managed, and disturbed ecosystems as a foundation for food security and global ecosystem sustainability. While there is a substantial body of interdisciplinary science on understanding function and structure of soil ecosystems, key gaps must be bridged in assessing integrated agro-biological, ecological, economical, and environmental efficiency of soil manipulation practices in time and space across ecosystems. This presentation discusses the application of a fertilizer use efficiency (FUE) model for assessing agronomic, economic, ecological, environmental, and nematode (pest) management efficiency of soil amendments. FUE is defined as increase in host productivity and/or decrease in plant-parasitic nematode population density in response to a given fertilizer treatment. Using the effects of nutrient amendment on Heterodera glycines population density and normalized difference vegetative index (indicator of physiological activities) of a soybean cultivar ‘CX 252’, how the FUE model recognizes variable responses and separates nutrient deficiency and toxicity from nematode parasitism as well as suitability of treatments designed to achieve desired biological and physiochemical soil health conditions is demonstrated. As part of bridging gaps between agricultural and ecological approaches to integrated understanding and management of soil health, modifications of the FUE model for analyzing the relationships amongst nematode community structure, soil parameters (eg. pH, nutrients, %OM), and plant response to soil amendment is discussed. PMID:22736840

  1. A nutrient injection scheme for in situ bio-remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, C H; Kuo, M C Tom; Su, C Y; Liang, K F; Han, Y L

    2012-01-01

    Geological layers often have different hydraulic conductivities. This paper presents an innovative design for delivering aqueous substrates and nutrients to various stratified layers at desired rates during in-situ bio-stimulation. The new delivery system consists of intermittent porous tubes connected in series with impermeable polyethylene tubes that run horizontally in each stratified layer of a contaminated aquifer. Results of the tracer test indicated that the distribution of tritium through each porous tube was fairly uniform. A mathematical model was also developed to calculate the distribution of water flow through each porous tube. By controlling the permeability and the length of porous tubes placed in stratified layers, the new design provides a means to selectively deliver nutrients to various layers at desired rates according to aquifer heterogeneity.

  2. Nutrient accumulation and biomass production of alfafa after soil amendment with silicates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica Cristina Fernandes Deus

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the use of silicate correctives in agriculture show that they have great potential to improve soil chemical characteristics, however, little information is available on the reactivity rates of their particle-size fractions. This study investigated whether the reactivity rates obtained experimentally could be considered in the calculation of ECC (effective calcium carbonate for soil liming, promoting adequate development of alfalfa plants. Six treatments were evaluated in the experiment, consisting of two slag types applied in two rates. The experimental ECC was used to calculate one of the rates and the ECC determined in the laboratory was used to calculate the other. Rates of limestone and wollastonite were based on the ECC determined in laboratory. The rates of each soil acidity corretive were calculated to increase the base saturation to 80%. The treatments were applied to a Rhodic Hapludox and an Alfisol Ferrudalfs. The methods for ECC determination established for lime can be applied to steel slag. The application of slag corrected soil acidity with consequent accumulation of Ca, P, and Si in alfalfa, favoring DM production.

  3. Soil amendment using poplar woodchips to enhance the treatment of wastewater-originated nutrients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meffe, Raffaella; Miguel Garcia, de Angel; Martínez Hernández, Virtudes; Lillo, Javier; Bustamante, de Irene

    2016-01-01

    Vegetation filters, a nature based wastewater regeneration technology, have been reported as a feasible solution for small municipalities and scattered populations with limited access to sewage networks. However even when such a treatment is properly planned, the leaching of contaminants through

  4. Effect of Integrated Water-Nutrient Management Strategies on Soil Erosion Mediated Nutrient Loss and Crop Productivity in Cabo Verde Drylands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, Isaurinda; Ritsema, Coen; Geissen, Violette

    2015-01-01

    Soil erosion, runoff and related nutrient losses are a big risk for soil fertility in Cabo Verde drylands. In 2012, field trials were conducted in two agro-ecological zones to evaluate the effects of selected techniques of soil-water management combined with organic amendments (T1: compost/manure + soil surfactant; T2: compost/animal or green manure + pigeon-pea hedges + soil surfactant; T3: compost/animal or green manure + mulch + pigeon-pea hedges) on nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) losses in eroded soil and runoff and on crop yields. Three treatments and one control (traditional practice) were tested in field plots at three sites with a local maize variety and two types of beans. Runoff and eroded soil were collected after each erosive rain, quantified, and analysed for NO3-N and PO4-P concentrations. In all treatments runoff had higher concentrations of NO3-N (2.20-4.83 mg L-1) than of PO4-P (0.02-0.07 mg L-1), and the eroded soil had higher content of PO4-P (5.27-18.8 mg g-1) than of NO3-N (1.30-8.51 mg g-1). The control had significantly higher losses of both NO3-N (5.4, 4.4 and 19 kg ha-1) and PO4-P (0.2, 0.1 and 0.4 kg ha-1) than the other treatments. T3 reduced soil loss, runoff and nutrient losses to nearly a 100% while T1 and T2 reduced those losses from 43 to 88%. The losses of NO3-N and PO4-P were highly correlated with the amounts of runoff and eroded soil. Nutrient losses from the applied amendments were low (5.7% maximum), but the losses in the control could indicate long-term nutrient depletion in the soil (19 and 0.4 kg ha-1 of NO3-N and PO4-P, respectively). T1-T3 did not consistently increase crop yield or biomass in all three sites, but T1 increased both crop yield and biomass. We conclude that T3 (combining crop-residue mulch with organic amendment and runoff hedges) is the best treatment for steep slope areas but, the pigeon-pea hedges need to be managed for higher maize yield. T1 (combining organic amendment with soil surfactant) could be a

  5. Effect of Integrated Water-Nutrient Management Strategies on Soil Erosion Mediated Nutrient Loss and Crop Productivity in Cabo Verde Drylands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, Isaurinda; Ritsema, Coen; Geissen, Violette

    2015-01-01

    Soil erosion, runoff and related nutrient losses are a big risk for soil fertility in Cabo Verde drylands. In 2012, field trials were conducted in two agro-ecological zones to evaluate the effects of selected techniques of soil-water management combined with organic amendments (T1: compost/manure + soil surfactant; T2: compost/animal or green manure + pigeon-pea hedges + soil surfactant; T3: compost/animal or green manure + mulch + pigeon-pea hedges) on nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) losses in eroded soil and runoff and on crop yields. Three treatments and one control (traditional practice) were tested in field plots at three sites with a local maize variety and two types of beans. Runoff and eroded soil were collected after each erosive rain, quantified, and analysed for NO3-N and PO4-P concentrations. In all treatments runoff had higher concentrations of NO3-N (2.20-4.83 mg L-1) than of PO4-P (0.02-0.07 mg L-1), and the eroded soil had higher content of PO4-P (5.27-18.8 mg g-1) than of NO3-N (1.30-8.51 mg g-1). The control had significantly higher losses of both NO3-N (5.4, 4.4 and 19 kg ha-1) and PO4-P (0.2, 0.1 and 0.4 kg ha-1) than the other treatments. T3 reduced soil loss, runoff and nutrient losses to nearly a 100% while T1 and T2 reduced those losses from 43 to 88%. The losses of NO3-N and PO4-P were highly correlated with the amounts of runoff and eroded soil. Nutrient losses from the applied amendments were low (5.7% maximum), but the losses in the control could indicate long-term nutrient depletion in the soil (19 and 0.4 kg ha-1 of NO3-N and PO4-P, respectively). T1-T3 did not consistently increase crop yield or biomass in all three sites, but T1 increased both crop yield and biomass. We conclude that T3 (combining crop-residue mulch with organic amendment and runoff hedges) is the best treatment for steep slope areas but, the pigeon-pea hedges need to be managed for higher maize yield. T1 (combining organic amendment with soil surfactant) could be a

  6. Gastric volume rather than nutrient content inhibits food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, R J; Powley, T L

    1996-09-01

    To evaluate the separate contributions of distension and nutrient stimulation of the stomach to the inhibition of short-term food intake and, particularly, to reassess previous analyses based on the inflatable gastrointestinal cuff, four experiments were performed. Rats equipped with pyloric cuffs and indwelling gastric catheters consumed a liquid diet ad libitum. Their consumption during short-term (30 min) feeding bout was measured after gastric infusions on cuff-open and cuff-closed trials. Animals taking meals (approximately 5 ml) with cuffs closed immediately after receiving intragastric infusions of 2.5, 5, 7.5, or 10 ml of normal saline exhibited both suppression at the smallest infusion and a dose-dependent reduction across the other volumes (experiment 1). Additionally, when the test diet concentration was varied, animals with their cuffs closed consumed a constant volume, not a constant number of calories (experiment 2). Furthermore, cuff-closed animals exhibited no more suppression to 5-ml intragastric infusions of nutrients (including, on different trials, 50 and 100% Isocal diet; 10, 20, and 40% glucose; and 40% sucrose and 40% fructose) than to the same volume of saline (experiments 3 and 4). In contrast, on cuff-open trials in which gastric contents could empty into the duodenum, these same nutrient loads were more effective (except fructose) than saline in producing suppression of food intake. In summary, although both limited gastric distension with the pylorus occluded and intestinal nutrient stimulation with the cuff open effectively reduced intake, cuff-closed gastric loads of mixed macronutrients or carbohydrate solutions of 2-8 kcal, pH from 5.8 to 6.7, and osmolarities between 117 and 2,294 mosM/kg produced only the distension-based suppression generated by the same volume of saline.

  7. Regulating nutrient allocation in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udvardi, Michael; Yang, Jiading; Worley, Eric

    2014-12-09

    The invention provides coding and promoter sequences for a VS-1 and AP-2 gene, which affects the developmental process of senescence in plants. Vectors, transgenic plants, seeds, and host cells comprising heterologous VS-1 and AP-2 genes are also provided. Additionally provided are methods of altering nutrient allocation and composition in a plant using the VS-1 and AP-2 genes.

  8. Nutrients for the aging eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasmussen HM

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Helen M Rasmussen,1 Elizabeth J Johnson2 1Educational Studies, Lesley University, Cambridge, MA, USA; 2Carotenoid and Health Laboratory, Jean Mayer US Department of Agriculture Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University, Boston, MA, USA Abstract: The incidence of age-related eye diseases is expected to rise with the aging of the population. Oxidation and inflammation are implicated in the etiology of these diseases. There is evidence that dietary antioxidants and anti-inflammatories may provide benefit in decreasing the risk of age-related eye disease. Nutrients of interest are vitamins C and E, β-carotene, zinc, lutein, zeaxanthin, and the omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. While a recent survey finds that among the baby boomers (45–65 years old, vision is the most important of the five senses, well over half of those surveyed were not aware of the important nutrients that play a key role in eye health. This is evident from a national survey that finds that intake of these key nutrients from dietary sources is below the recommendations or guidelines. Therefore, it is important to educate this population and to create an awareness of the nutrients and foods of particular interest in the prevention of age-related eye disease. Keywords: nutrition, aging, eye health

  9. Nutrient resorption from seagrass leaves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stapel, J.; Hemminga, M.A.

    1997-01-01

    The resorption of nutrients (C, N and P) from senescent leaves of six seagrass species from nine different locations in tropical (Indonesia and Kenya), Mediterranean (Spain) and temperate (The Netherlands) regions has been investigated. Resorption was quantitatively assessed by calculating the

  10. Recycling nutrients in algae biorefinery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia Alba, Laura; Vos, M.P.; Torri, C.; Fabbri, D.; Kersten, Sascha R.A.; Brilman, Derk Willem Frederik

    2013-01-01

    Algal fuel cells: Repeated nutrient recycling is demonstrated by reusing the aqueous phase obtained from the hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of microalgae. This is achieved, for the first time, by performing a complete set of four continuous growth–HTL cycles. Results show similar growth rates in

  11. Nutrient Management in Pine Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan E. Tiarks

    1999-01-01

    Coastal plain soils are naturally low in fertility and many pine stands will give an economic response to fertilization, especially phosphorus. Maintaining the nutrients that are on the site by limiting displacement of logging slash during and after the harvest can be important in maintaining the productivity of the site and reducing the amount of fertilizer required...

  12. Foliar mineral nutrient uptake in carnivorous plants: What do we know and what should we know?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Adamec, Lubomír

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 10 (2013), s. 1-3 ISSN 1664-462X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP504/11/0783 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : terrestrial and aquatic carnivorous plant s * stimulation of root nutrient uptake * Utricularia traps Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 3.637, year: 2013

  13. Nutrient-induced glucagon like peptide-1 release is modulated by serotonin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ripken, Dina; Wielen, van der Nikkie; Wortelboer, Heleen M.; Meijerink, Jocelijn; Witkamp, Renger F.; Hendriks, Henk F.J.

    2016-01-01

    Glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and serotonin are both involved in food intake regulation. GLP-1 release is stimulated upon nutrient interaction with G-protein coupled receptors by enteroendocrine cells (EEC), whereas serotonin is released from enterochromaffin cells (ECC). The central hypothesis

  14. Nutrient-induced glucagon like peptide-1 release is modulated by serotonin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ripken, D.; Wielen, N. van der; Wortelboer, H.M.; Meijerink, J.; Witkamp, R.F.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2016-01-01

    Glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and serotonin are both involved in food intake regulation. GLP-1 release is stimulated upon nutrient interaction with G-protein coupled receptors by enteroendocrine cells (EEC), whereas serotonin is released from enterochromaffin cells (ECC). The central hypothesis

  15. 37 CFR 2.74 - Form and signature of amendment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Form and signature of... signature of amendment. (a) Form of Amendment. Amendments should be set forth clearly and completely... record. (b) Signature. A request for amendment of an application must be signed by the applicant, someone...

  16. 33 CFR 104.415 - Amendment and audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amendment and audit. 104.415 Section 104.415 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: VESSELS Vessel Security Plan (VSP) § 104.415 Amendment and audit. (a) Amendments. (1) Amendments to a Vessel Security Plan...

  17. 33 CFR 105.415 - Amendment and audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amendment and audit. 105.415 Section 105.415 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: FACILITIES Facility Security Plan (FSP) § 105.415 Amendment and audit. (a) Amendments. (1) Amendments to a Facility Securit...

  18. Protecting Young People From Junk Food Advertising: Implications of Psychological Research for First Amendment Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Jennifer L.; Graff, Samantha K.

    2012-01-01

    In the United States, one third of children and adolescents are overweight or obese, yet food and beverage companies continue to target them with advertising for products that contribute to this obesity crisis. When government restrictions on such advertising are proposed, the constitutional commercial speech doctrine is often invoked as a barrier to action. We explore incongruities between the legal justifications for the commercial speech doctrine and the psychological research on how food advertising affects young people. A proper interpretation of the First Amendment should leave room for regulations to protect young people from advertising featuring calorie-dense, nutrient-poor foods and beverages. PMID:22390435

  19. Protecting young people from junk food advertising: implications of psychological research for First Amendment law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Jennifer L; Graff, Samantha K

    2012-02-01

    In the United States, one third of children and adolescents are overweight or obese, yet food and beverage companies continue to target them with advertising for products that contribute to this obesity crisis. When government restrictions on such advertising are proposed, the constitutional commercial speech doctrine is often invoked as a barrier to action. We explore incongruities between the legal justifications for the commercial speech doctrine and the psychological research on how food advertising affects young people. A proper interpretation of the First Amendment should leave room for regulations to protect young people from advertising featuring calorie-dense, nutrient-poor foods and beverages.

  20. The influence of nutrients, biliary-pancreatic secretions, and systemic trophic hormones on intestinal adaptation in a Roux-en-Y bypass model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taqi, Esmaeel; Wallace, Laurie E; de Heuvel, Elaine

    2010-01-01

    The signals that govern the upregulation of nutrient absorption (adaptation) after intestinal resection are not well understood. A Gastric Roux-en-Y bypass (GRYB) model was used to isolate the relative contributions of direct mucosal stimulation by nutrients, biliary-pancreatic secretions......, and systemic enteric hormones on intestinal adaptation in short bowel syndrome....

  1. Nutrient Release from Disturbance of Infiltration System Soils during Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel P. Treese

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Subsurface infiltration and surface bioretention systems composed of engineered and/or native soils are preferred tools for stormwater management. However, the disturbance of native soils, especially during the process of adding amendments to improve infiltration rates and pollutant removal, may result in releases of nutrients in the early life of these systems. This project investigated the nutrient release from two soils, one disturbed and one undisturbed. The disturbed soil was collected intact, but had to be air-dried, and the columns repacked when soil shrinkage caused bypassing of water along the walls of the column. The undisturbed soil was collected and used intact, with no repacking. The disturbed soil showed elevated releases of nitrogen and phosphorus compared to the undisturbed soil for approximately 0.4 and 0.8 m of runoff loading, respectively. For the undisturbed soil, the nitrogen release was delayed, indicating that the soil disturbance accelerated the release of nitrogen into a very short time period. Leaving the soil undisturbed resulted in lower but still elevated effluent nitrogen concentrations over a longer period of time. For phosphorus, these results confirm prior research which demonstrated that the soil, if shown to be phosphorus-deficient during fertility testing, can remove phosphorus from runoff even when disturbed.

  2. Nitrous Oxide flux measurements under various amendments

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The dataset consists of measurements of soil nitrous oxide emissions from soils under three different amendments: glucose, cellulose, and manure. Data includes the...

  3. Pb speciation results in amended soils

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The dataset shows the distribution of Pb phases resulting from various amendments to change Pb speciation. This dataset is associated with the following publication:...

  4. Mass Media and the First Amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanks, William E.

    1975-01-01

    Discusses five Supreme Court decisions that relate to the First Amendment and freedom of the press. Includes small group decision-making exercises and discussion questions focusing on these interpretations for use in a college speech communication class. (MH)

  5. Unconstitutional constitutional amendments in Ethiopia: the practice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Haramaya Law Review ... The Constitution of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (FDRE) under Article 104 and 105 sets ... that sets procedures to be observed in the process of constitutional amendments: both initiation and approval.

  6. Proposed Amendments to the Nuclear Liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This Memorandum issued by the Swedish Ministry of Justice contains proposed amendments to the 1968 Nuclear Liability Act which can be divided into two categories. Those in the first category are required to enable Sweden to ratify the draft Protocols to amend the Paris Convention and the Brussels Supplementary Convention. The second category of amendments propose that the nuclear operator's liability be raised from the present sum of 50 million Kroner to 500 million Kroner, to be covered by insurance; it is also proposed that a State liability be introduced over and above the compensation available, the aggregate amount being limited to 300 million Kroner. State indemnification would apply to the Nordic countries. The Annexes to the Memorandum contain the English and French texts of the draft Protocols to amend both above-mentioned Conventions (NEA) [fr

  7. Compost-amended biofiltration swale evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    From May 2009 through June 2010, Herrera Environmental Consultants conducted hydrologic : and water quality monitoring of a compost-amended biofiltration swale and a standard (control) : biofiltration swale in the median of State Route 518 for the Wa...

  8. Suitability of marginal biomass-derived biochars for soil amendment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buss, Wolfram [UK Biochar Research Centre, School of Geosciences, University of Edinburgh, Crew Building, Alexander Crum Brown Road, Edinburgh EH9 3FF (United Kingdom); Graham, Margaret C. [School of Geosciences, University of Edinburgh, Crew Building, Alexander Crum Brown Road, Edinburgh EH9 3FF (United Kingdom); Shepherd, Jessica G. [UK Biochar Research Centre, School of Geosciences, University of Edinburgh, Crew Building, Alexander Crum Brown Road, Edinburgh EH9 3FF (United Kingdom); School of Geosciences, University of Edinburgh, Crew Building, Alexander Crum Brown Road, Edinburgh EH9 3FF (United Kingdom); Mašek, Ondřej, E-mail: ondrej.masek@ed.ac.uk [UK Biochar Research Centre, School of Geosciences, University of Edinburgh, Crew Building, Alexander Crum Brown Road, Edinburgh EH9 3FF (United Kingdom)

    2016-03-15

    The term “marginal biomass” is used here to describe materials of little or no economic value, e.g. plants grown on contaminated land, food waste or demolition wood. In this study 10 marginal biomass-derived feedstocks were converted into 19 biochars at different highest treatment temperatures (HTT) using a continuous screw-pyrolysis unit. The aim was to investigate suitability of the resulting biochars for land application, judged on the basis of potentially toxic element (PTE) concentration, nutrient content and basic biochar properties (pH, EC, ash, fixed carbon). It was shown that under typical biochar production conditions the percentage content of several PTEs (As, Al, Zn) and nutrients (Ca, Mg) were reduced to some extent, but also that biochar can be contaminated by Cr and Ni during the pyrolysis process due to erosion of stainless steel reactor parts (average + 82.8% Cr, + 226.0% Ni). This can occur to such an extent that the resulting biochar is rendered unsuitable for soil application (maximum addition + 22.5 mg Cr kg{sup −1} biochar and + 44.4 mg Ni kg{sup −1} biochar). Biomass grown on land heavily contaminated with PTEs yielded biochars with PTE concentrations above recommended threshold values for soil amendments. Cd and Zn were of particular concern, exceeding the lowest threshold values by 31-fold and 7-fold respectively, despite some losses into the gas phase. However, thermal conversion of plants from less severely contaminated soils, demolition wood and food waste anaerobic digestate (AD) into biochar proved to be promising for land application. In particular, food waste AD biochar contained very high nutrient concentrations, making it interesting for use as fertiliser. - Highlights: • Marginal biomass feedstocks are materials of little economic value. • Biochar from biomass grown on PTE-rich soils tends to exceed guideline values. • Biochar from biomass with high mineral content can be a beneficial nutrient source. • Cr and Ni

  9. Suitability of marginal biomass-derived biochars for soil amendment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buss, Wolfram; Graham, Margaret C.; Shepherd, Jessica G.; Mašek, Ondřej

    2016-01-01

    The term “marginal biomass” is used here to describe materials of little or no economic value, e.g. plants grown on contaminated land, food waste or demolition wood. In this study 10 marginal biomass-derived feedstocks were converted into 19 biochars at different highest treatment temperatures (HTT) using a continuous screw-pyrolysis unit. The aim was to investigate suitability of the resulting biochars for land application, judged on the basis of potentially toxic element (PTE) concentration, nutrient content and basic biochar properties (pH, EC, ash, fixed carbon). It was shown that under typical biochar production conditions the percentage content of several PTEs (As, Al, Zn) and nutrients (Ca, Mg) were reduced to some extent, but also that biochar can be contaminated by Cr and Ni during the pyrolysis process due to erosion of stainless steel reactor parts (average + 82.8% Cr, + 226.0% Ni). This can occur to such an extent that the resulting biochar is rendered unsuitable for soil application (maximum addition + 22.5 mg Cr kg −1 biochar and + 44.4 mg Ni kg −1 biochar). Biomass grown on land heavily contaminated with PTEs yielded biochars with PTE concentrations above recommended threshold values for soil amendments. Cd and Zn were of particular concern, exceeding the lowest threshold values by 31-fold and 7-fold respectively, despite some losses into the gas phase. However, thermal conversion of plants from less severely contaminated soils, demolition wood and food waste anaerobic digestate (AD) into biochar proved to be promising for land application. In particular, food waste AD biochar contained very high nutrient concentrations, making it interesting for use as fertiliser. - Highlights: • Marginal biomass feedstocks are materials of little economic value. • Biochar from biomass grown on PTE-rich soils tends to exceed guideline values. • Biochar from biomass with high mineral content can be a beneficial nutrient source. • Cr and Ni from the

  10. Amending greenroof soil with biochar to affect runoff water quantity and quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Deborah A; Johnson, Gwynn R; Spolek, Graig A

    2011-01-01

    Numbers of greenroofs in urban areas continue to grow internationally; so designing greenroof soil to reduce the amount of nutrients in the stormwater runoff from these roofs is becoming essential. This study evaluated changes in extensive greenroof water discharge quality and quantity after adding biochar, a soil amendment promoted for its ability to retain nutrients in soils and increase soil fertility. Prototype greenroof trays with and without biochar were planted with sedum or ryegrass, with barren soil trays used as controls. The greenroof trays were subjected to two sequential 7.4cm/h rainfall events using a rain simulator. Runoff from the rain events was collected and evaluated. Trays containing 7% biochar showed increased water retention and significant decreases in discharge of total nitrogen, total phosphorus, nitrate, phosphate, and organic carbon. The addition of biochar to greenroof soil improves both runoff water quality and retention. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Novel biochar-impregnated calcium alginate beads with improved water holding and nutrient retention properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bing; Gao, Bin; Zimmerman, Andrew R; Zheng, Yulin; Lyu, Honghong

    2018-03-01

    Drought conditions and nutrients loss have serious impacts on soil quality as well as crop yields in agroecosystems. New techniques are needed to carry out effective soil water and nutrient conservation and fertilizer application tools. Here, calcium alginate (CA) beads impregnated with ball-milled biochar (BMB) were investigated as a new type of water/nutrients retention agent. Both CA and Ca-alginate/ball milled biochar composite (CA-BMB) beads showed high kinetic swelling ratios in KNO 3 solution and low kinetic swelling ratios in water, indicating that CA-BMB beads have the potential to retain mineral nitrogen and nutrients by ion exchange. Pseudo-second-order kinetic model well-described the swelling kinetics of both beads in KNO 3 solution. Over a range of temperatures, the characteristics of dehydration suggested that impregnation with BMB improved the water holding capacity and postponed the dehydration time of Ca-alginate. The cumulative swelling and release characteristics of water, K + , and NO 3 - indicated that CA-BMB beads have great potential as a soil amendment to improve its nutrient retention and water holding capacity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Nutrient management for rice production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.R.; Chandra, D.; Nanda, P.; Singh, S.S.; Singh, S.R.; Ghorai, A.K.

    2002-06-01

    The nutrient removed by the crops far exceeds the amounts replenished through fertilizer, causing a much greater strain on the native soil reserves. The situation is further aggravated in countries like India, where sub-optimal fertilizer used by the farmers is a common phenomenon rather than an exception. The total consumption of nutrients of all crops in India, even though reached 15 million tons in 1997, remains much below the estimated nutrient removal of 25 million tons (Swarup and Goneshamurthy, 1998). The gap between nutrient removal supplied through fertilizer has widened further in 2000 to 34 million tons of plant nutrients from the soil against an estimated fertilizer availability of 18 million tons (Singh and Dwivedi, 1996). Nitrogen is the nutrient which limits the most the rice production worldwide. In Asia, where more than 90 percent of the world's rice is produced, about 60 percent of the N fertilizer consumed is used on rice (Stangel and De Dutta, 1985). Conjunctive use of organic material along with fertilizer has been proved an efficient source of nitrogen. Organic residue recycling is becoming an increasingly important aspect of environmentally sound sustainable agriculture. Returning residues like green manure to the soil is necessary for maintaining soil organic matter, which is important for favourable soil structure, soil water retention and soil microbial flora and fauna activities. Use of organic manures in conjunction or as an alternative to chemical fertilizer is receiving attention. Green manure, addition to some extent, helps not only in enhancing the yield but also in improving the physical and chemical nature of soils. The excessive application of chemical fertilizers made it imperative that a part of inorganic fertilizer may be substituted with the recycling of organic wastes. Organic manure has been recorded to enhance the efficiency and reduce the requirement of chemical fertilizers. Partial nitrogen substitution through organic

  13. Nutrient Limitation in Central Red Sea Mangroves

    KAUST Repository

    Almahasheer, Hanan; Duarte, Carlos M.; Irigoien, Xabier

    2016-01-01

    Red Sea have characteristic heights of ~2 m, suggesting nutrient limitation. We assessed the nutrient status of mangrove stands in the Central Red Sea and conducted a fertilization experiment (N, P and Fe and various combinations thereof) on 4-week

  14. The potential of residues of furfural and biogas as calcareous soil amendments for corn seed production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yunchen; Yan, Zhibin; Qin, Jiahai; Ma, Zhijun; Zhang, Youfu; Zhang, Li

    2016-04-01

    Intensive corn seed production in Northwest of China produced large amounts of furfural residues, which represents higher treatment cost and environmental issue. The broad calcareous soils in the Northwest of China exhibit low organic matter content and high pH, which led to lower fertility and lower productivity. Recycling furfural residues as soil organic and nutrient amendment might be a promising agricultural practice to calcareous soils. A 3-year field study was conducted to evaluate the effects of furfural as a soil amendment on corn seed production on calcareous soil with compared to biogas residues. Soil physical-chemical properties, soil enzyme activities, and soil heavy metal concentrations were assessed in the last year after the last application. Corn yield was determined in each year. Furfural residue amendments significantly decreased soil pH and soil bulk density. Furfural residues combined with commercial fertilizers resulted in the greater cumulative on soil organic matter, total phosphorus, available phosphorus, available potassium, and cation exchange capacity than that of biogas residue. Simultaneously, urease, invertase, catalase, and alkaline phosphatase increased even at the higher furfural application rates. Maize seed yield increased even with lower furfural residue application rates. Furfural residues resulted in lower Zn concentration and higher Cd concentration than that of biogas residues. Amendment of furfural residues led to higher soil electrical conductivity (EC) than that of biogas residues. The addition of furfural residues to maize seed production may be considered to be a good strategy for recycling the waste, converting it into a potential resource as organic amendment in arid and semi-arid calcareous soils, and may help to reduce the use of mineral chemical fertilizers in these soils. However, the impact of its application on soil health needs to be established in long-term basis.

  15. Nutrient availability limits biological production in Arctic sea ice melt ponds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Heidi Louise; Thamdrup, Bo; Jeppesen, Erik

    2017-01-01

    nutrient limitation in melt ponds. We also document that the addition of nutrients, although at relative high concentrations, can stimulate biological productivity at several trophic levels. Given the projected increase in first-year ice, increased melt pond coverage during the Arctic spring and potential......Every spring and summer melt ponds form at the surface of polar sea ice and become habitats where biological production may take place. Previous studies report a large variability in the productivity, but the causes are unknown. We investigated if nutrients limit the productivity in these first...... additional nutrient supply from, e.g. terrestrial sources imply that biological activity of melt ponds may become increasingly important for the sympagic carbon cycling in the future Arctic....

  16. Continental-scale effects of nutrient pollution on stream ecosystem functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Guy; Gessner, Mark O; Giller, Paul S; Gulis, Vladislav; Hladyz, Sally; Lecerf, Antoine; Malmqvist, Björn; McKie, Brendan G; Tiegs, Scott D; Cariss, Helen; Dobson, Mike; Elosegi, Arturo; Ferreira, Verónica; Graça, Manuel A S; Fleituch, Tadeusz; Lacoursière, Jean O; Nistorescu, Marius; Pozo, Jesús; Risnoveanu, Geta; Schindler, Markus; Vadineanu, Angheluta; Vought, Lena B-M; Chauvet, Eric

    2012-06-15

    Excessive nutrient loading is a major threat to aquatic ecosystems worldwide that leads to profound changes in aquatic biodiversity and biogeochemical processes. Systematic quantitative assessment of functional ecosystem measures for river networks is, however, lacking, especially at continental scales. Here, we narrow this gap by means of a pan-European field experiment on a fundamental ecosystem process--leaf-litter breakdown--in 100 streams across a greater than 1000-fold nutrient gradient. Dramatically slowed breakdown at both extremes of the gradient indicated strong nutrient limitation in unaffected systems, potential for strong stimulation in moderately altered systems, and inhibition in highly polluted streams. This large-scale response pattern emphasizes the need to complement established structural approaches (such as water chemistry, hydrogeomorphology, and biological diversity metrics) with functional measures (such as litter-breakdown rate, whole-system metabolism, and nutrient spiraling) for assessing ecosystem health.

  17. 76 FR 2807 - New Animal Drugs; Change of Sponsor; Follicle Stimulating Hormone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-18

    ... [Docket No. FDA-2010-N-0002] New Animal Drugs; Change of Sponsor; Follicle Stimulating Hormone AGENCY...) is amending the animal drug regulations to reflect a change of sponsor for a new animal drug....O. Box 324-12, Tyler, TX 75703 has informed FDA that it has transferred ownership of, and all rights...

  18. Influence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on the growth and nutrient status of bermudagrass grown in alkaline bauxite processing residue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giridhar Babu, A.; Sudhakara Reddy, M.

    2011-01-01

    A nursery experiment was conducted to evaluate the potential role of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi in encouraging the vegetation cover on bauxite residue (red mud) sites. An alkali tolerant bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) adapted to local conditions were grown in red mud with different amendments with and without AM fungi to assess mycorrhizal effects on plant growth, mineral nutrition, metal uptake and neutralization of bauxite residue. Inoculation of AM fungi significantly increased the plant growth, nutrient uptake and reduced Fe, Al accumulation in plant tissue and also improved the soil physico-chemical and biochemical properties. Gypsum and sludge amended treatments inoculated with AM fungi had maximum biomass, nutrient uptake and reduced accumulation of metals. The neutralization of red mud was significant in presence of AM fungi than control. The experiment provided evidence for the potential use of bermudagrass in combination with AM fungi for ecological restoration of bauxite residue sites. - Inoculation of red mud tolerant AM fungi enhanced the growth and nutrient status of bermudagrass and the physico-chemical properties of the bauxite residues amended with gypsum or sewage sludge.

  19. Influence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on the growth and nutrient status of bermudagrass grown in alkaline bauxite processing residue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giridhar Babu, A., E-mail: anamgiri@gmail.co [Department of Biotechnology, Thapar University, Patiala 147 004 (India); Sudhakara Reddy, M., E-mail: msreddy@thapar.ed [Department of Biotechnology, Thapar University, Patiala 147 004 (India)

    2011-01-15

    A nursery experiment was conducted to evaluate the potential role of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi in encouraging the vegetation cover on bauxite residue (red mud) sites. An alkali tolerant bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) adapted to local conditions were grown in red mud with different amendments with and without AM fungi to assess mycorrhizal effects on plant growth, mineral nutrition, metal uptake and neutralization of bauxite residue. Inoculation of AM fungi significantly increased the plant growth, nutrient uptake and reduced Fe, Al accumulation in plant tissue and also improved the soil physico-chemical and biochemical properties. Gypsum and sludge amended treatments inoculated with AM fungi had maximum biomass, nutrient uptake and reduced accumulation of metals. The neutralization of red mud was significant in presence of AM fungi than control. The experiment provided evidence for the potential use of bermudagrass in combination with AM fungi for ecological restoration of bauxite residue sites. - Inoculation of red mud tolerant AM fungi enhanced the growth and nutrient status of bermudagrass and the physico-chemical properties of the bauxite residues amended with gypsum or sewage sludge.

  20. Automated nutrient analyses in seawater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitledge, T.E.; Malloy, S.C.; Patton, C.J.; Wirick, C.D.

    1981-02-01

    This manual was assembled for use as a guide for analyzing the nutrient content of seawater samples collected in the marine coastal zone of the Northeast United States and the Bering Sea. Some modifications (changes in dilution or sample pump tube sizes) may be necessary to achieve optimum measurements in very pronounced oligotrophic, eutrophic or brackish areas. Information is presented under the following section headings: theory and mechanics of automated analysis; continuous flow system description; operation of autoanalyzer system; cookbook of current nutrient methods; automated analyzer and data analysis software; computer interfacing and hardware modifications; and trouble shooting. The three appendixes are entitled: references and additional reading; manifold components and chemicals; and software listings. (JGB)

  1. Nutrients requirements in biological industrial wastewater treatment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In both these wastewaters nutrients were not added. A simple formula is introduced to calculate nutrient requirements based on removal efficiency and observed biomass yield coefficient. Key Words: Olive mill wastewater; anaerobic treatment; aerobic treatment; sequencing batch reactor; biomass yield; nutrient requirement.

  2. Nutrient quality of fast food kids meals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure of children to kids’ meals at fast food restaurants is high; however, the nutrient quality of such meals has not been systematically assessed. We assessed the nutrient quality of fast food meals marketed to young children, i.e., "kids meals". The nutrient quality of kids’ meals was assessed...

  3. Nutrient surpluses on integrated arable farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schröder, J.J.; Asperen, van P.; Dongen, van G.J.M.; Wijnands, F.G.

    1996-01-01

    From 1990 to 1993 nutrient fluxes were monitored on 38 private arable farms that had adopted farming strategies aiming at reduced nutrient inputs and substitution of mineral fertilizers by organic fertilizers. The nutrient surplus was defined as the difference between inputs (including inputs

  4. Spectral Quantitation Of Hydroponic Nutrients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlager, Kenneth J.; Kahle, Scott J.; Wilson, Monica A.; Boehlen, Michelle

    1996-01-01

    Instrument continuously monitors hydroponic solution by use of absorption and emission spectrometry to determine concentrations of principal nutrients, including nitrate, iron, potassium, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, sodium, and others. Does not depend on extraction and processing of samples, use of such surrograte parameters as pH or electrical conductivity for control, or addition of analytical reagents to solution. Solution not chemically altered by analysis and can be returned to hydroponic process stream after analysis.

  5. Rhizosphere priming: a nutrient perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feike Auke Dijkstra

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Rhizosphere priming is the change in decomposition of soil organic matter (SOM caused by root activity. Rhizosphere priming plays a crucial role in soil carbon (C dynamics and their response to global climate change. Rhizosphere priming may be affected by soil nutrient availability, but rhizosphere priming itself can also affect nutrient supply to plants. These interactive effects may be of particular relevance in understanding the sustained increase in plant growth and nutrient supply in response to a rise in atmospheric CO2 concentration. We examined how these interactions were affected by elevated CO2 in two similar semiarid grassland field studies. We found that an increase in rhizosphere priming enhanced the release of nitrogen (N through decomposition of a larger fraction of SOM in one study, but not in the other. We postulate that rhizosphere priming may enhance N supply to plants in systems that are N limited, but that rhizosphere priming may not occur in systems that are phosphorus (P limited. Under P limitation, rhizodeposition may be used for mobilisation of P, rather than for decomposition of SOM. Therefore, with increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations, rhizosphere priming may play a larger role in affecting C sequestration in N poor than in P poor soils.

  6. Biochar As Plant Growth Promoter: Better Off Alone or Mixed with Organic Amendments?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliano Bonanomi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Biochar is nowadays largely used as a soil amendment and is commercialized worldwide. However, in temperate agro-ecosystems the beneficial effect of biochar on crop productivity is limited, with several studies reporting negative crop responses. In this work, we studied the effect of 10 biochar and 9 not pyrogenic organic amendments (NPOA, using pure and in all possible combinations on lettuce growth (Lactuca sativa. Organic materials were characterized by 13C-CPMAS NMR spectroscopy and elemental analysis (pH, EC, C, N, C/N and H/C ratios. Pure biochars and NPOAs have variable effects, ranging from inhibition to strong stimulation on lettuce growth. For NPOAs, major inhibitory effects were found with N poor materials characterized by high C/N and H/C ratio. Among pure biochars, instead, those having a low H/C ratio seem to be the best for promoting plant growth. When biochars and organic amendments were mixed, non-additive interactions, either synergistic or antagonistic, were prevalent. However, the mixture effect on plant growth was mainly dependent on the chemical quality of NPOAs, while biochar chemistry played a secondary role. Synergisms were prevalent when N rich and lignin poor materials were mixed with biochar. On the contrary, antagonistic interactions occurred when leaf litter or woody materials were mixed with biochar. Further research is needed to identify the mechanisms behind the observed non-additive effects and to develop biochar-organic amendment combinations that maximize plant productivity in different agricultural systems.

  7. A critical assessment of the ecological assumptions underpinning compensatory mitigation of salmon-derived nutrients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Scott F.; Marcarelli, Amy M.; Baxter, Colden V.; Wipfli, Mark S.

    2015-01-01

    We critically evaluate some of the key ecological assumptions underpinning the use of nutrient replacement as a means of recovering salmon populations and a range of other organisms thought to be linked to productive salmon runs. These assumptions include: (1) nutrient mitigation mimics the ecological roles of salmon, (2) mitigation is needed to replace salmon-derived nutrients and stimulate primary and invertebrate production in streams, and (3) food resources in rearing habitats limit populations of salmon and resident fishes. First, we call into question assumption one because an array of evidence points to the multi-faceted role played by spawning salmon, including disturbance via redd-building, nutrient recycling by live fish, and consumption by terrestrial consumers. Second, we show that assumption two may require qualification based upon a more complete understanding of nutrient cycling and productivity in streams. Third, we evaluate the empirical evidence supporting food limitation of fish populations and conclude it has been only weakly tested. On the basis of this assessment, we urge caution in the application of nutrient mitigation as a management tool. Although applications of nutrients and other materials intended to mitigate for lost or diminished runs of Pacific salmon may trigger ecological responses within treated ecosystems, contributions of these activities toward actual mitigation may be limited.

  8. Sensitivity analysis of a pulse nutrient addition technique for estimating nutrient uptake in large streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurence Lin; J.R. Webster

    2012-01-01

    The constant nutrient addition technique has been used extensively to measure nutrient uptake in streams. However, this technique is impractical for large streams, and the pulse nutrient addition (PNA) has been suggested as an alternative. We developed a computer model to simulate Monod kinetics nutrient uptake in large rivers and used this model to evaluate the...

  9. Modeling farm nutrient flows in the North China Plain to reduce nutrient losses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Zhanqing; Bai, Zhaohai; Wei, Sha; Ma, Wenqi; Wang, Mengru; Kroeze, Carolien; Ma, Lin

    2017-01-01

    Years of poor nutrient management practices in the agriculture industry in the North China Plain have led to large losses of nutrients to the environment, causing severe ecological consequences. Analyzing farm nutrient flows is urgently needed in order to reduce nutrient losses. A farm-level

  10. Do plant-based amendments improve soil physiochemical and microbiological properties and plant growth in dryland ecosystems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneller, Tayla; Harris, Richard; Muñoz-Rojas, Miriam

    2017-04-01

    Background Land intensive practices including mining have contributed to the degradation of landscapes globally. Current challenges in post-mine restoration revolve around the use of substrates poor in organic materials (e.g. overburden and waste rock) and lack of original topsoil which may result in poor seedling recruitment and in later stages in soil nutrient deficiency, metal toxicity, decreased microbial activity and high salinity (Bateman et al., 2016; Muñoz-Rojas et al., 2016). Despite continuous efforts and advances we have not proportionally advanced our capability to successfully restore these landscapes following mining. Recent attempts to improve plant establishment in arid zone restoration programs have included the application of plant based amendments to soil profiles. This approach usually aims to accelerate soil reconstruction via improvement of soil aggregate stability and increase of soil organic carbon, and water holding capacity. Whilst a significant amount of recent research has focused on the application of such amendments, studies on the potential application of plant based materials to recover soil functionality and re-establish plant communities in post-mined landscapes in arid regions are limited. Here we will discuss our work investigating the application of a plant based amendment on soil substrates commonly used in post mining restoration in the Pilbara region, Western Australia. Methodology The study was conducted in a glasshouse facility where environmental conditions were continuously monitored. Using two growth materials (topsoil and waste rock) and a plant based amendment (dry biomass of the most common grass in the Pilbara, Triodia wiseana) five different treatments were tested. Treatments consisted of control soil treatments (topsoil, waste and a mixture of the former soil types (mixture)) and two amended soil treatments (waste amended and mixture amended). Additionally, three different vegetation communities were studies

  11. Microbe assisted phyto remediation of oil sludge and role of amendments: a mesocosm study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanekar, S; Dhote, M.; Kashyap, S.; Singh, S. K.; Juwarkar, A. A.

    2015-01-01

    A mescosom study was evaluated to the influence of amendments such as microbial consortium, plant (Vetiveria zizanioides), bulking agent (wheat husk) and nutrients on remediation of oil sludge over a period of 90 days. The experiment was conducted in a 15 m2 plot which was divided into eight units comprising of soil sludge mixture (1:1) at CSIR-NEERI premises. During the experiment, oil degradation was estimated gravimetrically and poly aromatic hydrocarbons were quantified on GC-MS. Additionally, dehydrogenase activity was also monitored. The treatment integrated with bulking agent, nutrients, consortium and plant resulted in 28-fold increased dehydrogenase activity and complete mineralization of higher poly aromatic hydrocarbons. Furthermore, 72.8 % total petroleum hydrocarbons degradation was observed in bulked treatment with plant, nutrients and consortium followed by 69.6 and 65.4 % in bioaugmented treatments with and without nutrients, respectively, as compared to control (33.4 %). A lysimeter study was also conducted simultaneously using Vetiver and consortium to monitor groundwater contamination by heavy metals in oil sludge which showed a marked decrease in the concentrations of metals such as lead and cadmium in leachates. This study validates a holistic approach for remediation of oil sludge contaminated soils/sites which is a burning issue since decades by the use of microbe assisted phyto remediation technology which not only solves the problem of oil contamination but also takes care of heavy metal contamination.

  12. Effects of agricultural subsidies of nutrients and detritus on fish and plankton of shallow-reservoir ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilati, Alberto; Vanni, Michael J; González, María J; Gaulke, Alicia K

    2009-06-01

    Agricultural activities increase exports of nutrients and sediments to lakes, with multiple potential impacts on recipient ecosystems. Nutrient inputs enhance phytoplankton and upper trophic levels, and sediment inputs can shade phytoplankton, interfere with feeding of consumers, and degrade benthic habitats. Allochthonous sediments are also a potential food source for detritivores, as is sedimenting autochthonous phytodetritus, the production of which is stimulated by nutrient inputs. We examined effects of allochthonous nutrient and sediment subsidies on fish and plankton, with special emphasis on gizzard shad (Dorosoma cepedianum). This widespread and abundant omnivorous fish has many impacts on reservoir ecosystems, including negative effects on water quality via nutrient cycling and on fisheries via competition with sportfish. Gizzard shad are most abundant in agriculturally impacted, eutrophic systems; thus, agricultural subsidies may affect reservoir food webs directly and by enhancing gizzard shad biomass. We simulated agricultural subsidies of nutrients and sediment detritus by manipulating dissolved nutrients and allochthonous detritus in a 2 x 2 factorial design in experimental ponds. Addition of nutrients alone increased primary production and biomass of zooplanktivorous fish (bluegill and young-of-year gizzard shad). Addition of allochthonous sediments alone increased algal sedimentation and decreased seston and sediment C:P ratios. Ponds receiving both nutrients and sediments showed highest levels of phytoplankton and total phosphorus. Adult and juvenile gizzard shad biomass was enhanced equally by nutrient or sediment addition, probably because this apparently P-limited detritivore ingested similar amounts of P in all subsidy treatments. Nutrient excretion rates of gizzard shad were higher in ponds with nutrient additions, where sediments were composed mainly of phytodetritus. Therefore, gizzard shad can magnify the direct effects of nutrient

  13. Short- and long-term effects of nutrient enrichment on microbial exoenzyme activity in mangrove peat

    KAUST Repository

    Keuskamp, Joost A.

    2015-02-01

    © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Mangroves receive increasing quantities of nutrients as a result of coastal development, which could lead to significant changes in carbon sequestration and soil subsidence. We hypothesised that mangrove-produced tannins induce a nitrogen (N) limitation on microbial decomposition even when plant growth is limited by phosphorus (P). As a result, increased N influx would lead to a net loss of sequestered carbon negating the ability to compensate for sea level rise in P-limited mangroves. To examine this, we quantified the short- and long-term effects of N and P enrichment on microbial biomass and decomposition-related enzyme activities in a Rhizophora mangle-dominated mangrove, which had been subjected to fertilisation treatments for a period of fifteen years. We compared microbial biomass, elemental stoichiometry and potential enzyme activity in dwarf and fringe-type R. mangle-dominated sites, where primary production is limited by P or N depending on the proximity to open water. Even in P-limited mangroves, microbial activity was N-limited as indicated by stoichiometry and an increase in enzymic activity upon N amendment. Nevertheless, microbial biomass increased upon field additions of P, indicating that the carbon supply played even a larger role. Furthermore, we found that P amendment suppressed phenol oxidase activity, while N amendment did not. The possible differential nutrient limitations of microbial decomposers versus primary producers implies that the direction of the effect of eutrophication on carbon sequestration is nutrient-specific. In addition, this study shows that phenol oxidase activities in this system decrease through P, possibly strengthening the enzymic latch effect of mangrove tannins. Furthermore, it is argued that the often used division between N-harvesting, P-harvesting, and carbon-harvesting exoenzymes needs to be reconsidered.

  14. Immobilization of pentachlorophenol in soil using carbonaceous material amendments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen Bei [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shuangqing Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100085 (China)], E-mail: bwen@rcees.ac.cn; Li Ruijuan; Zhang Shuzhen [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shuangqing Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100085 (China); Shan Xiaoquan [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shuangqing Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100085 (China)], E-mail: xiaoquan@rcees.ac.cn; Fang Jing; Xiao Ke [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shuangqing Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100085 (China); Khan, Shahamat U. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, MSN 3E2, George Mason University, 4400 University Drive, Fairfax, VA 22030-4444 (United States)

    2009-03-15

    In this study, three pentachlorophenol (PCP) laboratory-spiked and one field-contaminated soil were amended with 2.0% char, humic acid (HA) and peat, respectively. The amended soils were aged for either 7 or 250 days. After amendment, CaCl{sub 2} extractability of PCP was significantly decreased. Desorption kinetics indicated that the proposed amendment could lead to a strong binding and slow desorption of PCP in soils. Amendment with char reduced the bioaccumulation factor (BAF) of PCP most significantly for earthworms (Eisenia fetida) in all soils studied. The results of both physicochemical and biological tests suggested that amendment reduced PCP bioavailability quickly and enduringly, implying that carbonaceous material amendment, especially char amendment, was a potentially attractive in situ remediation method for sequestration of PCP in contaminated soil. - Carbonaceous material amendment was a potential in situ remediation method for pentachlorophenol contaminated soil.

  15. Varying Inundation Regimes Differentially Affect Natural and Sand-Amended Marsh Sediments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Wigand

    pore water nutrient concentrations, pH, salinity, and belowground root and rhizome morphology were detected between the natural and sand-amended sediments, similar belowground productivity and total biomass were measured by the end of the growing season. Since the belowground productivity supports organic matter accumulation and peat buildup in marshes, our results suggest that thin layer sand or sediment application is a viable climate adaptation action to build elevation and coastal resiliency, especially in areas with low natural sediment supplies.

  16. Nutrient Management in Recirculating Hydroponic Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugbee, Bruce

    2004-01-01

    There is an increasing need to recirculate and reuse nutrient solutions in order to reduce environmental and economic costs. However, one of the weakest points in hydroponics is the lack of information on managing the nutrient solution. Many growers and research scientists dump out nutrient solutions and refill at weekly intervals. Other authors have recommended measuring the concentrations of individual nutrients in solution as a key to nutrient control and maintenance. Dumping and replacing solution is unnecessary. Monitoring ions in solution is not always necessary; in fact the rapid depletion of some nutrients often causes people to add toxic amounts of nutrients to the solution. Monitoring ions in solution is interesting, but it is not the key to effective maintenance.

  17. Nutrient management strategies on Dutch dairy farms: an empirical analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ondersteijn, C.J.M.

    2002-01-01

    Key Words: MINAS; nitrogen surplus; phosphate surplus; nutrient efficiency; nutrient productivity; financial consequences; strategic management; perceived environmental uncertainty; nutrient management planning; dairy farming; The Netherlands.

    Agricultural nutrients are a

  18. [Transcranial magnetic stimulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tormos, J M; Catalá, M D; Pascual-Leone, A

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) permits stimulation of the cerebral cortex in humans without requiring open access to the brain and is one of the newest tools available in neuroscience. There are two main types of application: single-pulse TMS and repetitive TMS. The magnetic stimulator is composed of a series of capacitors that store the voltage necessary to generate a stimulus of the sufficient intensity of generate an electric field in the stimulation coil. The safety of TMS is supported by the considerable experience derived from studies involving electrical stimulation of the cortex in animals and humans, and also specific studies on the safety of TMS in humans. In this article we review historical and technical aspects of TMS, describe its adverse effects and how to avoid them, summarize the applications of TMS in the investigation of different cerebral functions, and discuss the possibility of using TMS for the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders.

  19. Nutrient transitions are a source of persisters in Escherichia coli biofilms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie M Amato

    Full Text Available Chronic and recurrent infections have been attributed to persisters in biofilms, and despite this importance, the mechanisms of persister formation in biofilms remain unclear. The plethora of biofilm characteristics that could give rise to persisters, including slower growth, quorum signaling, oxidative stress, and nutrient heterogeneity, have complicated efforts to delineate formation pathways that generate persisters during biofilm development. Here we sought to specifically determine whether nutrient transitions, which are a common metabolic stress encountered within surface-attached communities, stimulate persister formation in biofilms and if so, to then identify the pathway. To accomplish this, we established an experimental methodology where nutrient availability to biofilm cells could be controlled exogenously, and then used that method to discover that diauxic carbon source transitions stimulated persister formation in Escherichia coli biofilms. Previously, we found that carbon source transitions stimulate persister formation in planktonic E. coli cultures, through a pathway that involved ppGpp and nucleoid-associated proteins, and therefore, tested the functionality of that pathway in biofilms. Biofilm persister formation was also found to be dependent on ppGpp and nucleoid-associated proteins, but the importance of specific proteins and enzymes between biofilm and planktonic lifestyles was significantly different. Data presented here support the increasingly appreciated role of ppGpp as a central mediator of bacterial persistence and demonstrate that nutrient transitions can be a source of persisters in biofilms.

  20. Nutrient transitions are a source of persisters in Escherichia coli biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, Stephanie M; Brynildsen, Mark P

    2014-01-01

    Chronic and recurrent infections have been attributed to persisters in biofilms, and despite this importance, the mechanisms of persister formation in biofilms remain unclear. The plethora of biofilm characteristics that could give rise to persisters, including slower growth, quorum signaling, oxidative stress, and nutrient heterogeneity, have complicated efforts to delineate formation pathways that generate persisters during biofilm development. Here we sought to specifically determine whether nutrient transitions, which are a common metabolic stress encountered within surface-attached communities, stimulate persister formation in biofilms and if so, to then identify the pathway. To accomplish this, we established an experimental methodology where nutrient availability to biofilm cells could be controlled exogenously, and then used that method to discover that diauxic carbon source transitions stimulated persister formation in Escherichia coli biofilms. Previously, we found that carbon source transitions stimulate persister formation in planktonic E. coli cultures, through a pathway that involved ppGpp and nucleoid-associated proteins, and therefore, tested the functionality of that pathway in biofilms. Biofilm persister formation was also found to be dependent on ppGpp and nucleoid-associated proteins, but the importance of specific proteins and enzymes between biofilm and planktonic lifestyles was significantly different. Data presented here support the increasingly appreciated role of ppGpp as a central mediator of bacterial persistence and demonstrate that nutrient transitions can be a source of persisters in biofilms.

  1. Amending greenroof soil with biochar to affect runoff water quantity and quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, Deborah A.; Johnson, Gwynn R. [Portland State University, Mechanical and Materials Engineering, POB 751, Portland, OR 97207 (United States); Spolek, Graig A., E-mail: graig@cecs.pdx.edu [Portland State University, Mechanical and Materials Engineering, POB 751, Portland, OR 97207 (United States)

    2011-08-15

    Numbers of greenroofs in urban areas continue to grow internationally; so designing greenroof soil to reduce the amount of nutrients in the stormwater runoff from these roofs is becoming essential. This study evaluated changes in extensive greenroof water discharge quality and quantity after adding biochar, a soil amendment promoted for its ability to retain nutrients in soils and increase soil fertility. Prototype greenroof trays with and without biochar were planted with sedum or ryegrass, with barren soil trays used as controls. The greenroof trays were subjected to two sequential 7.4 cm/h rainfall events using a rain simulator. Runoff from the rain events was collected and evaluated. Trays containing 7% biochar showed increased water retention and significant decreases in discharge of total nitrogen, total phosphorus, nitrate, phosphate, and organic carbon. The addition of biochar to greenroof soil improves both runoff water quality and retention. - Highlights: > Biochar in green roof soil reduces nitrogen and phosphorus in the runoff. > Addition of biochar reduces turbidity of runoff. > Addition of biochar reduces total organic carbon content in runoff by 67-72%. > Biochar improves water retention of saturated soil. - In this controlled laboratory experiment, greenroof soil was amended by the addition of biochar, which reduced the water runoff concentration of nitrogen, phosphorus, and organic carbon.

  2. Amending greenroof soil with biochar to affect runoff water quantity and quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, Deborah A.; Johnson, Gwynn R.; Spolek, Graig A.

    2011-01-01

    Numbers of greenroofs in urban areas continue to grow internationally; so designing greenroof soil to reduce the amount of nutrients in the stormwater runoff from these roofs is becoming essential. This study evaluated changes in extensive greenroof water discharge quality and quantity after adding biochar, a soil amendment promoted for its ability to retain nutrients in soils and increase soil fertility. Prototype greenroof trays with and without biochar were planted with sedum or ryegrass, with barren soil trays used as controls. The greenroof trays were subjected to two sequential 7.4 cm/h rainfall events using a rain simulator. Runoff from the rain events was collected and evaluated. Trays containing 7% biochar showed increased water retention and significant decreases in discharge of total nitrogen, total phosphorus, nitrate, phosphate, and organic carbon. The addition of biochar to greenroof soil improves both runoff water quality and retention. - Highlights: → Biochar in green roof soil reduces nitrogen and phosphorus in the runoff. → Addition of biochar reduces turbidity of runoff. → Addition of biochar reduces total organic carbon content in runoff by 67-72%. → Biochar improves water retention of saturated soil. - In this controlled laboratory experiment, greenroof soil was amended by the addition of biochar, which reduced the water runoff concentration of nitrogen, phosphorus, and organic carbon.

  3. Wetland development, permafrost history and nutrient cycling inferred from late Holocene peat and lake sediment records in subarctic Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokfelt, U.; Reuss, N.; Struyf, E.

    2010-01-01

    to re-deposition of peat into one of the lakes after ca. 2,100 cal BP, and stimulated primary productivity in the other lake at ca. 1,900-1,800 cal BP. Carbonate precipitation appears to have been suppressed when acidic poor fen and bog (palsa) communities dominated the catchment mire, and permafrost...... insight into nutrient and permafrost dynamics in a subarctic wetland and imply that continued permafrost decay and related vegetation changes towards minerotrophy may increase carbon and nutrient storage of mire deposits and reduce nutrient fluxes in runoff. Rapid permafrost degradation may on the other...

  4. Investment in secreted enzymes during nutrient-limited growth is utility dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cezairliyan, Brent; Ausubel, Frederick M

    2017-09-12

    Pathogenic bacteria secrete toxins and degradative enzymes that facilitate their growth by liberating nutrients from the environment. To understand bacterial growth under nutrient-limited conditions, we studied resource allocation between cellular and secreted components by the pathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa during growth on a protein substrate that requires extracellular digestion by secreted proteases. We identified a quantitative relationship between the rate of increase of cellular biomass under nutrient-limiting growth conditions and the rate of increase in investment in secreted proteases. Production of secreted proteases is stimulated by secreted signals that convey information about the utility of secreted proteins during nutrient-limited growth. Growth modeling using this relationship recapitulated the observed kinetics of bacterial growth on a protein substrate. The proposed regulatory strategy suggests a rationale for quorum-sensing-dependent stimulation of the production of secreted enzymes whereby investment in secreted enzymes occurs in proportion to the utility they confer. Our model provides a framework that can be applied toward understanding bacterial growth in many environments where growth rate is limited by the availability of nutrients.

  5. Comparative short-term effects of sewage sludge and its biochar on soil properties, maize growth and uptake of nutrients on a tropical clay soil in Zimbabwe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Willis Gwenzi; Moreblessing Muzava; Farai Mapanda; Tonny P Tauro

    2016-01-01

    Soil application of biochar from sewage could potentialy enhance carbon sequestration and close urban nutrient balances. In sub-Saharan Africa, comparative studies investigating plant growth effect and nutrients uptake on tropical soils amended with sewage sludge and its biochar are very limited. A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of sewage sludge and its biochar on soil chemical properties, maize nutrient and heavy metal uptake, growth and biomass partitioning on a tropical clayey soil. The study compared three organic amendments; sewage sludge (SS), sludge biochar (SB) and their combination (SS+SB) to the unamended control and inorganic fertilizers. Organic amendments were applied at a rate of 15 t ha–1 for SS and SB, and 7.5 t ha–1 each for SS and SB. Maize growth, biomass production and nutrient uptake were signiifcantly improved in biochar and sewage sludge amendments compared to the unamended control. Comparable results were observed with F, SS and SS+SB on maize growth at 49 d of sowing. Maize growth for SB, SS, SS+SB and F increased by 42, 53, 47, and 49%, respectively compared to the unamended control. Total biomass for SB, SS, SS+SB, and F increased by 270, 428, 329, and 429%, respectively compared with the unamended control. Biochar amendments reduced Pb, Cu and Zn uptakes by about 22% compared with sludge alone treatment in maize plants. However, there is need for future research based on the current pot experiment to determine whether the same results can be produced under ifeld conditions.

  6. Soil structure and microbial activity dynamics in 20-month field-incubated organic-amended soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arthur, Emmanuel; Schjønning, Per; Møldrup, Per

    2014-01-01

    to determine compressive strength. During incubation, the amount of WDC depended on soil carbon content while the trends correlated with moisture content. Organic amendment only yielded modest decreases (mean of 14% across all sampling times and soils) in WDC, but it was sufficient to stimulate the microbial......Soil structure formation is essential to all soil ecosystem functions and services. This study aims to quantify changes in soil structure and microbial activity during and after field incubation and examine the effect of carbon, organic amendment and clay on aggregate characteristics. Five soils...... community (65–100% increase in FDA). Incubation led to significant macroaggregate formation (>2 mm) for all soils. Friability and strength of newly-formed aggregates were negatively correlated with clay content and carbon content, respectively. Soil workability was best for the kaolinite-rich soil...

  7. Soil amendment affects Cd uptake by wheat — are we underestimating the risks from chloride inputs?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlin, A. Sigrun; Eriksson, Jan; Campbell, Colin D.; Öborn, Ingrid

    2016-01-01

    Many parts of the world are investigating the efficacy of recycling nutrient resources to agriculture from different industry and domestic sectors as part of a more circular economy. The complex nature of recycled products as soil amendments coupled to the large diversity of soil types and their inherent properties make it difficult to optimize the benefits and minimize the risks from potentially toxic elements often present in recycled materials. Here we investigated how wheat grain cadmium (Cd) concentration was affected by soil amendments, namely human urine and biogas digestate compared to traditional farm manures and mineral fertilizers. We show that Cl − inadvertently added to soils with e.g. urine or biogas digestate strongly increased crop Cd concentrations, largely by mobilizing inherent soil Cd. This resulted in wheat grain Cd levels that could result in exceeding recommended WHO limits for dietary intake. This was evident even in soils with low inherent Cd content and when Cd inputs were low. The future of a circular economy that helps to underpin global food security needs to ensure that the effects of applying complex materials to different types of agricultural land are fully understood and do not jeopardize food safety. Modified from Wivstad et al. (2009) - Highlights: • High-Cl by-products used as soil amendments mobilize soil Cd. • Wheat grain Cd levels were found that could result in exceeding dietary intake limits. • Quality and risk assessment of by-products should include Cl effects.

  8. Biochar amendment to coarse sandy subsoil improves root growth and increases water retention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Esben; Petersen, C. T.; Hansen, E.

    2014-01-01

    Crop yields and yield potentials on Danish coarse sandy soils are strongly limited due to restricted root growth and poor water and nutrient retention. We investigated if biochar amendment to subsoil can improve root development in barley and significantly increase soil water retention. Spring...... barley (Hordeum vulgare cv. Anakin) was grown in soil columns (diameter: 30 cm) prepared with 25 cm topsoil, 75 cm biochar-amended subsoil, and 30 cm un-amended subsoil lowermost placed on an impervious surface. Low-temperature gasification straw-biochar (at 0, 0.50, 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0 wt%) and slow...... pyrolysis hardwood-biochar (at 2 wt%) were investigated. One wt% can be scaled up to 102 Mg/ha of char. After full irrigation and drainage, the in-situ moisture content at 30-80 cm depth increased linearly (R2 = 0.99) with straw-biochar content at a rate corresponding to 0.029 m3/m3/%. The lab determined...

  9. The Effect of paper mill waste and sewage sludge amendments on soil organic matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez, Ana; Barriga, Sandra; Guerrero, Francisca; Gascó, Gabriel

    2013-04-01

    In general, Mediterranean soils have low organic matter content, due to the climate characteristics of this region and inadequate land management. Traditionally, organic wastes such as manure are used as amendment in order to improve the soil quality, increasing soil fertility by the accumulation of nitrogen, phosphorus and other plant nutrients in the soil. In the last decade, other anthropogenic organic wastes such as sewage sludge or paper waste materials have been studied as soil amendments to improve physical, chemical and biological properties of soils. The objective of the present work was to study the influence of waste from a paper mill and sewage sludge amendments on soil organic matter. For this reason, soil organic matter evolution was studied using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), the derivative (dTG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). Thermal analytical techniques have the advantage of using full samples without pre-treatments and have been extensively used to study the evolution of organic matter in soils, to evaluate composting process or to study the evolution of organic matter of growing media.

  10. Soil amendment affects Cd uptake by wheat — are we underestimating the risks from chloride inputs?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlin, A. Sigrun, E-mail: Sigrun.Dahlin@slu.se [Department of Soil and Environment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 7014, SE-750 07 Uppsala (Sweden); Eriksson, Jan, E-mail: Jan.O.Eriksson@slu.se [Department of Soil and Environment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 7014, SE-750 07 Uppsala (Sweden); Campbell, Colin D., E-mail: Colin.Campbell@hutton.ac.uk [Department of Soil and Environment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 7014, SE-750 07 Uppsala (Sweden); The James Hutton Institute, Craigiebuckler, Aberdeen AB15 8QH, Scotland (United Kingdom); Öborn, Ingrid, E-mail: Ingrid.Oborn@slu.se [Department of Crop Production Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 7043, SE-750 07 Uppsala (Sweden); World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF), UN Avenue, P.O. Box 30677-00100, Nairobi (Kenya)

    2016-06-01

    Many parts of the world are investigating the efficacy of recycling nutrient resources to agriculture from different industry and domestic sectors as part of a more circular economy. The complex nature of recycled products as soil amendments coupled to the large diversity of soil types and their inherent properties make it difficult to optimize the benefits and minimize the risks from potentially toxic elements often present in recycled materials. Here we investigated how wheat grain cadmium (Cd) concentration was affected by soil amendments, namely human urine and biogas digestate compared to traditional farm manures and mineral fertilizers. We show that Cl{sup −} inadvertently added to soils with e.g. urine or biogas digestate strongly increased crop Cd concentrations, largely by mobilizing inherent soil Cd. This resulted in wheat grain Cd levels that could result in exceeding recommended WHO limits for dietary intake. This was evident even in soils with low inherent Cd content and when Cd inputs were low. The future of a circular economy that helps to underpin global food security needs to ensure that the effects of applying complex materials to different types of agricultural land are fully understood and do not jeopardize food safety. Modified from Wivstad et al. (2009) - Highlights: • High-Cl by-products used as soil amendments mobilize soil Cd. • Wheat grain Cd levels were found that could result in exceeding dietary intake limits. • Quality and risk assessment of by-products should include Cl effects.

  11. Sorption of Tannin and Related Phenolic Compounds and Effects on Extraction of Soluble-N in Soil Amended with Several Carbon Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier M. Gonzalez

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Some tannins sorb to soil and reduce soluble-N. However, we know little about how they interact with organic amendments in soil. Soil (0–5 cm from plots, which were amended annually with various carbon substances, was treated with water (control or solutions containing tannins or related phenolic subunits. Treatments included a proanthocyanidin, catechin, tannic acid, β-1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl-D-glucose (PGG, gallic acid, and methyl gallate. We applied solutions of each of these materials to soil and measured soluble-C and -N in supernatants after application and following extraction with hot water (16 h, 80 °C. Sorption was low for non-tannin phenolics, methyl gallate, gallic acid, and catechin, and unaffected by amendment. Sorption of tannins, proanthocyanidin, tannic acid, and PGG, was higher and greater in plots amended with biosolids or manure. Extraction of soluble-N was not affected by amendment or by catechin, proanthocyanidin, or methyl gallate, but was reduced with PGG, tannic acid and gallic acid. Soil cation exchange capacity increased following treatment with PGG but decreased with gallic acid, irrespective of amendment. Tannins entering soil may thus influence soil organic matter dynamics and nutrient cycling but their impact may be influenced by the composition of soil organic matter.

  12. Assessing the influence of compost and biochar amendments on the mobility and toxicity of metals and arsenic in a naturally contaminated mine soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beesley, Luke; Inneh, Onyeka S; Norton, Gareth J; Moreno-Jimenez, Eduardo; Pardo, Tania; Clemente, Rafael; Dawson, Julian J C

    2014-03-01

    Amending contaminated soils with organic wastes can influence trace element mobility and toxicity. Soluble concentrations of metals and arsenic were measured in pore water and aqueous soil extracts following the amendment of a heavily contaminated mine soil with compost and biochar (10% v:v) in a pot experiment. Speciation modelling and toxicity assays (Vibrio fischeri luminescence inhibition and Lolium perenne germination) were performed to discriminate mechanisms controlling metal mobility and assess toxicity risk thereafter. Biochar reduced free metal concentrations furthest but dissolved organic carbon primarily controlled metal mobility after compost amendment. Individually, both amendments induced considerable solubilisation of arsenic to pore water (>2500 μg l(-1)) related to pH and soluble phosphate but combining amendments most effectively reduced toxicity due to simultaneous reductions in extractable metals and increases in soluble nutrients (P). Thus the measure-monitor-model approach taken determined that combining the amendments was most effective at mitigating attendant toxicity risk. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Utilization of maize cob biochar and rice husk charcoal as soil amendments for improving acid soil fertility and productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurhidayati

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The decline in soil fertility in agricultural land is a major problem that causes a decrease in the production of food crops. One of the causes of the decline in soil fertility is declining soil pH that caused the decline in the availability of nutrients in the soil. This study aimed to assess the influence of alternative liming materials derived from maize cob biochar and rice husk charcoal compared to conventional lime to improve soil pH, soil nutrient availability and maize production. The experiment used a factorial complete randomized design which consisting of two factors. The first factor is the type of soil amendment which consists of three levels (calcite lime, rice husk charcoal and cob maize biochar. The second factor is the application rates of the soil amendment consisted of three levels (3, 6 and 9 t/ha and one control treatment (without soil amendment. The results of this study showed that the application of various soil amendment increased soil pH, which the pH increase of the lime application was relatively more stable over time compared to biochar and husk charcoal. The average of the soil pH increased for each soil amendment by 23% (lime, 20% (rice husk charcoal and 23% (biochar as compared with control. The increase in soil pH can increase the availability of soil N, P and K. The greatest influence of soil pH on nutrient availability was shown by the relationship between soil pH and K nutrient availability with R2 = 0.712, while for the N by R2 = 0.462 and for the P by R2 = 0.245. The relationship between the availability of N and maize yield showed a linear equation. While the relationship between the availability of P and K with the maize yield showed a quadratic equation. The highest maize yield was found in the application of biochar and rice husk charcoal with a dose of 6-9 t/ha. The results of this study suggested that biochar and husk charcoal could be used as an alternative liming material in improving acid soil

  14. Bentonite-amended soils special study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-10-01

    This report presents the results of a two-phased special study to evaluate the viability of soil amended with a high percentage of bentonite as an infiltration barrier in the cover of Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal cells. Phase I of the study was initiated in order to examine the feasibility of using bentonite-amended soils as a cover component on sideslopes and topslopes. The Phase I objectives were to test a variety of materials to determine if low hydraulic conductivities were achievable in materials exhibiting sufficient strength and to select suitable materials for further testing. Phase II objectives were to (1) optimize designs -- test materials with various percentages of bentonite added; (2) provide design recommendations; (3) address constructibility concerns; and (4) evaluate long-term performance with respect to desiccation effects on the amended materials

  15. Frameworks for amending reservoir water management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mower, Ethan; Miranda, Leandro E.

    2013-01-01

    Managing water storage and withdrawals in many reservoirs requires establishing seasonal targets for water levels (i.e., rule curves) that are influenced by regional precipitation and diverse water demands. Rule curves are established as an attempt to balance various water needs such as flood control, irrigation, and environmental benefits such as fish and wildlife management. The processes and challenges associated with amending rule curves to balance multiuse needs are complicated and mostly unfamiliar to non-US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) natural resource managers and to the public. To inform natural resource managers and the public we describe the policies and process involved in amending rule curves in USACE reservoirs, including 3 frameworks: a general investigation, a continuing authority program, and the water control plan. Our review suggests that water management in reservoirs can be amended, but generally a multitude of constraints and competing demands must be addressed before such a change can be realized.

  16. Music acupuncture stimulation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brătilă, F; Moldovan, C

    2007-01-01

    Harmonic Medicine is the model using the theory that the body rhythms synchronize to an outer rhythm applied for therapeutic purpose, can restores the energy balance in acupuncture channels and organs and the condition of well-being. The purpose of this scientific work was to demonstrate the role played by harmonic sounds in the stimulation of the Lung (LU) Meridian (Shoutaiyin Feijing) and of the Kidney (KI) Meridian (Zushaoyin Shenjing). It was used an original method that included: measurement and electronic sound stimulation of the Meridian Entry Point, measurement of Meridian Exit Point, computer data processing, bio feed-back adjustment of the music stimulation parameters. After data processing, it was found that the sound stimulation of the Lung Meridian Frequency is optimal between 122 Hz and 128 Hz, with an average of 124 Hz (87% of the subjects) and for Kidney Meridian from 118 Hz to 121 Hz, with an average of 120 Hz (67% of the subjects). The acupuncture stimulation was more intense for female subjects (> 7%) than for the male ones. We preliminarily consider that an informational resonance phenomenon can be developed between the acupuncture music stimulation frequency and the cellular dipole frequency, being a really "resonant frequency signature" of an acupoint. The harmonic generation and the electronic excitation or low-excitation status of an acupuncture point may be considered as a resonance mechanism. By this kind of acupunctural stimulation, a symphony may act and play a healer role.

  17. Incorporating hydrologic variability into nutrient spiraling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Martin W.

    2005-09-01

    Nutrient spiraling describes the path of a nutrient molecule within a stream ecosystem, combining the biochemical cycling processes with the downstream driving force of stream discharge. To date, nutrient spiraling approaches have been hampered by their inability to deal with fluctuating flows, as most studies have characterized nutrient retention within only a small range of discharges near base flow. Here hydrologic variability is incorporated into nutrient spiraling theory by drawing on the fluvial geomorphic concept of effective discharge. The effective discharge for nutrient retention is proposed to be that discharge which, over long periods of time, is responsible for the greatest portion of nutrient retention. A developed analytical model predicts that the effective discharge for nutrient retention will equal the modal discharge for small streams or those with little discharge variability. As modal discharge increases or discharge variability increases, the effective discharge becomes increasingly less than the modal discharge. In addition to the effective discharge, a new metric is proposed, the functionally equivalent discharge, which is the single discharge that will reproduce the magnitude of nutrient retention generated by the full hydrologic frequency distribution when all discharge takes place at that rate. The functionally equivalent discharge was found to be the same as the modal discharge at low hydrologic variability, but increasingly different from the modal discharge at large hydrologic variability. The functionally equivalent discharge provides a simple quantitative means of incorporating hydrologic variability into long-term nutrient budgets.

  18. Modelling of the Nutrient Medium for Plants Cultivation in Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nechitailo, Galina S.

    2016-07-01

    MODELLING OF THE NUTRIENT MEDIUM FOR PLANTS CULTIVATION IN SPACEFLIGHT Nechitajlo G.S.*, Rakhmetova A.A.**, Bogoslovskaja O.A.**, Ol'hovskay I.P.**, Glushchenko N.N.** *Emanuel Institute of Biochemical Physics of Russian Academy of Sciences (IBCP RAS) mail: spacemal@mail.ru **V.L. Talrose Institute for Energy Problems of Chemical Physics of Russian Academy of Science (INEPCP RAS) mail: nnglu@ mail.ru The valuable life and fruitful activity of cosmonauts and researchers in conditions of spaceflights and prolonged work at space stations are only possible with creating life area providing fresh air, natural food, comfortable psychological conditions, etc. The solution of that problem under space conditions seems impossible without use of high nano- and biotechnologies for plants growth. A priority should be given not only to choose species of growth plants in space, but also to improve conditions for their growth which includes optimal nourishing components for plants, preparation of nutrient mediums, illumination and temperature. We are deeply convinced that just manipulations with growing conditions for cultivated plants, but not genes changes, is a guarantee of success in the decision of this problem. For improving the method of plants growing on the artificial nutrient medium with balanced content of components, being necessary for growth and development of plants, we added essential metal elements: Fe, Zn, Cu - in an electroneutral state in the form of nanoparticles instead of sulfates or other easily dissolving salts. Nanoparticulated metals are known to have a number of advantages in comparison with salts: metals in an electroneutral form are characterized with the prolonged and multifunctional action, low toxicity per se and appearing to be much below the toxicity of the same metals in the ionic forms, accumulation as a reserve being used in biotic dozes, active distribution in bodies and organs of plants and stimulation of vital processes. A high reactivity

  19. Atomic Energy Amendment Act 1978, No. 31

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    This Act amends certain Sections of the Atomic Energy Act 1953. The principal modifications concern the definitions of atomic energy, prescribed substances, the provision and supply of uranium in relation to the functions of the Atomic Energy Commission, compliance with the agreement with the IAEA on the application of safeguards under the Non-Proliferation Treaty as well as with any agreement with any other international organization or another country. The Act also amends the 1953 Act in respect of the control of prescribed substances and repeals the section concerning jurisdiction of courts. (NEA) [fr

  20. Stimulation of microbial nitrogen cycling in aquatic ecosystems by benthic macrofauna: mechanisms and environmental implications

    OpenAIRE

    P. Stief

    2013-01-01

    Invertebrate animals that live at the bottom of aquatic ecosystems (i.e., benthic macrofauna) are important mediators between nutrients in the water column and microbes in the benthos. The presence of benthic macrofauna stimulates microbial nutrient dynamics through different types of animal–microbe interactions, which potentially affect the trophic status of aquatic ecosystems. This review contrasts three types of animal–microbe interactions in the benthos of aquatic ecosystems: (i) e...

  1. 75 FR 77745 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Technical Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-13

    ... purposes of updating. List of Subjects in 48 CFR Parts 3, 5, 7, and 10 Government procurement. Dated... [Amended] 0 2. Amend section 3.104-1 by removing from the definition ``Federal agency procurement,'' in the...

  2. AFSC/REFM: Amendment 80 Economic Data Report Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Annual series of economic data collected for years 2008 and forward for the Amendment 80 Economic Data Report (EDR). Reporting is required of holders of Amendment 80...

  3. Soil fertility status and nutrients provided to spring barley (Hordeum distichon L. by pig slurry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melisa Gómez-Garrido

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Nutrient recycling using pig slurry is a common agricultural practice to manage the ever-increasing amounts of wastes from the pig industry. This study was conducted in the southeast of Spain to quantify the enrichments in major (N, P, K, Mg and minor (Zn, Fe, Cu, and Mn nutrients in soils amended with D1-170 kg N ha-1 (European Union legislated dose or D2-340 kg N ha-1, and understand the influence of pig slurry on yield and nutrient uptake in two crop seasons of spring barley (Hordeum distichon L. Compared to control, D2 increased NO3--N by 11.4X to 109 mg kg-1, Olsen-P by 6.9X to 423 mg kg-1, exchange K (2.5X to 1.6 cmol+ kg-1, Mg (1.7X to 1.8 cmol+ kg-1, diethylene-triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA-Zn (94X to 18.2 mg kg-1, and Fe (2X to 11.3 mg kg-1. Available NO3--N, Olsen-P, and DTPA-Zn have the best correlations with crop yield and nutrient uptake. These results indicate that the assessment of soil fertility status at 1-mo after pig slurry addition provides a good indicator for potential yield and uptake of barley. However, it is suggested that leachates should be monitored to effectively manage potential releases of nitrate and phosphate into the environment.

  4. Nematodes enhance plant growth and nutrient uptake under C and N-rich conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebremikael, Mesfin T.; Steel, Hanne; Buchan, David; Bert, Wim; de Neve, Stefaan

    2016-09-01

    The role of soil fauna in crucial ecosystem services such as nutrient cycling remains poorly quantified, mainly because of the overly reductionistic approach adopted in most experimental studies. Given that increasing nitrogen inputs in various ecosystems influence the structure and functioning of soil microbes and the activity of fauna, we aimed to quantify the role of the entire soil nematode community in nutrient mineralization in an experimental set-up emulating nutrient-rich field conditions and accounting for crucial interactions amongst the soil microbial communities and plants. To this end, we reconstructed a complex soil foodweb in mesocosms that comprised largely undisturbed native microflora and the entire nematode community added into defaunated soil, planted with Lolium perenne as a model plant, and amended with fresh grass-clover residues. We determined N and P availability and plant uptake, plant biomass and abundance and structure of the microbial and nematode communities during a three-month incubation. The presence of nematodes significantly increased plant biomass production (+9%), net N (+25%) and net P (+23%) availability compared to their absence, demonstrating that nematodes link below- and above-ground processes, primarily through increasing nutrient availability. The experimental set-up presented allows to realistically quantify the crucial ecosystem services provided by the soil biota.

  5. Nutrient co-limitation at the boundary of an oceanic gyre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, Thomas J.; Achterberg, Eric P.; Rapp, Insa; Engel, Anja; Bertrand, Erin M.; Tagliabue, Alessandro; Moore, C. Mark

    2017-11-01

    Nutrient limitation of oceanic primary production exerts a fundamental control on marine food webs and the flux of carbon into the deep ocean. The extensive boundaries of the oligotrophic sub-tropical gyres collectively define the most extreme transition in ocean productivity, but little is known about nutrient limitation in these zones. Here we present the results of full-factorial nutrient amendment experiments conducted at the eastern boundary of the South Atlantic gyre. We find extensive regions in which the addition of nitrogen or iron individually resulted in no significant phytoplankton growth over 48 hours. However, the addition of both nitrogen and iron increased concentrations of chlorophyll a by up to approximately 40-fold, led to diatom proliferation, and reduced community diversity. Once nitrogen-iron co-limitation had been alleviated, the addition of cobalt or cobalt-containing vitamin B12 could further enhance chlorophyll a yields by up to threefold. Our results suggest that nitrogen-iron co-limitation is pervasive in the ocean, with other micronutrients also approaching co-deficiency. Such multi-nutrient limitations potentially increase phytoplankton community diversity.

  6. Fuel Receiving and Storage Station. License application, amendment 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-02-01

    Amendment No. 7 to Allied-General Nuclear Services application for licensing of the Fuel Receiving and Storage Station consists of revised pages for: Amendment No. 7 to AG-L 105, ''Technical Description in Support of Application for FRSS Operation''; Amendment No. 1 to AG-L 105A, ''Early Operation of the Service Concentrator''; and Amendment No. 2 to AG-L 110, ''FRSS Summary Preoperational Report.''

  7. Nutrient dynamics and tree growth of silvopastoral systems: impact of poultry litter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazier, Michael A; Gaston, Lewis A; Clason, Terry R; Farrish, Kenneth W; Oswald, Brian P; Evans, Hayden A

    2008-01-01

    Fertilizing pastures with poultry litter has led to an increased incidence of nutrient-saturated soils, particularly on highly fertilized, well drained soils. Applying litter to silvopastures, in which loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) and bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum) production are integrated, may be an ecologically desirable alternative for upland soils of the southeastern USA. Integrating subterranean clover (Trifolium subterraneum) into silvopastures may enhance nutrient retention potential. This study evaluated soil nutrient dynamics, loblolly pine nutrient composition, and loblolly pine growth of an annually fertilized silvopasture on a well drained soil in response to fertilizer type, litter application rate, and subterranean clover. Three fertilizer treatments were applied annually for 4 yr: (i) 5 Mg litter ha(-1) (5LIT), (ii) 10 Mg litter ha(-1) (10LIT), and (iii) an inorganic N, P, K pasture blend (INO). Litter stimulated loblolly pine growth, and neither litter treatment produced soil test P concentrations above runoff potential threshold ranges. However, both litter treatments led to accumulation of several nutrients (notably P) in upper soil horizons relative to INO and unfertilized control treatments. The 10LIT treatment may have increased N and P leaching potential. Subterranean clover kept more P sequestered in the upper soil horizon and conferred some growth benefits to loblolly pine. Thus, although these silvopasture systems had a relatively high capacity for nutrient use and retention at this site, litter should be applied less frequently than in this study to reduce environmental risks.

  8. A role for N-acetylglucosamine as a nutrient sensor and mediator of insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, L; Vosseller, K; Hart, G W

    2003-02-01

    The ability to regulate energy balance at both the cellular and whole body level is an essential process of life. As western society has shifted to a higher caloric diet and more sedentary lifestyle, the incidence of type 2 diabetes (non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus) has increased to epidemic proportions. Thus, type 2 diabetes has been described as a disease of 'chronic overnutrition'. There are abundant data to support the relationship between nutrient availability and insulin action. However, there have been multiple hypotheses and debates as to the mechanism by which nutrient availability modulates insulin signaling and how excess nutrients lead to insulin resistance. One well-established pathway for nutrient sensing is the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway (HSP), which produces the acetylated aminosugar nucleotide uridine 5'-diphospho-N-acetylglucosamine (UDP-Glc-NAc) as its end product. Since UDP-GlcNAc is the donor substrate for modification of nucleocytoplasmic proteins at serine and threonine residues with N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc), the possibility of this posttranslational modification serving as the nutrient sensor has been proposed. We have recently directly tested this model in adipocytes by examining the effect of elevated levels of O-GlcNAc on insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. In this review, we summarize the existing work that implicates the HSP and O-GlcNAc modification as nutrient sensors and regulators of insulin signaling.

  9. Successional dynamics drive tropical forest nutrient limitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, C.; Hedin, L. O. O.

    2017-12-01

    It is increasingly recognized that nutrients such as N and P may significantly constrain the land carbon sink. However, we currently lack a complete understanding of these nutrient cycles in forest ecosystems and how to incorporate them into Earth System Models. We have developed a framework of dynamic forest nutrient limitation, focusing on the role of secondary forest succession and canopy gap disturbances as bottlenecks of high plant nutrient demand and limitation. We used succession biomass data to parameterize a simple ecosystem model and examined the dynamics of nutrient limitation throughout tropical secondary forest succession. Due to the patterns of biomass recovery in secondary tropical forests, we found high nutrient demand from rapid biomass accumulation in the earliest years of succession. Depending on previous land use scenarios, soil nutrient availability may also be low in this time period. Coupled together, this is evidence that there may be high biomass nutrient limitation early in succession, which is partially met by abundant symbiotic nitrogen fixation from certain tree species. We predict a switch from nitrogen limitation in early succession to one of three conditions: (i) phosphorus only, (ii) phosphorus plus nitrogen, or (iii) phosphorus, nitrogen, plus light co-limitation. We will discuss the mechanisms that govern the exact trajectory of limitation as forests build biomass. In addition, we used our model to explore scenarios of tropical secondary forest impermanence and the impacts of these dynamics on ecosystem nutrient limitation. We found that secondary forest impermanence exacerbates nutrient limitation and the need for nitrogen fixation early in succession. Together, these results indicate that biomass recovery dynamics early in succession as well as their connection to nutrient demand and limitation are fundamental for understanding and modeling nutrient limitation of the tropical forest carbon sink.

  10. Optimizing nutrient management for farm systems

    OpenAIRE

    Goulding, Keith; Jarvis, Steve; Whitmore, Andy

    2007-01-01

    Increasing the inputs of nutrients has played a major role in increasing the supply of food to a continually growing world population. However, focusing attention on the most important nutrients, such as nitrogen (N), has in some cases led to nutrient imbalances, some excess applications especially of N, inefficient use and large losses to the environment with impacts on air and water quality, biodiversity and human health. In contrast, food exports from the developing to the developed world ...

  11. Methane productivity and nutrient recovery from manure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, H.B.

    2003-07-01

    The efficient recovery of energy and improvements in the handling of nutrients from manure have attracted increased research focus during recent decades. Anaerobic digestion is a key process in any strategy for the recovery of energy, while slurry separation is an important component in an improved nutrient-handling strategy. This thesis is divided into two parts: the first deals mainly with nutrient recovery strategies and the second examines biological degradation processes, including controlled anaerobic digestion. (au)

  12. Improvement of soil characteristics and growth of Dorycnium pentaphyllum by amendment with agrowastes and inoculation with AM fungi and/or the yeast Yarowia lipolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, A; Vassileva, M; Caravaca, F; Roldán, A; Azcón, R

    2004-08-01

    The effectiveness of two microbiologically treated agrowastes [dry olive cake (DOC) and/or sugar beet (SB)] on plant growth, soil enzymatic activities and other soil characteristics was determined in a natural soil from a desertified area. Dorycnium pentaphyllum, a legume plant adapted to stress situations, was the test plant to evaluate the effect of inoculation of native arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and/or Yarowia lipolytica (a dry soil adapted yeast) on amended and non-amended soils. Plant growth and nutrition, symbiotic developments and soil enzymatic activities were limited in non-amended soil where microbial inoculations did not improve plant development. The lack of nodules formation and AM colonization can explain the limited plant growth in this natural soil. The effectiveness and performance of inocula applied was only evident in amended soils. AM colonization and spores number in natural soil were increased by amendments and the inoculation with Y. lipolytica promoted this value. The effect of the inoculations on plant N-acquisition was only important in AM-inoculated plants growing in SB medium. Enzymatic activities as urease and protease activities were particularly increased in DOC amended soil meanwhile dehydrogenase activity was greatest in treatments inoculated with Y. lipolytica in SB added soil. The biological activities in rhizosphere of agrowaste amended soil, used as indices of changes in soil properties and fertility, were affected not only by the nature of amendments but also by the inoculant applied. All these results show that the lignocellulosic agrowastes treated with a selected microorganism and its further interaction with beneficial microbial groups (native AM fungi and/or Y. lipolytica) is a useful tool to modify soil physico-chemical, biological and fertility properties that enhance the plant performance probably by making nutrients more available to plants.

  13. Nutrients Can Enhance the Abundance and Expression of Alkane Hydroxylase CYP153 Gene in the Rhizosphere of Ryegrass Planted in Hydrocarbon-Polluted Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Muhammad; Afzal, Muhammad; Amin, Imran; Iqbal, Samina; Khan, Qaiser M.

    2014-01-01

    Plant-bacteria partnership is a promising strategy for the remediation of soil and water polluted with hydrocarbons. However, the limitation of major nutrients (N, P and K) in soil affects the survival and metabolic activity of plant associated bacteria. The objective of this study was to explore the effects of nutrients on survival and metabolic activity of an alkane degrading rhizo-bacterium. Annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) was grown in diesel-contaminated soil and inoculated with an alkane degrading bacterium, Pantoea sp. strain BTRH79, in greenhouse experiments. Two levels of nutrients were applied and plant growth, hydrocarbon removal, and gene abundance and expression were determined after 100 days of sowing of ryegrass. Results obtained from these experiments showed that the bacterial inoculation improved plant growth and hydrocarbon degradation and these were further enhanced by nutrients application. Maximum plant biomass production and hydrocarbon mineralization was observed by the combined use of inoculum and higher level of nutrients. The presence of nutrients in soil enhanced the colonization and metabolic activity of the inoculated bacterium in the rhizosphere. The abundance and expression of CYP153 gene in the rhizosphere of ryegrass was found to be directly associated with the level of applied nutrients. Enhanced hydrocarbon degradation was associated with the population of the inoculum bacterium, the abundance and expression of CYP153 gene in the rhizosphere of ryegrass. It is thus concluded that the combination between vegetation, inoculation with pollutant-degrading bacteria and nutrients amendment was an efficient approach to reduce hydrocarbon contamination. PMID:25360680

  14. Strain Identity of the Ectomycorrhizal Fungus Laccaria bicolor Is More Important than Richness in Regulating Plant and Fungal Performance under Nutrient Rich Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Hazard

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Effects of biodiversity on productivity are more likely to be expressed when there is greater potential for niche complementarity. In soil, chemically complex pools of nutrient resources should provide more opportunities for niche complementarity than chemically simple pools. Ectomycorrhizal (ECM fungal genotypes can exhibit substantial variation in nutrient acquisition traits and are key components of soil biodiversity. Here, we tested the hypothesis that increasing the chemical complexity and forms of soil nutrients would enhance the effects of intraspecific ECM diversity on host plant and fungal productivity. In pure culture, we found substantial variation in growth of strains of the ECM fungus Laccaria bicolor on a range of inorganic and organic forms of nutrients. Subsequent experiments examined the effects of intraspecific identity and richness using Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris seedlings colonized with different strains of L. bicolor growing on substrates supplemented with either inorganic or organic forms of nitrogen and phosphorus. Intraspecific identity effects on plant productivity were only found under the inorganic nutrient amendment, whereas intraspecific identity affected fungal productivity to a similar extent under both nutrient treatments. Overall, there were no significant effects of intraspecific richness on plant and fungal productivity. Our findings suggest soil nutrient composition does not interact strongly with ECM intraspecific richness, at least under experimental conditions where mineral nutrients were not limiting. Under these conditions, intraspecific identity of ECM fungi becomes more important than richness in modulating plant and fungal performance.

  15. Numerical simulations of river discharges, nutrient flux and nutrient dispersal in Jakarta Bay, Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wulp, Simon A. van der; Damar, Ario; Ladwig, Norbert; Hesse, Karl-J.

    2016-01-01

    The present application of numerical modelling techniques provides an overview of river discharges, nutrient flux and nutrient dispersal in Jakarta Bay. A hydrological model simulated river discharges with a total of 90 to 377 m 3 s −1 entering Jakarta Bay. Daily total nitrogen and total phosphorus loads ranged from 40 to 174 tons and 14 to 60 tons, respectively. Flow model results indicate that nutrient gradients are subject to turbulent mixing by tides and advective transport through circulation driven by wind, barotropic and baroclinic pressure gradients. The bulk of nutrient loads originate from the Citarum and Cisadane rivers flowing through predominantly rural areas. Despite lower nutrient loads, river discharges from the urban area of Jakarta exhibit the highest impact of nutrient concentrations in the near shore area of Jakarta Bay and show that nutrient concentrations were not only regulated by nutrient loads but were strongly regulated by initial river concentrations and local flow characteristics. - Highlights: • Full overview of river discharges, nutrient flux and nutrient levels in Jakarta Bay • Important overview of nutrient flux from individual rivers • Simulations identify the principal drivers of water circulation and nutrient gradient. • Nutrient dispersion model includes the local effects of the Java Sea current system.

  16. Influence of soil amendments made from digestate on soil physics and the growth of spring wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Nils; Knoop, Christine; Raab, Thomas; Krümmelbein, Julia

    2016-04-01

    Every year 13 million tons of organic wastes accumulate in Germany. These wastes are a potential alternative for the production of energy in biogas plants, especially because the financial subventions for the cultivation of renewable resources for energy production were omitted in 2014. The production of energy from biomass and organic wastes in biogas plants results in the accumulation of digestate and therefore causes the need for a sustainable strategy of the utilization of these residues. Within the scope of the BMBF-funded project 'VeNGA - Investigations for recovery and nutrient use as well as soil and plant-related effects of digestate from waste fermentation' the application of processed digestate as soil amendments is examined. Therefore we tested four different mechanical treatment processes (rolled pellets, pressed pellets, shredded compost and sieved compost) to produce soil amendments from digestate with regard to their impact on soil physics, soil chemistry and the interactions between plants and soil. Pot experiments with soil amendments were performed in the greenhouse experiment with spring wheat and in field trials with millet, mustard and forage rye. After the first year of the experiment, preliminary results indicate a positive effect of the sieved compost and the rolled pellets on biomass yield of spring wheat as compared to the other variations. First results from the Investigation on soil physics show that rolled pellets have a positive effect on the soil properties by influencing size and distribution of pores resulting in an increased water holding capacity. Further ongoing enhancements of the physical and chemical properties of the soil amendments indicate promising results regarding the ecological effects by increased root growth of spring wheat.

  17. Biochar amendment changes jasmonic acid levels in two rice varieties and alters their resistance to herbivory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waqas, Muhammad; Shahzad, Raheem; Hamayun, Muhammad; Asaf, Sajjad; Khan, Abdul Latif; Kang, Sang-Mo; Yun, Sopheap; Kim, Kyung-Min; Lee, In-Jung

    2018-01-01

    Biochar addition to soil not only sequesters carbon for the long-term but enhances agricultural productivity. Several well-known benefits arise from biochar amendment, including constant provision of nutrients, increased soil moisture retention, decreased soil bulk density, and sometimes the induction of systemic resistance against foliar and soil borne plant pathogens. However, no research has investigated the potential of biochar to increase resistance against herbivory. The white-backed plant hopper (WBPH) (Sogatella furcifera Horváth) is a serious agricultural pest that targets rice (Oryza sativa L.), a staple crop that feeds half of the world's human population. Therefore, we investigated the (1) optimization of biochar amendment levels for two rice varieties ('Cheongcheong' and 'Nagdong') and (2) subsequent effects of different biochar amendments on resistance and susceptibility of these two varieties to WBPH infestation. Initial screening results for the optimization level revealed that the application of biochar 10% (w/w) to the rooting media significantly improved plant physiological characteristics of both rice varieties. However, levels of biochar amendment, mainly 1, 2, 3, and 20%, resulted in negative effects on plant growth characteristics. Cheongcheong and Nagdong rice plants grown with the optimum biochar level showed contrasting reactions to WBPH infestation. Specifically, biochar application significantly increased plant growth characteristics of Nagdong when exposed to WBPH infestation and significantly decreased these characteristics in Cheongcheong. The amount of WBPH-induced damage to plants was significantly lower and higher in Nagdong and Cheongcheong, respectively, compared to that in the controls. Higher levels of jasmonic acid caused by the biochar priming effect could have accumulated in response to WBPH infestation, resulting in a maladaptive response to stress, negatively affecting growth and resistance to WBPH in Cheongcheong. This

  18. 76 FR 2799 - Amendment of Jet Route J-93; CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-18

    ...; Airspace Docket No. 10-AWP-4] RIN 2120-AA66 Amendment of Jet Route J-93; CA AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action amends Jet Route J-93 in California between...) to amend J-93, (75 FR 66344). Interested parties were invited to participate in this rulemaking...

  19. 40 CFR 265.54 - Amendment of contingency plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amendment of contingency plan. 265.54... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Contingency Plan and Emergency Procedures § 265.54 Amendment of contingency plan. The contingency plan must be reviewed, and immediately amended, if necessary, whenever: (a) Applicable regulations...

  20. 77 FR 66067 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Boone, IA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    ...-1432; Airspace Docket No. 11-ACE-25] Amendment of Class E Airspace; Boone, IA AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action amends Class E airspace at Boone, IA... proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to amend Class E airspace for the Boone, IA, area, creating additional...

  1. 77 FR 66069 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Perry, IA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    ...-1435; Airspace Docket No. 11-ACE-28] Amendment of Class E Airspace; Perry, IA AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action amends Class E airspace at Perry, IA... proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to amend Class E airspace for the Perry, IA, area, creating additional...

  2. 30 CFR 938.16 - Required regulatory program amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... consistent with section 510(d) of SMCRA by requiring that the restoration of prime farmland soil productivity... of the reclamation fee, as amended in § 86.17(e), will assure that the Surface Mining Conservation... current market value. (n) By November 1, 1991, Pennsylvania shall amend § 86.158(b)(2) or otherwise amend...

  3. Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant. License application, amendment 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    Amendment No. 10 provides the applicant's responses to questions raised by the AEC in letters dated November 6 and December 5, 1974. Amendment No. 3, dated February 1975, to the BNFP Separations Facility Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) is included. The amendment consists of revision pages for volumes 1 through 5 of the FSAR along with a deletion and insertion guide. (U.S.)

  4. 31 CFR 355.15 - Can these regulations be amended?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Can these regulations be amended? 355.15 Section 355.15 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued... CHECKS § 355.15 Can these regulations be amended? We may, at any time, supplement, amend, or revise the...

  5. 32 CFR 635.13 - Amendment of records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Amendment of records. 635.13 Section 635.13 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS LAW ENFORCEMENT REPORTING Release of Information § 635.13 Amendment of records. (a) Policy. An amendment of records is...

  6. 75 FR 39323 - Amendment to the Biometric Visa Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice: 7047] Amendment to the Biometric Visa Program AGENCY: Department of State. ACTION: Notice of Amendment to the Biometric Visa Program. This public notice announces an amendment to the Biometric Visa Program. Section 303 of the Enhanced Border Security and Visa...

  7. 14 CFR 91.1017 - Amending program manager's management specifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Amending program manager's management... Ownership Operations Program Management § 91.1017 Amending program manager's management specifications. (a... specifications; or (2) The program manager applies for the amendment of any management specifications, and the...

  8. Integrated biovalorization of wine and olive mill by-products to produce enzymes of industrial interest and soil amendments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reina, R.; Ullrich, R.; García-Romera, I.; Liers, C.; Aranda, E.

    2016-11-01

    An integral and affordable strategy for the simultaneous production of lignin-modifying and carbohydrate active enzymes and organic amendment, with the aid of a saprobe fungus was developed by using olive oil and wine extraction by-products. The polyporal fungus Trametes versicolor was cultivated in soy or barley media supplemented with dry olive mill residue (DOR) as well as with grape pomace and stalks (GPS) in solid state fermentation (SSF). This strategy led to a 4-fold increase in the activity of laccase, the principal enzyme produced by SFF, in DOR-soy media as compared to controls. T. versicolor managed to secrete lignin-modifying enzymes in GPS, although no stimulative effect was observed. GPS-barley media turned out to be the appropriate medium to elicit most of the carbohydrate active enzymes. The reuse of exhausted solid by-products as amendments after fermentation was also investigated. The water soluble compound polymerization profile of fermented residues was found to correlate with the effect of phytotoxic depletion. The incubation of DOR and GPS with T. versicolor not only reduced its phytotoxicity but also stimulated the plant growth. This study provides a basis for understanding the stimulation and repression of two groups of enzymes of industrial interest in the presence of different carbon and nitrogen sources from by-products, possible enzyme recovery and the final reuse as soil amendments. (Author)

  9. Effect of endophytic pseudomonas aeruinosa and trichoderma harzianum on soil-borne diseases, mycorrhizae and induction of systemic resistance in okra grown in soil amended with vernonia anthelmintica (L.) seeds powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafique, H. A.; Noreen, R.; Haque, S. E. U.; Sultana, V.; Ara, J.

    2015-01-01

    Biostimulants are used in agricultural practices for plant growth improvement. These fertilizers improve microbial activity and cause a negative impact on soil-borne pathogens. In recent years, stimulating plant natural defense is considered as most promising alternative strategy for crop productivity. The present study was carried out to examine the effect of endophytic Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Trichoderma harzianum in soil amendment with Vernonia anthelmintica seeds powder, on root rotting fungi, plant growth, mycorrhizal population around roots, phosphorous uptake and stimulation of plant defense markers like poylphenol and antioxidant status in okra. Combine application of Vernonia with Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Trichoderma harzianum significantly (p<0.05) suppressed Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium oxysporum with complete reduction of Macrophomina phaseolina and Fusarium solani. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and T. harzianum alone or in Vernonia amended soil significantly reduced nematode galls on roots. Organic amendment also improved plant resistance against root diseases as evident from enhanced DPPH radical scavenging capacity and polyphenol content in treated plants as compare to control. VA Mycorrhizal spores were found significantly (p<0.05) higher in number around roots received Pseudomonas aeruginosa or T. harzianum alone or in Vernonia amended soil. Whereas, higher concentrations of phosphorus in okra shoots were found in plants received biocontrol agents in amended soil. Mixed application of PGPR and T. harzianum in amended soil produced tallest plants than other treatments. Soil amendment with Vernonia seed powder alone or with biocontrol agents offer a non-chemical means of plant disease control. (author)

  10. Amending America: Proposed Amendments to the United States Constitution, 1787 to 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Archives and Records Administration — This dataset provides information about more than 11,000 proposed Constitutional amendments introduced in the United States Congress from 1787 to 2014. This dataset...

  11. 75 FR 67210 - IFR Altitudes; Miscellaneous Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-02

    ..., ensure navigation aid coverage that is adequate for safe flight operations and free of frequency... Federal Airway V8 is Amended To Read in Part GRAND JUNCTION, CO VOR/DME....... *SQUAT, CO FIX **10500 *11700--MRA *11700--MCA SQUAT, CO FIX, NE BND. **9600--MOCA *SQUAT, CO FIX RIFLE, CO VOR/DME....... 13200...

  12. Untangling the Strands of the Fourteenth Amendment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupu, Ira C.

    1979-01-01

    Explores trends in the Court's interpretation of the libertarian and egalitarian dimensions of the Fourteenth Amendment and offers a theory of the two strands. Available from Michigan Law Review, Hutchins Hall, Ann Arbor, MI 48109; single issues $3.50. (Author/IRT)

  13. 29 CFR 102.17 - Amendment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... such complaint may be amended upon such terms as may be deemed just, prior to the hearing, by the... hearing; and after the case has been transferred to the Board pursuant to § 102.45, at any time prior to... to Labor NATIONAL LABOR RELATIONS BOARD RULES AND REGULATIONS, SERIES 8 Procedure Under Section 10 (a...

  14. AECB Cost Recovery Fees Regulations, amendment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The amendments to the AECB Cost Recovery Fees Regulations have been made with a view to simplifying the registration procedure for obtaining such a certificate or approval under the above Transport Regulations. In effect there will no longer be a need for a separate fee system for registered users of certified package designs. (NEA)

  15. The Nineteenth Amendment: Reform or Revolution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocco, Margaret Smith; Brooks, Della Barr

    1995-01-01

    Maintains that, although many suffrage supporters anticipated a new political age after passage of the 19th Amendment, women have begun to realize their electoral potential only in recent years. Describes the role of women in politics and political opinion from the 1920s to the present. (CFR)

  16. Vertical Integration, Monopoly, and the First Amendment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Timothy J.

    This paper addresses the relationship between the First Amendment, monopoly of transmission media, and vertical integration of transmission and content provision. A survey of some of the incentives a profit-maximizing transmission monopolist may have with respect to content is followed by a discussion of how vertical integration affects those…

  17. Organic amendment optimization for treatment of hydrocarbon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sugar cane cachasse was tested as an organic soil amendment at 0, 2, 4 and 9% (dry weight), for the remediation of hydrocarbon contaminated soil (with an average initial concentration of 14,356 mg/Kg), which had been pre-treated by the incorporation of 4% (dry weight) calcium hydroxide according to the ...

  18. AECB Cost Recovery Fees Regulations, amendment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The amendment to the Regulations was published on 24 October 1991 (SOR/91-590,Canada Gazette Part II, Vol.125, No 23). It modifies the list of institutions exempted from paying cost recovery fees (licence fees) to the Atomic Energy Control Board. The exemptions now include educational and health care institutions as well as Departments. (NEA)

  19. Numerical simulations of river discharges, nutrient flux and nutrient dispersal in Jakarta Bay, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Wulp, Simon A; Damar, Ario; Ladwig, Norbert; Hesse, Karl-J

    2016-09-30

    The present application of numerical modelling techniques provides an overview of river discharges, nutrient flux and nutrient dispersal in Jakarta Bay. A hydrological model simulated river discharges with a total of 90 to 377m(3)s(-1) entering Jakarta Bay. Daily total nitrogen and total phosphorus loads ranged from 40 to 174tons and 14 to 60tons, respectively. Flow model results indicate that nutrient gradients are subject to turbulent mixing by tides and advective transport through circulation driven by wind, barotropic and baroclinic pressure gradients. The bulk of nutrient loads originate from the Citarum and Cisadane rivers flowing through predominantly rural areas. Despite lower nutrient loads, river discharges from the urban area of Jakarta exhibit the highest impact of nutrient concentrations in the near shore area of Jakarta Bay and show that nutrient concentrations were not only regulated by nutrient loads but were strongly regulated by initial river concentrations and local flow characteristics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Managing soil nutrients with compost in organic farms of East Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghambashidze, Giorgi

    2013-04-01

    Soil Fertility management in organic farming relies on a long-term integrated approach rather than the more short-term very targeted solutions common in conventional agriculture. Increasing soil organic matter content through the addition of organic amendments has proven to be a valuable practice for maintaining or restoring soil quality. Organic agriculture relies greatly on building soil organic matter with compost typically replacing inorganic fertilizers and animal manure as the fertility source of choice. In Georgia, more and more attention is paid to the development of organic farming, occupying less than 1% of total agricultural land of the country. Due to increased interest towards organic production the question about soil amendments is arising with special focus on organic fertilizers as basic nutrient supply sources under organic management practice. In the frame of current research two different types of compost was prepared and their nutritional value was studied. The one was prepared from organic fraction municipal solid waste and another one using fruit processing residues. In addition to main nutritional properties both composts were tested on heavy metals content, as one of the main quality parameter. The results have shown that concentration of main nutrient is higher in municipal solid waste compost, but it contains also more heavy metals, which is not allowed in organic farming system. Fruit processing residue compost also has lower pH value and is lower in total salt content being is more acceptable for soil in lowlands of East Georgia, mainly characterised by alkaline reaction. .

  1. Biochar derived from corn straw affected availability and distribution of soil nutrients and cotton yield.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofei Tian

    Full Text Available Biochar application as a soil amendment has been proposed as a strategy to improve soil fertility and increase crop yields. However, the effects of successive biochar applications on cotton yields and nutrient distribution in soil are not well documented. A three-year field study was conducted to investigate the effects of successive biochar applications at different rates on cotton yield and on the soil nutrient distribution in the 0-100 cm soil profile. Biochar was applied at 0, 5, 10, and 20 t ha-1 (expressed as Control, BC5, BC10, and BC20, respectively for each cotton season, with identical doses of chemical fertilizers. Biochar enhanced the cotton lint yield by 8.0-15.8%, 9.3-13.9%, and 9.2-21.9% in 2013, 2014, and 2015, respectively, and high levels of biochar application achieved high cotton yields each year. Leaching of soil nitrate was reduced, while the pH values, soil organic carbon, total nitrogen (N, and available K content of the 0-20 cm soil layer were increased in 2014 and 2015. However, the changes in the soil available P content were less substantial. This study suggests that successive biochar amendments have the potential to enhance cotton productivity and soil fertility while reducing nitrate leaching.

  2. Biochar derived from corn straw affected availability and distribution of soil nutrients and cotton yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xiaofei; Zhang, Min; Wan, Yongshan; Xie, Zhihua; Chen, Baocheng; Li, Wenqing

    2018-01-01

    Biochar application as a soil amendment has been proposed as a strategy to improve soil fertility and increase crop yields. However, the effects of successive biochar applications on cotton yields and nutrient distribution in soil are not well documented. A three-year field study was conducted to investigate the effects of successive biochar applications at different rates on cotton yield and on the soil nutrient distribution in the 0–100 cm soil profile. Biochar was applied at 0, 5, 10, and 20 t ha-1 (expressed as Control, BC5, BC10, and BC20, respectively) for each cotton season, with identical doses of chemical fertilizers. Biochar enhanced the cotton lint yield by 8.0–15.8%, 9.3–13.9%, and 9.2–21.9% in 2013, 2014, and 2015, respectively, and high levels of biochar application achieved high cotton yields each year. Leaching of soil nitrate was reduced, while the pH values, soil organic carbon, total nitrogen (N), and available K content of the 0–20 cm soil layer were increased in 2014 and 2015. However, the changes in the soil available P content were less substantial. This study suggests that successive biochar amendments have the potential to enhance cotton productivity and soil fertility while reducing nitrate leaching. PMID:29324750

  3. Biochar derived from corn straw affected availability and distribution of soil nutrients and cotton yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xiaofei; Li, Chengliang; Zhang, Min; Wan, Yongshan; Xie, Zhihua; Chen, Baocheng; Li, Wenqing

    2018-01-01

    Biochar application as a soil amendment has been proposed as a strategy to improve soil fertility and increase crop yields. However, the effects of successive biochar applications on cotton yields and nutrient distribution in soil are not well documented. A three-year field study was conducted to investigate the effects of successive biochar applications at different rates on cotton yield and on the soil nutrient distribution in the 0-100 cm soil profile. Biochar was applied at 0, 5, 10, and 20 t ha-1 (expressed as Control, BC5, BC10, and BC20, respectively) for each cotton season, with identical doses of chemical fertilizers. Biochar enhanced the cotton lint yield by 8.0-15.8%, 9.3-13.9%, and 9.2-21.9% in 2013, 2014, and 2015, respectively, and high levels of biochar application achieved high cotton yields each year. Leaching of soil nitrate was reduced, while the pH values, soil organic carbon, total nitrogen (N), and available K content of the 0-20 cm soil layer were increased in 2014 and 2015. However, the changes in the soil available P content were less substantial. This study suggests that successive biochar amendments have the potential to enhance cotton productivity and soil fertility while reducing nitrate leaching.

  4. Impact of Addition of FGDB as a Soil Amendment on Physical and Chemical Properties of an Alkali Soil and Crop Yield of Maize in Northern China Coastal Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.-L. Yu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effect of Flue gas desulfurization byproduct( FGDB as a soil amendment on growth and yield of maize (Zea mays and to determine the impact of FGDB additions on soil fertility characteristics in alkaline clayey soils, a 2-year field experiment was conducted in Huanghua, in Northern China Coastal Plain. The experiment included five treatments in which the soil was amended with FGDB at 15 cm depth at the rates of 0 t·hm−2, 4.50 t·hm−2, 9.00 t·hm−2, 13.5 t·hm−2, and 18.00 t·hm−2, respectively, before maize was planted. The values of soil pH, exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP, and bulk density (BD of the soil decreased; however, values of electrical conductivity (EC, water holding capacity (WHC, and plant nutrients increased with FGDB application in the soil. Crop plants grow more readily in FGDB amended soils because of improved soil properties. The best ameliorative effect was obtained at the rate of 13.5 t·hm−2. The germination percentage, plant height, and crop yield successively increased in both years. The results indicated FGDB was an effective soil amendment for improving the physicochemical properties and nutrient balance, and enhancing crop germination, growth, and yield, particularly when applied at a suitable application rate.

  5. Effects of biochar, compost and biochar-compost on growth and nutrient status of maize in two Mediterranean soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manolikaki, Ioanna; Diamadopoulos, Evan

    2017-04-01

    During the past years, studies have shown that biochar alone or combined with compost, has the potential to improve soil fertility and maize yield mostly on tropical soils whereas experiments on Mediterranean soils are rare. Therefore, the influence of biochar, compost and mixtures of the two, on maize (Zea mays L.) growth and nutrient status were investigated, in this study. Biochars were produced from 2 feedstocks: grape pomace (GP) and rice husks (RH) pyrolyzed at 300°C. Maize was grown for 30 days in a greenhouse pot trial on two Mediterranean soils amended with biochar or/with compost at application rates of 0% and 2% (w/w) (equivalent to 0 and 16 t ha-1) and N fertilization. Total aboveground dry matter yield of maize was significantly improved relative to the control for all organic amendments, with increases in yield 43-60.8%, in sandy loam soil, while, in loam soil a statistically significant increase of 70.6-81.3% was recorded for all the amendments apart from compost. Some morphological traits, such as aboveground height of plants, shoot diameter and belowground dry matter yield were significantly increased by the organic treatments. Aboveground concentration of P was significantly increased from 1.46 mg g-1 at control to 1.69 mg g-1 at 2% GP biochar in sandy loam soil, whereas GP biochar combined with compost gave an increase of 2.03 mg g-1 compared to control 1.23 mg g-1. K and Mn concentrations of above ground tissues were significantly increased only in sandy loam soil, while Fe in both soils. N concentration of aboveground tissues declined for all the amendments in loam soil and in sandy loam soil apart from compost amendment. Significant positive impacts of amended soils on nutrients uptake were observed in both soils as compared to the control related to the improved dry matter yield of plant. The current study demonstrated that maize production could be greatly improved by biochar and compost because of the nutrients they supply and their

  6. Early root overproduction not triggered by nutrients decisive for competitive success belowground.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco M Padilla

    Full Text Available Theory predicts that plant species win competition for a shared resource by more quickly preempting the resource in hotspots and by depleting resource levels to lower concentrations than its competitors. Competition in natural grasslands largely occurs belowground, but information regarding root interactions is limited, as molecular methods quantifying species abundance belowground have only recently become available.In monoculture, the grass Festuca rubra had higher root densities and a faster rate of soil nitrate depletion than Plantago lanceolata, projecting the first as a better competitor for nutrients. However, Festuca lost in competition with Plantago. Plantago not only replaced the lower root mass of its competitor, but strongly overproduced roots: with only half of the plants in mixture than in monoculture, Plantago root densities in mixture were similar or higher than those in its monocultures. These responses occurred equally in a nutrient-rich and nutrient-poor soil layer, and commenced immediately at the start of the experiment when root densities were still low and soil nutrient concentrations high.Our results suggest that species may achieve competitive superiority for nutrients by root growth stimulation prior to nutrient depletion, induced by the presence of a competitor species, rather than by a better ability to compete for nutrients per se. The root overproduction by which interspecific neighbors are suppressed independent of nutrient acquisition is consistent with predictions from game theory. Our results emphasize that root competition may be driven by other mechanisms than is currently assumed. The long-term consequences of these mechanisms for community dynamics are discussed.

  7. Microbial enzyme activity, nutrient uptake and nutrient limitation in forested streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian H. Hill; Frank H. McCormick; Bret C. Harvey; Sherri L. Johnson; Melvin L. Warren; Colleen M. Elonen

    2010-01-01

    The flow of organic matter and nutrients from catchments into the streams draining them and the biogeochemical transformations of organic matter and nutrients along flow paths are fundamental processes instreams (Hynes,1975; Fisher, Sponseller & Heffernan, 2004). Microbial biofilms are often the primary interface for organic matter and nutrient uptake and...

  8. Improvement of chemical and biological characteristics of gossan mine wastes following application of amendments and growth of Cistus ladanifer L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Erika; Abreu, Maria Manuela; Macías, Felipe; de Varennes, Amarilis

    2013-04-01

    Corganic and Pextractable concentrations, compared to treatments without plants, reaching the highest values in the treatments combining amendments and plants. After one month of incubation, the dehydrogenase activities in wastes were more than twice in the amended treatments (1.71-33.55 μg TPF g sample 16h-1, depending on amendments application rate and sampling period). Nevertheless, wastes from treatments with plants had higher dehydrogenase activities (9.66-33.55 μg TPF g sample 16h-1, depending on amendments application rate) than in treatments using only amendments (4.98-22.30 μg TPF g sample 16h-1), but both were higher than control. The plants in control presented lower fresh biomass than in amended treatments. Plants growth in control was not sufficient to enhance dehydrogenase activity of mine wastes (1.51 and 1.72 μg TPF g sample 16h-1, with/without plants, respectively). The extractable nutrients (Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Zn) increased with amendment application, an advantage for remediation purposes. Although extractable Al, As, Na also increased in the same treatments, they remained small. In contrast, extractable Cu and Pb were, generally, lower in amended treatments than in control. The presence of the plant did not increase the concentration of elemental in the extractant solution.

  9. Closed-Cycle Nutrient Supply For Hydroponics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartzkopf, Steven H.

    1991-01-01

    Hydroponic system controls composition and feed rate of nutrient solution and recovers and recycles excess solution. Uses air pressure on bladders to transfer aqueous nutrient solution. Measures and adjusts composition of solution before it goes to hydroponic chamber. Eventually returns excess solution to one of tanks. Designed to operate in microgravity, also adaptable to hydroponic plant-growing systems on Earth.

  10. Nutrient and energy recovery from urine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuntke, P.

    2013-01-01

    Keywords: urine, urine treatment, nutrient recovery, microbial fuel cells, energy production from urine, membrane capacitive deionization.

    In conventional wastewater treatment plants large amounts of energy are required for the removal and recovery of nutrients (i.e. nitrogen and

  11. Nutrient Dynamics and Litter Decomposition in Leucaena ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutrient contents and rate of litter decomposition were investigated in Leucaena leucocephala plantation in the University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria. Litter bag technique was used to study the pattern and rate of litter decomposition and nutrient release of Leucaena leucocephala. Fifty grams of oven-dried ...

  12. Nutrient management regulations in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schröder, J.J.; Neeteson, J.J.

    2008-01-01

    The application of nutrients affect the quality of the environment which justifies the consideration of regulations regarding their use in agriculture. In the early 1990s The Netherlands decided to use the indicator `nutrient surplus at farm level¿ as the basis for a regulation which was called the

  13. Water Quality Protection from Nutrient Pollution: Case ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water bodies and coastal areas around the world are threatened by increases in upstream sediment and nutrient loads, which influence drinking water sources, aquatic species, and other ecologic functions and services of streams, lakes, and coastal water bodies. For example, increased nutrient fluxes from the Mississippi River Basin have been linked to increased occurrences of seasonal hypoxia in northern Gulf of Mexico. Lake Erie is another example where in the summer of 2014 nutrients, nutrients, particularly phosphorus, washed from fertilized farms, cattle feedlots, and leaky septic systems; caused a severe algae bloom, much of it poisonous; and resulted in the loss of drinking water for a half-million residents. Our current management strategies for point and non-point source nutrient loadings need to be improved to protect and meet the expected increased future demands of water for consumption, recreation, and ecological integrity. This presentation introduces management practices being implemented and their effectiveness in reducing nutrient loss from agricultural fields, a case analysis of nutrient pollution of the Grand Lake St. Marys and possible remedies, and ongoing work on watershed modeling to improve our understanding on nutrient loss and water quality. Presented at the 3rd International Conference on Water Resource and Environment.

  14. Engineering crop nutrient efficiency for sustainable agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liyu; Liao, Hong

    2017-10-01

    Increasing crop yields can provide food, animal feed, bioenergy feedstocks and biomaterials to meet increasing global demand; however, the methods used to increase yield can negatively affect sustainability. For example, application of excess fertilizer can generate and maintain high yields but also increases input costs and contributes to environmental damage through eutrophication, soil acidification and air pollution. Improving crop nutrient efficiency can improve agricultural sustainability by increasing yield while decreasing input costs and harmful environmental effects. Here, we review the mechanisms of nutrient efficiency (primarily for nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and iron) and breeding strategies for improving this trait, along with the role of regulation of gene expression in enhancing crop nutrient efficiency to increase yields. We focus on the importance of root system architecture to improve nutrient acquisition efficiency, as well as the contributions of mineral translocation, remobilization and metabolic efficiency to nutrient utilization efficiency. © 2017 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  15. Skeletal nutrient vascular adaptation induced by external oscillatory intramedullary fluid pressure intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Yi-Xian

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interstitial fluid flow induced by loading has demonstrated to be an important mediator for regulating bone mass and morphology. It is shown that the fluid movement generated by the intramedullary pressure (ImP provides a source for pressure gradient in bone. Such dynamic ImP may alter the blood flow within nutrient vessel adjacent to bone and directly connected to the marrow cavity, further initiating nutrient vessel adaptation. It is hypothesized that oscillatory ImP can mediate the blood flow in the skeletal nutrient vessels and trigger vasculature remodeling. The objective of this study was then to evaluate the vasculature remodeling induced by dynamic ImP stimulation as a function of ImP frequency. Methods Using an avian model, dynamics physiological fluid ImP (70 mmHg, peak-peak was applied in the marrow cavity of the left ulna at either 3 Hz or 30 Hz, 10 minutes/day, 5 days/week for 3 or 4 weeks. The histomorphometric measurements of the principal nutrient arteries were done to quantify the arterial wall area, lumen area, wall thickness, and smooth muscle cell layer numbers for comparison. Results The preliminary results indicated that the acute cyclic ImP stimuli can significantly enlarge the nutrient arterial wall area up to 50%, wall thickness up to 20%, and smooth muscle cell layer numbers up to 37%. In addition, 3-week of acute stimulation was sufficient to alter the arterial structural properties, i.e., increase of arterial wall area, whereas 4-week of loading showed only minimal changes regardless of the loading frequency. Conclusions These data indicate a potential mechanism in the interrelationship between vasculature adaptation and applied ImP alteration. Acute ImP could possibly initiate the remodeling in the bone nutrient vasculature, which may ultimately alter blood supply to bone.

  16. The protocol amending the 1963 Vienna Convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamm, V.

    2006-01-01

    Technically the Vienna Convention was revised by the adoption of the protocol to amend the instrument. and according to Article 19 of the protocol 'A State which is Party to this Protocol but not to the 1963 Vienna Convention shall be bound by the provisions of that Convention as amended by this Protocol in relation to other States Parties hereto, and failing an expression of a different intention by that State at the time of deposit of an instrument referred to in Article 20 shall be bound by the provisions of the 1963 Vienna Convention in relation to States which are only Parties thereto'. This solution has created a special situation, because after the entry into force of the protocol there will be living together or operating in practice 'two' Vienna Conventions, notably the convention's original text of 1963 and its new version as amended by the protocol. After the protocol has come into force, a state may only accede to the amended version, but in the inter se relations of the States Party to the 'old' Vienna Convention the provisions of that convention will remain in force until such time as they have acceded to the new protocol. This rather complicated situation is nevertheless understandable and is fully in accord with Article 40 of the 1969 Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties, which provides for the amendment of multilateral treaties. In 1989 the negotiations on the revision of the Vienna Convention had begun with the aim of strengthening the existing nuclear liability regime and of improving the situation of potential victims of nuclear accidents. The Protocol to Amend the Vienna Convention serves those purposes; it also reflects a good compromise, since it is the outcome of a negotiation process in which experts from both nuclear and non-nuclear states, from Contacting Parties and non-Contracting Parties were very active. That affords some assurance that the compromise solution reached is acceptable to all States participating in the adoption of

  17. New York Canyon Stimulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raemy, Bernard

    2012-06-21

    The New York Canyon Stimulation Project was to demonstrate the commercial application of Enhanced Geothermal System techniques in Buena Vista Valley area of Pershing County, Nevada. From October 2009 to early 2012, TGP Development Company aggressively implemented Phase I of Pre-Stimulation and Site/Wellbore readiness. This included: geological studies; water studies and analyses and procurement of initial permits for drilling. Oversubscription of water rights and lack of water needed for implementation of EGS were identified and remained primary obstacles. Despite extended efforts to find alternative solutions, the water supply circumstances could not be overcome and led TGP to determine a "No Go" decision and initiate project termination in April 2012.

  18. Cell-specific CO2 fixation rates of two distinct groups of plastidic protists in the Atlantic Ocean remain unchanged after nutrient addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grob, Carolina; Jardillier, Ludwig; Hartmann, Manuela; Ostrowski, Martin; Zubkov, Mikhail V; Scanlan, David J

    2015-04-01

    To assess the role of open-ocean ecosystems in global CO2 fixation, we investigated how picophytoplankton, which dominate primary production, responded to episodic increases in nutrient availability. Previous experiments have shown nitrogen alone, or in combination with phosphorus or iron, to be the proximate limiting nutrient(s) for total phytoplankton grown over several days. Much less is known about how nutrient upshift affects picophytoplankton CO2 fixation over the duration of the light period. To address this issue, we performed a series of small volume (8-60 ml) - short term (10-11 h) nutrient addition experiments in different regions of the Atlantic Ocean using NH4 Cl, FeCl3 , K medium, dust and nutrient-rich water from 300 m depth. We found no significant nutrient stimulation of group-specific CO2 fixation rates of two taxonomically and size-distinct groups of plastidic protists. The above was true regardless of the region sampled or nutrient added, suggesting that this is a generic phenomenon. Our findings show that at least in the short term (i.e. daylight period), nutrient availability does not limit CO2 fixation by the smallest plastidic protists, while their taxonomic composition does not determine their response to nutrient addition. © 2014 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Spatiotemporal dynamics of phosphorus release, oxygen consumption and greenhouse gas emissions after localised soil amendment with organic fertilisers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christel, Wibke; Zhu, Kun; Hoefer, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    processes and fixation in the residue sphere, giving rise to distinct differences in nutrient availability, soil oxygen content and greenhouse gas (GHG) production. In this study we investigated the spatiotemporal dynamics of the reaction of manure solids and manure solids char with soil, focusing...... on their phosphorus (P) availability, as current emphasis on improving societal P efficiency through recycling waste or bio-based fertilisers necessitates a sound understanding of their behaviour. Soil layers amended at a constant P application rate with either pig manure solids or char made from pig manure solids...

  20. Short communication: A laboratory study to validate the impact of the addition of Alnus nepalensis leaf litter on carbon and nutrients mineralization in soil

    OpenAIRE

    GAURAV MISHRA; KRISHNA GIRI; ANTARA DUTTA

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. Mishra G, Giri K, Dutta A, Hazarika S and Borgohain P. 2015. A laboratory study to validate the impact of the addition of Alnus nepalensis leaf litter on carbon and nutrients mineralization in soil. Nusantara Bioscience 8: 5-7. Plant litter or residues can be used as soil amendment to maintain the carbon stock and soil fertility. The amount and rate of mineralization depends on biochemical composition of plant litter. Alnus nepalensis (Alder) is known for its symbiotic nitrogen fixa...

  1. Effets des amendements locaux sur les rendements, les indices de nutrition et les bilans culturaux dans un système de rotation coton-maïs dans l'ouest du Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koulibaly B.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available ffects of local amendments on yields, nutrition indexes and mineral balances in a cotton-maize rotation system in the west of Burkina Faso. After 20 years of continuous cropping system on a tropical ferruginous soil, the effects of three amendments on crop yield and nutrients uptake were studied for two years in this system. Compost, phosphate rock and dolomite amendments at respectively the rate of 6, 0.3 and 1.5 t.ha-1 were compared to the control soil not amended. The experimental design was a block Fisher with three amendments and four replications. Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. and maize (Zea mays L. mineral nutrition were determined as well as their yields. These plants dry matter productions were measured after harvesting. Results showed that compost, phosphate rock and dolomite application to soil improved the dry matter production of cotton and maize plants. Soil amendment with 6 t.ha-1 of compost significantly improved cotton seed and maize production. In the same time, the application of 1.5 t.ha-1 of dolomite limestone significantly increased maize yield. The application of phosphate rock (0.3 t.ha-1 had no effect on cotton or maize yields as well as their dry matter production. Compost, phosphate rock and dolomite application to soil had no influence on cotton and maize plants contents in N, P and K. Seventy days after sowing, the amendments did not improve cotton nutrition indexes which revealed a good nutrition for P, K and S. Nutrition indexes indicated that N deficiencies in cotton plants with amended soils (IN < 80 were more important than those observed with cotton plants grown on control soil (IN = 84. The application of mineral fertilizer to the control soil or to amended soils gave positive balances for nutrients like P (45 to 100 kg.ha-1 and S (5 to 24 kg.ha-1, while soils amended with phosphate rock and dolomite showed a high deficit for N and K, compared to the control soil. The study showed that compost combined to

  2. Bacterial Shifts in Nutrient Solutions Flowing Through Biofilters Used in Tomato Soilless Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renault, David; Déniel, Franck; Vallance, Jessica; Bruez, Emilie; Godon, Jean-Jacques; Rey, Patrice

    2017-11-25

    In soilless culture, slow filtration is used to eliminate plant pathogenic microorganisms from nutrient solutions. The present study focused on the characterization and the potential functions of microbial communities colonizing the nutrient solutions recycled on slow filters during a whole cultivation season of 7 months in a tomato growing system. Bacterial microflora colonizing the solutions before and after they flew through the columns were studied. Two filters were amended with Pseudomonas putida (P-filter) or Bacillus cereus strains (B-filter), and a third filter was a control (C-filter). Biological activation of filter unit through bacterial amendment enhanced very significantly filter efficacy against plant potential pathogens Pythium spp. and Fusarium oxysporum. However, numerous bacteria (10 3 -10 4  CFU/mL) were detected in the effluent solutions. The community-level physiological profiling indicated a temporal shift of bacterial microflora, and the metabolism of nutrient solutions originally oriented towards carbohydrates progressively shifted towards degradation of amino acids and carboxylic acids over the 7-month period of experiment. Single-strand conformation polymorphism fingerprinting profiles showed that a shift between bacterial communities colonizing influent and effluent solutions of slow filters occurred. In comparison with influent, 16S rDNA sequencing revealed that phylotype diversity was low in the effluent of P- and C-filters, but no reduction was observed in the effluent of the B-filter. Suppressive potential of solutions filtered on a natural filter (C-filter), where the proportion of Proteobacteria (α- and β-) increased, whereas the proportion of uncultured candidate phyla rose in P- and B-filters, is discussed.

  3. Residual effect of applying composted sewage sludge to the majority nutrients in an alive grove soil; Efecto residual de la aplicacion de un lodo de depuradora compostado sobre los nutrientes mayoritarios de un suelo de olivar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ordonez Fernandez, R.; Aguilar Torres, M. A.; Gonzalez Fernandez, P.

    2002-07-01

    The agricultural reuse of sewage sludge is an excellent management option because in addition to the elimination of the residue, from the environment an appreciable amount of nitrogen, phosphorus and some micronutrients are added to the soil. During two successive years 20 Mgha-1of composted sewage sludge was applied to a clay soil of the Campina de Cordoba cropped with olive trees. The concentrations of some of the main nutrients like phosphorus and potassium increased after the amendment. The phosphorus content in the surface soil horizon increased from 2.3 to 9.3 ppm whereas the potassium content increased from 239 to 320 ppm in the same horizon for the same two years period. These results are encouraging for the organic amendment use. (Author)

  4. Biochar-Induced Changes in Soil Hydraulic Conductivity and Dissolved Nutrient Fluxes Constrained by Laboratory Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Rebecca T.; Gallagher, Morgan E.; Masiello, Caroline A.; Liu, Zuolin; Dugan, Brandon

    2014-01-01

    The addition of charcoal (or biochar) to soil has significant carbon sequestration and agronomic potential, making it important to determine how this potentially large anthropogenic carbon influx will alter ecosystem functions. We used column experiments to quantify how hydrologic and nutrient-retention characteristics of three soil materials differed with biochar amendment. We compared three homogeneous soil materials (sand, organic-rich topsoil, and clay-rich Hapludert) to provide a basic understanding of biochar-soil-water interactions. On average, biochar amendment decreased saturated hydraulic conductivity (K) by 92% in sand and 67% in organic soil, but increased K by 328% in clay-rich soil. The change in K for sand was not predicted by the accompanying physical changes to the soil mixture; the sand-biochar mixture was less dense and more porous than sand without biochar. We propose two hydrologic pathways that are potential drivers for this behavior: one through the interstitial biochar-sand space and a second through pores within the biochar grains themselves. This second pathway adds to the porosity of the soil mixture; however, it likely does not add to the effective soil K due to its tortuosity and smaller pore size. Therefore, the addition of biochar can increase or decrease soil drainage, and suggests that any potential improvement of water delivery to plants is dependent on soil type, biochar amendment rate, and biochar properties. Changes in dissolved carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) fluxes also differed; with biochar increasing the C flux from organic-poor sand, decreasing it from organic-rich soils, and retaining small amounts of soil-derived N. The aromaticity of C lost from sand and clay increased, suggesting lost C was biochar-derived; though the loss accounts for only 0.05% of added biochar-C. Thus, the direction and magnitude of hydraulic, C, and N changes associated with biochar amendments are soil type (composition and particle size) dependent

  5. Nutrient composition of banana fruit as affected by farm manure, composted pressmud and mineral fertilizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajput, A.; Memon, M.; Memon, K.S.; Tunio, S.; Sial, T.A.

    2017-01-01

    Major area under banana cultivation in Pakistan consists of a single cultivar D warf Cavendish c alled B asrai . Quality of banana relies on the available nutrients in soil. Under poor fertility and organic matter scenario coupled with high requirement of banana, this study evaluated the combined effect of organic (farm manure and composted pressmud) and inorganic (NPK) sources of nutrients on nutrient composition of locally grown banana. Application of full NPK (500-250-500 kg ha-1) increased the fruit P (0.08-0.12%), K (0.77-1.50%) and Zn (1.74-2.17 mg kg-1) over full N and the respective values further increased to 0.14 and 0.22%, 2.28 and 1.79% and 2.42 and 2.21% with farm manure and composted pressmud additions. Moreover, there was a non-significant increase in N and significant one in Cu and Fe. There was no additional benefit of 1.25 NP. In fact, the higher rates i.e. full NPK and 1.25 NP reduced the micronutrient contents of fruit due to dilution effect. However, the P requirement was same even with application of organic sources. The regression analysis of the yield data with fruit nutrients (N, P, K, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn) showed a highly significant relationship with respective rv alues of 0.65, 0.66, 0.75, 0.48, 0.65, 0.71 and 0.73. The integrated use of mineral fertilizers and organic amendments resulted in enhanced banana fruit nutrients and highlights the advantage of conjunctive use over their separate applications. (author)

  6. IDEA: Stimulating Oral Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easley, Jacob J.

    1995-01-01

    Presents daily activities that facilitate complete sentence response, promote oral production, and aid the learning of vocabulary in foreign-language classes. Because speech is the primary form of communication in the foreign-language classroom, it is important to stimulate students to converse as soon as possible. (Author/CK)

  7. stimulated BV2 Microglial

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-03-26

    Mar 26, 2012 ... 2), in LPS-stimulated BV2 microglial cells. The level of NO production was analyzed using Griess reaction. The release of PGE2 was determined using sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The DNA-binding activity of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) was measured by electrophoretic mobility shift assay ...

  8. Brain stimulation in migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brighina, Filippo; Cosentino, Giuseppe; Fierro, Brigida

    2013-01-01

    Migraine is a very prevalent disease with great individual disability and socioeconomic burden. Despite intensive research effort in recent years, the etiopathogenesis of the disease remains to be elucidated. Recently, much importance has been given to mechanisms underlying the cortical excitability that has been suggested to be dysfunctional in migraine. In recent years, noninvasive brain stimulation techniques based on magnetic fields (transcranial magnetic stimulation, TMS) and on direct electrical currents (transcranial direct current stimulation, tDCS) have been shown to be safe and effective tools to explore the issue of cortical excitability, activation, and plasticity in migraine. Moreover, TMS, repetitive TMS (rTMS), and tDCS, thanks to their ability to interfere with and/or modulate cortical activity inducing plastic, persistent effects, have been also explored as potential therapeutic approaches, opening an interesting perspective for noninvasive neurostimulation for both symptomatic and preventive treatment of migraine and other types of headache. In this chapter we critically review evidence regarding the role of noninvasive brain stimulation in the pathophysiology and treatment of migraine, delineating the advantages and limits of these techniques together with potential development and future application. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Bioactive Nutrients and Nutrigenomics in Age-Related Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Rescigno

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The increased life expectancy and the expansion of the elderly population are stimulating research into aging. Aging may be viewed as a multifactorial process that results from the interaction of genetic and environmental factors, which include lifestyle. Human molecular processes are influenced by physiological pathways as well as exogenous factors, which include the diet. Dietary components have substantive effects on metabolic health; for instance, bioactive molecules capable of selectively modulating specific metabolic pathways affect the development/progression of cardiovascular and neoplastic disease. As bioactive nutrients are increasingly identified, their clinical and molecular chemopreventive effects are being characterized and systematic analyses encompassing the “omics” technologies (transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics are being conducted to explore their action. The evolving field of molecular pathological epidemiology has unique strength to investigate the effects of dietary and lifestyle exposure on clinical outcomes. The mounting body of knowledge regarding diet-related health status and disease risk is expected to lead in the near future to the development of improved diagnostic procedures and therapeutic strategies targeting processes relevant to nutrition. The state of the art of aging and nutrigenomics research and the molecular mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of bioactive nutrients on the main aging-related disorders are reviewed herein.

  10. Linking nutrient enrichment, sediment erodibility and biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, B.; Mahon, R.; Sojka, S. L.

    2014-12-01

    Sediment movement in coastal lagoons affects nutrient flux and primary producer growth. Previous research has shown that sediment erodibility is affected by biofilm concentration and that growth of benthic organisms, which produce biofilm, is affected by nutrient enrichment. However, researchers have not examined possible links between nutrient addition and sediment erodibility. We manipulated nutrient levels in the water column of 16 microcosms filled with homogenized sediment from a shallow coastal lagoon and artificial seawater to determine the effects on biofilm growth, measured through chlorophyll a and colloidal carbohydrate concentrations. Erosion tests using a Gust microcosm were conducted to determine the relationship between sediment erodibility and biofilm concentration. Results show that carbohydrate levels decreased with increasing nutrient enrichment and were unrelated to chlorophyll concentrations and erodibility. The nutrient levels did not predictably affect the chlorophyll levels, with lower chlorophyll concentrations in the control and medium enrichment treatments than the low and high enrichment treatments. Controls on biofilm growth are still unclear and the assumed relationship between carbohydrates and erodibility may be invalid. Understanding how biofilms respond to nutrient enrichment and subsequent effects on sediment erodibility is essential for protecting and restoring shallow coastal systems.

  11. DIFFICULTY OF AMENDMENT AND INTERPRETATIVE CHOICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Coan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The extreme difficulty of amending the U.S. Constitution plays a central but largely unexamined role in theoretical debates over interpretive choice. In particular, conventional wisdom assumes that the extreme difficulty of Article V amendment weakens the case for originalism. This view might ultimately be correct, but it is not the freestanding argument against originalism it is often presumed to be. Rather, it depends on contestable normative and empirical premises that require defense. If those premises are wrong, the stringency of Article V might actually strengthen the case for originalism. Or Article V might have no impact on that case one way or another. This “complexity thesis” highlights and clarifies the role that difficulty of amendment plays across a range of significant interpretive debates, including those surrounding writtenness, John Hart Ely’s representation-reinforcement theory, interpretive pluralism, and originalism as a theory of positive law. It also has important implications for the under-studied relations between statutory and constitutional interpretation and federal and state constitutional interpretation.

  12. The amendment of the Labour Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Mervartová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The amendment of the Labour Code, No. 365/2011 Coll., effective as from 1st January 2012, brings some of fundamental changes in labour law. The amendment regulates relation between the Labour Code and the Civil Code; and is also formulates principles of labour law relations newly. The basic period by fixed-term contract of employment is extended and also frequency its conclusion is limited. The length of trial period and the amount of redundancy payment are graduated. An earlier legislative regulation which an employee is temporarily assign to work for different employer has been returned. The number of hours by agreement to perform work is increased. The monetary compensation by competitive clause is reduced. The other changes are realised in part of collective labour law. The authoress of article notifies of the most important changes. She compares new changes of the Labour Code and former legal system and she also evaluates their advantages and disadvantages. The main objective of changes ensures labour law relations to be more flexible. And it should motivate creation of new jobs opening by employers. Amended provisions are aimed to reduction expenses of employers under the reform of the public finances. Also changes are expected in the Labour Code in connection with the further new Civil Code.

  13. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosby, R.C.

    1991-01-01

    The natural gas liquids industry and specifically the gas processing business has not been rosy the last several years. processors have been faced with low NGL prices, high inventories and more regulations which have forced product margins to all time lows and have resulted in plant closings, mergers and a determined search for those processors that are left for ways to make ends meet until times get better. Whether a barometer for the future or merely a fluke in the economy, things got better in 1990. Last year represented a change for the positive in all the indicators characterizing the gas processing business. An early winter in 1989, propane distribution problems, overall increases in petrochemical demand for NGLs and the fear brought on by events in Kuwait all contributed to changes in the marketplace. For the gas processor, these events combined with relatively low natural gas prices to produce wider processing margins and a degree of prosperity. The biggest regulatory event in 1990 however was without a doubt the Clean Air Act Amendments. These sweeping changes to the 1970 Clean Air Act promise to affect the economy and public health well into the next century. The purpose of this paper is to examine first the major provisions of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 and then relate those anticipated changes to the gas processing industry. As will be examined later, the Amendments will create both threats and opportunities for gas processors

  14. SUBMERGED MACROPHYTE EFFECTS ON NUTRIENT EXCHANGES IN RIVERINE SEDIMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Submersed macrophytes are important in nutrient cycling in marine and lacustrine systems, although their role in nutrient exchange in tidally-influenced riverine systems is not well studied. In the laboratory, plants significantly lowered porewater nutrient pools of riverine sedi...

  15. Influence of compost amendments on the diversity of alkane degrading bacteria in hydrocarbon contaminated soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael eSchloter

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Alkane degrading microorganisms play an important role for bioremediation of petrogenic contaminated environments. In this study, we investigated the effects of compost addition on the diversity of alkane monooxygenase gene (alkB harboring bacteria in oil-contaminated soil originated from an industrial zone in Celje, Slovenia, to improve our understanding about the bacterial community involved in alkane degradation and the effects of amendments. Soil without any amendments (control soil and soil amended with compost of different maturation stages, i 1 year and ii 2 weeks, were incubated under controlled conditions in a microcosm experiment and sampled after 0, 6, 12 and 36 weeks of incubation. By using quantitative real-time PCR higher number of alkB genes could be detected in soil samples with compost compared to the control soil after 6, 12 and 36 weeks mainly if the less maturated compost was added. To get an insight into the composition of the alkB harboring microbial communities, we performed next generation sequencing of alkB gene fragment amplicons. Richness and diversity of alkB gene harboring prokaryotes was higher in soil mixed with compost compared to control soil after 6, 12 and 36 weeks again with stronger effects of the less maturated compost. Comparison of communities detected in different samples and time points based on principle component analysis revealed that the addition of compost in general stimulated the abundance of alkB harboring Actinobacteria during the experiment independent from the maturation stage of the compost compared to the control soils. In addition alkB harboring proteobacteria like Shewanella or Hydrocarboniphaga as well as proteobacteria of the genus Agrobacterium responded positively to the addition of compost to soil The amendment of the less maturated compost resulted in addition in a large increase of alkB harboring bacteria of the Cytophaga group (Microscilla mainly at the early sampling

  16. Long-term nitrogen amendment alters the diversity and assemblage of soil bacterial communities in tallgrass prairie.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph D Coolon

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic changes are altering the environmental conditions and the biota of ecosystems worldwide. In many temperate grasslands, such as North American tallgrass prairie, these changes include alteration in historically important disturbance regimes (e.g., frequency of fires and enhanced availability of potentially limiting nutrients, particularly nitrogen. Such anthropogenically-driven changes in the environment are known to elicit substantial changes in plant and consumer communities aboveground, but much less is known about their effects on soil microbial communities. Due to the high diversity of soil microbes and methodological challenges associated with assessing microbial community composition, relatively few studies have addressed specific taxonomic changes underlying microbial community-level responses to different fire regimes or nutrient amendments in tallgrass prairie. We used deep sequencing of the V3 region of the 16S rRNA gene to explore the effects of contrasting fire regimes and nutrient enrichment on soil bacterial communities in a long-term (20 yrs experiment in native tallgrass prairie in the eastern Central Plains. We focused on responses to nutrient amendments coupled with two extreme fire regimes (annual prescribed spring burning and complete fire exclusion. The dominant bacterial phyla identified were Proteobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, Bacteriodetes, Acidobacteria, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria and made up 80% of all taxa quantified. Chronic nitrogen enrichment significantly impacted bacterial community diversity and community structure varied according to nitrogen treatment, but not phosphorus enrichment or fire regime. We also found significant responses of individual bacterial groups including Nitrospira and Gammaproteobacteria to long-term nitrogen enrichment. Our results show that soil nitrogen enrichment can significantly alter bacterial community diversity, structure, and individual taxa abundance, which have

  17. Agronomic benefits of biochar as a soil amendment after its use as waste water filtration medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Steffen; Kätzl, Korbinian; Wichern, Marc; Buerkert, Andreas; Steiner, Christoph; Marschner, Bernd

    2018-02-01

    In many water-scarce countries, waste water is used for irrigation which poses a health risk to farmers and consumers. At the same time, it delivers nutrients to the farming systems. In this study, we tested the hypotheses that biochar can be used as a filter medium for waste water treatment to reduce pathogen loads. At the same time, the biochar is becoming enriched with nutrients and therefore can act as a fertilizer for soil amendment. We used biochar as a filter medium for the filtration of raw waste water and compared the agronomic effects of this "filterchar" (FC) and the untreated biochar (BC) in a greenhouse pot trial on spring wheat biomass production on an acidic sandy soil from Niger. The biochar filter showed the same removal of pathogens as a common sand filter (1.4 log units on average). We did not observe a nutrient accumulation in FC compared to untreated BC. Instead, P, Mg and K were reduced during filtration while N content remained unchanged. Nevertheless, higher biomass (Triticum L. Spp.) production in BC (+72%) and FC (+37%) treatments (20 t ha -1 ), compared with the unamended control, were found. There were no significant differences in aboveground biomass production between BC and FC. Soil available P content was increased by BC (+106%) and FC (+52%) application. Besides, mineral nitrogen content was reduced in BC treated soil and to a lesser extent when FC was used. This may be explained by reduced sorption affinity for mineral nitrogen compounds on FC surfaces. Although the nutrients provided by FC decreased, due to leaching in the filter, it still yielded higher biomass than the unamended control. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Nutrients, phytoplankton, zooplankton, and macrobenthos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudstam, Lars G.; Holeck, Kristen T.; Watkins, James M.; Hotaling, Christopher; Lantry, Jana R.; Bowen, Kelly L.; Munawar, Mohi; Weidel, Brian C.; Barbiero, Richard; Luckey, Frederick J.; Dove, Alice; Johnson, Timothy B.; Biesinger, Zy

    2017-01-01

    Lower trophic levels support the prey fish on which most sport fish depend. Therefore, understanding the production potential of lower trophic levels is integral to the management of Lake Ontario’s fishery resources. Lower trophic-level productivity differs among offshore and nearshore waters. In the offshore, there is concern about the ability of the lake to support Alewife (Table 1) production due to a perceived decline in productivity of phytoplankton and zooplankton whereas, in the nearshore, there is a concern about excessive attached algal production (e.g., Cladophora) associated with higher nutrient concentrations—the oligotrophication of the offshore and the eutrophication of the nearshore (Mills et al. 2003; Holeck et al. 2008; Dove 2009; Koops et al. 2015; Stewart et al. 2016). Even though the collapse of the Alewife population in Lake Huron in 2003 (and the associated decline in the Chinook Salmon fishery) may have been precipitated by a cold winter (Dunlop and Riley 2013), Alewife had not returned to high abundances in Lake Huron as of 2014 (Roseman et al. 2015). Failure of the Alewife population to recover from collapse has been attributed to declines in lower trophic-level production (Barbiero et al. 2011; Bunnell et al. 2014; but see He et al. 2015). In Lake Michigan, concerns of a similar Alewife collapse led to a decrease in the number of Chinook Salmon stocked. If lower trophic-level production declines in Lake Ontario, a similar management action could be considered. On the other hand, in Lake Erie, which supplies most of the water in Lake Ontario, eutrophication is increasing and so are harmful algal blooms. Thus, there is also a concern that nutrient levels and algal blooms could increase in Lake Ontario, especially in the nearshore. Solutions to the two processes of concern—eutrophication in the nearshore and oligotrophication in the offshore—may be mutually exclusive. In either circumstance, fisheries management needs information on

  19. Effects of changes in nutrient loading and composition on hypoxia dynamics and internal nutrient cycling of a stratified coastal lagoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yafei; McCowan, Andrew; Cook, Perran L. M.

    2017-10-01

    The effects of changes in catchment nutrient loading and composition on the phytoplankton dynamics, development of hypoxia and internal nutrient dynamics in a stratified coastal lagoon system (the Gippsland Lakes) were investigated using a 3-D coupled hydrodynamic biogeochemical water quality model. The study showed that primary production was equally sensitive to changed dissolved inorganic and particulate organic nitrogen loads, highlighting the need for a better understanding of particulate organic matter bioavailability. Stratification and sediment carbon enrichment were the main drivers for the hypoxia and subsequent sediment phosphorus release in Lake King. High primary production stimulated by large nitrogen loading brought on by a winter flood contributed almost all the sediment carbon deposition (as opposed to catchment loads), which was ultimately responsible for summer bottom-water hypoxia. Interestingly, internal recycling of phosphorus was more sensitive to changed nitrogen loads than total phosphorus loads, highlighting the potential importance of nitrogen loads exerting a control over systems that become phosphorus limited (such as during summer nitrogen-fixing blooms of cyanobacteria). Therefore, the current study highlighted the need to reduce both total nitrogen and total phosphorus for water quality improvement in estuarine systems.

  20. Effects of changes in nutrient loading and composition on hypoxia dynamics and internal nutrient cycling of a stratified coastal lagoon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Zhu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The effects of changes in catchment nutrient loading and composition on the phytoplankton dynamics, development of hypoxia and internal nutrient dynamics in a stratified coastal lagoon system (the Gippsland Lakes were investigated using a 3-D coupled hydrodynamic biogeochemical water quality model. The study showed that primary production was equally sensitive to changed dissolved inorganic and particulate organic nitrogen loads, highlighting the need for a better understanding of particulate organic matter bioavailability. Stratification and sediment carbon enrichment were the main drivers for the hypoxia and subsequent sediment phosphorus release in Lake King. High primary production stimulated by large nitrogen loading brought on by a winter flood contributed almost all the sediment carbon deposition (as opposed to catchment loads, which was ultimately responsible for summer bottom-water hypoxia. Interestingly, internal recycling of phosphorus was more sensitive to changed nitrogen loads than total phosphorus loads, highlighting the potential importance of nitrogen loads exerting a control over systems that become phosphorus limited (such as during summer nitrogen-fixing blooms of cyanobacteria. Therefore, the current study highlighted the need to reduce both total nitrogen and total phosphorus for water quality improvement in estuarine systems.

  1. Nutrient removal using biosorption activated media: preliminary biogeochemical assessment of an innovative stormwater infiltration basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Andrew M.; Wanielista, Martin P.; Chang, Ni-Bin; Xuan, Zhemin; Harris, Willie G.

    2012-01-01

    Soil beneath a stormwater infiltration basin receiving runoff from a 22.7 ha predominantly residential watershed in central Florida, USA, was amended using biosorption activated media (BAM) to study the effectiveness of this technology in reducing inputs of nitrogen and phosphorus to groundwater. The functionalized soil amendment BAM consists of a 1.0:1.9:4.1 mixture (by volume) of tire crumb (to increase sorption capacity), silt and clay (to increase soil moisture retention), and sand (to promote sufficient infiltration), which was applied to develop a prototype stormwater infiltration basin utilizing nutrient reduction and flood control sub-basins. Comparison of nitrate/chloride (NO3-/Cl-) ratios for the shallow groundwater indicate that prior to using BAM, NO3- concentrations were substantially influenced by nitrification or variations in NO3- input. In contrast, for the prototype basin utilizing BAM, NO3-/Cl- ratios indicate minor nitrification and NO3- losses with the exception of one summer sample that indicated a 45% loss. Biogeochemical indicators (denitrifier activity derived from real-time polymerase chain reaction and variations in major ions, nutrients, dissolved and soil gases, and stable isotopes) suggest NO3- losses are primarily attributable to denitrification, whereas dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium is a minor process. Denitrification was likely occurring intermittently in anoxic microsites in the unsaturated zone, which was enhanced by increased soil moisture within the BAM layer and resultant reductions in surface/subsurface oxygen exchange that produced conditions conducive to increased denitrifier activity. Concentrations of total dissolved phosphorus and orthophosphate (PO43-) were reduced by more than 70% in unsaturated zone soil water, with the largest decreases in the BAM layer where sorption was the most likely mechanism for removal. Post-BAM PO43-/Cl- ratios for shallow groundwater indicate predominantly minor increases and

  2. The effects of CO2 and nutrient fertilisation on the growth and temperature response of the mangrove Avicennia germinans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reef, Ruth; Slot, Martijn; Motro, Uzi; Motro, Michal; Motro, Yoav; Adame, Maria F; Garcia, Milton; Aranda, Jorge; Lovelock, Catherine E; Winter, Klaus

    2016-08-01

    In order to understand plant responses to both the widespread phenomenon of increased nutrient inputs to coastal zones and the concurrent rise in atmospheric CO2 concentrations, CO2-nutrient interactions need to be considered. In addition to its potential stimulating effect on photosynthesis and growth, elevated CO2 affects the temperature response of photosynthesis. The scarcity of experiments testing how elevated CO2 affects the temperature response of tropical trees hinders our ability to model future primary productivity. In a glasshouse study, we examined the effects of elevated CO2 (800 ppm) and nutrient availability on seedlings of the widespread mangrove Avicennia germinans. We assessed photosynthetic performance, the temperature response of photosynthesis, seedling growth and biomass allocation. We found large synergistic gains in both growth (42 %) and photosynthesis (115 %) when seedlings grown under elevated CO2 were supplied with elevated nutrient concentrations relative to their ambient growing conditions. Growth was significantly enhanced under elevated CO2 only under high-nutrient conditions, mainly in above-ground tissues. Under low-nutrient conditions and elevated CO2, root volume was more than double that of seedlings grown under ambient CO2 levels. Elevated CO2 significantly increased the temperature optimum for photosynthesis by ca. 4 °C. Rising CO2 concentrations are likely to have a significant positive effect on the growth rate of A. germinans over the next century, especially in areas where nutrient availability is high.

  3. Effects of pulsed nutrient inputs on phytoplankton assemblage structure and blooms in an enclosed coastal area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spatharis, Sofie; Tsirtsis, George; Danielidis, Daniel B.; Chi, Thang Do; Mouillot, David

    2007-07-01

    The response of phytoplankton assemblage structure to terrestrial nutrient inputs was examined for the Gulf of Kalloni in the Northern Aegean Sea, a productive semi-enclosed coastal marine ecosystem. The study was focused on a typical annual cycle, and emphasis was placed on the comparative analysis between blooms developing after significant nutrient inputs from the watershed, and naturally occurring blooms. Baseline information was collected on a monthly basis from a network of stations located in the oligotrophic open sea and the interior and more productive part of the embayment. Intensive sampling was also carried out along a gradient in the vicinity of a river which was the most important source of freshwater and nutrient input for the Gulf. Phytoplankton assemblage structure was analyzed from 188 samples using diversity indices (Shannon and Average Taxonomic Distinctness), multivariate plotting methods (NMDS), multivariate statistics (PERMANOVA), and canonical correspondence analysis (CCA). Three characteristic assemblages were recognized: (1) an autumn assemblage developed under nutrient depleted conditions, having low diversity due to the dominance of two small diatoms, (2) a winter bloom of the potentially toxic species Pseudo-nitzschia calliantha occurring immediately after a nutrient peak and characterized by very low diversity, and (3) a naturally occurring early summer bloom of centric diatoms with relatively high diversity. The results of the study support the view that moderate nutrient inputs may have a beneficial effect on the functioning of coastal ecosystems, stimulating the taxonomic diversity through the growth of different taxonomic groups and taxa. On the other hand, a sudden pulse of high nutrient concentrations may greatly affect the natural succession of organisms, have a negative effect on the diversity through the dominance of a single species, and can increase the possibility of a harmful algal bloom development.

  4. [Transcranial magnetic stimulation and motor cortex stimulation in neuropathic pain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mylius, V; Ayache, S S; Teepker, M; Kappus, C; Kolodziej, M; Rosenow, F; Nimsky, C; Oertel, W H; Lefaucheur, J P

    2012-12-01

    Non-invasive and invasive cortical stimulation allows the modulation of therapy-refractory neuropathic pain. High-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of the contralateral motor cortex yields therapeutic effects at short-term and predicts the benefits of epidural motor cortex stimulation (MCS). The present article summarizes the findings on application, mechanisms and therapeutic effects of cortical stimulation in neuropathic pain.

  5. Effect of amendments addition on adsorption of landfill leachate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, X. J.; Zhang, H. Y.; Wang, G. Q.; Gu, J.; Wang, J. H.; Duan, G. P.

    2018-03-01

    The disposal of leachate has become one of the most pressing problems for landfills. This study taking three kinds of amendments, corn straw, mushroom residue and garden waste as adsorbent materials, evaluates the different amendments on the leachate adsorption effect through analyzing indicators as the saturation adsorption ratio, sulfur containing odor emission, heat value. The results showed that all three kinds of amendments can effectively adsorb leachate, with saturation adsorption ratio between 1: 2 and 1: 4. Adding amendment could significantly reduce the sulfur containing odor emission of leachate. Compared the three kinds of amendments, mushroom residue could adsorb leachate at a maximize degree with a low concentration of sulfur containing odor emission. The industrial analysis showed that the heat values of the amendments after absorbing leachate are more than 14MJ/kg, and it can be utilized as a biomass fuel.

  6. MANGROVE-DERIVED NUTRIENTS AND CORAL REEFS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding the consequences of the declining global cover of mangroves due to anthropogenic disturbance necessitates consideration of how mangrove-derived nutrients contribute to threatened coral reef systems. We sampled potential sources of organic matter and a suite of sessi...

  7. Biotechnology in plant nutrient management for agricultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biotechnology in plant nutrient management for agricultural production in the tropics: ... and yields, marker assisted selection breeding, to develop new uses for agricultural products, to facilitate early maturation and to improve food and feed ...

  8. Tree root systems and nutrient mobilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyle, Jim; Rob, Harrison; Raulund-Rasmussen, Karsten

    sometimes stored at depth. Other recent studies on potential release of nutrients due to chemical weathering indicate the importance of root access to deep soil layers. Release profi les clearly indicate depletion in the top layers and a much higher potential in B and C horizons. Review of evaluations......Roots mobilize nutrients via deep penetration and rhizosphere processes inducing weathering of primary minerals. These contribute to C transfer to soils and to tree nutrition. Assessments of these characteristics and processes of root systems are important for understanding long-term supplies...... of nutrient elements essential for forest growth and resilience. Research and techniques have signifi cantly advanced since Olof Tamm’s 1934 base mineral index for Swedish forest soils, and basic nutrient budget estimates for whole-tree harvesting systems of the 1970s. Recent research in areas that include...

  9. Recovery of agricultural nutrients from biorefineries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Daniel E; Yang, Yu; McNamara, Patrick J; Mayer, Brooke K

    2016-09-01

    This review lays the foundation for why nutrient recovery must be a key consideration in design and operation of biorefineries and comprehensively reviews technologies that can be used to recover an array of nitrogen, phosphorus, and/or potassium-rich products of relevance to agricultural applications. Recovery of these products using combinations of physical, chemical, and biological operations will promote sustainability at biorefineries by converting low-value biomass (particularly waste material) into a portfolio of higher-value products. These products can include a natural partnering of traditional biorefinery outputs such as biofuels and chemicals together with nutrient-rich fertilizers. Nutrient recovery not only adds an additional marketable biorefinery product, but also avoids the negative consequences of eutrophication, and helps to close anthropogenic nutrient cycles, thereby providing an alternative to current unsustainable approaches to fertilizer production, which are energy-intensive and reliant on nonrenewable natural resource extraction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Nutrients in some estuaries of Kerala

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Devi, K.S.; Venugopal, P.; Remani, K.N.; Zacharias, D.; Unnithan, R.V.

    phosphate and ammonia were high at Kallai compared to other three estuaries. All the estuaries showed an increase in nitrate content during monsoon. Nitrite values were high in postmonsoon. Ammonia levels were generally high except at Korapuzha. Nutrient...

  11. Neuronal regulation of homeostasis by nutrient sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Tony K T

    2010-04-01

    In type 2 diabetes and obesity, the homeostatic control of glucose and energy balance is impaired, leading to hyperglycemia and hyperphagia. Recent studies indicate that nutrient-sensing mechanisms in the body activate negative-feedback systems to regulate energy and glucose homeostasis through a neuronal network. Direct metabolic signaling within the intestine activates gut-brain and gut-brain-liver axes to regulate energy and glucose homeostasis, respectively. In parallel, direct metabolism of nutrients within the hypothalamus regulates food intake and blood glucose levels. These findings highlight the importance of the central nervous system in mediating the ability of nutrient sensing to maintain homeostasis. Futhermore, they provide a physiological and neuronal framework by which enhancing or restoring nutrient sensing in the intestine and the brain could normalize energy and glucose homeostasis in diabetes and obesity.

  12. Nutrient enrichment increases mortality of mangroves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine E Lovelock

    Full Text Available Nutrient enrichment of the coastal zone places intense pressure on marine communities. Previous studies have shown that growth of intertidal mangrove forests is accelerated with enhanced nutrient availability. However, nutrient enrichment favours growth of shoots relative to roots, thus enhancing growth rates but increasing vulnerability to environmental stresses that adversely affect plant water relations. Two such stresses are high salinity and low humidity, both of which require greater investment in roots to meet the demands for water by the shoots. Here we present data from a global network of sites that documents enhanced mortality of mangroves with experimental nutrient enrichment at sites where high sediment salinity was coincident with low rainfall and low humidity. Thus the benefits of increased mangrove growth in response to coastal eutrophication is offset by the costs of decreased resilience due to mortality during drought, with mortality increasing with soil water salinity along climatic gradients.

  13. Grating stimulated echo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubetsky, B.; Berman, P.R.; Sleator, T.

    1992-01-01

    A theory of a grating simulated echo (GTE) is developed. The GSE involves the sequential excitation of atoms by two counterpropagating traveling waves, a standing wave, and a third traveling wave. It is shown that the echo signal is very sensitive to small changes in atomic velocity, much more sensitive than the normal stimulated echo. Use of the GSE as a collisional probe or accelerometer is discussed

  14. Thyroid Stimulating Hormone Receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Tuncel

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR plays a pivotal role in thyroid hormone metabolism. It is a major controller of thyroid cell function and growth. Mutations in TSHR may lead to several thyroid diseases, most commonly hyperthyroidism. Although its genetic and epigenetic alterations do not directly lead to carcinogenesis, it has a crucial role in tumor growth, which is initiated by several oncogenes. This article will provide a brief review of TSHR and related diseases.

  15. Nutrient budgets for large Chinese estuaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Liu

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Chinese rivers deliver about 5–10% of global freshwater input and 15–20% of the global continental sediment to the world ocean. We report the riverine fluxes and concentrations of major nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus, and silicon in the rivers of the contiguous landmass of China and Korea in the northeast Asia. The rivers are generally enriched with dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN and depleted in dissolved inorganic phosphate (PO43− with very high DIN: PO43− concentration ratios. DIN, phosphorus, and silicon levels and loads in rivers are mainly affected by agriculture activities and urbanization, anthropogenic activities and adsorption on particulates, and rock types, climate and physical denudation intensity, respectively. Nutrient transports by rivers in the summer are 3–4 times higher than those in the winter with the exception of NH4+. The flux of NH4+ is rather constant throughout the year due to the anthropogenic sources such as the sewer discharge. As nutrient composition has changed in the rivers, ecosystems in estuaries and coastal sea have also changed in recent decades. Among the changes, a shift of limiting nutrients from phosphorus to nitrogen for phytoplankton production with urbanization is noticeable and in some areas silicon becomes the limiting nutrient for diatom productivity. A simple steady-state mass-balance box model was employed to assess nutrient budgets in the estuaries. The major Chinese estuaries export <15% of nitrogen, <6% of phosphorus required for phytoplankton production and ~4% of silicon required for diatom growth in the Chinese Seas (Bohai, Yellow Sea, East China Sea, South China Sea. This suggests that land-derived nutrients are largely confined to the immediate estuaries, and ecosystem in the coastal sea beyond the estuaries is mainly supported by other nutrient sources such as regeneration, open ocean and

  16. Autonomous nutrient detection for water quality monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Maher, Damien; Cleary, John; Cogan, Deirdre; Diamond, Dermot

    2012-01-01

    The ever increasing demand for real time environmental monitoring is currently being driven by strong legislative and societal drivers. Low cost autonomous environmental monitoring systems are required to meet this demand as current monitoring solutions are insufficient. This poster presents an autonomous nutrient analyser platform for water quality monitoring. Results from a field trial of the nutrient analyser are reported along with current work to expand the range of water quality targ...

  17. 50 CFR 679.92 - Amendment 80 Program use caps and sideboard limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Amendment 80 Program use caps and... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Amendment 80 Program § 679.92 Amendment 80 Program use caps and sideboard limits. (a) Use caps—(1) General. Use caps limit the amount of Amendment 80 QS units and Amendment 80 species...

  18. 75 FR 33167 - Technical Amendment Language Change From “Wholly” to “Fully”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-11

    ....953 [Amended] 0 5. In Sec. 404.953, amend the paragraph heading, and the first, second, and fifth... ``fully favorable''. Sec. 404.966 [Amended] 0 6. In Sec. 404.966, amend the second sentence of paragraph... WORLD WAR II VETERANS Subpart J--[Amended] 0 14. The authority citation for subpart J of part 408...

  19. The Maternity Benefit (Amendment Bill, 2016: A Critical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suman Singh

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available On 11 August 2016, amending the Maternity Benefit Act, 1961, the new bill, The Maternity Benefit (Amendment Bill, 2016 was introduced and passed in the Rajya Sabha (or Council of States, the upper house of the Parliament of India. Central aim of this article is to critically review the amendments to the bill regarding geographies of maternity leave and its associated facilities.

  20. Influence of Pyrolysis Temperature and Production Conditions on Switchgrass Biochar for Use as a Soil Amendment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Joy Ashworth

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Biochars form recalcitrant carbon and increase water and nutrient retention in soils; however, the magnitude is contingent upon production conditions and thermo-chemical conversion processes. Herein we aim at (i characterizing switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.-biochar morphology, (ii estimating water-holding capacity under increasing ratios of char: soil; and, (iii determining nutrient profile variation as a function of pyrolysis conversion methodologies (i.e. continuous, auger pyrolysis system versus batch pyrolysis systems for terminal use as a soil amendment. Auger system chars produced at 600°C had the greatest lignin portion by weight among the biochars produced from the continuous system. On the other hand, a batch pyrolysis system (400 °C – 3h yielded biochar with 73.10% lignin (12 fold increases, indicating higher recalcitrance, whereas lower production temperatures (400 °C yielded greater hemicellulose (i.e. greater mineralization promoting substrate. Under both pyrolysis methods, increasing biochar soil application rates resulted in linear decreases in bulk density (g cm-3. Increases in auger-char (400 °C applications increased soil water-holding capacities; however, application rates of >2 Mt ha-1 are required. Pyrolysis batch chars did not influence water-holding abilities (P>0.05. Biochar macro and micronutrients increased, as the pyrolysis temperature increased in the auger system from 400 to 600 °C, and the residence time increased in the batch pyrolysis system from 1 to 3 h. Conversely, nitrogen levels tended to decrease under the two previously mentioned conditions. Consequently, not all chars are inherently equal, in that varying operation systems, residence times, and production conditions greatly affect uses as a soil amendment and overall rate of efficacy.

  1. Closing the Global Energy and Nutrient Cycles through Application of Biogas Residue to Agricultural Land – Potential Benefits and Drawback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Arthurson

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic digestion is an optimal way to treat organic waste matter, resulting in biogas and residue. Utilization of the residue as a crop fertilizer should enhance crop yield and soil fertility, promoting closure of the global energy and nutrient cycles. Consequently, the requirement for production of inorganic fertilizers will decrease, in turn saving significant amounts of energy, reducing greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere, and indirectly leading to global economic benefits. However, application of this residue to agricultural land requires careful monitoring to detect amendments in soil quality at the early stages.

  2. Nutrient Shielding in Clusters of Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrentovich, Maxim O.; Koschwanez, John H.; Nelson, David R.

    2014-01-01

    Cellular nutrient consumption is influenced by both the nutrient uptake kinetics of an individual cell and the cells’ spatial arrangement. Large cell clusters or colonies have inhibited growth at the cluster's center due to the shielding of nutrients by the cells closer to the surface. We develop an effective medium theory that predicts a thickness ℓ of the outer shell of cells in the cluster that receives enough nutrient to grow. The cells are treated as partially absorbing identical spherical nutrient sinks, and we identify a dimensionless parameter ν that characterizes the absorption strength of each cell. The parameter ν can vary over many orders of magnitude between different cell types, ranging from bacteria and yeast to human tissue. The thickness ℓ decreases with increasing ν, increasing cell volume fraction ϕ, and decreasing ambient nutrient concentration ψ∞. The theoretical results are compared with numerical simulations and experiments. In the latter studies, colonies of budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, are grown on glucose media and imaged under a confocal microscope. We measure the growth inside the colonies via a fluorescent protein reporter and compare the experimental and theoretical results for the thickness ℓ. PMID:23848711

  3. Application of calcium carbonate slows down organic amendments mineralization in reclaimed soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zornoza, Raúl; Faz, Ángel; Acosta, José A.; Martínez-Martínez, Silvia; Ángeles Muñoz, M.

    2014-05-01

    A field experiment was set up in Cartagena-La Unión Mining District, SE Spain, aimed at evaluating the short-term effects of pig slurry (PS) amendment alone and together with marble waste (MW) on organic matter mineralization, microbial activity and stabilization of heavy metals in two tailing ponds. These structures pose environmental risk owing to high metals contents, low organic matter and nutrients, and null vegetation. Carbon mineralization, exchangeable metals and microbiological properties were monitored during 67 days. The application of amendments led to a rapid decrease of exchangeable metals concentrations, except for Cu, with decreases up to 98%, 75% and 97% for Cd, Pb and Zn, respectively. The combined addition of MW+PS was the treatment with greater reduction in metals concentrations. The addition of PS caused a significant increase in respiration rates, although in MW+PS plots respiration was lower than in PS plots. The mineralised C from the pig slurry was low, approximately 25-30% and 4-12% for PS and MW+PS treatments, respectively. Soluble carbon (Csol), microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and β-galactosidase and β-glucosidase activities increased after the application of the organic amendment. However, after 3 days these parameters started a decreasing trend reaching similar values than control from approximately day 25 for Csol and MBC. The PS treatment promoted highest values in enzyme activities, which remained high upon time. Arylesterase activity increased in the MW+PS treatment. Thus, the remediation techniques used improved soil microbiological status and reduced metal availability. The combined application of PS+MW reduced the degradability of the organic compounds. Keywords: organic wastes, mine soils stabilization, carbon mineralization, microbial activity.

  4. Soil amendment affects Cd uptake by wheat - are we underestimating the risks from chloride inputs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlin, A Sigrun; Eriksson, Jan; Campbell, Colin D; Öborn, Ingrid

    2016-06-01

    Many parts of the world are investigating the efficacy of recycling nutrient resources to agriculture from different industry and domestic sectors as part of a more circular economy. The complex nature of recycled products as soil amendments coupled to the large diversity of soil types and their inherent properties make it difficult to optimize the benefits and minimize the risks from potentially toxic elements often present in recycled materials. Here we investigated how wheat grain cadmium (Cd) concentration was affected by soil amendments, namely human urine and biogas digestate compared to traditional farm manures and mineral fertilizers. We show that Cl(-) inadvertently added to soils with e.g. urine or biogas digestate strongly increased crop Cd concentrations, largely by mobilizing inherent soil Cd. This resulted in wheat grain Cd levels that could result in exceeding recommended WHO limits for dietary intake. This was evident even in soils with low inherent Cd content and when Cd inputs were low. The future of a circular economy that helps to underpin global food security needs to ensure that the effects of applying complex materials to different types of agricultural land are fully understood and do not jeopardize food safety. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Aromatic hydrocarbon degradation in hydrogen peroxide- and nitrate-amended microcosms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christian, B.J.; Pugh, L.B.; Clarke, B.H.

    1995-01-01

    Fifty microcosms were constructed using aquifer materials from a former coal gasification site and divided into four groups: poisoned control, nutrient-free control, hydrogen peroxide-amended, and nitrate-amended microcosms. Each microcosm contained site soil and groundwater in a 1.2-L glass media bottle. When depleted, hydrogen peroxide and sodium nitrate were injected into the microcosms. Microcosms were periodically sacrificed for analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs); monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes [BTEX]); total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH); and heterotrophic plate counts (HPCs). BTEX and two- and three-ringed PAHs were degraded in microcosms receiving electron-acceptor additions compared to poisoned controls. Four-, five-, and six-ringed PAHs were not significantly degraded during this study. Except in poisoned controls, significant amounts of dissolved oxygen (DO) or nitrate were utilized, and microbial populations increased by 3 to 5 orders of magnitude compared to site soils used to assemble the microcosms (i.e., baseline samples)

  6. Use of softwood sawdust to amend reclaimed soils - a progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossenberry, T.; Chollak, D.; Walker, G.; Evans, D. S.; Wilson, J. J.

    1997-01-01

    Updating a report presented at the 1996 annual meeting, these authors reported on an experiment on a 12 hectare site near Bonnyville in northeastern Alberta involving the addition of softwood sawdust, manure and inorganic fertilizers to the clay-rich stoney, glacial till parent material characterized by thin organic-poor cover and low nutrient composition. A nearby site of approximately the same size has been reclaimed using more conventional reclamation methods. The site with the added sawdust progressed slowly during spring and early summer, but more favorably with growing conditions in late 1996. It eventually resulted in better plant cover dominated by clover species with a late catching of grasses as understory vegetation. The conventionally treated site progressed more quickly with better production of both clovers and grasses. In 1997 the sawdust-added site accelerated with better and more consistent plant coverage and a better grass to clover ratio. The sawdust-amended topsoil profile remained stable, had good moisture retention and continued to be well drained and uncompacted. The overall assessment is that amended topsoils provide a short term physical and textural improvement to clay-rich soils and a longer term source of organic material. Therefore sawdust addition is particularly useful in remediating soils where topsoil quality is poor or insufficient for conventional reclamation

  7. Migration of heavy metals in soil as influenced by compost amendments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrell, Mark, E-mail: m.farrell@bangor.ac.u [School of the Environment and Natural Resources, Bangor University, Gwynedd LL57 2UW (United Kingdom); Perkins, William T. [Institute of Geography and Earth Sciences, Aberystwyth University, Ceredigion SY23 3DB (United Kingdom); Hobbs, Phil J. [North Wyke Research, Okehampton, Devon EX20 2SB (United Kingdom); Griffith, Gareth W. [Institute of Biological Environmental and Rural Sciences, Aberystwyth University, Ceredigion SY23 3DA (United Kingdom); Jones, Davey L. [School of the Environment and Natural Resources, Bangor University, Gwynedd LL57 2UW (United Kingdom)

    2010-01-15

    Soils contaminated with heavy metals can pose a major risk to freshwaters and food chains. In this study, the success of organic and inorganic intervention strategies to alleviate toxicity in a highly acidic soil heavily contaminated with As, Cu, Pb, and Zn was evaluated over 112 d in a mesocosm trial. Amelioration of metal toxicity was assessed by measuring changes in soil solution chemistry, metal leaching, plant growth, and foliar metal accumulation. Either green waste- or MSW-derived composts increased plant yield and rooting depth, reduced plant metal uptake, and raised the pH and nutrient status of the soil. We conclude that composts are well suited for promoting the re-vegetation of contaminated sites; however, care must be taken to ensure that very short-term leaching pulses of heavy metals induced by compost amendment are not of sufficient magnitude to cause contamination of the wider environment. - Composts increase rooting depth and vegetation growth over inorganic amendment in an acidic, contaminated soil.

  8. Potential Environmental Benefits from Blending Biosolids with Other Organic Amendments before Application to Land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paramashivam, Dharini; Dickinson, Nicholas M; Clough, Timothy J; Horswell, Jacqui; Robinson, Brett H

    2017-05-01

    Biosolids disposal to landfill or through incineration is wasteful of a resource that is rich in organic matter and plant nutrients. Land application can improve soil fertility and enhance crop production but may result in excessive nitrate N (NO-N) leaching and residual contamination from pathogens, heavy metals, and xenobiotics. This paper evaluates evidence that these concerns can be reduced significantly by blending biosolids with organic materials to reduce the environmental impact of biosolids application to soils. It appears feasible to combine organic waste streams for use as a resource to build or amend degraded soils. Sawdust and partially pyrolyzed biochars provide an opportunity to reduce the environmental impact of biosolids application, with studies showing reductions of NO-N leaching of 40 to 80%. However, other organic amendments including lignite coal waste may result in excessive NO-N leaching. Field trials combining biosolids and biochars for rehabilitation of degraded forest and ecological restoration are recommended. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  9. Migration of heavy metals in soil as influenced by compost amendments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrell, Mark; Perkins, William T.; Hobbs, Phil J.; Griffith, Gareth W.; Jones, Davey L.

    2010-01-01

    Soils contaminated with heavy metals can pose a major risk to freshwaters and food chains. In this study, the success of organic and inorganic intervention strategies to alleviate toxicity in a highly acidic soil heavily contaminated with As, Cu, Pb, and Zn was evaluated over 112 d in a mesocosm trial. Amelioration of metal toxicity was assessed by measuring changes in soil solution chemistry, metal leaching, plant growth, and foliar metal accumulation. Either green waste- or MSW-derived composts increased plant yield and rooting depth, reduced plant metal uptake, and raised the pH and nutrient status of the soil. We conclude that composts are well suited for promoting the re-vegetation of contaminated sites; however, care must be taken to ensure that very short-term leaching pulses of heavy metals induced by compost amendment are not of sufficient magnitude to cause contamination of the wider environment. - Composts increase rooting depth and vegetation growth over inorganic amendment in an acidic, contaminated soil.

  10. Natural attenuation of toxic metal phytoavailability in 35-year-old sewage sludge-amended soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Yiping; Li, Zhian; Mcbride, Murray B

    2016-04-01

    Toxic heavy metals persist in agricultural soils and ecosystem for many decades after their application as contaminants in sewage sludge and fertilizer products This study assessed the potential long-term risk of cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), and copper (Cu) in land-applied sewage sludge to food crop contamination. A sewage sludge-amended soil (SAS) aged in the field more than 35 years was used in a greenhouse pot experiment with leafy vegetables (lettuce and amaranth) having strong Cd and Zn accumulation tendencies. Soil media with variable levels of available Cd, Zn, and Cu (measured using 0.01 M CaCl2 extraction) were prepared by diluting SAS with several levels of uncontaminated control soil. Despite long-term aging in the field, the sludge site soil still retains large reserves of heavy metals, residual organic matter, phosphorus, and other nutrients, but its characteristics appear to have stabilized over time. Nevertheless, lettuce and amaranth harvested from the sludge-treated soil had undesirable contents of Cd and Zn. The high plant uptake efficiency for Cd and Zn raises a concern regarding the quality and safety of leafy vegetables in particular, when these crops are grown on soils that have been amended heavily with sewage sludge products at any time in their past.

  11. The merchant shipping (dangerous goods) (amendment) rules 1980 No. 789

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    These Rules amend the Merchant Shipping Rules 1978 and revoke the Merchant Shipping (Dangerous Goods) (Amendment) Rules 1979. The purpose of this amendment is to update the references to the 1978 Report of the Department of Trade's Standing Advisory Committee on the Carriage of Dangerous Goods in Ships (the Blue Book) and the 1977 Edition of the International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code of IMCO (the IMDG Code), referred to in the 1978 Rules. The amendments concern, inter alia, marking of packages on board ship which contain dangerous goods, including radioactive materials (NEA) [fr

  12. Zooplankton excretion metabolites stimulate Southern Ocean phytoplankton growth

    KAUST Repository

    Coello-Camba, A.; Llabré s, M.; Duarte, Carlos M.; Agusti, Susana

    2017-01-01

    Warming over Antarctica is leading to changes in the zooplankton communities inhabiting the Southern Ocean. It has been observed that zooplankton not only regulates phytoplankton through grazing, but also through the recycling of nutrients that are essential for phytoplankton growth. In this way, the effects of warming on zooplankton populations will change the amount or proportion at which recycled nutrients are restored. To estimate how the recycled nutrients released by zooplankton populations, dominated by krill (Euphausia superba), amphipods or copepods, affect the phytoplankton uptake and communities, we performed four incubation experiments: two close to the Antarctic Peninsula and two at the Southern Atlantic Ocean. Our results showed a stimulating effect of the addition of metabolites on ammonia removal rates and on the net growth of phytoplankton communities, with different responses amongst the different phytoplankton groups. According to our results, phytoplankton net growth and community composition may be altered if this relevant source of nutrients is lost due to projected changes in the abundance or distribution of these zooplankton populations.

  13. Zooplankton excretion metabolites stimulate Southern Ocean phytoplankton growth

    KAUST Repository

    Coello-Camba, A.

    2017-04-24

    Warming over Antarctica is leading to changes in the zooplankton communities inhabiting the Southern Ocean. It has been observed that zooplankton not only regulates phytoplankton through grazing, but also through the recycling of nutrients that are essential for phytoplankton growth. In this way, the effects of warming on zooplankton populations will change the amount or proportion at which recycled nutrients are restored. To estimate how the recycled nutrients released by zooplankton populations, dominated by krill (Euphausia superba), amphipods or copepods, affect the phytoplankton uptake and communities, we performed four incubation experiments: two close to the Antarctic Peninsula and two at the Southern Atlantic Ocean. Our results showed a stimulating effect of the addition of metabolites on ammonia removal rates and on the net growth of phytoplankton communities, with different responses amongst the different phytoplankton groups. According to our results, phytoplankton net growth and community composition may be altered if this relevant source of nutrients is lost due to projected changes in the abundance or distribution of these zooplankton populations.

  14. Low intensity transcranial electric stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antal, Andrea; Alekseichuk, I; Bikson, M

    2017-01-01

    Low intensity transcranial electrical stimulation (TES) in humans, encompassing transcranial direct current (tDCS), transcutaneous spinal Direct Current Stimulation (tsDCS), transcranial alternating current (tACS), and transcranial random noise (tRNS) stimulation or their combinations, appears...

  15. Leachate water quality of soils amended with different swine manure-based amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the face of the rising level of manure production from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs), management options are being sought that can provide nutrient recycling for plant growth and improved soil conditions with minimal environmental impacts. Alternatives to dire...

  16. Molecular speciation of phosphorus in organic amendments and amended soils using nuclear magnetic resonance and X-ray absorption spectroscopies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajibove, B.

    2007-01-01

    Characterization of phosphorus (P) in organic amendments is essential for environmentally sustainable fertilization of agricultural soils. The sequential chemical extraction (SCE) technique commonly used for P characterization does not provide any direct molecular information about P species. Studies were conducted to characterize P species in organic amendments and amended soils at a molecular level. The SCE was used to fractionate P in organic amendments including biosolids, hog, dairy and beef cattle manures, and poultry litter. The extracts were analyzed for total P and P species using inductively coupled plasma - optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) and solution 31 P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, respectively. The relative proportions of P species in intact organic amendments and residues after each extraction, and calcareous soils amended with organic amendments and monoammonium phosphate (MAP) were estimated using the synchrotron-based P 1s X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy. The solution 31 P NMR provided a detailed characterization of organic P in the non-labile NaOH and HCl fractions of organic amendments, but was limited in characterizing the labile fractions of most of these organic amendments due to their proneness to alkaline hydrolysis. The XANES analysis, however, identified the actual chemical species constituting the labile P that was only characterized as inorganic P or orthophosphates by sequential extraction and solution 31 P NMR. In the amended Vertisolic and Chernozemic soils, XANES analysis estimated 'soluble and adsorbed P' as the dominant P species. For the Vertisolic soil, both the unamended and soil amended with biosolids and MAP contained hydroxyapatite (HAP). In addition, soil amended with biosolids, hog and dairy manures contained β-tricalcium phosphate (TRICAL), a more soluble CaP than HAP. TRICAL was found in all amended soils except in that amended with hog manure, while HAP was present

  17. Nutrient density: addressing the challenge of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewnowski, Adam

    2017-10-30

    Obesity rates are increasing worldwide. Potential reasons include excessive consumption of sugary beverages and energy-dense foods instead of more nutrient-rich options. On a per kJ basis, energy-dense grains, added sugars and fats cost less, whereas lean meats, seafood, leafy greens and whole fruit generally cost more. Given that consumer food choices are often driven by price, the observed social inequities in diet quality and health can be explained, in part, by nutrition economics. Achieving a nutrient-rich diet at an affordable cost has become progressively more difficult within the constraints of global food supply. However, given the necessary metrics and educational tools, it may be possible to eat better for less. New metrics of nutrient density help consumers identify foods, processed and unprocessed, that are nutrient-rich, affordable and appealing. Affordability metrics, created by adding food prices to food composition data, permit calculations of both kJ and nutrients per penny, allowing for new studies on the economic drivers of food choice. Merging dietary intake data with local or national food prices permits the estimation of individual-level diet costs. New metrics of nutrient balance can help identify those food patterns that provide optimal nutritional value. Behavioural factors, including cooking at home, have been associated with nutrition resilience, defined as healthier diets at lower cost. Studies of the energy and nutrient costs of the global food supply and diverse food patterns will permit a better understanding of the socioeconomic determinants of health. Dietary advice ought to be accompanied by economic feasibility studies.

  18. Total primary production and the balance between benthic and pelagic plants in different nutrient regimes in a shallow estuary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markager, Svend Stiig; Krause-Jensen, Dorte; Dalsgaard, Tage

    on a large monitoring data set in combination with historical information we have quantified and compared the benthic and the pelagic primary production along nutrient gradients in space and time for the shallow estuary Limfjorden, Denmark. As expected, increases in nutrient load stimulated the pelagic...... was again reduced, and the ecosystem entered a phase of oligotrophication, pelagic GPP declined gradually while benthic GPP did not increase correspondingly leading to an decline in overall GPP. Instead the ecosystem showed a resistance or time lag against return to a clear water state with benthic...

  19. Above-ground biomass and nutrient accumulation in the tropical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This means that the impact of logging in the Ebom rainforest remains low. However, additional research is needed on nutrient input in the forest from outside as well as on the impact of logging on nutrient leaching in order to get a complete picture of the nutrient cycles. Key-words: phytomass, nutrient pools, logging, ...

  20. 9 Nutrient Load of the Sakumo Lagoon.cdr

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    nutrients studied, phosphates were the highest in the Sakumo lagoon. The decreasing ... (2008), used nutrient and the trophic status to assess the ... the level of nutrient pollution of the Ramsar site. Materials and ... In assessing the nutrient load, water samples of the .... tidal waves resulting in sea water intrusion may account ...

  1. Spinal Cord Stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, Kaare

    2014-01-01

    Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) is a surgical treatment for chronic neuropathic pain that is refractory to other treatment. Originally described by Shealy et al. in 1967(1), it is used to treat a range of conditions such as complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS I)(2), angina pectoris(3), radicular...... pain after failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS)(4), pain due to peripheral nerve injury, stump pain(5), peripheral vascular disease(6) and diabetic neuropathy(7,8); whereas phantom pain(9), postherpetic neuralgia(10), chronic visceral pain(11), and pain after partial spinal cord injury(12) remain more...

  2. Pelagic community production and carbon-nutrient stoichiometry under variable ocean acidification in an Arctic fjord

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Silyakova

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Net community production (NCP and carbon to nutrient uptake ratios were studied during a large-scale mesocosm experiment on ocean acidification in Kongsfjorden, western Svalbard, during June–July 2010. Nutrient depleted fjord water with natural plankton assemblages, enclosed in nine mesocosms of ~ 50 m3 in volume, was exposed to pCO2 levels ranging initially from 185 to 1420 μatm. NCP estimations are the cumulative change in dissolved inorganic carbon concentrations after accounting for gas exchange and total alkalinity variations. Stoichiometric coupling between inorganic carbon and nutrient net uptake is shown as a ratio of NCP to a cumulative change in inorganic nutrients. Phytoplankton growth was stimulated by nutrient addition half way through the experiment and three distinct peaks in chlorophyll a concentration were observed during the experiment. Accordingly, the experiment was divided in three phases. Cumulative NCP was similar in all mesocosms over the duration of the experiment. However, in phases I and II, NCP was higher and in phase III lower at elevated pCO2. Due to relatively low inorganic nutrient concentration in phase I, C : N and C : P uptake ratios were calculated only for the period after nutrient addition (phase II and phase III. For the total post-nutrient period (phase II + phase III ratios were close to Redfield, however they were lower in phase II and higher in phase III. Variability of NCP, C : N and C : P uptake ratios in different phases reflects the effect of increasing CO2 on phytoplankton community composition and succession. The phytoplankton community was composed predominantly of haptophytes in phase I, prasinophytes, dinoflagellates, and cryptophytes in phase II, and haptophytes, prasinophytes, dinoflagellates and chlorophytes in phase III (Schulz et al., 2013. Increasing ambient inorganic carbon concentrations have also been shown to promote primary production and carbon assimilation. For this study, it is

  3. The Hyde Amendment and the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosoff, J I

    1980-01-01

    The U.S. Supreme Court has affirmed the constitutionality of the Hyde Amendment prohibiting federal funding for virtually all abortions for indigent women eligible for medical assistance. The Hyde Amendment represents a compromise on the politically sensitive issue of legality of all abortions. Despite the political controversy, however, real gains have been made since the Court decision legalizing abortion in 1973, in providing abortions services and lowering their costs. With the cutoff of Federal funds, however, most states will probably not support abortion services, thus rendering the poor and young especially vulnerable to the consequences of unwanted pregnancies. Barring the restoration of public funding, and noting that the cost of replacing it with private philanthropy is too high to be realistic, the author suggests some ways in which the cost of abortion services could be held down. Among these are setting up low cost clinic services in areas where no such services exist, thus alleviating substantial travel expenses for poor rural women; advertising the availability of such services and making other efforts to assure earlier, safer, less expensive procedures; encouraging clinics and hospitals to bill Medicaid for medical services related to (but not involved in) the abortion procedure; instituting outpatient abortion services in hospitals; and establishing satellite and mobile services by larger facilities to serve outlying areas.

  4. The protocol amending the 1963 Vienna Convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamm, V.

    1998-01-01

    In the first stage of the revision process, the only goal was to amend certain provisions of the Vienna Convention. Later, in what might be called the second stage, the question was seriously raised of establishing a new supplementary convention by which additional funds were to be provided by the international community of States. Most experts felt that the nuclear liability regime of the Vienna Convention, as amended, would really serve the interests of potential victims of nuclear incidents only if it were supported by an international supplementary fund providing additional compensation for nuclear damage to that provided by the operator. Thus, the Standing Committee started to consider the establishment, under the Vienna Convention, of a mechanism for mobilizing additional funds for compensation of nuclear damage. During the negotiations it was deemed necessary to establish a separate treaty for such a supplementary fund, and indeed, efforts were undertaken to draw up such an instrument concurrently with the revision of the Vienna Convention. (K.A.)

  5. Leaf nutrient resorption, leaf lifespan and the retention of nutrients in seagrass systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemminga, M.A.; Marbà, N.; Stapel, J.

    1999-01-01

    Efficient nutrient resorption from senescing leaves, and extended leaf life spans are important strategies in order to conserve nutrients for plants in general. Despite the fact that seagrasses often grow in oligotrophic waters, these conservation strategies are not strongly developed in seagrasses.

  6. Differences in egg nutrient availability, development, and nutrient metabolism of broiler and layer embryos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nangsuay, A.; Molenaar, R.; Meijerhof, R.; Anker, van den I.; Heetkamp, M.J.W.; Kemp, B.; Brand, van den H.

    2015-01-01

    Selection for production traits of broilers and layers leads to physiological differences, which may already be present during incubation. This study aimed to investigate the influence of strain (broiler vs layer) on egg nutrient availability, embryonic development and nutrient metabolism. A total

  7. Nutrient uptake and regeneration ratios in the Red sea with reference to the nutrient budgets

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naqvi, S.W.A.; Hansen, H.P.; Kureishy, T.W.

    the Red Se, however, appears to be rather uniform and the atomic ratios between carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus in the biomass are deduced to be 188:21:1. Increased input of nutrients associated with subsurface inflow of nutrient-rich waters from the Gulf...

  8. Nutrient Limitation in Central Red Sea Mangroves

    KAUST Repository

    Almahasheer, Hanan

    2016-12-24

    As coastal plants that can survive in salt water, mangroves play an essential role in large marine ecosystems (LMEs). The Red Sea, where the growth of mangroves is stunted, is one of the least studied LMEs in the world. Mangroves along the Central Red Sea have characteristic heights of ~2 m, suggesting nutrient limitation. We assessed the nutrient status of mangrove stands in the Central Red Sea and conducted a fertilization experiment (N, P and Fe and various combinations thereof) on 4-week-old seedlings of Avicennia marina to identify limiting nutrients and stoichiometric effects. We measured height, number of leaves, number of nodes and root development at different time periods as well as the leaf content of C, N, P, Fe, and Chl a in the experimental seedlings. Height, number of nodes and number of leaves differed significantly among treatments. Iron treatment resulted in significantly taller plants compared with other nutrients, demonstrating that iron is the primary limiting nutrient in the tested mangrove population and confirming Liebig\\'s law of the minimum: iron addition alone yielded results comparable to those using complete fertilizer. This result is consistent with the biogenic nature of the sediments in the Red Sea, which are dominated by carbonates, and the lack of riverine sources of iron.

  9. Usefulness of Models in Precision Nutrient Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plauborg, Finn; Manevski, Kiril; Zhenjiang, Zhou

    Modern agriculture increasingly applies new methods and technologies to increase production and nutrient use efficiencies and at the same time reduce leaching of nutrients and greenhouse gas emissions. GPS based ECa-measurement equipment, ER or EM instrumentations, are used to spatially character......Modern agriculture increasingly applies new methods and technologies to increase production and nutrient use efficiencies and at the same time reduce leaching of nutrients and greenhouse gas emissions. GPS based ECa-measurement equipment, ER or EM instrumentations, are used to spatially...... and mineral composition. Mapping of crop status and the spatial-temporal variability within fields with red-infrared reflection are used to support decision on split fertilisation and more precise dosing. The interpretation and use of these various data in precise nutrient management is not straightforward...... of mineralisation. However, whether the crop would benefit from this depended to a large extent on soil hydraulic conductivity within the range of natural variation when testing the model. In addition the initialisation of the distribution of soil total carbon and nitrogen into conceptual model compartments...

  10. Nutrients affecting brain composition and behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurtman, R. J.

    1987-01-01

    This review examines the changes in brain composition and in various brain functions, including behavior, that can follow the ingestion of particular foods or nutrients. It details those that are best understood: the increases in serotonin, catecholamine, or acetylcholine synthesis that can occur subsequent to food-induced increases in brain levels of tryptophan, tyrosine, or choline; it also discusses the various processes that must intervene between the mouth and the synapse, so to speak, in order for a nutrient to affect neurotransmission, and it speculates as to additional brain chemicals that may ultimately be found to be affected by changes in the availability of their nutrient precursors. Because the brain chemicals best known to be nutrient dependent overlap with those thought to underlie the actions of most of the drugs used to treat psychiatric diseases, knowledge of this dependence may help the psychiatrist to understand some of the pathologic processes occurring in his/her patients, particularly those with appetitive symptoms. At the very least, such knowledge should provide the psychiatrist with objective criteria for judging when to take seriously assertions that particular foods or nutrients do indeed affect behavior (e.g., in hyperactive children). If the food can be shown to alter neurotransmitter release, it may be behaviorally-active; however, if it lacks a discernible neurochemical effect, the likelihood that it really alters behavior is small.

  11. Global pressures, specific responses: effects of nutrient enrichment in streams from different biomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artigas, Joan; García-Berthou, Emili; Gómez, Nora; Romaní, Anna M; Sabater, Sergi; Bauer, Delia E; Cochero, Joaquín; Cortelezzi, Agustina; Rodrigues-Capítulo, Alberto; Castro, Maria I; Donato, John C; Colautti, Darío C; Elosegi, Arturo; Feijoó, Claudia; Giorgi, Adonis; Leggieri, Leonardo; Muñoz, Isabel

    2013-01-01

    We assessed the effects of nutrient enrichment on three stream ecosystems running through distinct biomes (Mediterranean, Pampean and Andean). We increased the concentrations of N and P in the stream water 1.6–4-fold following a before–after control–impact paired series (BACIPS) design in each stream, and evaluated changes in the biomass of bacteria, primary producers, invertebrates and fish in the enriched (E) versus control (C) reaches after nutrient addition through a predictive-BACIPS approach. The treatment produced variable biomass responses (2–77% of explained variance) among biological communities and streams. The greatest biomass response was observed for algae in the Andean stream (77% of the variance), although fish also showed important biomass responses (about 9–48%). The strongest biomass response to enrichment (77% in all biological compartments) was found in the Andean stream. The magnitude and seasonality of biomass responses to enrichment were highly site specific, often depending on the basal nutrient concentration and on windows of ecological opportunity (periods when environmental constraints other than nutrients do not limit biomass growth). The Pampean stream, with high basal nutrient concentrations, showed a weak response to enrichment (except for invertebrates), whereas the greater responses of Andean stream communities were presumably favored by wider windows of ecological opportunity in comparison to those from the Mediterranean stream. Despite variation among sites, enrichment globally stimulated the algal-based food webs (algae and invertebrate grazers) but not the detritus-based food webs (bacteria and invertebrate shredders). This study shows that nutrient enrichment tends to globally enhance the biomass of stream biological assemblages, but that its magnitude and extent within the food web are complex and are strongly determined by environmental factors and ecosystem structure. (letter)

  12. Pleistocene atmospheric CO2 change linked to Southern Ocean nutrient utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, M.; Diz, P.; Hall, I. R.; Zahn, R.

    2011-12-01

    Biological uptake of CO2 by the ocean and its subsequent storage in the abyss is intimately linked with the global carbon cycle and constitutes a significant climatic force1. The Southern Ocean is a particularly important region because its wind-driven upwelling regime brings CO2 laden abyssal waters to the surface that exchange CO2 with the atmosphere. The Subantarctic Zone (SAZ) is a CO2 sink and also drives global primary productivity as unutilized nutrients, advected with surface waters from the south, are exported via Subantarctic Mode Water (SAMW) as preformed nutrients to the low latitudes where they fuel the biological pump in upwelling areas. Recent model estimates suggest that up to 40 ppm of the total 100 ppm atmospheric pCO2 reduction during the last ice age were driven by increased nutrient utilization in the SAZ and associated feedbacks on the deep ocean alkalinity. Micro-nutrient fertilization by iron (Fe), contained in the airborne dust flux to the SAZ, is considered to be the prime factor that stimulated this elevated photosynthetic activity thus enhancing nutrient utilization. We present a millennial-scale record of the vertical stable carbon isotope gradient between subsurface and deep water (Δδ13C) in the SAZ spanning the past 350,000 years. The Δδ13C gradient, derived from planktonic and benthic foraminifera, reflects the efficiency of biological pump and is highly correlated (rxy = -0.67 with 95% confidence interval [0.63; 0.71], n=874) with the record of dust flux preserved in Antarctic ice cores6. This strongly suggests that nutrient utilization in the SAZ was dynamically coupled to dust-induced Fe fertilization across both glacial-interglacial and faster millennial timescales. In concert with ventilation changes of the deep Southern Ocean this drove ocean-atmosphere CO2 exchange and, ultimately, atmospheric pCO2 variability during the late Pleistocene.

  13. Evaluation of some soil amendments plant productivity under saline conditions using nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aly, E.A.K.

    2004-01-01

    this study was carried out in Wadi Ras Sudr (south Saini government). this location was characterized as poor soil with high salinity (wasteland). in the same time it suffers from shortage of water resources. therefore, we aimed to utilize this soil as well as the saline ground water for introducing it into production systems. the reclamation of virgin poor soil need large efforts and much research, especially plant exposure to salinity which is rapidly followed by a decrease in growth rate. the use of natural organic sources as organic fertilizers improve the growth and yields of plants, and safe the environment from pollution . organic fertilizers (Of) such as green manure (G M) or poultry manure (P M) can be used as nutrient sources for good plant growth, where the soil amendments improve the physical, chemical and biological properties of the soil. economically, the yield improvement and nutrient supply will reflect the potential use of such organic materials. also , phosphorus and/or potassium supplementation separately or in combination with O F (G M and/or P M) improved the growth of both barley and wheat plants under such adverse condition of salinity using 15 N isotope dilution technique

  14. Transport of lincomycin to surface and ground water from manure-amended cropland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchta, Sandra L; Cessna, Allan J; Elliott, Jane A; Peru, Kerry M; Headley, John V

    2009-01-01

    Livestock manure containing antimicrobials becomes a possible source of these compounds to surface and ground waters when applied to cropland as a nutrient source. The potential for transport of the veterinary antimicrobial lincomycin to surface waters via surface runoff and to leach to ground water was assessed by monitoring manure-amended soil, simulated rainfall runoff, snowmelt runoff, and ground water over a 2-yr period in Saskatchewan, Canada, after fall application of liquid swine manure to cropland. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry was used to quantify lincomycin in all matrix extracts. Initial concentrations in soil (46.3-117 mug kg(-1)) were not significantly different (p > 0.05) for manure application rates ranging from 60,000 to 95,000 L ha(-1) and had decreased to nondetectable levels by mid-summer the following year. After fall manure application, lincomycin was present in all simulated rainfall runoff (0.07-2.7 mug L(-1)) and all snowmelt runoff (0.038-3.2 mug L(-1)) samples. Concentrations in snowmelt runoff were not significantly different from those in simulated rainfall runoff the previous fall. On average, lincomycin concentrations in ephemeral wetlands dissipated by 50% after 31 d. Concentrations of lincomycin in ground water were generally <0.005 mug L(-1). This study demonstrates that the management practice of using livestock manure from confined animal feeding operations as a plant nutrient source on cropland may result in antimicrobial transport to surface and ground waters.

  15. Degradation of 14C-glyphosate in compost amended soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexa, E; Bragea, M; Sumalan, R; Negrea, M; Lazureanu, A

    2009-01-01

    Glyphosate (N-phosphonomethyl-glycine), the active ingredient in several herbicide formulations, is a non-selective, post-emergent herbicide used in a variety of crop and non-crop situations. Glyphosate is a non-volatile herbicide that is relatively immobile in soil. Its degradation is due to microbiological processes and most laboratory studies have been conducted with 14C-glyphosate with the rate of 14CO2 evolution being used as an indication of herbicide breakdown. In this paper we have studied the glyphosate degradation in compost amendment soils using Scientilator Liquid TRIATHLER and Glyphosate-phosphonomethyl-14C-labeled with specific activity 2,2mCi/mmol. Four types of soils have been taken under study: Black Chernozem, Vertisol, Gleysol and Phaeozem with different characteristics. For the each type of soil have been realized four experimental variants (glyphosate blind sample with 1,5 ppm, concentration, autoclaved soil, soil with glyphosate and addition of compost in field concentration of 40 t/ha, respectively 60 t/ha. The mineralization curves of 14CO2 accumulated were compared during of 40 days. All the mineralization curves for the soils exhibited same patterns, with only two phases, the initial rapid phase of degradation, for about 20 days, attributed to microbial action on the free glyphosate and the second slow phase, when the curves attained plateaus. Compost applied with different concentrations to Vertisol and Black Chernozem did not appear to stimulate the microbial degradation of glyphosate. In Gleysol and Phaeozem with lower humus content, the mineralization curve of 14C indicate the increase degradation capacity, expressed as accumulated 14CO2 as % total 14C, with the increase of compost concentration.

  16. Effects of different fertilizers on growth and nutrient uptake of Lolium multiflorum grown in Cd-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mohan; Li, Yang; Che, Yeye; Deng, Shaojun; Xiao, Yan

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to explore the effects of different fertilizers and their combinations on growth and nutrient and Cd uptake of Lolium multiflorum. Compared with control treatment, chemical fertilizer, organic manure, and their conjunctions with biofertilizer increased shoot biomass. Biofertilizers were found to cause significant reductions in shoot biomass of plants grown in organic manure-treated and control soil. Decreased soil-available N and P and shoot N and K concentrations in biofertilizer amendment treatments indicated that plant growth and nutrient absorption might be negatively affected under nutrient deficiency conditions. Elevated shoot biomasses contributed to the highest shoot Cd contents in chemical fertilizer and chemical fertilizer + biofertilizer treatments among all treatments. But the maximum translocation efficiency occurred in biofertilizer + chemical fertilizer + organic manure treatment, followed by organic manure and chemical fertilizer + organic manure treatments. Based on the results, we can conclude that the application of only the biofertilizer Bacillus subtilis should be avoided in nutrient-limited soils. Chemical fertilizer application could benefit the amount of Cd in shoots, and organic manure application and its combinations could result in the higher translocation efficiency.

  17. USA Nutrient managment forecasting via the "Fertilizer Forecaster": linking surface runnof, nutrient application and ecohydrology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drohan, Patrick; Buda, Anthony; Kleinman, Peter; Miller, Douglas; Lin, Henry; Beegle, Douglas; Knight, Paul

    2017-04-01

    USA and state nutrient management planning offers strategic guidance that strives to educate farmers and those involved in nutrient management to make wise management decisions. A goal of such programs is to manage hotspots of water quality degradation that threaten human and ecosystem health, water and food security. The guidance provided by nutrient management plans does not provide the day-to-day support necessary to make operational decisions, particularly when and where to apply nutrients over the short term. These short-term decisions on when and where to apply nutrients often make the difference between whether the nutrients impact water quality or are efficiently utilized by crops. Infiltrating rainfall events occurring shortly after broadcast nutrient applications are beneficial, given they will wash soluble nutrients into the soil where they are used by crops. Rainfall events that generate runoff shortly after nutrients are broadcast may wash off applied nutrients, and produce substantial nutrient losses from that site. We are developing a model and data based support tool for nutrient management, the Fertilizer Forecaster, which identifies the relative probability of runoff or infiltrating events in Pennsylvania (PA) landscapes in order to improve water quality. This tool will support field specific decisions by farmers and land managers on when and where to apply fertilizers and manures over 24, 48 and 72 hour periods. Our objectives are to: (1) monitor agricultural hillslopes in watersheds representing four of the five Physiographic Provinces of the Chesapeake Bay basin; (2) validate a high resolution mapping model that identifies soils prone to runoff; (3) develop an empirically based approach to relate state-of-the-art weather forecast variables to site-specific rainfall infiltration or runoff occurrence; (4) test the empirical forecasting model against alternative approaches to forecasting runoff occurrence; and (5) recruit farmers from the four

  18. Biochar from sugarcane filtercake reduces soil CO2 emissions relative to raw residue and improves water retention and nutrient availability in a highly-weathered tropical soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eykelbosh, Angela Joy; Johnson, Mark S; Santos de Queiroz, Edmar; Dalmagro, Higo José; Guimarães Couto, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    In Brazil, the degradation of nutrient-poor Ferralsols limits productivity and drives agricultural expansion into pristine areas. However, returning agricultural residues to the soil in a stabilized form may offer opportunities for maintaining or improving soil quality, even under conditions that typically promote carbon loss. We examined the use of biochar made from filtercake (a byproduct of sugarcane processing) on the physicochemical properties of a cultivated tropical soil. Filtercake was pyrolyzed at 575°C for 3 h yielding a biochar with increased surface area and porosity compared to the raw filtercake. Filtercake biochar was primarily composed of aromatic carbon, with some residual cellulose and hemicellulose. In a three-week laboratory incubation, CO2 effluxes from a highly weathered Ferralsol soil amended with 5% biochar (dry weight, d.w.) were roughly four-fold higher than the soil-only control, but 23-fold lower than CO2 effluxes from soil amended with 5% (d.w.) raw filtercake. We also applied vinasse, a carbon-rich liquid waste from bioethanol production typically utilized as a fertilizer on sugarcane soils, to filtercake- and biochar-amended soils. Total CO2 efflux from the biochar-amended soil in response to vinasse application was only 5% of the efflux when vinasse was applied to soil amended with raw filtercake. Furthermore, mixtures of 5 or 10% biochar (d.w.) in this highly weathered tropical soil significantly increased water retention within the plant-available range and also improved nutrient availability. Accordingly, application of sugarcane filtercake as biochar, with or without vinasse application, may better satisfy soil management objectives than filtercake applied to soils in its raw form, and may help to build soil carbon stocks in sugarcane-cultivating regions.

  19. Biochar from Sugarcane Filtercake Reduces Soil CO2 Emissions Relative to Raw Residue and Improves Water Retention and Nutrient Availability in a Highly-Weathered Tropical Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eykelbosh, Angela Joy; Johnson, Mark S.; Santos de Queiroz, Edmar; Dalmagro, Higo José; Guimarães Couto, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    In Brazil, the degradation of nutrient-poor Ferralsols limits productivity and drives agricultural expansion into pristine areas. However, returning agricultural residues to the soil in a stabilized form may offer opportunities for maintaining or improving soil quality, even under conditions that typically promote carbon loss. We examined the use of biochar made from filtercake (a byproduct of sugarcane processing) on the physicochemical properties of a cultivated tropical soil. Filtercake was pyrolyzed at 575°C for 3 h yielding a biochar with increased surface area and porosity compared to the raw filtercake. Filtercake biochar was primarily composed of aromatic carbon, with some residual cellulose and hemicellulose. In a three-week laboratory incubation, CO2 effluxes from a highly weathered Ferralsol soil amended with 5% biochar (dry weight, d.w.) were roughly four-fold higher than the soil-only control, but 23-fold lower than CO2 effluxes from soil amended with 5% (d.w.) raw filtercake. We also applied vinasse, a carbon-rich liquid waste from bioethanol production typically utilized as a fertilizer on sugarcane soils, to filtercake- and biochar-amended soils. Total CO2 efflux from the biochar-amended soil in response to vinasse application was only 5% of the efflux when vinasse was applied to soil amended with raw filtercake. Furthermore, mixtures of 5 or 10% biochar (d.w.) in this highly weathered tropical soil significantly increased water retention within the plant-available range and also improved nutrient availability. Accordingly, application of sugarcane filtercake as biochar, with or without vinasse application, may better satisfy soil management objectives than filtercake applied to soils in its raw form, and may help to build soil carbon stocks in sugarcane-cultivating regions. PMID:24897522

  20. Biochar from sugarcane filtercake reduces soil CO2 emissions relative to raw residue and improves water retention and nutrient availability in a highly-weathered tropical soil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Joy Eykelbosh

    Full Text Available In Brazil, the degradation of nutrient-poor Ferralsols limits productivity and drives agricultural expansion into pristine areas. However, returning agricultural residues to the soil in a stabilized form may offer opportunities for maintaining or improving soil quality, even under conditions that typically promote carbon loss. We examined the use of biochar made from filtercake (a byproduct of sugarcane processing on the physicochemical properties of a cultivated tropical soil. Filtercake was pyrolyzed at 575°C for 3 h yielding a biochar with increased surface area and porosity compared to the raw filtercake. Filtercake biochar was primarily composed of aromatic carbon, with some residual cellulose and hemicellulose. In a three-week laboratory incubation, CO2 effluxes from a highly weathered Ferralsol soil amended with 5% biochar (dry weight, d.w. were roughly four-fold higher than the soil-only control, but 23-fold lower than CO2 effluxes from soil amended with 5% (d.w. raw filtercake. We also applied vinasse, a carbon-rich liquid waste from bioethanol production typically utilized as a fertilizer on sugarcane soils, to filtercake- and biochar-amended soils. Total CO2 efflux from the biochar-amended soil in response to vinasse application was only 5% of the efflux when vinasse was applied to soil amended with raw filtercake. Furthermore, mixtures of 5 or 10% biochar (d.w. in this highly weathered tropical soil significantly increased water retention within the plant-available range and also improved nutrient availability. Accordingly, application of sugarcane filtercake as biochar, with or without vinasse application, may better satisfy soil management objectives than filtercake applied to soils in its raw form, and may help to build soil carbon stocks in sugarcane-cultivating regions.

  1. 14 CFR 151.29 - Procedures: Offer, amendment, and acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... resolution or ordinance must, as appropriate under the local law— (1) Set forth the terms of the offer at... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Procedures: Offer, amendment, and... § 151.29 Procedures: Offer, amendment, and acceptance. (a) Upon approving a project, the Administrator...

  2. Newspaper Advertising and the First Amendment: The Commercial Speech Doctrine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Joseph H., III

    The purpose of this paper is to help identify newspaper advertisements which fall under the protection of the First Amendment. Although the Supreme Court declared in 1942 that advertisements which propose a purely commercial transaction were not protected by the First Amendment, in 1976 it decided that commercial expression, like other forms of…

  3. 76 FR 35966 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Cocoa, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-21

    ...-0070; Airspace Docket No. 10-ASO-43] Amendment of Class E Airspace; Cocoa, FL AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action amends Class E Airspace at Cocoa, FL, as the... Island Airport, Cocoa, FL (75 FR 21266) Docket No. FAA-2011-0070. Interested parties were invited to...

  4. Amendment of Ordinance on collection and despatch of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-03-01

    The Ordinance was amended to specify the conditions for interim storage of radioactive waste. Until it is finally disposed of, such waste will be stored on premises fitted up by the Federal Institute for Reactor Research. The amendment entered into force on 1 April 1987. (NEA) [fr

  5. 75 FR 66344 - Amendment of Jet Route J-93; CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-28

    ...-1022; Airspace Docket No. 10-AWP-4] RIN 2120-AA66 Amendment of Jet Route J-93; CA AGENCY: Federal... proposes to amend Jet Route J-93 in California between the Julian VHF Omnidirectional Radio Range Tactical... is necessary to realign Jet Route J-93 with the revised location of the Penasco VOR. The Proposal The...

  6. 32 CFR 312.7 - Request for correction or amendment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... be contacted for the additional information needed to process the request. (d) The amendment process is not intended to permit the alteration of evidence presented in the course of judicial or quasi-judicial proceedings. Any amendments or changes to these records normally are made through the specific...

  7. 39 CFR 959.11 - Amendment of pleadings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., are tried by express or implied consent of the parties, they shall be treated in all respects as if... PRIVATE EXPRESS STATUTES § 959.11 Amendment of pleadings. (a) Amendments proposed prior to the hearing... presented. (e) The presiding officer may, upon reasonable notice and upon such terms as are just, permit...

  8. 75 FR 31677 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Austin, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-04

    ...-1152; Airspace Docket No. 09-ASW-31] Amendment of Class E Airspace; Austin, TX AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action amends Class E airspace for the Austin, TX... Procedures (SIAPs) at Austin Executive Airport, Austin, TX. The FAA is taking this action to enhance the...

  9. 15 CFR 923.83 - Mediation of amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mediation of amendments. 923.83... Programs § 923.83 Mediation of amendments. (a) Section 307(h)(2) of the Act provides for mediation of... management program. Accordingly mediation is available to states or federal agencies when a serious...

  10. 77 FR 37911 - Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee; Amendment of Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2012-N-0001] Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee; Amendment of Notice AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing an amendment to the notice of meeting of the...

  11. 75 FR 71450 - Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee; Amendment of Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2010-N-0001] Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee; Amendment of Notice AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing an amendment to the notice of a...

  12. A Case Against First Amendment Protections for Commercial Advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Kent R.

    Although extending constitutional protection to commercial expression might benefit the consumer, the First Amendment is the wrong instrument for carrying out what are basically economic policies. While in most First Amendment cases the nature of the content determines whether it is constitutionally protected, advertising is distinct in that it…

  13. 40 CFR 264.54 - Amendment of contingency plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amendment of contingency plan. 264.54 Section 264.54 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES... Contingency Plan and Emergency Procedures § 264.54 Amendment of contingency plan. The contingency plan must be...

  14. 76 FR 28193 - Amendments to Material Control and Accounting Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-16

    ...] Amendments to Material Control and Accounting Regulations AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION... amendments to the material control and accounting (MC&A) regulations. These regulations apply to NRC... ``accounting,'' and thus does not fully describe the accounting aspects that MC&A programs must include...

  15. 77 FR 68682 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Guthrie, IA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-16

    ...-1436; Airspace Docket No. 11-ACE-29] Amendment of Class E Airspace; Guthrie, IA AGENCY: Federal... Guthrie, IA. Decommissioning of the Guthrie Center non-directional radio beacon (NDB) at Guthrie County... proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to amend Class E airspace for the Guthrie, IA, area, creating additional...

  16. 77 FR 42427 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Grinnell, IA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-19

    ...-1430; Airspace Docket No. 11-ACE-23] Amendment of Class E Airspace; Grinnell, IA AGENCY: Federal... Class E airspace at Grinnell Regional Airport, Grinnell, IA, by removing reference to the Grinnell NDB... Regional Airport, Grinnell, IA, and amends the geographic coordinates of the airport to coincide with the...

  17. 78 FR 76053 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Chariton, IA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-16

    ...-0255; Airspace Docket No. 13-ACE-4] Amendment of Class E Airspace; Chariton, IA AGENCY: Federal... Chariton, IA. Decommissioning of the Chariton non-directional beacon (NDB) at Chariton Municipal Airport... Register a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to amend Class E airspace for the Chariton, IA, area...

  18. 76 FR 75447 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Centerville, IA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-02

    ...-0830; Airspace Docket No. 11-ACE-16] Amendment of Class E Airspace; Centerville, IA AGENCY: Federal... Centerville, IA. Decommissioning of the Centerville non-directional beacon (NDB) and cancellation of the NDB... Federal Register a notice of proposed rulemaking to amend Class E airspace for the Centerville, IA, area...

  19. 77 FR 4459 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Greenfield, IA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-30

    ...-0846; Airspace Docket No. 11-ACE-18] Amendment of Class E Airspace; Greenfield, IA AGENCY: Federal... Greenfield, IA. Decommissioning of the Greenfield non-directional beacon (NDB) at Greenfield Municipal... rulemaking to amend Class E airspace for Greenfield, IA, reconfiguring controlled airspace at Greenfield...

  20. 78 FR 18800 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Decorah, IA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ...-1433; Airspace Docket No. 11-ACE-26] Amendment of Class E Airspace; Decorah, IA AGENCY: Federal... Decorah, IA. Decommissioning of the Decorah non-directional beacon (NDB) at Decorah Municipal Airport has... Register a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to amend Class E airspace for the Decorah, IA, area...

  1. The 26th Amendment and Youth Voting Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schamel, Wynell

    1996-01-01

    Describes learning activities to be used in conjunction with a facsimile of the 92nd Congress's joint resolution passing the 26th Amendment extending the voting franchise to 18-year-olds. These activities include document analysis, time lines, class discussions, and storytelling. Briefly reviews the amendment process. (MJP)

  2. 19 CFR 210.57 - Amendment of the motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Amendment of the motion. 210.57 Section 210.57 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION INVESTIGATIONS OF UNFAIR PRACTICES IN IMPORT TRADE ADJUDICATION AND ENFORCEMENT Temporary Relief § 210.57 Amendment of the motion. A motion for...

  3. 43 CFR 4.1305 - Amendment of petition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Amendment of petition. 4.1305 Section 4... PROCEDURES Special Rules Applicable to Surface Coal Mining Hearings and Appeals Petitions for Review of... petition. (a) An individual filing a petition may amend it once as a matter of right before receipt by the...

  4. 78 FR 48294 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Mason, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-08

    ...-1141; Airspace Docket No. 12-ASW-12] Amendment of Class E Airspace; Mason, TX AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action amends Class E airspace at Mason, TX... Approach Procedures at Mason County Airport. This action enhances the safety and management of Instrument...

  5. 75 FR 66300 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Searcy, AR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-28

    ...-1182; Airspace Docket No. 09-ASW-37] Amendment of Class E Airspace; Searcy, AR AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action amends Class E airspace for Searcy, AR. Decommissioning of the Searcy non-directional beacon (NDB) at Searcy Municipal Airport, Searcy, AR, has made this...

  6. 75 FR 37291 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Osceola, AR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-29

    ...-1183; Airspace Docket No. 09-ASW-38] Amendment of Class E Airspace; Osceola, AR AGENCY: Federal... Osceola, AR. Decommissioning of the Osceola non-directional beacon (NDB) at Osceola Municipal Airport has... rulemaking to amend Class E airspace for Osceola, AR, reconfiguring controlled airspace at Osceola Municipal...

  7. 75 FR 29654 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Manila, AR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-27

    ...-1184; Airspace Docket No. 09-ASW-39] Amendment of Class E Airspace; Manila, AR AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action amends Class E airspace for Manila, AR. Decommissioning of the Manila non-directional beacon (NDB) at Manila Municipal Airport, Manila, AR has made this...

  8. Coverage of the Nineteenth Amendment in Rural Iowa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Lucinda D.

    A study was conducted to find out how the topics of the Nineteenth Amendment and women's suffrage were handled at the time by news publications in rural areas. Several components were used to carry out the objective: one was to investigate newspaper coverage of the amendment and in addition broaden that search to include women's suffrage; another…

  9. 21 CFR 207.26 - Amendments to registration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... made for the purpose of changing the name of the manufacturer of a drug product under § 201.1 of this chapter. Changes in the names of officers and directors of the corporations do not require such amendment... Domestic Drug Establishments § 207.26 Amendments to registration. Changes in individual ownership...

  10. 77 FR 4458 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Rugby, ND

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-30

    ...-0433; Airspace Docket No. 11-AGL-12] Amendment of Class E Airspace; Rugby, ND AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action amends Class E airspace for Rugby, ND. Decommissioning of the Rugby non-directional beacon (NDB) at Rugby Municipal Airport has made this action...

  11. 31 CFR 358.21 - Can these regulations be amended?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Can these regulations be amended? 358.21 Section 358.21 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued... CONVERSION OF BEARER CORPORA AND DETACHED BEARER COUPONS § 358.21 Can these regulations be amended? We may at...

  12. Influence of amendments on soil structure and soil loss under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Macromolecule polymers are significant types of chemical amendments because of their special structure, useful functions and low cost. Macromolecule polymers as soil amendment provide new territory for studying China's agricultural practices and for soil and water conservation, because polymers have the ability to ...

  13. Do Minors Have First Amendment Rights in Schools?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmara, Theresa

    2015-01-01

    Courts have held that minors have First Amendment rights and that those rights include the right to receive information. However, how does that apply in the school setting? The First Amendment prohibits governmental entities from unconstitutionally infringing rights of free speech. Students in public schools, therefore, do have rights under the…

  14. 76 FR 20243 - Retired and Senior Volunteer Program Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-12

    ... Service (Corporation) by amending the National and Community Service Act of 1990 (NCSA) and the Domestic Volunteer Service Act of 1973 (DVSA). The Serve America Act amended the DVSA by requiring the Corporation to... Flexibility Act As required by the Regulatory Flexibility Act of 1980, 5 U.S.C. 605 (b), the Corporation...

  15. 78 FR 48298 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Commerce, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-08

    ...-0269; Airspace Docket No. 13-ASW-3] Amendment of Class E Airspace; Commerce, TX AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action amends Class E airspace at Commerce, TX. Additional controlled airspace is necessary to accommodate new Area Navigation (RNAV...

  16. 29 CFR 1905.4 - Amendments to this part.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-STEIGER OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ACT OF 1970 General § 1905.4 Amendments to this part. The Assistant... 29 Labor 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amendments to this part. 1905.4 Section 1905.4 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR...

  17. 76 FR 18378 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Taylor, AZ

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-04

    ...-1189; Airspace Docket No. 10-AWP-19] Amendment of Class E Airspace; Taylor, AZ AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action will amend Class E airspace at Taylor Airport, Taylor, AZ, to accommodate aircraft using the CAMBO One Departure, and the Area Navigation (RNAV...

  18. 29 CFR 215.5 - Processing of amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Processing of amendments. 215.5 Section 215.5 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor OFFICE OF LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR GUIDELINES, SECTION 5333(b), FEDERAL TRANSIT LAW § 215.5 Processing of amendments. (a) Grant modifications in the form of...

  19. Breaking Down Blaine Amendments' Indefensible Barrier to Education Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Lindsey M.; Stepman, Jarrett

    2014-01-01

    Though school choice has proven to be popular, barriers remain in some states as a result of so-called Blaine Amendments and similar policies to prevent education funding from following students to religious schools as a part of school choice options. If left to stand, these ignoble 19th century amendments will remain major impediments to the…

  20. 75 FR 57658 - National Veterinary Accreditation Program; Correcting Amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-22

    ... [Docket No. APHIS-2006-0093] RIN 0579-AC04 National Veterinary Accreditation Program; Correcting Amendment..., Docket No. APHIS-2006-0093), and effective on February 1, 2010, we amended the National Veterinary... Veterinary Accreditation Program, VS, APHIS, 4700 River Road Unit 200, Riverdale, MD 20737; (301) 851-3401...

  1. Proposed Federal Gun-Control Amendment. Student Forum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertz, Gayle; Mertz, David

    1995-01-01

    Presents an outline for a student-run forum on a proposed federal gun control amendment. Procedures include mandatory reading assignments and researching the issue. Students role-play fictional representative characters and later facilitate discussions. Concludes with a vote on the amendment. (MJP)

  2. 77 FR 60382 - Privacy Act of 1974, as Amended

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-03

    ... financial products or services, (b) consumer behavior with respect to consumer financial products and... BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION Privacy Act of 1974, as Amended AGENCY: Bureau of Consumer... the Privacy Act of 1974, as amended, the Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection, hereinto referred to...

  3. 76 FR 38381 - Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Notice of Amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. CP11-67-001] Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Notice of Amendment Take notice that on June 13, 2011, Texas Eastern Transmission, LP (Texas Eastern), 5400 Westheimer Court, Houston, Texas 77056, filed in the above referenced docket an amendment...

  4. Assessing the role of organic soil amendments in management of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... was higher in organically amended soils than the control, with the highest figures being recorded on chicken manure. This is a clear demonstration of the potential of organic amendments in triggering the natural mechanisms that regulate plant nematodes in the soil. Journal of Tropical Microbiology Vol.3 2004: 14-23 ...

  5. 75 FR 33682 - Export Administration Regulations; Technical Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ...-01] RIN 0694-AE93 Export Administration Regulations; Technical Amendments AGENCY: Bureau of Industry... Bureau of Industry and Security (BIS) makes a technical amendment to the Export Administration... review of final decisions and orders issued in BIS export control administrative enforcement proceedings...

  6. 33 CFR 106.415 - Amendment and audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amendment and audit. 106.415 Section 106.415 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Facility Security Plan (FSP) § 106.415 Amendment and...

  7. Effects of mineral nutrients on ozone susceptibility of Lemna minor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craker, L E

    1971-01-01

    Susceptibility of Lemna minor L. to ozone injury was influenced by the mineral nutrients available to the Lemna plants. Additional nitrogen or additional iron in the nutrient media respectively enhanced or reduced chlorophyll loss of Lemna plants fumigated with ozone. Lemna plants growing on a nutrient medium lacking copper had significantly less injury from ozone fumigation than Lemna plants growing on a complete nutrient medium. There were apparent interactions among phosphorus and potassium nutrient levels in determing the Lemna plant's susceptibility to ozone.

  8. Application of organic amendments to a coastal saline soil in north China: effects on soil physical and chemical properties and tree growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linlin Wang

    Full Text Available The ability of the following four organic amendments to ameliorate saline soil in coastal northern China was investigated from April 2010 to October 2012 in a field experiment: green waste compost (GWC, sedge peat (SP, furfural residue (FR, and a mixture of GWC, SP and FR (1∶1∶1 by volume (GSF. Compared to a non-amended control (CK, the amendments, which were applied at 4.5 kg organic matter m(-3, dramatically promoted plant growth; improved soil structure; increased the cation exchange capacity (CEC, organic carbon, and available nutrients; and reduced the salt content, electrical conductivity (EC, and exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP. At the end of the experiment in soil amended with GSF, bulk density, EC, and ESP had decreased by 11, 87, and 71%, respectively, and total porosity and organic carbon had increased by 25 and 96% respectively, relative to the CK. The GSF treatment resulted in a significantly lower Na(++K(+ content than the other treatments. CEC and the contents of available N, P, and K were significantly higher in the GSF-treated soil than in the CK and were the highest in all treatments. The FR treatment resulted in the lowest pH value and Ca(2+ concentration, which decreased by 8% and 39%, respectively, relative to the CK. Overall, the results indicate that a combination of green waste compost, sedge peat and furfural residue (GSF treatment has substantial potential for ameliorating saline soils in the coastal areas of northern China, and it works better than each amendment alone. Utilization of GWC and FR can be an alternative organic amendment to substitute the nonrenewable SP in saline soil amelioration.

  9. Assessing Nutrients Availability of Irradiated and Non-Irradiated Biosolids for the Agriculture Re-use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnavacca, Cecilia; Sanchez, Monica

    2003-07-01

    Irradiation provides a fast and reliable means to disinfect biosolids generated by municipal wastewater treatment processes. The chemical integrity of some substances may be altered thus change the availability of plant nutrients. Chemical analyses on the biosolids showed a release of mineral forms of Nitrogen while Phosphorus chemical forms were not altered. Higher amounts of mineralized N were indirectly demonstrated in soils with irradiated biosolids by a respiration experiment, and higher nitrate concentrations were measured in the irradiated biosolids amended soils at field experiments. Crop field experiments (lettuce and sugarcane) confirmed that irradiated biosolids have higher fertilizing capability than equal amounts of non-irradiated biosolids. Maximum dose rate had no additive effect but a depleted result, thus marking the importance of the use of moderate biosolids rates. (author)

  10. Assessment of Nutrient Limitation in Flood plain Forests with Two Different Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neatrour, M.A.; Jones, R.H.; Golladay, S.W.

    2008-01-01

    We assessed nitrogen and phosphorus limitation in a flood plain forest in southern Georgia in USA using two commonly used methods: nitrogen to phosphorus (N:P) ratios in litterfall and fertilized ingrowth cores. We measured nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) concentrations in litterfall to determine N:P mass ratios. We also installed ingrowth cores within each site containing native soil amended with nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), or nitrogen and phosphorus (N + P) fertilizers or without added fertilizer (C). Litter N:P ratios ranged from 16 to 22, suggesting P limitation. However, fertilized ingrowth cores indicated N limitation because fine-root length density was greater in cores fertilized with N or N + P than in those fertilized with P or without added fertilizer. We feel that these two methods of assessing nutrient limitation should be corroborated with fertilization trials prior to use on a wider basis.

  11. CADDIS Volume 2. Sources, Stressors and Responses: Nutrients - Simple Conceptual Diagram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction to the nutrients module, when to list nutrients as a candidate cause, ways to measure nutrients, simple and detailed conceptual diagrams for nutrients, nutrients module references and literature reviews.

  12. CADDIS Volume 2. Sources, Stressors and Responses: Nutrients - Detailed Conceptual Diagram (P)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction to the nutrients module, when to list nutrients as a candidate cause, ways to measure nutrients, simple and detailed conceptual diagrams for nutrients, nutrients module references and literature reviews.

  13. CADDIS Volume 2. Sources, Stressors and Responses: Nutrients - Detailed Conceptual Diagram (N)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction to the nutrients module, when to list nutrients as a candidate cause, ways to measure nutrients, simple and detailed conceptual diagrams for nutrients, nutrients module references and literature reviews.

  14. Nutrient balances in the forest energy cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsson, Bengt

    2006-02-01

    In Sweden, recycling of stabilised wood-ashes to forests is considered to compensate for nutrient removals from whole-tree harvesting (i.e. use of harvest residues - slash - for energy purposes). This study has analysed nutrient fluxes through the complete forest energy cycle and estimated mass balances of nutrients in harvested biomass with those in ashes, to investigate the realism in large-scale nutrient compensation with wood-ash. Expected nutrient fluxes from forests through energy plants were calculated based on nutrient and biomass data of forest stands in the Nordic countries, and from data on nutrient fluxes through CFB-plants. The expected stoichiometric composition of wood-ashes was compared with the composition of CFB-fly ashes from various Swedish energy plants. Nutrient contents for different tree fractions were calculated to express the average nutrient concentrations in slash and stems with bark, respectively. A nutrient budget synthesis of the effects of whole-tree harvesting on base cation turnover in the following stand was presented for two experimental sites. Major conclusions from the study are: In the CFB-scenario, where the bottom ash is deposited and only the fly ash can be applied to forests, the fly ash from the slash do not meet the demands for nutrient compensation for slash harvesting. Stem material (50% wood, 50% bark) must be added at equivalent amounts, as the slash to produce the amounts of fly ash needed for compensation of slash harvesting. In the scenario where more stem material was added (75% of total fuel load), the amounts of fly ashes produced hardly compensated for nutrient removals with both stem and slash harvesting. The level of nutrient compensation was lowest for potassium. The stoichiometric nutrient composition of CFB-fly ashes from Swedish energy plants is not similar with the nutrient composition of tree biomass. The higher Ca/P ratio in ashes is only partly explained by the mixture of fuels (e.g. increasing bark

  15. A distributed current stimulator ASIC for high density neural stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong Hoan Park; Chaebin Kim; Seung-Hee Ahn; Tae Mok Gwon; Joonsoo Jeong; Sang Beom Jun; Sung June Kim

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents a novel distributed neural stimulator scheme. Instead of a single stimulator ASIC in the package, multiple ASICs are embedded at each electrode site for stimulation with a high density electrode array. This distributed architecture enables the simplification of wiring between electrodes and stimulator ASIC that otherwise could become too complex as the number of electrode increases. The individual ASIC chip is designed to have a shared data bus that independently controls multiple stimulating channels. Therefore, the number of metal lines is determined by the distributed ASICs, not by the channel number. The function of current steering is also implemented within each ASIC in order to increase the effective number of channels via pseudo channel stimulation. Therefore, the chip area can be used more efficiently. The designed chip was fabricated with area of 0.3 mm2 using 0.18 μm BCDMOS process, and the bench-top test was also conducted to validate chip performance.

  16. A comparison of nutrient density scores for 100% fruit juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampersaud, G C

    2007-05-01

    The 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend that consumers choose a variety of nutrient-dense foods. Nutrient density is usually defined as the quantity of nutrients per calorie. Food and nutrition professionals should be aware of the concept of nutrient density, how it might be quantified, and its potential application in food labeling and dietary guidance. This article presents the concept of a nutrient density score and compares nutrient density scores for various 100% fruit juices. One hundred percent fruit juices are popular beverages in the United States, and although they can provide concentrated sources of a variety of nutrients, they can differ considerably in their nutrient profiles. Six methodologies were used to quantify nutrient density and 7 100% fruit juices were included in the analysis: apple, grape, pink grapefruit, white grapefruit, orange, pineapple, and prune. Food composition data were obtained from the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 18. Application of the methods resulted in nutrient density scores with a range of values and magnitudes. The relative scores indicated that citrus juices, particularly pink grapefruit and orange juice, were more nutrient dense compared to the other nonfortified 100% juices included in the analysis. Although the methods differed, the relative ranking of the juices based on nutrient density score was similar for each method. Issues to be addressed regarding the development and application of a nutrient density score include those related to food fortification, nutrient bioavailability, and consumer education and behavior.

  17. Nutrient mitigation in a temporary river basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzoraki, Ourania; Nikolaidis, Nikolaos P; Cooper, David; Kassotaki, Elissavet

    2014-04-01

    We estimate the nutrient budget in a temporary Mediterranean river basin. We use field monitoring and modelling tools to estimate nutrient sources and transfer in both high and low flow conditions. Inverse modelling by the help of PHREEQC model validated the hypothesis of a losing stream during the dry period. Soil and Water Assessment Tool model captured the water quality of the basin. The 'total daily maximum load' approach is used to estimate the nutrient flux status by flow class, indicating that almost 60% of the river network fails to meet nitrogen criteria and 50% phosphate criteria. We recommend that existing well-documented remediation measures such as reforestation of the riparian area or composting of food process biosolids should be implemented to achieve load reduction in close conjunction with social needs.

  18. Computationally Developed Sham Stimulation Protocol for Multichannel Desynchronizing Stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magteld Zeitler

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available A characteristic pattern of abnormal brain activity is abnormally strong neuronal synchronization, as found in several brain disorders, such as tinnitus, Parkinson's disease, and epilepsy. As observed in several diseases, different therapeutic interventions may induce a placebo effect that may be strong and hinder reliable clinical evaluations. Hence, to distinguish between specific, neuromodulation-induced effects and unspecific, placebo effects, it is important to mimic the therapeutic procedure as precisely as possibly, thereby providing controls that actually lack specific effects. Coordinated Reset (CR stimulation has been developed to specifically counteract abnormally strong synchronization by desynchronization. CR is a spatio-temporally patterned multichannel stimulation which reduces the extent of coincident neuronal activity and aims at an anti-kindling, i.e., an unlearning of both synaptic connectivity and neuronal synchrony. Apart from acute desynchronizing effects, CR may cause sustained, long-lasting desynchronizing effects, as already demonstrated in pre-clinical and clinical proof of concept studies. In this computational study, we set out to computationally develop a sham stimulation protocol for multichannel desynchronizing stimulation. To this end, we compare acute effects and long-lasting effects of six different spatio-temporally patterned stimulation protocols, including three variants of CR, using a no-stimulation condition as additional control. This is to provide an inventory of different stimulation algorithms with similar fundamental stimulation parameters (e.g., mean stimulation rates but qualitatively different acute and/or long-lasting effects. Stimulation protocols sharing basic parameters, but inducing nevertheless completely different or even no acute effects and/or after-effects, might serve as controls to validate the specific effects of particular desynchronizing protocols such as CR. In particular, based on

  19. Nutrient spiraling in streams and river networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensign, Scott H.; Doyle, Martin W.

    2006-12-01

    Over the past 3 decades, nutrient spiraling has become a unifying paradigm for stream biogeochemical research. This paper presents (1) a quantitative synthesis of the nutrient spiraling literature and (2) application of these data to elucidate trends in nutrient spiraling within stream networks. Results are based on 404 individual experiments on ammonium (NH4), nitrate (NO3), and phosphate (PO4) from 52 published studies. Sixty-nine percent of the experiments were performed in first- and second-order streams, and 31% were performed in third- to fifth-order streams. Uptake lengths, Sw, of NH4 (median = 86 m) and PO4 (median = 96 m) were significantly different (α = 0.05) than NO3 (median = 236 m). Areal uptake rates of NH4 (median = 28 μg m-2 min-1) were significantly different than NO3 and PO4 (median = 15 and 14 μg m-2 min-1, respectively). There were significant differences among NH4, NO3, and PO4 uptake velocity (median = 5, 1, and 2 mm min-1, respectively). Correlation analysis results were equivocal on the effect of transient storage on nutrient spiraling. Application of these data to a stream network model showed that recycling (defined here as stream length ÷ Sw) of NH4 and NO3 generally increased with stream order, while PO4 recycling remained constant along a first- to fifth-order stream gradient. Within this hypothetical stream network, cumulative NH4 uptake decreased slightly with stream order, while cumulative NO3 and PO4 uptake increased with stream order. These data suggest the importance of larger rivers to nutrient spiraling and the need to consider how stream networks affect nutrient flux between terrestrial and marine ecosystems.

  20. Organic amendments derived from a pharmaceutical by-product: benefits and risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigliotti, Giovanni; Cucina, Mirko; Zadra, Claudia; Pezzolla, Daniela; Sordi, Simone; Carla Marcotullio, Maria; Curini, Massimo

    2015-04-01

    The application of organic amendments to soils, such as sewage sludge, anaerobic digestate and compost is considered a tool for improving soil fertility and enhancing C stocks. The addition of these different organic materials allows a good supply of nutrients for plants but also contributes to C sequestration, affects the microbial activity and the transformation of soil organic matter (SOM). Moreover, the addition of organic amendment has gained importance as a source of CO2 emissions and then as a cause of the "Global Warming". Therefore, it is important to investigate the factors controlling the SOM mineralization in order to improve the soil C sequestration and decreasing at the same time CO2 emissions. Moreover, the quality of organic matter added to the soil will play an important role in these dynamics. Based on these considerations, the aim of the present work was to investigate the effect of the application to an arable soil of different organic materials derived from a pharmaceutical by-product which results from the fermentative biomass after the separation of the lipopolypeptidic antibiotic produced. A microcosm soil experiment was carried out using three different materials: a sewage sludge derived from the stabilization process of the by-product, a digestate obtained from the anaerobic treatment of the by-product and a compost produced by the aerobic treatment of the same digestate. To achieve this aim, the short-term variations of CO2 emissions, enzymatic soil activities (Dehydrogenase total activity and Fluoresceine diacetate hydrolysis), SOM quantity and quality were studied. In addition, process-related residues of antibiotic and decanoic acid (a precursor added during the fermentation) were analyzed on the organic materials to assess their possible presence. Through these analyses it was possible to state that the application to the soil of sewage sludge and anaerobic digestate may have a strong influence on the short-term variations of the

  1. Humic Substances in Organic Wastes and their Effects on Amended Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senesi, N.; Ciavatta, C.; Plaza, C.

    2009-04-01

    Soil humic substances (HS) are universally recognized to play a major role in a wide number of agronomic and environmental processes. For example, soil HS are able to bind mineral particles together, thus promoting a good soil structure, constitute an important source of nutrients for plants and microorganisms, contribute largely to the acid-base buffering capacity of soils, and exert a marked control on the biological availability, physico-chemical behavior, and environmental fate of toxic metal ions and xenobiotics. For these reasons, the knowledge of the short- and long-term effects of organic amendments on the status, quality, and reactivity of indigenous soil HS is of paramount importance. The objective of this presentation is to provide an overview of the chemical and physico-chemical data available in the literature for the evaluation of the effects of organic wastes of various origin and nature used as soil amendments on the composition, structure, and chemical reactivity of native soil HS. In general, HS-like components of organic wastes are typically characterized by a relatively larger presence of aliphatic, amide, and polysaccharide structures, simple structural components of wide molecular heterogeneity, smaller contents of oxygen, acidic functional groups, and organic free radicals, and smaller degrees of aromatic ring polycondensation, polymerization, and humification than native soil HS. Further, with respect to native soil HS, HS-like fractions from organic wastes generally exhibit smaller binding capacities and affinities for metal ions and organic xenobiotics. Appropriate treatment processes of raw organic wastes able to produce environmentally safe and agronomically efficient soil amendments, such as composting, yield HS-like fractions characterized by chemical and physico-chemical features that approach those of native soil HS. In general, aliphatic, polysaccharide, and lignin structures and S- and N-containing groups of the HS-like fractions

  2. Biological response to millennial variability of dust and nutrient supply in the Subantarctic South Atlantic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Robert F; Barker, Stephen; Fleisher, Martin; Gersonde, Rainer; Goldstein, Steven L; Kuhn, Gerhard; Mortyn, P Graham; Pahnke, Katharina; Sachs, Julian P

    2014-07-13

    Fluxes of lithogenic material and fluxes of three palaeo-productivity proxies (organic carbon, biogenic opal and alkenones) over the past 100,000 years were determined using the (230)Th-normalization method in three sediment cores from the Subantarctic South Atlantic Ocean. Features in the lithogenic flux record of each core correspond to similar features in the record of dust deposition in the EPICA Dome C ice core. Biogenic fluxes correlate with lithogenic fluxes in each sediment core. Our preferred interpretation is that South American dust, most probably from Patagonia, constitutes a major source of lithogenic material in Subantarctic South Atlantic sediments, and that past biological productivity in this region responded to variability in the supply of dust, probably due to biologically available iron carried by the dust. Greater nutrient supply as well as greater nutrient utilization (stimulated by dust) contributed to Subantarctic productivity during cold periods, in contrast to the region south of the Antarctic Polar Front (APF), where reduced nutrient supply during cold periods was the principal factor limiting productivity. The anti-phased patterns of productivity on opposite sides of the APF point to shifts in the physical supply of nutrients and to dust as cofactors regulating productivity in the Southern Ocean. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  3. 76 FR 59733 - Privacy Act of 1974, as Amended; Notice To Amend an Existing System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-27

    ..., as amended, the Department of the Interior (DOI) is issuing a public notice of its intent to amend... share in judgment fund distributions authorized by plans prepared pursuant to Federal legislation. It... individual's eligibility to share in judgment fund distributions authorized by plans prepared pursuant to 25...

  4. Balance de nutrientes en la remolacha azucarera

    OpenAIRE

    López Conde, Marta

    2016-01-01

    Los nutrientes esenciales para el correcto desarrollo de una planta de remolacha azucarera se subdividen en dos grupos (macronutrientes y micronutrientes), dependiendo de la concentración necesaria para tener la cantidad suficiente para un correcto desarrollo. Dentro de los macronutrientes destacan el nitrógeno (N), el fósforo (P), el calcio (Ca), el magnesio (Mg) y el potasio (K). Dentro de los micronutrientes destacan el manganeso (Mn), el cobre (Cu) y el zinc (Zn). Estos nutrientes son abs...

  5. Nutrients and bioactive substances in aquatic organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devadasan, K.; Mukundan, M.K.; Antony, P.D.; Viswanathan Nair, P.G.; Perigreen, P.A.; Joseph, Jose

    1994-01-01

    The International Symposium on Nutrients and Bioactive Substances in Aquatic Organisms, was held during 16-17 September 1993 by the Society of Fisheries Technologists (India) to review the progress of research in this area in India and elsewhere. The papers presented indicate that scientific productivity in this field is substantial and that some of the bioactive materials isolated from aquatic organisms have potential application in human health, nutrition and therapy. The symposium focussed attention on toxicants, nutrients and bioactive substances in aquatic organisms in general, and also on pollution of aquatic systems due to thermal effluents. Paper relevant to INIS database is indexed separately. (M.K.V.)

  6. Emissions of N2O and CH4 from agricultural soils amended with two types of biogas residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odlare, M.; Abubaker, J.; Lindmark, J.; Pell, M.; Thorin, E.; Nehrenheim, E.

    2012-01-01

    Biogas residues contain valuable plant nutrients, important to the crops and also to soil microorganisms. However, application of these materials to the soils may contribute to the emission of greenhouse gases (GHG) causing global warming and climate change. In the present study, incubation experiment was carried out, where the emission rates of N 2 O and CH 4 were measured after amending two soils with two types of biogas residues: (1) a regular residue from a large scale biogas plant (BR) and (2) a residue from an ultra-filtration membrane unit connected to a pilot-scale biogas plant (BRMF). The emissions of N 2 O and CH 4 were measured at two occasions: at 24 h and at 7 days after residue amendment, respectively. Amendment with filtered biogas residues (BRMF) led to an increase in N 2 O emissions with about 6–23 times in organic and clay soil, respectively, in comparison to unfiltered biogas residues (BR). Methane emission was detected in small amounts when filtered biogas residue was added to the soil. Amendment of unfiltered biogas to the organic soil resulted in net consumption. In conclusion, fertilization with BRMF can be combined with risk of an increase N 2 O emission, especially when applied to organic soils. However, in order to transfer these results to real life agriculture, large scale field studies need to be carried out. -- Highlights: ► Membrane filtration of biogas process water is a promising method. ► Fertilization of biogas residue may increase the N 2 O emission from soil. ► Organic soils produced higher emissions than clay soils.

  7. Technical and technological solution for vegetal bio-stimulants obtaining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anghelache, D. G.; Diaconescu, I.; Pătraşcu, R.

    2017-08-01

    The paper presents a modern technology for bio fertilizers resulted from waste plant mass after harvesting crops Experimental products were obtained rich in nutrients, but unstable in terms of existing microorganisms. Therefore, they conducted further studies to obtaining bio fungicide herb, so in all investigations undertaken so far in the laboratory, were able to conclude that the introduction of medicinal plant extracts with fungicidal effect into the bio fertilizers obtained by degradation of plant material post-harvest can get various bio-stimulants with nourishing effect upon the plants. Following this technology the paper’s objective is to identify a flux scheme for experimental equipment which can produce as final outcome this type of bio-stimulant. Also, in this work, this equipment will be chosen and will be designed following and obeying to the request of every step of the above technology.

  8. Combined effect of soil amendment with oil cakes and seed priming in the control of root rot fungi of leguminous and non-leguminous crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafi, H.; Dawar, S.; Tariq, M.

    2016-01-01

    Organic amendments of soil help in proper aeration, rising of temperature and water holding capacity which results in better uptake of nutrients with root system gets extensive establishment. In this study, effects of soil amendment with oil seed cakes including mustard (Brassica campestris L.), cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), almond (Prunus amygdalus L.) and black seed (Nigella sativa L.) cakes at the rate of 0.1 and 1% w/w and priming of seeds with Acacia nilotica (L.) Willd. ex Delile and Sapindus mukorossi (L.) leaves extracts and microbial antagonists (Trichoderma harzianum and Rhizobium melilotii) was observed on the growth of plants and in the suppression of root infecting fungi. The results obtained showed that combined effect of bio-priming of seeds with T. harzianum spore suspension and amendment of soil with mustard cake at the rate of 1% was found to be most effective for the growth of leguminous and non-leguminous crop plants (peanut, chickpea, okra and sunflower) and for the reduction of root infecting fungi like Macrophomina phaseolina, Fusarium spp followed by R. meliloti primed seeds in combination with cotton, almond and black seed cakes amendment respectively as compared to control (non treated seeds and soil). (author)

  9. Stimulated Thomson scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, R.L.

    1979-03-01

    The theory of stimulated Thomson scattering is investigated both quantum mechanically and classically. Two monochromatic electromagnetic waves of like polarization travelling in opposite directions are allowed to interact for a time tau with the electrons in a collisionless plasma. The electromagnetic waves have frequencies well above the plasma frequency, and their difference frequency is allowed to range upward from the plasma frequency. With the difference frequency well above the plasma frequency, the rate at which energy is transferred from one wave to the other is calculated quantum mechanically, classically from a fluid theory, and classically from an independent electron theory. The rate is calculated in both the homogeneously broadened limit, and in the inhomogeneously broadened limit

  10. Engagement sensitive visual stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepesh Kumar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is one of leading cause of death and disability worldwide. Early detection during golden hour and treatment of individual neurological dysfunction in stroke using easy-to-access biomarkers based on a simple-to-use, cost-effective, clinically-valid screening tool can bring a paradigm shift in healthcare, both urban and rural. In our research we have designed a quantitative automatic home-based oculomotor assessment tool that can play an important complementary role in prognosis of neurological disorders like stroke for the neurologist. Once the patient has been screened for stroke, the next step is to design proper rehabilitation platform to alleviate the disability. In addition to the screening platform, in our research, we work in designing virtual reality based rehabilitation exercise platform that has the potential to deliver visual stimulation and in turn contribute to improving one’s performance.

  11. Nutrient removal using biosorption activated media: Preliminary biogeochemical assessment of an innovative stormwater infiltration basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Reilly, Andrew M.; Wanielista, Martin P.; Chang, Ni-Bin; Xuan, Zhemin; Harris, Willie G.

    2012-01-01

    Soil beneath a stormwater infiltration basin receiving runoff from a 23 ha predominantly residential watershed in north-central Florida, USA, was amended using biosorption activated media (BAM) to study the effectiveness of this technology in reducing inputs of nitrogen and phosphorus to groundwater. The functionalized soil amendment BAM consists of a 1.0:1.9:4.1 mixture (by volume) of tire crumb (to increase sorption capacity), silt and clay (to increase soil moisture retention), and sand (to promote sufficient infiltration), which was applied to develop an innovative stormwater infiltration basin utilizing nutrient reduction and flood control sub-basins. Comparison of nitrate/chloride (NO 3 − /Cl − ) ratios for the shallow groundwater indicates that prior to using BAM, NO 3 − concentrations were substantially influenced by nitrification or variations in NO 3 − input. In contrast, for the new basin utilizing BAM, NO 3 − /Cl − ratios indicate minor nitrification and NO 3 − losses with the exception of one summer sample that indicated a 45% loss. Biogeochemical indicators (denitrifier activity derived from real-time polymerase chain reaction and variations in major ions, nutrients, dissolved and soil gases, and stable isotopes) suggest that NO 3 − losses are primarily attributable to denitrification, whereas dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium is a minor process. Denitrification was likely occurring intermittently in anoxic microsites in the unsaturated zone, which was enhanced by the increased soil moisture within the BAM layer and resultant reductions in surface/subsurface oxygen exchange that produced conditions conducive to increased denitrifier activity. Concentrations of total dissolved phosphorus and orthophosphate (PO 4 3− ) were reduced by more than 70% in unsaturated zone soil water, with the largest decreases in the BAM layer where sorption was the most likely mechanism for removal. Post-BAM PO 4 3− /Cl − ratios for shallow

  12. Stimulated coherent transition radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hung-chi Lihn.

    1996-03-01

    Coherent radiation emitted from a relativistic electron bunch consists of wavelengths longer than or comparable to the bunch length. The intensity of this radiation out-numbers that of its incoherent counterpart, which extends to wavelengths shorter than the bunch length, by a factor equal to the number of electrons in the bunch. In typical accelerators, this factor is about 8 to 11 orders of magnitude. The spectrum of the coherent radiation is determined by the Fourier transform of the electron bunch distribution and, therefore, contains information of the bunch distribution. Coherent transition radiation emitted from subpicosecond electron bunches at the Stanford SUNSHINE facility is observed in the far-infrared regime through a room-temperature pyroelectric bolometer and characterized through the electron bunch-length study. To measure the bunch length, a new frequency-resolved subpicosecond bunch-length measuring system is developed. This system uses a far-infrared Michelson interferometer to measure the spectrum of coherent transition radiation through optical autocorrelation with resolution far better than existing time-resolved methods. Hence, the radiation spectrum and the bunch length are deduced from the autocorrelation measurement. To study the stimulation of coherent transition radiation, a special cavity named BRAICER is invented. Far-infrared light pulses of coherent transition radiation emitted from electron bunches are delayed and circulated in the cavity to coincide with subsequent incoming electron bunches. This coincidence of light pulses with electron bunches enables the light to do work on electrons, and thus stimulates more radiated energy. The possibilities of extending the bunch-length measuring system to measure the three-dimensional bunch distribution and making the BRAICER cavity a broadband, high-intensity, coherent, far-infrared light source are also discussed

  13. Source Material and Concentration of Wildfire-Produced Pyrogenic Carbon Influence Post-Fire Soil Nutrient Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas A. Michelotti

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Pyrogenic carbon (PyC is produced by the thermal decomposition of organic matter in the absence of oxygen (O. PyC affects nutrient availability, may enhance post-fire nitrogen (N mineralization rates, and can be a significant carbon (C pool in fire-prone ecosystems. Our objectives were to characterize PyC produced by wildfires and examine the influence that contrasting types of PyC have on C and N mineralization rates. We determined C, N, O, and hydrogen (H concentrations and atomic ratios of charred bark (BK, charred pine cones (PC, and charred woody debris (WD using elemental analysis. We also incubated soil amended with BK, PC, and WD at two concentrations for 60 days to measure C and N mineralization rates. PC had greater H/C and O/C ratios than BK and WD, suggesting that PC may have a lesser aromatic component than BK and WD. C and N mineralization rates decreased with increasing PyC concentrations, and control samples produced more CO2 than soils amended with PyC. Soils with PC produced greater CO2 and had lower N mineralization rates than soils with BK or WD. These results demonstrate that PyC type and concentration have potential to impact nutrient dynamics and C flux to the atmosphere in post-fire forest soils.

  14. Characterization of nutrient deficiency in Hancornia speciosa Gomes seedlings by omitting micronutrients from the nutrient solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Layara Alexandre Bessa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Hancornia speciosa Gomes (Mangaba tree is a fruit tree belonging to the Apocynaceae family and is native to Brazil. The production of seedlings of this species is limited by a lack of technical and nutritional expertise. To address this deficiency, this study aimed to characterize the visual symptoms of micronutrient deficiency and to assess growth and leaf nutrient accumulation in H. speciosa seedlings supplied with nutrient solutions that lack individual micronutrients. H. speciosa plants were grown in nutrient solution in a greenhouse according to a randomized block design, with four replicates. The treatments consisted of a group receiving complete nutrient solution and groups treated with a nutrient solution lacking one of the following micronutrients: boron (B, copper (Cu, iron (Fe, manganese (Mn, zinc (Zn, and molybdenum (Mo. The visual symptoms of nutrient deficiency were generally easy to characterize. Dry matter production was affected by the omission of micronutrients, and the treatment lacking Fe most limited the stem length, stem diameter, root length, and number of leaves in H. speciosa seedlings as well as the dry weight of leaves, the total dry weight, and the relative growth in H. speciosa plants. The micronutrient contents of H. speciosa leaves from plants receiving the complete nutrient solution treatment were, in decreasing order, Fe>Mn>Cu>Zn>B.

  15. 78 FR 69543 - Amendments to General Regulations of the Food and Drug Administration; Technical Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-20

    ... authority citation is expressed in terms of the U.S. Code, the amendment is to insert ``332'' in the list of..., and Cosmetic Act (FD&C Act) (21 U.S.C. 332); Revised Sec. 1.1(c), ``General,'' by removing the terms... removing the terms ``package in Sec. 1.20 and of''. The preamble to the final rule explained that the...

  16. Heterogeneity of zeolite combined with biochar properties as a function of sewage sludge composting and production of nutrient-rich compost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar Awasthi, Mukesh; Wang, Meijing; Pandey, Ashok; Chen, Hongyu; Kumar Awasthi, Sanjeev; Wang, Quan; Ren, Xiuna; Hussain Lahori, Altaf; Li, Dong-Sheng; Li, Ronghua; Zhang, Zengqiang

    2017-10-01

    In the present study, biochar combined with a higher dosage of zeolite (Z) and biochar (B) alone were applied as additives for dewatered fresh sewage sludge (DFSS) composting using 130-L working volume lab-scale reactors. We first observed that the addition of a mixture of B and Z to DFSS equivalent to 12%B+10% (Z-1), 15% (Z-2) and 30% (Z-3) zeolite (dry weight basis) worked synergistically as an amendment and increased the composting efficiency compared with a treatment of 12%B alone amended and a control without any amendment. In a composting reactor, the addition of B+Z may serve as a novel approach for improving DFSS composting and the quality of the end product in terms of the temperature, water-holding capacity, CO 2 emissions, electrical conductivity, water-soluble and total macro-nutrient content and phytotoxicity. The results indicated that during the thermophilic phase, dissolved organic carbon, NH 4 + -N and NO 3 - -N increased drastically in all biochar amended treatments, whereas considerably low water-soluble nutrients were observed in the control treatment throughout and at the end of the composting. Furthermore, the maturity parameters and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) indicated that compost with 12%B+15%Z became more mature and humified within 35days of DFSS composting, with the maturity parameters, such as CO 2 evolution and the concentration of NH 4 + -N in the compost, being within the permissible limits of organic farming in contrast to the control. Furthermore, at the end of composting, the addition of higher dosage of biochar (12%) alone and 12% B+Z lowered the pH by 7.15 to 7.86 and the electrical conductivity by 2.65 to 2.95mScm -1 as compared to the control, while increased the concentrations of water-soluble nutrients (gkg -1 ) including available phosphorus, sodium and potassium. In addition, greenhouse experiments demonstrated that the treatment of 150kgha -1 biochar combined with zeolite and that of 12%B alone improved the yield of

  17. The 1990 Clean Air Act amendments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torrens, I.M.; Cichanowicz, J.E.; Platt, J.B.

    1992-01-01

    The impacts of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments on utilities are substantial, presenting a host of new technical challenges, introducing new business risks, changing costs of electric generation, creating new winners and losers, and calling for new organizational responses capable of dealing with the complexity and short time for decisions. The magnitude of costs and unknowns puts clean air compliance into a new league of energy issues, in which the decisions utilities must make are not simply technological or engineering economic choices, but rather are very complex business decisions with numerous stakeholders, pitfalls, and opportunities. This paper summarizes the key regulatory requirements of the CAAA, outlines compliance options and questions facing the utility industry, and addresses how utility strategic business decisions could be affected

  18. Second Ordinance amending the Radiation Protection Ordinance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The amendment of the Radiation Protection Ordinance brings about the following changes: (1) Introduction of the concept of effective dose, reduction of limits for partial body dose, adoption of the radiotoxicity values of radionuclides as established by the EC Basis Standards; (2) introduction of a working-life-related dose limit of 400 mSv; (3) supplementing provisions for the protection of the population, particularly by the standard procedure for radioecological impact assessment and determination of dose factors; (4) supplementing provisions on the use of radioactive substances in medicine and medical research; (5) supplementing provisions on health physics monitoring; (6) provisions for improving the supervision and controls in the transport of radioactive substances; (7) definition of activities and their assignment to the provisions of the Radiation Protection Ordinance; (8) revision of the waste management provisions of the Radiation Protection Ordinance. (HP) [de

  19. Phenanthrene sorption on biochar-amended soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kahawaththa Gamage, Inoka Damayanthi Kumari; Moldrup, Per; Paradelo Pérez, Marcos

    2014-01-01

    on their influences on the sorption of environmental contaminants. In a field-based study at two experimental sites in Denmark, we investigated the effect of birch wood-derived biochar (Skogans kol) on the sorption of phenanthrene in soils with different properties. The soil sorption coefficient, Kd (L kg-1......), of phenanthrene was measured on sandy loam and loamy sand soils which have received from zero up to 100 t ha-1 of biochar. Results show that birch wood biochar had a higher Kd compared to soils. Furthermore, the application of birch wood biochar enhanced the sorption of phenanthrene in agricultural soils...... carbon, while it negatively correlated with clay content. The results also revealed that biochar-mineral interactions play an important role in the sorption of phenanthrene in biochar-amended soil....

  20. Amendments to excepted benefits. Final rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    This document contains final regulations that amend the regulations regarding excepted benefits under the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974, the Internal Revenue Code (the Code), and the Public Health Service Act. Excepted benefits are generally exempt from the health reform requirements that were added to those laws by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act and the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. In addition, eligibility for excepted benefits does not preclude an individual from eligibility for a premium tax credit under section 36B of the Code if an individual chooses to enroll in coverage under a Qualified Health Plan through an Affordable Insurance Exchange. These regulations finalize some but not all of the proposed rules with minor modifications; additional guidance on limited wraparound coverage is forthcoming.

  1. AMENDMENTS TO THE STAFF RULES AND REGULATIONS

    CERN Document Server

    Human Resources Division

    2001-01-01

    The Staff Rules and Regulations in force since 1 January 1996 are modified as follows as from : 1 January 2001 Scale of basic salaries and scale of basic stipends (Annex R A 1 and Annex R A 2 respectively). These scales include the correction approved in June 2001 of the discrepancy of 0.3% in the net salary adjustment on 1 January 2001. Family Allowance and Child Allowance (Annex R A 4). Reimbursement of education fees (Article R A 8.01) for the academic year 2000/2001, i.e. with effect from 1 September 2000. Periodic reviews of the financial conditions of members of the personel (Annex A1). 1 July 2001 Various drafting amendments adopted in order to ensure greater coherence between the texts, the procedures and actual practice. 1 September 2001 Implementation of the new career structure. Copies of these updates are available in the divisional secretariats.

  2. Nutrient sequestration in Aquitaine lakes (SW France) limits nutrient flux to the coastal zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buquet, Damien; Anschutz, Pierre; Charbonnier, Céline; Rapin, Anne; Sinays, Rémy; Canredon, Axel; Bujan, Stéphane; Poirier, Dominique

    2017-12-01

    Oligotrophic coastal zones are disappearing from increased nutrient loading. The quantity of nutrients reaching the coast is determined not only by their original source (e.g. fertilizers used in agriculture, waste water discharges) and the land use, but also by the pathways through which nutrients are cycled from the source to the river mouth. In particular, lakes sequester nutrients and, hence, reduce downstream transfer of nutrients to coastal environments. Here, we quantify the impact of Aquitaine great lakes on the fluxes of dissolved macro-nutrients (N, P, Si) to the Bay of Biscay. For that, we have measured nutrient concentrations and fluxes in 2014 upstream and downstream lakes of Lacanau and Carcans-Hourtin, which belongs to the catchment of the Arcachon Bay, which is the largest coastal lagoon of the Bay of Biscay French coast. Data were compared to values obtained from the Leyre river, the main freshwater and nutrient source for the lagoon. Results show that processes in lakes greatly limit nutrient flux to the lagoon compared to fluxes from Leyre river, although the watershed is similar in terms of land cover. In lakes, phosphorus and silicon are trapped for long term in the sediment, silicon as amorphous biogenic silica and phosphorus as organic P and P associated with Fe-oxides. Nitrogen that enters lakes mostly as nitrate is used for primary production. N is mineralized in the sediment; a fraction diffuses as ammonium. N2 production through benthic denitrification extracts only 10% of dissolved inorganic nitrogen from the aquatic system. The main part is sequestered in organic-rich sediment that accumulates below 5 m depth in both lakes.

  3. Sources of Nutrients to Nearshore Areas of a Eutrophic Estuary: Implications for Nutrient-Enhanced Acidification in Puget Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacella, S. R.

    2016-02-01

    Ocean acidification has recently been highlighted as a major stressor for coastal organisms. Further work is needed to assess the role of anthropogenic nutrient additions in eutrophied systems on local biological processes, and how this interacts with CO2 emission-driven acidification. This study sought to distinguish changes in pH caused by natural versus anthropogenically affected processes. We quantified the variability in water column pH attributable to primary production and respiration fueled by anthropogenically derived nitrogen in a shallow nearshore area. Two study sites were located in shallow subtidal areas of the Snohomish River estuary, a eutrophic system located in central Puget Sound, Washington. These sites were chosen due to the presence of heavy agricultural activity, urbanized areas with associated waste water treatment, as well as influence from deep, high CO2 marine waters transported through the Strait of Juan de Fuca and upwelled into the area during spring and summer. Data was collected from July-December 2015 utilizing continuous moorings and discrete water column sampling. Analysis of stable isotopes, δ15N, δ18O-NO3, δ15N-NH4, was used to estimate the relative contributions of anthropogenic versus upwelled marine nitrogen sources. Continuous monitoring of pH, dissolved oxygen, temperature, and salinity was conducted at both study sites to link changes in nutrient source and availability with changes in pH. We predicted that isotope data would indicate greater contributions of nitrogen from agriculture and wastewater rather than upwelling in the shallow, nearshore study sites. This study seeks to distinguish the relative magnitude of pH change stimulated by anthropogenic versus natural sources of nitrogen to inform public policy decisions in critically important nearshore ecosystems.

  4. Effect of immobilized rhizobacteria and organic amendment in bulk and rhizospheric soil of Cistus albidus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengual, Carmen Maria; del Mar Alguacil, Maria; Roldan, Antonio; Schoebitz, Mauricio

    2013-04-01

    A field experiment was carried out to assess the effectiveness of the immobilized microbial inoculant and the addition of organic olive residue. The microbial inoculant contained two rhizobacterial species identified as Azospirillum brasilense and Pantoea dispersa immobilized in a natural inert support. Bacterial population densities were 3.5×109 and 4.1×109 CFU g-1 of A. brasilense M3 and P. dispersa C3, respectively. The amendment used was the organic fraction extracted with KOH from composted "alperujo". The raw material was collected from an olive-mill and mixed with fresh cow bedding as bulking agent for composting. The inoculation of rhizobacteria and the addition of organic residue were employed for plant growth promotion of Cistus albidus L. and enhancement of soil physicochemical, biochemical and biological properties in a degraded semiarid Mediterranean area. One year after planting, the available phosphorus and potassium content in the amended soils was about 100 and 70% respectively higher than in the non-amended soil. Microbial inoculant and their interaction with organic residue increased the aggregate stability of the rhizosphere soil of C. albidus (by 12% with respect to control soil) while the organic residue alone not increased the aggregate stability of the rhizosphere of C. albidus. Microbial biomass C content and enzyme activities (dehydrogenase, urease, protease-BAA and alkaline phosphatase) of the rhizosphere of C. albidus were increased by microbial inoculant and organic residue interaction but not by microbial inoculation alone. The microbial inoculant and organic residue interaction were the most effective treatment for stimulating the roots dry weight of C. albidus (by 133% with respect to control plants) and microbial inoculant was the most effective treatment for increase the shoot dry weigh of plants (by 106% with respect to control plants). The combined treatment, involving microbial inoculant and addition of the organic residue

  5. Nutrients can enhance the abundance and expression of alkane hydroxylase CYP153 gene in the rhizosphere of ryegrass planted in hydrocarbon-polluted soil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Arslan

    Full Text Available Plant-bacteria partnership is a promising strategy for the remediation of soil and water polluted with hydrocarbons. However, the limitation of major nutrients (N, P and K in soil affects the survival and metabolic activity of plant associated bacteria. The objective of this study was to explore the effects of nutrients on survival and metabolic activity of an alkane degrading rhizo-bacterium. Annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum was grown in diesel-contaminated soil and inoculated with an alkane degrading bacterium, Pantoea sp. strain BTRH79, in greenhouse experiments. Two levels of nutrients were applied and plant growth, hydrocarbon removal, and gene abundance and expression were determined after 100 days of sowing of ryegrass. Results obtained from these experiments showed that the bacterial inoculation improved plant growth and hydrocarbon degradation and these were further enhanced by nutrients application. Maximum plant biomass production and hydrocarbon mineralization was observed by the combined use of inoculum and higher level of nutrients. The presence of nutrients in soil enhanced the colonization and metabolic activity of the inoculated bacterium in the rhizosphere. The abundance and expression of CYP153 gene in the rhizosphere of ryegrass was found to be directly associated with the level of applied nutrients. Enhanced hydrocarbon degradation was associated with the population of the inoculum bacterium, the abundance and expression of CYP153 gene in the rhizosphere of ryegrass. It is thus concluded that the combination between vegetation, inoculation with pollutant-degrading bacteria and nutrients amendment was an efficient approach to reduce hydrocarbon contamination.

  6. Microbial dynamics and enzyme activities in tropical Andosols depending on land use and nutrient inputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mganga, Kevin; Razavi, Bahar; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2015-04-01

    Microbial decomposition of soil organic matter is mediated by enzymes and is a key source of terrestrial CO2 emissions. Microbial and enzyme activities are necessary to understand soil biochemical functioning and identify changes in soil quality. However, little is known about land use and nutrients availability effects on enzyme activities and microbial processes, especially in tropical soils of Africa. This study was conducted to examine how microbial and enzyme activities differ between different land uses and nutrient availability. As Andosols of Mt. Kilimanjaro are limited by nutrient concentrations, we hypothesize that N and P additions will stimulate enzyme activity. N and P were added to soil samples (0-20 cm) representing common land use types in East Africa: (1) savannah, (2) maize fields, (3) lower montane forest, (4) coffee plantation, (5) grasslands and (6) traditional Chagga homegardens. Total CO2 efflux from soil, microbial biomass and activities of β-glucosidase, cellobiohydrolase, chitinase and phosphatase involved in C, N and P cycling, respectively was monitored for 60 days. Total CO2 production, microbial biomass and enzyme activities varied in the order forest soils > grassland soils > arable soils. Increased β-glucosidase and cellobiohydrolase activities after N addition of grassland soils suggest that microorganisms increased N uptake and utilization to produce C-acquiring enzymes. Low N concentration in all soils inhibited chitinase activity. Depending on land use, N and P addition had an inhibitory or neutral effect on phosphatase activity. We attribute this to the high P retention of Andosols and low impact of N and P on the labile P fractions. Enhanced CO2 production after P addition suggests that increased P availability could stimulate soil organic matter biodegradation in Andosols. In conclusion, land use and nutrients influenced soil enzyme activities and microbial dynamics and demonstrated the decline in soil quality after landuse

  7. Roots, plant production and nutrient use efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willigen, de P.; Noordwijk, van M.

    1987-01-01

    The role of roots in obtaining high crop production levels as well as a high nutrient use efficiency is discussed. Mathematical models of diffusion and massflow of solutes towards roots are developed for a constant daily uptake requirement. Analytical solutions are given for simple and more

  8. Performance, Nutrient Utilization and Intestinal Environment of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The performance, nutrient utilization and intestinal environment of weaned rabbits fed diets supplemented with organic acids (acetic acid, citric acid and formic acid) were investigated with 24 (6-week old) rabbits in a completely randomized design. The control diet was not supplemented while others were supplemented ...

  9. Farmer Field School on Nutrient Management.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onduru, D.; Muchena, F.N.; Gachimbi, L.N.; Jager, de A.

    2003-01-01

    In Kenya Integrated Nutrient Management (INM) is being used to make the best use of local resources and to optimise the effects of external inputs. In Mbeere, a district that lies in the dryland area of Eastern Kenya the Farmer Field School (FFS) has been in operation during one season and work is

  10. Apparent nutrient digestibility and performance of Heterobranchus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Apparent digestibility coefficients (ADCs) of nutrients is a useful tool for fish diet formulation, which gives the right estimation of growth, thereby reducing waste products. The ADCs of crude protein, energy and dry matter of processed earthworm, Libyodrilus violaceus meal by Heterobranchus longifilis fingerlings ...

  11. 21 CFR 107.100 - Nutrient specifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nutrient specifications. 107.100 Section 107.100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Maximum level Protein Grams 1.8 4.5 Fat do 3.3 6.0 Percent calories 30 54 Linoleic acid Milligrams 300...

  12. Uncertainty Propagation in an Ecosystem Nutrient Budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New aspects and advancements in classical uncertainty propagation methods were used to develop a nutrient budget with associated error for a northern Gulf of Mexico coastal embayment. Uncertainty was calculated for budget terms by propagating the standard error and degrees of fr...

  13. Biological Nutrient Removal in Compact Biofilm Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bassin, J.P.

    2012-01-01

    The removal of nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus from both domestic and industrial wastewaters is imperative since they potentially harm the environment. One of the main consequences of excessive availability of nitrogen and phosphorus in aquatic ecosystems (freshwater, marine and estuarine)

  14. NUTRIENTS AND EPIGENETICS IN BOVINE CELLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a chapter for a book titled “Livestock Epigenetics” edited by Dr. Hasan Khatib and published by Wiley-Blackwell. This chapter is focused on the research development in our laboratory in the area of interaction of nutrients and genomic phonotype in bovine cells. Briefly, the Research on nutri...

  15. Breast milk nutrient content and infancy growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prentice, Philippa; Ong, Ken K.; Schoemaker, Marieke H.; Tol, van Eric A.F.; Vervoort, Jacques; Hughes, Ieuan A.; Acerini, Carlo L.; Dunger, David B.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Benefits of human breast milk (HM) in avoiding rapid infancy weight gain and later obesity could relate to its nutrient content. We tested the hypothesis that differential HM total calorie content (TCC) or macronutrient contents may be associated with infancy growth. Methods: HM hindmilk

  16. Distribution of nutrients, chlorophyll and phytoplankton primary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Distribution of nutrients, chlorophyll and phytoplankton primary production in ... Two cruises were undertaken in the vicinity of the Cape Frio upwelling cell ... and concentrations of nitrate, phosphate, silicate, oxygen and chlorophyll a. ... Estimates of the annual primary production for each of the water bodies were calculated.

  17. Nutrient Film Technique (NFT Hydroponic Monitoring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmy Helmy

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Plant cultivation using hydroponic is very popular today. Nutrient Film Technique (NFT hydroponic system is commonly used by people. It can be applied indoor or outdoor. Plants in this systemneed nutrient solution to grow well. pH, TDS and temperature of the nutrient solution must be check to ensure plant gets sufficient nutrients. This research aims todevelop monitoring system of NFT hydroponic. Farmer will be able to monitor pH, TDS and temperature online. It will ease farmer to decide which plant is suitable to be cultivated and time to boost growth.Delay of the system will be measured to know system performance. Result shows that pH is directly proportional with TDS. Temperature value has no correlation with pH and TDS. System has highest delay during daylight and afternoon but it will decline in the night and morning. Average of delay in the morning is 11 s, 28.5 s in daylight, 32 s in the afternoon and 17.5 s in the night.

  18. 21 CFR 107.10 - Nutrient information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... supplied by 100 kilocalories: Nutrients Unit of measurement Protein Grams. Fat Do. Carbohydrate Do. Water... of milligram alpha-tocopherol equivalents, and sodium, potassium, and chloride content in units of... bases, such as per 100 milliliters or per liter, as prepared for infant consumption. (4) One of the...

  19. NUTRIENT BALANCE IN WATER HARVESTING SOILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Díaz, F

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Dryland farming on Fuerteventura and Lanzarote (Canary Islands, Spain, which has an annual rainfall of less than 150 mm/year, has been based traditionally on water harvesting techniques (known locally as “gavias”. Periods of high productivity alternate with those of very low yield. The systems are sustainable in that they reduce erosive processes, contribute to soil and soil-water conservation and are largely responsible for maintaining the soil’s farming potential. In this paper we present the chemical fertility status and nutrient balance of soils in five “gavia” systems. The results are compared with those obtained in adjacent soils where this water harvesting technique is not used. The main crops are wheat, barley, maize, lentils and chick-peas. Since neither organic nor inorganic fertilisers are used, nutrients are derived mainly from sediments carried by runoff water. Nutrients are lost mainly through crop harvesting and harvest residues. The soils where water harvesting is used have lower salt and sodium in the exchange complex, are higher in carbon, nitrogen, copper and zinc and have similar phosphorous and potassium content. It is concluded that the systems improve the soil’s natural fertility and also that natural renovation of nutrients occurs thanks to the surface deposits of sediments, which mix with the arable layer. The system helps ensure adequate fertility levels, habitual in arid regions, thus allowing dryland farming to be carried out.

  20. Ultrasound stimulation on bone healing. The optimization of stimulation time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosim, R.C.; Paulin, J.B.P.; Goncalves, R.P.

    1990-01-01

    Previous works in ultrasonic simulation of bone healing dealt with parameters optimization. Albertin (1983) studied the stimulation time and found forty minutes as ideal. However, this stimulation time was the largest one employed and remained some doubt about the most appropriated value. 30, 40, 50 and 60 minutes of stimulation time were selected, while others parameters were held constant with: pulse width in 200 μs, repetition rate in 1000 pulses per second and amplitude in 30 V. Partial incomplete transverse osteotomies were done in the middle third of radio in the right forearm of rabbits. Twenty four animals divided in four subgroups, with 6 animals each were stimulated. The daily stimulation time for each subgroup was 30, 40, 50 and minutes respectively, during 15 consecutive days. The stimulation procedure started 24 hours after surgery. After the stimulation period, radiological, histological and morphometric evaluations were done and greater bone healing was found for the 50 minutes stimulation subgroup, in them new bone was also prominent. (author)