WorldWideScience

Sample records for numerical values obtained

  1. Value-Engineering Review for Numerical Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, J. L.

    1984-01-01

    Selecting parts for conversion from conventional machining to numerical control, value-engineering review performed for every part to identify potential changes to part design that result in increased production efficiency.

  2. Remarks on the low value obtained for the Hubble constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaakkola, Toivo

    1975-01-01

    Some remarks are made on the basis of the data given by Sandage and Tamman, suggesting that these authors have over-estimated the distances to the most luminous galaxies and obtained a value too low for the Hubble constant [fr

  3. Analytical and numerical comparisons of the α parameter obtained from several expressions versus reactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minguez, E.

    1983-01-01

    A review of the analytical expressions between α-parameter and reactivity (rho) has been done in this article. Finally, several lineal approximations have been obtained for two important points of values. The analytical expansion has been made using only one family of precursors from delayed neutrons; diffusion equation in one energy groups; neutron flux separability with known spatial function. Numerical results have been obtained using typical data from fast and thermal reactors; considering and homogeneous media of Pu 239 in the first case, and U-235 in the second one. (author)

  4. New space value of the solar oblateness obtained with PICARD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irbah, Abdanour; Meftah, Mustapha; Hauchecorne, Alain; Bocquier, Maxime; Cisse, E. Momar [Laboratoire Atmosphères, Milieux, Observations Spatiales (LATMOS), CNRS: UMR 8190-Université Paris VI-Pierre et Marie Curie-Université de Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines-INSU, F-78280, Guyancourt (France); Djafer, Djelloul [Unité de Recherche Appliquée en Energies Renouvelables, URAER, Centre de Développement des Energies Renouvelables, CDER, 47133, Ghardaïa (Algeria); Corbard, Thierry, E-mail: Abdenour.Irbah@latmos.ipsl.fr [Laboratoire Lagrange, UMR7293, Université de Nice Sophia-Antipolis, CNRS, Observatoire de la Côte d' Azur, Bd. de l' Observatoire, F-06304 Nice (France)

    2014-04-20

    The PICARD spacecraft was launched on 2010 June 15 with the scientific objective of studying the geometry of the Sun. It is difficult to measure solar oblateness because images are affected by optical distortion. Rolling the satellite, as done in previous space missions, determines the contribution of the telescope by assuming that the geometry of the Sun is constant during the observations. The optical response of the telescope is considered to be time-invariant during the roll operations. This is not the case for PICARD because an orbital signature is clearly observed in the solar radius computed from its images. We take this effect into account and provide the new space value of solar oblateness from PICARD images recorded in the solar continuum at 535.7 nm on 2011 July 4-5. The equator-pole radius difference is 8.4 ± 0.5 mas, which corresponds to an absolute radius difference of 6.1 km. This coincides with the mean value of all solar oblateness measurements obtained during the last two decades from the ground, balloons, and space. It is also consistent with values determined from models using helioseismology data.

  5. Confidence limits for regional cerebral blood flow values obtained with circular positron system, using krypton-77

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, E.; Yamamoto, Y.L.; Thompson, C.J.

    1978-01-01

    The 90% confidence limits have been determined for regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) values obtained in each cm 2 of a cross section of the human head after inhalation of radioactive krypton-77, using the MNI circular positron emission tomography system (Positome). CBF values for small brain tissue elements are calculated by linear regression analysis on the semi-logarithmically transformed clearance curve. A computer program displays CBF values and their estimated error in numeric and gray scale forms. The following typical results have been obtained on a control subject: mean CBF in the entire cross section of the head: 54.6 + - 5 ml/min/100 g tissue, rCBF for small area of frontal gray matter: 75.8 + - 9 ml/min/100 g tissue. Confidence intervals for individual rCBF values varied between + - 13 and + - 55% except for areas pertaining to the ventricular system where particularly poor statistics have been obtained. Knowledge of confidence limits for rCBF values improves their diagnostic significance, particularly with respect to the assessment of reduced rCBF in stroke patients. A nomogram for convenient determination of 90% confidence limits for slope values obtained in linear regression analysis has been designed with the number of fitted points (n) and the correlation coefficient (r) as parameters. (author)

  6. Clinical value of renal images obtained incidentally to bone scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohishi, Y.; Machida, T.; Miki, M.; Kido, A.; Tanaka, A.

    1982-01-01

    Various studies were made on 400 renal (including 325 clinical cases) observed during whole-body bone scintigraphy using 99mTc-MDP. Asymmetrical renal images in bone scintigrams were obtained from 40% of the urologic patients and 7.5% of the nonurologic patients. Out of the asymmetrical images of the urologic patients, 50% provided nonvisualized kidneys and 35% showed unilateral renal high accumulation. It can be said from the above that renal images incidentally obtained during whole-body bone scintigraphy should not be overlooked

  7. A numerical solution of a singular boundary value problem arising in boundary layer theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jiancheng

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a second-order nonlinear singular boundary value problem is presented, which is equivalent to the well-known Falkner-Skan equation. And the one-dimensional third-order boundary value problem on interval [Formula: see text] is equivalently transformed into a second-order boundary value problem on finite interval [Formula: see text]. The finite difference method is utilized to solve the singular boundary value problem, in which the amount of computational effort is significantly less than the other numerical methods. The numerical solutions obtained by the finite difference method are in agreement with those obtained by previous authors.

  8. Obtaining uranium and/or vanadium values from solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vojkovic, M

    1982-04-22

    A process for the recovery of at least one of uranium and vanadium from an aqueous liquor is claimed. It comprises: (a) treating the liquor with a low molecular weight completely water-miscible solvent selected from the group consisting of methanol, iso-propyl alcohol or acetone to form at least two phases; (b) separating the phases; (c) recovering the solvent from the first phase as the azeotropic solvent/water mixture by simple, non-fractional distillation and recycling the mixture to step (a); and (d) recovering metal values from a second one of the phases.

  9. Diagnostic value of sectional images obtained by emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roucayrol, J.C.

    1981-01-01

    It is now possible to obtain clear images of the various planes in and around a structure with ultra-sounds (echotomography), X-rays (computerized tomography) and recently, gamma-rays from radioactive substances (emission tomography). Axial transverse tomography, which is described here, is to conventional scintigraphy what CT scan is to radiography. It provides images of any structure capable of concentrating sufficiently a radioactive substance administered intravenously. These images are perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the body. As shown by examples in the liver, lungs and myocardium, lesions which had passed unnoticed with other exploratory techniques can now be demonstrated, and the location, shape and extension of known lesions can be more accurately assessed. Emission tomography already has its place in modern diagnostic procedures side by side with echotomography and CT scan [fr

  10. Value for money: Defining and measuring 'value' in MoD's acquisition policy of obtaining best value for money

    OpenAIRE

    Weiss, A.

    2006-01-01

    Obtaining value for money is a keystone of UK Ministry of Defence (MoD) acquisition strategy embedded in its Smart Acquisition policy. This thesis examines how best to measure the relative value of competing tender submissions for major projects. There is a comprehensive discussion of a wide range of relevant definitions and over three dozen documents are scrutinised including just some sixteen published by the Government. Commercially available models, algorithms and software are examined as...

  11. A new look on anomalous thermal gradient values obtained in South Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque, M. R.; Malico, I.

    2012-04-01

    A NEW LOOK ON THE ANOMALOUS THERMAL GRADIENT VALUES OBTAINED IN SOUTH PORTUGAL Duque, M. R. and Malico, I. M. Physics Department, University of Évora, Rua Romão Ramalho, 59,7000-671, Évora, Portugal It is well known that soil temperatures can be altered by water circulation. In this paper, we study numerically this effect by simulating some aquifers occurring in South Portugal. At this location, the thermal gradient values obtained in boreholes with depths less than 200 m, range between 22 and 30 °C km-1. However, there, it is easy to find places where temperatures are around 30 °C, at depths of 100 m. The obtained thermal gradient values show an increase one day after raining and a decrease during the dry season. Additionally, the curve of temperature as function of depth showed no hot water inlet in the hole. The region studied shows a smooth topography due to intensive erosion, but it was affected by alpine and hercinian orogenies. As a result, a high topography in depth, with folds and wrinkles is present. The space between adjacent folds is now filled by small sedimentary basins. Aquifers existing in this region can reach considerable depths and return to depths near the surface, but hot springs in the area are scarce. Water temperature rises in depth, and when the speed is high enough high temperatures near the surface, due to water circulation, can be found. The ability of the fluid to flow through the system depends on topography relief, rock permeability and basal heat flow. In this study, the steady-state fluid flow and heat transfer by conduction and advection are modeled. Fractures in the medium are simulated by an equivalent porous medium saturated with liquid. Thermal conductivity values for the water and the rocks can vary in space .Porosities used have high values in the region of the aquifer, low values in the lower region of the model and intermediate values in the upper regions. The results obtained show that temperature anomaly values

  12. Comparison of inverse Laplace and numerical inversion methods for obtaining z-depth profiles of diffraction data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiaojing Zhu; Predecki, P.; Ballard, B.

    1995-01-01

    Two different inversion methods, the inverse Laplace method and the linear constrained numerical method, for retrieving the z-profiles of diffraction data from experimentally obtained i-profiles were compared using tests with a known function as the original z-profile. Two different real data situations were simulated to determine the effects of specimen thickness and missing τ-profile data at small τ-values on the retrieved z-profiles. The results indicate that although both methods are able to retrieve the z-profiles in the bulk specimens satisfactorily, the numerical method can be used for thin film samples as well. Missing τ-profile data at small τ values causes error in the retrieved z-profiles with both methods, particularly when the trend of the τ-profile at small τ is significantly changed because of the missing data. 6 refs., 3 figs

  13. A new numerical method for inverse Laplace transforms used to obtain gluon distributions from the proton structure function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Block, Martin M. [Northwestern University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Evanston, IL (United States); Durand, Loyal [University of Wisconsin, Department of Physics, Madison, WI (United States)

    2011-11-15

    We recently derived a very accurate and fast new algorithm for numerically inverting the Laplace transforms needed to obtain gluon distributions from the proton structure function F{sub 2}{sup {gamma}}{sup p}(x,Q{sup 2}). We numerically inverted the function g(s), s being the variable in Laplace space, to G(v), where v is the variable in ordinary space. We have since discovered that the algorithm does not work if g(s){yields}0 less rapidly than 1/s as s{yields}{infinity}, e.g., as 1/s{sup {beta}} for 0 <{beta}<1. In this note, we derive a new numerical algorithm for such cases, which holds for all positive and non-integer negative values of {beta}. The new algorithm is exact if the original function G(v) is given by the product of a power v{sup {beta}}{sup -1} and a polynomial in v. We test the algorithm numerically for very small positive {beta}, {beta}=10{sup -6} obtaining numerical results that imitate the Dirac delta function {delta}(v). We also devolve the published MSTW2008LO gluon distribution at virtuality Q{sup 2}=5 GeV{sup 2} down to the lower virtuality Q{sup 2}=1.69 GeV{sup 2}. For devolution, {beta} is negative, giving rise to inverse Laplace transforms that are distributions and not proper functions. This requires us to introduce the concept of Hadamard Finite Part integrals, which we discuss in detail. (orig.)

  14. Optimal stability polynomials for numerical integration of initial value problems

    KAUST Repository

    Ketcheson, David I.

    2013-01-08

    We consider the problem of finding optimally stable polynomial approximations to the exponential for application to one-step integration of initial value ordinary and partial differential equations. The objective is to find the largest stable step size and corresponding method for a given problem when the spectrum of the initial value problem is known. The problem is expressed in terms of a general least deviation feasibility problem. Its solution is obtained by a new fast, accurate, and robust algorithm based on convex optimization techniques. Global convergence of the algorithm is proven in the case that the order of approximation is one and in the case that the spectrum encloses a starlike region. Examples demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm even when these conditions are not satisfied.

  15. New Estimates of Numerical Values Related to a Simplex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail V. Nevskii

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Let \\(n\\in {\\mathbb N}\\ and \\(Q_n=[0,1]^n\\. For a nondegenerate simplex \\(S\\subset {\\mathbb R}^n\\, by \\(\\sigma S\\ we denote the homothetic copy of~\\(S\\ with center of homothety in the center of gravity of \\(S\\ and ratio of~homothety \\(\\sigma\\. By \\(\\xi(S\\ we mean the minimal \\(\\sigma>0\\ such that \\(Q_n\\subset \\sigma S\\. By \\(\\alpha(S\\ denote the minimal \\(\\sigma>0\\ such that \\(Q_n\\ is~contained in a translate of~\\(\\sigma S\\. By \\(d_i(S\\ we denote the \\(i\\th axial diameter of \\(S\\, i.\\,e. the maximum length of~the segment contained in \\(S\\ and parallel to the \\(i\\th coordinate axis. Formulae for~\\(\\xi(S\\, \\(\\alpha(S\\, \\(d_i(S\\ were proved earlier by the first author. Define \\(\\xi_n=\\min\\{ \\xi(S: S\\subset Q_n\\}. \\ We always have \\(\\xi_n\\geq n.\\ We discuss some conjectures formulated in the previous papers. One of~these conjectures is the following. For~every \\(n\\, there exists \\(\\gamma>0\\, not depending on \\(S\\subset Q_n\\, such that an~inequality \\(\\xi(S-\\alpha(S\\leq \\gamma (\\xi(S-\\xi_n\\ holds. Denote by \\(\\varkappa_n\\ the minimal \\(\\gamma\\ with such a~property. We prove that \\(\\varkappa_1=\\frac{1}{2}\\; for \\(n>1\\, we obtain \\(\\varkappa_n\\geq 1\\. If \\(n>1\\ and \\(\\xi_n=n,\\ then \\(\\varkappa_n=1\\. The equality \\(\\xi_n=n\\ holds if \\(n+1\\ is an Hadamard number, i.\\,e. there exists an Hadamard matrix of~order \\(n+1\\. This proposition is known; we give one more proof with the direct use of Hadamard matrices. We prove that \\(\\xi_5=5\\. Therefore, there exists \\(n\\ such that \\(n+1\\ is not an Hadamard number and nevertheless \\(\\xi_n=n\\. The~minimal \\(n\\ with such a property is equal to \\(5\\. This involves \\(\\varkappa_5=1\\ and also disproves the following previous conjecture of the first author concerning the characterization of Hadamard numbers in terms of~homothety of simplices: \\(n+1\\ is an Hadamard number if and only

  16. A New Numerical Algorithm for Two-Point Boundary Value Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Lihua; Wu, Boying; Zhang, Dazhi

    2014-01-01

    We present a new numerical algorithm for two-point boundary value problems. We first present the exact solution in the form of series and then prove that the n-term numerical solution converges uniformly to the exact solution. Furthermore, we establish the numerical stability and error analysis. The numerical results show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  17. Numerical difficulties to obtain 3-d critical exponents from platonic solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcaraz, F.C.; Herrmann, H.J.

    1985-01-01

    The possibility to extract critical exponents of 3-d systems exploring the mass gap amplitudes of platonic solids is tested. For the Ising model the proposed method does not work for numerical reasons. (Author) [pt

  18. On numerical-analytic techniques for boundary value problems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rontó, András; Rontó, M.; Shchobak, N.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 3 (2012), s. 5-10 ISSN 1335-8243 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : numerical-analytic method * periodic successive approximations * Lyapunov-Schmidt method Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics http://www.degruyter.com/view/j/aeei.2012.12.issue-3/v10198-012-0035-1/v10198-012-0035-1.xml?format=INT

  19. The numerical solution of boundary value problems over an infinite domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shepherd, M.; Skinner, R.

    1976-01-01

    A method is presented for the numerical solution of boundary value problems over infinite domains. An example that illustrates also the strength and accuracy of a numerical procedure for calculating Green's functions is described in detail

  20. Numerical Solutions of Fifth Order Boundary Value Problems Using

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr A.B.Ahmed

    1Department of Mathematics Delta State University, Abraka, Nigeria. 2Department of ..... International Journal of Computational. Mathematics and ... Value Problems using Power Series Approximation Method.Applied. Mathematics,. 7,. 1215-.

  1. Numerical solution of fuzzy boundary value problems using Galerkin ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1 College of Mathematics and Statistics, Chongqing University, Chongqing 401331, China. 2 Department of ... exact solution of fuzzy first-order boundary value problems. (BVPs). ...... edge partial financial support by the Ministerio de Economıa.

  2. Optimal stability polynomials for numerical integration of initial value problems

    KAUST Repository

    Ketcheson, David I.; Ahmadia, Aron

    2013-01-01

    We consider the problem of finding optimally stable polynomial approximations to the exponential for application to one-step integration of initial value ordinary and partial differential equations. The objective is to find the largest stable step

  3. A combined analytic-numeric approach for some boundary-value problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Turkyilmazoglu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A combined analytic-numeric approach is undertaken in the present work for the solution of boundary-value problems in the finite or semi-infinite domains. Equations to be treated arise specifically from the boundary layer analysis of some two and three-dimensional flows in fluid mechanics. The purpose is to find quick but accurate enough solutions. Taylor expansions at either boundary conditions are computed which are next matched to the other asymptotic or exact boundary conditions. The technique is applied to the well-known Blasius as well as Karman flows. Solutions obtained in terms of series compare favorably with the existing ones in the literature.

  4. Special boundedness properties in numerical initial value problems

    KAUST Repository

    Hundsdorfer, W.

    2011-09-21

    For Runge-Kutta methods, linear multistep methods and other classes of general linear methods much attention has been paid in the literature to important nonlinear stability properties known as total-variation-diminishing (TVD), strong stability preserving (SSP) and monotonicity. Stepsize conditions guaranteeing these properties were studied by Shu and Osher (J. Comput. Phys. 77:439-471, 1988) and in numerous subsequent papers. Unfortunately, for many useful methods it has turned out that these properties do not hold. For this reason attention has been paid in the recent literature to the related and more general properties called total-variation-bounded (TVB) and boundedness. In the present paper we focus on stepsize conditions guaranteeing boundedness properties of a special type. These boundedness properties are optimal, and distinguish themselves also from earlier boundedness results by being relevant to sublinear functionals, discrete maximum principles and preservation of nonnegativity. Moreover, the corresponding stepsize conditions are more easily verified in practical situations than the conditions for general boundedness given thus far in the literature. The theoretical results are illustrated by application to the two-step Adams-Bashforth method and a class of two-stage multistep methods. © 2011 Springer Science + Business Media B.V.

  5. Comparing the rankings obtained from two biodiversity indices: the Fair Proportion Index and the Shapley Value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicke, Kristina; Fischer, Mareike

    2017-10-07

    The Shapley Value and the Fair Proportion Index of phylogenetic trees have been frequently discussed as prioritization tools in conservation biology. Both indices rank species according to their contribution to total phylogenetic diversity, allowing for a simple conservation criterion. While both indices have their specific advantages and drawbacks, it has recently been shown that both values are closely related. However, as different authors use different definitions of the Shapley Value, the specific degree of relatedness depends on the specific version of the Shapley Value - it ranges from a high correlation index to equality of the indices. In this note, we first give an overview of the different indices. Then we turn our attention to the mere ranking order provided by either of the indices. We compare the rankings obtained from different versions of the Shapley Value for a phylogenetic tree of European amphibians and illustrate their differences. We then undertake further analyses on simulated data and show that even though the chance of two rankings being exactly identical (when obtained from different versions of the Shapley Value) decreases with an increasing number of taxa, the distance between the two rankings converges to zero, i.e., the rankings are becoming more and more alike. Moreover, we introduce our freely available software package FairShapley, which was implemented in Perl and with which all calculations have been performed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Numerical Solutions of the Mean-Value Theorem: New Methods for Downward Continuation of Potential Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chong; Lü, Qingtian; Yan, Jiayong; Qi, Guang

    2018-04-01

    Downward continuation can enhance small-scale sources and improve resolution. Nevertheless, the common methods have disadvantages in obtaining optimal results because of divergence and instability. We derive the mean-value theorem for potential fields, which could be the theoretical basis of some data processing and interpretation. Based on numerical solutions of the mean-value theorem, we present the convergent and stable downward continuation methods by using the first-order vertical derivatives and their upward continuation. By applying one of our methods to both the synthetic and real cases, we show that our method is stable, convergent and accurate. Meanwhile, compared with the fast Fourier transform Taylor series method and the integrated second vertical derivative Taylor series method, our process has very little boundary effect and is still stable in noise. We find that the characters of the fading anomalies emerge properly in our downward continuation with respect to the original fields at the lower heights.

  7. Left ventricle ejection fraction obtained by radioisotopic angiocardiography. Correlation between the values of the conventional ventriclegraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ascer, E.; Pimentel Filho, W.A.; Martins, L.R.F.; Marioni Filho, H.; Queiroga Filho, A.F.; Alonso, G.; Germek, O.A.; Thom, A.F.; Souza, J.E.M.R.

    1983-01-01

    Forty-two patients with clinical signs of coronary insuficiency underwent cineangiographic and radioisotopic examinations with the purpose of analysing the correlation between the values of left ventricle ejection fraction (LVEF) obtained by both methods. The values of EF obtained by the hemodynamic method (HEMO) ranged from 0.14 to 0.85 (x-bar = 0.566) and by radioisotopic method (RM) from 0.22 to 0.89 (x-bar = 0.573). The Student T test did not demonstrate statistically significant differences between the two methods (mean of differences = 0.007; t = 0.38 and p ≥ 0.353). A regression equation was obtained in order to estimate the EF by HEMO deriving from results obtained by RM (y = 0.11 + 0.80x) and to estimate the EF through RN from the results obtained by HEMO (x = 0.08 + 0.86y), where y = hemodynamic method and x = radioisotopic method. The authors conclude that the calculation of the EF by the methods used showed a good correlation and that this fact is evidenced by the elevated Pearson's correlation coefficient (r = 0.833). (author) [pt

  8. The initial value problem as it relates to numerical relativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tichy, Wolfgang

    2017-02-01

    Spacetime is foliated by spatial hypersurfaces in the 3+1 split of general relativity. The initial value problem then consists of specifying initial data for all fields on one such a spatial hypersurface, such that the subsequent evolution forward in time is fully determined. On each hypersurface the 3-metric and extrinsic curvature describe the geometry. Together with matter fields such as fluid velocity, energy density and rest mass density, the 3-metric and extrinsic curvature then constitute the initial data. There is a lot of freedom in choosing such initial data. This freedom corresponds to the physical state of the system at the initial time. At the same time the initial data have to satisfy the Hamiltonian and momentum constraint equations of general relativity and can thus not be chosen completely freely. We discuss the conformal transverse traceless and conformal thin sandwich decompositions that are commonly used in the construction of constraint satisfying initial data. These decompositions allow us to specify certain free data that describe the physical nature of the system. The remaining metric fields are then determined by solving elliptic equations derived from the constraint equations. We describe initial data for single black holes and single neutron stars, and how we can use conformal decompositions to construct initial data for binaries made up of black holes or neutron stars. Orbiting binaries will emit gravitational radiation and thus lose energy. Since the emitted radiation tends to circularize the orbits over time, one can thus expect that the objects in a typical binary move on almost circular orbits with slowly shrinking radii. This leads us to the concept of quasi-equilibrium, which essentially assumes that time derivatives are negligible in corotating coordinates for binaries on almost circular orbits. We review how quasi-equilibrium assumptions can be used to make physically well motivated approximations that simplify the elliptic

  9. Analysis of the Diurnal Variation of the Global Electric Circuit Obtained From Different Numerical Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jánský, Jaroslav; Lucas, Greg M.; Kalb, Christina; Bayona, Victor; Peterson, Michael J.; Deierling, Wiebke; Flyer, Natasha; Pasko, Victor P.

    2017-12-01

    This work analyzes different current source and conductivity parameterizations and their influence on the diurnal variation of the global electric circuit (GEC). The diurnal variations of the current source parameterizations obtained using electric field and conductivity measurements from plane overflights combined with global Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission satellite data give generally good agreement with measured diurnal variation of the electric field at Vostok, Antarctica, where reference experimental measurements are performed. An approach employing 85 GHz passive microwave observations to infer currents within the GEC is compared and shows the best agreement in amplitude and phase with experimental measurements. To study the conductivity influence, GEC models solving the continuity equation in 3-D are used to calculate atmospheric resistance using yearly averaged conductivity obtained from the global circulation model Community Earth System Model (CESM). Then, using current source parameterization combining mean currents and global counts of electrified clouds, if the exponential conductivity is substituted by the conductivity from CESM, the peak to peak diurnal variation of the ionospheric potential of the GEC decreases from 24% to 20%. The main reason for the change is the presence of clouds while effects of 222Rn ionization, aerosols, and topography are less pronounced. The simulated peak to peak diurnal variation of the electric field at Vostok is increased from 15% to 18% from the diurnal variation of the global current in the GEC if conductivity from CESM is used.

  10. Comparison of oxygen saturation values obtained from fingers on physically restrained or unrestrained sides of the body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korhan, Esra Akin; Yönt, Gülendam Hakverdioğlu; Khorshid, Leyla

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare semiexperimentally the pulse oximetry values obtained from a finger on restrained or unrestrained sides of the body. The pulse oximeter provides a noninvasive measurement of the oxygen saturation of hemoglobin in arterial blood. One of the procedures most frequently applied to patients in intensive care units is the application of physical restraint. Circulation problems are the most important complication in patients who are physically restrained. Evaluation of oxygen saturation from body parts in which circulation is impeded or has deteriorated can cause false results. The research sample consisted of 30 hospitalized patients who participated in the study voluntarily and who were concordant with the inclusion criteria of the study. Patient information and patient follow-up forms were used for data collection. Pulse oximetry values were measured simultaneously using OxiMax Nellcor finger sensors from fingers on the restrained and unrestrained sides of the body. Numeric and percentile distributions were used in evaluating the sociodemographic properties of patients. A significant difference was found between the oxygen saturation values obtained from a finger of an arm that had been physically restrained and a finger of an arm that had not been physically restrained. The mean oxygen saturation value measured from a finger of an arm that had been physically restrained was found to be 93.40 (SD, 2.97), and the mean oxygen saturation value measured from a finger of an arm that had not been physically restrained was found to be 95.53 (SD, 2.38). The results of this study indicate that nurses should use a finger of an arm that is not physically restrained when evaluating oxygen saturation values to evaluate them correctly.

  11. A Numerical Procedure to Obtain the Creep Parameters of the Thermal Barrier Coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shifeng Wen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Three-point bending creep test was used to understand the creep behavior of typical thin film/substrate systems—thermal barrier coating (TBC systems. Firstly, a simplified model, which does not consider the local effect, has been set up to get an analytical relationship. The important result is that creep stress exponent of materials is equal to the creep load exponent of the steady-state deflection rate of BC specimens. Secondly, in order to consider the local effect of bending, the finite element method (FEM has been carried out. FEM calculation shows that there is a steady stage of the creep deflection under a constant applied load. And the exponent of the steady-state creep deflection rate to the applied load is found to be equal to the creep stress exponent of materials. The creep constant of the materials can be obtained by a set of trials with assumed creep constants of materials and can be finally determined by the best fit method. Finally, the finite element results show that the influences of the friction, the thickness of TBCs, and the modulus ratio of TBC to the substrate on stress distribution are important.

  12. Obtaining Approximate Values of Exterior Orientation Elements of Multi-Intersection Images Using Particle Swarm Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X.; Li, S. W.

    2012-07-01

    In this paper, an efficient global optimization algorithm in the field of artificial intelligence, named Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), is introduced into close range photogrammetric data processing. PSO can be applied to obtain the approximate values of exterior orientation elements under the condition that multi-intersection photography and a small portable plane control frame are used. PSO, put forward by an American social psychologist J. Kennedy and an electrical engineer R.C. Eberhart, is a stochastic global optimization method based on swarm intelligence, which was inspired by social behavior of bird flocking or fish schooling. The strategy of obtaining the approximate values of exterior orientation elements using PSO is as follows: in terms of image coordinate observed values and space coordinates of few control points, the equations of calculating the image coordinate residual errors can be given. The sum of absolute value of each image coordinate is minimized to be the objective function. The difference between image coordinate observed value and the image coordinate computed through collinear condition equation is defined as the image coordinate residual error. Firstly a gross area of exterior orientation elements is given, and then the adjustment of other parameters is made to get the particles fly in the gross area. After iterative computation for certain times, the satisfied approximate values of exterior orientation elements are obtained. By doing so, the procedures like positioning and measuring space control points in close range photogrammetry can be avoided. Obviously, this method can improve the surveying efficiency greatly and at the same time can decrease the surveying cost. And during such a process, only one small portable control frame with a couple of control points is employed, and there are no strict requirements for the space distribution of control points. In order to verify the effectiveness of this algorithm, two experiments are

  13. OBTAINING APPROXIMATE VALUES OF EXTERIOR ORIENTATION ELEMENTS OF MULTI-INTERSECTION IMAGES USING PARTICLE SWARM OPTIMIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Li

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an efficient global optimization algorithm in the field of artificial intelligence, named Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO, is introduced into close range photogrammetric data processing. PSO can be applied to obtain the approximate values of exterior orientation elements under the condition that multi-intersection photography and a small portable plane control frame are used. PSO, put forward by an American social psychologist J. Kennedy and an electrical engineer R.C. Eberhart, is a stochastic global optimization method based on swarm intelligence, which was inspired by social behavior of bird flocking or fish schooling. The strategy of obtaining the approximate values of exterior orientation elements using PSO is as follows: in terms of image coordinate observed values and space coordinates of few control points, the equations of calculating the image coordinate residual errors can be given. The sum of absolute value of each image coordinate is minimized to be the objective function. The difference between image coordinate observed value and the image coordinate computed through collinear condition equation is defined as the image coordinate residual error. Firstly a gross area of exterior orientation elements is given, and then the adjustment of other parameters is made to get the particles fly in the gross area. After iterative computation for certain times, the satisfied approximate values of exterior orientation elements are obtained. By doing so, the procedures like positioning and measuring space control points in close range photogrammetry can be avoided. Obviously, this method can improve the surveying efficiency greatly and at the same time can decrease the surveying cost. And during such a process, only one small portable control frame with a couple of control points is employed, and there are no strict requirements for the space distribution of control points. In order to verify the effectiveness of this algorithm

  14. Obtaining S values for rectangular--solid tumors inside rectangular--solid host organs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stinchcomb, T.G.; Durham, J.S.; Fisher, D.R.

    1991-01-01

    A method is described for obtaining S values between a tumor and its host organ for use with the MIRD formalism. It applies the point-source specific absorbed fractions for an infinite water medium, tabulated by Berger, to a rectangular solid of arbitrary dimensions which contains a rectangular tumor of arbitrary dimensions. Contributions from pairs of source and target volume elements are summed for the S values between the tumor and itself, between the remaining healthy host organ and itself, and between the tumor and the remaining healthy host organ, with the reciprocity theorem assumed for the last. This method labeled MTUMOR, is interfaced with the widely used MIRDOSE program which incorporates the MIRD formalism. An example is calculated

  15. A new numerical method for inverse Laplace transforms used to obtain gluon distributions from the proton structure function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Block, Martin M.; Durand, Loyal

    2011-01-01

    We recently derived a very accurate and fast new algorithm for numerically inverting the Laplace transforms needed to obtain gluon distributions from the proton structure function F 2 γp (x,Q 2 ). We numerically inverted the function g(s), s being the variable in Laplace space, to G(v), where v is the variable in ordinary space. We have since discovered that the algorithm does not work if g(s)→0 less rapidly than 1/s as s→∞, e.g., as 1/s β for 0 β-1 and a polynomial in v. We test the algorithm numerically for very small positive β, β=10 -6 obtaining numerical results that imitate the Dirac delta function δ(v). We also devolve the published MSTW2008LO gluon distribution at virtuality Q 2 =5 GeV 2 down to the lower virtuality Q 2 =1.69 GeV 2 . For devolution, β is negative, giving rise to inverse Laplace transforms that are distributions and not proper functions. This requires us to introduce the concept of Hadamard Finite Part integrals, which we discuss in detail. (orig.)

  16. 41 CFR 102-75.305 - What type of appraisal value must be obtained for real property disposal transactions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... either the fair market value or the fair annual rental value of the property available for disposal. ... value must be obtained for real property disposal transactions? 102-75.305 Section 102-75.305 Public...-75.305 What type of appraisal value must be obtained for real property disposal transactions? For all...

  17. Numerical convergence of the self-diffusion coefficient and viscosity obtained with Thomas-Fermi-Dirac molecular dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danel, J.-F.; Kazandjian, L.; Zérah, G.

    2012-06-01

    Computations of the self-diffusion coefficient and viscosity in warm dense matter are presented with an emphasis on obtaining numerical convergence and a careful evaluation of the standard deviation. The transport coefficients are computed with the Green-Kubo relation and orbital-free molecular dynamics at the Thomas-Fermi-Dirac level. The numerical parameters are varied until the Green-Kubo integral is equal to a constant in the t→+∞ limit; the transport coefficients are deduced from this constant and not by extrapolation of the Green-Kubo integral. The latter method, which gives rise to an unknown error, is tested for the computation of viscosity; it appears that it should be used with caution. In the large domain of coupling constant considered, both the self-diffusion coefficient and viscosity turn out to be well approximated by simple analytical laws using a single effective atomic number calculated in the average-atom model.

  18. Analytical and numerical treatment of the heat conduction equation obtained via time-fractional distributed-order heat conduction law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Želi, Velibor; Zorica, Dušan

    2018-02-01

    Generalization of the heat conduction equation is obtained by considering the system of equations consisting of the energy balance equation and fractional-order constitutive heat conduction law, assumed in the form of the distributed-order Cattaneo type. The Cauchy problem for system of energy balance equation and constitutive heat conduction law is treated analytically through Fourier and Laplace integral transform methods, as well as numerically by the method of finite differences through Adams-Bashforth and Grünwald-Letnikov schemes for approximation derivatives in temporal domain and leap frog scheme for spatial derivatives. Numerical examples, showing time evolution of temperature and heat flux spatial profiles, demonstrate applicability and good agreement of both methods in cases of multi-term and power-type distributed-order heat conduction laws.

  19. Determination of averaged axisymmetric flow surfaces according to results obtained by numerical simulation of flow in turbomachinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdanović-Jovanović Jasmina B.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the increasing need for energy saving worldwide, the designing process of turbomachinery, as an essential part of thermal and hydroenergy systems, goes in the direction of enlarging efficiency. Therefore, the optimization of turbomachinery designing strongly affects the energy efficiency of the entire system. In the designing process of turbomachinery blade profiling, the model of axisymmetric fluid flows is commonly used in technical practice, even though this model suits only the profile cascades with infinite number of infinitely thin blades. The actual flow in turbomachinery profile cascades is not axisymmetric, and it can be fictively derived into the axisymmetric flow by averaging flow parameters in the blade passages according to the circular coordinate. Using numerical simulations of flow in turbomachinery runners, its operating parameters can be preliminarily determined. Furthermore, using the numerically obtained flow parameters in the blade passages, averaged axisymmetric flow surfaces in blade profile cascades can also be determined. The method of determination of averaged flow parameters and averaged meridian streamlines is presented in this paper, using the integral continuity equation for averaged flow parameters. With thus obtained results, every designer can be able to compare the obtained averaged flow surfaces with axisymmetric flow surfaces, as well as the specific work of elementary stages, which are used in the procedure of blade designing. Numerical simulations of flow in an exemplary axial flow pump, used as a part of the thermal power plant cooling system, were performed using Ansys CFX. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR33040: Revitalization of existing and designing new micro and mini hydropower plants (from 100 kW to 1000 kW in the territory of South and Southeast Serbia

  20. Differences in liver stiffness values obtained with new ultrasound elastography machines and Fibroscan: A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piscaglia, Fabio; Salvatore, Veronica; Mulazzani, Lorenzo; Cantisani, Vito; Colecchia, Antonio; Di Donato, Roberto; Felicani, Cristina; Ferrarini, Alessia; Gamal, Nesrine; Grasso, Valentina; Marasco, Giovanni; Mazzotta, Elena; Ravaioli, Federico; Ruggieri, Giacomo; Serio, Ilaria; Sitouok Nkamgho, Joules Fabrice; Serra, Carla; Festi, Davide; Schiavone, Cosima; Bolondi, Luigi

    2017-07-01

    Whether Fibroscan thresholds can be immediately adopted for none, some or all other shear wave elastography techniques has not been tested. The aim of the present study was to test the concordance of the findings obtained from 7 of the most recent ultrasound elastography machines with respect to Fibroscan. Sixteen hepatitis C virus-related patients with fibrosis ≥2 and having reliable results at Fibroscan were investigated in two intercostal spaces using 7 different elastography machines. Coefficients of both precision (an index of data dispersion) and accuracy (an index of bias correction factors expressing different magnitudes of changes in comparison to the reference) were calculated. Median stiffness values differed among the different machines as did coefficients of both precision (range 0.54-0.72) and accuracy (range 0.28-0.87). When the average of the measurements of two intercostal spaces was considered, coefficients of precision significantly increased with all machines (range 0.72-0.90) whereas of accuracy improved more scatteredly and by a smaller degree (range 0.40-0.99). The present results showed only moderate concordance of the majority of elastography machines with the Fibroscan results, preventing the possibility of the immediate universal adoption of Fibroscan thresholds for defining liver fibrosis staging for all new machines. Copyright © 2017 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Geochemical porosity values obtained in core samples from different clay-rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, A.M.

    2010-01-01

    . The Cl porosity is lower than the total physical porosity, because clays have different types of water (interlayer water, adsorbed water and free water), and ions can be affected by anionic exclusion processes. The geochemical porosity includes only the free water and some of the diffuse layer and surface-sorbed water; while the total physical porosity includes both the external and interlayer water. In order to calculate the Cl or geochemical porosity (n cl ), a relationship was used, which relates leaching data and the chloride content of the pore water extracted by the squeezing technique. Aqueous leaching tests were performed at anoxic conditions in order to obtain the chloride inventory in different core samples from each argillaceous formation. Besides, the chemical composition of the pore water was obtained by squeezing at high pressures. Taking into account the measured physical properties of the rock samples, such as water content, dry density, total porosity and degree of saturation; the geochemical porosity was calculated by using the above relationship. For Boom Clay core samples, the mean Cl porosity/water loss porosity ratio is 0.81. In the case of Opalinus Clay, the mean Cl porosity/water loss porosity ratio is 0.59. In Mont Terri core samples, this ratio ranges from 0.5 to 0.7, although a value of 0.55 is frequently used. As conclusion, for indurated mud-rock formations (Callovo-Oxfordian and Opalinus Clay), the mean geochemical porosity obtained was around 8-10 %vol. (0.5-0.6 porosity ratio), whereas in the plastic Boom Clay the geochemical porosity was around 29 %vol. (0.8 porosity ratio)

  2. Use of Green's functions in the numerical solution of two-point boundary value problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallaher, L. J.; Perlin, I. E.

    1974-01-01

    This study investigates the use of Green's functions in the numerical solution of the two-point boundary value problem. The first part deals with the role of the Green's function in solving both linear and nonlinear second order ordinary differential equations with boundary conditions and systems of such equations. The second part describes procedures for numerical construction of Green's functions and considers briefly the conditions for their existence. Finally, there is a description of some numerical experiments using nonlinear problems for which the known existence, uniqueness or convergence theorems do not apply. Examples here include some problems in finding rendezvous orbits of the restricted three body system.

  3. Clinical value of homodynamic numerical simulation applied in the treatment of cerebral aneurysm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hailin; Li, Li; Cheng, Chongjie; Sun, Xiaochuan

    2017-12-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the clinical value of numerical simulation in diagnosing cerebral aneurysm based on the analysis of numerical simulation of hemodynamic model. The experimental method used was the numerical model of cerebral aneurysm hemodynamic, and the numerical value of blood flow at each point was analyzed. The results showed that, the wall shear stress (WSS) value on the top of CA1 was significantly lower than that of the top (Pvalue of each point on the CA2 tumor was significantly lower than that of tumor neck (Pvalue on the tumor top and tumor neck between CA1 and CA2 had no significant difference (P>0.05); the unsteady index of shear (UIS) value at the points of 20 had distinctly changed, the wave range was 0.6-1.5; the unsteady index of pressure value of every point was significantly lower than UIS value, the wave range was 0.25-0.40. In conclusion, the application of cerebral aneurysm hemodynamic research can help doctors to diagnose cerebral aneurysm more precisely and to grasp the opportunity of treatment during the formulating of the treatment strategies.

  4. Obtaining and application of increased food and biological value iodinated products from lentils sprouted grain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Antipova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The choice of research direction is related to the actual problem of production and distribution of functional purpose food products due to the spread of nutritional diseases and the lack of micronutrients in ordinary people and athletes diet. As an object for enrichment with iodine, it was suggested to use lentils, which is famous for its high protein content, low lipid and oligosaccharide content, and low inhibitory effect. The iodine accumulation occurs during germination, due to the use of a nutrient solution of the iodine inorganic form. In addition, the biochemical composition of the grain and the biological value of lentils are significantly improved: an increase in the content of total amino acids and vitamins is found to be 1.5-2.0 times, a mass fraction of the oligosaccharide fraction is observed. To determine the effect of technological processing on the degree of iodine conservation in lentils the grains were exposed to the following impact: grinding, extrusion, frying. An insignificant decrease in the amount of iodine during extrusion was noted and more significant one - during grinding. The obtained results of the determination of biological safety by the method of studying the effect of the investigated product on the growth response of ciliates allowed to confirm the safety of both fresh and dried sprouted grain of lentils. When studying the microbiology of grain by sowing on agarized selective diagnostic environments with subsequent identification of the qualitative and quantitative composition of microflora, including colony-forming units, deviations from the normative indices were not revealed. Experimental production of the extrudate was carried out, possible ways of its use in meat systems for improving the functional and technological properties of minced meat, as well as for independent use as snacks for the nutrition of athletes were suggested.

  5. A systematic review of the angular values obtained by computerized photogrammetry in sagittal plane: a proposal for reference values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczky, Bruna; Pacheco, Antonio G; Mainenti, Míriam R M

    2014-05-01

    Reference values for postural alignment in the coronal plane, as measured by computerized photogrammetry, have been established but not for the sagittal plane. The objective of this study is to propose reference values for angular measurements used for postural analysis in the sagittal plane for healthy adults. Electronic databases (PubMed, BVS, Cochrane, Scielo, and Science Direct) were searched using the following key words: evaluation, posture, photogrammetry, and software. Articles published between 2006 and 2012 that used the PAS/SAPO (postural assessment software) were selected. Another inclusion criterion was the presentation of, at least, one of the following measurements: head horizontal alignment, pelvic horizontal alignment, hip angle, vertical alignment of the body, thoracic kyphosis, and lumbar lordosis. Angle samples of the selected articles were grouped 2 by 2 in relation to an overall average, which made possible total average, variance, and SD calculations. Six articles were included, and the following average angular values were found: 51.42° ± 4.87° (head horizontal alignment), -12.26° ± 5.81° (pelvic horizontal alignment), -6.40° ± 3.86° (hip angle), and 1.73° ± 0.94° (vertical alignment of the body). None of the articles contained the measurements for thoracic kyphosis and lumbar lordosis. The reference values can be adopted as reference for postural assessment in future researches if the same anatomical points are considered. Copyright © 2014 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Conjugate heat transfer analysis of an energy conversion device with an updated numerical model obtained through inverse identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hey, Jonathan; Malloy, Adam C.; Martinez-Botas, Ricardo; Lamperth, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Conjugate heat transfer analysis of an electric machine. • Inverse identification method for estimating the model parameters. • Experimentally determined thermal properties and electromagnetic losses. • Coupling of inverse identification method with a numerical model. • Improved modeling accuracy through introduction of interface material. - Abstract: Energy conversion devices undergo thermal loading during their operation as a result of inefficiencies in the energy conversion process. This will eventually lead to degradation and possible failure of the device if the heat generated is not properly managed. The ability to accurately predict the thermal behavior of such a device during the initial developmental stage is an important requirement. However, accurate predictions of critical temperature is challenging due to the variation of heat transfer parameters from one device to another. The ability to determine the model parameters is key to accurately representing the heat transfer in such a device. This paper presents the use of an inverse identification technique to estimate the model parameters of an energy conversion device designed for vehicular applications. To simulate the imperfect contact and the presence of insulating materials in the permanent magnet electric machine, thin material are introduced at the component interface of the numerical model. The proposed inverse identification method is used to estimate the equivalent thermal conductance of the thin material. In addition, the electromagnetic losses generated in the permanent magnet is also derived indirectly from the temperature measurement using the same method. With the thermal properties and input parameters of the numerical model obtained from the inverse identification method, the critical temperature of the device can be predicted more accurately. The deviation between the maximum measured and predicted winding temperature is less than 2.4%

  7. Numerical solutions of a three-point boundary value problem with an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Numerical solutions of a three-point boundary value problem with an integral condition for a third-order partial differential equation by using Laplace transform method Solutions numeriques d'un probleme pour une classe d'equations differentielles d'ordr.

  8. The ionic structure of liquid sodium obtained by numerical simulation from 'first principles' and ab initio 'norm-conserving' pseudopotentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harchaoui, N; Hellal, S; Grosdidier, B; Gasser, J G

    2008-01-01

    The physical properties of disordered matter depend on the 'atomic structure' i.e. the arrangement of the atoms. This arrangement is described by the structure factor S (q) in reciprocal space and by the pair correlation function g(r) in real space. The structure factor is obtained experimentally while the numerical simulation enables us to obtain the pair correlation function. Liquid sodium is one of the elements the most studied and one can wonder about new scientific contribution appropriateness. The majority of theoretical calculations are compared with the experiment of Waseda. However two other posterior measurements have been published and give different results, in particular with regard to the height of the first peak of the structure factor. Three models of pseudopotential are considered to describe the electron-ion interaction. The first is a local pseudopotential with the alternative known as 'individual' of the model suggested by Fiolhais et al. The second model considered is that of Bachelet et al. This one, ab-initio and 'norm conserving', is non local. The last model is that proposed by Shaw known as 'first principles' and 'energy dependent'. Various static dielectric functions characteristic of the effects of exchange and correlation have been used and developed by Hellal et al. We calculated the form factors (pseudopotential in reciprocal space) and deduce the normalized energy-wave-number characteristic F N (q), the interatomic pair potential V eff (r), then the pair correlation function g(r) by molecular dynamics. The structure factor S(q) is obtained by Fourier transform and is compared with the experiment. Our calculations with the Bachelet and Shaw pseudopotentials are close to the last experiments of Greenfield et al. and of Huijben et al. Our results are discussed

  9. Obtaining the Iodine Value of Various Oils via Bromination with Pyridinium Tribromide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simurdiak, Michael; Olukoga, Olushola; Hedberg, Kirk

    2016-01-01

    A laboratory exercise was devised that allows students to rapidly and fairly accurately determine the iodine value of oleic acid. This method utilizes the addition of elemental bromine to the unsaturated bonds in oleic acid, due to bromine's relatively fast reaction rate compared to that of the traditional Wijs solution method. This method also…

  10. Obtaining value prior to pulping with diethyl oxalate and oxalic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    W.R. Kenealy; E. Horn; C.J. Houtman; J. Laplaza; T.W. Jeffries

    2007-01-01

    Pulp and paper are converted to paper products with yields of paper dependent on the wood and the process used. Even with high yield pulps there are conversion losses and with chemical pulps the yields approach 50%. The portions of the wood that do not provide product are either combusted to generate power and steam or incur a cost in waste water treatment. Value prior...

  11. Numerical continuation methods for dynamical systems path following and boundary value problems

    CERN Document Server

    Krauskopf, Bernd; Galan-Vioque, Jorge

    2007-01-01

    Path following in combination with boundary value problem solvers has emerged as a continuing and strong influence in the development of dynamical systems theory and its application. It is widely acknowledged that the software package AUTO - developed by Eusebius J. Doedel about thirty years ago and further expanded and developed ever since - plays a central role in the brief history of numerical continuation. This book has been compiled on the occasion of Sebius Doedel''s 60th birthday. Bringing together for the first time a large amount of material in a single, accessible source, it is hoped that the book will become the natural entry point for researchers in diverse disciplines who wish to learn what numerical continuation techniques can achieve. The book opens with a foreword by Herbert B. Keller and lecture notes by Sebius Doedel himself that introduce the basic concepts of numerical bifurcation analysis. The other chapters by leading experts discuss continuation for various types of systems and objects ...

  12. Normal Values of Tissue-Muscle Perfusion Indexes of Lower Limbs Obtained with a Scintigraphic Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manevska, Nevena; Stojanoski, Sinisa; Pop Gjorceva, Daniela; Todorovska, Lidija; Miladinova, Daniela; Zafirova, Beti

    2017-09-01

    Introduction Muscle perfusion is a physiologic process that can undergo quantitative assessment and thus define the range of normal values of perfusion indexes and perfusion reserve. The investigation of the microcirculation has a crucial role in determining the muscle perfusion. Materials and method The study included 30 examinees, 24-74 years of age, without a history of confirmed peripheral artery disease and all had normal findings on Doppler ultrasonography and pedo-brachial index of lower extremity (PBI). 99mTc-MIBI tissue muscle perfusion scintigraphy of lower limbs evaluates tissue perfusion in resting condition "rest study" and after workload "stress study", through quantitative parameters: Inter-extremity index (for both studies), left thigh/right thigh (LT/RT) left calf/right calf (LC/RC) and perfusion reserve (PR) for both thighs and calves. Results In our investigated group we assessed the normal values of quantitative parameters of perfusion indexes. Indexes ranged for LT/RT in rest study 0.91-1.05, in stress study 0.92-1.04. LC/RC in rest 0.93-1.07 and in stress study 0.93-1.09. The examinees older than 50 years had insignificantly lower perfusion reserve of these parameters compared with those younger than 50, LC (p=0.98), and RC (p=0.6). Conclusion This non-invasive scintigraphic method allows in individuals without peripheral artery disease to determine the range of normal values of muscle perfusion at rest and stress condition and to clinically implement them in evaluation of patients with peripheral artery disease for differentiating patients with normal from those with impaired lower limbs circulation.

  13. INVESTIGATION OF THE POSSIBILITY OF OBTAINING DRY BASES FROM PROCESSED FISH PRODUCTS OF LITTLE VALUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. P. Dvoryaninova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Competitive advantages of this direction of researches are in justification of actions and offers on a technical provision of production of a dry fish basis from meat- and bone residue of pond fishes that will allow to produce fast foods of high quality and biological value (broths, soups, sauces, to expand the assortment taking into account market demand, to introduce the new forms of food convenient in storage and use at home and outside as well as for special food. The first courses on dry fish broth are easily digestible, with the high contents of micro and macro elements in the quantity of them they surpass meat broths. Their other advantage is the content of the polynonsaturated fatty acids neutralizing negative impact of substances, destroying tendons, ligaments and cartilage in the human body, thereby eliminating joint pains that is especially important for the determined groups of the population, for example, the military personnel, sportsmen, etc. In addition, this technology includes sparing modes of processing of raw materials, keeping thereby native properties of useful substances (protein, fat as much as possible. Researches on selection of an optimum ratio of the heads and the bones providing high organoleptic rates of broths on their basis were carried out to produce dry fish bases. Conditions and parameters of convective drying of little value products of cutting of silver carp and cod are determined. The results allow to draw a preliminary conclusion on the possibility of creation a new technology of powdery products for broths fast preparation. The developed technology is of great importance in the creation of waste-free and low-waste production at the enterprises of fishery industry of the Russian Federation.

  14. Nature Inspired Computational Technique for the Numerical Solution of Nonlinear Singular Boundary Value Problems Arising in Physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suheel Abdullah Malik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a hybrid heuristic computing method for the numerical solution of nonlinear singular boundary value problems arising in physiology. The approximate solution is deduced as a linear combination of some log sigmoid basis functions. A fitness function representing the sum of the mean square error of the given nonlinear ordinary differential equation (ODE and its boundary conditions is formulated. The optimization of the unknown adjustable parameters contained in the fitness function is performed by the hybrid heuristic computation algorithm based on genetic algorithm (GA, interior point algorithm (IPA, and active set algorithm (ASA. The efficiency and the viability of the proposed method are confirmed by solving three examples from physiology. The obtained approximate solutions are found in excellent agreement with the exact solutions as well as some conventional numerical solutions.

  15. Partial Adaptation of Obtained and Observed Value Signals Preserves Information about Gains and Losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Christopher J; Baddeley, Michelle; Tobler, Philippe N; Schultz, Wolfram

    2016-09-28

    Given that the range of rewarding and punishing outcomes of actions is large but neural coding capacity is limited, efficient processing of outcomes by the brain is necessary. One mechanism to increase efficiency is to rescale neural output to the range of outcomes expected in the current context, and process only experienced deviations from this expectation. However, this mechanism comes at the cost of not being able to discriminate between unexpectedly low losses when times are bad versus unexpectedly high gains when times are good. Thus, too much adaptation would result in disregarding information about the nature and absolute magnitude of outcomes, preventing learning about the longer-term value structure of the environment. Here we investigate the degree of adaptation in outcome coding brain regions in humans, for directly experienced outcomes and observed outcomes. We scanned participants while they performed a social learning task in gain and loss blocks. Multivariate pattern analysis showed two distinct networks of brain regions adapt to the most likely outcomes within a block. Frontostriatal areas adapted to directly experienced outcomes, whereas lateral frontal and temporoparietal regions adapted to observed social outcomes. Critically, in both cases, adaptation was incomplete and information about whether the outcomes arose in a gain block or a loss block was retained. Univariate analysis confirmed incomplete adaptive coding in these regions but also detected nonadapting outcome signals. Thus, although neural areas rescale their responses to outcomes for efficient coding, they adapt incompletely and keep track of the longer-term incentives available in the environment. Optimal value-based choice requires that the brain precisely and efficiently represents positive and negative outcomes. One way to increase efficiency is to adapt responding to the most likely outcomes in a given context. However, too strong adaptation would result in loss of precise

  16. [Correlation and interconversion between erythrocyte cholinesterase values obtained by the Michel and the EQM techniques].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona-Fonseca, Jaime

    2006-12-01

    Several techniques are available to measure red cell cholinesterase; therefore, evaluations with several methods provide a measure of concordance. An equation was formulated to transform native data of reference values to reference units of cholinesterase activity as measured by Michel and EQM tests. The experimental design was descriptive, transversal and prospective. The group sampled was a representative adult working population, aged 18-75, without previous exposure to cholinesterase inhibitors pesticides. The individuals were affiliated to the Social Security System and resided in Valle de Aburrá and Cercano Oriente Antioqueño (Antioquia Province, northwestern Colombia). Of 827 individuals, quantitative erythrocytes (Michel y EQM) tests exhibited "r" coefficients between 0.67 and R2 coefficient of 44%.,This indicated that one test explained the results in other test in 44% of the cases. The corelation was higher in Aburrá than in Oriente. The linear model for the 827 individuals was as follows: EQM U/g oxy-hemoglobin = 9.575 U/ g oxy-hemoglobin + 29.791 (Michel delta pH/hour). Michel delta pH/hr = 0.3312 delta pH/hour + 0.0149 (EQM U/g oxy-hemoglobin), where EQM was expressed in U/g oxy-hemoglobin and Michel pH change/hr. Inter-sections (coefficient a) and inclines (coefficient b) were significant in this model. In the adjusted equations, after exclusion of 12 extreme data (1.5% of 827), the r coefficient increased from 0.67 to 0.72 The adjusted equations were as follows: EQM U/g oxy-hemoglobin = 8.1884 U/g oxy-hemoglobin + 31.3920 (Michel delta pH/hour); Michel delta pH/hr = 0.2925 delta pH/hr + 0.0161 (EQM U/g oxy-hemoglobin). This system of linear equations permitted the transformation of Michel (delta PH/ hr) units to EQM (U/g oxy-hemoglobin) units and vice versa. This will facilitate data comparisons by clinicians and epidemiologists who are using these methods of cholinesterase measurement.

  17. Numeric treatment of nonlinear second order multi-point boundary value problems using ANN, GAs and sequential quadratic programming technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulqurnain Sabir

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, computational intelligence technique are presented for solving multi-point nonlinear boundary value problems based on artificial neural networks, evolutionary computing approach, and active-set technique. The neural network is to provide convenient methods for obtaining useful model based on unsupervised error for the differential equations. The motivation for presenting this work comes actually from the aim of introducing a reliable framework that combines the powerful features of ANN optimized with soft computing frameworks to cope with such challenging system. The applicability and reliability of such methods have been monitored thoroughly for various boundary value problems arises in science, engineering and biotechnology as well. Comprehensive numerical experimentations have been performed to validate the accuracy, convergence, and robustness of the designed scheme. Comparative studies have also been made with available standard solution to analyze the correctness of the proposed scheme.

  18. Experimentally obtained values of electric field of an atmospheric pressure plasma jet impinging on a dielectric surface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sobota, A.; Guaitella, O.; Garcia-Caurel, E.

    2013-01-01

    We report on experimentally obtained values of the electric field magnitude on a dielectric surface induced by an impinging atmospheric pressure plasma jet. The plasma plume was striking the dielectric surface at an angle of 45¿, at 5mm from the surface measured at the axis of the jet. The results

  19. Cephalometric analysis for the diagnosis of sleep apnea: a comparative study between reference values and measurements obtained for Brazilian subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Superbi Lemos Maschtakow

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To verify if the reference values of Sleep Apnea cephalometric analysis of North American individuals are similar to the ones of Brazilian individuals presenting no craniofacial anomalies. The study also aimed to identify craniofacial alterations in Obstructive Sleep Apnea-Hypopnea Syndrome (OSAHS patients in relation to individuals without clinical characteristics of the disease through this cephalometric analysis. METHOD: It were used 55 lateral cephalograms consisting of 29 for the control group of adult individuals without clinical characteristics of OSAHS and 26 apneic adults. All radiographs were submitted to Sleep Apnea cephalometric analysis through Radiocef Studio 2.0. The standard values of this analysis were compared, by means of z test, to the ones obtained from the control group and these were compared to values from apneic group through Student's t test. RESULTS: There were no significant differences between values obtained from control group and standard values. On the group of OSAHS patients it was observed a decrease on the dimensions of upper airways and an increase on the soft palate length. CONCLUSIONS: The standard values of Sleep Apnea analysis can be used as reference in Brazilian individuals. Besides, through lateral cephalograms it was possible to identify craniofacial alterations in OSAHS patients.

  20. RESEARCH REGARDING SOME PHYSICAL QUALITY VALUES OF JAPANESE QUAIL EGGS OBTAINED AT THE MIDDLE OF THE LAYING STAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANCA TEUŞAN

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The Japanese quail is one of the smallest bird subspecies which has been tamed by man, being industrially raised in our days in many states over the world. This avian subspecies produces over 300 eggs, and though there are about 6 races and different varieties, there are very little data in the scientific literature regarding the quality values for eggs of Japanese quail hatching eggs collected from hens at the end of the laying – physical values (pH value of the eggs components, albumen index, yolk index The present paper wants to bring a series of data regarding some of these indicators. The pH values was determined with an portable pH-oximeter, and to establish the other two quality indexes we used a device fitted with callipers taking into account: height of the dense egg white (albumen, minimum and maximum diameter of the dense and fluid egg white, height and the diameter of the yolk. The albumen pH recorded values of 8.90, and the yolk pH values of 6.07. The statistical mean for the 130 values of albumen index taken in study was 0.048. The mean value of yolk index was 0.399. The obtained results are normal for the period of quail’s life.

  1. Numerical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Boumaza

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Transient convection heat transfer is of fundamental interest in many industrial and environmental situations, as well as in electronic devices and security of energy systems. Transient fluid flow problems are among the more difficult to analyze and yet are very often encountered in modern day technology. The main objective of this research project is to carry out a theoretical and numerical analysis of transient convective heat transfer in vertical flows, when the thermal field is due to different kinds of variation, in time and space of some boundary conditions, such as wall temperature or wall heat flux. This is achieved by the development of a mathematical model and its resolution by suitable numerical methods, as well as performing various sensitivity analyses. These objectives are achieved through a theoretical investigation of the effects of wall and fluid axial conduction, physical properties and heat capacity of the pipe wall on the transient downward mixed convection in a circular duct experiencing a sudden change in the applied heat flux on the outside surface of a central zone.

  2. Importance of clean-up for comparison of TEQ-values obtained by CALUX and chemo-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wouwe, N; Windal, I; Vanderperren, H; Eppe, G; Xhrouet, C; De Pauw, E; Goeyens, L; Baeyens, W

    2004-08-08

    This paper presents Chemically Activated LUciferine gene eXpression (CALUX) TEQ-values obtained for nine plasma samples following two different purification procedures, one of them involving fractionation. CALUX results obtained for the dioxin (DX) and dioxin + PCB (DX + PCB) fractions were then compared to the GC-HRMS TEQ-values calculated for the 17 polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (17 PCDD/F) and 17 PCDD/F + 4 cPCB congeners, respectively. The overestimation of the CALUX (DX fraction) TEQ-values in comparison with the chemo-analyses of the 17 PCDD/F is mainly explained by the presence of other AhR agonists, like brominated compounds. Otherwise, the constancy of the CALUX (DX + PCB fraction) TEQ-value which compares to increasing the GC-HRMS (17 PCDD/F + 4 cPCB) TEQ results raises questions concerning (1) the significance of CALUX results obtained without fractionation as well as (2) the toxicological effect of a cocktail of contaminants on the human health.

  3. Viscoplastic-dynamic analyses of small-scale fracture tests to obtain crack arrest toughness values for PTS conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanninen, M.F.; Hudak, S.J. Jr; Dexter, R.J.; Couque, H.; O'Donoghue, P.E.; Polch, E.Z.

    1988-01-01

    Reliable predictions of crack arrest at the high upper shelf toughness conditions involved in postulated pressurized thermal shock (PTS) events require procedures beyond those utilized in conventional fracture mechanics treatments. To develop such a procedure, viscoplastic-dynamic fracture mechanics finite element analyses, viscoplastic material characterization testing, and small-scale crack propagation and arrest experimentation are being combines in this research. The approach couples SwRI's viscoplastic-dynamic fracture mechanics finite element code VISCRK with experiments using duplex 4340/A533B steel compact specimens. The experiments are simulated by VISCRK computations employing the Bodner-Partom viscoplastic constitutive relation and the nonlinear fracture mechanics parameter T. The goal is to develop temperature-dependent crack arrest toughness values for A533B steel. While only room temperature K Ia values have been obtained so far, these have been found to agree closely with those obtained from wide plate tests. (author)

  4. Delivering Value In A Global Aerospace Manufacturer Through The Effective Use Of Numerical Process Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, M. J.; Walløe, S. J.

    2004-06-01

    Numerical models are used extensively in the aerospace sector to identify appropriate manufacturing parameters, and to minimize the risk associated with new product introduction and manufacturing change. This usage is equally prevalent in original equipment manufacturers (OEMs), and in their supply chains. The wide range of manufacturing processes and production environments involved, coupled with the varying degrees of technology maturity associated with numerical models of different processes leads to a situation of significant complexity from the OEM perspective. In addition, the intended use of simulation technology can vary considerably between applications, from simple geometric assessment of die shape at one extreme, to full process design or development at the other. Consequently there is an increasing trend towards multi-scale modelling, i.e. the use of several different model types, with differing attributes in terms of accuracy and speed to support a range of different new product introduction decisions. This makes the allocation of appropriate levels of activity to the research and implementation of new capabilities a difficult problem. This paper uses a number of industrial cases studies to illustrate a framework for making such allocation decisions such that value to the OEM is maximized, and investigates how such a framework is likely to shift over the next few years based on technological developments.

  5. Numerical Weather Prediction and Relative Economic Value framework to improve Integrated Urban Drainage- Wastewater management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Courdent, Vianney Augustin Thomas

    domains during which the IUDWS can be coupled with the electrical smart grid to optimise its energy consumption. The REV framework was used to determine which decision threshold of the EPS (i.e. number of ensemble members predicting an event) provides the highest benefit for a given situation...... in cities where space is scarce and large-scale construction work a nuisance. This the-sis focuses on flow domain predictions of IUDWS from numerical weather prediction (NWP) to select relevant control objectives for the IUDWS and develops a framework based on the relative economic value (REV) approach...... to evaluate when acting on the forecast is beneficial or not. Rainfall forecasts are extremely valuable for estimating near future storm-water-related impacts on the IUDWS. Therefore, weather radar extrapolation “nowcasts” provide valuable predictions for RTC. However, radar nowcasts are limited...

  6. Comparison of internal dose estimates obtained using organ-level, voxel S value, and Monte Carlo techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimes, Joshua, E-mail: grimes.joshua@mayo.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver V5Z 1L8 (Canada); Celler, Anna [Department of Radiology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver V5Z 1L8 (Canada)

    2014-09-15

    Purpose: The authors’ objective was to compare internal dose estimates obtained using the Organ Level Dose Assessment with Exponential Modeling (OLINDA/EXM) software, the voxel S value technique, and Monte Carlo simulation. Monte Carlo dose estimates were used as the reference standard to assess the impact of patient-specific anatomy on the final dose estimate. Methods: Six patients injected with{sup 99m}Tc-hydrazinonicotinamide-Tyr{sup 3}-octreotide were included in this study. A hybrid planar/SPECT imaging protocol was used to estimate {sup 99m}Tc time-integrated activity coefficients (TIACs) for kidneys, liver, spleen, and tumors. Additionally, TIACs were predicted for {sup 131}I, {sup 177}Lu, and {sup 90}Y assuming the same biological half-lives as the {sup 99m}Tc labeled tracer. The TIACs were used as input for OLINDA/EXM for organ-level dose calculation and voxel level dosimetry was performed using the voxel S value method and Monte Carlo simulation. Dose estimates for {sup 99m}Tc, {sup 131}I, {sup 177}Lu, and {sup 90}Y distributions were evaluated by comparing (i) organ-level S values corresponding to each method, (ii) total tumor and organ doses, (iii) differences in right and left kidney doses, and (iv) voxelized dose distributions calculated by Monte Carlo and the voxel S value technique. Results: The S values for all investigated radionuclides used by OLINDA/EXM and the corresponding patient-specific S values calculated by Monte Carlo agreed within 2.3% on average for self-irradiation, and differed by as much as 105% for cross-organ irradiation. Total organ doses calculated by OLINDA/EXM and the voxel S value technique agreed with Monte Carlo results within approximately ±7%. Differences between right and left kidney doses determined by Monte Carlo were as high as 73%. Comparison of the Monte Carlo and voxel S value dose distributions showed that each method produced similar dose volume histograms with a minimum dose covering 90% of the volume (D90

  7. Numerical solution of large nonlinear boundary value problems by quadratic minimization techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glowinski, R.; Le Tallec, P.

    1984-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to describe the numerical treatment of large highly nonlinear two or three dimensional boundary value problems by quadratic minimization techniques. In all the different situations where these techniques were applied, the methodology remains the same and is organized as follows: 1) derive a variational formulation of the original boundary value problem, and approximate it by Galerkin methods; 2) transform this variational formulation into a quadratic minimization problem (least squares methods) or into a sequence of quadratic minimization problems (augmented lagrangian decomposition); 3) solve each quadratic minimization problem by a conjugate gradient method with preconditioning, the preconditioning matrix being sparse, positive definite, and fixed once for all in the iterative process. This paper will illustrate the methodology above on two different examples: the description of least squares solution methods and their application to the solution of the unsteady Navier-Stokes equations for incompressible viscous fluids; the description of augmented lagrangian decomposition techniques and their application to the solution of equilibrium problems in finite elasticity

  8. Numerical solution of sixth-order boundary-value problems using Legendre wavelet collocation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohaib, Muhammad; Haq, Sirajul; Mukhtar, Safyan; Khan, Imad

    2018-03-01

    An efficient method is proposed to approximate sixth order boundary value problems. The proposed method is based on Legendre wavelet in which Legendre polynomial is used. The mechanism of the method is to use collocation points that converts the differential equation into a system of algebraic equations. For validation two test problems are discussed. The results obtained from proposed method are quite accurate, also close to exact solution, and other different methods. The proposed method is computationally more effective and leads to more accurate results as compared to other methods from literature.

  9. Remote measurement of water color in coastal waters. [spectral radiance data used to obtain quantitative values for chlorophyll and turbidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weldon, J. W.

    1973-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to develop procedure to obtain quantitative values for chlorophyll and turbidity in coastal waters by observing the changes in spectral radiance of the backscattered spectrum. The technique under consideration consists of Examining Exotech model 20-D spectral radiometer data and determining which radiance ratios best correlated with chlorophyll and turbidity measurements as obtained from analyses of water samples and sechi visibility readings. Preliminary results indicate that there is a correlation between backscattered light and chlorophyll concentration and secchi visibility. The tests were conducted with the spectrometer mounted in a light aircraft over the Mississippi Sound at altitudes of 2.5K, 2.8K and 10K feet.

  10. Numerical modelling of physical processes in a ballistic laboratory setup with a tapered adapter and plastic piston used for obtaining high muzzle velocities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bykov, N. V.

    2014-12-01

    Numerical modelling of a ballistic setup with a tapered adapter and plastic piston is considered. The processes in the firing chamber are described within the framework of quasi- one-dimensional gas dynamics and a geometrical law of propellant burn by means of Lagrangian mass coordinates. The deformable piston is considered to be an ideal liquid with specific equations of state. The numerical solution is obtained by means of a modified explicit von Neumann scheme. The calculation results given show that the ballistic setup with a tapered adapter and plastic piston produces increased shell muzzle velocities by a factor of more than 1.5-2.

  11. Using the Climbing Drum Peel (CDP) Test to Obtain a G(sub IC) value for Core/Facesheet Bonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettles, A. T.; Gregory, Elizabeth D.; Jackson, Justin R.

    2006-01-01

    A method of measuring the Mode I fracture toughness of core/facesheet bonds in sandwich Structures is desired, particularly with the widespread use of models that need this data as input. This study examined if a critical strain energy release rate, G(sub IC), can be obtained from the climbing drum peel (CDP) test. The CDP test is relatively simple to perform and does not rely on measuring small crack lengths such as required by the double cantilever beam (DCB) test. Simple energy methods were used to calculate G(sub IC) from CDP test data on composite facesheets bonded to a honeycomb core. Facesheet thicknesses from 2 to 5 plies were tested to examine the upper and lower bounds on facesheet thickness requirements. Results from the study suggest that the CDP test, with certain provisions, can be used to find the GIG value of a core/facesheet bond.

  12. Valuing inter-sectoral costs and benefits of interventions in the healthcare sector: methods for obtaining unit prices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drost, Ruben M W A; Paulus, Aggie T G; Ruwaard, Dirk; Evers, Silvia M A A

    2017-02-01

    There is a lack of knowledge about methods for valuing health intervention-related costs and monetary benefits in the education and criminal justice sectors, also known as 'inter-sectoral costs and benefits' (ICBs). The objective of this study was to develop methods for obtaining unit prices for the valuation of ICBs. By conducting an exploratory literature study and expert interviews, several generic methods were developed. The methods' feasibility was assessed through application in the Netherlands. Results were validated in an expert meeting, which was attended by policy makers, public health experts, health economists and HTA-experts, and discussed at several international conferences and symposia. The study resulted in four methods, including the opportunity cost method (A) and valuation using available unit prices (B), self-constructed unit prices (C) or hourly labor costs (D). The methods developed can be used internationally and are valuable for the broad international field of HTA.

  13. Method of independent timesteps in the numerical solution of initial value problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, A.P.

    1976-01-01

    In the numerical solution of initial-value problems in several independent variables, the timestep is controlled, especially in the presence of shocks, by a small portion of the logical mesh, what one may call the crisis zone. One is frustrated by the necessity of doing in the whole mesh frequent calculations required by only a small part of the mesh. It is shown that it is possible to choose different timesteps natural to different parts of the mesh and to advance each zone in time only as often as is appropriate to that zone's own natural timestep. Prior work is reviewed and for the first time an investigation of the conditions for well-posedness, consistency and stability in independent timesteps is presented; a new method results. The prochronic and parachronic Cauchy surfaces are identified; and the reasons (well-posedness) for constraining the Cauchy surfaces to be prochronic (as distinct from the method of Grandey), that is, to lie prior to the time of the crisis zone (the zone of least timestep), are indicated. Stability (in the maximum norm) of parabolic equations and (in the L2 norm) of hyperbolic equations is reviewed, without restricting the treatment to linear equations or constant coefficients, and stability of the new method is proven in this framework. The details of the method of independent timesteps, the rules for choosing timesteps and for deciding when to update and when to skip zones, and the method of joining adjacent regions of differing timestep are described. The stability of independent timestep difference schemes is analyzed and exhibited. The economic advantages of the method, which often amount to an order-of-magnitude decrease in running time relative to conventional or implicit difference methods, are noted

  14. Method of independent timesteps in the numerical solution of initial value problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, A.P.

    1976-07-21

    In the numerical solution of initial-value problems in several independent variables, the timestep is controlled, especially in the presence of shocks, by a small portion of the logical mesh, what one may call the crisis zone. One is frustrated by the necessity of doing in the whole mesh frequent calculations required by only a small part of the mesh. It is shown that it is possible to choose different timesteps natural to different parts of the mesh and to advance each zone in time only as often as is appropriate to that zone's own natural timestep. Prior work is reviewed and for the first time an investigation of the conditions for well-posedness, consistency and stability in independent timesteps is presented; a new method results. The prochronic and parachronic Cauchy surfaces are identified; and the reasons (well-posedness) for constraining the Cauchy surfaces to be prochronic (as distinct from the method of Grandey), that is, to lie prior to the time of the crisis zone (the zone of least timestep), are indicated. Stability (in the maximum norm) of parabolic equations and (in the L2 norm) of hyperbolic equations is reviewed, without restricting the treatment to linear equations or constant coefficients, and stability of the new method is proven in this framework. The details of the method of independent timesteps, the rules for choosing timesteps and for deciding when to update and when to skip zones, and the method of joining adjacent regions of differing timestep are described. The stability of independent timestep difference schemes is analyzed and exhibited. The economic advantages of the method, which often amount to an order-of-magnitude decrease in running time relative to conventional or implicit difference methods, are noted.

  15. special algorithm for the numerical solution of system of initial value ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nwokem et al.

    Science World Journal Vol 12(No 4) 2017 ... Over the years, several researchers have considered the collocation method as a way of generating numerical solutions to ... study problems in mathematics, engineering, computer science and.

  16. Intraocular pressure values obtained by ocular response analyzer, dynamic contour tonometry, and goldmann tonometry in keratokonic corneas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Atilla; Sahin, Afsun; Hürmeriç, Volkan; Ozge, Gökhan

    2010-01-01

    To determine the agreement between dynamic contour tonometer (DCT), Goldmann applanation tonometer (GAT), and Ocular Response Analyzer (ORA) in keratoconic corneas and to find out the effect of corneal biomechanics on intraocular pressure (IOP) measurements obtained by these devices. IOP was measured with the ORA, DCT, and GAT in random order in 120 eyes of 61 keratoconus patients. Central corneal thickness (CCT) and keratometry were measured after all IOP determinations had been made. The mean IOP measurement by the ORA and DCT was compared with the measurement by the GAT, using Student t test. Bland-Altman analysis was performed to assess the clinical agreement between these methods. The effect of corneal hysteresis (CH), corneal resistance factor (CRF), and CCT on measured IOP was explored by multiple backward stepwise linear regression analysis. The mean±SD patient age was 30.6±11.2 years. The mean±SD IOP measurement obtained with GAT, ORA Goldmann-correlated IOP (IOPg), ORA corneal-compensated IOP (IOPcc), and DCT was 10.96±2.8, 10.23±3.5, 14.65±2.8, and 15.42±2.7 mm Hg, respectively. The mean±SD CCT was 464.08±58.4 microns. The mean difference between IOPcc and GAT (P<0.0001), IOPcc and DCT (P<0.001), GAT and DCT (P<0.0001), IOPg and GAT (P<0.002), and IOPg and DCT (P<0.0001), was highly statistically significant. In multivariable regression analysis, DCT IOP and GAT IOP measurements were significantly associated with CH and CRF (P<0.0001 for both). DCT seemed to be affected by CH and CRF, and the IOP values tended to be higher when compared with GAT. ORA-measured IOPcc was found to be independent of CCT and suitable in comparison to the DCT in keratoconic eyes.

  17. Numerical computation of inventory policies, based on the EOQ/sigma-x value for order-point systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrøm, Poul

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines the numerical computation of two control parameters, order size and order point in the well-known inventory control model, an (s,Q)system with a beta safety strategy. The aim of the paper is to show that the EOQ/sigma-x value is both sufficient for controlling the system and e...

  18. Numerical computation of inventory policies, based on the EOQ/sigma-x value for order-point systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrøm, Poul

    2000-01-01

    This paper examines the numerical computation of two control parameters, order size and order point in the well-known inventory control model, an (s,Q)system with a beta safety strategy. The aim of the paper is to show that the EOQ/sigma-x value is both sufficient for controlling the system and e...

  19. Numerical solution of singularity-perturbed two-point boundary-value problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masenge, R.W.P.

    1993-07-01

    Physical processes which involve transportation of slowly diffusing substances in a fast-flowing medium are mathematically modelled by so-called singularly-perturbed second order convection diffusion differential equations in which the convective first order terms dominate over the diffusive second order terms. In general, analytical solutions of such equations are characterized by having sharp solution fronts in some sections of the interior and/or the boundary of the domain of solution. The presence of these (usually very narrow) layer regions in the solution domain makes the task of globally approximating such solutions by standard numerical techniques very difficult. In this expository paper we use a simple one-dimensional prototype problem as a vehicle for analysing the nature of the numerical approximation difficulties involved. In the sequel we present, without detailed derivation, two practical numerical schemes which succeed in varying degrees in numerically resolving the layer of the solution to the prototype problem. (author). 3 refs, 1 fig., 1 tab

  20. Flanking Magnitudes: Dissociation between Numerosity and Numerical Value in a Selective Attention Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naparstek, Sharon; Safadi, Ziad; Lichtenstein-Vidne, Limor; Henik, Avishai

    2015-01-01

    The current research examined whether peripherally presented numerical information can affect the speed of number processing. In 2 experiments, participants were presented with a target matrix flanked by a distractor matrix and were asked to perform a comparative judgment (i.e., decide whether the target was larger or smaller than the reference…

  1. Grey Parrot Number Acquisition: The Inference of Cardinal Value from Ordinal Position on the Numeral List

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepperberg, Irene M.; Carey, Susan

    2012-01-01

    A Grey parrot ("Psittacus erithacus") had previously been taught to use English count words ("one" through "sih" [six]) to label sets of one to six individual items (Pepperberg, 1994). He had also been taught to use the same count words to label the Arabic numerals 1 through 6. Without training, he inferred the relationship between the Arabic…

  2. Comparison between total lung capacity and residual volume values obtained by pletysmography and single breath methods with methane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Marques Dias

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed pulmonary function tests of twenty asthmatic patients from Gaffrée e Guinle University Hospital, classified according to Brazilian Guidelines for Asthma (2002, similar to GINA, into mild persistent or moderate (9 or severe (11 asthma. We obtained parameters from spirometry, plethysmograph(PL and single breath technique for diffusion capacity (SB, with methane. Total lung capacity and residual volume were called TLCPL and RVPL when measured by pletysmography and TLCSB and RVSB when determined by single breath test. There were 13 women and 7 men with mean age of 47.6 years. The pulmonary dysfunction degree to FEV1/FVC was 58.8% with CI95=53.9 to 63.6. The mean values in litres for TLCPL (5.94 and RVPL (2.55 were significantly higher than for TLCSB (4.73 and RVSB (1.66. Multiple regression equations were determined for TLCPL e RVPL using only single breath values, TLCSB or RVSB, and spirographic parameters, with significant regression coefficients. However, the inclusion of spirometric parameters, except for FVC, did not improve the predicted capacity for the equations. Considering only the TLCSB, r2=0.79, the equation is: TLCPL=(TLCSB*1.025+1.088, with EPE=0.64. The regression for RVPL, r2=0.23, is: RVPL=(RVSB*0.9268+1.012. The results obtained after bronchodilation with 400 mcg of salbutamol did not improve the regression. We concluded that the SB technique did not obtain the same results as pletysmography for TLC and RV, but for TLC this difference can be predicted. Resumo: Foram analisados exames de função pulmonar de 20 asmáticos, em acompanhamento no HU Gaffrée Guinle, classificados, segundo o Consenso Brasileiro (2002, em asma leve persistente ou moderada (9 e grave (11. Foram obtidos os valores dos parâmetros da espirografia, da pletismografia e da técnica de respiração única, com metano, para a medida da difusão pulmonar (DLco. Assim, a capacidade pulmonar total e o volume residual, quando

  3. Numerical modeling of heat transfer and pasteurizing value during thermal processing of intact egg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasnezhad, Behzad; Hamdami, Nasser; Monteau, Jean-Yves; Vatankhah, Hamed

    2016-01-01

    Thermal Pasteurization of Eggs, as a widely used nutritive food, has been simulated. A three-dimensional numerical model, computational fluid dynamics codes of heat transfer equations using heat natural convection, and conduction mechanisms, based on finite element method, was developed to study the effect of air cell size and eggshell thickness. The model, confirmed by comparing experimental and numerical results, was able to predict the temperature profiles, the slowest heating zone, and the required heating time during pasteurization of intact eggs. The results showed that the air cell acted as a heat insulator. Increasing the air cell volume resulted in decreasing of the heat transfer rate, and the increasing the required time of pasteurization (up to 14%). The findings show that the effect on thermal pasteurization of the eggshell thickness was not considerable in comparison to the air cell volume.

  4. An Improved Cambridge Filter Pad Extraction Methodology to Obtain More Accurate Water and “Tar” Values: In Situ Cambridge Filter Pad Extraction Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghosh David

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Previous investigations by others and internal investigations at Philip Morris International (PMI have shown that the standard trapping and extraction procedure used for conventional cigarettes, defined in the International Standard ISO 4387 (Cigarettes -- Determination of total and nicotine-free dry particulate matter using a routine analytical smoking machine, is not suitable for high-water content aerosols. Errors occur because of water losses during the opening of the Cambridge filter pad holder to remove the filter pad as well as during the manual handling of the filter pad, and because the commercially available filter pad holder, which is constructed out of plastic, may adsorb water. This results in inaccurate values for the water content, and erroneous and overestimated values for Nicotine Free Dry Particulate Matter (NFDPM. A modified 44 mm Cambridge filter pad holder and extraction equipment which supports in situ extraction methodology has been developed and tested. The principle of the in situ extraction methodology is to avoid any of the above mentioned water losses by extracting the loaded filter pad while kept in the Cambridge filter pad holder which is hermetically sealed by two caps. This is achieved by flushing the extraction solvent numerous times through the hermetically sealed Cambridge filter pad holder by means of an in situ extractor. The in situ methodology showed a significantly more complete water recovery, resulting in more accurate NFDPM values for high-water content aerosols compared to the standard ISO methodology. The work presented in this publication demonstrates that the in situ extraction methodology applies to a wider range of smoking products and smoking regimens, whereas the standard ISO methodology only applies to a limited range of smoking products and smoking regimens, e.g., conventional cigarettes smoked under ISO smoking regimen. In cases where a comparison of yields between the PMI HTP and

  5. R[2, 4; 2: 6] rational one-step numerical integrator for initial value ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. A method of order six is proposed for solving singular initial value problems in ordinary differential equations. It compares favourably with existing schemes. Journal of the Nigerian Association of Mathematical Physics Vol. 9 2005: pp. 285-294 ...

  6. Numerical solution of system of boundary value problems using B-spline with free parameter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Yogesh

    2017-01-01

    This paper deals with method of B-spline solution for a system of boundary value problems. The differential equations are useful in various fields of science and engineering. Some interesting real life problems involve more than one unknown function. These result in system of simultaneous differential equations. Such systems have been applied to many problems in mathematics, physics, engineering etc. In present paper, B-spline and B-spline with free parameter methods for the solution of a linear system of second-order boundary value problems are presented. The methods utilize the values of cubic B-spline and its derivatives at nodal points together with the equations of the given system and boundary conditions, ensuing into the linear matrix equation.

  7. Numerical Investigations into the Value of Information in Lifecycle Analysis of Structural Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konakli, Katerina; Sudret, Bruno; Faber, Michael Havbro

    2015-01-01

    of decisions related to maintenance of structural systems. In this context, experiments may refer to inspections or structural health monitoring. The value-of-information concept comprises a powerful tool for determining whether the experimental cost is justified by the expected gained benefit during...... investigations demonstrate how the decision problem is influenced by the assumed probabilistic models, including the type of probability distribution and the degree of uncertainty reflected in the coefficient of variation, the degradation law, the quantity and quality of information, and the probabilistic...... dependencies between the components of a system. Furthermore, challenges and potentials in value-of-information analysis for structural systems are discussed....

  8. Comparison Between Stress Obtained by Numerical Analysis and In-Situ Measurements on a Flexible Pipe Subjected to In-Plane Bending Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard Lukassen, Troels; Glejbøl, Kristian; Lyckegaard, Anders

    2016-01-01

    to stress patterns obtained during in-situ OMS measurements carried out during an actual experimental inplane bending test. The study showed a good correlation between the stress variation predicted with the finite element model and the measured stress variation.......To predict the lifetime and long-term properties of tensile armour wires in a dynamically loaded pipe, it is essential to have a tool which allows detailed prediction of the stress variations in the tensile armour wires during global pipe loading. Furthermore, detailed understanding of the stress...... variations will allow for performance optimization of the armour layers. To study the detailed stress variations in flexible pipes during dynamic loading, a comprehensive three-dimensional implicit nonlinear finite element model has been developed. The predicted numerical stress variations will be compared...

  9. COMMENT ON "DERIVATION OF NUMERICAL VALUES FOR THE WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION GUIDELINES FOR RECREATIONAL WATERS"

    Science.gov (United States)

    The subject paper describes a procedure for adjusting a risk model based upon a measure of personal exposure (the "UK personal exposure model") in order to attribute an expected rate of gastroenteritis among a group of swimmers to a mean recreational water quality value (enteroco...

  10. Numerical Analysis of Forth-Order Boundary Value Problems in Fluid Mechanics and Mathematics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hosseinzadeh, E.; Barari, Amin; Fouladi, F.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper He's variational iteration method is used to solve some examples of linear and non-linear forth-order boundary value problems. The first problem compared with homotopy analysis method solution and the other ones with the exact solution. The results show the high accuracy and speed o...

  11. Numerical analysis of fourth-order boundary value problems in fluid mechanics and mathematics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hosseinzadeh, Elham; Barari, Amin; Fouladi, Fama

    2010-01-01

    In this paper He's variational iteration method is used to solve some examples of linear and non-linear forth-order boundary value problems. The first problem compared with homotopy analysis method solution and the other ones with the exact solution. The results show the high accuracy and speed o...

  12. A comparison of specific effective energies values obtained for some radioactive element using 3 different decay data banks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nascimento, J.E.C.; Bertelli Neto, L.

    1990-01-01

    The Specific Effective Energies (SEE) are the dose equivalents received by each of the body organs (targets organs) per nuclear transformation of a radionuclide deposited in an organ or tissue (source organ) after an intake of this isotope. The SEE values were calculated on basis of the dosimetric concepts of Publication 30 of the International Comission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). The results were evaluated using two of the three most known decay data banks. This study shows considerables discrepancies in the evaluation of the SEE values for some radionuclides. In theses cases it is recommended the use of the most complete and detailed decay data bank to perform the SEE calculations. (author) [pt

  13. Estimating the impact of somatic cell count on the value of milk utilising parameters obtained from the published literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geary, Una; Lopez-Villalobos, Nicolas; O'Brien, Bernadette; Garrick, Dorian J; Shalloo, Laurence

    2014-05-01

    The impact of mastitis on milk value per litre independent of the effect of mastitis on milk volume, was quantified for Ireland using a meta-analysis and a processing sector model. Changes in raw milk composition, cheese processing and composition associated with increased bulk milk somatic cell count (BMSCC) were incorporated into the model. Processing costs and market values were representative of current industry values. It was assumed that as BMSCC increased (i) milk fat and milk protein increased and milk lactose decreased, (ii) fat and protein recoveries decreased, (iii) cheese protein decreased and cheese moisture increased. Five BMSCC categories were examined from ⩽100 000 to >400 000 cells/ml. The analysis showed that as BMSCC increased the production quantities reduced. An increase in BMSCC from 100 000 to >400 000 cells/ml saw a reduction in net revenue of 3·2% per annum (€51·3 million) which corresponded to a reduction in the value of raw milk of €0·0096 cents/l.

  14. Incidence of Artifacts and Deviating Values in Research Data Obtained from an Anesthesia Information Management System in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoorweg, Anne-Lee J; Pasma, Wietze; van Wolfswinkel, Leo; de Graaff, Jurgen C

    2018-02-01

    Vital parameter data collected in anesthesia information management systems are often used for clinical research. The validity of this type of research is dependent on the number of artifacts. In this prospective observational cohort study, the incidence of artifacts in anesthesia information management system data was investigated in children undergoing anesthesia for noncardiac procedures. Secondary outcomes included the incidence of artifacts among deviating and nondeviating values, among the anesthesia phases, and among different anesthetic techniques. We included 136 anesthetics representing 10,236 min of anesthesia time. The incidence of artifacts was 0.5% for heart rate (95% CI: 0.4 to 0.7%), 1.3% for oxygen saturation (1.1 to 1.5%), 7.5% for end-tidal carbon dioxide (6.9 to 8.0%), 5.0% for noninvasive blood pressure (4.0 to 6.0%), and 7.3% for invasive blood pressure (5.9 to 8.8%). The incidence of artifacts among deviating values was 3.1% for heart rate (2.1 to 4.4%), 10.8% for oxygen saturation (7.6 to 14.8%), 14.1% for end-tidal carbon dioxide (13.0 to 15.2%), 14.4% for noninvasive blood pressure (10.3 to 19.4%), and 38.4% for invasive blood pressure (30.3 to 47.1%). Not all values in anesthesia information management systems are valid. The incidence of artifacts stored in the present pediatric anesthesia practice was low for heart rate and oxygen saturation, whereas noninvasive and invasive blood pressure and end-tidal carbon dioxide had higher artifact incidences. Deviating values are more often artifacts than values in a normal range, and artifacts are associated with the phase of anesthesia and anesthetic technique. Development of (automatic) data validation systems or solutions to deal with artifacts in data is warranted.

  15. Improving the corn-ethanol industry: studying protein separation techniques to obtain higher value added product options for distillers grains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brehmer, B.; Bals, B.; Sanders, J.P.M.; Dale, B.

    2008-01-01

    Currently in America the biofuel ethanol is primarily being produced by the dry grind technique to obtain the starch contained in the corn grains and subsequently subjected to fermentation. This so-called 1st generation technology has two setbacks; first the lingering debate whether its life cycle

  16. Maximal isometric muscle strength values obtained By hand-held dynamometry in children between 6 and 15 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, Raul G; Munoz, Karin T; Dominguez, Angelica; Banados, Pamela; Bravo, Maria J

    2017-01-01

    In this study we aimed to determine the maximal isometric muscle strength of a healthy, normal-weight, pediatric population between 6 and 15 years of age using hand-held dynamometry to establish strength reference values. The secondary objective was determining the relationship between strength and anthropometric parameters. Four hundred normal-weight Chilean children, split into 10 age groups, separated by 1-year intervals, were evaluated. Each age group included between 35 and 55 children. The strength values increased with increasing age and weight, with a correlation of 0.83 for age and 0.82 for weight. The results were similar to those reported in previous studies regarding the relationships among strength, age, and anthropometric parameters, but the reported strength differed. These results provide normal strength parameters for healthy and normal-weight Chilean children between 6 and 15 years of age and highlight the relevance of ethnicity in defining reference values for muscle strength in a pediatric population. Muscle Nerve 55: 16-22, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Multi-stage IT project evaluation: The flexibility value obtained by implementing and resolving Berk, Green and Naik (2004) model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abid, Fathi; Guermazi, Dorra

    2009-11-01

    In this paper, we evaluate a multi-stage information technology investment project, by implementing and resolving Berk, Green and Naik's (2004) model, which takes into account specific features of IT projects and considers the real option to suspend investment at each stage. We present a particular case of the model where the project value is the solution of an optimal control problem with a single state variable. In this case, the model is more intuitive and tractable. The case study confirms the practical potential of the model and highlights the importance of the real-option approach compared to classical discounted cash flow techniques in the valuation of IT projects.

  18. Value Retention, Service Life, Use Intensity and Long-Term Productivity of Wood Chippers as Obtained from Contractor Records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele Spinelli

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Acknowledging the absence of up-to-date empirical data on the value retention, service life and annual use of chipping machinery, in 2017 the authors surveyed the records kept by 50 contractors offering biomass chipping services. The machine fleet and operations in this survey could be taken as representative for most of Europe, where the biomass sector is well established and is facing further expansion. Data collection included the whole chipping unit, comprised of chipper, carrier and loader. Manually-fed units were excluded from the survey. The data pointed at a service life up to and exceeding 10,000 h and 10 years, which relieved any concerns about poor durability. Value retention was good, and may exceed that of other mainstream forestry equipment. Engine power was the main explanatory variable in any models to predict purchase price and productivity. The effect of this variable could explain most of the variability (>80% in the purchase price and productivity data. Results also pointed at the essential equivalence in price and productivity between PTO-driven (i.e., tractor powered and independent-engine chippers, once differences in engine power are accounted for. However, the distribution of purchase price between different components of the chipping unit was different between the two unit types, with the chipper accounting for a larger proportion of the total investment in independent-engine units. Machine power was also different, with most PTO-driven units being significantly smaller than independent-engine units, due to the limitations of existing tractors. Furthermore, half of the carriers assigned to a PTO-driven unit were subject to flexible use, i.e., they were not solely used for chipping work.

  19. Fungicidal values of bio-oils and their lignin-rich fractions obtained from wood/bark fast pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Dinesh; Shi, Jenny; Nicholas, Darrel D; Pittman, Charles U; Steele, Philip H; Cooper, Jerome E

    2008-03-01

    Pine wood, pine bark, oak wood and oak bark were pyrolyzed in an auger reactor. A total of 16 bio-oils or pyrolytic oils were generated at different temperatures and residence times. Two additional pine bio-oils were produced at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in a fluidized-bed reactor at different temperatures. All these bio-oils were fractionated to obtain lignin-rich fractions which consist mainly of phenols and neutrals. The pyrolytic lignin-rich fractions were obtained by liquid-liquid extraction. Whole bio-oils and their lignin-rich fractions were studied as potential environmentally benign wood preservatives to replace metal-based CCA and copper systems that have raised environmental concerns. Each bio-oil and several lignin-rich fractions were tested for antifungal properties. Soil block tests were conducted using one brown-rot fungus (Gloeophyllum trabeum) and one white-rot fungus (Trametes versicolor). The lignin-rich fractions showed greater fungal inhibition than whole bio-oils for a impregnation solution 10% concentration level. Water repellence tests were also performed to study wood wafer swelling behavior before and after bio-oil and lignin-rich fraction treatments. In this case, bio-oil fractions did not exhibit higher water repellency than whole bio-oils. Comparison of raw bio-oils in soil block tests, with unleached wafers, at 10% and 25% bio-oil impregnation solution concentration levels showed excellent wood preservation properties at the 25% level. The good performance of raw bio-oils at higher loading levels suggests that fractionation to generate lignin-rich fractions is unnecessary. At this more effective 25% loading level in general, the raw bio-oils performed similarly. Prevention of leaching is critically important for both raw bio-oils and their fractions to provide decay resistance. Initial tests of a polymerization chemical to prevent leaching showed some success.

  20. Prognostic value of myocardial infarct size index, obtained with technetium-99m pyrophosphate and thallium-201 chloride scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugihara, Masami [Kanazawa Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1982-02-01

    In order to determine the usefulness of nuclear cardiology methods in evaluating infarction size and in predicting subsequent mortality, the infarction size index was calculated and their left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was measured for 136 patients with acute myocardial infarction, by means of sup(99m)Tc- and /sup 201/Tl-scintigraphy. Sensitivity of sup(99m)Tc-scintigraphy was 84% (of 44 cases). The hot sup(99m)Tc-areas were measured by planimetry only in anterior transmural infarctions. For 15 patients followed for 25 months on the average, hot areas were 13.8 +- 10.8 cm/sup 2/ in survivors and 31.7 +- 18.2 cm/sup 2/ in non-survivors. Both a doughnut pattern and persistent hot area in scintigraphs were signs of poor prognosis. Sensitivity of /sup 201/Tl-scintigraphy was 86% (of 95 cases). The extent of /sup 201/Tl perfusion defects was determined in three views by the average ratio of the length of perfusion defects to that of the left ventricle (LV). Interobserver correlation was high (r = 0.89). As the percent /sup 201/Tl defect index increased, the peak value of creatine phosphokinase, the grade of Peel index, incidence of congestion on initial chest X-ray, and LV aneurysma all gradually increased. In 48 patients followed for 23 months on the average after discharge, the incidence of congestive heart failure and mortality also increased with the larger degree of percent /sup 201/Tl defect index. In particular, the prognosis was poor in patients who had the percent /sup 201/Tl defect index larger than 40%. The LVEF, measured with a computerized multi-crystal gamma camera, was well correlated with that of contrast ventriculography (r = 0.92). The patients who had severe LV dysfunction and the LVEF less than 31% also showed poor prognosis.

  1. Apparent diffusion coefficient maps obtained from high b value diffusion-weighted imaging in the preoperative evaluation of gliomas at 3T: comparison with standard b value diffusion-weighted imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Qiang; Ling, Chenhan; Zhang, Jianmin [Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Department of Neurosurgery, Hangzhou, Zhejiang (China); Dong, Fei; Jiang, Biao [Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Hangzhou, Zhejiang (China); Shi, Feina [Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Department of Neurology, Hangzhou, Zhejiang (China)

    2017-12-15

    To assess whether ADC maps obtained from high b value DWI were more valuable in preoperatively evaluating the grade, Ki-67 index and outcome of gliomas. Sixty-three patients with gliomas, who underwent preoperative multi b value DWI at 3 T, were enrolled. The ADC{sub 1000}, ADC{sub 2000} and ADC{sub 3000} maps were generated. Receiver operating characteristic analyses were conducted to determine the area under the curve (AUC) in differentiating high-grade gliomas (HGG) from low-grade gliomas (LGG). Pearson correlation coefficients (R value) were calculated to investigate the correlation between parameters with the Ki-67 proliferation index. Survival analysis was conducted by using Cox regression. The AUC of the mean ADC{sub 1000} value (0.820) was lower than that of the mean ADC{sub 2000} value (0.847) and mean ADC{sub 3000} value (0.875) in differentiating HGG from LGG. The R value of the mean ADC{sub 1000} value (-0.499) was less negative than that of the mean ADC{sub 2000} value (-0.530) and mean ADC{sub 3000} value (-0.567). The mean ADC{sub 3000} value was an independent prognosis factor for gliomas (p = 0.008), while the mean ADC{sub 1000} and ADC{sub 2000} values were not. ADC maps obtained from high b value DWI might be a better imaging biomarker in the preoperative evaluation of gliomas. (orig.)

  2. Experimental and numerical study of the chemical composition of WSex thin films obtained by pulsed laser deposition in vacuum and in a buffer gas atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigoriev, S.N.; Fominski, V.Yu.; Gnedovets, A.G.; Romanov, R.I.

    2012-01-01

    WSe x thin films were obtained by pulsed laser deposition in vacuum and at various Ar gas pressures up to 10 Pa. Stoichiometry and chemical state of the WSe x films were studied by means of Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. In the case of pulsed laser deposition of WSe x films in vacuum the value of stoichiometric coefficient x was 1.3. During the deposition in argon at pressures of 2-10 Pa the value of x varied from 1.5 to 2.2. To explain the influence of the buffer gas, a model was used that takes into account the following processes: (1) congruent pulsed laser evaporation of the WSe 2.2 target; (2) scattering of laser-evaporated W and Se atoms in Ar; (3) sputtering of the deposited film by high-energy atoms from the laser plume. Experimentally, the velocity distributions of laser-evaporated W and Se atoms in vacuum were determined by the time-of-flight measurements. Collision Monte Carlo simulations were used to quantify the impact of the buffer gas on the energy and the incidence angle distributions of the deposited W and Se atoms. Model distributions were used to determine the chemical composition of the WSe x films, depending on the efficiency of the preferential sputtering of Se atoms.

  3. Radionuclide Data Centre. Tasks and problems of obtaining the most reliable values of the nuclear physics characteristics of radionuclides and radiation physics parameters of radionuclide sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chechev, V.P.

    1994-01-01

    Information is provided on the establishment of the Radionuclide Data Centre under the V.G. Khlopin Radium Institute. Its functions and areas of activity are discussed. The paper focuses on the procedure of obtaining the evaluated values of the decay and radiative characteristics of the widely used radionuclides. (author)

  4. Numerical solution of a logistic growth model for a population with Allee effect considering fuzzy initial values and fuzzy parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarti, Z.; Nurkholipah, N. S.; Anggriani, N.; Supriatna, A. K.

    2018-03-01

    Predicting the future of population number is among the important factors that affect the consideration in preparing a good management for the population. This has been done by various known method, one among them is by developing a mathematical model describing the growth of the population. The model usually takes form in a differential equation or a system of differential equations, depending on the complexity of the underlying properties of the population. The most widely used growth models currently are those having a sigmoid solution of time series, including the Verhulst logistic equation and the Gompertz equation. In this paper we consider the Allee effect of the Verhulst’s logistic population model. The Allee effect is a phenomenon in biology showing a high correlation between population size or density and the mean individual fitness of the population. The method used to derive the solution is the Runge-Kutta numerical scheme, since it is in general regarded as one among the good numerical scheme which is relatively easy to implement. Further exploration is done via the fuzzy theoretical approach to accommodate the impreciseness of the initial values and parameters in the model.

  5. Singular boundary value problem for the integrodifferential equation in an insurance model with stochastic premiums: Analysis and numerical solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkina, T. A.; Konyukhova, N. B.; Kurochkin, S. V.

    2012-10-01

    A singular boundary value problem for a second-order linear integrodifferential equation with Volterra and non-Volterra integral operators is formulated and analyzed. The equation is defined on ℝ+, has a weak singularity at zero and a strong singularity at infinity, and depends on several positive parameters. Under natural constraints on the coefficients of the equation, existence and uniqueness theorems for this problem with given limit boundary conditions at singular points are proved, asymptotic representations of the solution are given, and an algorithm for its numerical determination is described. Numerical computations are performed and their interpretation is given. The problem arises in the study of the survival probability of an insurance company over infinite time (as a function of its initial surplus) in a dynamic insurance model that is a modification of the classical Cramer-Lundberg model with a stochastic process rate of premium under a certain investment strategy in the financial market. A comparative analysis of the results with those produced by the model with deterministic premiums is given.

  6. Estimation of optimal b-value sets for obtaining apparent diffusion coefficient free from perfusion in non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karki, Kishor; Hugo, Geoffrey D; Ford, John C; Olsen, Kathryn M; Saraiya, Siddharth; Groves, Robert; Weiss, Elisabeth

    2015-10-21

    The purpose of this study was to determine optimal sets of b-values in diffusion-weighted MRI (DW-MRI) for obtaining monoexponential apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) close to perfusion-insensitive intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) model ADC (ADCIVIM) in non-small cell lung cancer. Ten subjects had 40 DW-MRI scans before and during radiotherapy in a 1.5 T MRI scanner. Respiratory triggering was applied to the echo-planar DW-MRI with TR ≈ 4500 ms, TE  =  74 ms, eight b-values of 0-1000 μs μm(-2), pixel size  =  1.98 × 1.98 mm(2), slice thickness  =  6 mm, interslice gap  =  1.2 mm, 7 axial slices and total acquisition time ≈6 min. One or more DW-MRI scans together covered the whole tumour volume. Monoexponential model ADC values using various b-value sets were compared to reference-standard ADCIVIM values using all eight b-values. Intra-scan coefficient of variation (CV) of active tumour volumes was computed to compare the relative noise in ADC maps. ADC values for one pre-treatment DW-MRI scan of each of the 10 subjects were computed using b-value pairs from DW-MRI images synthesized for b-values of 0-2000 μs μm(-2) from the estimated IVIM parametric maps and corrupted by various Rician noise levels. The square root of mean of squared error percentage (RMSE) of the ADC value relative to the corresponding ADCIVIM for the tumour volume of the scan was computed. Monoexponential ADC values for the b-value sets of 250 and 1000; 250, 500 and 1000; 250, 650 and 1000; 250, 800 and 1000; and 250-1000 μs μm(-2) were not significantly different from ADCIVIM values (p > 0.05, paired t-test). Mean error in ADC values for these sets relative to ADCIVIM were within 3.5%. Intra-scan CVs for these sets were comparable to that for ADCIVIM. The monoexponential ADC values for other sets-0-1000; 50-1000; 100-1000; 500-1000; and 250 and 800 μs μm(-2) were significantly different from the ADCIVIM values. From Rician noise

  7. Attempt to validate breakpoint MIC values estimated from pharmacokinetic data obtained during oxolinic acid therapy of winter ulcer disease in Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar )

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coyne, R.; Bergh, Ø.; Samuelsen, O.

    2004-01-01

    Concentrations of oxolinic acid (OXA) were measured in the plasma, muscle, liver, and kidney of 48 Atlantic salmons (Salmo salar) 1 day after the end of an oral administration. OXA was administered over a period of 13 days to control an outbreak of winter ulcer disease in a commercial marine farm...... administration of OXA. A numerical description of the concentration of the antimicrobial agent achieved in therapy is necessary to determine the resistance or sensitivity of the bacteria involved in the infection. The degree of fish-to-fish variation in the concentrations of OXA, both within the healthy fish...... a useful parameter for describing the concentrations of agents achieved during therapy. The plasma data from this investigation were used to estimate clinically relevant breakpoint minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values. The validity of these breakpoint values was discussed with reference...

  8. Comparison of Mooring Loads in Survivability Mode on the Wave Dragon Wave Energy Converter Obtained by a Numerical Model and Experimental Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parmeggiani, Stefano; Muliawan, Made Jaya; Gao, Zhen

    2012-01-01

    The Wave Dragon Wave Energy Converter is ready to be up-scaled to commercial size. The design and feasibility analysis of a 1.5 MW pre-commercial unit to be deployed at the DanWEC test center in Hanstholm, Denmark, is currently ongoing. With regard to the mooring system, the design has...... in the frequency domain is performed by the software HydroD, which uses WAMIT as core software. The quadratic damping term, accounting for the viscous effect, is determined through an iterative procedure aimed at matching numerical predictions on the mooring tension, derived through time domain coupled analysis......, with experimental results derived from tank tests of a small scale model. Due to the complex geometry of the device, a sensitivity analysis is performed to discuss the influence of the mean position on the quality of the numerical predictions. Good correspondence is achieved between the experimental and numerical...

  9. Correlation of Lactic Acid and Base Deficit Values Obtained From Arterial and Peripheral Venous Samples in a Pediatric Population During Intraoperative Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordes, Brianne M; Walia, Hina; Sebastian, Roby; Martin, David; Tumin, Dmitry; Tobias, Joseph D

    2017-12-01

    Lactic acid and base deficit (BD) values are frequently monitored in the intensive care unit and operating room setting to evaluate oxygenation, ventilation, cardiac output, and peripheral perfusion. Although generally obtained from an arterial cannula, such access may not always be available. The current study prospectively investigates the correlation of arterial and peripheral venous values of BD and lactic acid. The study cohort included 48 patients. Arterial BD values ranged from -8 to 4 mEq/L and peripheral venous BD values ranged from -8 to 4 mEq/L. Arterial lactic acid values ranged from 0.36 to 2.45 μmol/L and peripheral venous lactic acid values ranged from 0.38 to 4 μmol/L. The arterial BD (-0.4 ± 2.2 mEq/L) was not significantly different from the peripheral venous BD (-0.6 ± 2.2 mEq/L). The arterial lactic acid (1.0 ± 0.5 μmol/L) was not significantly different from the peripheral venous lactic acid (1.1 ± 0.6 μmol/L). Pearson correlation coefficients demonstrated a very high correlation between arterial and peripheral venous BD ( r = .88, P lactic acid ( r = .67, P lactic acid corresponded to a 0.9-unit increase in peripheral venous lactic acid (95% CI: 0.6-1.2; P lactic acid and BD values.

  10. Comparison of Mooring Loads in Survivability Mode on the Wave Dragon Wave Energy Converter Obtained by a Numerical Model and Experimental Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parmeggiani, Stefano; Muliawan, Made Jaya; Gao, Zhen

    2012-01-01

    The Wave Dragon Wave Energy Converter is ready to be up-scaled to commercial size. The design and feasibility analysis of a 1.5 MW pre-commercial unit to be deployed at the DanWEC test center in Hanstholm, Denmark, is currently ongoing. With regard to the mooring system, the design has to be carr......The Wave Dragon Wave Energy Converter is ready to be up-scaled to commercial size. The design and feasibility analysis of a 1.5 MW pre-commercial unit to be deployed at the DanWEC test center in Hanstholm, Denmark, is currently ongoing. With regard to the mooring system, the design has...... to be carried out numerically, through coupled analyses of alternative solutions. The present study deals with the preliminary hydrodynamic characterization of Wave Dragon needed in order to calibrate the numerical model to be used for the mooring design. A hydrodynamic analysis of the small scale model...

  11. Numerically simulated and experimentally obtained X-ray section topographs of a spherical strain field in a floating zone silicon crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okitsu, Kouhei; Iida, Satoshi; Sugita, Yoshimitsu; Takeno, Hiroshi; Yagou, Yasuyoshi; Kawata, Hiroshi.

    1992-01-01

    An undoped floating zone (FZ) silicon crystal has been investigated by synchrotron X-radiation section topography with high-order reflections up to 14 14 0. Numerically simulated topographs based on the Takagi-Taupin equations were in good agreement with experimental distorted patterns when a spherical strain field was assumed in the crystal. The volume change of the lattice caused by the strain center was estimated to correspond to a sphere with a radius of 10 μm. (author)

  12. Efficacy of a numerical value of a fixed-effect estimator in stochastic frontier analysis as an indicator of hospital production structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawaguchi Hiroyuki

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The casemix-based payment system has been adopted in many countries, although it often needs complementary adjustment taking account of each hospital’s unique production structure such as teaching and research duties, and non-profit motives. It has been challenging to numerically evaluate the impact of such structural heterogeneity on production, separately of production inefficiency. The current study adopted stochastic frontier analysis and proposed a method to assess unique components of hospital production structures using a fixed-effect variable. Methods There were two stages of analyses in this study. In the first stage, we estimated the efficiency score from the hospital production function using a true fixed-effect model (TFEM in stochastic frontier analysis. The use of a TFEM allowed us to differentiate the unobserved heterogeneity of individual hospitals as hospital-specific fixed effects. In the second stage, we regressed the obtained fixed-effect variable for structural components of hospitals to test whether the variable was explicitly related to the characteristics and local disadvantages of the hospitals. Results In the first analysis, the estimated efficiency score was approximately 0.6. The mean value of the fixed-effect estimator was 0.784, the standard deviation was 0.137, the range was between 0.437 and 1.212. The second-stage regression confirmed that the value of the fixed effect was significantly correlated with advanced technology and local conditions of the sample hospitals. Conclusion The obtained fixed-effect estimator may reflect hospitals’ unique structures of production, considering production inefficiency. The values of fixed-effect estimators can be used as evaluation tools to improve fairness in the reimbursement system for various functions of hospitals based on casemix classification.

  13. WE-G-18C-02: Estimation of Optimal B-Value Set for Obtaining Apparent Diffusion Coefficient Free From Perfusion in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karki, K; Hugo, G; Ford, J; Saraiya, S; Weiss, E [Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States); Olsen, K; Groves, R [Radiology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Diffusion-weighted MRI (DW-MRI) is increasingly being investigated for radiotherapy planning and response assessment. Selection of a limited number of b-values in DW-MRI is important to keep geometrical variations low and imaging time short. We investigated various b-value sets to determine an optimal set for obtaining monoexponential apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) close to perfusion-insensitive intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) model ADC (ADCIVIM) in nonsmall cell lung cancer. Methods: Seven patients had 27 DW-MRI scans before and during radiotherapy in a 1.5T scanner. Respiratory triggering was applied to the echo-planar DW-MRI with TR=4500ms approximately, TE=74ms, pixel size=1.98X1.98mm{sub 2}, slice thickness=4–6mm and 7 axial slices. Diffusion gradients were applied to all three axes producing traceweighted images with eight b-values of 0–1000μs/μm{sup 2}. Monoexponential model ADC values using various b-value sets were compared to ADCIVIM using all b-values. To compare the relative noise in ADC maps, intra-scan coefficient of variation (CV) of active tumor volumes was computed. Results: ADCIVIM, perfusion coefficient and perfusion fraction for tumor volumes were in the range of 880-1622 μm{sup 2}/s, 8119-33834 μm{sup 2}/s and 0.104–0.349, respectively. ADC values using sets of 250, 800 and 1000; 250, 650 and 1000; and 250–1000μs/μm{sup 2} only were not significantly different from ADCIVIM(p>0.05, paired t-test). Error in ADC values for 0–1000, 50–1000, 100–1000, 250–1000, 500–1000, and three b-value sets- 250, 500 and 1000; 250, 650 and 1000; and 250, 800 and 1000μs/μm{sup 2} were 15.0, 9.4, 5.6, 1.4, 11.7, 3.7, 2.0 and 0.2% relative to the reference-standard ADCIVIM, respectively. Mean intrascan CV was 20.2, 20.9, 21.9, 24.9, 32.6, 25.8, 25.4 and 24.8%, respectively, whereas that for ADCIVIM was 23.3%. Conclusion: ADC values of two 3 b-value sets

  14. Determination of crack arrest toughness in A508 CL.3 forging steel from ASTM E1221-88 procedure. Comparison with the values obtained from thermal loading tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frund, J.M.; Difant, M.; Bethmont, M.

    1994-01-01

    A crack arrest study is under way at Electricite de France as part of the analysis of the risk of fast fracture of PWR vessels in emergency conditions. The first objective of this study is to evaluate the toughness which characterizes crack arrest through tests on reduced-size specimens. Some of the tests on a forging steel (A508 Cl.3) were conducted in conformity with two experimental methods. One method recommended by the ASTM calls for the use of an imposed-displacement mechanical loading on specimens kept under homogeneous temperature. Since the stress intensity factor K applied to the outside loading decreases along the crack growth, we can observe the arrest of the crack. In order to obtain brittle crack initiations in cleavage in the whole studied range of temperature and crack propagation of a sufficient length, the application of a weld point at the top of the notch is done. The other experimental method is based on a thermal loading. It requires the use of a disk or a cylinder with a longitudinal initial crack of the external surface. We dip this specimen in liquid nitrogen and we heat its internal surface with inducing current. There is a temperature gradient in the thickness of the specimen which produces a stress field which tends to open the crack. When the value of K is reached the crack initiation takes place. Several phenomena act to oppose the crack growth, they even go as far as stopping it. First the value of K, after increasing, gets steady then decreases, then, the rate of energy dissipated by plasticity at the top of the crack increases because the crack meets warmer and warmer areas on its way. The arrest toughness values which were obtained were then analyzed and compared to one another and with values proposed by RCC-m code. (authors). 12 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs

  15. Water uptake in free films and coatings using the Brasher and Kingsbury equation: a possible explanation of the different values obtained by electrochemical Impedance spectroscopy and gravimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vosgien Lacombre, C.; Bouvet, G.; Trinh, D.; Mallarino, S.; Touzain, S.

    2017-01-01

    For many years, the water uptake in organic coatings was measured by EIS and/or gravimetry but differences in water content values were found in almost all studies. The Brasher-Kingsbury equation used in the electrochemical analysis (EIS) is often criticized because elementary assumptions may be unvalid. The origin of the discrepancy between both methods is still of interest because many questions remain open and this study aims to provide new insights to these questions. In this work, free films and coatings of a model epoxy-amine system were immersed in a 3 wt.% NaCl solution. The water uptake in free films was evaluated using gravimetric measurements and EIS, using the Basher-Kingsbury equation. The mass of free-films used in the EIS tests was measured and compare to gravimetric measurements while the water uptake (EIS) in free films was compared to that obtained with coatings. It was found that the mass increase of free films tested with EIS was in agreement with gravimetric measurements but was always lower than the water uptake obtained by EIS. Moreover, the water uptake in free films (EIS) was different from that obtained with coatings. In all cases, it was found that the Basher-Kingsbury equation overestimated the water uptake. It appears that the differences between EIS and gravimetric measurements can be analyzed in terms of geometrical effects. Indeed, the swelling in free films and coatings can be monitored by DMA and SECM during ageing. Finally, by mixing the experimental swelling data and the Brasher-Kingsbury equation, the same value of water uptake was obtained by EIS and gravimetry for coatings.

  16. Comparison of the biometric values obtained by two different A-mode ultrasound devices (Eye Cubed vs. PalmScan): a transversal, descriptive, and comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velez-Montoya, Raul; Shusterman, Eugene Mark; López-Miranda, Miriam Jessica; Mayorquin-Ruiz, Mariana; Salcedo-Villanueva, Guillermo; Quiroz-Mercado, Hugo; Morales-Cantón, Virgilio

    2010-03-24

    To assess the reliability of the measurements obtained with the PalmScan, when compared with another standardized A-mode ultrasound device, and assess the consistency and correlation between the two methods. Transversal, descriptive, and comparative study. We recorded the axial length (AL), anterior chamber depth (ACD) and lens thickness (LT) obtained with two A-mode ultrasounds (PalmScan A2000 and Eye Cubed) using an immersion technique. We compared the measurements with a two-sample t-test. Agreement between the two devices was assessed with Bland-Altman plots and 95% limits of agreement. 70 eyes of 70 patients were enrolled in this study. The measurements with the Eye Cubed of AL and ACD were shorter than the measurements taken by the PalmScan. The differences were not statistically significant regarding AL (p < 0.4) but significant regarding ACD (p < 0.001). The highest agreement between the two devices was obtained during LT measurement. The PalmScan measurements were shorter, but not statistically significantly (p < 0.2). The values of AL and LT, obtained with both devices are not identical, but within the limits of agreement. The agreement is not affected by the magnitude of the ocular dimensions (but only between range of 20 mm to 27 mm of AL and 3.5 mm to 5.7 mm of LT). A correction of about 0.5 D could be considered if an intraocular lens is being calculated. However due to the large variability of the results, the authors recommend discretion in using this conversion factor, and to adjust the power of the intraocular lenses based upon the personal experience of the surgeon.

  17. EFFECT OF THE PRODUCTION SEASON ON NUTRITIONAL VALUE AND TECHNOLOGICAL SUITABILITY OF MILK OBTAINED FROM INTENSIVE (TMR AND TRADITIONAL FEEDING SYSTEM OF COWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Brodziak

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The seasonal variations in milk yield and its chemical composition arise mainly from changes in feeding of the cattle in different seasons of the year. A constant quantity of production and a similar quality of the raw material supply farms, where the feeding of cows is uniform throughout the year (TMR and PMR. The study included 1211 samples of milk obtained in the summer season (663 and in the winter season (548 from cows maintained in traditional and intensive (TMR system of production. Following parameters were determined: content of fat, protein, casein, lactose and dry matter; acidity (pH value; heat stability; rennet coagulation time; content of α-lactalbumin, β-lactoglobulin, bovine serum albumin, lactoferrin, lysozyme and fatty acid profiles. Cows fed in the TMR system produced significantly (P≤0.01 more milk and of a better chemical composition regardless of the season of production. Milk obtained from cows fed traditionally had the most profitable protein to fat ratio (0,90 and the shortest time of rennet coagulation (3:26 min. It contained significantly (P≤0.01 more whey proteins and had better fatty acid profiles for health. In addition the differences were usually larger in the summer season than in the winter season. It is possible to state that in summer season, when the animals are maintained on the pasture, milk obtained from cows fed traditionally is more suitable for processing and contains more biologically active substances. The daily milk yield and other important quality features of milk, significant interactions between season of production and system of feeding were revealed.

  18. Values of some topographic parameters of optic nerve head obtained by Heidelberg retina tomograph II in volunteers and different stage primary open-angle glaucoma patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Anguelov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: То assess the values of the top five topographic parameters of optic nerve head (ONH obtained by Heidelberg retina tomograph (HRT II in volunteers and primary open angle glaucoma (POAG patients with different stage of perimetric changes.Methods: 73 eyes (38 volunteers at the age of 56 years ±13, 11 men and 27 women and 170 eyes (90 patients at the age of 66 years ±12, 33 men and 57 women were examined. We performed the comprehensive ophthalmic examination, standard automated perimetry and measurement of the top five topographic parameters of ONH — rim area, rim volume, cup shape measure, height variation contour и mean RNFL thickness. For the purpose of this study we used HRT II.Results: We determine the values of the investigated topographic parameters of the ONH for healthy volunteers (rim area = 1.68±0.22 mm2, rim volume = 0.44±0.07 mm3, cup shape measure = –0.2±0.06, height variation contour = 0.38±0.08 mm and mean RNFL thickness = 0.24±0.03 mm and for the patients in different perimetric glaucoma stages (early stage: rim area = 1.52±0.47 mm2, rim volume = 0.38±0.17 mm3, cup shape measure = –0.14±0.1, height variation contour = 0.36±0.09 mm and mean RNFL thickness = 0.22±0.11 mm; moderate stage: rim area = 1.21±0.46 mm2, rim volume = 0.27±0.17 mm3, cup shape measure = –0.09±0.1, height variation contour = 0.36±0.17 mm and mean RNFL thickness = 0.16±0.12 mm; severe stage: rim area = 0.97±0.01 mm2, rim volume = 0.18±0.17 mm3, cup shape measure = –0.06±0.1, height variation contour = 0.28±0.11 mm and mean RNFL thickness = 0.17±0.11 mm. Hodapp-Parrish-Anderson (H-P-A ’s staging system includes three separate levels (early, moderate and severe of glaucoma according to visual field defects. Each stage is additionally characterized by the values of the top five topographic parameters of the ONH.Conclusion: Early diagnosis, staging and follow-up of POAG are based on both function and

  19. A comparison of intraocular pressure values obtained with the Tono-Pachymeter NT530P, iCare® rebound tonometer and Goldmann applanation tonometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Rampersad

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the intraocular pressure (IOP values measured with the Tono-Pachymeter NT530P (Tonopachy™ and the iCare® rebound tonometer (iCare® with those obtained by the Goldmann applanation tonometer (GAT. The right eyes of 105 subjects aged 18 to 82 years (mean age = 29.27 ± 14.67 years were assessed with the three tonometers. Central corneal thickness (CCT was measured first using the Tonopachy™ and then IOP was measured by Tonopachy™, iCare® and GAT. The data was analyzed with descriptive statistics, paired  t-test, correlation and regression analysis. The Bland-Altman method of analysis was used to evaluate agreements between the sets of data from the three devices. The CCT values ranged from 440 µm to 606 µm (mean= 518.49 ± 33.01 µm. There was little or no correlation between CCT and IOP for any of the instruments used in this study (r = 0.29 for Tonopachy™, r = 0.22 for iCare®, r = 0.17 for GAT. The mean IOP measured with the Tonopachy™ was 14.31 ± 3.57 mmHg (range 8.7 mmHg to 31 mmHg and 16.64 ± 4.38 mmHg (range 8 mmHg to 32 mmHg using the iCare®. The mean IOP measured with the GAT was 14.79 ± 3.09 mmHg (range 8.7 mmHg to 29.7 mmHg. Using the Bland-Altman method, the upper and lower limits of agreement between the Tonopachy™ and GAT, iCare® and GAT, iCare® and Tonopachy™ were 5.1 mmHg and –4.2 mmHg, 8.6 mmHg and –4.9 mmHg, 7.5 mmHg and –2.8 mmHg respectively. In 79.1% of the eyes studied, the mean IOP difference between Tonopachy™ and GAT was less than 3 mmHg and in 20.9% of the eyes, the difference was greater than 3 mmHg. However, mean IOP differences of greater than 3 mmHg were obtained by iCare® in comparison with GAT (40% and Tonopachy™ (34.3% respectively. Findings of this study suggest that the Tonopachy™ yielded IOP readings that were consistent with those of GAT values while iCare® yielded higher IOP values compared to both GAT and Tonopachy™. (S Afr

  20. Analysis of the criteria used by the International Commission on Radiological Protection to justify the setting of numerical protection level values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    This report compiles the various numerical protection level values published by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) since its 1990 Recommendations (Publication 60). Several terms are used to denominate the protection levels: individual dose limit, 'maximum' individual dose, dose constraint, exemption level, exclusion level, action level, or intervention level. The reasons provided by the Commission for selecting the associated numerical values is quoted as far as available. In some cases the rationale is not totally explicit in the original ICRP report concerned; in such cases the Task Group that prepared the present report have proposed their own interpretation. Originally, this report was prepared by a Task Group at CEPN, a French research and development center, in behalf of IRSN, a French public expert body engaged in radiological protection and nuclear safety. It is published here with kind permission by CEPN and IRSN.

  1. Predictive value of mutant p53 expression index obtained from nonenhanced computed tomography measurements for assessing invasiveness of ground-glass opacity nodules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang W

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Wei Wang,1 Jian Li,2 Ransheng Liu,1 Aixu Zhang,1 Zhiyong Yuan1 1Department of Radiation Oncology, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, National Clinical Research Center of Cancer, Key Laboratory of Cancer Prevention and Therapy, Tianjin, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Radiology, Tianjin Hospital, Tianjin, People’s Republic of China Purpose: To predict p53 expression index (p53-EI based on measurements from computed tomography (CT for preoperatively assessing pathologies of nodular ground-glass opacities (nGGOs. Methods: Information of 176 cases with nGGOs on high-resolution CT that were pathologically confirmed adenocarcinoma was collected. Diameters, total volumes (TVs, maximum (MAX, average (AVG, and standard deviation (STD of CT attenuations within nGGOs were measured. p53-EI was evaluated through immunohistochemistry with Image-Pro Plus 6.0. A multiple linear stepwise regression model was established to calculate p53-EI prediction from CT measurements. Receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis was performed to compare the diagnostic performance of variables in differentiating preinvasive adenocarcinoma (PIA, minimally invasive adenocarcinoma (MIA, and invasive adenocarcinoma (IAC. Results: Diameters, TVs, MAX, AVG, and STD showed significant differences among PIAs, MIAs, and IACs (all P-values <0.001, with only MAX being incapable to differentiate MIAs from IACs (P=0.106. The mean p53-EIs of PIAs, MIAs, and IACs were 3.4±2.0, 7.2±1.9, and 9.8±2.7, with significant intergroup differences (all P-values <0.001. An equation was established by multiple linear regression as: p53-EI prediction =0.001* TVs +0.012* AVG +0.022* STD +9.345, through which p53-EI predictions were calculated to be 4.4%±1.0%, 6.8%±1.3%, and 8.5%±1.4% for PIAs, MIAs, and IACs (Kruskal–Wallis test P<0.001; Tamhane’s T2 test: PIA vs MIA P<0.001, MIA vs IAC P<0.001, respectively. Although not significant, p53-EI prediction

  2. Nutritive value of the elephant-grass obtained on different cut ages Valor nutritivo do capim-elefante obtido em diferentes idades de corte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanis Tilemahos Zervoudakis

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The present work aimed to determine the chemical composition, the parameters of the dry matter (DM and neutral detergent fiber (NDF in situ degrability, the MS (IVDMD in vitro dry matter digestibility and the content of total digestible nutrients (NDT of grass-elephant obtained in different cut ages, in rainy season. The grass-elephant was submitted to the cut at the ages of 30, 45, 60, 75, 90 and 105 days, from December to March. The samples were analyzed for dry matter (MS, crude protein (PB, ash, ether extract (EE, total carbohydrates (CT, neutral detergent fiber (NDF and acid (FDA, indigestible NDF (INDF and insoluble protein in acid detergent (ADIP. Additionally, the samples were weighted in bags of nylon, incubated in the rumen of three bovine canulated, and the residues were analyzed for DM and NDF residual. Subsequently, it were submitted to in vitro incubation with liquid ruminal and solution of acid pepsin for dry matter in vitro digestibility (IVDMDdetermination, of which values were utilized for content of total digestible nutrients (NDT estimation. The content of CP was reduced in a linear way by the advancement of the cut age, while the contents of NDF, ADF, INDF and ADIP increased. The fraction “a” of the DM was reduced and the NDF I fraction was increased with the cut age advancement. The IVDMD and TDN presented quadratic behaviors (P<0,05, in function of cut age , with maximum values of 69.00% and 57.21%, to the ages of 19.64 and 48.98 days, respectively.Objetivou-se determinar a composição químico-bromatológica, os parâmetros da degradabilidade in situ da matéria seca (MS e fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, a digestibilidade in vitro da MS (DIVMS e o teor de nutrientes digestíveis totais (NDT do capim-elefante obtido em diferentes idades de corte, na época das águas. A forrageira foi submetida ao corte nas idades de 30, 45, 60, 75, 90 e 105 dias, de dezembro a março. As amostras foram analisadas para matéria seca

  3. Charge and statistics of quantum Hall quasi-particles - a numerical study of mean values and fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kjoensberg, H.; Leinaas, J.M.

    1999-01-01

    We present Monte Carlo studies of charge expectation values and charge fluctuations for quasi-particles in the quantum Hall system. We have studied the Laughlin wave functions for quasi-hole and quasi-electron, and also Jain's definition of the quasi-electron wave function. The considered systems consist of from 50 to 200 electrons, and the filling fraction is 1/3. For all quasi-particles our calculations reproduce well the expected values of charge; ((-1)/(3)) times the electron charge for the quasi-hole, and 1/3 for the quasi-electron. Regarding fluctuations in the charge, our results for the quasi-hole and Jain quasi-electron are consistent with the expected value zero in the bulk of the system, but for the Laughlin quasi-electron we find small, but significant, deviations from zero throughout the whole electron droplet. We also present Berry phase calculations of charge and statistics parameter for the Jain quasi-electron, calculations which supplement earlier studies for the Laughlin quasi-particles. We find that the statistics parameter, calculated as a function of distance, is more well behaved for the Jain quasi-electron than it is for the Laughlin quasi-electron. However, the sign of the parameter is opposite of what is expected from qualitative arguments

  4. Validation of electrical impedance tomography qualitative and quantitative values and comparison of the numeric pain distress score against mammography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juliana, Norsham; Shahar, Suzana; Chelliah, Kanaga Kumari; Ghazali, Ahmad Rohi; Osman, Fazilah; Sahar, Mohd Azmani

    2014-01-01

    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is a potential supplement for mammogram screening. This study aimed to evaluate and feasibility of EIT as opposed to mammography and to determine pain perception with both imaging methods. Women undergoing screening mammography at the Radiology Department of National University of Malaysia Medical Centre were randomly selected for EIT imaging. All women were requested to give a pain score after each imaging session. Two independent raters were chosen to define the image findings of EIT. A total of 164 women in the age range from 40 to 65-year-old participated and were divided into two groups; normal and abnormal. EIT sensitivity and specificity for rater 1 were 69.4% and 63.3, whereas for rater 2 they were 55.3% and 57.0% respectively. The reliability for each rater ranged between good to very good (p<0.05). Quantitative values of EIT showed there were significant differences in all values between groups (ANCOVA, p<0.05). Interestingly, EIT scored a median pain score of 1.51±0.75 whereas mammography scored 4.15±0.87 (Mann Whitney U test, p<0.05). From these quantitative values, EIT has the potential as a health discriminating index. Its ability to replace image findings from mammography needs further investigation.

  5. A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW AND META-ANALYSIS COMPARING CARDIOPULMONARY EXERCISE TEST VALUES OBTAINED FROM THE ARM CYCLE AND THE LEG CYCLE RESPECTIVELY IN HEALTHY ADULTS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Rasmus Tolstrup; Christensen, Jan; Tang, Lars Hermann

    2016-01-01

    a systematic review and meta-analysis of the difference in VO2max achieved by AC compared to LC in healthy adults and to explore factors that may be predictive of this difference. METHODS: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and PEDro were searched in April 2015. The differences in VO2max (ACLCdiff) were pooled across....../min with a mean ACLCratio of 0.70. The ACLCdiff was lower in studies with higher mean age and lower aerobic capacity. CONCLUSION: There is linear association between the AC and LC values in healthy adults. The AC values were on average 70% of the LC values. The magnitude of this difference appeared to be reduced...

  6. The value of radiotherapy in colorectal and anal carcinomas, judged on the basis of radiation results obtained in Wuerzburg between 1977 and 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aydin, H.

    1987-01-01

    Investigations were carried out into the effectiveness of radiotherapy in colorectal and anal carcinomas as well as metastases formed by those tumours. The relevance of changes in CT findings and CEA values is discussed in detail. (MBC) [de

  7. [Study of personal best value of peak expiratory flow in patients with asthma--comparison of the highest value of daily PEF under good control and the highest value of daily PEF obtained after using repeated inhaled beta2-agonist during high-dose inhaled steroid treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Naoto; Makino, Sohei; Kihara, Norio; Fukuda, Takeshi

    2008-12-01

    In the guideline for asthma management, it is important to find the personal best value of peak expiratory flow (best PEF). Recently, we have substituted the highest value of PEF in daily life under good control (daily highest PEF) for the best PEF. In the present study, we considered whether the daily highest PEF could be used as the best PEF or not. Subjects were 30 asthmatics who were well controlled but whose baseline PEF values were less than 80 percent of predicted values. We compared the daily highest PEF and the highest of PEF obtained after repeated inhaled beta2-agonist (salbutamol MDI every 20 minutes three times). All subjects then received 1600 microg/day of beclomethasone dipropionate (BDP) for 4 to 8 weeks. We studied the effect of high-dose inhaled steroid treatment on each PEF value and compared the daily highest PEF and the highest PEF obtained after using repeated salbutamol MDI during high dose inhaled steroid therapy on the examination day again. The baseline PEF, daily highest PEF and the highest PEF obtained after salbutamol MDI were significantly less than the each values obtained after high-dose BDP. The best PEF value of them was the value obtained after repeated salbutamol MDI during high dose BDP. We suggest that the daily highest PEF under good control is not a substitute for best PEF because it changes according to the degree of improvement of airway inflammation. We recommend that a course of high dose inhaled steroid is effective in finding the best value of PEF for each individual with moderate asthma.

  8. Estimating EQ-5D values from the Oswestry Disability Index and numeric rating scales for back and leg pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreon, Leah Y; Bratcher, Kelly R; Das, Nandita; Nienhuis, Jacob B; Glassman, Steven D

    2014-04-15

    Cross-sectional cohort. The purpose of this study is to determine whether the EuroQOL-5D (EQ-5D) can be derived from commonly available low back disease-specific health-related quality of life measures. The Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and numeric rating scales (0-10) for back pain (BP) and leg pain (LP) are widely used disease-specific measures in patients with lumbar degenerative disorders. Increasingly, the EQ-5D is being used as a measure of utility due to ease of administration and scoring. The EQ-5D, ODI, BP, and LP were prospectively collected in 14,544 patients seen in clinic for lumbar degenerative disorders. Pearson correlation coefficients for paired observations from multiple time points between ODI, BP, LP, and EQ-5D were determined. Regression modeling was done to compute the EQ-5D score from the ODI, BP, and LP. The mean age was 53.3 ± 16.4 years and 41% were male. Correlations between the EQ-5D and the ODI, BP, and LP were statistically significant (P < 0.0001) with correlation coefficients of -0.77, -0.50, and -0.57, respectively. The regression equation: [0.97711 + (-0.00687 × ODI) + (-0.01488 × LP) + (-0.01008 × BP)] to predict EQ-5D, had an R2 of 0.61 and a root mean square error of 0.149. The model using ODI alone had an R2 of 0.57 and a root mean square error of 0.156. The model using the individual ODI items had an R2 of 0.64 and a root mean square error of 0.143. The correlation coefficient between the observed and estimated EQ-5D score was 0.78. There was no statistically significant difference between the actual EQ-5D (0.553 ± 0.238) and the estimated EQ-5D score (0.553 ± 0.186) using the ODI, BP, and LP regression model. However, rounding off the coefficients to less than 5 decimal places produced less accurate results. Unlike previous studies showing a robust relationship between low back-specific measures and the Short Form-6D, a similar relationship was not seen between the ODI, BP, LP, and the EQ-5D. Thus, the EQ-5D cannot be

  9. Separate mechanisms for magnitude and order processing in the spatial-numerical association of response codes (SNARC) effect: The strange case of musical note values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prpic, Valter; Fumarola, Antonia; De Tommaso, Matteo; Luccio, Riccardo; Murgia, Mauro; Agostini, Tiziano

    2016-08-01

    The spatial-numerical association of response codes (SNARC) effect is considered an evidence of the association between numbers and space, with faster left key-press responses to small numbers and faster right key-press responses to large numbers. We examined whether visually presented note values produce a SNARC-like effect. Differently from numbers, note values are represented as a decreasing left-to-right progression, allowing us to disambiguate the contribution of order and magnitude in determining the direction of the effect. Musicians with formal education performed a note value comparison in Experiment 1 (direct task), a line orientation judgment in Experiment 2 (indirect task), and a detection task in Experiment 3 (indirect task). When note values were task relevant (direct task), participants responded faster to large note values with the left key-press, and vice versa. Conversely, when note values were task irrelevant (indirect tasks), the direction of this association was reversed. This evidence suggests the existence of separate mechanisms underlying the SNARC effect. Namely, an Order-Related Mechanism (ORM) and a Magnitude-Related Mechanism (MRM) that are revealed by different task demands. Indeed, according to a new model we proposed, ordinal and magnitude related information appears to be preferentially involved in direct and indirect tasks, respectively. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Numerical analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, G Shanker

    2006-01-01

    About the Book: This book provides an introduction to Numerical Analysis for the students of Mathematics and Engineering. The book is designed in accordance with the common core syllabus of Numerical Analysis of Universities of Andhra Pradesh and also the syllabus prescribed in most of the Indian Universities. Salient features: Approximate and Numerical Solutions of Algebraic and Transcendental Equation Interpolation of Functions Numerical Differentiation and Integration and Numerical Solution of Ordinary Differential Equations The last three chapters deal with Curve Fitting, Eigen Values and Eigen Vectors of a Matrix and Regression Analysis. Each chapter is supplemented with a number of worked-out examples as well as number of problems to be solved by the students. This would help in the better understanding of the subject. Contents: Errors Solution of Algebraic and Transcendental Equations Finite Differences Interpolation with Equal Intervals Interpolation with Unequal Int...

  11. Value management : functional expression of the need and functional performance specification : requirements for expressing and validating the need to be satisfied within the process of purchasing or obtaining a product

    CERN Document Server

    Association Française de Normalisation. Paris

    2013-01-01

    Value management : functional expression of the need and functional performance specification : requirements for expressing and validating the need to be satisfied within the process of purchasing or obtaining a product

  12. Primary production of phytoplankton of Chascomus Pond (Prov. Buenos Aires (Argentina)). Critical evaluation of photosynthesis values obtained by O2 and 14 C methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero, M.C.; Arenas, P.M.

    1989-01-01

    The primary production of the phytoplankton of Chascomus pound was estimated with the dissolved oxygen and the assimilation of 14 CO 2 techniques, the laboratory, at light saturation. The bicarbonate consumptions by the phytoplankton was corrected by the excretion values, anaplerotic uptake of CO 2 by heterotrophic bacteria and for adsorption on suspended material. Gross production primary values fluctuated within 619,5 and 168,9 mg C.m -3 . h -1 , the net primary production within 564,8 (summer) and 93,8 (winter) mg C.m -3 . h -1 . Steemann Nielsen's technique subestimated the primary production in an average of the 21%; during the months of December, January and February those differences were only of the 8,6 and 1% respectively, implying that carrying out the respective corrections, both methods equalize themselves. (author)

  13. A systematic review and meta-analysis comparing cardiopulmonary exercise test values obtained from the arm cycle and the leg cycle respectively in healthy adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Rasmus Tolstrup; Christensen, Jan; Tang, Lars Hermann

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) assesses maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and is commonly performed on a leg cycle ergometer (LC). However, some individuals would rather perform the CPET on an arm cycle ergometer (AC). OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this study were to undertake...... in studies on older and less active populations. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 3a....... a systematic review and meta-analysis of the difference in VO2max achieved by AC compared to LC in healthy adults and to explore factors that may be predictive of this difference. METHODS: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and PEDro were searched in April 2015. The differences in VO2max (ACLCdiff) were pooled across....../min with a mean ACLCratio of 0.70. The ACLCdiff was lower in studies with higher mean age and lower aerobic capacity. CONCLUSION: There is linear association between the AC and LC values in healthy adults. The AC values were on average 70% of the LC values. The magnitude of this difference appeared to be reduced...

  14. A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis Comparing Cardiopulmonary Exercise Test Values Obtained From the Arm Cycle and the Leg Cycle Respectively in Healthy Adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Rasmus Tolstrup; Christensen, Jan; Tang, Lars Hermann

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) assesses maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and is commonly performed on a leg cycle ergometer (LC). However, some individuals would rather perform the CPET on an arm cycle ergometer (AC). OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this study were to undertake...... in studies on older and less active populations. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 3a....... a systematic review and meta-analysis of the difference in VO2max achieved by AC compared to LC in healthy adults and to explore factors that may be predictive of this difference. METHODS: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and PEDro were searched in April 2015. The differences in VO2max (ACLCdiff) were pooled across....../min with a mean ACLCratio of 0.70. The ACLCdiff was lower in studies with higher mean age and lower aerobic capacity. CONCLUSION: There is linear association between the AC and LC values in healthy adults. The AC values were on average 70% of the LC values. The magnitude of this difference appeared to be reduced...

  15. Valores de energia metabolizável de alguns alimentos obtidos com aves de diferentes idades Metabolizable energy values of feedstuffs obtained from poultry at different ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloisa Helena de Carvalho Mello

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Foram realizados quatro ensaios de metabolismo com a finalidade de determinar a energia metabolizável aparente (EMA e a energia metabolizável aparente corrigida (EMAn de dez alimentos em aves em diversas idades. Os alimentos testados foram: milho, farelo de soja, sorgo, farelo de trigo, farelo de arroz integral, duas farinhas de penas, duas farinhas de vísceras e plasma sangüíneo. Utilizou-se o método de coleta total de excretas, em delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com 11 tratamentos (dez alimentos e uma ração-referência e seis repetições. No primeiro ensaio, foram utilizados 528 pintos de corte machos de 10 a 17 dias de idade, totalizando oito aves por repetição; no segundo ensaio, 396 frangos de corte machos de 26 a 33 dias de idade, com seis aves por repetição; no terceiro ensaio, 264 frangos de corte machos de 40 a 47 dias de idade, com quatro aves por repetição; e, no quarto ensaio, 132 galos, com duas aves por repetição. A idade das aves influenciou os valores de EMA e EMAn do farelo de soja, do sorgo, do farelo de arroz integral, das farinhas de penas e do plasma sangüíneo, enquanto, para o farelo de trigo, teve efeito apenas sobre a EMAn.Four assays were carried out to determine the apparent metabolizable energy (AME and the corrected apparent nitrogen metabolizable energy (AMEn of ten feeds for poultry at different poultry ages. The feeds studied were: corn grain, soybean meal, ground sorghum, wheat bran, integral rice bran, two kinds of feather meal, two kinds of poultry viscera meal and spray-dried plasma. The method of total excreta collection was used to determine the AME and AMEn values. The broiler chicks were distributed on a completely randomized experimental design, with 11 treatments, six replications, with different number of animals by replication according to the assay. In the first assay, 528 male broiler chicks in the period from 10 to 17 days of age were used, with eight animals

  16. 3D High-definition anorectal manometry: Values obtained in asymptomatic volunteers, fecal incontinence and chronic constipation. Results of a prospective multicenter study (NOMAD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mion, F; Garros, A; Brochard, C; Vitton, V; Ropert, A; Bouvier, M; Damon, H; Siproudhis, L; Roman, S

    2017-08-01

    3D-high definition anorectal manometry (3DARM) may aid the diagnosis of functional anorectal disorders, but data comparing asymptomatic and symptomatic subjects are scarce. We aimed to describe 3DARM values in asymptomatic volunteers and those with fecal incontinence (FI) or chronic constipation (CC), and identify which variables differentiate best these groups. Asymptomatic subjects were stratified by sex, age, and parity. Those with FI or CC were included according to anorectal symptom questionnaires. Endoanal ultrasound examination and 3DARM were performed the same day. Anal pressures were analyzed at rest, during voluntary squeeze, and during push maneuver, and compared between the 3 groups. Anal pressure defects were defined and compared to ultrasound defects. A total of 126 subjects (113 female, mean age 52 years, range 18-83) were included; 36 asymptomatic, 38 FI, 42 CC. Anal resting and squeeze pressures, and rectal sensitivity values were lower in FI women than in the other groups. Typical anal sphincter asymmetry during squeezing was less frequently observed in FI women. A dyssynergic pattern during push maneuver was found in 70% of asymptomatic subjects, and with a similar frequency in the 2 symptomatic groups. There was slight concordance between 3D-pressure defects and ultrasound defects. 3D anal pressures in asymptomatic women were significantly lower than in men, and in FI compared to asymptomatic women. The classical dyssynergic pattern during push maneuver was found as frequently in asymptomatic and symptomatic patients. Further studies should try to identify 3DARM variables that could reliably identify dyssynergic defecation. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Numerical value biases sound localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golob, Edward J; Lewald, Jörg; Getzmann, Stephan; Mock, Jeffrey R

    2017-12-08

    Speech recognition starts with representations of basic acoustic perceptual features and ends by categorizing the sound based on long-term memory for word meaning. However, little is known about whether the reverse pattern of lexical influences on basic perception can occur. We tested for a lexical influence on auditory spatial perception by having subjects make spatial judgments of number stimuli. Four experiments used pointing or left/right 2-alternative forced choice tasks to examine perceptual judgments of sound location as a function of digit magnitude (1-9). The main finding was that for stimuli presented near the median plane there was a linear left-to-right bias for localizing smaller-to-larger numbers. At lateral locations there was a central-eccentric location bias in the pointing task, and either a bias restricted to the smaller numbers (left side) or no significant number bias (right side). Prior number location also biased subsequent number judgments towards the opposite side. Findings support a lexical influence on auditory spatial perception, with a linear mapping near midline and more complex relations at lateral locations. Results may reflect coding of dedicated spatial channels, with two representing lateral positions in each hemispace, and the midline area represented by either their overlap or a separate third channel.

  18. Numerical value biases sound localization

    OpenAIRE

    Golob, Edward J.; Lewald, Jörg; Getzmann, Stephan; Mock, Jeffrey R.

    2017-01-01

    Speech recognition starts with representations of basic acoustic perceptual features and ends by categorizing the sound based on long-term memory for word meaning. However, little is known about whether the reverse pattern of lexical influences on basic perception can occur. We tested for a lexical influence on auditory spatial perception by having subjects make spatial judgments of number stimuli. Four experiments used pointing or left/right 2-alternative forced choice tasks to examine perce...

  19. Differential and Difference Boundary Value Problem for Loaded Third-Order Pseudo-Parabolic Differential Equations and Difference Methods for Their Numerical Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beshtokov, M. Kh.

    2017-12-01

    Boundary value problems for loaded third-order pseudo-parabolic equations with variable coefficients are considered. A priori estimates for the solutions of the problems in the differential and difference formulations are obtained. These a priori estimates imply the uniqueness and stability of the solution with respect to the initial data and the right-hand side on a layer, as well as the convergence of the solution of each difference problem to the solution of the corresponding differential problem.

  20. Analysis of the criteria used by the international commission on radiological protection (ICRP) to justify the setting of numerical reference values. Report No. 277

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schieber, C.; Schneider, T.; Lochard, J.; Crouail, P.

    2005-05-01

    Following its Publication 60, ICRP has proposed nine reports specifying quantified values for dose constraints, action levels, etc. Some 25 values have been identified in all these publications. Since a few years, ICRP is preparing new recommendations in order to provide 'a more coherent and comprehensible system'. The objective of ICRP is to propose to select among the existing quantified values, a few values that could encompass all the other ones. These values are not intended to replace the currently recommended values which remain valid. In this perspective, IRSN has asked CEPN to make a review of all the values introduced in the ICRP publications in order to obtain a broad view of the rationalities proposed by ICRP in the determination of these values. The following Publications of ICRP have been reviewed: - ICRP 60 - 1990 - 1990 Recommendations of ICRP, - ICRP 62 - 1992 - Radiological protection in biomedical research, - ICRP 63 - 1992 - Principles for intervention for protection of the public in a radiological emergency, - ICRP 64 - 1993 - Protection from potential exposure: a conceptual framework, - ICRP 65 - 1993 - Protection against radon-222 at home and at work, - ICRP 68 - 1994 - Dose coefficients for intakes of radionuclides by workers, - ICRP 75 - 1997 - General principles for the radiation protection of workers, - ICRP 77 - 1997 - Radiological protection policy for the disposal of radioactive waste, - ICRP 81 - 2000 - Radiation protection recommendations as applied to the disposal of long-lived solid radioactive waste, - ICRP 82 - 2000 - Protection of the public in situations of prolonged radiation exposure. The different quantitative values found in these publications are presented in this report, grouped by type of value: individual dose limits, 'maximum' individual dose, dose constraints, exemption, action and intervention levels. The rationalities proposed by ICRP for setting these values are presented, mainly based on the quotation of ICRP

  1. UV irradiation of track membranes as a method for obtaining the necessary value of brittleness for good fractures of samples for sem observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sartowska, B.; Nowicki, A.; Orelovitch, O.; )

    2006-01-01

    Synthesis of nano- and microstructures of materials inside the pores of specific template-track membranes can be used to obtain nano- and microwires or nano- and microtubes. It is important for these applications to know the inner geometry of the pores like sizes, shape and surface morphology. Scanning electron microscopy technique (SEM) was used predominantly for this kind of membrane characterisation. The use of other methods of sample preparation as electron, gamma rays or UV irradiation allows to make them more brittle. In present paper authors describe preliminary results of the tensile measurements of membranes after UV irradiation. Poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) membrane 10 μm thick with pore diameter 1.0 μm were prepared t the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Dubna, Russia) using the standard procedure. The samples were irradiated with UV light with energy flux 2.8 W/cm 2 during different periods of time. The tensile measurements of the initial and irradiated materials were carried in the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology (Warsaw, Poland). In conclusion, authors claim that it is possible to find the dose of UV irradiation that ensures the fracture without elastic deformation. In the case when the time of UV irradiation increases up to 90 h, the PET membrane breaks without distortion of its channel structure

  2. Clinical value of detection of HPL-expressing intermediate trophoblasts in abortion or curettage-obtained specimens for diagnosis of intrauterine or ectopic pregnancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Xiaomei; Wang Yuping; Wang Lisha; Yang Jingxiu; Gao Xueyan

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the value of detection of HPL-expressing intermediate trophoblasts in endometrial specimens for diagnosis of intrauterine and ectopic pregnancies. Methods: The examined specimens included: (1) Group I, 35 specimens with suspected intermediate trophoblast in decidua (2) Group II, 30 specimens with decidua-like plump endometrial stroma cells and/ or A-S phenomena in glandular epithelium (3) 30 specimens from proven intrauterine pregnancies serving as controls. Histochemistry (SP method) was used for HPL detection in all these specimens. Results: In the 30 proven intrauterine pregnancies, decidua and villa were present in all the specimens. Only 24 of the 30 were found to be HPL(+) with 6 HPL negatives (20%). In Group I , 28 of the 35 specimens were found to be HPL(+) and all of 28 were from intrauterine pregnancies: Of the 7 HPL negative cases, 5 were later confirmed as with ectopic pregnancy, the remaining 2 were with intrauterine pregnancy. In Group II, 22 of 30 specimens were HPL(+) and all were from intrauterine pregnancy. Of the 8 HPL negative cases, 6 were later confirmed as with ectopic pregnancy and 2 were with intrauterine pregnancy. Combining the data from Group I and II, we could see that in the total 15 HPL negative cases, 11 were with ectopic pregnancy (11/15=73.3%) and 4 were with intrauterine pregnancy (4/15=26.7%). Conclusion: In specimens of intrauterine contents, demonstration of HPL (+) cells could be regarded as confirmative evidence of intrauterine pregnancy. However, the reverse did not hold true. Many of the HPL negative specimens were from intrauterine pregnancies (in this study 4/15 or 26.7%). Therefore, in HPL negative cases, there was a high possibility of ectopic pregnancy but further examinations were required to ascertain the diagnosis. (authors)

  3. A Numerical Simulation for a Deterministic Compartmental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this work, an earlier deterministic mathematical model of HIV/AIDS is revisited and numerical solutions obtained using Eulers numerical method. Using hypothetical values for the parameters, a program was written in VISUAL BASIC programming language to generate series for the system of difference equations from the ...

  4. Clinical utility of apparent diffusion coefficient values obtained using high b-value when diagnosing prostate cancer using 3 tesla MRI: comparison between ultra-high b-value (2000 s/mm²) and standard high b-value (1000 s/mm²).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitajima, Kazuhiro; Takahashi, Satoru; Ueno, Yoshiko; Yoshikawa, Takeshi; Ohno, Yoshiharu; Obara, Makoto; Miyake, Hideaki; Fujisawa, Masato; Sugimura, Kazuro

    2012-07-01

    To determine whether the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) obtained using b = 2000 s/mm(2) upon 3 Tesla (T) diffusion-weighted MRI is superior to b = 1000 s/mm(2) for discriminating malignant from normal prostate tissue and predicting the aggressiveness of prostate cancer, using histopathological findings of radical prostatectomy as a reference. Eighty prostate cancer patients underwent preoperative 3T MRI including diffusion weighted imaging with b-values of 0, 1000, and 2000 s/mm(2) . ADCs were measured for malignant lesions and normal sites on three sets of ADC maps calculated with monoexponential fitting between b = 0 and 1000, 0 and 2000, and 1000 and 2000, respectively. The relationship between the ADC and Gleason score was evaluated. The areas under the ROC curves for b = 0,1000, b = 0,2000, and b = 1000,2000 were 0.896, 0.937, and 0.857, respectively, in the peripheral zone (PZ) and 0.877, 0.889, and 0.731, respectively, in the transition zone (TZ). The difference between b = 0,1000 and b = 0,2000 was significant in PZ (P = 0.033), but not in TZ (P = 0.84). Weak but significant negative correlations were identified between ADCs and Gleason score in both PZ and TZ cancer at b = 0,1000 and b = 0,2000 (r = -0.323 to -0.341). For 3T MRI, ADCs using b = 0,2000 are more accurate than b = 0,1000 for diagnosing PZ cancer, and as accurate for TZ cancer. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Differences of the efficacy values in simple temporary numerical inequality between loser teams in male and female waterpolo Diferencias de los valores de eficacia en desigualdad numérica temporal simple entre equipos perdedores en waterpolo masculino y femenino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. I. Alonso

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available With this study has intended to obtain two objectives: the first one, to investigate the efficacy values in the playing microsituations in simple temporary numerical inequality with or without ball possession, and the second, to analyze the relation between these and the condition of loser at the end of the match and in both sexes. For the empirical part were recorded in video all the matches of the X Water polo World Championship celebrated in Barcelona during the month of July of 2003, for its subsequent analysis arrived at by consensus between two specialists previously coached, continuing the guidelines of the observational methodology. Valued themselves, by means of some coefficients, the efficacy in all the playing microsituations in simple temporary numerical inequality with or without ball possession obtaining some efficacy values. In the condition of loser at the end of the match differences were revealed among both sexes in the coefficient of shots exactness without possession (.008; taking as reference a value of p <.05. To conclude, to affirm that in one of the fourteen coefficients of efficacy proposed for evaluate the playing microsituations in simple temporary numerical inequality with or without ball possession in water polo are significant differences among sexes in teams with the condition of loser at the end of the match.
    Key words: water polo, efficacy, loser, simple temporary numerical inequality.

    Con este estudio se ha pretendido conseguir dos objetivos: el primero, indagar en los valores de eficacia en las microsituaciones de juego en desigualdad numérica temporal simple con o sin posesión del balón, y el segundo, analizar la relación entre los valores de eficacia en equipos con la condición de perdedor al finalizar el partido y en ambos sexos. Para la parte empírica se filmaron en vídeo todos los partidos de waterpolo del X

  6. Methods of numerical relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piran, T.

    1983-01-01

    Numerical Relativity is an alternative to analytical methods for obtaining solutions for Einstein equations. Numerical methods are particularly useful for studying generation of gravitational radiation by potential strong sources. The author reviews the analytical background, the numerical analysis aspects and techniques and some of the difficulties involved in numerical relativity. (Auth.)

  7. Prospective study on the behaviour of values obtained by organ function studies, in particular scintiscan studies of pulmonary perfusion, during treatment of little to moderately advanced tuberculosis, shown by X-rays to involve one lobe of the lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaffartzik, W.

    1987-01-01

    Prospective study on the behaviour of values obtained by organ function studies, in particular scintiscan studies of pulmonary perfusion, during treatment of little to moderately advanced tuberculosis, shown by X-rays to involve one lobe of the lung. This prospective study analyses features of global and regional pulmonary function in 14 patients with little to moderately pronounced tuberculosis, shown by X-rays to involve one lobe of the lung. At the beginning of treatment, the global function values were not different from the values generally accepted as normal. Disturbed perfusion was determined in pulmonary sections where the X-ray pictures had revealed the presence of tuberculous foci. After therapy and inactivation of the tuberculosis the values were seen to remain unchanged. (MBC) [de

  8. Comparison of the T2-star Values of Placentas Obtained from Pre-eclamptic Patients with Those of a Control Group: an Ex-vivo Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurttutan, Nursel; Bakacak, Murat; Kızıldağ, Betül

    2017-09-29

    Endotel dysfunction, vasoconstriction, and oxidative stress are described in the pathophysiology of pre-eclampsia, but its aetiology has not been revealed clearly. To examine whether there is a difference between the placentas of pre-eclamptic pregnant women and those of a control group in terms of their T2 star values. Case-control study. Twenty patients diagnosed with pre-eclampsia and 22 healthy controls were included in this study. The placentas obtained after births performed via Caesarean section were taken into the magnetic resonance imaging area in plastic bags within the first postnatal hour, and imaging was performed via modified DIXON-Quant sequence. Average values were obtained by performing T2 star measurements from four localisations on the placentas. T2 star values measured in the placentas of the control group were found to be significantly lower than those in the pre-eclampsia group (pstar value in the pre-eclamptic group was found to be 37.48 ms (standard deviation ± 11.3), this value was 28.74 (standard deviation ± 8.08) in the control group. The cut-off value for the T2 star value, maximising the accuracy of diagnosis, was 28.59 ms (area under curve: 0.741; 95% confidence interval: 0.592-0.890); sensitivity and specificity were 70% and 63.6%, respectively. This study, the T2 star value, which is an indicator of iron amount, was found to be significantly lower in the control group than in the pre-eclampsia group. This may be related to the reduction in blood flow to the placenta due to endothelial dysfunction and vasoconstriction, which are important in pre-eclampsia pathophysiology.

  9. Left ventricle ejection fraction obtained by radioisotopic angiocardiography. Correlation between the values of the conventional ventriclegraphy. Fracao de ejecao do ventriculo esquerdo obtida por angiocardiografia radioisotopica. Correlacao com os valores fornecidos pela ventriculografia convencional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ascer, E; Pimentel Filho, W A; Martins, L R.F.; Marioni Filho, H; Queiroga Filho, A F; Alonso, G; Germek, O A; Thom, A F; Souza, J E.M.R. [Instituto Dante Pazzanese de Cardiologia, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1983-02-01

    Forty-two patients with clinical signs of coronary insuficiency underwent cineangiographic and radioisotopic examinations with the purpose of analysing the correlation between the values of left ventricle ejection fraction (LVEF) obtained by both methods. The values of EF obtained by the hemodynamic method (HEMO) ranged from 0.14 to 0.85 (x-bar = 0.566) and by radioisotopic method (RM) from 0.22 to 0.89 (x-bar = 0.573). The Student T test did not demonstrate statistically significant differences between the two methods (mean of differences = 0.007; t = 0.38 and p {ge} 0.353). A regression equation was obtained in order to estimate the EF by HEMO deriving from results obtained by RM (y = 0.11 + 0.80x) and to estimate the EF through RN from the results obtained by HEMO (x = 0.08 + 0.86y), where y = hemodynamic method and x = radioisotopic method. The authors conclude that the calculation of the EF by the methods used showed a good correlation and that this fact is evidenced by the elevated Pearson's correlation coefficient (r = 0.833). (author).

  10. Preference-based measures to obtain health state utility values for use in economic evaluations with child-based populations: a review and UK-based focus group assessment of patient and parent choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolstenholme, Jane L; Bargo, Danielle; Wang, Kay; Harnden, Anthony; Räisänen, Ulla; Abel, Lucy

    2018-03-21

    No current guidance is available in the UK on the choice of preference-based measure (PBM) that should be used in obtaining health-related quality of life from children. The aim of this study is to review the current usage of PBMs for obtaining health state utility values in child and adolescent populations, and to obtain information on patient and parent-proxy respondent preferences in completing PBMs in the UK. A literature review was conducted to determine which instrument is most frequently used for child-based economic evaluations and whether child or proxy responses are used. Instruments were compared on dimensions, severity levels, elicitation and valuation methods, availability of value sets and validation studies, and the range of utility values generated. Additionally, a series of focus groups of parents and young people (11-20 years) were convened to determine patient and proxy preferences. Five PBMs suitable for child populations were identified, although only the Health Utilities Index 2 (HUI2) and Child Heath Utility 9D (CHU-9D) have UK value sets. 45 papers used PBMs in this population, but many used non-child-specific PBMs. Most respondents were parent proxies, even in adolescent populations. Reported missing data ranged from 0.5 to 49.3%. The focus groups reported their experiences with the EQ-5D-Y and CHU-9D. Both the young persons' group and parent/proxy groups felt that the CHU-9D was more comprehensive but may be harder for a proxy to complete. Some younger children had difficulty understanding the CHU-9D questions, but the young persons' group nonetheless preferred responding directly. The use of PBMs in child populations is increasing, but many studies use PBMs that do not have appropriate value sets. Parent proxies are the most common respondents, but the focus group responses suggest it would be preferred, and may be more informative, for older children to self-report or for child-parent dyads to respond.

  11. Numerical relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piran, T.

    1982-01-01

    There are many recent developments in numerical relativity, but there remain important unsolved theoretical and practical problems. The author reviews existing numerical approaches to solution of the exact Einstein equations. A framework for classification and comparison of different numerical schemes is presented. Recent numerical codes are compared using this framework. The discussion focuses on new developments and on currently open questions, excluding a review of numerical techniques. (Auth.)

  12. Numerical simulation of Higgs models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaster, A.

    1995-10-01

    The SU(2) Higgs and the Schwinger model on the lattice were analysed. Numerical simulations of the SU(2) Higgs model were performed to study the finite temperature electroweak phase transition. With the help of the multicanonical method the distribution of an order parameter at the phase transition point was measured. This was used to obtain the order of the phase transition and the value of the interface tension with the histogram method. Numerical simulations were also performed at zero temperature to perform renormalization. The measured values for the Wilson loops were used to determine the static potential and from this the renormalized gauge coupling. The Schwinger model was simulated at different gauge couplings to analyse the properties of the Kaplan-Shamir fermions. The prediction that the mass parameter gets only multiplicative renormalization was tested and verified. (orig.)

  13. Determination of wine authenticity and geographical origin by measuring non-exchangeable hydrogen stable isotopes in wine ethanol with EIM-IRMS® methodology in combination with δ18O values obtained from wine water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smajlovic, Ivan; Glavanovic, Mirko; Sparks, Kimberlee L.; Sparks, Jed P.; Jovic, Slobodan

    2014-05-01

    drawn from the wine water δ18O value. If water is added prior or during alcoholic fermentation, final ethanol δDn value will fall outside of the range of -205 to -215 ‰ vs. V-SMOW, while wine water δ18O value may still appear valid for the wine origin. We are certain that measuring wine water δ18O alone could give wrong impression about wine origin. With the new set of ethanol δDn and wine water δ18O results obtained from genuine wine samples from different vintages and from different geographic destinations (Serbia and USA), we are more certain that EIM-IRMS® method can help in determination of geographical origin and give additional information about wine authenticity and also important information about illegal production practices (addition of sugar and/or dilution with water) in wine production. Keywords: Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (IRMS), Wine, Authenticity, determination of origin

  14. Agreement between arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide and saturation of hemoglobin with oxygen values obtained by direct arterial blood measurements versus noninvasive methods in conscious healthy and ill foals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, David M; Alcott, Cody J; Wang, Chong; Bornkamp, Jennifer L; Young, Jessica L; Sponseller, Brett A

    2011-11-15

    To determine agreement between indirect measurements of end-tidal partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PetCO(2)) and saturation of hemoglobin with oxygen as measured by pulse oximetry (SpO(2)) with direct measurements of PaCO(2) and calculated saturation of hemoglobin with oxygen in arterial blood (SaO(2)) in conscious healthy and ill foals. Validation study. 10 healthy and 21 ill neonatal foals. Arterial blood gas analysis was performed on healthy and ill foals examined at a veterinary teaching hospital to determine direct measurements of PaCO(2) and PaO(2) along with SaO(2). Concurrently, PetCO(2) was measured with a capnograph inserted into a naris, and SpO(2) was measured with a reflectance probe placed at the base of the tail. Paired values were compared by use of Pearson correlation coefficients, and level of agreement was assessed with the Bland-Altman method. Mean ± SD difference between PaCO(2) and PetCO(2) was 0.1 ± 5.0 mm Hg. There was significant strong correlation (r = 0.779) and good agreement between PaCO(2) and PetCO(2). Mean ± SD difference between SaO(2) and SpO(2) was 2.5 ± 3.5%. There was significant moderate correlation (r = 0.499) and acceptable agreement between SaO(2) and SpO(2). Both PetCO(2) obtained by use of nasal capnography and SpO(2) obtained with a reflectance probe are clinically applicable and accurate indirect methods of estimating and monitoring PaCO(2) and SaO(2) in neonatal foals. Indirect methods should not replace periodic direct measurement of corresponding parameters.

  15. Numerical analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Khabaza, I M

    1960-01-01

    Numerical Analysis is an elementary introduction to numerical analysis, its applications, limitations, and pitfalls. Methods suitable for digital computers are emphasized, but some desk computations are also described. Topics covered range from the use of digital computers in numerical work to errors in computations using desk machines, finite difference methods, and numerical solution of ordinary differential equations. This book is comprised of eight chapters and begins with an overview of the importance of digital computers in numerical analysis, followed by a discussion on errors in comput

  16. Numerical relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Shibata, Masaru

    2016-01-01

    This book is composed of two parts: First part describes basics in numerical relativity, that is, the formulations and methods for a solution of Einstein's equation and general relativistic matter field equations. This part will be helpful for beginners of numerical relativity who would like to understand the content of numerical relativity and its background. The second part focuses on the application of numerical relativity. A wide variety of scientific numerical results are introduced focusing in particular on the merger of binary neutron stars and black holes.

  17. Correlation analysis of expressions of PTEN and p53 with the value obtained by magnetic resonance spectroscopy and apparent diffusion coefficient in the tumor and the tumor-adjacent area in magnetic resonance imaging for glioblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yunyun; Ji, Feng; Jiang, Yuzhi; Zhao, Ting; Xu, Chongfu

    2018-01-01

    To explore the correlation of the expression levels of phosphate and tension homology deleted on chromosome ten (PTEN) and p53 of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) with the value obtained by magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) in the tumor and the tumor-adjacent area in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A total of 38 patients were operated for GBM. All the patients had received diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and MRS prior to surgery. ADC of water molecules and values of metabolite indexes of MRS, including n-acetyl aspartate (NAA), choline (Cho) and creatine (Cr), were recorded, and the ratios of Cho/NAA, Cho/Cr and NAA/Cr were calculated. Hematoxylin-eosin (H&E) staining was done to examine the morphology of tumor and of tumor-adjacent tissues; immunohistochemistry (IHC) was performed to examine the expressions of PTEN and p53 in the tumor and the tumor-adjacent area. Finally, the correlations of the expressions of PTEN and p53 with ADC, Cho/NAA, Cho/Cr and NAA/Cr of the tumor and the tumor-adjacent area were analyzed. H&E staining showed that GBM tissues had disordered morphology, different sizes of cells, large cell nuclei and significant cell heterogeneity. IHC indicated that the expression level of p53 protein in the tumor was significantly higher than in the tumor-adjacent tissues (pCorrelation analysis indicated that PTEN levels in the tumor and the tumor-adjacent area were positively correlated with ADC in the corresponding area, while p53 in the tumor and the tumor-adjacent area was negatively correlated with ADC in the corresponding area. Cho/NAA and Cho/Cr in the tumor were positively correlated with p53 in the tumor, but negatively correlated with PTEN in the tumor. However, NAA/Cr of the tumor was irrelevant to the levels of PTEN and p53. The test results of DWI and MRS of patients with GBM can accurately reflect the inactivation or mutation of PTEN and p53.

  18. Numerical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegler, Robert S.; Braithwaite, David W.

    2016-01-01

    In this review, we attempt to integrate two crucial aspects of numerical development: learning the magnitudes of individual numbers and learning arithmetic. Numerical magnitude development involves gaining increasingly precise knowledge of increasing ranges and types of numbers: from non-symbolic to small symbolic numbers, from smaller to larger…

  19. Hindi Numerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, William

    In most languages encountered by linguists, the numerals, considered as a paradigmatic set, constitute a morpho-syntactic problem of only moderate complexity. The Indo-Aryan language family of North India, however, presents a curious contrast. The relatively regular numeral system of Sanskrit, as it has developed historically into the modern…

  20. Different percentages of false-positive results obtained using five methods for the calculation of reference change values based on simulated normal and ln-normal distributions of data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Flemming; Petersen, Per Hyltoft; Fraser, Callum G

    2016-01-01

    a homeostatic set point that follows a normal (Gaussian) distribution. This set point (or baseline in steady-state) should be estimated from a set of previous samples, but, in practice, decisions based on reference change value are often based on only two consecutive results. The original reference change value......-positive results. The aim of this study was to investigate false-positive results using five different published methods for calculation of reference change value. METHODS: The five reference change value methods were examined using normally and ln-normally distributed simulated data. RESULTS: One method performed...... best in approaching the theoretical false-positive percentages on normally distributed data and another method performed best on ln-normally distributed data. The commonly used reference change value method based on two results (without use of estimated set point) performed worst both on normally...

  1. Interval Continuous Plant Identification from Value Sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Hernández

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows how to obtain the values of the numerator and denominator Kharitonov polynomials of an interval plant from its value set at a given frequency. Moreover, it is proven that given a value set, all the assigned polynomials of the vertices can be determined if and only if there is a complete edge or a complete arc lying on a quadrant. This algorithm is nonconservative in the sense that if the value-set boundary of an interval plant is exactly known, and particularly its vertices, then the Kharitonov rectangles are exactly those used to obtain these value sets.

  2. The Spatial Relationship between Apparent Diffusion Coefficient and Standardized Uptake Value of 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Has a Crucial Influence on the Numeric Correlation of Both Parameters in PET/MRI of Lung Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauter, Alexander W; Stieltjes, Bram; Weikert, Thomas; Gatidis, Sergios; Wiese, Mark; Klarhöfer, Markus; Wild, Damian; Lardinois, Didier; Bremerich, Jens; Sommer, Gregor

    2017-01-01

    The minimum apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC min ) derived from diffusion-weighted MRI (DW-MRI) and the maximum standardized uptake value (SUV max ) of FDG-PET are markers of aggressiveness in lung cancer. The numeric correlation of the two parameters has been extensively studied, but their spatial interplay is not well understood. After FDG-PET and DW-MRI coregistration, values and location of ADC min - and SUV max -voxels were analyzed. The upper limit of the 95% confidence interval for registration accuracy of sequential PET/MRI was 12 mm, and the mean distance ( D ) between ADC min - and SUV max -voxels was 14.0 mm (average of two readers). Spatial mismatch ( D > 12 mm) between ADC min and SUV max was found in 9/25 patients. A considerable number of mismatch cases (65%) was also seen in a control group that underwent simultaneous PET/MRI. In the entire patient cohort, no statistically significant correlation between SUV max and ADC min was seen, while a moderate negative linear relationship ( r = -0.5) between SUV max and ADC min was observed in tumors with a spatial match ( D ≤ 12 mm). In conclusion, spatial mismatch between ADC min and SUV max is found in a considerable percentage of patients. The spatial connection of the two parameters SUV max and ADC min has a crucial influence on their numeric correlation.

  3. Numerical solution of Boltzmann's equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sod, G.A.

    1976-04-01

    The numerical solution of Boltzmann's equation is considered for a gas model consisting of rigid spheres by means of Hilbert's expansion. If only the first two terms of the expansion are retained, Boltzmann's equation reduces to the Boltzmann-Hilbert integral equation. Successive terms in the Hilbert expansion are obtained by solving the same integral equation with a different source term. The Boltzmann-Hilbert integral equation is solved by a new very fast numerical method. The success of the method rests upon the simultaneous use of four judiciously chosen expansions; Hilbert's expansion for the distribution function, another expansion of the distribution function in terms of Hermite polynomials, the expansion of the kernel in terms of the eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the Hilbert operator, and an expansion involved in solving a system of linear equations through a singular value decomposition. The numerical method is applied to the study of the shock structure in one space dimension. Numerical results are presented for Mach numbers of 1.1 and 1.6. 94 refs, 7 tables, 1 fig

  4. Numerical analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Scott, L Ridgway

    2011-01-01

    Computational science is fundamentally changing how technological questions are addressed. The design of aircraft, automobiles, and even racing sailboats is now done by computational simulation. The mathematical foundation of this new approach is numerical analysis, which studies algorithms for computing expressions defined with real numbers. Emphasizing the theory behind the computation, this book provides a rigorous and self-contained introduction to numerical analysis and presents the advanced mathematics that underpin industrial software, including complete details that are missing from most textbooks. Using an inquiry-based learning approach, Numerical Analysis is written in a narrative style, provides historical background, and includes many of the proofs and technical details in exercises. Students will be able to go beyond an elementary understanding of numerical simulation and develop deep insights into the foundations of the subject. They will no longer have to accept the mathematical gaps that ex...

  5. Default values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-08-01

    In making calculations for the purposes of radiation protection, numerical values for parameters used in the calculations are selected. In some cases, data directly applicable to the set of conditions for which the calculations are to be made are unavailable. Therefore, the selection of the values for these parameters may be based on more general data available from the literature or other sources. These values may be referred to as 'default values', that is, values used in default of those based on directly applicable data. The following policy will be applied by Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) staff in reviewing the radiation protection aspects of submissions associated with licensing, in participating with other organizations in the development of codes and standards, and in any other work which relies to some extent on using default values

  6. Obtaining of inulin acetate

    OpenAIRE

    Khusenov, Arslonnazar; Rakhmanberdiev, Gappar; Rakhimov, Dilshod; Khalikov, Muzaffar

    2014-01-01

    In the article first obtained inulin ester inulin acetate, by etherification of inulin with acetic anhydride has been exposed. Obtained product has been studied using elementary analysis and IR spectroscopy.

  7. Automatic validation of numerical solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stauning, Ole

    1997-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with ``Automatic Validation of Numerical Solutions''. The basic theory of interval analysis and self-validating methods is introduced. The mean value enclosure is applied to discrete mappings for obtaining narrow enclosures of the iterates when applying these mappings...... differential equations, but in this thesis, we describe how to use the methods for enclosing iterates of discrete mappings, and then later use them for discretizing solutions of ordinary differential equations. The theory of automatic differentiation is introduced, and three methods for obtaining derivatives...... are described: The forward, the backward, and the Taylor expansion methods. The three methods have been implemented in the C++ program packages FADBAD/TADIFF. Some examples showing how to use the three metho ds are presented. A feature of FADBAD/TADIFF not present in other automatic differentiation packages...

  8. Numerical investigations on the effect of the axial interval between intensifying spacer grids on the critical heat flux value for fuel assemblies with non-uniform axial power distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kireeva, D.; Oleksyuk, D.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper a number of numerical studies on intensifying heat exchange conducted by NRC 'Kurchatov Institute' are presented. A standardised heat exchange intensifying spacer grid (UDRI) can be installed at any height along the fuel assembly (FA) heat-generating section. When installed at the bottom of a fuel assembly, the UDRI facilitates intensive coolant mixing; the UDRI mounted at the top of a FA provides better mixing and the enhancement in heat exchange. The application of the heat exchange intensifying spacer grids results in better flattening of the coolant parameters along the cross-section and higher critical heat flux ratio. The investigations were carried out by means of numerical code SC-INT using mesh generation that have been specially designed by NRC 'Kurchatov Institute' to perform calculations for fuel assemblies equipped with the intensifying spacer grids. The effect of the axial interval between UDRI grids on the critical heat flux value for two typical axial power shapes has been investigated. The derived optimal solutions for the positioning of intensifying grids are also presented

  9. Numerical analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Brezinski, C

    2012-01-01

    Numerical analysis has witnessed many significant developments in the 20th century. This book brings together 16 papers dealing with historical developments, survey papers and papers on recent trends in selected areas of numerical analysis, such as: approximation and interpolation, solution of linear systems and eigenvalue problems, iterative methods, quadrature rules, solution of ordinary-, partial- and integral equations. The papers are reprinted from the 7-volume project of the Journal of Computational and Applied Mathematics on '/homepage/sac/cam/na2000/index.html<

  10. Numerical modelling of the jet nozzle enrichment process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vercelli, P.

    1983-01-01

    A numerical model was developed for the simulation of the isotopic enrichment produced by the jet nozzle process. The flow was considered stationary and under ideal gas conditions. The model calculates, for any position of the skimmer piece: (a) values of radial mass concentration profiles for each isotopic species and (b) values of elementary separation effect (Σ sub(A)) and uranium cut (theta). The comparison of the numerical results obtained with the experimental values given in the literature proves the validity of the present work as an initial step in the modelling of the process. (Author) [pt

  11. Numerical Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, John G.

    2009-01-01

    Recent advances in numerical relativity have fueled an explosion of progress in understanding the predictions of Einstein's theory of gravity, General Relativity, for the strong field dynamics, the gravitational radiation wave forms, and consequently the state of the remnant produced from the merger of compact binary objects. I will review recent results from the field, focusing on mergers of two black holes.

  12. The influence of numerical models on determining the drag coefficient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobeš Josef

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with numerical modelling of body aerodynamic drag coefficient in the transition from laminar to turbulent flow regimes, where the selection of a suitable numerical model is problematic. On the basic problem of flow around a simple body – sphere selected computational models are tested. The values obtained by numerical simulations of drag coefficients of each model are compared with the graph of dependency of the drag coefficient vs. Reynolds number for a sphere. Next the dependency of Strouhal number vs. Reynolds number is evaluated, where the vortex shedding frequency values for given speed are obtained numerically and experimentally and then the values are compared for each numerical model and experiment. The aim is to specify trends for the selection of appropriate numerical model for flow around bodies problem in which the precise description of the flow field around the obstacle is used to define the acoustic noise source. Numerical modelling is performed by finite volume method using CFD code.

  13. Numerical semigroups and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Assi, Abdallah

    2016-01-01

    This work presents applications of numerical semigroups in Algebraic Geometry, Number Theory, and Coding Theory. Background on numerical semigroups is presented in the first two chapters, which introduce basic notation and fundamental concepts and irreducible numerical semigroups. The focus is in particular on free semigroups, which are irreducible; semigroups associated with planar curves are of this kind. The authors also introduce semigroups associated with irreducible meromorphic series, and show how these are used in order to present the properties of planar curves. Invariants of non-unique factorizations for numerical semigroups are also studied. These invariants are computationally accessible in this setting, and thus this monograph can be used as an introduction to Factorization Theory. Since factorizations and divisibility are strongly connected, the authors show some applications to AG Codes in the final section. The book will be of value for undergraduate students (especially those at a higher leve...

  14. Numerical relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Nakamura, T

    1993-01-01

    In GR13 we heard many reports on recent. progress as well as future plans of detection of gravitational waves. According to these reports (see the report of the workshop on the detection of gravitational waves by Paik in this volume), it is highly probable that the sensitivity of detectors such as laser interferometers and ultra low temperature resonant bars will reach the level of h ~ 10—21 by 1998. in this level we may expect the detection of the gravitational waves from astrophysical sources such as coalescing binary neutron stars once a year or so. Therefore the progress in numerical relativity is urgently required to predict the wave pattern and amplitude of the gravitational waves from realistic astrophysical sources. The time left for numerical relativists is only six years or so although there are so many difficulties in principle as well as in practice.

  15. Very high values of J{sub c} obtained in NdBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} by use of the U/n process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinstein, Roy; Sawh, Ravi-Persad; Parks, Drew; Murakami, Masato; Mochida, Tadashi; Chikumoto, Noriko; Krabbes, Gernot; Bieger, Wolfgang

    2002-12-15

    The U/n process has been used to introduce quasi-columnar pinning centers into Nd123, textured in 1% O{sub 2}, 99% Ar. The process involves adding {sup 235}U to precursor powders of the superconductor, texturing, and irradiating with thermal neutrons. The two resulting ions, from each nuclear fission, cause aligned discontinuous electronic damage of length {approx}5.4 {mu}m, which acts as a pinning center. Best results for J{sub c} require U deposits spaced by s{<=}5.4 {mu}m. This has been achieved by deposits containing two foreign elements, U and Zr, and three native elements. The deposits of UZrNdBaO and Nd422 refined by the Zr, act as additional non-aligned pinning centers. The U/n process increases J{sub c} by a factor R{sub J}{>=}10, to values of J{sub c}{approx}274 kA/cm{sup 2} at T=77 K, B=666 G.

  16. Numerical analysis targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sollogoub, Pierre

    2001-01-01

    Numerical analyses are needed in different steps of the overall design process. Complex models or non-linear reactor core behaviour are important for qualification and/or comparison of results obtained. Adequate models and test should be defined. Fuel assembly, fuel row, and the complete core should be tested for seismic effects causing LOCA and flow-induced vibrations (FIV)

  17. Diagonal Pade approximations for initial value problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reusch, M.F.; Ratzan, L.; Pomphrey, N.; Park, W.

    1987-06-01

    Diagonal Pade approximations to the time evolution operator for initial value problems are applied in a novel way to the numerical solution of these problems by explicitly factoring the polynomials of the approximation. A remarkable gain over conventional methods in efficiency and accuracy of solution is obtained. 20 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  18. Numerical solution of the Schroedinger equation with a polynomial potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campoy, G.; Palma, A.

    1986-01-01

    A numerical method for solving the Schroedinger equation for a potential expressed as a polynomial is proposed. The basic assumption relies on the asymptotic properties of the solution of this equation. It is possible to obtain the energies and the stationary state functions simultaneously. They analyze, in particular, the cases of the quartic anharmonic oscillator and a hydrogen atom perturbed by a quadratic term, obtaining its energy eigenvalues for some values of the perturbation parameter. Together with the Hellmann-Feynman theorem, they use their algorithm to calculate expectation values of x'' for arbitrary positive values of n. 4 tables

  19. Numerical analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Jacques, Ian

    1987-01-01

    This book is primarily intended for undergraduates in mathematics, the physical sciences and engineering. It introduces students to most of the techniques forming the core component of courses in numerical analysis. The text is divided into eight chapters which are largely self-contained. However, with a subject as intricately woven as mathematics, there is inevitably some interdependence between them. The level of difficulty varies and, although emphasis is firmly placed on the methods themselves rather than their analysis, we have not hesitated to include theoretical material when we consider it to be sufficiently interesting. However, it should be possible to omit those parts that do seem daunting while still being able to follow the worked examples and to tackle the exercises accompanying each section. Familiarity with the basic results of analysis and linear algebra is assumed since these are normally taught in first courses on mathematical methods. For reference purposes a list of theorems used in the t...

  20. Numerical and spectral investigations of novel infinite elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barai, P.; Harari, I.; Barbonet, P.E.

    1998-01-01

    Exterior problems of time-harmonic acoustics are addressed by a novel infinite element formulation, defined on a bounded computational domain. For two-dimensional configurations with circular interfaces, the infinite element results match Quell both analytical values and those obtained from. other methods like DtN. Along 1uith the numerical performance of this formulation, of considerable interest are its complex-valued eigenvalues. Hence, a spectral analysis of the present scheme is also performed here, using various infinite elements

  1. Five Values of Giftedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besjes-de Bock, Karin M.; de Ruyter, Doret J.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes five values attributed to giftedness. The ascription of values to this phenomenon resembles values attached to gifts in gift-giving processes. Whereas gift-giving often includes expectations of reciprocity, each gift possesses a numerical, utility, social, personal, and intrinsic value. Developmental models of giftedness and…

  2. High-order accurate numerical algorithm for three-dimensional transport prediction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pepper, D W [Savannah River Lab., Aiken, SC; Baker, A J

    1980-01-01

    The numerical solution of the three-dimensional pollutant transport equation is obtained with the method of fractional steps; advection is solved by the method of moments and diffusion by cubic splines. Topography and variable mesh spacing are accounted for with coordinate transformations. First estimate wind fields are obtained by interpolation to grid points surrounding specific data locations. Numerical results agree with results obtained from analytical Gaussian plume relations for ideal conditions. The numerical model is used to simulate the transport of tritium released from the Savannah River Plant on 2 May 1974. Predicted ground level air concentration 56 km from the release point is within 38% of the experimentally measured value.

  3. Hybrid undulator numerical optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hairetdinov, A.H. [Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Zukov, A.A. [Solid State Physics Institute, Chernogolovka (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    3D properties of the hybrid undulator scheme arc studied numerically using PANDIRA code. It is shown that there exist two well defined sets of undulator parameters which provide either maximum on-axis field amplitude or minimal higher harmonics amplitude of the basic undulator field. Thus the alternative between higher field amplitude or pure sinusoidal field exists. The behavior of the undulator field amplitude and harmonics structure for a large set of (undulator gap)/(undulator wavelength) values is demonstrated.

  4. Numerical prediction of shoreline adjacent to breakwater

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mahadevan, R.; Chandramohan, P.; Nayak, B.U.

    Existing mathematical models for prediction of shoreline changes in the vicinity of a breakwater were reviewed The analytical and numerical results obtained from these models have been compared Under the numerical approach, two different implicit...

  5. Numerical model updating technique for structures using firefly algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sai Kubair, K.; Mohan, S. C.

    2018-03-01

    Numerical model updating is a technique used for updating the existing experimental models for any structures related to civil, mechanical, automobiles, marine, aerospace engineering, etc. The basic concept behind this technique is updating the numerical models to closely match with experimental data obtained from real or prototype test structures. The present work involves the development of numerical model using MATLAB as a computational tool and with mathematical equations that define the experimental model. Firefly algorithm is used as an optimization tool in this study. In this updating process a response parameter of the structure has to be chosen, which helps to correlate the numerical model developed with the experimental results obtained. The variables for the updating can be either material or geometrical properties of the model or both. In this study, to verify the proposed technique, a cantilever beam is analyzed for its tip deflection and a space frame has been analyzed for its natural frequencies. Both the models are updated with their respective response values obtained from experimental results. The numerical results after updating show that there is a close relationship that can be brought between the experimental and the numerical models.

  6. Five values of giftedness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besjes, K.M.; de Ruyter, D.J.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes five values attributed to giftedness. The ascription of values to this phenomenon resembles values attached to gifts in gift-giving processes. Whereas gift-giving often includes expectations of reciprocity, each gift possesses a numerical, utility, social, personal, and

  7. Valuing Essays: Essaying Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badley, Graham

    2010-01-01

    The essay regularly comes under attack. It is criticised for being rigidly linear rather than flexible and reflective. I first challenge this view by examining reasons why the essay should be valued as an important genre. Secondly, I propose that in using the essay form students and academics necessarily exemplify their own critical values. Essays…

  8. GENERAL ASPECTS ON THE ACCOUNTING ESTIMATION- FAIR VALUE REPORT

    OpenAIRE

    Claudiu Serban; Dalia Simion; Sabin Armaselu

    2013-01-01

    In the current context of the global economy, marked by profound changes, obtain as accurate a picture through financial reports is of undeniable importance and significance of the value is very complex. The result of the evaluation, the purpose of financial reporting, is, most often to express a numerical value for the item assessed. The fair value resulted because of the need satisfaction, expressed by users of financial statements, in that it had found a valuation model elements supporting...

  9. Experiments and Numerical Simulations of Electrodynamic Tether

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iki, Kentaro; Kawamoto, Satomi; Takahashi, Ayaka; Ishimoto, Tomori; Yanagida, Atsushi; Toda, Susumu

    As an effective means of suppressing space debris growth, the Aerospace Research and Development Directorate of the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) has been investigating an active space debris removal system that employs highly efficient electrodynamic tether (EDT) technology for orbital transfer. This study investigates tether deployment dynamics by means of on-ground experiments and numerical simulations of an electrodynamic tether system. Some key parameters used in the numerical simulations, such as the elastic modulus and damping ratio of the tether, the spring constant of the coiling of the tether, and deployment friction, must be estimated, and various experiments are conducted to determine these values. As a result, the following values were obtained: The elastic modulus of the tether was 40 GPa, and the damping ratio of the tether was 0.02. The spring constant and the damping ratio of the tether coiling were 10-4 N/m and 0.025 respectively. The deployment friction was 0.038ν + 0.005 N. In numerical simulations using a multiple mass tether model, tethers with lengths of several kilometers are deployed and the attitude dynamics of satellites attached to the end of the tether and tether libration are calculated. As a result, the simulations confirmed successful deployment of the tether with a length of 500 m using the electrodynamic tether system.

  10. Selecting numerical scales for pairwise comparisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    It is often desirable in decision analysis problems to elicit from an individual the rankings of a population of attributes according to the individual's preference and to understand the degree to which each attribute is preferred to the others. A common method for obtaining this information involves the use of pairwise comparisons, which allows an analyst to convert subjective expressions of preference between two attributes into numerical values indicating preferences across the entire population of attributes. Key to the use of pairwise comparisons is the underlying numerical scale that is used to convert subjective linguistic expressions of preference into numerical values. This scale represents the psychological manner in which individuals perceive increments of preference among abstract attributes and it has important implications about the distribution and consistency of an individual's preferences. Three popular scale types, the traditional integer scales, balanced scales and power scales are examined. Results of a study of 64 individuals responding to a hypothetical decision problem show that none of these scales can accurately capture the preferences of all individuals. A study of three individuals working on an actual engineering decision problem involving the design of a decay heat removal system for a nuclear fission reactor show that the choice of scale can affect the preferred decision. It is concluded that applications of pairwise comparisons would benefit from permitting participants to choose the scale that best models their own particular way of thinking about the relative preference of attributes.

  11. Numerical methods and computers used in elastohydrodynamic lubrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamrock, B. J.; Tripp, J. H.

    1982-01-01

    Some of the methods of obtaining approximate numerical solutions to boundary value problems that arise in elastohydrodynamic lubrication are reviewed. The highlights of four general approaches (direct, inverse, quasi-inverse, and Newton-Raphson) are sketched. Advantages and disadvantages of these approaches are presented along with a flow chart showing some of the details of each. The basic question of numerical stability of the elastohydrodynamic lubrication solutions, especially in the pressure spike region, is considered. Computers used to solve this important class of lubrication problems are briefly described, with emphasis on supercomputers.

  12. Numerical simulation of laser resonators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, J. G.; Jeong, Y. U.; Lee, B. C.; Rhee, Y. J.; Cho, S. O.

    2004-01-01

    We developed numerical simulation packages for laser resonators on the bases of a pair of integral equations. Two numerical schemes, a matrix formalism and an iterative method, were programmed for finding numeric solutions to the pair of integral equations. The iterative method was tried by Fox and Li, but it was not applicable for high Fresnel numbers since the numerical errors involved propagate and accumulate uncontrollably. In this paper, we implement the matrix method to extend the computational limit further. A great number of case studies are carried out with various configurations of stable and unstable r;esonators to compute diffraction losses, phase shifts, intensity distributions and phases of the radiation fields on mirrors. Our results presented in this paper show not only a good agreement with the results previously obtained by Fox and Li, but also the legitimacy of our numerical procedures for high Fresnel numbers.

  13. Comments on numerical simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, T.

    1984-01-01

    The author comments on a couple of things about numerical simulation. One is just about the philosophical discussion that is, spontaneous or driven. The other thing is the numerical or technical one. Frankly, the author didn't want to touch on the technical matter because this should be a common sense one for those who are working at numerical simulation. But since many people take numerical simulation results at their face value, he would like to remind you of the reality hidden behind them. First, he would point out that the meaning of ''driven'' in driven reconnection is different from that defined by Schindler or Akasofu. The author's definition is closer to Axford's definition. In the spontaneous case, for some unpredicted reason an excess energy of the system is suddenly released at a certain point. However, one does not answer how such an unstable state far beyond a stable limit is realized in the magnetotail. In the driven case, there is a definite energy buildup phase starting from a stable state; namely, energy in the black box increases from a stable level subject to an external source. When the state has reached a certain position, the energy is released suddenly. The difference between driven and spontaneous is whether the cause (plasma flow) to trigger reconnection is specified or reconnection is triggered unpredictably. Another difference is that in driven reconnection the reconnection rate is dependent on the speed of the external plasma flow, but in spontaneous reconnection the rate is dependent on the internal condition such as the resistivity

  14. Numerical modelling of fuel sprays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergstroem, C.

    1999-06-01

    The way the fuel is introduced into the combustion chamber is one of the most important parameters for the power output and the generation of emissions in the combustion of liquid fuels. The interaction between the turbulent gas flow field and the liquid fuel droplets, the vaporisation of them and the mixing of the gaseous fuel with the ambient air that are vital parameters in the combustion process. The use of numerical calculations is an important tool to better understand these complex interacting phenomena. This thesis reports on the numerical modelling of fuel sprays in non-reacting cases using an own developed spray module. The spray module uses the stochastic parcel method to represent the spray. The module was made in such manner that it could by coupled with different gas flow solver. Results obtained from four different gas flow solvers are presented in the thesis, including the use of two different kinds of turbulence models. In the first part the spray module is coupled with a k-{eta} based 2-D cylindrical gas flow solver. A thorough sensitivity analysis was performed on the spray and gas flow solver parameters, such as grid size dependence and sensitivity to initial values of k-{eta}. The results of the spray module were also compared to results from other spray codes, e.g. the well known KIVA code. In the second part of this thesis the spray was injected into a turbulent and fully developed crossflow studied. The spray module was attached to a LES (Large Eddy Simulation) based flow solvers enabling the study of the complex structures and time dependent phenomena involved in spray in crossflows. It was found that the spray performs an oscillatory motion and that the Strouhal number in the wake was about 0.1. Different spray breakup models were evaluated by comparing with experimental results 66 refs, 56 figs

  15. Numerical simulation of avascular tumor growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slezak, D Fernandez; Suarez, C; Soba, A; Risk, M; Marshall, G [Laboratorio de Sistemas Complejos, Departamento de Computacion, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires (C1428EGA) Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2007-11-15

    A mathematical and numerical model for the description of different aspects of microtumor development is presented. The model is based in the solution of a system of partial differential equations describing an avascular tumor growth. A detailed second-order numeric algorithm for solving this system is described. Parameters are swiped to cover a range of feasible physiological values. While previous published works used a single set of parameters values, here we present a wide range of feasible solutions for tumor growth, covering a more realistic scenario. The model is validated by experimental data obtained with a multicellular spheroid model, a specific type of in vitro biological model which is at present considered to be optimum for the study of complex aspects of avascular microtumor physiology. Moreover, a dynamical analysis and local behaviour of the system is presented, showing chaotic situations for particular sets of parameter values at some fixed points. Further biological experiments related to those specific points may give potentially interesting results.

  16. The Value of Value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Asger

    parts of business ethics given prominence to especially one term, namely `value'. The question that interests me is the following: What does the articulation of ethics and morality in terms of values mean for ethics and morality as such. Or, to put the question in a more fashionably way: What......As a social scientist of ethics and morality, Luhmann has noticed the ethical wave that has recently swept across the western world, and states that this particular kind of wave seems to have a wavelength of about one hundred years (cf. Luhmann 1989: 9 ff.). Even though the frequency...... and the regularity of such a phenomenon is both hard to verify and, if true, difficult to explain, it seems fair to say that since the Enlightenment, an approaching fin-de-siecle has brought an increased interest in matters concerning morality and ethics.1 The present peak has in public-political discourse and some...

  17. Numerical and experimental evaluation of masonry prisms by finite element method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. F.R. SANTOS

    Full Text Available Abstract This work developed experimental tests and numerical models able to represent the mechanical behavior of prisms made of ordinary and high strength concrete blocks. Experimental tests of prisms were performed and a detailed micro-modeling strategy was adopted for numerical analysis. In this modeling technique, each material (block and mortar was represented by its own mechanical properties. The validation of numerical models was based on experimental results. It was found that the obtained numerical values of compressive strength and modulus of elasticity differ by 5% from the experimentally observed values. Moreover, mechanisms responsible for the rupture of the prisms were evaluated and compared to the behaviors observed in the tests and those described in the literature. Through experimental results it is possible to conclude that the numerical models have been able to represent both the mechanical properties and the mechanisms responsible for failure.

  18. Numerical analysis of energetic particle stabilization of ballooning modes in finite-aspect-ratio tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Qibing; Peng Qiyang; Qu Wenxiao

    1993-09-01

    The effect of energetic trapped particles on the stabilization of ballooning modes in finite-aspect-ratio tokamaks is numerically analyzed. The numerical solution of boundary value problem of an integro-differential equation is successfully obtained by RKF integral method with variable step size. The results show that the instability domain of ballooning modes becomes small along with the increase of energetic particles pressure. The energetic trapped particles can partially or completely suppress the instability of ballooning modes

  19. Behavioural present value

    OpenAIRE

    Krzysztof Piasecki

    2013-01-01

    Impact of chosen behavioural factors on imprecision of present value is discussed here. The formal model of behavioural present value is offered as a result of this discussion. Behavioural present value is described here by fuzzy set. These considerations were illustrated by means of extensive numerical case study. Finally there are shown that in proposed model the return rate is given, as a fuzzy probabilistic set.

  20. Numerical Optimization in Microfluidics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristian Ejlebjærg

    2017-01-01

    Numerical modelling can illuminate the working mechanism and limitations of microfluidic devices. Such insights are useful in their own right, but one can take advantage of numerical modelling in a systematic way using numerical optimization. In this chapter we will discuss when and how numerical...... optimization is best used....

  1. Correlation dimension and phase space contraction via extreme value theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faranda, Davide; Vaienti, Sandro

    2018-04-01

    We show how to obtain theoretical and numerical estimates of correlation dimension and phase space contraction by using the extreme value theory. The maxima of suitable observables sampled along the trajectory of a chaotic dynamical system converge asymptotically to classical extreme value laws where: (i) the inverse of the scale parameter gives the correlation dimension and (ii) the extremal index is associated with the rate of phase space contraction for backward iteration, which in dimension 1 and 2, is closely related to the positive Lyapunov exponent and in higher dimensions is related to the metric entropy. We call it the Dynamical Extremal Index. Numerical estimates are straightforward to obtain as they imply just a simple fit to a univariate distribution. Numerical tests range from low dimensional maps, to generalized Henon maps and climate data. The estimates of the indicators are particularly robust even with relatively short time series.

  2. Visualization techniques in plasma numerical simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulhanek, P.; Smetana, M.

    2004-01-01

    Numerical simulations of plasma processes usually yield a huge amount of raw numerical data. Information about electric and magnetic fields and particle positions and velocities can be typically obtained. There are two major ways of elaborating these data. First of them is called plasma diagnostics. We can calculate average values, variances, correlations of variables, etc. These results may be directly comparable with experiments and serve as the typical quantitative output of plasma simulations. The second possibility is the plasma visualization. The results are qualitative only, but serve as vivid display of phenomena in the plasma followed-up. An experience with visualizing electric and magnetic fields via Line Integral Convolution method is described in the first part of the paper. The LIC method serves for visualization of vector fields in two dimensional section of the three dimensional plasma. The field values can be known only in grid points of three-dimensional grid. The second part of the paper is devoted to the visualization techniques of the charged particle motion. The colour tint can be used for particle temperature representation. The motion can be visualized by a trace fading away with the distance from the particle. In this manner the impressive animations of the particle motion can be achieved. (author)

  3. Stable Numerical Approach for Fractional Delay Differential Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Harendra; Pandey, Rajesh K.; Baleanu, D.

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, we present a new stable numerical approach based on the operational matrix of integration of Jacobi polynomials for solving fractional delay differential equations (FDDEs). The operational matrix approach converts the FDDE into a system of linear equations, and hence the numerical solution is obtained by solving the linear system. The error analysis of the proposed method is also established. Further, a comparative study of the approximate solutions is provided for the test examples of the FDDE by varying the values of the parameters in the Jacobi polynomials. As in special case, the Jacobi polynomials reduce to the well-known polynomials such as (1) Legendre polynomial, (2) Chebyshev polynomial of second kind, (3) Chebyshev polynomial of third and (4) Chebyshev polynomial of fourth kind respectively. Maximum absolute error and root mean square error are calculated for the illustrated examples and presented in form of tables for the comparison purpose. Numerical stability of the presented method with respect to all four kind of polynomials are discussed. Further, the obtained numerical results are compared with some known methods from the literature and it is observed that obtained results from the proposed method is better than these methods.

  4. Uniform Single Valued Neutrosophic Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Broumi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a new concept named the uniform single valued neutrosophic graph. An illustrative example and some properties are examined. Next, we develop an algorithmic approach for computing the complement of the single valued neutrosophic graph. A numerical example is demonstrated for computing the complement of single valued neutrosophic graphs and uniform single valued neutrosophic graph.

  5. Steel Fibers Reinforced Concrete Pipes - Experimental Tests and Numerical Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doru, Zdrenghea

    2017-10-01

    The paper presents in the first part a state of the art review of reinforced concrete pipes used in micro tunnelling realised through pipes jacking method and design methods for steel fibres reinforced concrete. In part two experimental tests are presented on inner pipes with diameters of 1410mm and 2200mm, and specimens (100x100x500mm) of reinforced concrete with metal fibres (35 kg / m3). In part two experimental tests are presented on pipes with inner diameters of 1410mm and 2200mm, and specimens (100x100x500mm) of reinforced concrete with steel fibres (35 kg / m3). The results obtained are analysed and are calculated residual flexural tensile strengths which characterise the post-cracking behaviour of steel fibres reinforced concrete. In the third part are presented numerical simulations of the tests of pipes and specimens. The model adopted for the pipes test was a three-dimensional model and loads considered were those obtained in experimental tests at reaching breaking forces. Tensile stresses determined were compared with mean flexural tensile strength. To validate tensile parameters of steel fibres reinforced concrete, experimental tests of the specimens were modelled with MIDAS program to reproduce the flexural breaking behaviour. To simulate post - cracking behaviour was used the method σ — ε based on the relationship stress - strain, according to RILEM TC 162-TDF. For the specimens tested were plotted F — δ diagrams, which have been superimposed for comparison with the similar diagrams of experimental tests. The comparison of experimental results with those obtained from numerical simulation leads to the following conclusions: - the maximum forces obtained by numerical calculation have higher values than the experimental values for the same tensile stresses; - forces corresponding of residual strengths have very similar values between the experimental and numerical calculations; - generally the numerical model estimates a breaking force greater

  6. Numerical modeling of a snow cover on Hooker Island (Franz Josef Land archipelago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Sokratov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Results obtained by simulating snow characteristics with a numerical model of surface heat and moisture exchange SPONSOR are presented. The numerical experiments are carried out for Franz Josef Land with typical Arctic climate conditions. The blizzard evaporation parameter is shown to have great influence on snow depth on territories with high wind speed. This parameter significantly improves the simulation quality of the numerical model. Some discrepancies between evaluated and observed snow depth values can be explained by inaccuracies in precipitation measurements (at least in certain cases and errors in calculations of incoming radiation, mostly due to low accuracy in the cloudiness observations.

  7. 47 CFR 54.615 - Obtaining services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... provided under § 54.621, that the requester cannot obtain toll-free access to an Internet service provider... thing of value; (6) If the service or services are being purchased as part of an aggregated purchase... submitted and select the most cost-effective alternative. (b) Receiving supported rate. Except with regard...

  8. Numerical modeling of a nuclear production reactor cooling lake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamm, L.L.; Pepper, D.W.

    1987-01-01

    A finite element model has been developed which predicts flow and temperature distributions within a nuclear reactor cooling lake at the Savannah River Plant near Aiken, South Carolina. Numerical results agree with values obtained from a 3-D EPA numerical lake model and actual measurements obtained from the lake. Because the effluent water from the reactor heat exchangers discharges directly into the lake, downstream temperatures at mid-lake could exceed the South Carolina DHEC guidelines for thermal exchanges during the summer months. Therefore, reactor power was reduced to maintain temperature compliance at mid-lake. Thermal mitigation measures were studied that included placing a 6.1 m deep fabric curtain across mid-lake and moving the reactor outfall upstream. These measurements were calculated to permit about an 8% improvement in reactor power during summer operation

  9. Some consideration of Japanese standard man value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshizawa, Yasuo; Kusama, Tomoko

    1976-01-01

    Numerical values of standard man or reference man is important problem in the field of radiation protection and safety. The standard man values given by ICRP were obtained from European and North American adult data. For that reason, there are some theoretical problems in the application of standard man values to Japanese. The purpose of the present paper is to consider the difference of values between Japanese and standard man. The standard man values are divided into three categories. The first category is the size and weight of the body or organ, the second is the values of elementary composition, and the third is the numerical factors related to metabolic kinetics. It is natural that some values of the second and the third categories have little difference between Japanese and European. On the other hand, there are some differences in the value of the first category, but the differences can calculation in proportional allotment to the body weight. The values concerning the thyroid gland and iodine metabolism are important for radiation protection. It has been foreseen that these values of Japanese are significantly different from standard man. A survey of past reports was carried out with a view to search for normal values of the weight, iodine content, and iodine uptake rate of the thyroid of Japanese. The result of the survey showed that the weight of thyroid are about 19g for adult male and 17g for adult female and that the iodine contents are 12-22mg and iodine uptake rate (fw) is about 0.2. (auth.)

  10. Spurious Numerical Solutions Of Differential Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafon, A.; Yee, H. C.

    1995-01-01

    Paper presents detailed study of spurious steady-state numerical solutions of differential equations that contain nonlinear source terms. Main objectives of this study are (1) to investigate how well numerical steady-state solutions of model nonlinear reaction/convection boundary-value problem mimic true steady-state solutions and (2) to relate findings of this investigation to implications for interpretation of numerical results from computational-fluid-dynamics algorithms and computer codes used to simulate reacting flows.

  11. Numerical Feedback Stabilization with Applications to Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Göttlich

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The focus is on the numerical consideration of feedback boundary control problems for linear systems of conservation laws including source terms. We explain under which conditions the numerical discretization can be used to design feedback boundary values for network applications such as electric transmission lines or traffic flow systems. Several numerical examples illustrate the properties of the results for different types of networks.

  12. Theoretical numerical analysis a functional analysis framework

    CERN Document Server

    Atkinson, Kendall

    2005-01-01

    This textbook prepares graduate students for research in numerical analysis/computational mathematics by giving to them a mathematical framework embedded in functional analysis and focused on numerical analysis. This helps the student to move rapidly into a research program. The text covers basic results of functional analysis, approximation theory, Fourier analysis and wavelets, iteration methods for nonlinear equations, finite difference methods, Sobolev spaces and weak formulations of boundary value problems, finite element methods, elliptic variational inequalities and their numerical solu

  13. Numerical analysis of electromagnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou Pei Bai

    1993-01-01

    Numerical methods for solving boundary value problems have developed rapidly. Knowledge of these methods is important both for engineers and scientists. There are many books published that deal with various approximate methods such as the finite element method, the boundary element method and so on. However, there is no textbook that includes all of these methods. This book is intended to fill this gap. The book is designed to be suitable for graduate students in engineering science, for senior undergraduate students as well as for scientists and engineers who are interested in electromagnetic fields. Objective Numerical calculation is the combination of mathematical methods and field theory. A great number of mathematical concepts, principles and techniques are discussed and many computational techniques are considered in dealing with practical problems. The purpose of this book is to provide students with a solid background in numerical analysis of the field problems. The book emphasizes the basic theories ...

  14. Public Values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck Jørgensen, Torben; Rutgers, Mark R.

    2015-01-01

    administration is approached in terms of processes guided or restricted by public values and as public value creating: public management and public policy-making are both concerned with establishing, following and realizing public values. To study public values a broad perspective is needed. The article suggest......This article provides the introduction to a symposium on contemporary public values research. It is argued that the contribution to this symposium represent a Public Values Perspective, distinct from other specific lines of research that also use public value as a core concept. Public...... a research agenda for this encompasing kind of public values research. Finally the contributions to the symposium are introduced....

  15. Numerical simulation of hypersonic flight experiment vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Yamamoto, Yukimitsu; Yoshioka, Minako; 山本 行光; 吉岡 美菜子

    1994-01-01

    Hypersonic aerodynamic characteristics of Hypersonic FLight EXperiment (HYFLEX vehicle were investigated by numerical simulations using Navier-Stokes CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) code of NAL. Numerical results were compared with experimental data obtained at Hypersonic Wind Tunnel at NAL. In order to investigate real flight aerodynamic characteristics. numerical calculations corresponding to the flight conditions suffering from maximum aero thermodynamic heating were also made and the d...

  16. Numerical methods for hydrodynamic stability problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimura, Kaoru

    1985-11-01

    Numerical methods for solving the Orr-Sommerfeld equation, which is the fundamental equation of the hydrodynamic stability theory for various shear flows, are reviewed and typical numerical results are presented. The methods of asymptotic solution, finite difference methods, initial value methods and expansions in orthogonal functions are compared. (author)

  17. Why should correction values be better known than the measurand true value?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavese, Franco

    2013-01-01

    Since the beginning of the history of modern measurement science, the experimenters faced the problem of dealing with systematic effects, as distinct from, and opposed to, random effects. Two main schools of thinking stemmed from the empirical and theoretical exploration of the problem, one dictating that the two species should be kept and reported separately, the other indicating ways to combine the two species into a single numerical value for the total uncertainty (often indicated as 'error'). The second way of thinking was adopted by the GUM, and, generally, adopts the method of assuming that their expected value is null by requiring, for all systematic effects taken into account in the model, that corresponding 'corrections' are applied to the measured values before the uncertainty analysis is performed. On the other hand, about the value of the measurand intended to be the object of measurement, classical statistics calls it 'true value', admitting that a value should exist objectively (e.g. the value of a fundamental constant), and that any experimental operation aims at obtaining an ideally exact measure of it. However, due to the uncertainty affecting every measurement process, this goal can be attained only approximately, in the sense that nobody can ever know exactly how much any measured value differs from the true value. The paper discusses the credibility of the numerical value attributed to an estimated correction, compared with the credibility of the estimate of the location of the true value, concluding that the true value of a correction should be considered as imprecisely evaluable as the true value of any 'input quantity', and of the measurand itself. From this conclusion, one should derive that the distinction between 'input quantities' and 'corrections' is not justified and not useful

  18. Silicon dioxide obtained by Polymeric Precursor Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, C.T.; Granado, S.R.; Lopes, S.A.; Cavalheiro, A.A.

    2011-01-01

    The Polymeric Precursor Method is able for obtaining several oxide material types with high surface area even obtained in particle form. Several MO 2 oxide types such as titanium, silicon and zirconium ones can be obtained by this methodology. In this work, the synthesis of silicon oxide was monitored by thermal analysis, XRD and surface area analysis in order to demonstrate the influence of the several synthesis and calcining parameters. Surface area values as higher as 370m2/g and increasing in the micropore volume nm were obtained when the material was synthesized by using ethylene glycol as polymerizing agent. XRD analysis showed that the material is amorphous when calcinated at 600°C in despite of the time of calcining, but the material morphology is strongly influenced by the polymeric resin composition. Using Glycerol as polymerizing agent, the pore size increase and the surface area goes down with the increasing in decomposition time, when compared to ethylene glycol. (author)

  19. A numerical reference model for themomechanical subduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quinquis, Matthieu; Chemia, Zurab; Tosi, Nicola

    2010-01-01

    Building an advanced numerical model of subduction requires choosing values for various geometrical parameters and material properties, among others, the initial lithosphere thicknesses, representative lithological types and their mechanical and thermal properties, rheologies, initial temperature...

  20. Numerical simulation in a two dimensional turbulent flow over a backward-facing step

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silveira Neto, A. da; Grand, D.

    1991-01-01

    Numerical simulations of turbulent flows in complex geometries are generally restricted to the prediction of the mean flow and use semi-empirical turbulence models. The present study is devoted to the simulation of the coherence structures which develop in a flow submitted to a velocity change, downstream of a backward facing step. Two aspect ratios (height of the step over height of the channel) have been explored and the values of the Reynolds number vary from (6000 to 90000). In the isothermal case coherent structures have been obtained by the numerical simulation in the mixing layer downstream of the step. The numerical simulations provides results in fairly good agreement with available experimental results. In a second step a thermal stratification is imposed on this flow for one value of Richardson number (0.5) the coherent structures disappear downstream for increasing values of Richardson number. (author)

  1. Characterisation of Aronia powders obtained by different drying processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horszwald, Anna; Julien, Heritier; Andlauer, Wilfried

    2013-12-01

    Nowadays, food industry is facing challenges connected with the preservation of the highest possible quality of fruit products obtained after processing. Attention has been drawn to Aronia fruits due to numerous health promoting properties of their products. However, processing of Aronia, like other berries, leads to difficulties that stem from the preparation process, as well as changes in the composition of bioactive compounds. Consequently, in this study, Aronia commercial juice was subjected to different drying techniques: spray drying, freeze drying and vacuum drying with the temperature range of 40-80 °C. All powders obtained had a high content of total polyphenols. Powders gained by spray drying had the highest values which corresponded to a high content of total flavonoids, total monomeric anthocyanins, cyaniding-3-glucoside and total proanthocyanidins. Analysis of the results exhibited a correlation between selected bioactive compounds and their antioxidant capacity. In conclusion, drying techniques have an impact on selected quality parameters, and different drying techniques cause changes in the content of bioactives analysed. Spray drying can be recommended for preservation of bioactives in Aronia products. Powder quality depends mainly on the process applied and parameters chosen. Therefore, Aronia powders production should be adapted to the requirements and design of the final product. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Numerical simulation of heat transfer in metal foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangapatnam, Priyatham; Kurian, Renju; Venkateshan, S. P.

    2018-02-01

    This paper reports a numerical study of forced convection heat transfer in high porosity aluminum foams. Numerical modeling is done considering both local thermal equilibrium and non local thermal equilibrium conditions in ANSYS-Fluent. The results of the numerical model were validated with experimental results, where air was forced through aluminum foams in a vertical duct at different heat fluxes and velocities. It is observed that while the LTE model highly under predicts the heat transfer in these foams, LTNE model predicts the Nusselt number accurately. The novelty of this study is that once hydrodynamic experiments are conducted the permeability and porosity values obtained experimentally can be used to numerically simulate heat transfer in metal foams. The simulation of heat transfer in foams is further extended to find the effect of foam thickness on heat transfer in metal foams. The numerical results indicate that though larger foam thicknesses resulted in higher heat transfer coefficient, this effect weakens with thickness and is negligible in thick foams.

  3. Development and comparison of different spatial numerical schemes for the radiative transfer equation resolution using three-dimensional unstructured meshes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capdevila, R.; Perez-Segarra, C.D.; Oliva, A.

    2010-01-01

    In the present work four different spatial numerical schemes have been developed with the aim of reducing the false-scattering of the numerical solutions obtained with the discrete ordinates (DOM) and the finite volume (FVM) methods. These schemes have been designed specifically for unstructured meshes by means of the extrapolation of nodal values of intensity on the studied radiative direction. The schemes have been tested and compared in several 3D benchmark test cases using both structured orthogonal and unstructured grids.

  4. Reference values for electrooculography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrientos Castanno, Alberto; Herrera Mora, Maritza; Garcia Baez, Obel

    2012-01-01

    Obtain electrooculographic reference values based on the patterns set by the Standardization Committee of the International Society for Clinical Electrophysiology of Vision (ISCEV). the lowest amplitude values of the potential ranged between 388 and 882 μv in the dark phase. The light peak was obtained between 9 and 10 minutes, and during this phase the potential reached an amplitude ranging between 808 and 1 963 μv. This amplitude variability may be related to the fact that the test was conducted without pupillary mydriasis. The reference value obtained for Arden index was 1,55 to 2,87

  5. An overview of results obtained in intercomparison exercises for determination of actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benedik, L.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years the Jožef Stefan Institute participated in numerous intercomparison exercises for determination of natural and man-made radionuclides. The reported values were mostly in good agreement with the resulting reference values. This paper describes an analysis of the measurement results obtained in intercomparison exercises for determination of actinides in the period from 2009 to 2011, organised by the National Physical Laboratory and the Bundesamt für Strahlenschutz. The review covers neptunium, plutonium and americium radioisotopes over this period. - Highlights: • The goal of this study is an overview of results obtained in intercomparison exercises for determination of actinides. • The disagreement of results for Np-237 was evaluated. • Improvements in separation procedures were done

  6. Superconducting materials fabrication process and materials obtained

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafon, M.O.; Magnier, C.

    1989-01-01

    The preparation process of a fine powder of YBaCuO type superconductors of easy sintering comprises: mixing in presence of alcohol an aqueous solution of rare earth nitrate or acetate, alkaline earth nitrate or acetate and copper nitrate or acetate and an oxalic acid solution, the pH value of the mixture is comprised between 2 and 4, the obtained precipitate is separated, dried, calcined and eventually crushed [fr

  7. Nonlinear dynamics and numerical uncertainties in CFD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, H. C.; Sweby, P. K.

    1996-01-01

    The application of nonlinear dynamics to improve the understanding of numerical uncertainties in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is reviewed. Elementary examples in the use of dynamics to explain the nonlinear phenomena and spurious behavior that occur in numerics are given. The role of dynamics in the understanding of long time behavior of numerical integrations and the nonlinear stability, convergence, and reliability of using time-marching, approaches for obtaining steady-state numerical solutions in CFD is explained. The study is complemented with spurious behavior observed in CFD computations.

  8. Experimental results obtained at GANIL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borrel, V.

    1993-01-01

    A review of experimental results obtained at GANIL on the study of nuclear structure and nuclear reactions with secondary radioactive beams is presented. Mass measurements by means of the GANIL cyclotrons are described. The possibilities of GANIL/LISE3 for the production and separation of radioactive beams are illustrated through a large variety of experiments. (author). 19 refs., 8 figs

  9. Numerical methods using Matlab

    CERN Document Server

    Lindfield, George

    2012-01-01

    Numerical Methods using MATLAB, 3e, is an extensive reference offering hundreds of useful and important numerical algorithms that can be implemented into MATLAB for a graphical interpretation to help researchers analyze a particular outcome. Many worked examples are given together with exercises and solutions to illustrate how numerical methods can be used to study problems that have applications in the biosciences, chaos, optimization, engineering and science across the board. Numerical Methods using MATLAB, 3e, is an extensive reference offering hundreds of use

  10. Values Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    that individualistic employees in individualistic organizations and collectivistic employees in collectivistic organizations show greater job...with Parsons’ causal assumption, in the nineties values were recognized on top of the cultural control –values control norms which in turn control...determines intention which may end in behavior. 7 Defining Human Values Cross- cultural theories on values emerged in the 80s developed by three main

  11. Computational Techniques for Model Predictive Control of Large-Scale Systems with Continuous-Valued and Discrete-Valued Inputs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koichi Kobayashi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose computational techniques for model predictive control of large-scale systems with both continuous-valued control inputs and discrete-valued control inputs, which are a class of hybrid systems. In the proposed method, we introduce the notion of virtual control inputs, which are obtained by relaxing discrete-valued control inputs to continuous variables. In online computation, first, we find continuous-valued control inputs and virtual control inputs minimizing a cost function. Next, using the obtained virtual control inputs, only discrete-valued control inputs at the current time are computed in each subsystem. In addition, we also discuss the effect of quantization errors. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed method is shown by a numerical example. The proposed method enables us to reduce and decentralize the computation load.

  12. Geopolymer obtained from coal ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conte, V.; Bissari, E.S.; Uggioni, E.; Bernardin, A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Geopolymers are three-dimensional alumino silicates that can be rapidly formed at low temperature from naturally occurring aluminosilicates with a structure similar to zeolites. In this work coal ash (Tractebel Energy) was used as source of aluminosilicate according a full factorial design in eight formulations with three factors (hydroxide type and concentration and temperature) and two-levels. The ash was dried and hydroxide was added according type and concentration. The geopolymer was poured into cylindrical molds, cured (14 days) and subjected to compression test. The coal ash from power plants belongs to the Si-Al system and thus can easily form geopolymers. The compression tests showed that it is possible to obtain samples with strength comparable to conventional Portland cement. As a result, temperature and molarity are the main factors affecting the compressive strength of the obtained geopolymer. (author)

  13. ORIENTATION OF ENTERPRISES TOWARD OBTAINING COMPETITIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAUL BOGDAN ZAMFIR

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I proposed to emphasize the importance of obtaining competitive advantage by companies on EU internal market. The huge EU market, offers for participating companies the possibility to achieve significant economies of scale and numerous niches (segments market, which can be covered with large quantities of goods, the condition is that niches to be discovered in time, and the firms to be able to adapt promptly at their needs. Thus, the most important positive effect derives from the fact that companies have at their disposal a vast market consisting approximately 500 million consumers, free of customs duties and other restrictions inhindering the movement of goods. On this background, the companies can achieve high series production and thereby can reduce their cost of production and increase their competitiveness. In this context, the companies must meet the standards of the European Union, if they really want to gain competitive advantage on EU market.

  14. Truncated States Obtained by Iteration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, W. B.; Almeida, N. G. de

    2008-01-01

    We introduce the concept of truncated states obtained via iterative processes (TSI) and study its statistical features, making an analogy with dynamical systems theory (DST). As a specific example, we have studied TSI for the doubling and the logistic functions, which are standard functions in studying chaos. TSI for both the doubling and logistic functions exhibit certain similar patterns when their statistical features are compared from the point of view of DST

  15. Numerical study of some operating characteristics for argon induction plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebihara, K.

    1978-01-01

    Some operating characteristics of argon induction plasmas at atmospheric pressure were obtained numerically by using magnetohydrodynamic equations. From these characteristics we can estimate the general dependency of plasma temperatures on operating conditions for induction plasmas. Calculated relationships between the sustaining electric field strength at the plasma surface and the electric power input show the existence of a minimum value of the field strength, the reason for which is revealed by detailed investigation of the calculated radial temperature distributions. Further, it was found that the minimum increases almost linearly with increasing frequency. In addition, characteristics of the Poynting vector and heat conduction loss at the plasma surface were obtained. Some characteristics obtained here give practical information on the electromagnetic field which is necessary to maintain the steady plasmas

  16. An efficient and accurate method to obtain the energy-dependent Green function for general potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, T; Heller, E J; Parrott, R E

    2008-01-01

    Time-dependent quantum mechanics provides an intuitive picture of particle propagation in external fields. Semiclassical methods link the classical trajectories of particles with their quantum mechanical propagation. Many analytical results and a variety of numerical methods have been developed to solve the time-dependent Schroedinger equation. The time-dependent methods work for nearly arbitrarily shaped potentials, including sources and sinks via complex-valued potentials. Many quantities are measured at fixed energy, which is seemingly not well suited for a time-dependent formulation. Very few methods exist to obtain the energy-dependent Green function for complicated potentials without resorting to ensemble averages or using certain lead-in arrangements. Here, we demonstrate in detail a time-dependent approach, which can accurately and effectively construct the energy-dependent Green function for very general potentials. The applications of the method are numerous, including chemical, mesoscopic, and atomic physics

  17. Fermat collocation method for the solutions of nonlinear system of second order boundary value problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salih Yalcinbas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a numerical approach is proposed to obtain approximate solutions of nonlinear system of second order boundary value problem. This technique is essentially based on the truncated Fermat series and its matrix representations with collocation points. Using the matrix method, we reduce the problem system of nonlinear algebraic equations. Numerical examples are also given to demonstrate the validity and applicability of the presented technique. The method is easy to implement and produces accurate results.

  18. Numerical simulation of the accident of Three Mile Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrin, M.H.; Kastelanski, P.

    1981-01-01

    The chief object of the present study was to assess the ability of our numerical code for the dynamic behavior of power plants, SICLE, to handle the simulation of small accidents in PWRs. In the first part of the paper the authors introduce the main principles, equations and numerical methods of the code. In the second part those of the elements of Three Mile Island Power Plant which were simulated, the different phases of the accident and the results obtained with the code are described. These results are compared to the values recorded in the plant and generally a good agreement is found (for instance the primary pressure). As a conclusion SICLE is the minimum code for representing accidents such as Three Mile Island; its main advantage lies in its ability to take into account all the elements of the plant which are important in the study

  19. Customer requirement modeling and mapping of numerical control machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongqi Sheng

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to better obtain information about customer requirement and develop products meeting customer requirement, it is necessary to systematically analyze and handle the customer requirement. This article uses the product service system of numerical control machine as research objective and studies the customer requirement modeling and mapping oriented toward configuration design. It introduces the conception of requirement unit, expounds the customer requirement decomposition rules, and establishes customer requirement model; it builds the house of quality using quality function deployment and confirms the weight of technical feature of product and service; it explores the relevance rules between data using rough set theory, establishes rule database, and solves the target value of technical feature of product. Using economical turning center series numerical control machine as an example, it verifies the rationality of proposed customer requirement model.

  20. Feedback options in nonlinear numerical finance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hugger, Jens; Mashayekhi, Sima

    2012-01-01

    on an infinite slab is presented and boundary values on a bounded domain are derived. This bounded, nonlinear, 2 dimensional initial-boundary value problem is solved numerically using a number of standard finite difference schemes and the methods incorporated in the symbolic software Maple™....

  1. Special boundedness properties in numerical initial value problems

    KAUST Repository

    Hundsdorfer, W.; Mozartova, A.; Spijker, M. N.

    2011-01-01

    boundedness properties of a special type. These boundedness properties are optimal, and distinguish themselves also from earlier boundedness results by being relevant to sublinear functionals, discrete maximum principles and preservation of nonnegativity

  2. Numerical solution of fuzzy boundary value problems using Galerkin ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Sadhana; Volume 42; Issue 1 ... College of Mathematics and Statistics, Chongqing University, Chongqing 401331, China; Department of Mathematics, Kalinga Institute of Industrial Technology, Bhubaneswar, Odisha 751 024, India; Department of Mathematics, National Institute of Technology, Rourkela, ...

  3. Obtaining zircaloy powder through hydriding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupim, Ivaldete da Silva; Moreira, Joao M.L.

    2009-01-01

    Zirconium alloys are good options for the metal matrix in dispersion fuels for power reactors due to their low thermal neutron absorption cross-section, good corrosion resistance, good mechanical strength and high thermal conductivity. A necessary step for obtaining such fuels is producing Zr alloy powder for the metal matrix composite material. This article presents results from the Zircaloy-4 hydrogenation tests with the purpose to embrittle the alloy as a first step for comminuting. Several hydrogenation tests were performed and studied through thermogravimetric analysis. They included H 2 pressures of 25 and 50 kPa and temperatures ranging between from 20 to 670 deg C. X-ray diffraction analysis showed in the hydrogenated samples the predominant presence of ZrH 2 and some ZrO 2 . Some kinetics parameters for the Zircaloy-4 hydrogenation reaction were obtained: the time required to reach the equilibrium state at the dwell temperature was about 100 minutes; the hydrogenation rate during the heating process from 20 to 670 deg C was about 21 mg/h, and at constant temperature of 670 deg C, the hydride rate was about 1.15 mg/h. The hydrogenation rate is largest during the heating process and most of it occurs during this period. After hydrogenated, the samples could easily be comminuted indicating that this is a possible technology to obtain Zircaloy powder. The results show that only few minutes of hydrogenation are necessary to reach the hydride levels required for comminuting the Zircaloy. The final hydride stoichiometry was between 2.7 and 2.8 H for each Zr atom in the sample (author)

  4. Plasticity characteristic obtained by indentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milman, Yu V

    2008-01-01

    A dimensionless parameter δ H = ε p /ε t (where ε p and ε t are the average values of plastic and total deformation of material on the contact area indenter-specimen) may be used as the plasticity characteristic of materials, which made it possible to characterize the plasticity of materials that are brittle in standard mechanical tests. δ H may be calculated from the values of microhardness HM, Young's modulus E and Poisson's ratio ν. In instrumented indentation the plasticity characteristic δ A = A p /A t (A p and A t are the work of plastic and total deformation during indentation) may be calculated. δ A ∼ δ H for materials with δ H > 0.5, i.e. for all metals and the majority of ceramic materials. In this case, the theoretical equation δ A ∼ δ H = 1-10.2 · (1 - ν - 2ν 2 )(HM/E) is satisfied in experiments with the Berkovich indenter. The influence of the temperature and structural parameters (dislocation density and grain size including nanostructured materials) on δ H is discussed

  5. Revisão da artroplastia total de joelho em dois tempos: o valor da cultura obtida por biópsia artroscópica Review of knee total arthroplasty in two steps: the value of culture obtained through arthroscopic biopsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos de Camargo Leonhardt

    2006-01-01

    risks of placing a new implant in an infected area. Our paper was aimed to determine the value of culture obtained through arthroscopic biopsy, in order to establish the appropriate moment for performing the second review step, and also the adequate time of spacer maintenance. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twelve patients diagnosed with deep infection following primary knee total arthroplasty were submitted to the two-steps review protocol, and after six weeks of spacer placement and antibiotic therapy, the patient was submitted to arthroscopic biopsy of the infected knee through which samples were collected for culture in order to check if that was the appropriate moment to perform the second step of the review. RESULTS: The results of cultures for all patients submitted to arthroscopic biopsy were negative, with all patients being submitted to the second review step. From cultures collected during the new prosthesis implant, eleven confirmed the inexistence of active infectious process at surgical site; one culture was positive, with Staphyloccocus aureus sensitive to oxacilin being isolated in this patient. CONCLUSION: Although the small number of cases, we concluded that the culture obtained through arthroscopic biopsy is valuable and showed that six weeks is the adequate time for maintaining the spacer.

  6. Plasticity characteristic obtained by indentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mil'man, Yu.V.; Chugunova, S.I.; Goncharova, I.V.

    2011-01-01

    Methods for determination plasticity characteristic δH in the measurement of hardness and nanohardness are considered. Parameter δH characterizes the plasticity of a material by the part of plastic deformation in the total elastic-plastic deformation. The value of δH is defined for metals with different types of crystal lattice, covalent and partially covalent crystals, intermetallics, metallic glasses and quasicrystals. It is discussed the dependence of the plasticity characteristic δH on structural factors and temperature. Parameter δH allows to analyze and compare the plasticity of materials which are brittle at standard mechanical tests. The combination of hardness H, as the strength characteristic, and the plasticity characteristic δH makes possible the better characterization of mechanical behavior of materials than only the hardness H. The examples of plasticity characteristic δH application are represented.

  7. Numerical solution of a model for a superconductor field problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alsop, L.E.; Goodman, A.S.; Gustavson, F.G.; Miranker, W.L.

    1979-01-01

    A model of a magnetic field problem occurring in connection with Josephson junction devices is derived, and numerical solutions are obtained. The model is of mathematical interest, because the magnetic vector potential satisfies inhomogeneous Helmholtz equations in part of the region, i.e., the superconductors, and the Laplace equation elsewhere. Moreover, the inhomogeneities are the guage constants for the potential, which are different for each superconductor, and their magnitudes are proportional to the currents flowing in the superconductors. These constants are directly related to the self and mutual inductances of the superconducting elements in the device. The numerical solution is obtained by the iterative use of a fast Poisson solver. Chebyshev acceleration is used to reduce the number of iterations required to obtain a solution. A typical problem involves solving 100,000 simultaneous equations, which the algorithm used with this model does in 20 iterations, requiring three minutes of CPU time on an IBM VM/370/168. Excellent agreement is obtained between calculated and observed values for the inductances

  8. Numerical distance protection

    CERN Document Server

    Ziegler, Gerhard

    2011-01-01

    Distance protection provides the basis for network protection in transmission systems and meshed distribution systems. This book covers the fundamentals of distance protection and the special features of numerical technology. The emphasis is placed on the application of numerical distance relays in distribution and transmission systems.This book is aimed at students and engineers who wish to familiarise themselves with the subject of power system protection, as well as the experienced user, entering the area of numerical distance protection. Furthermore it serves as a reference guide for s

  9. Numerical problems in physics

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Devraj

    2015-01-01

    Numerical Problems in Physics, Volume 1 is intended to serve the need of the students pursuing graduate and post graduate courses in universities with Physics and Materials Science as subject including those appearing in engineering, medical, and civil services entrance examinations. KEY FEATURES: * 29 chapters on Optics, Wave & Oscillations, Electromagnetic Field Theory, Solid State Physics & Modern Physics * 540 solved numerical problems of various universities and ompetitive examinations * 523 multiple choice questions for quick and clear understanding of subject matter * 567 unsolved numerical problems for grasping concepts of the various topic in Physics * 49 Figures for understanding problems and concept

  10. Alcoholic Beverages Obtained from Black Mulberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacinto Darias-Martín

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Black mulberry (Morus nigra is a fruit not known only for its nutritional qualities and its flavour, but also for its traditional use in natural medicine as it has a high content of active therapeutic compounds. However, this fruit is not widely produced in Spain but some trees are still found growing in the Canary Islands, particularly on the edges of the ravine. The inhabitants of these islands (Tenerife, La Gomera, La Palma, El Hierro and Lanzarote collect the fruit and prepare homemade beverages for medicinal purposes. Numerous authors have reported that type II diabetes mellitus can be controlled by taking a mixture containing black mulberry and water. Apart from that, this fruit has been used for the treatment of mouth, tongue and throat inflammations. In this study we present some characteristics of black mulberry juice (TSS, pH, titratable acidity, citric acid, lactic acid, polyphenols, anthocyanins, the potassium etc. and alcoholic beverages (alcoholic grade, pH, total acidity, volatile acidity, tannins, phenols etc. obtained from black mulberry. Moreover, we have studied the quality of liquors obtained from black mulberry in Canary Islands.

  11. A thermodynamic approach to obtain materials properties for engineering applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Y. Austin

    1993-01-01

    With the ever increases in the capabilities of computers for numerical computations, we are on the verge of using these tools to model manufacturing processes for improving the efficiency of these processes as well as the quality of the products. One such process is casting for the production of metals. However, in order to model metal casting processes in a meaningful way it is essential to have the basic properties of these materials in their molten state, solid state as well as in the mixed state of solid and liquid. Some of the properties needed may be considered as intrinsic such as the density, heat capacity or enthalpy of freezing of a pure metal, while others are not. For instance, the enthalpy of solidification of an alloy is not a defined thermodynamic quantity. Its value depends on the micro-segregation of the phases during the course of solidification. The objective of the present study is to present a thermodynamic approach to obtain some of the intrinsic properties and combining thermodynamics with kinetic models to estimate such quantities as the enthalpy of solidification of an alloy.

  12. Synthesis of magnetite nanoparticles obtained by the thermal decomposition method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca, Renilma de Sousa Pinheiro; Sinfronio, Francisco Savio Mendes; Menezes, Alan Silva de; Sharma, Surender Kumar; Silva, Fernando Carvalho, E-mail: renilma.ufma@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Maranhao (UFMA), Sao Luis, MA (Brazil); Moscoso-Londono, Oscar; Muraca, Diego; Knobel, Marcelo [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Full text: Magnetite nanoparticles have found numerous applications in biomedicine such as magnetic separation, drug delivery, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and hyperthermia agents [1]. These features are related to their superparamagnetic behavior, low toxicity and high functionalization [2]. Thus, this work aims to obtain oleylamine-coated magnetite nanoparticles by means of thermal decomposition method at different temperatures and reaction time. All samples were characterized by FTIR, XRD and SQUID magnetometer. The infrared spectra showed two vibrational modes at 2920 and 2850 cm{sup -1}, assigned to the asymmetrical and symmetrical stretching of C-H groups of the oleic acid and oleylamine, respectively. The XRD pattern of the samples confirmed the formation of magnetite phase (ICSD 36314) at all temperatures. The average size of the crystallites was determined by Debye-Scherrer equation with values in the range of 1.1-1.5 nm. Field-cooled and zero field-cooled analysis demonstrate that the blocking temperature (T{sub B}) is below room temperature in all cases, indicating that all magnetite nanoparticles are superparamagnetic at room temperature and ferrimagnetic at low temperature. (author)

  13. Synthesis of magnetite nanoparticles obtained by the thermal decomposition method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonseca, Renilma de Sousa Pinheiro; Sinfronio, Francisco Savio Mendes; Menezes, Alan Silva de; Sharma, Surender Kumar; Silva, Fernando Carvalho; Moscoso-Londono, Oscar; Muraca, Diego; Knobel, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    Full text: Magnetite nanoparticles have found numerous applications in biomedicine such as magnetic separation, drug delivery, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and hyperthermia agents [1]. These features are related to their superparamagnetic behavior, low toxicity and high functionalization [2]. Thus, this work aims to obtain oleylamine-coated magnetite nanoparticles by means of thermal decomposition method at different temperatures and reaction time. All samples were characterized by FTIR, XRD and SQUID magnetometer. The infrared spectra showed two vibrational modes at 2920 and 2850 cm -1 , assigned to the asymmetrical and symmetrical stretching of C-H groups of the oleic acid and oleylamine, respectively. The XRD pattern of the samples confirmed the formation of magnetite phase (ICSD 36314) at all temperatures. The average size of the crystallites was determined by Debye-Scherrer equation with values in the range of 1.1-1.5 nm. Field-cooled and zero field-cooled analysis demonstrate that the blocking temperature (T B ) is below room temperature in all cases, indicating that all magnetite nanoparticles are superparamagnetic at room temperature and ferrimagnetic at low temperature. (author)

  14. Numerical modelling of random walk one-dimensional diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vamos, C.; Suciu, N.; Peculea, M.

    1996-01-01

    The evolution of a particle which moves on a discrete one-dimensional lattice, according to a random walk low, approximates better the diffusion process smaller the steps of the spatial lattice and time are. For a sufficiently large assembly of particles one can assume that their relative frequency at lattice knots approximates the distribution function of the diffusion process. This assumption has been tested by simulating on computer two analytical solutions of the diffusion equation: the Brownian motion and the steady state linear distribution. To evaluate quantitatively the similarity between the numerical and analytical solutions we have used a norm given by the absolute value of the difference of the two solutions. Also, a diffusion coefficient at any lattice knots and moment of time has been calculated, by using the numerical solution both from the diffusion equation and the particle flux given by Fick's low. The difference between diffusion coefficient of analytical solution and the spatial lattice mean coefficient of numerical solution constitutes another quantitative indication of the similarity of the two solutions. The results obtained show that the approximation depends first on the number of particles at each knot of the spatial lattice. In conclusion, the random walk is a microscopic process of the molecular dynamics type which permits simulations precision of the diffusion processes with given precision. The numerical method presented in this work may be useful both in the analysis of real experiments and for theoretical studies

  15. Deep Value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asness, Clifford S.; Liew, John M.; Pedersen, Lasse Heje

    premium. Following these episodes, the value strategy has (1) high average returns; (2) low market betas, but high betas to a global value factor; (3) deteriorating fundamentals; (4) negative news sentiment; (5) selling pressure; (6) increased limits to arbitrage; and (7) increased arbitrage activity...

  16. Forestland values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John H. Beuter; Ralph J. Alig

    2004-01-01

    This issue of the journal of Forestry is devoted to articles about forestland values. Viewed broadly, natural resources and humans are our two basic resources. An expression of the importance of land as a foundation for forest ecosystems is forestland value. Our attitudes about land and the forest ecosystems that they support have changed considerably in recent years....

  17. Fast numerical upscaling of heat equation for fibrous materials

    KAUST Repository

    Iliev, Oleg; Lazarov, Raytcho; Willems, Joerg

    2010-01-01

    We are interested in numerical methods for computing the effective heat conductivities of fibrous insulation materials, such as glass or mineral wool, characterized by low solid volume fractions and high contrasts, i.e., high ratios between the thermal conductivities of the fibers and the surrounding air. We consider a fast numerical method for solving some auxiliary cell problems appearing in this upscaling procedure. The auxiliary problems are boundary value problems of the steady-state heat equation in a representative elementary volume occupied by fibers and air. We make a simplification by replacing these problems with appropriate boundary value problems in the domain occupied by the fibers only. Finally, the obtained problems are further simplified by taking advantage of the slender shape of the fibers and assuming that they form a network. A discretization on the graph defined by the fibers is presented and error estimates are provided. The resulting algorithm is discussed and the accuracy and the performance of the method are illusrated on a number of numerical experiments. © Springer-Verlag 2010.

  18. Experimental verification of numerical calculations of railway passenger seats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligaj, B.; Wirwicki, M.; Karolewska, K.; Jasińska, A.

    2018-04-01

    The construction of railway seats is based on industry regulations and the requirements of end users, i.e. passengers. The two main documents in this context are the UIC 566 (3rd Edition, dated 7 January 1994) and the EN 12663-1: 2010+A1:2014. The study was to carry out static load tests of passenger seat frames. The paper presents the construction of the test bench and the results of experimental and numerical studies of passenger seat rail frames. The test bench consists of a frame, a transverse beam, two electric cylinders with a force value of 6 kN, and a strain gauge amplifier. It has a modular structure that allows for its expansion depending on the structure of the seats. Comparing experimental results with numerical results for points A and B allowed to determine the existing differences. It follows from it that higher stress values are obtained by numerical calculations in the range of 0.2 MPa to 35.9 MPa.

  19. Fast numerical upscaling of heat equation for fibrous materials

    KAUST Repository

    Iliev, Oleg

    2010-08-01

    We are interested in numerical methods for computing the effective heat conductivities of fibrous insulation materials, such as glass or mineral wool, characterized by low solid volume fractions and high contrasts, i.e., high ratios between the thermal conductivities of the fibers and the surrounding air. We consider a fast numerical method for solving some auxiliary cell problems appearing in this upscaling procedure. The auxiliary problems are boundary value problems of the steady-state heat equation in a representative elementary volume occupied by fibers and air. We make a simplification by replacing these problems with appropriate boundary value problems in the domain occupied by the fibers only. Finally, the obtained problems are further simplified by taking advantage of the slender shape of the fibers and assuming that they form a network. A discretization on the graph defined by the fibers is presented and error estimates are provided. The resulting algorithm is discussed and the accuracy and the performance of the method are illusrated on a number of numerical experiments. © Springer-Verlag 2010.

  20. Numerical simulation of ultrasonic wave propagation in elastically anisotropic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, Victoria Cristina Cheade; Jospin, Reinaldo Jacques; Bittencourt, Marcelo de Siqueira Queiroz

    2013-01-01

    The ultrasonic non-destructive testing of components may encounter considerable difficulties to interpret some inspections results mainly in anisotropic crystalline structures. A numerical method for the simulation of elastic wave propagation in homogeneous elastically anisotropic media, based on the general finite element approach, is used to help this interpretation. The successful modeling of elastic field associated with NDE is based on the generation of a realistic pulsed ultrasonic wave, which is launched from a piezoelectric transducer into the material under inspection. The values of elastic constants are great interest information that provide the application of equations analytical models, until small and medium complexity problems through programs of numerical analysis as finite elements and/or boundary elements. The aim of this work is the comparison between the results of numerical solution of an ultrasonic wave, which is obtained from transient excitation pulse that can be specified by either force or displacement variation across the aperture of the transducer, and the results obtained from a experiment that was realized in an aluminum block in the IEN Ultrasonic Laboratory. The wave propagation can be simulated using all the characteristics of the material used in the experiment valuation associated to boundary conditions and from these results, the comparison can be made. (author)

  1. The Value of Value Sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sløk-Madsen, Stefan Kirkegaard; Christensen, Jesper

    The world over classrooms in business schools are being taught that corporate values can impact performance. The argument is typically that culture matter more than strategy plans and culture can be influenced and indeed changed by a shared corporate value set. While the claim seems intuitively a...... a unique contribution to the effects of investment in shared company values, and to whether agent rationality can be fundamentally changed by committed organizational efforts....

  2. Remarks on numerical semigroups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, F.

    1995-12-01

    We extend results on Weierstrass semigroups at ramified points of double covering of curves to any numerical semigroup whose genus is large enough. As an application we strengthen the properties concerning Weierstrass weights state in [To]. (author). 25 refs

  3. Advances in Numerical Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Mastorakis, Nikos E

    2009-01-01

    Features contributions that are focused on significant aspects of current numerical methods and computational mathematics. This book carries chapters that advanced methods and various variations on known techniques that can solve difficult scientific problems efficiently.

  4. Introductory numerical analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Pettofrezzo, Anthony J

    2006-01-01

    Written for undergraduates who require a familiarity with the principles behind numerical analysis, this classical treatment encompasses finite differences, least squares theory, and harmonic analysis. Over 70 examples and 280 exercises. 1967 edition.

  5. Introduction to numerical analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Hildebrand, F B

    1987-01-01

    Well-known, respected introduction, updated to integrate concepts and procedures associated with computers. Computation, approximation, interpolation, numerical differentiation and integration, smoothing of data, other topics in lucid presentation. Includes 150 additional problems in this edition. Bibliography.

  6. Numerical analysis of bifurcations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guckenheimer, J.

    1996-01-01

    This paper is a brief survey of numerical methods for computing bifurcations of generic families of dynamical systems. Emphasis is placed upon algorithms that reflect the structure of the underlying mathematical theory while retaining numerical efficiency. Significant improvements in the computational analysis of dynamical systems are to be expected from more reliance of geometric insight coming from dynamical systems theory. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  7. Numerical computations with GPUs

    CERN Document Server

    Kindratenko, Volodymyr

    2014-01-01

    This book brings together research on numerical methods adapted for Graphics Processing Units (GPUs). It explains recent efforts to adapt classic numerical methods, including solution of linear equations and FFT, for massively parallel GPU architectures. This volume consolidates recent research and adaptations, covering widely used methods that are at the core of many scientific and engineering computations. Each chapter is written by authors working on a specific group of methods; these leading experts provide mathematical background, parallel algorithms and implementation details leading to

  8. Value Representations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Majken Kirkegaard; Petersen, Marianne Graves

    2011-01-01

    Stereotypic presumptions about gender affect the design process, both in relation to how users are understood and how products are designed. As a way to decrease the influence of stereotypic presumptions in design process, we propose not to disregard the aspect of gender in the design process......, as the perspective brings valuable insights on different approaches to technology, but instead to view gender through a value lens. Contributing to this perspective, we have developed Value Representations as a design-oriented instrument for staging a reflective dialogue with users. Value Representations...

  9. Numerical methods for image registration

    CERN Document Server

    Modersitzki, Jan

    2003-01-01

    Based on the author's lecture notes and research, this well-illustrated and comprehensive text is one of the first to provide an introduction to image registration with particular emphasis on numerical methods in medical imaging. Ideal for researchers in industry and academia, it is also a suitable study guide for graduate mathematicians, computer scientists, engineers, medical physicists, and radiologists.Image registration is utilised whenever information obtained from different viewpoints needs to be combined or compared and unwanted distortion needs to be eliminated. For example, CCTV imag

  10. A numerical approach to calculate the induced voltage in the case of conduced perturbations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andretzko, J.P.; Hedjiedj, A.; Babouri, A.; Guendouz, L.; Nadi, M. [Nancy-1 Univ. Henri Poincare, Lab. d' Instrumentation Electronique de Nancy, Faculte des Sciences, 54 - Vandoeuvre les Nancy (France)

    2006-07-01

    This paper presents a method of numerical simulation that makes it possible to calculate the induced tension to the terminals of the cardiac pacemaker subjected to conduced disturbances. The physical model used for simulation is an experimental test bed which makes it possible to study the behaviour of pacemaker, in vitro, subjected to electromagnetic disturbances in low frequencies range (50 hz - 500 khz). The test bed in which the pacemaker is implanted is described in this article. The process of calculation uses the admittance method adapted to the case of conducted disturbances. Results obtained by numerical simulation are close to experimental values. (authors)

  11. A numerical approach to calculate the induced voltage in the case of conduced perturbations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andretzko, J.P.; Hedjiedj, A.; Babouri, A.; Guendouz, L.; Nadi, M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a method of numerical simulation that makes it possible to calculate the induced tension to the terminals of the cardiac pacemaker subjected to conduced disturbances. The physical model used for simulation is an experimental test bed which makes it possible to study the behaviour of pacemaker, in vitro, subjected to electromagnetic disturbances in low frequencies range (50 hz - 500 khz). The test bed in which the pacemaker is implanted is described in this article. The process of calculation uses the admittance method adapted to the case of conducted disturbances. Results obtained by numerical simulation are close to experimental values. (authors)

  12. Numerical modeling of rapidly varying flows using HEC-RAS and WSPG models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Prasada; Hromadka, Theodore V

    2016-01-01

    The performance of two popular hydraulic models (HEC-RAS and WSPG) for modeling hydraulic jump in an open channel is investigated. The numerical solutions are compared with a new experimental data set obtained for varying channel bottom slopes and flow rates. Both the models satisfactorily predict the flow depths and location of the jump. The end results indicate that the numerical models output is sensitive to the value of chosen roughness coefficient. For this application, WSPG model is easier to implement with few input variables.

  13. Numerical Solution of the Electron Transport Equation in the Upper Atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woods, Mark Christopher [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Holmes, Mark [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States); Sailor, William C [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-07-01

    A new approach for solving the electron transport equation in the upper atmosphere is derived. The problem is a very stiff boundary value problem, and to obtain an accurate numerical solution, matrix factorizations are used to decouple the fast and slow modes. A stable finite difference method is applied to each mode. This solver is applied to a simplifieed problem for which an exact solution exists using various versions of the boundary conditions that might arise in a natural auroral display. The numerical and exact solutions are found to agree with each other to at least two significant digits.

  14. Obtaining numerically consistent estimates from a mix of administrative data and surveys

    OpenAIRE

    de Waal, A.G.

    2016-01-01

    National statistical institutes (NSIs) fulfil an important role as providers of objective and undisputed statistical information on many different aspects of society. To this end NSIs try to construct data sets that are rich in information content and that can be used to estimate a large variety of population figures. At the same time NSIs aim to construct these rich data sets as efficiently and cost effectively as possible. This can be achieved by utilizing already available administrative d...

  15. Drugs obtained by biotechnology processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Almeida

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the number of drugs of biotechnological origin available for many different diseases has increased exponentially, including different types of cancer, diabetes mellitus, infectious diseases (e.g. AIDS Virus / HIV as well as cardiovascular, neurological, respiratory, and autoimmune diseases, among others. The pharmaceutical industry has used different technologies to obtain new and promising active ingredients, as exemplified by the fermentation technique, recombinant DNA technique and the hybridoma technique. The expiry of the patents of the first drugs of biotechnological origin and the consequent emergence of biosimilar products, have posed various questions to health authorities worldwide regarding the definition, framework, and requirements for authorization to market such products.Nos últimos anos, tem aumentado exponencialmente o número de fármacos de origem biotecnológica ao dispor das mais diversas patologias, entre elas destacam-se, os diferentes tipos de cancêr, as doenças infecciosas (ex. vírus AIDS/HIV, as doenças autoimunes, as doenças cardiovasculares, a Diabetes Mellitus, as doenças neurológicas, as doenças respiratórias, entre outras. A indústria farmacêutica tem recorrido a diferentes tecnologias para a obtenção de novos e promissores princípios ativos, como são exemplo a fermentação, a técnica de DNA Recombinante, a técnica de hidridoma, entre outras. A queda das patentes dos primeiros fármacos de origem biotecnológica e o consequente aparecimento dos produtos biossimilares têm colocado diferentes questões às autoridades de saúde mundiais, sobre a definição, enquadramento e exigências para a autorização de entrada no mercado deste tipo de produtos.

  16. Unravelling Value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walsh, Matthew

    Paper presented in the symposium “What’s It All Worth? Material Possessions and Value in Past Societies” at 22nd Annual Meeting of the European Association of Archaeologists, Vilnius, Lithuania.......Paper presented in the symposium “What’s It All Worth? Material Possessions and Value in Past Societies” at 22nd Annual Meeting of the European Association of Archaeologists, Vilnius, Lithuania....

  17. Numerical simulation of single bubble boiling behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junjie Liu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The phenomena of a single bubble boiling process are studied with numerical modeling. The mass, momentum, energy and level set equations are solved using COMSOL multi-physics software. The bubble boiling dynamics, the transient pressure field, velocity field and temperature field in time are analyzed, and reasonable results are obtained. The numeral model is validated by the empirical equation of Fritz and could be used for various applications.

  18. Circular orbits of corotating binary black holes: Comparison between analytical and numerical results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damour, Thibault; Gourgoulhon, Eric; Grandclement, Philippe

    2002-01-01

    We compare recent numerical results, obtained within a 'helical Killing vector' approach, on circular orbits of corotating binary black holes to the analytical predictions made by the effective one-body (EOB) method (which has been recently extended to the case of spinning bodies). On the scale of the differences between the results obtained by different numerical methods, we find good agreement between numerical data and analytical predictions for several invariant functions describing the dynamical properties of circular orbits. This agreement is robust against the post-Newtonian accuracy used for the analytical estimates, as well as under choices of the resummation method for the EOB 'effective potential', and gets better as one uses a higher post-Newtonian accuracy. These findings open the way to a significant 'merging' of analytical and numerical methods, i.e. to matching an EOB-based analytical description of the (early and late) inspiral, up to the beginning of the plunge, to a numerical description of the plunge and merger. We illustrate also the 'flexibility' of the EOB approach, i.e. the possibility of determining some 'best fit' values for the analytical parameters by comparison with numerical data

  19. An experimental and numerical study on the improvement of the performance of Savonius wind rotor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altan, Burcin Deda; Atilgan, Mehmet

    2008-01-01

    In the present study, a curtain has been designed to increase the low performance of the Savonius wind rotor, a type of vertical-axis wind rotor, and the effect of this curtain on the static rotor performance has been analyzed both experimentally and numerically. Designed to prevent the torque that occurs on the convex blade of the rotor in the negative direction, this curtain has been placed in front of the rotor. Experimental measurements and numerical analysis have been conducted when the Savonius wind rotor is with and without curtain. The static torque values of the rotor have been measured by experiments and calculated by numerical analysis, and finally they have been compared. The best results have been obtained by means of the rotor with curtain. Low static torque values have been obtained with the short curtain dimensions, while a considerable increase has been acquired in the static torque values with the long curtain dimensions. Fluent 6.0 trade software has been used as the numerical method

  20. Average-case analysis of numerical problems

    CERN Document Server

    2000-01-01

    The average-case analysis of numerical problems is the counterpart of the more traditional worst-case approach. The analysis of average error and cost leads to new insight on numerical problems as well as to new algorithms. The book provides a survey of results that were mainly obtained during the last 10 years and also contains new results. The problems under consideration include approximation/optimal recovery and numerical integration of univariate and multivariate functions as well as zero-finding and global optimization. Background material, e.g. on reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces and random fields, is provided.

  1. Characterization of Wastewaters obtained from Hatay Tanneries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şana Sungur

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The leather tanning industry is one of the most significant pollutants in terms of both conventional and toxic parameters. On the other hand, leather industry has an important economic role both in Turkey and in the World. In this study, wastewater samples were taken from 15 different tanneries in the Hatay Region. Wastewaters obtained from liming process and chromium tanning process was analyzed. Sulfide, chromium (III, chromium (VI, oil and grease, total suspended solids (TSS, organic matters, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD, chemical oxygen demand (COD, pH and alkalinity were determined according to Turkish Standard Methods. The determined averages values belong to wastewaters obtained from liming process were as following: pH 11.71; COD 16821 mg L-1; BOD 4357 mg L-1; TSS 39023 mg L-1; oil and grease 364 mg L-1; S-2 concentration 802 mg L-1; alkalinity 2115 mg L-1. The determined averages values belong to wastewaters obtained from chromium tanning process were also as following: pH 4.23; COD 6740 mg L-1; BOD 377 mg L-1; Cr+3 concentrations 372 mg L-1; Cr+6 concentrations 127 mg L-1; TSS 14553 mg L-1; oil and grease 343 mg L-1. The results of all analyzes were higher than wastewater discharge standards. As a result, it’s necessary to use more effective treatments in order to reduce the negative impacts of leather tanning industry that affect environment, natural water resources and at last human health and welfare.

  2. Evaluation of biodiesel obtained from cottonseed oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rashid, Umer [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad-38040 (Pakistan); Department of Industrial Chemistry, Government College University, Faisalabad-38000 (Pakistan); Anwar, Farooq [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad-38040 (Pakistan); Knothe, Gerhard [United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research, Peoria, IL 61604 (United States)

    2009-09-15

    Esters from vegetable oils have attracted a great deal of interest as substitutes for petrodiesel to reduce dependence on imported petroleum and provide a fuel with more benign environmental properties. In this work biodiesel was prepared from cottonseed oil by transesterification with methanol, using sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, sodium methoxide and potassium methoxide as catalysts. A series of experiments were conducted in order to evaluate the effects of reaction variables such as methanol/oil molar ratio (3:1-15:1), catalyst concentration (0.25-1.50%), temperature (25-65 C), and stirring intensity (180-600 rpm) to achieve the maximum yield and quality. The optimized variables of 6:1 methanol/oil molar ratio (mol/mol), 0.75% sodium methoxide concentration (wt.%), 65 C reaction temperature, 600 rpm agitation speed and 90 min reaction time offered the maximum methyl ester yield (96.9%). The obtained fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy. The fuel properties of cottonseed oil methyl esters (COME), cetane number, kinematic viscosity, oxidative stability, lubricity, cloud point, pour point, cold filter plugging point, flash point, ash content, sulfur content, acid value, copper strip corrosion value, density, higher heating value, methanol content, free and bound glycerol were determined and are discussed in the light of biodiesel standards such as ASTM D6751 and EN 14214. (author)

  3. Entanglement in bipartite pure states of an interacting boson gas obtained by local projective measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paraan, Francis N. C.; Korepin, Vladimir E.; Molina-Vilaplana, Javier; Bose, Sougato

    2011-01-01

    We quantify the extractable entanglement of excited states of a Lieb-Liniger gas that are obtained from coarse-grained measurements on the ground state in which the boson number in one of two complementary contiguous partitions of the gas is determined. Numerically exact results obtained from the coordinate Bethe ansatz show that the von Neumann entropy of the resulting bipartite pure state increases monotonically with the strength of repulsive interactions and saturates to the impenetrable-boson limiting value. We also present evidence indicating that the largest amount of entanglement can be extracted from the most probable projected state having half the number of bosons in a given partition. Our study points to a fundamental difference between the nature of the entanglement in free-bosonic and free-fermionic systems, with the entanglement in the former being zero after projection, while that in the latter (corresponding to the impenetrable-boson limit) being nonzero.

  4. The Numerical Solution of the Equilibrium Problem for a Stretchable Elastic Beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehdiyeva, G. Y.; Aliyev, A. Y.

    2017-08-01

    The boundary value problem under consideration describes the equilibrium of an elastic beam that is stretched or contracted by specified forces. The left end of the beam is free of load, and the right end is rigidly lapped. To solve the problem numerically, an appropriate difference problem is constructed. Solving the difference problem, we obtain an approximate solution of the problem. We estimate the approximate solution of the stated problem.

  5. Semiclassical initial value approximation for Green's function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Kenneth G

    2010-06-28

    A semiclassical initial value approximation is obtained for the energy-dependent Green's function. For a system with f degrees of freedom the Green's function expression has the form of a (2f-1)-dimensional integral over points on the energy surface and an integral over time along classical trajectories initiated from these points. This approximation is derived by requiring an integral ansatz for Green's function to reduce to Gutzwiller's semiclassical formula when the integrations are performed by the stationary phase method. A simpler approximation is also derived involving only an (f-1)-dimensional integral over momentum variables on a Poincare surface and an integral over time. The relationship between the present expressions and an earlier initial value approximation for energy eigenfunctions is explored. Numerical tests for two-dimensional systems indicate that good accuracy can be obtained from the initial value Green's function for calculations of autocorrelation spectra and time-independent wave functions. The relative advantages of initial value approximations for the energy-dependent Green's function and the time-dependent propagator are discussed.

  6. Numerical computation of FCT equilibria by inverse equilibrium method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokuda, Shinji; Tsunematsu, Toshihide; Takeda, Tatsuoki

    1986-11-01

    FCT (Flux Conserving Tokamak) equilibria were obtained numerically by the inverse equilibrium method. The high-beta tokamak ordering was used to get the explicit boundary conditions for FCT equilibria. The partial differential equation was reduced to the simultaneous quasi-linear ordinary differential equations by using the moment method. The regularity conditions for solutions at the singular point of the equations can be expressed correctly by this reduction and the problem to be solved becomes a tractable boundary value problem on the quasi-linear ordinary differential equations. This boundary value problem was solved by the method of quasi-linearization, one of the shooting methods. Test calculations show that this method provides high-beta tokamak equilibria with sufficiently high accuracy for MHD stability analysis. (author)

  7. Numerical investigation on exterior conformal mappings with application to airfoils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad Rashidi Md Razali; Hu Laey Nee

    2000-01-01

    A numerical method is described in computing a conformal map from an exterior region onto the exterior of the unit disk. The numerical method is based on a boundary integral equation which is similar to the Kerzman-Stein integral equation for interior mapping. Some examples show that numerical results of high accuracy can be obtained provided that the boundaries are smooth. This numerical method has been applied to the mapping airfoils. However, due to the fact that the parametric representation of an air foil is not known, a cubic spline interpolation method has been used. Some numerical examples with satisfying results have been obtained for the symmetrical and cambered airfoils. (Author)

  8. Public Value: rethinking value creation

    OpenAIRE

    Meynhardt, Timo; Gomez, Peter; Strathoff, Pepe; Hermann, Carolin

    2014-01-01

    Managers might refute public criticism of their business as an attitude of taking everything for granted in a saturated society, but ignoring Public Value aspects can threaten the success of new products and even the survival of entire firms.

  9. Numerical analysis of whole-body cryotherapy chamber design improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerezhep, D.; Tukmakova, A. S.; Fomin, V. E.; Masalimov, A.; Asach, A. V.; Novotelnova, A. V.; Baranov, A. Yu

    2018-05-01

    Whole body cryotherapy is a state-of-the-art method that uses cold for treatment and prevention of diseases. The process implies the impact of cryogenic gas on a human body that implements in a special cryochamber. The temperature field in the chamber is of great importance since local integument over-cooling may occur. Numerical simulation of WBC has been carried out. Chamber design modification has been proposed in order to increase the uniformity of the internal temperature field. The results have been compared with the ones obtained for a standard chamber design. The value of temperature gradient formed in the chamber containing curved wall with certain height has been decreased almost twice in comparison with the results obtained for the standard design. The modification proposed may increase both safety and comfort of cryotherapy.

  10. Numerical Methods for Partial Differential Equations

    CERN Document Server

    Guo, Ben-yu

    1987-01-01

    These Proceedings of the first Chinese Conference on Numerical Methods for Partial Differential Equations covers topics such as difference methods, finite element methods, spectral methods, splitting methods, parallel algorithm etc., their theoretical foundation and applications to engineering. Numerical methods both for boundary value problems of elliptic equations and for initial-boundary value problems of evolution equations, such as hyperbolic systems and parabolic equations, are involved. The 16 papers of this volume present recent or new unpublished results and provide a good overview of current research being done in this field in China.

  11. Numerical simulation of a semi-indirect evaporative cooler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, R. Herrero [Departamento de Ingenieria Termica y de Fluidos, Universidad Politecnica de Cartagena, C/Dr. Fleming, s/n (Campus Muralla), 30202 Cartagena, Murcia (Spain)

    2009-11-15

    This paper presents the experimental study and numerical simulation of a semi-indirect evaporative cooler (SIEC), which acts as an energy recovery device in air conditioning systems. The numerical simulation was conducted by applying the CFD software FLUENT implementing a UDF to model evaporation/condensation. The numerical model was validated by comparing the simulation results with experimental data. Experimental data and numerical results agree for the lower relative humidity series but not for higher relative humidity values. (author)

  12. Numerical Transducer Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriquez, Vicente Cutanda

    This thesis describes the development of a numerical model of the propagation of sound waves in fluids with viscous and thermal losses, with application to the simulation of acoustic transducers, in particular condenser microphones for measurement. The theoretical basis is presented, numerical...... manipulations are developed to satisfy the more complicated boundary conditions, and a model of a condenser microphone with a coupled membrane is developed. The model is tested against measurements of ¼ inch condenser microphones and analytical calculations. A detailed discussion of the results is given....

  13. On numerical Bessel transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sommer, B.; Zabolitzky, J.G.

    1979-01-01

    The authors present a computer program to calculate the three dimensional Fourier or Bessel transforms and definite integrals with Bessel functions. Numerical integration of systems containing Bessel functions occurs in many physical problems, e.g. electromagnetic form factor of nuclei, all transitions involving multipole expansions at high momenta. Filon's integration rule is extended to spherical Bessel functions. The numerical error is of the order of the Simpson error term of the function which has to be transformed. Thus one gets a stable integral even at large arguments of the transformed function. (Auth.)

  14. Industrial numerical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKee, S.; Elliott, C.M.

    1986-01-01

    The applications of mathematics to industrial problems involves the formulation of problems which are amenable to mathematical investigation, mathematical modelling, the solution of the mathematical problem and the inter-pretation of the results. There are 12 chapters describing industrial problems where mathematics and numerical analysis can be applied. These range from the numerical assessment of the flatness of engineering surfaces and plates, the design of chain links, control problems in tidal power generation and low thrust satellite trajectory optimization to mathematical models in welding. One chapter, on the ageing of stainless steels, is indexed separately. (UK)

  15. Hemodynamic effect of bypass geometry on intracranial aneurysm: A numerical investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurşun, Burak; Uğur, Levent; Keskin, Gökhan

    2018-05-01

    Hemodynamic analyzes are used in the clinical investigation and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. In the present study, the effect of bypass geometry on intracranial aneurysm hemodynamics was investigated numerically. Pressure, wall shear stress (WSS) and velocity distribution causing the aneurysm to grow and rupture were investigated and the best conditions were tried to be determined in case of bypassing between basilar (BA) and left/right posterior arteries (LPCA/RPCA) for different values of parameters. The finite volume method was used for numerical solutions and calculations were performed with the ANSYS-Fluent software. The SIMPLE algorithm was used to solve the discretized conservation equations. Second Order Upwind method was preferred for finding intermediate point values in the computational domain. As the blood flow velocity changes with time, the blood viscosity value also changes. For this reason, the Carreu model was used in determining the viscosity depending on the velocity. Numerical study results showed that when bypassed, pressure and wall shear stresses reduced in the range of 40-70% in the aneurysm. Numerical results obtained are presented in graphs including the variation of pressure, wall shear stress and velocity streamlines in the aneurysm. Considering the numerical results for all parameter values, it is seen that the most important factors affecting the pressure and WSS values in bypassing are the bypass position on the basilar artery (L b ) and the diameter of the bypass vessel (d). Pressure and wall shear stress reduced in the range of 40-70% in the aneurysm in the case of bypass for all parameters. This demonstrates that pressure and WSS values can be greatly reduced in aneurysm treatment by bypassing in cases where clipping or coil embolization methods can not be applied. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Numerical analysis using Sage

    CERN Document Server

    Anastassiou, George A

    2015-01-01

    This is the first numerical analysis text to use Sage for the implementation of algorithms and can be used in a one-semester course for undergraduates in mathematics, math education, computer science/information technology, engineering, and physical sciences. The primary aim of this text is to simplify understanding of the theories and ideas from a numerical analysis/numerical methods course via a modern programming language like Sage. Aside from the presentation of fundamental theoretical notions of numerical analysis throughout the text, each chapter concludes with several exercises that are oriented to real-world application.  Answers may be verified using Sage.  The presented code, written in core components of Sage, are backward compatible, i.e., easily applicable to other software systems such as Mathematica®.  Sage is  open source software and uses Python-like syntax. Previous Python programming experience is not a requirement for the reader, though familiarity with any programming language is a p...

  17. Numerical Estimation in Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berteletti, Ilaria; Lucangeli, Daniela; Piazza, Manuela; Dehaene, Stanislas; Zorzi, Marco

    2010-01-01

    Children's sense of numbers before formal education is thought to rely on an approximate number system based on logarithmically compressed analog magnitudes that increases in resolution throughout childhood. School-age children performing a numerical estimation task have been shown to increasingly rely on a formally appropriate, linear…

  18. Development of numerical concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Peucker

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The development of numerical concepts is described from infancy to preschool age. Infants a few days old exhibit an early sensitivity for numerosities. In the course of development, nonverbal mental models allow for the exact representation of small quantities as well as changes in these quantities. Subitising, as the accurate recognition of small numerosities (without counting, plays an important role. It can be assumed that numerical concepts and procedures start with insights about small numerosities. Protoquantitative schemata comprise fundamental knowledge about quantities. One-to-one-correspondence connects elements and numbers, and, for this reason, both quantitative and numerical knowledge. If children understand that they can determine the numerosity of a collection of elements by enumerating the elements, they have acquired the concept of cardinality. Protoquantitative knowledge becomes quantitative if it can be applied to numerosities and sequential numbers. The concepts of cardinality and part-part-whole are key to numerical development. Developmentally appropriate learning and teaching should focus on cardinality and part-part-whole concepts.

  19. Analysis of numerical methods

    CERN Document Server

    Isaacson, Eugene

    1994-01-01

    This excellent text for advanced undergraduates and graduate students covers norms, numerical solution of linear systems and matrix factoring, iterative solutions of nonlinear equations, eigenvalues and eigenvectors, polynomial approximation, and other topics. It offers a careful analysis and stresses techniques for developing new methods, plus many examples and problems. 1966 edition.

  20. Paradoxes in numerical calculations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brandts, J.; Křížek, Michal; Zhang, Z.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 3 (2016), s. 317-330 ISSN 1210-0552 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-02067S Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : round-off errors * numerical instability * recurrence formulae Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.394, year: 2016

  1. Realistic deformable 3D numeric phantom for transcutaneous ultrasound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, Fernando Mitsuyama; Moraes, Matheus Cardoso; Furuie, Sergio Shiguemi, E-mail: fernando.okara@gmail.com [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia

    2017-01-15

    Introduction: Numerical phantoms are important tools to design, calibrate and evaluate several methods in various image-processing applications, such as echocardiography and mammography. We present a framework for creating ultrasound numerical deformable phantoms based on Finite Element Method (FEM), Linear Isomorphism and Field II. The proposed method considers that the scatterers map is a property of the tissue; therefore, the scatterers should move according to the tissue strain. Methods: First, a volume representing the target tissue is loaded. Second, parameter values, such as Young's Modulus, scatterers density, attenuation and scattering amplitudes are inserted for each different regions of the phantom. Then, other parameters related to the ultrasound equipment, such as ultrasound frequency and number of transducer elements, are also defined in order to perform the ultrasound acquisition using Field II. Third, the size and position of the transducer and the pressures that are applied against the tissue are defined. Subsequently, FEM is executed and deformation is computed. Next, 3D linear isomorphism is performed to displace the scatterers according to the deformation. Finally, Field II is carried out to generate the non-deformed and deformed ultrasound data. Results: The framework is evaluated by comparing strain values obtained the numerical simulation and from the physical phantom from CIRS. The mean difference between both phantoms is lesser than 10%. Conclusion: The acoustic and deformation outcomes are similar to those obtained using a physical phantom. This framework led to a tool, which is available online and free of charges for educational and research purposes. (author)

  2. Focusing of high power ultrasound beams and limiting values of shock wave parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessonova, O. V.; Khokhlova, V. A.; Bailey, M. R.; Canney, M. S.; Crum, L. A.

    2009-10-01

    In this work, the influence of nonlinear and diffraction effects on amplification factors of focused ultrasound systems is investigated. The limiting values of acoustic field parameters obtained by focusing of high power ultrasound are studied. The Khokhlov-Zabolotskaya-Kuznetsov (KZK) equation was used for the numerical modeling. Solutions for the nonlinear acoustic field were obtained at output levels corresponding to both pre- and post-shock formation conditions in the focal area of the beam in a weakly dissipative medium. Numerical solutions were compared with experimental data as well as with known analytic predictions.

  3. Add Value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kobbelgaard, Cecilie Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    "Add Value – kend din kunde" er et brætspil, som giver både offentlige og private virksomheder unikke muligheder for at forbedre deres service overfor kunderne. Spillet giver, på en alternativ og handlingsorienteret måde, mulighed for at blive skarpere på kundeoplevelsen – hvor er der værdi...... at hente, og hvor kan der spares på tid og ressourcer? Dette samtidig med, at kunderne får den oplevelse og service, de forventer. Når I spiller "Add Value – kend din kunde" sættes der fokus på Jeres kundeservice ud fra kundens perspektiv, og det er i alle Jeres kontaktflader med kunden. Lige fra kunden...

  4. Conservation Value

    OpenAIRE

    Tisdell, Clement A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper outlines the significance of the concept of conservation value and discusses ways in which it is determined paying attention to views stemming from utilitarian ethics and from deontological ethics. The importance of user costs in relation to economic decisions about the conservation and use of natural resources is emphasised. Particular attention is given to competing views about the importance of conserving natural resources in order to achieve economic sustainability. This then l...

  5. Computation of Charged-Particle Transfer Maps for General Fields and Geometries Using Electromagnetic Boundary-Value Data

    OpenAIRE

    Dragt, A. J.; Roberts, P.; Stasevich, T. J.; Dragt, A. Bodoh-Creed A. J.; Roberts, P.; Stasevich, T. J.; Bodoh-Creed, A.; Walstrom, P. L.

    2010-01-01

    Three-dimensional field distributions from realistic beamline elements can be obtained only by measurement or by numerical solution of a boundary-value problem. In numerical charged-particle map generation, fields along a reference trajectory are differentiated multiple times. Any attempt to differentiate directly such field data multiple times is soon dominated by "noise" due to finite meshing and/or measurement errors. This problem can be overcome by the use of field data on a surface outsi...

  6. Exact solutions, numerical relativity and gravitational radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winicour, J.

    1986-01-01

    In recent years, there has emerged a new use for exact solutions to Einstein's equation as checks on the accuracy of numerical relativity codes. Much has already been written about codes based upon the space-like Cauchy problem. In the case of two Killing vectors, a numerical characteristic initial value formulation based upon two intersecting families of null hypersurfaces has successfully evolved the Schwarzschild and the colliding plane wave vacuum solutions. Here the author discusses, in the context of exact solutions, numerical studies of gravitational radiation based upon the null cone initial value problem. Every stage of progress in the null cone approach has been associated with exact solutions in some sense. He begins by briefly recapping this history. Then he presents two new examples illustrating how exact solutions can be useful

  7. Numerical methods and modelling for engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Khoury, Richard

    2016-01-01

    This textbook provides a step-by-step approach to numerical methods in engineering modelling. The authors provide a consistent treatment of the topic, from the ground up, to reinforce for students that numerical methods are a set of mathematical modelling tools which allow engineers to represent real-world systems and compute features of these systems with a predictable error rate. Each method presented addresses a specific type of problem, namely root-finding, optimization, integral, derivative, initial value problem, or boundary value problem, and each one encompasses a set of algorithms to solve the problem given some information and to a known error bound. The authors demonstrate that after developing a proper model and understanding of the engineering situation they are working on, engineers can break down a model into a set of specific mathematical problems, and then implement the appropriate numerical methods to solve these problems. Uses a “building-block” approach, starting with simpler mathemati...

  8. Development of Pelton turbine using numerical simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, K; Patel, B; Yadav, M [Hydraulic Engineer, ALSTOM Hydro R and D India Ltd., GIDC Maneja, Vadodara - 390 013, Gujarat (India); Foggia, T, E-mail: patel@power.alstom.co [Hydraulic Engineer, Alstom Hydro France, Etablissement de Grenoble, 82, avenue Leon Blum BP 75, 38041 Grenoble Cedex (France)

    2010-08-15

    This paper describes recent research and development activities in the field of Pelton turbine design. Flow inside Pelton turbine is most complex due to multiphase (mixture of air and water) and free surface in nature. Numerical calculation is useful to understand flow physics as well as effect of geometry on flow. The optimized design is obtained using in-house special optimization loop. Either single phase or two phase unsteady numerical calculation could be performed. Numerical results are used to visualize the flow pattern in the water passage and to predict performance of Pelton turbine at full load as well as at part load. Model tests are conducted to determine performance of turbine and it shows good agreement with numerically predicted performance.

  9. Development of Pelton turbine using numerical simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, K.; Patel, B.; Yadav, M.; Foggia, T.

    2010-08-01

    This paper describes recent research and development activities in the field of Pelton turbine design. Flow inside Pelton turbine is most complex due to multiphase (mixture of air and water) and free surface in nature. Numerical calculation is useful to understand flow physics as well as effect of geometry on flow. The optimized design is obtained using in-house special optimization loop. Either single phase or two phase unsteady numerical calculation could be performed. Numerical results are used to visualize the flow pattern in the water passage and to predict performance of Pelton turbine at full load as well as at part load. Model tests are conducted to determine performance of turbine and it shows good agreement with numerically predicted performance.

  10. Development of Pelton turbine using numerical simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, K; Patel, B; Yadav, M; Foggia, T

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes recent research and development activities in the field of Pelton turbine design. Flow inside Pelton turbine is most complex due to multiphase (mixture of air and water) and free surface in nature. Numerical calculation is useful to understand flow physics as well as effect of geometry on flow. The optimized design is obtained using in-house special optimization loop. Either single phase or two phase unsteady numerical calculation could be performed. Numerical results are used to visualize the flow pattern in the water passage and to predict performance of Pelton turbine at full load as well as at part load. Model tests are conducted to determine performance of turbine and it shows good agreement with numerically predicted performance.

  11. On the complexity of numerical analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miltersen, Peter Bro; Allender, Eric; Burgisser, Peter

    2009-01-01

    an integer N, decide whether N>0. • In the Blum-Shub-Smale model, polynomial time computation over the reals (on discrete inputs) is polynomial-time equivalent to PosSLP, when there are only algebraic constants. We conjecture that using transcendental constants provides no additional power, beyond nonuniform...... reductions to PosSLP, and we present some preliminary results supporting this conjecture. • The Generic Task of Numerical Computation is also polynomial-time equivalent to PosSLP. We prove that PosSLP lies in the counting hierarchy. Combining this with work of Tiwari, we obtain that the Euclidean Traveling......We study two quite different approaches to understanding the complexity of fundamental problems in numerical analysis: • The Blum-Shub-Smale model of computation over the reals. • A problem we call the “Generic Task of Numerical Computation,” which captures an aspect of doing numerical computation...

  12. Numerical simulation of "an American haboob"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukovic, A.; Vujadinovic, M.; Pejanovic, G.; Andric, J.; Kumjian, M. R.; Djurdjevic, V.; Dacic, M.; Prasad, A. K.; El-Askary, H. M.; Paris, B. C.; Petkovic, S.; Nickovic, S.; Sprigg, W. A.

    2014-04-01

    A dust storm of fearful proportions hit Phoenix in the early evening hours of 5 July 2011. This storm, an American haboob, was predicted hours in advance because numerical, land-atmosphere modeling, computing power and remote sensing of dust events have improved greatly over the past decade. High-resolution numerical models are required for accurate simulation of the small scales of the haboob process, with high velocity surface winds produced by strong convection and severe downbursts. Dust productive areas in this region consist mainly of agricultural fields, with soil surfaces disturbed by plowing and tracks of land in the high Sonoran Desert laid barren by ongoing draught. Model simulation of the 5 July 2011 dust storm uses the coupled atmospheric-dust model NMME-DREAM (Non-hydrostatic Mesoscale Model on E grid, Janjic et al., 2001; Dust REgional Atmospheric Model, Nickovic et al., 2001; Pérez et al., 2006) with 4 km horizontal resolution. A mask of the potentially dust productive regions is obtained from the land cover and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). The scope of this paper is validation of the dust model performance, and not use of the model as a tool to investigate mechanisms related to the storm. Results demonstrate the potential technical capacity and availability of the relevant data to build an operational system for dust storm forecasting as a part of a warning system. Model results are compared with radar and other satellite-based images and surface meteorological and PM10 observations. The atmospheric model successfully hindcasted the position of the front in space and time, with about 1 h late arrival in Phoenix. The dust model predicted the rapid uptake of dust and high values of dust concentration in the ensuing storm. South of Phoenix, over the closest source regions (~25 km), the model PM10 surface dust concentration reached ~2500 μg m-3, but

  13. Numerical methods for hyperbolic differential functional problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Ciarski

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the initial boundary value problem for quasilinear first order partial differential functional systems. A general class of difference methods for the problem is constructed. Theorems on the error estimate of approximate solutions for difference functional systems are presented. The convergence results are proved by means of consistency and stability arguments. A numerical example is given.

  14. Numerical model CCC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodvarsson, G.S.; Lippmann, M.J.

    1980-01-01

    The computer program CCC (conduction-convection-consolidation), developed at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, solves numerically the heat and mass flow equations for a fully saturated medium, and computes one-dimensional consolidation of the simulated systems. The model employs the Integrated Finite Difference Method (IFDM) in discretizing the saturated medium and formulating the governing equations. The sets of equations are solved either by an iterative solution technique (old version) or an efficient sparse solver (new version). The deformation of the medium is calculated using the one-dimensional consolidation theory of Terzaghi. In this paper, the numerical code is described, validation examples given and areas of application discussed. Several example problems involving flow through fractured media are also presented

  15. Numerical ecology with R

    CERN Document Server

    Borcard, Daniel; Legendre, Pierre

    2018-01-01

    This new edition of Numerical Ecology with R guides readers through an applied exploration of the major methods of multivariate data analysis, as seen through the eyes of three ecologists. It provides a bridge between a textbook of numerical ecology and the implementation of this discipline in the R language. The book begins by examining some exploratory approaches. It proceeds logically with the construction of the key building blocks of most methods, i.e. association measures and matrices, and then submits example data to three families of approaches: clustering, ordination and canonical ordination. The last two chapters make use of these methods to explore important and contemporary issues in ecology: the analysis of spatial structures and of community diversity. The aims of methods thus range from descriptive to explanatory and predictive and encompass a wide variety of approaches that should provide readers with an extensive toolbox that can address a wide palette of questions arising in contemporary mul...

  16. Numerical simulation in astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyama, Shoken

    1985-01-01

    There have been many numerical simulations of hydrodynamical problems in astrophysics, e.g. processes of star formation, supernova explosion and formation of neutron stars, and general relativistic collapse of star to form black hole. The codes are made to be suitable for computing such problems. In astrophysical hydrodynamical problems, there are the characteristics: problems of self-gravity or external gravity acting, objects of scales very large or very short, objects changing by short period or long time scale, problems of magnetic force and/or centrifugal force acting. In this paper, we present one of methods of numerical simulations which may satisfy these requirements, so-called smoothed particle methods. We then introduce the methods briefly. Then, we show one of the applications of the methods to astrophysical problem (fragmentation and collapse of rotating isothermal cloud). (Mori, K.)

  17. Numerical simulation of plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dnestrovskii, Y.N.; Kostomarov, D.P.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains a modern consistent and systematic presentation of numerical computer simulation of plasmas in controlled thermonuclear fusion. The authors focus on the Soviet research in mathematical modelling of Tokamak plasmas, and present kinetic hydrodynamic and transport models with special emphasis on the more recent hybrid models. Compared with the first edition (in Russian) this book has been greatly revised and updated. (orig./WL)

  18. Numerical analysis II essentials

    CERN Document Server

    REA, The Editors of; Staff of Research Education Association

    1989-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Numerical Analysis II covers simultaneous linear systems and matrix methods, differential equations, Fourier transformations, partial differential equations, and Monte Carlo methods.

  19. Handbook of numerical analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Ciarlet, Philippe G

    Mathematical finance is a prolific scientific domain in which there exists a particular characteristic of developing both advanced theories and practical techniques simultaneously. Mathematical Modelling and Numerical Methods in Finance addresses the three most important aspects in the field: mathematical models, computational methods, and applications, and provides a solid overview of major new ideas and results in the three domains. Coverage of all aspects of quantitative finance including models, computational methods and applications Provides an overview of new ideas an

  20. Operator theory and numerical methods

    CERN Document Server

    Fujita, H; Suzuki, T

    2001-01-01

    In accordance with the developments in computation, theoretical studies on numerical schemes are now fruitful and highly needed. In 1991 an article on the finite element method applied to evolutionary problems was published. Following the method, basically this book studies various schemes from operator theoretical points of view. Many parts are devoted to the finite element method, but other schemes and problems (charge simulation method, domain decomposition method, nonlinear problems, and so forth) are also discussed, motivated by the observation that practically useful schemes have fine mathematical structures and the converses are also true. This book has the following chapters: 1. Boundary Value Problems and FEM. 2. Semigroup Theory and FEM. 3. Evolution Equations and FEM. 4. Other Methods in Time Discretization. 5. Other Methods in Space Discretization. 6. Nonlinear Problems. 7. Domain Decomposition Method.

  1. Combining Narrative and Numerical Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette Sanne; Ladeby, Klaes Rohde; Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard

    2011-01-01

    for decision makers to systematically test several different outputs of possible solutions in order to prepare for future consequences. The CSA can be a way to evaluate risks and address possible unforeseen problems in a more methodical way than either guessing or forecasting. This paper contributes...... to the decision making in operations and production management by providing new insights into modelling and simulation based on the combined narrative and numerical simulation approach as a tool for strategy making. The research question asks, “How can the CSA be applied in a practical context to support strategy...... making?” The paper uses a case study where interviews and observations were carried out in a Danish corporation. The CSA is a new way to address decision making and has both practical value and further expands the use of strategic simulation as a management tool....

  2. Numerical Study of Planar GPR Antenna Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meincke, Peter; Hansen, Thorkild

    2004-01-01

    The formulation of planar near-field measurements of GPR antennas determines the plane-wave spectra of the GPR antenna in terms of measurements obtained with a buried probe as the GPR antenna moves over a scan plane on the ground. A numerical study investigates how the formulation is affected by (1...

  3. Numerical CFD Comparison of Lillgrund Employing RANS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simisiroglou, N.; Breton, S.-P.; Crasto, G.

    2014-01-01

    The following article will validate the results obtained using the actuator disc method in the state of the art numerical Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) tool WindSim using on-site measurements from the offshore wind farm Lillgrund. WindSim solves the mass, momentum and energy conservation...

  4. Numerical Hydrodynamics in Special Relativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martí, José Maria; Müller, Ewald

    2003-01-01

    This review is concerned with a discussion of numerical methods for the solution of the equations of special relativistic hydrodynamics (SRHD). Particular emphasis is put on a comprehensive review of the application of high-resolution shock-capturing methods in SRHD. Results of a set of demanding test bench simulations obtained with different numerical SRHD methods are compared. Three applications (astrophysical jets, gamma-ray bursts and heavy ion collisions) of relativistic flows are discussed. An evaluation of various SRHD methods is presented, and future developments in SRHD are analyzed involving extension to general relativistic hydrodynamics and relativistic magneto-hydrodynamics. The review further provides FORTRAN programs to compute the exact solution of a 1D relativistic Riemann problem with zero and nonzero tangential velocities, and to simulate 1D relativistic flows in Cartesian Eulerian coordinates using the exact SRHD Riemann solver and PPM reconstruction. Supplementary material is available for this article at 10.12942/lrr-2003-7 and is accessible for authorized users.

  5. Two dimensional numerical simulation of gas discharges: comparison between particle-in-cell and FCT techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soria-Hoyo, C; Castellanos, A [Departamento de Electronica y Electromagnetismo, Facultad de Fisica, Universidad de Sevilla, Avda. Reina Mercedes s/n, 41012 Sevilla (Spain); Pontiga, F [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada II, EUAT, Universidad de Sevilla, Avda. Reina Mercedes s/n, 41012 Sevilla (Spain)], E-mail: cshoyo@us.es

    2008-10-21

    Two different numerical techniques have been applied to the numerical integration of equations modelling gas discharges: a finite-difference flux corrected transport (FD-FCT) technique and a particle-in-cell (PIC) technique. The PIC technique here implemented has been specifically designed for the simulation of 2D electrical discharges using cylindrical coordinates. The development and propagation of a streamer between two parallel electrodes has been used as a convenient test to compare the performance of both techniques. In particular, the phase velocity of the cathode directed streamer has been used to check the internal consistency of the numerical simulations. The results obtained from the two techniques are in reasonable agreement with each other, and both techniques have proved their ability to follow the high gradients of charge density and electric field present in this type of problems. Moreover, the streamer velocities predicted by the simulation are in accordance with the typical experimental values.

  6. Two dimensional numerical simulation of gas discharges: comparison between particle-in-cell and FCT techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soria-Hoyo, C; Castellanos, A; Pontiga, F

    2008-01-01

    Two different numerical techniques have been applied to the numerical integration of equations modelling gas discharges: a finite-difference flux corrected transport (FD-FCT) technique and a particle-in-cell (PIC) technique. The PIC technique here implemented has been specifically designed for the simulation of 2D electrical discharges using cylindrical coordinates. The development and propagation of a streamer between two parallel electrodes has been used as a convenient test to compare the performance of both techniques. In particular, the phase velocity of the cathode directed streamer has been used to check the internal consistency of the numerical simulations. The results obtained from the two techniques are in reasonable agreement with each other, and both techniques have proved their ability to follow the high gradients of charge density and electric field present in this type of problems. Moreover, the streamer velocities predicted by the simulation are in accordance with the typical experimental values.

  7. Numerical investigation on effects of induced jet on boundary layer and turbulent models around airfoils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shojaeefard, M.H.; Pirnia, A.; Fallahian, M.A. [Iran University of Science and Technology, School of Mechanical Engineering, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Tahani, M. [Iran University of Science and Technology, School of Mechanical Engineering, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); University of Tehran, Faculty of New Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    In this study the effects of induced jet at trailing edge of a two dimensional airfoil on its boundary layer shape, separation over surface and turbulent parameters behind trailing edge are numerically investigated and compared against a previous experimental data. After proving independency of results from mesh size and obtaining the required mesh size, different turbulent models are examined and RNG k-epsilon model is chosen because of good agreement with experimental data in velocity and turbulent intensity variations. A comparison between ordinary and jet induced cases, regarding numerical data, is made. The results showed that because of low number of measurement points in experimental study, turbulent intensity extremes are not captured. While in numerical study, these values and their positions are well calculated and exact variation of turbulent intensity is acquired. Also a study in effect of jet at high angles of attack is done and the results showed the ability of jet in controlling separation and reducing wake region. (orig.)

  8. Analytical and numerical investigation of nonlinear internal gravity waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Kshevetskii

    2001-01-01

    coincidence of simulation outcomes with analytical ones is revealed and some examples of numerical simulations illustrating wave disintegration into solitons are given. The phenomenon of internal wave mixing is considered and is explained from the point of view of the results obtained. The numerical methods for internal wave simulation are examined. In particular, the influence of difference interval finiteness on a numerical solution is investigated. It is revealed that a numerical viscosity and numerical dispersion can play the role of regularizators to a nonlinear quasistatic problem. To avoid this effect, the grid steps should be taken less than some threshold values found theoretically.

  9. Numerical evidence for 'multiscalar stars'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawley, Scott H.; Choptuik, Matthew W.

    2003-01-01

    We present a class of general relativistic solitonlike solutions composed of multiple minimally coupled, massive, real scalar fields which interact only through the gravitational field. We describe a two-parameter family of solutions we call ''phase-shifted boson stars'' (parametrized by central density ρ 0 and phase δ), which are obtained by solving the ordinary differential equations associated with boson stars and then altering the phase between the real and imaginary parts of the field. These solutions are similar to boson stars as well as the oscillating soliton stars found by Seidel and Suen [E. Seidel and W. M. Suen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1659 (1991)]; in particular, long-time numerical evolutions suggest that phase-shifted boson stars are stable. Our results indicate that scalar solitonlike solutions are perhaps more generic than has been previously thought

  10. Valuing hope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, John; Walker, Simon; Hope, Tony

    2014-01-01

    This article argues that hope is of value in clinical ethics and that it can be important for clinicians to be sensitive to both the risks of false hope and the importance of retaining hope. However, this sensitivity requires an understanding of the complexity of hope and how it bears on different aspects of a well-functioning doctor-patient relationship. We discuss hopefulness and distinguish it, from three different kinds of hope, or 'hopes for', and then relate these distinctions back to differing accounts of autonomy. This analysis matters because it shows how an overly narrow view of the ethical obligations of a clinician to their patient, and autonomy, might lead to scenarios where patients regret the choices they make.

  11. Fair Value or Market Value?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Cosmin Gomoi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available When taking into consideration the issue of defining the “fair value” concept, those less experimented in the area often fall in the “price trap”, which is considered as an equivalent of the fair value of financial structures. This valuation basis appears as a consequence of the trial to provide an “accurate image” by the financial statements and, also, as an opportunity for the premises offered by the activity continuing principle. The specialized literature generates ample controversies regarding the “fair value” concept and the “market value” concept. The paper aims to debate this issue, taking into account various opinions.

  12. Numerical integration of the Teukolsky equation in the time domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pazos-Avalos, Enrique; Lousto, Carlos O.

    2005-01-01

    We present a fourth-order convergent (2+1)-dimensional, numerical formalism to solve the Teukolsky equation in the time domain. Our approach is first to rewrite the Teukolsky equation as a system of first-order differential equations. In this way we get a system that has the form of an advection equation. This is then used in combination with a series expansion of the solution in powers of time. To obtain a fourth-order scheme we kept terms up to fourth derivative in time and use the advectionlike system of differential equations to substitute the temporal derivatives by spatial derivatives. This scheme is applied to evolve gravitational perturbations in the Schwarzschild and Kerr backgrounds. Our numerical method proved to be stable and fourth-order convergent in r* and θ directions. The correct power-law tail, ∼1/t 2l+3 , for general initial data, and ∼1/t 2l+4 , for time-symmetric data, was found in our runs. We noted that it is crucial to resolve accurately the angular dependence of the mode at late times in order to obtain these values of the exponents in the power-law decay. In other cases, when the decay was too fast and round-off error was reached before a tail was developed, then the quasinormal modes frequencies provided a test to determine the validity of our code

  13. Numerical Investigations of Moisture Distribution in a Selected Anisotropic Soil Medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanek, M.

    2018-01-01

    The moisture of soil profile changes both in time and space and depends on many factors. Changes of the quantity of water in soil can be determined on the basis of in situ measurements, but numerical methods are increasingly used for this purpose. The quality of the results obtained using pertinent software packages depends on appropriate description and parameterization of soil medium. Thus, the issue of providing for the soil anisotropy phenomenon gains a big importance. Although anisotropy can be taken into account in many numerical models, isotopic soil is often assumed in the research process. However, this assumption can be a reason for incorrect results in the simulations of water changes in soil medium. In this article, results of numerical simulations of moisture distribution in the selected soil profile were presented. The calculations were conducted assuming isotropic and anisotropic conditions. Empirical verification of the results obtained in the numerical investigations indicated statistical essential discrepancies for the both analyzed conditions. However, better fitting measured and calculated moisture values was obtained for the case of providing for anisotropy in the simulation model.

  14. Unsteady aerodynamic coefficients obtained by a compressible vortex lattice method.

    OpenAIRE

    Fabiano Hernandes

    2009-01-01

    Unsteady solutions for the aerodynamic coefficients of a thin airfoil in compressible subsonic or supersonic flows are studied. The lift, the pitch moment, and pressure coefficients are obtained numerically for the following motions: the indicial response (unit step function) of the airfoil, i.e., a sudden change in the angle of attack; a thin airfoil penetrating into a sharp edge gust (for several gust speed ratios); a thin airfoil penetrating into a one-minus-cosine gust and sinusoidal gust...

  15. Numerical Analysis Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Michael

    1997-08-01

    The Numerical Analysis Objects project (NAO) is a project in the Mathematics Department of IBM's TJ Watson Research Center. While there are plenty of numerical tools available today, it is not an easy task to combine them into a custom application. NAO is directed at the dual problems of building applications from a set of tools, and creating those tools. There are several "reuse" projects, which focus on the problems of identifying and cataloging tools. NAO is directed at the specific context of scientific computing. Because the type of tools is restricted, problems such as tools with incompatible data structures for input and output, and dissimilar interfaces to tools which solve similar problems can be addressed. The approach we've taken is to define interfaces to those objects used in numerical analysis, such as geometries, functions and operators, and to start collecting (and building) a set of tools which use these interfaces. We have written a class library (a set of abstract classes and implementations) in C++ which demonstrates the approach. Besides the classes, the class library includes "stub" routines which allow the library to be used from C or Fortran, and an interface to a Visual Programming Language. The library has been used to build a simulator for petroleum reservoirs, using a set of tools for discretizing nonlinear differential equations that we have written, and includes "wrapped" versions of packages from the Netlib repository. Documentation can be found on the Web at "http://www.research.ibm.com/nao". I will describe the objects and their interfaces, and give examples ranging from mesh generation to solving differential equations.

  16. USO DE LA EFICACIA DE LAS SITUACIONES DE JUEGO EN DESIGUALDAD NUMÉRICA EN BALONMANO COMO VALOR PREDICTIVO DEL RESULTADO FINAL DEL PARTIDO [Use of the effectiveness of the game situations in inequality numerical in handball as predictive value of the fina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Óscar Gutiérrez Aguilar

    2010-09-01

    between the values of the two variables and for each pair of variables measured the correlation and the average difference between the means. None of the rates used showed a significant difference in position of superior numbers, so you could say that the actions in this situational context does not seem to influence the outcome of a game of high-level male handball. In numerical disadvantage both offensive efficiency ratios (CEOINET, CROINET and defensive effectiveness ratios (CEDSNET and CRDSNET are predictors of winning status. Keywords: handball, effectiveness, efficiency, tactics, evaluation.

  17. Numerical differential protection

    CERN Document Server

    Ziegler, Gerhard

    2012-01-01

    Differential protection is a fast and selective method of protection against short-circuits. It is applied in many variants for electrical machines, trans?formers, busbars, and electric lines.Initially this book covers the theory and fundamentals of analog and numerical differential protection. Current transformers are treated in detail including transient behaviour, impact on protection performance, and practical dimensioning. An extended chapter is dedicated to signal transmission for line protection, in particular, modern digital communication and GPS timing.The emphasis is then pla

  18. GHM method for obtaining rationalsolutions of nonlinear differential equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez-Leal, Hector; Sarmiento-Reyes, Arturo

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose the application of the general homotopy method (GHM) to obtain rational solutions of nonlinear differential equations. It delivers a high precision representation of the nonlinear differential equation using a few linear algebraic terms. In order to assess the benefits of this proposal, three nonlinear problems are solved and compared against other semi-analytic methods or numerical methods. The obtained results show that GHM is a powerful tool, capable to generate highly accurate rational solutions. AMS subject classification 34L30.

  19. Numerical simulation of an oxygen-fed wire-to-cylinder negative corona discharge in the glow regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanallah, K; Pontiga, F [Dpt. Fisica Aplicada II, Universidad de Sevilla (Spain); Castellanos, A [Dpt. Electronica y Electromagnetismo, Universidad de Sevilla (Spain)

    2011-02-09

    Negative glow corona discharge in flowing oxygen has been numerically simulated for a wire-to-cylinder electrode geometry. The corona discharge is modelled using a fluid approximation. The radial and axial distributions of charged and neutral species are obtained by solving the corresponding continuity equations, which include the relevant plasma-chemical kinetics. Continuity equations are coupled with Poisson's equation and the energy conservation equation, since the reaction rate constants may depend on the electric field and temperature. The experimental values of the current-voltage characteristic are used as input data into the numerical calculations. The role played by different reactions and chemical species is analysed, and the effect of electrical and geometrical parameters on ozone generation is investigated. The reliability of the numerical model is verified by the reasonable agreement between the numerical predictions of ozone concentration and the experimental measurements.

  20. Numerical simulation of an oxygen-fed wire-to-cylinder negative corona discharge in the glow regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanallah, K.; Pontiga, F.; Castellanos, A.

    2011-02-01

    Negative glow corona discharge in flowing oxygen has been numerically simulated for a wire-to-cylinder electrode geometry. The corona discharge is modelled using a fluid approximation. The radial and axial distributions of charged and neutral species are obtained by solving the corresponding continuity equations, which include the relevant plasma-chemical kinetics. Continuity equations are coupled with Poisson's equation and the energy conservation equation, since the reaction rate constants may depend on the electric field and temperature. The experimental values of the current-voltage characteristic are used as input data into the numerical calculations. The role played by different reactions and chemical species is analysed, and the effect of electrical and geometrical parameters on ozone generation is investigated. The reliability of the numerical model is verified by the reasonable agreement between the numerical predictions of ozone concentration and the experimental measurements.

  1. Numerical simulation of an oxygen-fed wire-to-cylinder negative corona discharge in the glow regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanallah, K; Pontiga, F; Castellanos, A

    2011-01-01

    Negative glow corona discharge in flowing oxygen has been numerically simulated for a wire-to-cylinder electrode geometry. The corona discharge is modelled using a fluid approximation. The radial and axial distributions of charged and neutral species are obtained by solving the corresponding continuity equations, which include the relevant plasma-chemical kinetics. Continuity equations are coupled with Poisson's equation and the energy conservation equation, since the reaction rate constants may depend on the electric field and temperature. The experimental values of the current-voltage characteristic are used as input data into the numerical calculations. The role played by different reactions and chemical species is analysed, and the effect of electrical and geometrical parameters on ozone generation is investigated. The reliability of the numerical model is verified by the reasonable agreement between the numerical predictions of ozone concentration and the experimental measurements.

  2. The concept of average LET values determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makarewicz, M.

    1981-01-01

    The concept of average LET (linear energy transfer) values determination, i.e. ordinary moments of LET in absorbed dose distribution vs. LET of ionizing radiation of any kind and any spectrum (even the unknown ones) has been presented. The method is based on measurement of ionization current with several values of voltage supplying an ionization chamber operating in conditions of columnar recombination of ions or ion recombination in clusters while the chamber is placed in the radiation field at the point of interest. By fitting a suitable algebraic expression to the measured current values one can obtain coefficients of the expression which can be interpreted as values of LET moments. One of the advantages of the method is its experimental and computational simplicity. It has been shown that for numerical estimation of certain effects dependent on LET of radiation it is not necessary to know the dose distribution but only a number of parameters of the distribution, i.e. the LET moments. (author)

  3. Valuing vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bärnighausen, Till; Bloom, David E; Cafiero-Fonseca, Elizabeth T; O'Brien, Jennifer Carroll

    2014-08-26

    Vaccination has led to remarkable health gains over the last century. However, large coverage gaps remain, which will require significant financial resources and political will to address. In recent years, a compelling line of inquiry has established the economic benefits of health, at both the individual and aggregate levels. Most existing economic evaluations of particular health interventions fail to account for this new research, leading to potentially sizable undervaluation of those interventions. In line with this new research, we set forth a framework for conceptualizing the full benefits of vaccination, including avoided medical care costs, outcome-related productivity gains, behavior-related productivity gains, community health externalities, community economic externalities, and the value of risk reduction and pure health gains. We also review literature highlighting the magnitude of these sources of benefit for different vaccinations. Finally, we outline the steps that need to be taken to implement a broad-approach economic evaluation and discuss the implications of this work for research, policy, and resource allocation for vaccine development and delivery.

  4. Neutronic evolution of SENA reactor during the first and second cycles. Comparison between the experimental power distributions obtained from the in-core instrumentation evaluation code CIRCE and the theoretical power values computed with the two-dimensional diffusion-evolution code EVOE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrieux, Chantal

    1976-03-01

    The neutronic evolution of the reacteur Sena during the first and second cycles is presented. The experimental power distributions, obtained from the in-core instrumentation evaluation code CIRCE are compared with the theoretical powers calculated with the two-dimensional diffusion-evolution code EVOE. The CIRCE code allows: the study of the evolution of the principal parameters of the core, the comparison of the results of measured and theoretical estimates. Therefore this study has a great interest for the knowledge of the neutronic evolution of the core, as well as the validation of the refinement of theoretical estimation methods. The core calculation methods and requisite data for the evaluation of the measurements are presented after a brief description of the SENA core and its inner instrumentation. The principle of the in-core instrumentation evaluation code CIRCE, and calculation of the experimental power distributions and nuclear core parameters are then exposed. The results of the evaluation are discussed, with a comparison of the theoretical and experimental results. Taking account of the approximations used, these results, as far as the first and second cycles at SENA are concerned, are satisfactory, the deviations between theoretical and experimental power distributions being lower than 3% at the middle of the reactor and 9% at the periphery [fr

  5. Numerical and Analytical Study of Optimal Low-Thrust Limited-Power Transfers between Close Circular Coplanar Orbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro da Silva Fernandes

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A numerical and analytical study of optimal low-thrust limited-power trajectories for simple transfer (no rendezvous between close circular coplanar orbits in an inverse-square force field is presented. The numerical study is carried out by means of an indirect approach of the optimization problem in which the two-point boundary value problem, obtained from the set of necessary conditions describing the optimal solutions, is solved through a neighboring extremal algorithm based on the solution of the linearized two-point boundary value problem through Riccati transformation. The analytical study is provided by a linear theory which is expressed in terms of nonsingular elements and is determined through the canonical transformation theory. The fuel consumption is taken as the performance criterion and the analysis is carried out considering various radius ratios and transfer durations. The results are compared to the ones provided by a numerical method based on gradient techniques.

  6. Confidence in Numerical Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemez, Francois M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-02-23

    This PowerPoint presentation offers a high-level discussion of uncertainty, confidence and credibility in scientific Modeling and Simulation (M&S). It begins by briefly evoking M&S trends in computational physics and engineering. The first thrust of the discussion is to emphasize that the role of M&S in decision-making is either to support reasoning by similarity or to “forecast,” that is, make predictions about the future or extrapolate to settings or environments that cannot be tested experimentally. The second thrust is to explain that M&S-aided decision-making is an exercise in uncertainty management. The three broad classes of uncertainty in computational physics and engineering are variability and randomness, numerical uncertainty and model-form uncertainty. The last part of the discussion addresses how scientists “think.” This thought process parallels the scientific method where by a hypothesis is formulated, often accompanied by simplifying assumptions, then, physical experiments and numerical simulations are performed to confirm or reject the hypothesis. “Confidence” derives, not just from the levels of training and experience of analysts, but also from the rigor with which these assessments are performed, documented and peer-reviewed.

  7. Confidence in Numerical Simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemez, Francois M.

    2015-01-01

    This PowerPoint presentation offers a high-level discussion of uncertainty, confidence and credibility in scientific Modeling and Simulation (M&S). It begins by briefly evoking M&S trends in computational physics and engineering. The first thrust of the discussion is to emphasize that the role of M&S in decision-making is either to support reasoning by similarity or to ''forecast,'' that is, make predictions about the future or extrapolate to settings or environments that cannot be tested experimentally. The second thrust is to explain that M&S-aided decision-making is an exercise in uncertainty management. The three broad classes of uncertainty in computational physics and engineering are variability and randomness, numerical uncertainty and model-form uncertainty. The last part of the discussion addresses how scientists ''think.'' This thought process parallels the scientific method where by a hypothesis is formulated, often accompanied by simplifying assumptions, then, physical experiments and numerical simulations are performed to confirm or reject the hypothesis. ''Confidence'' derives, not just from the levels of training and experience of analysts, but also from the rigor with which these assessments are performed, documented and peer-reviewed.

  8. Numerical Analysis of Partial Differential Equations

    CERN Document Server

    Lions, Jacques-Louis

    2011-01-01

    S. Albertoni: Alcuni metodi di calcolo nella teoria della diffusione dei neutroni.- I. Babuska: Optimization and numerical stability in computations.- J.H. Bramble: Error estimates in elliptic boundary value problems.- G. Capriz: The numerical approach to hydrodynamic problems.- A. Dou: Energy inequalities in an elastic cylinder.- T. Doupont: On the existence of an iterative method for the solution of elliptic difference equation with an improved work estimate.- J. Douglas, J.R. Cannon: The approximation of harmonic and parabolic functions of half-spaces from interior data.- B.E. Hubbard: Erro

  9. A numerical method for resonance integral calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanbay, Tayfun; Ozgener, Bilge

    2013-01-01

    A numerical method has been proposed for resonance integral calculations and a cubic fit based on least squares approximation to compute the optimum Bell factor is given. The numerical method is based on the discretization of the neutron slowing down equation. The scattering integral is approximated by taking into account the location of the upper limit in energy domain. The accuracy of the method has been tested by performing computations of resonance integrals for uranium dioxide isolated rods and comparing the results with empirical values. (orig.)

  10. Masonry constructions mechanical models and numerical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Lucchesi, Massimiliano; Padovani, Cristina

    2008-01-01

    Numerical methods for the structural analysis of masonry constructions can be of great value in assessing the safety of artistically important masonry buildings and optimizing potential operations of maintenance and strengthening in terms of their cost-effectiveness, architectural impact and static effectiveness. This monograph firstly provides a detailed description of the constitutive equation of masonry-like materials, clearly setting out its most important features. It then goes on to provide a numerical procedure to solve the equilibrium problem of masonry solids. A large portion of the w

  11. Value oriented marketing strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Ljiljana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The complexity of business environment imposes the need for continuous change and reexamination of business marketing strategies of enterprises. Theory and practice of strategic management and marketing show that the activities of marketing, which are closely connected to corporate strategy, are the key drivers of growth. There is a positive correlation between competition intensity, marketing strategy and business performance of companies. Even though, managers of many companies don't see a clear connection between marketing strategy and business performance, numerous empirical research show that the companies which possess and efficiently use marketing resources and capabilities are more successful. In knowledge-based economics, the development of value oriented marketing strategies for all participants in the chain is a supposition of the survival, growth and development of companies. Competitive advantage is the essence of any strategy. Acquisition and maintenance of competitive advantage is more successful if the potentials for value creation are used efficiently. The paper examines the critical factors that influence alignment and transformation of marketing strategies in accordance with changes in value estimation. Superior value, is created in different network classes. Theory and practice researches create a reliable basis for the development of new concepts, marketing strategy business models that will contribute to competitive advantage of enterprises and the economy.

  12. Numerical simulation of water quality in Yangtze Estuary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Li

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to monitor water quality in the Yangtze Estuary, water samples were collected and field observation of current and velocity stratification was carried out using a shipboard acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP. Results of two representative variables, the temporal and spatial variation of new point source sewage discharge as manifested by chemical oxygen demand (COD and the initial water quality distribution as manifested by dissolved oxygen (DO, were obtained by application of the Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC with solutions for hydrodynamics during tides. The numerical results were compared with field data, and the field data provided verification of numerical application: this numerical model is an effective tool for water quality simulation. For point source discharge, COD concentration was simulated with an initial value in the river of zero. The simulated increments and distribution of COD in the water show acceptable agreement with field data. The concentration of DO is much higher in the North Branch than in the South Branch due to consumption of oxygen in the South Branch resulting from discharge of sewage from Shanghai. The DO concentration is greater in the surface layer than in the bottom layer. The DO concentration is low in areas with a depth of less than 20 m, and high in areas between the 20-m and 30-m isobaths. It is concluded that the numerical model is valuable in simulation of water quality in the case of specific point source pollutant discharge. The EFDC model is also of satisfactory accuracy in water quality simulation of the Yangtze Estuary.

  13. Numerical method for the prediction of bending properties of glass-epoxy composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stamenović Marina R.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical properties of composite materials are conditioned by their structure and depend on the characteristics of structural components. In this paper is presented a numerical model by which the bending properties can be predicted on the basis of known mechanical properties of tension and pressure. Determining the relationship between these properties is justified having in mind the mechanics of fracture during bending, where the fracture takes place on the outer layer which is subjected to bending while the break ends on the layer subjected to pressure. The paper gives the values of tension, pressure and bending properties obtained by the corresponding mechanical test. A comparison of the numerical results of bending properties obtained on the basis of the model with the experimental ones, shows their satisfactory agreement. Therefore, this model can be used for some future research to predict bending properties without experiments.

  14. Numerical Simulation of the Propagation of Hydraulic and Natural Fracture Using Dijkstra’s Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanfang Wu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Utilization of hydraulic-fracturing technology is dramatically increasing in exploitation of natural gas extraction. However the prediction of the configuration of propagated hydraulic fracture is extremely challenging. This paper presents a numerical method of obtaining the configuration of the propagated hydraulic fracture into discrete natural fracture network system. The method is developed on the basis of weighted fracture which is derived in combination of Dijkstra’s algorithm energy theory and vector method. Numerical results along with experimental data demonstrated that proposed method is capable of predicting the propagated hydraulic fracture configuration reasonably with high computation efficiency. Sensitivity analysis reveals a number of interesting observation results: the shortest path weight value decreases with increasing of fracture density and length, and increases with increasing of the angle between fractures to the maximum principal stress direction. Our method is helpful for evaluating the complexity of the discrete fracture network, to obtain the extension direction of the fracture.

  15. Susy theories and QCD: numerical approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ita, Harald

    2011-01-01

    We review on-shell and unitarity methods and discuss their application to precision predictions for Large Hadron Collider (LHC) physics. Being universal and numerically robust, these methods are straightforward to automate for next-to-leading-order computations within standard model and beyond. Several state-of-the-art results including studies of (W/Z+3)-jet and (W+4)-jet production have explicitly demonstrated the effectiveness of the unitarity method for describing multi-parton scattering. Here we review central ideas needed to obtain efficient numerical implementations. This includes on-shell loop-level recursions, the unitarity method, color management and further refined tricks. (review)

  16. Numerical and theoretical investigations of resistive drift wave turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunn Pedersen, T.

    1995-07-01

    With regard to the development of thermonuclear fusion utilizing a plasma confined in a magnetic field, anomalous transport is a major problem and is considered to be caused by electrostatic drift wave turbulence. A simplified quasi-two-dimensional slab model of resistive drift wave turbulence is investigated numerically and theoretically. The model (Hasegawa and Wakatani), consists of two nonlinear partial differential equations for the density perturbation n and the electrostatic potential perturbation φ. It includes the effect of a background density gradient perpendicular to the magnetic field and a generalized Ohm's law for the electrons in the direction parallel to the magnetic field. It may be used to model the basic features of electrostatic turbulence and the associated transport in an edge plasma. Model equations are derived and some important properties of the system are discussed. It is described how the Fourier spectral method is applied to the Hasegawa-Wakatani equations, how the time integration is developed to ensure accurate and fast simulations in a large parameter regime, and how the accuracy of the code is checked. Numerical diagnostics are developed to verify and extend the results in publications concerning quasi-stationary turbulent states and to give an overview of the properties of the quasi-stationary turbulent state. The use of analysis tools, not previously applied to the Hasegawa-Wakatani system, and the results obtained are described. Fluid particles are tracked to obtain Lagrangian statistics for the turbulence. A new theoretical analysis of relative dispersion leads to a decomposition criterion for the particles. The significance of this is investigated numerically and characteristic time scales for particles are determined for a range of parameter values. It is indicated that the turbulent state can be characterized in the context of nonlinear dynamics and chaos theory as an attractor with a large basin of attraction. The basic

  17. Statistical identification of the confidence limits of open loop transfer functions obtained by MAR analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonopoulos-Domis, M.; Mourtzanos, K.

    1996-01-01

    Estimators of the confidence limits of open loop transfer functions via Multivariate Auto-Regressive (MAR) modelling are not available in the literature. The statistics of open loop transfer functions obtained by MAR modelling are investigated via numerical experiments. A system of known open loop transfer functions is simulated digitally and excited by random number series. The digital signals of the simulated system are then MAR modelled and the open loop transfer functions are estimated. Performing a large number of realizations, mean values and variances of the open loop transfer functions are estimated. It is found that if the record length N of each realization is long enough then the estimates of open loop transfer functions follow normal distribution. The variance of the open loop transfer functions is proportional to 1/N. For MAR processes the asymptotic covariance matrix of the estimate of open loop transfer functions was found in agreement with theoretical prediction. (author)

  18. Densities mixture unfolding for data obtained from detectors with finite resolution and limited acceptance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gagunashvili, N.D., E-mail: nikolai@unak.is

    2015-04-01

    A procedure based on a Mixture Density Model for correcting experimental data for distortions due to finite resolution and limited detector acceptance is presented. Addressing the case that the solution is known to be non-negative, in the approach presented here, the true distribution is estimated by a weighted sum of probability density functions with positive weights and with the width of the densities acting as a regularization parameter responsible for the smoothness of the result. To obtain better smoothing in less populated regions, the width parameter is chosen inversely proportional to the square root of the estimated density. Furthermore, the non-negative garrote method is used to find the most economic representation of the solution. Cross-validation is employed to determine the optimal values of the resolution and garrote parameters. The proposed approach is directly applicable to multidimensional problems. Numerical examples in one and two dimensions are presented to illustrate the procedure.

  19. Predictive values derived from lower wisdom teeth developmental stages on orthopantomograms to calculate the chronological age in adolescence and young adults as a prerequisite to obtain age-adjusted informed patient consent prior to elective surgical procedures in young patients with incomplete or mismatched personal data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Reinhard E; Schmidt, Kirsten; Treszl, András; Kersten, Jan F

    2016-01-01

    . Using hierarchical multivariate analyses a formula was derived quantifying the development of the four parameters of wisdom tooth over time. This model took repeated measurements of the same persons into account and is only applicable when a person is assessed a second time. The second approach investigates a linear regression model in order to predict the age. In a third approach, a classification and regression tree (CART) was developed to derive cut-off values for the four parameters, resulting in a classification with estimates for sensitivity and specificity. Results: No statistically significant differences were found between parameters related to wisdom tooth localization (right or left side). In univariate analyses being of legal age was associated with consecutive stages of wisdom tooth development, the obliteration of the periodontal space, and tooth emergence, as well with alveolar bone loss; no association was found with tooth mineralization. Multivariate models without repeated measurements revealed imprecise estimates because of the unknown individual-related variability. The precision of these models is thus not very good, although it improves with advancing age. When calculating a CART-analysis and a receiver operating characteristics - area under the curve of 78% was achieved; when maximizing both specificity and sensitivity, a Youden's index of 47% was achieved (with 73% specificity and 74% sensitivity). Discussion: This study provides a basis to help determine whether a person is 18 years or older in individuals who are assumed to be between 15 and 24 years old. From repeated measurements, we found a linear effect of age on the four parameters in the individuals. However, this information can't be used for prognosis, because of the large intra-individual variability. Thus, although the development of the four parameters can be estimated over time, a direct conclusion with regard to age can't be drawn from the parameters without previous biographic

  20. Risk Aversion and the Value of Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eeckhoudt, Louis; Godfroid, Phillippe

    2000-01-01

    Explains why risk aversion does not always induce a greater information value, but instead may induce a lower information value when increased. Presents a basic model defining the concept of perfect information value and providing a numerical illustration. Includes references. (CMK)

  1. Numerical Investigation of the Effect of Magnetic Field on Natural Convection in a Curved-Shape Enclosure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sheikholeslami

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This investigation reports the magnetic field effect on natural convection heat transfer in a curved-shape enclosure. The numerical investigation is carried out using the control volume-based-finite element method (CVFEM. The numerical investigations are performed for various values of Hartmann number and Rayleigh number. The obtained results are depicted in terms of streamlines and isotherms which show the significant effects of Hartmann number on the fluid flow and temperature distribution inside the enclosure. Also, it was found that the Nusselt number decreases with an increase in the Hartmann number.

  2. Essential numerical computer methods

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Michael L

    2010-01-01

    The use of computers and computational methods has become ubiquitous in biological and biomedical research. During the last 2 decades most basic algorithms have not changed, but what has is the huge increase in computer speed and ease of use, along with the corresponding orders of magnitude decrease in cost. A general perception exists that the only applications of computers and computer methods in biological and biomedical research are either basic statistical analysis or the searching of DNA sequence data bases. While these are important applications they only scratch the surface of the current and potential applications of computers and computer methods in biomedical research. The various chapters within this volume include a wide variety of applications that extend far beyond this limited perception. As part of the Reliable Lab Solutions series, Essential Numerical Computer Methods brings together chapters from volumes 210, 240, 321, 383, 384, 454, and 467 of Methods in Enzymology. These chapters provide ...

  3. Numerical relativity beyond astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfinkle, David

    2017-01-01

    Though the main applications of computer simulations in relativity are to astrophysical systems such as black holes and neutron stars, nonetheless there are important applications of numerical methods to the investigation of general relativity as a fundamental theory of the nature of space and time. This paper gives an overview of some of these applications. In particular we cover (i) investigations of the properties of spacetime singularities such as those that occur in the interior of black holes and in big bang cosmology. (ii) investigations of critical behavior at the threshold of black hole formation in gravitational collapse. (iii) investigations inspired by string theory, in particular analogs of black holes in more than 4 spacetime dimensions and gravitational collapse in spacetimes with a negative cosmological constant.

  4. Testability of numerical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soulas, B.

    1992-01-01

    In order to face up to the growing complexity of systems, the authors undertook to define a new approach for the qualification of systems. This approach is based on the concept of Testability which, supported by system modelization, validation and verification methods and tools, would allow Integrated Qualification process, applied throughout the life-span of systems. The general principles of this approach are introduced in the general case of numerical systems; in particular, this presentation points out the difference between the specification activity and the modelization and validation activity. This approach is illustrated firstly by the study of a global system and then by case of communication protocol as the software point of view. Finally MODEL which support this approach is described. MODEL tool is a commercial tool providing modelization and validation techniques based on Petri Nets with triple extension: Predicate/Transition, Timed and Stochastic Petri Nets

  5. Numerical relativity beyond astrophysics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfinkle, David

    2017-01-01

    Though the main applications of computer simulations in relativity are to astrophysical systems such as black holes and neutron stars, nonetheless there are important applications of numerical methods to the investigation of general relativity as a fundamental theory of the nature of space and time. This paper gives an overview of some of these applications. In particular we cover (i) investigations of the properties of spacetime singularities such as those that occur in the interior of black holes and in big bang cosmology. (ii) investigations of critical behavior at the threshold of black hole formation in gravitational collapse. (iii) investigations inspired by string theory, in particular analogs of black holes in more than 4 spacetime dimensions and gravitational collapse in spacetimes with a negative cosmological constant.

  6. Boiling heat transfer on fins – experimental and numerical procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orzechowski T.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the research methodology, the test facility and the results of investigations into non-isothermal surfaces in water boiling at atmospheric pressure, together with a discussion of errors. The investigations were conducted for two aluminium samples with technically smooth surfaces and thickness of 4 mm and 10 mm, respectively. For the sample of lower thickness, on the basis of the surface temperature distribution measured with an infrared camera, the local heat flux and the heat transfer coefficient were determined and shown in the form of a boiling curve. For the thicker sample, for which 1-D model cannot be used, numerical calculations were conducted. They resulted in obtaining the values of the local heat flux on the surface the invisible to the infrared, camera i.e. on the side on which the boiling of the medium proceeds.

  7. Numerical model of electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Mironov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Important features of the electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS operation are accurately reproduced with a numerical code. The code uses the particle-in-cell technique to model the dynamics of ions in ECRIS plasma. It is shown that a gas dynamical ion confinement mechanism is sufficient to provide the ion production rates in ECRIS close to the experimentally observed values. Extracted ion currents are calculated and compared to the experiment for a few sources. Changes in the simulated extracted ion currents are obtained with varying the gas flow into the source chamber and the microwave power. Empirical scaling laws for ECRIS design are studied and the underlying physical effects are discussed.

  8. Numerical simulation of signals of photothermal radiometry in silicon monocrystals; Simulacion numerica de senales de radiometria fototermica en mono cristales de silicio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos C, I. [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, 78000 San Luis Potosi (Mexico); Rodriguez, M.E. [Fisica Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, 76000 Juriquilla, Queretaro (Mexico); Ruiz, F. [Instituto Potosino de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica, Av. Carranza 2425-A, 78210 San Luis Potosi (Mexico)

    2002-07-01

    By using the theoretical model proposed by Mandelis et al. and a numerical simulations. We have analysed the generation of photoinduced black body radiation (photothermal radiometry signal) on monocrystalline silicon wafers. We report the particular role of each one of the main parameters involved on the photothermal signal. The parameter values were taken of the reported values for industrial silicon wafers. We show a discuss the obtained results. (Author)

  9. ASSIMILATION OF DOPPLER RADAR DATA INTO NUMERICAL WEATHER MODELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiswell, S.; Buckley, R.

    2009-01-15

    During the year 2008, the United States National Weather Service (NWS) completed an eight fold increase in sampling capability for weather radars to 250 m resolution. This increase is expected to improve warning lead times by detecting small scale features sooner with increased reliability; however, current NWS operational model domains utilize grid spacing an order of magnitude larger than the radar data resolution, and therefore the added resolution of radar data is not fully exploited. The assimilation of radar reflectivity and velocity data into high resolution numerical weather model forecasts where grid spacing is comparable to the radar data resolution was investigated under a Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) 'quick hit' grant to determine the impact of improved data resolution on model predictions with specific initial proof of concept application to daily Savannah River Site operations and emergency response. Development of software to process NWS radar reflectivity and radial velocity data was undertaken for assimilation of observations into numerical models. Data values within the radar data volume undergo automated quality control (QC) analysis routines developed in support of this project to eliminate empty/missing data points, decrease anomalous propagation values, and determine error thresholds by utilizing the calculated variances among data values. The Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) three dimensional variational data assimilation package (WRF-3DVAR) was used to incorporate the QC'ed radar data into input and boundary conditions. The lack of observational data in the vicinity of SRS available to NWS operational models signifies an important data void where radar observations can provide significant input. These observations greatly enhance the knowledge of storm structures and the environmental conditions which influence their development. As the increase in computational power and availability has

  10. Computing the Alexander Polynomial Numerically

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mikael Sonne

    2006-01-01

    Explains how to construct the Alexander Matrix and how this can be used to compute the Alexander polynomial numerically.......Explains how to construct the Alexander Matrix and how this can be used to compute the Alexander polynomial numerically....

  11. NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF AN AGRICULTURAL SOIL SHEAR STRESS TEST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Formato

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work a numerical simulation of agricultural soil shear stress tests was performed through soil shear strength data detected by a soil shearometer. We used a soil shearometer available on the market to measure soil shear stress and constructed special equipment that enabled automated detection of soil shear stress. It was connected to an acquisition data system that displayed and recorded soil shear stress during the full field tests. A soil shearometer unit was used to the in situ measurements of soil shear stress in full field conditions for different types of soils located on the right side of the Sele river, at a distance of about 1 km from each other, along the perpendicular to the Sele river in the direction of the sea. Full field tests using the shearometer unit were performed alongside considered soil characteristic parameter data collection. These parameter values derived from hydrostatic compression and triaxial tests performed on considered soil samples and repeated 4 times and we noticed that the difference between the maximum and minimum values detected for every set of performed tests never exceeded 4%. Full field shear tests were simulated by the Abaqus program code considering three different material models of soils normally used in the literature, the Mohr-Coulomb, Drucker-Prager and Cam-Clay models. We then compared all data outcomes obtained by numerical simulations with those from the experimental tests. We also discussed any further simulation data results obtained with different material models and selected the best material model for each considered soil to be used in tyre/soil contact simulation or in soil compaction studies.

  12. Company Value Anatomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Nelson Guedes de Carvalho

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The seminal propositions by Modigliani and Miller started a new study area in modern finance theory. Over time, their basic assumptions were relaxed, to the extent that, nowadays, situations in which they can be fully applied, with consistent and satisfactory results, are rare. On the other hand, as this simple set of propositions became known worldwide and was easily applicable, it was adopted as a rule of thumb for general enterprise valuation. However, in situations without methodological bias, the resulting enterprise values obtained by traditional methodologies are abstruse and do not allow for the analysis and management of the individual values that make up the firm and own capital values. In order to avoid this kind of abstruseness in company valuation, this study theoretically deducts an alternative valuation methodology, which permits the identification of assets’ value independently of their financing; moreover, we identify the gain on debt value that the debt provides to the shareholders, the debt tax shield and the value loss of assets and tax shield due to the increase in shareholder risk because of the leverage capital structure.

  13. Anomalous vacuum expectation values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, H.

    1986-01-01

    The anomalous vacuum expectation value is defined as the expectation value of a quantity that vanishes by means of the field equations. Although this value is expected to vanish in quantum systems, regularization in general produces a finite value of this quantity. Calculation of this anomalous vacuum expectation value can be carried out in the general framework of field theory. The result is derived by subtraction of divergences and by zeta-function regularization. Various anomalies are included in these anomalous vacuum expectation values. This method is useful for deriving not only the conformal, chiral, and gravitational anomalies but also the supercurrent anomaly. The supercurrent anomaly is obtained in the case of N = 1 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory in four, six, and ten dimensions. The original form of the energy-momentum tensor and the supercurrent have anomalies in their conservation laws. But the modification of these quantities to be equivalent to the original one on-shell causes no anomaly in their conservation laws and gives rise to anomalous traces

  14. Numerical challenges of short range wake field calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lau, Thomas; Gjonaj, Erion; Weiland, Thomas [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt (Germany). Institut fuer Theorie Elektromagnetischer Felder (TEMF)

    2011-07-01

    For present and future accelerator projects with ultra short bunches the accurate and reliable calculation of short range wake fields is an important issue. However, the numerical calculation of short range wake fields is a numerical challenging task. The presentation gives an overview over the numerical challenges and techniques for short range wake field calculations. Finally, some simulation results obtained by the program PBCI developed at the TU Darmstadt are presented.

  15. Numerical Analysis of Heat Transfer During Quenching Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madireddi, Sowjanya; Krishnan, Krishnan Nambudiripad; Reddy, Ammana Satyanarayana

    2018-04-01

    A numerical model is developed to simulate the immersion quenching process of metals. The time of quench plays an important role if the process involves a defined step quenching schedule to obtain the desired characteristics. Lumped heat capacity analysis used for this purpose requires the value of heat transfer coefficient, whose evaluation requires large experimental data. Experimentation on a sample work piece may not represent the actual component which may vary in dimension. A Fluid-Structure interaction technique with a coupled interface between the solid (metal) and liquid (quenchant) is used for the simulations. Initial times of quenching shows boiling heat transfer phenomenon with high values of heat transfer coefficients (5000-2.5 × 105 W/m2K). Shape of the work piece with equal dimension shows less influence on the cooling rate Non-uniformity in hardness at the sharp corners can be reduced by rounding off the edges. For a square piece of 20 mm thickness, with 3 mm fillet radius, this difference is reduced by 73 %. The model can be used for any metal-quenchant combination to obtain time-temperature data without the necessity of experimentation.

  16. Numerical simulation of responses for cased-hole density logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Wensheng; Fu, Yaping; Niu, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Stabilizing or stimulating oil production in old oil fields requires density logging in cased holes where open-hole logging data are either missing or of bad quality. However, measured values from cased-hole density logging are more severely influenced by factors such as fluid, casing, cement sheath and the outer diameter of the open-hole well compared with those from open-hole logging. To correctly apply the cased-hole formation density logging data, one must eliminate these influences on the measured values and study the characteristics of how the cased-hole density logging instrument responds to these factors. In this paper, a Monte Carlo numerical simulation technique was used to calculate the responses of the far detector of a cased-hole density logging instrument to in-hole fluid, casing wall thickness, cement sheath density and the formation and thus to obtain influence rules and response coefficients. The obtained response of the detector is a function of in-hole liquid, casing wall thickness, the casing's outer diameter, cement sheath density, open-hole well diameter and formation density. The ratio of the counting rate of the detector in the calibration well to that in the measurement well was used to get a fairly simple detector response equation and the coefficients in the equation are easy to acquire. These provide a new way of calculating cased-hole density through forward modelling methods. (paper)

  17. Children's Mental Representation When Comparing Fractions with Common Numerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chunhui; Xin, Ziqiang; Lin, Chongde; Thompson, Clarissa A.

    2013-01-01

    Researchers debate whether one represents the magnitude of a fraction according to its real numerical value or just the discrete numerosity of its numerator or denominator. The present study examined three effects based on the notion that people possess a mental number line to explore how children represent fractions when they compare fractions…

  18. Numerical methods for incompressible viscous flows with engineering applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, M. E.; Ash, R. L.

    1988-01-01

    A numerical scheme has been developed to solve the incompressible, 3-D Navier-Stokes equations using velocity-vorticity variables. This report summarizes the development of the numerical approximation schemes for the divergence and curl of the velocity vector fields and the development of compact schemes for handling boundary and initial boundary value problems.

  19. Numerical model SMODERP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavka, P.; Jeřábek, J.; Strouhal, L.

    2016-12-01

    The contribution presents a numerical model SMODERP that is used for calculation and prediction of surface runoff and soil erosion from agricultural land. The physically based model includes the processes of infiltration (Phillips equation), surface runoff routing (kinematic wave based equation), surface retention, surface roughness and vegetation impact on runoff. The model is being developed at the Department of Irrigation, Drainage and Landscape Engineering, Civil Engineering Faculty, CTU in Prague. 2D version of the model was introduced in last years. The script uses ArcGIS system tools for data preparation. The physical relations are implemented through Python scripts. The main computing part is stand alone in numpy arrays. Flow direction is calculated by Steepest Descent algorithm and in multiple flow algorithm. Sheet flow is described by modified kinematic wave equation. Parameters for five different soil textures were calibrated on the set of hundred measurements performed on the laboratory and filed rainfall simulators. Spatially distributed models enable to estimate not only surface runoff but also flow in the rills. Development of the rills is based on critical shear stress and critical velocity. For modelling of the rills a specific sub model was created. This sub model uses Manning formula for flow estimation. Flow in the ditches and streams are also computed. Numerical stability of the model is controled by Courant criterion. Spatial scale is fixed. Time step is dynamic and depends on the actual discharge. The model is used in the framework of the project "Variability of Short-term Precipitation and Runoff in Small Czech Drainage Basins and its Influence on Water Resources Management". Main goal of the project is to elaborate a methodology and online utility for deriving short-term design precipitation series, which could be utilized by a broad community of scientists, state administration as well as design planners. The methodology will account for

  20. Behavioural Present Value Defined as Fuzzy Number – a New Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piasecki Krzysztof

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The behavioural present value is defined as a fuzzy number assessed under the impact of chosen behavioural factors. The first formal model turned out to be burdened with some formal defects which are finally corrected in the presented article. In this way a new modified formal model of a behavioural present value is obtained. New model of the behavioural present value is used to explain the phenomenon of market equilibrium on the efficient financial market remaining in the state of financial imbalance. These considerations are illustrated by means of extensive numerical case study.

  1. Chrystal and Proudman resonances simulated with three numerical models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubalo, Maja; Janeković, Ivica; Orlić, Mirko

    2018-05-01

    The aim of this work was to study Chrystal and Proudman resonances in a simple closed basin and to explore and compare how well the two resonant mechanisms are reproduced with different, nowadays widely used, numerical ocean models. The test case was based on air pressure disturbances of two commonly used shapes (a sinusoidal and a boxcar), having various wave lengths, and propagating at different speeds. Our test domain was a closed rectangular basin, 300 km long with a uniform depth of 50 m, with the theoretical analytical solution available for benchmark. In total, 2250 simulations were performed for each of the three different numerical models: ADCIRC, SCHISM and ROMS. During each of the simulations, we recorded water level anomalies and computed the integral of the energy density spectrum for a number of points distributed along the basin. We have successfully documented the transition from Proudman to Chrystal resonance that occurs for a sinusoidal air pressure disturbance having a wavelength between one and two basin lengths. An inter-model comparison of the results shows that different models represent the two resonant phenomena in a slightly different way. For Chrystal resonance, all the models showed similar behavior; however, ADCIRC model providing slightly higher values of the mean resonant period than the other two models. In the case of Proudman resonance, the most consistent results, closest to the analytical solution, were obtained using ROMS model, which reproduced the mean resonant speed equal to 22.00 m/s— i.e., close to the theoretical value of 22.15 m/s. ADCIRC and SCHISM models showed small deviations from that value, with the mean speed being slightly lower—21.97 m/s (ADCIRC) and 21.93 m/s (SCHISM). The findings may seem small but could play an important role when resonance is a crucial process producing enhancing effects by two orders of magnitude (i.e., meteotsunamis).

  2. Partial differential equations with numerical methods

    CERN Document Server

    Larsson, Stig

    2003-01-01

    The book is suitable for advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate students of applied mathematics and engineering. The main theme is the integration of the theory of linear PDEs and the numerical solution of such equations. For each type of PDE, elliptic, parabolic, and hyperbolic, the text contains one chapter on the mathematical theory of the differential equation, followed by one chapter on finite difference methods and one on finite element methods. As preparation, the two-point boundary value problem and the initial-value problem for ODEs are discussed in separate chapters. There is also one chapter on the elliptic eigenvalue problem and eigenfunction expansion. The presentation does not presume a deep knowledge of mathematical and functional analysis. Some background on linear functional analysis and Sobolev spaces, and also on numerical linear algebra, is reviewed in two appendices.

  3. Obtaining shale oil suitable for lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giraudel, M

    1851-11-12

    Treats with sulphuric acid and then with soda, obtaining 57 per cent of products suitable for lighting in place of the usual 35 to 40 per cent as obtained by present processes. The product has a less disagreeable odor.

  4. Experimental/numerical acoustic correlation of helicopter unsteady MANOEUVRES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gennaretti, Massimo; Bernardini, Giovanni; Hartjes, S.; Scandroglio, Alessandro; Riviello, Luca; Paolone, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents one of the main objective of WP1 of Clean Sky GRC5 MANOEUVRES project, which consists in the correlation of ground noise data measured during flight tests, with numerical predictions obtained by a numerical process aimed at the analysis of the acoustic field emitted by

  5. Numerical aerodynamic simulation (NAS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, V.L.; Ballhaus, W.F. Jr.; Bailey, F.R.

    1984-01-01

    The Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation (NAS) Program is designed to provide a leading-edge computational capability to the aerospace community. It was recognized early in the program that, in addition to more advanced computers, the entire computational process ranging from problem formulation to publication of results needed to be improved to realize the full impact of computational aerodynamics. Therefore, the NAS Program has been structured to focus on the development of a complete system that can be upgraded periodically with minimum impact on the user and on the inventory of applications software. The implementation phase of the program is now under way. It is based upon nearly 8 yr of study and should culminate in an initial operational capability before 1986. The objective of this paper is fivefold: 1) to discuss the factors motivating the NAS program, 2) to provide a history of the activity, 3) to describe each of the elements of the processing-system network, 4) to outline the proposed allocation of time to users of the facility, and 5) to describe some of the candidate problems being considered for the first benchmark codes

  6. Preliminary results obtained from a dense plasma focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinman, S.; Sinman, A.

    1982-01-01

    In this study, for the data processing in our Dense Plasma Focus (DPF) system, a multiparameters numerical hierarchy obtained from the fundamental equations based on the snowplows model and its conclusions have been developed. Evaluating the data along the transients of the total plasma current, the anode current and the focus voltage recorded by an oscilloscope, they have been possible to determine the time domain plasma parameters such as the shock thickness, the sheath temperature, velocity and electron density, the pressure at the focus phase and the plasma temperature. Besides, the dissipated energy through the focus notch or in other words, the plasma temperature has also been calculated by means of the numerical integration. In the text, a performance chart together with some other correlation curves for the optimization of the DPF systems are submitted and discussed. (author)

  7. Bäcklund transformation, analytic soliton solutions and numerical simulation for a (2+1)-dimensional complex Ginzburg-Landau equation in a nonlinear fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ming-Xiao; Tian, Bo; Chai, Jun; Yin, Hui-Min; Du, Zhong

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, we investigate a nonlinear fiber described by a (2+1)-dimensional complex Ginzburg-Landau equation with the chromatic dispersion, optical filtering, nonlinear and linear gain. Bäcklund transformation in the bilinear form is constructed. With the modified bilinear method, analytic soliton solutions are obtained. For the soliton, the amplitude can decrease or increase when the absolute value of the nonlinear or linear gain is enlarged, and the width can be compressed or amplified when the absolute value of the chromatic dispersion or optical filtering is enhanced. We study the stability of the numerical solutions numerically by applying the increasing amplitude, embedding the white noise and adding the Gaussian pulse to the initial values based on the analytic solutions, which shows that the numerical solutions are stable, not influenced by the finite initial perturbations.

  8. Numerical investigation of geometric parameter effects on the aerodynamic performance of a Bladeless fan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Jafari

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aerodynamic performance of a Bladeless fan is numerically investigated considering the effect of five geometric parameters. Airflow through this fan was analyzed by simulating a Bladeless fan within a 2 m × 2 m × 4 m room. Analysis of the flow field inside the fan and the evaluation of its performance were obtained by solving conservations of mass and momentum equations for the aerodynamic investigations. In order to design the Bladeless fan an Eppler 473 airfoil profile was used as the cross section of the fan. Five distinct parameters, namely height of cross section of the fan, outlet angle of the flow relative to the fan axis, thickness of airflow outlet slit, hydraulic diameter, and aspect ratio for circular and quadratic cross sections were considered. Validating 3-D numerical results, experimental results of a round jet showed good agreement with those of the simulation data. The multiplier factor M is defined to show the ratio of the outlet flow rate to inlet flow rate from the fan. The obtained numerical results showed that the Discharge ratio has the maximum value for the height of 3 cm. The numerical outcomes of outlet thickness variation indicate that this parameter is one of the most influential parameters on the aerodynamic performance of a Bladeless fan. The results for the outlet thicknesses of 1, 2 and 3 mm showed that the Discharge ratio increased significantly when the outlet thickness decreased.

  9. Numerical Characterization of Piezoceramics Using Resonance Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Nicolás; Buiochi, Flávio; Brizzotti Andrade, Marco Aurélio; Adamowski, Julio Cezar

    2016-01-01

    Piezoelectric materials characterization is a challenging problem involving physical concepts, electrical and mechanical measurements and numerical optimization techniques. Piezoelectric ceramics such as Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) belong to the 6 mm symmetry class, which requires five elastic, three piezoelectric and two dielectric constants to fully represent the material properties. If losses are considered, the material properties can be represented by complex numbers. In this case, 20 independent material constants are required to obtain the full model. Several numerical methods have been used to adjust the theoretical models to the experimental results. The continuous improvement of the computer processing ability has allowed the use of a specific numerical method, the Finite Element Method (FEM), to iteratively solve the problem of finding the piezoelectric constants. This review presents the recent advances in the numerical characterization of 6 mm piezoelectric materials from experimental electrical impedance curves. The basic strategy consists in measuring the electrical impedance curve of a piezoelectric disk, and then combining the Finite Element Method with an iterative algorithm to find a set of material properties that minimizes the difference between the numerical impedance curve and the experimental one. Different methods to validate the results are also discussed. Examples of characterization of some common piezoelectric ceramics are presented to show the practical application of the described methods. PMID:28787875

  10. Numerical Characterization of Piezoceramics Using Resonance Curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolás Pérez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Piezoelectric materials characterization is a challenging problem involving physical concepts, electrical and mechanical measurements and numerical optimization techniques. Piezoelectric ceramics such as Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT belong to the 6 mm symmetry class, which requires five elastic, three piezoelectric and two dielectric constants to fully represent the material properties. If losses are considered, the material properties can be represented by complex numbers. In this case, 20 independent material constants are required to obtain the full model. Several numerical methods have been used to adjust the theoretical models to the experimental results. The continuous improvement of the computer processing ability has allowed the use of a specific numerical method, the Finite Element Method (FEM, to iteratively solve the problem of finding the piezoelectric constants. This review presents the recent advances in the numerical characterization of 6 mm piezoelectric materials from experimental electrical impedance curves. The basic strategy consists in measuring the electrical impedance curve of a piezoelectric disk, and then combining the Finite Element Method with an iterative algorithm to find a set of material properties that minimizes the difference between the numerical impedance curve and the experimental one. Different methods to validate the results are also discussed. Examples of characterization of some common piezoelectric ceramics are presented to show the practical application of the described methods.

  11. Numerical Analysis of Dusty-Gas Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, T.

    2002-02-01

    This paper presents the development of a numerical code for simulating unsteady dusty-gas flows including shock and rarefaction waves. The numerical results obtained for a shock tube problem are used for validating the accuracy and performance of the code. The code is then extended for simulating two-dimensional problems. Since the interactions between the gas and particle phases are calculated with the operator splitting technique, we can choose numerical schemes independently for the different phases. A semi-analytical method is developed for the dust phase, while the TVD scheme of Harten and Yee is chosen for the gas phase. Throughout this study, computations are carried out on SGI Origin2000, a parallel computer with multiple of RISC based processors. The efficient use of the parallel computer system is an important issue and the code implementation on Origin2000 is also described. Flow profiles of both the gas and solid particles behind the steady shock wave are calculated by integrating the steady conservation equations. The good agreement between the pseudo-stationary solutions and those from the current numerical code validates the numerical approach and the actual coding. The pseudo-stationary shock profiles can also be used as initial conditions of unsteady multidimensional simulations.

  12. Biodegradable Polyelectrolyte Obtained by Radiation Polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craciun, G.; Martin, D.; Manaila, E.; Nemtanu, M.; Brasoveanu, M.; Ighigeanu, D.

    2009-01-01

    Poly electrolytes are water-soluble polymers carrying ionic charge along the polymer chain. Depending upon the charge, these polymers are anionic or cationic. The inherent solid - liquid separating efficiency makes these poly electrolytes a unique class of polymers which find extensive application in potable water, industrial raw and process water, municipal sewage treatment, mineral processing and metallurgy, oil drilling and recovery, etc. Also, due to their ability to produce advanced induced coagulation, a considerable amount of bacteria and viruses are precipitated together with the suspended solids. Especially the acrylamide polymers are very efficacious for water treatment but acrylamide is a toxic monomer and therefore their use are governed by international standards that provide the residual acrylamide monomer content (RAMC) in them be less than 0.05%. Under these circumstances our attention was focused on the following research steps that are presented in this paper: 1) Preparation of a special class of poly electrolytes, named Pn, with very low RAMC values, based on electron beam (EB), microwave (MW) and EB + MW induced co-polymerization of aqueous solutions containing appropriate mixtures of acrylamide (AMD) and acrylic acid (AA) monomers (AMD - AA co-polymers). The Pn were obtained by radiation technology with very small RAMC (under 0.01%) as well as in a wide range of molecular weights and charge densities. Very low AMD monomer content of Pn is due to the major advantages of radiation induced polymerization in aqueous solution containing monomers. Due to water presence in the EB irradiated system, irradiated water radicals facilitate the polymerization process and increase rate and level of monomers conversion in co-polymers. Also, once again, by the presence of water, which absorbs MW energy very strongly, the MW polymerization reaction rate is much enhanced resulting in a reaction time about 50-100 times lowers than by conventional heating. Also

  13. A hybrid numerical method for orbit correction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, G.; Himel, T.; Shoaee, H.

    1997-09-01

    The authors describe a simple hybrid numerical method for beam orbit correction in particle accelerators. The method overcomes both degeneracy in the linear system being solved and respects boundaries on the solution. It uses the Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) to find and remove the null-space in the system, followed by a bounded Linear Least Squares analysis of the remaining recast problem. It was developed for correcting orbit and dispersion in the B-factory rings

  14. Numerical Models for the Assessment of Historical Masonry Structures and Materials, Monitored by Acoustic Emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Invernizzi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviews some recent numerical applications for the interpretation and exploitation of acoustic emission (AE monitoring results obtained from historical masonry structures and materials. Among possible numerical techniques, the finite element method and the distinct method are considered. The analyzed numerical models cover the entire scale range, from microstructure and meso-structure, up to full-size real structures. The micro-modeling includes heterogeneous concrete-like materials, but mainly focuses on the masonry texture meso-structure, where each brick and mortar joint is modeled singularly. The full-size models consider the different typology of historical structures such as masonry towers, cathedrals and chapels. The main difficulties and advantages of the different numerical approaches, depending on the problem typology and scale, are critically analyzed. The main insight we can achieve from micro and meso numerical modeling concerns the scaling of AE as a function of volume and time, since it is also able to simulate the b-value temporal evolution as the damage spread into the structure. The finite element modeling of the whole structure provides useful hints for the optimal placement of the AE sensors, while the combination of AE monitoring results is crucial for a reliable assessment of structural safety.

  15. Methods for fitting of efficiency curves obtained by means of HPGe gamma rays spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, Vanderlei

    2002-01-01

    The present work describes a few methodologies developed for fitting efficiency curves obtained by means of a HPGe gamma-ray spectrometer. The interpolated values were determined by simple polynomial fitting and polynomial fitting between the ratio of experimental peak efficiency and total efficiency, calculated by Monte Carlo technique, as a function of gamma-ray energy. Moreover, non-linear fitting has been performed using a segmented polynomial function and applying the Gauss-Marquardt method. For the peak area obtainment different methodologies were developed in order to estimate the background area under the peak. This information was obtained by numerical integration or by using analytical functions associated to the background. One non-calibrated radioactive source has been included in the curve efficiency in order to provide additional calibration points. As a by-product, it was possible to determine the activity of this non-calibrated source. For all fittings developed in the present work the covariance matrix methodology was used, which is an essential procedure in order to give a complete description of the partial uncertainties involved. (author)

  16. Numerical determination of transmission probabilities in cylindrical geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Queiroz Bogado Leite, S. de.

    1989-11-01

    Efficient methods for numerical calculation of transmission probabilities in cylindrical geometry are presented. Relative errors of the order of 10 -5 or smaller are obtained using analytical solutions and low order quadrature integration schemes. (author) [pt

  17. Arc plasma devices: Evolving mechanical design from numerical

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A recipe for obtaining mechanical design of arc plasma devices from numerical ... to the plasma of the mixture of molecular gases like nitrogen and oxygen. ... Temperature field, associated fluid dynamics and electrical characteristics of a ...

  18. RAMAN amplifier gain dynamics with ASE : Numerical analysis and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR OKE

    simulation approach ... single pump amplification is diagnosed numerically and simulated using MATLAB to obtain experimental outcome. ... or high speed response in comparison with the other nonlinear processes ... Mathematical Modeling.

  19. Numerical methods for differential equations and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ixaru, L.G.

    1984-01-01

    This book is addressed to persons who, without being professionals in applied mathematics, are often faced with the problem of numerically solving differential equations. In each of the first three chapters a definite class of methods is discussed for the solution of the initial value problem for ordinary differential equations: multistep methods; one-step methods; and piecewise perturbation methods. The fourth chapter is mainly focussed on the boundary value problems for linear second-order equations, with a section devoted to the Schroedinger equation. In the fifth chapter the eigenvalue problem for the radial Schroedinger equation is solved in several ways, with computer programs included. (Auth.)

  20. Implementation of standard testbeds for numerical relativity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babiuc, M C [Department of Physics and Physical Science, Marshall University, Huntington, WV 25755 (United States); Husa, S [Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Max-Wien-Platz 1, 07743 Jena (Germany); Alic, D [Department of Physics, University of the Balearic Islands, Cra Valldemossa km 7.5, 07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Hinder, I [Center for Gravitational Wave Physics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Lechner, C [Weierstrass Institute for Applied Analysis and Stochastics (WIAS), Mohrenstrasse 39, 10117 Berlin (Germany); Schnetter, E [Center for Computation and Technology, 216 Johnston Hall, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Szilagyi, B; Dorband, N; Pollney, D; Winicour, J [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik (Albert-Einstein-Institut), Am Muehlenberg 1, 14076 Golm (Germany); Zlochower, Y [Center for Computational Relativity and Gravitation, School of Mathematical Sciences, Rochester Institute of Technology, 78 Lomb Memorial Drive, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States)

    2008-06-21

    We discuss results that have been obtained from the implementation of the initial round of testbeds for numerical relativity which was proposed in the first paper of the Apples with Apples Alliance. We present benchmark results for various codes which provide templates for analyzing the testbeds and to draw conclusions about various features of the codes. This allows us to sharpen the initial test specifications, design a new test and add theoretical insight.

  1. Exploring New Physics Frontiers Through Numerical Relativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Vitor; Gualtieri, Leonardo; Herdeiro, Carlos; Sperhake, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    The demand to obtain answers to highly complex problems within strong-field gravity has been met with significant progress in the numerical solution of Einstein's equations - along with some spectacular results - in various setups. We review techniques for solving Einstein's equations in generic spacetimes, focusing on fully nonlinear evolutions but also on how to benchmark those results with perturbative approaches. The results address problems in high-energy physics, holography, mathematical physics, fundamental physics, astrophysics and cosmology.

  2. In-Situ Three-Dimensional Shape Rendering from Strain Values Obtained Through Optical Fiber Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Hon Man (Inventor); Parker, Jr., Allen R. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A method and system for rendering the shape of a multi-core optical fiber or multi-fiber bundle in three-dimensional space in real time based on measured fiber strain data. Three optical fiber cores arc arranged in parallel at 120.degree. intervals about a central axis. A series of longitudinally co-located strain sensor triplets, typically fiber Bragg gratings, are positioned along the length of each fiber at known intervals. A tunable laser interrogates the sensors to detect strain on the fiber cores. Software determines the strain magnitude (.DELTA.L/L) for each fiber at a given triplet, but then applies beam theory to calculate curvature, beading angle and torsion of the fiber bundle, and from there it determines the shape of the fiber in s Cartesian coordinate system by solving a series of ordinary differential equations expanded from the Frenet-Serrat equations. This approach eliminates the need for computationally time-intensive curve-tilting and allows the three-dimensional shape of the optical fiber assembly to be displayed in real-time.

  3. ENEN and NEPTUNO : opportunities to obtain added value in high training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minguez Torres, E.

    2006-01-01

    In the area of nuclear education, the 20th century ended with a significant deficit of students in relation to anticipated professional needs, bearing in mind how much operating time many European plants still have left. This article analyzes the measures implemented on a European scale to combat this problem, and it underlines the important role being played by the Association ENEN. At the same time, it refers to the involvements of Spanish universities in this European reaction, a call to encourage young engineers to enter the nuclear field. (Author)

  4. Multi-valued fields

    CERN Document Server

    Ershov, Yuri L

    2001-01-01

    For more than 30 years, the author has studied the model-theoretic aspects of the theory of valued fields and multi-valued fields. Many of the key results included in this book were obtained by the author whilst preparing the manuscript. Thus the unique overview of the theory, as developed in the book, has been previously unavailable. The book deals with the theory of valued fields and mutli-valued fields. The theory of Prüfer rings is discussed from the `geometric' point of view. The author shows that by introducing the Zariski topology on families of valuation rings, it is possible to distinguish two important subfamilies of Prüfer rings that correspond to Boolean and near Boolean families of valuation rings. Also, algebraic and model-theoretic properties of multi-valued fields with near Boolean families of valuation rings satisfying the local-global principle are studied. It is important that this principle is elementary, i.e., it can be expressed in the language of predicate calculus. The most important...

  5. Numerical Approach of Coupling Vibration Magneto-convection In Nanofluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Syham

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of our work is to visualize numerically the effect of coupling vibratory excitation and magnetic field on cooling an electronic component or a solar cell (originality of our study in arid and semi-arid area. A square cavity of side H filled with Al2O3-water nanofluid where an electronic component is placed on the bottom horizontal wall is maintained at isothermal hot temperature Th. The top horizontal wall is maintained at a cold temperature Tc. The vertical walls are adiabatic. The equations describing the natural convection flow in the square cavity consist of mass conservation, momentum and energy. For the physical parameters of Al2O3-water nanofluid, we use the Brinkman and Wasp model. Transport equations are solved numerically by finite element method. The results are obtained for Rayleigh number Ra= 105, Hartmann numbers between 0 and 100 and vibratory excitation inclination angle between 0° and 90°. The external magnetic field inclination angle varies between 0° and 90° and the Rayleigh number ratio between 0 and 50.  Results are presented in the form of heat transfer flux ratio and maximum absolute value of stream function.

  6. Numerical Simulation of rivulet build up via lubrication equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzzi, N.; Croce, G.

    2017-11-01

    A number of engineering problems involve the evolution of a thin layer of liquid over a non-wettable substrate. For example, CO2 chemical absorption is carried out in packed columns, where post-combustion CO2 flows up while liquid solvent falls down through a collection of corrugated sheets. Further application include, among others, in-flight icing simulations, moisture condensation on de-humidifier fins, fogging build up and removal. Here, we present a development of an in-house code solving numerically the 2D lubrication equation for a film flowing down an inclined plate. The disjoining pressure approach is followed, in order to model both the contact line discontinuity and the surface wettability. With respect to the original implementation, the full modeling of capillary pressure terms according to Young- Laplace relation allows to investigate contact angles close to π/2. The code is thus validated with literature numerical results, obtained by a fully 3D approach (VOF), showing satisfying agreement despite a strong reduction in terms of computational cost. Steady and unsteady wetting dynamics of a developing rivulet are investigated (and validated) under different load conditions and for different values of the contact angles.

  7. Numerical Simulation of Flood Levels for Tropical Rivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammed, Thamer Ahmed; Said, Salim; Bardaie, Mohd Zohadie; Basri, Shah Nor

    2011-01-01

    Flood forecasting is important for flood damage reduction. As a result of advances in the numerical methods and computer technologies, many mathematical models have been developed and used for hydraulic simulation of the flood. These simulations usually include the prediction of the flood width and depth along a watercourse. Results obtained from the application of hydraulic models will help engineers to take precautionary measures to minimize flood damage. Hydraulic models were used to simulate the flood can be classified into dynamic hydraulic models and static hydraulic models. The HEC-2 static hydraulic model was used to predict water surface profiles for Linggi river and Langat river in Malaysia. The model is based on the numerical solution of the one dimensional energy equation of the steady gradually varied flow using the iteration technique. Calibration and verification of the HEC-2 model were conducted using the recorded data for both rivers. After calibration, the model was applied to predict the water surface profiles for Q10, Q30, and Q100 along the watercourse of the Linggi river. The water surface profile for Q200 for Langat river was predicted. The predicted water surface profiles were found in agreement with the recorded water surface profiles. The value of the maximum computed absolute error in the predicted water surface profile was found to be 500 mm while the minimum absolute error was 20 mm only.

  8. Desiccant wheels for air humidification: An experimental and numerical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Antonellis, Stefano; Intini, Manuel; Joppolo, Cesare Maria; Molinaroli, Luca; Romano, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The use of desiccant wheel to humidify an air stream is investigated. • Air humidification is obtained by extracting water vapour from outdoor air. • Experimental tests in winter humidification conditions are performed. • The design of the proposed humidification system is numerically analyzed. • Effects of boundary conditions on humidification capacity are investigated. - Abstract: In this work the use of a desiccant wheel for air humidification is investigated through a numerical and experimental approach. In the proposed humidification system, water vapour is adsorbed from outdoor environment and it is released directly to the air stream supplied to the building. Such a system can be an interesting alternative to steam humidifiers in hospitals or, more generally, in applications where air contamination is a critical issue and therefore adiabatic humidifiers are not allowed. Performance of the proposed system is deeply investigated and optimal values of desiccant wheel configuration parameters are discussed. It is shown that in the investigated conditions, which are representative of Southern Europe winter climate, the system can properly match the latent load of the building. Finally, power consumption referred to the primary source of the proposed humidification system is compared to the one of steam humidifiers. The present analysis is carried out through experimental tests of a desiccant wheel in winter humidification conditions and through a phenomenological model of the device, based on heat and mass transfer equations.

  9. Numerical investigation of heat transfer in parallel channels with water at supercritical pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Shitsi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Thermal phenomena such as heat transfer enhancement, heat transfer deterioration, and flow instability observed at supercritical pressures as a result of fluid property variations have the potential to affect the safety of design and operation of Supercritical Water-cooled Reactor SCWR, and also challenge the capabilities of both heat transfer correlations and Computational Fluid Dynamics CFD physical models. These phenomena observed at supercritical pressures need to be thoroughly investigated.An experimental study was carried out by Xi to investigate flow instability in parallel channels at supercritical pressures under different mass flow rates, pressures, and axial power shapes. Experimental data on flow instability at inlet of the heated channels were obtained but no heat transfer data along the axial length was obtained. This numerical study used 3D numerical tool STAR-CCM+ to investigate heat transfer at supercritical pressures along the axial lengths of the parallel channels with water ahead of experimental data. Homogeneous axial power shape HAPS was adopted and the heating powers adopted in this work were below the experimental threshold heating powers obtained for HAPS by Xi. The results show that the Fluid Centre-line Temperature FCLT increased linearly below and above the PCT region, but flattened at the PCT region for all the system parameters considered. The inlet temperature, heating power, pressure, gravity and mass flow rate have effects on WT (wall temperature values in the NHT (normal heat transfer, EHT (enhanced heat transfer, DHT (deteriorated heat transfer and recovery from DHT regions. While variation of all other system parameters in the EHT and PCT regions showed no significant difference in the WT and FCLT values respectively, the WT and FCLT values respectively increased with pressure in these regions. For most of the system parameters considered, the FCLT and WT values obtained in the two channels were nearly the

  10. Numerical investigation of heat transfer in parallel channels with water at supercritical pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shitsi, Edward; Kofi Debrah, Seth; Yao Agbodemegbe, Vincent; Ampomah-Amoako, Emmanuel

    2017-11-01

    Thermal phenomena such as heat transfer enhancement, heat transfer deterioration, and flow instability observed at supercritical pressures as a result of fluid property variations have the potential to affect the safety of design and operation of Supercritical Water-cooled Reactor SCWR, and also challenge the capabilities of both heat transfer correlations and Computational Fluid Dynamics CFD physical models. These phenomena observed at supercritical pressures need to be thoroughly investigated. An experimental study was carried out by Xi to investigate flow instability in parallel channels at supercritical pressures under different mass flow rates, pressures, and axial power shapes. Experimental data on flow instability at inlet of the heated channels were obtained but no heat transfer data along the axial length was obtained. This numerical study used 3D numerical tool STAR-CCM+ to investigate heat transfer at supercritical pressures along the axial lengths of the parallel channels with water ahead of experimental data. Homogeneous axial power shape HAPS was adopted and the heating powers adopted in this work were below the experimental threshold heating powers obtained for HAPS by Xi. The results show that the Fluid Centre-line Temperature FCLT increased linearly below and above the PCT region, but flattened at the PCT region for all the system parameters considered. The inlet temperature, heating power, pressure, gravity and mass flow rate have effects on WT (wall temperature) values in the NHT (normal heat transfer), EHT (enhanced heat transfer), DHT (deteriorated heat transfer) and recovery from DHT regions. While variation of all other system parameters in the EHT and PCT regions showed no significant difference in the WT and FCLT values respectively, the WT and FCLT values respectively increased with pressure in these regions. For most of the system parameters considered, the FCLT and WT values obtained in the two channels were nearly the same. The

  11. Patterns of Wildlife Value Orientations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harry C. Zinn; Michael J. Manfredo; Susan C. Barro

    2002-01-01

    Public value orientations toward wildlife may be growing less utilitarian and more protectionist. To better understand one aspect of this trend, we investigated patterns of wildlife value orientations within families. Using a mail survey, we sampled Pennsylvania and Colorado hunting license holders 50 or older; obtaining a 54% response rate (n = 599). Males (94% of...

  12. A numerical solution to the radial equation of the tidal wave propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makarious, S.H.

    1981-08-01

    The tidal wave function y(x) is a solution to an inhomogeneous, linear, second-order differential equation with variable coefficient. Numerical values for the height-dependence terms, in the observed tides, have been utilized in finding y(x) as a solution to an initial-value problem. Complex Fast Fourier Transform technique is also used to obtain the solution in a complex form. Based on a realistic temperature structure, the atmosphere - below 110 km - has been divided into layers with distinct characteristics, and thus the technique of propagation in stratified media has been applied. The reduced homogeneous equation assumes the form of Helmholtz equation and with initial conditions the general solution is obtained. (author)

  13. A novel heuristic method for obtaining S-boxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Guo

    2008-01-01

    An efficient algorithm named chaotic multi-swapping and simulated annealing (CMSSA) for obtaining cryptographically strong 8 x 8 S-boxes is presented. The method is based on chaotic maps and simulated annealing. In addition, cryptographic properties such as bijectivity, strict avalanche criterion, nonlinearity, output bits independence criterion and equiprobable input/output XOR distribution are analyzed in detail for the S-box produced. The results of numerical analysis show that the box has nearly fulfilled the criteria for a cryptographically strong S-box and can effectively resist several attacks

  14. Micromagnetic simulations with thermal noise: Physical and numerical aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, E. [Dept. de Ingenieria Electromecanica, Universidad de Burgos, Plaza Misael Banuelos, s/n, E-09001, Burgos (Spain)]. E-mail: emvecino@ubu.es; Lopez-Diaz, L. [Dept. de Fisica Aplicada, Universidad Salamanca, Plaza de la Merced s/n, Salamanca E-37008 (Spain); Torres, L. [Dept. de Fisica Aplicada, Universidad Salamanca, Plaza de la Merced s/n, Salamanca E-37008 (Spain); Garcia-Cervera, C.J. [Department of Mathematics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States)

    2007-09-15

    Langevin dynamics treats finite temperature effects in micromagnetics framework by adding a thermal fluctuation field to the local effective field. Several works have addressed that the numerical results depend on the cell size used to split the ferromagnetic samples on the nanoscale regime. In this short paper, we analyze a thermally perturbed micromagnetic problem by using an implicit unconditionally stable numerical scheme to integrate the Langevin equation at room temperature. The obtained micromagnetic results for several cell sizes inside the validity range of the micromagnetic formalism, indicate that the addressed cell size dependence could be associated to numerical limitations of the commonly used numerical schemes.

  15. Micromagnetic simulations with thermal noise: Physical and numerical aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, E.; Lopez-Diaz, L.; Torres, L.; Garcia-Cervera, C.J.

    2007-01-01

    Langevin dynamics treats finite temperature effects in micromagnetics framework by adding a thermal fluctuation field to the local effective field. Several works have addressed that the numerical results depend on the cell size used to split the ferromagnetic samples on the nanoscale regime. In this short paper, we analyze a thermally perturbed micromagnetic problem by using an implicit unconditionally stable numerical scheme to integrate the Langevin equation at room temperature. The obtained micromagnetic results for several cell sizes inside the validity range of the micromagnetic formalism, indicate that the addressed cell size dependence could be associated to numerical limitations of the commonly used numerical schemes

  16. R-values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, K.

    2009-01-01

    I'll try to keep this short and simple. R LANL = (beta cpm of X exp on system 'A')/ (beta cpm of 99 Mo exp on system 'A')/ (beta cpm of X on system 'A', from thermal on 235 U)/ (beta cpm of 99 Mo on system 'A', from thermal on 235 U). As I understand it, the above equation is the historical (as well as current) way of determining R-values using data from beta counting at LANL. The ratio in the denominator, a little 'r', is the 'baseline' or 'calibration' value for a specific beta detector. Over time, if the detector 'drifts' one would see a variation in this 'r' during a thermal calibration measurement. This baseline is what LANL likes to track to monitor specific detector performance - this is not relevant to LLNL where gamma detection is used for determining R-values. LANL states that uncertainty is only dependent upon the count statistics for the isotopes measured. If one tries to convert this to an atom basis, the uncertainties will increase due to the incorporation of the uncertainties in the nuclear data used to convert the cpm to atoms. LLNL switched to gamma detection methods in the 1970s thus replacing our beta counting effort. The equation below is how we have since determined R-values. The numerator ratios atom values of isotopes that are determined by measuring gamma cpm (usually? using several peaks per isotope) and then converting to particle decay in dpm using detector efficiency for each peak and the appropriate branch ratio for each gamma emission. Isotope decay is then converted to atoms using specific activity, mass or volume?, and Avogadro's number. The denominator is simply the ratio of published, cumulative fission product chain yields for isotopes produced in a thermal irradiation on 235U - values of England and Ryder are used by LLNL for the NTNF program. Uncertainties in LLNL R-values are dependent upon gamma counting statistics as well as the nuclear data for each isotope. R LLNL = (Atoms of X exp )/(Atoms of 99 Mo exp )/(Cumulative

  17. Component Repair Times Obtained from MSPI Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eide, Steven A.; Cadwallader, Lee

    2015-01-01

    Information concerning times to repair or restore equipment to service given a failure is valuable to probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs). Examples of such uses in modern PRAs include estimation of the probability of failing to restore a failed component within a specified time period (typically tied to recovering a mitigating system before core damage occurs at nuclear power plants) and the determination of mission times for support system initiating event (SSIE) fault tree models. Information on equipment repair or restoration times applicable to PRA modeling is limited and dated for U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. However, the Mitigating Systems Performance Index (MSPI) program covering all U.S. commercial nuclear power plants provides up-to-date information on restoration times for a limited set of component types. This paper describes the MSPI program data available and analyzes the data to obtain median and mean component restoration times as well as non-restoration cumulative probability curves. The MSPI program provides guidance for monitoring both planned and unplanned outages of trains of selected mitigating systems deemed important to safety. For systems included within the MSPI program, plants monitor both train UA and component unreliability (UR) against baseline values. If the combined system UA and UR increases sufficiently above established baseline results (converted to an estimated change in core damage frequency or CDF), a ''white'' (or worse) indicator is generated for that system. That in turn results in increased oversight by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and can impact a plant's insurance rating. Therefore, there is pressure to return MSPI program components to service as soon as possible after a failure occurs. Three sets of unplanned outages might be used to determine the component repair durations desired in this article: all unplanned outages for the train type that includes the component of

  18. Component Repair Times Obtained from MSPI Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eide, Steven A. [Curtiss-Wright/Scietech, Ketchum, ID (United States); Cadwallader, Lee [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Information concerning times to repair or restore equipment to service given a failure is valuable to probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs). Examples of such uses in modern PRAs include estimation of the probability of failing to restore a failed component within a specified time period (typically tied to recovering a mitigating system before core damage occurs at nuclear power plants) and the determination of mission times for support system initiating event (SSIE) fault tree models. Information on equipment repair or restoration times applicable to PRA modeling is limited and dated for U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. However, the Mitigating Systems Performance Index (MSPI) program covering all U.S. commercial nuclear power plants provides up-to-date information on restoration times for a limited set of component types. This paper describes the MSPI program data available and analyzes the data to obtain median and mean component restoration times as well as non-restoration cumulative probability curves. The MSPI program provides guidance for monitoring both planned and unplanned outages of trains of selected mitigating systems deemed important to safety. For systems included within the MSPI program, plants monitor both train UA and component unreliability (UR) against baseline values. If the combined system UA and UR increases sufficiently above established baseline results (converted to an estimated change in core damage frequency or CDF), a “white” (or worse) indicator is generated for that system. That in turn results in increased oversight by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and can impact a plant’s insurance rating. Therefore, there is pressure to return MSPI program components to service as soon as possible after a failure occurs. Three sets of unplanned outages might be used to determine the component repair durations desired in this article: all unplanned outages for the train type that includes the component of interest, only

  19. Numerical investigation of tip clearance cavitation in Kaplan runners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikiforova, K.; Semenov, G.; Kuznetsov, I.; Spiridonov, E.

    2016-11-01

    There is a gap between the Kaplan runner blade and the shroud that makes for a special kind of cavitation: cavitation in the tip leakage flow. Two types of cavitation caused by the presence of clearance gap are known: tip vortex cavitation that appears at the core of the rolled up vortex on the blade suction side and tip clearance cavitation that appears precisely in the gap between the blade tip edge and the shroud. In the context of this work numerical investigation of the model Kaplan runner has been performed taking into account variable tip clearance for several cavitation regimes. The focus is put on investigation of structure and origination of mechanism of cavitation in the tip leakage flow. Calculations have been performed with the help of 3-D unsteady numerical model for two-phase medium. Modeling of turbulent flow in this work has been carried out using full equations of Navier-Stokes averaged by Reynolds with correction for streamline curvature and system rotation. For description of this medium (liquid-vapor) simplification of Euler approach is used; it is based on the model of interpenetrating continuums, within the bounds of this two- phase medium considered as a quasi-homogeneous mixture with the common velocity field and continuous distribution of density for both phases. As a result, engineering techniques for calculation of cavitation conditioned by existence of tip clearance in model turbine runner have been developed. The detailed visualization of the flow was carried out and vortex structure on the suction side of the blade was reproduced. The range of frequency with maximum value of pulsation was assigned and maximum energy frequency was defined; it is based on spectral analysis of the obtained data. Comparison between numerical computation results and experimental data has been also performed. The location of cavitation zone has a good agreement with experiment for all analyzed regimes.

  20. Numerical analysis of the Anderson localization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markos, P.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to demonstrate, by simple numerical simulations, the main transport properties of disordered electron systems. These systems undergo the metal insulator transition when either Fermi energy crosses the mobility edge or the strength of the disorder increases over critical value. We study how disorder affects the energy spectrum and spatial distribution of electronic eigenstates in the diffusive and insulating regime, as well as in the critical region of the metal-insulator transition. Then, we introduce the transfer matrix and conductance, and we discuss how the quantum character of the electron propagation influences the transport properties of disordered samples. In the weakly disordered systems, the weak localization and anti-localization as well as the universal conductance fluctuation are numerically simulated and discussed. The localization in the one dimensional system is described and interpreted as a purely quantum effect. Statistical properties of the conductance in the critical and localized regimes are demonstrated. Special attention is given to the numerical study of the transport properties of the critical regime and to the numerical verification of the single parameter scaling theory of localization. Numerical data for the critical exponent in the orthogonal models in dimension 2 < d ≤ 5 are compared with theoretical predictions. We argue that the discrepancy between the theory and numerical data is due to the absence of the self-averaging of transmission quantities. This complicates the analytical analysis of the disordered systems. Finally, theoretical methods of description of weakly disordered systems are explained and their possible generalization to the localized regime is discussed. Since we concentrate on the one-electron propagation at zero temperature, no effects of electron-electron interaction and incoherent scattering are discussed in the paper (Author)

  1. The plasma focus - numerical experiments leading technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saw, S.H.; Lee, S.

    2013-01-01

    Numerical experiments on the plasma focus are now used routinely to assist design and provide reference points for diagnostics. More importantly guidance has been given regarding the implementation of technology for new generations of plasma focus devices. For example intensive series of experiments have shown that it is of no use to reduce static bank inductance L0 below certain values because of the consistent loading effects of the plasma focus dynamics on the capacitor bank. Thus whilst it was thought that the PF1000 could receive major benefits by reducing its bank inductance L 0 , numerical experiments have shown to the contrary that its present L 0 of 30 nH is already optimum and that reducing L 0 would be a very expensive fruitless exercise. This knowledge gained from numerical experiments now acts as a general valuable guideline to all high performance (ie low inductance) plasma focus devices not to unnecessarily attempt to further lower the static inductance L 0 . The numerical experiments also show that the deterioration of the yield scaling law (e.g. the fusion neutron yield scaling with storage energy) is inevitable again due to the consistent loading effect of the plasma focus, which becomes more and more dominant as capacitor bank impedance reduces with increasing capacitance C 0 as storage energy is increased. This line of thinking has led to the suggestion of using higher voltages (as an alternative to increasing C 0 ) and to seeding of Deuterium with noble gases in order to enhance compression through thermodynamic mechanisms and through radiation cooling effects of strong line radiation. Circuit manipulation e.g. to enhance focus pinch compression by current-stepping is also being numerically experimented upon. Ultimately however systems have to be built, guided by numerical experiments, so that the predicted technology may be proven and realized. (author)

  2. Introduction to precise numerical methods

    CERN Document Server

    Aberth, Oliver

    2007-01-01

    Precise numerical analysis may be defined as the study of computer methods for solving mathematical problems either exactly or to prescribed accuracy. This book explains how precise numerical analysis is constructed. The book also provides exercises which illustrate points from the text and references for the methods presented. All disc-based content for this title is now available on the Web. · Clearer, simpler descriptions and explanations ofthe various numerical methods· Two new types of numerical problems; accurately solving partial differential equations with the included software and computing line integrals in the complex plane.

  3. Representation of Numerical and Non-Numerical Order in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berteletti, Ilaria; Lucangeli, Daniela; Zorzi, Marco

    2012-01-01

    The representation of numerical and non-numerical ordered sequences was investigated in children from preschool to grade 3. The child's conception of how sequence items map onto a spatial scale was tested using the Number-to-Position task (Siegler & Opfer, 2003) and new variants of the task designed to probe the representation of the alphabet…

  4. Benchmark Calculation of Radial Expectation Value for Confined Hydrogen-Like Atoms and Isotropic Harmonic Oscillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Rong Mei; Zan, Li Rong; Jiao, Li Guang; Ho, Yew Kam

    2017-01-01

    Spatially confined atoms have been extensively investigated to model atomic systems in extreme pressures. For the simplest hydrogen-like atoms and isotropic harmonic oscillators, numerous physical quantities have been established with very high accuracy. However, the expectation value of which is of practical importance in many applications has significant discrepancies among calculations by different methods. In this work we employed the basis expansion method with cut-off Slater-type orbitals to investigate these two confined systems. Accurate values for several low-lying bound states were obtained by carefully examining the convergence with respect to the size of basis. A scaling law for was derived and it is used to verify the accuracy of numerical results. Comparison with other calculations show that the present results establish benchmark values for this quantity, which may be useful in future studies. (author)

  5. Numerical reactor evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venter, A.M.

    1973-08-01

    A short discussion is given of the physics of a nuclear reactor and the parameters which are used in the study of neutron transport. The mathematical formulation and detailed derivation is given of the neutron diffusion and transport equations. A description is given of the computer programmes, FIRE-5 and PELSN, developed at Pelindaba for the evaluation of both thermal and fast reactor systems. It is indicated how these computer programmes have been applied in the study of the PELINDUNA-O and other known critical facilities. The application of Lie-series to the solution of the neutron diffusion equation is discussed in detail. The time dependence of the variables is removed by means of a Laplacetransformation and the semi-analytical solution is written in terms of a transfer matrix. A complete set of recursion formulae, applicable to both homogeneous and heterogeneous reactor systems, is derived. The method used in the evaluation of the effective multiplication factor, k-eff, and the alpha-eigen-value is described. A computer programme was written to solve the neutron diffusion equation in terms of the Lie-series. The results are compared with the TIMOC and PELSN computer programmes. A method is suggested in which the Lie-series are used to solve the neutron transport equation. The transfer matrix for this case, is derived. A complete discussion is given of the solution to the space and time dependent diffusion equation in the presence of a delta source [af

  6. Value-based health care in inflammatory bowel diseases : creating the value quotient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deen, Welmoed Kirsten van

    2016-01-01

    The essence of VBHC is to improve patients’ outcomes at lower costs. This thesis attempts to construct the value quotient (vQ) for IBD: a metric for value which incorporates patient value, defined as a combination of disease control, quality of life, and productivity in the numerator, and divides it

  7. Obtaining of potassium dicyan-argentate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sattarova, M.A.; Solojenkin, P.M.

    1997-01-01

    This work is devoted to obtaining of potassium dicyan-argentate. By means of exchange reaction between silver nitrate and potassium cyanide the potassium dicyan-argentate was synthesized. The analysis of obtained samples was carried out by means of titration and potentiometry.

  8. Treating shale oil to obtain sulfonates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaeffer, H

    1921-01-21

    The process shows as its principal characteristics: (1) treating the oil with chlorsulfonic acid at a temperature of about 100/sup 0/C; (2) the transformation of the sulfonic acid obtained into salts; (3) as new industrial products, the sulfonates obtained and their industrial application as disinfectants for hides and wood.

  9. Strategies for obtaining unpublished drug trial data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolfe, Nicole; Gøtzsche, Peter C.; Bero, Lisa Anne

    2013-01-01

    Authors of systematic reviews have difficulty obtaining unpublished data for their reviews. This project aimed to provide an in-depth description of the experiences of authors in searching for and gaining access to unpublished data for their systematic reviews, and to give guidance on best...... practices for identifying, obtaining and using unpublished data....

  10. 38 CFR 21.5725 - Obtaining benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Obtaining benefits. 21... benefits. (a) Actions required of the individual. In order to obtain benefits under the educational assistance and subsistence allowance program, an individual must— (1) File a claim for benefits with VA, and...

  11. Numerical study of single and two interacting turbulent plumes in atmospheric cross flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtarzadeh-Dehghan, M. R.; König, C. S.; Robins, A. G.

    The paper presents a numerical study of two interacting full-scale dry plumes issued into neutral boundary layer cross flow. The study simulates plumes from a mechanical draught cooling tower. The plumes are placed in tandem or side-by-side. Results are first presented for plumes with a density ratio of 0.74 and plume-to-crosswind speed ratio of 2.33, for which data from a small-scale wind tunnel experiment were available and were used to assess the accuracy of the numerical results. Further results are then presented for the more physically realistic density ratio of 0.95, maintaining the same speed ratio. The sensitivity of the results with respect to three turbulence models, namely, the standard k- ɛ model, the RNG k- ɛ model and the Differential Flux Model (DFM) is presented. Comparisons are also made between the predicted rise height and the values obtained from existing integral models. The formation of two counter-rotating vortices is well predicted. The results show good agreement for the rise height predicted by different turbulence models, but the DFM predicts temperature profiles more accurately. The values of predicted rise height are also in general agreement. However, discrepancies between the present results for the rise height for single and multiple plumes and the values obtained from known analytical relations are apparent and possible reasons for these are discussed.

  12. Numerical Study of the influence of a ribbon geometry of experiment on measuring particle angular distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artemov, A.S.

    1996-01-01

    The values and nature of systematic errors in small-angle particle scattering experiments using ribbon-like beams are investigated by numerical simulation. As shown, the extent of the influence of a ribbon geometry of experiment on the result of measurement is significantly dependent on the shape of the measured angular distribution in an elementary act of interaction. The algorithm of experimental material treatment, obtained in measuring the widths at half maximum of the angular differential cross sections of secondary particles, is presented using an example of specific distributions and certain experimental setup. (author). 12 refs., 7 figs

  13. Numerical study of the t-J model: Exact ground state and flux phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Y.; Poilblanc, D.

    1990-01-01

    Strongly correlated 2D electrons described by the t-J model are investigated numerically. Exact ground state for one and two holes in a finite cluster with periodic boundary conditions are obtained by using the Lanczos algorithm. The effects of Coulomb repulsion of the holes on the nearest neighbor sites are taken into account. Commensurate flux phases are investigated for the same size of clusters. They are shown to be a good approximation for the ground state specially in the intermediate value of J/t. (author). 21 refs, 3 figs

  14. Numerical Solution of Time-Dependent Problems with a Fractional-Power Elliptic Operator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vabishchevich, P. N.

    2018-03-01

    A time-dependent problem in a bounded domain for a fractional diffusion equation is considered. The first-order evolution equation involves a fractional-power second-order elliptic operator with Robin boundary conditions. A finite-element spatial approximation with an additive approximation of the operator of the problem is used. The time approximation is based on a vector scheme. The transition to a new time level is ensured by solving a sequence of standard elliptic boundary value problems. Numerical results obtained for a two-dimensional model problem are presented.

  15. Numerical modelling of admixture transport in a turbulent flow at river confluence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyubimova, T; Parshakova, Ya; Konovalov, V; Shumilova, N; Lepikhin, A; Tiunov, A

    2013-01-01

    The paper is concerned with the development of the hydrodynamic model of the Chusovskoy water intake located in the confluence zone of two rivers with essentially different hydrochemical regimes and in the backwater zone of the Kamskaya hydroelectric power station. The proposed model is used for numerical simulation in the framework of two-and three-dimensional approaches for the annual average, minimal and maximal values of the water flow rates in two rivers. The data for water mineralization in the water intake zone have been obtained. The recommendations for optimization of the water intake structure have been formulated.

  16. Numerical simulation of neutral particle evolution in the plasma of a Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercier, C.; Werkoff, F.

    1976-11-01

    A numerical code previously described is used to simulate the evolution of neutral particles in a cylindrical plasma. The influence of the incoming neutral energy on their repartition inside the plasma is briefly studied. The flux of the neutrals emitted by the plasma and hitting the wall is given as a function of the energy. The effect of various plasma parameters on the apparent value of the ion temperature obtained by analyzing the emitted neutral spectrum in a given direction is also studied [fr

  17. Numerical simulations of disordered superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bedell, K.S.; Gubernatis, J.E.; Scalettar, R.T.; Zimanyi, G.T.

    1997-01-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The authors carried out Monte Carlo studies of the critical behavior of superfluid 4 He in aerogel. They found the superfluid density exponent increases in the presence of fractal disorder with a value roughly consistent with experimental results. They also addressed the localization of flux lines caused by splayed columnar pins. Using a Sine-Gordon-type of renormalization group study they obtained an analytic form for the critical temperature. They also determined the critical temperature from I-V characteristics obtained from a molecular dynamics simulation. The combined studies enabled one to construct the phase diagram as a function of interaction strength, temperature, and disorder. They also employed the recently developed mapping between boson world-lines and the flux motion to use quantum Monte Carlo simulations to analyze localization in the presence of disorder. From measurements of the transverse flux line wandering, they determined the critical ratio of columnar to point disorder strength needed to localize the bosons

  18. Numerical calculation of spin echo amplitude in pulsed NMR: effects of quadrupole interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobral, R.R.

    1986-01-01

    The spin echo obtained by nuclear magnetic resonance, in systems which atomic nuclei interact with magnetic fields and electric field gradients, present oscillations in function of the time interval between two excitations pulses. Using the density matrix formalism, the amplitudes of these echo is calculated, analytically. In this work, echo amplitudes obtained under different excitation conditions for nuclei of different nuclear spin values are calculated. The numerical results are compared with disposable analytical solutions. Applications of this method to the case of electric field gradient without axial symmetry were studied. Within the used approximation limits, an expression for attnuation of oscillatory behaviour of echo amplitude in function of the time interval between experimentally observed pulses was obtained. (M.C.K.) [pt

  19. Determination of the fine structure in the ionization plots obtained from a mass spectrometer with a large energy dispersion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deruaz, Daniel.

    1974-01-01

    The precise determination of ionization potentials, fragment ion appearance potentials and different excited state levels of the positive ions formed, together with phenomena due to an electron impact, were studied from ionization efficiency curves obtained by mass spectrometry. A standard ion source and an analytical method of electron energy dispersion reduction were used to study fine structures of ionization efficiency curves. Since the mass spectrometer was not adapted for the acquisition of ionization efficiency curve data an electronic system was designed to record these curves automatically. A precise stepwise potential variation of 45+-0.04mV was obtained, and for each step an intensity proportional to the number of ions created by the fragment considered, the additional gain being 4.4 and the linearity greater than 1% over a 13-volt region. Before each set of measurements the scattering was determined by calculation of the second derivative of a logistic function deduced from the cubic regression of the experimental helium function ionization efficiency curve values. The precision, given by the variance analysis SNEDECOR F test, is higher than 1/1000. For each series of recordings the numerical values were processed by a computer to raise by twenty the signal to noise ratio and calculate the ionization efficiency curve values by the energy difference method and the iterative unfolding method. In this way a high sensitivity was obtained for the determination of the curves near the ionization threshold, and a precision below 50MeV (at least equivalent to that given by ionization cells with quasi-monoenergetic electron beams) for the values of the ionization potentials, the appearance potentials and the excited state energy levels. In order to judge the reliability of the technique the ionization potentials of a set of eleven complex molecules were determined and compared with the results obtained by photoionization and photoelectron spectrometry [fr

  20. Numerical Asymptotic Solutions Of Differential Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurston, Gaylen A.

    1992-01-01

    Numerical algorithms derived and compared with classical analytical methods. In method, expansions replaced with integrals evaluated numerically. Resulting numerical solutions retain linear independence, main advantage of asymptotic solutions.

  1. Numerical modeling and optimization of machining duplex stainless steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rastee D. Koyee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The shortcomings of the machining analytical and empirical models in combination with the industry demands have to be fulfilled. A three-dimensional finite element modeling (FEM introduces an attractive alternative to bridge the gap between pure empirical and fundamental scientific quantities, and fulfill the industry needs. However, the challenging aspects which hinder the successful adoption of FEM in the machining sector of manufacturing industry have to be solved first. One of the greatest challenges is the identification of the correct set of machining simulation input parameters. This study presents a new methodology to inversely calculate the input parameters when simulating the machining of standard duplex EN 1.4462 and super duplex EN 1.4410 stainless steels. JMatPro software is first used to model elastic–viscoplastic and physical work material behavior. In order to effectively obtain an optimum set of inversely identified friction coefficients, thermal contact conductance, Cockcroft–Latham critical damage value, percentage reduction in flow stress, and Taylor–Quinney coefficient, Taguchi-VIKOR coupled with Firefly Algorithm Neural Network System is applied. The optimization procedure effectively minimizes the overall differences between the experimentally measured performances such as cutting forces, tool nose temperature and chip thickness, and the numerically obtained ones at any specified cutting condition. The optimum set of input parameter is verified and used for the next step of 3D-FEM application. In the next stage of the study, design of experiments, numerical simulations, and fuzzy rule modeling approaches are employed to optimize types of chip breaker, insert shapes, process conditions, cutting parameters, and tool orientation angles based on many important performances. Through this study, not only a new methodology in defining the optimal set of controllable parameters for turning simulations is introduced, but also

  2. Investigating Absolute Value: A Real World Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Margaret; Pagni, David

    2009-01-01

    Making connections between various representations is important in mathematics. In this article, the authors discuss the numeric, algebraic, and graphical representations of sums of absolute values of linear functions. The initial explanations are accessible to all students who have experience graphing and who understand that absolute value simply…

  3. How to Circumvent Church Numerals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldberg, Mayer; Torgersen, Mads

    2002-01-01

    In this work we consider a standard numeral system in the lambda-calculus, and the elementary arithmetic and Boolean functions and predicates defined on this numeral system, and show how to construct terms that "circumvent" or "defeat" these functions: The equality predicate is satisfied when com...

  4. Numerical Gram-Schmidt orthonormalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werneth, Charles M; Dhar, Mallika; Maung, Khin Maung; Sirola, Christopher; Norbury, John W

    2010-01-01

    A numerical Gram-Schmidt orthonormalization procedure is presented for constructing an orthonormal basis function set from a non-orthonormal set, when the number of basis functions is large. This method will provide a pedagogical illustration of the Gram-Schmidt procedure and can be presented in classes on numerical methods or computational physics.

  5. Cracking behavior of reinforced concrete beams: experiment and simulations on the numerical influence of the steel-concrete bond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jason, L.; Torre-Casanova, A.; Pinelli, X.; Davenne, L.

    2013-01-01

    Experimental and numerical results are provided in this contribution to study the global and cracking behaviors of two reinforced concrete beams subjected to four point bending. Experimentally, the use of image correlation technique enables to obtain precise information concerning the cracking properties (spacing, cumulated, maximum and mean values of the opening). Numerically, two simulations are compared taking into account a bond model between steel and concrete or supposing a perfect relation between the two materials. In both cases, a good agreement is achieved between numerical and experimental results even if the introduction of the bond effects has a direct influence during the development of the cracks (better agreement during the 'active' cracking phase). (authors)

  6. Numerical analysis of resonances induced by s wave neutrons in transmission time-of-flight experiments with a computer IBM 7094 II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corge, Ch.

    1969-01-01

    Numerical analysis of transmission resonances induced by s wave neutrons in time-of-flight experiments can be achieved in a fairly automatic way on an IBM 7094/II computer. The involved computations are carried out following a four step scheme: 1 - experimental raw data are processed to obtain the resonant transmissions, 2 - values of experimental quantities for each resonance are derived from the above transmissions, 3 - resonance parameters are determined using a least square method to solve the over determined system obtained by equalling theoretical functions to the correspondent experimental values. Four analysis methods are gathered in the same code, 4 - graphical control of the results is performed. (author) [fr

  7. Numerical studies of temperature effect on the extrusion fracture and swell of plastic micro-pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhong; Huang, Xingyuan; Xiong, Zhihua

    2018-03-01

    Temperature is a key factor that impacts extrusion forming quality of plastic micro-pipe. In this study, the effect of temperature on extrusion fracture and swell of plastic micro-pipe was investigated by numerical method. Under a certain of the melt’s flow volume, the extrusion pattern, extrusion swelling ratio of melt are obtained under different temperatures. Results show that the extrusion swelling ratio of plastic micro-pipe decreases with increasing of temperature. In order to study the reason of temperature effect, the physical distributions of plastic micro-pipe are gotten. Numerical results show that the viscosity, pressure, stress value of melt are all decreased with the increasing of temperature, which leads to decrease the extrusion swell and fracture phenomenon for the plastic micro-pipe.

  8. Comparison of ionospheric characteristic parameters obtained by ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    GPS TEC values derived from the Crustal Movement Observation Network of China (CMONOC) are compared .... A polynomial function is used to build a regional .... Development and evalua- ... integration of the electron density profile of the.

  9. Scaling behavior and morphological properties of the interfaces obtained by the multilayer deposition process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Achik, I. [Laboratoire de Physique de la Matière Condensée, Université Hassan II-Mohammedia, Faculté des sciences Ben M' sik, Casablanca (Morocco); Boughaleb, Y., E-mail: yboughaleb@yahoo.fr [Laboratoire de Physique de la Matière Condensée, Université Hassan II-Mohammedia, Faculté des sciences Ben M' sik, Casablanca (Morocco); Université Chouaib Doukkali, Faculté des sciences, El Jadida (Morocco); Hassan II Academy of Science and Technology, Rabat (Morocco); Hader, A. [Laboratoire de Physique de la Matière Condensée, Université Hassan II-Mohammedia, Faculté des sciences Ben M' sik, Casablanca (Morocco); CRMEF Settat (Morocco); Sbiaai, K. [Université Chouaib Doukkali, Faculté des sciences, El Jadida (Morocco); Hajjaji, A. [Université Chouaib Doukkali, Ecole nationale des sciences appliquées, El Jadida (Morocco)

    2013-10-31

    The aim of the present work was to study numerically the scaling behavior and the morphological properties of the interfaces generated by the multilayer deposition process. We have noticed that, in the case where the ratio of the surface diffusion coefficient to the deposition rate reaches high values D/F > > 1, the interface consists of mound structures. By using the dynamic scaling, we have shown that the height–height correlation function scales with time t and length l as G(l,t) ∼ l{sup α}f(t/l{sup α/β}) with β = 0.25 ± 0.05 and α = 0.51 ± 0.02. These exponent values are equal to the ones predicted by the Edwards–Wilkinson approach. Besides, our results are in agreement with the growth system of Cu/Cu(100) at 300 K which has been characterized in more detail by a combined scanning tunneling microscopy and spot profile analysis — low energy electronic diffusion study. Moreover, by considering two different methods, we have examined the fractal aspect of the obtained interfaces. - Highlights: • The adlayer interfaces present mound morphologies. • The adlayer interfaces scale with the Family–Vicsek law. • The critical exponents (α, β) are in agreement with those of Edwards–Wilkinson approach.

  10. Scaling behavior and morphological properties of the interfaces obtained by the multilayer deposition process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achik, I.; Boughaleb, Y.; Hader, A.; Sbiaai, K.; Hajjaji, A.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to study numerically the scaling behavior and the morphological properties of the interfaces generated by the multilayer deposition process. We have noticed that, in the case where the ratio of the surface diffusion coefficient to the deposition rate reaches high values D/F > > 1, the interface consists of mound structures. By using the dynamic scaling, we have shown that the height–height correlation function scales with time t and length l as G(l,t) ∼ l α f(t/l α/β ) with β = 0.25 ± 0.05 and α = 0.51 ± 0.02. These exponent values are equal to the ones predicted by the Edwards–Wilkinson approach. Besides, our results are in agreement with the growth system of Cu/Cu(100) at 300 K which has been characterized in more detail by a combined scanning tunneling microscopy and spot profile analysis — low energy electronic diffusion study. Moreover, by considering two different methods, we have examined the fractal aspect of the obtained interfaces. - Highlights: • The adlayer interfaces present mound morphologies. • The adlayer interfaces scale with the Family–Vicsek law. • The critical exponents (α, β) are in agreement with those of Edwards–Wilkinson approach

  11. Obtaining of polycrystalline silicon for semiconductor industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukashev, F.; Nauryzbaev, M.; Kolesnikov, B.; Ivanov, Y.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of the project is to create pilot equipment and optimize the process of obtaining polycrystalline silicon on semi-industrial level. In the past several decades, the historical experience in the developing countries has shown that one of the most promising ways to improve the economy,of a country is to establish semiconductor industry. First of all, the results can help increase defense, national security and create industrial production. The silane method, which has been traditionally' used for obtaining technical and polycrystalline silicon, is to obtain and then to pyrolyzed mono-and poly silanes. Although the traditional methods of obtaining silicon hydrides have specific advantages, such as utilizing by-products, they also have clear shortcomings, i.e. either low output of the ultimate product ( through hydrolysis of Mg 2 Si) or high contents of by-products in it or high contents of dissolving vapors (through decomposing Mg 2 Si in non-water solutions)

  12. Production and characterization of pectinases obtained from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Production and characterization of pectinases obtained from Aspergillus fumigatus in submerged fermentation system using pectin extracted from mango peels as carbon source. AL Ezugwu, SOO Eze, FC Chilaka, CU Anyanwu ...

  13. Treatment of biomass to obtain ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunson, Jr., James B.; Elander, Richard T [Evergreen, CO; Tucker, III, Melvin P.; Hennessey, Susan Marie [Avondale, PA

    2011-08-16

    Ethanol was produced using biocatalysts that are able to ferment sugars derived from treated biomass. Sugars were obtained by pretreating biomass under conditions of high solids and low ammonia concentration, followed by saccharification.

  14. Process for obtaining cobalt and lanthanum nickelate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tapcov, V.; Samusi, N.; Gulea, A.; Horosun, I.; Stasiuc, V.; Petrenco, P.

    1999-01-01

    The invention relates to the process for obtaining polycrystalline ceramics of cobalt and lanthanum nickelate with the perovskite structure from coordinative hetero metallic compounds. The obtained products can be utilized in the industry in the capacity of catalysts. Summary of the invention consists in obtaining polycrystalline ceramics LaCoO 3 and LaNiO 3 with the perovskite structure by pyrolysis of the parent compounds, namely, the coordinative hetero metallic compounds of the lanthanum cobalt or lanthanum nickel. The pyrolysis of the parent compound runs during one hour at 800 C. The technical result of the invention consists in lowering the temperature of the parent compound pyrolysis containing the precise ratio of metals necessary for ceramics obtaining

  15. Visual Perception Studies in CT images obtained lo low dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adame Brooks, D.; Miller-Clemente, R. A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper has as aims to describe a strategy to evaluate the diagnostic quality of obtained images of method for dose reduction, with the purpose of determining the dose value or values from which the image quality is significantly degraded making it insufficient for the diagnostic. To complement and have an estimate of the quality of the images we established a group of measures of objective type, and the diagnostic quality of the images was evaluated through a group of observers using the analysis ROC and LROC. For ROC and LROC analyzes the behavior of the area under the curve in relation to the four proposed dose levels was obtained. For high dose levels, detection was good. The values of area under the curve decreased as the dose rate decreased, falling to values indicating low accuracy in diagnosis. This result indicates that the area under the curve decreases by the dose rate. We conclude that the objective quality measures selected are representative of the changes that occur in the resulting image and provided information on changes in the perception of observers. The experiments ROC and LROC allowed determine the range of dose values from which the image degradation causes a low accuracy in the diagnostic. (Author)

  16. Elliptic differential equations theory and numerical treatment

    CERN Document Server

    Hackbusch, Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    This book simultaneously presents the theory and the numerical treatment of elliptic boundary value problems, since an understanding of the theory is necessary for the numerical analysis of the discretisation. It first discusses the Laplace equation and its finite difference discretisation before addressing the general linear differential equation of second order. The variational formulation together with the necessary background from functional analysis provides the basis for the Galerkin and finite-element methods, which are explored in detail. A more advanced chapter leads the reader to the theory of regularity. Individual chapters are devoted to singularly perturbed as well as to elliptic eigenvalue problems. The book also presents the Stokes problem and its discretisation as an example of a saddle-point problem taking into account its relevance to applications in fluid dynamics.

  17. Numerical solutions of the Vlasov equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satofuka, Nobuyuki; Morinishi, Koji; Nishida, Hidetoshi

    1985-01-01

    A numerical procedure is derived for the solutions of the one- and two-dimensional Vlasov-Poisson system equations. This numerical procedure consists of the phase space discretization and the integration of the resulting set of ordinary differential equations. In the phase space discretization, derivatives with respect to the phase space variable are approximated by a weighted sum of the values of the distribution function at properly chosen neighboring points. Then, the resulting set of ordinary differential equations is solved by using an appropriate time integration scheme. The results for linear Landau damping, nonlinear Landau damping and counter-streaming plasmas are investigated and compared with those of the splitting scheme. The proposed method is found to be very accurate and efficient. (author)

  18. Numerical modelling in non linear fracture mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viggo Tvergaard

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Some numerical studies of crack propagation are based on using constitutive models that accountfor damage evolution in the material. When a critical damage value has been reached in a materialpoint, it is natural to assume that this point has no more carrying capacity, as is done numerically in the elementvanish technique. In the present review this procedure is illustrated for micromechanically based materialmodels, such as a ductile failure model that accounts for the nucleation and growth of voids to coalescence, and a model for intergranular creep failure with diffusive growth of grain boundary cavities leading to micro-crack formation. The procedure is also illustrated for low cycle fatigue, based on continuum damage mechanics. In addition, the possibility of crack growth predictions for elastic-plastic solids using cohesive zone models to represent the fracture process is discussed.

  19. Numerical and experimental investigations on cavitation erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortes Patella, R.; Archer, A.; Flageul, C.

    2012-11-01

    A method is proposed to predict cavitation damage from cavitating flow simulations. For this purpose, a numerical process coupling cavitating flow simulations and erosion models was developed and applied to a two-dimensional (2D) hydrofoil tested at TUD (Darmstadt University of Technology, Germany) [1] and to a NACA 65012 tested at LMH-EPFL (Lausanne Polytechnic School) [2]. Cavitation erosion tests (pitting tests) were carried out and a 3D laser profilometry was used to analyze surfaces damaged by cavitation [3]. The method allows evaluating the pit characteristics, and mainly the volume damage rates. The paper describes the developed erosion model, the technique of cavitation damage measurement and presents some comparisons between experimental results and numerical damage predictions. The extent of cavitation erosion was correctly estimated in both hydrofoil geometries. The simulated qualitative influence of flow velocity, sigma value and gas content on cavitation damage agreed well with experimental observations.

  20. Merging AI and numerical modeling for accelerator control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, D.E.; Silbar, R.R.

    1987-01-01

    The authors report the beginnings of an experiment to evaluate the power and limitations of artificial intelligence techniques combined with beam-line modeling for solving problems in accelerator control. Using the Knowledge Engineering Environment (KEE) system, they have built a knowledge base that describes the characteristics and the relationships of about 30 devices in a typical accelerator beam line. Each device in the line is categorized and pertinent attributes for each category are defined. Specific values for each device are assigned in the knowledge base to represent static characteristics. Device-specific slots are also provided for dynamic attributes. The definition of these slots reflects the data type and any limitations or restrictions on the range of the data. The authors model relationships between the various beam-line devices using the techniques of rules, active values, and object-oriented models. The knowledge base provides a framework for analyzing faults and offering suggestions to assist in tuning, based on information provided by the accelerator physicists (domain experts) responsible for designing and tuning this beam line. Our knowledge base has a powerful graphical interface. It allows the operator to mouse on an icon for a particular icon in the schematic of the beam line and obtain device-specific information and control over that device. The beam optics code Transport is used to model the beam line numerically. 11 refs., 7 figs

  1. Numerical modeling in materials science and engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Rappaz, Michel; Deville, Michel

    2003-01-01

    This book introduces the concepts and methodologies related to the modelling of the complex phenomena occurring in materials processing. After a short reminder of conservation laws and constitutive relationships, the authors introduce the main numerical methods: finite differences, finite volumes and finite elements. These techniques are developed in three main chapters of the book that tackle more specific problems: phase transformation, solid mechanics and fluid flow. The two last chapters treat inverse methods to obtain the boundary conditions or the material properties and stochastic methods for microstructural simulation. This book is intended for undergraduate and graduate students in materials science and engineering, mechanical engineering and physics and for engineering professionals or researchers who want to get acquainted with numerical simulation to model and compute materials processing.

  2. NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF NATURAL CONVECTION IN A PRISMATIC ENCLOSURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walid AICH

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural convection heat transfer and fluid flow have been examined numerically using the control-volume finite-element method in an isosceles prismatic cavity, submitted to a uniform heat flux from below when inclined sides are maintained isothermal and vertical walls are assumed to be perfect thermal insulators, without symmetry assumptions for the flow structure. The aim of the study is to examine a pitchfork bifurcation occurrence. Governing parameters on heat transfer and flow fields are the Rayleigh number and the aspect ratio of the enclosure. It has been found that the heated wall is not isothermal and the flow structure is sensitive to the aspect ratio. It is also found that heat transfer increases with increasing of Rayleigh number and decreases with increasing aspect ratio. The effects of aspect ratio become significant especially for higher values of Rayleigh number. Eventually the obtained results show that a pitchfork bifurcation occurs at a critical Rayleigh number, above which the symmetric solutions becomes unstable and asymmetric solutions are instead obtained.

  3. Numerical study of glare spot phase Doppler anemometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hespel, C.; Ren, K. F.; Gréhan, G.; Onofri, F.

    2008-03-01

    The phase Doppler anemometry has (PDA) been developed to measure simultaneously the velocity and the size of droplets. When the concentration of particles is high, tightly focused beams must be used, as in the dual burst PDA. The latter permits an access to the refractive index of the particle, but the effect of wave front curvature of the incident beams becomes evident. In this paper, we introduce a glare spot phase Doppler anemometry which uses two large beams. The images of the particle formed by the reflected and refracted light, known as glare spots, are separated in space. When a particle passes through the probe volume, the two parts in a signal obtained by a detector in forward direction are then separated in time. If two detectors are used the phase differences and the intensity ratios between two signals, the distance between the reflected and refracted spots can be obtained. These measured values provide information about the particle diameter and its refractive index, as well as its two velocity components. This paper is devoted to the numerical study of such a configuration with two theoretical models: geometrical optics and rigorous electromagnetism solution.

  4. Use value, exchange value, and resource scarcity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stern, D.I.

    1999-01-01

    The literature on natural resource scarcity indicators is reviewed. Scarcity indicators can be classified by what is being measured: value of the resource stock or value of extracted resource commodities; whose value is considered: social vs. private scarcity; and by the mode of valuation considered: exchange value and use value. Prices and rents are common measures of exchange value or indicators of ''exchange scarcity'' and unit costs can be seen as use value indicators or indicators of u se scarcity . The major aim of this paper is to demonstrate the links between productivity indicators such as unit costs and the classical concept of use value. The two classes of indicator relate to John Commons' discussions of scarcity and efficiency, and a marginal vs. a non-marginal approach to value and scarcity. The classical use value concept also has wider relevance for issues of valuation in energy, resource, and environmental policy. (author)

  5. Record Values of a Pareto Distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahsanullah, M.

    The record values of the Pareto distribution, labelled Pareto (II) (alpha, beta, nu), are reviewed. The best linear unbiased estimates of the parameters in terms of the record values are provided. The prediction of the sth record value based on the first m (s>m) record values are obtained. A classical Pareto distribution provides reasonably…

  6. Total Variation Regularization for Functions with Values in a Manifold

    KAUST Repository

    Lellmann, Jan; Strekalovskiy, Evgeny; Koetter, Sabrina; Cremers, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    While total variation is among the most popular regularizers for variational problems, its extension to functions with values in a manifold is an open problem. In this paper, we propose the first algorithm to solve such problems which applies to arbitrary Riemannian manifolds. The key idea is to reformulate the variational problem as a multilabel optimization problem with an infinite number of labels. This leads to a hard optimization problem which can be approximately solved using convex relaxation techniques. The framework can be easily adapted to different manifolds including spheres and three-dimensional rotations, and allows to obtain accurate solutions even with a relatively coarse discretization. With numerous examples we demonstrate that the proposed framework can be applied to variational models that incorporate chromaticity values, normal fields, or camera trajectories. © 2013 IEEE.

  7. Total Variation Regularization for Functions with Values in a Manifold

    KAUST Repository

    Lellmann, Jan

    2013-12-01

    While total variation is among the most popular regularizers for variational problems, its extension to functions with values in a manifold is an open problem. In this paper, we propose the first algorithm to solve such problems which applies to arbitrary Riemannian manifolds. The key idea is to reformulate the variational problem as a multilabel optimization problem with an infinite number of labels. This leads to a hard optimization problem which can be approximately solved using convex relaxation techniques. The framework can be easily adapted to different manifolds including spheres and three-dimensional rotations, and allows to obtain accurate solutions even with a relatively coarse discretization. With numerous examples we demonstrate that the proposed framework can be applied to variational models that incorporate chromaticity values, normal fields, or camera trajectories. © 2013 IEEE.

  8. Measuring the Multinational Business Value – An indexing Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge MONGAY HURTADO

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The research project aims to present a comparative analysis of countries related to the value of their MNCs in the global arena. The study works in secondary data analysis using as a platform the Forbes Global 2000 list, which is maybe the best source explaining the presence of MNCs by country. This research goes beyond the information provided by the original list, offering an index and information about the number of corporations per country as well as their value (number of corpora-tions per country, their position in the ranking and the weight obtained by each company expressed in numerical value. Also the index obtained has been adjusted to the population of each country to determine which one should be the expected value per country from a more realistic perspective. An analysis of cultural clus-ters and trading zones has been applied as well. Finally, a calculation of the dif-ferent sectors where MNCs operate give the index the possibility to estimate the % of penetration or importance of the services and financial sector in each country and in the world.

  9. Numerical experiments to investigate the accuracy of broad-band moment magnitude, Mwp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Tatsuhiko; Nishimura, Naoki

    2011-12-01

    We perform numerical experiments to investigate the accuracy of broad-band moment magnitude, Mwp. We conduct these experiments by measuring Mwp from synthetic seismograms and comparing the resulting values to the moment magnitudes used in the calculation of synthetic seismograms. In the numerical experiments using point sources, we have found that there is a significant dependence of Mwp on focal mechanisms, and that depths phases have a large impact on Mwp estimates, especially for large shallow earthquakes. Numerical experiments using line sources suggest that the effects of source finiteness and rupture propagation on Mwp estimates are on the order of 0.2 magnitude units for vertical fault planes with pure dip-slip mechanisms and 45° dipping fault planes with pure dip-slip (thrust) mechanisms, but that the dependence is small for strike-slip events on a vertical fault plane. Numerical experiments for huge thrust faulting earthquakes on a fault plane with a shallow dip angle suggest that the Mwp estimates do not saturate in the moment magnitude range between 8 and 9, although they are underestimates. Our results are consistent with previous studies that compared Mwp estimates to moment magnitudes calculated from seismic moment tensors obtained by analyses of observed data.

  10. Numerical modeling of the thermoelectric cooler with a complementary equation for heat circulation in air gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, En; Wu, Xiaojie; Yu, Yuesen; Xiu, Junrui

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, a numerical model is developed by combining thermodynamics with heat transfer theory. Taking inner and external multi-irreversibility into account, it is with a complementary equation for heat circulation in air gaps of a steady cooling system with commercial thermoelectric modules operating in refrigeration mode. With two modes concerned, the equation presents the heat flowing through air gaps which forms heat circulations between both sides of thermoelectric coolers (TECs). In numerical modelling, a TEC is separated as two temperature controlled constant heat flux reservoirs in a thermal resistance network. In order to obtain the parameter values, an experimental apparatus with a commercial thermoelectric cooler was built to characterize the performance of a TEC with heat source and sink assembly. At constant power dissipation, steady temperatures of heat source and both sides of the thermoelectric cooler were compared with those in a standard numerical model. The method displayed that the relationship between Φf and the ratio Φ_{c}'/Φ_{c} was linear as expected. Then, for verifying the accuracy of proposed numerical model, the data in another system were recorded. It is evident that the experimental results are in good agreement with simulation(proposed model) data at different heat transfer rates. The error is small and mainly results from the instabilities of thermal resistances with temperature change and heat flux, heat loss of the device vertical surfaces and measurements.

  11. Generic clearance values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossio, M.C.; Muniz, C.C.

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzes the Generic Clearance Values established for natural and artificial radionuclides with the objective of evaluating their degree of conservatism in views of adopting them into the regulatory body. Generic clearance values for natural radionuclides have been chosen by experts judgments as the optimum boundary between, on one hand, the ubiquitous unmodified soil concentrations and, on the other hand, activity concentrations in ores, mineral sands, industrial residues and wastes. For artificial radionuclides the clearance levels have been derived from the scenarios postulated in the document 'Safety Reports Series Nr 44' of the IAEA considering quantitative exemption criteria. A set of 8 scenarios were postulated covering external, ingestion and inhalation exposure pathways. For each radionuclide, the generic clearance level was derived as the more restrictive value obtained from the scenarios, that is the lowest ratio between the applicable individual dose and the dose per unit activity concentration (Bq/g). The individual dose was calculated by a formula depending on each scenario and pathway, with different parameters, such as exposure time, dosimetric factors, dilution factor, density of the material, geometric factors, etc. It was concluded that the basis and parameters used for the derivation of the generic clearance levels are quite conservative and therefore its the adoption in Argentina has been recommended. It is expected that their implementation will contribute to optimize the regulatory management system. (author)

  12. Generic Clearance Values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossio, M.C.; Muniz, C.C.

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes the Generic Clearance Values established for natural and artificial radionuclides with the objective of evaluating their degree of conservatism in views of adopting them into the regulatory body. Generic clearance values for natural radionuclides have been chosen by experts judgments as the optimum boundary between, on the one hand, the ubiquitous unmodified soil concentrations and, on the other hand, activity concentrations in ores, mineral sands, industrial residues and wastes. For artificial radionuclides the clearance levels have been derived from the scenarios postulated in the document Safety Reports Series 44 of the IAEA considering quantitative exemption criteria. A set of 8 scenarios were postulated covering external, ingestion and inhalation exposure pathways. For each radionuclide, the generic clearance level was derived as the more restrictive value obtained from the scenarios, that is the lowest ratio between the applicable individual dose and the dose per unit activity concentration (Bq/g). The individual dose was calculated by a formula depending on each scenario and pathway, with different parameters, such as exposure time, dosimetric factors, dilution factor, density of the material, geometric factors, etc. It was concluded that the basis and parameters used for the derivation of the generic clearance levels are quite conservative and therefore its the adoption in Argentina has been recommended. It is expected that their implementation will contribute to optimize the regulatory management system. (authors) [es

  13. Numerical simulation of λ Φ 44

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaral, M.G. do; Carvalho, C.A.A. de; Shellard, R.C.

    1984-01-01

    The behaviour of a lattice theory where spontaneous symmetry breaking occurs is studied. The effective potential and obtain the phase diagram of an Euclidean λ Φ 4 4 theory using Monte Carlo methods on a hypercubic lattice with 4 4 sites and periodic boundary conditions was calculated and discussed. The vacuum expectation value Φ C , in the presence of external source j(x), keeping the parameter β = 1/ λ fixed was examined. Φ c is the limit of Φ as J→0. For values of β greater than β critical , Φ c = 0, while for values of β lesser than β critical , Φ c = 0. λ Φ 4 field theory exhibits two phases,a disordered phase in which the vacuum expectation value of the field vanishes and an ordered phase which is characterized by spontaneous magnetization. The value of β critical is estimated through the specific heat and susceptibility. (Author) [pt

  14. Obtaining of ceramics biphasic dense and porous

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pallone, E.M.J.A.; Rigo, E.C.S.; Fraga, A.F.

    2010-01-01

    Among the bioceramic hydroxyapatite (HAP) and beta-tricalcium phosphate (beta-TCP) are materials commonly used in biomedical field. Their combined properties result in a material with absorbable and at the same time with bioactive surface. Called biphasic ceramics such materials respond more quickly when exposed to physiological environment. In this work, powders of HAP/beta-TCP were obtained by chemical precipitation. After obtaining the post-phase was added at a ratio of 0, 15% and 30w% aqueous solutions of corn starch in order to obtain porous bodies. After mixing the resulting solutions were dried, resigned in tablet form and sintered at 1300 deg C. The initial powder was characterized by X-ray diffraction with Rietveld refinement to quantify the phases present. Bodies-of-evidence has been characterized by calculating the bulk density, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy and diametral compression. (author)

  15. Organoclays obtaining starting up of clays sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, M.M. da; Mota, M.F.; Oliveira, G.C. de; Rodrigues, M.G.F.

    2012-01-01

    Clays have several applications in many areas of fields of technology, however, modification of these materials using organic compounds can be performed to obtain further hydrophobic materials, for applications in the adsorption of organic pollutants. This study aimed to analyze the effects of modifying two clays using sodium quaternary ammonium surfactants through ion exchange reaction process, in obtaining organoclays. The samples with sodium and organoclays were characterized by the techniques of X-ray diffraction (XRD), Infrared Spectroscopy in the region (IV), Gravimetric and Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA / TG) and organic adsorption tests. The results show that the process of obtaining organoclay is efficient, and materials have the potential for future applications in removing organic contaminants. (author)

  16. Obtain of uranium concentrates from fertil liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narvaez Castillo, W.A.

    1992-01-01

    This research tried to encounter the form to remove uranium from the rock in the best way, for that it was used different process like leaching, extraction, concentration and precipitation. To leach the mineral was chosen basic leaching, using a mixture of carbonate-sodium bicarbonate, this method is more adequated for the basic nature of the mineral. In extraction was used specific uranium ionic interchanges, so was chosen a tertiary amine like Alamina 336. The concentration phase is intimately binding with the extraction by ionic interchange, for the capability of resine's extraction to obtain concentrated liquids. When the liquids were obtained with high concentration of uranium in the same time were purified and then were precipitated, for that we employed a precipitant agent like: Sodium hydroxide, Amonium hydroxide, Magnesium hydroxide, Hydrogen peroxide and phosphates. With all concentrates we obtain the YELLOW CAKE

  17. Numerical simulation and structural optimization of the inclined oil/water separator.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liqiong Chen

    Full Text Available Improving the separation efficiency of the inclined oil/water separator, a new type of gravity separation equipment, is of great importance. In order to obtain a comprehensive understanding of the internal flow field of the separation process of oil and water within this separator, a numerical simulation based on Euler multiphase flow analysis and the realizable k-ε two equation turbulence model was executed using Fluent software. The optimal value ranges of the separator's various structural parameters used in the numerical simulation were selected through orthogonal array experiments. A field experiment on the separator was conducted with optimized structural parameters in order to validate the reliability of the numerical simulation results. The research results indicated that the horizontal position of the dispenser, the hole number, and the diameter had significant effects on the oil/water separation efficiency, and that the longitudinal position of the dispenser and the position of the weir plate had insignificant effects on the oil/water separation efficiency. The optimal structural parameters obtained through the orthogonal array experiments resulted in an oil/water separation efficiency of up to 95%, which was 4.996% greater than that realized by the original structural parameters.

  18. Experiments for obtaining field influence mass particles.

    CERN Document Server

    Yahalomi, E

    2010-01-01

    Analyzing time dilation experiments the existence of a universal field interacting with moving mass particles is obtained. It is found that mass particle changes its properties depend on its velocity relative to this universal scalar field and not on its velocity relative to the laboratory. High energy proton momentum, energy and mass were calculated obtaining new results. Experiments in high energy accelerators are suggested as additional proofs for the existence of this universal field. This universal field may explain some results of other high energy experiments.

  19. Development of the NAA Laboratory for an Accreditation Obtains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sri Wardani; Rina M, Th.; Sunarko, M.; Ratnawati, E.

    2004-01-01

    The evaluation of capability of the neutron activation analysis comparative method and laboratory equipment at P2TRR have been performed by analyzed a reference standard materials prepared by NIST, namely: SRM 1646a and SRM 1648 by a both of comparative and ko- NAA methods. From the analysis results used a comparative method shown that the method and laboratory equipment used at P2TRR obtained in a good precision, accuracy and high sensitivity. In this experiments a few elements could analyzed, namely: V, Ti, Mn, Cl, As, Sm, La, Na, Sc, Cr, Fe, Co, Se, Br, In, Sb, Ba, Cs, Ce, W, U, and Zn. The deviation values results compared with certificate values (NIST) obtained in a range 2 - 12.5% with confidence levels in range 68 - 98%. While, a reference standard material of SRM 1648 analyzed by k 0 -NAA method shown that the method need more research and study continued. From the qualitatively analysis results for short-lived nuclides category analysis by k 0 -NAA could identified a few elements, namely: V, Cu, Na, As and U with standard deviation values in range 1- 11% and limit detection values are 1.6 (U), 6.4 (Cu), 11.2 (V), 73.3 (As) and 199.9 (Na) μg/g for a SRM 1648. For analysis of CRM 8 the results obtained on standard deviation values in range 1 - 13 % and limit detection of 0.71 (Cu), 1.2 (As), 2.4 (V) and 375.9 (Na) μg/g. (author)

  20. A hybrid Eulerian–Lagrangian numerical scheme for solving prognostic equations in fluid dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Kaas

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A new hybrid Eulerian–Lagrangian numerical scheme (HEL for solving prognostic equations in fluid dynamics is proposed. The basic idea is to use an Eulerian as well as a fully Lagrangian representation of all prognostic variables. The time step in Lagrangian space is obtained as a translation of irregularly spaced Lagrangian parcels along downstream trajectories. Tendencies due to other physical processes than advection are calculated in Eulerian space, interpolated, and added to the Lagrangian parcel values. A directionally biased mixing amongst neighboring Lagrangian parcels is introduced. The rate of mixing is proportional to the local deformation rate of the flow. The time stepping in Eulerian representation is achieved in two steps: first a mass-conserving Eulerian or semi-Lagrangian scheme is used to obtain a provisional forecast. This forecast is then nudged towards target values defined from the irregularly spaced Lagrangian parcel values. The nudging procedure is defined in such a way that mass conservation and shape preservation is ensured in Eulerian space. The HEL scheme has been designed to be accurate, multi-tracer efficient, mass conserving, and shape preserving. In Lagrangian space only physically based mixing takes place; i.e., the problem of artificial numerical mixing is avoided. This property is desirable in atmospheric chemical transport models since spurious numerical mixing can impact chemical concentrations severely. The properties of HEL are here verified in two-dimensional tests. These include deformational passive transport on the sphere, and simulations with a semi-implicit shallow water model including topography.

  1. Numerical Verification Of Equilibrium Chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piro, Markus; Lewis, Brent; Thompson, William T.; Simunovic, Srdjan; Besmann, Theodore M.

    2010-01-01

    A numerical tool is in an advanced state of development to compute the equilibrium compositions of phases and their proportions in multi-component systems of importance to the nuclear industry. The resulting software is being conceived for direct integration into large multi-physics fuel performance codes, particularly for providing boundary conditions in heat and mass transport modules. However, any numerical errors produced in equilibrium chemistry computations will be propagated in subsequent heat and mass transport calculations, thus falsely predicting nuclear fuel behaviour. The necessity for a reliable method to numerically verify chemical equilibrium computations is emphasized by the requirement to handle the very large number of elements necessary to capture the entire fission product inventory. A simple, reliable and comprehensive numerical verification method is presented which can be invoked by any equilibrium chemistry solver for quality assurance purposes.

  2. BCJ numerators from reduced Pfaffian

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Yi-Jian [Center for Theoretical Physics, School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University,No. 299 Bayi Road, Wuhan 430072 (China); Teng, Fei [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah,115 South 1400 East, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States)

    2017-04-07

    By expanding the reduced Pfaffian in the tree level Cachazo-He-Yuan (CHY) integrands for Yang-Mills (YM) and nonlinear sigma model (NLSM), we can get the Bern-Carrasco-Johansson (BCJ) numerators in Del Duca-Dixon-Maltoni (DDM) form for arbitrary number of particles in any spacetime dimensions. In this work, we give a set of very straightforward graphic rules based on spanning trees for a direct evaluation of the BCJ numerators for YM and NLSM. Such rules can be derived from the Laplace expansion of the corresponding reduced Pfaffian. For YM, the each one of the (n−2)! DDM form BCJ numerators contains exactly (n−1)! terms, corresponding to the increasing trees with respect to the color order. For NLSM, the number of nonzero numerators is at most (n−2)!−(n−3)!, less than those of several previous constructions.

  3. Applications of neural network to numerical analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Tatsuoki; Fukuhara, Makoto; Ma, Xiao-Feng; Liaqat, Ali

    1999-01-01

    Applications of a multi-layer neural network to numerical analyses are described. We are mainly concerned with the computed tomography and the solution of differential equations. In both cases as the objective functions for the training process of the neural network we employed residuals of the integral equation or the differential equations. This is different from the conventional neural network training where sum of the squared errors of the output values is adopted as the objective function. For model problems both the methods gave satisfactory results and the methods are considered promising for some kind of problems. (author)

  4. Numerical Analysis of Multiscale Computations

    CERN Document Server

    Engquist, Björn; Tsai, Yen-Hsi R

    2012-01-01

    This book is a snapshot of current research in multiscale modeling, computations and applications. It covers fundamental mathematical theory, numerical algorithms as well as practical computational advice for analysing single and multiphysics models containing a variety of scales in time and space. Complex fluids, porous media flow and oscillatory dynamical systems are treated in some extra depth, as well as tools like analytical and numerical homogenization, and fast multipole method.

  5. Numerical calculations near spatial infinity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zenginoglu, Anil

    2007-01-01

    After describing in short some problems and methods regarding the smoothness of null infinity for isolated systems, I present numerical calculations in which both spatial and null infinity can be studied. The reduced conformal field equations based on the conformal Gauss gauge allow us in spherical symmetry to calculate numerically the entire Schwarzschild-Kruskal spacetime in a smooth way including spacelike, null and timelike infinity and the domain close to the singularity

  6. Numerical modelling of mine workings.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lightfoot, N

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available to cover most of what is required for a practising rock mechanics engineer to be able to use any of these five programs to solve practical mining problems. The chapters on specific programs discuss their individual strengths and weaknesses and highlight... and applications of numerical modelling in the context of the South African gold and platinum mining industries. This includes an example that utilises a number of different numerical 3 modelling programs to solve a single problem. This particular example...

  7. On joint numerical radius II

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Drnovšek, R.; Müller, Vladimír

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 62, č. 9 (2014), s. 1197-1204 ISSN 0308-1087 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/09/0473; GA AV ČR IAA100190903 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : joint numerical range * numerical radius Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.738, year: 2014 http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/03081087.2013.816303

  8. Numerical Hydrodynamics in General Relativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Font José A.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The current status of numerical solutions for the equations of ideal general relativistic hydrodynamics is reviewed. With respect to an earlier version of the article, the present update provides additional information on numerical schemes, and extends the discussion of astrophysical simulations in general relativistic hydrodynamics. Different formulations of the equations are presented, with special mention of conservative and hyperbolic formulations well-adapted to advanced numerical methods. A large sample of available numerical schemes is discussed, paying particular attention to solution procedures based on schemes exploiting the characteristic structure of the equations through linearized Riemann solvers. A comprehensive summary of astrophysical simulations in strong gravitational fields is presented. These include gravitational collapse, accretion onto black holes, and hydrodynamical evolutions of neutron stars. The material contained in these sections highlights the numerical challenges of various representative simulations. It also follows, to some extent, the chronological development of the field, concerning advances on the formulation of the gravitational field and hydrodynamic equations and the numerical methodology designed to solve them.

  9. Obtaining the Andersen's chart, triangulation algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabaliauskas, Tomas; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    Andersen’s chart (Andersen & Berre, 1999) is a graphical method of observing cyclic soil response. It allows observing soil response to various stress amplitudes that can lead to liquefaction, excess plastic deformation or stabilizing soil response. The process of obtaining the original chart has...

  10. Purification of alcohol obtained from molasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visnevskaya, G L; Egorov, A S; Sokol' skaya, E V

    1960-01-01

    A study of the composition of alcohol liquids on different plates of a fractionation column of indirect action during purification of alcohol obtained from normal and defective molasses, and from starch raw material, showed that there were two local strength minima in the lower part of the column and on the plates (adjacent and feed). Aldehydes behaved as a typical head impurity; a noticeable increase in their concentration occurred only on the highest plates in the fractionation column. In the zone of the column containing liquids of a strength of 86 to 94% alcohol by weight a sharply pronounced local maximum of ester accumulation were observed, provisionally designated as intermediate, whose presence is apparently one of the causes of the specific sharp taste of alcohol obtained from molasses. These esters hinder the obtaining of high-grade alcohols which are standard in respect to ester content and oxidizability test. Reduction with 0.05N KMnO/sub 4/ occurs most rapidly with alcohol liquids in the zone of ester accumulation; purification of alcohols obtained from grain and potato raw material resulted in no zones of ester accumulation in the column.

  11. Obtaining shale distillate free from sulphur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heyl, G E

    1917-09-14

    A process whereby, from sulfur-containing shale, products free from sulfur may be obtained, consisting of mixing with the finely ground shale a portion of iron salts containing sufficient metal to unite with all the sulfur in the shale and form sulfide therewith, grinding the mixture to a fine state of subdivision and subsequently subjecting it to destructive distillation.

  12. Obtaining a minimal set of rewrite rules

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Davel, M

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors describe a new approach to rewrite rule extraction and analysis, using Minimal Representation Graphs. This approach provides a mechanism for obtaining the smallest possible rule set – within a context-dependent rewrite rule...

  13. Obtainment of tantalum oxide from national ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinatti, D.G.; Ribeiro, S.; Martins, A.H.

    1988-01-01

    The experimental results of tantalum oxides (Ta 2 O 5 ) obtainment from Brazilian ores of tantalite and columbite are described. This study is a part of the technologic and scientific research design of refractory metals (Ti, Zr, Hf, V, Nb, Ta, Cr, Mo and W) and correlate ceramics. (C.G.C.) [pt

  14. Isolation and characterization of microcrystalline cellulose obtained ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, microcrystalline cellulose, coded MCC-PNF, was obtained from palm nut (Elaeis guineensis) fibres. MCC-PNF was examined for its physicochemical and powder properties. The powder properties of MCC-PNF were compared to those of the best commercial microcrystalline cellulose grade, Avicel PH 101.

  15. Thermoluminescence properties of zinc oxide obtained by solution combustion synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orante B, V. R.; Escobar O, F. M.; Cruz V, C. [Universidad de Sonora, Departamento de Investigacion en Polimeros y Materiales, Apdo. Postal 130, 83000 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Bernal, R., E-mail: victor.orante@polimeros.uson.mx [Universidad de Sonora, Departamento de Investigacion en Fisica, Apdo. Postal 5-088, 83190 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico)

    2014-08-15

    High-dose thermoluminescence dosimetry properties of novel zinc oxide obtained by solution combustion synthesis in a glycine-nitrate process, with a non-stoichiometric value of the elemental stoichiometric coefficient (Φ{sub c}) are presented in this work. Zn O powder samples obtained were annealed afterwards at 900 grades C during 2 h in air. Sintered particles of sizes between ∼ 0.5 and ∼ 2 μm were obtained, according to scanning electron microscopy results. X-ray diffraction indicates the presence of the hexagonal phase of Zn O for the powder samples obtained, before and after thermal annealing, without any remaining nitrate peaks observed. Thermoluminescence glow curves of Zn O obtained after being exposed to beta radiation consists of two maxima; one located at ∼ 149 grades C and another at ∼ 308 grades C, being the latter the dosimetric component of the curve. Dosimetric characterization of non-stoichiometric zinc oxide provided experimental evidence like asymptotic behavior of the Tl signal fading for times greater than 16 h between irradiation and the corresponding Tl readout, as well as the linear behaviour of the dose response without saturation in the dose interval studied (from 12.5 up to 400 Gy). Such characteristics place Zn O phosphors obtained in this work as a promising material for high-dose radiation dosimetry applications (e.g., radiotherapy and food industry). (author)

  16. Thermoluminescence properties of zinc oxide obtained by solution combustion synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orante B, V. R.; Escobar O, F. M.; Cruz V, C.; Bernal, R.

    2014-08-01

    High-dose thermoluminescence dosimetry properties of novel zinc oxide obtained by solution combustion synthesis in a glycine-nitrate process, with a non-stoichiometric value of the elemental stoichiometric coefficient (Φ c ) are presented in this work. Zn O powder samples obtained were annealed afterwards at 900 grades C during 2 h in air. Sintered particles of sizes between ∼ 0.5 and ∼ 2 μm were obtained, according to scanning electron microscopy results. X-ray diffraction indicates the presence of the hexagonal phase of Zn O for the powder samples obtained, before and after thermal annealing, without any remaining nitrate peaks observed. Thermoluminescence glow curves of Zn O obtained after being exposed to beta radiation consists of two maxima; one located at ∼ 149 grades C and another at ∼ 308 grades C, being the latter the dosimetric component of the curve. Dosimetric characterization of non-stoichiometric zinc oxide provided experimental evidence like asymptotic behavior of the Tl signal fading for times greater than 16 h between irradiation and the corresponding Tl readout, as well as the linear behaviour of the dose response without saturation in the dose interval studied (from 12.5 up to 400 Gy). Such characteristics place Zn O phosphors obtained in this work as a promising material for high-dose radiation dosimetry applications (e.g., radiotherapy and food industry). (author)

  17. Numerical double layer solutions with ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, D.; Soerensen, J.

    1982-08-01

    Maxwell's equation div D = ro in one dimension is solved numerically, taking ionization into account. Time independent anode sheath and double layer solutions are obtained. By varying voltage, neutral gas pressure, temperature of the trapped ions on the cathode side and density and temperature of the trapped electrones on the anode side, diagrams are constructed that show permissible combinations of these parameters. Results from a recent experiment form a subset. Distribution functions, the Langmuir condition, some scaling laws and a possible application to the lower ionosphere are discussed. (Authors)

  18. Quantas medidas de pressões respiratórias são necessárias para se obterem medidas máximas em pacientes com tetraplegia? ¿Cuántas maniobras son necesarias para llegar a las presiones máximas en pacientes con tetraplejía? How many maneuvers of respiratory pressures are required to obtain maximal values in patients with quadriplegia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ada Clarice Gastaldi

    2010-06-01

    patients (seven men with mean age of 37.8 ± 11.96 years old and presenting with diagnosis of complete spinal cord lesion were submitted to 10 measurements of IPmax and EPmax in both seated and supine positions, totalizing 320 measurements. Data were compared by using the Wilcoxon's test (p<0.05. RESULTS: the 1st and 10th measurements of IPmax and EPmax for seated position ranged from 74.1±15.1 to 74.8±19.8 cmH2O and 32.4±6.8 to 32.4±9.0 cmH2O, respectively; whereas for supine position such measurements ranged from 76.5±18.6 to 91.1±13.3 cmH2O (p<0.05 and 32.5±5.8 to 32.9±5.1 cmH2O, respectively. The results regarding the 3rd and 5th measurements of IPmax for seated position were 81.1±19.5, 81.5±18.8, and 83.0±18.9 cmH2O; whereas EPmax had 35.0±8.2; 35.3±7.9, and 36.8±8.0 cmH2O. IPmax values for seated position were 90.3±17.8, 94.6±16.0, and 97.4±17.8 cmH2O (p<0.05, whereas EPmax had 33.3±5.8, 35.6±5.4, and 36.9±4.9 cmH2O. The highest value occurred from the 6th measurement in 40% of the tests. CONCLUSIONS: To obtain maximum values for respiratory pressures in quadriplegic patients, it is necessary to repeat the measurements at least 10 times for each evaluation.

  19. DEXTRINIZED SYRUPS OBTAINING THROUGH THE ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS OF SORGHUM STARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leyanis Rodríguez Rodríguez

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this work was the production of syrups dextrinized by enzymatic hydrolysis of starch red sorghum CIAPR-132 using α-amylase on solutions at different concentrations, with different concentrations of enzyme and enzyme hydrolysis time. The response variable was the dextrose equivalent in each obtained syrup (ED using the modified Lane-Eynon method. In some of the experiments, we used a full factorial design 23 and in others we worked with intermediate concentration and higher hydrolysis time with different levels of enzyme. The obtained products were syrups dextrinized ED between 10,25 and 33,97% (values we can find within the established ones for these types of syrups, which can be used for their functional properties as intermediates syrups or as raw material for different processes of the food industry. This allows you to set a pattern for the use of sorghum feedstock in unconventional obtaining products from its starch.

  20. Nanocrystalline and ultrafine grain copper obtained by mechanical attrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Rodríguez Baracaldo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a method for the sample preparation and characterisation of bulk copper having grain size lower than 1 μm (ultra-fine grain and lower than 100 nm grain size (nanocrystalline. Copper is initially manufactured by a milling/alloying me- chanical method thereby obtaining a powder having a nanocrystalline structure which is then consolidated through a process of warm compaction at high pressure. Microstructural characterisation of bulk copper samples showed the evolution of grain size during all stages involved in obtaining it. The results led to determining the necessary conditions for achieving a wide range of grain sizes. Mechanical characterisation indicated an increase in microhardness to values of around 3.40 GPa for unconsolida- ted nanocrystalline powder. Compressivee strength was increased by reducing the grain size, thereby obtaining an elastic limit of 650 MPa for consolidated copper having a ~ 62 nm grain size.