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Sample records for nurturing development entrenched

  1. A Neural Network Model of the Effects of Entrenchment and Memory Development on Grammatical Gender Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monner, Derek; Vatz, Karen; Morini, Giovanna; Hwang, So-One; DeKeyser, Robert

    2013-01-01

    To investigate potential causes of L2 performance deficits that correlate with age of onset, we use a computational model to explore the individual contributions of L1 entrenchment and aspects of memory development. Since development and L1 entrenchment almost invariably coincide, studying them independently is seldom possible in humans. To avoid…

  2. entrenching an efficient urban infrastructure development in uyo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DJFLEX

    trade and communication lines. Emphasis was on transport development based on ports and distribution of imported goods (Umezuruike, 1997 and ... Ajanlekoko (1997) has criticized the provision of infrastructure in most Nigerian urban centres as being in a state of comatose, neither dying nor living, particular electricity, ...

  3. Nurturing care: promoting early childhood development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britto, Pia R; Lye, Stephen J; Proulx, Kerrie; Yousafzai, Aisha K; Matthews, Stephen G; Vaivada, Tyler; Perez-Escamilla, Rafael; Rao, Nirmala; Ip, Patrick; Fernald, Lia C H; MacMillan, Harriet; Hanson, Mark; Wachs, Theodore D; Yao, Haogen; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Cerezo, Adrian; Leckman, James F; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2017-01-07

    The UN Sustainable Development Goals provide a historic opportunity to implement interventions, at scale, to promote early childhood development. Although the evidence base for the importance of early childhood development has grown, the research is distributed across sectors, populations, and settings, with diversity noted in both scope and focus. We provide a comprehensive updated analysis of early childhood development interventions across the five sectors of health, nutrition, education, child protection, and social protection. Our review concludes that to make interventions successful, smart, and sustainable, they need to be implemented as multi-sectoral intervention packages anchored in nurturing care. The recommendations emphasise that intervention packages should be applied at developmentally appropriate times during the life course, target multiple risks, and build on existing delivery platforms for feasibility of scale-up. While interventions will continue to improve with the growth of developmental science, the evidence now strongly suggests that parents, caregivers, and families need to be supported in providing nurturing care and protection in order for young children to achieve their developmental potential. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Nurturing Your Child's Development from 24 to 36 Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Member Home Resources & Services Parenting Resource Nurturing Your Child's Development from 24 to 36 Months Download Files En ... important aspects of overall healthy development. Charting Your Child's Healthy Development The following chart describes many of the things ...

  5. Managerial entrenchment and earnings management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Di Meo, Fabrizio; García Lara, Juan Manuel; Surroca, Jordi

    2017-01-01

    Agency theorists have long contended that managerial entrenchment is detrimental for shareholders, because it protects managers from the discipline of corporate governance. However, as a competing hypothesis, we argue that entrenchment can also provide benefits for the firm's owners: it leads

  6. Second Language Aquisition and The Development through Nature-Nurture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syahfitri Purnama

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available There are some factors regarding which aspect of second language acquisition is affected by individual learner factors, age, learning style. aptitude, motivation, and personality. This research is about English language acquisition of fourth-year child by nature and nurture. The child acquired her second language acquisition at home and also in one of the courses in Jakarta. She schooled by her parents in order to be able to speak English well as a target language for her future time. The purpose of this paper is to see and examine individual learner difference especially in using English as a second language. This study is a library research and retrieved data collected, recorded, transcribed, and analyzed descriptively. The results can be concluded: the child is able to communicate well and also able to construct simple sentences, complex sentences, sentence statement, phrase questions, and explain something when her teacher asks her at school. She is able to communicate by making a simple sentence or compound sentence in well-form (two clauses or three clauses, even though she still not focus to use the past tense form and sometimes she forgets to put bound morpheme -s in third person singular but she can use turn-taking in her utterances. It is a very long process since the child does the second language acquisition. The family and teacher should participate and assist the child, the proven child can learn the first and the second language at the same time.

  7. Entrincheiramento organizacional: construção e validação da escala Organizational entrenchment: scale development and validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina de Aguiar Rodrigues

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo construir e validar a escala de entrincheiramento organizacional, construto de mesma base teórica do comprometimento de continuação. Três dimensões foram propostas: ajustamentos à posição social (APS, arranjos burocráticos impessoais (ABI e limitação de alternativas (LA. Os dados coletados com 721 trabalhadores foram submetidos a análises exploratórias e confirmatórias para a avaliação psicométrica da escala. Os resultados indicam estabilidade, generalizabilidade e alta consistência interna dos três fatores, formados pelos vinte e dois itens restantes, e respaldam a decisão pela estrutura tridimensional. Estudos futuros com a escala validada poderão contribuir para um maior refinamento conceitual e empírico do entrincheiramento com a organização.The objective of this work was to develop and validate an organizational entrenchment scale which is a construct on the same theoretical base of continuance commitment. Three dimensions were defined: individual adjustment to social positions (ASP, impersonal bureaucratic arrangements (IBA and limitation of alternatives (LA. Data collected from 721 workers were subjected to exploratory and confirmatory analyses in order to conduct a psychometric evaluation of the scale. Results indicate stability, potential for generalization and strong internal consistency across the three dimensions formed by the remaining twenty-two items, and they also support the choice of a three-component structure. Future studies using this validated scale will contribute for further conceptual and empirical refinement of the organizational entrenchment concept.

  8. Career adaptability and career entrenchment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zacher, Hannes; Ambiel, Rodolfo A.M.; Noronha, Ana Paula Porto

    2015-01-01

    Career adaptability constitutes a resource that can help employees to effectively manage career changes and challenges. The goal of this study was to investigate the relationship between the two higher-order constructs of career adaptability and career entrenchment (i.e., the perceived inability

  9. [Influence of home nurture environment on language development and social emotion in children with developmental language disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guo-Kai; Liu, Gui-Hua; Qian, Qin-Fang; Ge, Pin; Xie, Yan-Qin; Yang, Min-Yan; Wang, Zhang-Qiong; Ou, Ping

    2017-05-01

    To investigate the influence of home nurture environment on language development and social emotion in children with developmental language disorder (DLD). The 1-3 Years Child Home Nurture Environment Scale, Gesell Developmental Scale, and Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment Scale were used for the evaluation of 125 children with DLD. A total of 130 children with normal language development matched for age and sex were enrolled as control group. Compared with the control group, the DLD group had a significantly higher proportion of children in a bad home nurture environment and significantly lower scores of all domains of home nurture environment (Penvironment score was positively correlated with the level of language development (r=0.536, Penvironment had direct influence on language development in children with DLD and affected their language development via the mediating effect of social emotion. Home nurture environment influences language development and social emotion in children with DLD, and social emotion has a partial mediating effect between home nurture environment and language development.

  10. Nature-Nurture and the Two Realms of Development: A Proposed Integration with Respect to Mental Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, Robert B.

    1981-01-01

    Argues that developmental psychologists need attitudes, methods, and conceptual schemes that integrate the distinctive contributions of both nature and nurture in order to study change and consistency in developmental functions, as well as individual differences in behaviors of interest. A conceptual scheme for early mental development is…

  11. Entrenchment Relations: A Uniform Approach to Nonmonotonicity

    OpenAIRE

    Georgatos, Konstantinos

    2000-01-01

    We show that Gabbay's nonmonotonic consequence relations can be reduced to a new family of relations, called entrenchment relations. Entrenchment relations provide a direct generalization of epistemic entrenchment and expectation ordering introduced by Gardenfors and Makinson for the study of belief revision and expectation inference, respectively.

  12. Scientifically based nurture and nature: alternative but non exclusive hypotheses on attention development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiappedi, Matteo; Balottin, Umberto; Baschenis, Ilaria M C; Piazza, Fausta; De Bernardi, Elisabetta; Bejor, Maurizio

    2010-11-01

    Attention is an important neuropsychological function in child development. A lot of literature has been devoted to trying to separate the role of nature (i.e. mainly the genetic basis) from that of nurture (i.e. parenting and life events). The case of preterm born children is an opportunity to try and further study this relationship. We hypothesize that children born preterm might have a reduced attention due to an interaction of factors, to be conceptualized both as nature (mainly the genetic background and the specific consequences of preterm birth and of its complications) and nurture (therapeutic techniques used, alteration in parents-child relationship and so on). The contribution of each of these factors needs to be disembodied from the raw finding of a reduced attention: this is especially important because experience-dependent learning, in which individualized experiences have neural effects, can go on throughout life and this opens interesting rehabilitative possibilities. Different research lines which could be useful to entangle the specific contributions of the above mentioned factors are discussed: the results could in turn inform clinical practice with this highly at risk and increasing in number population, with a view largely corresponding to the one founding the OMS International Classification of Disability, Functioning and Health. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Buildings That Nurture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidy, Victor

    2003-01-01

    Draws on the principles of architect Frank Lloyd Wright and educator Maria Montessori to create a new genre of architectural design for schools--schools that nurture. Suggests that Montessori schools may develop their own architectural statement as they integrate indoors and outdoors with Montessori-specific requirements for the prepared…

  14. A Unified Theory of Development: A Dialectic Integration of Nature and Nurture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sameroff, Arnold

    2010-01-01

    The understanding of nature and nurture within developmental science has evolved with alternating ascendance of one or the other as primary explanations for individual differences in life course trajectories of success or failure. A dialectical perspective emphasizing the interconnectedness of individual and context is suggested to interpret the…

  15. NURTURE: Development and Pilot Testing of a Novel Parenting Intervention for Mothers with Histories of an Eating Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runfola, Cristin D.; Zucker, Nancy L.; Von Holle, Ann; Mazzeo, Suzanne; Hodges, Eric A.; Perrin, Eliana M.; Bentley, Margaret E.; Ulman, T. Frances; Hoffman, Elizabeth R.; Forsberg, Sarah; Ålgars, Monica; Zerwas, Stephanie; Pisetsky, Emily M.; Taico Colie, L.C.S.W.; Kuhns, Rebecca A.; Hamer, Robert M.; Bulik, Cynthia M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To describe the treatment development and pilot testing of a group parenting intervention, NURTURE (Networking, Uniting, and Reaching out To Upgrade Relationships and Eating), for mothers with histories of eating disorders. Method Based on focus group findings, extant research, and expert opinion, NURTURE was designed to be delivered weekly over 16 (1.5 hour) sessions via an interactive web conferencing forum. It comprises four modules: 1) laying the foundation, 2) general parenting skills, 3) eating and feeding, and 4) breaking the cycle of risk. Pilot testing was conducted with three groups of 3–6 mothers (N = 13) who had children ages 0–3 years to determine feasibility (e.g., retention), acceptability (e.g., feedback questionnaire responses), and preliminary efficacy. Maternal satisfaction with NURTURE and changes in mother-child feeding relationship measures, maternal feeding style, maternal self-efficacy, and maternal psychopathology (eating disorder, depression, and anxiety symptoms) across three time points (baseline, post-treatment, 6-month follow-up) were examined. All outcomes were exploratory. Results The intervention was well tolerated with a 100% retention rate. Feedback from mothers was generally positive and indicated that the groups provided an engaging, supportive experience to participants. We observed changes suggestive of improvement in self-reported maternal self-efficacy and competence with parenting. There were no notable changes in measures of maternal feeding style or psychopathology. Discussion NURTURE is a feasible, acceptable, and potentially valuable intervention for mothers with eating disorder histories. Results of this pilot will inform a larger randomized-controlled intervention to determine efficacy and impact on child outcomes. PMID:23983082

  16. NURTURE: development and pilot testing of a novel parenting intervention for mothers with histories of an eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runfola, Cristin D; Zucker, Nancy L; Von Holle, Ann; Mazzeo, Suzanne; Hodges, Eric A; Perrin, Eliana M; Bentley, Margaret E; Ulman, T Frances; Hoffman, Elizabeth R; Forsberg, Sarah; Algars, Monica; Zerwas, Stephanie; Pisetsky, Emily M; Taico, Colie; Kuhns, Rebecca A; Hamer, Robert M; Bulik, Cynthia M

    2014-01-01

    To describe the treatment development and pilot testing of a group parenting intervention, NURTURE (Networking, Uniting, and Reaching out To Upgrade Relationships and Eating), for mothers with histories of eating disorders. Based on focus group findings, extant research, and expert opinion, NURTURE was designed to be delivered weekly over 16 (1.5 h) sessions via an interactive web conferencing forum. It comprises four modules: (1) laying the foundation, (2) general parenting skills, (3) eating and feeding, and (4) breaking the cycle of risk. Pilot testing was conducted with three groups of 3-6 mothers (N = 13) who had children ages 0-3 years to determine feasibility (e.g., retention), acceptability (e.g., feedback questionnaire responses), and preliminary efficacy. Maternal satisfaction with NURTURE and changes in mother-child feeding relationship measures, maternal feeding style, maternal self-efficacy, and maternal psychopathology (eating disorder, depression, and anxiety symptoms) across three time points (baseline, post-treatment, 6-month follow-up) were examined. All outcomes were exploratory. The intervention was well tolerated with a 100% retention rate. Feedback from mothers was generally positive and indicated that the groups provided an engaging, supportive experience to participants. We observed changes suggestive of improvement in self-reported maternal self-efficacy and competence with parenting. There were no notable changes in measures of maternal feeding style or psychopathology. NURTURE is a feasible, acceptable, and potentially valuable intervention for mothers with eating disorder histories. Results of this pilot will inform a larger randomized-controlled intervention to determine efficacy and impact on child outcomes. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. River entrenchment and terrace formation in the UK Holocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macklin, M. G.; Lewin, J.; Jones, A. F.

    2013-09-01

    A meta-analysis of a large database of 14C dated fluvial units is used to assess the chronology and controls of episodic Holocene river entrenchment and terrace formation in the UK. Most Holocene terraces are of a ‘fill-cut’ type developed in Pleistocene sediments, in places now reaching down to pre-Holocene bedrock. Holocene terraces are widespread in higher-relief areas of the UK and peripheral higher-energy rivers, and include up to 7 levels in some valley floor reaches. Using 14C constrained data sub-sets for incision episodes, the onset, vertical ranges, formation times, and rates of entrenchment are examined, together with geographical distributions. The height range of terrace separation is relatively small (0.5-3.5 m) with a long-term averaged incision rate over the late and mid-Holocene of 0.43, 0.5, 0.67, 0.7 and 0.81 m/ka in the Tweed, Rheidol, Severn, Ouse and Ribble catchments, and a regional similarity in the scale of incision events. The periods 4200-3700, 3100-2900, 2100-1900, 1800-1500 cal. BP and most notably the last 1000 years (with prominent peaks at 900-800 and 700-600 cal. BP) were times of accelerated incision. It appears likely that extreme flood events triggered the formation of incision ‘slots’, rather than entrenchment being a direct response to glacio-tectonic uplift, or the result of incremental valley-floor lowering by combined incision and lateral reworking. River entrenchment has also been rapid in recent centuries, reflecting the coupling of extreme-events with anthropogenic effects on catchment hydrology. Incision results in changes of river channel flood power and overbank flood extent, and improved data on the long-term and large-scale vertical tendency of UK rivers are needed for flood risk management purposes.

  18. Nurturing Holistic Development of University Students in Hong Kong: Where Are We and Where Should We Go?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel T. L. Shek

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available With reference to the mental health and developmental problems among university students, there is a need to review the university's role in nurturing holistic development of students. This paper explores the question of how holistic development of university students in Hong Kong can be promoted. Based on the positive youth development approach, it is argued that promotion of intrapersonal competencies, interpersonal relationship skills, civic responsibilities, and citizenship among university students is an important strategy to facilitate holistic development of young people in Hong Kong. Two general education or freshman seminar courses that focus on the cultivation of intrapersonal competencies, interpersonal relationship skills, civic responsibilities, and sense of citizenship among university students in Hong Kong are proposed.

  19. A Social Development Curriculum: Applying Nurture Group Principles and Practices to Support Socially and Emotionally Vulnerable Children Within Mainstream Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Rebecca

    2004-01-01

    Rebecca Doyle set up the first nurture group in Thetford Education Action Zone in 2000. In 2001, she published an account of her work to reintegrate pupils from the nurture group into the mainstream of their infant school in the pages of BJSE. In this article, Rebecca Doyle describes how mainstream class teachers requested further support in…

  20. Nature, Nurture and Epigenetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crews, David; Gillette, Ross; Miller-Crews, Isaac; Gore, Andrea C.; Skinner, Michael K.

    2015-01-01

    Real life by definition combines heritability (e.g., the legacy of exposures) and experience (e.g. stress during sensitive or ‘critical’ periods), but how to study or even model this interaction has proven difficult. The hoary concept of evaluating traits according to nature vs. nurture continues to persist despite repeated demonstrations that it retards, rather than advances, our understanding of biological processes. Behavioral genetics has proven the obvious, that genes influences behavior and, vice versa, that behavior influences genes. The concept of Genes X Environment (G X E) and its modern variants was viewed as an improvement on nature-nurture but has proven that, except in rare instances, it is not possible to fractionate phenotypes into these constituent elements. The entanglement inherent in terms such as nature-nurture or GXE is a Gordian knot that cannot be dissected or even split. Given that the world today is not what it was less than a century ago, yet the arbitrator (differential survival and reproduction) has stayed constant, de novo principles and practices are needed to better predict what the future holds. Put simply, the transformation that is now occurring within and between individuals as a product of global endocrine disruption is quite independent of what has been regarded as evolution by selection. This new perspective should focus on how epigenetic modifications might revise approaches to understand how the phenotype and, in particular its components, is shaped. In this review we summarize the literature in this developing area, focusing on our research on the fungicide vinclozolin. PMID:25102229

  1. Nurturing creativity in the classroom

    CERN Document Server

    Kaufman, James C

    2010-01-01

    Nurturing Creativity in the Classroom is a groundbreaking collection of essays by leading scholars, who examine and respond to the tension that many educators face in valuing student creativity but believing that they cannot support it given the curricular constraints of the classroom. Is it possible for teachers to nurture creative development and expression without drifting into curricular chaos? Do curricular constraints necessarily lead to choosing conformity over creativity? This book combines the perspectives of top educators and psychologists to generate practical advice for considering and addressing the challenges of supporting creativity within the classroom. It is unique in its balance of practical recommendations for nurturing creativity and thoughtful appreciation of curricular constraints. This approach helps ensure that the insights and advice found in this collection will take root in educators’ practice, rather than being construed as yet another demand placed on their overflowing plate of ...

  2. Family nurture intervention in preterm infants increases early development of cortical activity and independence of regional power trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Martha G; Stark, Raymond I; Grieve, Philip G; Ludwig, Robert J; Isler, Joseph R; Barone, Joseph L; Myers, Michael M

    2017-12-01

    Premature delivery and maternal separation during hospitalisation increase infant neurodevelopmental risk. Previously, a randomised controlled trial of Family Nurture Intervention (FNI) in the neonatal intensive care unit demonstrated improvement across multiple mother and infant domains including increased electroencephalographic (EEG) power in the frontal polar region at term age. New aims were to quantify developmental changes in EEG power in all brain regions and frequencies and correlate developmental changes in EEG power among regions. EEG (128 electrodes) was obtained at 34-44 weeks postmenstrual age from preterm infants born 26-34 weeks. Forty-four infants were treated with Standard Care and 53 with FNI. EEG power was computed in 10 frequency bands (1-48 Hz) in 10 brain regions and in active and quiet sleep. Percent change/week in EEG power was increased in FNI in 132/200 tests (p < 0.05), 117 tests passed a 5% False Discovery Rate threshold. In addition, FNI demonstrated greater regional independence in those developmental rates of change. This study strengthens the conclusion that FNI promotes cerebral cortical development of preterm infants. The findings indicate that developmental changes in EEG may provide biomarkers for risk in preterm infants as well as proximal markers of effects of FNI. ©2017 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. A two-step transport pathway allows the mother cell to nurture the developing spore in Bacillus subtilis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando H Ramírez-Guadiana

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the hallmarks of bacterial endospore formation is the accumulation of high concentrations of pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid (dipicolinic acid or DPA in the developing spore. This small molecule comprises 5-15% of the dry weight of dormant spores and plays a central role in resistance to both wet heat and desiccation. DPA is synthesized in the mother cell at a late stage in sporulation and must be translocated across two membranes (the inner and outer forespore membranes that separate the mother cell and forespore. The enzymes that synthesize DPA and the proteins required to translocate it across the inner forespore membrane were identified over two decades ago but the factors that transport DPA across the outer forespore membrane have remained mysterious. Here, we report that SpoVV (formerly YlbJ is the missing DPA transporter. SpoVV is produced in the mother cell during the morphological process of engulfment and specifically localizes in the outer forespore membrane. Sporulating cells lacking SpoVV produce spores with low levels of DPA and cells engineered to express SpoVV and the DPA synthase during vegetative growth accumulate high levels of DPA in the culture medium. SpoVV resembles concentrative nucleoside transporters and mutagenesis of residues predicted to form the substrate-binding pocket supports the idea that SpoVV has a similar structure and could therefore function similarly. These findings provide a simple two-step transport mechanism by which the mother cell nurtures the developing spore. DPA produced in the mother cell is first translocated into the intermembrane space by SpoVV and is then imported into the forespore by the SpoVA complex. This pathway is likely to be broadly conserved as DPA synthase, SpoVV, and SpoVA proteins can be found in virtually all endospore forming bacteria.

  4. A two-step transport pathway allows the mother cell to nurture the developing spore in Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Guadiana, Fernando H; Meeske, Alexander J; Rodrigues, Christopher D A; Barajas-Ornelas, Rocío Del Carmen; Kruse, Andrew C; Rudner, David Z

    2017-09-01

    One of the hallmarks of bacterial endospore formation is the accumulation of high concentrations of pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid (dipicolinic acid or DPA) in the developing spore. This small molecule comprises 5-15% of the dry weight of dormant spores and plays a central role in resistance to both wet heat and desiccation. DPA is synthesized in the mother cell at a late stage in sporulation and must be translocated across two membranes (the inner and outer forespore membranes) that separate the mother cell and forespore. The enzymes that synthesize DPA and the proteins required to translocate it across the inner forespore membrane were identified over two decades ago but the factors that transport DPA across the outer forespore membrane have remained mysterious. Here, we report that SpoVV (formerly YlbJ) is the missing DPA transporter. SpoVV is produced in the mother cell during the morphological process of engulfment and specifically localizes in the outer forespore membrane. Sporulating cells lacking SpoVV produce spores with low levels of DPA and cells engineered to express SpoVV and the DPA synthase during vegetative growth accumulate high levels of DPA in the culture medium. SpoVV resembles concentrative nucleoside transporters and mutagenesis of residues predicted to form the substrate-binding pocket supports the idea that SpoVV has a similar structure and could therefore function similarly. These findings provide a simple two-step transport mechanism by which the mother cell nurtures the developing spore. DPA produced in the mother cell is first translocated into the intermembrane space by SpoVV and is then imported into the forespore by the SpoVA complex. This pathway is likely to be broadly conserved as DPA synthase, SpoVV, and SpoVA proteins can be found in virtually all endospore forming bacteria.

  5. Nurturing Quality of Higher Education through National Ranking: A Potential Empowerment Model for Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusumastuti, Dyah; Idrus, Nirwan

    2017-01-01

    This paper reviews the recently introduced National Higher Education ranking system in Indonesia in order to evaluate its potential as a sustainable model to improve the quality of higher education in the country. It is a scaffold towards an established world-universities ranking system that may prove formidable for a developing country. This…

  6. The Nature and Nurture of High IQ: An Extended Sensitive Period for Intellectual Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brant, A.M.; Munakata, Y.; Boomsma, D.I.; DeFries, J.C.; Haworth, C.M.A.; Keller, M.C.; Martin, N.G.; McGue, M.; Petrill, S.A.; Plomin, R.; Wadsworth, S.J.; Wright, M.J.; Hewitt, J.K.

    2013-01-01

    IQ predicts many measures of life success, as well as trajectories of brain development. Prolonged cortical thickening observed in individuals with high IQ might reflect an extended period of synaptogenesis and high environmental sensitivity or plasticity. We tested this hypothesis by examining the

  7. [W. Bion's contribution to the discussion on nature vs. nurture. Early development and psychosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spector, Ricardo

    2004-01-01

    This papers presents a Mother-baby model of interaction that generates the capacity to think, linked to emotional life. With this model is possible to shorten the distances between those who think that mental pathology is caused by constitutional factors and those who use the "tabula rasa" model and assume that the environment failures are the cause of the pathology. The relation between concreteness and abstraction is explored as the basis for the capacity to mental development.

  8. Synergy of nature and nurture in the development of childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, B E

    2009-04-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that maternal undernutrition, obesity and diabetes during gestation and lactation can all produce obesity in human offspring. Animal models provide a means of assessing the independent consequences of altering the pre- vs postnatal environments on a variety of metabolic, physiological and neuroendocrine functions, which lead to the development of offspring obesity, diabetes, hypertension and hyperlipidemia. During the gestational period, maternal malnutrition, obesity, type 1 and type 2 diabetes, and psychological and pharmacological stressors can all promote offspring obesity. Normal postnatal nutrition can sometimes reduce the adverse effect of some of these prenatal factors, but may also exacerbate the development of obesity and diabetes in offspring of dams that are malnourished during gestation. The genetic background of the individual is also an important determinant of outcome when the perinatal environment is perturbed. Individuals with an obesity-prone genotype are more likely to be adversely affected by factors such as maternal obesity and high-fat diets. Many perinatal manipulations are associated with reorganization of the central neural pathways which regulate food intake, energy expenditure and storage in ways that enhance the development of obesity and diabetes in offspring. Both leptin and insulin have strong neurotrophic properties so that an excess or an absence of either of them during the perinatal period may underlie some of these adverse developmental changes. As perinatal manipulations can permanently and adversely alter the systems that regulate energy homeostasis, it behooves us to gain a better understanding of the factors during this period that promote the development of offspring obesity as a means of stemming the tide of the emerging worldwide obesity epidemic.

  9. Nurturing a lexical legacy: reading experience is critical for the development of word reading skill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nation, Kate

    2017-12-01

    The scientific study of reading has taught us much about the beginnings of reading in childhood, with clear evidence that the gateway to reading opens when children are able to decode, or `sound out' written words. Similarly, there is a large evidence base charting the cognitive processes that characterise skilled word recognition in adults. Less understood is how children develop word reading expertise. Once basic reading skills are in place, what factors are critical for children to move from novice to expert? This paper outlines the role of reading experience in this transition. Encountering individual words in text provides opportunities for children to refine their knowledge about how spelling represents spoken language. Alongside this, however, reading experience provides much more than repeated exposure to individual words in isolation. According to the lexical legacy perspective, outlined in this paper, experiencing words in diverse and meaningful language environments is critical for the development of word reading skill. At its heart is the idea that reading provides exposure to words in many different contexts, episodes and experiences which, over time, sum to a rich and nuanced database about their lexical history within an individual's experience. These rich and diverse encounters bring about local variation at the word level: a lexical legacy that is measurable during word reading behaviour, even in skilled adults.

  10. Feeding the brain and nurturing the mind: Linking nutrition and the gut microbiota to brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Manu S; Venkatesh, Siddarth; Milbrandt, Jeffrey; Gordon, Jeffrey I; Raichle, Marcus E

    2015-11-17

    The human gut contains a microbial community composed of tens of trillions of organisms that normally assemble during the first 2-3 y of postnatal life. We propose that brain development needs to be viewed in the context of the developmental biology of this "microbial organ" and its capacity to metabolize the various diets we consume. We hypothesize that the persistent cognitive abnormalities seen in children with undernutrition are related in part to their persistent gut microbiota immaturity and that specific regions of the brain that normally exhibit persistent juvenile (neotenous) patterns of gene expression, including those critically involved in various higher cognitive functions such as the brain's default mode network, may be particularly vulnerable to the effects of microbiota immaturity in undernourished children. Furthermore, we postulate that understanding the interrelationships between microbiota and brain metabolism in childhood undernutrition could provide insights about responses to injury seen in adults. We discuss approaches that can be used to test these hypotheses, their ramifications for optimizing nutritional recommendations that promote healthy brain development and function, and the potential societal implications of this area of investigation.

  11. Stranger in a Strange Land: Using Heterotopic Transplantations to Study Nature vs Nurture in Brain Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petros, Timothy J

    2018-01-01

    The mammalian brain develops from a simple sheet of neuroepithelial cells into an incredibly complex structure containing billions of neurons with trillions of synapses. Understanding how intrinsic genetic programs interact with environmental cues to generate neuronal diversity and proper connectivity is one of the most daunting challenges in developmental biology. We recently explored this issue in forebrain GABAergic inhibitory interneurons, an extremely diverse population of neurons that are classified into distinct subtypes based on morphology, neurochemical markers, and electrophysiological properties. Immature interneurons were harvested from one brain region and transplanted into a different region, allowing us to assess how challenging cells in a new environment affected their fate. Do these grafted cells adopt characteristics of the host environment or retain features from the donor environment? We found that the proportion of interneuron subgroups is determined by the host region, but some interneuron subtypes maintain features attributable to the donor environment. In this commentary, I expound on potential mechanisms that could underlie these observations and explore the implications of these findings in a greater context of developmental neuroscience.

  12. Nurturing the child's creativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anandalakshmy, S

    1991-01-01

    A much neglected but vital aspect of a child's development, creativity; needs to be vigorously promoted. India's child survival strategy has focused on immunization, oral rehydration, education, and limiting family size. No policy exists, however, that seeks to nurture a child's curiosity, joy and hopefulness. Many people place art and science in separate realms, not realizing that both depend on the unhindered flow of imagination. India's educational system emphasizes practical and utilitarian knowledge. This systems stresses the accumulation of information, academic performance, and competition. A child acquired value according to how well he or she performs in an exam, a fact that can have only a negative impact on the child's psyche. At home, parents push a child to achieve results, discouraging curiosity in the process. All of these tendencies serve to stifle the creative impulses of the child, making him or her apathetic or frustrated. Society needs to recognize that every child is a gifted child, one who has the inalienable right to explore, seek information, and use his or her imagination. Parents, schools, and the country as a whole need to foster such creativity. Stories, songs, poems, parables--all of these can stimulate a child's imagination. Parents should encourage a child to read for fun, and should help the child differentiate between good literature and mediocre writing, between the aesthetic and the gaudy. Parents should invite children to talk about their feelings and thoughts and should share their own.

  13. Nurturing with Nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Samuel B., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Describes Green Chimneys, therapeutic residential farm education and treatment center where animals help troubled children and adolescents. Contends that human-animal bond can promote learning and that nurturing animals and receiving back unconditional attention and love reestablishes the worth of the child. Describes residents of the program, a…

  14. Nurturing the Creative Personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zener, Rita Schaefer

    1995-01-01

    Discusses specific teaching strategies to nurture creativity in young children that guide choice, highlight human potential, and distinguish those activities that help children from those that are more impulsive and less developmental. Suggests that teachers need to encourage a love of work, concentration, self-discipline, and sociability. (MDM)

  15. Entrenchment and incentives: How governance influences REIT capital structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghosh, C.; Giambona, E.; Harding, J.P.; Sirmans, C.F.

    2008-01-01

    We examine the influence of managerial incentives, traditional managerial monitoring mechanisms and managerial entrenchment on the capital structure of Real Estate Investment Trusts (REITs). Using panel data, we estimate a system of simultaneous equations for leverage and maturity and find that

  16. Identifying Outpatients with Entrenched Suicidal Ideation Following Hospitalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Stephen S.; Jobes, David A.; Comtois, Katherine Anne; Atkins, David C.; Janis, Karin; Chessen, Chloe E.; Landes, Sara J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify outpatients who experience entrenched suicidal ideation following inpatient psychiatric hospitalization. Our findings suggest that the use of a suicidal ambivalence index score was helpful at discriminating those who reported significantly greater ratings of suicidal ideation across a 1-year period of…

  17. Sub-National Constitutions in Ethiopia: Towards Entrenching ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    4 Thus this paper offers an overview of state constitutions in Ethiopia with a view to highlighting their significance in the public life of Ethiopians. It also provides an analysis of how we can deepen and entrench constitutionalism in the states of ...

  18. Why Are High Altitude Natives So Strong at High Altitude? Nature vs. Nurture: Genetic Factors vs. Growth and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brutsaert, Tom

    Among high-altitude natives there is evidence of a general hypoxia tolerance leading to enhanced performance and/or increased capacity in several important domains. These domains likely include an enhanced physical work capacity, an enhanced reproductive capacity, and an ability to resist several common pathologies of chronic high-altitude exposure. The "strength" of the high-altitude native in this regard may have both a developmental and a genetic basis, although there is better evidence for the former (developmental effects) than for the latter. For example, early-life hypoxia exposure clearly results in lung growth and remodeling leading to an increased O2 diffusing capacity in adulthood. Genetic research has yet to reveal a population genetic basis for enhanced capacity in high-altitude natives, but several traits are clearly under genetic control in Andean and Tibetan populations e.g., resting and exercise arterial O2 saturation (SaO2). This chapter reviews the effects of nature and nurture on traits that are relevant to the process of gas exchange, including pulmonary volumes and diffusion capacity, the maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max), the SaO2, and the alveolar-arterial oxygen partial pressure difference (A-aDO2) during exercise.

  19. Mentorship: A process of nurturing others

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test

    2011-06-07

    Jun 7, 2011 ... It is a mutual learning partnership in which individuals assist each other with personal and career development through ... the learner identifies as having enabled personal growth to take place. ... mentorship of a good mother is a process of nurturing and caring which involves teaching the child how to eat, ...

  20. Entrenched obesity in childhood: findings from a national cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Solveig A; Datar, Ashlesha; Narayan, K M Venkat; Kramer, Michael R

    2017-07-01

    Given the high levels of obesity among U.S. children, we examine whether obesity in childhood is a passing phenomenon or remains entrenched into adolescence. Data are from the prospective nationally representative Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-1999 (analytic sample = 6600). Anthropometrics were measured six times during 1998-2007. Overweight and obesity were defined using CDC cut-points. Entrenched obesity was defined as obesity between ages 5-9 coupled with persistent obesity at ages 11 and 14. Almost 30% of children experienced obesity at some point between ages 5.6 and 14.1 years; 63% of children who ever had obesity between ages 5.6 and 9.1 and 72% of those who had obesity at kindergarten entry experienced entrenched obesity. Children with severe obesity in kindergarten or who had obesity at more than 1 year during early elementary were very likely to experience obesity through age 14, regardless of their sex, race, or socioeconomic backgrounds. Prevention should focus on early childhood, as obesity at school entry is not often a passing phenomenon. Even one timepoint of obesity measured during the early elementary school years may be an indicator of risk for long-term obesity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Nurturing Creativity in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beghetto, Ronald A., Ed.; Kaufman, James C., Ed.

    2010-01-01

    "Nurturing Creativity in the Classroom" is a groundbreaking collection of essays by leading scholars, who examine and respond to the tension that many educators face in valuing student creativity but believing that they cannot support it given the curricular constraints of the classroom. Is it possible for teachers to nurture creative…

  2. The entrenchment strategy of logistics service providers: Towards a sequential cooperation-competition process?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles Paché

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The logistics industry has been attracting the attention of researchers in management for several years. Their focus is increasingly on interorganisational relationships between logistics service providers and their customers, examining the modes of interaction occurring between them. An abundant literature emphasises the importance of cooperative strategies in the logistics industry, hinting that this is a dominant requirement, destined for inevitable development. This article presents a more qualified position and proposes that cooperative strategies are most likely a transition step between arm’s-length competition periods, and resorts to the entrenchment theory, imported from organisational finance, to propose a sequential cooperation-competition model.

  3. Nurture Corners in Preschool Settings: Involving and Nurturing Children and Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Kelly; Burgess, Cheryl; Daniel, Brigid; Smith, Joanna; Stephen, Christine

    2017-01-01

    This article draws on the findings from a small qualitative study which focused on gathering perspectives and accounts of experiences from nursery practitioners, health and third sector professionals and parents. It explored the ways in which parents/carers and practitioners experienced the nurture approach developed in preschool settings in…

  4. Nature or Nurture – Will Epigenomics Solve the Dilemma?

    OpenAIRE

    Płonka Beata

    2016-01-01

    The concept of “nature and nurture” is used to distinguish between genetic and environmental influences on the formation of individual, mainly behavioral, traits. Different approaches that interpret nature and nurture as completely opposite or complementary aspects of human development have been discussed for decades. The paper addresses the most important points of nature vs nurture debate from the perspective of biological research, especially in the light of the recent findings in the fiel...

  5. Ideas worth nurturing

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2014-01-01

    Originally created in response to requests from experimentalists working in the collaborations, IdeaSquare has evolved into a place where innovative ideas meet established expertise. Although the project is still in its pilot phase, two EU-funded projects have found their home in the IdeaSquare building and 46 students have already participated in the Challenge-Based Innovation courses based there. More to come…   IdeaSquare, which will be inaugurated on 9 December, is the name given to the B3179 refurbished building at LHC Point 1. More importantly, IdeaSquare is the name of a project designed to nurture innovation at CERN. “The scope of the project is to bring together researchers, engineers, people from industry and young students and encourage them to come up with new ideas that are useful for society, inspired by CERN’s ongoing detector R&D and upgrade projects,” explains Markus Nordberg who, together with Marzio Nessi, set up IdeaSquare withi...

  6. COMMITMENT, ENTRENCHMENT AND EMOTIONAL CONTROL IN PUBLIC SERVICE WORKERS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Grillo Rodrigues

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the relation between the individual’s patterns of ties with the organization, emotional expressions, and the use of emotional regulation strategies to deal with work situations. The instrument used for data collection included a scale to measure commitment and entrenchment and 21 work settings for which participants had to assign emotion regulation strategies. Participants included 400 employees of public institutions located in Florianopolis. The article is structured into sections that discuss the core concepts, describe the method, present and debate the results. In the sample result most individuals showed high levels of commitment and use of deep emotional control strategies. Anger was the most frequent emotion and, conversely, fear was the less common.

  7. Exploring how nature and nurture affect the development of reading: an analysis of the Florida Twin Project on reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Sara A; Logan, Jessica A R; Soden-Hensler, Brooke; Kershaw, Sarah; Taylor, Jeanette; Schatschneider, Christopher

    2013-10-01

    Research on the development of reading skills through the primary school years has pointed to the importance of individual differences in initial ability as well as the growth of those skills. Additionally, it has been theorized that reading skills develop incrementally. The present study examined the genetic and environmental influences on 2 developmental models representing these parallel ideas, generalizing the findings to explore the processes of reading development. Participants were drawn from the Florida Twin Project on Reading, with a total of 2,370 pairs of twins representative of the state of Florida. Twins' oral reading fluency scores from school progress monitoring records collected in the fall of Grades 1-5 were used to model development. Results suggested that genetic influences on the development of reading are general, shared across the early school years, as well as novel, with new genetic influences introduced at each of the first 3 years of school. The shared environment estimates suggest a pattern of general influences only, suggesting environmental effects that are moderate and stable across development.

  8. Exploring how nature and nurture affect the development of reading: An analysis of the Florida Twin Project on Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Sara A.; Logan, Jessica A.R.; Soden-Hensler, Brooke; Kershaw, Sarah; Taylor, Jeanette; Schatschneider, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Research on the development of reading skills through the primary school years has pointed to the importance of individual differences in initial ability as well as the growth of those skills. Additionally, it has been theorized that reading skills develop incrementally. The present study examined the genetic and environmental influences on two developmental models representing these parallel ideas, generalizing the findings to explore the processes of reading development. Participants were drawn from the Florida Twin Project on Reading, with a total of 2370 pairs of twins’ representative of the state of Florida. Twins’ oral reading fluency scores from school progress monitoring records collected in the fall of grades 1 through 5 were used to model development. Results suggested that genetic influences on the development of reading are general, shared across the early school years, as well as novel, with new genetic influences introduced at each of the first three years of school. The shared environment estimates suggest a pattern of general influences only, suggesting environmental effects which are moderate and stable across development. PMID:23294149

  9. Creating Nurturing Environments: A Science-Based Framework for Promoting Child Health and Development within High-Poverty Neighborhoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komro, Kelli A.; Flay, Brian R.; Biglan, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    Living in poverty and living in areas of concentrated poverty pose multiple risks for child development and for overall health and wellbeing. Poverty is a major risk factor for several mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders, as well as for other developmental challenges and physical health problems. In this paper, the Promise Neighborhoods…

  10. Nurturing Grateful and Connected Twenty-First Century Learners: Development and Evaluation of a Socially Oriented Gratitude Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caleon, Imelda S.; King, Ronnel B.; Tan, Jennifer Pei-Ling; Low, Michelle; Tan, Chee Soon; Liem, Gregory Arief

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to develop and examine the effects of a socially oriented gratitude intervention (SOGI) on secondary students' gratitude level and interpersonal relationships. To these ends, we used a quasi-experimental research design: The experimental group (n = 46) participated in the two-week intervention during a class subject focusing on…

  11. Child and Adult Behavior During Nurturance Manipulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascione, Frank R.

    1978-01-01

    Examines the effects of adult nurturance and nurturance withdrawal on the behavior of kindergarten and second grade children. Adult-child interactions and consistency in adult behaviors were also examined. (BD/BR)

  12. English debating classes to nurture Japanese university students who could sustain democracy from a global perspective : developing accountability, critical thinking, and English abilities

    OpenAIRE

    Mikami, Takanori

    2015-01-01

    Both the Japanese business sector and government are emphasizing the importance for Japanese universities of nurturing students as so-called global human resources. However, it is not necessarily clear what abilities are required to be a global human resource. English ability seems to be the most relevant factor to become such a person.   Based on social expectations regarding university education in Japan, in this article, the effectiveness of English debating classes is argued. Firstly,...

  13. Nurturing gifted learners in Mainland China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shi, Jiannong; Zhang, X.; Chen, N.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, based on the previous researches on the development of gifted learners, the authors summarized the problems in nurturing gifted learners due to lacking of the appropriate educational philosophy and educational methodology in Mainland China. The authors proposed the Bio......-socio-intellectual model, illustrated the nature of human being and the nature of gifted learners. From the perspective of the BSI model, the authors suggested three aspects are very critical to curriculum design to meet the needs of gifted education: physical maturation or physical development, social maturation...

  14. The Effect of Management Entrenchment on the Equity Capital in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayeh Baratiyan

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Managerial Entrenchment means that management control a significant portion of the equity in the firm and his/her actions is inconsistent with maximizing aim of the Institute. This research examined the impact of managerial entrenchment on cost of capital stock by analyzing of changes in levels. The present paper examines the relationship between managerial entrenchment, Systematic risk, rate of sales growth, the ratio of CEO and the cost of capital stock. Thus, 55 listed companies were analyzed during 2006-2010. The results indicate there is a significant relationship between the difference of managerial entrenchment period and cost of capital stock period and also significant relationship exists between rate of long sales growth, the ratio of CEO and the cost of capital stock, whereas, there is not significant relation between systematic risk and cost of capital stock.

  15. Nurturing the Growing Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Jane M.

    1995-01-01

    Asserts that family environment and the parent-child relationship have a significant effect on the neurological development of young children. Suggests that parents need to encourage thinking, problem-solving, and language skills in their children through meaningful conversation and interaction. Maintains that attention deficit hyperactivity…

  16. Of nature and nurture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodenburg, Bas; Haas, de Elske N.

    2016-01-01

    Behavioural development of birds is shaped by the complex interplay between genetics and environment. It is becoming increasingly clear that experiences of previous generations are transferred to the offspring through epigenetic and hormonal effects and result in lasting changes in behaviour.

  17. Nurturing Ethical Values in the 21st Century Adolescent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuttner, Joanne Fitzmaurice

    2009-01-01

    There is a wise proverb that insists it takes a whole village to raise a child to adulthood. In light of the expanding convolution of contemporary values, it is especially important to attentively nurture the inherent desire in each developing human person to seek good and avoid evil, especially during the critical years of adolescent formation.…

  18. Nurturing Positive Mental Health: Mindfulness for Wellbeing in Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybak, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    As increasing attention has been given in the past decade to positive psychology, this has likewise been directed toward understanding methods of nurturing positive mental health. These methods have moved toward empowering clients in the development of skills to enhance their own sense of wellbeing (Khong, Counseling and Spirituality, 25, 67-84,…

  19. Parental Perspectives on Nurture Groups: The Potential for Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Valerie M.; Gulliford, Anthea

    2011-01-01

    Nurture groups have been identified as supportive and potentially effective provision for young people with troubled patterns of social, emotional and behavioural development, and a specific literature has emerged in relation to understanding their functioning. The work outlined here derives from an exploratory study by Valerie Taylor, a senior…

  20. Nature vs. nurture: two brothers with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keltner, N L; James, C A; Darling, R J; Findley, L S; Oliver, K

    2001-01-01

    The nature vs. nurture argument as it pertains to two brothers. To explore the synergistic effects of heritability and environment in the cases of two brothers with schizophrenia. Review of the literature and the authors' clinical experience. The nature vs. nurture dichotomy may not be as relevant as looking at the interaction between these two forces.

  1. Experimental analysis of nature-nurture interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyman, Robert J

    2005-06-01

    The presumed opposition of nature and nurture has been a major concern of western civilization since its beginnings. Christian theologians interpreted Adam and Eve's eating of the forbidden fruit as the origin of an inherited 'original sin'. Saint Augustine explicitly applied the concept to human mental development, arguing that, because of original sin, children are inclined toward evil and education requires physical punishment. For centuries, it was considered parents' moral and religious obligation, not to nurture their children, in our current sense of that word, but to beat the willfulness out of them. 16thC humanists fought back, arguing that "schools have become torture chambers" while it is adults "who corrupt young minds with evil". Locke's (1690) statement that children are born as a 'white paper' was crucial in rejecting the dogma of an inborn (and sinful) nature. The original sin vs. white paper argument merged with another ancient dichotomy: inborn instinct (which controls animal behavior) vs. the reason and free will which humans have. Darwin made the concept of inherited instinct, common to both man and animals, one cornerstone of his theory of evolution. The 20(th)C saw scientists recast the debate as instinct vs. learning, bitterly argued between behaviorists and ethologists. Laboratory experimentation and field observation showed that behavior could develop without learning but also that conditioning paradigms could powerfully mold behavior. The progress of genetics and neurobiology has led to the modern synthesis that neural development, and hence behavior, results from the interdependent action of both heredity and environment. Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Colamus humanitatem: Nurturing human nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio R. Papini

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In an essay on anger, the ancient philosopher Seneca warns of the futility of harboring negative emotions given the imminence of death—the ultimate human equalizer. Ancient philosophers like Seneca believed that emotions are based on cognitions (beliefs and are therefore modifiable through spiritual exercises. Modern research shows that the emotional and cognitive aspects of human psychology are malleable (nurture, but also require gene expression (nature. A parallel between individual behavior and socio-political forces suggests a framework for the current environmental crisis— another human equalizer. Two critical questions are suggested: Is the amassed experience of the last few centuries suffi cient to lead to corrective measures that would avoid environmental degradation? Or would a catastrophic event with signifi cant longterm environmental degradation have to occur before corrective measures reach consensus at the socio-political level?

  3. Conceptualizing and Measuring Safe, Stable, Nurturing Relationships and Environments in Educational Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Lara R; Leeb, Rebecca T; Merrick, Melissa T; Forbes, Lauren W

    2016-05-01

    Most children and adolescents older than five years spend at least six hours of their day in school settings. Like parents, education professionals can promote health and protect youth from harm by providing safe, stable, nurturing relationships and environments. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has developed a framework which posits that safe, stable, nurturing relationships and environments are Essentials for Childhood and are fundamental to promoting health and well-being; protecting youth from maltreatment and other violence and victimization; and ensuring optimal, healthy development. In this paper, the authors propose an approach to applying safe, stable, nurturing relationships and environments to the school ecology; review select survey measures to examine these constructs within educational settings; and suggest available indicators to measure safety, stability, and nurturance within the school context.

  4. In the Eye of the Beholder: Self-Esteem and Children's vs. Parents' Assessments of Parental Nurturance and Discipline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buri, John R.; Mueller, Rebecca A.

    Past research has implicated the familial variables of parental nurturance and parental discipline in the development of global self-esteem in children. This study examined college students' levels of self-esteem as a function of their own versus their parents' appraisals of parental nurturance and parental authority. Subjects were 128 college…

  5. Disrupting Power/Entrenching Sovereignty: The Paradox of Human Rights Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, A. Kayum

    2017-01-01

    While human rights education (HRE) provides the tools for emancipation, it remains susceptible to appropriation by authoritarian regimes who seek to entrench state power. Classification scholars who typologize approaches to HRE fail to acknowledge that state entities could employ human rights discourse to reinforce state sovereignty. Consequently,…

  6. Under what conditions can local government nurture indigenous people’s democratic practice?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sareen, Siddharth; Nathan, Iben

    2017-01-01

    This paper asks whether and under what conditions participatory local government can best nurture indigenous peoples’ democratic practice. Based on fieldwork in two similar Ho communities in the Indian state Jharkhand, we show that their village assemblies function differently with regard...... to meetings, wood access regulation, development projects, and participation. Neither prevents exclusion and co- option. This supports the argument that while local governments can hardly challenge existing power structures, they can under certain conditions nurture democratic practice and democratisation...

  7. The Effects of Continuous Nurturance and Nurturance Withdrawal on Children's Behavior: A Partial Replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascione, Frank R.

    1975-01-01

    Kindergarten and second grade children participated in a replication and extension of Hartup's earlier study concerning the effects of continuous nurturance and nurturance withdrawal on children's behavior. The author suggests that future research be focused on less complex contrasts between adult interaction patterns. (CW)

  8. Mentalization-based therapy for parents in entrenched conflict: A random allocation feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertzmann, Leezah; Target, Mary; Hewison, David; Casey, Polly; Fearon, Pasco; Lassri, Dana

    2016-12-01

    To explore the effectiveness of a mentalization-based therapeutic intervention specifically developed for parents in entrenched conflict over their children. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first randomized controlled intervention study in the United Kingdom to work with both parents postseparation, and the first to focus on mentalization in this situation. Using a mixed-methods study design, 30 parents were randomly allocated to either mentalization-based therapy for parental conflict-Parenting Together, or the Parents' Group, a psycho-educational intervention for separated parents based on elements of the Separated Parents Information Program-part of the U.K. Family Justice System and approximating to treatment as usual. Given the challenges of recruiting parents in these difficult circumstances, the sample size was small and permitted only the detection of large differences between conditions. The data, involving repeated measures of related individuals, was explored statistically, using hierarchical linear modeling, and qualitatively. Significant findings were reported on the main predicted outcomes, with clinically important trends on other measures. Qualitative findings further contributed to the understanding of parents' subjective experience, pre- and posttreatment. Findings indicate that a larger scale randomized controlled trial would be worthwhile. These encouraging findings shed light on the dynamics maintaining these high-conflict situations known to be damaging to children. We established that both forms of intervention were acceptable to most parents, and we were able to operate a random allocation design with extensive quantitative and qualitative assessments of the kind that would make a larger-scale trial feasible and productive. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Nurture of human resources for geological repository program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, A.

    2004-01-01

    The Japanese geological repository program entered the implementing stage in 2002. At the implementing stage of the program, different sectors need various human resources to conduct their functions. This paper discusses a suitable framework of nurture of the human resources to progress the geological repository program. The discussion is based on considering of specific characters involved in the program and of the multidisciplinary knowledge related to geological disposal. Considering the specific characters of the project, two types of the human resources need to be nurtured. First type is the core persons with the highest knowledge on geological disposal. They are expected to communicate with the various stakeholders and pass down the whole knowledge of the project to the next generation. Another is to conduct the project as the managers, the engineers and the workers. The former human resources can be developed through the broad practice and experience in each sector. The latter human resources can be effectively developed by training of the fundamental knowledge on geological disposal at training centers as well as by conventional on-the-job training. The sectors involved in the program need to take their own roles in the nurture of these human resources. (author)

  10. Nature vs. nurture: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, Jagwinder S; Kuprevich, Carol L

    2006-11-01

    This case report of a young adult male, Mr. A., describes the vulnerability and effects of genetic and environmental factors on the development of psychopathology that can lead to long-term in-patient stays. Mr. A. was born to a mother who had untreated mental and substance use conditions. After a premature birth his brain suffered a significant insult as a result of hypoxia and hypoglycemia, and he remained in a neonatal intensive care unit for three weeks. His early childhood was spent in a chaotic and socioeconomically poor environment with a minimally involved mother and father. During childhood, latency, and adolescence Mr. A. experienced significant interpersonal issues. Mr. A. lived primarily with an aunt. He was unable to maintain employment. He is hospitalized in a public facility, is on multiple medications, and has had unsuccessful attempts to maintain community living. The person to whom he refers to as important in his life is his mother, who remains noninvolved. We present this case to illustrate how genetic and environmental influences interact to impact normal developmental pathways. Has nature or nurture played the strongest role in the life of Mr. A.?

  11. Autogenic entrenchment patterns and terraces due to coupling with lateral erosion in incising alluvial channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malatesta, Luca C.; Prancevic, Jeffrey P.; Avouac, Jean-Philippe

    2017-01-01

    The abandonment of terraces in incising alluvial rivers can be used to infer tectonic and climatic histories. A river incising into alluvium erodes both vertically and laterally as it abandons fill-cut terraces. We argue that the input of sediment from the valley walls during entrenchment can alter the incision dynamics of a stream by promoting vertical incision over lateral erosion. Using a numerical model, we investigate how valley wall feedbacks may affect incision rates and terrace abandonment as the channel becomes progressively more entrenched in its valley. We postulate that erosion of taller valley walls delivers large pulses of sediment to the incising channel, potentially overwhelming the local sediment transport capacity. Based on field observations, we propose that these pulses of sediment can form talus piles that shield the valley wall from subsequent erosion and potentially force progressive channel narrowing. Our model shows that this positive feedback mechanism can enhance vertical incision relative to 1-D predictions that ignore lateral erosion. We find that incision is most significantly enhanced when sediment transport rates are low relative to the typical volume of material collapsed from the valley walls. The model also shows a systematic erosion of the youngest terraces when river incision slows down. The autogenic entrenchment due to lateral feedbacks with valley walls should be taken into account in the interpretation of complex-response terraces.

  12. Nurturing the Respectful Community through Practical Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettmann, Joen

    2015-01-01

    Joen Bettmann's depiction of practical life exercises as character-building reveals how caring, careful, and independent work leads to higher self-esteem, more concern for others, better understanding for academic learning, and a self-nurturing, respectful classroom community. Particular aspects of movement and silence exercises bring out what…

  13. Why Children Need Ongoing Nurturing Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazelton, T. Berry; Greenspan, Stanley I.

    2006-01-01

    Although consistent nurturing relationships with significant adults are taken for granted by most of us as a necessity for babies and young children, this commonly held belief is not often put into practice. Pioneers, such as Erik Erikson, Anna Freud, and Dorothy Burlingham, revealed that to "pass successfully through the stages of early…

  14. Nature or Nurture? Gender Roles Scavenger Hunt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalen, Shannon; Maurer-Starks, Suanne

    2008-01-01

    The examination of gender roles and stereotypes and their subsequent impact on sexual behavior is a concept for discussion in many sex education courses in college and sex education units in high school. This analysis often leads to a discussion of the impact of nature vs. nurture on gender roles. The gender roles scavenger hunt is an interactive…

  15. Nurturing democratic virtues: educators' perspectives | Green | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study reported here is a quantitative survey of the priorities of a sample of 350 Western Cape educators regarding the dispositions (both cognitive and moral) they consider to be important to nurture in the classroom and the extent to which they attempt to do so. Educators rated all 25 dispositions as at least of some ...

  16. Nature versus Nurture: The Simple Contrast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidoff, Jules; Goldstein, Julie; Roberson, Debi

    2009-01-01

    We respond to the commentary of Franklin, Wright, and Davies ("Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 102", 239-245 [2009]) by returning to the simple contrast between nature and nurture. We find no evidence from the toddler data that makes us revise our ideas that color categories are learned and never innate. (Contains 1 figure.)

  17. Nurturing democratic virtues: educators' practices | Green | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It appears, however, that while educators accept a role that goes beyond the mere provision of information, they tend not to conceptualize what they do in terms of nurturing virtues, or as 'moral education' or as 'education for democracy'. They do not call upon a wide range of strategies for the active mediation of virtues, and ...

  18. Nurturing Care for China's Orphaned Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton, Janice N.; Edwards, Carolyn Pope; Zhao, Wen; Gelabert, Jeronia Muntaner

    2007-01-01

    Half the Sky, an international NGO, works in partnership with Chinese national and provincial governments inside state-run orphanages (welfare institutions). Through their infant nurture programs infants and toddlers in institutions begin to thrive through primary relationship-based care by trained community paraprofessionals. In preschool…

  19. From Survival to Sustainability : Nurturing Adaptive Livelihood ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2005-10-08

    From Survival to Sustainability : Nurturing Adaptive Livelihood Strategies in Pakistan. On October 8, 2005, an earthquake destroyed 90% of the town of tehsil Balakot, Mansehra district, Pakistan. According to the Earthquake Reconstruction and Rehabilitation Authority (ERRA) the earthquake left a total of 24 511 dead and ...

  20. Nature versus Nurture in Determining Athletic Ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xu; Papadimitriou, Ioannis; Lidor, Ronnie; Eynon, Nir

    2016-01-01

    This overview provides a general discussion of the roles of nature and nurture in determining human athletic ability. On the nature (genetics) side, a review is provided with emphasis on the historical research and on several areas which are likely to be important for future research, including next-generation sequencing technologies. In addition, a number of well-designed training studies that could possibly reveal the biological mechanism ('cause') behind the association between gene variants and athletic ability are discussed. On the nurture (environment) side, we discuss common environmental variables including deliberate practice, family support, and the birthplace effect, which may be important in becoming an elite athlete. Developmental effects are difficult to disassociate with genetic effects, because the early life environment may have long-lasting effects in adulthood. With this in mind, the fetal programming hypothesis is also briefly reviewed, as fetal programming provides an excellent example of how the environment interacts with genetics. We conclude that the traditional argument of nature versus nurture is no longer relevant, as it has been clearly established that both are important factors in the road to becoming an elite athlete. With the availability of the next-generation genetics (sequencing) techniques, it is hoped that future studies will reveal the relevant genes influencing performance, as well as the interaction between those genes and environmental (nurture) factors. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. PARENT NURTURE MODEL IN SHAPING BEHAVIOR OF ADOLESCENCE 12-15 AGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimas Hadi Prayoga

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The deviation problem of smoking activity an adolescent is come to anxious level for parents, teachers, and society. The correlation between parents nurture model and smoking activity of adolescent needs to be examined further. The purpose of this study was to analyze the correlation between parents nurture model with smoking activity of adolescent (12-15 years old. Method: This was correlational research with cross sectional approach. The sample were 84 adolescent (12-15 years old at MTs Mojosari Nganjuk. The independent variables was parents nurture model and the dependent variable was adolescent smoking activity. Data were collected by using questionnare, then examined by using chi square with the level of significant α=0,05. Result: Statistical analysis had showed the low correlation between permissive parents nurture model with smoking activity of adolescent (12-15 years old at MTs Mojosari Nganjuk (p=0,049; r = 0,210 and no correlation between democratic nurture model (p=0,554 and authoritative nurture model (p=0,418 with smoking activity of adolescent (12-15 years old at MTs Mojosari Nganjuk, but only permissive model which correlate with smoking activity. The permissive parents with no control and demand caused adolescent to be feeling unimpeded to do smoking activity since there is no warning and punishment from the parents. Discussion: So that, School nurses should provide health promotion to parents in making appropriate parenting in adolescence. Parents should have the right parenting provided in accordance with the age and development of adolescents because appropriate parenting will have a positive impact on adolescent behavior. Further research on parenting questionnaires must be checked for cross-compatibility between questionnaire answers given adolescent and parents to know the truth in filling out the questionnaire. The differences in this study compared to previous studies is the researcher doing research in

  2. "Nothing I Ever Do Seems to Please My Parents": Female and Male Self-Esteem as a Function of Mother's and Father's Nurturance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buri, John R.; And Others

    Parents are the primary agents in the development and definition of the self. Previous research has reported nurturance as the most notable parental factor in global self-esteem. This study examined the relationship of parental nurturance to self-esteem for the first time with subjects older than high school students. College students (N=333)…

  3. Systemic hypnotherapy: deconstructing entrenched ambivalent meanings in self-organizing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourie, David P

    2007-07-01

    Systemic hypnosis is often seen as equivalent to an Ericksonian approach even though they reflect different epistemologies. Second-order articulations of systems theory emphasize the self-organization and autonomy of living systems: all systemic actions are aimed at the conservation of the system's autonomy; loss of autonomy means death as a system. In human systems verbal and non-verbal language reflects the meanings central to the system's autonomy and its conservation. Previous work has shown how symptomatic behaviour can be seen as linguistic expressions of the conservation of an ambivalent autonomy (Fourie, 1996a, 2003). Such behaviour therefore implies, expresses and even recursively conserves certain meanings that in time have become entrenched in the system. In this view, psychotherapy is aimed at the co-operative deconstruction of such entrenched meanings, helping them to transform into more functional, less ambivalent, understandings and actions. It is the aim of this paper to show how hypnosis can be employed for this purpose in a way which is coherent with a systemic rather than an Ericksonian epistemology.

  4. Nurturing democratic virtues: educators' perspectives

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erna Kinsey

    It is widely accepted that certain values and their associated virtues are desirable in citizens of a democracy. Schools in ... The development of values and virtues is the central theme of moral development, a process linked by some psychologists .... Coles (1998:3) describes the development of moral intelligence as the.

  5. Nurturing the "golden middle" | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2014-04-10

    Apr 10, 2014 ... This has contributed to low productivity and rising inequality. In contrast, small and medium enterprises in Japan, Taiwan, and Korea gained technology and skills as production subcontractors for larger export-focused firms. In these three countries, income was more widely spread, spurring a domestic ...

  6. Revisiting Nature vs. Nurture: Implications for the Teaching/Learning Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Fred

    2003-01-01

    Child development theories conclude that nature and nurture interactively shape individual development. Implications for education are that children learn better when they feel wanted and are in a supportive environment. Teaching needs to go beyond pure content and focus on learning how to learn. Assessment should focus on the use of knowledge…

  7. Nature or Nurture – Will Epigenomics Solve the Dilemma?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Płonka Beata

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The concept of “nature and nurture” is used to distinguish between genetic and environmental influences on the formation of individual, mainly behavioral, traits. Different approaches that interpret nature and nurture as completely opposite or complementary aspects of human development have been discussed for decades. The paper addresses the most important points of nature vs nurture debate from the perspective of biological research, especially in the light of the recent findings in the field of epigenetics. The most important biological concepts, such as the trait, phenotype and genotype, as well as the evolution of other crucial notions are presented. Various attempts to find the main source of human variation are discussed - mainly the search for structural variants and the genome-wide association studies (GWAS. A new approach resulting from the discovery of “missing heritability”, as well as the current knowledge about the possible influence of epigenetic mechanisms on human traits are analyzed. Finally, the impact of epigenetic revolution on the society (public attitude, health policy, human rights etc. is discussed.

  8. Nurturing democratic virtues: educators' practices

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erna Kinsey

    indicator of the values they hold. It is widely asserted that schools and educators have an important role to play in promoting the development of virtues. For the purposes of this paper, an important aspect of this role is conceived of as the fostering of personal dispositions (consistent tendencies to behave in a particular way), ...

  9. Supporting Parents to Provide Nurturing Care for Young Children: The Fundamental Ingredients for a Better World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Linda M.

    2018-01-01

    The global community is recognizing how "nurturing care" is critical for the developing child. The term encompasses health and nutrition, safety and security, responsive caregiving, and opportunities for inclusive early learning, all of which are afforded by loving parents and families and supportive communities. Public policies and…

  10. Nurture thru Nature: Creating Natural Science Identities in Populations of Disadvantaged Children through Community Education Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camasso, Michael J.; Jagannathan, Radha

    2018-01-01

    In this article we describe the development, implementation, and some of the early impacts of Nurture thru Nature (NtN), an American after-school and summer program designed to introduce elementary school students in disadvantaged, urban public schools to natural science and environmental education. The program, which began operations in 2010 as a…

  11. Coming 'down here': young people's reflections on becoming entrenched in a local drug scene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fast, Danya; Small, Will; Wood, Evan; Kerr, Thomas

    2009-10-01

    Recent research has highlighted the ways in which social structural processes and physical environments operate to push young drug users towards risk. We undertook this study in order to explore how young people who were currently street-entrenched characterized and understood their initiation into the local drug scene in downtown Vancouver, Canada. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with 38 individuals recruited from a cohort of young drug users known as the At-Risk Youth Study (ARYS). Participant narratives reflected an understanding among young people that they are simultaneously pulled and pushed towards the local scene. Push factors were understood as circumstances that propelled young people towards this setting, in some cases because of proximity to it from a very early age, and in other cases because of adverse situations experienced elsewhere and the need to find a new place to live that was both affordable and safe. Interwoven with accounts of how youth were pushed towards the local scene were stories that emphasized a high degree of autonomy and the factors that initially attracted them to this scene, including a desire for excitement, independence and belonging. Once young people were more permanently based in downtown Vancouver, participants identified several factors that accelerated their entrenchment in this locale, including increasingly 'problematic' drug use, an intensified need to generate income, experiences of chronic homelessness, and unstable social relationships. Our findings stress the need for early intervention with youth, before they are initiated into the social networks and processes that rapidly propel young people towards risk within these contexts. Once initiation has occurred, the boundary between safety and risk quickly becomes difficult to navigate, and young people become highly vulnerable to numerous harms.

  12. Nature and Nurture of Human Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inna Belfer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Humans are very different when it comes to pain. Some get painful piercings and tattoos; others can not stand even a flu shot. Interindividual variability is one of the main characteristics of human pain on every level including the processing of nociceptive impulses at the periphery, modification of pain signal in the central nervous system, perception of pain, and response to analgesic strategies. As for many other complex behaviors, the sources of this variability come from both nurture (environment and nature (genes. Here, I will discuss how these factors contribute to human pain separately and via interplay and how epigenetic mechanisms add to the complexity of their effects.

  13. Register-Contingent Entrenchment of Constructional Patterns: Causal and Concessive Adverbial Clauses in Academic and Newspaper Writing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerz, E.; Wiechmann, D.

    2015-01-01

    One of the main assumptions of usage-based constructionist approaches is that linguistic knowledge is best conceived of as a repository of constructions, which emerge from experience with language and whose strength of mental representation (entrenchment) is a function of their usage frequency. On

  14. Balanced Venture Cards : Integrating Information and Venture Nurturing Strategy to Prevent Shock & Awe

    OpenAIRE

    Jehan, Shahzadah Nayyar

    2003-01-01

    Although the venture development and nurturing strategies are not new, but most of these strategies are prone to shock and awe of unexpected developments while a venture goes through different stages of its life. In most cases the shock and awe of the unexpected developments in the venture is fatal and many ventures go down the drain in early stages of their development leaving a very small percentage of ventures joining the pool of successful ventures. The idea behind the balanced venture ca...

  15. Nurturing communities of practice for transdisciplinary research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgina Cundill

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Transdisciplinary research practice has become a core element of global sustainability science. Transdisciplinary research brings with it an expectation that people with different backgrounds and interests will learn together through collective problem solving and innovation. Here we introduce the concept of "transdisciplinary communities of practice, " and draw on both situated learning theory and transdisciplinary practice to identify three key lessons for people working in, managing, or funding such groups. (1 Opportunities need to be purposefully created for outsiders to observe activities in the core group. (2 Communities of practice cannot be artificially created, but they can be nurtured. (3 Power matters in transdisciplinary communities of practice. These insights challenge thinking about how groups of people come together in pursuit of transdisciplinary outcomes, and call for greater attention to be paid to the social processes of learning that are at the heart of our aspirations for global sustainability science.

  16. Promoting "Learner Voice" in VET: Developing Democratic, Transformative Possibilities or Further Entrenching the Status Quo?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angus, Lawrence; Golding, Barry; Foley, Annette; Lavender, Peter

    2013-01-01

    In order to critique the notion of "learner voice" in vocational education and training (VET) policy, this paper draws from a project conducted by the authors on behalf of the Australian National VET Equity Advisory Council (NVEAC). The term "learner voice" is used extensively throughout NVEAC documentation to describe the…

  17. Effective entrenchment of Human Rights in Victoria: a study of the law relating to manner and form requirements

    OpenAIRE

    Roszkowski, Tomasz

    2017-01-01

    Formulating the question This thesis examines constitutional entrenchment of the Victorian Charter of Human Rights and Responsibilities Act 2006 (Vic) through the use of manner and form requirements. Manner and form requirements usually demand compliance with special procedures for the effective repeal or amendment of a protected law. Imposing such restrictions on Parliament's power to legislate inevitably gives rise to a persisting dilemma: whether human rights can be ef...

  18. Entrenched geographical and socioeconomic disparities in child mortality: trends in absolute and relative inequalities in Cambodia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Jimenez-Soto

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cambodia has made considerable improvements in mortality rates for children under the age of five and neonates. These improvements may, however, mask considerable disparities between subnational populations. In this paper, we examine the extent of the country's child mortality inequalities. METHODS: Mortality rates for children under-five and neonates were directly estimated using the 2000, 2005 and 2010 waves of the Cambodian Demographic Health Survey. Disparities were measured on both absolute and relative scales using rate differences and ratios, and where applicable, slope and relative indices of inequality by levels of rural/urban location, regions and household wealth. FINDINGS: Since 2000, considerable reductions in under-five and to a lesser extent in neonatal mortality rates have been observed. This mortality decline has, however, been accompanied by an increase in relative inequality in both rates of child mortality for geography-related stratifying markers. For absolute inequality amongst regions, most trends are increasing, particularly for neonatal mortality, but are not statistically significant. The only exception to this general pattern is the statistically significant positive trend in absolute inequality for under-five mortality in the Coastal region. For wealth, some evidence for increases in both relative and absolute inequality for neonates is observed. CONCLUSION: Despite considerable gains in reducing under-five and neonatal mortality at a national level, entrenched and increased geographical and wealth-based inequality in mortality, at least on a relative scale, remain. As expected, national progress seems to be associated with the period of political and macroeconomic stability that started in the early 2000s. However, issues of quality of care and potential non-inclusive economic growth might explain remaining disparities, particularly across wealth and geography markers. A focus on further addressing key

  19. The unfolding of the historical style in modern cosmology: Emergence, evolution, entrenchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Jacob

    2017-02-01

    This paper traces the emergence, evolution and subsequent entrenchment of the historical style in the shifting scene of modern cosmological inquiry. It argues that the historical style in cosmology was forged in the early decades of the 20th century and continued to evolve in the century that followed. Over time, the scene of cosmological inquiry has gradually become dominated and entirely constituted by historicist explanations. Practices such as forwards and backwards temporal extrapolation (thinking about the past evolutionary history of the universe with different initial conditions and other parameters) are now commonplace. The non-static geometrization of the cosmos in the early 20th century led to inquires thinking about the cosmos in evolutionary terms. Drawing on the historical approach of Gamow (and contrasting this with the ahistorical approach of Bondi), the paper then argues that the historical style became a major force as inquirers began scouring the universe for fossils and other relics as a new form of scientific practice-cosmic palaeontology. By the 1970s the historical style became the bedrock of the discipline and the presupposition of new lines of inquiry. By the end of the 20th century, the historical style was pushed to its very limits as temporal reasoning began to occur beyond a linear historical narrative. With the atemporal 'ensemble' type multiverse proposals, a certain type of ahistorical reasoning has been reintroduced to cosmological discourse, which, in a sense, represents a radical de-historicization of the historical style in cosmology. Some are now even attempting to explain the laws of physics in terms of their historicity.

  20. Nurturing Environments for Boys and Men of Color with Trauma Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Phillip W; Yaros, Anna; Lowe, Ashley; McDaniel, Mark S

    2017-06-01

    Boys and men of color are exposed to traumatic experiences at significantly higher rates than are other demographic groups. To understand and address the mental and behavioral health effects of trauma, including violent incidents, on this population, we review the literature showing the context for, outcomes of, and potential responses to trauma exposure. We present the existing research about the unique challenges and associated negative outcomes for boys and men of color, as well as identify the gaps in the literature. We present the potential nurturing responses by systems such as schools, law enforcement, and communities to trauma-exposed boys and men of color, and we describe evidence-based programs and practices that directly address trauma. Finally, we argue that, rather than using a deficit model, a model of optimal development can be used to understand how to support and protect boys and men of color through nurturing environments.

  1. Parental authority, nurturance, and two-dimensional self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafarodi, Romin W; Wild, Nicole; Ho, Caroline

    2010-08-01

    This study examined the relations of parental permissiveness, authoritativeness, authoritarianism, and nurturance with two dimensions of self-esteem - self-liking and self-competence. In a sample of 207 two-parent families, university students and both their parents provided independent reports on all the above variables. Covariance structure analysis was used to eliminate reporter-specific bias and unreliability in predicting student self-esteem from parenting behavior. The results revealed highly redundant positive associations of mothers' and fathers' authoritativeness and nurturance with both self-liking and self-competence. The pattern of these associations suggests that the significance of parental authoritativeness for the child's self-esteem is due mainly to the nurturance it provides. Contrary to expectation, mothers' and fathers' authoritarianism was also positively associated with self-liking. As discussed, however, this is likely to be an artifact of the specific measures and testing methods used.

  2. Gender differences in early trauma and high-risk behaviors among street-entrenched youth in British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saddichha, Sahoo; Torchalla, Iris; Krausz, Michael Reinhardt

    2014-01-01

    This work aimed to evaluate gender differences among the street-entrenched youth in British Columbia in terms of their demographics, experiences of childhood maltreatment, mental health issues, and substance use behaviors. Data were derived from the BC Health of the Homeless Study (BCHOHS), carried out in three cities in British Columbia, Canada. Measures included socio-demographic information, the Maudsley Addiction Profile (MAP), the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) Plus and the National Survey of Homeless Assistance Providers and Clients (NSHAPC)-Health Chapter. Youth constituted 16.5% (n=82) of the homeless population. Females (55%) outnumbered males and engaged in survival sex more frequently (17.8%; p=0.03). Males had greater substance abuse of alcohol (81.1%) and cannabis (89.2%). Depression (p=0.02) and psychosis (p=0.05) were more common among females, while panic disorder was more common among males (p=0.04). Rates of childhood trauma were similar across genders. Our findings reflect trends among youth where illicit drug use may be similar among genders while males may report increased alcohol and cannabis use, possibly as a means to self medicate their panic-related symptoms. In any case, this population of street entrenched-youth frequently experiences several significant problems ranging from childhood abuse to high rates of substance abuse and mental illnesses.

  3. The Attunement Principles: A Comparison of Nurture Group and Mainstream Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubeddu, Daniela; MacKay, Tommy

    2017-01-01

    Two key areas identified for research are differences in practice between nurture groups and mainstream classrooms, and nurturing approaches in rural and low-density populations. This study compared classroom practice in a nurture group serving a wide rural area with the four mainstream classes to which the five children in the group belonged. The…

  4. Issues in Sociobiology: The Nature vs. Nurture Debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzen, Eric

    2001-01-01

    Explains the two theories on the origins of human and animal behavior. Introduces the new discipline of sociobiology, a merging of biology and sociology. Describes the central dogma of sociobiology and its societal implications, and discusses criticism of sociobiology. Presents the nature vs. nurture debate. (YDS)

  5. Nurturing young gifted and talented children: Teachers generating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article presents the findings of a set of Action Research projects carried out by practitioners in 14 Local Education Districts in collaboration with a team of university tutors over a period of three years. The aim of the project was to explore ways of nurturing the gifts and talents of children aged 4-7 years. The project was ...

  6. Women Nurturing Women: A Woman's Group Using Hypnotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forester-Miller, Holly

    1999-01-01

    Provides information regarding rationale, objectives, format, and insights from a women's psychotherapy group where self-hypnosis and working in trance were major components. The group was designed to promote emotional, psychological, and physiological healing, and to facilitate women in learning how to give and receive nurturing. Describes…

  7. The continuing legacy of nature versus nurture in biolinguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowling, Daniel L

    2017-02-01

    Theories of language evolution that separate biological and cultural contributions perpetuate a false dichotomy between nature and nurture. The explanatory power of future theories will depend on acknowledging the reality of gene-culture interaction and how it makes language possible.

  8. Nurturing Talent in the Australian Context: A Reflective Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frydenberg, Erica; O'Mullane, Anne

    2000-01-01

    This article discusses historical and contemporary educational provisions for gifted and talented students in Australia. Five young adults reflect on their educational and career paths in the creative arts, sports, music, medicine, and business to illustrate how talents are nurtured in Australia at the end of the 20th century. (Contains extensive…

  9. Nature, Nurture, and Gender: The Evolution of Evelyn Fox Keller

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 22; Issue 3. Nature, Nurture, and Gender: The Evolution of Evelyn Fox Keller. Bindu Anubha Bambah. Book Review Volume 22 Issue 3 March 2017 pp 315-316. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  10. NEWPATH: An Innovative Program to Nurture IT Entrepreneurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soundarajan, Neelam; Camp, Stephen M.; Lee, David; Ramnath, Rajiv; Weide, Bruce W.

    2016-01-01

    The number of freshmen interested in entrepreneurship has grown dramatically in the last few years. In response, many universities have created entrepreneurship programs, including ones focused on engineering entrepreneurship. In this paper, we report on NEWPATH, an innovative NSF-supported program at Ohio State, designed to nurture students to…

  11. Corporal Punishment of Child: Nurturance or Violence?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mahdi Meghdadi

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays despite cumulative effort faring for advocacy of children, various kinds of violence and oppression against them especially in corporal punishment mode still hold. This article by studying advanced standpoints and reviewing of the results of corporal punishment intends to answer these questions: is child corporal punishment allowed along decorum and nurturance of him? And do standpoint of the shia (fighhe imamie and rules of the Iranian civil code hereupon accord with the convention on the Rights of the child? امروزه، به رغم تلاش فزاینده‌ای که در حمایت از کودکان صوت می‌گیرد، هنوز شکل‌های مختلفی از خشونت و آزار علیه آن‌ها به ویژه در قالب تنبیه بدنی ادامه دارد. بسیاری بر این باورند که به موجب سرپرستی والدین و مسئولیت مربیان در تربیت کودکان و جلوگیری از کج‌روی‌ آن‌ها، در مواردی می‌توان تنبیه بدنی را به کار برد. این در حالی است که دانشمندان زیادی برای حمایت از پیمان‌نامه حقوقی کودک، بر ممنوعیت هرگونه بدرفتاری و خشونت علیه کودکان تأکید می‌نمایند. مقاله حاضر با مطالعه دیدگاه‌های ارائه شده در این زمینه و بررسی نتایج تنبیه بدنی، در صدد است این پرسش را پاسخ گوید که آیا تنبیه بدنی کودک در راستای ادب‌آموزی و تربیت وی جایز است و آیا دیدگاه فقه امامیه و مقررات قانون مدنی ایران در این خصوص با پیمان‌نامه حقوق کودک سازگاری دارد؟

  12. PARAFILIA: NATURE ATAU NURTURE? TINJAUAN TEOLOGIS DAN PSIKOLOGIS

    OpenAIRE

    Fathonah K. Daud

    2016-01-01

    The discourse of paraphilia has become public attention. Enforcing religious values and sex education since on the early stage is an inevitable need by the society. Theologically and psychologically, there are paraphilia which characteristically given (nature) and also nurture or affected by its environment. This article tries to explore the existence of paraphilia, theologically based on Islamic law and physiologically, which is for longtime based on the societal norm judged as deviant, but ...

  13. Nurturing gerontology students' intrinsic motivation to cocreate: The design of a powerful learning environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jukema, Jan S; Veerman, Mieke; Van Alphen, Jacqueline; Visser, Geraldine; Smits, Carolien; Kingma, Tineke

    2017-09-21

    Professionals such as gerontologists play an important role in the design, development and implementation of age-friendly services. and products, by using working methods and principles of co-creation. A Dutch undergraduate applied gerontology programme aims to train students in the why, how and what of co-creation. The degree to which students are intrinsically motivated to develop competencies depends on how their psychological needs are met. These needs are autonomy, an awareness of competence and a sense of relatedness, as described in the self-determination theory. To nurture the intrinsic motivation of the applied gerontology students, a realistic, powerful learning environment called the Living Lab Applied Gerontology was designed and implemented. The aim of this paper is to present the design of this powerful learning environment and to discuss its value for nurturing the students' intrinsic motivation for co-creation. Based on a focus group with eight students, we identify directions for further research and development of living labs.

  14. Technology-Enabled Nurturing of Creativity and Innovation: A Specific Illustration from an Undergraduate Engineering Physics Course

    OpenAIRE

    Kowalski, F. V.; Kowalski, S. E.; Kohl, P. B.; Kuo, V. H.

    2013-01-01

    There is general agreement that creativity and innovation are desirable traits in the toolbox of 21\\textsuperscript{st} century engineers, as well as in the future workforce in general. However, there is a dearth of exemplars, pedagogical models, or best practices to be implemented in undergraduate engineering education to develop and nurture those talents. In this paper, we use a specific example of a classroom activity from a course designed to help bridge the transition from learning the f...

  15. Education for Sustainable Development to Nurture Sensibility and Creativity: An Interdisciplinary Approach Based on Collaboration between "Kateika" (Japanese Home Economics), Art, and Music Departments in a Japanese Primary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Yoko; Nakayama, Setsuko

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of the research reported in this article were to develop and evaluate an interdisciplinary primary school Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) curriculum as a collaboration among the subject areas of "kateika" (Japanese home economics), art, and music. In our curriculum, which focused on the improvement of…

  16. Promoting Social Nurturance and Positive Social Environments to Reduce Obesity in High-Risk Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Dawn K; Sweeney, Allison M; Kitzman-Ulrich, Heather; Gause, Haylee; St George, Sara M

    2017-03-01

    Nurturing environments within the context of families, schools, and communities all play an important role in enhancing youth's behavioral choices and health outcomes. The increasing prevalence rates of obesity among youth, especially among low income and ethnic minorities, highlight the need to develop effective and innovative intervention approaches that promote positive supportive environments across different contexts for at-risk youth. We propose that the integration of Social Cognitive Theory, Family Systems Theory, and Self-Determination Theory offers a useful framework for understanding how individual, family, and social-environmental-level factors contribute to the development of nurturing environments. In this paper, we summarize evidence-based randomized controlled trials that integrate positive parenting, motivational, and behavioral skills strategies in different contexts, including primary care, home, community, and school-based settings. Taken together, these studies suggest that youth and parents are most likely to benefit when youth receive individual-level behavioral skills, family-level support and communication, and autonomous motivational support from the broader social environment. Future investigators and healthcare providers should consider integrating these evidence-based approaches that support the effects of positive social climate-based interventions on promoting healthy eating, physical activity, and weight management in youth.

  17. Promoting Social Nurturance and Positive Social Environments to Reduce Obesity in High Risk Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Dawn K.; Sweeney, Allison M.; Kitzman-Ulrich, Heather; Gause, Haylee; St. George, Sara M.

    2017-01-01

    Nurturing environments within the context of families, schools, and communities all play an important role in enhancing youth’s behavioral choices and health outcomes. The increasing prevalence rates of obesity among youth, especially among low income and ethnic minorities, highlight the need to develop effective and innovative intervention approaches that promote positive supportive environments across different contexts for at risk youth. We propose that the integration of Social Cognitive Theory, Family Systems Theory, and Self-Determination Theory offers a useful framework for understanding how individual, family and social-environmental level factors contribute to the development of nurturing environments. In this paper, we summarize evidence-based randomized controlled trials that integrate positive parenting, motivational, and behavioral skills strategies in different contexts, including primary care, home, community, and school-based settings. Taken together, these studies suggest that youth and parents are most likely to benefit when youth receive individual-level behavioral skills, family-level support and communication, and autonomous motivational support from the broader social environment. Future investigators and health care providers should consider integrating these evidence-based approaches that support the effects of positive social climate-based interventions on promoting healthy eating, physical activity, and weight management in youth. PMID:28229248

  18. Social cognitive and emotional mediators link violence exposure and parental nurturance to adolescent aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Wei; Mrug, Sylvie; Windle, Michael

    2010-01-01

    This study examined aggressive fantasies, violence-approving attitudes, and empathy as mediators of the effects of violence exposure and parental nurturance on aggression. A total of 603 early adolescents (M age = 11.8 years; SD = 0.8) participated in a two-wave study, reporting on violence exposure and parental nurturance at Wave 1 and the three mediators and aggression at Wave 2. Violence-approving attitudes mediated the effects of both violence exposure and low parental nurturance on aggression. Aggressive fantasies also mediated the effects of violence exposure and empathy mediated the effects of parental nurturance. The mediation pathways through which parental nurturance were linked to aggression differed across levels of violence exposure. In the context of high violence exposure, parental nurturance was related to lower aggression through higher social emotional empathy, but under low violence exposure, the effect was mediated by greater disapproval of violence.

  19. Nature vs. nurture in dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, I D

    1994-10-01

    Why are some people more resistant to dental caries than others? Certainly diet plays a part, but are there hereditary factors that affect caries development? This report explores genetic components that appear related to caries resistance and susceptibility.

  20. Social Cognitive and Emotional Mediators Link Violence Exposure and Parental Nurturance to Adolescent Aggression

    OpenAIRE

    Su, Wei; Mrug, Sylvie; Windle, Michael

    2010-01-01

    This study examined aggressive fantasies, violence-approving attitudes, and empathy as mediators of the effects of violence exposure and parental nurturance on aggression. A total of 603 early adolescents participated in a two-wave study, reporting on violence exposure and parental nurturance at Wave 1 and the three mediators and aggression at Wave 2. Violence-approving attitudes mediated the effects of both violence exposure and low parental nurturance on aggression. Aggressive fantasies als...

  1. "I see inspiration everywhere": potential keys to nurturing healthy obsessions by very successful young weight controllers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caraher, Kristen J; Kirschenbaum, Daniel S

    2014-12-01

    The Healthy Obsession Model posits that committed weight controllers develop preoccupations with the planning and execution of target behaviors to reach healthy goals. We expected that successful weight controllers, more so than unsuccessful weight controllers, would report more elaborate definitions of their healthy obsessions, negative reactions to lapses, and constructive responses to high-risk situations. We also expected to find differential sources of commitment between losers and gainers, including a greater emphasis on emotional and experiential consequences by losers, as documented in the authors' 2012 study. Sixteen adolescent participants who had completed cognitive-behavior therapy immersion treatment for obesity at least 1 year before the interviews (8 successful and 8 unsuccessful weight controllers) completed in-depth interviews based on the Scanlan Collaborative Interview Method. A qualitative analysis followed in which two coders identified themes within the interviews. Reliable coding of the interviews produced results that supported the hypothesis that highly successful weight controllers nurture strong healthy obsessions. Successful weight controllers also reported using significantly more helpful motivators than did unsuccessful weight controllers. In addition, these adolescent weight controllers seemed motivated by some of the same factors that elite athletes identified in the Sport Commitment Model. Clinical implications include focusing weight loss interventions on nurturing healthy obsessions in general and, more specifically, on helping weight controllers use more diverse sources of commitment.

  2. Futurism - Neither Nurturing Nor Training for Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kise, Leonard K.; Swanson, Jennie E.

    The paper considers the future of education, particularly special education, in terms of theory. Reviewed is research in neurology relating to contra-lateral development in brain hemispheres, cephalo-caudal and caudal-cephalo myelination patterns or neural systems, and integration of neural patterns and neo-cortical control of the brain. Also…

  3. From Survival to Sustainability : Nurturing Adaptive Livelihood ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    But, it remains imperative that people re-establish their livelihoods in order to resume normal life. This grant will allow Leadership for Environment and Development Pakistan (LEAD Pakistan) to assess how communities in Mansehra have adapted their livelihood strategies since the earthquake, paying particular attention to ...

  4. Nurturing Healthy Eating Habits from the Start

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Daniel B.

    2012-01-01

    Daniel B. Kessler, MD, a developmental and behavioral pediatrician, provides guidance on establishing healthy eating patterns in the early years. He emphasizes the importance of the feeding relationship as an important part of a child's social and emotional development. How parents approach feeding and mealtime is about so much more than physical…

  5. Nurturing Information and Communications Technologies in Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This view arises from the globally accepted fact that information is an essential ingredient in the socio-economic development process of any society. There is no sector or economic activity that can function effectively without information. The advent and application of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has ...

  6. Nurturing Creative Talent in Early Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnes, Merle B.; Strong, Paula Sabatino

    This teaching guide suggests practical ideas for encouraging creative talent in preschool children. It is part of a series of similar guides developed by the RAPYHT Project (Retrieval and Acceleration of Promising Young Handicapped and Talented) for educating young gifted/talented handicapped children and gifted children with no handicaps. The…

  7. Relationships among the nurse work environment, self-nurturance and life satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemcek, Mary Ann; James, Gary D

    2007-08-01

    This paper is a report of a study to (1) ascertain the relationship among self-nurturance, perceived Magnet features and life satisfaction and (2) evaluate the predictive effects of self-nurturance and Magnet features on life satisfaction. Promoting health is a global priority for nurses and for the public who depend upon them to provide quality care. Health gains can be realized by modifying the work environment and by modifying lifestyle choices (self-nurturance). A study of nurses that examined perceptions of workplace features that enable nurses' professional practice (Magnet features), self-nurturance and healthy outcomes (life satisfaction) was not found in the literature. Survey data collected in May 2003 from a convenience sample of 310 Registered Nurses were used for this descriptive, correlational study. Self-nurturing nurses were more satisfied with life and perceived that more Magnet features were present in the workplace. Nurses with a master's degree were more self-nurturing than nurses without a baccalaureate degree. The synergistic effect of both self-nurturance and workplace factors predicted 29% of variance in nurses' life satisfaction. Higher levels of perceived Magnet features and frequent self-nurturance choices are important health influences on nurses' life satisfaction. Greater life satisfaction is known to reduce job dissatisfaction while improving retention. Approaches that incorporate both self-nurturance and workplace Magnet features are suggested to improve the health and retention of experienced nurses.

  8. Nurturing a growing field: Computers & Geosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariethoz, Gregoire; Pebesma, Edzer

    2017-10-01

    Computational issues are becoming increasingly critical for virtually all fields of geoscience. This includes the development of improved algorithms and models, strategies for implementing high-performance computing, or the management and visualization of the large datasets provided by an ever-growing number of environmental sensors. Such issues are central to scientific fields as diverse as geological modeling, Earth observation, geophysics or climatology, to name just a few. Related computational advances, across a range of geoscience disciplines, are the core focus of Computers & Geosciences, which is thus a truly multidisciplinary journal.

  9. ‘Quis custodiet ipsos custodes?’ (Juvenal Satires:§345 (Who guards [nurtures] the guardians?: Developing a constructivist approach to learning about ministerial and spiritual formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham A. Duncan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this exercise was to develop an improved model of ministerial and spiritual formation in the training of ministers in the Uniting Presbyterian Church in Southern Africa at the University of Pretoria. This is a perennial problem in many churches where there is a general dissatisfaction with the products, (i.e. ministers not only in terms of personal spirituality but in their inability to minister effectively in the many diverse situations to which they are called or appointed. The exercise of power becomes an issue in a vocation which is premised on servant ministry and so Juvenal’s quotation is apt as it is expressed as ‘Who can be trusted with authority/power?’.

  10. Nurturing a FinTech Ecosystem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leong, Carmen; Tan, Barney; Xiao, Xiao

    2017-01-01

    Financial technology, or FinTech, involves the design and delivery of financial products and services through technology. It impacts financial institutions, regulators, customers, and merchants across a wide range of industries. Pervasive digital technologies are challenging the fundamentals...... of the highly regulated financial sector, leading to the emergence of non-traditional payment systems, peer-to-peer money exchanges and increased turbulence in currency markets. This case study explores the development of a FinTech company in China that offers microloans to college students. Five lessons...... learned are presented for organizations to better manage the challenges and to leverage the opportunities amidst the disruption of financial sector. Our findings also shed light on how digital technology 1) offers the strategic capability for a firm to occupy a market niche in financial sector, 2) enables...

  11. Engineered containment and control systems: nurturing nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, James H; MacDonell, Margaret M; Smith, Ellen D; Dunn, R Jeffrey; Waugh, W Jody

    2004-06-01

    The development of engineered containment and control systems for contaminated sites must consider the environmental setting of each site. The behaviors of both contaminated materials and engineered systems are affected by environmental conditions that will continue to evolve over time as a result of such natural processes as climate change, ecological succession, pedogenesis, and landform changes. Understanding these processes is crucial to designing, implementing, and maintaining effective systems for sustained health and environmental protection. Traditional engineered systems such as landfill liners and caps are designed to resist natural processes rather than working with them. These systems cannot be expected to provide long-term isolation without continued maintenance. In some cases, full-scale replacement and remediation may be required within 50 years, at an effort and cost much higher than for the original cleanup. Approaches are being developed to define smarter containment and control systems for stewardship sites, considering lessons learned from implementing prescriptive waste disposal regulations enacted since the 1970s. These approaches more effectively involve integrating natural and engineered systems; enhancing sensors and predictive tools for evaluating performance; and incorporating information on failure events, including precursors and consequences, into system design and maintenance. An important feature is using natural analogs to predict environmental conditions and system responses over the long term, to accommodate environmental change in the design process, and, as possible, to engineer containment systems that mimic favorable natural systems. The key emphasis is harmony with the environment, so systems will work with and rely on natural processes rather than resisting them. Implementing these new integrated systems will reduce current requirements for active management, which are resource-intensive and expensive.

  12. Entrenched time delays versus accelerating opinion dynamics: are advanced democracies inherently unstable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gros, Claudius

    2017-11-01

    Modern societies face the challenge that the time scale of opinion formation is continuously accelerating in contrast to the time scale of political decision making. With the latter remaining of the order of the election cycle we examine here the case that the political state of a society is determined by the continuously evolving values of the electorate. Given this assumption we show that the time lags inherent in the election cycle will inevitable lead to political instabilities for advanced democracies characterized both by an accelerating pace of opinion dynamics and by high sensibilities (political correctness) to deviations from mainstream values. Our result is based on the observation that dynamical systems become generically unstable whenever time delays become comparable to the time it takes to adapt to the steady state. The time needed to recover from external shocks grows in addition dramatically close to the transition. Our estimates for the order of magnitude of the involved time scales indicate that socio-political instabilities may develop once the aggregate time scale for the evolution of the political values of the electorate falls below 7-15 months.

  13. PARAFILIA: NATURE ATAU NURTURE? TINJAUAN TEOLOGIS DAN PSIKOLOGIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fathonah K. Daud

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The discourse of paraphilia has become public attention. Enforcing religious values and sex education since on the early stage is an inevitable need by the society. Theologically and psychologically, there are paraphilia which characteristically given (nature and also nurture or affected by its environment. This article tries to explore the existence of paraphilia, theologically based on Islamic law and physiologically, which is for longtime based on the societal norm judged as deviant, but today the norm was questioned, even criticized through the reason of human right. Even theologically, Islamic teaching has clearly prohibited sexual relation which is not properly following the sharia law.

  14. Language to Language: Nurturing Writing Development in Multilingual Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shagoury, Ruth

    2009-01-01

    The author spent four years embedded in a multilingual kindergarten classroom in which children spoke six different languages and several more years observing multilingual Head Start classrooms. She shares numerous examples of young dual language learners actively figuring out the way written language works in their first and second languages.…

  15. Engage Youth, Entrench Democracy

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    of simply listening to young people. Their two- stage research plan called, first, for a standard quantitative poll to survey the views of large numbers of youth. The second stage gathered smaller numbers in “dialogue groups” for discussion and deliberation. The goal was to provoke collective reflection, the exchange of.

  16. Social Cognitive and Emotional Mediators Link Violence Exposure and Parental Nurturance to Adolescent Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Wei; Mrug, Sylvie; Windle, Michael

    2010-01-01

    This study examined aggressive fantasies, violence-approving attitudes, and empathy as mediators of the effects of violence exposure and parental nurturance on aggression. A total of 603 early adolescents (M age = 11.8 years; SD = 0.8) participated in a two-wave study, reporting on violence exposure and parental nurturance at Wave 1 and the three…

  17. The Unnatural Nature of Nature and Nurture: Questioning the Romantic Heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stables, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    From a cultural-historical perspective, nature and nurture (and thus education) are contested concepts. The paper focuses on the nature/nurture debate in the work of William Shakespeare (influenced by Montaigne) and in the Romantic tradition (evidenced by Rousseau and Wordsworth), and argues that while our Romantic inheritance (still highly…

  18. PROBLEM DEFINISI GENDER: KAJIAN ATAS KONSEP NATURE DAN NURTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moh. Khuza’i

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available There are three things examined in this article, the definition of gender, the concept of nature, and the concept of nurture. These three things need to be studied, because they are the keywords for feminists to spread their ideas to the world of Islam. The existence of feminism should be criticized, as historically this understanding did not make women better in running their lives. That because of problems in the concept of feminism and itsnegative effect. The caution is needed, because the gender activists often point to the backwardness of women and the suppression of them by showing the incorrect reasons. In addressing the differences between men and women, Islam has a better concept than feminism. Islam has a concept of fitrah and amanah. This paper tries to study theconcept of nature and nurture in the Islamic perspective, tries to present an alternative in addressing the differences between men and women, also tries to shows the proof whether Islam leans to the one of two concepts being debated.

  19. Propriedades psicométricas da versão brasileira da Escala de Entrincheiramento na Carreira Psychometric properties of the Brazilian version of the Career Entrenchment Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro de Oliveira Magalhães

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A expressão entrincheiramento de carreira significa a imobilização do trabalhador em determinada posição ocupacional devido à percepção de limitação de alternativas de carreira, à evitação da perda de investimentos e a custos emocionais associados à mudança de ocupação. Foram investigadas as características psicométricas de uma versão brasileira da Escala de Entrincheiramento na Carreira. Uma amostra de 668 trabalhadores, 415 homens e 253 mulheres, com idades entre 25 e 65 anos, empregados em organizações públicas, privadas e do terceiros setor, respondeu à escala. Não foram encontradas diferenças de entrincheiramento associadas ao tipo de organização de trabalho. A análise fatorial encontrou os três fatores correspondentes às dimensões propostas para o construto: investimentos de carreira, custos emocionais e limitação de alternativas de carreira. Os indicadores de consistência interna obtidos para a escala total e para cada dimensão de entrincheiramento foram satisfatórios, revelando que todos os itens contribuem para aumentar a precisão do instrumento. As análises indicam aspectos de validade de construto e de precisão satisfatórios para a versão brasileira da Escala de Entrincheiramento na Carreira.The expression career entrenchment means the worker's immobilization in a determined occupational position as a result of his/her perception of lack of career alternatives, avoidance of lost of investments and emotional costs associated with occupational changes. The psychometric properties of the Brazilian version of the Career Entrenchment Scale were investigated. A sample of 668 workers, 415 men and 253 women, ages ranging between 25 e 65 years old, employed in public, private ant third sector organizations, answered the scale. Differences of entrenchment were not associated with type of work organization. Factorial analysis found three factors according with the dimensions proposed for the construct

  20. Rivers of milk and honey--an exploration of nurturing the self in a Russian context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortuleva, Elena

    2014-09-01

    This paper is an exploration of the relationship between nurturing in all its contexts--among them, the nursing couple and the therapeutic relationship--and the evolution of an individual self. The ideas are illustrated by a case vignette of a Russian patient. An attempt is made to show that when the self as an integral unity of body and soul is addressed in the analytic setting, 'nutritional dreams' emerge as expressions of the self-in-action. Certain psycholinguistic features of the Russian cultural context are described which suggest a link of meaning between development of the self and secure parenting. This linguistic association may facilitate the process of self-centering. © 2014, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  1. The linking of the upper-middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River as a result of fluvial entrenchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, ZhenBo; Pan, BaoTian; Bridgland, David; Vandenberghe, Jef; Guo, LianYong; Fan, YunLong; Westaway, Rob

    2017-06-01

    . Before the start of gorge entrenchment, the products of erosion in the modern upper catchment of the Yellow River were unable to reach the sea. The dramatic increase in deposition rates in the Bohai Gulf (at the mouth of the modern Yellow River in the East China Sea), ∼1.0 Ma ago, thus resulted from the initiation of an integral (enlarged) Yellow River catchment drainage through the Sanmen gorge; it does not imply an increase in erosion rates at that time.

  2. Uplifting developing communities through sustained technology transfer

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mashiri, M

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available strand of thought that runs through the paper is that as the gradual shift to a knowledge society takes shape, even in developing rural environments, knowledge becomes an entrenched production factor. In this regard, continuous learning processes...

  3. Nurturing Relationships And Honouring Responsibilities: A Pacific Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaman, Konai Helu

    2008-07-01

    This essay contributes a Pacific Islands perspective to the global discussion of "Living Together: Education and Intercultural Dialogue". Through poetry and prose, this essay traces the impact of the Tongan concept of vaa (values/valued relationships) on learning and language. By invoking UNESCO's mandate to build peace through education, the concept of vaa is shown to be a key to promoting peace. The challenges and prospects of nurturing peace through international cooperation in education are discussed with examples drawn from the Pacific. Specifically, Tonga's social and linguistic histories provide avenues for interpreting Pacific educational ideals in relation to Western concepts of knowing and learning. Reflection on cultural literacy in the Pacific context raises deeper questions about the role of educators when working interculturally. Lessons to be learned include the oft-quoted maxim that educators must first learn about their own culture before learning about others', and before imposing their own pedagogies and curricula on others' education systems.

  4. Relevance of the nature vs nurture debate to clinical nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McVicar, A; Clancy, J

    The philosophy of holistic care underpins nurse education, and the 'nature-nurture debate' is frequently used to facilitate discussion regarding the influence of interactions with the environment in 'shaping' the individual. A limitation to this approach is that much of the work cited in the literature relates primarily to psychosocial interactions. This conveys a narrow perspective on holism, and creates an impression that the debate cannot be applied to other aspects of health and wellbeing, yet models of nursing care emphasize the need for nurses to appreciate the interactional basis of health. This article uses examples from mental health, physical health and the influence of ageing, to argue that interactions must be viewed from a much wider perspective. Only in doing so can the principles and application of holistic care, and an understanding of the bases of health education practices, be appreciated.

  5. Organic materials in planetary and protoplanetary systems: nature or nurture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalle Ore, C. M.; Fulchignoni, M.; Cruikshank, D. P.; Barucci, M. A.; Brunetto, R.; Campins, H.; de Bergh, C.; Debes, J. H.; Dotto, E.; Emery, J. P.; Grundy, W. M.; Jones, A. P.; Mennella, V.; Orthous-Daunay, F. R.; Owen, T.; Pascucci, I.; Pendleton, Y. J.; Pinilla-Alonso, N.; Quirico, E.; Strazzulla, G.

    2011-09-01

    Aims: The objective of this work is to summarize the discussion of a workshop aimed at investigating the properties, origins, and evolution of the materials that are responsible for the red coloration of the small objects in the outer parts of the solar system. Because of limitations or inconsistencies in the observations and, until recently, the limited availability of laboratory data, there are still many questions on the subject. Our goal is to approach two of the main questions in a systematic way: - Is coloring an original signature of materials that are presolar in origin ("nature") or stems from post-formational chemical alteration, or weathering ("nurture")? - What is the chemical signature of the material that causes spectra to be sloped towards the red in the visible? We examine evidence available both from the laboratory and from observations sampling different parts of the solar system and circumstellar regions (disks). Methods: We present a compilation of brief summaries gathered during the workshop and describe the evidence towards a primordial vs. evolutionary origin for the material that reddens the small objects in the outer parts of our, as well as in other, planetary systems. We proceed by first summarizing laboratory results followed by observational data collected at various distances from the Sun. Results: While laboratory experiments show clear evidence of irradiation effects, particularly from ion bombardment, the first obstacle often resides in the ability to unequivocally identify the organic material in the observations. The lack of extended spectral data of good quality and resolution is at the base of this problem. Furthermore, that both mechanisms, weathering and presolar, act on the icy materials in a spectroscopically indistinguishable way makes our goal of defining the impact of each mechanism challenging. Conclusions: Through a review of some of the workshop presentations and discussions, encompassing laboratory experiments as well

  6. Young Adult South African Daughters’ Perceptions of Paternal Involvement and Nurturance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Wessels

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess current and retrospective levels of reported and desired paternal involvement experienced by young adult daughters, as well as current and retrospective levels of paternal nurturance. A sample of 89, female, third year South African Psychology students completed self-administered questionnaires, consisting of a biographical questionnaire, four Father Involvement Scales and two Nurturant Father Scales. Daughters reported their fathers as having been involved and nurturing while growing up. Although they indicated that they perceived fathers as somewhat less involved in young adulthood; they reported being satisfied with the level of father involvement. Daughters also reported high current paternal nurturance. The findings therefore indicate that a group of middle to upper middle-class South African daughters perceived their fathers as relatively involved in their lives and suggest that their fathers’ involvement extends beyond traditional father roles.

  7. Nurturing ECSU Research Talent (NERT & AASERT) 1997-98 Annual Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hayden, Linda

    1998-01-01

    This report documents the activities of the Augmentation Award for Science and Engineering Research Training Program as well as the activities of the parent grant entitled Nurturing ECSU Research Talent...

  8. Integrating nature and nurture : Implications of person-environment correlations and interactions for developmental psychopathology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutter, M; Dunn, J; Plomin, R; Simonoff, E; Pickles, A; Maughan, B; Ormel, J; Meyer, J; Eaves, L

    1997-01-01

    The developmental interplay between nature and nurture is discussed, with particular reference to implications for research in developmental psychopathology. The general principles include individual differences in reactivity to the environment, two-way interplay between intraindividual biology and

  9. Father Involvement, Nurturant Fathering, and the Psychological Well-Being of Young Adult Daughters

    OpenAIRE

    Peterson, Camille C.

    2007-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the relationship between father involvement, nurturant fathering, and the psychological well-being among young adult women. A total of 99 young adult, female, university students completed retrospective measures of nurturant fathering, father involvement, and measures of current psychological well-being (measured in terms of self-esteem, life satisfaction, and psychological distress). Results indicated that retrospective perceptions of both fat...

  10. Family Ownership and the Entrenchment Effect on Intellectual Capital Utilization: A Study of High-Technology Companies in Indonesia Dealing with the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bima Cinintya Pratama

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available At the end of 2015, the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN brought into being the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC. Due to the AEC, the firms in ASEAN should utilize their resources more effectively and efficiently, so that the firms can survive and grow despite strong competition in the AEC. Indonesia, as the country with the largest economy in the region, needs to address this issue so that companies in Indonesia can face the challenges resulting from the AEC. This study aimed to examine the positive relationship between the intellectual capital (IC and the financial performance of high-technology (high-tech companies that are listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange, and also to examine whether the entrenchment effect of family ownership exists. This study was conducted from 2008 to 2014. The final sample used in this study consisted of 31 companies with a total of 144 observations. This study used a panel data regression model analysis. The results showed that, for a company, IC has a positive impact on financial performance. This result indicated that the efficient and effective use of their IC will help the firms to achieve higher financial performance, and will be useful for dealing with the AEC. There was no evidence that the entrenchment effect exists in the family ownership of high-tech companies in Indonesia and hampers the utilization of IC.

  11. Family Ownership and the Entrenchment Effect on Intellectual Capital Utilization: A Study of High-Technology Companies in Indonesia Dealing with the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bima Cinintya Pratama

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available At the end of 2015, the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN brought into being the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC. Due to the AEC, the firms in ASEAN should utilize their resources more effectively and efficiently, so that the firms can survive and grow despite strong competition in the AEC. Indonesia, as the country with the largest economy in the region, needs to address this issue so that companies in Indonesia can face the challenges resulting from the AEC. This study aimed to examine the positive relationship between the intellectual capital (IC and the financial performance of high-technology (high-tech companies that are listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange, and also to examine whether the entrenchment effect of family ownership exists. This study was conducted from 2008 to 2014. The final sample used in this study consisted of 31 companies with a total of 144 observations. This study used a panel data regression model analysis. The results showed that, for a company, IC has a positive impact on financial performance. This result indicated that the efficient and effective use of their IC will help the firms to achieve higher financial performance, and will be useful for dealing with the AEC. There was no evidence that the entrenchment effect exists in the family ownership of high-tech companies in Indonesia and hampers the utilization of IC.

  12. From nature versus nurture, via nature and nurture, to gene x environment interaction in mental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wermter, Anne-Kathrin; Laucht, Manfred; Schimmelmann, Benno G; Banaschewski, Tobias; Banaschweski, Tobias; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J S; Rietschel, Marcella; Becker, Katja

    2010-03-01

    It is now generally accepted that complex mental disorders are the results of interplay between genetic and environmental factors. This holds out the prospect that by studying G x E interplay we can explain individual variation in vulnerability and resilience to environmental hazards in the development of mental disorders. Furthermore studying G x E findings may give insights in neurobiological mechanisms of psychiatric disorder and so improve individualized treatment and potentially prevention. In this paper, we provide an overview of the state of field with regard to G x E in mental disorders. Strategies for G x E research are introduced. G x E findings from selected mental disorders with onset in childhood or adolescence are reviewed [such as depressive disorders, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), obesity, schizophrenia and substance use disorders]. Early seminal studies provided evidence for G x E in the pathogenesis of depression implicating 5-HTTLPR, and conduct problems implicating MAOA. Since then G x E effects have been seen across a wide range of mental disorders (e.g., ADHD, anxiety, schizophrenia, substance abuse disorder) implicating a wide range of measured genes and measured environments (e.g., pre-, peri- and postnatal influences of both a physical and a social nature). To date few of these G x E effects have been sufficiently replicated. Indeed meta-analyses have raised doubts about the robustness of even the most well studied findings. In future we need larger, sufficiently powered studies that include a detailed and sophisticated characterization of both phenotype and the environmental risk.

  13. Nurturing Soft Skills Among High School Students Through Space Weather Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Mardina; Abd Majid, Rosadah; Bais, Badariah; Syaidah Bahri, Nor

    2016-07-01

    Soft skills fulfill an important role in shaping an individual's personality. It is of high importance for every student to acquire adequate skills beyond academic or technical knowledge. The objective of this project was to foster students' enthusiasm in space science and develop their soft skills such as; interpersonal communication, critical thinking and problem-solving, team work, lifelong learning and information management, and leadership skills. This is a qualitative study and the data was collected via group interviews. Soft skills development among high school students were nurtured through space weather competition in solar flare detection. High school students (16 to 17 years old) were guided by mentors consisting of science teachers to carry out this project based on a module developed by UKM's researchers. Students had to acquire knowledge on antenna development and construct the antenna with recyclable materials. They had to capture graphs and identify peaks that indicate solar flare. Their findings were compared to satellite data for verification. They also presented their work and their findings to the panel of judges. After observation, it can be seen that students' soft skills and interest in learning space science had become more positive after being involved in this project.

  14. Developing Air Force Acquisition Leaders for the 21st Century

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Latin, Anita

    2003-01-01

    ... direction, skills, training and education, career management guidance, and leadership and command opportunities to nurture, develop, and retain acquisition officers to become the best strategic acquisition leaders...

  15. Nurturing social responsibility through community service-learning: Lessons learned from a pilot project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharamsi, Shafik; Espinoza, Nancy; Cramer, Carl; Amin, Maryam; Bainbridge, Lesley; Poole, Gary

    2010-01-01

    Community service-learning (CSL) has been proposed as one way to enrich medical and dental students' sense of social responsibility toward people who are marginalized in society. We developed and implemented a new CSL option in the integrated medical/dental curriculum and assessed its educational impact. Focus groups, individual open-ended interviews, and a survey were used to assess dental students', faculty tutors' and community partners' experiences with CSL. CSL enabled a deeper appreciation for the vulnerabilities that people who are marginalized experience; students gained a greater insight into the social determinants of health and the related importance of community engagement; and they developed useful skills in health promotion project planning, implementation and evaluation. Community partners and faculty tutors indicated that equal partnership, greater collaboration, and a participatory approach to course development are essential to sustainability in CSL. CSL can play an important role in nurturing a purposeful sense of social responsibility among future practitioners. Our study enabled the implementation of an innovative longitudinal course (professionalism and community service) in all 4 years of the dental curriculum.

  16. Nature versus nurture: identical twins and bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagedorn, Judith C; Morton, John M

    2007-06-01

    Genetics and environment both play a role in weight maintenance. Twin studies may help clarify the influence of nature vs nurture in weight loss. We present the largest U.S. experience with monozygotic (MZ) twins undergoing bariatric surgery. We retrospectively reviewed the charts of four sets of MZ twins who underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGBP) surgery and laparoscopic adjustable gastric band (LAGB) placement at three different institutions. BMI and co-morbidities were examined pre- and postoperatively, and laboratory values were recorded. All four sets of twins are female, live together, and have similar professions. Twin cohort 1 had near identical weight loss patterns after open RYGBP surgery in 1996 (preop 146/142 kg; 2 years 82/82; and 10 years 108/107). Twin cohort 1 also both underwent cholecystectomies within the first year postoperatively. Twin cohort 2 underwent laparoscopic RYGBP surgery and also required cholecystectomies in the first postoperative year. Cohort 2 also experienced nearly identical weight loss at 1 year (36.7% vs 37.0% BMI loss). Twin cohort 3 underwent LAGB placement with two different surgeons with differing amounts of weight loss at 6 months (6.5% vs 15.7% BMI loss). Finally, twin cohort 4 underwent laparoscopic RYGBP with 2-year BMI loss of 39% vs 34%. In twin cohort 4, the twin who lost less weight lived apart from her twin and extended family, and her weight loss was less than the twin living with her family. Two sets of MZ twins had identical responses to bariatric surgery. The other two sets of identical twins had differential weight loss results, possibly due to differences in surgical approach and social support. While genetics do exert a strong influence on weight loss and maintenance, this case series demonstrates the potential effect of social support and postoperative management upon postoperative weight loss in the presence of identical genetics.

  17. Nurturing Diversified Farming Systems in Industrialized Countries: How Public Policy Can Contribute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alastair Iles

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available If diversified farming systems (DFS are to thrive again in the United States, policies and preferences must evolve to reward the environmental and social benefits of sustainable farming and landscape management. Compared with conventional agricultural policies, policies aiding ecological diversification are underdeveloped and fragmented. We consider several examples of obstacles to the adoption and spread of diversified farming practices in the U.S. industrialized agricultural system. These include the broader political economic context of industrialized agriculture, the erosion of farmer knowledge and capacity, and supply chain and marketing conditions that limit the ability of farmers to adopt sustainable practices. To overcome these obstacles and nurture DFS, policy makers, researchers, industry, farmers, consumers, and local communities can play pivotal roles to transform agricultural research, develop peer-to-peer learning processes, support the recruitment and retention of new farmers through access to credit and land, invest in improved agricultural conservation programs, provide compensation for provision of ecological services in working landscapes, and develop links to consumer and institutional markets.

  18. Family nurture intervention (FNI: methods and treatment protocol of a randomized controlled trial in the NICU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Welch Martha G

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The stress that results from preterm birth, requisite acute care and prolonged physical separation in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU can have adverse physiological/psychological effects on both the infant and the mother. In particular, the experience compromises the establishment and maintenance of optimal mother-infant relationship, the subsequent development of the infant, and the mother's emotional well-being. These findings highlight the importance of investigating early interventions that are designed to overcome or reduce the effects of these environmental insults and challenges. Methods This study is a randomized controlled trial (RCT with blinded assessment comparing Standard Care (SC with a novel Family Nurture Intervention (FNI. FNI targets preterm infants born 26-34 weeks postmenstrual age (PMA and their mothers in the NICU. The intervention incorporates elements of mother-infant interventions with known efficacy and organizes them under a new theoretical context referred to collectively as calming activities. This intervention is facilitated by specially trained Nurture Specialists in three ways: 1 In the isolette through calming interactions between mother and infant via odor exchange, firm sustained touch and vocal soothing, and eye contact; 2 Outside the isolette during holding and feeding via the Calming Cycle; and 3 through family sessions designed to engage help and support the mother. In concert with infant neurobehavioral and physiological assessments from birth through 24 months corrected age (CA, maternal assessments are made using standard tools including anxiety, depression, attachment, support systems, temperament as well as physiological stress parameters. Quality of mother-infant interaction is also assessed. Our projected enrolment is 260 families (130 per group. Discussion The FNI is designed to increase biologically important activities and behaviors that enhance maternally

  19. The stress-coping (mis)match hypothesis for nature × nurture interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homberg, Judith R

    2012-01-13

    There is high consensus that stress-related disorders like depression are shaped by nature×nurture interactions. However, the complexity appears larger than envisaged and nature×nurture research is progressing too slowly. An important reason is that mainstream research is focussing on the idea that a combination of genotypic stress-sensitivity and stress exposure inevitably leads to maladaptive stress-coping responses, and thereby stress-related disorders. However, stress-coping responses can also be adaptive and adhere to the expected norm. Here I elaborate the 'environment' mismatch hypothesis proposed by Mathias Schmidt (Psychoneuroendocrinology, 36, 330-338, 2011) to the stress-coping (mis)match (SCM) hypothesis postulating that stress-coping responses-as programmed by nature×age-dependent nurture interactions-are adaptive when they match current stress conditions, but maladaptive when they mismatch current stress conditions. For instance, acquisition of an active stress-coping response during nurture may lead to the programmed release of active coping responses in current life. This is adaptive when current stress is escapable, but maladaptive when current stress is inescapable, leading to agitation. A model par example for nature×nurture interactions is the serotonin transporter promoter polymorphism, which will be discussed in the framework of the SCM hypothesis. The potential role of the prefrontal-amygdala circuit and the therapeutic implications of the SCM hypothesis will also be discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Spiritual formation and the nurturing of creative spirituality: A case study in Proverbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anneke Viljoen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is positioned in the interface between Old Testament scholarship and the discipline of spiritual direction of which spiritual formation is a component. The contribution that a Ricoeurian hermeneutic may make in unlocking the potential which an imaginal engagement with the book of Proverbs may hold for the discipline of spiritual formation was explored. Specifically three aspects of the text of Proverbs illustrated the creative process at work in the text, and how it converges with the concept of spiritual formation and the nurturing of creative spirituality. These aspects were, the development in Lady Wisdom�s discourses, the functional definition of the fear of Yahweh (illustrated from Proverbs 10:1�15:33, and the paradigmatic character of the book of Proverbs.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: The research is positioned in the interface between Old Testament studies and Practical Theology. The research results in the enhancement of the interdisciplinary dialogue and interchange of resources between the named disciplines with regard to the interest in formation of persons that the biblical book of Proverbs and the discipline of spiritual formation shares.Keywords: Spiritual formation; fear of Yahweh; Proverbs; Wisdom; Hermeneutics; Paul Ricoeur; Symbolic world; Textual reference

  1. An Initial Test of Inconsistent Nurturing as Control Theory: How Partners of Drug Abusers Assist Their Partners' Sobriety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Poire, Beth A.; Hallett, Jennifer S.; Erlandson, Karen T.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses how inconsistent nurturing as control theory asserts that because of competing goals of nurturing and controlling, partners of drug-dependent individuals will unintentionally encourage the very behavior they are trying to extinguish through inconsistent manifestations of reinforcement and punishment. Finds that partners of substance…

  2. My Sky Tonight: Nurturing a Scientific Frame of Mind in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Jim; Manning, J.; Schultz, G. R.; Gurton, S.; Plummer, J.; Callanan, M.; Jipson, J.; Palmquist, S.

    2013-06-01

    The Astronomical Society of the Pacific (ASP), in collaboration with a team of researchers, evaluators, and informal education institutions, has embarked on an NSF-funded project designed to build capacity in informal science education (ISE) practitioners by supporting development of their understanding of early childhood astronomy knowledge and the building of pedagogical skills and tools supportive of early childhood learning in informal settings. While preschool-aged children have long been considered too young and too cognitively immature to benefit from science learning, a growing body of recent research shows that children’s curiosity about science topics begins in the years prior to school, and that a child’s early years lay a powerful foundation for subsequent learning. Further, informal science educator and learning researchers argue that more effectively building on young children’s inherent curiosity about the natural world could lead to stronger science learning outcomes than waiting to introduce science in classroom settings. Consequently, using the domain of astronomy as a basis, the ASP and its partners are embarking on a project to: 1) advance the knowledge base concerning astronomy conceptions and curiosities of young children and how they can be built upon to position children for later learning, 2) develop interactive learning experiences to be used by ISE practitioners and families with small children to nurture children’s science curiosity and reasoning, 3) increase participation in astronomy by families in general and underserved families in particular, and 4) improve practice by engaging ISE practitioners in the research and development of effective practices, providing implementation tools and methods. The presenter will share project status as it gets underway.

  3. “Getting out of downtown”: a longitudinal study of how street-entrenched youth attempt to exit an inner city drug scene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rod Knight

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Urban drug “scenes” have been identified as important risk environments that shape the health of street-entrenched youth. New knowledge is needed to inform policy and programing interventions to help reduce youths’ drug scene involvement and related health risks. The aim of this study was to identify how young people envisioned exiting a local, inner-city drug scene in Vancouver, Canada, as well as the individual, social and structural factors that shaped their experiences. Methods Between 2008 and 2016, we draw on 150 semi-structured interviews with 75 street-entrenched youth. We also draw on data generated through ethnographic fieldwork conducted with a subgroup of 25 of these youth between. Results Youth described that, in order to successfully exit Vancouver’s inner city drug scene, they would need to: (a secure legitimate employment and/or obtain education or occupational training; (b distance themselves – both physically and socially – from the urban drug scene; and (c reduce their drug consumption. As youth attempted to leave the scene, most experienced substantial social and structural barriers (e.g., cycling in and out of jail, the need to access services that are centralized within a place that they are trying to avoid, in addition to managing complex individual health issues (e.g., substance dependence. Factors that increased youth’s capacity to successfully exit the drug scene included access to various forms of social and cultural capital operating outside of the scene, including supportive networks of friends and/or family, as well as engagement with addiction treatment services (e.g., low-threshold access to methadone to support cessation or reduction of harmful forms of drug consumption. Conclusions Policies and programming interventions that can facilitate young people’s efforts to reduce engagement with Vancouver’s inner-city drug scene are critically needed, including meaningful

  4. Nature, Nurture and Neuroscience: Some Future Directions for Historians of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldrich, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Following a short introduction this article is divided into three main sections. The first provides definitions and brief histories of the nature-nurture debate and of neuroscience. The second section shows how in recent decades neuroscientific research has impacted on the debate with particular reference to our understanding of human intelligence…

  5. Stability of Parental Nurturance as a Salient Predictor of Self-Esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buri, John R.

    In the recent past there has been a growing interest in the investigation of the self. A primary area of investigation has revolved around the question of the stability of the self-concept. This study investigated parental nurturance as a stable predictor of self-esteem across adolescent and young adult age groups. Subjects (N=784) were students…

  6. The role of academia and industry in nurturing women in physics in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyamwandha, Cecilia A.; Kasina, Angeline; Muthui, Zipporah W.; Awuor, Emily; Baki, Paul

    2015-12-01

    The authors look at some of the primary initiatives taken by the government, academia, and industry to nurture the goals and dreams of Kenyan women physicists. They discuss key transformative lines of progress as evidenced by statistics, and the enabling environments and platforms upon which these were made possible.

  7. Cultivando Logradores: Nurturing and Sustaining Latino Male Success in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, David; Taylor, Kari B.

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the factors that contribute to Latino male success in higher education. In this qualitative study, Yosso's (2005) community cultural wealth framework provides an asset-based perspective to illuminate how Latino males used different forms of capital to nurture and sustain their dispositions to succeed at a selective,…

  8. Nurturing Child Imagination in the Contemporary World: Perspectives from Different Nations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksic, Slavica; Pavlovic, Zoran

    2013-01-01

    Imagination and creativity in today's world are becoming increasingly relevant in the light of the fact that main human work products are innovations, knowledge, ideas, and creative solutions. Nurturing child imagination is the most promising way of building up a creative personality and contributing to individual creative production in the…

  9. Beyond Small and Nurturing: Tapping the Potential of Liberal Arts Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roose, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    A majority of the teacher education programs in this country reside in liberal arts institutions. Most pride themselves on the benefits from having small and nurturing programs with strong relationships with students and an emphasis on teaching. There are many types of preparation programs situated within liberal arts institutions and also a wide…

  10. Place-Based Stewardship Education: Nurturing Aspirations to Protect the Rural Commons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallay, Erin; Marckini-Polk, Lisa; Schroeder, Brandon; Flanagan, Constance

    2016-01-01

    In this mixed-methods study, we examine the potential of place-based stewardship education (PBSE) for nurturing rural students' community attachment and aspirations to contribute to the preservation of the environmental "commons." Analyzing pre- and post-experience surveys (n = 240) and open-ended responses (n = 275) collected from…

  11. Predictors of Maternal and Early Adolescent Attitudes Toward Children's Nurturance and Self-Determination Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson-Badali, Michele; Morine, Stephany L.; Ruck, Martin D.; Slonim, Naomi

    2004-01-01

    Children's rights to nurturance and self-determination have been included in social policy agendas for many years. Children's and parents' attitudes concerning children's rights are likely an important determinant of whether rights on paper actually serve to protect the well-being of children, yet there is little research on factors associated…

  12. Nurturing the Growing Generation’s Values in the Process of Socio-Cultural Transformation of Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asbi Khaleb

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Arab minority in Israel is in the process of socio-cultural transformation, its force rising and splitting the society. Modernization, the Arab society undergoes, is influenced by the constant contacts with the Jew- ish nation representing in its majority the western culture, the other influenc- ing factors being technologies and mass media. Some changes affect the soci- ety in a positive way, whereas the global uncontrollable ones can bring about the system crisis and the full split of society. In order to retain the integrity it is necessary to control this process on the level of basic elements of cultural awareness by nurturing both cultural and moral values within the framework of educational system. One of the main functions of educational system is the man’s adapta- tion in society including its cultural aspect; and the upbringing process should be performed in the context of belonging to cultural and national val- ues. Well-balanced organic system of education combining cardinal, national and religious values can facilitate harmonious personal growth, and affect the society in a positive way. However, the Arab educational system in Israel faces some challenges in the course of implementing the value nurturing programs. They include the lack of political initiative and control over the educational system devel- opment performed by the Arabs; and the absence of the definite and steady value system that can be given to the growing generation by means of school education. To overcome the problem the author recommends developing and implementing a special training program focused on the value component de- velopment, as the students might have difficulty getting by in the real world without it. 

  13. Spanning Boundaries in an Arizona Watershed Partnership: Information Networks as Tools for Entrenchment or Ties for Collaboration?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tischa A. Muñoz-Erickson

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The need to develop successful collaborative strategies is an enduring problem in sustainable resource management. Our goal is to evaluate the relationship between information networks and conflict in the context of collaborative groundwater management in the rapidly growing central highland region of Arizona. In this region, water-management conflicts have emerged because of stakeholders' differing geographic perspectives and competing scientific claims. Using social network analyses, we explored the extent to which the Verde River Basin Partnership (VRBP, which was charged with developing and sharing scientific information, has contributed to collaboration in the region. To accomplish this, we examined the role that this stakeholder partnership plays in reinforcing or overcoming the geographic, ideological, expert, and power conflicts among its members. Focusing on information sharing, we tested the extent to which several theoretically important elements of successful collaboration were evidenced by data from the VRBP. The structure of information sharing provides insight into ways in which barriers between diverse perspectives might be retained and elucidates weaknesses in the partnership. To characterize information sharing, we examined interaction ties among individuals with different geographic concerns, hierarchical scales of interest, belief systems (about science, the environment, and the role of the partnership, and self-identified expertise types. Results showed that the partnership's information-sharing network spans most of these boundaries. Based on current theories of collaboration, we would expect the partnership network to be conducive to collaboration. We found that information exchanges are limited by differences in connection patterns across actor expertise and environmental-belief systems. Actors who view scientists as advocates are significantly more likely to occupy boundary-spanning positions, that appear to impede the

  14. The nurturing of creativity in the History classroom through teaching methods – the views of teachers and learners.

    OpenAIRE

    Bunt, Byron

    2009-01-01

    Nurturing creative thinking abilities in all learning areas and subjects is one of the cornerstones and ideals of Outcomes-Based Education (OBE) in South Africa. This article reports on the results obtained with a pilot study that set out to determine the extent to which creativity is presently nurtured in the History classroom. A qualitative study by means of semi-structured, one-on-one interviews with learners (n = 4) and teachers (n = 2) of History at a secondary school was ...

  15. Second-language instinct and instruction effects: nature and nurture in second-language acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusa, Noriaki; Koizumi, Masatoshi; Kim, Jungho; Kimura, Naoki; Uchida, Shinya; Yokoyama, Satoru; Miura, Naoki; Kawashima, Ryuta; Hagiwara, Hiroko

    2011-10-01

    Adults seem to have greater difficulties than children in acquiring a second language (L2) because of the alleged "window of opportunity" around puberty. Postpuberty Japanese participants learned a new English rule with simplex sentences during one month of instruction, and then they were tested on "uninstructed complex sentences" as well as "instructed simplex sentences." The behavioral data show that they can acquire more knowledge than is instructed, suggesting the interweaving of nature (universal principles of grammar, UG) and nurture (instruction) in L2 acquisition. The comparison in the "uninstructed complex sentences" between post-instruction and pre-instruction using functional magnetic resonance imaging reveals a significant activation in Broca's area. Thus, this study provides new insight into Broca's area, where nature and nurture cooperate to produce L2 learners' rich linguistic knowledge. It also shows neural plasticity of adult L2 acquisition, arguing against a critical period hypothesis, at least in the domain of UG.

  16. Process Of Acceptance And Nurturing By Parents To Maintain Caring Affection To The Children With Hydrocephalus

    OpenAIRE

    Ageng Wirdhana, Sri; Naryoso, S.Sos, M.Si, Agus

    2017-01-01

    Based on data from The Ministry of Health Republic of Indonesia, there were 20 newborn babies suffered hydrocephalus from every 10.000 birth in Indonesia, Margaretha (Clinical Pshychology and Mental Health, 2014: Vol. 03, No.2). Hydrocephalus is a condition when the main characteristic is the excessive liquid accumulation in brain. This research aim to explain the process of acceptance and nurturing by parents to maintain caring affection to hydrocephalus children. This research used descript...

  17. Nature vs. Nurture: The Role of Environmental Resources in Evolutionary Deep Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, Audrey G.; Fieguth, Paul; Wong, Alexander

    2018-01-01

    Evolutionary deep intelligence synthesizes highly efficient deep neural networks architectures over successive generations. Inspired by the nature versus nurture debate, we propose a study to examine the role of external factors on the network synthesis process by varying the availability of simulated environmental resources. Experimental results were obtained for networks synthesized via asexual evolutionary synthesis (1-parent) and sexual evolutionary synthesis (2-parent, 3-parent, and 5-pa...

  18. Nurture or nature? The growth paradox of research-based spin-offs

    OpenAIRE

    Zerbinati, S.; Souitaris, V.; Moray, N.

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the effect of institutional origin (‘nurture’) and economic context (‘nature’) on the financial resource endowment and subsequent early employment growth of research-based spin-offs (RBSOs). The nurture dimensions capture the relationship between the parent research institution and the RBSO during the start-up phase: the type of incubation model, the formal vs informal transfer of technology and the extent of inventors’ involvement with the firm. The nature dimensions incl...

  19. Why nature prevails over nurture in the making of the elite athlete

    OpenAIRE

    Georgiades, Evelina; Klissouras, Vassilis; Baulch, Jamie; Wang, Guan; Pitsiladis, Yannis

    2017-01-01

    While the influence of nature (genes) and nurture (environment) on elite sporting performance remains difficult to precisely determine, the dismissal of either as a contributing factor to performance is unwarranted. It is accepted that a complex interaction of a combination of innumerable factors may mold a talented athlete into a champion. The prevailing view today is that understanding elite human performance will require the deciphering of two major sources of individual differences, genes...

  20. Local Strategies: Creating and Nurturing Collaborative Communities of Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Denise; Beaulieu, Elizabeth; Wobbe, Kristin

    2017-01-01

    Creating meaningful professional development opportunities for general education faculty can be particularly challenging at professionally-focused institutions where teaching liberal arts courses is sometimes viewed merely as a service requirement. Committing to sustained professional development for general education faculty can lead to…

  1. Understanding family dynasty: Nurturing the corporate identity across generations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemilentsev, M.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyse the Ahlstrom annual reports. The content analysis contributes to family business corporate identity. According to the results family business corporate identity is based both on history and on the future. Human resource management, customer relationships, high quality, and also family ownership reflect corporate identity in large family corporations. Modern family business corporate identity is based on continuously developing the business concept and its core competency. Meeting the needs of customers and technical quality standards combined with upgrading and developing the business idea characterises family business corporate identity.

  2. Nature, Nurture, and Gender: The Evolution of Evelyn Fox Keller

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    velopmental biology, neuroscience, physiol- ogy, and ecology to study phenotypic plastic- ity. This is not an easy book to read. It requires one's complete attention, but is a worthwhile read. The ideas developed in this book will lead us to see the universality in humanity, a shift from the individual to the collective, a dissolution ...

  3. Aligning the PRME: How Study Abroad Nurtures Responsible Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sroufe, Robert; Sivasubramaniam, Nagaraj; Ramos, Diane; Saiia, David

    2015-01-01

    Productive relationships between business schools and corporate organizations provide fertile ground for bringing business leaders, faculty, students, and community partners face-to-face with contemporaries abroad to foster development of responsible global leadership competencies. While well-orchestrated multicountry collaboration offers unique…

  4. Nurturing professional social work in Malawi | Kakowa | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Social work training in Malawi started with a community development certificate in 1964 and later a certificate in social welfare in 1978. In 2006, the first degree programme was introduced. As of 2016, three universities offered degree programmes. Despite this long history, social work has not been fully professionalised.

  5. Authoritative Classroom Management: How Control and Nurturance Work Together

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Joan M. T.

    2009-01-01

    Despite broad recognition that teaching excellence requires meeting students' intellectual and social needs, teachers struggle to manage--and learning theory struggles to explain--the interplay between the academic and social dimensions of classroom life. Drawing from research on parenting and child development, the author offers parenting style…

  6. Kinder-Gardeners: The Power of Nature to Nurture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson-Harmon, Linda

    2009-01-01

    The author shares a story about the positive power of nature in the lives of children, particularly those children who are at-risk for school failure. The setting for the story is the Central Child Development Center (CCDC) in Rock Hill, South Carolina, a public preschool with four-year-old kindergarten students (4K) and preschoolers with special…

  7. Concept Mapping Revisited: Nurturing Children's Writing Skills in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isabelle, Aaron

    2015-01-01

    Concept mapping has long been used an assessment tool by educators to illustrate students' conceptual development of a topic over time. In this article, we chronicle the use of concept maps in a language arts environment. Focusing on a literacy tutoring program for struggling readers/writers centered on hands-on science experiments, we explain how…

  8. Nurturing hostile environments: the problem of school violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredland, Nina M

    2008-01-01

    Although school violence directly affects the overall health and well-being of children and adolescents, clear priorities have not been identified for dealing with the problem. Horrific events such as the 1999 Columbine High School shooting in Littleton, Colo, and recent shootings at Virginia Tech have focused the nation on high-profile, media-worthy school violence to the detriment of addressing everyday forms of violence in schools. Policies that have been developed to reduce school violence have mixed reviews. To raise the consciousness of healthcare professionals, educators, legislators, and the general public, the most salient issues are discussed.

  9. Nurturing reliable and robust open-source scientific software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uieda, L.; Wessel, P.

    2017-12-01

    Scientific results are increasingly the product of software. The reproducibility and validity of published results cannot be ensured without access to the source code of the software used to produce them. Therefore, the code itself is a fundamental part of the methodology and must be published along with the results. With such a reliance on software, it is troubling that most scientists do not receive formal training in software development. Tools such as version control, continuous integration, and automated testing are routinely used in industry to ensure the correctness and robustness of software. However, many scientist do not even know of their existence (although efforts like Software Carpentry are having an impact on this issue; software-carpentry.org). Publishing the source code is only the first step in creating an open-source project. For a project to grow it must provide documentation, participation guidelines, and a welcoming environment for new contributors. Expanding the project community is often more challenging than the technical aspects of software development. Maintainers must invest time to enforce the rules of the project and to onboard new members, which can be difficult to justify in the context of the "publish or perish" mentality. This problem will continue as long as software contributions are not recognized as valid scholarship by hiring and tenure committees. Furthermore, there are still unsolved problems in providing attribution for software contributions. Many journals and metrics of academic productivity do not recognize citations to sources other than traditional publications. Thus, some authors choose to publish an article about the software and use it as a citation marker. One issue with this approach is that updating the reference to include new contributors involves writing and publishing a new article. A better approach would be to cite a permanent archive of individual versions of the source code in services such as Zenodo

  10. Nature vs Nurture: Effects of Learning on Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagrani, Nagina

    In the field of Evolutionary Robotics, the design, development and application of artificial neural networks as controllers have derived their inspiration from biology. Biologists and artificial intelligence researchers are trying to understand the effects of neural network learning during the lifetime of the individuals on evolution of these individuals by qualitative and quantitative analyses. The conclusion of these analyses can help develop optimized artificial neural networks to perform any given task. The purpose of this thesis is to study the effects of learning on evolution. This has been done by applying Temporal Difference Reinforcement Learning methods to the evolution of Artificial Neural Tissue controller. The controller has been assigned the task to collect resources in a designated area in a simulated environment. The performance of the individuals is measured by the amount of resources collected. A comparison has been made between the results obtained by incorporating learning in evolution and evolution alone. The effects of learning parameters: learning rate, training period, discount rate, and policy on evolution have also been studied. It was observed that learning delays the performance of the evolving individuals over the generations. However, the non zero learning rate throughout the evolution process signifies natural selection preferring individuals possessing plasticity.

  11. Nurturing talents and creativity in youth: Challenge to contemporary world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Bosiljka

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviews approaches to the development of talents and creativity using surveys communicated in the 1975-2005 period at world, European and regional scientific conferences on gifted children and youth. Methods of studying and treating the gifted over the past three decades were analyzed on the basis of data available in records, proceedings of papers and other publications of the mentioned conferences as well as of personal findings of the present paper’s authors who participated in some of those conferences. In addition to identifying the subjects that captured attention of researchers and practitioners in a certain period of time, an attempt was made to describe trends in studying them and those likely ones for future work. The results indicate that the most frequent subjects under study were problems facing conception and definition of giftedness, talents and creativity, instruments for identifying gifted individuals, and manners of providing adequate education for them. Over time there was an increase in the number of studies related to identifying specific personality traits of a gifted individual and his environment, critical for his development and achievement. It is noticeable that interest in gifted children and youth is growing all the time, involving not only researchers and teachers but parents, the gifted themselves and other important social groups and institutions. It is concluded that encouraging talents and creativity in youth is a challenge to contemporary world, which will determine its future.

  12. Historical declines in tuberculosis: nature, nurture and the biosocial model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grange, J M; Gandy, M; Farmer, P; Zumla, A

    2001-03-01

    The large declines in the incidence of tuberculosis over time in the industrially developed nations have usually been attributed to natural selection or to socio-economic improvements. Both explanations are beset with problems, as there is little firm evidence for the occurrence of natural selection of resistance to tuberculosis to any significant extent, and doubts have been expressed as to whether the incidence of a disease can be directly related to measures of socio-economic change without consideration of the impact of the many specific public health measures that have been taken. In addition, analyses of the changing prevalence of tuberculosis must consider the impact of changing environmental and ecological factors that affect, for example, the immunising effect of exposure to Mycobacterium bovis and saprophytic mycobacteria. It is also necessary to determine whether the causative organism is undergoing evolutionary change, as recent reports suggest.

  13. The nature and nurture of human infant hand preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagard, Jacqueline

    2013-06-01

    This paper reviews the earliest documented manual and postural asymmetries, in the fetus and during the first months of life. I attempt to analyze which genetic and/or environmental factors are likely to trigger each one, as well as its consequences for the other ones. I conclude that right-handedness is prevalent in all cultures because an intrinsic tendency toward right-handedness has many occasions to be reinforced, from the uterine to the perinatal environment and from the familial to the cultural environment. Finally, the combination of potential genetic factors-direct (motoric) or indirect (postural)-with varied biological and cultural environmental influences over various periods during development may explain the high variability of handedness in typical populations (as long as hand preference is not equated with the hand used for writing). © 2013 New York Academy of Sciences.

  14. Before They Walk in the Door: Environmental Influences on Musical Ability in Early Childhood and Implications for Nurturing the Nurturers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Vanessa L.

    2011-01-01

    Environmental factors play a role in musical development, particularly in the critical period of early childhood. Children have the capacity to learn in the first days of life, long before entering formal schooling. Music education during this period is consequently the responsibility of parents, caregivers, and early childhood teachers. These…

  15. Interaction patterns of nurturant support exchanged in online health social networking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Katherine Y; Yang, Christopher C

    2012-05-03

    Expressing emotion in online support communities is an important aspect of enabling e-patients to connect with each other and expand their social resources. Indirectly it increases the amount of support for coping with health issues. Exploring the supportive interaction patterns in online health social networking would help us better understand how technology features impacts user behavior in this context. To build on previous research that identified different types of social support in online support communities by delving into patterns of supportive behavior across multiple computer-mediated communication formats. Each format combines different architectural elements, affecting the resulting social spaces. Our research question compared communication across different formats of text-based computer-mediated communication provided on the MedHelp.org health social networking environment. We identified messages with nurturant support (emotional, esteem, and network) across three different computer-mediated communication formats (forums, journals, and notes) of an online support community for alcoholism using content analysis. Our sample consisted of 493 forum messages, 423 journal messages, and 1180 notes. Nurturant support types occurred frequently among messages offering support (forum comments: 276/412 messages, 67.0%; journal posts: 65/88 messages, 74%; journal comments: 275/335 messages, 82.1%; and notes: 1002/1180 messages, 84.92%), but less often among messages requesting support. Of all the nurturing supports, emotional (ie, encouragement) appeared most frequently, with network and esteem support appearing in patterns of varying combinations. Members of the Alcoholism Community appeared to adapt some traditional face-to-face forms of support to their needs in becoming sober, such as provision of encouragement, understanding, and empathy to one another. The computer-mediated communication format may have the greatest influence on the supportive interactions

  16. Nature and Nurturing: Parenting in the Context of Child Temperament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiff, Cara J.; Lengua, Liliana J.; Zalewski, Maureen

    2011-01-01

    Accounting for both bidirectional and interactive effects between parenting and child temperament can fine-tune theoretical models of the role of parenting and temperament in children's development of adjustment problems. Evidence for bidirectional and interactive effects between parenting and children's characteristics of frustration, fear, self-regulation, and impulsivity was reviewed, and an overall model of children's individual differences in response to parenting is proposed. In general, children high in frustration, impulsivity and low in effortful control are more vulnerable to the adverse effects of negative parenting, while in turn, many negative parenting behaviors predict increases in these characteristics. Frustration, fearfulness, and effortful control also appear to elicit parenting behaviors that can predict increases in these characteristics. Irritability renders children more susceptible to negative parenting behaviors. Fearfulness operates in a very complex manner, sometimes increasing children's responses to parenting behaviors and sometimes mitigating them and apparently operating differently across gender. Important directions for future research include the use of study designs and analytic approaches that account for the direction of effects and for developmental changes in parenting and temperament over time. PMID:21461681

  17. From nature versus nurture, via nature and nurture, to gene x environment interaction in mental disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Wermter, Anne-Kathrin; Laucht, Manfred; Schimmelmann, Benno G.; Banaschweski, Tobias; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J. S.; Rietschel, Marcella; Becker, Katja

    2009-01-01

    Abstract It is now generally accepted that complex mental disorders are the results of interplay between genetic and environmental factors. This holds out the prospect that by studying G ? E interplay we can explain individual variation in vulnerability and resilience to environmental hazards in the development of mental disorders. Furthermore studying G ? E findings may give insights in neurobiological mechanisms of psychiatric disorder and so improve individualized treatment and ...

  18. Origin of the cosmic network in ΛCDM: Nature vs nurture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shandarin, Sergei; Habib, Salman; Heitmann, Katrin

    2010-05-01

    The large-scale structure of the Universe, as traced by the distribution of galaxies, is now being revealed by large-volume cosmological surveys. The structure is characterized by galaxies distributed along filaments, the filaments connecting in turn to form a percolating network. Our objective here is to quantitatively specify the underlying mechanisms that drive the formation of the cosmic network: By combining percolation-based analyses with N-body simulations of gravitational structure formation, we elucidate how the network has its origin in the properties of the initial density field (nature) and how its contrast is then amplified by the nonlinear mapping induced by the gravitational instability (nurture).

  19. An American and Dutch partnership for psychiatric mental health advance nursing practice: nurturing a relationship across the ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maas, Lillian; Ezeobele, I Ezebuiro; Tetteroo, Marieke

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss the challenges and rewards of developing and nurturing an international clinical psychiatric mental health advanced nursing practice exchange between the Netherlands and the United States. Since 1997, Rotterdam University of Applied Sciences in the Netherlands has been participating in international clinical experiences for their psychiatric mental health (PMH) advanced practice nursing students. The international experience is mandatory prior to graduation and is the first of its kind in Europe to mandate such a unique experience. This study sample included eight Dutch PMH advanced practice nursing students enrolled in a full-time master's in advanced nursing practice program. The descriptive study included reflective reports and one-on-one discussions over a 3-year period. With proper planning, an international nursing experience provides a unique opportunity for nurses to think beyond their own culture and healthcare system. Solving problems together through different perspectives creates opportunities for creative solutions. International partnerships within PMH advanced practice nursing promotes sharing of knowledge and solutions as patients and diseases have no border. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Interventions to nurture excellence in the nursing home culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutschman, M

    2001-08-01

    There is no one formula for culcure change. A joint steering committee of staff members can develop plans that will build trust, address each other as equals, and drive out fear as they move the process of change. Training and sharing information help staff recognize this is a process, not an event. New well-screened team members need training to integrate them into the culture. It is important to identify the knowledge and expertise of team members to maximize their energies and talents. Recruitment and retention of those who share the values of this culture are of paramount importance. It is worth the time and effort to secure commitment to these values. One example of this effort is a facility in Pennsylvania that, at its worst, had two thirds of its staff turnover in a year. The national average was 82% in 1995, an increase from 71.5% the year before. They were able to reduce their turnover rate to 27% by examining the hiring records and finding that workers with certain personality traits and attitudes were less likely to leave. They looked for compassion and communication skills, perceptions of older adults, ability to cope with death and dying, and ability to handle the unpleasant tasks of residene hygiene and bathroom visits. Current staff members determined and voted on best fit of candidates (Montague, 1997). Although training and evaluation are an important component of retention and commitment to values in any organization, training and evaluation of nursing home employees may be quite different from other employment. A nurse in a nursing home needs to be evaluated not only on clinical skills, but on communication skills, attitude, and leadership (Meyer, 1995). Then training and employee development programs can be targeted to specific areas for corrective action. What is taught in training and what occurs on the job should correspond, or role conflict occurs increasing the likelihood of turnover (Steffen, Nystrom, O'Connor, 1996). Although occasional

  1. Buffering effects of safe, supportive, and nurturing relationships among women with childhood histories of maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffee, S R; Takizawa, R; Arseneault, L

    2017-11-01

    Adults who were victims of childhood maltreatment tend to have poorer health compared with adults who did not experience abuse. However, many are in good health. We tested whether safe, supportive, and nurturing relationships buffer women with a history of childhood maltreatment from poor health outcomes in later life. Participants included women from the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study who were involved in an intimate relationship at some point by the time their twin children were 10 years old. Women were initially interviewed in 1999-2000 (mean age = 33 years) and 2, 5, and 7 years later. They reported on their physical and mental health, and their health-risk behaviours. Compared with women who did not experience abuse in childhood, women with histories of maltreatment were at elevated risk for mental, physical, and health-risk behaviours, including major depressive disorder, sleep, and substance use problems. Cumulatively, safe, supportive, and nurturing relationships characterized by a lack of violence, emotional intimacy, and social support buffered women with a history of maltreatment from poor health outcomes. Our findings emphasize that negative social determinants of health - such as a childhood history of maltreatment - confer risk for psychopathology and other physical health problems. If, however, a woman's current social circumstances are sufficiently positive, they can promote good health, particularly in the face of past adversity.

  2. The threshold hypothesis: solving the equation of nurture vs nature in type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserfall, C; Nead, K; Mathews, C; Atkinson, M A

    2011-09-01

    For more than 40 years, the contributions of nurture (i.e. the environment) and nature (i.e. genetics) have been touted for their aetiological importance in type 1 diabetes. Disappointingly, knowledge gains in these areas, while individually successful, have to a large extent occurred in isolation from each other. One reason underlying this divide is the lack of a testable model that simultaneously considers the contributions of genetic and environmental determinants in the formation of this and potentially other disorders that are subject to these variables. To address this void, we have designed a model based on the hypothesis that the aetiological influences of genetics and environment, when evaluated as intersecting and reciprocal trend lines based on odds ratios, result in a method of concurrently evaluating both facets and defining the attributable risk of clinical onset of type 1 diabetes. The model, which we have elected to term the 'threshold hypothesis', also provides a novel means of conceptualising the complex interactions of nurture with nature in type 1 diabetes across various geographical populations.

  3. Why nature prevails over nurture in the making of the elite athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiades, Evelina; Klissouras, Vassilis; Baulch, Jamie; Wang, Guan; Pitsiladis, Yannis

    2017-11-14

    While the influence of nature (genes) and nurture (environment) on elite sporting performance remains difficult to precisely determine, the dismissal of either as a contributing factor to performance is unwarranted. It is accepted that a complex interaction of a combination of innumerable factors may mold a talented athlete into a champion. The prevailing view today is that understanding elite human performance will require the deciphering of two major sources of individual differences, genes and the environment. It is widely accepted that superior performers are endowed with a high genetic potential actualised through hard and prodigious effort. Heritability studies using the twin model have provided the basis to disentangle genetic and environmental factors that contribute to complex human traits and have paved the way to the detection of specific genes for elite sport performance. Yet, the heritability for most phenotypes essential to elite human performance is above 50% but below 100%, meaning that the environment is also important. Furthermore, individual differences can potentially also be explained not only by the impact of DNA sequence variation on biology and behaviour, but also by the effects of epigenetic changes which affect phenotype by modifying gene expression. Despite this complexity, the overwhelming and accumulating evidence, amounted through experimental research spanning almost two centuries, tips the balance in favour of nature in the "nature" and "nurture" debate. In other words, truly elite-level athletes are built - but only from those born with innate ability.

  4. Nurturing Nonconformists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Margaret

    2000-01-01

    Gifted students, particularly nonathletes or introverts, may suffer feelings of alienation and isolation in school. Geeks and nerds do not hate people, but abhor a school culture that glorifies athletics. Lack of respect for bright nonconformists can lead to emotional problems and underachievement. (MLH)

  5. Facilitating and Nurturing Creativity in Pre-Vocational Dancers: Findings from the UK Centres for Advanced Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Debbie E.; Nordin-Bates, Sanna M.; Chappell, Kerry A.

    2012-01-01

    This is a case study investigation into creativity involving young dancers and faculty members on the UK government-funded pre-vocational contemporary dance training programme. Qualitative research techniques were used to gather and interpret data on how individuals nurtured and viewed creativity at an individual level, as well as how the…

  6. A prospective cohort study of deficient maternal nurturing attitudes predicting adulthood work stress independent of adulthood hostility and depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintsanen, M; Kivimäki, M; Hintsa, T; Theorell, T; Elovainio, M; Raitakari, O T; Viikari, J S A; Keltikangas-Järvinen, L

    2010-09-01

    Stressful childhood environments arising from deficient nurturing attitudes are hypothesized to contribute to later stress vulnerability. We examined whether deficient nurturing attitudes predict adulthood work stress. Participants were 443 women and 380 men from the prospective Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study. Work stress was assessed as job strain and effort-reward imbalance in 2001 when the participants were from 24 to 39 years old. Deficient maternal nurturance (intolerance and low emotional warmth) was assessed based on mothers' reports when the participants were at the age of 3-18 years and again at the age of 6-21 years. Linear regressions showed that deficient emotional warmth in childhood predicted lower adulthood job control and higher job strain. These associations were not explained by age, gender, socioeconomic circumstances, maternal mental problems or participant hostility, and depressive symptoms. Deficient nurturing attitudes in childhood might affect sensitivity to work stress and selection into stressful work conditions in adulthood. More attention should be paid to pre-employment factors in work stress research.

  7. Hollywood and the Entrenched Archetype. Dramatic Clue and 9/11 Political Speech / Hollywood y el arquetipo del atrincherado. Clave dramática y discurso político del 11-S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Antonio Sánchez-Escalonilla García-Rico

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Researchers of American society such as Stearns point out the panic of invasion and the foreign threat as one of the specific indications of the endemic American fear. In the wake of the 9/11 terrorist attacks, this fear has become even more intense before the eyes of the population. This atmosphere of threat has manifested itself in the form of xenophobia and entrenchment in certain sectors of the North American society. Between 2001 and 2008, Hollywood has reflected this social fear as a danger of disintegration in a multi-ethnic society, the result of a melting pot after centuries of history. This work tries to analyse the peculiar character of the entrenched in American fiction cinema after 9/11. The entrenched is a traditional figure in Hollywood landscapes since the times of the early western to the most recent trends in science-fiction, and now has been revitalized as an exponent of the ordinary citizen under risk of mass destruction or lethal invasion.Resumen: Investigadores como Stearns señalan el miedo a la invasión y a la amenaza externa como uno de los síntomas específicos del denominado “miedo endémico norteamericano”. Tras el 11-S, este miedo se intensificó ante los ojos de la población, dentro de una atmósfera de amenaza que ha propiciado los riesgos de xenofobia y atrincheramiento en ciertos sectores de la sociedad norteamericana. Entre 2001 y 2008, el cine de Hollywood ha vinculado este miedo colectivo con el peligro de desintegración en una sociedad multi-étnica, resultado de la mezcla cultural tras siglos de historia. El presente trabajo trata de analizar el personaje peculiar del atrincherado en el cine de ficción norteamericano posterior al 11-S. El arquetipo del atrincherado es una figura tradicional en el panorama de Hollywood, desde los primeros westerns hasta las más recientes tendencias de ciencia-ficción, y actualmente ha cobrado nueva vitalidad como exponente del ciudadano ordinario

  8. WILLIAM MCDOUGALL, AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST: A RECONSIDERATION OF NATURE-NURTURE DEBATES IN THE INTERWAR UNITED STATES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Anne C

    2016-09-01

    The British-born psychologist William McDougall (1871-1938) spent more than half of his academic career in the United States, holding successive positions after 1920 at Harvard and Duke universities. Scholarly studies uniformly characterize McDougall's relationship with his New World colleagues as contentious: in the standard view, McDougall's theory of innate drives clashed with the Americans' experimentation into learned habits. This essay argues instead that rising American curiosity about inborn appetites-an interest rooted in earlier pragmatic philosophy and empirically investigated by interwar scientists-explains McDougall's migration to the United States and his growing success there. A review of McDougall's intellectual and professional ties, evolving outside public controversy, highlights persistent American attention to natural agency and complicates arguments voiced by contemporaries in favor of nurture. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. A Framework for Valuing Investments in a Nurturing Society: Opportunities for Prevention Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, Max; Jones, Damon

    2017-01-01

    Investing in strategies that aim to build a more nurturing society offers tremendous opportunities for the field of prevention science. Yet, scientists struggle to consistently take their research beyond effectiveness evaluations and actually value the impact of preventive strategies. Ultimately, it is clear that convincing policymakers to make meaningful investments in children and youth will require estimates of the fiscal impact of such strategies across public service systems. The framework offered here values such investments. First, we review current public spending on children and families. Then, we describe how to quantify and monetize the impact of preventive interventions. This includes a new measurement strategy for assessing multi-system service utilization and a price list for key service provision from public education, social services, criminal justice, healthcare, and tax systems. PMID:28247294

  10. Theory of Connectivity: Nature and Nurture of Cell Assemblies and Cognitive Computation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng eLi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Richard Semon and Donald Hebb are among the firsts to put forth the notion of cell assembly – a group of coherently or sequentially-activated neurons– to represent percept, memory, or concept. Despite the rekindled interest in this age-old idea, the concept of cell assembly still remains ill-defined and its operational principle is poorly understood. What is the size of a cell assembly? How should a cell assembly be organized? What is the computational logic underlying Hebbian cell assemblies? How might Nature vs Nurture interact at the level of a cell assembly? In contrast to the widely assumed local randomness within the mature but naïve cell assembly, the recent Theory of Connectivity postulates that the brain consists of the developmentally pre-programmed cell assemblies known as the functional connectivity motif (FCM. Principal cells within such FCM is organized by the power-of-two-based mathematical principle that guides the construction of specific-to-general combinatorial connectivity patterns in neuronal circuits, giving rise to a full range of specific features, various relational patterns, and generalized knowledge. This pre-configured canonical computation is predicted to be evolutionarily conserved across many circuits, ranging from these encoding memory engrams and imagination to decision-making and motor control. Although the power-of-two-based wiring and computational logic places a mathematical boundary on an individual’s cognitive capacity, the fullest intellectual potential can be brought about by optimized nature and nurture. This theory may also open up a new avenue to examining how genetic mutations and various drugs might impair or enhance the computational logic of brain circuits.

  11. Theory of Connectivity: Nature and Nurture of Cell Assemblies and Cognitive Computation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meng; Liu, Jun; Tsien, Joe Z

    2016-01-01

    Richard Semon and Donald Hebb are among the firsts to put forth the notion of cell assembly-a group of coherently or sequentially-activated neurons-to represent percept, memory, or concept. Despite the rekindled interest in this century-old idea, the concept of cell assembly still remains ill-defined and its operational principle is poorly understood. What is the size of a cell assembly? How should a cell assembly be organized? What is the computational logic underlying Hebbian cell assemblies? How might Nature vs. Nurture interact at the level of a cell assembly? In contrast to the widely assumed randomness within the mature but naïve cell assembly, the Theory of Connectivity postulates that the brain consists of the developmentally pre-programmed cell assemblies known as the functional connectivity motif (FCM). Principal cells within such FCM is organized by the power-of-two-based mathematical principle that guides the construction of specific-to-general combinatorial connectivity patterns in neuronal circuits, giving rise to a full range of specific features, various relational patterns, and generalized knowledge. This pre-configured canonical computation is predicted to be evolutionarily conserved across many circuits, ranging from these encoding memory engrams and imagination to decision-making and motor control. Although the power-of-two-based wiring and computational logic places a mathematical boundary on an individual's cognitive capacity, the fullest intellectual potential can be brought about by optimized nature and nurture. This theory may also open up a new avenue to examining how genetic mutations and various drugs might impair or improve the computational logic of brain circuits.

  12. Strategies for Developing and Nurturing Students' Abilities and Creativity. Session III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root-Bernstein, Robert; And Others

    1991-01-01

    This panel interview from the Indiana University Summer Arts Institute focuses on motivational techniques for use with talented visual arts students. A debate arises concerning freedom and structure in the learning experience. Physical spaces for study and the education of music and art students together are discussed. (PB)

  13. The Nature and Nurture of Military Genius: Developing Senior Strategic Leaders for the Postmodern Military

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Clausewitz, On War, 100. 32 Clausewitz, On War, 100. 33 Clausewitz, On War, 100. 34 Hans Eysenck , Genius: The Natural History of Creativity (Cambridge...United States." Military Education Commission. London: Eyre and Spottiswode for H.M.S.O., 1970. 198. Eysenck , Hans. Genius: The Natural History of

  14. Revisiting the Utility of Industrial Sociology in National Development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sociology as an academic discipline has been entrenched in many Nigerian universities, however, not much is known about how the discipline has contributed or has been contributing to the national development. Although some scholars have discussed some contributions of sociology in the emerging economy like ...

  15. Enhanced startle reflexivity during presentation of visual nurture cues in young adults who experienced parental divorce in early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hengesch, Xenia; Larra, Mauro F; Finke, Johannes B; Blumenthal, Terry D; Schächinger, Hartmut

    2017-10-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACE) may influence stress and affective processing in adulthood. Animal and human studies show enhanced startle reflexivity in adult participants with ACE. This study examined the impact of one of the most common ACE, parental divorce, on startle reflexivity in adulthood. Affective modulation of acoustically-elicited startle eye blink was assessed in a group of 23 young adults with self-reported history of parental divorce, compared to an age- and sex-matched control group (n=18). Foreground pictures were either aversive (e.g. mutilation and injury), standard appetitive (e.g. erotic, recreational sport), or nurture pictures (e.g. related to early life, parental care), intermixed with neutral pictures (e.g. household objects), and organized in three valence blocks delivered in a balanced, pseudo-randomized sequence. During picture viewing startle eye blinks were elicited by binaural white noise bursts (50ms, 105 dB) via headphones and recorded at the left orbicularis oculi muscle via EMG. A significant interaction of group×picture valence (p=0.01) was observed. Contrast with controls revealed blunted startle responsiveness of the ACE group during presentation of aversive pictures, but enhanced startle during presentation of nurture-related pictures. No group differences were found during presentation of standard appetitive pictures. ACE participants rated nurture pictures as more arousing (p=0.02) than did control participants. Results suggest that divorce in childhood led to altered affective context information processing in early adulthood. When exposed to unpleasant (vs. neutral) pictures participants with ACE showed less startle potentiation than controls. Nurture context, however, potentiated startle in ACE participants, suggesting visual cuing to activate protective behavioral responses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Nature vs. Nurture: Have Performance Gaps Between Men and Women Reached an Asymptote?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millard-Stafford, Mindy; Swanson, Ann E; Wittbrodt, Matthew T

    2018-02-21

    Men outperform women in sports requiring muscular strength and/or endurance, but the relative influence of "nurture" versus "nature" remains difficult to quantify. Performance gaps between elite men and women are well-documented using world records in second, centimeter or kilogram sports. However, this approach is biased by global disparity in reward structures and opportunities for women. Despite policies enhancing female participation (Title IX legislation), USA women only closed performance gaps by 2 and 5% in Olympic Trial swimming and running, respectively, from 1972 to 1980 (with no change thereafter through 2016). Performance gaps of 13% in elite mid-distance running and 8% in swimming (~4 min duration) remain, the 5% differential between sports indicative of load carriage disadvantages of higher female body fatness in running. Conversely, sprint swimming exhibits a greater sex difference than sprint running suggesting anthropometric/power advantages unique to swim block starts. The ~40 y plateau in the performance gap suggests a persistent dominance of biological influences (e.g., longer limb levers, greater muscle mass, aerobic capacity, lower fat mass) on performance. Current evidence suggests women will not swim or run as fast as men in Olympic events, which speaks against eliminating sex segregation in these individual sports. Whether hormone reassignment sufficiently levels the playing field in Olympic sports for transgender females (born and socialized male) remains an issue to be tackled by sport governing bodies.

  17. Genes, environment and sport performance: why the nature-nurture dualism is no longer relevant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davids, Keith; Baker, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    The historical debate on the relative influences of genes (i.e. nature) and environment (i.e. nurture) on human behaviour has been characterised by extreme positions leading to reductionist and polemic conclusions. Our analysis of research on sport and exercise behaviours shows that currently there is little support for either biologically or environmentally deterministic perspectives on elite athletic performance. In sports medicine, recent molecular biological advances in genomic studies have been over-interpreted, leading to a questionable 'single-gene-as-magic-bullet' philosophy adopted by some practitioners. Similarly, although extensive involvement in training and practice is needed at elite levels, it has become apparent that the acquisition of expertise is not merely about amassing a requisite number of practice hours. Although an interactionist perspective has been mooted over the years, a powerful explanatory framework has been lacking. In this article, we propose how the complementary nature of degenerate neurobiological systems might provide the theoretical basis for explaining the interactive influence of genetic and environmental constraints on elite athletic performance. We argue that, due to inherent human degeneracy, there are many different trajectories to achieving elite athletic performance. While the greatest training responses may be theoretically associated with the most favourable genotypes being exposed to highly specialised training environments, this is a rare and complex outcome. The concept of degeneracy provides us with a basis for understanding why each of the major interacting constraints might act in a compensatory manner on the acquisition of elite athletic performance.

  18. Nature, Nurture and Evolution of Intra-Species Variation in Mosquito Arbovirus Transmission Competence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter J. Tabachnick

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mosquitoes vary in their competence or ability to transmit arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses. Many arboviruses cause disease in humans and animals. Identifying the environmental and genetic causes of variation in mosquito competence for arboviruses is one of the great challenges in public health. Progress identifying genetic (nature and environmental (nurture factors influencing mosquito competence for arboviruses is reviewed. There is great complexity in the various traits that comprise mosquito competence. The complex interactions between environmental and genetic factors controlling these traits and the factors shaping variation in Nature are largely unknown. The norms of reaction of specific genes influencing competence, their distributions in natural populations and the effects of genetic polymorphism on phenotypic variation need to be determined. Mechanisms influencing competence are not likely due to natural selection because of the direct effects of the arbovirus on mosquito fitness. More likely the traits for mosquito competence for arboviruses are the effects of adaptations for other functions of these competence mechanisms. Determining these other functions is essential to understand the evolution and distributions of competence for arboviruses. This information is needed to assess risk from mosquito-borne disease, predict new mosquito-arbovirus systems, and provide novel strategies to mitigate mosquito-borne arbovirus transmission.

  19. The AMIGA sample of isolated galaxies. XIII. The HI content of an almost "nurture free" sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, M. G.; Espada, D.; Verdes-Montenegro, L.; Huchtmeier, W. K.; Lisenfeld, U.; Leon, S.; Sulentic, J.; Sabater, J.; Jones, D. E.; Sanchez, S.; Garrido, J.

    2018-01-01

    Context. We present the largest catalogue of HI single dish observations of isolated galaxies to date, as part of the multi-wavelength compilation being performed by the AMIGA project (Analysis of the interstellar Medium in Isolated GAlaxies). Despite numerous studies of the HI content of galaxies, no revision focused on the HI scaling relations of the most isolated L∗ galaxies has been made since Haynes & Giovanelli (1984, AJ, 89, 758). Aims: The AMIGA sample has been demonstrated to be almost "nurture free", therefore, by creating scaling relations for the HI content of these galaxies we will define a metric of HI normalcy in the absence of interactions. Methods: The catalogue comprises of our own HI observations with Arecibo, Effelsberg, Nançay and GBT, and spectra collected from the literature. In total we have measurements or constraints on the HI masses of 844 galaxies from the Catalogue of Isolated Galaxies (CIG). The multi-wavelength AMIGA dataset includes a revision of the B-band luminosities (LB), optical diameters (D25), morphologies, and isolation. Due to the large size of the catalogue, these revisions permit cuts to be made to ensure isolation and a high level of completeness, which was not previously possible. With this refined dataset we fit HI scaling relations based on luminosity, optical diameter and morphology. Our regression model incorporates all the data, including upper limits, and accounts for uncertainties in both variables, as well as distance uncertainties. Results: The scaling relation of HI mass with D25 is in good agreement with that of Haynes & Giovanelli (1984), but our relation with LB is considerably steeper. This disagreement is attributed to the large uncertainties in the luminosities, which introduce a bias when fitting with ordinary least squares regression (as was done in previous works), and the different morphology distributions of the samples. We find that the main effect of morphology on the D25-relation is to increase

  20. Nurturing professional identity through a community based education program: medical students experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anisa Ahmad, MSc

    2018-04-01

    لوعي المجتمعي ذو الصلة الثقافية والاجتماعية والسياسية. وكانت النتائج الإيجابية لبرنامج دراسة حالة المجتمع والأسرة هي رعاية مهارات البحث، المتعلقة باستخدام علم الأوبئة وطرق البحث. الاستنتاجات: تشير النتائج إلى أن برنامج دراسة حالة المجتمع والأسرة عزز تطوير الهوية المهنية بين طلاب الطب. البيانات الحالية سلطت الضوء وقدمت أفكارا على أهمية دمج التعليم القائم على المجتمع في منهج الطب لإعداد أطباء المستقبل. Abstract: Objectives: Community-based education (CBE has an impact on the types of medical students produced at the end of medical training. However, its impact on professional identity development (PID has not been clearly understood. This study thus explores the effect of the CBE program on PID. Methods: A qualitative phenomenological study was conducted on a group of Universiti Sains Malaysia medical students who had finished the Community and Family Case Study (CFCS program. Data were gathered through focused group discussions and student reflective journals. Participants were sampled using the maximal variation technique of purposive sampling. Three steps of thematic analysis using the Atlasti software were employed to identify categories, subthemes, and themes. Results: Personal, role, social, and research identities were generated that contribute to the PID of medical students through the CFCS program. The results indicate that the CFCS program nurtured personal identity through the development of professional skills, soft skills, and personal values. Pertaining to role identity, this is related to patient care in terms of primary care and interprofessional awareness. Pertaining to social identity, the obvious feature was community

  1. Translation and equivalence assessment for a Japanese version of the modified Parental Nurturance Scale: a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Griffiths Peter

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper reports on the modification of the Parental Nurturance Scale (PNS, translation of the modified version (PNSM from English to Japanese, and equivalence assessment between the PNSM and the translated version (PNSM-J. The PNS was modified so as to enable its use in nurturance studies where the prime source of nurturance might vary between respondents. Method It was translated into Japanese through the forward-backward translation procedure. With attempting to enhance representativeness of language in the target populations, translators used were married couples that consisted of a native English speaker and a native Japanese speaker. Multiple translations were produced and used to make a single Japanese version. A panel of reviewers identified problems in conceptual and semantic equivalence between the original and the translated versions. The Japanese version was altered accordingly with reference to alternate Japanese forms from the original English to Japanese translations. The altered translation was again re-translated into English and problematic differences were checked. This forward-backward process was repeated until satisfactory agreement was attained. The PNSM was administered to 222 native English speakers and the PNSM-J to 1320 native Japanese speakers. Results Factor analysis and target rotation revealed a nearly identical factor structure and factor loadings of the items of the PNSM and PNSM-J between the different cultural groups. High Cronbach's alpha coefficient supported the reliability of the test scores on both versions. Conclusion The equivalence between the two scales was supported. It is suggested that the PNSM and PNSM-J are suitable tools for comparative cross-cultural studies.

  2. Examining a conceptual model of parental nurturance, parenting practices and physical activity among 5-6 year olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebire, Simon J; Jago, Russell; Wood, Lesley; Thompson, Janice L; Zahra, Jezmond; Lawlor, Deborah A

    2016-01-01

    Parenting is an often-studied correlate of children's physical activity, however there is little research examining the associations between parenting styles, practices and the physical activity of younger children. This study aimed to investigate whether physical activity-based parenting practices mediate the association between parenting styles and 5-6 year-old children's objectively-assessed physical activity. 770 parents self-reported parenting style (nurturance and control) and physical activity-based parenting practices (logistic and modeling support). Their 5-6 year old child wore an accelerometer for five days to measure moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Linear regression was used to examine direct and indirect (mediation) associations. Data were collected in the United Kingdom in 2012/13 and analyzed in 2014. Parent nurturance was positively associated with provision of modeling (adjusted unstandardized coefficient, β = 0.11; 95% CI = 0.02, 0.21) and logistic support (β = 0.14; 0.07, 0.21). Modeling support was associated with greater child MVPA (β = 2.41; 0.23, 4.60) and a small indirect path from parent nurturance to child's MVPA was identified (β = 0.27; 0.04, 0.70). Physical activity-based parenting practices are more strongly associated with 5-6 year old children's MVPA than parenting styles. Further research examining conceptual models of parenting is needed to understand in more depth the possible antecedents to adaptive parenting practices beyond parenting styles. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Examining a conceptual model of parental nurturance, parenting practices and physical activity among 5–6 year olds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebire, Simon J.; Jago, Russell; Wood, Lesley; Thompson, Janice L.; Zahra, Jezmond; Lawlor, Deborah A.

    2016-01-01

    Rationale Parenting is an often-studied correlate of children's physical activity, however there is little research examining the associations between parenting styles, practices and the physical activity of younger children. Objective This study aimed to investigate whether physical activity-based parenting practices mediate the association between parenting styles and 5–6 year-old children's objectively-assessed physical activity. Methods 770 parents self-reported parenting style (nurturance and control) and physical activity-based parenting practices (logistic and modeling support). Their 5–6 year old child wore an accelerometer for five days to measure moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Linear regression was used to examine direct and indirect (mediation) associations. Data were collected in the United Kingdom in 2012/13 and analyzed in 2014. Results Parent nurturance was positively associated with provision of modeling (adjusted unstandardized coefficient, β = 0.11; 95% CI = 0.02, 0.21) and logistic support (β = 0.14; 0.07, 0.21). Modeling support was associated with greater child MVPA (β = 2.41; 0.23, 4.60) and a small indirect path from parent nurturance to child's MVPA was identified (β = 0.27; 0.04, 0.70). Conclusions Physical activity-based parenting practices are more strongly associated with 5–6 year old children's MVPA than parenting styles. Further research examining conceptual models of parenting is needed to understand in more depth the possible antecedents to adaptive parenting practices beyond parenting styles. PMID:26647364

  4. Reshaping Academic Capitalism to Meet Development Priorities: The Case of Public Universities in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ane Turner; Hirt, Joan B.

    2011-01-01

    As colleges and universities have adopted a corporate model in recent decades, debate over the public versus private good associated with higher education has surged. The deliberations have typically been entrenched in Western notions about academia's contributions to development and scholars have framed academic capitalism dichotomously; a force…

  5. What have we learned from a 10-year experience with the LUMINA (Lupus in Minorities; Nature vs. nurture) cohort? Where are we heading?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uribe, América G; McGwin, Gerald; Reveille, John D; Alarcón, Graciela S

    2004-06-01

    Recently, there has been an awareness of the variable phenotypic expression of numerous disorders between individuals from different ethnicities, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) one of them. These disparities probably arise from the interaction between genetic and non-genetic (environmental, socioeconomic-demographic, cultural and behavioral) factors. To delineate the influence of these factors on SLE outcome, we established a multiethnic (Hispanic, African American and Caucasian) United States (US) early cohort (Nature vs. nurture) cohort. For example, African Americans and Hispanics from Texas have a more severe disease than Caucasians and Hispanics from Puerto Rico. Lack of private insurance, acute SLE onset, expression of HLA-DRB1*01 (DR1) and C4A*3 alleles were associated with higher disease activity, whereas age, the number of American College of Rheumatology criteria met, disease activity, corticosteroid use and abnormal illness behaviors were consistent predictors of damage. In turn, damage and poverty were found to predict mortality. We now plan to apply new approaches (genetic admixture) to deconfound the complex interaction between genetic and non-genetic factors influencing SLE outcome. These data may have impact on the development of policies aimed at eliminating health disparities in the US.

  6. Nurturing the Continuum of HIV Testing, Treatment and Prevention Matrix Cascade in Reducing HIV Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yah, Clarence S

    2017-11-01

    Despite the shift in antiretroviral therapy (ARVs) eligibility cascade from CD4 ≤ 200 to CD4 ≤ 350 to CD4 ≤ 500 mm 3 , HIV related morbidity and mortality continue to escalate annually, as do HIV infections. The new paradigm of treatment for all HIV positives individual irrespective of CD4 count may significantly reduce HIV and related illnesses. The author assumes that all HIV infected partners should be eligible for HIV treatment and care, irrespective of CD4 count. A second assumption is that high risk HIV negative partners have free access to continuum of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), post exposure prophylaxis (PEP) and other prevention packages. A literature review search was used to extract evidence-based ARVs-HIV treatment and prevention interventions among HIV positives and high risk partners respectively. Only articles published in English and indexed in journal nuclei were used for the study. The information was used to nurture understanding of HIV treatment and prevention approaches as well as HIV incidence multiplier effect among HIV serodiscordant partners. The imputed HIV incident reference was assumed at 1.2 per 100 person-years (2). This was based on the imputation that retention in care, adherence and other predetermined factors are functions of an effective health care delivery system. The model showed a reduced HIV transmission from 1.2 per 100 person-years to 1.032 per 100 person-years in 6 months. The average threshold period of HIV suppressed partners on ARVs to an undetectable level. The combined multiplier protective-effect probability of transmitting HIV from HIV positive partners on ARVs-suppressed viremic load to HIV negative partners on PrEP/PEP-prevention was detected at 86. The model showed a significant reduction in HIV incidence. Placing serodiscordant sexual partners in HIV treatment and prevention plays a significant role in reducing and controlling HIV infection. Therefore, the policy of enrolling all HIV positives

  7. Ukaipō niho: the place of nurturing for oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broughton, J R; Person, M; Maipi, J Te H; Cooper-Te, Koi R; Smith-Wilkinson, A; Tiakiwai, S; Kilgour, J; Berryman, K; Morgaine, K C; Jamieson, L M; Lawrence, H P; Thomson, W M

    2014-03-01

    To report on oral-health-related characteristics, beliefs, and behaviours among participants in a randomised control trial of an intervention to prevent early childhood caries (ECC) among Māori children, and to determine whether there were any systematic differences between the intervention and control groups at baseline. Baseline measurements from a randomised control trial (involving 222 pregnant Māori women allocated randomly to either Intervention or Delayed groups) which is currently underway. The rohe (tribal area) of Waikato-Tainui. Self-report information collected on sociodemographic characteristics, pregnancy details, self-reported general and oral health and health-related behaviours, and oral health beliefs. Other than those in the Delayed group being slightly older, on average, there were no significant differences between the two groups. Some 37.0% were expecting their first child. Most reported good health; 43.6% were current smokers, and 26.4% had never smoked. Only 8.2% were current users of alcohol. Almost all were dentate, and 57.7% described their oral health as fair or poor. One in six had had toothache in the previous year; 33.8% reported being uncomfortable about the appearance of their teeth, and 27.7% reported difficulty in eating. Dental service-use was relatively low and symptom-related; 78.9% needed to see a dentist. Overall, most of the sample believed that it was important to avoid sweet foods, visit dentists and to brush the teeth, while about half thought that using fluoride toothpaste and using floss were important. Some 38.2% felt that drinking fluoridated water was important. Oral-health-related fatalism was apparent, with 74.2% believing that most people usually get dental problems, 58.6% believing that most people will need extractions at some stage, and that most children eventually get dental caries. Mothers' important role in nurturing the well-being of the young child includes the protection and maintenance of the growing

  8. Laser stimulated third harmonic generation studies in ZnO-Ta2O5-B2O3 glass ceramics entrenched with Zn3Ta2O8 crystal phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siva Sesha Reddy, A.; Jedryka, J.; Ozga, K.; Ravi Kumar, V.; Purnachand, N.; Kityk, I. V.; Veeraiah, N.

    2018-02-01

    In this study zinc borate glasses doped with different concentrations Ta2O5 were synthesized and were crystallized by heat treatment for prolonged times. The samples were characterized by XRD, SEM, IR and Raman spectroscopy techniques. The SEM images of the crystallized samples have indicated that the samples contain randomly distributed crystal grains with size ∼1 μm entrenched in the residual amorphous phase. XRD studies have exhibited diffraction peaks identified as being due to the reflections from (1 1 1) planes of monoclinic Zn3Ta2O8 crystal phase that contains intertwined tetrahedral zinc and octahedral tantalate structural units. The concentration of such crystal phases in the bulk samples is observed to increase with increase of Ta2O5 up to 3.0 mol%. The IR and Raman spectroscopy studies have confirmed the presence of ZnO4 and TaO6 structural units in the glass network in addition to the conventional borate structural units. For measuring third harmonic generation (THG) in the samples, the samples were irradiated with 532 nm laser beam and the intensity of THG of probing beam (Nd:YAG λ = 1064 nm 20 ns pulsed laser (ω)) is measured as a function of fundamental beam power varying up to 200 J/m2. The intensity of THG is found to be increasing with increase of fundamental beam power and found to be the maximal for the glass crystallized with 3.0 mol% of Ta2O5. The intensity of THG of the ceramicized samples is found to be nearly 5 times higher with respect to that of pre-crystallized samples. The generation of 3ω is attributed to the perturbation/interaction between Zn3Ta2O8 anisotropic crystal grains and the incident probing beam.

  9. Teacher Character Strengths and Talent Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majid, Rosadah Abd; Ali, Manisah Mohd; Alias, Aliza

    2014-01-01

    Students are the nation's asset or natural resources who need to be educated to achieve their optimal level of development. They need to be properly nurtured to allow holistic development in all domains namely: physical, mental, social, emotional, and spiritual. This is crucial for the building of a strong and respectful nation and its…

  10. Improving Doctoral Support through Group Supervision: Analysing Face-to-Face and Technology-Mediated Strategies for Nurturing and Sustaining Scholarship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchings, Maggie

    2017-01-01

    The challenges of the doctoral journey can create social and academic isolation. Student support is normally facilitated through the supervisory team and research training programmes. There is little empirical evidence on the role group supervision and peer learning can play in nurturing and sustaining doctoral scholarship. This article explores…

  11. A Technology-Enriched Active Learning Space for a New Gateway Education Programme in Hong Kong: A Platform for Nurturing Student Innovations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Pit Ho Patrio

    2016-01-01

    A Gateway Education Programme is established in Hong Kong that aims to broaden students' interdisciplinary knowledge and nurture student innovations under the Discovery-enriched Curriculum. To support the initiative, a novel idea was proposed for the creation of a Gateway Education Laboratory (GE Lab) with a highly configurable layout equipped…

  12. Reinforcement and punishment of substance abuse during ongoing interactions: a conversational test of inconsistent nurturing as control theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggan, Ashley P; Dailey, Rene M; Le Poire, Beth A

    2008-01-01

    This study is the first to examine inconsistent nurturing as control (INC) theory during ongoing interpersonal influence episodes between substance-abusive individuals and their romantic partners. This study sought to determine how nonverbal (i.e., kinesic and vocalic) and verbal reinforcement and punishment of substance-abusive behavior during actual interactions influenced substance-abusive individuals' recidivism and perceptions of non-using partners' persuasive effectiveness. The findings reveal that consistent verbal punishment of substance abuse (e.g., threats, nagging) predicted lower relapse, while verbal reinforcement (e.g., telling the partner they are more fun when they use) predicted higher relapse. With regard to nonverbal communication, vocalic punishment and vocalic reinforcement predicted relapse and persuasive effectiveness. Results suggest the combination of behaviors resemble intermittent reinforcement and punishment and should actually strengthen the substance-abusive behavior the partner is trying to curtail.

  13. 'Nurture the sprouting bud; do not uproot it'. Using saving groups to save for maternal and newborn health: lessons from rural Eastern Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekirapa-Kiracho, Elizabeth; Paina, Ligia; Muhumuza Kananura, Rornald; Mutebi, Aloysius; Jane, Pacuto; Tumuhairwe, Juliet; Tetui, Moses; Kiwanuka, Suzanne N

    2017-08-01

    Saving groups are increasingly being used to save in many developing countries. However, there is limited literature about how they can be exploited to improve maternal and newborn health. This paper describes saving practices, factors that encourage and constrain saving with saving groups, and lessons learnt while supporting communities to save through saving groups. This qualitative study was done in three districts in Eastern Uganda. Saving groups were identified and provided with support to enhance members' access to maternal and newborn health. Fifteen focus group discussions (FGDs) and 18 key informant interviews (KIIs) were conducted to elicit members' views about saving practices. Document review was undertaken to identify key lessons for supporting saving groups. Qualitative data are presented thematically. Awareness of the importance of saving, safe custody of money saved, flexible saving arrangements and easy access to loans for personal needs including transport during obstetric emergencies increased willingness to save with saving groups. Saving groups therefore provided a safety net for the poor during emergencies. Poor management of saving groups and detrimental economic practices like gambling constrained saving. Efficient running of saving groups requires that they have a clear management structure, which is legally registered with relevant authorities and that it is governed by a constitution. Saving groups were considered a useful form of saving that enabled easy acess to cash for birth preparedness and transportation during emergencies. They are like 'a sprouting bud that needs to be nurtured rather than uprooted', as they appear to have the potential to act as a safety net for poor communities that have no health insurance. Local governments should therefore strengthen the management capacity of saving groups so as to ensure their efficient running through partnerships with non-governmental organizations that can provide support to such groups.

  14. A Framework for Residence Hall Community Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Alan H.; Daugherty, Michael S.

    This paper addresses the issue of improving student retention and quality of life on campus through the application of principles expressed by Sabre (1980) involving community development. Sabre's ethical principle of nurturing the capacity for mutual persuasion is discussed as a central vision and purpose for organizing and guiding community…

  15. Spiritual Intelligence: Developing Higher Consciousness Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisk, Dorothy A.

    2016-01-01

    This article will share the intellectual journey E. Paul Torrance and I traveled in 2001, in which we explored psychology, science and ancient wisdom and traditions, including Native American and indigenous traditions, to establish a foundation for spiritual intelligence. This section will be followed by ways to develop and nurture spiritual…

  16. Cohort profile for the Nurture Observational Study examining associations of multiple caregivers on infant growth in the Southeastern USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin Neelon, Sara E; Østbye, Truls; Bennett, Gary G; Kravitz, Richard M; Clancy, Shayna M; Stroo, Marissa; Iversen, Edwin; Hoyo, Cathrine

    2017-02-08

    Childcare has been associated with obesity in children in cross-sectional and longitudinal studies, although some observed no association. Few studies have focused on care during infancy, a period when children may be especially vulnerable. The Nurture Study is an observational birth cohort designed to assess longitudinal associations of childcare and the presence of multiple caregivers on infant adiposity and weight trajectories throughout the first year of life. We examine as potential mediators feeding, physical activity, sleep and stress. We completed recruitment in 2015. Of the 860 women who enrolled during pregnancy, 799 delivered a single live infant who met our inclusion criteria. Of those, 666 mothers (77.4%) agreed to participate in the study for themselves and their infants. Among the 666 women in the study, 472 (71%) identified as black, 127 (19%) as white, 7 (1%) as Asian or Asian American, 6 (1%) as Native American and 49 (7%) as other race or more than one race; 43 (7%) identified as Hispanic/Latina. Just under half (48%) had a high school diploma or less, 61% had household incomes childcare in infancy and subsequent obesity. Findings will also inform intervention and policy efforts to improve childcare environments and help prevent obesity in settings where many infants spend time. Clinicaltrials.gov, NCT01788644. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  17. Family context, victimization, and child trauma symptoms: variations in safe, stable, and nurturing relationships during early and middle childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Heather A; Finkelhor, David; Ormrod, Richard; Hamby, Sherry; Leeb, Rebecca T; Mercy, James A; Holt, Melissa

    2012-04-01

    Based on a nationally representative sample of 2,017 children age 2-9 years, this study examines variations in "safe, stable, and nurturing" relationships (SSNRs), including several forms of family perpetrated victimization, and documents associations between these factors and child trauma symptoms. Findings show that many children were exposed to multiple forms of victimization within the family (such as physical or sexual abuse, emotional maltreatment, child neglect, sibling victimization, and witnessing family violence), as evidenced by substantial intercorrelations among the different forms of victimization. Moreover, victimization exposure was significantly associated with several indices of parental dysfunction, family adversity, residential instability, and problematic parenting practices. Of all SSNR variables considered, emotional abuse and inconsistent or hostile parenting emerged as having the most powerful independent effects on child trauma symptoms. Also, findings supported a cumulative risk model, whereby trauma symptom levels increased with each additional SSNR risk factor to which children were exposed. Implications for research and practice are discussed. © 2012 American Orthopsychiatric Association.

  18. Reality-Based Learning: How to Nurture Reality Stars from Classroom to Workforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cojanu, Kevin; Gibson, Cedrick; Pettine, Susan

    2010-01-01

    In the classroom, the focus is on theory rather than reality on how to be effective in the business world. The lack of developing business savvy in the classroom leaves our next generation of leaders without practical abilities to be successful leaders in the global marketplace. The subject Business Writing course of this paper was developed to…

  19. A Jeffersonian Vision of Nurturing Talent and Creativity: Toward a More Equitable and Productive Gifted Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, David Yun

    2015-01-01

    This article attempts to address the question of how to make gifted education more equitable and productive by shifting priorities to talent development for all rather than confining itself to the "gifted." I first present an overview of political and ethical considerations in selecting a few for talent or creativity development. I then…

  20. Nurturing the Aesthetic: Learning to Care for the Environment in a Waldorf School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grella, Melissa A.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to explore the aesthetic foundation of the Waldorf pedagogy in order to understand how art and aesthetic experiences may develop care toward the environment. A form of humanistic education developed by Rudolf Steiner in the early twentieth century, Waldorf education is a learning model envisioned as a framework for…

  1. [Nature meets nurture: the importance of epigenetics for the aetiology of psychiatric diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchholz, V; Kotsiari, A; Bleich, S; Frieling, H

    2013-07-01

    A successful therapy requires an understanding and investigation of the aetiology of a disease. Psychiatric diseases represent a special challenge, because environmental factors may play a crucial role in their development as well as possible physiological and genetic causes. Therefore, epigenetics has established itself to be a branch of research that studies the effect of environmental factors on the development of psychiatric diseases, leading to promising new approaches for diagnosis and therapy. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Creating Classroom Environments That Nurture Independence for Children Who Are Deafblind. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Charity; Schweigert, Philip

    This final report describes activities and accomplishments of a 4-year federally supported project to develop independence in 12 young children (ages 3-5) with deaf-blindness enrolled in the Portland (Oregon) Public Schools Early Intervention Program. The project focused on helping teachers learn to target communicative and cognitive learning…

  3. Nurture over nature : How do European universities support their collaboration with business?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galán-Muros, Victoria; van der Sijde, Peter; Groenewegen, P.; Baaken, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) have been placed at the core of regional innovation ecosystems and encouraged to contribute to the social and economic development of the communities where they operate. In response to this change in the environment, HEIs have faced the need to adapt their

  4. My-Mini-Pet: A Handheld Pet-Nurturing Game to Engage Students in Arithmetic Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, C. C. Y.; Chen, Z-H.; Cheng, H. N. H.; Chen, F-C.; Chan, T-W.

    2011-01-01

    In the last decade, more and more games have been developed for handheld devices. Furthermore, the popularity of handheld devices and increase of wireless computing can be taken advantage of to provide students with more learning opportunities. Games also could bring promising benefits--specifically, motivating students to learn/play, sustaining…

  5. Creating and Nurturing a Community of Practice for Language Teachers in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKinnon, Teresa

    2013-01-01

    This case study investigates the implementation of a virtual learning environment designed for language teachers for an institution-wide language programme in a UK higher education institution. This development has taken place over a 3 year period and included a pilot virtual learning environment for 300, followed by a full implementation to more…

  6. Chrysalis: Nurturing Creative and Independent Thought in Children. Grades 4-12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKisson, Micki

    The intent of this book is to provide the framework for educational experiences designed to develop creativity, self-reliance, and a sense of independence in the students' approach to learning. It is comprised of eight units on a variety of themes. Each unit stresses the use of thinking processes, such as creativity and problem solving. Emphasis…

  7. Viewpoint When Nature Needs Nurture: The role of women in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To the disinterested observer, the distinctive links between the environment, and women's experience of it, are not immediately obvious. Particularly in developing countries, however, this interface is both intimate and immediate. After a brief survey of the importance of reproductive rights for containing population growth, ...

  8. Learning Study: Nurturing the Instructional Design and Teaching Competency of Pre-Service Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Eric C. K.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an evaluation study of an innovative and theory-based initial teacher education course entitled Learning Study, the aim of which is to develop the instructional design and teaching competency of pre-service teachers in Hong Kong. The Learning Study course is offered to all second year students as part of the Bachelor of…

  9. Nature nurtures the design of new semi-synthetic macrolide antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Prabhavathi; Martens, Evan; Pereira, David

    2017-05-01

    Erythromycin and its analogs are used to treat respiratory tract and other infections. The broad use of these antibiotics during the last 5 decades has led to resistance that can range from 20% to over 70% in certain parts of the world. Efforts to find macrolides that were active against macrolide-resistant strains led to the development of erythromycin analogs with alkyl-aryl side chains that mimicked the sugar side chain of 16-membered macrolides, such as tylosin. Further modifications were made to improve the potency of these molecules by removal of the cladinose sugar to obtain a smaller molecule, a modification that was learned from an older macrolide, pikromycin. A keto group was introduced after removal of the cladinose sugar to make the new ketolide subclass. Only one ketolide, telithromycin, received marketing authorization but because of severe adverse events, it is no longer widely used. Failure to identify the structure-relationship responsible for this clinical toxicity led to discontinuation of many ketolides that were in development. One that did complete clinical development, cethromycin, did not meet clinical efficacy criteria and therefore did not receive marketing approval. Work on developing new macrolides was re-initiated after showing that inhibition of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors by the imidazolyl-pyridine moiety on the side chain of telithromycin was likely responsible for the severe adverse events. Solithromycin is a fourth-generation macrolide that has a fluorine at the 2-position, and an alkyl-aryl side chain that is different from telithromycin. Solithromycin interacts at three sites on the bacterial ribosome, has activity against strains resistant to older macrolides (including telithromycin), and is mostly bactericidal. Pharmaceutical scientists involved in the development of macrolide antibiotics have learned from the teachings of Professor Satoshi Omura and progress in this field was not possible without his endeavors.

  10. To be present, share and nurture: a lifeworld phenomenological study of relatives' participation in the suicidal person's recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellin, Linda; Asp, Margareta; Kumlin, Tomas; Wallsten, Tuula; Wiklund Gustin, Lena

    2017-12-01

    In today's health care, participation is acknowledged as important. However, there is limited research on how relatives of patients at risk of suicide experience their opportunities to participate in care during periods when their close ones are subject to inpatient care. The aim of this study was to describe the phenomenon of participation, as experienced by relatives of persons who are subject to inpatient psychiatric care due to a risk of suicide. The study was conducted through a reflective lifeworld research (RLR) approach, based on phenomenological philosophy. Eight relatives of patients receiving care from professionals in a psychiatric specialist health care context in Sweden participated in phenomenon-oriented interviews. Data were analysed to elucidate a meaning structure of the phenomenon. The findings show that the phenomenon of participation was more associated with patients' recovery processes than with the caring process, and means "being actively involved in a process in which the person regains the desire to live". The meaning of participation is further described by its meaning constituents: struggling for being able to be present for the person at risk of suicide, being able to share everyday life, and nurturing sources for vitality. These insights into the meaning of participation highlight the importance of allowing supportive relatives to be a part of the patient's life, while the person is cared for in an inpatient hospital setting. Thus, participation enables relatives to be acknowledged as resourceful human beings in the patient's recovery process, and thereby facilitates a sense of being able to manage and share life itself together with the person. This means that mental health nurses need to recognize individual variations of relatives' participation processes, and take on the responsibility of acknowledging relatives' lifeworlds.

  11. Disrupting Intergenerational Continuity in Harsh and Abusive Parenting: The Importance of a Nurturing Relationship with a Romantic Partner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conger, Rand D.; Schofield, Thomas J.; Neppl, Tricia K.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Harsh, abusive and rejecting behavior by parents toward their children is associated with increased risk for many developmental problems for youth. Earlier research also shows that children raised by harsh parents are more likely to treat their own children harshly. The present study sought to identify behaviors of romantic partners that might help break this intergenerational cycle of child mistreatment. Methods Data come from the Family Transitions Project, a 22-year, 3-generation study of a cohort of over 500 early adolescents (G2) grown to adulthood. During adolescence, observers rated G1 harsh parenting to G2. Several years later observers rated G2 harsh parenting toward their oldest child (G3). In addition, G2's romantic partner (spouse or cohabiting) was rated by observers on a range of behaviors expected to affect G2 harsh parenting. Results Romantic partner warmth and positive communication with G2 were associated with less G2 harsh parenting toward G3 (a direct effect) and when these partner behaviors were high, there was no evidence of intergenerational continuity from G1 to G2 harsh parenting. When the partner was low on warmth and communication, intergenerational continuity in harsh parenting significantly increased. G1 harsh parenting slightly decreased the likelihood that G2 would select a positive spouse. Conclusions Romantic partner warmth, support and positive communication appear to provide interpersonal nurturance that disrupts continuity in parental mistreatment of children. As appropriate, preventive interventions should include a focus on spousal or partner behaviors in their educational or treatment programs. PMID:24059934

  12. Disrupting intergenerational continuity in harsh and abusive parenting: the importance of a nurturing relationship with a romantic partner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conger, Rand D; Schofield, Thomas J; Neppl, Tricia K; Merrick, Melissa T

    2013-10-01

    Harsh, abusive, and rejecting behavior by parents toward their children is associated with increased risk for many developmental problems for youth. Earlier research also shows that children raised by harsh parents are more likely to treat their own children harshly. The present study evaluated nurturing and supportive behaviors of spouses or cohabiting romantic partners hypothesized to strengthen co-parent relationships and help break this intergenerational cycle of harsh parenting. Data come from the Family Transitions Project, a 22-year, 3-generation study of a cohort of over 500 early adolescents (G2) grown to adulthood. During adolescence, observers rated G1 (parent of G2) harsh parenting to G2. Several years later, observers rated G2 harsh parenting toward their oldest child (G3). In addition, G2's romantic partner (spouse or cohabiting partner) was rated by observers on a range of behaviors expected to affect G2 harsh parenting. Romantic partner warmth and positive communication with G2 were associated with less G2 harsh parenting toward G3 (a compensatory or main effect) and when these partner behaviors were high, there was no evidence of intergenerational continuity from G1 to G2 harsh parenting (a moderating or protective effect). G1 harsh parenting slightly decreased the likelihood that G2 would select a supportive spouse or romantic partner (evidence of cumulative continuity). Romantic partner warmth and positive communication appear to disrupt continuity in harsh and abusive parenting. As appropriate, preventive interventions designed to reduce risk for child maltreatment should include a focus on spousal or partner behaviors in their educational or treatment programs. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Safe, stable, nurturing relationships as a moderator of intergenerational continuity of child maltreatment: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Thomas J; Lee, Rosalyn D; Merrick, Melissa T

    2013-10-01

    The present paper summarizes findings of the special issue papers on the intergenerational continuity of child maltreatment and through meta-analysis explores the potential moderating effects of safe, stable, nurturing relationships (SSNRs). Studies were selected for inclusion in this meta-analysis if they (1) were published in peer-reviewed journals; (2) tested for intergenerational continuity in any form of child maltreatment, using prospective, longitudinal data; and (3) tested for moderating effects of any variable of SSNRs on intergenerational continuity of child maltreatment. The search revealed only one additional study beyond the four reports written for this special issue that met inclusion criteria for the meta-analysis. Estimates of intergenerational stability of child maltreatment from the studies included in this special issue are consistent with several other studies, which find that child maltreatment in one generation is positively related to child maltreatment in the next generation. Furthermore, meta-analytic results from the five studies that met the inclusion criteria suggest a protective, moderating effect of SSNRs on intergenerational continuity of child maltreatment. The calculated fail-safe index indicated that 49 unpublished intergenerational studies with an average null effect would be required to render nonsignificant the overall moderation effect of SSNRs on child maltreatment. This special issue expanded the examination of SSNRs beyond the caregiver-child dyad. That is, these studies considered SSNRs in adult relationships as well as parent-child relationships. Results suggest that certain types of SSNRs between parents and other adults (e.g., romantic partner, co-parent, or adult social support resource) may decrease maltreatment continuity. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. All rights reserved.

  14. Nature vs nurture: interplay between the genetic control of telomere length and environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harari, Yaniv; Romano, Gal-Hagit; Ungar, Lior; Kupiec, Martin

    2013-11-15

    Telomeres are nucleoprotein structures that cap the ends of the linear eukaryotic chromosomes, thus protecting their stability and integrity. They play important roles in DNA replication and repair and are central to our understanding of aging and cancer development. In rapidly dividing cells, telomere length is maintained by the activity of telomerase. About 400 TLM (telomere length maintenance) genes have been identified in yeast, as participants of an intricate homeostasis network that keeps telomere length constant. Two papers have recently shown that despite this extremely complex control, telomere length can be manipulated by external stimuli. These results have profound implications for our understanding of cellular homeostatic systems in general and of telomere length maintenance in particular. In addition, they point to the possibility of developing aging and cancer therapies based on telomere length manipulation.

  15. The establishment, nurturing, and fruition of a national transplutonium production program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigelow, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    The first two slides describe the discovery of 252 Cf and the properties that make it useful as a neutron source. The next two describe the applications. The next two cover the history of the Market Development Program, which is pretty much phased out now, with most residual responsibilities transferred to Oak Ridge. The final slide illustrates the uses of 252 Cf that has been sold and commercially fabricated into neutron sources

  16. How to improve healthcare? Identify, nurture and embed individuals and teams with "deep smarts".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eljiz, Kathy; Greenfield, David; Molineux, John; Sloan, Terry

    2018-03-19

    Purpose Unlocking and transferring skills and capabilities in individuals to the teams they work within, and across, is the key to positive organisational development and improved patient care. Using the "deep smarts" model, the purpose of this paper is to examine these issues. Design/methodology/approach The "deep smarts" model is described, reviewed and proposed as a way of transferring knowledge and capabilities within healthcare organisations. Findings Effective healthcare delivery is achieved through, and continues to require, integrative care involving numerous, dispersed service providers. In the space of overlapping organisational boundaries, there is a need for "deep smarts" people who act as "boundary spanners". These are critical integrative, networking roles employing clinical, organisational and people skills across multiple settings. Research limitations/implications Studies evaluating the barriers and enablers to the application of the deep smarts model and 13 knowledge development strategies proposed are required. Such future research will empirically and contemporary ground our understanding of organisational development in modern complex healthcare settings. Practical implications An organisation with "deep smarts" people - in managerial, auxiliary and clinical positions - has a greater capacity for integration and achieving improved patient-centred care. Originality/value In total, 13 developmental strategies, to transfer individual capabilities into organisational capability, are proposed. These strategies are applicable to different contexts and challenges faced by individuals and teams in complex healthcare organisations.

  17. Four-dimensional conversion for spiritual leadership development: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-04-14

    Apr 14, 2014 ... than other methods which ignore nurturing self-leaders, who are the right people for transformation. Hauerwas (1995:42,. 46–47) equally advises the development of people who can be responsible Christians in their being, behaving and living with others. African churches need to be socio-politically.

  18. How Partnering with Your Child's Caregiver Supports Healthy Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Jerlean E.

    2012-01-01

    Jerlean Daniel, PhD, executive director of the National Association for the Education of Young Children, describes what quality child care looks like and how parents and child care providers can work together to nurture young children's healthy development. Dr. Daniel shares information about what to look for in a child care provider, how to…

  19. Music and the Brain in Childhood Development. Review of Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, Susan J.

    2002-01-01

    Reviews literature on effects of music on the brain in childhood development. Areas include: (1) early synaptic growth; (2) nature versus nurture; (3) background music; (4) musical practice; (5) music learning and cognitive skills; (6) transfer of music learning; (7) musical instrument practice; (8) children and music; and (9) transfer effects.…

  20. Developing Teacher Leadership in Singapore: Multiple Pathways for Differentiated Journeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, A. Lin; Low, Ee Ling; Ng, Pak Tee

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we examine quality teachers through teacher leadership development. Using Singapore as an illustrative case, we describe the redefinition of the teaching profession to include deliberate structures and multiple pathways designed to nurture teacher leaders, and the role of teacher leaders in supporting education reform. We go on to…

  1. The Voice of Youth: Atmosphere in Positive Youth Development Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Stefan; Parker, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    Background: Positive youth development (PYD) programs adhere to the notion that all children have strengths and assets to be promoted and nurtured rather than deficits that require "fixing." The study of PYD programs indicates three aspects which set them apart from other programs for youth: activities, goals, and atmosphere. Of these,…

  2. Empowering student leaders to nurture the first year experience through cross-cultural diversity. A Practice Report Nāu te raurau, Nāku te raurau, ka ora ai te iwi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Laurs

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Victoria University offers a number of peer-support and mentoring programs for first-year students, including Te Pūtahi Atawahi (mentoring and holistic support for Māori and Pasifika students, PASS (Peer Assisted Study Support and Campus Coaches (Orientation Week guides. In the past, despite having similar goals of providing peer-support to foster a sense of community, such programs have operated in isolation. However, a recent initiative has seen the development of a core leadership training module, jointly designed and delivered by staff from Te Pūtahi Atawhai and Student Learning Support. Seeking to equip student-leaders with an understanding of some of the holistic Māori values, Kotahitanga (unity, Ako (teaching and learning, Manaakitanga (empathy/hospitality, Whakamana (respect, Whakanui (acknowledging success, Whakawhanaungatanga (building strong networks and Rangatiratanga (ability to bring groups together/Self-direction, this core training offers the potential to strengthen Treaty of Waitangi relationships and nurture inter-cultural awareness, developing a pan-university sense of belongingness in the process. 

  3. Nurturing transdisciplinary research - lessons from live experiments in prioritising and supporting novel risk science (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, J.; Armstrong, C.; Barclay, J.; Moores, A.; Whitaker, D.

    2013-12-01

    The benefits of specialization over the last 150 years have meant that science has evolved within several distinct disciplines, such as physical, social or environmental. These have generated their own cultures, languages, agendas, institutions, measures of success and cohorts of suitably branded scientists. However, we increasingly see that society and the environment are exposed to many complex, interdependent and rapidly changing risks - not only from natural hazards, but also those associated with fast expanding and ageing populations, highly interconnected and interdependent economies, rapid climate change, and increasingly limited resources. Risks derived from such interacting drivers commonly generate non-linear effects or repercussions and future risks may be very different to those of today; significantly, they span many traditional science disciplines. We thus need to have a fresh look at transdisciplinary risk science, bring in novel ideas and new blood. But what are the best practical ways of sowing the seeds and fertilizing such approaches? The presentation describes novel practical steps to achieve this, all related to building and resourcing transdisciplinary research which incorporates natural hazard science within the UK over the last 5 years. These comprise instruments to prioritise science gaps and provide funding for transdisciplinary research by a) Academic research funders - the Research Councils UK (RCUK) Risk Research Network and current research programmes; b) Government and non-governmental research funders - the Living with Environmental Change Initiative, and the UK Flooding and coastal erosion risk management research strategy - and the UK Collaborative for Development Science sponsored Disasters Research Group; and c) Business funding - through integrated risk modelling for the insurance industry. Whilst young, all these initiatives are healthy and seek to build a portfolio of small scale initiatives that will breed success and develop

  4. Addiction research centres and the nurturing of creativity The Norwegian Centre for Addiction Research (SERAF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramness, Jørgen G; Clausen, Thomas; Duckert, Fanny; Ravndal, Edle; Waal, Helge

    2011-08-01

    The Norwegian Centre for Addiction Research (SERAF) at the University of Oslo is a newly established, clinical addiction research centre. It is located at the Oslo University Hospital and has a major focus on opioid dependency, investigating Norwegian opioid maintenance treatment (OMT), with special interest in OMT during pregnancy, mortality, morbidity and criminality before, during and after OMT and alternatives to OMT, such as the use of naltrexone implants. The well-developed health registries of Norway are core assets that also allow the opportunity for other types of substance abuse research. This research includes health services, abuse of prescription drugs and drugs of abuse in connection with traffic. The centre also focuses upon comorbidity, investigating the usefulness and limitations of psychometric instruments, drug abuse in different psychiatric treatment settings and internet-based interventions for hazardous alcohol consumption. © 2010 The Authors, Addiction © 2010 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  5. The state of Danish nursing ethnographic research: flowering, nurtured or malnurtured

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uhrenfeldt, Lisbeth; Martinsen, Bente; Jørgensen, Lene Bastrup

    2018-01-01

    between the papers philosophical perspective and methodology and the seventh question concerning reflections about the influence of the researcher on the study and vice versa. In most studies (n = 34), study aims and arguments for selecting ethnographic research are presented. Additionally, method......BACKGROUND: Nursing was established in Denmark as a scholarly tradition in the late nineteen eighties, and ethnography was a preferred method. No critical review has yet summarised accomplishments and gaps and pointing at directions for the future methodological development and research herein. AIM...... for methodological robustness using the ten-item instrument QARI from Joanna Briggs Institute. RESULTS: Two hundred and eight studies met our inclusion criteria and 45 papers were included; the critical appraisal gave evidence of studies with certain robustness, except for the first question concerning the congruity...

  6. Nurturing The STEM Pipeline: Graduate Student Leadership In NIRCam's Ongoing E/PO Mission For JWST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlingman, Wayne M.; Stock, N.; Teske, J.; Tyler, K.; Biller, B.; Donley, J.; Hedden, A.; Knierman, K.; Young, P.

    2011-01-01

    The Astronomy Camp for Girl Scout Leaders is an education and public outreach (E/PO) program offered by the science team of the Near-InfraRed Camera (NIRCam) for NASA's 6.5-meter James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). Since 2003, astronomy graduate students have helped design and lead biannual "Train the Trainer” workshops for adults from the Girl Scouts of the USA (GSUSA), engaging these trainers in the process of scientific inquiry and equipping them to host astronomy-related activities at the troop level. These workshops have helped revise the national GSUSA badge curriculum and directly benefitted thousands of young girls of all ages, not only in general science and math education but also in specific astronomical and technological concepts relating to JWST. To date, nine graduate students have become members of NIRCam's E/PO team. They have developed curriculum and activities used to teach concepts in stellar nucleosynthesis, lookback time, galaxy classification, etc. They have also contributed to the overall strategic approach and helped lead more general activities in basic astronomy (night sky, phases of the Moon, the scale of the Solar System and beyond, stars, galaxies, telescopes, etc.) as well as JWST-specific research areas in extrasolar planetary systems and cosmology, to pave the way for girls and women to understand the first images from JWST. The resulting experience has empowered these students to propose and to develop their own E/PO programs after graduation as postdocs and young faculty. They also continue as part of NIRCam's growing worldwide network of 160 trainers teaching young women essential STEM-related concepts using astronomy, the night sky environment, applied math, engineering, and critical thinking. NIRCam and its E/PO program are funded by NASA under contract NAS5-02105.

  7. Nurturing Salafi manhaj; A study of Salafi pesantrens in contemporary Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Din Wahid

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study is about the role of Salafi pesantrens (Islamic boarding schools in Salafi da’wa (conveying or inviting to the way of Islam in Indonesia. A Salafi pesantren is a pesantren that teaches Salafism which mostly derives from the works of Muhammad ibn ‘Abd al-Wahhab, the founder of Wahhabism in Saudi Arabia. Salafi pesantrens started to emerge in the late 1980s and were established by graduates from Saudi Arabia and Yemen universities, and supported by alumni of the Institute for the Study of Islam and Arabic (LIPIA in Jakarta. While the precise number of Salafi pesantrens is unavailable, it is estimated that the number reaches 50 pesantrens. Salafi pesantrens not only teach their students about Salafism, but also accustom them to practice the Salafi manhaj (path in their daily life. The study focuses on three pesantrens: al-Nur al-Atsari in Ciamis, Assunah in Cirebon (both in West Java, and al-Furqan in Gresik, East Java. I analyse various aspects of these educational institutions: their historical development, community responses, educational programs, curriculum, methods of instruction, students’ lives and activities, networks and fundraising.

  8. Aggregate-then-Curate: how digital learning champions help communities nurture online content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Whitworth

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Informational resources are essential for communities, rooting them in their own history, helping them learn and solve problems, giving them a voice in decision-making and so on. For digital inclusion – and inclusion in the informational and democratic processes of society more generally – it is essential that communities retain the skills, awareness and motivation to create and manage their own informational resources.This article explores a model for the creation of online content that incorporates the different ways in which the quality and relevance of information can be assured. This model, “Aggregate-then-Curate” (A/C, was developed from earlier work concerning digital inclusion in UK online centres, models of informal e-learning and ecologies of resources. A/C shows how creating online content can be viewed as a 7-step process, initiated by individuals but bringing in “digital learning champions”, other community members and formal educational institutions at different stages. A/C can be used to design training to help build the capacity to manage community informational resources in an inclusive way. The article then discusses and evaluates MOSI-ALONG, a Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC funded project founded on these ideas, which illustrates how A/C can be used to design training to help build the capacity to manage community informational resources in an inclusive way. This conclusion is supported by evaluations of the work done so far in MOSI-ALONG.

  9. Cultivating and Nurturing a Successful Organizational Stress-management Program: Mission of Unlimited Possibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eley, Christine L.; Harris, Katherine E.; Hudak, Barbara; Hulvey, Lynne E.; Launder, Susan K.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Organizations that value their employees and appreciate their contributions strive to create a supportive work environment. Leaders can demonstrate care and support for staff by offering a stress-management program. However, program implementation can be challenging. Leadership endorsement, funding, program development, and assimilation within the organizational culture are important elements. Demonstrating value is critical to success, and even the most effective programs may not provide leaders with the results they anticipated. What gets in the way? Methods: This presentation provides a retrospective review of situations within Mayo Clinic that propelled its trainers to navigate the waters of uncertainty and rise above adversity. From a leadership perspective, a successful program requires ongoing intentional focus and promotion, not an easy task when resources are at a premium and organizational priorities are constantly vying for attention. When the trainers faced the prospect of program demise due to the loss of an executive sponsor and three of the four original trainers, the remaining members were at a crossroads. Rather than surrender to the lack of a well-defined champion, trainers decided to continue the legacy of sharing the gift of the Transforming Stress program with colleagues. Through the application of HeartMath coherence-building and -sustaining techniques, the remaining trainers listened to their own heart wisdom and found that each trainer possessed a unique skill set to contribute to the group. The information received during several group Heart Lock-In's guided the training team to collaboratively explore new ways of thinking. Results: A fluid marketing plan includes methods of informing employees about the program, focusing on evidence-based benefits and motivating them to participate. At Mayo Clinic, it is crucial for training programs to create incentives and opportunities for employees to attend stress-management workshops

  10. Nature vs. Nurture: Evidence for Social Learning of Conflict Behaviour in Grizzly Bears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morehouse, Andrea T; Graves, Tabitha A; Mikle, Nate; Boyce, Mark S

    2016-01-01

    The propensity for a grizzly bear to develop conflict behaviours might be a result of social learning between mothers and cubs, genetic inheritance, or both learning and inheritance. Using non-invasive genetic sampling, we collected grizzly bear hair samples during 2011-2014 across southwestern Alberta, Canada. We targeted private agricultural lands for hair samples at grizzly bear incident sites, defining an incident as an occurrence in which the grizzly bear caused property damage, obtained anthropogenic food, or killed or attempted to kill livestock or pets. We genotyped 213 unique grizzly bears (118 M, 95 F) at 24 microsatellite loci, plus the amelogenin marker for sex. We used the program COLONY to assign parentage. We evaluated 76 mother-offspring relationships and 119 father-offspring relationships. We compared the frequency of problem and non-problem offspring from problem and non-problem parents, excluding dependent offspring from our analysis. Our results support the social learning hypothesis, but not the genetic inheritance hypothesis. Offspring of problem mothers are more likely to be involved in conflict behaviours, while offspring from non-problem mothers are not likely to be involved in incidents or human-bear conflicts themselves (Barnard's test, p = 0.05, 62.5% of offspring from problem mothers were problem bears). There was no evidence that offspring are more likely to be involved in conflict behaviour if their fathers had been problem bears (Barnard's test, p = 0.92, 29.6% of offspring from problem fathers were problem bears). For the mother-offspring relationships evaluated, 30.3% of offspring were identified as problem bears independent of their mother's conflict status. Similarly, 28.6% of offspring were identified as problem bears independent of their father's conflict status. Proactive mitigation to prevent female bears from becoming problem individuals likely will help prevent the perpetuation of conflicts through social learning.

  11. Nature vs. nurture: Evidence for social learning of conflict behaviour in grizzly bears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morehouse, Andrea T.; Graves, Tabitha A.; Mikle, Nathaniel; Boyce, Mark S.

    2016-01-01

    The propensity for a grizzly bear to develop conflict behaviours might be a result of social learning between mothers and cubs, genetic inheritance, or both learning and inheritance. Using non-invasive genetic sampling, we collected grizzly bear hair samples during 2011–2014 across southwestern Alberta, Canada. We targeted private agricultural lands for hair samples at grizzly bear incident sites, defining an incident as an occurrence in which the grizzly bear caused property damage, obtained anthropogenic food, or killed or attempted to kill livestock or pets. We genotyped 213 unique grizzly bears (118 M, 95 F) at 24 microsatellite loci, plus the amelogenin marker for sex. We used the program COLONY to assign parentage. We evaluated 76 mother-offspring relationships and 119 father-offspring relationships. We compared the frequency of problem and non-problem offspring from problem and non-problem parents, excluding dependent offspring from our analysis. Our results support the social learning hypothesis, but not the genetic inheritance hypothesis. Offspring of problem mothers are more likely to be involved in conflict behaviours, while offspring from non-problem mothers are not likely to be involved in incidents or human-bear conflicts themselves (Barnard’s test, p = 0.05, 62.5% of offspring from problem mothers were problem bears). There was no evidence that offspring are more likely to be involved in conflict behaviour if their fathers had been problem bears (Barnard’s test, p = 0.92, 29.6% of offspring from problem fathers were problem bears). For the mother-offspring relationships evaluated, 30.3% of offspring were identified as problem bears independent of their mother’s conflict status. Similarly, 28.6% of offspring were identified as problem bears independent of their father’s conflict status. Proactive mitigation to prevent female bears from becoming problem individuals likely will help prevent the perpetuation of conflicts through social learning.

  12. Nature vs. Nurture: Evidence for Social Learning of Conflict Behaviour in Grizzly Bears.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea T Morehouse

    Full Text Available The propensity for a grizzly bear to develop conflict behaviours might be a result of social learning between mothers and cubs, genetic inheritance, or both learning and inheritance. Using non-invasive genetic sampling, we collected grizzly bear hair samples during 2011-2014 across southwestern Alberta, Canada. We targeted private agricultural lands for hair samples at grizzly bear incident sites, defining an incident as an occurrence in which the grizzly bear caused property damage, obtained anthropogenic food, or killed or attempted to kill livestock or pets. We genotyped 213 unique grizzly bears (118 M, 95 F at 24 microsatellite loci, plus the amelogenin marker for sex. We used the program COLONY to assign parentage. We evaluated 76 mother-offspring relationships and 119 father-offspring relationships. We compared the frequency of problem and non-problem offspring from problem and non-problem parents, excluding dependent offspring from our analysis. Our results support the social learning hypothesis, but not the genetic inheritance hypothesis. Offspring of problem mothers are more likely to be involved in conflict behaviours, while offspring from non-problem mothers are not likely to be involved in incidents or human-bear conflicts themselves (Barnard's test, p = 0.05, 62.5% of offspring from problem mothers were problem bears. There was no evidence that offspring are more likely to be involved in conflict behaviour if their fathers had been problem bears (Barnard's test, p = 0.92, 29.6% of offspring from problem fathers were problem bears. For the mother-offspring relationships evaluated, 30.3% of offspring were identified as problem bears independent of their mother's conflict status. Similarly, 28.6% of offspring were identified as problem bears independent of their father's conflict status. Proactive mitigation to prevent female bears from becoming problem individuals likely will help prevent the perpetuation of conflicts through social

  13. Grain Size Distribution in Mudstones: A Question of Nature vs. Nurture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schieber, J.

    2011-12-01

    Grain size distribution in mudstones is affected by the composition of the source material, the processes of transport and deposition, and post-depositional diagenetic modification. With regard to source, it does make a difference whether for example a slate belt is eroded vs a stable craton. The former setting tends to provide a broad range of detrital quartz in the sub 62 micron size range in addition to clays and greenschist grade rock fragments, whereas the latter may be biased towards coarser quartz silt (30-60 microns), in addition to clays and mica flakes. In flume experiments, when fine grained materials are transported in turbulent flows at velocities that allow floccules to transfer to bedload, a systematic shift of grain size distribution towards an increasingly finer grained suspended load is observed as velocity is lowered. This implies that the bedload floccules are initially constructed of only the coarsest clay particles at high velocities, and that finer clay particles become incorporated into floccules as velocity is lowered. Implications for the rock record are that clay beds deposited from decelerating flows should show subtle internal grading of coarser clay particles; and that clay beds deposited from continuous fast flows should show a uniform distribution of coarse clays. Still water settled clays should show a well developed lower (coarser) and upper (finer) subdivision. A final complication arises when diagenetic processes, such as the dissolution of biogenic silica, give rise to diagenetic quartz grains in the silt to sand size range. This diagenetic silica precipitates in fossil cavities and pore spaces of uncompacted muds, and on casual inspection can be mistaken for detrital quartz. In distal mudstone successions close to 100 % of "apparent" quartz silt can be of that origin, and reworking by bottom currents can further enhance a detrital perception by producing rippled and laminated silt beds. Although understanding how size

  14. Nature/nurture and the anthropology of Franz Boas and Margaret Mead as an agenda for revolutionary politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidney M. Greenfield

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available There is much more involved in the nature/nurture debate than an abstract theoretical disagreement among dispassionate scientists. Each side of the debate leads logically to significantly different views of the social order and holds different implications for social policy. In this paper I shall argue that Boas' Anthropology with its emphasis on cultural relativism was as much a social and political agenda as it was a scientific theory. The positions on public policy issues he opposed were informed (and rationalized by what its advocates claimed to be science. To be able to counter the discriminatory policy proposals that followed from this science, it was necessary for Boas both to challenge its validity and then replace it with an alternative that would support a more liberal political agenda. This chapter of anthropology's history gains relevance in today's context as neoevolutionary, reductionist theories once more provide "scientific" support for conservative, separatist and often discriminatory social policies.O debate natureza/cultura é muito mais do que um desentendimento teórico e abstrato entre cientistas desapaixonados. Cada lado do debate leva a visões diferentes da ordem social e traz implicações diferentes para políticas sociais. Neste artigo, sugiro que a Antropologia de Boas, com sua ênfase no relativismo cultural, tanto quanto uma teoria científica, foi um programa social e político. As posturas de política pública às quais ele se opunha eram informadas (e racionalizadas por algo apresentado por seus proponentes como ciência. Para combater as propostas discriminatórias que decorriam desta ciência, cabia a Boas desafiar sua validade e substituí-la por uma alternativa que daria apoio a uma agenda política mais liberal. Esse capítulo da história da antropologia assume maior relevância no contexto atual em que teorias néo-evolucionistas e reducionistas mais uma vez fornecem uma base "científica" para pol

  15. Participatory Media for Teacher Professional Development: Toward a Self-Sustainable and Democratic Community of Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Katrina; Miller, Richard; Jahng, Kyung Eun

    2016-01-01

    Financial and political pressures on the compulsory education teacher corps in the United States, as well as US higher education, demands a new approach to teacher professional development that shifts the focus away from repeated short-term university-based teacher professional development programmes and toward the nurturing of self-organized and…

  16. Embodied Brains, Social Minds, Cultural Meaning: Integrating Neuroscientific and Educational Research on Social-Affective Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immordino-Yang, Mary Helen; Gotlieb, Rebecca

    2017-01-01

    Social-affective neuroscience is revealing that human brain development is inherently social--our very nature is organized by nurture. To explore the implications for human development and education, we present a series of interdisciplinary studies documenting individual and cultural variability in the neurobiological correlates of emotional…

  17. Developing High School Students' Creativity by Teaching Them To Take Risks and Defer Judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israel, Elfie

    A practicum was designed to help high school students become more creative by encouraging them to be audacious, divergent thinkers capable of entertaining several contradictory ideas simultaneously. Tolerating paradox and ambiguity are vital components in developing creativity. These goals were achieved by developing a nurturing, caring, accepting…

  18. Safe Spaces, Nurturing Places

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darrell, Linda; Littlefield, Melissa; Washington, Earlie M.

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the limited yet important literature on the contributions of historically Black colleges and universities (HBCUs) to students and the profession of social work. The vital role of HBCUs in social work education and their mission to advocate for social and economic justice for disenfranchised populations is also discussed. A…

  19. Summer camp nurtures student

    OpenAIRE

    Earl Anderson

    2017-01-01

    Summer camp is a coordinated program for youths or teenagers driven in the midst of the late spring months in a couple of countries. Adolescents and young people who go to summer camp are known as campers. It is each parent's stress: What is the perfect way for your adolescent to contribute his or her free vitality in the midst of summer and school breaks? Research Paper Help. To a couple, it is a period for youths to play and have an incredible time. By joining the late spring camp, yout...

  20. Nurturing Creativity in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collard, Paul; Looney, Janet

    2014-01-01

    Across continents, creativity is a priority for education and is central to the discourse on 21st century learning. In this article, we explore how a greater focus on "everyday creativity" in schools changes the dynamics of teaching and learning. We look briefly at the main concepts in the literature on creativity in education. We then…

  1. Dyslexia: nature and nurture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Richard K

    2002-01-01

    This paper explores the balance of genetic and environmental influences on dyslexia in generally supportive educational environments. Evidence from family studies suggests and research with identical and fraternal twins confirms the presence of strong genetic influences on dyslexia, though the way dyslexia is defined influences the degree of genetic influence. The behavioural genetic evidence is supported with molecular genetic evidence from DNA analyses suggesting regions on several different chromosomes where genes related to dyslexia are likely to be found. The behavioural and molecular genetic analyses are also applied to different component word reading skills (orthographic coding and phonological decoding) as well as to related language skills (phoneme awareness) to better understand the genetic and cognitive pathways to dyslexia.

  2. Nurturing talent in Africa

    CERN Multimedia

    2010-01-01

    The first African School of Physics draws to a close tomorrow, and I’m proud that CERN has been a part of it. From an initiative launched by Fermilab scientist Christine Darve, the African School of Physics has grown to involve institutes and universities from all over Europe and the United States.   It’s being hosted by South Africa’s National Institute for Theoretical Physics, NITheP, at Stellenbosch, and has attracted 150 applicants from all over the continent and beyond for the 65 places available. That alone makes it a success, even before NITheP Director Frederik Scholtz uttered his words of welcome nearly three weeks ago.. When I show people the map of where CERN’s users come from, it’s gratifying to see it spanning the world, and in particular to see southern hemisphere countries starting to join the global particle physics family. Africa, however, remains notable more for the number of countries that are not involved than for those that ...

  3. Nurture versus nature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klöppel, Stefan; Mangin, Jean-Francois; Vongerichten, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Does a conflict between inborn motor preferences and educational standards during childhood impact the structure of the adult human brain? To examine this issue, we acquired high-resolution T1-weighted magnetic resonance scans of the whole brain in adult "converted" left-handers who had been forced...... and pericentral cortex. Our results show that a specific environmental challenge during childhood can shape the macroscopic structure of the human basal ganglia. The smaller than normal putaminal volume differs markedly from previously reported enlargement of cortical gray matter associated with skill acquisition...

  4. The Nature of Nurture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harold, Gordon T.; Leve, Leslie D.; Elam, Kit K.; Thapar, Anita; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Natsuaki, Misaki N.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Reiss, David

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between interparental conflict, hostile parenting, and children's externalizing problems is well established. Few studies, however, have examined the pattern of association underlying this constellation of family and child level variables while controlling for the possible confounding presence of passive genotype–environment correlation. Using the attributes of 2 genetically sensitive research designs, the present study examined associations among interparental conflict, parent-to-child hostility, and children's externalizing problems among genetically related and genetically unrelated mother–child and father–child groupings. Analyses were conducted separately by parent gender, thereby allowing examination of the relative role of the mother–child and father–child relationships on children's behavioral outcomes. Path analyses revealed that for both genetically related and genetically unrelated parents and children, indirect associations were apparent from interparental conflict to child externalizing problems through mother-to-child and father-to-child hostility. Associations between interparental conflict and parent-to-child hostility across genetically related and genetically unrelated parent–child groupings were significantly stronger for fathers compared to mothers. Results are discussed with respect to the role of passive genotype–environment correlation as a possible confounding influence in interpreting research findings from previous studies conducted in this area. Implications for intervention programs focusing on family process influences on child externalizing problems are also considered. PMID:23421830

  5. Partnerships for Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, David; Drysdale, David; Hansen, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) management systems of many developing countries are commonly constrained by factors such as limited financial resources and poor governance, making it a difficult proposition to break with complex, entrenched and unsustainable technologies and systems. This paper...... some lessons in such partnership building: In Uganda and Denmark respectively, the World Wildlife Fund and the network organization access2innovation have mobilised stakeholders around improving the MSW management system in Kasese District. Through a MSW management system characterisation and mapping...... exercise, some emergent lessons and guiding principles in partnership building point to both pitfalls and opportunities for designing sustainable pathways. Firstly, socio-technical lock-in effects in the MSW management system can stand in the way of partnerships based on introducing biogas or incineration...

  6. Family Nurture Intervention in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Improves Social-Relatedness, Attention, and Neurodevelopment of Preterm Infants at 18 Months in a Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Martha G.; Firestein, Morgan R.; Austin, Judy; Hane, Amie A.; Stark, Raymond I.; Hofer, Myron A.; Garland, Marianne; Glickstein, Sara B.; Brunelli, Susan A.; Ludwig, Robert J.; Myers, Michael M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Preterm infants are at high risk for adverse neurodevelopmental and behavioral outcomes. Family Nurture Intervention (FNI) in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) is designed to counteract adverse effects of separation of mothers and their preterm infants. Here, we evaluate effects of FNI on neurobehavioral outcomes. Methods: Data…

  7. Leaders of Sustainable Development Projects: Resources Used and Lessons Learned in a Context of Environmental Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruneau, Diane; Lang, Mathieu; Kerry, Jackie; Fortin, Guillaume; Langis, Joanne; Liboiron, Linda

    2014-01-01

    In our day, leaders involved in ingenious sustainable development projects plan spaces and implement practices that are beneficial to the environment. These initiatives represent a fertile source of information on the competences linked to environmental design that we should nurture in our students. In view of improving our understanding of the…

  8. Managing Human Capital in World Cities: The Development of Hong Kong into an Education Hub

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Ada; Maclean, Rupert

    2011-01-01

    Since 2004, the Hong Kong government has sought to build a regional education hub and develop an education industry. However, the rationales and intentions behind this move and the implications these have for the nurturing of local human capital and economic capacity are not always clear. This article seeks to contextualize Hong Kong's economic…

  9. The rationale for the multifaceted development of the athlete-student ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the high profile competitive world of global sport, the athlete is from a relatively young age under exorbitant pressure to excel, compete successfully in the international arena and develop as a person and professionally. The South African athlete faces unique challenges in this regard and requires special nurturing and ...

  10. Whose Code of Conduct Matters Most? Examining the Link between Academic Integrity and Student Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Ann E.

    2013-01-01

    Although most colleges strive to nurture a culture of integrity, incidents of dishonest behavior are on the rise. This article examines the role student development plays in students' perceptions of academic dishonesty and in their willingness to adhere to a code of conduct that may be in sharp contrast to traditional integrity policies.

  11. Professional Development in Relational Learning Communities: Teachers in Connection. Practitioner Inquiry Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raider-Roth, Miriam B.

    2016-01-01

    In this book, Raider-Roth offers an innovative approach to teacher professional development that builds on the intellectual strength and practical wisdom of practitioners. Focusing on nurturing relationships between and among participants, facilitators, subject matter, texts, and the school environment, this book helps educators create a…

  12. A Dynamic Network Model to Explain the Development of Excellent Human Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Den Hartigh, Ruud J.R.; Van Dijk, Marijn W.G.; Steenbeek, Henderien W.; Van Geert, Paul L.C.

    2016-01-01

    Across different domains, from sports to science, some individuals accomplish excellent levels of performance. For over 150 years, researchers have debated the roles of specific nature and nurture components to develop excellence. In this article, we argue that the key to excellence does not reside

  13. Effect of Sustained Maternal Responsivity on Later Vocabulary Development in Children with Fragile X Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Nancy; Warren, Steven F.; Fleming, Kandace; Keller, Juliana; Sterling, Audra

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This research explored whether sustained maternal responsivity (a parent-child interaction style characterized by warmth, nurturance, and stability as well as specific behaviors, such as contingent positive responses to child initiations) was a significant variable predicting vocabulary development of children with fragile X syndrome…

  14. Using Art To Help Develop Self-Esteem for Troubled Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Rick

    1986-01-01

    How art education was used in a girls' juvenile correctional institution to nurture and develop the self-esteem of these troubled youth is described. One of the most successful lessons was based upon discovery learning and dealt with pop videos. (RM)

  15. Sustainability transitions in developing countries: Stocktaking, new contributions and a research agenda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ulrich Elmer; Nygaard, Ivan; Romijn, Henny

    2017-01-01

    research in the field specifically related to four crosscutting themes: (i) global-local linkages and external dependencies; (ii) stability and non-stability of regimes; (iii) undemocratic and non-egalitarian nature of regimes; and (iv) nurturing the development of niches versus the execution of individual...

  16. "What Is a Community?" A Principal's View of James Comer's School Development Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipley, Diana G.; Thompson, Scott

    1992-01-01

    This description of the School Development Program of J. Comer at Valencia Park Center for Academics, Drama, and Dance in San Diego (California) is accompanied by an interview with E. Joyner. The approach focuses on nurturing students, parents, and teachers, rather than on weaknesses or deficits. (SLD)

  17. The Role of Parents in the Development of Peer Group Competence. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Shirley G.

    Among studies that have examined the relationship between parenting styles and children's development of social skills, the research of Diana Baumrind is noteworthy. In several studies, she has identified authoritarian, permissive, and authoritative parenting styles, which differ on the dimensions of nurturance and parental control. Authoritarian…

  18. STEAMakers- a global initiative to connect STEM career professionals with the public to inspire the next generation and nurture a creative approach to science, technology, maths & engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Niamh; Sorkhabi, Elburz; Gasquez, Oriol; Yajima, Saho

    2016-04-01

    STEAMakers is a global initiative founded by Niamh Shaw, Elburz Sorkhabi, Oriol Gasquez & Saho Yajima, four alumni of The International Space University's Space Studies Programme 2015 who each shared a vision to inspire the next generation to embrace science, technology, engineering & maths (STEM) in new ways, by embedding the Arts within STEM, putting the 'A' in STEAM. STEAMakers invited STEM professionals around the world to join their community, providing training and a suite of STEAM events, specially designed to encourage students to perceive science, technology, engineering & maths as a set of tools with which to create, design, troubleshoot, innovate, and imagine. The ultimate goal of STEAMakers is to grow this community and create a global culture of non-linear learning among the next generation, to nurture within them a new multidisciplinary mindset and incubate new forms of innovation and thought leadership required for the future through the power of inspiration and creativity.

  19. Parental control, nurturance, self-efficacy, and screen viewing among 5- to 6-year-old children: a cross-sectional mediation analysis to inform potential behavior change strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jago, Russell; Wood, Lesley; Zahra, Jesmond; Thompson, Janice L; Sebire, Simon J

    2015-04-01

    Children's screen viewing (SV) is associated with higher levels of childhood obesity. Many children exceed the American Academy of Pediatrics guideline of 2 hours of television (TV) per day. There is limited information about how parenting styles and parental self-efficacy to limit child screen time are associated with children's SV. This study examined whether parenting styles were associated with the SV of young children and whether any effects were mediated by parental self-efficacy to limit screen time. Data were from a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2013. Child and parent SV were reported by a parent, who also provided information about their parenting practices and self-efficacy to restrict SV. A four-step regression method examined whether parenting styles were associated with the SV of young children. Mediation by parental self-efficacy to limit screen time was examined using indirect effects. On a weekday, 90% of children watched TV for children used a personal computer at home, compared with 61% during the week. Self-reported parental control, but not nurturance, was associated with children's TV viewing. Parental self-efficacy to limit screen time was independently associated with child weekday TV viewing and mediated associations between parental control and SV. Parental control was associated with lower levels of SV among 5- to 6-year-old children. This association was partially mediated by parental self-efficacy to limit screen time. The development of strategies to increase parental self-efficacy to limit screen-time may be useful.

  20. Inequities and Lack of Professionalisation of Early Childhood Development Practice Hinder Opportunities for Mathematics Stimulation and Realisation of South African Policy on Quality Education for All

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feza, Nosisi

    2014-01-01

    White Paper 5's aim is to provide South Africa's children with a solid foundation for lifelong learning and development. Children need to be nurtured and developed holistically for them to participate efficiently in their democratic society. However, South African students continue to perform poorly in Trends in International Mathematics and…

  1. A Cross-Cultural Perspective about the Implementation and Adaptation Process of the Schoolwide Enrichment Model: The Importance of Talent Development in a Global World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Torrano, Daniel; Saranli, Adile Gulsah

    2015-01-01

    Gifted education and talent development are considered today as key elements for developing human capital and increasing competitiveness within education and the economy. Within this framework, a growing number of countries have begun to invest large amounts of resources to discover and nurture their most able students. As boundaries and…

  2. The Development Model of Knowledge Management via Web-Based Learning to Enhance Pre-Service Teacher's Competency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampai, Nattaphon; Sopeerak, Saroch

    2011-01-01

    This research explores that the model of knowledge management and web technology for teachers' professional development as well as its impact in the classroom on learning and teaching, especially in pre-service teacher's competency and practices that refer to knowledge creating, analyzing, nurturing, disseminating, and optimizing process as part…

  3. DEVELOPMENTS IN E-COMMERCE : An Evaluation of Uncontrollable Elements of International Marketing in International E-Commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Asamoah, Theophilus; アサモア, ティオフィラス

    2005-01-01

    High expectations were placed on e-commerce as a tool of developmentwith the emergence of IT. However, it appears that e-commerce has been more of aboom rather than a systematic nurtured system of development. In the application ofthe traditional marketin

  4. Growth and the Cycle : Creative Destruction versus Entrenchment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uhlig, H.F.H.V.S.; Canton, E.J.F.

    1997-01-01

    Newly established firms often try to secure their market position by building up a base of loyal customers. While recessions may not destroy technological leadership, they may be harmful for such firm-customer relationships. Without such customer bases, these firms find themselves more vulnerable to

  5. THE DEXTERITY OF LEADERSHIP ENTRENCHES THE SCHOLASTIC ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudrarup\tGUPTA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Leadership is an encyclopedic concept for a successful business formation. A business is a commercial activity to run a very thoughtful transaction in terms of money. Leadership consists of the perceptual vision and mission to establish a promising business concept for an upcoming recognition and the indelible goodwill as well. More over Leaders do inspire the entire organizational authority to accept the destined organizational metamorphosis for promoting the organizational elegance in deed.

  6. THE DEXTERITY OF LEADERSHIP ENTRENCHES THE SCHOLASTIC ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE

    OpenAIRE

    Rudrarup GUPTA; Alexandru‐Mircea NEDELEA

    2015-01-01

    Leadership is an encyclopedic concept for a successful business formation. A business is a commercial activity to run a very thoughtful transaction in terms of money. Leadership consists of the perceptual vision and mission to establish a promising business concept for an upcoming recognition and the indelible goodwill as well. More over Leaders do inspire the entire organizational authority to accept the destined organizational metamorphosis for promoting the organizational elegance in deed.

  7. The Sociology and Entrenchment. A Cystic Fibrosis Test for Everyone?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Lene; Stemerding, Dirk

    1994-01-01

    Socialmedicine, genetic screening, cystic fibrosis, ethics, political regulation, sociology of technology......Socialmedicine, genetic screening, cystic fibrosis, ethics, political regulation, sociology of technology...

  8. Navigating between Disaggregating Nation States and Entrenching Processes of Globalisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Michael

    2007-01-01

    This paper argues that the fluidity that permeates the contemporary international community is driven by especially political and economic globalisation, which has a huge impact of the relationship between the nation and the state. As the individual nation state is increasingly depending on the i...... utilises these newly created spaces for setting up diasporic like networks thus providing substance for transnational ethnoscapes or nations without states....

  9. Taking the First Step towards Entrenching Mental Health in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    likely to consider for employment someone with a pre-existing physical disability than for someone with a history of mental illness. In terms of workplace health promotion priorities, physical health seminars took wide precedence over mental health seminars. CONCLUSION: The preliminary findings of this pilot study justify a ...

  10. Navigating between Disaggregating Nation States and Entrenching Processes of Globalisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Michael

    2007-01-01

    This paper argues that the fluidity that permeates the contemporary international community is driven by especially political and economic globalisation, which has a huge impact of the relationship between the nation and the state. As the individual nation state is increasingly depending on the i......This paper argues that the fluidity that permeates the contemporary international community is driven by especially political and economic globalisation, which has a huge impact of the relationship between the nation and the state. As the individual nation state is increasingly depending...

  11. The Development Of Mutual Trust In British Workplaces Through ?Partnership?

    OpenAIRE

    Dietz, G.R.

    2002-01-01

    textabstractThis article examines the alleged links between 'partnership' forms of managing workplace relationships in Britain, and the development of intra-organisational 'trust'. The potential for mutually complementary linkages between the two are clear, in theory at least: partnership, as defined here, should produce, nurture and enhance levels of interpersonal trust inside organisations, while in turn trust, as defined here, legitimates and helps reinforce an organisation's 'partnership'...

  12. Systemic lupus erythematosus in three ethnic groups. VI: Factors associated with fatigue within 5 years of criteria diagnosis. LUMINA Study Group. LUpus in MInority populations: NAture vs Nurture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zonana-Nacach, A; Roseman, J M; McGwin, G; Friedman, A W; Baethge, B A; Reveille, J D; Alarcón, G S

    2000-01-01

    To determine the frequency, degree and associated features of fatigue among Hispanic (H), African American (AA) and Caucasian (C) patients with recent onset (NAture vs Nurture) cohort were studied. Fatigue [Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS)] was defined as present if FSS score > or = 3.0. Variables from functional, clinical, sociodemographic, health behaviors, behavioral and psychological and immunogenetics domains were ascertained at study entry. Associations were examined using regression models. Eighty-six percent (85.7%) of patients reported having fatigue (82.6% H; 85.5% AA; 88.7% C); median FSS score, 5.3. Factors from the psychological and clinical domains were primarily associated with FSS; immunogenetic (HLA Class II phenotypes) features were not. Increased fatigue was strongly associated with decreasing function, both physical and mental. Variables associated with significantly greater degree of fatigue at baseline in the multivariable stepwise model in order of decreasing additional partial R2 explained included: abnormal illness-related behaviors, older age, higher self-reported pain, greater degree of helplessness, greater disease activity, Caucasian race, and lacking health insurance (model R2 = 37%). Fatigue is one of the most prevalent clinical manifestations of SLE across all ethnic groups. The perception of fatigue severity in SLE may be multifactorial in origin, including psychosocial factors and disease activity. If these prove causal, knowledge of their contribution may suggest therapeutic and/or behavioral interventions, which could ameliorate this pervasive and often incapacitating symptom of SLE.

  13. El Papel de los Padres en el Desarrollo de la Competencia Social (The Role of Parents in the Development of Peer Group Competence). ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Shirley G.

    Among studies that have examined the relationship between parenting styles and children's development of social skills, the research of Diana Baumrind is noteworthy. In several studies, she has identified authoritarian, permissive, and authoritative parenting styles, which differ on the dimensions of nurturance and parental control. Authoritarian…

  14. Magic Trees of the Mind: How To Nurture Your Child's Intelligence, Creativity, and Healthy Emotions from Birth through Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, Marian; Hopson, Janet

    Based on the premise that the brain is a highly plastic, constantly changing entity that is powerfully shaped by experiences in childhood and throughout life, this book presents information on enriching childhood brain development. Each stage of childhood development is profiled, with the changes in the brain described and their implications for…

  15. Nurturing the Relationships of All Couples: Integrating Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Concerns into Premarital Education and Counseling Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casquarelli, Elaine J.; Fallon, Kathleen M.

    2011-01-01

    Research shows that premarital counseling programs help engaged couples develop interpersonal and problem-solving skills that enhance their marital relationships. Yet, there are limited services for same-sex couples. This article assumes an integrated humanistic and social justice advocacy stance to explore the needs of lesbian, gay, and bisexual…

  16. Teachers' Concepts of Musical Talent and Nurturing Musical Ability: Music Learning as Exclusive or as Opportunity for All?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaap, Angela; Patrick, Fiona

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a shift in terminology used to describe gift and talent. This has resulted in widespread adoption of the term high ability to describe more able pupils. This shift has promoted a more inclusive ethos in terms of the concept of encouraging talent development, but it has also highlighted tensions between teachers'…

  17. Active methodologies and the nurturing of students’ autonomy As metodologias ativas e a promoção da autonomia de estudantes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neusi Aparecida Navas Berbel

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article, a literature-based reflection is registered, taking studies aimed at the nurturing of students’ autonomy and the potential of the pedagogic area with active methodologies as interface to achieve results in the same direction. The main objective of the text is to identify converging points between these two study areas and share them with educators and their professors, inciting critical thinking and possible experiments in order to increase the amount of data as well as discussions about the quality of teaching. Methodological alternatives are exemplified in their essential characteristics, emphasizing the problematization methodology within Maguerez´s Arch to guide students to autonomy learning as well as the studies that have been used.  Com este artigo, registra-se uma reflexão respaldada na literatura, tomando como interface estudos voltados para a promoção da autonomia de alunos e o potencial da área pedagógica, com o uso de metodologias ativas, para a obtenção de resultados na mesma direção. O objetivo maior da elaboração do texto é o de, ao identificar pontos de convergência entre essas duas linhas de estudos, compartilhá-los com educadores e seus formadores, provocando uma reflexão crítica e possíveis experimentos, no sentido de ampliar registros e discussões com vistas à qualidade do ensino. São exemplificadas alternativas metodológicas com suas características essenciais, com ênfase na metodologia da problematização com o arco de Maguerez, pelo potencial de levar alunos a aprendizagens para a autonomia, assim como estudos que a utilizaram. 

  18. Addiction research centres and the nurturing of creativity: National Drug Dependence Treatment Centre, India--a profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Rajat; Dhawan, Anju; Chopra, Anita

    2013-10-01

    The National Drug Dependence Treatment Centre (NDDTC) is a part of the All India Institute of Medical Sciences, a premier autonomous medical university in India. This article provides an account of its origin and its contribution to the field of substance use disorder at the national and international levels. Since its establishment, the NDDTC has played a major role in the development of various replicable models of care, the training of post-graduate students of psychiatry, research, policy development and planning. An assessment of the magnitude of drug abuse in India began in the early 1990s and this was followed by a National Survey on Extent, Patterns and Trends of Drug Abuse in 2004. Several models of clinical care have been developed for population subgroups in diverse settings. The centre played an important role in producing data and resource material which helped to scale up opioid substitution treatment in India. A nationwide database on the profile of patients seeking treatment (Drug Abuse Monitoring System) at government drug treatment centres has also been created. The centre has provided valuable inputs for the Government of India's programme planning. Besides clinical studies, research has also focused on pre-clinical studies. Capacity-building is an important priority, with training curricula and resource material being developed for doctors and paramedical staff. Many of these training programmes are conducted in collaboration with other institutions in the country. The NDDTC has received funding from several national and international organizations for research and scientific meetings, and, most recently (2012), it has been designated as a World Health Organization Collaborating Centre on Substance Abuse. © 2012 The Authors, Addiction © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  19. Research of Competitive Orientation Among Secondary School Seniour Students: Current Trends and Prospects for Nurturing (Case Study of Tyumen Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gennady F. Shafranov-Kutsev

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: the priorities of socio-economic development facing our country set new requirements to secondary education; a graduate should not only have a certain amount of knowledge, but also be able to build an effective communication strategy, to be prepared for constant professional self-development, to take the initiative, to interact under conditions of rivalry, in other words, to be competitive. Addressing these issues will contribute to the creation of conditions in which objective requirements of the social system would have found understanding among secondary school students, therefore it is necessary to form competitive thinking. The aim of the study was to consider the factors enabling secondary school students to accept knowledge, values and skills of a competitive person needed for further su stainable development. Materials and Methods: a questionnaire survey of high school students was selected for its reliability and validity in studying competitive skills. The design of the questionnaire was developed by the team of the Sociological Laboratory of the Chair of General and Economic Sociology at Tyumen State University. IBM SPSS Statistics 23 software product was used to process and ana lyse the obtained data. Results: the research provides important insights into the dynamics of the social well-being of secondary school students, defines the main determinants of the formation of skills in competitive environment. The results of this study highlight obstacles to this process as well. Discussion and Conclusions: this paper argues that self-dependent decision-making, critical perception of information, willingness to compete enable to form a competitive personality. The findings from this study have significant potential implications for future educational practice. These research materials are relevant for improving the methods and skills of teaching activities and for development of youth policy. Possible areas for further

  20. Nurturing Students' Strengths: The Impact of a School-Based Student Interpreter Program on Latino/a Students' Reading Comprehension and English Language Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrero, Noah

    2011-01-01

    Framed within the growing population of English language learners (ELLs) in urban schools, this study examined the learning experiences of bilingual Latino/a students who were taught to serve as on-site interpreters at their inner-city K-8 school in California. Participants in the Young Interpreters Program had significantly higher scores in…

  1. Nurturing Individual Potential Through Meaningful Educational Experiences: Peyton Forest Elementary School, 1972-73. Research and Development Reports, Volume 7, Number 34, December, 1973.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addy, Polly; DeBovis, Martin

    There were many indications that Peyton Forest improved their reading program during the 1972-73 school year. These included the following: (1) The pupils had a program in reading that was shown to be effective when compared to other programs within the school system. (2) On skill exercises in contextual and phonetic decoding, the pupils…

  2. JiaZhang Dui ErTong FaZhan TongBan GuanXi De ZuoYong (The Role of Parents in the Development of Peer Group Competence). ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Shirley G.

    Among studies that have examined the relationship between parenting styles and children's development of social skills, the research of Diana Baumrind is noteworthy. In several studies, she has identified authoritarian, permissive, and authoritative parenting styles, which differ on the dimensions of nurturance and parental control. Authoritarian…

  3. Maternal Time Use and Nurturing: Analysis of the Association Between Breastfeeding Practice and Time Spent Interacting with Baby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Julie P; Forrester, Robert

    2017-06-01

    Breastfeeding supports child development through complex mechanisms that are not well understood. Numerous studies have compared how well breastfeeding and nonbreastfeeding mothers interact with their child, but few examine how much interaction occurs. Our study of weekly time use among 156 mothers of infants aged 3-9 months investigated whether lactating mothers spend more time providing emotional support or cognitive stimulation of their infants than nonbreastfeeding mothers, and whether the amount of such interactive time is associated with breastfeeding intensity. Mothers were recruited via mother's and baby groups, infant health clinics, and childcare services, and used an electronic device to record their 24-hour time use for 7 days. Sociodemographic and feeding status data were collected by questionnaire. Statistical analysis using linear mixed modeling and residual maximum likelihood analysis compared maternal time use for those giving "some breastfeeding" and those "not breastfeeding." Analysis was also conducted for more detailed feeding subgroups. Breastfeeding and nonbreastfeeding mothers had broadly similar socioeconomic and demographic characteristics. Breastfeeding was found to be associated with more mother-child interaction time, a difference only partially explained by weekly maternal employment hours or other interactive care activities such as play or reading. This study presents data suggesting that lactating mothers spent significantly more hours weekly on milk feeding and on carrying, holding, or soothing their infant than nonlactating mothers; and on providing childcare. Understanding the mechanisms by which child mental health and development benefits from breastfeeding may have important implications for policies and intervention strategies, and could be usefully informed by suitably designed time use studies.

  4. Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alavi, Amin

    2012-01-01

    reviewing WTO rules addressing development and developing countries and the EU´s application of them......reviewing WTO rules addressing development and developing countries and the EU´s application of them...

  5. Steps Toward Peace and Violence Prevention Across Generations: The Potential of Early Child Development in the Context of the 2030 Sustainable Development Goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leckman, James F; Britto, Pia Rebello

    2018-03-01

    This special issue of New Directions in Child and Adolescent Development features four review articles from authoritative leaders in the field. These articles highlight how far our field has come over the past five decades, as well as how much further effort is needed to refine, adapt, and implement - in a sustainable fashion - responsive parenting and nurturing care programs of proven value across the globe. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Nurturing for Careers in Drug Use and Crime: Conduct Norms for Children and Juveniles in Crack-Using Households

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Bruce D.; Dunlap, Eloise; Maher, Lisa

    2009-01-01

    A very sizable proportion of juvenile delinquents and adult criminals come from backgrounds and family kin systems having deviant parents or kin. This paper provides a focus upon the child-rearing practices directly observed by trained ethnographer during a case study of one highly criminal, drug-using household/kin network. The concrete expectations (and actual practices)—called conduct norms—with which the household adults respond to (or “nurture”) children and juveniles are delineated. While children are taught to “pay attention” to what adults do, adults typically model various deviant activities and rarely engage in conventional behaviors. Drug-using, and especially crack-using, men and women are expected not to raise (or financially support) children born to them; other kin expect to raise children of such unions. Children are not expected, nor able, to develop strong affective bonds with any household adults, and receive little or no psychological parenting. Adults do not take strong measures to protect children/juveniles from harm, and often adults are a major source of harm. In many ways the conduct norms in such crack-using households are well designed to “nurture” those persons who will be antisocial as children, delinquents as juveniles, and become criminals, drug misusers, and prostitutes in adulthood—and who have very few chances to become conventional adults. [Translations are provided in the International Abstracts Section of this issue.] PMID:9657414

  7. Plasticidade sináptica: natureza e cultura moldando o Self Synaptic plasticity: nature and nurture shaping the self

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Donato Oliva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O cérebro em desenvolvimento segue inicialmente um plano genético, estabelecido pela história evolutiva da espécie humana, porém é muito sensível ao ambiente. Estímulos ambientais modificam a estrutura dos circuitos neurais, refinando e tornando as sinapses, alvo de ação dos neurotransmissores, mais eficientes por meio de atividade elétrica e mensageiros químicos. O objetivo desse estudo é discutir teoricamente como a plasticidade e a especificação prévia de sistemas cerebrais coexistem no cérebro. Conclui-se destacando a importância de integrar aspectos de aprendizagem social e da biologia na construção e refinamento das variadas habilidades humanas.The developing brain requires a genetic plan, established by the evolutionary history of human species, but it is also very sensitive to the surrounding environment. Environmental stimuli can modify the structure of neural circuits, refining and making synapses, which are the target of neurotransmitters, more efficient by electrical activity and chemical messengers. The aim of the present study is to discuss theoretically how both plasticity and previous specification of brain systems coexist in the brain. The conclusion shows the importance to integrate aspects of social learning and biology in building and refining the various humane skills.

  8. How do the Institutes on Teaching and Learning (ITLs) nurture the members of the Physiology Educators Community of Practice (PECOP)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Barbara E

    2017-09-01

    Do you teach physiology? Do you use best practices when you teach physiology? Have you ever thought about conducting educational research? Do you need collaborators to help with ideas for educational research or to expand your research populations? The American Physiological Society (APS) Teaching Section has developed a biennial Institute on Teaching and Learning (ITL) through the APS Conference Program to address these issues. The first institute was held in June 2014, and the second institute was held in June 2016. A Physiology Education Community of Practice (PECOP) was created to help connect the institute participants and other physiology educators and to share evidence-based teaching in physiology at all education levels. The 2018 APS ITL will be the next meeting to learn best practices, to share ideas with colleagues, and to find collaborators in improving the teaching of physiology for students. The meeting will include workshops modeling best practices, plenary talks about hot new issues in physiology and science education, and poster sessions and informal meals to discuss interests with colleagues. Even if one's primary responsibility is bench research or administration, the training from the institute will improve efficiency and effectiveness when teaching. The two prior ITLs (2014 and 2016) were highly evaluated by educators of both undergraduate and professional students who spent a week together emphasizing improvement in their teaching. This paper reports the outcomes of the 2016 ITL and encourages participation in the upcoming ITL in Madison, WI, June 18-22, 2018. Watch the APS Conference site for more information about the 2018 ITL (http://www.the-aps.org/mm/Conferences/APS-Conferences). Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  9. Biological and Rearing Mother Influences on Child ADHD Symptoms: Revisiting the Developmental Interface between Nature and Nurture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harold, Gordon T.; Leve, Leslie D.; Barrett, Douglas; Elam, Kit; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Natsuaki, Misaki N.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Reiss, David; Thapar, Anita

    2013-01-01

    Background Families of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) report more negative family relationships than families of children without ADHD. Questions remain as to the role of genetic factors underlying associations between family relationships and children’s ADHD symptoms, and the role of children’s ADHD symptoms as an evocative influence on the quality of relationships experienced within such families. Utilizing the attributes of two genetically sensitive research designs, the present study examined associations between biologically related and non-biologically related maternal ADHD symptoms, parenting practices, child impulsivity/activation, and child ADHD symptoms. The combined attributes of the study designs permit assessment of associations while controlling for passive genotype-environment correlation and directly examining evocative genotype-environment correlation (rGE); two relatively under examined confounds of past research in this area. Methods A cross-sectional adoption-at-conception design (Cardiff IVF Study; C-IVF) and a longitudinal adoption-at-birth design (Early Growth and Development Study; EGDS) were used. The C-IVF sample included 160 mothers and children (age 5–8 years). The EGDS sample included 320 linked sets of adopted children (age 6 years), adoptive-, and biologically-related mothers. Questionnaires were used to assess maternal ADHD symptoms, parenting practices, child impulsivity/activation, and child ADHD symptoms. A cross-rater approach was used across measures of maternal behavior (mother reports) and child ADHD symptoms (father reports). Results Significant associations were revealed between rearing mother ADHD symptoms, hostile parenting behavior, and child ADHD symptoms in both samples. Because both samples consisted of genetically-unrelated mothers and children, passive rGE was removed as a possible explanatory factor underlying these associations. Further, path analysis revealed evidence for

  10. Nurture Versus Nature: Accounting for the Differences Between the Taiwan and Timor active arc-continent collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, R. A.

    2011-12-01

    The active Banda arc/continent collision of the Timor region provides many important contrasts to what is observed in Taiwan, which is mostly a function of differences in the nature of the subducting plate. One of the most important differences is the thermal state of the respective continental margins: 30 Ma China passive margin versus 160 Ma NW Australian continental margin. The subduction of the cold and strong NW Australian passive margin beneath the Banda trench provides many new constraints for resolving longstanding issues about the formative stages of collision and accretion of continental crust. Some of these issues include evidence for slab rollback and subduction erosion, deep continental subduction, emplacement or demise of forearc basement, relative amounts of uplift from crustal vs. lithospheric processes, influence of inherited structure, partitioning of strain away from the thrust front, extent of mélange development, metamorphic conditions and exhumation mechanisms, continental contamination and accretion of volcanic arcs, does the slab tear, and does subduction polarity reverse? Most of these issues link to the profound control of lower plate crustal heterogeneity, thermal state and inherited structure. The thermomechanical characteristics of subducting an old continental margin allow for extensive underthrusting of lower plate cover units beneath the forearc and emplacement and uplift of extensive nappes of forearc basement. It also promotes subduction of continental crust to deep enough levels to experience high pressure metamorphism (not found in Taiwan) and extensive contamination of the volcanic arc. Seismic tomography confirms subduction of continental lithosphere beneath the Banda Arc to at least 400 km with no evidence for slab tear. Slab rollback during this process results in massive subduction erosion and extension of the upper plate. Other differences in the nature of the subducting plates in Taiwan in Timor are differences in the

  11. Task Group 7B: Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms of Biological Aging: The Roles of Nature, Nurture and Chance in the Maintenance of Human Healthspan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weier, Heinz-Ulrich; Arya, Suresh; Grant, Christine; Miller, Linda; Ono, Santa Jeremy; Patil, Chris; Shay, Jerry; Topol, Eric; Torry, Michael; Weier, Heinz-Ulrich G.; Tse, Iris; Lin, Su-Ju; Miller, Richard

    2007-11-14

    The degree to which an individual organism maintains healthspan and lifespan is a function of complex interactions between genetic inheritance ('nature'), environment, including cultural inheritance (nurture) and stochastic events ('luck' or 'chance'). This task group will focus upon the role of chance because it is so poorly understood and because it appears to be of major importance in the determination of individual variations in healthspan and lifespan within species. The major factor determining variations in healthspan and lifespan between species is genetic inheritance. Broader aspects of cellular and molecular mechanisms of biological aging will also be considered, given their importance for understanding the cellular and molecular basis of successful aging. The task force will consider the cellular and molecular basis for nature, nurture and chance in healthspan and life span determination. On the basis of comparisons between identical and non-identical twins, geneticists have estimated that genes control no more than about a quarter of the inter-individual differences in lifespan (Herskind 1996). Twin studies of very old individuals, however, show substantially greater genetic contributions to Healthspan (McClearn 2004; Reed 2003). The environment clearly plays an important role in the length and the quality of life. Tobacco smoke, for example has the potential to impact upon multiple body systems in ways that appear to accelerate the rates at which those systems age (Bernhard 2007). To document the role of chance events on aging, one must rigorously control both the genetic composition of an organism and its environment. This has been done to a remarkable degree in a species of nematodes, Caenorhabditis elegans (Vanfleteren 1998). The results confirm hundreds of previous studies with a wide range of species, especially those with inbred rodents housed under apparently identical but less well controlled environments. One

  12. Nurturing democratic virtues: educators' perspectives

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erna Kinsey

    learning. Disposition to organize/ connect thoughts/ideas. Disposition to listen with empathy to others. Disposition to collaborate well with others. Disposition to be compassionate/kind. Disposition to make own judgements. Disposition to care about.

  13. Supporting rights and nurturing networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilson, Fiona; Eyben, Rosalind

    2006-01-01

    The article explores how a bilateral aid donor (British DFID) managed their organizational and relational work when the local office (in Peru) put rights at the centre of their policy. Taking the example of DFID support to alternative thinking in the health sector, critical questions are raised...

  14. Better Beginnings through Nurturing Touch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storm, Linda; Reese, Suzanne P.

    2005-01-01

    The authors of this article describe how infant massage can promote attachment and greater attunement between very young children and their parents. Infant massage instructors teach parents how to understand babies' states of arousal so they can read and respond appropriately to their cues. The authors detail the process of teaching infant…

  15. Classifying Planets: Nature vs. Nurture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beichman, Charles A.

    2009-05-01

    The idea of a planet was so simple when we learned about the solar system in elementary school. Now students and professional s alike are faced with confusing array of definitions --- from "Brown Dwarfs” to "Super Jupiters", from "Super Earths” to "Terrestrial Planets", and from "Planets” to "Small, Sort-of Round Things That Aren't Really Planets". I will discuss how planets might be defined by how they formed, where they are found, or by the life they might support.

  16. A conceptual model for the development of professional behaviours in occupational therapists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasar, J; Muscari, M E

    2000-02-01

    The ever-changing, dynamic practice environment coupled with increased consumer needs and awareness create an atmosphere that requires optimal professionalism from occupational therapists. Professionalism requires specific knowledge, attitudes, and values--all manifested by professional behaviours. The authors assume that professional behaviours mature through a natural developmental process; a process that requires careful nurturing on the part of educators and clinical supervisors. Based on this assumption, the authors propose this conceptual model based on Erikson's life cycle stages. The model implies that occupational therapy professional behaviours develop sequentially through stages that begin during the educational process of occupational therapists, and progress throughout their career. The purpose of this model is to provide a framework for educators and supervisors to nurture professional behaviours in students and novice clinicians, and to continue their own professional growth.

  17. Investing in the foundation of sustainable development: pathways to scale up for early childhood development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Linda M; Daelmans, Bernadette; Lombardi, Joan; Heymann, Jody; Boo, Florencia Lopez; Behrman, Jere R; Lu, Chunling; Lucas, Jane E; Perez-Escamilla, Rafael; Dua, Tarun; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Stenberg, Karin; Gertler, Paul; Darmstadt, Gary L

    2017-01-07

    Building on long-term benefits of early intervention (Paper 2 of this Series) and increasing commitment to early childhood development (Paper 1 of this Series), scaled up support for the youngest children is essential to improving health, human capital, and wellbeing across the life course. In this third paper, new analyses show that the burden of poor development is higher than estimated, taking into account additional risk factors. National programmes are needed. Greater political prioritisation is core to scale-up, as are policies that afford families time and financial resources to provide nurturing care for young children. Effective and feasible programmes to support early child development are now available. All sectors, particularly education, and social and child protection, must play a role to meet the holistic needs of young children. However, health provides a critical starting point for scaling up, given its reach to pregnant women, families, and young children. Starting at conception, interventions to promote nurturing care can feasibly build on existing health and nutrition services at limited additional cost. Failure to scale up has severe personal and social consequences. Children at elevated risk for compromised development due to stunting and poverty are likely to forgo about a quarter of average adult income per year, and the cost of inaction to gross domestic product can be double what some countries currently spend on health. Services and interventions to support early childhood development are essential to realising the vision of the Sustainable Development Goals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Investing in the foundation of sustainable development: pathways to scale up for early childhood development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Linda M; Daelmans, Bernadette; Lombardi, Joan; Heymann, Jody; Boo, Florencia Lopez; Behrman, Jere R; Lu, Chunling; Lucas, Jane E; Perez-Escamilla, Rafael; Dua, Tarun; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Stenberg, Karin; Gertler, Paul; Darmstadt, Gary L

    2018-01-01

    Building on long-term benefits of early intervention (Paper 2 of this Series) and increasing commitment to early childhood development (Paper 1 of this Series), scaled up support for the youngest children is essential to improving health, human capital, and wellbeing across the life course. In this third paper, new analyses show that the burden of poor development is higher than estimated, taking into account additional risk factors. National programmes are needed. Greater political prioritisation is core to scale-up, as are policies that afford families time and financial resources to provide nurturing care for young children. Effective and feasible programmes to support early child development are now available. All sectors, particularly education, and social and child protection, must play a role to meet the holistic needs of young children. However, health provides a critical starting point for scaling up, given its reach to pregnant women, families, and young children. Starting at conception, interventions to promote nurturing care can feasibly build on existing health and nutrition services at limited additional cost. Failure to scale up has severe personal and social consequences. Children at elevated risk for compromised development due to stunting and poverty are likely to forgo about a quarter of average adult income per year, and the cost of inaction to gross domestic product can be double what some countries currently spend on health. Services and interventions to support early childhood development are essential to realising the vision of the Sustainable Development Goals. PMID:27717610

  19. Developing a culture of philanthropy to support your mission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Christina

    2014-01-01

    Nonprofit organizations and institutions should recognize and embrace the important role that philanthropy plays in our society. The key to success in fund-raising is nurturing a culture of philanthropy in your organization, which means that every member of your community must understand that philanthropy is critical to your mission, that each person has a role to play in fund-raising, and that donors are valued for more than just money. The focus should be on developing lasting relationships between you and your donors-a relationship that develops over time, enables deeper engagement, and ultimately results in more support for your mission. Common pitfalls to avoid are also reviewed.

  20. Search Results | Page 103 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    CASE STUDY: Nepal — A cleaner city and better health in Kathmandu. An entrenched system of social organization, environmental degradation, and poverty have conspired to create a public health crisis in Kathmandu. Webpage.

  1. Proteomic analysis of protein composition of rat forebrain cortex exposed to morphine for 10days; comparison with animals exposed to morphine and subsequently nurtured for 20days in the absence of this drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ujcikova, Hana; Vosahlikova, Miroslava; Roubalova, Lenka; Svoboda, Petr

    2016-08-11

    Proteomic analysis was performed in post-nuclear supernatant fraction (PNS) prepared from forebrain cortex of rats exposed to increasing doses of morphine (10-50mg/kg) for 10days and sacrificed 24h (group +M10) or 20days (group +M10/-M20) after the last dose of morphine. PNS fraction was resolved by 2D-ELFO and stained by CBB. Analysis of the difference between (+M10) and (-M10) samples of PNS by PDQuest accompanied by MALDI-TOF MS/MS indicated the significant change of 28 proteins. Importantly, the number of altered proteins was decreased to 14 after 20days of nurturing animals in the absence of morphine. This new and important finding indicating the ability of mammalian organism to return to physiological norm after removal of the drug was verified by an independent methodology - gel-free & label-free quantification and normalization procedure denominated as MaxLFQ. The 113 proteins were identified as altered by morphine in (+M10) samples when compared with (-M10) samples of PNS and this number was decreased to 19 after 20days of nurturing the animals in the absence of this drug. Forebrain cortex of rats exposed to morphine for 10days is severely altered as far as the overall protein composition is involved. Depending on the method used for protein detection and quantification, 28 (MALDI-TOF MS/MS) or 113 (MaxLFQ) altered proteins were identified. Importantly, in rats sacrificed 20days after the last dose of morphine, the number of altered proteins was decreased to 14 (MALDI-TOF MS/MS) and 19 (MaxLFQ), respectively. Our data indicate the high ability of living organism to oppose the drastic, morphine-induced change of the target tissue protein composition with the aim to return to the physiological norm after complete removal of the drug. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Pathways to lean software development: An analysis of effective methods of change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Richard D.

    This qualitative Delphi study explored the challenges that exist in delivering software on time, within budget, and with the original scope identified. The literature review identified many attempts over the past several decades to reform the methods used to develop software. These attempts found that the classical waterfall method, which is firmly entrenched in American business today was to blame for this difficulty (Chatterjee, 2010). Each of these proponents of new methods sought to remove waste, lighten out the process, and implement lean principles in software development. Through this study, the experts evaluated the barriers to effective development principles and defined leadership qualities necessary to overcome these barriers. The barriers identified were issues of resistance to change, risk and reward issues, and management buy-in. Thirty experts in software development from several Fortune 500 companies across the United States explored each of these issues in detail. The conclusion reached by these experts was that visionary leadership is necessary to overcome these challenges.

  3. Social justice: The link between trade liberalisation and sub-Saharan Africa's potential to achieve the United Nations Millennium Development Goals by 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Chigara, B

    2008-01-01

    Copyright © 2008 Netherlands Institute of Human Rights (SIM). The possible impact of the unintended worst possible effects of the current multilateral WTO sponsored trade liberalisation project on Sub-Saharan Africa’s potential to realise the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) by the target date of 2015 is examined. The article shows that the WTO’s current approach to trade liberalisation is nurturing and strengthening economic inequalities between and within economic regions ...

  4. Spatial politics and infrastructure development: Analysis of historical transportation data in Gauteng - South Africa (1975–2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McKay Tracey

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available If South Africa’s Gauteng Province is to become a more ‘sustainable’, urbanised region, attention needs to be paid to building a transportation network that aligns with sustainable development principles. Currently, public transport passenger levels are low, whilst the geographical area it serves is large and becoming larger. This study analysed the long term, historical transportation trends of Gauteng by comparing four transport studies undertaken between 1975 and 2003. It reveals that an adherence to the ‘predict and provide’ transportation planning model has systematically enhanced road infrastructure over rail, and private over public transport. Effective, efficient and low cost public transport has been systematically under-provisioned; while a reliance on private vehicles is now entrenched and systemic. Racial segregation, spatial apartheid and weak urban land use planning, has resulted in an entrenched, low-density urban sprawl. Lastly, there is the need to collect comparable, longitudinal transportation data, if the successes and failures of policies are to be monitored.

  5. The Role of Governmental Policies in Nurturing the Pharmaceutical Industry in Brazil: The Mix of Centralized Procurement, Public Drug Production and Public-private Partnerships

    OpenAIRE

    SORTE, JUNIOR Waldemiro Francisco

    2012-01-01

    Th World Health Organization estimates that only approximately one third of the world population have regular access to essential medication. Most of the deprived households are in developing countries. Studies on the pharmaceutical industry are thus particularly relevant for improving the health situation of the developing world and to increase new drug development for diseases that afflict the poor. Furthermore, as a knowledge-intensive sector, the pharmaceutical industry is of strategic im...

  6. Integrating nutrition and child development interventions: scientific basis, evidence of impact, and implementation considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Maureen M; Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael; Rao, Sylvia Fernandez

    2015-11-01

    The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) have contributed to unprecedented reductions in poverty and improvement in the lives of millions of men, women, and children in low- and middle-income countries. Yet, hundreds of millions of children under 5 y of age are not reaching their developmental potential. This article reviews the scientific basis for early childhood nutrition and child development interventions, the impact of integrated interventions on children's linear growth and cognitive development, and implementation strategies for integrated nutrition and child development programs. Advances in brain science have documented that the origins of adult health and well-being are grounded in early childhood, from conception through age 24 mo (first 1000 d) and extending to age 5 y (second 1000 d). Young children with adequate nutrition, nurturant caregiving, and opportunities for early learning have the best chances of thriving. Evidence from adoption, experimental, and quasi-experimental studies has shown that stunting prevention is sensitive during the first 1000 d, and sensitivity to child development interventions extends through the second 1000 d. Cognitive development responds to interventions post–1000 d with effect sizes that are inversely associated with initial age and length of program exposure. Integrated interventions need governance structures that support integrated policies and programming, with attention to training, supervision, and monitoring. The MDGs have been replaced by the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), with targets for the next 15 y. Achievement of the SDGs depends on children receiving adequate nutrition, nurturant caregiving, and learning opportunities from conception through age 5.

  7. Okaholo: Contract labour system and lessons for post colonial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These aspects are relevant when exploring the exploitation and attempts at totalitarian control by the colonial administration that nurtured class consciousness and political militancy. The exploitative and repressive conditions entrenched in the contract labour system persisted since the inception of Kavango and Ovambo ...

  8. The potent lever of toil: nursing development and exportation in the postcolonial Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brush, Barbara L

    2010-09-01

    Although the colonial relationship between the Philippines and the United States precipitated nurse education and migration patterns that exist today, little is known about the factors that sustained them. During the first half of the twentieth century, for example, the Philippines trained its nurse workforce primarily for domestic use. After the country's independence in 1946, however, that practice reversed. Nurse education in the Philippines was driven largely by US market demand in tandem with local messages linking work and nationalism and explicit policies to send nurses abroad. As these ideologies and practices became firmly entrenched, nurse production not only exceeded the country's numerical requirements but focused largely on preparing practitioners for the health care needs of developed nations rather than the public health needs of the indigenous population. This historical trend has important present-day ramifications for the Philippines, whose continued exodus of nurses threatens its public health.

  9. Compatibility between the Millennium Development Goals and the Global Development Discourse: PERSPECTIVES FROM ZIMBABWE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tendai Chiguware

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Millennium Development Goals were a rather a bold initiate meant to curtail rising levels of poverty in developing countries. While the intention of the MDGs has been roundly praised, what has beenquestioned is the capacity of the respective governments to implement and achieve the stated goals. Conceptually, there were also questions about a program with uniform indicators that did not take cognisance of disparities within countries. However, the design of the MDGs did not raise as much questions as the execution of them. In recent, there have also been questions on the possibility and efficacy of achieving the MDG. While there were always doubts about the capacity of the international community to raise the requisite resources to achieve the MDGs, there were always undercurrents of the capacity of beneficiary countries to implement the goals. Further, the study argues that the prevailing development discourse in Zimbabwe entrenched in the use and dependence of donor agencies and their respective implementing NGOs further reduced the chances of the MDGs, and consequently, sustainable development ever being achieved in the country.

  10. The importance of touch in the development of attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duhn, Lenora

    2010-12-01

    Until recently the role of human touch in the social world of the developing infant has not been given special attention. Instead the focus, in part due to John Bowlby's Attachment Theory, has centered on the critical need for a child to develop a secure attachment to his caregiver. To be sure, this has provided a valuable contribution to understanding and promoting a child's well-being in his early years and beyond. Yet Bowlby's theory is limited in its discussion of the meaning of human touch and its role in development of attachment. As such, it now becomes more critical to delve into the factors that significantly foster development of attachment, specifically the concept of human touch. With recognition of the importance for a child to develop secure attachment to his caregiver, the essential function that human nurturing touch provides in facilitating that connection is explored.

  11. Guidelines for Developing Successful Short Advanced Courses in Systems Medicine and Systems Biology

    KAUST Repository

    Gomez-Cabrero, David

    2017-08-23

    Summary Systems medicine and systems biology have inherent educational challenges. These have largely been addressed either by providing new masters programs or by redesigning undergraduate programs. In contrast, short courses can respond to a different need: they can provide condensed updates for professionals across academia, the clinic, and industry. These courses have received less attention. Here, we share our experiences in developing and providing such courses to current and future leaders in systems biology and systems medicine. We present guidelines for how to reproduce our courses, and we offer suggestions for how to select students who will nurture an interdisciplinary learning environment and thrive there.

  12. Intractable self-fulfilling prophecies fifty years after Brown v. Board of Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Rhona S; Gregory, Anne; Strambler, Michael J

    2004-09-01

    The civil rights struggle for equal educational opportunity has yet to be achieved at the start of the 21st century. Inequality persists but problem and remedy are refrained from integrating schools, to ensuring equal access in resegregated settings, to closing the performance gap. As seen through ecological theory (R. S. Weinstein, 2002b), complex, multilayered, and interactive negative self-fulfilling prophecies create or perpetuate educational inequities and unequal outcomes. Society has failed to grapple with its entrenched roots in the achievement culture of schools. If this insidious dynamic is to be changed, an educational system that sorts for differentiated pathways must be replaced with one that develops the talents of all. Psychology has a critical role to play in promoting a new understanding of malleable human capabilities and optimal conditions for their nurturance in schooling. ((c) 2004 APA, all rights reserved)

  13. Fomentar la libertad de expresión con la alfabetización mediática mundial Nurturing Freedom of Expression through Teaching Global Media Literacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Moeller

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available La libertad de expresión es cuestión de vida o muerte. Los medios de comunicación independientes cumplen un rol central en el mantenimiento de un gobierno adecuado, así como en el fomento del desarrollo económico y en el apoyo a la transparencia corporativa y la rendición de cuentas. Por otro lado, los estudiantes de todo el mundo necesitan comprender la influencia de los medios para formular sus problemas y sus posibles soluciones. La Academia Salzburgo de los Medios de Comunicación y los Cambios Mundiales ha sido punto de encuentro para que Universidades de todo el mundo, organizaciones mediáticas e instituciones internacionales (como la ONU y la UNESCO hayan colaborado en construir un programa curricular para la alfabetización mediática mundial, con ejercicios y recursos para enseñar a ver y escuchar los medios, actuar ante los medios, a través de los medios, e incluso creando sus propios medios de comunicación social. Los materiales son elaborados por y para una comunidad mundial, con el fin de preparar a estudiantes en todo el mundo a cumplir roles activos e incluyentes en la sociedad de la información. Freedom of expression is both a life and death matter and a bread and butter issue. Free media that allow a diversity of voices to be heard and all ideas to be discussed play a central role in the sustaining and monitoring of good government, as well as in the fostering of economic development and the encouraging of corporate transparency and accountability. Students in both developed and developing nations need to understand that there is no global issue or political arena in which the statement of problems and the framing of possible solutions are not influenced by media coverage. The Salzburg Academy on Media and Global Change is the meeting point where universities from around the world, media organizations and international institutions such as the UN and UNESCO have worked jointly for the first time in order to build a

  14. Sustaining the emerging carbon trading industry development: A business ecosystem approach of carbon traders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Guangyu; Rong, Ke; Shi, Yongjiang; Yu, Jing

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores how carbon traders nurture the business ecosystem to sustain the emerging carbon trading industry development. We collected primary data from a multinational carbon trader and its ecosystem partners in China, through the construction of interviews and documentary. The research findings show the carbon trading industry has experienced four-stage evolution with different driving forces; the carbon trader attracted and organized ecosystem partners to facilitate the CDM project owners to create carbon credits and trade them; a systematic business ecosystems approach through the lens of Context, Cooperation and Configuration, initiated by carbon traders, has facilitated the industry development. Our findings also implicate to industrial practitioners and policymakers for sustaining the emerging industry development at both the current- and the post-Kyoto protocol periods. - Highlights: • The carbon trader is a catalyst to link CDM project owner and trading market in China • The evolution of carbon trading industry has four stages with various driving forces. • Nurturing business ecosystems facilitates the carbon trading industry development. • The ecosystem approach works via the lens of Context, Configuration and Cooperation. • The ecosystem approach implicates to carbon trading industry at the post-Kyoto era

  15. A Model for Physician Leadership Development and Succession Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubinsky, Isser; Feerasta, Nadia; Lash, Rick

    2015-01-01

    Although the presence of physicians in formal leadership positions has often been limited to roles of department chiefs, MAC chairs, etc., a growing number of organizations are recruiting physicians to other leadership positions (e.g., VP, CEO) where their involvement is being genuinely sought and valued. While physicians have traditionally risen to leadership positions based on clinical excellence or on a rotational basis, truly effective physician leadership that includes competencies such as strategic planning, budgeting, mentoring, network development, etc., is essential to support organizational goals, improve performance and overall efficiency as well as ensuring the quality of care. In this context, the authors have developed a physician leader development and succession planning matrix and supporting toolkit to assist hospitals in identifying and nurturing the next generation of physician leaders.

  16. Addiction research centres and the nurturing of creativity
department of addictive behaviour and addiction medicine, central institute of Mental Health, Mannheim, University of Heidelberg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Karl

    2010-12-01

    Addictive behaviour is as prevalent in Germany as in other western countries, but in contrast to some European countries and the United States, very little money was given to this research field. Change came in the early 1990s, when the German government started to launch specific grants for addiction research. The first chair in addiction research was created in 1999 (Karl Mann) at the Central Institute of Mental Health Mannheim (CIMH; University of Heidelberg). The recruitment of a pre-clinical alcohol researcher as head of the department of psychopharmacology followed (Rainer Spanagel). This 'addiction research cluster' collaborates with several research groups at the CIMH (such as genetics). We inaugurated a clinical trial network which now comprises up to 20 treatment centres throughout Germany. Like most authors, we found effect sizes of different treatment modalities more in the low to moderate range, perhaps because of the heterogeneity of large patient samples. Therefore, we concentrated upon the biological basis of addiction in order to define more homogeneous 'subtypes' of patients for a better match with existing treatments. Results concerning genetics and neuroimaging (both animal and human) are promising, and could move our field towards a more personalized treatment approach. Our funding has been extended over the years, including involvement in several large European grants. We are studying substance-related problems as well as so-called 'behavioural addictions'. As a natural consequence of this development, we are deeply involved both in informing the general public on addiction issues as well as in counselling policy makers in Germany. © 2010 The Author, Addiction © 2010 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  17. Sustainable development and low carbon growth strategy for India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parikh, Kirit

    2012-01-01

    For India, sustainable strategy means one that is economically, environmentally and socially sustainable. This calls for rapid economic growth to deal with poverty and human development. However, the relatively meagre energy resources of the country pose a huge challenge. At the same time concern for climate change has raised the bar on the use of the one energy resource that India has in some abundance, namely coal. India's strategy for sustainable development has to explore all options of reducing energy needs, enhancing efficiency of use of conventional energy resources and develop new and renewable sources. The paper identifies various technical options, their potential roles and alternative policy measures to realize them in a cost effective manner. Even for the same objectives different policy instruments are available and how one chooses a particular instrument is often critical for the success. Self-implementing incentive compatible policy that does not create vested interests that would get entrenched should be preferred. -- Highlights: ► Energy efficiency is critical for sustainable development. ► India can reduce its emission intensity by 25 % by 2020 as proposed by India at Copenhagen. ► With a more aggressive effort even 35% reduction is attainable even with 8% or 9% growth. ► Energy efficient appliances, vehicles, buildings and industrial processes are needed. ► Policies that incentivize adoption of these pose critical challenges.

  18. The EU in light of IMF reform: loans as a means of entrenchment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Kissack

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2010, the IMF Board of Governors approved the Fourteenth General Review of Quotas, which proposes significant redistribution of voting power, displacing it from the «over-represented» European states towards the «under-represented» emerging market countries. The results, once the changes are applied, will put the four BRIC countries (Brazil, Russia, India and China among the ten largest contributors to the IMF. Using the analytical framework proposed by Barbé et al. (2014, this article considers the recent changes in the light of the collapse of the Bretton Woods system in 1971, the transition to soft loans and the restructuring of sovereign debt. Given that the enormous loans to bailout Greece, Ireland and Portugal recommend continuing to use the IMF to promote the interests of the EU, it is argued that it is too early to speak of European decline at the heart of the Fund.

  19. Religious Education after Conflicts: Promoting Social Cohesion or Entrenching Existing Cleavages?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Giuditta

    2016-01-01

    This article considers initiatives to reform religious education after violent identity-based conflicts in Lebanon, Northern Ireland and Macedonia. The Taif Agreement, the Belfast Agreement and the Ohrid Agreement mapped extensive education reforms and established consociational power-sharing in the three jurisdictions, altering state identity and…

  20. Entrenchment of the Status Quo in the Arab-Israeli Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-08-01

    focus of my research and accuracy of detail. Finally, Dr. Sadok Masliyah, chairman of the Hebrew department at the Defense Language Institute and...1960s, a revolutionary-radical group comprised of Egypt, Syria, Iraq, Algeria , Yemen and South Yemen were aligned against a coalition of opposing...the following: Algeria , Bahrain, Djibouti, Iran, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan

  1. The word frequency effect in first- and second-language word recognition: A lexical entrenchment account

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diependaele, K.; Lemhöfer, K.M.L.; Brysbaert, M.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the origin of differences in the word frequency effect between native speakers and second-language speakers. In a large-scale analysis of English word identification times we find that group-level differences are fully accounted for by the individual language proficiency scores.

  2. Inclusive Education and the "No Child Left Behind Act": Resisting Entrenchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulgin, Kathleen Maria; Drake, Bob M.

    2011-01-01

    This article examines inclusive education in view of the current US policy climate. The "No Child Left Behind Act" provides the opportunity to examine dominant social forces and the underlying theories of mechanism and positivism that run counter to a constructivist approach to inclusive education. The incompatibility of these theories…

  3. Nurturing Global Education in Its Infancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolansky, William D.

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the what, why, and how global education can be infused in the curriculum and classroom instruction K-16. The article is intended to provide a synthesis of many ideas expressed by numerous authors and an approach for organization of key concepts into a particular subject for classroom instruction.

  4. Art Institute Nurtures New Generation of Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filemyr, Ann

    2009-01-01

    Last year at the Institute of American Indian Arts (IAIA), President Robert Martin (Cherokee) led the faculty, staff, students, alumni, board members, and donors though a strategic planning process that resulted in a number of important new directions. Among these was a new mission statement to guide their work. Like most tribal educational…

  5. Nurturing a Self-Help Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marsha A. Schubert

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In April 1987, the parent of a child who was both learning disabled and intellectually gifted and talented and a professional educator (the author founded Parents of Gifted and Learning-Disabled Students of Northern Virginia, a self-help group for people who were dealing with the challenges posed by such children. The article begins with a background explaining the need for such a group followed by a history of the group and a description of how it functioned. It then details ways in which the author and the group interacted over the course of 5 years. A major component of this interaction was the members’ partnering in a research study with the author—a process now known as participatory action research (PAR—and the outcomes of that partnership.

  6. Nurturing Medical Professionalism in the Surgical Community

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    with a rewarding or recognition (69.5%). The reliability test of the items showed a Cronbach's α ... publicity may bring about cognitive dissonance as was described by Festinger, but through the community .... sees the good in what you do; some level of recognition can motivate you” FGDR-1. Fostering professionalism ...

  7. Nurturing Creative Thinking. Educational Practices Series-25

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampylis, Panagiotis; Berki, Eleni

    2014-01-01

    Helping people flourish is an organic and unpredictable process. Like a farmer sowing seeds, someone creates conditions for children to grow as creative and critical thinkers. Creativity cannot be taught "directly", but educational practice can provide the means, opportunities and a fertile environment for the creative mind to flourish.…

  8. [Pathophysiology of myopia: nature versus nurture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassagne, M; Malecaze, F; Soler, V

    2014-05-01

    Myopia is the most frequent refractive disorder in the world. It has become a real Public Health problem, due to its frequency and to high myopia-related blinding complications. Myopic progression depends on genetic and environmental factors. Genetic studies have identified more than forty candidate genes that take part in pathophysiological pathways, from retinal phototransduction to axial lengthening via scleral remodelling. Environmental factors also influence scleral remodelling by way of visual perception. In the case of predominant attention to near tasks, a physiological feedback loop leads to axial growth. This phenomenon, called active emmetropization, is particularly obvious in animal models and in some human populations. To date, research has failed to identify a molecule common to all the implicated metabolic pathways which could be a target for an effective preventive treatment against myopic progression. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. NURTURING PROFESSIONAL SOCIAL WORK IN MALAWI

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Author details: Lecturer in Social Work, Sociology Department, Chancellor College, University of Malawi, P.O. Box 280, Zomba, Malawi. ... sociology and other social sciences and sent for professional training at Swansea University in Wales. .... Social work and a new South Africa: Can social workers meet the challenge?

  10. Nurturing Medical Professionalism in the Surgical Community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: The teaching of professionalism worldwide is changing for effectiveness. Our aim was to explore the reflection of the surgical teaching community in a Kenyan context on how professionalism can be effectively inculcated through the socio-cultural concept of activity theory. Methods: A sequential mixed-methods ...

  11. Nurturing Learning in Native American Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Robert W.

    This book helps teachers of Native American students to facilitate learning in school through awareness of cultural and values differences between Native Americans and the mainstream culture. Most of the specific cultural information presented comes from the Navajo and Hopi Reservations in northeastern Arizona, but the associated ideas,…

  12. Nature vs. nurture: gold perpetuates "stemness".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Willi; Sharma, Chandra P; Deb, Kaushik Dilip

    2011-01-01

    Adult tissues contain quiescent reservoirs of multipotent somatic stem cells and pluripotent embryonic-like stem cells (ELSCs). Credited with regenerative properties gold is used across both -contemporary and -ancient medicines. Here, we show that gold exerted these effects by enhancing the pool of pluripotent ELSC while improving their stemness. We used hESCs as an in-vitro model to understand if gold could enhance self-renewal and pluripotency. Swarna-bhasma (SB), an ancient Indian gold microparticulate (41.1 nm), preparation, reduced spontaneous-differentiation, improved self-renewal, pluripotency and proliferation of hESCs. Colloidal gold-nanoparticles (GNP) (15.59 nm) were tested to confirm that the observations were attributable to nanoparticulate-gold. SB and GNP exposure: maintained -stemness, -karyotypic stability, enhanced pluripotency till day-12, increased average colony-sizes, and reduced the number of autonomously-derived differentiated FGFR1 positive fibroblast-niche-cells/colony. Particulate-gold induced upregulation of FGFR1 and IGF2 expression, and decrease in IGF1 secretion indicates IGF1/2 mediated support for enhanced pluripotency and self-renewal in hESCs.

  13. Nurturing communities of practice for transdisciplinary research

    OpenAIRE

    Georgina Cundill; Dirk J. Roux; John N. Parker

    2015-01-01

    Transdisciplinary research practice has become a core element of global sustainability science. Transdisciplinary research brings with it an expectation that people with different backgrounds and interests will learn together through collective problem solving and innovation. Here we introduce the concept of "transdisciplinary communities of practice, " and draw on both situated learning theory and transdisciplinary practice to identify three key lessons for people working in, managing, or fu...

  14. Epigenetics: the link between nature and nurture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tammen, Stephanie A; Friso, Simonetta; Choi, Sang-Woon

    2013-01-01

    While the eukaryotic genome is the same throughout all somatic cells in an organism, there are specific structures and functions that discern one type of cell from another. These differences are due to the cell's unique gene expression patterns that are determined during cellular differentiation. Interestingly, these cell-specific gene expression patterns can be affected by an organism's environment throughout its lifetime leading to phenotypical changes that have the potential of altering risk of some diseases. Both cell-specific gene expression signatures and environment mediated changes in expression patterns can be explained by a complex network of modifications to the DNA, histone proteins and degree of DNA packaging called epigenetic marks. Several areas of research have formed to study these epigenetic modifications, including DNA methylation, histone modifications, chromatin remodeling and microRNA (miRNA). The original definition of epigenetics incorporates inheritable but reversible phenomena that affect gene expression without altering base pairs. Even though not all of the above listed epigenetic traits have demonstrated heritability, they can all alter gene transcription without modification to the underlying genetic sequence. Because these epigenetic patterns can also be affected by an organism's environment, they serve as an important bridge between life experiences and phenotypes. Epigenetic patterns may change throughout one's lifespan, by an early life experience, environmental exposure or nutritional status. Epigenetic signatures influenced by the environment may determine our appearance, behavior, stress response, disease susceptibility, and even longevity. The interaction between types of epigenetic modifications in response to environmental factors and how environmental cues affect epigenetic patterns will further elucidate how gene transcription can be affectively altered. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Developmental Idealism: The Cultural Foundations of World Development Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Arland; Dorius, Shawn F; Swindle, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    This paper extends theory and research concerning cultural models of development beyond family and demographic matters to a broad range of additional factors, including government, education, human rights, daily social conventions, and religion. Developmental idealism is a cultural model-a set of beliefs and values-that identifies the appropriate goals of development and the ends for achieving these goals. It includes beliefs about positive cause and effect relationships among such factors as economic growth, educational achievement, health, and political governance, as well as strong values regarding many attributes, including economic growth, education, small families, gender equality, and democratic governance. This cultural model has spread from its origins among the elites of northwest Europe to elites and ordinary people throughout the world. Developmental idealism has become so entrenched in local, national, and global social institutions that it has now achieved a taken-for-granted status among many national elites, academics, development practitioners, and ordinary people around the world. We argue that developmental idealism culture has been a fundamental force behind many cultural clashes within and between societies, and continues to be an important cause of much global social change. We suggest that developmental idealism should be included as a causal factor in theories of human behavior and social change.

  16. Publications | Page 46 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 451 - 460 of 6373 ... Vocational education and training (VET) and labour market inequality : experiences in India and Brazil; project paper H (d) (open access). Inequalities in labour markets are entrenched in both Brazil and India, though different in nature and degree. Over the last decade, vocational training has ...

  17. Search Results | Page 849 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2006-11-14

    Results 8481 - 8490 of 8491 ... They are the familiar images of global trade talks: streets turned into battle zones, conference centres into fortresses. Entrenched positions on both sides of the barricades have effectively stifled public debate on trade liberalization. Published date. November 14, 2006. Research in Action.

  18. Gender | Page 240 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    An entrenched system of social organization, environmental degradation, and poverty have conspired to create a public health crisis in Kathmandu. Waterborne and helminthic diseases are rampant, as are respiratory and digestive illnesses. But the situation is improving dramatically for the city's poor, thanks to a unique ...

  19. Search Results | Page 850 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 8491 - 8496 of 8496 ... Trade liberalization: Poverty's friend or foe? They are the familiar ... Putting Guatemala's justice system on trial. Research in Action ... in Kathmandu. An entrenched system of social organization, environmental degradation, and poverty have conspired to create a public health crisis in Kathmandu.

  20. Developing the digital economy in French rural regions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Moriset

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the middle of the 2000s, public interest in telework is rising. Many peripheral communities in developed countries have been showing a renewed interest for telecenters, facilities dedicated to the hosting and nurturing of teleworkers and IT-enabled small firms. These facilities offer IT gear and services that individuals and small enterprises could not afford such as DSL symmetrical telecommunications, a videoconferencing system, secretarial and concierge services. Telecenters have a small economic impact on local communities. Many of them have failed to attract a significant number of teleworkers. However, some are successful, and should be regarded as "living labs" of the digital economy in rural areas, and parts of broader economic revitalization plans which endeavor to widen and strengthen the local economic base.

  1. Comparative and sociological perspectives on Third World development and education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simkin, Keith

    1981-12-01

    Insofar as there has been any coherent theoretical basis for orthodox comparative education during the 1970's, it has derived from American modernisation theories of the 1960's. The weak explanatory power of these theories and the inability of most Third World countries to solve their educational problems have led to a growing pessimism about educational planning and increasing attention to nonformal, lifelong and distance education programs concerned with literacy and rural development. New intellectual currents during the 1970's created several alternatives to orthodox comparative education. The most important of these, based on dependency theory, has partly reduced the ethnocentrism of comparative research, but national traditions are still strongly entrenched. Comparative education based on either modernisation or dependency theories is still ill-equipped to provide Third World countries with either an understanding of the international context of their educational problems or an appropriate set of guidelines for educational planning. Both orthodox and radical varieties of comparative education are forms of cultural imperialism, against which Third World countries need to develop their own, more appropriate, traditions of comparative research.

  2. Partnerships for development: municipal solid waste management in Kasese, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, David; Drysdale, David; Hansen, Kenneth; Vanhille, Josefine; Wolf, Andreas

    2014-11-01

    Municipal solid waste management systems of many developing countries are commonly constrained by factors such as limited financial resources and poor governance, making it a difficult proposition to break with complex, entrenched and unsustainable technologies and systems. This article highlights strategic partnerships as a way to affect a distributed agency among several sets of stakeholders to break so-called path dependencies, which occur when such unsustainable pathways arise, stabilize and become self-reinforcing over time. Experiences from a North-South collaborative effort provide some lessons in such partnership building: In Uganda and Denmark, respectively, the World Wildlife Fund and the network organization access2innovation have mobilized stakeholders around improving the municipal solid waste management system in Kasese District. Through a municipal solid waste management system characterization and mapping exercise, some emergent lessons and guiding principles in partnership building point to both pitfalls and opportunities for designing sustainable pathways. First, socio-technical lock-in effects in the municipal solid waste management system can stand in the way of partnerships based on introducing biogas or incineration technologies. However, opportunities in the municipal solid waste management system can exist within other areas, and synergies can be sought with interlinking systems, such as those represented with sanitation. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. Integrating Nutrition and Child Development Interventions: Scientific Basis, Evidence of Impact, and Implementation Considerations123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Maureen M; Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael; Fernandez Rao, Sylvia

    2015-01-01

    The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) have contributed to unprecedented reductions in poverty and improvement in the lives of millions of men, women, and children in low- and middle-income countries. Yet, hundreds of millions of children under 5 y of age are not reaching their developmental potential. This article reviews the scientific basis for early childhood nutrition and child development interventions, the impact of integrated interventions on children’s linear growth and cognitive development, and implementation strategies for integrated nutrition and child development programs. Advances in brain science have documented that the origins of adult health and well-being are grounded in early childhood, from conception through age 24 mo (first 1000 d) and extending to age 5 y (second 1000 d). Young children with adequate nutrition, nurturant caregiving, and opportunities for early learning have the best chances of thriving. Evidence from adoption, experimental, and quasi-experimental studies has shown that stunting prevention is sensitive during the first 1000 d, and sensitivity to child development interventions extends through the second 1000 d. Cognitive development responds to interventions post–1000 d with effect sizes that are inversely associated with initial age and length of program exposure. Integrated interventions need governance structures that support integrated policies and programming, with attention to training, supervision, and monitoring. The MDGs have been replaced by the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), with targets for the next 15 y. Achievement of the SDGs depends on children receiving adequate nutrition, nurturant caregiving, and learning opportunities from conception through age 5. PMID:26875208

  4. From needs to goals and representations: Foundations for a unified theory of motivation, personality, and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dweck, Carol S

    2017-11-01

    Drawing on both classic and current approaches, I propose a theory that integrates motivation, personality, and development within one framework, using a common set of principles and mechanisms. The theory begins by specifying basic needs and by suggesting how, as people pursue need-fulfilling goals, they build mental representations of their experiences (beliefs, representations of emotions, and representations of action tendencies). I then show how these needs, goals, and representations can serve as the basis of both motivation and personality, and can help to integrate disparate views of personality. The article builds on this framework to provide a new perspective on development, particularly on the forces that propel development and the roles of nature and nurture. I argue throughout that the focus on representations provides an important entry point for change and growth. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Characteristics of activities that affect the development of women's same-sex relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis-Delano, Laurel R

    2014-01-01

    The author utilized semistructured interviews with 56 women to explore how a wide range of activities affected the development of the participants' same-sex attractions and relationships. The researcher was able to identify and describe some aspects of the process by which eight characteristics of activities that are more or less present in various social contexts have the potential to impact whether these contexts are more or less conducive or hindering to the development of women's same-sex attractions and relationships. Activities were more apt to nurture the development of the participants' same-sex attractions and relationships when the activity (a) included lesbians, (b) was composed primarily of women, (c) affirmed women, (d) facilitated bonding, (e) featured a climate of acceptance of lesbians/gays/bisexuals, (f) did not feature a climate that emphasized heteronormativity, (g) was perceived as gender neutral, and (h) generated or drew participants who were similar to each other.

  6. Development and Evaluation of a Positive Youth Development Course for University Students in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel T. L. Shek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available With higher education, university graduates are important elements of the labor force in knowledge-based economies. With reference to the mental health and developmental problems in university students, there is a need to review university’s role in nurturing holistic development of students. Based on the positive youth development approach, it is argued that promoting intrapersonal competencies is an important strategy to facilitate holistic development of young people in Hong Kong. In The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, a course entitled Tomorrow’s Leader focusing on positive youth development constructs to promote student well-being will be offered on a compulsory basis starting from 2012/13 academic year under the new undergraduate curriculum structure. The proposed course was piloted in 2010/11 school year. Different evaluation strategies, including objective outcome evaluation, subjective outcome evaluation, process evaluation, and qualitative evaluation, are being carried out to evaluate the developed course. Preliminary evaluation findings based on the piloting experience in 2010/11 academic year are presented in this paper.

  7. Agencification of Public Service Delivery in Developing Societies: Experiences of Pakistan and Tanzania Agency Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friday Francis Nchukwe

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Agencification is not a new phenomenon in the public sector. However, since 1980s in developing societies, not only the number of new agencies has gone up but, the existing agencies have also been revitalized under the rubric of New Public Management capsulated in World Bank/IMF’s guided governance and administrative reforms. These agencies have been created in an administrative system which has weak political institutions but well entrenched bureaucracy with strong colonial bureaucratic traditions such as centralization of power exercised by a class of senior bureaucrats occupying top positions in federal ministries. The article examines agencification in developing countries with particular reference to Pakistan and Tanzania agency model. It noted that agencification in developing countries was rarely, if ever, pursued within a systemic conceptual and legal framework, but agencies are often seen as an alternative to already existing state-owned companies which are plagued with corruption. The article therefore draws some observations and remedial actions for improvement in the performance of public sector organisations in developing countries in general and Africa in particular. It concludes that while most government ministries in developing societies cannot trigger public sector transformation due to a lack of performance improvement, agencies are unlikely to do so because of the particular autonomy of the administrative systems in which they are embedded.

  8. The negative effects of poverty & food insecurity on child development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilton, Mariana; Chyatte, Michelle; Breaux, Jennifer

    2007-10-01

    This paper addresses the importance of the first three years of life to the developing child, examines the importance of early childhood nutrition and the detrimental effects on child health and development due to poverty and food insecurity. As development experts learn more about the importance of the first three years of life, there is growing recognition that investments in early education, maternal-child attachment and nurturance, and more creative nutrition initiatives are critical to help break the cycle of poverty. Even the slightest forms of food insecurity can affect a young child's development and learning potential. The result is the perpetuation of another generation in poverty. Conceptualizing the poorly developed child as an embodiment of injustice helps ground the two essential frameworks needed to address food insecurity and child development: the capability approach and the human rights framework. The capability approach illuminates the dynamics that exist between poverty and child development through depicting poverty as capability deprivation and hunger as failure in the system of entitlements. The human rights framework frames undernutrition and poor development of young children as intolerable for moral and legal reasons, and provides a structure through which governments and other agencies of the State and others can be held accountable for redressing such injustices. Merging the development approach with human rights can improve and shape the planning, approach, monitoring and evaluation of child development while establishing international accountability in order to enhance the potential of the world's youngest children.

  9. Bridging Worlds in the Social Studies Classroom:Teachers' Practices and Latino Immigrant Youths' Civic and Political Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Rebecca M; Obenchain, Kathryn M

    2013-01-01

    Prior research suggests that high school experiences shape young adult political behaviors, particularly among immigrant youth. The U.S. social studies classroom, focused on democratic citizenship education, proves an interesting socializing institution. Through qualitative inquiry, we interviewed Latino immigrant young adults and their former teachers regarding their high school social studies experiences and evolving political and civic engagement. indicate that armed with experience bridging the worlds of the school and home, immigrant students respond and relate to the content and pedagogy of the social studies classroom in such a way that they (1) participate in civic discourse and (2) nurture a disposition toward leadership through teachers' civic expectations of them and instructional emphasis on critical thinking skills. The ability to engage in civic discourse and a disposition toward leadership are both necessary to foster America's democratic ideals, and to take on leadership roles during adulthood. With focused effort on the unique perspective of immigrant youth, high school social studies teachers can nurture in these students the ability to become leaders in young adulthood, broadening the potential leadership pool. This study highlights how the social studies curriculum may be particularly salient to Latino immigrant youth as they transition from adolescence to young adulthood and develop their political and civic identities.

  10. Human-animal chimeras for vaccine development: an endangered species or opportunity for the developing world?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daar Abdallah S

    2010-05-01

    opportunity for nurturing important vaccine development research in the developing world.

  11. The Importance of Global Health Experiences in the Development of New Cardiologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalla, Marwah; Kovach, Neal; Liu, Connie; Damp, Julie B.; Jahangir, Eiman; Hilliard, Anthony; Gopinathannair, Rakesh; Abu-Fadel, Mazen S.; El Chami, Mikhael F.; Gafoor, Sameer; Vedanthan, Rajesh; Sanchez-Shields, Monica; George, Jon C.; Priester, Tiffany; Alasnag, Mirvat; Barker, Colin; Freeman, Andrew M.

    2016-01-01

    As the global burden of cardiovascular disease continues to increase worldwide, nurturing the development of early-career cardiologists interested in global health is essential in order to create a cadre of providers with the skill set to prevent and treat cardiovascular diseases in international settings. As such, interest in global health has increased among cardiology trainees and early-career cardiologists over the past decade. International clinical and research experiences abroad present an additional opportunity for growth and development beyond traditional cardiovascular training. We describe the American College of Cardiology International Cardiovascular Exchange Database, a new resource for cardiologists interested in pursuing short-term clinical exchange opportunities abroad, and report some of the benefits and challenges of global health cardiovascular training in both resource-limited and resource-abundant settings. PMID:26763797

  12. Social Change: A Framework for Inclusive Leadership Development in Nursing Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Catherine Y; Pino Betancourt, Debra M; Morrison, Chenille

    2016-03-01

    The social change model (SCM) promotes equity, social justice, self-knowledge, service, and collaboration. It is a relevant framework for extracurricular leadership development programs that target students who may not self-identify as leaders. Application of the SCM in a leadership development program for prelicensure nursing students from underresourced or underrepresented backgrounds is described. Students' opinions about leadership for social change were explored through a focus group and a pilot test of an instrument designed to assess the values of the SCM. Students lack the experience required to feel comfortable with change, but they come into nursing with a sense of commitment that can be nurtured toward leadership for social change and health equity through best practices derived from the SCM. These include sociocultural conversations, mentoring relationships, community service, and membership in off-campus organizations. Nurse educators can cultivate inclusive leadership for social change using the SCM as a guide. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  13. Early childhood development in deprived urban settlements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, M K C; Radhakrishnan, S Rekha

    2004-03-01

    Poverty, the root cause of the existence of slums or settlement colonies in urban areas has a great impact on almost all aspects of life of the urban poor, especially the all-round development of children. Examples from countries, across the globe provide evidence of improved early child development, made possible through integrated slum improvement programs, are few in numbers. The observed 2.5% prevalence of developmental delay in the less than 2 year olds of deprived urban settlements, the presence of risk factors for developmental delay like low birth weight, birth asphyxia, coupled with poor environment of home and alternate child care services, highlights the need for simple cost effective community model for promoting early child development. This review on early child development focuses on the developmental status of children in the deprived urban settlements, who are yet to be on the priority list of Governments and international agencies working for the welfare of children, the contributory nature-nurture factors and replicable working models like infant stimulation, early detection of developmental delay in infancy itself, developmental screening of toddlers, skill assessment for preschool children, school readiness programs, identification of mental sub-normality and primary education enhancement program for primary school children. Further, the review probes feasible intervention strategies through community owned early child care and development facilities, utilizing existing programs like ICDS, Urban Basic Services and by initiating services like Development Friendly Well Baby Clinics, Community Extension services, Child Development Referral Units at district hospitals and involving trained manpower like anganwadi/creche workers, public health nurses and developmental therapists. With the decentralization process the local self-government at municipalities and city corporations are financially equipped to be the prime movers to initiate, monitor and

  14. What we do | Page 150 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2005-10-08

    From Survival to Sustainability : Nurturing Adaptive Livelihood Strategies in Pakistan. On October 8, 2005, an earthquake destroyed 90% of the town of tehsil Balakot, Mansehra district, Pakistan. Pakistan, Central Asia, Far East Asia, South Asia. PROJECT ...

  15. Structure and Development of Centers for Nursing Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grey, Margaret

    2002-01-01

    Nursing research centers help strengthen faculty research capability, improve research education, and facilitate collaborations and use of resources. The director plays a pivotal role in securing funding, nurturing new researchers, and overseeing ethical behavior in human subjects research. (SK)

  16. All projects related to | Page 195 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-07-28

    Despite several decades of impressive economic growth, the South and Southeast Asia region continues to be marred by ethnic conflicts, sectarian violence, and the entrenched impunity of security forces for war crimes and sexual violence. End Date: July 28, 2016. Topic: SEXUAL ABUSE, SOCIAL CONFLICTS, CRIME, ...

  17. All projects related to | Page 196 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-07-28

    Despite several decades of impressive economic growth, the South and Southeast Asia region continues to be marred by ethnic conflicts, sectarian violence, and the entrenched impunity of security forces for war crimes and sexual violence. End Date: July 28, 2016. Topic: SEXUAL ABUSE, SOCIAL CONFLICTS, CRIME, ...

  18. India | Page 130 | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    An entrenched system of social organization, environmental degradation, and poverty have conspired to create a public health crisis in Kathmandu. Waterborne and helminthic diseases are rampant, as are respiratory and digestive illnesses. But the situation is improving dramatically for the city's poor, thanks to a unique ...

  19. Catchment management agencies as crucibles in which to develop ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    During the past 17 years in South Africa, far-reaching policy, legislation and institutional changes in water-related governance have occurred. Responsible leaders have ensured that a paradigm of integrated water resource management (IWRM) is firmly entrenched in the above policy, legislation and institutional ...

  20. A dynamic network model to explain the development of excellent human performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruud J.R. Den Hartigh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Across different domains, from sports to science, some individuals accomplish excellent levels of performance. For over 150 years, researchers have debated the roles of specific nature and nurture components to develop excellence. In this article, we argue that the key to excellence does not reside in specific underlying components, but rather in the ongoing interactions among the components. We propose that excellence emerges out of dynamic networks consisting of idiosyncratic mixtures of interacting components such as genetic endowment, motivation, practice, and coaching. Using computer simulations we demonstrate that the dynamic network model accurately predicts typical properties of excellence reported in the literature, such as the idiosyncratic developmental trajectories leading to excellence and the highly skewed distributions of productivity present in virtually any achievement domain. Based on this novel theoretical perspective on excellent human performance, this article concludes by suggesting policy implications and directions for future research.

  1. A Dynamic Network Model to Explain the Development of Excellent Human Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Den Hartigh, Ruud J R; Van Dijk, Marijn W G; Steenbeek, Henderien W; Van Geert, Paul L C

    2016-01-01

    Across different domains, from sports to science, some individuals accomplish excellent levels of performance. For over 150 years, researchers have debated the roles of specific nature and nurture components to develop excellence. In this article, we argue that the key to excellence does not reside in specific underlying components, but rather in the ongoing interactions among the components. We propose that excellence emerges out of dynamic networks consisting of idiosyncratic mixtures of interacting components such as genetic endowment, motivation, practice, and coaching. Using computer simulations we demonstrate that the dynamic network model accurately predicts typical properties of excellence reported in the literature, such as the idiosyncratic developmental trajectories leading to excellence and the highly skewed distributions of productivity present in virtually any achievement domain. Based on this novel theoretical perspective on excellent human performance, this article concludes by suggesting policy implications and directions for future research.

  2. The Impact of NPG 7120.5A Upon Training and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Edward J.

    1998-01-01

    NASA Procedures and Guidance 7120.5A for Program and Project Management Processes and Requirements should have minimal effect upon current Agency training and development programs - mainly because the new directive simply formalizes what we have been teaching and learning in the NASA Program/Project Management Initiative all along. A frequent complaint we get from the 8,000 or so graduates of our PPMI courses over the years, however, deals with resistance to what they may have learned in the classroom or training site. Brimming with new ideas, these young men and women often run up against an entrenched program or project manager who insists that things be done "the old way," too often perceived as "the NASA way" or even "the Goddard way." Management was all too often in the eyes of the manager; now we're all reading from the same book, 7120.5A, Still, there is no single method or "one size fits all" approach to project management in NASA. While each Center is responsible for developing policies, processes and procedures to comply with the new NPG, individual program and project managers will still need to tailor their requirements to the specific needs of the project, consistent with the size, complexity, risk and criticality of the project. Under NPG 7120.5A, the results of such tailoring are to be documented in agreements among managers, directors, Enterprise Associate Administrators and the Administrator.

  3. The development of rural area residence based on participatory planning case study: A rural residential area of Pucungrejo village, Magelang through "neighborhood development" program

    Science.gov (United States)

    KP, R. M. Bambang Setyohadi; Wicaksono, Dimas

    2018-03-01

    The poverty is one of the prevailing problems in Indonesia until now. Even a change of the era of governance has not succeeded in eradicating the problem of poverty. The program of poverty alleviation program has always been a focus in the budget allocation in all era of leadership in Indonesia. Those programs were strategic because it prepared the foundation of community self-reliance in the form of representative, entrenched and conducive community leadership institutions to develop of social capital of society in the future. Developing an area of the village requires an integrated planning (Grand Design) to figure out the potential and the problems existing in the rural area as well as the integration of the rural area surrounding. In addition, the grand design needs to be synchronized to the more comprehensive spatial plan with a hierarchical structure such as RTBL, RDTRK / RRTRK, RTRK, and RTRW. This rural area management plan can be oriented or refer to the pattern developed from neighborhood Development program which is part of the PNPM Mandiri program. The neighborhood development program is known as residential area development plan whose process involves of the entire community. Therefore, the regional development up to the scale of the environment requires the planning phase. Particularly, spatial planning which emphasizes the efforts to optimize sectorial development targets to be integrated into an integrated development process must be conducted, in addition to taking into consideration the opportunities, potentials and limitations of the resources, the level of interconnection with the central government within the district and between sub-districts and rural areas.

  4. Design and development of a workflow for microbial spray formulations including decision criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejarano, Ana; Sauer, Ursula; Preininger, Claudia

    2017-10-01

    Herein, we present a workflow for the development of talc-based microbial inoculants for foliar spray consisting of four steps. These include together with decision-making criteria (1) the selection of additives based on their capability to wet juvenile maize leaves, (2) their adhesion on the plant, (3) their interaction with the biological systems, and (4) the choice of thickener for good dispersion stability. In total, 29 additives including polysaccharides and proteins, polyols, glycosides, oils, waxes, and surfactants (e.g., chitosan, gelatin, glycerol, saponin, castor oil, polyethylene, rhamnolipid) were evaluated. Contact angle and spreading index measurements revealed that the use of 5% Geloil, 1% rhamnolipid, or suitable combinations of Geloil + rhamnolipid and Nurture Yield S 2002 + rhamnolipid enhanced wetting of hydrophobic maize leaves and adherence, similarly to the commercial wetting agents recommended for plant protection 1% Prev B2 and 1% Trifolio S Forte. Interaction of additives with biological systems was based on biocompatibility and phytotoxicity assays, and cell viability monitoring using the endophytic Gram-negative bacterium Paraburkholderia phytofirmans PsJN. Results from biocompatibility assays indicated that in contrast to rhamnolipid and Prev B2 Geloil, Nurture Yield S 2002 and Trifolio S Forte fully supported bacterial growth within a concentration range of 1 to 5%. Dose-dependent phytotoxicity was observed in plants treated with rhamnolipid. Most efficient formulation was composed of PsJN, talc, xanthan, and Geloil. Beyond that, the proposed workflow is expected to generally provide guidance for the development of spray formulations and help other researchers to optimize their choices in this area.

  5. Laboratory Directed Research and Development FY 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Struble, G.L.; Middleton, C.; Anderson, S.E.; Baldwin, G.; Cherniak, J.C.; Corey, C.W.; Kirvel, R.D.; McElroy, L.A. [eds.

    1992-12-31

    The Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) funds projects that nurture and enrich the core competencies of the Laboratory. The scientific and technical output from the FY 1992 RD Program has been significant. Highlights include (1) Creating the first laser guide star to be coupled with adaptive optics, thus permitting ground-based telescopes to obtain the same resolution as smaller space-based instruments but with more light-gathering power. (2) Significantly improving the limit on the mass of the electron antineutrino so that neutrinos now become a useful tool in diagnosing supernovas and we disproved the existence of a 17-keV neutrino. (3) Developing a new class of organic aerogels that have robust mechanical properties and that have significantly lower thermal conductivity than inorganic aerogels. (4) Developing a new heavy-ion accelerator concept, which may enable us to design heavy-ion experimental systems and use a heavy-ion driver for inertial fusion. (5) Designing and demonstrating a high-power, diode-pumped, solid-state laser concept that will allow us to pursue a variety of research projects, including laser material processing. (6) Demonstrating that high-performance semiconductor arrays can be fabricated more efficiently, which will make this technology available to a broad range of applications such as inertial confinement fusion for civilian power. (7) Developing a new type of fiber channel switch and new fiber channel standards for use in local- and wide-area networks, which will allow scientists and engineers to transfer data at gigabit rates. (8) Developing the nation`s only numerical model for high-technology air filtration systems. Filter designs that use this model will provide safer and cleaner environments in work areas where contamination with particulate hazardous materials is possible.

  6. Laboratory Directed Research and Development FY 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struble, G.L.; Middleton, C.; Anderson, S.E.; Baldwin, G.; Cherniak, J.C.; Corey, C.W.; Kirvel, R.D.; McElroy, L.A.

    1992-01-01

    The Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) funds projects that nurture and enrich the core competencies of the Laboratory. The scientific and technical output from the FY 1992 RD Program has been significant. Highlights include (1) Creating the first laser guide star to be coupled with adaptive optics, thus permitting ground-based telescopes to obtain the same resolution as smaller space-based instruments but with more light-gathering power. (2) Significantly improving the limit on the mass of the electron antineutrino so that neutrinos now become a useful tool in diagnosing supernovas and we disproved the existence of a 17-keV neutrino. (3) Developing a new class of organic aerogels that have robust mechanical properties and that have significantly lower thermal conductivity than inorganic aerogels. (4) Developing a new heavy-ion accelerator concept, which may enable us to design heavy-ion experimental systems and use a heavy-ion driver for inertial fusion. (5) Designing and demonstrating a high-power, diode-pumped, solid-state laser concept that will allow us to pursue a variety of research projects, including laser material processing. (6) Demonstrating that high-performance semiconductor arrays can be fabricated more efficiently, which will make this technology available to a broad range of applications such as inertial confinement fusion for civilian power. (7) Developing a new type of fiber channel switch and new fiber channel standards for use in local- and wide-area networks, which will allow scientists and engineers to transfer data at gigabit rates. (8) Developing the nation's only numerical model for high-technology air filtration systems. Filter designs that use this model will provide safer and cleaner environments in work areas where contamination with particulate hazardous materials is possible

  7. Developing Infrastructure for New Nuclear Power Programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-09-01

    Many countries are interested in introducing or expanding nuclear energy programmes because they regard nuclear power as a clean and stable source of electricity that can help to mitigate the impact of climate change. However, the March 2011 accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in Japan - caused by an earthquake and tsunami of unprecedented proportions - demonstrated that there is a constant need to improve global nuclear safety, despite the great progress made in the previous 25 years. A 'safety first' approach needs to become fully entrenched among nuclear power plant operators, governments and regulators everywhere. Safety first must also be the watchword for Member States considering the introduction of nuclear power. I believe that all IAEA Member States should have access to nuclear power if they wish to add it their energy mix. While it is up to each country to decide whether or not to opt for nuclear power, the IAEA has a key role to play in ensuring that the development of nuclear power programmes takes place in a safe, efficient, responsible and sustainable manner. The IAEA has developed guidelines and milestones to help countries work in a systematic way towards the introduction of nuclear power. Use of the 'Milestones' approach can increase transparency both within a country introducing nuclear power, and between it and other States. This brochure summarizes the services which the IAEA offers to Member States considering introducing nuclear power. These include advice on proper planning, building the required human resources and infrastructure, establishing legal and regulatory frameworks, and ensuring the highest standards of safety and security, without increasing proliferation risks. The IAEA offers independent know-how on the construction, commissioning, startup and operation of nuclear reactors. Through the Technical Cooperation programme, we provide targeted support to 'newcomer' countries in response to national development needs

  8. Laboratory directed research and development FY98 annual report; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Ayat, R; Holzrichter, J

    1999-01-01

    In 1984, Congress and the Department of Energy (DOE) established the Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program to enable the director of a national laboratory to foster and expedite innovative research and development (R and D) in mission areas. The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) continually examines these mission areas through strategic planning and shapes the LDRD Program to meet its long-term vision. The goal of the LDRD Program is to spur development of new scientific and technical capabilities that enable LLNL to respond to the challenges within its evolving mission areas. In addition, the LDRD Program provides LLNL with the flexibility to nurture and enrich essential scientific and technical competencies and enables the Laboratory to attract the most qualified scientists and engineers. The FY98 LDRD portfolio described in this annual report has been carefully structured to continue the tradition of vigorously supporting DOE and LLNL strategic vision and evolving mission areas. The projects selected for LDRD funding undergo stringent review and selection processes, which emphasize strategic relevance and require technical peer reviews of proposals by external and internal experts. These FY98 projects emphasize the Laboratory's national security needs: stewardship of the U.S. nuclear weapons stockpile, responsibility for the counter- and nonproliferation of weapons of mass destruction, development of high-performance computing, and support of DOE environmental research and waste management programs

  9. The Youth Empowered for Success Program: A Multi-faceted Approach to Youth Leadership Development and School Culture Change in Southern Arizona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pam Parrish

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Arizona’s first Teen Institute (TI program, Youth Empowered for Success, began in July 2004. It is the first TI-based project to focus on nurturing resilience via Health Realization (Pransky, 2007. The YES program’s design to “create conditions for success” in high schools is discussed. YES utilizes a strengths-based, multi-faceted approach of (1 teaching participants how to access their innate resilience and common sense (Health Realization, (2 training them in community development for school culture change and (3 helping them develop meaningful partnerships with adults. YES also expands upon the TI model by providing staff support for community development throughout the academic year. It is hypothesized that these efforts ultimately will increase overall well-being and reduce the incidence of alcohol, tobacco and other drug use (ATOD as well as depression and suicide among youth.

  10. Supporting the development of environmentally  sustainable technologies and products: the role of  innovation, informal cooperation and governmental  agency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulhøi, John Parm

    2008-01-01

        Sustainable, economic, environmental and social development will  require substantial improvements in the efficiency of present environmental  and resource use, which in turn will increase the focus on a broader set of  environmental, economic and social linkages. These are the result...... of dynamic  interactions, in which changes in one set of factors will impact on others, and  vice versa. This paper discusses the role and potential of technology,  innovation and interorganisational collaboration as strategic drivers of a  renewed market-driven green development in industry......, and it discusses the  ways in which governments have and can nurture and support an  environmentally more sustainable development. ...

  11. Philanthropy funding for neurosurgery research and program development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zusman, Edie E; Heary, Robert F; Stroink, Ann R; Berger, Mitchel S; Popp, A John; Friedlander, Robert M; Martin, Neil A; Lonser, Russell R; Asthagiri, Ashok R

    2013-07-01

    In times of fiscal and political uncertainty, philanthropy has become an increasingly important mechanism for building, maintaining, and expanding neurosurgical research programs. Although philanthropy has historically helped launch many hospital systems, scientists and clinicians have generally relied on government grants and industry investment to support research and program infrastructure. However, competition for funds from all sources has increased at the same time as the pipelines for those funds have eroded. Philanthropy can provide salary support to allow neurosurgeons to pursue research and, ultimately, advance the field to improve outcomes for patients. Funds raised can fill financial gaps to recruit and pay for needed research staff, equipment, and facilities. To foster charitable giving, institutions can develop both a culture and processes to promote and support philanthropy. Furthermore, it is essential to ensure that donor relationships are properly nurtured with ongoing stewardship. In addition to cultivating grateful patients, there are numerous creative models of fundraising for research that can be explored, including venture philanthropy, in which voluntary health organizations or individuals partner with academia and industry to invest in early-stage drug development and other innovations. Other approaches include formation of nonprofit foundations and partnerships with other entities to work jointly on shared development goals.

  12. The plasticity of intellectual development: insights from preventive intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramey, C T; Yeates, K O; Short, E J

    1984-10-01

    Debates regarding the plasticity of intelligence are often fired by a confusion between 2 distinct realms of development, that is, between developmental functions (e.g., a group's average IQ over time) and individual differences (e.g., the relative rank ordering of individual IQs within a group). Questions concerning the stability of these 2 realms are statistically independent. Thus there are 2 kinds of intellectual plasticity, and there may be no developmental convergences between them. In the present study, data from an early intervention program were used to investigate the 2 kinds of plasticity separately and to examine certain possible convergences between them. The program involved children at risk for developmental retardation who were randomly assigned at birth to 2 rearing conditions (i.e., educational daycare vs. no educational intervention) and whose intellectual development was then studied longitudinally to 4 years of age. Our findings indicate that developmental functions are moderately alterable through systemic early education, particularly after infancy, whereas individual differences are moderately stable, again particularly after infancy. They also indicate that the 2 kinds of plasticity are independent; the alteration of developmental functions through daycare affects neither the stability nor the determinants of individual differences. We discuss the implications that these findings have for current models of mental development, for the nature-nurture debate, and for arguments concerning the efficacy of early intervention programs.

  13. Italy-Japan international project-based learning for developing human resources using design of welfare equipment as a subject.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanafusa, A; Komeda, T; Ito, K; Zobel, P Beomonte

    2015-08-01

    Project-based learning (PBL) is effective for developing human resources of young students. The design of welfare equipment, such as wheelchairs and gait assistive devices, is taken as the subject in this study because these devices must be fit to their environment, users, and method of use; students must consider the circumstances of each country concerned. The program commenced in 2012 at L'Aquila, Italy, and the Shibaura Institute of Technology, Japan and has been continuing for three years. Students were divided into four groups and discussions were held on how to adapt the equipment to the user and environment. After discussion, they designed and simulated a model of the equipment using CAD. Finally, they presented their designs to each other. Through the program, students had fruitful discussions, exchanged ideas from different cultures, and learned from each other. Furthermore, friendships among the students were nurtured. It is believed that the objective of the program was satisfactorily accomplished.

  14. Workplace activities to promote small attempts for safety. Toward development of safety culture in a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukui, Hirokazu; Sugiman, Toshio

    2007-01-01

    Activities that could possibly grow into learning activities for developing safety culture were explored by intensive fieldwork in a nuclear power plant depending on Engestroem's activity theory. As a first step to achieve this goal, workers' small attempts that might contribute to nurturing a safety culture were investigated. Eight kinds of activity were observed and interpreted as having the possibility to facilitate small recognition and small practice, i.e., activities including (1) workgroup as community, (2) other workgroups and other departments as community, (3) meeting drawing remarks as mediating artifacts, (4) study session and Off-the-Job-Training as mediating artifact, (5) award as mediating artifact, (6) extended leave as mediating artifact, (7) check sheet as mediating artifact, and (8) skill-transfer system as mediating artifact. (author)

  15. Search Results | Page 836 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 8351 - 8360 of 8497 ... Countries in transition: Nurturing research in times of turmoil is key to transforming societies. IDRC has been involved in some 25 countries on the move from war to peace. Research in Action. Democracy Policy ...

  16. Ghana | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Our support for research in Ghana has helped build strong links between this stable African democracy and Canada. For example, a pioneering program for the African Institute for Mathematical Sciences' Next Einstein Initiative nurtures future mathematical experts with the advanced skills to tackle urgent environmental, ...

  17. Search Results | Page 23 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 221 - 230 of 8491 ... As Myanmar transitions to a democratic government, it is crucial to nurture meaningful dialogue about the process and to promote economic growth ... This year's Africa Green Revolution Forum (AGRF) in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire, was attended by close to 1,000 participants including policymakers, ...

  18. The linking of the upper-middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River as a result of fluvial entrenchment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, Zhenbo; Pan, Bao Tian; Bridgland, David; Vandenberghe, Jef; Guo, Lian Yong; Fan, Yun Long; Westaway, Rob

    2017-01-01

    The upper–middle Yellow River flows through the Fenwei graben, a structure resulting from extensional tectonism that was formed and repeatedly extended during the Cenozoic. The drainage system within this graben was formerly isolated from the lower reaches of the Yellow River system by the Xiaoshan

  19. Conceptual Mobility and Entrenchment in Introductory Geoscience Courses: New Questions Regarding Physics' and Chemistry's Role in Learning Earth Science Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Steven W.; Libarkin, Julie C.

    2016-01-01

    Nationwide pre- and posttesting of introductory courses with the Geoscience Concept Inventory (GCI) shows little gain for many of its questions. Analysis of more than 3,500 tests shows that 22 of the 73 GCI questions had gains of physics and chemistry. We also discovered through an assessment of…

  20. The material, moral, and affective worlds of dealing and crime among young men entrenched in an inner city drug scene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fast, Danya; Shoveller, Jean; Kerr, Thomas

    2017-06-01

    A large body of previous research has elucidated how involvement in drug dealing and crime among marginalized urban youth who use drugs is shaped by the imperatives of addiction and survival in the context of poverty. However, a growing body of research has examined how youth's involvement in these activities is shaped by more expansive desires and moralities. In this paper, we examine the material, moral, and affective worlds of loosely gang affiliated, street level dealing and crime among one group of young men in Vancouver, Canada. Drawing on longitudinal interviews with 44 young men from 2008 to 2016, and ethnographic fieldwork with a group of approximately 15 of those young men over the same time period, we argue that for these youth, dealing and crime were not solely about economic survival, or even the accrual of highly meaningful forms of "street capital" in the margins. Rather, as "regimes of living," dealing and crime also opened up new value systems, moral logics, and affects in relation to the tremendous risks, potential rewards, and crushing boredom of life in the margins. These activities were also understood as a way into deeply desired forms of social spatial belonging in the city, which had previously only been imagined. However, across time dealing and crime "embedded" young men in cycles of incarceration, destitution, addictions, and mental health crises that ultimately reinforced their exclusion-from legal employment, but also within the world of crime. The findings of this study underscore the importance of adopting a life course perspective in order to meaningfully address the harms associated with involvement in dealing and crime among youth in our setting. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The Open Government Data Policy as a Strategic Use of Information to Entrench Neoliberalism? The Case of Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Franceschetti

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The philosophy of Open Government provides a new paradigm of innovation in public admin-istration built around three key words: transparency, participation and collaboration. Greater transparency of information about the PA and its way of working should help to regain public confidence in the institu-tions, motivating people to take a more active part in decision making processes. It should also encourage them to support the institutions by inputting their own knowledge and abilities, consequently engendering a widespread spirit of collaboration between different public authorities and between them and the pub-lic, businesses and non profit organisations, in order to relaunching the economic value of the Public Sec-tor Information (Huijboom, Van den Broek, 2011. The hypothesis behind this contribution, starting from an approach based on an interpretation of significant elements in public action (Moini 2013 and of their conceptual framework (Fischer 2003, is that through which open government, open data, social media, collective intelligence, and connectivity are key words in a new rhetoric of administrative innovation - summed up in the label ‘’government 2.0’’ - which refers to a form of public action easily seen to be drawn from the neoliberal paradigm (Jessop, 2002, even though subject to some variegated form at na-tional level

  2. THE MULTIPLE TRUTHS ABOUT CRYSTAL METH AMONG YOUNG PEOPLE ENTRENCHED IN AN URBAN DRUG SCENE: A LONGITUDINAL ETHNOGRAPHIC INVESTIGATION

    OpenAIRE

    Fast, Danya; Kerr, Thomas; Wood, Evan; Small, Will

    2014-01-01

    Transitions into more harmful forms of illicit drug use among youth have been identified as important foci for research and intervention. In settings around the world, the transition to crystal methamphetamine (meth) use among youth is considered a particularly dangerous and growing problem. Epidemiological evidence suggests that, particularly among young, street-involved populations, meth use is associated with numerous sex- and drug-related “risks behaviors” and negative health outcomes. Re...

  3. The epigenetic switches for neural development and psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Jingwen; Xin, Yongjuan; Zhou, Wenhao; Qiu, Zilong

    2013-07-20

    The most remarkable feature of the nervous system is that the development and functions of the brain are largely reshaped by postnatal experiences, in joint with genetic landscapes. The nature vs. nurture argument reminds us that both genetic and epigenetic information is indispensable for the normal function of the brain. The epigenetic regulatory mechanisms in the central nervous system have been revealed over last a decade. Moreover, the mutations of epigenetic modulator genes have been shown to be implicated in neuropsychiatric disorders, such as autism spectrum disorders. The epigenetic study has initiated in the neuroscience field for a relative short period of time. In this review, we will summarize recent discoveries about epigenetic regulation on neural development, synaptic plasticity, learning and memory, as well as neuropsychiatric disorders. Although the comprehensive view of how epigenetic regulation contributes to the function of the brain is still not completed, the notion that brain, the most complicated organ of organisms, is profoundly shaped by epigenetic switches is widely accepted. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Impact of attachment, temperament and parenting on human development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoo Rha Hong

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this review is to present the basic concepts of attachment theory and temperament traits and to discuss the integration of these concepts into parenting practices. Attachment is a basic human need for a close and intimate relationship between infants and their caregivers. Responsive and contingent parenting produces securely attached children who show more curiosity, selfreliance, and independence. Securely attached children also tend to become more resilient and competent adults. In contrast, those who do not experience a secure attachment with their caregivers may have difficulty getting along with others and be unable to develop a sense of confidence or trust in others. Children who are slow to adjust or are shy or irritable are likely to experience conflict with their parents and are likely to receive less parental acceptance or encouragement, which can make the children feel inadequate or unworthy. However, the influence of children’s temperament or other attributes may be mitigated if parents adjust their caregiving behaviors to better fit the needs of the particular child. Reflecting on these arguments and our childhood relationships with our own parents can help us develop the skills needed to provide effective guidance and nurturance.

  5. Developments in the production of economics PhDs at four research-intensive universities in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip de Jager

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available There is a national drive to increase PhD production, yet we know little about how this imperative takes shape within different disciplines. We therefore set out to explore recent developments and the current status of the PhD in economics at four South African research-intensive universities. A data set of all economics PhDs produced in these commerce faculties during the period 2008-2014 was analysed to determine whether the departments of economics responded to the call for increased doctoral production, and the role the PhD by publication might have played in the process. How an increase in quantity might influence doctoral education in the respective academic departments was also considered by supplementing the quantitative data with perspectives from heads of department at the four institutions. The notable increase in doctoral production over the time period studied shows that national and international trends have influenced doctoral education in economics departments within South African research-intensive universities. Increased usage of the PhD by publication has implications for policy and pedagogical practice within these departments, especially as there seems to be limited available supervisory capacity. Other changes in departmental practices, such as the entrenchment of a research culture and the promotion of collaborative research amongst students and staff, also contributed to maintain quality in doctoral education.

  6. Creating psychological connections between intervention recipients: development and focus group evaluation of a group singing session for people with aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarrant, Mark; Warmoth, Krystal; Code, Chris; Dean, Sarah; Goodwin, Victoria A; Stein, Ken; Sugavanam, Thavapriya

    2016-02-23

    The study sought to identify key design features that could be used to create a new framework for group-based health interventions. We designed and tested the first session of a group intervention for stroke survivors with aphasia which was aimed at nurturing new psychological connections between group members. The intervention session, a participant focus group and interviews with intervention facilitators were held in a local community music centre in the South West of England. A convenience sample of 10 community-dwelling people with poststroke aphasia participated in the session. Severity of aphasia was not considered for inclusion. Participants took part in a 90-min group singing session which involved singing songs from a specially prepared song book. Musical accompaniment was provided by the facilitators. Participants and group facilitators reported their experiences of participating in the session, with a focus on activities within the session related to the intervention aims. Researcher observations of the session were also made. Two themes emerged from the analysis, concerning experiences of the session ('developing a sense of group belonging') and perceptions of its design and delivery ('creating the conditions for engagement'). Participants described an emerging sense of shared social identity as a member of the intervention group and identified fixed (eg, group size, session breaks) and flexible (eg, facilitator responsiveness) features of the session which contributed to this emergence. Facilitator interviews and researcher observations corroborated and expanded participant reports. Engagement with health intervention content may be enhanced in group settings when intervention participants begin to establish positive and meaningful psychological connections with other group members. Understanding and actively nurturing these connections should be a core feature of a general framework for the design and delivery of group interventions. Published by the

  7. Community Leadership in Rural Tourism Development: A Tale of Two Ancient Chinese Villages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keshuai Xu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Researchers are paying increasing attention to questions of community leadership and rural tourism development. Based on leadership theories and the literature on community leadership and tourism development, this study developed a framework for community leadership in rural tourism development and used it to examine two ancient Chinese villages. We used the longitudinal case study method to collect data, and we used textual analysis to analyze these data. The results show that the rebel leadership characteristic of confrontational actions played an important role in starting the tourism industry in both villages. However, this leadership was difficult to maintain because community leaders and residents had limited power compared to that of outsiders. Losing control of tourism development in the two villages led to banal management, which prevented the emergence of strong community leadership. In the future, we argue that resilient community leadership should be nurtured in the two villages to address more complex problems occurring in tourism development, such as those characterized by vision tensions and conflicts of interest among the stakeholders affected by tourism development. Finally, we suggest that, based on the longitudinal method, future research can focus on the relationship between resilient leadership and the resilience of tourism communities.

  8. [Advances in early childhood development: from neurons to big scale programs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael; Rizzoli-Córdoba, Antonio; Alonso-Cuevas, Aranzazú; Reyes-Morales, Hortensia

    Early childhood development (ECD) is the basis of countries' economic and social development and their ability to meet the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Gestation and the first three years of life are critical for children to have adequate physical, psychosocial, emotional and cognitive development for the rest of their lives. Nurturing care and protection of children during gestation and early childhood are necessary for the development of trillions of neurons and trillions of synapses necessary for development. ECD requires access to good nutrition and health services from gestation, responsive caregiving according to the child's developmental stage, social protection and child welfare, and early stimulation and learning opportunities. Six actions are recommended to improve national ECD programs: expand political will and funding; create a supportive, evidence-based policy environment; build capacity through inter-sectoral coordination; ensure fair and transparent governance of programs and services; increase support for multidisciplinary research; and promote the development of leaders. Mexico has made significant progress under the leadership of the Health Ministry, but still faces significant challenges. The recent creation of a national inter-sectoral framework to enable ECD with support of international organizations and the participation of civil society organizations can help overcome these challenges. Copyright © 2017 Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  9. Academic Enterpreneurship and Enterprenerial Development in Nigeria: Myth or Reality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul-Hameed Adeola Sulaimon

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the process of commercializing research output of University staff without violating the extant rules within the system as well as providing practical application of theories. The research also determines the extent to which University staff engages in entrepreneurial activities. A survey research design through convenient sampling technique was adopted for collection of primary data via closed-ended questionnaire administered to University staff across different disciplines in the selected Federal Universities in Nigeria (Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife; University of Ibadan; University of Lagos. Fifty Academics of senior lecturership status were purposively sampled in these three Universities. The data collected were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics as appropriate to each of the research objectives. The formulated hypotheses were tested using correlation and regression analysis. It was observed from the results that, there exist a significant positive relationship between main academic responsibilities and entrepreneurial development in Nigeria. The study concluded that, encouraging proper assortment of academic and entrepreneurial activities will increase research driven production and service activities in the country, thereby stimulating more societal beneficial research and reducing unemployment in the long-run. The study therefore, recommends policy option for the encouragement of research output(s commercialization which will ensure harmonious town and gown relationship, consequently, harnessing the full potentials of good research outputs from academics. In addition, there is need for more incubation centers across the Universities in Nigeria to stimulate nurturing and proper transition of research driven business ideas from the University to the industry.

  10. Unique Education and Workforce Development for NASA Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsgren, Roger C.; Miller, Lauren L.

    2010-01-01

    NASA engineers are some of the world's best-educated graduates, responsible for technically complex, highly significant scientific programs. Even though these professionals are highly proficient in traditional analytical competencies, there is a unique opportunity to offer continuing education that further enhances their overall scientific minds. With a goal of maintaining the Agency's passionate, "best in class" engineering workforce, the NASA Academy of Program/Project & Engineering Leadership (APPEL) provides educational resources encouraging foundational learning, professional development, and knowledge sharing. NASA APPEL is currently partnering with the scientific community's most respected subject matter experts to expand its engineering curriculum beyond the analytics and specialized subsystems in the areas of: understanding NASA's overall vision and its fundamental basis, and the Agency initiatives supporting them; sharing NASA's vast reservoir of engineering experience, wisdom, and lessons learned; and innovatively designing hardware for manufacturability, assembly, and servicing. It takes collaboration and innovation to educate an organization that possesses such a rich and important historyand a future that is of great global interest. NASA APPEL strives to intellectually nurture the Agency's technical professionals, build its capacity for future performance, and exemplify its core valuesalJ to better enable NASA to meet its strategic visionand beyond.

  11. Development of the common law in view of Sections 39(2) and 173 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Constitution illuminates the legal landscape, but it is not blinding; it does not provide a trench from which the common law may be attacked, but it entrenches rights. Sections 39(2) and 173 of the Constitution do not place a machete in the hands of the judge to decapitate or to castrate, but it provides modeling clay out of ...

  12. Early childhood development coming of age: science through the life course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Maureen M; Walker, Susan P; Fernald, Lia C H; Andersen, Christopher T; DiGirolamo, Ann M; Lu, Chunling; McCoy, Dana C; Fink, Günther; Shawar, Yusra R; Shiffman, Jeremy; Devercelli, Amanda E; Wodon, Quentin T; Vargas-Barón, Emily; Grantham-McGregor, Sally

    2017-01-07

    Early childhood development programmes vary in coordination and quality, with inadequate and inequitable access, especially for children younger than 3 years. New estimates, based on proxy measures of stunting and poverty, indicate that 250 million children (43%) younger than 5 years in low-income and middle-income countries are at risk of not reaching their developmental potential. There is therefore an urgent need to increase multisectoral coverage of quality programming that incorporates health, nutrition, security and safety, responsive caregiving, and early learning. Equitable early childhood policies and programmes are crucial for meeting Sustainable Development Goals, and for children to develop the intellectual skills, creativity, and wellbeing required to become healthy and productive adults. In this paper, the first in a three part Series on early childhood development, we examine recent scientific progress and global commitments to early childhood development. Research, programmes, and policies have advanced substantially since 2000, with new neuroscientific evidence linking early adversity and nurturing care with brain development and function throughout the life course. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Learning styles and team roles – Lessons for Gregorc based teams for effective enterprise development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Kbathgate

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The need to develop robust and coherent models for effective entrepreneurial training and development has never been more relevant than in the contemporary economic and educational milieu. The demand for the promotion of enterprise and enterprise development calls on those entrusted with nurturing entrepreneurial talent to create fecund environments for students and participant is alike to promote sustainable enterprise development. Essential to achieving this are considerations of learning styles and the relationship of these to team roles in business start-up activities. This research exercise attempts to establish linkages between different learning styles with the allocation of roles and responsibilities in teams who have aspirations to create and explore business start-up opportunities, within an educational setting. The context will be explored and a proposed model will be developed with considerations to cost of effective teaching and learning for enterprise development. The model will be used to demonstrate how an integrated and effective learning environment can be created through the use of Gregorc considerations and how this paradigm can contribute to cost effective teaching and learning methodologies.

  14. Alaskan Exemplary Program The Rural Alaska Honors Institute (RAHI) A Quarter Century of Success of Educating, Nurturing, and Retaining Alaska Native and Rural Students An International Polar Year Adventure in Barrow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wartes, D.; Owens, G.

    2007-12-01

    RAHI, the Rural Alaska Honors Institute, began in 1983 after a series of meetings between the Alaska Federation of Natives and the University of Alaska, to discuss the retention rates of Alaska Native and rural students. RAHI is a six-week college-preparatory summer bridge program on the University of Alaska Fairbanks campus for Alaska Native and rural high school juniors and seniors. The student body is approximately 94 percent Alaska Native. RAHI students take classes that earn them seven to ten college credits, thus giving them a head start on college. Courses include: writing, study skills, desk top publishing, Alaska Native dance or swimming, and a choice of geoscience, biochemistry, math, business, rural development, or engineering. A program of rigorous academic activity combines with social, cultural, and recreational activities to make up the RAHI program of early preparation for college. Students are purposely stretched beyond their comfort levels academically and socially to prepare for the big step from home or village to a large culturally western urban campus. They are treated as honors students and are expected to meet all rigorous academic and social standards set by the program. All of this effort and activity support the principal goal of RAHI: promoting academic success for rural students in college. Over 25 years, 1,200 students have attended the program. Sixty percent of the RAHI alumni have entered four-year academic programs. Over 230 have earned a bachelors degree, twenty-nine have earned masters degrees, and seven have graduated with professional degrees (J.D., Ph.D., or M.D.), along with 110 associate degrees and certificates. In looking at the RAHI cohort, removing those students who have not been in college long enough to obtain a degree, 27.3 percent of RAHI alums have received a bachelors degree. An April 2006 report by the American Institutes for Research through the National Science Foundation found that: Rural Native students in the

  15. Olivebranches and idiot's guides: Frameworks for community engagement in Australian wind farm development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, Tanya

    2015-01-01

    In Australia, renewable energy is under pressure in the context of a highly politicised debate about how to act on climate change. The recent repeal of an established carbon tax has seen the defunding of significant renewable energy initiatives and a controversial review of the national Renewable Energy Target is threatening key drivers for investment in renewable energy. The current regulatory focus on community ‘acceptance’ does not facilitate the active community support necessary to challenge this increasingly hostile policy context. This research considers current experiences of community engagement in wind farm governance in one Australian jurisdiction. Through documentary analysis and two qualitative case studies, it examines legal and non-legal requirements for community governance mechanisms and considers how these influence wind farm development in rural areas. Findings include a problematic reliance on procedural compliance in assessing wind farm consultation, domination by vested interests, and reduced expertise in community engagement at the time it is needed most. Recommendations include integration of best practice guidelines in current regulation; harmonisation of policy settings to ensure equity across energy sectors; and an evidence-based commitment to benefit sharing as a strategy for increasing community support of rural wind farm development. - Highlights: • Changes to renewable energy policy in Australia threaten wind farm development. • Active community support is required to ensure ongoing viability of the industry. • Benefit sharing models are shown to increase community support for wind farms. • Legal frameworks reinforce a minimum compliance paradigm and entrench vested interests. • Best practice guidelines improve implementation of community engagement procedures

  16. Faculty-led faculty development: evaluation and reflections on a distributed educational leadership model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elzubeir, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    This report describes and explores the impact of a series of faculty-led faculty development programs underpinned by principles of distributed educational leadership. We aimed to prepare faculty for their roles as facilitators and assessors in a newly implemented problem-based (PBL) graduate entry medical program. We asked participants attending a series of faculty development programs to evaluate workshops attended using an in-house designed survey. Overall descriptive statistics for all workshops and qualitative feedback for PBL workshops alone were examined. It was concluded that clinical faculty who are not specialized in medical education can offer high-quality, well-accepted training for their peers. Faculty development, underpinned by a distributed leadership approach which supports learning organization tenets, imaginative, flexible and democratic approaches to developing and nurturing expertise at all levels of the organization, is likely to lead to improvements in medical education. Despite the limitations of the survey approach to evaluation of faculty development programs, the information provided is useful both as a basis for decision making and program improvement.

  17. Promoting academic excellence through leadership development at the University of Washington: the Teaching Scholars Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robins, Lynne; Ambrozy, Donna; Pinsky, Linda E

    2006-11-01

    The University of Washington Teaching Scholars Program (TSP) was established in 1995 to prepare faculty for local and national leadership and promote academic excellence by fostering a community of educational leaders to innovate, enliven, and enrich the environment for teaching and learning at the University of Washington (UW). Faculty in the Department of Medical Education and Biomedical Informatics designed and continue to implement the program. Qualified individuals from the UW Health Sciences Professional Schools and foreign scholars who are studying at the UW are eligible to apply for acceptance into the program. To date, 109 faculty and fellows have participated in the program, the majority of whom have been physicians. The program is committed to interprofessional education and seeks to diversify its participants. The curriculum is developed collaboratively with each cohort and comprises topics central to medical education and an emergent set of topics related to the specific interests and teaching responsibilities of the participating scholars. Core sessions cover the history of health professions education, learning theories, educational research methods, assessment, curriculum development, instructional methods, professionalism, and leadership. To graduate, scholars must complete a scholarly project in curriculum development, faculty development, or educational research; demonstrate progress towards construction of a teaching portfolio; and participate regularly and actively in program sessions. The TSP has developed and nurtured an active cadre of supportive colleagues who are transforming educational practice, elevating the status of teaching, and increasing the recognition of teachers. Graduates fill key teaching and leadership positions at the UW and in national and international professional organizations.

  18. Modern trends in economic regulation of the innovative development of the higher education system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Аleksandr LEVCHENKO

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The consensus in the high school is valued by how much we invest in human capital which is determinant of efficiency. High school is a pillar contributor to productivity growth. There is evidence that innovation is a key player in nurturing technology chan¬ge. In today’s knowledge based economy, it becomes more evident that investing in human capital has greater return for university and corporation which is more effec¬tive than that of physical assets. Simultaneously, the conceptual fundamental of hu¬man capital is based on knowledge, skills, competencies, and tools that are developed through coaching and learning activities provided by the concerned institution. This paper intend to tackle and to develop separate positions of the theory and practice of financing the innovative development of higher education (IDHE toward the formati¬on and development of the national economy of knowledge. Furthermore, it examines the retention of the increased globalization of higher education, while state financial obligation is in decrease, which leads to greater distinction among universities in res¬pect of financial support and security. Financial support should be a priority to support the innovative development of higher education.

  19. Jatropha Developments in Mozambique: Analysis of Structural Conditions Influencing Niche-Regime Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Slingerland

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the transition dynamics related to Jatropha developments in Mozambique. The analysis focuses on how structural conditions (infrastructure, institutions, interaction and collaboration and capabilities and resources enable or constrain interactions between niche-level Jatropha experiments and incumbent energy, agriculture and rural development regimes in Mozambique. Investors in agro-industrial Jatropha projects focused on establishing projects in areas with relatively good infrastructure, rather than in remote rural areas. Furthermore, they predominantly focused on Jatropha production instead of investing in the entire Jatropha value chain, which turned out to be a challenge in itself, as growing a productive Jatropha crop was much more complex than initially anticipated. The development of institutions that could nurture and protect Jatropha projects from the prevailing regimes lagged behind Jatropha project establishment, leading to an insecure investment climate. Strong inter-ministerial collaboration and organized civil society interaction and representation contrasted with non-organized private sector and rather isolated smallholder Jatropha projects. The global financial crisis and limited adaptive capacity reduced the time and space for experimentation and learning to overcome disappointing crop performance. Together, this hampered Jatropha’s potential to challenge the energy, agricultural and rural development regimes. Nevertheless, the Jatropha experience did initiate the development of policy and regulation and stimulated interaction and collaboration between specific groups of stakeholders, which could provide the basis to capture future biofuel momentum in Mozambique.

  20. Equity Audit: A Teacher Leadership Tool for Nurturing Teacher Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    View, Jenice L.; DeMulder, Elizabeth; Stribling, Stacia; Dodman, Stephanie; Ra, Sophia; Hall, Beth; Swalwell, Katy

    2016-01-01

    This is a three-part essay featuring six teacher educators and one classroom teacher researcher. Part one describes faculty efforts to build curriculum for teacher research, scaffold the research process, and analyze outcomes. Part two shares one teacher researcher's experience using an equity audit tool in several contexts: her teaching practice,…

  1. Field galaxies and their AGNs: Nature versus nurture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micic M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This review attempts to present most recent findings related to the very controversial question of which processes guide the flow of gas to the galactic centers where the accretion and growth of supermassive black holes occurs. Also, we put this question in the context of influence of the environment (galaxy clusters versus field onto these processes. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 176021: Visible and Invisible Matter in Nearby Galaxies: Theory and Observations. The author acknowledges the financial support provided by the European Commission through project BELISSIMA (BELgrade Initiative for Space Science, Instrumentation and Modelling in Astrophysics, call FP7-REGPOT-2010-5, contract no. 256772

  2. Nature meets nurture: molecular genetics of gastric cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milne, A.N.; Carneiro, F.; O'Morain, C.; Offerhaus, G.J.A.

    2009-01-01

    The immensity of genes and molecules implicated in gastric carcinogenesis is overwhelming and the relevant importance of some of these molecules is too often unclear. This review serves to bring us up-to-date with the latest findings as well as to look at the larger picture in terms of how to tackle

  3. Growing Up Creative: Nurturing a Lifetime of Creativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amabile, Teresa M.

    Defining creativity as a process that draws upon talents, education, skills, thinking and working styles, and inherent intelligence, and pinpointing motivation as the single most important ingredient in the creativity recipe, this book provides dozens of concrete, hands-on exercises and techniques that can help a parent or teacher keep creativity…

  4. Mg and Sr in Arctic echinoderm calcite: Nature or nurture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglikowska, A.; Borszcz, T.; Drewnik, A.; Grabowska, M.; Humphreys-Williams, E.; Kędra, M.; Krzemińska, M.; Piwoni-Piórewicz, A.; Kukliński, P.

    2018-04-01

    The Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca ratios in echinoderm skeletal calcite are used as a proxy for Phanerozoic seawater changes, since the skeletal concentrations are, to some extent, controlled by environmental factors. However, it remains unclear how the influence of environmental factors is modified by vital effects, especially in polar waters. Therefore, the goal of this study was to compare the ratios of Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca among the skeletal parts of 10 common Arctic echinoderm species belonging to three classes Echinoidea, Asteroidea and Ophiuroidea that contribute substantially to the carbon cycle in the Arctic benthic system. Significant differences were recorded in echinoid skeletal element concentrations among specific skeletal parts. The lowest Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca ratios were detected in the spines (mean Mg/Ca 37.5 ± 8.8 SD; Sr/Ca 1.8 ± 0.1). The components of the Aristotle's lantern (epiphyses, pyramids and rotulas) were characterised by the highest Mg levels (Mg/Ca 79.9 ± 6.0; 75.2 ± 9.1; 60.1 ± 3.8, respectively). It is likely that mouth parts experience greater mechanical pressure compared to other body parts, and the higher content of Mg in the Aristotle's lantern contributes to its robustness. We did not find any distinctive trends in the distribution of skeletal elements in the asteroid and ophiuroid skeletal parts. The heterogeneous concentrations of Mg and Sr in different skeleton parts of the echinoids suggest possible physiological regulation of the chemical composition rather than the composition only being influenced by the environment. We cannot recommend echinoderm skeletons as reliable indicators in palaeoenvironmental reconstructions due to the possible biological control of skeletal chemistry, which may interfere with the effect of environmental variables.

  5. Stimulating and Nurturing Professionalisms, Creativity and Innovation in Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menara Simanjuntak

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge management is an emerging discipline and professionalism, creativity, innovation, organization and teams need to be thought about in this new context. This paper creates a framework in which to discuss these concepts with literature research. It goes on to explore how our professionalisms, creativity and innovations is blocked in variety ways, including deep-seated beliefs about the world. The need for professional skills today in workplace faces a number of challenges, especially in unfamiliar and unpredictable situations. Finally this paper takes a brief look at two tools to support knowledge management, professionalisms, creativity and innovations - one in the human domain and the other in the technology domain. We are also needs to boost its capacity for continuous professionalism, creativity and innovation for both technology, social, economic, and organization reasons. 

  6. Nurturing and Testing Translation Competence for Text-Translating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubakirova, Karlygash Adilkhanovna

    2016-01-01

    The article analyzes the problems of contemporary professional education. As its instance, we examine the developmental scheme for training professional translators. Optimal ways of organizing the learning process are suggested from the point of view of the competence approach, which is widely recognized for training a modern specialist. The…

  7. Interdisciplinarity: Building Bridges and Nurturing a Complex Ecology of Ideas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.R. Gasper (Des)

    2004-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract Much discussion of interdisciplinarity shows one or more of the following defects: 1. conceptual confusion - lack of a refined and consistent set of terms for analysing interdisciplinarity and its variants; 2. utopianism - lack of realism about constraints and

  8. Comment 2: Nurturing multidisciplinary research on the global commons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feeny, D.

    1992-01-01

    Both an improved understanding of the causes and consequences of global warming as well as the exploration of responses to global warming require the integration of knowledge from a wide variety of disciplines in the natural sciences, social sciences, and humanities. There are a variety of examples of successful multidisciplinary enterprises that have conducted research over an extended period of time

  9. Nurturing Careers in Psychology: Combining Work and Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, Diane F.

    2008-01-01

    The academic workplace, with its requirements for achieving tenure within the first 6 years of employment, is designed in ways that discriminate against young faculty with family care responsibilities, most notably mothers. Mason and Goulden ("Academe," http://www.aaup.org/publications/Academe/2002/02nd/02ndmas.htm, 2002, "Academe,"…

  10. Nature, Nurture, and Gender: The Evolution of Evelyn Fox Keller

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    For those of us who came of age as women scientists in the 1980s, Evelyn Fox Keller was our torch bearer – a ... reate Barbara Mclintock's work on 'jumping genes' convinced her that the genetic appara- tus is more labile ... this earlier conjunction and women's educa- tion was provided by an Elizabethan scholar. Richard ...

  11. Nurturant Ethics and Academic Ideals: Convergence in the Writing Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trachsel, Mary

    1995-01-01

    Examines how and why the American academy has employed the social construct of gender in defining the writing center as a site where caring education is promoted according to a cultural ideal of "women's work." Draws on the author's encounters with feminist philosophy, academic professionalism, psycho-sociolinguistics, and child development…

  12. Nurturing "Critical Hope" in Teaching Feminist Social Work Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson-Nathe, Ben; Gringeri, Christina; Wahab, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    Despite the congruence between critical feminist values and the cardinal values of the social work profession, feminist research in social work has lagged behind its feminist cousins in the social sciences, particularly in terms of critical uses of theory, reflexivity, and the troubling of binaries. This article presents as praxis our reflections…

  13. Nurturing professional social work in Malawi | Kakowa | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    If you would like more information about how to print, save, and work with PDFs, Highwire Press provides a helpful Frequently Asked Questions about PDFs. Alternatively, you can download the PDF file directly to your computer, from where it can be opened using a PDF reader. To download the PDF, click the Download link ...

  14. Forgiveness as a Psychological Antecedent of Perceived Parental Nurturance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buri, John R; And Others

    While forgiveness has long been a crucial concept in the churches' formulations for the establishment and the preservation of spiritual, social, and emotional health, consideration of forgiveness by psychology pales in comparison. Research is needed to identify the psychological factors in mothers and fathers which serve as antecedents of the…

  15. Using singing to nurture children's hearing? A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Graham F; Saunders, Jo; Edwards, Sian; Palmer, Zoe; Himonides, Evangelos; Knight, Julian; Mahon, Merle; Griffin, Susanna; Vickers, Deborah A

    2015-09-01

    This article reports a pilot study of the potential benefits of a sustained programme of singing activities on the musical behaviours and hearing acuity of young children with hearing impairment (HI). Twenty-nine children (n=12 HI and n=17 NH) aged between 5 and 7 years from an inner-city primary school in London participated, following appropriate ethical approval. The predominantly classroom-based programme was designed by colleagues from the UCL Institute of Education and UCL Ear Institute in collaboration with a multi-arts charity Creative Futures and delivered by an experienced early years music specialist weekly across two school terms. There was a particular emphasis on building a repertoire of simple songs with actions and allied vocal exploration. Musical learning was also supported by activities that drew on visual imagery for sound and that included simple notation and physical gesture. An overall impact assessment of the pilot programme embraced pre- and post-intervention measures of pitch discrimination, speech perception in noise and singing competency. Subsequent statistical data analyses suggest that the programme had a positive impact on participant children's singing range, particularly (but not only) for HI children with hearing aids, and also in their singing skills. HI children's pitch perception also improved measurably over time. Findings imply that all children, including those with HI, can benefit from regular and sustained access to age-appropriate musical activities.

  16. Novel Ways to Identify and Nurture Healthcare Innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Kurt Hertogs

    2015-01-01

    Johnson & Johnson is engaged in a new strategy of partnering and cultivating external innovation that relies on strengthening the ecosystem for innovation in its areas of interest. Johnson & Johnson Innovation (JJI) has been implementing this strategy by identifying early innovation and helping to translate it into value added therapeutic solutions and portfolio products. In order to achieve transformational results in areas of high unmet medical need and risk, collaboration with different st...

  17. Stimulating And Nurturing Professionalisms, Creativity And Innovation In Organization

    OpenAIRE

    Menara Simanjuntak; Haryadi Sarjono

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge management is an emerging discipline and professionalism, creativity, innovation, organization and teams need to be thought about in this new context. This paper creates a framework in which to discuss these concepts with literature research. It goes on to explore how our professionalisms, creativity and innovations is blocked in variety ways, including deep-seated beliefs about the world. The need for professional skills today in workplace faces a number of challenges, especially i...

  18. Nurturing mission. A case study of a hospital's cultural growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, F H

    1991-11-01

    Recognizing the need to enhance his hospital's fulfillment of its mission as a religious organization, the chief executive officer of Lutheran Hospital of Indiana, Inc., Fort Wayne, initiated a process to change the institution's corporate culture to reflect the mission. After assessing hospital managers' perceptions of the hospital's mission, a planning committee drafted a mission statement. The statement was condensed into an easily remembered motto, "Reach out and reflect God's love!" to guide employees' actions. The hospital expanded its position descriptions to include the facility's expectations for employee behavior that is consistent with the mission. An orientation program for new employees emphasizes incorporating the mission concepts of courtesy and compassion into all activities. To establish the mission firmly as part of the corporate culture, the hospital established three recognition programs and redesigned its pay plan to recognize performance that reflects the hospital's mission. Redecorating the drab facility has improved employees' attitudes toward their work environment. Five years into the change process, the hospital now has clear direction for strategic decisions, a more cooperative atmosphere, and increased admissions. The process continues, and assessment of the mission establishment process will lead to the initiation of continuous quality improvement concepts.

  19. Star-formation rates of cluster galaxies: nature versus nurture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laganá, Tatiana F.; Ulmer, M. P.

    2018-03-01

    We analysed 17 galaxy clusters, and investigated, for the first time, the dependence of the star formation rate (SFR) and specific star formation rate (sSFR) as a function of projected distance (as a proxy for environment) and stellar mass for cluster galaxies in an intermediate-to-high redshift range (0.4 cluster galaxies at an intermediate-to-high redshift range, mass is the primary characteristic that drives SFR.

  20. The myth of ability nurturing mathematical talent in every child

    CERN Document Server

    Mighton, John

    2004-01-01

    For decades teachers and parents have accepted the judgment that some students just aren’t good at math. John Mighton—the founder of a revolutionary math program designed to help failing math students—feels that not only is this wrong, but that it has become a self-fulfilling prophecy. A pioneering educator, Mighton realized several years ago that children were failing math because they had come to believe they were not good at it. Once students lost confidence in their math skills and fell behind, it was very difficult for them to catch up, particularly in the classroom. He knew this from experience, because he had once failed math himself. Using the premise that anyone can learn math and anyone can teach it, Mighton’s unique teaching method isolates and describes concepts so clearly that students of all skill levels can understand them. Rather than fearing failure, students learn from and build on their own successes and gain the confidence and self-esteem they need to be inspired to learn. Might...

  1. Nurturing the "golden middle" | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    With policy supports — such as investments in the electricity grid and education — these small and medium enterprises became a “golden middle,” playing a crucial role in creating jobs and enhancing value added. To help others learn from such success, the Asian Institute of Management has launched a research ...

  2. Arnold L. Gesell: The Paradox of Nature and Nurture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thelen, Esther; Adolph, Karen E.

    1992-01-01

    Examines the impact of Arnold L. Gesell on developmental psychology. Gesell is best remembered for his developmental norms, acquired from observations of infants and children. Gesell's ideas about maturation have lost favor, but his belief in infants' native abilities is still a dominant theme in theories. (BC)

  3. NATURE, NURTURE, AND THE MATHEMATICS OF CULTURE IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and using the most basic mathematical principles as the tools of the formation process of Man. However, the noble ... through the constant application of the most basic mathematical operations to distill its ambiguity and make it ...... the ear for music, the taste for music; you will not have much success ·than if you undertook to ...

  4. Nephrolithiasis in identical twins: the impact of nature vs nurture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haleblian, George E; Cantor, David A; Sur, Roger L; Assimos, Dean G; Preminger, Glenn M

    2007-09-01

    To assess possible underlying metabolic abnormalities in three sets of monozygotic twins, to evaluate the interplay among the factors of kidney stone formation, a complex multifactorial process influenced by environmental, genetic and anatomical factors. Three sets of identical twins with either cystine or calcium oxalate stones were identified. Demographic data, medical histories and the results of 24-h urine testing, with samples collected on self-selected diets, were reviewed and analysed. The cystinuric twins had very similar cystine excretion rates, while stone activity was significantly more pronounced in one. Metabolic abnormalities were concordant in one set of twins with calcium oxalate stones, both being hypercalciuric and hyperuricosuric. However, metabolic abnormalities were discordant in the other pair, one twin with hypercalciuria and the other with hypocitraturia. Two of the three pairs had low urinary volume. These results support previous observations that environmental, genetic and potentially, anatomical factors play roles in kidney-stone formation. Additional controlled studies of monozygotic stone-forming twins might help to define the interplay between environmental and genetic factors, and allow the identification of susceptibility genes involved in stone generation.

  5. Origin of the Cosmic Network: Nature vs Nurture

    OpenAIRE

    Shandarin, Sergei; Habib, Salman; Heitmann, Katrin

    2009-01-01

    The large-scale structure of the Universe, as traced by the distribution of galaxies, is now being revealed by large-volume cosmological surveys. The structure is characterized by galaxies distributed along filaments, the filaments connecting in turn to form a percolating network. Our objective here is to quantitatively specify the underlying mechanisms that drive the formation of the cosmic network: By combining percolation-based analyses with N-body simulations of gravitational structure fo...

  6. Dyslipidaemia and coronary heart disease: nature vs nurture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegele, R A

    In order to enhance health care for patients with coronary heart disease (CHD), genetic markers of susceptibility could be incorporated into a formula for risk evaluation that includes traditional factors. Preventive measures could then be targeted towards 'high-risk' subjects. But can the genetic component be dissected from the environmental component in an intermediate CHD phenotype, such as plasma lipoproteins.

  7. Vertebral Artery Diameter and Flow: Nature or Nurture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarnoki, Adam Domonkos; Fejer, Bence; Tarnoki, David Laszlo; Littvay, Levente; Lucatelli, Pierleone; Cirelli, Carlo; Fanelli, Fabrizio; Sacconi, Beatrice; Fagnani, Corrado; Medda, Emanuela; Farina, Filippo; Meneghetti, Giorgio; Horvath, Tamas; Pucci, Giacomo; Schillaci, Giuseppe; Stazi, Maria Antonietta; Baracchini, Claudio

    2017-09-01

    In contrast with the carotid arteries, the vertebral arteries (VAs) show considerable variation in length, caliber, and vessel course. This study investigated whether the variation in diameter and flow characteristics of the VAs might be inherited. A total of 172 Italian twins from Padua, Perugia, and Terni (54 monozygotic, 32 dizygotic) recruited from the Italian Twin Registry underwent B-mode and pulsed-wave Doppler ultrasound assessment of their VAs. VA diameters, peak systolic velocity (PSV) and end diastolic velocity (EDV) were assessed at the level of a horizontal V2 segment. Univariate quantitative genetic modeling was performed. Fourteen percent of the sample had VA hypoplasia. Within pair correlation in monozygotic twins was higher than in dizygotics (.552 vs. .229) for VA diameter. Age- and sex-adjusted genetic effect, under the most parsimonious model, accounted for 54.7% (95% CI: 42.2-69.1%) of the variance of VA diameter, and unshared environmental effect for 45.3% (95% CI: 30.9-57.8%). No heritability was found for the PSV of VA, but shared (34.1%; 95% CI: 16.7-53.7%) and unshared (65.9%; 95% CI: 45.9-83.1%) environmental factors determined the variance. EDV of VA is moderately genetically influenced (42.4%; 95% CI: 16.1-64.9%) and also determined by the unshared environment (57.6%; 95% CI: 34.7-83.7%). The diameter of the VAs is moderately genetically determined. Different factors influence the PSV and EDV of VAs, which may highlight the complex hemodynamic background of VA flow and help to understand the vertebral flow anomalies found by ultrasound. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Neuroimaging.

  8. Nature vs. Nurture: the Making of the Montado Ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Miguel Pereira

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The southern Iberian Peninsula is dominated by a savannah-like ecosystem, the montado, which is a typically Mediterranean cultural adaptation to generally poor productive areas. Montados are exploited for three main uses: forestry, agriculture, and extensive grazing, in proportions that vary according to local conditions (more or less productive land and historical circumstances. Because these ecosystems occur over a large geographic area (they occupy some 6 million ha, biodiversity would be expected to vary among montados. However, differences in management practices may also influence species distribution. In this paper, we investigate differences in plant and bird species diversity among 60 montados distributed all across southern Portugal. The environmental variables studied included geographical coordinates, climatological data, soil type, and altitude. We also investigated agro-economic variables that could describe human activities at each site: animal husbandry (breeds, stock density, grazing rotation, etc., agriculture (fallow rotation frequency, use of fertilizers, etc., and forestry (cork harvesting, thinning, etc.. Finally, land-use type and metrics were assessed from rectified aerial photographs. Species richness among these two groups was not correlated, sites with high or low numbers of plant species not necessarily having high or low numbers of bird species. However, both plant and bird communities exhibited a similar pattern of species composition and turnover. This pattern was ecologically based, rather than a result of biological similarities between groups: direct gradient analyses and variance partitioning revealed strong correlations between species distribution and spatial gradients, namely longitude and latitude. In trying to distinguish anthropogenic from biophysical processes, we found that both were equally important as drivers of montado biodiversity. Plants and birds exhibited a similar ecological pattern, although environmental conditions were slightly more important in the case of plants, and human activities were slightly more important in the case of birds.

  9. Nurturing human capital: a challenge for higher education institutions?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    63. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/sajhe.v22i1.25773 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for ...

  10. Identifying and Nurturing the Gifted: An International Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Kurt A., Ed.; Feldhusen, John F., Ed.

    The volume consists of papers from the 1985 symposium "Identification of the Gifted" at the Sixth World Conference on Gifted and Talented Children in Hamburg (Federal Republic of Germany). Twelve chapters have the following titles and authors: (1) "Introduction" (J. F. Feldhusen and K. A. Heller); (2) "A Conception of…

  11. Nurturing Bilingual Learners: Challenges and Concerns in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curdt-Christiansen, Xiao Lan; Sun, Baoqi

    2016-01-01

    Singapore's bilingual policy legitimises English not only as the language of governmental administration and interethnic communication, but also as the medium of instruction in all schools on all levels and across all subjects except mother tongues (MTs). As a result of these politics of language recognition, a visible shift has occurred in all…

  12. Nurturing the continuum of HIV testing, treatment and prevention ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Despite the shift in antiretroviral therapy (ARVs) eligibility cascade from CD4 ≤ 200 to CD4 ≤ 350 to CD4 ≤ 500 mm3, HIV related morbidity and mortality continue to escalate annually, as do HIV infections. The new paradigm of treatment for all HIV positives individual irrespective of CD4 count may ...

  13. Nurturing Global Collaboration and Networked Learning in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Catherine; Cochrane, Thomas; Gordon, Averill

    2016-01-01

    We consider the principles of communities of practice (CoP) and networked learning in higher education, illustrated with a case study. iCollab has grown from an international community of practice connecting students and lecturers in seven modules across seven higher education institutions in six countries, to a global network supporting the…

  14. Fostering values: four stages towards developing professional ethics for future accountants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Othman Zaleha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The many accounting scandals occurred in the last three decades have change the perspective of accountant globally. As such, the higher institutions have to play their role in nurturing professional ethics in order to change the misconception towards the profession. Our observation of the literature indicates that incorporating professional ethics in higher institutions is a way forward towards developing future accountants with values. Henceforth, we conducted a generic inquiry study to explore how higher institutions could inculcate accounting graduates with professional ethics. Our findings show a conceptual framework which depicted four stages towards incorporating professional ethics at tertiary level education there are: 1 value development, 2 ethics maturation, 3 professionalism development and 4 ownership through effective implementation and enforcement. Consequently, the findings contribute to expanding the current knowledge in our conceptualisation of the professional ethics concept. In addition, the findings support the development of ethics education for accounting graduates in higher institutions in Malaysia. We consider that this study provides evidence to educators and policy makers that teaching methods and pedagogical policies should ensure professional ethics education in business schools in Malaysia is treated as a pervasive element of curricula rather than an optional choice.

  15. Comparative Proteomics of Human and Macaque Milk Reveals Species-Specific Nutrition during Postnatal Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Kristen L; Weber, Darren; Phinney, Brett S; Smilowitz, Jennifer T; Hinde, Katie; Lönnerdal, Bo; Korf, Ian; Lemay, Danielle G

    2015-05-01

    Milk has been well established as the optimal nutrition source for infants, yet there is still much to be understood about its molecular composition. Therefore, our objective was to develop and compare comprehensive milk proteomes for human and rhesus macaques to highlight differences in neonatal nutrition. We developed a milk proteomics technique that overcomes previous technical barriers including pervasive post-translational modifications and limited sample volume. We identified 1606 and 518 proteins in human and macaque milk, respectively. During analysis of detected protein orthologs, we identified 88 differentially abundant proteins. Of these, 93% exhibited increased abundance in human milk relative to macaque and include lactoferrin, polymeric immunoglobulin receptor, alpha-1 antichymotrypsin, vitamin D-binding protein, and haptocorrin. Furthermore, proteins more abundant in human milk compared with macaque are associated with development of the gastrointestinal tract, the immune system, and the brain. Overall, our novel proteomics method reveals the first comprehensive macaque milk proteome and 524 newly identified human milk proteins. The differentially abundant proteins observed are consistent with the perspective that human infants, compared with nonhuman primates, are born at a slightly earlier stage of somatic development and require additional support through higher quantities of specific proteins to nurture human infant maturation.

  16. Professional development for nurses: mentoring along the u-shaped curve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Joyce E; Billingsley, Molly; Crichlow, Tori; Ferrell, Eileen

    2011-01-01

    Shortages of nurses are expected to continue throughout the coming decade. To meet the demand, nursing leaders must develop creative approaches for nurturing and sustaining nursing talent. Traditionally, nursing has embraced a variety of development strategies to enhance the leadership abilities of nurses and to fill the leadership ranks with top talent. We describe the rationale, design, and impact of a 3-pronged organizational approach to mentoring nursing talent at Georgetown University Hospital, the first Magnet hospital in Washington, District of Columbia. The design of these programs was driven by the demographics of our nursing staff. Analysis of length of tenure revealed a modified "U-shaped curve" with the majority of new nurses with tenure less than 5 years, few in the middle between 5 and 15 years, and a moderate number with 15 or more years. Investment in all our nurses' leadership development required integrating a diverse developmental process into our organizational culture, which values personal growth and mastery. A strong mentoring program makes good business sense in terms of employee job satisfaction, improved cost control, and better patient outcomes. Our experience suggests that voluntary mentoring programs work synergistically to further the development of a mentoring culture in today's hospitals.

  17. Integrating Professional Development into STEM Graduate Programs: Student-Centered Programs for Career Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lautz, L.; McCay, D.; Driscoll, C. T.; Glas, R. L.; Gutchess, K. M.; Johnson, A.; Millard, G.

    2017-12-01

    Recognizing that over half of STEM Ph.D. graduates are finding work outside of academia, a new, NSF-funded program at Syracuse University, EMPOWER (or Education Model Program on Water-Energy Research) is encouraging its graduate students to take ownership of their graduate program and design it to meet their anticipated needs. Launched in 2016, EMPOWER's goal is to prepare graduate students for careers in the water-energy field by offering targeted workshops, professional training coursework, a career capstone experience, a professional development mini-grant program, and an interdisciplinary "foundations" seminar. Through regular student feedback and program evaluation, EMPOWER has learned some important lessons this first year: career options and graduate students' interests are diverse, requiring individualized programs designed to meet the needs of prospective employers and employees; students need exposure to the range of careers in their field to provide a roadmap for designing their own graduate school experience; effective programs nurture a culture that values professional development thereby giving students permission to pursue career paths and professional development opportunities that meet their own needs and interests; and existing university resources support the effective and efficient integration of professional development activities into graduate programs. Many of the positive outcomes experienced by EMPOWER students may be achieved in departmental graduate programs with small changes to their graduate curricula.

  18. Development of a school-based program for adolescents at-risk for depression in India: results from a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, Meghna; Manjula, M; Vijay Sagar, K John

    2014-08-01

    A majority of adolescents in India, who are at risk for depression, do not receive treatment or receive it when the psychopathology has become entrenched and chronic. The present pilot study was an endeavor to assess the felt needs of adolescents vis-à-vis the difficulties and stressors experienced by them. For this purpose, 300 students across three schools were screened using standardized measures. Another objective of the study was to develop and test a school-based Coping Skills Program to address adolescents at-risk for depression. Schools were sequentially assigned to intervention or control conditions; students of index (n=13) and control (n=6) groups were assessed at baseline, post-intervention, and 3 months follow-up. At post-intervention for the index group, all outcomes measures except coping skills-including depressive symptoms, negative cognitions, academic stress, and social problem-solving-showed change in the expected direction, this difference assuming significance at follow-up. The program was rated positively by students using anonymous feedback and there was low to nil perceived stigmatization. Results are discussed in the context of need for such intervention programs in India, and future scope of research involving larger samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Formation and early development of tetraspores of Polysiphonia urceolata (Rhodomelaceae, Rhodophyta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Jianting; Li, Dapeng; Yu, Shenhui; Liu, Jidong; Duan, Delin

    2009-05-01

    Polysiphonia urceolata is one type of potential commercial red seaweeds used for breeding and cultivation, because of its significant biochemical and biomedical application. However, the information of breeding and seedling incubation for cultivation is limited, especially the early development. In this study, tetrasporohyte and gametophyte of P. urceolata were taken as the study materials in Huiquan Bay, Qingdao, China. The cleaned and sterilized tetrasporophytes and gametophytes were pre-cultured in sterilized seawater, then nurtured at 18°C, 25 μmol photons m-2 s-1 in 12:12 h (light:dark) photoperiod. Continuous observation under microscope showed that the early development consists of bipolar division stage and seedling stage. In the division stage, tetraspores germinate into bipolar sporelings that further differentiate into a colorless rhizoidal portion and a lightly pigmented upright shoot. The lightly pigmented rhizoidal cell develops to a rhizoid and the larger pigmented cell transforms to an erect axis. In the seedling stage, several quasi-protuberances appear on the erect axis and form juvenile seedlings. The results demonstrate the culture of P. urceolata from tetraspores under laboratory conditions.

  20. Benefits of a bedtime routine in young children: Sleep, development, and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mindell, Jodi A; Williamson, Ariel A

    2017-11-06

    This paper presents a conceptual model and reviews the empirical evidence to support a nightly bedtime routine as a key factor in the promotion of not only healthy sleep, but also of broad development and wellbeing in early childhood. A bedtime routine embodies the characteristics of nurturing care and early child stimulation, which are deemed to be essential for positive outcomes, especially for at-risk children. Furthermore, common, adaptive components of a bedtime routine can contribute to an array of positive developmental outcomes beyond improved sleep, inclusive of language development, literacy, child emotional and behavioral regulation, parent-child attachment, and family functioning, among other outcomes. These bedtime routine components include activities in the broad domains of nutrition (e.g., feeding, healthy snack), hygiene (e.g., bathing, oral care), communication (e.g., reading, singing/lullabies) and physical contact (e.g., massage, cuddling/rocking). A bedtime routine can provide multiple benefits to child and family functioning at a time of day that many parents are present with their children. Although additional research on hypothesized routine-related child outcomes and mechanisms of action are needed, promoting a bedtime routine may be a feasible and cost-effective method to promote positive early childhood development worldwide, particularly for socioeconomically disadvantaged and other at-risk young children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Developing Students' Critical Thinking Skills through Visual Literacy in the New Secondary School Curriculum in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Chi-Kim; Jhaveri, Aditi Dubey

    2016-01-01

    This paper argues that the planned introduction of visual literacy into the New Secondary School Curriculum can play a crucial role in enabling students to think critically and creatively in Hong Kong's highly visual landscape. As Hong Kong's educational system remains entrenched in long-established and conventional pedagogies, the primacy given…

  2. Medications development for substance-use disorders: contextual influences (dis)incentivizing pharmaceutical-industry positioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janero, David R

    2014-11-01

    The significant contribution of substance-use disorders (SUDs) to the global-disease burden and associated unmet medical needs has not engendered a commensurate level of pharma-industry research and development (R&D) for novel SUD therapeutics invention. Analysis of contextual factors shaping this position suggests potential routes toward incentivizing R&D commitment for that purpose. This article considers multiple primary factors that have consorted to disincentivize pharma industry's operating in the SUD space: ill-understood pathology; variegated treatments and patient profiles; involved clinical trials; and - with particular reference to SUDs-negative cultural/business stigmas and shallow commercial precedent. Industry incentivization for SUD drug innovation requires progress on several fronts, including: translational experimental data and systems; personalized, holistic SUD treatment approaches; interactions among pharma, nonindustry constituencies, and the medical profession with vested interests in countering negative stereotypes and expanding SUD treatment options; and public-private alliances focused on improving SUD pharmacotherapy. Given the well-entrenched business stance whereby the prospect of future profits in major markets largely determines drug-company R&D investment trajectory, strategic initiatives offering substantial reductions in the risks and opportunity (i.e., time and money) costs associated with SUD drug discovery are likely to be the most potent drivers for encouraging mainstream industry positioning in this therapeutic area. Such initiatives could originate from front-loaded R&D operational and back-loaded patent, regulatory, marketing and health-care policy reforms. These may be too involved and protracted for the turbulent pharmaceutical industry to entertain amid its recent retrenchment from psychiatric/CNS diseases and intense pressures to increase productivity and shareholder value.

  3. Science and technology for the new century : a framework for the human resources management of the federal science and technology community - project 1, management and scientific development and training

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    The science-based departments of the Canadian Government are responsible for ensuring the effectiveness and relevance of federal investment in science and technology research projects. This publication provides a flexible framework for effectively planning and delivering a learning strategy for the science and technology workforce to ensure that federal science and technology objectives can be met in the future. The framework helps to: (1) identify the corporate needs for developing the science and technology workforce of the federal government by providing recommendations to appropriate organizations, (2) establish the need for a learning strategy linked to the business lines of each organization, (3) find the best ways to implement learning at the appropriate level of investment, (4) choose means to monitor this investment so that its impact on the organization can be measured, and (5) take the proper steps to ensure the successful introduction and nurturing of a learning environment to ensure maximum return on the investment. 9 refs., 5 figs.

  4. Exchanging expertise and constructing boundaries: The development of a transnational knowledge network around heroin-assisted treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Karen

    2016-05-01

    Over the last 20 years, supervised injectable and inhalable heroin prescribing has been developed, tested and in some cases introduced as a second line treatment for limited groups of entrenched heroin users in a number of European countries and Canada. Based on documentary analyses and eleven key informant interviews, this paper investigates the growth of 'expertise' and the sharing of knowledge between scientific stakeholders from different countries involved in researching and developing this area of treatment. Drawing on Stone's concept of the 'knowledge network' (Stone, 2013) and Gieryn's theory of 'boundary-work' (Gieryn, 1983), the analysis demonstrates the collective power of this group of scientists in producing a particular form of knowledge and expertise which has accrued and been exchanged over time. It also illustrates the ways in which this type of science has gained credibility and authority and become legitimised, reinforced and reproduced by those who employ it in both scientific and political debates. Boundaries were constructed by the knowledge network between different types of professions/disciplines, different forms of science and between the production of science and its consumption by non-scientists. The uniformity of the knowledge network in terms of their professional and disciplinary backgrounds, methodological expertise and ideological perspectives has meant that alternative forms of knowledge and perspectives have been neglected. This limits the nature and scope of the scientific evidence on which to base policy and practice decisions impacting on the work of policy makers and practitioners as well as the experiences of those in treatment who are most affected by this research and policy development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Language policy, translation and language development in Zimbabwe

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The language policy is usually inferred from the language practices that characterise various spheres of life. This article attempts to show how the language policy, which primarily influences text production in the country, has nurtured translation practice. The dominating role of English sees many texts, particularly technical ...

  6. Far East Asia | Page 182 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    To realize this potential and influence policy-making and program design, the Singapore Internet Research Centre, supported by IDRC, created an innovative research capacity-building program, SIRCA. The program supports interdisciplinary ICTD research through the nurturing of research relationships. Read more about ...

  7. Development: Ages & Stages--Helping Children Manage Fears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Carla; Miller, Susan A.; Church, Ellen Booth

    2004-01-01

    By watching, listening, and offering gentle reassurance, you can help young children work through their fears. Sudden noises, movement, or unfamiliar people often frighten babies. After 12 months of nurturing experiences with familiar teachers and routines, a baby is more prepared and less easily startled. Preschoolers have a variety of fears such…

  8. Parental Practices and the Development of Maladaptive Schemas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunty, Amy L.; Buri, John R.

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between Young's (1999) Early Maladaptive Schemas (EMSs) and several parental variables was investigated. The parental variables of interest were: (a) Nurturance, (b) Authority, (c) Intrusiveness, (d) Psychological Control, (e) Overprotection, and (f) Parentification. Regression analyses revealed that these parental practices…

  9. Keeping ideas alive in Chile | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-10-27

    Oct 27, 2010 ... IDRC support for Chilean social scientists during the dark years of the military dictatorship helped nurture a core group of researchers ready to set their country on the road to democracy. Few scholars were more under threat than social scientists, whose probing work often challenged the regimes ...

  10. Moral Development and Parent Behavior Antecedents in Adolescent Psychopaths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fodor, Eugene M.

    1973-01-01

    Psychopaths, as against nonpsychopathic delinquents, saw their fathers as having been less nurturant toward them and as having given them less praise. The mothers of psychopaths were reported to have demanded less achievement of their sons than the mothers of nonpsychopathic delinquents. (Author)

  11. Adolescent development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Development - adolescent; Growth and development - adolescent ... During adolescence, children develop the ability to: Understand abstract ideas. These include grasping higher math concepts, and developing moral ...

  12. Developments in radiological protection of the environment and a commentary on its implications for new build of nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brownless, George; Lazo, Ted

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Development of radiological protection of non-human biota continues to be the focus of much interest and differing views amongst the radiological protection community. To nurture discussion of these developments, the Nuclear Energy Agency's Committee on Radiological Protection and Public Health is taking the lead in organising coverage of a spectrum of views on the topic at the International Conference on Radioecology and Radioactivity in the Environment (Bergen, 2008), with the aim of assisting the international community to construct a consensual, fit-for-purpose approach. To support discussion of these views, the session will also include scientific presentations and reports from implementers. This paper will report on these developments, based principally on the session at the Conference but also other activities in which NEA participates, to provide an up-to-date summary in this area including progress in developing understanding of how radiological protection of the environment will be implemented for the three exposure situations - planned, existing and emergency - set out in the new ICRP general recommendations. Furthermore, given the NEA's mandate across the civil nuclear energy field, the paper will give a commentary on how developments in radiological protection of the environment may interplay with new build of nuclear power plants. (author)

  13. Risks to Early Childhood Health and Development in the Postconflict Transition of Northern Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa A. McElroy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Research from numerous fields of science has documented the critical importance of nurturing environments in shaping young children's future health and development. We studied the environments of early childhood (birth to 3 years during postconflict, postdisplacement transition in northern Uganda. The aim was to better understand perceived needs and risks in order to recommend targeted policy and interventions. Methods. Applied ethnography (interview, focus group discussion, case study, observational methods, document review in 3 sites over 1 year. Results. Transition was a prolonged and deeply challenging phase for families. Young children were exposed to a myriad of risk factors. Participants recognized risks as potential barriers to positive long-term life outcomes for children and society but circumstances generally rendered them unable to make substantive changes. Conclusions. Support structures were inadequate to protect the health and development of children during the transitional period placing infants and young children at risk. Specific policy and practice guidelines are required that focus on protecting hard-to-reach, vulnerable, children during what can be prolonged and extremely difficult periods of transition.

  14. Humanitarian ventures or 'fistula tourism?': the ethical perils of pelvic surgery in the developing world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, L Lewis; Arrowsmith, Steven D; Lassey, Anyetei T; Danso, Kwabena

    2006-11-01

    The vesico-vaginal fistula from prolonged obstructed labor has become a rarity in the industrialized West but still continues to afflict millions of women in impoverished Third World countries. As awareness of this problem has grown more widespread, increasing numbers of American and European surgeons are volunteering to go on short-term medical mission trips to perform fistula repair operations in African and Asian countries. Although motivated by genuine humanitarian concerns, such projects may serve to promote 'fistula tourism' rather than significant improvements in the medical infrastructure of the countries where these problems exist. This article raises practical and ethical questions that ought to be asked about 'fistula trips' of this kind, and suggests strategies to help insure that unintended harm does not result from such projects. The importance of accurate data collection, thoughtful study design, critical ethical oversight, logistical and financial support systems, and the importance of nurturing local capacity are stressed. The most critical elements in the development of successful programs for treating obstetric vesico-vaginal fistulas are a commitment to developing holistic approaches that meet the multifaceted needs of the fistula victim and identifying and supporting a 'fistula champion' who can provide passionate advocacy for these women at the local level to sustain the momentum necessary to make long-term success a reality for such programs.

  15. Growing from dilemmas: developing a professional identity through collaborative reflections on relational dilemmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binyamin, Galy

    2018-03-01

    Health educators nurture future generations of professionals by helping them to navigate the complex transition from students to therapists. The purpose of this study was to illustrate how a pedagogical method of collaborative reflection (involving reflective writing, sharing, and discussion) on relational dilemmas with role partners can develop occupational therapists' professional identity. The course, in which this method was applied, implemented the supervision and peer learning frameworks as related to student's fieldwork experiences, and is based on the perception of growing from conflicts and exploration. The study is based on analyzing qualitative data of 392 dilemma cases and 196 texts of personal reflection on classroom work of undergraduate students in occupational therapy. A thematic analysis of the case studies revealed six overarching relational dilemmas that novice therapists are often called upon to deal with when working with patients, patients' families and colleagues from other health professions. Analyzing the personal texts of reflection highlighted the effectiveness of collaborative reflection in bridging the gap between theory and practice, and in helping students develop their professional identity. The method can be adapted to curricula for students and therapists in other health professions, in undergraduate courses, and in group supervision programs.

  16. Understanding the coach's role in the development of mental toughness: perspectives of elite Australian football coaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gucciardi, Daniel F; Gordon, Sandy; Dimmock, James A; Mallett, Clifford J

    2009-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore elite coaches' perceptions of how they can both facilitate and impede the development of key mental toughness characteristics in the context of Australian football. Eleven coaches from a previous study (Gucciardi, Gordon, & Dimmock, 2008) were re-interviewed and the transcribed verbatim data were analysed using grounded theory data analytical procedures (Strauss & Corbin, 1998). Five categories that appear to be central to the coach's role in the development of mental toughness in Australian football emerged. Four of these categories (coach-athlete relationship, coaching philosophy, training environments, and specific strategies) were said to facilitate the developmental process, whereas the final category (negative experiences and influences) was said to impede this process. A grounded theory in which the aforementioned categories enable coaches to nurture a "generalized form" of mental toughness acquired during one's formative years into a "sport-specific form" pertinent to Australian football is presented. The theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.

  17. Normal and abnormal cerebrovascular development: gene-environment interactions during early life with later life consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scher, Mark S

    2013-01-01

    A greater understanding of cerebrovascular health and disease requires the consideration of recent neuroscience advances concerning neuroplasticity in the context of classical developmental neurology principles. Consideration of the ontogenetic interplay of nature and nurture influencing brain development during prenatal and early postnatal time periods should consider the concept of the developmental origins of neurological health and disease. Adaptive and maladaptive effects of neuroplasticity require a systems biology approach integrating molecular, receptor, cellular, neural network, and behavioral perspectives, culminating in the structural and functional cerebrovascular phenotypes that express health or disease across the lifespan. Cognizance of the interrelationships among maternal, placental, fetal, and neonatal factors requires an interdisciplinary appreciation of genetic/epigenetic forces of neuroplasticity during early life that incrementally influence cerebrovascular health or disease throughout childhood and adulthood. Knowledge of the systemic effects of multiorgan function on cerebrovascular development further broadens the systems biology approach to general plasticity of the individual as a whole organism. Short- and long-term consequences of the positive and negative effects of neuroplasticity must consider ongoing gene-environment interactions with maturation and aging, superimposed on earlier fetal/neonatal experiences that sustain neurological health or contribute to disease during childhood and adulthood. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The people and health service development in India: a brief overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerji, Debabar

    2004-01-01

    Health is politics, and politics is health as if people matter--this has been a refrain of such scholars as Rudolf Virchow, Halfdan Mahler, and B.C. Roy. Many seeds of hope for health were generated during India's struggle against colonial rule. After Independence, with the changes in power relations, these seeds could not find the appropriate soil to nurture them. Power relations influence health service development, which is a sociocultural, economic, political, organizational, and managerial process with epidemiological and sociological dimensions. Even within the power structure, however, a carry-over of the democratic process of the pre-Independence era has created a pro-people ambience. Despite considerable difficulties and shortcomings, India has developed an endogenous, alternative body of knowledge more suited to the prevailing social, cultural, economic, and epidemiological conditions. This has formed the content of alternative approaches to education, practice, and research in public health--strikingly similar to the Alma-Ata Declaration. The response to this declaration of self-reliance by the world's poor, together with the earlier specter of population explosion, brought together the political leadership of all hues, the bureaucrats, and foreign agencies to impose prefabricated programs on the people. The result was a decimation and decay of the health service system, causing considerable suffering to the poor. The remedy is a return to the heritage of the alternative approaches that emerged during the early years of Independence.

  19. The development and application of a protocol for the writing, assessing, and validating of a corpus of relationship-focused text messages for new and expecting fathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Chris D; Fletcher, Richard

    2017-05-01

    In developed countries, antenatal education aims to reduce difficulties that mothers and fathers experience during transition to parenthood. However, fathers are often distracted from preparing themselves by the attention given to preparing and supporting mothers. Developments in digital communication present alternative means of supporting fathers at this time. Studies, across a range of health concerns, have reported successful outcomes from text-based interventions. Text messaging, focusing on the issues that cause paternal distress at this time, could provide timely, targeted, and effective support to fathers in their transition to parenthood. This study aimed to develop a corpus of messages that could be sent to new fathers during pregnancy and in the months after birth. Messages were intended to support new dads in caring for their own physical and mental health, nurturing strong relationships with their child, and developing strong parenting partnerships. The process employed in message development was similar to that previously employed in developing messages for people who had experienced a cardiac event. A corpus of messages and linked information focusing on fathers' relationships with their children, partners, and themselves were initially developed by a core group. The corpus was then culled, refined, and expanded by a larger, more diverse, group of experts ( n = 46), including parents, academics, and practitioners. The iterative, consultative process used in this study proved to be a functional way of developing and refining a large corpus of timed messages, and linked information, which could be sent to new fathers during their transition to fatherhood.

  20. The Effect of Caretakers’ Frequency and Positional Saliency on Noun Bias in Persian Children: A Study on Child Language Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Soleimani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Noun bias in children’s early vocabulary development is a long-held belief. The present study intended to examine the correlation between the input features like frequency and positional saliency in infant-directed speech and the noun bias characteristic of infants in their early child lexical development. To this purpose, the utterances of ten Persian children aged 1;4 and their caretakers at a kindergarten in Isfahan, Iran, were transcribed for twelve sessions. Persian language with its SOV order that gives much importance to verbs compared to nouns can make noun bias hypothesis of infants unstable. The results demonstrated a positive correlation between the frequency of nouns and verbs in Persian caretakers’ utterances and the lexical development of children on age of 1;4. The transcriptions also identified a significant noun bias in the utterances of Persian children. Therefore, the lexical items in adult utterances can predict the initial lexical repertoire of infants. It can be inferred that nurture and the utterances heard by children might play a significant role in child vocabulary development.