Large-scale patterns in Rayleigh-Benard convection
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hardenberg, J. von; Parodi, A.; Passoni, G.; Provenzale, A.; Spiegel, E.A.
2008-01-01
Rayleigh-Benard convection at large Rayleigh number is characterized by the presence of intense, vertically moving plumes. Both laboratory and numerical experiments reveal that the rising and descending plumes aggregate into separate clusters so as to produce large-scale updrafts and downdrafts. The horizontal scales of the aggregates reported so far have been comparable to the horizontal extent of the containers, but it has not been clear whether that represents a limitation imposed by domain size. In this work, we present numerical simulations of convection at sufficiently large aspect ratio to ascertain whether there is an intrinsic saturation scale for the clustering process when that ratio is large enough. From a series of simulations of Rayleigh-Benard convection with Rayleigh numbers between 10 5 and 10 8 and with aspect ratios up to 12π, we conclude that the clustering process has a finite horizontal saturation scale with at most a weak dependence on Rayleigh number in the range studied
Numerical simulation of two-dimensional Rayleigh-Benard convection
Grigoriev, Vasiliy V.; Zakharov, Petr E.
2017-11-01
This paper considered Rayleigh-Benard convection (natural convection). This is a flow, which is formed in a viscous medium when heated from below and cooled from above. As a result, are formed vortices (convective cells). This process is described by a system of nonlinear differential equations in Oberbeck-Boussinesq approximation. As the governing parameters characterizing convection states Rayleigh number, Prandtl number are picked. The problem is solved by using finite element method with computational package FEniCS. Numerical results for different Rayleigh numbers are obtained. Studied integral characteristic (Nusselt number) depending on the Rayleigh number.
Three caveats for linear stability theory: Rayleigh-Benard convection
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Greenside, H.S.
1984-06-01
Recent theories and experiments challenge the applicability of linear stability theory near the onset of buoyancy-driven (Rayleigh-Benard) convection. This stability theory, based on small perturbations of infinite parallel rolls, is found to miss several important features of the convective flow. The reason is that the lateral boundaries have a profound influence on the possible wave numbers and flow patterns even for the largest cells studied. Also, the nonlinear growth of incoherent unstable modes distorts the rolls, leading to a spatially disordered and sometimes temporally nonperiodic flow. Finally, the relation of the skewed varicose instability to the onset of turbulence (nonperiodic time dependence) is examined. Linear stability theory may not suffice to predict the onset of time dependence in large cells close to threshold.
Laser speckle velocimetry applied to Rayleigh-Benard convection
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Arroyo, M.P.; Yonte, T.; Quintanilla, M.; Saviron, J.M.
1986-01-01
An application of speckle velocimetry technique to Rayleigh-Benard convection is presented. A 5-mW He-Ne laser allows precise determination of the two-dimensional velocity flow field, up to several mm/sec. The digital techniques used to analyze automatically the multiexposed photographs and to generate velocity and vorticity fields are described. The obtained results are in good agreement with previously reported data. The ability of the technique to cover other experimental conditions is discussed. 14 references
Heat and momentum transport in sheared Rayleigh-Benard convection
Krishnamurti, Ruby; Zhu, Yi
This is a report on laboratory measurements of heat and momentum flux in sheared Rayleigh-Benard convection. A cylindrical annulus of water uniformly heated below and cooled above was subjected to an imposed shear by driving the bottom boundary so that it rotated steadily around the vertical axis of symmetry. The top boundary was stationary and formed part of a torsion balance. It was suspended from the laboratory ceiling by a long torsion wire. The torque exerted upon the top boundary by the fluid was measured by the twist of the torsion wire. From this angle of twist, the vertical flux of horizontal momentum was determined. The heat flux as well as the momentum flux were measured at each fixed value of Rayleigh number Ra and Reynolds number Re. The measurements were made in the range 6 × 10 6 ≤ Ra ≤ 6 × 10 7 and 38 ≤ Re ≤ 352. One of the most striling results is that at Ra near 3 × 10 7 to 5 × 10 7 depending upon Re, the dimensionless momentum flux Mo ceases its increasing trend and begins to decrease with increasing Ra. This may be described by saying that the effective viscosity decreases with further increasing of Ra. However, Mo always remained greater than unity in the range investigated.
Temperature boundary layer profiles in turbulent Rayleigh-Benard convection
Ching, Emily S. C.; Emran, Mohammad S.; Horn, Susanne; Shishkina, Olga
2017-11-01
Classical boundary-layer theory for steady flows cannot adequately describe the boundary layer profiles in turbulent Rayleigh-Benard convection. We have developed a thermal boundary layer equation which takes into account fluctuations in terms of an eddy thermal diffusivity. Based on Prandtl's mixing length ideas, we relate the eddy thermal diffusivity to the stream function. With this proposed relation, we can solve the thermal boundary layer equation and obtain a closed-form expression for the dimensionless mean temperature profile in terms of two independent parameters: θ(ξ) =1/b∫0b ξ [ 1 +3a3/b3(η - arctan(η)) ] - c dη , where ξ is the similarity variable and the parameters a, b, and c are related by the condition θ(∞) = 1 . With a proper choice of the parameters, our predictions of the temperature profile are in excellent agreement with the results of our direct numerical simulations for a wide range of Prandtl numbers (Pr), from Pr=0.01 to Pr=2547.9. OS, ME and SH acknowledge the financial support by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) under Grants Sh405/4-2 (Heisenberg fellowship), Sh405/3-2 and Ho 5890/1-1, respectively.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Musilová, Věra; Králík, Tomáš; La Mantia, M.; Macek, Michal; Urban, Pavel; Skrbek, L.
2017-01-01
Roč. 832, OCT 26 (2017), s. 721-744 ISSN 0022-1120 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA17-03572S; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : Benard convection * turbulent convection * turbulent flows Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 2.821, year: 2016
Complexity of Direct Numerical Simulations of turbulent Rayleigh-Benard convection
Shishkina, Olga; Wagner, Claus
2011-11-01
We derive the scaling of the dimensionless velocity of Large-Scale Circulation and turnover time in turbulent Rayleigh-Benard convection with respect to the Rayleigh, Nusselt and Prandtl numbers, based on Prandtl-Blasius boundary layer equations. Analyzing the kinetic dissipation rates in the bulk and within the boundary layers, we obtain the lower-bound scaling of the Nusselt number with respect to the Rayleigh number, which allows to evaluate the number of dimensionless time units, required for statistical averaging in Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) dependently on the Rayleigh number. It is shown that this number scales as the Rayleigh number taken with the exponent 0.1. Finally, based on the estimations of the turnover time and the Kolmogorov time and length scales in the boundary layers, we find the scaling of the total DNS complexity. The theoretical estimates for the wind velocity and turnover time are supported by numerous DNS. The authors are garteful to DFG for support.
Reduced-Order Modeling of 3D Rayleigh-Benard Turbulent Convection
Hassanzadeh, Pedram; Grover, Piyush; Nabi, Saleh
2017-11-01
Accurate Reduced-Order Models (ROMs) of turbulent geophysical flows have broad applications in science and engineering; for example, to study the climate system or to perform real-time flow control/optimization in energy systems. Here we focus on 3D Rayleigh-Benard turbulent convection at the Rayleigh number of 106 as a prototype for turbulent geophysical flows, which are dominantly buoyancy driven. The purpose of the study is to evaluate and improve the performance of different model reduction techniques using this setting. One-dimensional ROMs for horizontally averaged temperature are calculated using several methods. Specifically, the Linear Response Function (LRF) of the system is calculated from a large DNS dataset using Dynamic Mode Decomposition (DMD) and Fluctuation-Dissipation Theorem (FDT). The LRF is also calculated using the Green's function method of Hassanzadeh and Kuang (2016, J. Atmos. Sci.), which is based on using numerous forced DNS runs. The performance of these LRFs in estimating the system's response to weak external forcings or controlling the time-mean flow are compared and contrasted. The spectral properties of the LRFs and the scaling of the accuracy with the length of the dataset (for the data-driven methods) are also discussed.
Efficiency of Heat Transfer in Turbulent Rayleigh-Benard Convection
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Urban, Pavel; Musilová, Věra; Skrbek, L.
2011-01-01
Roč. 107, č. 1 (2011), 014302:1-4 ISSN 0031-9007 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB200650902 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : natural convection * thermal convection Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 7.370, year: 2011
Logarithmic Temperature Profiles in Turbulent Rayleigh-Benard Convection
Ahlers, G.; Bodenschatz, E.; Funfschilling, D.; Grossmann, S.; He, Xiaozhou; Lohse, Detlef; Stevens, Richard Johannes Antonius Maria; Verzicco, Roberto
2012-01-01
We report results for the temperature profiles of turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard convection (RBC) in the interior of a cylindrical sample of aspect ratio ¿¿D/L=0.50 (D and L are the diameter and height, respectively). Both in the classical and in the ultimate state of RBC we find that the temperature
Quasiperiodicity, mode-locking, and universal scaling in Rayleigh-Benard convection
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ecke, R.E.
1990-01-01
This major review paper describes research on a model nonlinear dynamical system of small-aspect-ratio Rayleigh-Benard convection in 3 He - 4 He mixtures. The nonlinear effects of mode locking and quasiperiodic behavior are described. Analysis techniques for characterizing the state of the dynamical system include Fourier transforms, Poincare sections, phase differences, transients, multifractal f(∝) spectra and scaling function dynamics. Theoretical results such as the fractal staircase of mode-locked intervals and the Arnold tongues are reproduced in experimental data. New techniques for analyzing scaling dynamics are developed and discussed. This is a tutorial article that introduces the major important concepts in nonlinear dynamics and focuses on experimental problems and techniques. 77 refs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Martinand, D.
2003-01-15
This analytical study deals with the spatio-temporal evolution of linear thermo-convective instabilities in a horizontal fluid layer heated from below (the Rayleigh--Benard system) and subject to a horizontal pressure gradient (Poiseuille flow). The novelty consists of a spatially inhomogeneous temperature, in the form of a two-dimensional bump imposed on the lower plate, while the upper plate is kept at a constant temperature. The inhomogeneous boundary temperature and the mean flow of the Rayleigh--Benard--Poiseuille system break the symmetries of the classical Rayleigh--Benard system. The instabilities of interest are therefore spatially localised packets of convection rolls. If a mode of this type is synchronized, it is called a global mode. Assuming that the characteristic scale of the spatial variation of the lower plate temperature is large compared to the wavelength of the rolls, global modes are sought in the form of Eigenmodes in the confined vertical direction, modulated by a two-dimensional WKBJ expansion in the slowly-varying horizontal directions. Such an expansion breaks down at points where the group velocity of the instability vanishes, i.e. at WKBJ turning points. In the neighbourhood of one such point, located at the top of the temperature bump, the boundedness of the solution imposes a selection criterion for the global modes which provides the growth rate (or equivalently the critical threshold), the frequency and the wave vector of the most amplified global mode. This study thus generalizes to two-dimensional cases the methods used and the results obtained for one-dimensional inhomogeneities. The analysis is first applied to a simplified governing equation obtained by an envelope formalism and the analytical results are compared with numerical solutions of the amplitude equation. The formalism is finally applied to the Rayleigh--Benard--Poiseuille system described by the Navier--Stokes equations with the Boussinesq approximation. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gellert, M; Beltrame, P; Egbers, C
2005-01-01
Spherical Rayleigh-Benard convection under the influence of an artificial central force field produced by the so-called dielectrophoretic effect is studied as a simplified model of the flow in the outer earth core. The fluid motion there is most probably driving the earth's dynamo and the energy source for the earth's magnetic field. Studying convective flows in earth-like geometry could lead to a deeper understanding of the basics of these processes. This research is a preparatory study for the experiments on the International Space Station (ISS). A bifurcation-theoretical approach shows the existence of heteroclinic cycles between spherical modes (l, l + 1) for the non-rotating system. This behavior depends strong on the radius ratio of the spheres and will be hard to detect in the experiment. For slow rotations interactions of the azimuthal modes (m, m + 1) found in numerical simulations for supercritical states are supposed to be experimentally observable
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vinals, J.; Xi, H.; Gunton, J.D.
1992-01-01
The stochastic Swift-Hohenberg equation is studied as a model of Rayleigh-Benard convection in a simple fluid. The equation has been solved numerically in two spatial dimensions to obtain the convective heat current and the roll pattern when either a bulk stochastic forcing field or different models of thermal-diffusivity mismatch at the sidewalls of the convective cell are considered. The parameters that enter the equation have been chosen to match the ramping experiments on Rayleigh-Benard convection by Meyer, Ahlers, and Cannell [Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1577 (1987)]. For any combination of forcing mechanisms, we are able to find values of their various amplitudes that lead to excellent fits to the experimentally measured convective current. In the case of a bulk random forcing field, we find an amplitude of F 1 =5x10 -5 , compared to F th =1.92x10 -9 , the value obtained from fluctuation theory. A random, cellular pattern of rolls is observed, in agreement with experiments involving a gel sidewall designed to eliminate the influence of the sidewalls on the onset of convection. A thermal-conductivity mismatch at the sidewall has also been modeled by a variety of forcing fields. In all cases a roll-like pattern that reflects the geometry of the sidewalls is observed. Different combinations of both types of forcing fields have also been studied and found to yield patterns intermediate between cellular and roll-like, while yielding a very reasonable fit to the convective heat current measured experimentally
The dynamics of droplets in moist Rayleigh-Benard turbulence
Chandrakar, Kamal Kant; van der Voort, Dennis; Kinney, Greg; Cantrell, Will; Shaw, Raymond
2017-11-01
Clouds are an intricate part of the climate, and strongly influence atmospheric dynamics and radiative balances. While properties such as cloud albedo and precipitation rate are large scale effects, these properties are determined by dynamics on the microscale, such droplet sizes, liquid water content, etc. The growth of droplets from condensation is dependent on a multitude of parameters, such as aerosol concentration (nucleation sites) and turbulence (scalar fluctuations and coalescence). However, the precise mechanism behind droplet growth and clustering in a cloud environment is still unclear. In this investigation we use a facility called the Pi Chamber to generate a (miniature) cloud in a laboratory setting with known boundary conditions, such as aerosol concentration, temperature, and humidity. Through the use of particle imaging velocimetry (PIV) on the droplets generated in the cloud, we can investigate the dynamics of these cloud droplets in the convective (Rayleigh-Benard) turbulence generated through an induced temperature gradient. We show the influence of the temperature gradient and Froude number (gravity forces) on the changing turbulence anisotropy, large scale circulation, and small-scale dissipation rates. This work was supported by National Science Foundation Grant AGS-1623429.
Free Thermal Convection in Complex Plasma with Background-Gas Friction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ivlev, A. V.; Zhdanov, S. K.; Morfill, G. E.
2007-01-01
The onset of free thermal convection in complex fluids with background friction is theoretically investigated. It is shown that in the limit when friction prevails--opposite to the classic Rayleigh-Benard case--the onset is determined by a renormalized Rayleigh number and also depends on the Prandtl number. Such convection should be observable in experiments with complex plasmas
Advection diffusion model for particles deposition in Rayleigh-Benard turbulent flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oresta, P.; Lippolis, A.; Verzicco, R.; Soldati, A.
2005-01-01
In this paper, Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) and Lagrangian Particle Tracking are used to precisely investigate the turbulent thermally driven flow and particles dispersion in a closed, slender cylindrical domain. The numerical simulations are carried out for Rayleigh (Ra) and Prandtl numbers (Pr) equal to Ra = 2X10 8 and Pr = 0.7, considering three sets of particles with Stokes numbers, based on Kolmogorov scale, equal to St k 1.3, St k 0.65 and St k = 0.13. This data are used to calculate a priori the drift velocity and the turbulent diffusion coefficient for the Advection Diffusion model. These quantities are function of the Stokes, Froude, Rayleigh and Prandtl numbers only. One dimensional, time dependent, Advection- Diffusion Equation (ADE) is presented to predict particles deposition in Rayleigh-Benard flow in the cylindrical domain. This archetype configuration models flow and aerosol dynamics, produced in case of accident in the passive containment cooling system (PCCS) of a nuclear reactor. ADE results show a good agreement with DNS data for all the sets of particles investigated. (author)
Convection near threshold for Prandtl numbers near 1
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hu, Y.; Ecke, R.; Ahlers, G.
1993-01-01
Rayleigh-Benard convection in two cylindrical geometries with different sidewalls and with radius-to-height ratios Γ=41 and 43 was studied with shadowgraph imaging and heat-transport measurements. The working fluid was CO 2 at 25.3 bar with a Prandtl number σ=0.93. For one of the cells (Γ=43), axisymmetric convection rolls were stable above onset up to ε==ΔT/ΔT c -1=0.19, where ΔT c is the critical temperature difference. The amplitude of the center of the concentric patterns, the umbilicus, much larger near onset than that of the outlying region, grew as ε β 1 , with β 1 =0.27±0.04. Outside the umbilicus, the amplitude grew as ε β 2 , with β 2 =0.48±0.04. For Γ=41, axisymmetric convection rolls, coexisting with an annular cross-roll state confined near the sidewall, were the preferred patterns above onset and remained stable up to an ε of 0.08. The umbilicus of the concentric convection pattern shifted slightly off center as ε was increased, but the shift never exceeded 50% of the cell depth. For ε>0.10, the patterns were unstable and evolved over many horizontal thermal diffusion times to straight-roll patterns with defects and grain boundaries. The process involved the umbilicus moving toward the sidewall, accompanied by radially traveling waves emitted by the umbilicus. While the umbilicus emitted, the crossrolls adjacent to the sidewall traveled parallel to the wall, and rolls were created and destroyed at a source and sink, respectively, presumably owing to large-scale flows generated by the off-centered position of the umbilicus
Rayleigh-Bénard convection instability in the presence of temperature variation at the lower wall
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jovanović Miloš M.
2012-01-01
Full Text Available This paper analyzes the two-dimensional viscous fluid flow between two parallel plates, where the lower plate is heated and the upper one is cooled. The temperature difference between the plates is gradually increased during a certain time period, and afterwards it is temporarily constant. The temperature distribution on the lower plate is not constant in x-direction, and there is longitudinal sinusoidal temperature variation imposed on the mean temperature. We investigate the wave number and amplitude influence of this variation on the stability of Rayleigh-Benard convective cells, by direct numerical simulation of 2-D Navier-Stokes and energy equation.
Boundary layers in turbulent convection for air, liquid gallium and liquid sodium
Scheel, Janet; Schumacher, Joerg
2017-11-01
The scaling of physical quantities that characterize the shape and dynamics of the viscous and thermal boundary layers with respect to the Rayleigh number will be presented for three series of three-dimensional high-resolution direct numerical simulations of Rayleigh-Benard convection (RBC) in a closed cylindrical cell of aspect ratio one. The simulations have been conducted for convection in air at a Prandtl number Pr = 0.7, in liquid gallium at Pr = 0.021 and in liquid sodium at Pr = 0.005. Then we discuss three statistical analysis methods which have been developed to predict the transition of turbulent RBC into the ultimate regime. The methods are based on the large-scale properties of the velocity profile. All three methods indicate that the range of critical Rayleigh numbers is shifted to smaller magnitudes as the Prandtl number becomes smaller. This work is supported by the Priority Programme SPP 1881 of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft.
The convection patterns in microemulsions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Korneta, W.; Lopez Quintela, M.A.; Fernandez Novoa, A.
1991-07-01
The Rayleigh-Benard convection in the microemulsion consisting of water (7.5%), cyclohexan (oil-61.7%) and diethylenglycolmonobutylether (surfactant-30.8%) is studied from the onset of convection to the phase separation. The five classes of convection patterns are observed and recorded on the video: localized travelling waves, travelling waves, travelling waves and localized steady rolls, steady rolls and steady polygons. The Fourier transforms and histograms of these patterns are presented. The origin of any pattern is discussed. The intermittent behaviour close to the phase separation was observed. Possible applications of the obtained results are suggested. (author). 6 refs, 4 figs
Maki, Syou
2016-01-01
Heat transfer of magnetothermal convection with the presence or absence of the magnetic force acting on the susceptibility gradient (fsc) was examined by three-dimensional numerical computations. Thermal convection of water enclosed in a shallow cylindrical vessel (diameter over vessel height = 6.0) with the Rayleigh-Benard model was adopted as the model, under the conditions of Prandtl number 6.0 and Ra number 7000, respectively. The momentum equations of convection were nondimensionalized, which involved the term of fsc and the term of magnetic force acting on the magnetic field gradient (fb). All the computations resulted in axisymmetric steady rolls. The values of the averaged Nu, the averaged velocity components U, V, and W, and the isothermal distributions and flow patterns were almost completely the same, regardless of the presence or absence of the term of fsc. As a result, we found that the effect of fsc was extremely small, although much previous research emphasized the effect with paramagnetic solutions under an unsteady state. The magnitude of fsc depends not only on magnetic conditions (magnitudes of magnetic susceptibility and magnetic flux density), but also on the thermal properties of the solution (thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, and viscosity). Therefore the effect of fb becomes dominant on the magnetothermal convection. Active control over the density gradient with temperature will be required to advance heat transfer with the effect of fsc.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Syou Maki
Full Text Available Heat transfer of magnetothermal convection with the presence or absence of the magnetic force acting on the susceptibility gradient (fsc was examined by three-dimensional numerical computations. Thermal convection of water enclosed in a shallow cylindrical vessel (diameter over vessel height = 6.0 with the Rayleigh-Benard model was adopted as the model, under the conditions of Prandtl number 6.0 and Ra number 7000, respectively. The momentum equations of convection were nondimensionalized, which involved the term of fsc and the term of magnetic force acting on the magnetic field gradient (fb. All the computations resulted in axisymmetric steady rolls. The values of the averaged Nu, the averaged velocity components U, V, and W, and the isothermal distributions and flow patterns were almost completely the same, regardless of the presence or absence of the term of fsc. As a result, we found that the effect of fsc was extremely small, although much previous research emphasized the effect with paramagnetic solutions under an unsteady state. The magnitude of fsc depends not only on magnetic conditions (magnitudes of magnetic susceptibility and magnetic flux density, but also on the thermal properties of the solution (thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, and viscosity. Therefore the effect of fb becomes dominant on the magnetothermal convection. Active control over the density gradient with temperature will be required to advance heat transfer with the effect of fsc.
Convective effects on directional solidification of a simulated metal alloy
Mccay, T. D.; Mccay, M. H.; Lowry, S. A.; Smith, L. M.
1988-01-01
The first significant results of a ground-based experimental program which supports a low gravity space processing Spacelab experiment are reported. The phenomena which precipitate pluming and thus freckling in a metal alloy analog (ammonium chloride and water) are studied in detail and the sequential events leading to massive channeling and convection are optically documented. The pluming is shown to be other than a random burst of unstable fluid from a preferred channel but rather a natural occurrence resulting from a fundamental (Rayleigh-Benard) fluid dynamic instability at the density inversion interface. This extrapolates to critical size parameters appropriate to processing of actual metal alloys.
The Numerical Study on the Influence of Prandtl Number and Height of the Enclosure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moon, Je-Young; Chung, Bum-Jin
2016-01-01
This study investigated numerically the internal flow depending on Prandtl number of fluid and height of enclosure. The two-dimensional numerical simulations were performed for several heights of enclosure in the range between 0.01 m and 0.074 m. It corresponds to the aspect ratio (H/L) ranged from 0.07 to 0.5. Prandtl number was 0.2, 0.7 and 7. Rayleigh number based on the height of enclosure ranged between 8.49x10 3 and 1.20x10 8 . The numerical calculations were carried out using FLUENT 6.3. In order to confirm the influence of Prandtl number and height of side walls on the internal flow and heat transfer of the horizontal enclosure, the numerical study is carried out using the FLUENT 6.3. The numerical results for the condition of top cooling only agree well with Rayleigh-Benard natural convection. When the top and side walls were cooled, the internal flow of enclosure is more complex. The thickness of thermal and velocity boundary layer varies with Prandtl number. For Pr>1 the behavior of cells is unstable and irregular owing to the entrained plume, whereas the internal flow for Pr<1 is stable and regular. Also, the number of cells increases depending on decrease of height. As a result, the heat exchange increases
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Haddad, Zoubida; Abu-Nada, Eiyad; Oztop, Hakan F.; Mataoui, Amina
2012-01-01
Natural convection heat transfer and fluid flow of CuO-Water nano-fluids is studied using the Rayleigh-Benard problem. A two component non-homogenous equilibrium model is used for the nano-fluid that incorporates the effects of Brownian motion and thermophoresis. Variable thermal conductivity and variable viscosity are taken into account in this work. Finite volume method is used to solve governing equations. Results are presented by streamlines, isotherms, nano-particle distribution, local and mean Nusselt numbers and nano-particle profiles at top and bottom side. Comparison of two cases as absence of Brownian and thermophoresis effects and presence of Brownian and thermophoresis effects showed that higher heat transfer is formed with the presence of Brownian and thermophoresis effect. In general, by considering the role of thermophoresis and Brownian motion, an enhancement in heat transfer is observed at any volume fraction of nano-particles. However, the enhancement is more pronounced at low volume fraction of nano-particles and the heat transfer decreases by increasing nano-particle volume fraction. On the other hand, by neglecting the role of thermophoresis and Brownian motion, deterioration in heat transfer is observed and this deterioration elevates by increasing the volume fraction of nano-particles. (authors)
Numerical resolution of the Navier-Stokes equations for a low Mach number by a spectral method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Frohlich, Jochen
1990-01-01
The low Mach number approximation of the Navier-Stokes equations, also called isobar, is an approximation which is less restrictive than the one due to Boussinesq. It permits strong density variations while neglecting acoustic phenomena. We present a numerical method to solve these equations in the unsteady, two dimensional case with one direction of periodicity. The discretization uses a semi-implicit finite difference scheme in time and a Fourier-Chebycheff pseudo-spectral method in space. The solution of the equations of motion is based on an iterative algorithm of Uzawa type. In the Boussinesq limit we obtain a direct method. A first application is concerned with natural convection in the Rayleigh-Benard setting. We compare the results of the low Mach number equations with the ones in the Boussinesq case and consider the influence of variable fluid properties. A linear stability analysis based on a Chebychev-Tau method completes the study. The second application that we treat is a case of isobaric combustion in an open domain. We communicate results for the hydrodynamic Darrieus-Landau instability of a plane laminar flame front. [fr
Thermal convection for large Prandtl numbers
Grossmann, Siegfried; Lohse, Detlef
2001-01-01
The Rayleigh-Bénard theory by Grossmann and Lohse [J. Fluid Mech. 407, 27 (2000)] is extended towards very large Prandtl numbers Pr. The Nusselt number Nu is found here to be independent of Pr. However, for fixed Rayleigh numbers Ra a maximum in the Nu(Pr) dependence is predicted. We moreover offer
Flow Visualization of Low Prandtl Number Fluids using Electrochemical Measurements
Crunkleton, D.; Anderson, T.; Narayanan, R.; Labrosse, G.
2003-01-01
It is well established that residual flows exist in contained liquid metal processes. In 1-g processing, buoyancy forces often drive these flows and their magnitudes can be substantial. It is also known that residual flows can exist during microgravity processing, and although greatly reduced in magnitude, they can influence the properties of the processed materials. Unfortunately, there are very few techniques to visualize flows in opaque, high temperature liquid metals, and those available are not easily adapted to flight investigation. In this study, a novel technique is developed that uses liquid tin as the model fluid and solid-state electrochemical cells constructed from Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia (YSZ) to establish and measure dissolved oxygen boundary conditions. The melt serves as a common electrode for each of the electrochemical cells in this design, while independent reference electrodes are maintained at the outside surfaces of the electrolyte. By constructing isolated electrochemical cells at various locations along the container walls, oxygen is introduced or extracted by imposing a known electrical potential or passing a given current between the melt and the reference electrode. This programmed titration then establishes a known oxygen concentration boundary condition at the selected electrolyte-melt interface. Using the other cells, the concentration of oxygen at the electrolyte-melt interface is also monitored by measuring the open-circuit potentials developed between the melt and reference electrodes. Thus the electrochemical cells serve to both establish boundary conditions for the passive tracer and sense its path. Rayleigh-Benard convection was used to validate the electrochemical approach to flow visualization. Thus, a numerical characterization of the second critical Rayleigh numbers in liquid tin was conducted for a variety of Cartesian aspect ratios. The extremely low Prandtl number of tin represents the lowest value studied numerically
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Garcia Velarde, M.
1977-01-01
Thermoconvective instabilities in horizontal fluid layers are discussed with emphasis on the Rayleigh-Benard model problem. Steady solutions and time-dependent phenomena (relaxation oscillations and transition to turbulence) are studied within the nonlinear Boussinesq-Oberbeck approximation. Homogeneous steady solutions, limit cycles, and inhomogeneous (ordered) spatial structures are also studied in simple reaction-diffusion systems. Lastly, the non-periodic attractor that appears at large Rayleigh numbers in the truncated Boussinesq-Oberbeck model of Lorenz, is constructed, and a discussion of turbulent behavior is given. (author) [es
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Flux scaling: Ultimate regime. With the Nusselt number and the mixing length scales, we get the Nusselt number and Reynolds number (w'd/ν) scalings: and or. and. scaling expected to occur at extremely high Ra Rayleigh-Benard convection. Get the ultimate regime ...
Rotating Rayleigh-Bénard convection at low Prandtl number
Aguirre Guzman, Andres; Ostilla-Monico, Rodolfo; Clercx, Herman; Kunnen, Rudie
2017-11-01
Most geo- and astrophysical convective flows are too remote or too complex for direct measurements of the physical quantities involved, and thus a reduced framework with the main physical constituents is beneficial. This approach is given by the problem of rotating Rayleigh-Bénard convection (RRBC). For large-scale systems, the governing parameters of RRBC take extreme values, leading to the geostrophic turbulent regime. We perform Direct Numerical Simulations to investigate the transition to this regime at low Prandtl number (Pr). In low- Pr fluids, thermal diffusivity dominates over momentum diffusivity; we use Pr = 0.1 , relevant to liquid metals. In particular, we study the convective heat transfer (Nusselt number Nu) as a function of rotation (assessed by the Ekman number Ek). The strength of the buoyant forcing (Rayleigh number Ra) is Ra = 1 ×1010 to ensure turbulent convection. Varying Ek , we observe a change of the power-law scaling Nu Ekβ that suggests a transition to geostrophic turbulence, which is likely to occur at Ek = 9 ×10-7 . The thermal boundary layer thickness, however, may suggest a transition at lower Ekman numbers, indicating that perhaps not all statistical quantities show a transitional behaviour at the same Ek .
Effect of Brinkman number and magnetic field on laminar convection ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The effect of Brinkman number and magnetic field on laminar convection in a vertical plate channel with uniform and asymmetric temperatures has been studied. The dimensionless form of momentum and energy balanced equations has been solved using one term perturbation series solution. The solution of the ...
Effects of Brinkman number on thermal-driven convective spherical ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Brinkman number effects on the thermal-driven convective spherical dynamos are studied analytically. The high temperature of the Earth's inner core boundary is usually conducted by the viscous, electrically conducting fluid of the outer core to the core mantle boundary as the Earth cools. The problem considers conducting ...
Prandtl-number Effects in High-Rayleigh-number Spherical Convection
Orvedahl, Ryan J.; Calkins, Michael A.; Featherstone, Nicholas A.; Hindman, Bradley W.
2018-03-01
Convection is the predominant mechanism by which energy and angular momentum are transported in the outer portion of the Sun. The resulting overturning motions are also the primary energy source for the solar magnetic field. An accurate solar dynamo model therefore requires a complete description of the convective motions, but these motions remain poorly understood. Studying stellar convection numerically remains challenging; it occurs within a parameter regime that is extreme by computational standards. The fluid properties of the convection zone are characterized in part by the Prandtl number \\Pr = ν/κ, where ν is the kinematic viscosity and κ is the thermal diffusion; in stars, \\Pr is extremely low, \\Pr ≈ 10‑7. The influence of \\Pr on the convective motions at the heart of the dynamo is not well understood since most numerical studies are limited to using \\Pr ≈ 1. We systematically vary \\Pr and the degree of thermal forcing, characterized through a Rayleigh number, to explore its influence on the convective dynamics. For sufficiently large thermal driving, the simulations reach a so-called convective free-fall state where diffusion no longer plays an important role in the interior dynamics. Simulations with a lower \\Pr generate faster convective flows and broader ranges of scales for equivalent levels of thermal forcing. Characteristics of the spectral distribution of the velocity remain largely insensitive to changes in \\Pr . Importantly, we find that \\Pr plays a key role in determining when the free-fall regime is reached by controlling the thickness of the thermal boundary layer.
Turbulence modeling of natural convection in enclosures: A review
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Choi, Seok Ki; Kim, Seong O
2012-01-01
In this paper a review of recent developments of turbulence models for natural convection in enclosures is presented. The emphasis is placed on the effect of the treatments of Reynolds stress and turbulent heat flux on the stability and accuracy of the solution for natural convection in enclosures. The turbulence models considered in the preset study are the two-layer k -ε model, the shear stress transport (SST) model, the elliptic-relaxation (V2-f) model and the elliptic-blending second-moment closure (EBM). Three different treatments of the turbulent heat flux are the generalized gradient diffusion hypothesis (GGDH), the algebraic flux model (AFM) and the differential flux model (DFM). The mathematical formulation of the above turbulence models and their solution method are presented. Evaluation of turbulence models are performed for turbulent natural convection in a 1:5 rectangular cavity ( Ra = 4.3x10 10 ) and in a square cavity with conducting top and bottom walls ( Ra =1.58x10 9 ) and the Rayleigh-Benard convection ( Ra = 2x10 6 ∼ Ra =10 9 ). The relative performances of turbulence models are examined and their successes and shortcomings are addressed
Thermal turbulent convection: thermal plumes and fluctuations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gibert, M.
2007-10-01
In this study we investigate the phenomenon of thermal turbulent convection in new and unprecedented ways. The first system we studied experimentally is an infinite vertical channel, where a constant vertical mean gradient of temperature exists. Inside this channel the average mass flux is null. The results obtained from our measurements reveal that the flow is mainly inertial; indeed the dissipative coefficients (here the viscosity) play a role only to define a coherence length L. This length is the distance over which the thermal plumes can be considered as 'free falling' objects. The horizontal transport, of heat and momentum, is entirely due to fluctuations. The associated 'mixing length' is small compared to the channel width. In the other hand, the vertical heat transport is due to coherent structures: the heat plumes. Those objects were also investigated in a Lagrangian study of the flow in the bulk of a Rayleigh-Benard cell. The probe, which has the same density as the fluid used in this experiment, is a sphere of 2 cm in diameter with embarked thermometers and radio-emitter. The heat plumes transport it, which allows a statistical study of such objects. (author)
Convection in an ideal gas at high Rayleigh numbers.
Tilgner, A
2011-08-01
Numerical simulations of convection in a layer filled with ideal gas are presented. The control parameters are chosen such that there is a significant variation of density of the gas in going from the bottom to the top of the layer. The relations between the Rayleigh, Peclet, and Nusselt numbers depend on the density stratification. It is proposed to use a data reduction which accounts for the variable density by introducing into the scaling laws an effective density. The relevant density is the geometric mean of the maximum and minimum densities in the layer. A good fit to the data is then obtained with power laws with the same exponent as for fluids in the Boussinesq limit. Two relations connect the top and bottom boundary layers: The kinetic energy densities computed from free fall velocities are equal at the top and bottom, and the products of free fall velocities and maximum horizontal velocities are equal for both boundaries.
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Gibert, M
2007-10-15
In this study we investigate the phenomenon of thermal turbulent convection in new and unprecedented ways. The first system we studied experimentally is an infinite vertical channel, where a constant vertical mean gradient of temperature exists. Inside this channel the average mass flux is null. The results obtained from our measurements reveal that the flow is mainly inertial; indeed the dissipative coefficients (here the viscosity) play a role only to define a coherence length L. This length is the distance over which the thermal plumes can be considered as 'free falling' objects. The horizontal transport, of heat and momentum, is entirely due to fluctuations. The associated 'mixing length' is small compared to the channel width. In the other hand, the vertical heat transport is due to coherent structures: the heat plumes. Those objects were also investigated in a Lagrangian study of the flow in the bulk of a Rayleigh-Benard cell. The probe, which has the same density as the fluid used in this experiment, is a sphere of 2 cm in diameter with embarked thermometers and radio-emitter. The heat plumes transport it, which allows a statistical study of such objects. (author)
Effects of Brinkman number on thermal-driven convective spherical ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Michael Horsfall
Theoretical Physics Group; Department of Physics, University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, Nigeria. *Corresponding author ... illustrate enhancement of dynamo actions, demonstrating that magnetic field generation with time is possible. Moreover ..... The steady state flow variables define the absence of convective motion ...
Scaling relations in large-Prandtl-number natural thermal convection
Shishkina, Olga; Emran, Mohammad S.; Grossmann, Siegfried; Lohse, Detlef
2017-01-01
In this study, we follow Grossmann and Lohse [Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3316 (2001)10.1103/PhysRevLett.86.3316], who derived various scalings regimes for the dependence of the Nusselt number Nu and the Reynolds number Re on the Rayleigh number Ra and the Prandtl number Pr. We focus on theoretical
Effects of external environment on thermocapillary convection of high prandtl number fluid
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Liang Ruquan
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Numerical simulations have been carried out to investigate the influence of external environment on thermocapillary convection in high Prandtl number (Pr=68 liquid. The geometric model of physical problem is that the the liquid bridge surrounded by ambient air under zero or ground gravity. The interface velocity, temperature, heat flux and flow pattern in the liquid bridge are presented and discussed under different conditions by changing the external environment. The buoyancy convection produces a symmetrical vortex in the liquid bridge. The ambient air affects the distributions of the temperature velocity and heat flux on the interface by changing the thermocapillary convection.
Ivins, E. R.; Unti, T. W. J.; Phillips, R. J.
1982-01-01
It has long been known that the earth behaves viscoelastically. Viscoelasticity may be of importance in two aspects of mantle convection, including time-dependent behavior and local storage of recoverable work. The present investigation makes use of thermal convection in a box as a prototype of mantle flow. It is demonstrated that recoverable work can be important to the local mechanical energy balance in the descending lithosphere. It is shown that, even when assuming large viscoelastic parameters, an inherent time-dependence of viscoelastic convection appears only in local exchanges of mechanical energy. There is no strong exchange between buoyant potential energy and recoverable strain energy in the Rayleigh number range investigated. The investigation is mainly concerned with viscoelastic effects occurring on a buoyant time scale. It is found that viscoelastic effects have a negligible influence on the long term thermal energetics of mantle convection.
Ultimate regime of high Rayleigh number convection in a porous medium.
Hewitt, Duncan R; Neufeld, Jerome A; Lister, John R
2012-06-01
Well-resolved direct numerical simulations of 2D Rayleigh-Bénard convection in a porous medium are presented for Rayleigh numbers Ra≤4×10(4) which reveal that, contrary to previous indications, the linear classical scaling for the Nusselt number, Nu~Ra, is attained asymptotically. The flow dynamics are analyzed, and the interior of the vigorously convecting system is shown to be increasingly well described as Ra→∞ by a simple columnar "heat-exchanger" model with a single horizontal wave number k and a linear background temperature field. The numerical results are approximately fitted by k~Ra(0.4).
Prandtl number variation on transient forced convection flow in a ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
user
and average Nusselt number, mean temperature of the fluids (base fluid and nanofluid) and subdomain velocity with the variation of non-dimensional time (τ) ... where the effects of non-uniform particle diameter and temperature on thermal conductivity were shown. Up to now, all the .... is dynamic viscosity and. (. ) (. ) 2. 2. 2.
Multigrid solution of the convection-diffusion equation with high-Reynolds number
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Zhang, Jun [George Washington Univ., Washington, DC (United States)
1996-12-31
A fourth-order compact finite difference scheme is employed with the multigrid technique to solve the variable coefficient convection-diffusion equation with high-Reynolds number. Scaled inter-grid transfer operators and potential on vectorization and parallelization are discussed. The high-order multigrid method is unconditionally stable and produces solution of 4th-order accuracy. Numerical experiments are included.
Scheel, Janet D.; Schumacher, Jörg
2017-12-01
We discuss two aspects of turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard convection (RBC) on the basis of high-resolution direct numerical simulations in a unique setting: a closed cylindrical cell of aspect ratio of one. First, we present a comprehensive comparison of statistical quantities such as energy dissipation rates and boundary layer thickness scales. Data are used from three simulation run series at Prandtl numbers Pr that cover two orders of magnitude. In contrast to most previous studies in RBC the focus of the present work is on convective turbulence at very low Prandtl numbers including Pr=0.021 for liquid mercury or gallium and Pr=0.005 for liquid sodium. In this parameter range of RBC, inertial effects cause a dominating turbulent momentum transport that is in line with highly intermittent fluid turbulence both in the bulk and in the boundary layers and thus should be able to trigger a transition to the fully turbulent boundary layers of the ultimate regime of convection for higher Rayleigh number. Second, we predict the ranges of Rayleigh numbers for which the viscous boundary layer will transition to turbulence and the flow as a whole will cross over into the ultimate regime. These transition ranges are obtained by extrapolation from our simulation data. The extrapolation methods are based on the large-scale properties of the velocity profile. Two of the three methods predict similar ranges for the transition to ultimate convection when their uncertainties are taken into account. All three extrapolation methods indicate that the range of critical Rayleigh numbers Rac is shifted to smaller magnitudes as the Prandtl number becomes smaller.
Onset of low Prandtl number thermal convection in thin spherical shells
Garcia, F.; Chambers, F. R. N.; Watts, A. L.
2018-02-01
This study considers the onset of stress-free Boussinesq thermal convection in rotating spherical shells with an aspect ratio η =ri/ro=0.9 (ri and ro being the inner and outer radius), Prandtl numbers Pr∈[10-4,10-1] , and Taylor numbers Ta ∈[104,1012] . We are particularly interested in the form of the convective cell pattern that develops, and in its time scales, since this may have observational consequences. For a fixed Ta 3 ×109 , the unicellular polar modes become also preferred at moderate Pr˜10-2 because two new transition curves between EA and AP/SP and between AP/SP and SC modes are born at a triple-point bifurcation. The dependence on Pr and Ta of the transitions is studied to estimate the types of modes, and their critical parameters, preferred at different stellar regimes.
Low Reynolds number forced convection steam cooling heat transfer in rod bundles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wong, S.; Hochreiter, L.E.
1980-01-01
A series of forced convection steam cooling tests at low Reynolds numbers were conducted in the rod bundle test facility of the FLECHT-SEASET program. The data was reduced using a rod-centered subchannel energy balance to obtain the vapor temperature and by modeling the bundle with the COBRA-IV-I computer code. The comparisons between the COBRA-IV-I vapor temperatures and subchannel energy balance vapor temperatures were quite good. 5 refs
Fully three dimensional simulations of rotating convection at low Prandtl number
Kaplan, E.; Schaeffer, N.; Cardin, P.
2016-12-01
Rotating thermal convection in spheres or spherical shells has been extensively studied for Prandtl number unity.However, planetary cores are made of liquid metals which have low Prandtl numbers Pr ≤ 0.1. Recently, using a quasi-geostrophic approximation, Guervilly & Cardin (2016) have studied nonlinear convection in rotating full sphere with internal heating at low Prandtl (0.01 ≤ Pr ≤ 0.1) and Ekman (10-8 ≤ Ek ≤ 10-5 ) numbers. They have found a bifurcation between a weak branch characterized by thermal Rossby waves and a strong branch characterized by a strong zonal flow with multiple jets. In these quasi-geostrophic simulations, where vorticity is defined to be constant along the axis of rotation, these bifurcations could be super- or sub-critical or exhibit hysteresis depending on the Ek and Prnumbers of the simulations. Here we present fully three dimensional simulations carried out over a portion of the parameter space (down to Ek = 10-6, Pr = 0.01) that confirm the scaling and bifurcations of the weak and strong branches found in the QG models. Additionally, by modeling the full flow we get information about the full meridional circulation of the convective fluid. The vigorous flows of the sub-critical strong branch may help to generate powerful dynamos before an inner-core has been formed, with a heat flux extracted from the mantle very close to the adiabatic flux.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stalio, E.; Angeli, D.; Barozzi, G.S.
2011-01-01
Highlights: → We investigate laminar convective heat transfer in channels with periodic cavities. → Heat transfer rates are lower than for the flat channel. → This is ascribed to the steady circulating motion within the cavities. → Diffusion in a low Prandtl number fluid can locally overcome the heat transfer decrease due to advection only for isothermal boundary conditions. - Abstract: Convective heat transfer in laminar conditions is studied numerically for a Prandtl number Pr = 0.025, representative of liquid lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE). The geometry investigated is a channel with a periodic series of shallow cavities. Finite-volume simulations are carried out on structured orthogonal curvilinear grids, for ten values of the Reynolds number based on the hydraulic diameter between Re m = 24.9 and Re m = 2260. Flow separation and reattachment are observed also at very low Reynolds numbers and wall friction is found to be remarkably unequal at the two walls. In almost all cases investigated, heat transfer rates are smaller than the corresponding flat channel values. Low-Prandtl number heat transfer rates, investigated by comparison with Pr = 0.71 results, are large only for uniform wall temperature and very low Re. Influence of flow separation on local heat transfer rates is discussed, together with the effect of different thermal boundary conditions. Dependency of heat transfer performance on the cavity geometry is also considered.
Selection criterion of stable dendritic growth at arbitrary Péclet numbers with convection.
Alexandrov, Dmitri V; Galenko, Peter K
2013-06-01
A free dendrite growth under forced fluid flow is analyzed for solidification of a nonisothermal binary system. Using an approach to dendrite growth developed by Bouissou and Pelcé [Phys. Rev. A 40, 6673 (1989)], the analysis is presented for the parabolic dendrite interface with small anisotropy of surface energy growing at arbitrary Péclet numbers. The stable growth mode is obtained from the solvability condition giving the stability criterion for the dendrite tip velocity V and dendrite tip radius ρ as a function of the growth Péclet number, flow Péclet number, and Reynolds number. In limiting cases, the obtained stability criterion presents known criteria for small and high growth Péclet numbers of the solidifying system with and without convective fluid flow.
Effect of thermo-solutal Marangoni convection on the azimuthal wave number in a liquid bridge
Minakuchi, H.; Okano, Y.; Dost, S.
2017-06-01
A numerical simulation study was carried out to investigate the effect of thermo-solutal Marangoni convection on the flow patterns and the azimuthal wave number (m) in a liquid bridge under zero-gravity. The liquid bridge in the model represents a three dimensional half-zone configuration of the Floating Zone (FZ) growth system. Three dimensional field equations of the liquid zone, i.e. continuity, momentum, energy, and diffusion equations, were solved by the PISO algorithm. The physical properties of the silicon-germanium melt were used (Pr=6.37×10-3 and Sc=14.0, where Pr and Sc stand for the Prandtl number and the Schmidt number). The aspect ratio Asp was set to 0.5 (Asp= L/a, where L and a stand for the length of free surface and the radius of liquid bridge). Computations were performed using the open source software OpenFOAM. The numerical simulation results show that the co-existence of thermal and solutal Marangoni convections significantly affects the azimuthal wave number m in the liquid bridge.
Nusselt Number Correlation for Vertical Tubes with Inverted Triangular Fins under Natural Convection
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Byeong Dong Kang
2017-08-01
Full Text Available Vertical tubes with inverted triangular fins under natural convection are investigated experimentally. The thermal resistances of tubes with inverted triangular fins are measured for various fin numbers, fin heights, and heat inputs. A Nusselt number correlation that best predicts the measured thermal resistances is proposed. The proposed correlation is applicable to the following conditions: Rayleigh numbers of 1000–125,000, fin height to fin length ratios of 0.2–0.6, and fin numbers of 9–72. Finally, a contour map of the thermal resistances calculated from the proposed correlation for various fin thicknesses and fin numbers is presented. The contour map shows that there exist optimal values of the fin thickness and fin number at which the thermal resistance of the inverted-triangular-finned tube is minimized. Therefore, the proposed correlation enables a search for the optimal dimensions and has potential to be used in the designing of inverted-triangular-finned tubes of various cooling devices.
Solutal convection induced by dissolution. Influence on erosion dynamics and interface shaping.
Berhanu, Michael; Philippi, Julien; Cohen, Caroline; Derr, Julien; Courrech du Pont, Sylvain
2017-04-01
Rock fractures invaded by a water flow, are often subjected to dissolution, which let grow and evolve the initial fracture network, by evacuating the eroded minerals under a solute form. In the case of fast kinetic of dissolution, local erosion rate is set by the advection of the solute. The erosion velocity decreases indeed with the solute concentration at the interface and vanishes when this concentration reaches the saturation value. Even in absence of an imposed or external flow, advection can drive the dissolution, when buoyancy effects due to gravity induce a solutal convection flow, which controls the erosive dynamics and modifies the shape of the dissolving interface. Here, we investigate using model experiments with fast dissolving materials and numerical simulations in simplified situations, solutal convection induced by dissolution. Results are interpreted regarding a linear stability analysis of the corresponding solutal Rayleigh-Benard instability. A dissolving surface is suspended above a water height, initially at rest. In a first step, solute flux is transported through a growing diffusion layer. Then after an onset time, once the layer exceeds critical width, convection flow starts under the form of falling plumes. A dynamic equilibrium results in average from births and deaths of intermittent plumes, setting the size of the solute concentration boundary layer at the interface and thus the erosion velocity. Solutal convection can also induce a pattern on the dissolving interface. We show experimentally with suspended and inclined blocks of salt and sugar, that in a linear stage, the first wavelength of the dissolution pattern corresponds to the wavelength of the convection instability. Then pattern evolves to more complex shapes due to non-linear interactions between the flow and the eroded interface. More generally, we inquire what are the conditions to observe a such solutal convection instability in geological situations and if the properties of
Vilella, Kenny; Deschamps, Frederic
2018-04-01
Thermal evolution of terrestrial planets is controlled by heat transfer through their silicate mantles. A suitable framework for modelling this heat transport is a system including bottom heating (from the core) and internal heating, e.g., generated by secular cooling or by the decay of radioactive isotopes. The mechanism of heat transfer depends on the physical properties of the system. In systems where convection is able to operate, two different regimes are possible depending on the relative amount of bottom and internal heating. For moderate internal heating rates, the system is composed of active hot upwellings and cold downwellings. For large internal heating rates, the bottom heat flux becomes negative and the system is only composed of active cold downwellings. Here, we build theoretical scaling laws for both convective regimes following the approach of Vilella & Kaminski (2017), which links the surface heat flux and the temperature jump across both the top and bottom thermal boundary layer (TBL) to the Rayleigh number and the dimensionless internal heating rate. Theoretical predictions are then verified against numerical simulations performed in 2D and 3D-Cartesian geometry, and covering a large range of the parameter space. Our theoretical scaling laws are more successful in predicting the thermal structure of systems with large internal heating rates than that of systems with no or moderate internal heating. The differences between moderate and large internal heating rates are interpreted as differences in the mechanisms generating thermal instabilities. We identified three mechanisms: conductive growth of the TBL, instability impacting, and TBL erosion, the last two being present only for moderate internal heating rates, in which hot plumes are generated at the bottom of the system and are able to reach the surface. Finally, we apply our scaling laws to the evolution of the early Earth, proposing a new model for the cooling of the primordial magma ocean
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Abdul Gaffar
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Magnetic polymers are finding increasing applications in diverse fields of chemical and mechanical engineering. In this paper, we investigate the nonlinear steady boundary layer flow and heat transfer of such fluids from a nonisothermal wedge. The incompressible Eyring-Powell non-Newtonian fluid model is employed and a magnetohydrodynamic body force is included in the simulation. The transformed conservation equations are solved numerically subject to physically appropriate boundary conditions using a second-order accurate implicit finite difference Keller Box technique. The numerical code is validated with previous studies. The influence of a number of emerging nondimensional parameters, namely, the Eyring-Powell rheological fluid parameter (ε, local non-Newtonian parameter based on length scale (δ, Prandtl number (Pr, Biot number (γ, pressure gradient parameter (m, magnetic parameter (M, mixed convection parameter (λ, and dimensionless tangential coordinate (ξ, on velocity and temperature evolution in the boundary layer regime is examined in detail. Furthermore, the effects of these parameters on surface heat transfer rate and local skin friction are also investigated.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sun, Z.; Schubert, G.
1995-01-01
In this study, we carry out numerical simulations of thermal convection in a rapidly rotating spherical fluid shell at high Taylor number Ta and Rayleigh number R with a nonlinear, three-dimensional, time-dependent, spectral-transform code. The parameters used in the simulations are chosen to be in a range which allows us to study two different types of convection, i.e., single column and multi-layered types, and the transition between them. Numerical solutions feature highly time-dependent north--south open columnar convective cells. The cells occur irregularly in longitude, are quasi-layered in cylindrical radius, and maintain alternating bands of mean zonal flow. The complex convective structure and the banded mean zonal flow are results of the high Taylor and Rayleigh numbers. The transition between the two types of convection appears to occur gradually with increasing Rayleigh and Taylor numbers. At a Taylor number of 10 7 the differential rotation pattern consists of an inner cylindrical region of subrotation and an outer cylindrical shell of superrotation manifest at the outer boundary as an equatorial superrotation and a high latitude subrotation. The differential rotation pattern is similar at Ta=10 8 and low Rayleigh number. Cylindrical shells of alternately directed mean zonal flow begin to develop at Ta=10 8 and R=50R c and at Ta=10 9 and R=25R c . This pattern is seen on the outer surface as a latitudinally-banded zonal flow consisting of an equatorial superrotation, a middle and high latitude subrotation, and a polar superrotation. At Ta=10 9 and R=50R c the differential rotation appears at the surface as a broad eastward flow in the equatorial region with alternating bands of westward and eastward flow at high latitudes. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics
High Rayleigh Number 3-D Spherical Mantle Convection with Radial Basis Functions
Flyer, N.; Yuen (3), G. Wright, D.
2009-04-01
In the last quarter of a century many numerical methods, such as finite-differences, finite-volume, their yin-yang variants, finite-elements and pseudo-spectral methods have been used to study the problem of 3-D spherical convection. All have their respective strengths but also serious weaknesses, such as low-order and can involve high algorithmic complexity, as in triangular elements. Spectrally accurate methods do not practically allow for local mesh refinement and often involve cumbersome algebra. We have recently introduced a new grid/mesh-free approach, using radial basis functions ( RBFs) . It has the advantage of being spectrally accurate for arbitrary node layouts in multi-dimensions with extreme algorithmic simplicity, and allows naturally node-refinement. One virtue of the RBF scheme is the ability to use a simple Cartesian geometry while implementing the required boundary conditions for the temperature, velocity and stresses on a spherical surface of both the outer( planetary surface ) and inner shell ( core-mantle boundary ). The velocity and stress components are expressed in terms of the scalar potential approach and the other remaining variable is the perturbed temperature field. We have studied the problem from the weakly nonlinear to a moderately nonlinear regime involving a Rayleigh number, about 1000 times super-critical. Both purely basal and partially internal -heating cases have been considered
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Garaud, Pascale; Brummell, Nicholas [Department of Applied Mathematics and Statistics, Baskin School of Engineering, University of California Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz CA 95060 (United States)
2015-12-10
Fingering convection (otherwise known as thermohaline convection) is an instability that occurs in stellar radiative interiors in the presence of unstable compositional gradients. Numerical simulations have been used in order to estimate the efficiency of mixing induced by this instability. However, fully three-dimensional (3D) computations in the parameter regime appropriate for stellar astrophysics (i.e., low Prandtl number) are prohibitively expensive. This raises the question of whether two-dimensional (2D) simulations could be used instead to achieve the same goals. In this work, we address this issue by comparing the outcome of 2D and 3D simulations of fingering convection at low Prandtl number. We find that 2D simulations are never appropriate. However, we also find that the required 3D computational domain does not have to be very wide: the third dimension only needs to contain a minimum of two wavelengths of the fastest-growing linearly unstable mode to capture the essentially 3D dynamics of small-scale fingering. Narrow domains, however, should still be used with caution since they could limit the subsequent development of any large-scale dynamics typically associated with fingering convection.
Thermal convection of a viscoplastic liquid with high Rayleigh and Bingham numbers
Vikhansky, A.
2009-10-01
We consider the effect of yield stress on the Rayleigh-Bénard convection of a viscoplastic material. First we consider the model problem of convection in a differentially heated loop, which is described by the (modified) Lorenz equations. The presence of the yield stress significantly alters the dynamics of the system. In particular, the chaotic motion can stop suddenly (sometimes, after a period of chaotic oscillations). Guided by the model equations we performed direct numerical simulations of convection of the Bingham liquid in a square cavity heated from bellow. Our interest has been concentrated on the situation when both buoyancy and plastic forces are large. The obtained results are in a reasonable agreement with the predictions by the Lorenz equations.
Resolving both entrainment-mixing and number of activated CCN in deep convective clouds
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E. Freud
2011-12-01
Full Text Available The number concentration of activated CCN (N_{a} is the most fundamental microphysical property of a convective cloud. It determines the rate of droplet growth with cloud depth and conversion into precipitation-sized particles and affects the radiative properties of the clouds. However, measuring N_{a} is not always possible, even in the cores of the convective clouds, because entrainment of sub-saturated ambient air deeper into the cloud lowers the concentrations by dilution and may cause partial or total droplet evaporation, depending on whether the mixing is homogeneous or extreme inhomogeneous, respectively.
Here we describe a methodology to derive N_{a} based on the rate of cloud droplet effective radius (R_{e} growth with cloud depth and with respect to the cloud mixing with the entrained ambient air. We use the slope of the tight linear relationship between the adiabatic liquid water mixing ratio and R_{e}^{3} (or R_{v}^{3} to derive an upper limit for N_{a} assuming extreme inhomogeneous mixing. Then we tune N_{a} down to find the theoretical relative humidity that the entrained ambient air would have for each horizontal cloud penetration, in case of homogeneous mixing. This allows us to evaluate both the entrainment and mixing process in the vertical dimension in addition to getting a better estimation for N_{a}.
We found that the derived N_{a} from the entire profile data is highly correlated with the independent CCN measurements from below cloud base. Moreover, it was found that mixing of sub-saturated ambient air into the cloud at scales of ~100 m and above is inclined towards the extreme inhomogeneous limit, i.e. that the time scale of droplet evaporation is significantly smaller than that for turbulent mixing. This means that ambient air that entrains
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Trabelsi Soraya
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Combined convection and radiation in simultaneously developing laminar flow and heat transfer is numerically considered with a discrete-direction method. Coupled heat transfer in absorbing emitting but not scattering gases is presented in some cases of practical situations such as combustion of natural gas, propane and heavy fuel. Numerical calculations are performed to evaluate the thermal radiation effects on heat transfer through combustion products flowing inside circular ducts. The radiative properties of the flowing gases are modeled by using the absorption distribution function (ADF model. The fluid is a mixture of carbon dioxide, water vapor, and nitrogen. The flow and energy balance equations are solved simultaneously with temperature dependent fluid properties. The bulk mean temperature variations and Nusselt numbers are shown for a uniform inlet temperature. Total, radiative and convective mean Nusselt numbers and their axial evolution for different gas mixtures produced by combustion with oxygen are explored.
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Ashraf Muhammad
2018-01-01
Full Text Available The characteristics of radiative mixed convection boundary-layer flow generated close to the inner walls of tightly coiled curved pipe for full range of Richardson number is investigated. In order to find numerical solutions the governing coupled, non-linear PDE are transformed into convenient form for integration by using primitive variable formulation. From this transformation the terms highest powers of Dean number are retained into boundary-layer form and then solved numerically by using finite difference method. Expressions for the axial and trans-verse components of skin friction, heat transfer coefficient, and flux thicknesses for various values of Richardson number, , angle, α, curvature of the pipe, Planck number, Rd, and Prandtl number are obtained and given graphically.
Study on the Instability of Two-Phase Flow in the Heat-Absorbing Tube of Trough Solar Collector
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Ying Zhang
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The Marangoni effect and Rayleigh-Benard effect in the two-phase region of solar trough heat-absorbing tube are simulated by FTM (front tracking method. Considering the Marangoni effect alone, although surface tension gradient and surface tension affect the interface wave, the two effects have different characteristics. The surface tension gradient caused by the temperature gradient is one of the factors that swing the interface. The amplitude attenuation of the interface wave decreases with the increase of the Marangoni number (Ma. In general, the surface tension gradient enhances the convection opposite to the temperature gradient. Under the gravity field, the Rayleigh-Benard effect influences the development of the vortex structure in the flow field, which in turn affects the velocity gradient near the interface to influence the evolution of the interface fluctuation. In a small Rayleigh number (Ra, the buoyancy convection reduces the velocity gradient, thus suppressing the evolution of the interfacial wave. In the range of Ra 4.0E4, the situation is just the opposite. The larger the Ra is, the stronger the promoting effect is.
Bifurcation to chaos in the Benard-Marangoni instability in a confined geometry
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Rahal, S [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Batna, Rue Boukhlouf Mohamed el Hadi, 05000 Batna (Algeria); Cerisier, P [IUSTI - CNRS UMR 6595, Polytech' Marseille, Technopole de Chateau-Gombert, 5 rue Enrico Fermi, 13453, Marseille Cedex 13 (France)
2007-04-15
An experimental study of dynamical regimes in Benard-Marangoni convection, for various Prandt and Marangoni numbers, has been carried out in a confined geometry. Indeed, a small hexagonal vessel allowing the formation of only one convective cell, for a large extent of the Marangoni number, has been used. Fourrier spectra and a correlation function have been used to recognize the various dynamical regimes. For fixed values of the Prantl number and aspect ratio, an oscillatory, a quasi-periodic and chaotic states, were successively observed, as the Marangoni number was increased. The correlation dimensions of strange attractors corresponding to the chaotic regimes were calculated. The dimensions were found to be larger then those calculated by other authors for the Rayleigh-Benard convection in small aspect ratio geometries. The transition from temporal chaos to spatio - temporal chaos has also been observed. Indeed for higher values of the Marangoni number, spatial dynamics are observed.
Jacobs, A. M.; Zingale, M.; Nonaka, A.; Almgren, A. S.; Bell, J. B.
2016-08-01
The dynamics of helium shell convection driven by nuclear burning establish the conditions for runaway in the sub-Chandrasekhar-mass, double-detonation model for SNe Ia, as well as for a variety of other explosive phenomena. We explore these convection dynamics for a range of white dwarf core and helium shell masses in three dimensions using the low Mach number hydrodynamics code MAESTRO. We present calculations of the bulk properties of this evolution, including time-series evolution of global diagnostics, lateral averages of the 3D state, and the global 3D state. We find a variety of outcomes, including quasi-equilibrium, localized runaway, and convective runaway. Our results suggest that the double-detonation progenitor model is promising and that 3D dynamic convection plays a key role.
Similarities between 2D and 3D convection for large Prandtl number
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2016-06-18
RBC), we perform a compara- tive study of the spectra and fluxes of energy and entropy, and the scaling of large-scale quantities for large and infinite Prandtl numbers in two (2D) and three (3D) dimensions. We observe close ...
He, Xiaozhou; van Gils, Dennis P. M.; Bodenschatz, Eberhard; Ahlers, Guenter
2015-06-01
We report results of Reynolds-number measurements, based on multi-point temperature measurements and the elliptic approximation (EA) of He and Zhang (2006 Phys. Rev. E 73 055303), Zhao and He (2009 Phys. Rev. E 79 046316) for turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard convection (RBC) over the Rayleigh-number range {10}11≲ {\\text{}}{Ra}≲ 2× {10}14 and for a Prandtl number Pr ≃ 0.8. The sample was a right-circular cylinder with the diameter D and the height L both equal to 112 cm. The Reynolds numbers ReU and ReV were obtained from the mean-flow velocity U and the root-mean-square fluctuation velocity V, respectively. Both were measured approximately at the mid-height of the sample and near (but not too near) the side wall close to a maximum of ReU. A detailed examination, based on several experimental tests, of the applicability of the EA to turbulent RBC in our parameter range is provided. The main contribution to ReU came from a large-scale circulation in the form of a single convection roll with the preferred azimuthal orientation of its down flow nearly coinciding with the location of the measurement probes. First we measured time sequences of ReU(t) and ReV(t) from short (10 s) segments which moved along much longer sequences of many hours. The corresponding probability distributions of ReU(t) and ReV(t) had single peaks and thus did not reveal significant flow reversals. The two averaged Reynolds numbers determined from the entire data sequences were of comparable size. For {\\text{}}{Ra}\\lt {\\text{}}{{Ra}}1*≃ 2× {10}13 both ReU and ReV could be described by a power-law dependence on Ra with an exponent ζ close to 0.44. This exponent is consistent with several other measurements for the classical RBC state at smaller Ra and larger Pr and with the Grossmann-Lohse (GL) prediction for ReU (Grossmann and Lohse 2000 J. Fluid. Mech. 407 27; Grossmann and Lohse 2001 86 3316; Grossmann and Lohse 2002 66 016305) but disagrees with the prediction \\zeta ≃ 0.33 by GL
Yano, T.; Nishino, K.; Kawamura, H.; Ueno, I.; Matsumoto, S.
2015-02-01
This paper reports the experimental results on the instability and associated roll structures (RSs) of Marangoni convection in liquid bridges formed under the microgravity environment on the International Space Station. The geometry of interest is high aspect ratio (AR = height/diameter ≥ 1.0) liquid bridges of high Prandtl number fluids (Pr = 67 and 207) suspended between coaxial disks heated differentially. The unsteady flow field and associated RSs were revealed with the three-dimensional particle tracking velocimetry. It is found that the flow field after the onset of instability exhibits oscillations with azimuthal mode number m = 1 and associated RSs traveling in the axial direction. The RSs travel in the same direction as the surface flow (co-flow direction) for 1.00 ≤ AR ≤ 1.25 while they travel in the opposite direction (counter-flow direction) for AR ≥ 1.50, thus showing the change of traveling directions with AR. This traveling direction for AR ≥ 1.50 is reversed to the co-flow direction when the temperature difference between the disks is increased to the condition far beyond the critical one. This change of traveling directions is accompanied by the increase of the oscillation frequency. The characteristics of the RSs for AR ≥ 1.50, such as the azimuthal mode of oscillation, the dimensionless oscillation frequency, and the traveling direction, are in reasonable agreement with those of the previous sounding rocket experiment for AR = 2.50 and those of the linear stability analysis of an infinite liquid bridge.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Articles written in Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Volume 4 Issue 6 June 1999 pp 82-90 Classroom. Rayleigh-Benard Convection - Physics of a Widespread Phenomenon · Arunn Narasimhan · More Details Fulltext PDF. Volume 13 Issue 7 July 2008 pp 638-647 General Article. Why do Elephants have Big Ear ...
Resonance – Journal of Science Education | News
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
More Details Fulltext PDF. pp 82-90 Classroom. Rayleigh-Benard Convection - Physics of a Widespread Phenomenon · Arunn Narasimhan · More Details Fulltext PDF. pp 91-92 Classroom. Prime Representing Quadratics · N J Tejaswi · More Details Fulltext PDF. pp 93-100 Reflections. Why Statistics? P C Mahalanobis.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Volume 4 Issue 6 June 1999 pp 82-90 Classroom. Rayleigh-Benard Convection - Physics of a Widespread Phenomenon · Arunn Narasimhan · More Details Fulltext PDF. Volume 13 Issue 7 July 2008 pp 638-647 General Article. Why do Elephants have Big Ear Flaps? Arunn Narasimhan · More Details Fulltext PDF ...
The Effects of Radiation on the Linear Stability of a horizontal layer ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The effect of radiation on the onset of Rayleigh-Benard convection is studied in the case of a radiating Newtonian fluid in a fluid-saturated horizontal porous layer heated from below. The radiative heat transfer is treated using the differential approximation for optically thin limiting case. The linear stability theory is employed ...
Convective transfers; Transferts convectifs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Accary, G.; Raspo, I.; Bontoux, P. [Aix-Marseille-3 Univ. Paul Cezanne, CNRS, Lab. MSNM-GP UMR 6181, 13 - Marseille (France); Zappoli, B. [Centre National d' Etudes Spatiales (CNES), 31 - Toulouse (France); Polidori, G.; Fohanno, S. [Laboratoire de Thermomecanique, 51 - Reims (France); Hirata, S.C.; Goyeau, B.; Gobin, D. [Paris-6 et Paris-11 Univ., FAST-UMR CNRS 7608, 91 - Orsay (France); Cotta, R.M. [UFRJ/LTTC/PEM/EE/COPPE, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Perrin, L.; Reulet, P.; Micheli, F.; Millan, P. [Office National d' Etudes et de Recherches Aerospatiales (ONERA), 31 - Toulouse (France); Menard, V. [France Telecom R and D, 22 - Lannion (France); Benkhelifa, A.; Penot, F. [Ecole Nationale Superieure de Mecanique et d' Aerotechnique (ENSMA), Lab. d' Etudes Thermiques, UMR CNRS 6608, 86 - Poitiers (France); Ng Wing Tin, M.; Haquet, J.F.; Journeau, C. [CEA Cadarache (DEN/DTN/STRI/LMA), Lab. d' Essais pour la Maitrise des Accidents Graves, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Naffouti, T.; Hammani, M.; Ben Maad, R. [Faculte des Sciences de Tunis, Lab. d' Energetique et des Transferts Thermique et Massique, Dept. de Physique, Tunis (Tunisia); Zinoubi, J. [Institut Preparatoire aux Etudes d' Ingenieurs de Nabeul (Tunisia); Menard, V.; Le Masson, S.; Nortershauser, D. [France Telecom R and D, 22 - Lannion (France); Stitou, A.; Perrin, L.; Millan, P. [ONERA, 31 - Toulouse (France)
2005-07-01
This session about convective transfers gathers 31 articles dealing with: numerical study of the hydrodynamic stability of a bottom heated supercritical fluid layer; establishment of laminar-turbulent transition criteria of free convection dynamic and thermal boundary layers; heat transfer changes in free convection by mechanical and thermal disturbances; natural convection stability in partially porous horizontal layers; experimental characterization of the dynamic and thermal aspects of a natural convection flow inside a confined space; determination of transitions towards non-stationary natural convection inside a differentially heated inclined cavity; interface temperatures for the convection of fluids with variable viscosity; influence of the height of a vertical cylinder on the flow resulting from a plume-thermosyphon interaction; simultaneous measurement of dynamic and thermal fields by thermo-chromic liquid crystals in natural convection; numerical simulation of turbulent natural convection flows inside a heated room; numerical and experimental study of mixed convection heat transfer inside an axisymmetrical network; analysis of laminar flow instabilities in assisted mixed convection; entropy generation in mixed convection; thermal and mass convection in non-stationary regime inside a ventilated cavity; study of a low Reynolds number mixed convection flow; numerical study of a convective flow inside a rotating annular cavity; study of the dynamical behaviour of a transient mixed convection flow inside a thick vertical duct; internal laminar convection: selection criteria for the identification of natural, mixed or forced regimes; turbulent flow and convection heat transfer inside a channel with corrugated walls; study of the impact of an axisymmetrical jet on a concave wall; modeling of volume irreversibilities of turbulent forced convection; numerical study of forced convection irreversibilities around a network of cylindrical tubes; estimation of the
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Semen I. Sherman
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The paper presents the first tectonophysical reconstruction of initial divisibility of the protolithosphere as a result of convection in the cooling primitive mantle. Initial division of the protolithosphere into separate masses, i.e. prototypes of the blocks, and their size are predetermined by the emerging Rayleigh-Benard convection cells. In studies of geology and geodynamics, the Rayleigh-Benard convection cells were first referred to as a factor to explain the formation of initial continental cores. Considering the Rayleigh-Benard cells and their structural relics can help clarify initial divisibility of the protolithosphere and the origin of the major lithospheric plates, i.e. prototypes of continents. In our opinion, the initial mega-scale block structure of the protolithosphere and the emerging lithosphere were predetermined by the Rayleigh-Benard cells as they were preserved in the emerging lithosphere and their lower boundaries corresponded to the core-mantle boundary, i.e. one of the major discontinuities of the planet. Our theoretical estimations are in good agreement with the number and sizes of the Earth's theorized first supercontinents, Vaalbara and Ur. In our tectonophysical discussion of the formation of the lithospheric block structure, we analyze in detail the map of modern lithospheric plates [Bird, 2003] in combination with the materials from [Sherman et al., 2000]. In the hierarchy of the blocks comprising the contemporary lithosphere, which sizes are widely variable, two groups of blocks are clearly distinguished. The first group includes megablocks with the average geometric size above 6500 km. Their formation is related to convection in the Earth mantle at the present stage of the geodynamic evolution of the Earth, as well as at all the previous stages, including the earliest one, when the protolithosphere emerged. The second group includes medium-sized blocks with the average geometric size of less than 4500 km and
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pomeau, Y.
1981-07-01
In this work it is reviewed a few known types of transition to turbulence, as the cascade of period doubling and the intermittent transition. This happens in dynamical systems with a few degrees of freedom, as modelled by the iteration of non linear maps. Then it is presented specific transitions for systems with many degrees of freedom. It is condidered first the occurence of a low frequency broadband noise in large cells at the onset of Rayleigh-Benard convection; then the transition by intermittent bursts in parallel flows. In this last case, one is concerned with localized and finite amplitude perturbations. Simple geometric arguments show that these fluctuations, when they are isolated and with a well definite relative speed, exist for a single value of the Reynolds number only [fr
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Urban, Pavel; Hanzelka, Pavel; Králík, Tomáš; Musilová, Věra; Srnka, Aleš; Skrbek, L.
2013-01-01
Roč. 110, 8 May (2013), 199402:1-1 ISSN 0031-9007 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : cryogenic turbulence * turbulent convection * Rayleigh-Bénard convection Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 7.728, year: 2013
Charbonnel, C.; Decressin, T.; Lagarde, N.; Gallet, F.; Palacios, A.; Aurière, M.; Konstantinova-Antova, R.; Mathis, S.; Anderson, R. I.; Dintrans, B.
2017-09-01
Context. Recent spectropolarimetric observations of otherwise ordinary (in terms e.g. of surface rotation and chemical properties) G, K, and M giants have revealed localized magnetic strips in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram coincident with the regions where the first dredge-up and core helium burning occur. Aims: We seek to understand the origin of magnetic fields in such late-type giant stars, which is currently unexplained. In analogy with late-type dwarf stars, we focus primarily on parameters known to influence the generation of magnetic fields in the outer convective envelope. Methods: We compute the classical dynamo parameters along the evolutionary tracks of low- and intermediate-mass stars at various metallicities using stellar models that have been extensively tested by spectroscopic and asteroseismic observations. Specifically, these include convective turnover timescales and convective Rossby numbers, computed from the pre-main sequence (PMS) to the tip of the red giant branch (RGB) or the early asymptotic giant branch (AGB) phase. To investigate the effects of the very extended outer convective envelope, we compute these parameters both for the entire convective envelope and locally, that is, at different depths within the envelope. We also compute the turnover timescales and corresponding Rossby numbers for the convective cores of intermediate-mass stars on the main sequence. Results: Our models show that the Rossby number of the convective envelope becomes lower than unity in the well-delimited locations of the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram where magnetic fields have indeed been detected. Conclusions: We show that α - Ω dynamo processes might not be continuously operating, but that they are favored in the stellar convective envelope at two specific moments along the evolution tracks, that is, during the first dredge-up at the base of the RGB and during central helium burning in the helium-burning phase and early-AGB. This general behavior can explain
Planche, Céline; Wobrock, Wolfram; Flossmann, Andrea I.; Tridon, Frédéric; Van Baelen, Joël; Pointin, Yves; Hagen, Martin
2010-10-01
The 3D cloud model DESCAM-3D with bin resolved microphysics for ice, water and aerosol particles is used to study the role of particles on the evolution of summertime mid-level convective clouds and the subsequent precipitation during the COPS field campaign which occurred at mid-latitude near the French/German border in summer 2007. Using a 3D grid resolution of 250 m, DESCAM-3D, is able to simulate well the dynamical, cloud and precipitation features of the convective cloud system observed during the afternoon of the 12th August. This mid-level convective system was dominated by warm-phase microphysics. The simulated convective system led to a 1.5 h long lasting precipitation event in agreement with the radar observations. The results of the fine numerical scale compare well with the high resolved radar reflectivities of the LaMP X-band radar and the DLR-Poldirad radar. The prediction of the liquid hydrometeor spectra allows a detailed calculation of the cloud radar reflectivity. In order to better understand the role of aerosol particles on cloud evolution and precipitation formation, several sensitivity studies were performed by modifying aerosol number concentration as well as their physico-chemical properties. Drastic changes in the aerosol solubility lead to a variation in precipitation on the order of 10% for the same convective case. In contrast, changes in the aerosol number concentrations can lead to a variation in total precipitation of up to 30%. Hence, the role of changes in aerosol number concentrations is more important than changes in particle solubility for this case of continental mid-level convection at mid-latitude. A subsequent analysis of the in-cloud microphysics revealed that in-cloud properties are modified significantly in all scenarios. Key parameter is the supersaturation whose magnitude influences both cloud microphysics (cloud droplet and rain drop formation) as well as cloud thermodynamics and cloud dynamics. Furthermore
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jiji, L.M. [City Univ. of New York, NY (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering
2006-07-01
Professor Jiji's broad teaching experience lead him to select the topics for this book to provide a firm foundation for convection heat transfer with emphasis on fundamentals, physical phenomena, and mathematical modelling of a wide range of engineering applications. Reflecting recent developments, this textbook is the first to include an introduction to the challenging topic of microchannels. The strong pedagogic potential of Heat Convection is enhanced by the following ancillary materials: (1) Power Point lectures, (2) Problem Solutions, (3) Homework Facilitator, and, (4) Summary of Sections and Chapters. (orig.)
Jiji, Latif M.
Professor Jiji's broad teaching experience lead him to select the topics for this book to provide a firm foundation for convection heat transfer with emphasis on fundamentals, physical phenomena, and mathematical modelling of a wide range of engineering applications. Reflecting recent developments, this textbook is the first to include an introduction to the challenging topic of microchannels. The strong pedagogic potential of Heat Convection is enhanced by the follow ing ancillary materials: (1) Power Point lectures, (2) Problem Solutions, (3) Homework Facilitator, and, (4) Summary of Sections and Chapters.
National Convective Weather Diagnostic
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current convective hazards identified by the National Convective Weather Detection algorithm. The National Convective Weather Diagnostic (NCWD) is an automatically...
Internal Wave Generation by Convection
Lecoanet, Daniel Michael
internal gravity wave spectrum, using the Lighthill theory of wave excitation by turbulence. We use a Green's function approach, in which we convolve a convective source term with the Green's function of different internal gravity waves. The remainder of the thesis is a circuitous attempt to verify these analytical predictions. I test the predictions of Chapter 2 via numerical simulation. The first step is to identify a code suitable for this study. I helped develop the Dedalus code framework to study internal wave generation by convection. Dedalus can solve many different partial differential equations using the pseudo-spectral numerical method. In Chapter 3, I demonstrate Dedalus' ability to solve different equations used to model convection in astrophysics. I consider both the propagation and damping of internal waves, and the properties of low Rayleigh number convective steady states, in six different equation sets used in the astrophysics literature. This shows that Dedalus can be used to solve the equations of interest. Next, in Chapter 4, I verify the high accuracy of Dedalus by comparing it to the popular astrophysics code Athena in a standard Kelvin-Helmholtz instability test problem. Dedalus performs admirably in comparison to Athena, and provides a high standard for other codes solving the fully compressible Navier-Stokes equations. Chapter 5 demonstrates that Dedalus can simulate convective adjacent to a stably stratified region, by studying convective mixing near carbon flames. The convective overshoot and mixing is well-resolved, and is able to generate internal waves. Confident in Dedalus' ability to study the problem at hand, Chapter 6 describes simulations inspired by water experiments of internal wave generation by convection. The experiments exploit water's unusual property that its density maximum is at 4°C, rather than at 0°C. We use a similar equation of state in Dedalus, and study internal gravity waves generation by convection in a water
Thorogood, Robert M.
1983-01-01
A convective heater for heating fluids such as a coal slurry is constructed of a tube circuit arrangement which obtains an optimum temperature distribution to give a relatively constant slurry film temperature. The heater is constructed to divide the heating gas flow into two equal paths and the tube circuit for the slurry is arranged to provide a mixed flow configuration whereby the slurry passes through the two heating gas paths in successive co-current, counter-current and co-current flow relative to the heating gas flow. This arrangement permits the utilization of minimum surface area for a given maximum film temperature of the slurry consistent with the prevention of coke formation.
New patterns of centrifugally driven thermal convection
Jaletzky, M.; Busse, F. H.
2000-01-01
An experimental study is described of convection driven by thermal buoyancy in the annular gap between two corotating coaxial cylinders, heated from the outside and cooled from the inside. Steady convection patterns of the hexaroll and of the knot type are observed in the case of high Prandtl number fluids, for which the Coriolis force is sufficiently small. Oblique rolls and phase turbulence in the form of irregular patterns of convection can also be observed in wide regions of the parameter...
Modelling of stellar convection
Kupka, Friedrich; Muthsam, Herbert J.
2017-07-01
The review considers the modelling process for stellar convection rather than specific astrophysical results. For achieving reasonable depth and length we deal with hydrodynamics only, omitting MHD. A historically oriented introduction offers first glimpses on the physics of stellar convection. Examination of its basic properties shows that two very different kinds of modelling keep being needed: low dimensional models (mixing length, Reynolds stress, etc.) and "full" 3D simulations. A list of affordable and not affordable tasks for the latter is given. Various low dimensional modelling approaches are put in a hierarchy and basic principles which they should respect are formulated. In 3D simulations of low Mach number convection the inclusion of then unimportant sound waves with their rapid time variation is numerically impossible. We describe a number of approaches where the Navier-Stokes equations are modified for their elimination (anelastic approximation, etc.). We then turn to working with the full Navier-Stokes equations and deal with numerical principles for faithful and efficient numerics. Spatial differentiation as well as time marching aspects are considered. A list of codes allows assessing the state of the art. An important recent development is the treatment of even the low Mach number problem without prior modification of the basic equation (obviating side effects) by specifically designed numerical methods. Finally, we review a number of important trends such as how to further develop low-dimensional models, how to use 3D models for that purpose, what effect recent hardware developments may have on 3D modelling, and others.
National Convective Weather Forecast
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NCWF is an automatically generated depiction of: (1) current convection and (2) extrapolated signficant current convection. It is a supplement to, but does NOT...
Tropical deep convective cloud morphology
Igel, Matthew R.
integrated to form a more comprehensive theory for deep convective anvil responses to SST. An investigation into the physical shape and size of mature, oceanic, tropical, deep convective clouds is conducted. Mean cloud objects are discussed. For single-core clouds, the mean cloud has an anvil width of 95 km, a pedestal width of 11 km, and an anvil thickness of 6.4 km. The number of identified convective cores within pedestal correlates well with certain length scales and morphological attributes of cloud objects. As the number of cores increases, so does the size of the mean cloud object. Pedestal width is shown to regress linearly to anvil width when a 2/3rd power scaling is applied to pedestal width. This result implies continuous but retarded growth of anvils with growing pedestals and equivalence in the mass flux convecting through the pedestal and into the anvil. Trends in cloud scales with cloud base and top heights are investigated to shed light on related convective parameterization assumptions and on convective transport, respectively. Many of the results obtained using the CloudSat methodology are also examined with a large-domain radiative-convective equilibrium numerical simulation and are found to exhibit similar trends when modeled. Finally, various CloudSat sampling issues are discussed in several appendices. Utilizing the CloudSat cloud object database, an examination of the sensitivity of oceanic, mature, deep convective cloud morphology to environmental characteristics is conducted. Convective available potential energy (CAPE), aerosol optical depth, mid-level vertical velocity, and troposphere deep shear are all included as meteorological measures. The sensitivity of various aspects of convective morphology to each one of these environmental characteristics is assessed individually. The results demonstrate that clouds tend to be invigorated by higher CAPE, aerosol amount, and upward mid-level vertical velocity. Stronger shear tends to make clouds wider but
Crust formation and its effect on the molten pool coolability
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Park, R.J.; Lee, S.J.; Sim, S.K. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)
1995-09-01
Experimental and analytical studies of the crust formation and its effect on the molten pool coolability have been performed to examine the crust formation process as a function of boundary temperatures as well as to investigate heat transfer characteristics between molten pool and overlying water in order to evaluate coolability of the molten pool. The experimental test results have shown that the surface temperature of the bottom plate is a dominant parameter in the crust formation process of the molten pool. It is also found that the crust thickness of the case with direct coolant injection into the molten pool is greater than that of the case with a heat exchanger. Increasing mass flow rate of direct coolant injection to the molten pool does not affect the temperature of molten pool after the crust has been formed in the molten pool because the crust behaves as a thermal barrier. The Nusselt number between the molten pool and the coolant of the case with no crust formation is greater than that of the case with crust formation. The results of FLOW-3D analyses have shown that the temperature distribution contributes to the crust formation process due to Rayleigh-Benard natural convection flow.
Faiez, Reza; Rezaei, Yazdan
2017-10-01
Time-dependent, finite volume method calculations of momentum and heat transfer were carried out to investigate the correlation between oscillatory convection and the crystallization front dynamics during the Czochralski (Cz) growth of an oxide material. The present modeling allows us to illustrate the modification of the interface shape during the time period of oscillation of the flow manifesting as the formation of a cold plume beneath the phase boundary. It was shown that the instability mechanism is associated with an irreversible dramatic change in the interface shape, which occurs at a critical Reynolds number significantly lower than that is predicted by the quasi-stationary global model analysis of the Cz growth system. The baroclinic term which appears in the vorticity equation in a rotating stratified fluid is used to describe the numerical results of the model. The properties of the thermal waves were studied in the monitoring points located nearby the interface. The waves are regular but not in fact vertically correlated as observed in the case of baroclinic waves. The Rayleigh-Benard dynamics is suggested to be the predominant mechanism even though the instability is primarily baroclinic.
Cryogenic helium gas convection research
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Donnelly, R.J.
1994-10-01
This is a report prepared by a group interested in doing research in thermal convection using the large scale refrigeration facilities available at the SSC Laboratories (SSCL). The group preparing this report consists of Michael McAshan at SSCL, Robert Behringer at Duke University, Katepalli Sreenivasan at Yale University, Xiao-Zhong Wu at Northern Illinois University and Russell Donnelly at the University of Oregon, who served as Editor for this report. This study reports the research and development opportunities in such a project, the technical requirements and feasibility of its construction and operation, and the costs associated with the needed facilities and support activities. The facility will be a unique national resource for studies of high-Reynolds-number and high-Rayleigh-number and high Rayleigh number turbulence phenomena, and is one of the six items determined as suitable for potential funding through a screening of Expressions of Interest. The proposed facility is possible only because of the advanced cryogenic technology available at the SSCL. Typical scientific issues to be addressed in the facility will be discussed. It devolved during our study, that while the main experiment is still considered to be the thermal convection experiment discussed in our original Expression of Interest, there are now a very substantial set of other, important and fundamental experiments which can be done with the large cryostat proposed for the convection experiment. We believe the facility could provide several decades of front-line research in turbulence, and shall describe why this is so
Predicting chaotic time series
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Farmer, J.D.; Sidorowich, J.J.
1987-01-01
We present a forecasting technique for chaotic data. After embedding a time series in a state space using delay coordinates, we ''learn'' the induced nonlinear mapping using local approximation. This allows us to make short-term predictions of the future behavior of a time series, using information based only on past values. We present an error estimate for this technique, and demonstrate its effectiveness by applying it to several examples, including data from the Mackey-Glass delay differential equation, Rayleigh-Benard convection, and Taylor-Couette flow
Ultrasound thermometry in transparent and opaque fluids
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fife, S.; Andereck, C.D. [Department of Physics, Ohio State University, 43210, Columbus, OH (United States); Rahal, S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Batna, Batna (Algeria)
2003-08-01
We have exploited the temperature dependence of sound velocity to measure the thermal fields in transparent and opaque fluids. A chamber containing glycerol undergoing Rayleigh-Benard convection was probed with an ultrasound transducer operating in the pulse-echo mode. The times-of-flight for the ultrasound pulse to traverse the fluid at several transducer locations were converted into a temperature profile that is in qualitative agreement with simultaneous thermochromic liquid crystal visualization of the flow pattern. Temperature profiles in a mercury-filled stainless steel chamber have also been obtained, both for quiescent and turbulent flows, thereby validating the ultrasound thermometry concept for opaque fluids as well. (orig.)
Convective Replica-Exchange in Ergodic Regimes.
Signorini, Giorgio F; Giovannelli, Edoardo; Spill, Yannick G; Nilges, Michael; Chelli, Riccardo
2014-03-11
In a recent article (J. Comput. Chem. 2013, 34, 132-140), convective replica-exchange (convective-RE) has been presented as an alternative to the standard even-odd transition scheme. Computations on systems of various complexity have shown that convective-RE may increase the number of replica round-trips in temperature space with respect to the standard exchange scheme, leading to a more effective sampling of energy basins. Moreover, it has been shown that the method may prevent the formation of bottlenecks in the diffusive walk of replicas through the space of temperature states. By using an ideal temperature-RE model and a classical harmonic-oscillator RE scheme, we study the performances of convective-RE when ergodicity is not broken and convergence of acceptance probabilities is attained. In this dynamic regime, the round-trip ratio between convective and standard-RE is at maximum ∼ 1.5, a value much smaller than that observed in nonergodic simulations. For large acceptance probabilities, the standard-RE outperforms convective-RE. Our observations suggest that convective-RE can safely be used in either ergodic or non-ergodic regimes; however, convective-RE is advantageous only when bottlenecks occur in the state-space diffusion of replicas, or when acceptance probabilities are globally low. We also show that decoupling of the state-space dynamics of the stick replica from the dynamics of the remaining replicas improves the efficiency of convective-RE at low acceptance probability regimes.
The Continental Drift Convection Cell
Whitehead, J. A.; Behn, M. D.
2014-12-01
Continents on Earth periodically assemble to form supercontinents, and then break up again into smaller continental blocks (the Wilson Cycle). Highly developed but realistic numerical models cannot resolve if continents respond passively to mantle convection or whether they modulate flow. Our simplified numerical model addresses this problem: A thermally insulating continent floats on a stress-free surface for infinite Prandtl number cellular convection with constant material properties in a chamber 8 times longer than its depth. The continent moves back and forth across the chamber driven by a "continental drift convection cell" of a form not previously described. Subduction exists at the upstream end with cold slabs dipping at an angle beneath the moving continent. Fluid moves with the continent in the upper region of this cell with return flow near the bottom. Many continent/subduction regions on Earth have these features. The drifting cell enhances vertical heat transport by approximately 30% compared to a fixed continent, especially at the core-mantle boundary, and significantly decreases lateral mantle temperature differences. However, continent drift or fixity has smaller effects on profiles of horizontally averaged temperature. Although calculations are done at Rayleigh numbers lower than expected for Earth's mantle (2x105 and 106), the drift speed extrapolates to reasonable Wilson Cycle speeds for larger Ra.
CRUCIB: an axisymmetric convection code
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bertram, L.A.
1975-03-01
The CRUCIB code was written in support of an experimental program aimed at measurement of thermal diffusivities of refractory liquids. Precise values of diffusivity are necessary to realistic analysis of reactor safety problems, nuclear waste disposal procedures, and fundamental metal forming processes. The code calculates the axisymmetric transient convective motions produced in a right circular cylindrical crucible, which is surface heated by an annular heat pulse. Emphasis of this report is placed on the input-output options of the CRUCIB code, which are tailored to assess the importance of the convective heat transfer in determining the surface temperature distribution. Use is limited to Prandtl numbers less than unity; larger values can be accommodated by replacement of a single block of the code, if desired. (U.S.)
Convective Radio Occultations Final Campaign Summary
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Biondi, R. [Atmospheric Radiation Measurement, Washington, DC (United States)
2016-03-01
Deep convective systems are destructive weather phenomena that annually cause many deaths and injuries as well as much damage, thereby accounting for major economic losses in several countries. The number and intensity of such phenomena have increased over the last decades in some areas of the globe. Damage is mostly caused by strong winds and heavy rain parameters that are strongly connected to the structure of the particular storm. Convection over land is usually stronger and deeper than over the ocean and some convective systems, known as supercells, also develop tornadoes through processes that remain mostly unclear. The intensity forecast and monitoring of convective systems is one of the major challenges for meteorology because in situ measurements during extreme events are too sparse or unreliable and most ongoing satellite missions do not provide suitable time/space coverage.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nordlund Åke
2009-04-01
Full Text Available We review the properties of solar convection that are directly observable at the solar surface, and discuss the relevant underlying physics, concentrating mostly on a range of depths from the temperature minimum down to about 20 Mm below the visible solar surface.The properties of convection at the main energy carrying (granular scales are tightly constrained by observations, in particular by the detailed shapes of photospheric spectral lines and the topology (time- and length-scales, flow velocities, etc. of the up- and downflows. Current supercomputer models match these constraints very closely, which lends credence to the models, and allows robust conclusions to be drawn from analysis of the model properties.At larger scales the properties of the convective velocity field at the solar surface are strongly influenced by constraints from mass conservation, with amplitudes of larger scale horizontal motions decreasing roughly in inverse proportion to the scale of the motion. To a large extent, the apparent presence of distinct (meso- and supergranulation scales is a result of the folding of this spectrum with the effective “filters” corresponding to various observational techniques. Convective motions on successively larger scales advect patterns created by convection on smaller scales; this includes patterns of magnetic field, which thus have an approximately self-similar structure at scales larger than granulation.Radiative-hydrodynamical simulations of solar surface convection can be used as 2D/3D time-dependent models of the solar atmosphere to predict the emergent spectrum. In general, the resulting detailed spectral line profiles agree spectacularly well with observations without invoking any micro- and macroturbulence parameters due to the presence of convective velocities and atmosphere inhomogeneities. One of the most noteworthy results has been a significant reduction in recent years in the derived solar C, N, and O abundances with
Entropy Production in Convective Hydrothermal Systems
Boersing, Nele; Wellmann, Florian; Niederau, Jan
2016-04-01
Exploring hydrothermal reservoirs requires reliable estimates of subsurface temperatures to delineate favorable locations of boreholes. It is therefore of fundamental and practical importance to understand the thermodynamic behavior of the system in order to predict its performance with numerical studies. To this end, the thermodynamic measure of entropy production is considered as a useful abstraction tool to characterize the convective state of a system since it accounts for dissipative heat processes and gives insight into the system's average behavior in a statistical sense. Solving the underlying conservation principles of a convective hydrothermal system is sensitive to initial conditions and boundary conditions which in turn are prone to uncertain knowledge in subsurface parameters. There exist multiple numerical solutions to the mathematical description of a convective system and the prediction becomes even more challenging as the vigor of convection increases. Thus, the variety of possible modes contained in such highly non-linear problems needs to be quantified. A synthetic study is carried out to simulate fluid flow and heat transfer in a finite porous layer heated from below. Various two-dimensional models are created such that their corresponding Rayleigh numbers lie in a range from the sub-critical linear to the supercritical non-linear regime, that is purely conductive to convection-dominated systems. Entropy production is found to describe the transient evolution of convective processes fairly well and can be used to identify thermodynamic equilibrium. Additionally, varying the aspect ratio for each Rayleigh number shows that the variety of realized convection modes increases with both larger aspect ratio and higher Rayleigh number. This phenomenon is also reflected by an enlarged spread of entropy production for the realized modes. Consequently, the Rayleigh number can be correlated to the magnitude of entropy production. In cases of moderate
Observing Convective Aggregation
Holloway, Christopher E.; Wing, Allison A.; Bony, Sandrine; Muller, Caroline; Masunaga, Hirohiko; L'Ecuyer, Tristan S.; Turner, David D.; Zuidema, Paquita
2017-11-01
Convective self-aggregation, the spontaneous organization of initially scattered convection into isolated convective clusters despite spatially homogeneous boundary conditions and forcing, was first recognized and studied in idealized numerical simulations. While there is a rich history of observational work on convective clustering and organization, there have been only a few studies that have analyzed observations to look specifically for processes related to self-aggregation in models. Here we review observational work in both of these categories and motivate the need for more of this work. We acknowledge that self-aggregation may appear to be far-removed from observed convective organization in terms of time scales, initial conditions, initiation processes, and mean state extremes, but we argue that these differences vary greatly across the diverse range of model simulations in the literature and that these comparisons are already offering important insights into real tropical phenomena. Some preliminary new findings are presented, including results showing that a self-aggregation simulation with square geometry has too broad distribution of humidity and is too dry in the driest regions when compared with radiosonde records from Nauru, while an elongated channel simulation has realistic representations of atmospheric humidity and its variability. We discuss recent work increasing our understanding of how organized convection and climate change may interact, and how model discrepancies related to this question are prompting interest in observational comparisons. We also propose possible future directions for observational work related to convective aggregation, including novel satellite approaches and a ground-based observational network.
Stein, Robert F
2012-07-13
Convection is the transport of energy by bulk mass motions. Magnetic fields alter convection via the Lorentz force, while convection moves the fields via the curl(v×B) term in the induction equation. Recent ground-based and satellite telescopes have increased our knowledge of the solar magnetic fields on a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. Magneto-convection modelling has also greatly improved recently as computers become more powerful. Three-dimensional simulations with radiative transfer and non-ideal equations of state are being performed. Flux emergence from the convection zone through the visible surface (and into the chromosphere and corona) has been modelled. Local, convectively driven dynamo action has been studied. The alteration in the appearance of granules and the formation of pores and sunspots has been investigated. Magneto-convection calculations have improved our ability to interpret solar observations, especially the inversion of Stokes spectra to obtain the magnetic field and the use of helioseismology to determine the subsurface structure of the Sun.
Natural convection inside an irregular porous cavity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Beltran, Jorge I. LLagostera; Trevisan, Osvair Vidal
1990-01-01
Natural convection flow induced by heating from below in a irregular porous cavity is investigated numerically. The influence of the modified Rayleigh number and geometric ratios on heat transfer and fluid flow is studied. Global and local Nusselt for Rayleigh numbers covering the range 0 - 1600 and for several geometric ratios. The fluid flow and the temperature field are illustrated by contour maps. (author)
Transition to finger convection in double-diffusive convection
Kellner, M.; Tilgner, A.
2014-01-01
Finger convection is observed experimentally in an electrodeposition cell in which a destabilizing gradient of copper ions is maintained against a stabilizing temperature gradient. This double-diffusive system shows finger convection even if the total density stratification is unstable. Finger convection is replaced by an ordinary convection roll if convection is fast enough to prevent sufficient heat diffusion between neighboring fingers, or if the thermal buoyancy force is less than 1/30 of...
Kakac, Sadik; Pramuanjaroenkij, Anchasa
2014-01-01
Intended for readers who have taken a basic heat transfer course and have a basic knowledge of thermodynamics, heat transfer, fluid mechanics, and differential equations, Convective Heat Transfer, Third Edition provides an overview of phenomenological convective heat transfer. This book combines applications of engineering with the basic concepts of convection. It offers a clear and balanced presentation of essential topics using both traditional and numerical methods. The text addresses emerging science and technology matters, and highlights biomedical applications and energy technologies. What’s New in the Third Edition: Includes updated chapters and two new chapters on heat transfer in microchannels and heat transfer with nanofluids Expands problem sets and introduces new correlations and solved examples Provides more coverage of numerical/computer methods The third edition details the new research areas of heat transfer in microchannels and the enhancement of convective heat transfer with nanofluids....
effect of chemical reaction on unsteady mhd free convective two ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Joseph et al.
coefficient of skin friction, Nusselt number and Sherwood number are also tabulated and discussed appropriately. It was observed that the increase in chemical reaction coefficient/parameter suppresses both velocity and concentration profiles. Keywords: Chemical Reaction, MHD, Convective, Immiscible,. Unsteady.
Scale analysis of convective clouds
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Micha Gryschka
2008-12-01
Full Text Available The size distribution of cumulus clouds due to shallow and deep convection is analyzed using satellite pictures, LES model results and data from the German rain radar network. The size distributions found can be described by simple power laws as has also been proposed for other cloud data in the literature. As the observed precipitation at ground stations is finally determined by cloud numbers in an area and individual sizes and rain rates of single clouds, the cloud size distributions might be used for developing empirical precipitation forecasts or for validating results from cloud resolving models being introduced to routine weather forecasts.
Temperature-dependent viscosity effects on free convection flow ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Temperature-dependent viscosity effects on free convection flow over a vertical moving cylinder with constant axial velocity under consideration of radial ... Prandtl number, viscosity-variation parameter, thermal conductivity-variation parameter and magnetic parameter on free convection flow and heat transfer is discussed.
Simulating deep convection with a shallow convection scheme
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C. Hohenegger
2011-10-01
Full Text Available Convective processes profoundly affect the global water and energy balance of our planet but remain a challenge for global climate modeling. Here we develop and investigate the suitability of a unified convection scheme, capable of handling both shallow and deep convection, to simulate cases of tropical oceanic convection, mid-latitude continental convection, and maritime shallow convection. To that aim, we employ large-eddy simulations (LES as a benchmark to test and refine a unified convection scheme implemented in the Single-column Community Atmosphere Model (SCAM. Our approach is motivated by previous cloud-resolving modeling studies, which have documented the gradual transition between shallow and deep convection and its possible importance for the simulated precipitation diurnal cycle.
Analysis of the LES reveals that differences between shallow and deep convection, regarding cloud-base properties as well as entrainment/detrainment rates, can be related to the evaporation of precipitation. Parameterizing such effects and accordingly modifying the University of Washington shallow convection scheme, it is found that the new unified scheme can represent both shallow and deep convection as well as tropical and mid-latitude continental convection. Compared to the default SCAM version, the new scheme especially improves relative humidity, cloud cover and mass flux profiles. The new unified scheme also removes the well-known too early onset and peak of convective precipitation over mid-latitude continental areas.
Convective heat transfer around vertical jet fires: An experimental study
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kozanoglu, Bulent; Zárate, Luis; Gómez-Mares, Mercedes; Casal, Joaquim
2011-01-01
Highlights: ► Experiments were carried out to analyze convection around a vertical jet fire. ► Convection heat transfer is enhanced increasing the flame length. ► Nusselt number grows with higher values of Rayleigh and Reynolds numbers. ► In subsonic flames, Nusselt number increases with Froude number. ► Convection and radiation are equally important in causing a domino effect. - Abstract: The convection heat transfer phenomenon in vertical jet fires was experimentally analyzed. In these experiments, turbulent propane flames were generated in subsonic as well as sonic regimes. The experimental data demonstrated that the rate of convection heat transfer increases by increasing the length of the flame. Assuming the solid flame model, the convection heat transfer coefficient was calculated. Two equations in terms of adimensional numbers were developed. It was found out that the Nusselt number attains greater values for higher values of the Rayleigh and Reynolds numbers. On the other hand, the Froude number was analyzed only for the subsonic flames where the Nusselt number grows by this number and the diameter of the orifice.
Mathematical models of convection
Andreev, Victor K; Goncharova, Olga N; Pukhnachev, Vladislav V
2012-01-01
Phenomena of convection are abundant in nature as well as in industry. This volume addresses the subject of convection from the point of view of both, theory and application. While the first three chapters provide a refresher on fluid dynamics and heat transfer theory, the rest of the book describes the modern developments in theory. Thus it brings the reader to the ""front"" of the modern research. This monograph provides the theoretical foundation on a topic relevant to metallurgy, ecology, meteorology, geo-and astrophysics, aerospace industry, chemistry, crystal physics, and many other fiel
Mixed convection in a baffled grooved channel
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
A remarkable enhancement of heat transfer is observed in presence of baffle. The study has also pointed out that for optimal performance, the position and height of the baffle need to be adjusted depending on the direction of external flow. Keywords. Heat transfer; grooved channel; mixed convection; Richardson number;.
Terminal project heat convection in thin cylinders
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Morales Corona, J.
1992-01-01
Heat convection in thin cylinders and analysis about natural convection for straight vertical plates, and straight vertical cylinders submersed in a fluid are presented some works carry out by different authors in the field of heat transfer. In the part of conduction, deduction of the equation of heat conduction in cylindrical coordinates by means of energy balance in a control volume is presented. Enthalpy and internal energy are used for the outlining of the equation and finally the equation in its vectorial form is obtained. In the convection part development to calculate the Nusselt number for a straight vertical plate by a forces analysis, an energy balance and mass conservation over a control volume is outlined. Several empiric correlations to calculate the Nusselt number and its relations with other dimensionless numbers are presented. In the experimental part the way in which a prototype rode is assembled is presented measurements of temperatures attained in steady state and in free convection for working fluids as air and water are showed in tables. Also graphs of Nusselt numbers obtained in the experimental way through some empiric correlations are showed (Author)
Basic theory behind parameterizing atmospheric convection
Plant, R. S.; Fuchs, Z.; Yano, J. I.
2014-01-01
Last fall, a network of the European Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST), called “Basic Concepts for Convection Parameterization in Weather Forecast and Climate Models” (COST Action ES0905; see http://w3.cost.esf.org/index.php?id=205&action_number=ES0905), organized a 10-day training course on atmospheric convection and its parameterization. The aim of the workshop, held on the island of Brac, Croatia, was to help young scientists develop an in-depth understanding of the core theory ...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ghalambaz, M.; Noghrehabadi, A.; Ghanbarzadeh, A., E-mail: m.ghalambaz@gmail.com, E-mail: ghanbarzadeh.a@scu.ac.ir [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2014-04-15
In this paper, the natural convective flow of nanofluids over a convectively heated vertical plate in a saturated Darcy porous medium is studied numerically. The governing equations are transformed into a set of ordinary differential equations by using appropriate similarity variables, and they are numerically solved using the fourth-order Runge-Kutta method associated with the Gauss-Newton method. The effects of parametric variation of the Brownian motion parameter (Nb), thermophoresis parameter (Nt) and the convective heating parameter (Nc) on the boundary layer profiles are investigated. Furthermore, the variation of the reduced Nusselt number and reduced Sherwood number, as important parameters of heat and mass transfer, as a function of the Brownian motion, thermophoresis and convective heating parameters is discussed in detail. The results show that the thickness of the concentration profiles is much lower than the temperature and velocity profiles. For low values of the convective heating parameter (Nc), as the Brownian motion parameter increases, the non-dimensional wall temperature increases. However, for high values of Nc, the effect of the Brownian motion parameter on the non-dimensional wall temperature is not significant. As the Brownian motion parameter increases, the reduced Sherwood number increases and the reduced Nusselt number decreases. (author)
CDM Convective Forecast Planning guidance
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The CDM Convective Forecast Planning (CCFP) guidance product provides a foreast of en-route aviation convective hazards. The forecasts are updated every 2 hours and...
Concentration field in traveling-wave and stationary convection in fluid mixtures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eaton, K.D.; Ohlsen, D.R.; Yamamoto, S.Y.; Surko, C.M.; Barten, W.; Luecke, M.; Kamps, M.; Kolodner, P.
1991-01-01
By comparison of measurements of shadowgraph images of convection in ethanol-water mixtures with the results of recent numerical calculations, we study the role of the concentration field in traveling-wave and stationary convection. The results confirm the existence of a large concentration contrast between adjacent traveling-wave convection rolls. This concentration modulation, which decreases as the Rayleigh number is increased and the transition to stationary convection is approached, is fundamental to the translation of the pattern
Convective overshooting in stars
Andrássy, R.
2015-01-01
Numerous observations provide evidence that the standard picture, in which convective mixing is limited to the unstable layers of a star, is incomplete. The mixing layers in real stars are significantly more extended than what the standard models predict. Some of the observations require changing
Stochasticc convection parameterization
Dorrestijn, J.
2016-01-01
Clouds are chaotic, difficult to predict, but above all, magnificent natural phenomena. There are different types of clouds: stratus, a layer of clouds that may produce drizzle, cirrus, clouds in the higher parts of the atmosphere, and cumulus, clouds that arise in convective updrafts. Thermals,
Natural convection in horizontal fluid layers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Suo-Antilla, A.J.
1977-02-01
The experimental work includes developing and using a thermal convection cell to obtain measurements of the heat flux and turbulent core temperature of a horizontal layer of fluid heated internally and subject to both stabilizing and destabilizing temperature differences. The ranges of Rayleigh numbers tested were 10 7 equal to or less than R/sub I/ equal to or less than 10 13 and -10 10 equal to or less than R/sub E/ equal to or less than 10 10 . Power integral methods were found to be adequate for interpolating and extrapolating the data. The theoretical work consists of the derivation, solution and use of the mean field equations for study of thermally driven convection in horizontal layers of infinite extent. The equations were derived by a separation of variables technique where the horizontal directions were described by periodic structures and the vertical being some function of z. The derivation resulted in a coupled set of momentum and energy equations. The equations were simplified by using the infinite Prandtl number limit and neglecting direct intermodal interaction. Solutions to these equations are used to predict the existence of multi-wavenumber flows at all supercritical Rayleigh numbers. Subsequent inspection of existing experimental photographs of convecting fluids confirms their existence. The onset of time dependence is found to coincide with the onset of the second convective mode. Each mode is found to consist of two wavenumbers and typically the velocity and temperature fields of the right modal branch are found to be out of phase
Hayat, Tasawar; Ashraf, Muhammad Bilal; Alsulami, Hamed H; Alhuthali, Muhammad Shahab
2014-01-01
The objective of present research is to examine the thermal radiation effect in three-dimensional mixed convection flow of viscoelastic fluid. The boundary layer analysis has been discussed for flow by an exponentially stretching surface with convective conditions. The resulting partial differential equations are reduced into a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations using appropriate transformations. The series solutions are developed through a modern technique known as the homotopy analysis method. The convergent expressions of velocity components and temperature are derived. The solutions obtained are dependent on seven sundry parameters including the viscoelastic parameter, mixed convection parameter, ratio parameter, temperature exponent, Prandtl number, Biot number and radiation parameter. A systematic study is performed to analyze the impacts of these influential parameters on the velocity and temperature, the skin friction coefficients and the local Nusselt number. It is observed that mixed convection parameter in momentum and thermal boundary layers has opposite role. Thermal boundary layer is found to decrease when ratio parameter, Prandtl number and temperature exponent are increased. Local Nusselt number is increasing function of viscoelastic parameter and Biot number. Radiation parameter on the Nusselt number has opposite effects when compared with viscoelastic parameter.
Convective Propagation Characteristics Using a Simple Representation of Convective Organization
Neale, R. B.; Mapes, B. E.
2016-12-01
Observed equatorial wave propagation is intimately linked to convective organization and it's coupling to features of the larger-scale flow. In this talk we a use simple 4 level model to accommodate vertical modes of a mass flux convection scheme (shallow, mid-level and deep). Two paradigms of convection are used to represent convective processes. One that has only both random (unorganized) diagnosed fluctuations of convective properties and one with organized fluctuations of convective properties that are amplified by previously existing convection and has an explicit moistening impact on the local convecting environment We show a series of model simulations in single-column, 2D and 3D configurations, where the role of convective organization in wave propagation is shown to be fundamental. For the optimal choice of parameters linking organization to local atmospheric state, a broad array of convective wave propagation emerges. Interestingly the key characteristics of propagating modes are the low-level moistening followed by deep convection followed by mature 'large-scale' heating. This organization structure appears to hold firm across timescales from 5-day wave disturbances to MJO-like wave propagation.
Experimental study of laminar mixed convection in a rod bundle with mixing vane spacer grids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mohanta, Lokanath; Cheung, Fan-Bill; Bajorek, Stephen M.; Tien, Kirk; Hoxie, Chris L.
2017-01-01
Highlights: • Investigated the heat transfer during mixed laminar convection in a rod bundle with linearly varying heat flux. • The Nusselt number increases downstream of the inlet with increasing Richardson number. • Developed an enhancement factor to account for the effects of mixed convection over the forced laminar heat transfer. - Abstract: Heat transfer by mixed convection in a rod bundle occurs when convection is affected by both the buoyancy and inertial forces. Mixed convection can be assumed when the Richardson number (Ri = Gr/Re 2 ) is on the order of unity, indicating that both forced and natural convection are important contributors to heat transfer. In the present study, data obtained from the Rod Bundle Heat Transfer (RBHT) facility was used to determine the heat transfer coefficient in the mixed convection regime, which was found to be significantly larger than those expected assuming purely forced convection based on the inlet flow rate. The inlet Reynolds (Re) number for the tests ranged from 500 to 1300, while the Grashof (Gr) number varied from 1.5 × 10 5 to 3.8 × 10 6 yielding 0.25 < Ri < 4.3. Using results from RBHT test along with the correlation from the FLECHT-SEASET test program for laminar forced convection, a new correlation is proposed for mixed convection in a rod bundle. The new correlation accounts for the enhancement of heat transfer relative to laminar forced convection.
Convective heat transfer on Mars
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arx, A.V. von; Delgado, A. Jr.
1991-01-01
An examination was made into the feasibility of using convective heat transfer on Mars to reject the waste heat from a Closed Brayton Cycle. Forced and natural convection were compared to thermal radiation. For the three radiator configurations studied, it was concluded that thermal radiation will yield the minimum mass and forced convection will result in the minimum area radiator. Other issues such as reliability of a fan motor were not addressed. Convective heat transfer on Mars warrants further investigation. However, the low density of the Martian atmosphere makes it difficult to utilize convective heat transfer without incurring a weight penalty
Evidence of Marangoni Convection Cells on Spherical Shells
McQuillan, Barry
2001-11-01
1 and 2 mm OD plastic shells show surface bumps. The origin of the bumps are Marangoni convection cells created during the formation of the shells. The L mode number for these bumps is consistent with the mode number predicted from a calculation of Lebon and Pirotte. The bumps can be eliminated by suitable changes in the processing, changes which are guided by the presumption of Marangoni convection cells.
Oscillatory Convection in Rotating Liquid Metals
Bertin, Vincent; Grannan, Alex; Aurnou, Jonathan
2016-11-01
We have performed laboratory experiments in a aspect ratio Γ = 2 cylinder using liquid gallium (Pr = 0 . 023) as the working fluid. The Ekman number varies from E = 4 ×10-5 to 4 ×10-6 and the Rayleigh number varies from Ra = 3 ×105 to 2 ×107 . Using heat transfer and temperature measurements within the fluid, we characterize the different styles of low Pr rotating convective flow. The convection threshold is first overcome in the form of a container scale inertial oscillatory mode. At stronger forcing, wall-localized modes develop, coexisting with the inertial oscillatory modes in the bulk. When the strength of the buoyancy increases further, the bulk flow becomes turbulent while the wall modes remain. Our results imply that rotating convective flows in liquid metals do not develop in the form of quasi-steady columns, as in Pr = 1 planetary and stellar dynamo models, but in the form of oscillatory motions. Therefore, convection driven dynamo action in low Pr fluids can differ substantively than that occurring in typical Pr = 1 numerical models. Our results also suggest that low wavenumber, wall modes may be dynamically and observationally important in liquid metal dynamo systems. We thank the NSF Geophysics Program for support of this project.
Convection and stellar oscillations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Aarslev, Magnus Johan
2017-01-01
energy exchange between convection and pulsations, i.e. the modal part of the surface effect. Studying excitation and damping mechanisms requires a non-adiabatic treatment. A major part of my research has been modelling damping rates of red giant stars observed by {\\Kp}. The basis for the non...... atmospheres to replace the outer layers of stellar models. The additional turbulent pressure and asymmetrical opacity effects in the atmosphere model, compared to convection in stellar evolution models, serve to expand the atmosphere. The enlarged acoustic cavity lowers the pulsation frequencies bringing them....... However, the effects are barely prominent enough to be distinguishable with today's observational precision. But it does provide means of determining the mixing-length and enables consistent patching. The previously mentioned investigations are based on adiabatic frequency calculations, which neglect...
Cheng, W. Y.; Kim, D.; Rowe, A.; Park, S.
2017-12-01
Despite the impact of mesoscale convective organization on the properties of convection (e.g., mixing between updrafts and environment), parameterizing the degree of convective organization has only recently been attempted in cumulus parameterization schemes (e.g., Unified Convection Scheme UNICON). Additionally, challenges remain in determining the degree of convective organization from observations and in comparing directly with the organization metrics in model simulations. This study addresses the need to objectively quantify the degree of mesoscale convective organization using high quality S-PolKa radar data from the DYNAMO field campaign. One of the most noticeable aspects of mesoscale convective organization in radar data is the degree of convective clustering, which can be characterized by the number and size distribution of convective echoes and the distance between them. We propose a method of defining contiguous convective echoes (CCEs) using precipitating convective echoes identified by a rain type classification algorithm. Two classification algorithms, Steiner et al. (1995) and Powell et al. (2016), are tested and evaluated against high-resolution WRF simulations to determine which method better represents the degree of convective clustering. Our results suggest that the CCEs based on Powell et al.'s algorithm better represent the dynamical properties of the convective updrafts and thus provide the basis of a metric for convective organization. Furthermore, through a comparison with the observational data, the WRF simulations driven by the DYNAMO large-scale forcing, similarly applied to UNICON Single Column Model simulations, will allow us to evaluate the ability of both WRF and UNICON to simulate convective clustering. This evaluation is based on the physical processes that are explicitly represented in WRF and UNICON, including the mechanisms leading to convective clustering, and the feedback to the convective properties.
Bejan, Adrian
2013-01-01
Written by an internationally recognized authority on heat transfer and thermodynamics, this second edition of Convection Heat Transfer contains new and updated problems and examples reflecting real-world research and applications, including heat exchanger design. Teaching not only structure but also technique, the book begins with the simplest problem solving method (scale analysis), and moves on to progressively more advanced and exact methods (integral method, self similarity, asymptotic behavior). A solutions manual is available for all problems and exercises.
Lattice Boltzmann model for melting with natural convection
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huber, Christian; Parmigiani, Andrea; Chopard, Bastien; Manga, Michael; Bachmann, Olivier
2008-01-01
We develop a lattice Boltzmann method to couple thermal convection and pure-substance melting. The transition from conduction-dominated heat transfer to fully-developed convection is analyzed and scaling laws and previous numerical results are reproduced by our numerical method. We also investigate the limit in which thermal inertia (high Stefan number) cannot be neglected. We use our results to extend the scaling relations obtained at low Stefan number and establish the correlation between the melting front propagation and the Stefan number for fully-developed convection. We conclude by showing that the model presented here is particularly well-suited to study convection melting in geometrically complex media with many applications in geosciences
Axisymmetric Marangoni convection in microencapsulation
Subramanian, Pravin; Zebib, Abdelfattah; McQuillan, Barry
2005-07-01
Spherical shells used as laser targets in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments are made by microencapsulation. In one phase of manufacturing, the spherical shells contain a solvent (fluorobenzene (FB)) and a solute (polystyrene (PAMS)) in a water-FB environment. Evaporation of the FB results in the desired hardened plastic hollow spherical shells, 1-2 mm in diameter. Perfect sphericity is demanded for efficient fusion ignition and the observed surface roughness maybe driven by Marangoni instabilities due to surface tension dependence on the FB concentration (buoyant forces are negligible in this micro-scale problem). Here we model this drying process and compute nonlinear, time-dependent, axisymmetric, variable viscosity, infinite Schmidt number solutocapillary convection in the shells. Comparison with results from linear theory and available experiments are made.
Convective evaporation of vertical films.
Boulogne, François; Dollet, Benjamin
2018-02-28
Motivated by the evaporation of soap films, which has a significant effect on their lifetime, we performed an experimental study on the evaporation of vertical surfaces with model systems based on hydrogels. From the analogy between heat and mass transfer, we adopt a model describing the natural convection in the gas phase due to a density contrast between dry and saturated air. Our measurements show a good agreement with this model, both in terms of scaling law with the Grashof number and in terms of order of magnitude. We discuss the corrections to take into account, notably the contribution of edge effects, which have a small but visible contribution when lateral and bottom surface areas are not negligible compared to the main evaporating surface area.
Stationary plume induced by carbon dioxide dissolution
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nadal, F.; Meunier, P.; Pouligny, B.; Laurichesse, E.
2013-01-01
In this paper, laminar convection flows induced by carbon dioxide absorption are addressed from experimental, numerical and theoretical points of view. A vertical glass tube (of centimetre scale) filled with distilled water is subjected to a sudden increase in the partial pressure of carbon dioxide. As a result of the diffusion of the gas into the unsaturated solution, a thin layer of fluid located underneath the surface becomes heavier. This initial density gradient first destabilizes to form a plume, which goes downwards through the entire cell. After a first transient pulsating regime (periodic succession of such Rayleigh-Benard plumes), a stationary flow settles in the tube, which is maintained by the constant supply of gas at the surface. At late stages, this stationary regime is followed by an aperiodic regime, which lasts until the complete saturation of the solution (thermodynamic equilibrium). The present study only focuses on the stationary regime, whose characteristics appear to be almost independent of the Bond number and the aspect ratio but strongly dependent on the chemical Rayleigh number. Three decades of Rayleigh numbers are explored using particle image velocimetry measurements, which allows for a precise determination of the scaling exponents for the vertical velocity amplitude and the plume width. The assumption that gravity and a constant pressure gradient balance the viscous effects enables us to derive an analytic expression for the stationary vertical velocity on the axis, which scales as Ra 2/3 (ln Ra) 1/3 . As a consequence, the width of the plume scales as Ra -1/6 (ln Ra) -1/3 and the mass Nusselt number as (Ra= ln Ra) 1/3 . These scalings are in excellent agreement with the experimental and numerical results. The multiplicative constants of these scalings can also be calculated and show a fairly good agreement if a rigid boundary condition (no-slip) is assumed at the free surface. (authors)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hayat, T. [Department of Mathematics, Quaid-i-Azam University 45320, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, P. O. Box 80257, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Iqbal, Z., E-mail: zahidiqbal_qau@yahoo.com [Department of Mathematics, Quaid-i-Azam University 45320, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Mustafa, M. [Research Centre for Modeling and Simulation, National University of Sciences and Technology, Sector H-12, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Alsaedi, A. [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, P. O. Box 80257, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia)
2012-11-15
Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Boundary layer flow of an upper-convected Maxwell (UCM) fluid over a moving surface. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Convective boundary conditions have been used. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Series solutions are obtained by homotopy analysis method (HAM). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Graphical results for various interesting parametric values. - Abstract: This study discusses the flow and heat transfer in an upper-convected Maxwell (UCM) fluid over a moving surface in the presence of a free stream velocity. The convective boundary conditions have been handled. Similarly transformations are invoked to convert the partial differential equations governing the steady flow of a Maxwell fluid into an ordinary differential system. This system is solved by a homotopic approach. The effects of influential parameters such as Deborah number ({beta}), Prandtl number (Pr), Eckert number (Ec), suction parameter (S) and ratio ({lambda}) have been thoroughly examined.
Single-mode theory of diffusive layers in thermohaline convection
Gough, D. O.; Toomre, J.
1982-01-01
A two-layer configuration of thermohaline convection is studied, with the principal aim of explaining the observed independence of the buoyancy-flux ratio on the stability parameter when the latter is large. Temperature is destabilizing and salinity is stabilizing, so diffusive interfaces separate the convecting layers. The convection is treated in the single-mode approximation, with a prescribed horizontal planform and wavenumber. Surveys of numerical solutions are presented for a selection of Rayleigh numbers R, stability parameters lambda and horizontal wavenumbers. The solutions yield a buoyancy flux ratio chi that is insensitive to lambda, in accord with laboratory experiments. However chi increases with increasing R, in contradiction to laboratory observations.
Convection with local thermal non-equilibrium and microfluidic effects
Straughan, Brian
2015-01-01
This book is one of the first devoted to an account of theories of thermal convection which involve local thermal non-equilibrium effects, including a concentration on microfluidic effects. The text introduces convection with local thermal non-equilibrium effects in extraordinary detail, making it easy for readers newer to the subject area to understand. This book is unique in the fact that it addresses a large number of convection theories and provides many new results which are not available elsewhere. This book will be useful to researchers from engineering, fluid mechanics, and applied mathematics, particularly those interested in microfluidics and porous media.
Shear heating in creeping faults changes the onset of convection
Tung, R.; Poulet, T.; Alevizos, S.; Veveakis, E.; Regenauer-Lieb, K.
2017-10-01
The interaction between mechanical deformation of creeping faults and fluid flow in porous media has an important influence on the heat and mass transfer processes in Earth sciences. Creeping faults can act as heat sources due to the effect of shear heating and as such could be expected to alter the conditions for hydrothermal convection. In this work, we provide a finite element-based numerical framework developed to resolve the problem of heat and mass transfer in the presence of creeping faults. This framework extends the analytical approach of the linear stability analysis (LSA) frequently used to determine the bifurcation criterion for onset of convection, allowing us to study compressible cases with the option of complex geometry and/or material inhomogeneities. We demonstrate the impact of creeping faults on the onset of convection and show that shear heating—expressed through its dimensionless group the Gruntfest number Gr—has exponential influence on the critical value of the Lewis number Le (inversely proportional to the Rayleigh number Ra) required for convection: Lec ˜ Lec0 eGr. In this expression, Lec0 is the critical value of Le in the absence of shear heating. This exponential scaling shows that shear heating increases the critical Lewis number and triggers hydrothermal convection at lower permeability than in situations without it. We also show that the effect of shear heating in a fault significantly alters the pattern of convection in and around the fault zone.
Natural convection heat transfer within horizontal spent nuclear fuel assemblies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Canaan, R.E.
1995-12-01
Natural convection heat transfer is experimentally investigated in an enclosed horizontal rod bundle, which characterizes a spent nuclear fuel assembly during dry storage and/or transport conditions. The basic test section consists of a square array of sixty-four stainless steel tubular heaters enclosed within a water-cooled rectangular copper heat exchanger. The heaters are supplied with a uniform power generation per unit length while the surrounding enclosure is maintained at a uniform temperature. The test section resides within a vacuum/pressure chamber in order to subject the assembly to a range of pressure statepoints and various backfill gases. The objective of this experimental study is to obtain convection correlations which can be used in order to easily incorporate convective effects into analytical models of horizontal spent fuel systems, and also to investigate the physical nature of natural convection in enclosed horizontal rod bundles in general. The resulting data consist of: (1) measured temperatures within the assembly as a function of power, pressure, and backfill gas; (2) the relative radiative contribution for the range of observed temperatures; (3) correlations of convective Nusselt number and Rayleigh number for the rod bundle as a whole; and (4) correlations of convective Nusselt number as a function of Rayleigh number for individual rods within the array
Bidispersive-inclined convection
Mulone, Giuseppe; Straughan, Brian
2016-01-01
A model is presented for thermal convection in an inclined layer of porous material when the medium has a bidispersive structure. Thus, there are the usual macropores which are full of a fluid, but there are also a system of micropores full of the same fluid. The model we employ is a modification of the one proposed by Nield & Kuznetsov (2006 Int. J. Heat Mass Transf. 49, 3068–3074. (doi:10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2006.02.008)), although we consider a single temperature field only. PMID:27616934
Counterintuitive Constraints on Chaos Formation Set by Heat Flux through Europa's Ocean
Goodman, J. C.
2013-12-01
Models for the formation of disruptive chaos features on the icy surface of Europa fall into two broad categories: either chaos is formed when basal heating causes localized melting and thinning of the ice shell, or basal heating drives diapiric convection within the ice shell. We argue that in both of these cases, heating of the ice shell from below does not lead to chaos formation at the location of heating. If chaos is formed when a localized oceanic heat source, such as a hydrothermal plume, "melts through" the ice crust, we must consider what happens to the melted liquid. If Europa's ocean is salty, the melt will form a buoyant pool inside the melted cavity, leading to a stable interface between cold fresh meltwater and warm salty seawater. This stable interface acts like an ablative heat shield, protecting the ice from further damage. Some heat can be transferred across the stable layer by double diffusion, but this transfer is very inefficient. We calculate that local ocean heating cannot be balanced by local flux through the stable layer: instead, the warm ocean water must spread laterally until it is delivering heat to the ice base on a regional or global scale (a heating zone hundreds or thousands of km across, for conservative parameters.) If chaos is formed by diapiric solid-state convection within the ice shell, many investigators have assumed that diapirism and chaos should be most prevalent where the basal heat flux is strongest. We argue that this is not the case. In Rayleigh-Benard convection, increasing the heat flux will make convection more vigorous --- if and only if the convecting layer thickness does not change. We argue that increased basal heat flux will thin the ice shell, reducing its Rayleigh number and making convection less likely, not more. This insight allows us to reverse the logic of recent discussions of the relationship between ocean circulation and chaos (for instance, Soderlund et al, 2013 LPSC). We argue that global oceanic
Turbulent convection in liquid metal with and without rotation
King, Eric M.; Aurnou, Jonathan M.
2013-01-01
The magnetic fields of Earth and other planets are generated by turbulent, rotating convection in liquid metal. Liquid metals are peculiar in that they diffuse heat more readily than momentum, quantified by their small Prandtl numbers, . Most analog models of planetary dynamos, however, use moderate fluids, and the systematic influence of reducing is not well understood. We perform rotating Rayleigh–Bénard convection experiments in the liquid metal gallium over a range of nondimensional bu...
Convection regime between canopy and air in a greenhouse
Atarassi,Roberto Terumi; Folegatti,Marcos Vinicius; Brasil,René Porfírio Camponez do
2006-01-01
The use of covering materials in protected environments modifies the air movement close to the crop canopy compared to external environment, which changes the heat and mass transfer between canopy and air. Several researches have been made in greenhouses to estimate mass and heat flux using dimensionless numbers to characterize the type of convection (forced, free or mixed). The knowledge of which one is dominant allows simplifications and specific approaches. The dominant convection regime b...
Effect of a degree of rarefaction on Benard convection
結城, 和久; 清水, 昭比古; Yuuki, Kazuhisa; Shimizu, Akihiko
1997-01-01
The Benard convection in a rarefied gas was simulated by two dimensional DSMC (Direct Simulation Monte Carlo) method. The simulation was performed by using a virtual gravity with temperature jump effect as external force acting on each sample molecule and the character and instability of convection was estimated for several Knudsen number Kn, which is a degree of rarefaction of the system, with temperature ratio Th/Tc being varied. It is shown that higher temperature ratio is necessary to for...
Convective mass transfer around a dissolving bubble
Duplat, Jerome; Grandemange, Mathieu; Poulain, Cedric
2017-11-01
Heat or mass transfer around an evaporating drop or condensing vapor bubble is a complex issue due to the interplay between the substrate properties, diffusion- and convection-driven mass transfer, and Marangoni effects, to mention but a few. In order to disentangle these mechanisms, we focus here mainly on the convective mass transfer contribution in an isothermal mass transfer problem. For this, we study the case of a millimetric carbon dioxide bubble which is suspended under a substrate and dissolved into pure liquid water. The high solubility of CO2 in water makes the liquid denser and promotes a buoyant-driven flow at a high (solutal) Rayleigh number (Ra˜104 ). The alteration of p H allows the concentration field in the liquid to be imaged by laser fluorescence enabling us to measure both the global mass flux (bubble volume, contact angle) and local mass flux around the bubble along time. After a short period of mass diffusion, where the boundary layer thickens like the square root of time, convection starts and the CO2 is carried by a plume falling at constant velocity. The boundary layer thickness then reaches a plateau which depends on the bubble cross section. Meanwhile the plume velocity scales like (dV /d t )1 /2 with V being the volume of the bubble. As for the rate of volume loss, we recover a constant mass flux in the diffusion-driven regime followed by a decrease in the volume V like V2 /3 after convection has started. We present a model which agrees well with the bubble dynamics and discuss our results in the context of droplet evaporation, as well as high Rayleigh convection.
Natural convection in polygonal enclosures with inner circular cylinder
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Habibis Saleh
2015-12-01
Full Text Available This study investigates the natural convection induced by a temperature difference between cold outer polygonal enclosure and hot inner circular cylinder. The governing equations are solved numerically using built-in finite element method of COMSOL. The governing parameters considered are the number of polygonal sides, aspect ratio, radiation parameter, and Rayleigh number. We found that the number of contra-rotative cells depended on polygonal shapes. The convection heat transfer becomes constant at L / D > 0 . 77 and the polygonal shapes are no longer sensitive to the Nusselt number profile.
Kenfack Jiotsa, Aurélien; Politi, Antonio; Torcini, Alessandro
2013-06-01
We generalize the concept of the convective (or velocity-dependent) Lyapunov exponent from the maximum rate Λ(v) to an entire spectrum Λ(v, n). Our results are derived by following two distinct computational protocols: (i) Legendre transform within the chronotopic approach (Lepri et al 1996 J. Stat. Phys. 82 1429); (ii) by letting evolve an ensemble of initially localized perturbations. The two approaches turn out to be mutually consistent. Moreover, we find the existence of a phase transition: above a critical value n = nc of the integrated density of exponents, the zero-velocity convective exponent is strictly smaller than the corresponding Lyapunov exponent. This phenomenon is traced back to a change of concavity of the so-called temporal Lyapunov spectrum for n > nc, which, therefore, turns out to be a dynamically invariant quantity. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘Lyapunov analysis: from dynamical systems theory to applications’.
Improved nowcasting of precipitation based on convective analysis fields
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
T. Haiden
2007-04-01
Full Text Available The high-resolution analysis and nowcasting system INCA (Integrated Nowcasting through Comprehensive Analysis developed at the Austrian national weather service provides three-dimensional fields of temperature, humidity, and wind on an hourly basis, and two-dimensional fields of precipitation rate in 15 min intervals. The system operates on a horizontal resolution of 1 km and a vertical resolution of 100–200 m. It combines surface station data, remote sensing data (radar, satellite, forecast fields of the numerical weather prediction model ALADIN, and high-resolution topographic data. An important application of the INCA system is nowcasting of convective precipitation. Based on fine-scale temperature, humidity, and wind analyses a number of convective analysis fields are routinely generated. These fields include convective boundary layer (CBL flow convergence and specific humidity, lifted condensation level (LCL, convective available potential energy (CAPE, convective inhibition (CIN, and various convective stability indices. Based on the verification of areal precipitation nowcasts it is shown that the pure translational forecast of convective cells can be improved by using a decision algorithm which is based on a subset of the above fields, combined with satellite products.
Nield, Donald A
1992-01-01
This book provides a user-friendly introduction to the topic of convection in porous media The authors as- sume that the reader is familiar with the basic elements of fluid mechanics and heat transfer, but otherwise the book is self-contained The book will be useful both as a review (for reference) and as a tutorial work, suitable as a textbook in a graduate course or seminar The book brings into perspective the voluminous research that has been performed during the last two decades The field has recently exploded because of worldwide concern with issues such as energy self-sufficiency and pollution of the environment Areas of application include the insulation of buildings and equipment, energy storage and recovery, geothermal reservoirs, nuclear waste disposal, chemical reactor engineering, and the storage of heat-generating materials such as grain and coal Geophysical applications range from the flow of groundwater around hot intrusions to the stability of snow against avalanches
Nield, Donald A
2013-01-01
Convection in Porous Media, 4th Edition, provides a user-friendly introduction to the subject, covering a wide range of topics, such as fibrous insulation, geological strata, and catalytic reactors. The presentation is self-contained, requiring only routine mathematics and the basic elements of fluid mechanics and heat transfer. The book will be of use not only to researchers and practicing engineers as a review and reference, but also to graduate students and others entering the field. The new edition features approximately 1,750 new references and covers current research in nanofluids, cellular porous materials, strong heterogeneity, pulsating flow, and more. Recognized as the standard reference in the field Includes a comprehensive, 250-page reference list Cited over 2300 times to date in its various editions Serves as an introduction for those entering the field and as a comprehensive reference for experienced researchers Features new sections on nanofluids, carbon dioxide sequestration, and applications...
Convective Flow in an Aquifer Layer
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dambaru Bhatta
2017-10-01
Full Text Available Here, we investigate weakly nonlinear hydrothermal two-dimensional convective flow in a horizontal aquifer layer with horizontal isothermal and rigid boundaries. We treat such a layer as a porous medium, where Darcy’s law holds, subjected to the conditions that the porous layer’s permeability and the thermal conductivity are variable in the vertical direction. This analysis is restricted to the case that the subsequent hydraulic resistivity and diffusivity have a small rate of change with respect to the vertical variable. Applying the weakly nonlinear approach, we derive various order systems and express their solutions. The solutions for convective flow quantities such as vertical velocity and the temperature that arise as the Rayleigh number exceeds its critical value are computed and presented in graphical form.
A Stochastic Framework for Modeling the Population Dynamics of Convective Clouds
Hagos, Samson; Feng, Zhe; Plant, Robert S.; Houze, Robert A.; Xiao, Heng
2018-02-01
A stochastic prognostic framework for modeling the population dynamics of convective clouds and representing them in climate models is proposed. The framework follows the nonequilibrium statistical mechanical approach to constructing a master equation for representing the evolution of the number of convective cells of a specific size and their associated cloud-base mass flux, given a large-scale forcing. In this framework, referred to as STOchastic framework for Modeling Population dynamics of convective clouds (STOMP), the evolution of convective cell size is predicted from three key characteristics of convective cells: (i) the probability of growth, (ii) the probability of decay, and (iii) the cloud-base mass flux. STOMP models are constructed and evaluated against CPOL radar observations at Darwin and convection permitting model (CPM) simulations. Multiple models are constructed under various assumptions regarding these three key parameters and the realisms of these models are evaluated. It is shown that in a model where convective plumes prefer to aggregate spatially and the cloud-base mass flux is a nonlinear function of convective cell area, the mass flux manifests a recharge-discharge behavior under steady forcing. Such a model also produces observed behavior of convective cell populations and CPM simulated cloud-base mass flux variability under diurnally varying forcing. In addition to its use in developing understanding of convection processes and the controls on convective cell size distributions, this modeling framework is also designed to serve as a nonequilibrium closure formulations for spectral mass flux parameterizations.
Turbulent convection in liquid metal with and without rotation.
King, Eric M; Aurnou, Jonathan M
2013-04-23
The magnetic fields of Earth and other planets are generated by turbulent, rotating convection in liquid metal. Liquid metals are peculiar in that they diffuse heat more readily than momentum, quantified by their small Prandtl numbers, Pr rotating Rayleigh-Bénard convection experiments in the liquid metal gallium (Pr = 0.025) over a range of nondimensional buoyancy forcing (Ra) and rotation periods (E). Our primary diagnostic is the efficiency of convective heat transfer (Nu). In general, we find that the convective behavior of liquid metal differs substantially from that of moderate Pr fluids, such as water. In particular, a transition between rotationally constrained and weakly rotating turbulent states is identified, and this transition differs substantially from that observed in moderate Pr fluids. This difference, we hypothesize, may explain the different classes of magnetic fields observed on the Gas and Ice Giant planets, whose dynamo regions consist of Pr 1 fluids, respectively.
Natural convection between two concentric spheres
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Blondel-Roux, Marie
1983-01-01
After an overview of researches on natural convection in a confined or semi-confined environment, this research thesis reports the use of the Caltagirone and Mojtabi numerical model and the study of its validity for different values of the Rayleigh and Prandtl numbers. Results obtained with this model are compared with experimental ones. Thermal transfer curves are presented and discussed, as well as the different temperature fields numerically obtained, flow function fields, velocities in the fluid layer, and temperature profiles with respect to the Rayleigh number [fr
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hirata, Silvia C. [Laboratoire de Mecanique de Lille, UMR CNRS 8107 - Universite Lille I, Bld. Paul Langevin, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq cedex (France); Ouarzazi, Mohamed Najib, E-mail: najib.ouarzazi@univ-lille1.f [Laboratoire de Mecanique de Lille, UMR CNRS 8107 - Universite Lille I, Bld. Paul Langevin, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq cedex (France)
2010-06-07
By using the mathematical formalism of absolute and convective instabilities we study the nature of unstable three-dimensional disturbances of viscoelastic flow convection in a porous medium with horizontal through-flow and vertical temperature gradient. Temporal stability analysis reveals that among three-dimensional (3D) modes the pure down-stream transverse rolls are favored for the onset of convection. In addition, by considering a spatiotemporal stability approach we found that all unstable 3D modes are convectively unstable except the transverse rolls which may experience a transition to absolute instability. The combined influence of through-flow and elastic parameters on the absolute instability threshold, wave number and frequency is then determined, and results are compared to those of a Newtonian fluid.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hirata, Silvia C.; Ouarzazi, Mohamed Najib
2010-01-01
By using the mathematical formalism of absolute and convective instabilities we study the nature of unstable three-dimensional disturbances of viscoelastic flow convection in a porous medium with horizontal through-flow and vertical temperature gradient. Temporal stability analysis reveals that among three-dimensional (3D) modes the pure down-stream transverse rolls are favored for the onset of convection. In addition, by considering a spatiotemporal stability approach we found that all unstable 3D modes are convectively unstable except the transverse rolls which may experience a transition to absolute instability. The combined influence of through-flow and elastic parameters on the absolute instability threshold, wave number and frequency is then determined, and results are compared to those of a Newtonian fluid.
Convection-enhanced water evaporation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
B. M. Weon
2011-03-01
Full Text Available Water vapor is lighter than air; this can enhance water evaporation by triggering vapor convection but there is little evidence. We directly visualize evaporation of nanoliter (2 to 700 nL water droplets resting on silicon wafer in calm air using a high-resolution dual X-ray imaging method. Temporal evolutions of contact radius and contact angle reveal that evaporation rate linearly changes with surface area, indicating convective (instead of diffusive evaporation in nanoliter water droplets. This suggests that convection of water vapor would enhance water evaporation at nanoliter scales, for instance, on microdroplets or inside nanochannels.
Magnetic Control of Convection during Protein Crystallization
Ramachandran, N.; Leslie, F. W.
2004-01-01
An important component in biotechnology, particularly in the area of protein engineering and rational drug design is the knowledge of the precise three-dimensional molecular structure of proteins. The quality of structural information obtained from X-ray diffraction methods is directly dependent on the degree of perfection of the protein crystals. As a consequence, the growth of high quality macromolecular Crystals for diffraction analyses has been the central focus for bio-chemists, biologists, and bioengineers. Macromolecular crystals are obtained from solutions that contain the crystallizing species in equilibrium with higher aggregates, ions, precipitants, other possible phases of the protein, foreign particles, the walls of container, and a likely host of other impurities. By changing transport modes in general, i.e., reduction of convection and Sedimentation as is achieved in "microgravity", we have been able to dramatically affect the movement and distribution of macromolecules in the fluid, and thus their transport, f o d o n of crystal nuclei, and adsorption to the crystal surface. While a limited number of high quality crystals from space flights have been obtained, as the recent National Research Council (NRC) review of the NASA microgravity crystallization program pointed out, the scientific approach and research in crystallization of proteins has been mainly empirical yielding inconclusive results. We postulate that we can reduce convection in ground-based experiments and we can understand the different aspects of convection control through the use of strong magnetic fields and field gradients. We postulate that limited convection in a magnetic field will provide the environment for the growth of high quality crystals. The approach exploits the variation of fluid magnetic susceptibility with counteracts on for this purpose and the convective damping is realized by appropriately positioning the crystal growth cell so that the magnetic susceptibility
Unsteady MHD free convection flow and heat transfer along an ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Unsteady MHD free convection flow and heat transfer along an infinite vertical porous plate under Arrhenius kinetics. ... due to increase in the Hartmann number (iii) fluid velocity increases due to increase in Grashof number which agrees with natural phenomena because of the buoyancy force which assist the flow.
Unsteady MHD free convective flow past a vertical porous plate ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
An attempt has been made to study the unsteady MHD free convective flow past a vertical porous plate immersed in a porous medium with Hall current, thermal diffusion and heat source. Analytical solution has been found depending on the physical parameters including the Hartmann number M, the Prandtl number Pr, the ...
Heat Transfer Correlations for Free Convection from Suspended Microheaters
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
David GOSSELIN
2016-08-01
Full Text Available Portability and autonomy for biomedical diagnostic devices are two rising requirements. It is recognized that low-energy heating of such portable devices is of utmost importance for molecular recognition. This work focuses on screen-printed microheaters based on on Joule effect, which constitute an interesting solution for low-energy heating. An experimental study of the natural convection phenomena occurring with such microheaters is conducted. When they are suspended in the air, and because of the thinness of the supporting film, it is shown that the contributions of both the upward and downward faces have to be taken into account. A total Nusselt number and a total convective heat transfer coefficient have been used to describe the natural convection around these microheaters. In addition a relation between the Nusselt number and the Rayleigh number is derived, leading to an accurate prediction of the heating temperature (MRE< 2 %.
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
McWilliams, James
1999-01-01
... mechanism of water mass transformation. The resultant newly mixed deep water masses form a component of the thermohaline circulation, and hence it is essential to understand the deep convection process if the variability of the meridional...
An experimental study of mixed convection
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saez, Manuel
1998-01-01
The aim of our study is to establish a reliable data base for improving thermal-hydraulic codes, in the field of turbulent flows with buoyancy forces. The flow considered is mixed convection in the Reynolds and Richardson number range: Re=10 3 to 6*10 4 and Ri=10 -4 to 1. Experiments are carried out in an upward turbulent flow between vertical parallel plates at different wall temperatures. Part 1 gives a detailed data base of turbulent mixed flow of free and forced convection. Part II presents the installation and the calibration system intended for probes calibration. Part III describes the measurement technique (constant-temperature probe and cold-wire probe) and the method for measuring the position of the hot-wire anemometer from the wall surface. The measurement accuracy is within 0.001 mm in the present system. Part IV relates the development of a method for near wall measurements. This correction procedure for hot-wire anemometer close to wall has been derived on the basis of a two-dimensional numerical study. The method permits to obtain a quantitative correction of the wall influence on hot-wires and takes into account the velocity profile and the effects the wall material has on the heat loss. Part V presents the experimental data obtained in the channel in forced and mixed convection. Results obtained in the forced convection regime serve as a verification of the measurement technique close to the wall and give the conditions at the entrance of the test section. The effects of the buoyancy force on the mean velocity and temperature profiles are confirmed. The buoyancy strongly affects the flow structure and deforms the distribution of mean velocity. The velocity profiles are asymmetric. The second section of part V gives an approach of analytical wall functions with buoyancy forces, on the basis of the experimental data obtained in the test section. (author) [fr
Dunn, James C.; Hardee, Harry C.; Striker, Richard P.
1985-01-01
A convective heat flow probe device is provided which measures heat flow and fluid flow magnitude in the formation surrounding a borehole. The probe comprises an elongate housing adapted to be lowered down into the borehole; a plurality of heaters extending along the probe for heating the formation surrounding the borehole; a plurality of temperature sensors arranged around the periphery of the probe for measuring the temperature of the surrounding formation after heating thereof by the heater elements. The temperature sensors and heater elements are mounted in a plurality of separate heater pads which are supported by the housing and which are adapted to be radially expanded into firm engagement with the walls of the borehole. The heat supplied by the heater elements and the temperatures measured by the temperature sensors are monitored and used in providing the desired measurements. The outer peripheral surfaces of the heater pads are configured as segments of a cylinder and form a full cylinder when taken together. A plurality of temperature sensors are located on each pad so as to extend along the length and across the width thereof, with a heating element being located in each pad beneath the temperature sensors. An expansion mechanism driven by a clamping motor provides expansion and retraction of the heater pads and expandable packer-type seals are provided along the probe above and below the heater pads.
Convection-enhanced water evaporation
B. M. Weon; J. H. Je; C. Poulard
2011-01-01
Water vapor is lighter than air; this can enhance water evaporation by triggering vapor convection but there is little evidence. We directly visualize evaporation of nanoliter (2 to 700 nL) water droplets resting on silicon wafer in calm air using a high-resolution dual X-ray imaging method. Temporal evolutions of contact radius and contact angle reveal that evaporation rate linearly changes with surface area, indicating convective (instead of diffusive) evaporation in nanoliter water droplet...
The Oscillatory Nature of Rotating Convection in Liquid Metal
Aurnou, J. M.; Bertin, V. L.; Grannan, A. M.
2016-12-01
Earth's magnetic field is assumed to be generated by fluid motions in its liquid metal core. In this fluid, the heat diffuses significantly more than momentum and thus, the ratio of these two diffusivities, the Prandtl number Pr=ν/Κ, is well below unity. The convective flow dynamics of liquid metal is very different from Pr ≈ 1 fluids like water and those used in current dynamo simulations. In order to characterize rapidly rotating thermal convection in low Pr number fluids, we have performed laboratory experiments in a cylinder using liquid gallium (Pr ≈ 0.023) as the working fluid. The Ekman number, which characterizes the effect of rotation, varies from E = 4 10-5 to 4 10-6 and the dimensionless buoyancy forcing (Rayleigh number, Ra) varies from Ra =3 105 to 2 107. Using heat transfer measurements (Nusselt number, Nu) as well as temperature measurements within the fluid, we characterize the different styles of low Pr rotating convective flow. The convection threshold is first overcome in the form of a container scale inertial oscillatory mode. At stronger forcing, wall-localized modes are identified for the first time in liquid metal laboratory experiments. These wall modes coexist with the bulk inertial oscillatory modes. When the strengh of the buoyancy increases, the bulk flow becomes turbulent while the wall modes remain. Our results imply that rotating convective flows in liquid metals do not develop in the form of quasi-steady columns, as in Pr ≈ 1 dynamo models, but in the form of oscillatory motions. Therefore, the flows that drive thermally-driven dynamo action in low Pr geophysical and astrophysical fluids can differ substantively than those occuring in current-day Pr ≈ 1 numerical models. In addition, our results suggest that relatively low wavenumber, wall-attached modes may be dynamically important in rapidly-rotating convection in liquid metals.
Heat Transfer Convection in The Cooking of Apple Using a Solar Cooker Box-Type
Terres, H.; Chávez, S.; Lizardi, A.; López, R.; Vaca, M.; Flores, J.; Salazar, A.
2015-01-01
In this work, experimental results to determine the convection heat transfer coefficient in the cooking process of apple using a solar cooker box-type are presented. Experimental data of temperatures for water, surface and central point of the apple were used. To determine the convection coefficient, the apple was modelled as a sphere. The temperatures evolution was defined using thermocouples located at water, surface and central point in the vegetables. Using heat transfer convection equations in transitory state and the temperatures measured, the Biot number and the convection coefficient were determined.
Heat Transfer Convection in The Cooking of Apple Using a Solar Cooker Box-Type
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Terres, H; Chávez, S; Lizardi, A; López, R; Vaca, M; Flores, J; Salazar, A
2015-01-01
In this work, experimental results to determine the convection heat transfer coefficient in the cooking process of apple using a solar cooker box-type are presented. Experimental data of temperatures for water, surface and central point of the apple were used. To determine the convection coefficient, the apple was modelled as a sphere. The temperatures evolution was defined using thermocouples located at water, surface and central point in the vegetables. Using heat transfer convection equations in transitory state and the temperatures measured, the Biot number and the convection coefficient were determined
Scaling of plate tectonic convection with pseudoplastic rheology
Korenaga, Jun
2010-11-01
The scaling of plate tectonic convection is investigated by simulating thermal convection with pseudoplastic rheology and strongly temperature-dependent viscosity. The effect of mantle melting is also explored with additional depth-dependent viscosity. Heat flow scaling can be constructed with only two parameters, the internal Rayleigh number and the lithospheric viscosity contrast, the latter of which is determined entirely by rheological properties. The critical viscosity contrast for the transition between plate tectonic and stagnant lid convection is found to be proportional to the square root of the internal Rayleigh number. The relation between mantle temperature and surface heat flux on Earth is discussed on the basis of these scaling laws, and the inverse relationship between them, as previously suggested from the consideration of global energy balance, is confirmed by this fully dynamic approach. In the presence of surface water to reduce the effective friction coefficient, the operation of plate tectonics is suggested to be plausible throughout the Earth history.
Effect of Buoyancy on Forced Convection Heat Transfer in Vertical Channels - a Literature Survey
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bhattacharyya, A.
1965-03-01
This report contains a short resume of the available information from various sources on the effect of free convection flow on forced convection heat transfer in vertical channels. Both theoretical and experimental investigations are included. Nearly all of the theoretical investigations are concerned with laminar flow with or without internal heat generation. More consistent data are available for upward flow than for downward flow. Curves are presented to determine whether free convection or forced convection mode of heat transfer is predominant for a particular Reynolds number and Rayleigh number. At Re b > 10 5 free convection effects are negligible. Downward flow through a heated channel at low Reynolds number is unstable. Under similar conditions the overall heat transfer coefficient for downward flow tends to be higher than that for upward flow
Calibrating convective properties of solar-like stars in the Kepler field of view
Bonaca, A.; Tanner, J.D.; Basu, S.; Chaplin, W.J.; Metcalfe, T.S.; Monteiro, M.J.P.F.G.; Ballot, J.; Bedding, T.R.; Bonanno, A.; Broomhall, A.M.; Bruntt, H.; Campante, T.L.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.; Corsaro, E.; Elsworth, Y.; García, R.A.; Hekker, S.; Karoff, C.; Kjeldsen, H.; Mathur, S.; Régulo, C.; Roxburgh, I.; Stello, D.; Trampedach, R.; Barclay, T.; Burke, C.J.; Caldwell, D.A.
2012-01-01
Stellar models generally use simple parameterizations to treat convection. The most widely used parameterization is the so-called mixing-length theory where the convective eddy sizes are described using a single number, α, the mixing-length parameter. This is a free parameter, and the general
Analysis of the convective heat transfer of a fluid flow over an ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Convective heat transfer in a homogeneous fluid flow Reynolds number of order less than 2000 over an immersed axi-symmetrical body with curved surfaces has been investigated. The fluid flow in consideration was unsteady and of constant density .This study analysed the extent to which convective heat transfer has on ...
Internal Forced Convection to Low Prandtl Number Gas Mixtures.
1984-07-15
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effect of brinkman number and magnetic field on laminar convection ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Joseph et al.
form of momentum and energy balanced equations has been solved using one term perturbation series solution. ... industrial, technological and geothermal applications such as temperature plasmas, cooling of nuclear ... to solve the momentum balance equation and energy balance equation. A comparison between the ...
Prandtl number variation on transient forced convection flow in a ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
user
distribution of nanoparticles and uncertainties in the thermophysical properties of nanofluids. Most of ..... Grid Refinement Test. In order to determine the proper grid size for this study, a grid independence test is conducted with five types of mesh for Pr = 1.47, Re = 100 and φ = 5%. ..... concept, Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, Vol.
Model for modulated and chaotic waves in zero-Prandtl-number ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
KCD) [20] for thermal convection in zero-Prandtl-number fluids in the presence of Coriolis force showed the possibility of self-tuned temporal quasiperiodic waves at the onset of thermal convection. However, the effect of modulation when the.
Constraining convective regions with asteroseismic linear structural inversions
Buldgen, G.; Reese, D. R.; Dupret, M. A.
2018-01-01
Context. Convective regions in stellar models are always associated with uncertainties, for example, due to extra-mixing or the possible inaccurate position of the transition from convective to radiative transport of energy. Such inaccuracies have a strong impact on stellar models and the fundamental parameters we derive from them. The most promising method to reduce these uncertainties is to use asteroseismology to derive appropriate diagnostics probing the structural characteristics of these regions. Aims: We wish to use custom-made integrated quantities to improve the capabilities of seismology to probe convective regions in stellar interiors. By doing so, we hope to increase the number of indicators obtained with structural seismic inversions to provide additional constraints on stellar models and the fundamental parameters we determine from theoretical modeling. Methods: First, we present new kernels associated with a proxy of the entropy in stellar interiors. We then show how these kernels can be used to build custom-made integrated quantities probing convective regions inside stellar models. We present two indicators suited to probe convective cores and envelopes, respectively, and test them on artificial data. Results: We show that it is possible to probe both convective cores and envelopes using appropriate indicators obtained with structural inversion techniques. These indicators provide direct constraints on a proxy of the entropy of the stellar plasma, sensitive to the characteristics of convective regions. These constraints can then be used to improve the modeling of solar-like stars by providing an additional degree of selection of models obtained from classical forward modeling approaches. We also show that in order to obtain very accurate indicators, we need ℓ = 3 modes for the envelope but that the core-conditions indicator is more flexible in terms of the seismic data required for its use.
Air Distribution in Aircraft Cabins Using Free Convection Personalized Ventilation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Peter V.
The aim of the ventilation system is to control cross infection in an aircraft cabin if one or a number of the passengers are “source patients” (source of airborne disease). The Personalized Ventilation described in this text is of the type mentioned in “Free Convection Personalized Ventilation”....
A numerical study of momentum and forced convection heat transfer ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
A numerical study has been carried out to examine the momentum and turbulent forced-convection characteristics for airflow through a constant temperature- surfaced rectangular duct with top and lower wallmounted waved baffles.Air is the working fluid with the flow rate in terms of Reynolds numbers ranging from 5,000 to ...
A numerical model of localized convection cells of Euglena suspensions
Iima, Makoto; Shoji, Erika; Yamaguchi, Takayuki
2014-11-01
Suspension of Euglena gracilis shows localized convection cells when it is illuminated form below with strong light intensity. Experiments in an annular container shows that there are two elementary localized structures. One consists of a pair of convection cells and a single region where number density of Euglena is high. The other consists a localized traveling wave. Based on the measurements of the flux of number density, we propose a model of bioconvection incorporating lateral phototaxis effect proportional to the light intensity gradient. Using pseudo spectral method, we performed numerical simulation of this model. We succeed in reproducing one of the localized structures, a convection pair with single region of high number density. Also, when the aspect ratio is large, there are a parameter region where the localized structure and conductive state are both stable, which is suggested by experiments. Spatial distribution of the number density implies that the accumulation of microorganism due to the convective flow causes such bistability. CREST(PJ74100011) and KAKENHI(26400396).
Natural convection in rectangular enclosures with one thermally ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Natural convective fluid flow and heat transfer in rectangular enclosures bounded by three adiabatic walls and one thermally active and differentially heated vertical side were predicted by using the finite difference method. The effects of different temperature functions, aspect ratio and Rayleigh numbers on the natural ...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mohammed J Uddin
Full Text Available Taking into account the effect of constant convective thermal and mass boundary conditions, we present numerical solution of the 2-D laminar g-jitter mixed convective boundary layer flow of water-based nanofluids. The governing transport equations are converted into non-similar equations using suitable transformations, before being solved numerically by an implicit finite difference method with quasi-linearization technique. The skin friction decreases with time, buoyancy ratio, and thermophoresis parameters while it increases with frequency, mixed convection and Brownian motion parameters. Heat transfer rate decreases with time, Brownian motion, thermophoresis and diffusion-convection parameters while it increases with the Reynolds number, frequency, mixed convection, buoyancy ratio and conduction-convection parameters. Mass transfer rate decreases with time, frequency, thermophoresis, conduction-convection parameters while it increases with mixed convection, buoyancy ratio, diffusion-convection and Brownian motion parameters. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first paper on this topic and hence the results are new. We believe that the results will be useful in designing and operating thermal fluids systems for space materials processing. Special cases of the results have been compared with published results and an excellent agreement is found.
Experimental study of thermocapillary convection in a germanium melt
Gorbunov, Leonid A.
1996-08-01
The present paper is dedicated to the experimental investigation of thermocapillary convection (TCC) in semiconductor melts. The investigation showed that in the process of single crystal growth under terrestrial conditions TCC could be compared to thermogravity convection (TGC) for a number of semiconductor melts such as Ge, Si, GaAs. But in comparatively thin layers with H container radius) it can dominate over TGC. The experiments were conducted with a Ge melt. Oxide particle tracers were used to measure the melt motion rate. The results obtained emphasize the significance of TCC in the process of single crystal growth under terrestrial conditions.
Convection in a colloidal suspension in a closed horizontal cell
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smorodin, B. L.; Cherepanov, I. N.
2015-01-01
The experimentally detected [1] oscillatory regimes of convection in a colloidal suspension of nanoparticles with a large anomalous thermal diffusivity in a closed horizontal cell heated from below have been simulated numerically. The concentration inhomogeneity near the vertical cavity boundaries arising from the interaction of thermal-diffusion separation and convective mixing has been proven to serve as a source of oscillatory regimes (traveling waves). The dependence of the Rayleigh number at the boundary of existence of the traveling-wave regime on the aspect ratio of the closed cavity has been established. The spatial characteristics of the emerging traveling waves have been determined
Benard-Marangoni convection in two-layered liquids
Tokaruk; Molteno; Morris
2000-04-17
We describe experiments on Benard-Marangoni convection in horizontal layers of two immiscible liquids. Unlike previous experiments, which used gases as the upper fluid, we find a square planform close to onset which undergoes a secondary bifurcation to rolls at higher temperature differences. The scale of the convection pattern is that of the thinner lower fluid layer for which buoyancy and surface tension forces are comparable. The wave number of the pattern near onset agrees with the linear stability prediction for the full two-layer problem. The square planform is in qualitative agreement with recent two-layer weakly nonlinear theories, which fail however to predict the transition to rolls.
Bénard-Marangoni Convection in Two-Layered Liquids
Tokaruk, Wayne A.; Molteno, T. C. A.; Morris, Stephen W.
2000-04-01
We describe experiments on Bénard-Marangoni convection in horizontal layers of two immiscible liquids. Unlike previous experiments, which used gases as the upper fluid, we find a square planform close to onset which undergoes a secondary bifurcation to rolls at higher temperature differences. The scale of the convection pattern is that of the thinner lower fluid layer for which buoyancy and surface tension forces are comparable. The wave number of the pattern near onset agrees with the linear stability prediction for the full two-layer problem. The square planform is in qualitative agreement with recent two-layer weakly nonlinear theories, which fail however to predict the transition to rolls.
ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS OF THE INTENSIFICATION CONVECTIVE DRYING
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. M. Gavrilenkov
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Identified and analyzed the relationship of the intensity convective drying and air pollution emissions of heat. The ways to reduce the thermal pollution of the atmosphere at convective drying.
Extended Subadiabatic Layer in Simulations of Overshooting Convection
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Käpylä, Petri J.; Arlt, Rainer [Leibniz-Institut für Astrophysik, An der Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam (Germany); Rheinhardt, Matthias; Käpylä, Maarit J.; Olspert, Nigul [ReSoLVE Centre of Excellence, Department of Computer Science, P.O. Box 15400, FI-00076 Aalto (Finland); Brandenburg, Axel [NORDITA, KTH Royal Institute of Technology and Stockholm University, Roslagstullsbacken 23, SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Lagg, Andreas; Warnecke, Jörn [Max-Planck-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 3, D-37077 Göttingen (Germany)
2017-08-20
We present numerical simulations of hydrodynamic overshooting convection in local Cartesian domains. We find that a substantial fraction of the lower part of the convection zone (CZ) is stably stratified according to the Schwarzschild criterion while the enthalpy flux is outward directed. This occurs when the heat conduction profile at the bottom of the CZ is smoothly varying, based either on a Kramers-like opacity prescription as a function of temperature and density or a static profile of a similar shape. We show that the subadiabatic layer arises due to nonlocal energy transport by buoyantly driven downflows in the upper parts of the CZ. Analysis of the force balance of the upflows and downflows confirms that convection is driven by cooling at the surface. We find that the commonly used prescription for the convective enthalpy flux being proportional to the negative entropy gradient does not hold in the stably stratified layers where the flux is positive. We demonstrate the existence of a non-gradient contribution to the enthalpy flux, which is estimated to be important throughout the convective layer. A quantitative analysis of downflows indicates a transition from a tree-like structure where smaller downdrafts merge into larger ones in the upper parts to a structure in the deeper parts where a height-independent number of strong downdrafts persist. This change of flow topology occurs when a substantial subadiabatic layer is present in the lower part of the CZ.
Solar Surface Magneto-Convection
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Robert F. Stein
2012-07-01
Full Text Available We review the properties of solar magneto-convection in the top half of the convection zones scale heights (from 20 Mm below the visible surface to the surface, and then through the photosphere to the temperature minimum. Convection is a highly non-linear and non-local process, so it is best studied by numerical simulations. We focus on simulations that include sufficient detailed physics so that their results can be quantitatively compared with observations. The solar surface is covered with magnetic features with spatial sizes ranging from unobservably small to hundreds of megameters. Three orders of magnitude more magnetic flux emerges in the quiet Sun than emerges in active regions. In this review we focus mainly on the properties of the quiet Sun magnetic field. The Sun’s magnetic field is produced by dynamo action throughout the convection zone, primarily by stretching and twisting in the turbulent downflows. Diverging convective upflows and magnetic buoyancy carry magnetic flux toward the surface and sweep the field into the surrounding downflow lanes where the field is dragged downward. The result is a hierarchy of undulating magnetic Ω- and U-loops of different sizes. New magnetic flux first appears at the surface in a mixed polarity random pattern and then collects into isolated unipolar regions due to underlying larger scale magnetic structures. Rising magnetic structures are not coherent, but develop a filamentary structure. Emerging magnetic flux alters the convection properties, producing larger, darker granules. Strong field concentrations inhibit transverse plasma motions and, as a result, reduce convective heat transport toward the surface which cools. Being cooler, these magnetic field concentrations have a shorter scale height and become evacuated. The field becomes further compressed and can reach strengths in balance with the surrounding gas pressure. Because of their small internal density, photons escape from deeper in
Stationary thermal convection in a viscoelastic ferrofluid
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Laroze, D., E-mail: david.laroze@gmail.co [Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research, D 55021 Mainz (Germany); Instituto de Alta Investigacion, Universidad de Tarapaca, Casilla 7D, Arica (Chile); Martinez-Mardones, J. [Instituto de Fisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso, Casilla 4059, Valparaiso (Chile); Perez, L.M. [Departamento de Ingenieria Metalurgica, Universidad de Santiago de Chile, Av. Bernardo OHiggins 3363, Santiago (Chile); Rojas, R.G. [Instituto de Fisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso, Casilla 4059, Valparaiso (Chile)
2010-11-15
We report theoretical and numerical results on convection for a magnetic fluid in a viscoelastic carrier liquid. We focus in the stationary convection for idealized boundary conditions. We obtain explicit expressions of convective thresholds in terms of the control parameters of the system. Close to bifurcation, the coefficients of the corresponding amplitude equation are determined analytically. Finally, the secondary instabilities are performed.
A dynamically adaptive lattice Boltzmann method for thermal convection problems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Feldhusen Kai
2016-12-01
Full Text Available Utilizing the Boussinesq approximation, a double-population incompressible thermal lattice Boltzmann method (LBM for forced and natural convection in two and three space dimensions is developed and validated. A block-structured dynamic adaptive mesh refinement (AMR procedure tailored for the LBM is applied to enable computationally efficient simulations of moderate to high Rayleigh number flows which are characterized by a large scale disparity in boundary layers and free stream flow. As test cases, the analytically accessible problem of a two-dimensional (2D forced convection flow through two porous plates and the non-Cartesian configuration of a heated rotating cylinder are considered. The objective of the latter is to advance the boundary conditions for an accurate treatment of curved boundaries and to demonstrate the effect on the solution. The effectiveness of the overall approach is demonstrated for the natural convection benchmark of a 2D cavity with differentially heated walls at Rayleigh numbers from 103 up to 108. To demonstrate the benefit of the employed AMR procedure for three-dimensional (3D problems, results from the natural convection in a cubic cavity at Rayleigh numbers from 103 up to 105 are compared with benchmark results.
Modeling of laminar forced convection in spherical- pebble packed beds
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hadad, Yaser; Jafarpur, Khosrow
2012-01-01
There are many parameters that have significant effects on forced convection heat transfer in packed beds, including Reynolds and Prandtl numbers of flow, porosity, pebble geometry, local flow conditions, wall and end effects. In addition, there have been many experimental investigations on forced convection heat transfer in packed beds and each have studied the effect of some of these parameters. Yet, there is not a reliable correlation that includes the effect of main parameters: at the same time, the prediction of precise correct limits for very low and high Reynolds numbers is off hand. In this article a general well-known model of convection heat transfer from isothermal bodies, next to some previous reliable experimental data has been used as a basis for a more comprehensive and accurate correlation to calculate the laminar constant temperature pebble-fluid forced convection heat transfer in a homogeneous saturated bed with spherical pebbles. Finally, for corroboration, the present results are compared with previous works and show a very good agreement for laminar flows at any Prandtl number and all porosities
Time-dependent penetrative mixed convection in a porous layer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jendoubi, S.; Kulacki, F.A.
1997-01-01
In the last few decades, heat and mass transfer in porous media have been studied extensively by many investigators. The main motivations behind these studies were the wide range of applications and the interaction of multiple processes. Examples include geothermal energy production, drying of porous media, high level nuclear waste disposal, and energy-related engineering technologies. Here, a general two-dimensional, time-dependent model has been developed to investigate the transfer of heat and mass in a liquid saturated porous layer locally heated from above. Both free and mixed convection are considered. For mixed convection an eternal flow is assumed to enter the two-dimensional domain in the horizontal direction. At a finite segment of the top wall, two types of heat sources are applied: a constant flux heat source and a time varying heat, constant flux source. The latter is a representation of heat released by spent nuclear fuel in a mined repository located above the layer. Both time-dependent and steady solutions of the flow and temperature fields are obtained. For natural convection, the effects of Rayleigh number on the Nusselt number are obtained. For mixed convection, the effects of both Rayleigh and Peclet numbers are studied. In addition, the effects of the aspect ratio, as well as the length of the heated zone are examined
Mixing in heterogeneous internally-heated convection
Limare, A.; Kaminski, E. C.; Jaupart, C. P.; Farnetani, C. G.; Fourel, L.; Froment, M.
2017-12-01
Past laboratory experiments of thermo chemical convection have dealt with systems involving fluids with different intrinsic densities and viscosities in a Rayleigh-Bénard setup. Although these experiments have greatly improved our understanding of the Earth's mantle dynamics, they neglect a fundamental component of planetary convection: internal heat sources. We have developed a microwave-based method in order to study convection and mixing in systems involving two layers of fluid with different densities, viscosities, and internal heat production rates. Our innovative laboratory experiments are appropriate for the early Earth, when the lowermost mantle was likely enriched in incompatible and heat producing elements and when the heat flux from the core probably accounted for a small fraction of the mantle heat budget. They are also relevant to the present-day mantle if one considers that radioactive decay and secular cooling contribute both to internal heating. Our goal is to quantify how two fluid layers mix, which is still very difficult to resolve accurately in 3-D numerical calculations. Viscosities and microwave absorptions are tuned to achieve high values of the Rayleigh-Roberts and Prandtl numbers relevant for planetary convection. We start from a stably stratified system where the lower layer has higher internal heat production and density than the upper layer. Due to mixing, the amount of enriched material gradually decreases to zero over a finite time called the lifetime. Based on more than 30 experiments, we have derived a scaling law that relates the lifetime of an enriched reservoir to the layer thickness ratio, a, to the density and viscosity contrasts between the two layers, and to their two different internal heating rates in the form of an enrichment factor beta=1+2*a*H1/H, where H1 is the heating rate of the lower fluid and H is the average heating rate. We find that the lifetime of the lower enriched reservoir varies as beta**(-7/3) in the low
A transilient matrix for moist convection
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Romps, D.; Kuang, Z.
2011-08-15
A method is introduced for diagnosing a transilient matrix for moist convection. This transilient matrix quantifies the nonlocal transport of air by convective eddies: for every height z, it gives the distribution of starting heights z{prime} for the eddies that arrive at z. In a cloud-resolving simulation of deep convection, the transilient matrix shows that two-thirds of the subcloud air convecting into the free troposphere originates from within 100 m of the surface. This finding clarifies which initial height to use when calculating convective available potential energy from soundings of the tropical troposphere.
Seismic Constraints on Interior Solar Convection
Hanasoge, Shravan M.; Duvall, Thomas L.; DeRosa, Marc L.
2010-01-01
We constrain the velocity spectral distribution of global-scale solar convective cells at depth using techniques of local helioseismology. We calibrate the sensitivity of helioseismic waves to large-scale convective cells in the interior by analyzing simulations of waves propagating through a velocity snapshot of global solar convection via methods of time-distance helioseismology. Applying identical analysis techniques to observations of the Sun, we are able to bound from above the magnitudes of solar convective cells as a function of spatial convective scale. We find that convection at a depth of r/R(solar) = 0.95 with spatial extent l < 30, where l is the spherical harmonic degree, comprise weak flow systems, on the order of 15 m/s or less. Convective features deeper than r/R(solar) = 0.95 are more difficult to image due to the rapidly decreasing sensitivity of helioseismic waves.
Nield, Donald A
2017-01-01
This updated edition of a widely admired text provides a user-friendly introduction to the field that requires only routine mathematics. The book starts with the elements of fluid mechanics and heat transfer, and covers a wide range of applications from fibrous insulation and catalytic reactors to geological strata, nuclear waste disposal, geothermal reservoirs, and the storage of heat-generating materials. As the standard reference in the field, this book will be essential to researchers and practicing engineers, while remaining an accessible introduction for graduate students and others entering the field. The new edition features 2700 new references covering a number of rapidly expanding fields, including the heat transfer properties of nanofluids and applications involving local thermal non-equilibrium and microfluidic effects. Recognized as the standard reference in the field Includes a comprehensive, 350-page reference list Cited over 5900 times to date in its various editions Serves as an introduction ...
Jhunjhunwala, Kishan; Shahiruddin; Hassan, M. A.
2018-02-01
Viscoplastic materials are found extensively both in natural and manmade form. In this work experimental investigation of natural convection in viscoplastic fluid with partially heated bottom wall and continuous cooling of top wall in a square cross section enclosure has been carried out. Carbopol Ultrez 20 gel of various concentrations has been used as sample viscoplastic fluid. Conduction and convection phase of heat transport are identified. The results are presented in terms of temperature distribution across the fluid for different gel concentrations and heat input. The average Nusselt numbers are also discussed for different conditions. Onset of convection is delayed and convection strength is weakened with increase in test fluid yield stress. Steady state temperature difference between hot and cold wall shows linear behaviour with heat input for conduction regime and non-linear behaviour in convection regime. Fluid temperature in enclosure shows sharp gradient closure to thermally active walls.
Heat convection in a set of three vertical cylinders
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Serrano Ramirez, M.L. de.
1993-01-01
Experimental results on temperature and heat flow in a set of three vertical cylinders with internal generation of heat, water submerged and in free convection are presented in this work . Temperature distribution, Nusselt number and convective coefficient (h) for each rod, developed for the distance between the axis of cylinders in vertical position, as a consequence of the application of power in its outside, are analyzed. Experimental information about heat transfer by free convection in vertical cylinders and surfaces is analyzed. Information of the several author who have carried out studies about the heat transfer on vertical cylinders was compiled, and the proposed equations with the experimental data obtained in the thermo fluids laboratory of National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ) were tested. The way in which separation distance, s, distribution temperature array, Nusselt number, and convective coefficient calculated for the proposed channel with the Keyhani, Dutton and experimental equations are tabulated and they are plotted for each power value and for each separation between rods. The scheme of the used equipment and the experimentation description as well as the observations of tests and graphical results are included. (Author)
Effects of Deep Convective Mixing on the Ice Giants
Soderlund, Krista M.; Aurnou, J. M.
2007-10-01
Cloud layer observations show that the surface winds on the Ice Giants, Uranus and Neptune, are dominated by zonal motions. The winds are retrograde near the equator and are prograde at high latitudes. Measurements of outward heat flux show that Neptune emits more than twice the heat it receives via solar insolation. This indicates a significant internal heat source. In contrast, the ratio of outward thermal emission to insolation is no greater than 1.1 for Uranus. Although this ratio is likely to be only slightly greater than unity, if the internal heat flow exceeds the interior adiabat, it may still be dynamically important. Here we present numerical simulations of Boussinesq convection in a rotating spherical shell that show that strong convection in the molecular envelopes of these planets can generate large-scale zonal winds similar to the planetary observations. The deep zonal flows in the simulated molecular envelopes of our model result from convectively-driven angular momentum mixing. Using our present modeling results, we will derive an asymptotic heat transfer scaling law for this regime in order to determine if the observed interior heat fluxes on the Ice Giants can drive vigorous deep convection. We will also examine what controls the regime transition to an Ice Giant style of zonal flow. In particular, we test the effects of rotation. Our simulations indicate that the zonal flows do not depend on the planetary rotation rate once a critical value of the Ekman number, the ratio of viscous to Coriolis forces, is reached. Finally, we will predict convective heat flow patterns of Uranus and Neptune, assuming that deep convection is a dominant heat transfer process on these planets. The authors thank NASA's PATM Program for research funding (Grant NNG06GD12G). Computational resources were provided by the San Diego Supercomputing Center.
Convective aggregation in realistic convective-scale simulations
Holloway, Christopher E.
2017-06-01
To investigate the real-world relevance of idealized-model convective self-aggregation, five 15 day cases of real organized convection in the tropics are simulated. These include multiple simulations of each case to test sensitivities of the convective organization and mean states to interactive radiation, interactive surface fluxes, and evaporation of rain. These simulations are compared to self-aggregation seen in the same model configured to run in idealized radiative-convective equilibrium. Analysis of the budget of the spatial variance of column-integrated frozen moist static energy shows that control runs have significant positive contributions to organization from radiation and negative contributions from surface fluxes and transport, similar to idealized runs once they become aggregated. Despite identical lateral boundary conditions for all experiments in each case, systematic differences in mean column water vapor (CWV), CWV distribution shape, and CWV autocorrelation length scale are found between the different sensitivity runs, particularly for those without interactive radiation, showing that there are at least some similarities in sensitivities to these feedbacks in both idealized and realistic simulations (although the organization of precipitation shows less sensitivity to interactive radiation). The magnitudes and signs of these systematic differences are consistent with a rough equilibrium between (1) equalization due to advection from the lateral boundaries and (2) disaggregation due to the absence of interactive radiation, implying disaggregation rates comparable to those in idealized runs with aggregated initial conditions and noninteractive radiation. This points to a plausible similarity in the way that radiation feedbacks maintain aggregated convection in both idealized simulations and the real world.Plain Language SummaryUnderstanding the processes that lead to the organization of tropical rainstorms is an important challenge for weather
Periodic convection in liquid 4He close to onset
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lees, M.J.Matthew J.; Thurlow, M.S.Michael S.; Seddon, J.R.T.James R.T.; Lucas, P.G.J.Peter G.J.
2003-01-01
High resolution images of convective flow patterns in a vertical axis cylindrical layer of normal fluid helium of diameter 18.25 mm and height 0.56 mm have been obtained near the Prandtl number minimum of 0.5 at 2.6 K. The primary stationary pattern close to the convection threshold is a robust state of straight parallel rolls signalling that the boundary conditions are close to ideal. A periodic response exists at slightly higher Rayleigh numbers in which dislocations climb periodically along the roll axes through the skew-varicose mechanism. Correlated with this regime are periodic oscillations of amplitude 100 μK and period of the same order as the horizontal thermal diffusion time. The dynamics of the periodically varying pattern and of more chaotic patterns at higher Rayleigh numbers are revealed using time-lapse movie sequences of the images
Combined forced and natural convective heat transfer from a vertical circular cylinder
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kashiwagi, Eisuke; Okui, Hiroaki; Okuyama, Kunito; Iida, Yoshihiro
2003-01-01
An experimental study is conducted to investigate the characteristics of the combined forced and natural convection heat transfer on a vertical circular cylinder placed in a cross flow. Local heat transfer coefficients are measured precisely in the Reynolds number range from 760 to 3300 and the range of the modified Rayleigh number from 5.0 x 10 9 to 4.0 x 10 14 . The local heat transfer coefficients under combined convection increase both on the front and rear sides of the cylinder with an increase in heat flux. The reason is that the flow around the cylinder is sped by buoyancy force. The average Nusselt numbers for the combined convection become higher than those estimated for both of forced and natural convection. (author)
Mixed convection heat transfer experiments using analogy concept
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ko, Bong Jin; Chung, Bum Jin; Lee, Won Jea
2009-01-01
A Series of the turbulent mixed convective heat transfer experiments in a vertical cylinder was carried out. In order to achieve high Gr and/or Ra with small scale test rigs, the analogy concept was adopted. Using the concept, heat transfer systems were simulated by mass transfer systems, and large Grashof numbers could be achieved with reasonable facility heights. The tests were performed with buoyancy-aided flow and opposed flow for Reynolds numbers from 4,000 to 10,000 with a constant Grashof number, Gr H of 6.2 x 10 9 and Prandtl number of about 2,000. The test results reproduced the typical of the mixed convection heat transfer phenomena in a turbulent situation and agree well with the experimental study performed by Y. Palratan et al. The analogy experimental method simulated the mixed convection heat transfer phenomena successfully and seems to be a useful tool for heat transfer studies for VHTR as well as the systems with high buoyancy condition and high Prandtl number
European Scientific Notes. Volume 37, Number 7.
1983-07-31
convection , mechanical The program was written in BASIC lan- dispersion, and molecular diffusion. guage and is portable, with little The anticipated...during World War II, when the British Naturelle , Paris) explored the connec- government assembled a number of scien- tion between remote sensing and... convected electiica ] smooth sur. ,ne for refe’rence and cali- cags i ilcrc iois h bration. All tet.., were carred out in charges in dielectric lia ’uids
Convection patterns in a spherical fluid shell
Feudel, F.; Bergemann, K.; Tuckerman, L. S.; Egbers, C.; Futterer, B.; Gellert, M.; Hollerbach, R.
2011-04-01
Symmetry-breaking bifurcations have been studied for convection in a nonrotating spherical shell whose outer radius is twice the inner radius, under the influence of an externally applied central force field with a radial dependence proportional to 1/r5. This work is motivated by the GeoFlow experiment, which is performed under microgravity condition at the International Space Station where this particular central force can be generated. In order to predict the observable patterns, simulations together with path-following techniques and stability computations have been applied. Branches of axisymmetric, octahedral, and seven-cell solutions have been traced. The bifurcations producing them have been identified and their stability ranges determined. At higher Rayleigh numbers, time-periodic states with a complex spatiotemporal symmetry are found, which we call breathing patterns.
The convection electric field in auroral substorms
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gjerløv, Jesper Wittendorff; Hoffman, R.A.
2001-01-01
Dynamics Explorer 2 (DE 2) electric field and ion drift data are used in a statistical study of the ionospheric convection electric field in bulge-type auroral substorms. Thirty-one individual DE 2 substorm crossings were carefully selected and organized by the use of global auroral images obtained...... this database enabled us to compile a model of the ionospheric convection electric field. The characteristics of the premidnight convection reversal show a pronounced local time dependency. Far west of the surge it is a fairly well defined point reversal or convection shear. Approaching the surge and within...... the surge it is a region of weak electric fields increasing in width toward midnight that separates regions of equatorward and poleward electric fields. Therefore we adopt the term Harang region rather than the Harang discontinuity for the premidnight convection reversal. A relatively narrow convection...
Extreme value statistics for two-dimensional convective penetration in a pre-main sequence star
Pratt, J.; Baraffe, I.; Goffrey, T.; Constantino, T.; Viallet, M.; Popov, M. V.; Walder, R.; Folini, D.
2017-08-01
Context. In the interior of stars, a convectively unstable zone typically borders a zone that is stable to convection. Convective motions can penetrate the boundary between these zones, creating a layer characterized by intermittent convective mixing, and gradual erosion of the density and temperature stratification. Aims: We examine a penetration layer formed between a central radiative zone and a large convection zone in the deep interior of a young low-mass star. Using the Multidimensional Stellar Implicit Code (MUSIC) to simulate two-dimensional compressible stellar convection in a spherical geometry over long times, we produce statistics that characterize the extent and impact of convective penetration in this layer. Methods: We apply extreme value theory to the maximal extent of convective penetration at any time. We compare statistical results from simulations which treat non-local convection, throughout a large portion of the stellar radius, with simulations designed to treat local convection in a small region surrounding the penetration layer. For each of these situations, we compare simulations of different resolution, which have different velocity magnitudes. We also compare statistical results between simulations that radiate energy at a constant rate to those that allow energy to radiate from the stellar surface according to the local surface temperature. Results: Based on the frequency and depth of penetrating convective structures, we observe two distinct layers that form between the convection zone and the stable radiative zone. We show that the probability density function of the maximal depth of convective penetration at any time corresponds closely in space with the radial position where internal waves are excited. We find that the maximal penetration depth can be modeled by a Weibull distribution with a small shape parameter. Using these results, and building on established scalings for diffusion enhanced by large-scale convective motions, we
Approximation and stability of three-dimensional natural convection flows in a porous medium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Janotto, Marie-Laurence
1991-01-01
The equations of the three-dimensional natural convection in a porous medium within a differentially heated horizontal walls cavity are solved by a pseudo-spectral method. First we will present the evolution of the two main modes according to two models of convection. A few asymptotic properties connected to the small and large eddies are set up and numerically validated. A new approximate inertial manifold is then proposed. The numerical scheme used is an exponential fitting algorithm the convergence of which is proved. We will present the physical mechanism at the origin of the un-stationary three-dimensional convection at high Rayleigh numbers. (author) [fr
Local Lorentz force and ultrasound Doppler velocimetry in a vertical convection liquid metal flow
Zürner, Till; Vogt, Tobias; Resagk, Christian; Eckert, Sven; Schumacher, Jörg
2018-01-01
We report velocity measurements in a vertical turbulent convection flow cell that is filled with the eutectic liquid metal alloy gallium-indium-tin by the use of local Lorentz force velocimetry (LLFV) and ultrasound Doppler velocimetry. We demonstrate the applicability of LLFV for a thermal convection flow and reproduce a linear dependence of the measured force in the range of micronewtons on the local flow velocity magnitude. Furthermore, the presented experiment is used to explore scaling laws of the global turbulent transport of heat and momentum in this low-Prandtl-number convection flow. Our results are found to be consistent with theoretical predictions and recent direct numerical simulations.
Transitions Between Convective Patterns in Chemical Fronts
Wu, Y.; Vasquez, D. A.; Edwards, Boyd F.; Wilder, J. W.
1995-01-01
We present a theory for the transition from nonaxisymmetric to axisymmetric convection in iodate-arsenous acid reaction fronts propagating in a vertical slab. The transition takes place away from the onset of convection, where a convectionless flat front becomes unstable to a nonaxisymmetric convective front. The transition is studied by numerically solving a reaction-diffusion equation coupled with nonlinear hydrodynamics in a two-dimensional slab.
Natural convection with combined driving forces
Ostrach, S.
1980-01-01
The problem of free and natural convection with combined driving forces is considered in general and all possible configurations are identified. Dimensionless parameters are discussed in order to help categorize the various problems, and existing work is critically evaluated. Four distinct cases are considered for conventional convection and for the situation when the body force and the density gradient are parallel but opposed. Considerable emphasis is given to unstable convection in horizontal layers.
Convection of Moist Saturated Air: Analytical Study
Robert Zakinyan; Arthur Zakinyan; Roman Ryzhkov; Kristina Avanesyan
2016-01-01
In the present work, the steady-state stationary thermal convection of moist saturated air in a lower atmosphere has been studied theoretically. Thermal convection was considered without accounting for the Coriolis force, and with only the vertical temperature gradient. The analytical solution of geophysical fluid dynamics equations, which generalizes the formulation of the moist convection problem, is obtained in the two-dimensional case. The stream function is derived in the Boussinesq appr...
Heat Transfer and Flows of Thermal Convection in a Fluid-Saturated Rotating Porous Medium
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jianhong Kang
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Thermal convection at the steady state for high Rayleigh number in a rotating porous half space is investigated. Taking into account the effect of rotation, Darcy equation is extended to incorporate the Coriolis force term in a rotating reference frame. The velocity and temperature fields of thermal convection are obtained by using the homotopy analysis method. The influences of Taylor number and Rayleigh number on the Nusselt number, velocity profile, and temperature distribution are discussed in detail. It is found that the Nusselt number decreases rapidly with the increase of Taylor number but tends to have an asymptotic value. Besides, the rotation can give rise to downward flow in contrast with the upward thermal convection.
Thermal Convection in Granular Gases with Dissipative Lateral Walls.
Pontuale, Giorgio; Gnoli, Andrea; Reyes, Francisco Vega; Puglisi, Andrea
2016-08-26
We consider a granular gas under the action of gravity, fluidized by a vibrating base. We show that a horizontal temperature gradient, here induced by limiting dissipative lateral walls (DLW), leads always to a granular thermal convection (DLW TC) that is essentially different from ordinary bulk-buoyancy-driven convection (BBD TC). In an experiment where BBD TC is inhibited, by reducing gravity with an inclined plane, we always observe a DLW TC cell next to each lateral wall. Such a cell squeezes towards the nearest wall as the gravity and/or the number of grains increase. Molecular dynamics simulations reproduce the experimental results and indicate that at large gravity or number of grains the DLW TC is barely detectable.
Heat-transfer correlations for natural convection boiling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stephan, K.; Abdelsalam, M.
1980-01-01
To-date there exists no comprehensive theory allowing the prediction of heat-transfer coefficients in natural convection boiling, in spite of the many efforts made in this field. In order to establish correlations with wide application, the methods of regression analysis were applied to the nearly 500 existing experimental data points for natural convection boiling heat transfer. As demonstrated by the analysis, these data can best be represented by subdividing the substances into four groups (water, hydrocarbons, cryogenic fluids and refrigerants) and employing a different set of dimensionless numbers for each group of substances, because certain dimensionless numbers important for one group of substances are unimportant to another. One equation valid for all substances could be built up, but its accuracy would be less than that obtained for the individual correlations without adding undesirable complexity. (author)
Titan Balloon Convection Model, Phase I
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This innovative research effort is directed at determining, quantitatively, the convective heat transfer coefficients applicable to a Montgolfiere balloon operating...
REVERSALS IN THE 6-CELLS CONVECTION DRIVEN
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
G.M. Vodinchar
2015-12-01
Full Text Available We describe the large-scale model geodynamo, which based on indirect data of inhomogeneities in the density of the Earth’s core. Convection structure is associated with spherical harmonic Y24 , which defines the basic poloidal component of velocity. Coriolis drift of this mode determines the toroidal component of velocity. Thus, 6 convective cells are formed. The model takes into account the feedback effect of the magnetic field on convection. It was ascertained that the model contains stable regimes of field generation. The velocity of convection and the dipole component of the magnetic field are close to the observed ones.
Mixed convective low flow pressure drop in core fuel assemblies for FBRs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Naohara, Nobuyuki; Kumagai, Hiromichi; Ueda, Nobuyuki
1993-01-01
During natural circulation decay heat removal operation for FBRs, a flow rate of coolant in core fuel assemblies becomes a few percents of rated operation flow rate. Under such a low flow condition, thermal hydraulic behavior surroundings fuel pins is complex, because both forced and natural convection exist, and it is called a mixed convection. In order to evaluate the performance of the decay heat removal by natural circulation exactly, thermal hydraulic behavior in fuel assemblies must be clarified. In the first step of a research, an experimental study have been conducted to evaluate a friction factor in the annulus flow pass under the mixed convection with a buoyancy force. As the results, the mixed convection friction factors are obtained, and those data are arranged by a ratio of Grashof number and Reynolds number. The friction factors are varied by a buoyancy force induced velocity profile change. (author)
Critical stability of almost adiabatic convection in a rapidly rotating thick spherical shell
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Starchenko, S. V., E-mail: sstarchenko@mail.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, the Ionosphere, and Radiowave Propagation (Russian Federation); Kotelnikova, M. S. [Lavrentyev Institute of Hydrodynamics (Russian Federation)
2013-02-15
In this work, the convection equations in the almost adiabatic approximation is studied for which the choice of physical parameters is primarily based on possible applications to the hydrodynamics of the deep interiors of the Earth and planets and moons of the terrestrial group. The initial system of partial differential equations (PDEs) was simplified to a single second-order ordinary differential equation for the pressure or vertical velocity component to investigate the linear stability of convection. The critical frequencies, modified Rayleigh numbers, and distributions of convection are obtained at various possible Prandtl numbers and in different thick fluid shells. An analytical WKB-type solution was obtained for the case when the inner radius of the shell is much smaller than the outer radius and convective sources are concentrated along the inner boundary.
Criteria for analysis and optimization of longitudinal fins with convective tip
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gomes, E.S.
1983-01-01
The problem of heat transfer in longitudinal fins with the main geometries used in equipaments of heat transfer by convection is analyzed. The equation of energy is solved analytically of several geometries fins, with unidimensional formulation, through the use of the convective heat transfer coefficient. The problem of fin optimization is approached analytically yielding the parameters which allow the maximum heat transfer for each particular material waste in the fin. The use of the insulated tip model suggests the use of fins and its optimization for any Biot number of the fin. The use of the convective tip model allows us to determine when is vantageous or disadvantageous to use fins and when fin optimization is possible according to the value of the Biot number and to a convection parameter on the fin tip. (Author) [pt
Characterizing Convection in Stellar Atmospheres
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tanner, Joel; Basu, Sarbani; Demarque, Pierre; Robinson, Frank
2011-01-01
We perform 3D radiative hydrodynamic simulations to study the properties of convection in the superadiabatic layer of stars. The simulations show differences in both the stratification and turbulent quantities for different types of stars. We extract turbulent pressure and eddy sizes, as well as the T-τ relation for different stars and find that they are sensitive to the energy flux and gravity. We also show that contrary to what is usually assumed in the field of stellar atmospheres, the structure and gas dynamics of simulations of turbulent atmospheres cannot be parameterized with T eff and log(g) alone.
Szabo, Peter S. B.; Früh, Wolf-Gerrit
2018-02-01
Magnetic fluid flow and heat transfer by natural and thermomagnetic convection was studied numerically in a square enclosure. The aim was to investigate the transition from natural convection to thermomagnetic convection by exploring situations where buoyancy and the Kelvin body force would be opposing each other such that the magnetic effects would in some cases be the dominant factor throughout the domain and in other cases only in a part of the fluid. The numerical model coupled the solution of the magnetostatic field equation with the heat and fluid flow equations to simulate the fluid flow under a realistic magnetic field generated by a permanent magnet. The results suggest that the domain of influence over the flow field is largely aligned with the domain of dominance of the respective driving force. The result is that the transition from a single buoyancy-driven convection cell to a single thermomagnetically driven cell is via a two-cell structure and that the local effect on the flow field leads to a global effect on the heat transfer with a minimum of the Nusselt number in the transition region.
Bounds on poloidal kinetic energy in plane layer convection
Tilgner, A.
2017-12-01
A numerical method is presented that conveniently computes upper bounds on heat transport and poloidal energy in plane layer convection for infinite and finite Prandtl numbers. The bounds obtained for the heat transport coincide with earlier results. These bounds imply upper bounds for the poloidal energy, which follow directly from the definitions of dissipation and energy. The same constraints used for computing upper bounds on the heat transport lead to improved bounds for the poloidal energy.
Nonlinear Multiplicative Schwarz Preconditioning in Natural Convection Cavity Flow
Liu, Lulu
2017-03-17
A natural convection cavity flow problem is solved using nonlinear multiplicative Schwarz preconditioners, as a Gauss-Seidel-like variant of additive Schwarz preconditioned inexact Newton (ASPIN). The nonlinear preconditioning extends the domain of convergence of Newton’s method to high Rayleigh numbers. Convergence performance varies widely with respect to different groupings of the fields of this multicomponent problem, and with respect to different orderings of the groupings.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Al-Sanea, Sami A.
2003-01-01
The steady laminar flow and thermal characteristics of a continuously moving vertical sheet of extruded material are studied close to and far downstream from the extrusion slot. The velocity and temperature variations, obtained by a finite volume method, are used to map out the entire forced, mixed and natural convection regimes. The effects of the Prandtl number (Pr) and the buoyancy force parameter (B) on the friction and heat transfer coefficients are investigated. Comparisons with experimental measurements and solutions by others in the pure forced and pure natural convection regions are made. In the mixed convection region, the results are compared with available finite-difference solutions of the boundary layer equations showing excellent agreement. The region close to the extrusion slot is characterized as a non-similar forced-convection dominated region in which Nu x Re x -1/2 drops sharply with increasing Richardson number (Ri x ). This is followed by a self-similar forced-convection dominated region in which Nu x Re x -1/2 levels off with increasing Ri x until the buoyancy effect sets in. The existence and extent of the latter region depend upon the value of B. A non-similar mixed convection region where increasing buoyancy effect enhances the heat transfer rate follows. Finally, this region is followed downstream by a self-similar natural-convection dominated region in which Nu x Re x -1/2 approaches the pure natural convection asymptote at large Ri x . Critical values of Ri x to distinguish the various convection regimes are determined for different Pr and B
Engineering photochemical smog through convection towers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Elliott, S.; Prueitt, M.L.; Bossert, J.E.; Mroz, E.J.; Krakowski, R.A.; Miller, R.L. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Jacobson, M.Z.; Turco, R.P. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)]|[Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Atmospheric Sciences Dept.
1995-02-01
Reverse convection towers have attracted attention as a medium for cleansing modern cities. Evaporation of an aqueous mist injected at the tower opening could generate electrical power by creating descent, and simultaneously scavenge unsightly and unhealthful particulates. The study offered here assesses the influence to tower water droplets on the photochemical component of Los Angeles type smog. The primary radical chain initiator OH is likely removed into aqueous phases well within the residence time of air in the tower, and then reacts away rapidly. Organics do not dissolve, but nighttime hydrolysis of N{sub 2}O{sub 5} depletes the nitrogen oxides. A lack of HOx would slow hydrocarbon oxidation and so also ozone production. Lowering of NOx would also alter ozone production rates, but the direction is uncertain. SO{sub 2} is available in sufficient quantities in some urban areas to react with stable oxidants, and if seawater were the source of the mist, the high pH would lead to fast sulfur oxidation kinetics. With an accommodation coefficient of 10{sup {minus}3}, however, ozone may not enter the aqueous phase efficiently. Even if ozone is destroyed or its production suppressed, photochemical recovery times are on the order of hours, so that tower processing must be centered on a narrow midday time window. The cost of building the number of structures necessary for this brief turnover could be prohibitive. The increase in humidity accompanying mist evaporation could be controlled with condensers, but might otherwise counteract visibility enhancements by recreating aqueous aerosols. Quantification of the divergent forcings convection towers must exert upon the cityscape would call for coupled three dimensional modeling of transport, microphysics, and photochemistry. 112 refs.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. M. Jawdat
2012-01-01
Full Text Available The effect of nanofluids on chaotic convection in a fluid layer heated from below was studied in this paper for low Prandtl number based on the theory of dynamical systems. A low-dimensional, Lorenz-like model was obtained using Galerkin-truncated approximations. The fourth-order Runge-Kutta method was employed to solve the nonlinear system. The results show that inhibition of chaotic convection can be observed when using nanofluids.
Mathematical Modelling of Force Convection in a Two-Phase Thermosyphon in Conjugate Formulation
Nurpeiis, Atlant Ediluly; Nee, Aleksandr Eduardovich
2016-01-01
A nonlinear non-stationary problem of the conductive-convective heat transfer is addressed (under forced convection conditions) in the thermosyphon of rectangular cross-section. The thermal energy supply is carried out through the lower horizontal border. The mathematical model is formulated in dimensionless variables of “velocity vorticity vector – current function – temperature”. The current and temperature distribution lines are obtained, illustrating the effect of the Reynolds number on t...
True polar wander on convecting planets
Rose, Ian Robert
Rotating planets are most stable when spinning around their maximum moment of inertia, and will tend to reorient themselves to achieve this configuration. Geological activity redistributes mass in the planet, making the moment of inertia a function of time. As the moment of inertia of the planet changes, the spin axis shifts with respect to a mantle reference frame in order to maintain rotational stability. This process is known as true polar wander (TPW). Of the processes that contribute to a planet's moment of inertia, convection in the mantle generates the largest and longest-period fluctuations, with corresponding shifts in the spin axis. True polar wander has been hypothesized to explain several physiographic features on planets and moons in our solar system. On Earth, TPW events have been invoked in some interpretations of paleomagnetic data. Large swings in the spin axis could have enormous ramifications for paleogeography, paleoclimate, and the history of life. Although the existence of TPW is well-verified, it is not known whether its rate and magnitude have been large enough for it to be an important process in Earth history. If true polar wander has been sluggish compared to plate tectonic speeds, then it would be difficult to detect and its consequences would be minor. I investigate rates of true polar wander on convecting planets using scaling, numerics, and inverse problems. I perform a scaling analysis of TPW on a convecting planet, identifying a minimal set of nondimensional parameters which describe the problem. The primary nondimensional numbers that control the rate of TPW are the ratio of centrifugal to gravitational forces m and the Rayleigh number Ra. The parameter m sets the size of a planet's rotational bulge, which determines the amount of work that needs to be done to move the spin axis. The Rayleigh number controls the size, distribution, and rate of change of moment of inertia anomalies, all of which affect the rate of TPW. I find that
Natural Convection in an Inclined Porous Cavity with Spatial Sidewall Temperature Variations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. S. Selamat
2012-01-01
Full Text Available The natural convection in an inclined porous square cavity is investigated numerically. The left wall is assumed to have spatial sinusoidal temperature variations about a constant mean value, while the right wall is cooled. The horizontal walls are considered adiabatic. A finite difference method is used to solve numerically the nondimensional governing equations. The effects of the inclination angle of the cavity, the amplitude and wave numbers of the heated sidewall temperature variation on the natural convection in the cavity are studied. The maximum average Nusselt number occurs at different wave number. It also found that the inclination could influence the Nusselt number.
Bilal Ashraf, M.; Alsaedi, A.; Hayat, T.; Shehzad, S. A.
2017-06-01
Heat and mass transfer effects in the three-dimensional mixed convection flow of a viscoelastic fluid with internal heat source/sink and chemical reaction have been investigated in the present work. The flow generation is because of an exponentially stretching surface. Magnetic field normal to the direction of flow is considered. Convective conditions at the surface are also encountered. Appropriate similarity transformations are utilized to reduce the boundary layer partial differential equations into the ordinary differential equations. The homotopy analysis method is used to develop the solution expressions. Impacts of different controlling parameters such as ratio parameter, Hartman number, internal heat source/sink, chemical reaction, mixed convection, concentration buoyancy parameter and Biot numbers on the velocity, temperature and concentration profiles are analyzed. The local Nusselt and Sherwood numbers are sketched and examined.
Ten Year Analysis of Tropopause-Overshooting Convection Using GridRad Data
Cooney, John W.; Bowman, Kenneth P.; Homeyer, Cameron R.; Fenske, Tyler M.
2018-01-01
Convection that penetrates the tropopause (overshooting convection) rapidly transports air from the lower troposphere to the lower stratosphere, potentially mixing air between the two layers. This exchange of air can have a substantial impact on the composition, radiation, and chemistry of the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS). In order to improve our understanding of the role convection plays in the transport of trace gases across the tropopause, this study presents a 10 year analysis of overshooting convection for the eastern two thirds of the contiguous United States for March through August of 2004 to 2013 based on radar observations. Echo top altitudes are estimated at hourly intervals using high-resolution, three-dimensional, gridded, radar reflectivity fields created by merging observations from available radars in the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Next Generation Weather Radar (NEXRAD) network. Overshooting convection is identified by comparing echo top altitudes with tropopause altitudes derived from the ERA-Interim reanalysis. It is found that overshooting convection is most common in the central United States, with a weak secondary maximum along the southeast coast. The maximum number of overshooting events occur consistently between 2200 and 0200 UTC. Most overshooting events occur in May, June, and July when convection is deepest and the tropopause altitude is relatively low. Approximately 45% of the analyzed overshooting events (those with echo tops at least 1 km above the tropopause) have echo tops extending above the 380 K level into the stratospheric overworld.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Oba, T. [Department of Space and Astronautical Science/SOKENDAI (The Graduate University for Advanced Studies), 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Iida, Y. [Department of Science and Technology/Kwansei Gakuin University, Gakuen 2-1, Sanda, Hyogo 669-1337 (Japan); Shimizu, T., E-mail: oba.takayoshi@ac.jaxa.jp [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan)
2017-02-10
The solar photosphere is the visible surface of the Sun, where many bright granules, surrounded by narrow dark intergranular lanes, are observed everywhere. The granular pattern is a manifestation of convective motion at the photospheric level, but its velocity structure in the height direction is poorly understood observationally. Applying bisector analysis to a photospheric spectral line recorded by the Hinode Solar Optical Telescope, we derived the velocity structure of the convective motion in granular regions and intergranular lanes separately. The amplitude of motion of the convective material decreases from 0.65 to 0.40 km s{sup −1} as the material rises in granules, whereas the amplitude of motion increases from 0.30 to 0.50 km s{sup −1} as it descends in intergranular lanes. These values are significantly larger than those obtained in previous studies using bisector analysis. The acceleration of descending materials with depth is not predicted from the convectively stable condition in a stratified atmosphere. Such convective instability can be developed more efficiently by radiative cooling and/or a gas pressure gradient, which can control the dynamical behavior of convective material in intergranular lanes. Our analysis demonstrated that bisector analysis is a useful method for investigating the long-term dynamic behavior of convective material when a large number of pixels is available. In addition, one example is the temporal evolution of granular fragmentation, in which downflowing material develops gradually from a higher layer downward.
Kelley, M. C.; Pfaff, R. F., Jr.; Dao, E. V.; Holzworth, R. H., II
2014-12-01
With the increase in solar activity, the Communications/Outage Forecast System satellite (C/NOFS) now goes below the F peak. As such, we now can study the development of Convective Ionospheric Storms (CIS) and, most importantly, large-scale seeding of the low growth-rate Rayleigh-Taylor (R-T) instability. Two mechanisms have been suggested for such seeding: the Collisional Kelvin-Helmholtz Instability (CKHI) and internal atmospheric gravity waves. A number of observations have shown that the spectrum of fully developed topside structures peaks at 600 km and extends to over 1000 km. These structures are exceedingly difficult to explain by CKHI. Here we show that sinusoidal plasma oscillations on the bottomside during daytime develop classical R-T structures on the nightside with the background 600 km structure still apparent. In two case studies, thunderstorm activity was observed east of the sinusoidal features in the two hours preceding the C/NOFS passes. Thus, we argue that convective tropospheric storms are a likely source of these sinusoidal features.
Ostrowski, Ziemowit; Rojczyk, Marek
2017-11-01
The energy balance and heat exchange for newborn baby in radiant warmer environment are considered. The present study was performed to assess the body dry heat loss from an infant in radiant warmer, using copper cast anthropomorphic thermal manikin and controlled climate chamber laboratory setup. The total body dry heat losses were measured for varying manikin surface temperatures (nine levels between 32.5 °C and 40.1 °C) and ambient air temperatures (five levels between 23.5 °C and 29.7 °C). Radiant heat losses were estimated based on measured climate chamber wall temperatures. After subtracting radiant part, resulting convective heat loses were compared with computed ones (based on Nu correlations for common geometries). Simplified geometry of newborn baby was represented as: (a) single cylinder and (b) weighted sum of 5 cylinders and sphere. The predicted values are significantly overestimated relative to measured ones by: 28.8% (SD 23.5%) for (a) and 40.9% (SD 25.2%) for (b). This showed that use of adopted general purpose correlations for approximation of convective heat losses of newborn baby can lead to substantial errors. Hence, new Nu number correlating equation is proposed. The mean error introduced by proposed correlation was reduced to 1.4% (SD 11.97%), i.e. no significant overestimation. The thermal manikin appears to provide a precise method for the noninvasive assessment of thermal conditions in neonatal care.
Convective mixing and accretion in white dwarfs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koester, D.
1976-01-01
The evolution of convection zones in cooling white dwarfs with helium envelopes and outer hydrogen layers is calculated with a complete stellar evolution code. It is shown that white dwarfs of spectral type DB cannot be formed from DA stars by convective mixing. However, for cooler temperatures (Tsub(e) [de
Convective penetration in a young sun
Pratt, Jane; Baraffe, Isabelle; Goffrey, Tom; MUSIC developers group
2018-01-01
To interpret the high-quality data produced from recent space-missions it is necessary to study convection under realistic stellar conditions. We describe the multi-dimensional, time implicit, fully compressible, hydrodynamic, implicit large eddy simulation code MUSIC. We use MUSIC to study convection during an early stage in the evolution of our sun where the convection zone covers approximately half of the solar radius. This model of the young sun possesses a realistic stratification in density, temperature, and luminosity. We approach convection in a stellar context using extreme value theory and derive a new model for convective penetration, targeted for one-dimensional stellar evolution calculations. This model provides a scenario that can explain the observed lithium abundance in the sun and in solar-like stars at a range of ages.
Convection of Moist Saturated Air: Analytical Study
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Robert Zakinyan
2016-01-01
Full Text Available In the present work, the steady-state stationary thermal convection of moist saturated air in a lower atmosphere has been studied theoretically. Thermal convection was considered without accounting for the Coriolis force, and with only the vertical temperature gradient. The analytical solution of geophysical fluid dynamics equations, which generalizes the formulation of the moist convection problem, is obtained in the two-dimensional case. The stream function is derived in the Boussinesq approximation with velocity divergence taken as zero. It has been shown that the stream function is asymmetrical in vertical direction contrary to the dry and moist unsaturated air convection. It has been demonstrated that the convection in moist atmosphere strongly depends on the vapor mass fraction gradient.
Effect of transient solute loading on free convection in porous media
Xie, Yueqing; Simmons, Craig T.; Werner, Adrian D.; Ward, James D.
2010-11-01
Previous studies of free convection in porous media almost exclusively consider time-invariant solute boundary conditions and neglect the transient fluctuations that are inherent in natural systems. We study the effect of transient solute loading on the migration of dense salt plumes in an unstable setting using numerical simulations of a modified form of the classic solute analogue Elder problem. The numerical results show that for the periodic solute loading case, (1) a free convection slipstream (i.e., the downward movement of groundwater associated with a convection cell behind a descending salt blob) is observed such that newly developed successor fingers may be drawn toward the tails of convection cells associated with predecessor fingers; (2) the free convection slipstream intersects the top boundary layer, creating a boundary layer convective memory during solute loading-off periods in cases with periodicity less than some critical transitional convective periodicity (approximately 5 to 10 years for the current setting); and (3) the boundary layer convective memory causes newly developed successor fingers to form in the same locations and to migrate along the same pathways as their predecessor fingers (mutual dependence between successor and predecessor finger sets) and subsequently reinforce old fingers and enhance solute transport. Results from both quantitative diagnostics (e.g., Sherwood number, total mass of solute, vertical center of mass) and qualitative inspection clearly demonstrate that the periodicity of the solute-loading function controls the fingering process and the total solute transport behavior. Transient solute loading is more important in unstable free convection processes than has previously been recognized.
Numerical Analysis of Turbulent Natural Convection In A Cavity
Omri, Mohamed; Galanis, Nicolas
2007-11-01
CFD codes are used extensively to analyse complex flow fields with heat and/or mass transfer, chemical reactions, etc. It is therefore necessary to continuously compare their predictions with experimental values in order to test their validity and eventually improve them. In this work, numerical predictions of turbulent natural convection in a square differentially heated cavity are analysed. Results are confronted to the detailed experimental data of [2] and [1] obtained with a Rayleigh number of 1.5x10^9. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the capacity of second order models to reproduce mean and fluctuating quantities. Thus, we first analyse mean velocities and mean temperature profiles. Then particular attention is given to turbulent quantities. Also, we compare the local Nusselt number along the four walls with the corresponding experimental values. Moreover five different grids are used (50x50, 100x100x100, 150x150, 200x200 and 300x300) to analyse grid-sensitivity. [1] Ampofo F.; Karayiannis T.G. (2003). Experimental benchmark data for turbulent natural convection in an air filled square cavity. Int. J. Heat and Mass Transfer. [2] Tian Y.S.; Karayiannis T.G. (2000) Low turbulence natural convection in an air filled square cavity. Int. J. of Heat and Mass Transfer.
Substantial convection and precipitation enhancements by ultrafine aerosol particles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fan, Jiwen; Rosenfeld, Daniel; Zhang, Yuwei; Giangrande, Scott E.; Li, Zhanqing; Machado, Luiz A. T.; Martin, Scot T.; Yang, Yan; Wang, Jian; Artaxo, Paulo; Barbosa, Henrique M. J.; Braga, Ramon C.; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Feng, Zhe; Gao, Wenhua; Gomes, Helber B.; Mei, Fan; Pöhlker, Christopher; Pöhlker, Mira L.; Pöschl, Ulrich; de Souza, Rodrigo A. F.
2018-01-25
Aerosol-cloud interaction remains the largest uncertainty in climate projections. Ultrafine aerosol particles (UAP; size <50nm) are considered too small to serve as cloud condensation nuclei conventionally. However, this study provides observational evidence to accompany insights from numerical simulations to support that deep convective clouds (DCCs) over Amazon have strong capability of nucleating UAP from an urban source and forming greater numbers of droplets, because fast drop coalescence in these DCCs reduces drop surface area available for condensation, leading to high vapor supersaturation. The additional droplets subsequently decrease supersaturation and release more condensational latent heating, a dominant contributor to convection intensification, whereas enhanced latent heat from ice-related processes plays a secondary role. Therefore, the addition of anthropogenic UAP may play a much greater role in modulating clouds than previously believed over the Amazon region and possibly in other relatively pristine regions such as maritime and forest locations.
Transient Convection, Diffusion, and Adsorption in Surface-Based Biosensors
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Rasmus; Bruus, Henrik; Callisen, Thomas H.
2012-01-01
This paper presents a theoretical and computational investigation of convection, diffusion, and adsorption in surface-based biosensors. In particular, we study the transport dynamics in a model geometry of a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor. The work, however, is equally relevant for other...... microfluidic surface-based biosensors, operating under flow conditions. A widely adopted approximate quasi-steady theory to capture convective and diffusive mass transport is reviewed, and an analytical solution is presented. An expression of the Damköhler number is derived in terms of the nondimensional...... concentration to the maximum surface capacity is critical for reliable use of the quasi-steady theory. Finally, our results provide users of surface-based biosensors with a tool for correcting experimentally obtained adsorption rate constants....
Actively convected liquid metal divertor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shimada, Michiya; Hirooka, Yoshi
2014-01-01
The use of actively convected liquid metals with j × B force is proposed to facilitate heat handling by the divertor, a challenging issue associated with magnetic fusion experiments such as ITER. This issue will be aggravated even more for DEMO and power reactors because the divertor heat load will be significantly higher and yet the use of copper would not be allowed as the heat sink material. Instead, reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steel alloys with heat conductivities substantially lower than that of copper, will be used as the structural materials. The present proposal is to fill the lower part of the vacuum vessel with liquid metals with relatively low melting points and low chemical activities including Ga and Sn. The divertor modules, equipped with electrodes and cooling tubes, are immersed in the liquid metal. The electrode, placed in the middle of the liquid metal, can be biased positively or negatively with respect to the module. The j × B force due to the current between the electrode and the module provides a rotating motion for the liquid metal around the electrodes. The rise in liquid temperature at the separatrix hit point can be maintained at acceptable levels from the operation point of view. As the rotation speed increases, the current in the liquid metal is expected to decrease due to the v × B electromotive force. This rotating motion in the poloidal plane will reduce the divertor heat load significantly. Another important benefit of the convected liquid metal divertor is the fast recovery from unmitigated disruptions. Also, the liquid metal divertor concept eliminates the erosion problem. (letter)
Actively convected liquid metal divertor
Shimada, Michiya; Hirooka, Yoshi
2014-12-01
The use of actively convected liquid metals with j × B force is proposed to facilitate heat handling by the divertor, a challenging issue associated with magnetic fusion experiments such as ITER. This issue will be aggravated even more for DEMO and power reactors because the divertor heat load will be significantly higher and yet the use of copper would not be allowed as the heat sink material. Instead, reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steel alloys with heat conductivities substantially lower than that of copper, will be used as the structural materials. The present proposal is to fill the lower part of the vacuum vessel with liquid metals with relatively low melting points and low chemical activities including Ga and Sn. The divertor modules, equipped with electrodes and cooling tubes, are immersed in the liquid metal. The electrode, placed in the middle of the liquid metal, can be biased positively or negatively with respect to the module. The j × B force due to the current between the electrode and the module provides a rotating motion for the liquid metal around the electrodes. The rise in liquid temperature at the separatrix hit point can be maintained at acceptable levels from the operation point of view. As the rotation speed increases, the current in the liquid metal is expected to decrease due to the v × B electromotive force. This rotating motion in the poloidal plane will reduce the divertor heat load significantly. Another important benefit of the convected liquid metal divertor is the fast recovery from unmitigated disruptions. Also, the liquid metal divertor concept eliminates the erosion problem.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tanaka, Hiroaki; Hatano, Shunichi; Maruyama, Shigeo.
1986-01-01
For predicting the fully developed upward flow in a uniformly heated vertical pipe by taking account of the buoyancy force, the k-ε models of turbulence for low Reynolds number flows were adopted. The regime map for forced, mixed and natural convections as well as for laminar and turbulent flows was plotted from the numerical calculations. At the same time, an experiment was carried out at Reynolds numbers of 3000 and 5000 with the Grashof number varied over a wide range by using pressurized nitrogen gas as a test fluid. In agreement with the prediction, buoyancy-induced impairment of heat transfer was measured right in the mixed convection region. Further, from hot-wire measurement, complete laminarization was demonstrated in the mixed convection region at a Reynolds number of 3000. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kikuchi, Yoshihiro; Suzuki, Hiroshi
1995-01-01
In fast reactors, for removing decay heat after the reactors are shut off by natural circulation, various heat exchangers have been devised, but because the flow rate in this case is very small, the state of flow becomes the coexistence of forced and natural convections. In this research, by using numerical calculation technique, investigation was carried out on the heat transfer by coexisting forced and natural convections around a circular cylinder which is inserted perpendicularly in the flow in the channel between parallel plates in low Reynolds number region, and the flow characteristics. As for the techniques of numerical analysis, calculation domain, basic equations, grid, finite difference method, algorithm, initial conditions, boundary conditions and calculation conditions are explained. As the results of calculation, Nusselt number distribution and velocity distribution are reported. The mean Nusselt number of coexisting convections takes the same value as that of pure forced convection in low Rayleigh number region, and as Rayleigh number becomes higher, it decreases to the minimum value, and thereafter, increases rapidly, and approaches to the value of pure natural convection. (K.I.)
Effect of perturbation of convective energy transport on the luminosity and radius of the sun
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Endal, A.S.; Twigg, L.W.
1982-01-01
The response of solar models to perturbations of the efficiency of convective energy transport is studied for a number of cases. Such perturbations primarily affect the shallow superadiabatic layer of the convective envelope (at depths 3 km below the photosphere). Independent of the details of the perturbation scheme, the resulting change in the solar radius (ΔR/R) is always very small compared to the change in luminosity (ΔL/L). This appears to be true for any physical mechanism of solar variability which operates in the outer layers of the convection zone. Changes of the solar radius have been inferred by Dunham et al. from historical observations of solar eclipses in 1715 and 1925. Considering the constraints on concurrent luminosity changes, this type of solar variability must be indicative of changes in the solar structure at substantial depths below the superadiabatic layer of the convective envelope
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boudjemadi, R.
1996-03-01
The main objectives of this thesis are the direct numerical simulation of natural convection in a vertical differentially heated slot and the improvements of second-order turbulence modelling. A three-dimensional direct numerical simulation code has been developed in order to gain a better understanding of turbulence properties in natural convection flows. This code has been validated in several physical configurations: non-stratified natural convection flows (conduction solution), stratified natural convection flows (double boundary layer solution), transitional and turbulent Poiseuille flows. For the conduction solution, the turbulent regime was reached at a Rayleigh number of 1*10 5 and 5.4*10 5 . A detailed analysis of these results has revealed the principal qualities of the available models but has also pointed our their shortcomings. This data base has been used in order to improve the triple correlations transport models and to select the turbulent time scales suitable for such flows. (author). 122 refs., figs., tabs., 4 appends
Laminar convective heat transfer of non-Newtonian nanofluids with constant wall temperature
Hojjat, M.; Etemad, S. Gh.; Bagheri, R.; Thibault, J.
2011-02-01
Nanofluids are obtained by dispersing homogeneously nanoparticles into a base fluid. Nanofluids often exhibit higher heat transfer rate in comparison with the base fluid. In the present study, forced convection heat transfer under laminar flow conditions was investigated experimentally for three types of non-Newtonian nanofluids in a circular tube with constant wall temperature. CMC solution was used as the base fluid and γ-Al2O3, TiO2 and CuO nanoparticles were homogeneously dispersed to create nanodispersions of different concentrations. Nanofluids as well as the base fluid show shear thinning (pseudoplastic) rheological behavior. Results show that the presence of nanoparticles increases the convective heat transfer of the nanodispersions in comparison with the base fluid. The convective heat transfer enhancement is more significant when both the Peclet number and the nanoparticle concentration are increased. The increase in convective heat transfer is higher than the increase caused by the augmentation of the effective thermal conductivity.
On the Existence of Oscillatory-Convective Thermohaline Flow in Sedimentary Basins
Graf, T.; Diersch, H. G.; Simmons, C. T.
2009-05-01
In the Earth's crust, both groundwater temperature and salinity increase with depth. As a consequence, water density is variable, thereby creating density-driven thermohaline groundwater flow. While prior steady-state studies of thermohaline flow in porous media identified conductive, oscillatory and convective thermohaline flow modes, the present study numerically analyzes thermohaline flow using a transient approach. We discovered the existence of an oscillatory-convective flow mode within a specific range of thermal and haline Raleigh numbers. Oscillatory-convective thermohaline flow only exists when water temperature and salinity increase with depth (positive RaT, negative RaS). Candidate sedimentary basins of oscillatory-convective thermohaline flow may be found in Western Canada (Alberta), in the Gulf of Mexico, in Northern Germany, or in Australia.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Adolfo Ribeiro
2015-03-01
Full Text Available Planets and stars are often capable of generating their own magnetic fields. This occurs through dynamo processes occurring via turbulent convective stirring of their respective molten metal-rich cores and plasma-based convection zones. Present-day numerical models of planetary and stellar dynamo action are not carried out using fluids properties that mimic the essential properties of liquid metals and plasmas (e.g., using fluids with thermal Prandtl numbers Pr < 1 and magnetic Prandtl numbers Pm ≪ 1. Metal dynamo simulations should become possible, though, within the next decade. In order then to understand the turbulent convection phenomena occurring in geophysical or astrophysical fluids and next-generation numerical models thereof, we present here canonical, end-member examples of thermally-driven convection in liquid gallium, first with no magnetic field or rotation present, then with the inclusion of a background magnetic field and then in a rotating system (without an imposed magnetic field. In doing so, we demonstrate the essential behaviors of convecting liquid metals that are necessary for building, as well as benchmarking, accurate, robust models of magnetohydrodynamic processes in Pm ≪ Pr < 1 geophysical and astrophysical systems. Our study results also show strong agreement between laboratory and numerical experiments, demonstrating that high resolution numerical simulations can be made capable of modeling the liquid metal convective turbulence needed in accurate next-generation dynamo models.
Thermal convection in square porous cavity under transverse oscillatory micro gravity field
Ghosh, Pradyumna; Ghosh, M. K.
2007-12-01
Two-dimensional thermal convection in saturated square porous cavity under transverse sinusoidal micro-gravity field, has been analyzed by solving mass and transient momentum and energy balance equations, using Darcy's law and Boussinesq's approximation. Isothermal boundary conditions are considered at the two vertical walls but at different temperatures and other two horizontal walls are adiabatic. Average Nusselt numbers are presented as a function of Darcy-Rayleigh number (Ramod) and dimensionless time. Thermally convective, transient nature of the flow field has also been presented for different Darcy-Rayleigh number (Ramod).
Is tropopause folding promoting or suppressing deep convection? First results from TROSIAD
Antonescu, B.; Vaughan, G.; Schultz, D. M.
2012-04-01
The occurrence, timing, and location of deep, moist convection remains a problem for operational weather forecasting, despite the rapid development of the numerical weather prediction models and implementation of new observational techniques. One impediment to better forecasting of deep convection is the role played by tropopause folds. How deep convection is modulated by tropopause folding, which brings stratospheric air into the troposphere, is not well understood. Three ingredients are required for deep moist, convection- moisture, instability, and lift-and all three ingredients associated with tropopause folds can either promote or suppress convection. For example, the dry air associated with the descent of upper-tropospheric air may limit the vertical development of buoyant thermals, yet this dry air may also create potential instability. The purpose of the research project TROSIAD is to assess the importance for convection forecasting of correctly representing tropopause folds in numerical weather forecasting models and to disentangle the conflicting paradigms that tropopause folds both promote and suppress convection. The work plan of the project involves the analysis of existing data from the Mesosphere-Stratosphere-Troposphere (MST) Radar at Aberystwyth, UK, which can measure both tropopause folds and convection, a number of cases studies from measurement campaigns, and numerical modelling experiments. The project begins with building 5-year (2006-2010) climatologies of radar data, and wind-profiling data to determine the relationship between tropopause folds and deep moist convection. Using data from Met Office NIMROD radar network, a climatology of all convective storms with the track in study region was developed. To be included in the climatology, a convective storm must persist for at least 30 minutes with a maximum radar reflectivity greater than 30 dBZ. A total of 663 convective storms were identified. A climatology of the tropopause folds over
Effects of the convective field on weakly outgassing comets
Beth, A.; Galand, M.
2018-02-01
By applying a kinetic approach, we have developed two models in order to assess the influence of one main driver of plasma acceleration, the convective electric field, on the cometary ion distribution at 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (67P/C-G). This electric field is carried by the solar wind and corresponds to the acceleration undergone by cometary ions ultimately picked-up. We have quantified its contribution on ion number density and mean velocity profiles, supported by an intercomparison with the recent literature. We found that the ion number density should reflect a departure from the observed ˜1/r law. We discuss reasons for this discrepancy.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Oluwole Daniel Makinde
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Steady laminar natural convection flow over a semi-infinite moving vertical plate in the presence of internal heat generation and a convective surface boundary condition is examined in this paper. It is assumed that the left surface of the plate is in contact with a hot fluid while the cold fluid on the right surface of the plate contains a heat source that decays exponentially with the classical similarity variable. The governing non-linear partial differential equations have been transformed by a similarity transformation into a system of ordinary differential equations, which are solved numerically by applying shooting iteration technique together with fourth order Runge-Kutta integration scheme. The effects of physical parameters on the dimensionless velocity and temperature profiles are depicted graphically and analyzed in detail. Finally, numerical values of physical quantities, such as the local skin-friction coefficient and the local Nusselt number are presented in tabular form.
Effect of periodic bottom plate heating on large scale flow in turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard convection
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Kuqali, M.; Babuin, Simone; Niemela, J.J.
2015-01-01
Roč. 8, č. 3 (2015), 483-489 ISSN 1735-3572 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : Rayleigh-Bénard convection * Reynolds number Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.888, year: 2015
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhixin Yang
Full Text Available The onset of double diffusive convection in a viscoelastic fluid-saturated porous layer is studied when the fluid and solid phase are not in local thermal equilibrium. The modified Darcy model is used for the momentum equation and a two-field model is used for energy equation each representing the fluid and solid phases separately. The effect of thermal non-equilibrium on the onset of double diffusive convection is discussed. The critical Rayleigh number and the corresponding wave number for the exchange of stability and over-stability are obtained, and the onset criterion for stationary and oscillatory convection is derived analytically and discussed numerically.
A numerical method for investigating crystal settling in convecting magma chambers
Verhoeven, J.; Schmalzl, J.
2009-12-01
Magma chambers can be considered as thermochemically driven convection systems. We present a new numerical method that describes the movement of crystallized minerals in terms of active spherical particles in a convecting magma that is represented by an infinite Prandtl number fluid. The main part focuses on the results we obtained. A finite volume thermochemical convection model for two and three dimensions and a discrete element method, which is used to model granular material, are combined. The new model is validated with floating experiments using particles of different densities and an investigation of single and multiparticle settling velocities. The resulting velocities are compared with theoretical predictions by Stokes's law and a hindered settling function for the multiparticle system. Two fundamental convection regimes are identified in the parameter space that is spanned by the Rayleigh number and the chemical Rayleigh number, which is a measure for the density of the particles. We define the T regime that is dominated by thermal convection. Here the thermal driving force is strong enough to keep all particles in suspension. As the particles get denser, they start settling to the ground, which results in a C regime. The C regime is characterized by the existence of a sediment layer with particle-rich material and a suspension layer with few particles. It is shown that the presence of particles can reduce the vigor of thermal convection. In the frame of a parameter study we discuss the change between the regimes that is systematically investigated. We show that the so-called TC transition fits a power law. Furthermore, we investigate the settling behavior of the particles in vigorous thermal convection, which can be linked to crystal settling in magma chambers. We develop an analytical settling law that describes the number of settled particles against time and show that the results fit the observations from numerical and laboratory experiments.
Granular convection driven by shearing inertial forces.
Rodríguez-Liñán, G M; Nahmad-Molinari, Y
2006-01-01
Convection velocity measurements in vertically vibrated granular materials are presented. The convection velocity close to the walls grows quadratically with the difference between the maximum and critical, or excess, amplitude (proposed as a dynamic parameter to describe related problems) and it is shown numerically that the average bed-bottom relative velocity during the distancing between them, grows linearly with the squared as well. This is interpreted as the signature of an inertial shearing force or momentum transfer proportional to the bed-container relative velocity, acting mainly during the bed-plate distancing part of each cycle which leads to the formation of the convective flux.
Transient Mixed Convection Validation for NGNP
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smith, Barton; Schultz, Richard
2015-01-01
The results of this project are best described by the papers and dissertations that resulted from the work. They are included in their entirety in this document. They are: (1) Jeff Harris PhD dissertation (focused mainly on forced convection); (2) Blake Lance PhD dissertation (focused mainly on mixed and transient convection). This dissertation is in multi-paper format and includes the article currently submitted and one to be submitted shortly; and, (3) JFE paper on CFD Validation Benchmark for Forced Convection.
Measuring Convective Mass Fluxes Over Tropical Oceans
Raymond, David
2017-04-01
Deep convection forms the upward branches of all large-scale circulations in the tropics. Understanding what controls the form and intensity of vertical convective mass fluxes is thus key to understanding tropical weather and climate. These mass fluxes and the corresponding conditions supporting them have been measured by recent field programs (TPARC/TCS08, PREDICT, HS3) in tropical disturbances considered to be possible tropical storm precursors. In reality, this encompasses most strong convection in the tropics. The measurements were made with arrays of dropsondes deployed from high altitude. In some cases Doppler radar provided additional measurements. The results are in some ways surprising. Three factors were found to control the mass flux profiles, the strength of total surface heat fluxes, the column-integrated relative humidity, and the low to mid-tropospheric moist convective instability. The first two act as expected, with larger heat fluxes and higher humidity producing more precipitation and stronger lower tropospheric mass fluxes. However, unexpectedly, smaller (but still positive) convective instability produces more precipitation as well as more bottom-heavy convective mass flux profiles. Furthermore, the column humidity and the convective instability are anti-correlated, at least in the presence of strong convection. On spatial scales of a few hundred kilometers, the virtual temperature structure appears to be in dynamic balance with the pattern of potential vorticity. Since potential vorticity typically evolves on longer time scales than convection, the potential vorticity pattern plus the surface heat fluxes then become the immediate controlling factors for average convective properties. All measurements so far have taken place in regions with relatively flat sea surface temperature (SST) distributions. We are currently seeking funding for a measurement program in the tropical east Pacific, a region that exhibits strong SST gradients and
Transient Mixed Convection Validation for NGNP
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Smith, Barton [Utah State Univ., Logan, UT (United States); Schultz, Richard [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)
2015-10-19
The results of this project are best described by the papers and dissertations that resulted from the work. They are included in their entirety in this document. They are: (1) Jeff Harris PhD dissertation (focused mainly on forced convection); (2) Blake Lance PhD dissertation (focused mainly on mixed and transient convection). This dissertation is in multi-paper format and includes the article currently submitted and one to be submitted shortly; and, (3) JFE paper on CFD Validation Benchmark for Forced Convection.
MHD free convection flow of a non-Newtonian power-law fluid over ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
... flow have been presented for various parameters such as Prandtl number, flow behavior index (n), porous plate parameter and magnetic parameter. The local Nusselt number and skin friction coefficient is also presented graphically. Keywords: Magnetohydrodynamic flow; free convection flow; Non-Newtonian power-law
Asymptotic solution of natural convection problem in a square cavity heated from below
Grundmann, M; Mojtabi, A; vantHof, B
Studies a two-dimensional natural convection in a porous, square cavity using a regular asymptotic development in powers of the Rayleigh number. Carries the approximation through to the 34th order. Analyses convergence of the resulting series for the Nusselt number in both monocellular and
Non-Oberbeck-Boussinesq effects in strongly turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard convection
Ahlers, Günter; Brown, Eric; Fontenele Araujo Junior, F.; Funfschilling, Denis; Grossmann, Siegfried; Lohse, Detlef
2006-01-01
Non-Oberbeck–Boussinesq (NOB) effects on the Nusselt number $Nu$ and Reynolds number $\\hbox{\\it Re}$ in strongly turbulent Rayleigh–Bénard (RB) convection in liquids were investigated both experimentally and theoretically. In the experiments the heat current, the temperature difference, and the
Penetrative Brinkman convection in an anisotropic porous layer saturated by a nanofluid
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
I.S. Shivakumara
2015-06-01
Full Text Available The onset of penetrative Brinkman convection in a nanofluid saturated anisotropic porous layer is investigated via uniform internal heating for rigid-rigid, free-free, and lower-rigid and upper-free boundaries. The flux of volume fraction of nanoparticles is taken to be zero on the isothermal boundaries and the eigenvalue problem is solved using the Galerkin method. The numerical computations carried out indicated the validity of principle of exchange of stability for all types of velocity boundary conditions. The effect of heat source strength, mechanical anisotropy parameter, modified diffusivity ratio, nanoparticle concentration Darcy-Rayleigh number and Lewis number is to hasten, while the Darcy number and thermal anisotropy parameter are to delay the onset of convection. In contrast to the regular fluid saturating a Darcy porous medium, the onset of convection for nanofluids is found to be influenced even when the ratio of mechanical anisotropy parameter to thermal anisotropy parameter is unity.
Study of liquid metal mixed convection in cavities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abadie, Philippe.
1979-10-01
This study has enabled some results to be obtained on the flow of liquid metals in cavities. The effects of different adimensional parameters characteristic of mixed convection flows were experimentally demonstrated. In the case of a roof heated cavity, three zones were distinguished: the mixing zone at the channel exit, a quasi constant temperature recirculation zone and a stratified zone at the top of the cavity. The thickness of this last region depends on natural convection effects: it disappears completely in a pure forced convection regime. A simple model using a critical Richardson number concept was developed in order to be able to predict the thickness of this region. Heat transfer correlation formulas were established both for the heated roof and forward direction heated wall cases. Some data was also obtained on temperature fluctuations for both cases. The different topics investigated are useful for defining heat transfers in certain regions of fast neutron sodium cooled reactors. A more extensive program is currently being developed in order to be able to investigate a wider range of variations in the above mentioned parameters and to more closely approximate reactor vessels [fr
Magnetospheric convection and current system in the dayside polar cap
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nishida, A.; Mukai, T.; Tsuruda, K.; Hayakawa, H.
1992-01-01
Field and particle observations on EXOS-D (Akebono) have yielded new information on convection and current system in the dayside polar cap. Convection patterns are distinctly different depending upon whether IMF B z is northward or southward. The number of convection cells is two when B z is southward but four when B z is northward. Lobe cells in which plasma flows sunward in the region of open field lines are observed as a pair (of which one is in the dawn and the other in the dusk sector) for any polarity of IMF B y and B z . Ions in the keV range precipitate not only in the dayside cusp region but also along the sunward directed streamlines of the dawn and dusk lobe cells. These observations require reconsideration on the position and the extent of the reconnection region on the magnetopause. They also suggest that the magnetotail plays a vital role in some phenomena which have been ascribed to dayside magnetopause processes. We have not been able to find evidence to prove the presence of the viscous cell under southward IMF
Compressible Convection Experiment using Xenon Gas in a Centrifuge
Menaut, R.; Alboussiere, T.; Corre, Y.; Huguet, L.; Labrosse, S.; Deguen, R.; Moulin, M.
2017-12-01
We present here an experiment especially designed to study compressible convection in the lab. For significant compressible convection effects, the parameters of the experiment have to be optimized: we use xenon gaz in a cubic cell. This cell is placed in a centrifuge to artificially increase the apparent gravity and heated from below. With these choices, we are able to reach a dissipation number close to Earth's outer core value. We will present our results for different heating fluxes and rotation rates. We success to observe an adiabatic gradient of 3K/cm in the cell. Studies of pressure and temperature fluctuations lead us to think that the convection takes place under the form of a single roll in the cell for high heating flux. Moreover, these fluctuations show that the flow is geostrophic due to the high rotation speed. This important role of rotation, via Coriolis force effects, in our experimental setup leads us to develop a 2D quasigeostrophic compressible model in the anelastic liquid approximation. We test numerically this model with the finite element solver FreeFem++ and compare its results with our experimental data. In conclusion, we will present our project for the next experiment in which the cubic cell will be replace by a annulus cell. We will discuss the new expected effects due to this geometry as Rossby waves and zonal flows.
Modeling the natural convective flow of micropolar nanofluids
Bourantas, Georgios
2014-01-01
A micropolar model for nanofluidic suspensions is proposed in order to investigate theoretically the natural convection of nanofluids. The microrotation of the nanoparticles seems to play a significant role into flow regime and in that manner it possibly can interpret the controversial experimental data and theoretical numerical results over the natural convection of nanofluids. Natural convection of a nanofluid in a square cavity is studied and computations are performed for Rayleigh number values up to 106, for a range of solid volume fractions (0 ≤ φ ≤ 0.2) and, different types of nanoparticles (Cu, Ag, Al2O3 and TiO 2). The theoretical results show that the microrotation of the nanoparticles in suspension in general decreases overall heat transfer from the heated wall and should not therefore be neglected when computing heat and fluid flow of micropolar fluids, as nanofluids. The validity of the proposed model is depicted by comparing the numerical results obtained with available experimental and theoretical data. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Convection in complex shaped vessel; Convection dans des enceintes de forme complexe
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
2000-07-01
The 8 november 2000, the SFT (Societe Francaise de Thermique) organized a technical day on the convection in complex shaped vessels. Nine papers have been presented in the domains of the heat transfers, the natural convection, the fluid distribution, the thermosyphon effect, the steam flow in a sterilization cycle and the transformers cooling. Eight papers are analyzed in ETDE and one paper dealing with the natural convection in spent fuels depository is analyzed in INIS. (A.L.B.)
Convective transport in a porous medium layer saturated with a Maxwell nanofluid
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J.C. Umavathi
2016-01-01
Full Text Available A linear and weakly non-linear stability analys is has been carried out to study the onset of convection in a horizontal layer of a porous medium saturated with a Maxwell nanofluid. To simulate the momentum equation in porous media, a modified Darcy–Maxwell nanofluid model incorporating the effects of Brownian motion and thermophoresis has been used. A Galerkin method has been employed to investigate the stationary and oscillatory convections; the stability boundaries for these cases are approximated by simple and useful analytical expressions. The stability of the system is investigated by varying various parameters viz., nanoparticle concentration Rayleigh number, Lewis number, modified diffusivity ratio, porosity, thermal capacity ratio, viscosity ratio, conductivity ratio, Vadász number and relaxation parameter. A representation of Fourier series method has been used to study the heat and mass transport on the non-linear stability analysis. The effect of transient heat and mass transport on various parameters is also studied. It is found that for stationary convection Lewis number, viscosity ratio and conductivity ratio have a stabilizing effect while nanoparticle concentration Rayleigh number Rn destabilizes the system. For oscillatory convection we observe that the conductivity ratio stabilizes the system whereas nanoparticle concentration Rayleigh number, Lewis number, Vadász number and relaxation parameter destabilize the system. The viscosity ratio increases the thermal Rayleigh number for oscillatory convection initially thus delaying the onset of convection and later decreases thus advancing the onset of convection hence showing a dual effect. For steady finite amplitude motions, the heat and mass transport decreases with an increase in the values of nanoparticle concentration Rayleigh number, Lewis number, viscosity ratio and conductivity ratio. The mass transport increases with an increase in Vadász number and relaxation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sudo, Yukio; Kaminaga, Masanori; Ikawa, Hiromasa
1987-01-01
Combined forced and free convective heat transfer characteristics were experimentally investigated for water flowing under about 1 atm in a narrow vertical rectangular (750 mm long, 50 mm wide and 18 mm in gap) channel heated from both sides. Experiments were carried out for both downward and upward forced convective flows for Reynolds number Re of 4 x 10 1 ∼ 5 x 10 5 and Grashof number Gr of 5 x 10 4 ∼ 4 x 10 11 , where the distance x from the inlet of the channel is adopted as the characteristic length in Re and Gr. As the results, the following were revealed : (1) Heat transfer coefficients for the combined convective flow region can be expressed in simple forms with a dimensionless parameter Gr/(Re 21/8 Pr 1/2 ) which is constituted by Gr, Re and Prandtl number Pr. (2) From the above-mentioned simple expressions it can be identified that the combined convective heat transfer is significant for the condition of 2.5 x 10 -4 21/8 Pr 2/1 ) -3 . (3) In the present experiment, little significant differences were observed in heat transfer characteristics between the combined convective flow region with upward forced convective flow and that with downward forced convective flow. (author)
Theoretical basis for convective invigoration due to increased aerosol concentration
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Z. J. Lebo
2011-06-01
Full Text Available The potential effects of increased aerosol loading on the development of deep convective clouds and resulting precipitation amounts are studied by employing the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model as a detailed high-resolution cloud resolving model (CRM with both detailed bulk and bin microphysics schemes. Both models include a physically-based activation scheme that incorporates a size-resolved aerosol population. We demonstrate that the aerosol-induced effect is controlled by the balance between latent heating and the increase in condensed water aloft, each having opposing effects on buoyancy. It is also shown that under polluted conditions, increases in the CCN number concentration reduce the cumulative precipitation due to the competition between the sedimentation and evaporation/sublimation timescales. The effect of an increase in the IN number concentration on the dynamics of deep convective clouds is small and the resulting decrease in domain-averaged cumulative precipitation is shown not to be statistically significant, but may act to suppress precipitation. It is also shown that even in the presence of a decrease in the domain-averaged cumulative precipitation, an increase in the precipitation variance, or in other words, andincrease in rainfall intensity, may be expected in more polluted environments, especially in moist environments.
A significant difference exists between the predictions based on the bin and bulk microphysics schemes of precipitation and the influence of aerosol perturbations on updraft velocity within the convective core. The bulk microphysics scheme shows little change in the latent heating rates due to an increase in the CCN number concentration, while the bin microphysics scheme demonstrates significant increases in the latent heating aloft with increasing CCN number concentration. This suggests that even a detailed two-bulk microphysics scheme, coupled to a detailed activation scheme, may not be
Computational simulation of turbulent natural convection in a corium pool
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vieira, Camila B.; Su, Jian, E-mail: camila@lasme.coppe.ufrj.br, E-mail: sujian@lasme.coppe.ufrj.br [Coordenacao dos Cursos de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear; Niceno, Bojan, E-mail: bojan.niceno@psi.ch [Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland). Nuclear Energy and Safety
2013-07-01
After a severe accident in a nuclear power plant, the total thermal loading on the vessel of a nuclear reactor is controlled by the convective heat transfer. Taking that fact into account, this work aimed to analyze the turbulent natural convection inside a representative lower head cavity. By means of an open-source CFD code, OpenFOAM (Open Field Operation and Manipulation), numerical simulations were performed to investigate a volumetrically heated fluid (Pr = 7.0) at internal Rayleigh (Ra) numbers ranging from 10{sup 8} to 10{sup 15}. Bearing in mind that severe accident scenario and the physical-chemical effects are many and complex, the fluid analyzed was considered Newtonian, with constant physical properties, homogeneous and single phase. Even working with that simplifications, the modeling of turbulent natural convection has posed a considerable challenge for the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations based models, not only because of the complete unsteadiness of the flow and the strong turbulence effects in the near wall regions, but also because of the correct treatment of the turbulent heat fluxes (θu{sub i}). So, this work outlined three approaches for treating the turbulent heat fluxes: the Simple Gradient Diffusion Hypothesis (SGDH), the Generalized Gradient Diffusion Hypothesis (GGDH) and the Algebraic Flux Model (AFM). Simulations performed at BALI test based geometry with a four equations model, k-ε-v{sup 2} -f (commonly called as v{sup 2}-f and V2-f), showed that despite of AFM and GGDH have provided reasonable agreement with experimental data for turbulent natural convection in a differentially heated cavity, they proved to be very unstable for buoyancy-driven flows with internal source in comparison to SGDH model. (author)
Computational simulation of turbulent natural convection in a corium pool
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vieira, Camila B.; Su, Jian; Niceno, Bojan
2013-01-01
After a severe accident in a nuclear power plant, the total thermal loading on the vessel of a nuclear reactor is controlled by the convective heat transfer. Taking that fact into account, this work aimed to analyze the turbulent natural convection inside a representative lower head cavity. By means of an open-source CFD code, OpenFOAM (Open Field Operation and Manipulation), numerical simulations were performed to investigate a volumetrically heated fluid (Pr = 7.0) at internal Rayleigh (Ra) numbers ranging from 10 8 to 10 15 . Bearing in mind that severe accident scenario and the physical-chemical effects are many and complex, the fluid analyzed was considered Newtonian, with constant physical properties, homogeneous and single phase. Even working with that simplifications, the modeling of turbulent natural convection has posed a considerable challenge for the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations based models, not only because of the complete unsteadiness of the flow and the strong turbulence effects in the near wall regions, but also because of the correct treatment of the turbulent heat fluxes (θu i ). So, this work outlined three approaches for treating the turbulent heat fluxes: the Simple Gradient Diffusion Hypothesis (SGDH), the Generalized Gradient Diffusion Hypothesis (GGDH) and the Algebraic Flux Model (AFM). Simulations performed at BALI test based geometry with a four equations model, k-ε-v 2 -f (commonly called as v 2 -f and V2-f), showed that despite of AFM and GGDH have provided reasonable agreement with experimental data for turbulent natural convection in a differentially heated cavity, they proved to be very unstable for buoyancy-driven flows with internal source in comparison to SGDH model. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Li, K., E-mail: likai@imech.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Microgravity, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China and National Microgravity Laboratory, Institute of Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Xun, B.; Hu, W. R. [Key Laboratory of Microgravity, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China and National Microgravity Laboratory, Institute of Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)
2016-05-15
As a part of the preliminary studies for the future space experiment (Zona-K) in the Russian module of the International Space Station, some bifurcation routes to chaos of thermocapillary convection in two-dimensional liquid layers filled with 10 cSt silicone oil have been numerically studied in this paper. As the laterally applied temperature difference is raised, variations in the spatial structure and temporal evolution of the thermocapillary convection and a complex sequence of transitions are observed. The results show that the finite extent of the liquid layer significantly influences the tempo-spatial evolution of the thermocapillary convection. Moreover, the bifurcation route of the thermocapillary convection changes very sensitively by the aspect ratio of the liquid layer. With the increasing Reynolds number (applied temperature difference), the steady thermocapillary convection experiences two consecutive transitions from periodic oscillatory state to quasi-periodic oscillatory state with frequency-locking before emergence of chaotic convection in a liquid layer of aspect ratio 14.25, and the thermocapillary convection undergoes period-doubling cascades leading to chaotic convection in a liquid layer of aspect ratio 13.0.
Dynamics of acoustic-convective drying of sunflower cake
Zhilin, A. A.
2017-10-01
The dynamics of drying sunflower cake by a new acoustic-convective method has been studied. Unlike the conventional (thermal-convective) method, the proposed method allows moisture to be extracted from porous materials without applying heat to the sample to be dried. Kinetic curves of drying by the thermal-convective and acoustic-convective methods were obtained and analyzed. The advantages of the acoustic-convective extraction of moisture over the thermal-convective method are discussed. The relaxation times of drying were determined for both drying methods. An intermittent drying mode which improves the efficiency of acoustic-convective extraction of moisture is considered.
Natural convection type BWR reactor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tobimatsu, Toshimi.
1990-01-01
In a natural convection type BWR reactor, a mixed stream of steams and water undergo a great flow resistance. In particular, pressure loss upon passing from an upper plenum to a stand pipe and pressure loss upon passing through rotational blades are great. Then, a steam dryer comprising laminated dome-like perforated plates and a drain pipe for flowing down separated water to a downcomer are disposed above a riser. The coolants heated in the reactor core are boiled, uprise in the riser as a gas-liquid two phase flow containing voids, release steams containing droplets from the surface of the gas-liquid two phase, flow into the steam dryer comprising the perforated plates and are separated into a gas and a liquid. The dried steams flow to a turbine passing through a main steam pipe and the condensated droplets flow down through the drain pipe and the downcomer to the lower portion of the reactor core. In this way, the conventional gas-liquid separator can be saved without lowering the quality of steam drying to reduce the pressure loss and to improve the operation performance. (N.H.)
Controlling arbitrary humidity without convection.
Wasnik, Priyanka S; N'guessan, Hartmann E; Tadmor, Rafael
2015-10-01
In this paper we show a way that allows for the first time to induce arbitrary humidity of desired value for systems without convective flow. To enable this novelty we utilize a semi-closed environment in which evaporation is not completely suppressed. In this case, the evaporation rate is determined both by the outer (open) humidity and by the inner (semi-closed) geometry including the size/shape of the evaporating medium and the size/shape of the semi-closure. We show how such systems can be used to induce desired humidity conditions. We consider water droplet placed on a solid surface and study its evaporation when it is surrounded by other drops, hereon "satellite" drops and covered by a semi-closed hemisphere. The main drop's evaporation rate is proportional to its height, in agreement with theory. Surprisingly, however, the influence of the satellite drops on the main drop's evaporation suppression is not proportional to the sum of heights of the satellite drops. Instead, it shows proportionality close to the satellite drops' total surface area. The resultant humidity conditions in the semi-closed system can be effectively and accurately induced using different satellite drops combinations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Scaling and excitation of combined convection in a rapidly rotating plane layer
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Starchenko, S. V., E-mail: sstarchenko@mail.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Pushkov Institute of Terrestrial Magnesium, Ionosphere and Radio Wave Propagation (Russian Federation)
2017-02-15
The optimum (to my mind) scaling of the combined thermal and compositional convection in a rapidly rotating plane layer is proposed.This scaling follows from self-consistent estimates of typical physical quantities. Similarity coefficients are introduced for the ratio convection dissipation/convection generation (s) and the ratio thermal convection/compositional convection (r). The third new and most important coefficient δ is the ratio of the characteristic size normal to the axis of rotation to the layer thickness. The faster the rotation, the lower δ. In the case of the liquid Earth core, δ ~ 10{sup –3} substitutes for the generally accepted Ekman number (E ~ 10{sup –15}) and s ~ 10{sup –6} substitutes for the inverse Rayleigh number 1/Ra ~ 10{sup –30}. It is found that, at turbulent transport coefficients, number s and the Prandtl number are on the order of unity for any objects and δ is independent of transport coefficients. As a result of expansion in powers of δ, an initially 3D system of six variables is simplified to an almost 2D system of four variables without δ. The problem of convection excitation in the main volume is algebraically solved and this problem for critical values is analytically solved. Dispersion relations and general expressions for critical wavenumbers, numbers s (which determine Rayleigh numbers), other critical parameters, and asymptotic solutions are derived. Numerical estimates are made for the liquid cores in the planets that resemble the Earth. Further possible applications of the results obtained are proposed for the interior of planets, moons, their oceans, stars, and experimental objects.
Scaling and excitation of combined convection in a rapidly rotating plane layer
Starchenko, S. V.
2017-02-01
The optimum (to my mind) scaling of the combined thermal and compositional convection in a rapidly rotating plane layer is proposed.This scaling follows from self-consistent estimates of typical physical quantities. Similarity coefficients are introduced for the ratio convection dissipation/convection generation ( s) and the ratio thermal convection/compositional convection ( r). The third new and most important coefficient δ is the ratio of the characteristic size normal to the axis of rotation to the layer thickness. The faster the rotation, the lower δ. In the case of the liquid Earth core, δ 10-3 substitutes for the generally accepted Ekman number ( E 10-15) and s 10-6 substitutes for the inverse Rayleigh number 1/Ra 10-30. It is found that, at turbulent transport coefficients, number s and the Prandtl number are on the order of unity for any objects and δ is independent of transport coefficients. As a result of expansion in powers of δ, an initially 3D system of six variables is simplified to an almost 2D system of four variables without δ. The problem of convection excitation in the main volume is algebraically solved and this problem for critical values is analytically solved. Dispersion relations and general expressions for critical wavenumbers, numbers s (which determine Rayleigh numbers), other critical parameters, and asymptotic solutions are derived. Numerical estimates are made for the liquid cores in the planets that resemble the Earth. Further possible applications of the results obtained are proposed for the interior of planets, moons, their oceans, stars, and experimental objects.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Alloui, I., E-mail: imene.alloui@gmail.co [Universite Kasdi Merbah, BP 156 Rouissat, Ouargla 30130 (Algeria); Benmoussa, H. [Universite Hadj Lakhdar, 1 rue Chahid Boukhlouf, Batna 05000 (Algeria); Vasseur, P. [Ecole Polytechnique, C.P. 6079, Succ ' Center Ville' , Montreal, Quebec, H3C 3A7 (Canada)
2010-04-15
This paper reports an analytical and numerical study of the combined Soret and thermosolutal effects on natural convection in a shallow rectangular cavity filled with a binary mixture. Neumann boundary conditions for temperature and concentration are applied to the horizontal walls of the enclosure, while the two vertical ones are assumed impermeable and insulated. The governing parameters for the problem are the thermal Rayleigh number, Ra{sub T}, the Lewis number Le, the buoyancy ratio phi, the solute flux imposed on the horizontal boundaries j, the Prandtl number Pr, the aspect ratio of the cavity A, and the real number a (a = 0 for double diffusive convection and a = 1 for the coexistence of double diffusion convection and Soret effect). For convection in an infinite layer (A >> 1), analytical solutions for the stream function, temperature and concentration fields are obtained using a parallel flow approximation in the core region of the cavity and an integral form of the energy and constituent equations. The critical Rayleigh numbers for the onset of supercritical and subcritical convection are predicted explicitly by the present model. A linear stability analysis of the parallel flow model is conducted and the critical Rayleigh number for the onset of Hopf's bifurcation is predicted numerically. Also, results are obtained for finite amplitude convection for which the flow and heat and solute transfers are presented in terms of the governing parameters of the problem. Numerical solutions of the full governing equations are obtained for a wide range of the governing parameters. A good agreement is observed between the analytical model and the numerical simulations.
Added value of convection-permitting reanalyses
Wahl, S.; Keller, J. D.; Ohlwein, C.; Hense, A.; Friederichs, P.; Crewell, S.
2016-12-01
Atmospheric reanalyses are a state-of-the-art tool to generate consistent and realistic state estimates of the atmospheric system. They are used for validation of meteorological and hydrological models, climate monitoring, and renewable energy applications, amongst others. Current reanalyses are mainly global, while regional reanalyses are emerging for North America, the polar region, and most recently for Europe. Due to the horizontal resolution used, deep convection is still parameterized even in the regional reanalyses. However, convective parameterization is a major source of errors and uncertainties in atmospheric models. Therefore, it is expected that convection permitting reanalysis systems are able to adequately simulate the mechanisms leading to high-impact weather, notably heavy precipitation and winds related to deep moist convection. A novel convective-scale regional reanalysis system for Central Europe (COSMO-REA2) has been developed by the Hans-Ertel Center for Weather Research - Climate Monitoring Branch. The system is based on the COSMO model and uses a nudging scheme for the assimilation of observational data. In addition, radar-derived rain rates are assimilated through a latent heat nudging scheme. With a horizontal grid-spacing of 2 km, the model parameterization for deep moist convective processes is turned off. As we expect the largest benefit of the convection-permitting system for precipitation, the evaluation focuses on this essential climate variable (ECV). Furthermore, precipitation is crucial for climate monitoring purposes, e.g., in the form of extreme precipitation which is an major cause of severe damages and societal costs in Europe. This study illustrates the added value of the convective-scale reanalysis compared to coarser gridded regional European and global reanalyses.
Combined convective heat transfer from short cylinders
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oosthuizen, P.H.; Paul, J.T.
1985-01-01
Considerable experimental evidence has been produced recently showing that the free convective heat transfer rate from horizontal circular cylinders becomes influenced by the length to diameter ratio L/D. The major aim of the present study was to determine the influence of the L/D ratio on the conditions under which buoyancy forces cause the heat transfer rate to start to deviate significantly from that existing in purely forced convection
Numerical Study of a Convective Turbulence Encounter
Proctor, Fred H.; Hamilton, David W.; Bowles, Roland L.
2002-01-01
A numerical simulation of a convective turbulence event is investigated and compared with observational data. The specific case was encountered during one of NASA's flight tests and was characterized by severe turbulence. The event was associated with overshooting convective turrets that contained low to moderate radar reflectivity. Model comparisons with observations are quite favorable. Turbulence hazard metrics are proposed and applied to the numerical data set. Issues such as adequate grid size are examined.
Clifford, Corey; Kimber, Mark
2017-11-01
Over the last 30 years, an industry-wide shift within the nuclear community has led to increased utilization of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to supplement nuclear reactor safety analyses. One such area that is of particular interest to the nuclear community, specifically to those performing loss-of-flow accident (LOFA) analyses for next-generation very-high temperature reactors (VHTR), is the capacity of current computational models to predict heat transfer across a wide range of buoyancy conditions. In the present investigation, a critical evaluation of Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) and large-eddy simulation (LES) turbulence modeling techniques is conducted based on CFD validation data collected from the Rotatable Buoyancy Tunnel (RoBuT) at Utah State University. Four different experimental flow conditions are investigated: (1) buoyancy-aided forced convection; (2) buoyancy-opposed forced convection; (3) buoyancy-aided mixed convection; (4) buoyancy-opposed mixed convection. Overall, good agreement is found for both forced convection-dominated scenarios, but an overly-diffusive prediction of the normal Reynolds stress is observed for the RANS-based turbulence models. Low-Reynolds number RANS models perform adequately for mixed convection, while higher-order RANS approaches underestimate the influence of buoyancy on the production of turbulence.
Evaporative and Convective Instabilities for the Evaporation of a Binary Mixture in a Bilayer System
Guo, Weidong; Narayanan, Ranga
2006-11-01
Evaporative convection in binary mixtures arises in a variety of industrial processes, such as drying of paint and coating technology. There have been theories devoted to this problem either by assuming a passive vapor layer or by isolating the vapor fluid dynamics. Previous work on evaporative and convective instabilities in a single component bilayer system suggests that active vapor layers play a major role in determining the instability of the interface. We have investigated the evaporation convection in binary mixtures taking into account the fluid dynamics of both phases. The liquid mixture and its vapor are assumed to be confined between two horizontal plates with a base state of zero evaporation but with linear vertical temperature profile. When the vertical temperature gradient reaches a critical value, the evaporative instability, Rayleigh and Marangoni convection set in. The effects of vapor and liquid depth, various wave numbers and initial composition of the mixture on the evaporative and convective instability are determined. The physics of the instability are explained and detailed comparison is made between the Rayleigh, Marangoni and evaporative convection in pure component and those in binary mixtures.
Subcritical thermal convection of liquid metals in a rotating sphere using a quasi-geostrophic model
Cardin, P.; Guervilly, C.
2016-12-01
We study non-linear convection in a rapidly rotating sphere with internal heating for values of the Prandtl number relevant for liquid metals (10-2-1). We use a numerical model based on the quasi-geostrophic approximation, in which variations of the axial vorticity along the rotation axis are neglected, whereas the temperature field is fully three-dimensional. We identify two separate branches of convection close to onset: (i) a well-known weak branch for Ekman numbers greater than 10-6, which is continuous at the onset (supercritical bifurcation) and consists of the interaction of thermal Rossby waves, and (ii) a novel strong branch at lower Ekman numbers, which is discontinuous at the onset. The strong branch becomes subcritical for Ekman numbers of the order of 10-8. On the strong branch, the Reynolds number of the flow is greater than 1000, and a strong zonal flow with multiple jets develops, even close to the non-linear onset of convection. We find that the subcriticality is amplified by decreasing the Prandtl number. The two branches can co-exist for intermediate Ekman numbers, leading to hysteresis (E = 10-6, Pr =10-2). Non-linear oscillations are observed near the onset of convection for E = 10-7 and Pr = 10-1.
Subcritical convection of liquid metals in a rotating sphere using a quasi-geostrophic model
Guervilly, Céline; Cardin, Philippe
2016-12-01
We study nonlinear convection in a rapidly rotating sphere with internal heating for values of the Prandtl number relevant for liquid metals ($Pr\\in[10^{-2},10^{-1}]$). We use a numerical model based on the quasi-geostrophic approximation, in which variations of the axial vorticity along the rotation axis are neglected, whereas the temperature field is fully three-dimensional. We identify two separate branches of convection close to onset: (i) a well-known weak branch for Ekman numbers greater than $10^{-6}$, which is continuous at the onset (supercritical bifurcation) and consists of thermal Rossby waves, and (ii) a novel strong branch at lower Ekman numbers, which is discontinuous at the onset. The strong branch becomes subcritical for Ekman numbers of the order of $10^{-8}$. On the strong branch, the Reynolds number of the flow is greater than $10^3$, and a strong zonal flow with multiple jets develops, even close to the nonlinear onset of convection. We find that the subcriticality is amplified by decreasing the Prandtl number. The two branches can co-exist for intermediate Ekman numbers, leading to hysteresis ($Ek=10^{-6}$, $Pr=10^{-2}$). Nonlinear oscillations are observed near the onset of convection for $Ek=10^{-7}$ and $Pr=10^{-1}$.
Telescoping, multimodel approaches to evaluate extreme convective weather under future climates
Trapp, Robert J.; Halvorson, Brooke A.; Diffenbaugh, Noah S.
2007-10-01
Understanding of the possible response of severe convective precipitating storms to elevated greenhouse gas concentrations remains elusive. To address this problem, telescoping, multimodel approaches are proposed, which allow representation of a broad range of processes that could regulate convective storm behavior. In the global-cloud approach (G-C), the NCEP-NCAR Reanalysis Project (NNRP) global data set provides initial and boundary conditions for short-term integrations of a mesoscale model and nested convective-cloud-permitting domain. In the global-regional-cloud approach (G-R-C), the NNRP data set provides initial and boundary conditions for long-term integrations of a regional climate model, which in turn forces short-term integrations of a mesoscale model and nested convective-cloud-permitting domain. Upon applying these approaches to historical extreme convective storm events, it was found that the global-scale data could be dynamically downscaled to produce realistic convective-scale solutions. In particular, tornado proxies computed from the model-simulated winds were shown to compare well in relative numbers to those of tornado observations on many of the days considered. This supports the telescoping modeling concept as a viable means to address effects of elevated greenhouse gas concentrations on convective-scale phenomena. In an evaluation of the two approaches, it was also found that simulations of the historical events by the G-C were superior to those by the G-R-C. Sensitivity of the convective-scale processes to details in the downscaled synoptic-scale flow, and to the placement of the mesoscale model domain within the regional climate model, reduced the effectiveness of the G-R-C.
CONVECTION IN CONDENSIBLE-RICH ATMOSPHERES
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ding, F. [Department of the Geophysical Sciences, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Pierrehumbert, R. T., E-mail: fding@uchicago.edu [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom)
2016-05-01
Condensible substances are nearly ubiquitous in planetary atmospheres. For the most familiar case—water vapor in Earth’s present climate—the condensible gas is dilute, in the sense that its concentration is everywhere small relative to the noncondensible background gases. A wide variety of important planetary climate problems involve nondilute condensible substances. These include planets near or undergoing a water vapor runaway and planets near the outer edge of the conventional habitable zone, for which CO{sub 2} is the condensible. Standard representations of convection in climate models rely on several approximations appropriate only to the dilute limit, while nondilute convection differs in fundamental ways from dilute convection. In this paper, a simple parameterization of convection valid in the nondilute as well as dilute limits is derived and used to discuss the basic character of nondilute convection. The energy conservation properties of the scheme are discussed in detail and are verified in radiative-convective simulations. As a further illustration of the behavior of the scheme, results for a runaway greenhouse atmosphere for both steady instellation and seasonally varying instellation corresponding to a highly eccentric orbit are presented. The latter case illustrates that the high thermal inertia associated with latent heat in nondilute atmospheres can damp out the effects of even extreme seasonal forcing.
Driving forces: Slab subduction and mantle convection
Hager, Bradford H.
1988-01-01
Mantle convection is the mechanism ultimately responsible for most geological activity at Earth's surface. To zeroth order, the lithosphere is the cold outer thermal boundary layer of the convecting mantle. Subduction of cold dense lithosphere provides tha major source of negative buoyancy driving mantle convection and, hence, surface tectonics. There are, however, importnat differences between plate tectonics and the more familiar convecting systems observed in the laboratory. Most important, the temperature dependence of the effective viscosity of mantle rocks makes the thermal boundary layer mechanically strong, leading to nearly rigid plates. This strength stabilizes the cold boundary layer against small amplitude perturbations and allows it to store substantial gravitational potential energy. Paradoxically, through going faults at subduction zones make the lithosphere there locally weak, allowing rapid convergence, unlike what is observed in laboratory experiments using fluids with temperature dependent viscosities. This bimodal strength distribution of the lithosphere distinguishes plate tectonics from simple convection experiments. In addition, Earth has a buoyant, relatively weak layer (the crust) occupying the upper part of the thermal boundary layer. Phase changes lead to extra sources of heat and bouyancy. These phenomena lead to observed richness of behavior of the plate tectonic style of mantle convection.
Numerical Studies on Natural Convection Heat Losses from Open Cubical Cavities
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Prakash
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The natural convection heat losses occurring from cubical open cavities are analysed in this paper. Open cubical cavities of sides 0.1 m, 0.2 m, 0.25 m, 0.5 m, and 1 m with constant temperature back wall boundary conditions and opening ratio of 1 are studied. The Fluent CFD software is used to analyse the three-dimensional (3D cavity models. The studies are carried out for cavities with back wall temperatures between 35°C and 100°C. The effect of cavity inclination on the convective loss is analysed for angles of 0° (cavity facing sideways, 30°, 45°, 60°, and 90° (cavity facing vertically downwards. The Rayleigh numbers involved in this study range between 4.5 × 105 and 1.5 × 109. The natural convection loss is found to increase with an increase in back wall temperature. The natural convection loss is observed to decrease with an increase in cavity inclination; the highest convective loss being at 0° and the lowest at 90° inclination. This is observed for all cavities analysed here. Nusselt number correlations involving the effect of Rayleigh number and the cavity inclination angle have been developed from the current studies. These correlations can be used for engineering applications such as electronic cooling, low- and medium-temperature solar thermal systems, passive architecture, and also refrigeration systems.
Heat transfer in the thermo-electro-hydrodynamic convection under microgravity conditions.
Fogaing, M Tadie; Yoshikawa, H N; Crumeyrolle, O; Mutabazi, I
2014-04-01
This article deals with the thermal convection in a dielectric fluid confined in a finite-length plane capacitor with a temperature gradient under microgravity conditions. The dielectrophoretic force resulting from differential polarization of the fluid plays the role of buoyancy force associated with an electric effective gravity. It induces the convection when the Rayleigh number based on this electric gravity exceeds a critical value. Two-dimensional numerical simulation for a geometry with a large aspect ratio is used to determine the convective flow in the saturated state. The Nusselt number Nu is computed for a wide range of Prandtl number (0.01 ≤ Pr ≤ 10(3)) and its dependence on the distance from the critical condition is determined. A correlation between Nu and Pr in the vicinity of criticality is obtained and compared with that of the Rayleigh-Bénard convection. The behavior of the convection is analyzed in detail from an energetic viewpoint: electrostatic energy, power inputs by different components of the electric gravity and viscous and thermal dissipations are computed.
Studies of Forced-Convection Heat Transfer Augmentation in Large Containment Enclosures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kuhn, S.Z.; Peterson, P.F.
2001-01-01
Heat transfer enhancement due to jet mixing inside a cylindrical enclosure is discussed. This work addresses conservative heat transfer assumptions regarding mixing and condensation that have typically been incorporated into passive containment design analyses. This research presents the possibility for increasing decay heat removal of passive containment systems under combined natural and forced convection. Eliminating these conservative assumptions could result in a changed containment design and reduce the construction cost. It is found that the ratio of forced- and free-convection Nusselt numbers can be predicted as a function of the Archimedes number and a correlated factor accounting for jet orientation and enclosure geometry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Saez, M.
1998-10-20
The aim of our study is to establish a reliable database for improving thermal hydraulic codes, in the field of turbulent flows with buoyancy forces. The flow considered is mixed convection in the Reynolds and Richardson number range: Re = 10{sup 3} to 6.10{sup 4} and Ri = 10{sup -4} to 1. Experiments are carried out in an upward turbulent flow between vertical parallel plates at different wall temperatures. Part 1 gives a detailed database of turbulent mixed flow of free and forced convection. Part 2 presents the installation and the calibration system intended for probes calibration. Part 3 describes the measurement technique (constant temperature probe and cold-wire probe) and the method for measuring the position of the hot-wire anemometer from the wall surface. The measurement accuracy is within 0.001 mm in the present system. Part 4 relates the development of a method for near wall measurements. This correction procedure for hot-wire anemometer close to wall has been derived on the basis of a two-dimensional numerical study. The method permits to obtain a quantitative correction of the wall influence on hot-wires and takes into account the velocity profile and the effects the wall material has on the heat loss. Part 5 presents the experimental data obtained in the channel in forced and mixed convection. Results obtained in the forced convection regime serve as a verification of the measurement technique close to the wall and give the conditions at the entrance of the test section. The effects of the buoyancy force on the mean velocity and temperature profiles are confirmed. The buoyancy strongly affects the fluid structure and deforms the distribution of mean velocity. The velocity profiles are asymmetric. The second section of part 5 gives an approach of analytical wall functions with buoyancy forces, on the basis of the experimental data obtained in the test section. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nee Alexander
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Mathematical modeling of conjugate natural convection in a closed rectangular cavity with a radiant energy source in conditions of convective-radiative heat exchange at the external boundary was conducted. The radiant energy distribution was set by the Lambert’s law. Conduction and convection processes analysis showed that the air masses flow pattern is modified slightly over the time. The temperature increases in the gas cavity, despite the heat removal from the one of the external boundary. According to the results of the integral heat transfer analysis were established that the average Nusselt number (Nuav increasing occurs up to τ = 200 (dimensionless time. Further Nuav has changed insignificantly due to the temperature field equalization near the interfaces “gas – wall”.
Atmospheric ultrafine aerosol number concentration and its ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
may be due to the development of warm thermal layer on valley floor while a cold layer develops along snowy hilltops in winter leading to convection ..... and cut sizes performance for silver, ammonium sulphate and sodium chloride by ... surement and direct display of the number of par- ticles per unit volume of the sampled ...
Marangoni mixed convection flow with Joule heating and nonlinear radiation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tasawar Hayat
2015-07-01
Full Text Available Marangoni mixed convective flow of Casson fluid in a thermally stratified medium is addressed. Flow analysis has been carried out in presence of inclined magnetic field. Heat transfer analysis is discussed in the presence of viscous dissipation, Joule heating and nonlinear thermal radiation. The governing nonlinear partial differential equations are first converted into ordinary differential systems and then developed the convergent series solutions. Flow pattern with the influence of pertinent parameters namely the magnetic parameter, Casson fluid parameter, temperature ratio parameter, stratification parameter, Prandtl number, Eckert number and radiation parameter is investigated. Expression of local Nusselt number is computed and analyzed. It is found that the Nusselt number decreases by increasing magnetic parameter, temperature ratio parameter, angle of inclination and stratification parameter. Moreover the effect of buoyancy parameter on the velocity distribution is opposite in both the opposing and assisting flow phenomena. Thermal field and associated layer thickness are enhanced for larger radiation parameter.
Sasaki, Youhei; Takehiro, Shin-ichi; Ishiwatari, Masaki; Yamada, Michio
2018-03-01
Linear stability analysis of anelastic thermal convection in a rotating spherical shell with entropy diffusivities varying in the radial direction is performed. The structures of critical convection are obtained in the cases of four different radial distributions of entropy diffusivity; (1) κ is constant, (2) κT0 is constant, (3) κρ0 is constant, and (4) κρ0T0 is constant, where κ is the entropy diffusivity, T0 is the temperature of basic state, and ρ0 is the density of basic state, respectively. The ratio of inner and outer radii, the Prandtl number, the polytropic index, and the density ratio are 0.35, 1, 2, and 5, respectively. The value of the Ekman number is 10-3 or 10-5 . In the case of (1), where the setup is same as that of the anelastic dynamo benchmark (Jones et al., 2011), the structure of critical convection is concentrated near the outer boundary of the spherical shell around the equator. However, in the cases of (2), (3) and (4), the convection columns attach the inner boundary of the spherical shell. A rapidly rotating annulus model for anelastic systems is developed by assuming that convection structure is uniform in the axial direction taking into account the strong effect of Coriolis force. The annulus model well explains the characteristics of critical convection obtained numerically, such as critical azimuthal wavenumber, frequency, Rayleigh number, and the cylindrically radial location of convection columns. The radial distribution of entropy diffusivity, or more generally, diffusion properties in the entropy equation, is important for convection structure, because it determines the distribution of radial basic entropy gradient which is crucial for location of convection columns.
Uddin, M. J.; Khan, W. A.; Ismail, A. I. Md.
2016-06-01
The effects of the temperature dependent viscosity, thermal conductivity and Navier slip on the forced convection of nanofluid and heat transfer over a wedge are investigated numerically. The effects of the thermal and mass convective boundary conditions are applied to get physically realistic results. The governing transport equations are transformed into a set of similarity equations using similarity transformations, before being solved using the Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg fourth-fifth order numerical method. Numerical results for the dimensionless velocity, temperature, nanoparticle volume fraction profiles as well as skin friction coefficient, Nusselt number and Sherwood numbers are presented to show interesting aspects of the solution. It is found that the skin friction and local Sherwood number decrease whilst local Nusselt number increases with conduction-convection parameter. The local Sherwood number increases with diffusion-convection parameter. The increase of hydrodynamic slip reduces skin friction and increases local Nusselt number. Magnetic parameter enhances skin friction, heat transfer as well as species diffusion. Viscosity parameter enhances skin friction. Some of the numerical results are compared with earlier published results, available in the literature.
Complex Convective Thermal Fluxes and Vorticity Structure
Redondo, Jose M.; Tellez, Jackson; Sotillos, Laura; Lopez Gonzalez-Nieto, Pilar; Sanchez, Jesus M.; Furmanek, Petr; Diez, Margarita
2015-04-01
Local Diffusion and the topological structure of vorticity and velocity fields is measured in the transition from a homogeneous linearly stratified fluid to a cellular or layered structure by means of convective cooling and/or heating[1,2]. Patterns arise by setting up a convective flow generated by an array of Thermoelectric devices (Peltier/Seebeck cells) these are controlled by thermal PID generating a buoyant heat flux [2]. The experiments described here investigate high Prandtl number mixing using brine and fresh water in order to form density interfaces and low Prandtl number mixing with temperature gradients. The set of dimensionless parameters define conditions of numeric and small scale laboratory modeling of environmental flows. Fields of velocity, density and their gradients were computed and visualized [3,4]. When convective heating and cooling takes place the combination of internal waves and buoyant turbulence is much more complicated if the Rayleigh and Reynolds numbers are high in order to study entrainment and mixing. Using ESS and selfsimilarity structures in the velocity and vorticity fieds and intermittency [3,5] that forms in the non-homogeneous flow is related to mixing and stiring. The evolution of the mixing fronts are compared and the topological characteristics of the merging of plumes and jets in different configurations presenting detailed comparison of the evolution of RM and RT, Jets and Plumes in overall mixing. The relation between structure functions, fractal analysis and spectral analysis can be very useful to determine the evolution of scales. Experimental and numerical results on the advance of a mixing or nonmixing front occurring at a density interface due to body forces [6]and gravitational acceleration are analyzed considering the fractal and spectral structure of the fronts like in removable plate experiments for Rayleigh-Taylor flows. The evolution of the turbulent mixing layer and its complex configuration is studied
CO2 convective dissolution controlled by temporal changes in free-phase CO2 properties
Jafari Raad, S. M.; Emami-Meybodi, H.; Hassanzadeh, H.
2017-12-01
Understanding the factors that control CO2 convective dissolution, which is one of the permanent trapping mechanisms, in the deep saline aquifer is crucial in the long-term fate of the injected CO2. The present study investigates the effects of temporal changes in the solubility of CO2 at the free-phase CO2/brine interface on the onset of natural convection and the subsequent convective mixing by conducting linear stability analyses (LSA) and direct numerical simulations (DNS). A time-dependent concentration boundary is considered for the free-phase CO2/brine interface where the CO2 concentration first decreases with the time and then remains constant. The LSA results show that the temporal variation in the concentration increases the onset of natural convection up to two orders of magnitude. In addition, the critical Rayleigh number significantly increases as CO2 concentration decreases. In other words, size and pressure of the injected CO2 affect the commencement of convective mixing. Based on LSA results, several scaling relations are proposed to correlate critical Rayleigh number, critical time, and its corresponding wavenumbers with time-dependent boundary's parameters, such as concentration decline rate and equilibrium concentration ratio. The DNS results reveal that the convective fingering patterns are significantly influenced by the variation of CO2 concentration at the interface. These findings improve our understanding of CO2 solubility trapping and are particularly important in estimation of potential storage capacity, risk assessment, and storage sites characterization and screening. Keywords: CO2 sequestration; natural convection; solubility trapping; time-dependent boundary condition; numerical simulation; stability analysis
Lagrangian dimensionality reduction of convection dominated nonlinear flows
Balajewicz, Maciej; Mojgani, Rambod
2016-11-01
We introduce a new projection-based model reduction approach for convection dominated nonlinear fluid flows. In this method the evolution of the fluid is approximated in the Lagrangian frame of reference. More specifically, global basis functions are utilized for both the state of the system and the positions of the Lagrangian computational domain. In this approach, wave-like solutions exhibit low-rank structure and thus, can be approximated efficiently using a small number of reduced bases. The proposed approach is successfully demonstrated for the reduction of several simple but representative flow problems.
Mendonça, J. Ricardo G.
2012-01-01
We define a new class of numbers based on the first occurrence of certain patterns of zeros and ones in the expansion of irracional numbers in a given basis and call them Sagan numbers, since they were first mentioned, in a special case, by the North-american astronomer Carl E. Sagan in his science-fiction novel "Contact." Sagan numbers hold connections with a wealth of mathematical ideas. We describe some properties of the newly defined numbers and indicate directions for further amusement.
Vorob'ev, Nikolai Nikolaevich
2011-01-01
Fibonacci numbers date back to an 800-year-old problem concerning the number of offspring born in a single year to a pair of rabbits. This book offers the solution and explores the occurrence of Fibonacci numbers in number theory, continued fractions, and geometry. A discussion of the ""golden section"" rectangle, in which the lengths of the sides can be expressed as a ration of two successive Fibonacci numbers, draws upon attempts by ancient and medieval thinkers to base aesthetic and philosophical principles on the beauty of these figures. Recreational readers as well as students and teacher
Natural convection around a horizontal cylinder near an adiabatic cover wall
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Correa, M.; Parra, R.; Vidal, A.; Rodriguez, M.E.; Gonzalez-Mendizabal, D.
2005-01-01
The main objective of this work was to determine numerically the influence of the proximity of an adiabatic top surface over the natural convective coefficient, around an isothermal horizontal cylinder in atmospheric air. The local and mean Nusselt numbers around the cylinder were obtained through a numerical solution of the dimensionless equations for two-dimensional laminar natural convection flow at steady state in Cartesian coordinates, using the ω, ψ, Τ, formulation. The software was run for different Rayleigh values (10 2 5 ) and distances cylinder-cover wall (0.55 < L/D < 2.5). The results allow concluding that the top adiabatic surface diminishes the convective coefficient in comparison with the value obtained using an infinite medium as boundary condition, it occurs when L/D<2, at any Rayleigh number value. (authors)
Combined Lorentz force and ultrasound Doppler velocimetry in a vertical convection liquid metal flow
Zürner, Till; Vogt, Tobias; Resagk, Christian; Eckert, Sven; Schumacher, Jörg
2017-11-01
We report experimental studies on turbulent vertical convection flow in the liquid metal alloy gallium-indium-tin. Flow measurements were conducted by a combined use of local Lorentz force velocimetry (LLFV) and ultrasound Doppler velocimetry (UDV). It is known that the forced convection flow in a duct generates a force on the LLFV magnet system, that grows proportional to the flow velocity. We show that for the slower flow of natural convection LLFV retains this linear dependence in the range of micronewtons. Furthermore experimental results on the scaling of heat and momentum transport with the thermal driving are presented. The results cover a range of Rayleigh numbers 3 ×105 walls scales with Rez Ra0.45 . Additionally a Reynolds number based on the horizontal flow component is scaling as Rex Ra0.67 . These results agree well with numerical simulations and theoretical predictions. This work is funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft under Grant No. GRK 1567.
Convection and exchangers in variable regime; Convection et echangeurs en regime variable
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bagui, F.; Abdelghani-Idrissi, M.A. [Rouen Univ. IUT, Centre de Developpement Durable, 76 - Mont Saint Aignan (France); Bagui, F. [Ecole d' Ingenieurs CESI, 76 - Mont Saint Aignan (France); Desmet, B.; Lalot, S.; Harmand, S. [Valenciennes et du Hainaut-Cambresis Univ., Lab. de Mecanique et Energetique, 59 - Valenciennes (France); Maillet, D. [Institut National Polytechnique, INPL-UHP Nancy-1, LEMTA-CNRS UMR 7563, 54 - Vandoeuvre les Nancy (France)
2005-07-01
This session about convection and exchangers in variable regime gathers three articles dealing with: the transient regimes of tubular heat exchangers; heat exchangers and convection in non-permanent regime; and the limitations of the H coefficient: two short-time and short-scale examples. (J.S.)
Number names and number understanding
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ejersbo, Lisser Rye; Misfeldt, Morten
2014-01-01
through using mathematical names for the numbers such as one-ten-one for 11 and five-ten-six for 56. The project combines the renaming of numbers with supporting the teaching with the new number names. Our hypothesis is that Danish children have more difficulties learning and working with numbers, because...... the Danish number names are more complicated than in other languages. Keywords: A research project in grade 0 and 1th in a Danish school, Base-10 system, two-digit number names, semiotic, cognitive perspectives....
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Osborne, R.L.; Christensen, R.N.
1986-01-01
An experimental model was developed for a nuclear waste repository storage room. Data were taken over a Reynolds number range of 6,000 to 180,000, covering both the forced and mixed (combined natural and forced) regimes of convection. Data are presented for several circumferential boundary conditions. Results indicate that the natural convection component is significant. The finite difference heat conduction code HEATING5 was used to plot temperatures around the repository room for the different heat transfer coefficients. The plots show that the use of standard forced convection relations can result in over estimating the room temperature by as much as 70 0 C
Effect of dispersion on convective mixing in porous media
Wen, Baole; Hesse, Marc; Geological porous media group Team
2017-11-01
We investigate the effect of dispersion on convection in porous media by performing direct numerical simulations (DNS) in a 2D Rayleigh-Darcy domain. Scaling analysis of the governing equations shows that the dynamics of this system is not only controlled by the classical Rayleigh-Darcy number based on molecular diffusion, Ram , and the domain aspect ratio, but also controlled by two other dimensionless parameters: the dispersive Rayleigh number Rad = H /αt and the dispersivity ratio r =αl /αt , where H is the domain height, αt and αl are the transverse and longitudinal dispersivities, respectively. For Ram > Rad , however, the flow pattern is determined by Rad while the mass transport flux F Ram at high- Ram regime. Our DNS results also show that the increase of the mechanical dispersion (i.e. decreasing Rad) will broaden the plume spacing and coarsen the convective pattern. Moreover, for r >> 1 the anisotropy of dispersion destroys the slender columnar structure of the primary plumes at large Ram and therefore reduces the mass transport rate. This work was supported by the Center for Frontiers of Subsurface Energy Security, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences under Award Number DE-SC0001114.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kimura, Keiji; Takehiro, Shin-ichi; Yamada, Michio
2014-01-01
We investigate properties of convective solutions of the Boussinesq thermal convection in a moderately rotating spherical shell allowing the respective rotation of the inner and outer spheres due to the viscous torque of the fluid. The ratio of the inner and outer radii of the spheres, the Prandtl number, and the Taylor number are fixed to 0.4, 1, and 500 2 , respectively. The Rayleigh number is varied from 2.6 × 10 4 to 3.4 × 10 4 . In this parameter range, the behaviours of obtained asymptotic convective solutions are almost similar to those in the system whose inner and outer spheres are restricted to rotate with the same constant angular velocity, although the difference is found in the transition process to chaotic solutions. The convective solution changes from an equatorially symmetric quasi-periodic one to an equatorially symmetric chaotic one, and further to an equatorially asymmetric chaotic one, as the Rayleigh number is increased. This is in contrast to the transition in the system whose inner and outer spheres are assumed to rotate with the same constant angular velocity, where the convective solution changes from an equatorially symmetric quasi-periodic one, to an equatorially asymmetric quasi-periodic one, and to equatorially asymmetric chaotic one. The inner sphere rotates in the retrograde direction on average in the parameter range; however, it sometimes undergoes the prograde rotation when the convective solution becomes chaotic
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Niu, F.; Peterson, P.F.
2004-01-01
This research investigates experimentally mixed convection and heat transfer augmentation by forced jets in a large enclosure, at conditions simulating those of actual passive containment cooling systems and scales approaching those of actual containment buildings or compartments. The experiment was designed to measure the key parameters governing the heat transfer augmentation by forced jets and investigate the effects of geometric factors, including the jet diameter, jet injection orientation, interior structures, and enclosure aspect ratio. The tests cover a variety of injection modes leading to flow configurations of interest that contribute to reveal the nature of mixing and stratification phenomena in the containment under accident conditions of interest. The heat transfer of mixed convection can be predicted to be controlled by jet Archimedes number and geometric factors. Using a combining rule for mixed convection and appropriate forced and natural convection models, the correlations of heat transfer augmentation by forced jets are developed and agree well with experimental data. It appears that the jet Archimedes number is the important parameter in characterizing mixed convection heat transfer. The jet injection orientation has a substantial effect on heat transfer while the effect of the jet diameter is very weak. For vertical cooling surfaces, an impinging jet can achieve more effective heat transfer than a buoyant jet. The heat transfer augmentation increases with the reduction of enclosure aspect ratio
Petersen, T Kyle
2015-01-01
This text presents the Eulerian numbers in the context of modern enumerative, algebraic, and geometric combinatorics. The book first studies Eulerian numbers from a purely combinatorial point of view, then embarks on a tour of how these numbers arise in the study of hyperplane arrangements, polytopes, and simplicial complexes. Some topics include a thorough discussion of gamma-nonnegativity and real-rootedness for Eulerian polynomials, as well as the weak order and the shard intersection order of the symmetric group. The book also includes a parallel story of Catalan combinatorics, wherein the Eulerian numbers are replaced with Narayana numbers. Again there is a progression from combinatorics to geometry, including discussion of the associahedron and the lattice of noncrossing partitions. The final chapters discuss how both the Eulerian and Narayana numbers have analogues in any finite Coxeter group, with many of the same enumerative and geometric properties. There are four supplemental chapters throughout, ...
Properties of convective motions in facular regions
Kostik, R.; Khomenko, E. V.
2012-09-01
Aims: We study the properties of solar granulation in a facular region from the photosphere up to the lower chromosphere. Our aim is to investigate the dependence of granular structure on magnetic field strength. Methods: We used observations obtained at the German Vacuum Tower Telescope (Observatorio del Teide, Tenerife) using two different instruments: the Triple Etalon SOlar Spectrometer (TESOS) to measure velocity and intensity variations along the photosphere in the Ba ii 4554 Å line; and, simultaneously, the Tenerife Infrared Polarimeter (TIP-II) to the measure Stokes parameters and the magnetic field strength at the lower photosphere in the Fe i 1.56 μm lines. Results: We find that the convective velocities of granules in the facular area decrease with magnetic field while the convective velocities of intergranular lanes increase with the field strength. Similar to the quiet areas, there is a contrast and velocity sign reversal taking place in the middle photosphere. The reversal heights depend on the magnetic field strength and are, on average, about 100 km higher than in the quiet regions. The correlation between convective velocity and intensity decreases with magnetic field at the bottom photosphere, but increases in the upper photosphere. The contrast of intergranular lanes observed close to the disk center is almost independent of the magnetic field strength. Conclusions: The strong magnetic field of the facular area seems to stabilize the convection and to promote more effective energy transfer in the upper layers of the solar atmosphere, since the convective elements reach greater heights.
Convective transport resistance in the vitreous humor
Penkova, Anita; Sadhal, Satwindar; Ratanakijsuntorn, Komsan; Moats, Rex; Tang, Yang; Hughes, Patrick; Robinson, Michael; Lee, Susan
2012-11-01
It has been established by MRI visualization experiments that the convection of nanoparticles and large molecules with high rate of water flow in the vitreous humor will experience resistance, depending on the respective permeabilities of the injected solute. A set of experiments conducted with Gd-DTPA (Magnevist, Bayer AG, Leverkusen, Germany) and 30 nm gadolinium-based particles (Gado CELLTrackTM, Biopal, Worcester, MA) as MRI contrast agents showed that the degree of convective transport in this Darcy-type porous medium varies between the two solutes. These experiments consisted of injecting a mixture of the two (a 30 μl solution of 2% Magnevist and 1% nanoparticles) at the middle of the vitreous of an ex vivo whole bovine eye and subjecting the vitreous to water flow rate of 100 μl/min. The water (0.9% saline solution) was injected at the top of the eye, and was allowed to drain through small slits cut at the bottom of the eyeball. After 50 minutes of pumping, MRI images showed that the water flow carried the Gd-DTPA farther than the nanoparticles, even though the two solutes, being mixed, were subjected to the same convective flow conditions. We find that the convected solute lags the water flow, depending on the solute permeability. The usual convection term needs to be adjusted to allow for the filtration effect on the larger particles in the form (1- σ) u . ∇ c with important implications for the modeling of such systems.
Topology Optimisation for Coupled Convection Problems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Alexandersen, Joe
This thesis deals with topology optimisation for coupled convection problems. The aim is to extend and apply topology optimisation to steady-state conjugate heat transfer problems, where the heat conduction equation governs the heat transfer in a solid and is coupled to thermal transport in a sur......This thesis deals with topology optimisation for coupled convection problems. The aim is to extend and apply topology optimisation to steady-state conjugate heat transfer problems, where the heat conduction equation governs the heat transfer in a solid and is coupled to thermal transport...... in a surrounding uid, governed by a convection-diffusion equation, where the convective velocity field is found from solving the isothermal incompressible steady-state Navier-Stokes equations. Topology optimisation is also applied to steady-state natural convection problems. The modelling is done using stabilised...... finite element formulation is implemented in an object-oriented parallel finite element framework programmed in the C++ programming language, developed by the Top-Opt research group of the Department of Mechanical Engineering at The Technical University of Denmark. The presented work is seen...
Is composition a critical dynamical element of mantle convection?
Davies, J. H.; Davies, D. R.; Wolstencroft, M. W.
2009-04-01
It is clear from observations of differentiation producing oceanic crust and depleted residue, and its ultimate subduction that compositional heterogeneity does exist in the mantle. An important question for mantle dynamics however, is how important is this composition? Compositional variations have been attributed to be critical for explaining many dynamical aspects of mantle upwellings as evidenced in hot-spots, such as their relative fixity (Jellinek and Manga, 2004) and non-steady upwelling velocity (Lin and van Keken, 2005). They have also been attributed to causing peaks in magma production. Our modeling work in spherical geometry shows that a wide variety of upwelling behaviour can be produced in models that have NO compositional variations and are only driven by thermal anomalies. The critical component of this family of models is a high, Earth-like Rayleigh number. Our models have also reproduced time varying magma production on a long time-scale in thermal convection models. The critical element is again a very high Rayleigh number, but this time combined with a realistic Clapeyron slope at the 660km discontinuity. Schuberth et al., 2009, have also shown that composition is not required to explain some of the seismic signatures of mantle convection models either, including at the base of the mantle. While, as stated initially, composition must play a role, we would argue that given that much of the supposedly ‘non-thermal' behaviour can be explained by thermal models that the simplest current paradigm is to assume thermally driven convection. A further advantage of this class of model is that there are fewer degrees of freedom in comparing the geodynamics models with seismology, and therefore tighter tests will be possible. While there are other arguments for compositional variations close to the core-mantle boundary and in the upper boundary / lithosphere; tests from simpler models could help to refine and bound the degree of compositional variation
Natural convection in wavy enclosures with volumetric heat sources
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oztop, H.F.; Varol, Y.; Abu-Nada, E.; Chamkha, A.
2011-01-01
In this paper, the effects of volumetric heat sources on natural convection heat transfer and flow structures in a wavy-walled enclosure are studied numerically. The governing differential equations are solved by an accurate finite-volume method. The vertical walls of enclosure are assumed to be heated differentially whereas the two wavy walls (top and bottom) are kept adiabatic. The effective governing parameters for this problem are the internal and external Rayleigh numbers and the amplitude of wavy walls. It is found that both the function of wavy wall and the ratio of internal Rayleigh number (Ra I ) to external Rayleigh number (Ra E ) affect the heat transfer and fluid flow significantly. The heat transfer is predicted to be a decreasing function of waviness of the top and bottom walls in case of (IRa/ERa)>1 and (IRa/ERa)<1. (authors)
On a Five-Dimensional Chaotic System Arising from Double-Diffusive Convection in a Fluid Layer
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. Idris
2013-01-01
Full Text Available A chaotic system arising from double-diffusive convection in a fluid layer is investigated in this paper based on the theory of dynamical systems. A five-dimensional model of chaotic system is obtained using the Galerkin truncated approximation. The results showed that the transition from steady convection to chaos via a Hopf bifurcation produced a limit cycle which may be associated with a homoclinic explosion at a slightly subcritical value of the Rayleigh number.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Transfinite Numbers. What is Infinity? S M Srivastava. In a series of revolutionary articles written during the last quarter of the nineteenth century, the great Ger- man mathematician Georg Cantor removed the age-old mistrust of infinity and created an exceptionally beau- tiful and useful theory of transfinite numbers. This is.
Observations of the transition from shallow to deep convection during the North American Monsoon
Zehnder, J. A.; Hu, J.; Radzan, A.
2007-05-01
The regular development of deep convection over the mountains in southern Arizona makes them an ideal location to study the onset and transition from shallow to deep convection. The convection that occurs during the North American Monsoon develops over the peaks a few hours after sunrise and development occurs slowly and in stages despite the presence of sufficient convective available potential energy (CAPE). A number of explanations for the episodic development have been proposed. These involve a modification of the column above the mountain by shallow convection that conditions the atmosphere for deep convection. The modification is likely due to moistening and/or changes to the static stability by warming the profile. Details of the transition from shallow to deep convection were explored during summer 2006 with support from the National Science Foundation. The Cumulus Photogrammetric In-Situ and Doppler Observations (CuPIDO) program utilized a network of ten portable automated mesonet stations (PAM-III), four of which were equipped to measure surface latent and sensible heat flux, two GPS based mobile sounding systems (MGAUS), two stereo pairs of digital cameras and the University of Wyoming King Air (with 95 GHz Doppler radar) to examine the onset and evolution of monsoon thunderstorms. This talk will describe the CuPIDO 2006 field program and present some preliminary results. Stereo- photogrammetric techniques are utilized to determine the three-dimensional structure of the clouds during various stages of the development. Changes to the vertical profile during the course of the development are examined using the sounding data and augmented by in-situ data from the aircraft. One specific example will be presented in which the breakdown of a stable layer at about the 500 mb level coincides with the onset of deep convection. The breakdown appears to be associated with warming of the profile in the lowest portion of the inversion through the action of the
Topology of convection beneath the solar surface
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stein, R.F.; Nordlund, A.
1989-01-01
It is shown that the topology of convection beneath the solar surface is dominated by effects of stratification. Convection in a strongly stratified medium has: (1) gentle expanding structureless warm upflows and (2) strong converging filamentary cool downdrafts. The horizontal flow topology is cellular, with a hierarchy of cell sizes. The small density scale height in the surface layers forces the formation of the solar granulation, which is a shallow surface phenomenon. Deeper layers support successively larger cells. The downflows of small cells close to the surface merge into filamentary downdrafts of larger cells at greater depths, and this process is likely to continue through most of the convection zone. Radiative cooling at the surface provides the entropy-deficient material which drives the circulation. 13 refs
Boundary layer control of rotating convection systems.
King, Eric M; Stellmach, Stephan; Noir, Jerome; Hansen, Ulrich; Aurnou, Jonathan M
2009-01-15
Turbulent rotating convection controls many observed features of stars and planets, such as magnetic fields, atmospheric jets and emitted heat flux patterns. It has long been argued that the influence of rotation on turbulent convection dynamics is governed by the ratio of the relevant global-scale forces: the Coriolis force and the buoyancy force. Here, however, we present results from laboratory and numerical experiments which exhibit transitions between rotationally dominated and non-rotating behaviour that are not determined by this global force balance. Instead, the transition is controlled by the relative thicknesses of the thermal (non-rotating) and Ekman (rotating) boundary layers. We formulate a predictive description of the transition between the two regimes on the basis of the competition between these two boundary layers. This transition scaling theory unifies the disparate results of an extensive array of previous experiments, and is broadly applicable to natural convection systems.
Convective mixing in helium white dwarfs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vauclair, G.; Fontaine, G.
1979-01-01
The conditions under which convective mixing episodes take place between the helium envelopes and the underlying carbon layers in helium-rich white dwarfs are investigated. It is found that, for essentially any value of the initial helium content less than the maximum mass a helium convection zone can have, mixing does occur, and leads, in the vast majority of cases, to an almost pure carbon superficial composition. Mixing products that show only traces of carbon while retaining helium-dominated envelopes are possible only if the initial helium content is quite close to the maximum possible mass of the helium convection zone. In the presence of turbulence, this restriction could be relaxed, however, and the helium-rich lambda4670 stars may possibly be explained in this fashion
Hamed K. Arzani; Hamid K. Arzani; S.N. Kazi; A. Badarudin
2016-01-01
Numerical investigation into convective heat transfer of CuO-Water based nanofluid in a pipe with return bend under laminar flow conditions has been done. The impacts of Reynolds number and the volume concentration of nanoparticles on the flow and the convective heat transfer behaviour are investigated. The results indicate that the increase in Reynolds number leads to the enhancement of average Nusselt number, and the increase in specific heat in the presence of the nanofluid results in impr...
Richards, Jennifer H; Kuhn, David N; Bishop, Kristin
2012-12-01
Nymphaea odorata grows in water up to 2 m deep, producing fewer larger leaves in deeper water. This species has a convective flow system that moves gases from younger leaves through submerged parts to older leaves, aerating submerged parts. Petiolar air canals are the convective flow pathways. This study describes the structure of these canals, how this structure varies with water depth, and models how convective flow varies with depth. • Nymphaea odorata plants were grown at water depths from 30 to 90 cm. Lamina area, petiolar cross-sectional area, and number and area of air canals were measured. Field-collected leaves and leaves from juvenile plants were analyzed similarly. Using these data and data from the literature, we modeled how convective flow changes with water depth. • Petioles of N. odorata produce two central pairs of air canals; additional pairs are added peripherally, and succeeding pairs are smaller. The first three pairs account for 96% of air canal area. Air canals form 24% of petiolar cross-sectional area. Petiolar and air canal cross-sectional areas increase with water depth. Petiolar area scales with lamina area, but the slope of this relationship is lower in 90 cm water than at shallower depths. In our model, the rate of convective flow varied with depth and with the balance of influx to efflux leaves. • Air canals in N. odorata petioles increase in size and number in deeper water but at a decreasing amount in relation to lamina area. Convective flow also depends on the number of influx to efflux laminae.
The Impact of Reduced Gravity on Free Convective Heat Transfer from a Finite, Flat, Vertical Plate
Lotto, Michael A.; Johnson, Kirstyn M.; Nie, Christopher W.; Klaus, David M.
2017-10-01
Convective heat transfer is governed by a number of factors including various fluid properties, the presence of a thermal gradient, geometric configuration, flow condition, and gravity. Empirically-derived analytical relationships can be used to estimate convection as a function of these governing parameters. Although it is relatively straightforward to experimentally quantify the contributions of the majority of these variables, it is logistically difficult to assess the influence of reduced-gravity due to practical limitations of establishing this environment. Therefore, in order to explore this regime, a series of tests was conducted to evaluate convection under reduced-gravity conditions averaging 0.45 m/sec2 (0.05 g) achieved aboard a parabolic aircraft. The results showed a reduction in net heat transfer of approximately 61% in flight relative to a 1 g terrestrial baseline using the same setup. The average experimental Nusselt Number of 19.05 ± 1.41 statistically correlated with the predicted value of 18.90 ± 0.63 (N = 13), estimated using the Churchill-Chu correlation for free convective heat transfer from a finite, flat, vertical plate. Extrapolating this to similar performance in true microgravity (10-6 g) indicates that these conditions should yield a Nusselt Number of 1.27, which is 2.6% the magnitude of free convection at 1 g, or a reduction of 97.4%. With advection essentially eliminated, heat transfer becomes limited to diffusion and radiation, which are gravity-independent and nearly equivalent in magnitude in this case. These results offer a general guideline for integrating components that utilize natural (free) convective gas cooling in a spacecraft habitat and properly sizing the thermal control system.
Hurst, D. F.; Rosenlof, K. H.; Davis, S. M.; Hall, E. G.; Jordan, A. F.
2014-12-01
Anderson et al. (2012) reported the frequent presence of convectively injected water vapor in the lowermost stratosphere over North America during summertime, based on aircraft measurements. They asserted that enhanced catalytic ozone destruction within these wet stratospheric air parcels presents a concern for UV dosages in populated areas, especially if the frequency of deep convective events increases. Schwartz et al.(2013) analyzed 8 years of more widespread Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) measurements of lower stratospheric water vapor over North America and concluded that anomalously wet (>8 ppm) air parcels were present only 2.5% of the time during July and August. However, given the 3-km vertical resolution of MLS water vapor retrievals in the lowermost stratosphere, thin wet layers deposited by overshooting convection may be present but not readily detectable by MLS. Since 1980 the balloon-borne NOAA frost point hygrometer (FPH) has produced nearly 400 high quality water vapor profiles over Boulder, Colorado, at 5-m vertical resolution from the surface to the middle stratosphere. The 34-year record of high-resolution FPH profiles obtained over Boulder during summer months is evaluated for evidence of convectively injected water vapor in the lowermost stratosphere. A number of approaches are used to assess the contributions of deep convection to the Boulder stratospheric water vapor record. The results are compared to those based on MLS profiles over Boulder and the differences are discussed. Anderson, J. G., D. M. Wilmouth, J. B. Smith, and D. S. Sayres (2012), UV dosage levels in summer: Increased risk of ozone loss from convectively injected water vapor, Science, 337(6096), 835-839, doi:10.1126/science.1222978. Schwartz, M. J., W. G. Read, M. L. Santee, N. J. Livesey, L. Froidevaux, A. Lambert, and G. L. Manney (2013), Convectively injected water vapor in the North American summer lowermost stratosphere, Geophys. Res. Lett., 40, 2316-2321, doi:10
Regional Bowen ratio controls on afternoon moist convection: A large eddy simulation study
Kang, Song-Lak
2016-12-01
This study examines the effect of the regional Bowen ratio β, the ratio of the domain-averaged surface sensible heat flux (SHF) to latent heat flux (LHF), on afternoon moist convection. With a temporally evolving but spatially uniform surface available energy over a mesoscale domain under a weak capping inversion, we run large eddy simulation of the afternoon convective boundary layer (CBL). We first prescribe a small β of 0.56 (a wet surface) and then the reversed large β of 1.80 (a dry surface) by switching the SHF and LHF fields. The perturbation fields of the fluxes are prescribed with the Fourier spectra of κ- 3 (κ is horizontal wave number; strong mesoscale heterogeneity) and κ0 (homogeneity). The large β cases have strong vertical buoyancy fluxes and produce more vigorous updrafts. In the heterogeneous, large β surface case, with the removal of convective inhibition over a mesoscale subdomain of large SHF, deep convection develops. In the heterogeneous, small β surface case, convective clouds develop but do not progress into precipitating convection. In the homogeneous surface cases, randomly distributed shallow clouds develop with significantly more and thicker clouds in the large β case. (Co)spectral analyses confirm the more vigorous turbulent thermals in the large β cases and reveal that the moisture advection by the surface heterogeneity-induced mesoscale flows makes the correlation between mesoscale temperature and moisture perturbations change from negative to positive, which facilitates the mesoscale pool of high relative humidity air just above the CBL top, a necessary condition for deep convection.
Two-phase forced-convective fouling under steam generator operating conditions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Klimas, S.J.; Pietralik, J.M.
2002-01-01
Two-phase forced-convective fouling can occur in adiabatic two-phase flow and in diabatic two-phase flow, where it can be a significant contributor to fouling under flow-boiling conditions. For recirculating steam generators (SGs), it is, therefore, of significance to steam separators, tube support plates, tubesheet and the tube bundle. Loop test data are presented on forced-convective fouling rate of iron corrosion products under a range of conditions relevant to the secondary-side of recirculating SGs. The measurements were performed using a number of corrosion products (magnetite, hematite and lepidocrocite) under a range of water chemistry conditions, with several different amines. The measurements were limited to the straight-tube geometry. Comparable fouling data are given for flow-boiling conditions. A SG artefact was examined to corroborate the loop data. The rate constants for the forced-convective fouling measurements are compared with those for flow-boiling fouling. Their relative magnitudes can vary greatly, depending on the chemistry and thermohydraulic conditions. Boiling fouling dominated over forced-convection fouling for hematite and lepidocrocite particles, likely because of particle-bubble interactions. Forced-convective fouling rate was only slightly lower than boiling fouling for magnetite. For the region of cross-flow (upper tube bundle), deposits show significant thickness variation. Four or five deposit thickness peaks are noted, approximately equally spaced circumferentially. It is hypothesized that the fouling pattern is developed due to the cross-flow pattern present in the tube bundle. The possible interactions between the force-convective and nucleate-boiling fouling streams are briefly discussed. A method is presented for the superposition of the forced-convective and nucleate boiling fouling components. This method is based on the Chen heat transfer correlation. (author)
Andrews, George E
1994-01-01
Although mathematics majors are usually conversant with number theory by the time they have completed a course in abstract algebra, other undergraduates, especially those in education and the liberal arts, often need a more basic introduction to the topic.In this book the author solves the problem of maintaining the interest of students at both levels by offering a combinatorial approach to elementary number theory. In studying number theory from such a perspective, mathematics majors are spared repetition and provided with new insights, while other students benefit from the consequent simpl
Might electrical earthing affect convection of light
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Budrikis, Z.L.
1982-01-01
Partial convection of light by moving media was predicted by Fresnel and verified by Fizeau, Zeeman and others. It is accepted as an important argument in favour of the Special Theory of Relativity. The suggestion is made here that the convection is partial only when the propagating medium is moved with respect to its electrically earthed surroundings and that it would be total if an earthed shield was co-moving with the medium. This is based on a reinterpretation of Maxwell's equations wherein they are seen as macroscopic relationships that are in each case valid only in respect of a particular inertial frame of reference, the local electrical earth frame. (Auth.)
The driving force for magnetospheric convection
Johnson, F. S.
1978-01-01
Viscously driven magnetospheric models, as well as a model involving interconnection between the geomagnetic field and the magnetic field in the solar wind, have been proposed to describe the driving force for magnetospheric convection. Lack of a satisfactory theory for the interconnection in the latter model and, in the case of the viscous interaction models, inadequacies in predicting the quantity of the driving force, make these two classes of models less than successful. Accordingly, a mechanically driven magnetospheric model is proposed: solar wind plasma enters the magnetosphere around the neutral points, covers the inner surface of the magnetopause and subsequently expands, driving convection as it escapes from the open tail.
Topology Optimisation for Coupled Convection Problems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Alexandersen, Joe; Andreasen, Casper Schousboe; Aage, Niels
stabilised finite elements implemented in a parallel multiphysics analysis and optimisation framework DFEM [1], developed and maintained in house. Focus is put on control of the temperature field within the solid structure and the problems can therefore be seen as conjugate heat transfer problems, where heat...... conduction governs in the solid parts of the design domain and couples to convection-dominated heat transfer to a surrounding fluid. Both loosely coupled and tightly coupled problems are considered. The loosely coupled problems are convection-diffusion problems, based on an advective velocity field from...
Free convection of Walter's fluid flow in a vertical double-passage ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Free convection of Walter's fluid flow in a vertical double-passage wavy channel with heat source. ... Numerical results are presented graphically for the distribution of velocity and temperature fields for varying physical parameters such as baffle position, Grashof number, wall temperature ratio, viscoelastic parameter and ...
The effect of Coriolis force on nonlinear convection in a porous medium
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D. H. Riahi
1994-01-01
Full Text Available Nonlinear convection in a porous medium and rotating about vertical axis is studied in this paper. An upper bound to the heat flux is calculated by the method initiated first by Howard [6] for the case of infinite Prandtl number.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
D'Orazio, A; Karimipour, A; Nezhad, A H; Shirani, E
2014-01-01
Laminar mixed convective heat transfer in two-dimensional rectangular inclined driven cavity is studied numerically by means of a double population thermal Lattice Boltzmann method. Through the top moving lid the heat flux enters the cavity whereas it leaves the system through the bottom wall; side walls are adiabatic. The counter-slip internal energy density boundary condition, able to simulate an imposed non zero heat flux at the wall, is applied, in order to demonstrate that it can be effectively used to simulate heat transfer phenomena also in case of moving walls. Results are analyzed over a range of the Richardson numbers and tilting angles of the enclosure, encompassing the dominating forced convection, mixed convection, and dominating natural convection flow regimes. As expected, heat transfer rate increases as increases the inclination angle, but this effect is significant for higher Richardson numbers, when buoyancy forces dominate the problem; for horizontal cavity, average Nusselt number decreases with the increase of Richardson number because of the stratified field configuration
Stability analysis of natural convection in superposed fluid and porous layers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hirata, S.C.; Goyeau, B.; Gobin, D.; Cotta, R.M.
2005-01-01
A linear stability analysis of the onset of thermal natural convection in superposed fluid and porous layers is called out. The resulting eigenvalue problem is solved using a integral transformation technique. The effect of the variation of the Darcy number on the stability of the system is analyzed. (authors)
Stability analysis of natural convection in superposed fluid and porous layers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hirata, S.C.; Goyeau, B.; Gobin, D. [Paris-11 Univ. - Paris-6, FAST - UMR CNRS 7608, 91 - Orsay (France); Cotta, R.M. [Rio de Janeiro Univ. (LTTC/PEM/EE/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil)
2005-07-01
A linear stability analysis of the onset of thermal natural convection in superposed fluid and porous layers is called out. The resulting eigenvalue problem is solved using a integral transformation technique. The effect of the variation of the Darcy number on the stability of the system is analyzed. (authors)
A highly stable microchannel heat sink for convective boiling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lu, Chun Ting; Pan Chin
2009-01-01
To develop a highly stable two-phase microchannel heat sink, we experimented with convective boiling in diverging, parallel microchannels with different distributions of laser-etched artificial nucleation sites. Each microchannel had a mean hydraulic diameter of 120 µm. The two-phase flow visualization and the magnitudes of pressure drop and inlet temperature oscillations under boiling conditions demonstrated clearly the merits of using artificial nucleation sites to further stabilize the flow boiling in diverging, parallel microchannels. The stability map showed the plane of subcooling number versus phase change number. It illustrated that diverging, parallel microchannels with artificial nucleation cavities have a much wider stable region than parallel microchannels with uniform cross-sections or diverging, parallel microchannels without artificial nucleation cavities. In addition, the results revealed that the design with cavities distributed uniformly along the downstream half of the channel presented the best stability performance among the three distributions of nucleation sites. This particular design can be regarded as a highly stable microchannel heat sink for convective boiling
Statistical evaluation of the simulated convective activity over Central Greece
Kartsios, Stergios; Kotsopoulos, Stylianos; Karacostas, Theodore S.; Tegoulias, Ioannis; Pytharoulis, Ioannis; Bampzelis, Dimitrios
2015-04-01
In the framework of the project DAPHNE (www.daphne-meteo.gr), the non-hydrostatic Weather Research and Forecasting model with the Advanced Research dynamic solver (WRF-ARW, version 3.5.1) is used to produce very high spatiotemporal resolution simulations of the convective activity over Thessaly plain and hence, enhancing our knowledge on the impact of high resolution elevation and land use data in the moist convection. The expecting results act as a precursor for the potential applicability of a planned precipitation enhancement program. The three model domains, covering Europe, the Mediterranean Sea and northern Africa (d01), the wider area of Greece (d02) and Thessaly region-central Greece (d03), are used at horizontal grid-spacings of 15km, 5km and 1km respectively. ECMWF operational analyses at 6-hourly intervals (0.25ox0.25o lat.-long.) are imported as initial and boundary conditions of the coarse domain, while in the vertical, 39 sigma levels (up to 50 hPa) are used, with increased resolution in the boundary layer. Microphysical processes are represented by WSM6 scheme, sub-grid scale convection by Kain-Fritsch scheme, longwave and shortwave radiation by RRTMG scheme, surface layer by Monin-Obukhov (MM5), boundary layer by Yonsei University and soil physics by NOAH Unified model. Six representative days with different upper-air synoptic circulation types are selected, while high resolution (3'') elevation data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM - version 4) are inserted in the innermost domain (d03), along with the Corine Land Cover 2000 raster data (3''x3''). The aforementioned data sets are used in different configurations, in order to evaluate the impact of each one on the simulated convective activity in the vicinity of Thessaly region, using a grid of available meteorological stations in the area. For each selected day, four (4) sensitivity simulations are performed, setting a total number of 24 runs. Finally, the best configuration provides
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Natural convection is a physical phenomenon that has been investigated in nuclear engineering so as to provide information about heat transfer in severe accident conditions involving nuclear reactors. This research reported transient natural convection of fluids with uniformly distributed volumetrically heat generation in square cavity with isothermal side walls and adiabatic top/bottom walls. Two Prandtl numbers were considered, 0:0321 and 0:71. Direct numerical simulations were applied in order to obtain results about the velocities of the fluid in directions x and y. These results were used in Fast Fourier Transform, which showed the periodic, quasi-chaotic and chaotic behavior of transient laminar flow. (author)
Interaction of localized convection cells in the bioconvection of Euglena gracilis
Iima, Makoto; Yamaguchi, Takayuki
2016-11-01
Euglena gracilis is a unicellular flagellated photosynthetic alga. The suspension of Euglena has behavioral responses to light, which causes a macroscopic localized bioconvection pattern when illuminated from below. One of the fundamental structures of this is a pair of convection cells, and high cell density region exists in the middle of the pair. Experimental studies show various types of interaction in the localized convection cells; bound state, collision, etc. We performed numerical simulation of a hydrodynamic model of this system, and show results of the interactions. Long-range interaction due to the conservation of cell number and merging process of two localized structures will be discussed. KAKENHI.
Mathematical Modelling of Force Convection in a Two–Phase Thermosyphon in Conjugate Formulation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nurpeiis Atlant
2016-01-01
Full Text Available A nonlinear non-stationary problem of the conductive-convective heat transfer is addressed (under forced convection conditions in the thermosyphon of rectangular cross-section. The thermal energy supply is carried out through the lower horizontal border. The mathematical model is formulated in dimensionless variables of “velocity vorticity vector – current function – temperature”. The current and temperature distribution lines are obtained, illustrating the effect of the Reynolds number on the thermodynamic structures formation in the analyzed object.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Suh, K.Y.; Todreas, N.E.; Robsenow, W.M.
1987-01-01
An experimental study has been conducted to confirm and validate the predictive models and correlations for low flow frictional pressure loss in vertical rod bundle geometries under natural circulation conditions. An experimental procedure has been developed to measure low magnitude differential pressures under mixed convection conditions in 19 heated rod bare and wire-wrapped assemblies. The proposed model has been found to successfully predict the effects of wire wrapping, power skew, transition from laminar regime, developing and interacting global and local flow redistributions, and rod number on the mixed convection friction loss characteristics of rod bundles
El-Amin, Mohamed
2011-01-01
The interaction of mixed convection with thermal radiation of an optical dense viscous fluid adjacent to an isothermal cone imbedded in a porous medium with Rosseland diffusion approximation incorporating the variation of permeability and thermal conductivity is numerically investigated. The transformed conservation laws are solved numerically for the case of variable surface temperature conditions. Numerical results are given for the dimensionless temperature profiles and the local Nusselt number for various values of the mixed convection parameter , the cone angle parameter ?, the radiation-conduction parameter R d, and the surface temperature parameter H. Copyright 2011 M. F. El-Amin et al.
Barnes, John
2016-01-01
In this intriguing book, John Barnes takes us on a journey through aspects of numbers much as he took us on a geometrical journey in Gems of Geometry. Similarly originating from a series of lectures for adult students at Reading and Oxford University, this book touches a variety of amusing and fascinating topics regarding numbers and their uses both ancient and modern. The author intrigues and challenges his audience with both fundamental number topics such as prime numbers and cryptography, and themes of daily needs and pleasures such as counting one's assets, keeping track of time, and enjoying music. Puzzles and exercises at the end of each lecture offer additional inspiration, and numerous illustrations accompany the reader. Furthermore, a number of appendices provides in-depth insights into diverse topics such as Pascal’s triangle, the Rubik cube, Mersenne’s curious keyboards, and many others. A theme running through is the thought of what is our favourite number. Written in an engaging and witty sty...
Double-diffusive natural convection in an enclosure filled with nanofluid using ISPH method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Abdelraheem M. Aly
2016-12-01
Full Text Available The double-diffusive natural convection in an enclosure filled with nanofluid is studied using ISPH method. The model used for the nanofluid incorporates the effects of Brownian motion and thermophoresis. In addition the thermal energy equations include regular diffusion and cross-diffusion terms. In ISPH algorithm, a semi implicit velocity correction procedure is utilized and the pressure is implicitly evaluated by solving pressure Poisson equation. The results are presented with flow configurations, isotherms, concentration and nanoparticle volume fraction contours and average Nusselt and Sherwood numbers for different cases. The results from this investigation are well validated and have favorable comparisons with previously published results. It is found that, among all cases, a good natural convection can be obtained by considering the double diffusive case. An increase in Soret number accompanied by a decrease in Dufour number results in an increase in average Nusselt number and a decrease in average Sherwood number.
High Ra, high Pr convection with viscosity gradients
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. High Ra, high Pr convection with viscosity gradients. Weak upward flow through mesh. Top fluid more viscous. Unstable layer Instability Convection.
Active Control of Thermal Convection in a Rectangular Loop by Changing its Spatial Orientation
Bratsun, Dmitry A.; Krasnyakov, Ivan V.; Zyuzgin, Alexey V.
2018-02-01
The problem of the automatic control of the fluid flow in a rectangular convective loop heated from below is studied theoretically and experimentally. The control is performed by using a feedback subsystem which changes the convection regimes by introducing small discrete changes in the spatial orientation of the loop with respect to gravity. We focus on effects that arise when the feedback controller operates with an unavoidable time delay, which is cause by the thermal inertia of the medium. The mathematical model of the phenomenon is developed. The dynamic regimes of the convection in the thermosyphon loop under control are studied. It is shown that the proposed control method can successfully stabilize not only a no-motion state of the fluid, but also time-dependent modes of convection including the irregular fluid flow at high values of the Rayleigh number. It is shown that the excessive gain of the proportional feedback can result in oscillations in the loop orientation exciting the unsteady convection modes. The comparison of the experimental data obtained for dielectric oil and dodecane with theory is given, and their good agreement is demonstrated.
Determination of drying kinetics and convective heat transfer coefficients of ginger slices
Akpinar, Ebru Kavak; Toraman, Seda
2016-10-01
In the present work, the effects of some parametric values on convective heat transfer coefficients and the thin layer drying process of ginger slices were investigated. Drying was done in the laboratory by using cyclone type convective dryer. The drying air temperature was varied as 40, 50, 60 and 70 °C and the air velocity is 0.8, 1.5 and 3 m/s. All drying experiments had only falling rate period. The drying data were fitted to the twelve mathematical models and performance of these models was investigated by comparing the determination of coefficient ( R 2), reduced Chi-square ( χ 2) and root mean square error between the observed and predicted moisture ratios. The effective moisture diffusivity and activation energy were calculated using an infinite series solution of Fick's diffusion equation. The average effective moisture diffusivity values and activation energy values varied from 2.807 × 10-10 to 6.977 × 10-10 m2/s and 19.313-22.722 kJ/mol over the drying air temperature and velocity range, respectively. Experimental data was used to evaluate the values of constants in Nusselt number expression by using linear regression analysis and consequently, convective heat transfer coefficients were determined in forced convection mode. Convective heat transfer coefficient of ginger slices showed changes in ranges 0.33-2.11 W/m2 °C.
Huang, Zhu
2015-03-01
The periodic unsteady natural convection flow and heat transfer in a square enclosure containing a concentric circular cylinder is numerically studied. The temperature of the inner circular cylinder fluctuates periodically with time at higher averaged value while the temperature of the enclosure keeps lower constant, and the natural convection is driven by the temperature difference. The two-dimensional natural convection is simulated with high accuracy temporal spectral method and local radial basis functions method. The Rayleigh number is studied in the range 103 ≤ Ra ≤ 106, the temperature pulsating period ranges from 0.01 to 100 and the temperature pulsating amplitudes are a = 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5. Numerical results reveal that the fluid flow and heat transfer is strongly dependent on the pulsating temperature of inner cylinder. Comparing with the steady state natural convection, the heat transfer is enhanced generally for the time-periodic unsteady natural convection, and the local maximum heat transfer rate is observed for Ra = 105 and 106. Moreover, the phenomenon of backward heat transfer is discussed quantitatively. Also, the influence of pulsating temperature on the unsteady fluid flow and heat transfer are discussed and analyzed.
A new method to reconstruct the ionospheric convection patterns in the polar cap
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. L. Israelevich
1999-06-01
Full Text Available A new method to reconstruct the instantaneous convection pattern in the Earth's polar ionosphere is suggested. Plasma convection in the polar cap ionosphere is described as a hydrodynamic incompressible flow. This description is valid in the region where the electric currents are field aligned (and hence, the Lorentz body force vanishes. The problem becomes two-dimensional, and may be described by means of stream function. The flow pattern may be found as a solution of the boundary value problem for stream function. Boundary conditions should be provided by measurements of the electric field or plasma velocity vectors along the satellite orbits. It is shown that the convection pattern may be reconstructed with a reasonable accuracy by means of this method, by using only the minimum number of satellite crossings of the polar cap. The method enables us to obtain a reasonable estimate of the convection pattern without knowledge of the ionospheric conductivity.Key words. Ionosphere (modelling and forecasting; plasma convection; polar ionosphere
A new method to reconstruct the ionospheric convection patterns in the polar cap
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. L. Israelevich
Full Text Available A new method to reconstruct the instantaneous convection pattern in the Earth's polar ionosphere is suggested. Plasma convection in the polar cap ionosphere is described as a hydrodynamic incompressible flow. This description is valid in the region where the electric currents are field aligned (and hence, the Lorentz body force vanishes. The problem becomes two-dimensional, and may be described by means of stream function. The flow pattern may be found as a solution of the boundary value problem for stream function. Boundary conditions should be provided by measurements of the electric field or plasma velocity vectors along the satellite orbits. It is shown that the convection pattern may be reconstructed with a reasonable accuracy by means of this method, by using only the minimum number of satellite crossings of the polar cap. The method enables us to obtain a reasonable estimate of the convection pattern without knowledge of the ionospheric conductivity.
Key words. Ionosphere (modelling and forecasting; plasma convection; polar ionosphere
Specialists' meeting on evaluation of decay heat removal by natural convection
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1993-02-01
Decay heat removal by natural convection (DHRNC) is essential to enhancing the safety of liquid metal fast reactors (LMFRs). Various design concepts related to DHRNC have been proposed and experimental and analytical studies have been carried out in a number of countries. The purpose of this Specialists' Meeting on 'Decay Heat Removal by Natural Convection' organized by the International Working Group on Fast Reactors IAEA, is to exchange information about the state of the art related to methodologies on evaluation of DHRNC features (experimental studies and code developments) and to discuss problems which need to be solved in order to evaluate DHRNC properly and reasonably. The following main topical areas were discussed by delegates: Overview; Experimental studies and code validation; Design study. Two main DHR systems for LMFR are under consideration: (i) direct reactor auxiliary cooling system (DRACS) with immersed DFIX in main vessel, intermediate sodium loop and sodium-air heat exchanger; and (ii) auxiliary cooling system which removes heat from the outside surface of the reactor vessel by natural convection of air (RVACS). The practicality and economic viability of the use of RVACS is possible up to a modular type reactor or a middle size reactor based on current technology. For the large monolithic plant concepts DRACS is preferable. The existing experimental results and the codes show encouraging results so that the decay heat removal by pure natural convection is feasible. Concerning the objective, 'passive safety', the DHR by pure natural convection is essential feature to enhance the reliability of DHR
Active Control of Thermal Convection in a Rectangular Loop by Changing its Spatial Orientation
Bratsun, Dmitry A.; Krasnyakov, Ivan V.; Zyuzgin, Alexey V.
2017-12-01
The problem of the automatic control of the fluid flow in a rectangular convective loop heated from below is studied theoretically and experimentally. The control is performed by using a feedback subsystem which changes the convection regimes by introducing small discrete changes in the spatial orientation of the loop with respect to gravity. We focus on effects that arise when the feedback controller operates with an unavoidable time delay, which is cause by the thermal inertia of the medium. The mathematical model of the phenomenon is developed. The dynamic regimes of the convection in the thermosyphon loop under control are studied. It is shown that the proposed control method can successfully stabilize not only a no-motion state of the fluid, but also time-dependent modes of convection including the irregular fluid flow at high values of the Rayleigh number. It is shown that the excessive gain of the proportional feedback can result in oscillations in the loop orientation exciting the unsteady convection modes. The comparison of the experimental data obtained for dielectric oil and dodecane with theory is given, and their good agreement is demonstrated.
Hassan, Ali; Ramzan, Naveed; Umer, Asim; Ahmad, Ayyaz; Muryam, Hina
2018-02-01
The enhancement in the convective heat transfer coefficient of the ethylene glycol (EG) base cuprous oxide (Cu2O) nanofluids were investigated. The nanofluids of different volume concentrations i-e 1%, 2.5% and 4.5% were prepared by the two step method. Cuprous oxide (Cu2O) nanoparticles were ultrasonically stirred for four hours in the ethylene glycol (EG). The experimental study has been performed through circular tube geometry in laminar flow regime at average Reynolds numbers 36, 71 and 116. The constant heat flux Q = 4000 (W/m2) was maintained during this work. Substantial enhancement was observed in the convective heat transfer coefficient of ethylene glycol (EG) base cuprous oxide (Cu2O) nanofluids than the base fluid. The maximum 74% enhancement was observed in convective heat transfer coefficient at 4.5 vol% concentration and Re = 116.
Numerical Simulation of Water/Al2O3 Nanofluid Turbulent Convection
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vincenzo Bianco
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Turbulent forced convection flow of a water-Al2O3 nanofluid in a circular tube subjected to a constant and uniform temperature at the wall is numerically analyzed. The two-phase mixture model is employed to simulate the nanofluid convection, taking into account appropriate thermophysical properties. Particles are assumed spherical with a diameter equal to 38 nm. It is found that convective heat transfer coefficient for nanofluids is greater than that of the base liquid. Heat transfer enhancement is increasing with the particle volume concentration and Reynolds number. Comparisons with correlations present in the literature are accomplished and a very good agreement is found with Pak and Cho (1998. As for the friction factor, it shows a good agreement with the classical correlation used for normal fluid, such as Blasius formula.
Intensive probing of clear air convective fields by radar and instrumented drone aircraft.
Rowland, J. R.
1972-01-01
Clear air convective fields were probed in three summer experiments (1969, 1970, and 1971) on an S-band monopulse tracking radar at Wallops Island, Virginia, and a drone aircraft with a takeoff weight of 5.2 kg, wingspan of 2.5 m, and cruising glide speed of 10.3 m/sec. The drone was flown 23.2 km north of the radar and carried temperature, pressure/altitude, humidity, and vertical and airspeed velocity sensors. Extensive time-space convective field data were obtained by taking a large number of RHI and PPI pictures at short intervals of time. The rapidly changing overall convective field data obtained from the radar could be related to the meteorological information telemetered from the drone at a reasonably low cost by this combined technique.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shestakov Igor A.
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The article shows the results of mathematical modeling of convective heat transfer in the low-temperature storage of liquefied natural gas. Regime of natural convection in an enclosure with different intensity of the heat flux at the external borders are investigated. Was examined two-dimensional nonstationary problem within the model of Navier-Stokes in dimensionless variables “vorticity - stream function - temperature”. Distributions of hydrodynamic parameters and temperatures that characterize the basic regularities of the processes are obtained. Circulating flows are determined and carried out the analysis of vortices formation mechanism and the temperature distribution in solution at conditions of natural convection when the Grashof number (Gr = 106. A significant influence of heat transfer rate on solutions boundary on flow structure and temperature field in LNG storage tanks.
Dissipative lateral walls are sufficient to trigger convection in vibrated granular gases
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pontuale Giorgio
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Buoyancy-driven (thermal convection in dilute granular media, fluidized by a vibrating base, is known to appear without the need of lateral boundaries in a restricted region of parameters (inelasticity, gravity, intensity of energy injection. We have recently discovered a second buoyancy-driven convection effect which occurs at any value of the parameters, provided that the impact of particles with the lateral walls is inelastic (Pontuale et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 098006 (2016. It is understood that this novel convection effect is strictly correlated to the existence of perpendicular energy fluxes: a vertical one, induced by both bulk and wall inelasticity, and a horizontal one, induced only by dissipation at the walls. Here we first review those previous results, and then present new experimental and numerical data concerning the variations of box geometry, intensity of energy injection, number of particles and width of the box.
Mixed convection in a lid-driven square cavity with partial slip
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ismael, Muneer A.; Pop, Ioan; Chamkha, Ali J.
2014-01-01
Steady laminar mixed convection inside a lid-driven square cavity filled with water is studied numerically. The lid is due to the movement of the isothermal top and bottom walls which are maintained at T c and T h , respectively, with T h is higher than T c . A partial slip condition was imposed in these two moving walls. The vertical walls of the cavity are kept adiabatic. The appliance of the numerical analysis was USR finite difference method with upwind scheme treatments of the convective terms included in the momentum and energy equations. The studied relevant parameters were: the partial slip parameter S (0-∞); Richardson number Ri (0.01-100) and the direction of the moving walls (λ t = 1, λ b = ±1). The results have showed that there are critical values for the partial slip parameter at which the convection is declined. (authors)
Simulation of regimes of convection and plume dynamics by the thermal Lattice Boltzmann Method
Mora, Peter; Yuen, David A.
2018-02-01
We present 2D simulations using the Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) of a fluid in a rectangular box being heated from below, and cooled from above. We observe plumes, hot narrow upwellings from the base, and down-going cold chutes from the top. We have varied both the Rayleigh numbers and the Prandtl numbers respectively from Ra = 1000 to Ra =1010 , and Pr = 1 through Pr = 5 ×104 , leading to Rayleigh-Bénard convection cells at low Rayleigh numbers through to vigorous convection and unstable plumes with pronounced vortices and eddies at high Rayleigh numbers. We conduct simulations with high Prandtl numbers up to Pr = 50, 000 to simulate in the inertial regime. We find for cases when Pr ⩾ 100 that we obtain a series of narrow plumes of upwelling fluid with mushroom heads and chutes of downwelling fluid. We also present simulations at a Prandtl number of 0.7 for Rayleigh numbers varying from Ra =104 through Ra =107.5 . We demonstrate that the Nusselt number follows power law scaling of form Nu ∼Raγ where γ = 0.279 ± 0.002 , which is consistent with published results of γ = 0.281 in the literature. These results show that the LBM is capable of reproducing results obtained with classical macroscopic methods such as spectral methods, and demonstrate the great potential of the LBM for studying thermal convection and plume dynamics relevant to geodynamics.
The Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jensen, Mark P.; Petersen, Walt A.; Bansemer, Aaron; Bharadwaj, Nitin; Carey, Larry; Cecil, D. J.; Collis, Scott M.; Del Genio, Anthony D.; Dolan, Brenda A.; Gerlach, J.; Giangrande, Scott; Heymsfield, Andrew J.; Heymsfield, Gerald; Kollias, Pavlos; Lang, T. J.; Nesbitt, Steve W.; Neumann, Andrea; Poellot, M. R.; Rutledge, Steven A.; Schwaller, Mathew R.; Tokay, Ali; Williams, C. R.; Wolff, D. B.; Xie, Shaocheng; Zipser, Edward J.
2016-10-18
The Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E), a field program jointly led by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program and the NASA Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission, was conducted in south-central Oklahoma during April – May 2011. MC3E science objectives were motivated by the need to improve understanding of midlatitude continental convective cloud system lifecycles, microphysics, and GPM precipitation retrieval algorithms. To achieve these objectives a multi-scale surface- and aircraft-based in situ and remote sensing observing strategy was employed. A variety of cloud and precipitation events were sampled during the MC3E, of which results from three deep convective events are highlighted. Vertical structure, air motions, precipitation drop-size distributions and ice properties were retrieved from multi-wavelength radar, profiler, and aircraft observations for an MCS on 11 May. Aircraft observations for another MCS observed on 20 May were used to test agreement between observed radar reflectivities and those calculated with forward-modeled reflectivity and microwave brightness temperatures using in situ particle size distributions and ice water content. Multi-platform observations of a supercell that occurred on 23 May allowed for an integrated analysis of kinematic and microphysical interactions. A core updraft of 25 ms-1 supported growth of hail and large rain drops. Data collected during the MC3E campaign is being used in a number of current and ongoing research projects and is available through the DOE ARM and NASA data archives.
Interaction between Edge-Driven Convection and Mantle Plumes
Manjón-Cabeza Córdoba, A.; Ballmer, M.
2017-12-01
Intraplate volcanism can occur in a variety of geodynamic settings. Its characteristics can inform about the underlying mantle dynamics. A non-negligible number of intraplate oceanic volcanoes are located close to continental shelves (e.g. Bermuda, Canary Islands, Cape Verde…). In these regions, any putative plumes would interact with Edge-Driven Convection (EDC), a mode of Small-Scale Convection that is triggered along steps of lithospheric thickness. We have systematically explored 2-D geodynamic models of EDC, varying e.g. the viscosity of the mantle, geometry of the edge, potential temperature, etc. In addition, we study the influence of a mantle plume with variable excess temperature and buoyancy flux at a given distance to the edge. The mantle-convection code is coupled with a new melting parameterization that considers the depletion effect on productivity. We apply this parameterization not only to predict the extent of melting for a given lithology, but also the major-element composition of extracted melts for comparison with geochemical data. Results show that the first EDC upwellings are always localized in the oceanic domain at a distance from the continental margin that depends on mantle viscosity. The initial geometry of the edge does not have a significant influence on the "steady-state" shape of EDC. Depending on the distance of the plume from the edge and plume vigor, the plume is either deflected or enhanced by EDC. The mix of materials that melts in the mantle, as well as the amount of melting, is controlled by the interaction of the plume with EDC (e.g., with melting restricted to fertile heterogeneities in the end-member EDC case). Because several model parameters affect this interaction and related melting, a joint analysis of major-element and trace-element composition of hotspot lavas is required to constrain mantle processes.
Convectively driven decadal zonal accelerations in Earth's fluid core
More, Colin; Dumberry, Mathieu
2018-04-01
Azimuthal accelerations of cylindrical surfaces co-axial with the rotation axis have been inferred to exist in Earth's fluid core on the basis of magnetic field observations and changes in the length-of-day. These accelerations have a typical timescale of decades. However, the physical mechanism causing the accelerations is not well understood. Scaling arguments suggest that the leading order torque averaged over cylindrical surfaces should arise from the Lorentz force. Decadal fluctuations in the magnetic field inside the core, driven by convective flows, could then force decadal changes in the Lorentz torque and generate zonal accelerations. We test this hypothesis by constructing a quasi-geostrophic model of magnetoconvection, with thermally driven flows perturbing a steady, imposed background magnetic field. We show that when the Alfvén number in our model is similar to that in Earth's fluid core, temporal fluctuations in the torque balance are dominated by the Lorentz torque, with the latter generating mean zonal accelerations. Our model reproduces both fast, free Alfvén waves and slow, forced accelerations, with ratios of relative strength and relative timescale similar to those inferred for the Earth's core. The temporal changes in the magnetic field which drive the time-varying Lorentz torque are produced by the underlying convective flows, shearing and advecting the magnetic field on a timescale associated with convective eddies. Our results support the hypothesis that temporal changes in the magnetic field deep inside Earth's fluid core drive the observed decadal zonal accelerations of cylindrical surfaces through the Lorentz torque.
Magnetic reconnection during steady magnetospheric convection and other magnetospheric modes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
B. Hubert
2017-03-01
Full Text Available We use remote sensing of the proton aurora with the IMAGE-FUV SI12 (Imager for Magnetopause to Aurora Global Exploration–Far Ultraviolet–Spectrographic Imaging at 121.8 nm instrument and radar measurements of the ionospheric convection from the SuperDARN (Super Dual Aurora Radar Network facility to estimate the open magnetic flux in the Earth's magnetosphere and the reconnection rates at the dayside magnetopause and in the magnetotail during intervals of steady magnetospheric convection (SMC. We find that SMC intervals occur with relatively high open magnetic flux (average ∼ 0.745 GWb, standard deviation ∼ 0.16 GWb, which is often found to be nearly steady, when the magnetic flux opening and closure rates approximately balance around 55 kV on average, with a standard deviation of 21 kV. We find that the residence timescale of open magnetic flux, defined as the ratio between the open magnetospheric flux and the flux closure rate, is roughly 4 h during SMCs. Interestingly, this number is approximately what can be deduced from the discussion of the length of the tail published by Dungey (1965, assuming a solar wind speed of ∼ 450 km s−1. We also infer an enhanced convection velocity in the tail, driving open magnetic flux to the nightside reconnection site. We compare our results with previously published studies in order to identify different magnetospheric modes. These are ordered by increasing open magnetic flux and reconnection rate as quiet conditions, SMCs, substorms (with an important overlap between these last two and sawtooth intervals.
Number names and number understanding
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ejersbo, Lisser Rye; Misfeldt, Morten
2014-01-01
This paper concerns the results from the first year of a three-year research project involving the relationship between Danish number names and their corresponding digits in the canonical base 10 system. The project aims to develop a system to help the students’ understanding of the base 10 system...... the Danish number names are more complicated than in other languages. Keywords: A research project in grade 0 and 1th in a Danish school, Base-10 system, two-digit number names, semiotic, cognitive perspectives....
Thermal convection driven by acoustic field under microgravity
Tanabe, Mitsuaki; 田辺 光昭
2007-01-01
Natural convection is suppressed in space environment due to the weightlessness. Only centrifugal force is utilized currently to drive gas-phase thermal convection in space. This paper presents an alternative way to drive thermal convection. From the investigation of combustion oscillation in rocket motors, a new thermal convection had been found in stationary acoustic fields. Analyzing the phenomena, acoustic radiation force is found to be the candidate driving force. With a simplified syste...
Prédiction des structures convectives terrestres
Bello , Léa
2015-01-01
Since its formation, the Earth is slowly cooling. The heat produced by the core and the radioactive decay in the mantle is evacuated toward the surface by convection. The evolving convective structures thereby created control a diversity of surface phenomena such as vertical motion of continents or sea level variation. The study presented here attempts to determine which convective structures can be predicted, to what extent and over what timescale. Because of the chaotic nature of convection...
Horn, S.; Schmid, P. J.; Aurnou, J. M.
2016-12-01
The Earth's metal core acts as a dynamo whose efficiency in generating and maintaining the magnetic field is essentially determined by the rotation rate and the convective motions occurring in its outer liquid part. For the description of the primary physics in the outer core the idealized system of rotating Rayleigh-Bénard convection is often invoked, with the majority of studies considering only working fluids with Prandtl numbers of Pr ≳ 1. However, liquid metals are characterized by distinctly smaller Prandtl numbers which in turn result in an inherently different type of convection. Here, we will present results from direct numerical simulations of rapidly rotating convection in a fluid with Pr ≈ 0.025 in cylindrical containers and Ekman numbers as low as 5 × 10-6. In this system, the Coriolis force is the source of two types of inertial modes, the so-called wall modes, that also exist at moderate Prandtl numbers, and cylinder-filling oscillatory modes, that are a unique feature of small Prandtl number convection. The obtained flow fields were analyzed using the Dynamic Mode Decomposition (DMD). This technique allows to extract and identify the structures that govern the dynamics of the system as well as their corresponding frequencies. We have investigated both the regime where the flow is purely oscillatory and the regime where wall modes and oscillatory modes co-exist. In the purely oscillatory regime, high and low frequency oscillatory modes characterize the flow. When both types of modes are present, the DMD reveals that the wall-attached modes dominate the flow dynamics. They precess with a relatively low frequency in retrograde direction. Nonetheless, also in this case, high frequency oscillations have a significant contribution.
Natural convection flow between moving boundaries | Chepkwony ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The laminar steady natural convection flow of viscous, incompressible fluid between two moving vertical plates is considered. It is assumed that the plates are moving in opposite direction with equal velocity. The two-point boundary value problem governing the flow is characterized by a non-dimensional parameter K. It is ...
An Observational Investigation of Penetrative Convection
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Niels Otto; Lenschow, D. H.
1978-01-01
Data taken during the Air Mass Transformation Experiment (AMTEX) by the NCAR Electra aircraft have proven useful for investigating the structure of thermals penetrating into the turbulent inversion layer which caps the convective mixed layer. Variances, covariances, spectra and cospectra of poten...
Salinity transfer in bounded double diffusive convection
Yang, Yantao; van der Poel, Erwin; Ostilla Monico, Rodolfo; Sun, Chao; Verzicco, Roberto; Grossmann, Siegfried; Lohse, Detlef
2015-01-01
The double diffusive convection between two parallel plates is numerically studied for a series of parameters. The flow is driven by the salinity difference and stabilised by the thermal field. Our simulations are directly compared with experiments by Hage & Tilgner (Phys. Fluids, vol. 22, 2010,
Radiative-convective equilibrium model intercomparison project
Wing, Allison A.; Reed, Kevin A.; Satoh, Masaki; Stevens, Bjorn; Bony, Sandrine; Ohno, Tomoki
2018-03-01
RCEMIP, an intercomparison of multiple types of models configured in radiative-convective equilibrium (RCE), is proposed. RCE is an idealization of the climate system in which there is a balance between radiative cooling of the atmosphere and heating by convection. The scientific objectives of RCEMIP are three-fold. First, clouds and climate sensitivity will be investigated in the RCE setting. This includes determining how cloud fraction changes with warming and the role of self-aggregation of convection in climate sensitivity. Second, RCEMIP will quantify the dependence of the degree of convective aggregation and tropical circulation regimes on temperature. Finally, by providing a common baseline, RCEMIP will allow the robustness of the RCE state across the spectrum of models to be assessed, which is essential for interpreting the results found regarding clouds, climate sensitivity, and aggregation, and more generally, determining which features of tropical climate a RCE framework is useful for. A novel aspect and major advantage of RCEMIP is the accessibility of the RCE framework to a variety of models, including cloud-resolving models, general circulation models, global cloud-resolving models, single-column models, and large-eddy simulation models.
Free convection film flows and heat transfer
Shang, Deyi
2010-01-01
Presents development of systematic studies for hydrodynamics and heat and mass transfer in laminar free convection, accelerating film boiling and condensation of Newtonian fluids, and accelerating film flow of non-Newtonian power-law fluids. This book provides a system of analysis models with a developed velocity component method.
MARANGONI CONVECTION IN V-SHAPED CONTAINERS
HOOGSTRATEN, HW; HOEFSLOOT, HCJ; JANSSEN, LPBM
This paper presents a numerical study of the time evolution of Marangoni convection in two V-shaped containers involved in the microgravity experiments reported in Hoefsloot et al.[7]. First the case of the triangular container with a plane gas/liquid interface is considered, next the container
Turbulent Convection and Pulsation Stability of Stars
Xiong, Da-run
2017-10-01
The controversies about the excitation mechanism for low-temperature variables are reviewed: (1) Most people believe that γ Doradus variables are excited by the so-called convective blocking mechanism. Our researches show that the excitation of γ Doradus has no substantial difference from that of δ Scuti. They are two subgroups of a broader type of δ Stuti-γ Doradus stars: δ Scuti is the p-mode subgroup, while γ Doradus is the g-mode subgroup. (2) Most people believe that the solar and stellar solar-like oscillations are damped by convection, and they are driven by the so-called turbulent random excitation mechanism. Our researches show that convection is not solely a damping mechanism for stellar oscillations, otherwise it is unable to explain the Mira and Mira-like variables. By using our non-local and time-dependent theory of convection, we can reproduce not only the pulsationally unstable strip of δ Scuti and γ Doradus variables, but also the solar-like oscillation features of low-luminosity red giants and the Mira-like oscillation features of high-luminosity red giants.
Theories for convection in stellar atmospheres
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nordlund, Aa.
1976-02-01
A discussion of the fundamental differences between laboratory convection in a stellar atmosphere is presented. The shortcomings of laterally homogeneous model atmospheres are analysed, and the extent to which these shortcoming are avoided in the two-component representation is discussed. Finally a qualitative discussion on the scaling properties of stellar granulation is presented. (Auth.)
Vortex convection in nonuniform compressible flow
Szumowski, A. P.; Meier, G. E. A.
1988-03-01
Vortex convection in longitudinally nonuniform transonic flow fields was studied. Vortices moving in moderately accelerated flow are distinct in the subsonic and supersonic range. Due to the acceleration, the vortices of the Karman street separate continuously one from another. They form a series of periodically shedding individual vortices. The density distribution of the accelerated vortices stays circular. Vortices in subsonic stream (behind the shock wave in the divergent part of the Laval nozzle) impinging on an obstacle (in this case on the regulating valve) cause shock fronts which move upstream. In a subsonic stream flowing out from the convergent nozzle, the primary vortices inside the stream significantly perturb its boundaries and induce secondary vortices (at the boundaries). Flow patterns in a duct with a sudden enlargement of cross section are influenced by the vortices convected in the flow too. However, the observed perturbations of these patterns are relatively weak. The unsteady behaviour of the free stream is not only the effect of the vortex convection but also of the unsteady interactions with the boundaries, i.e., the adjusting valve and the test-section walls. However, the effect of the vortex convection is the stronger.
Presentation on Tropical Mesoscale convective Systems and ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
IAS Admin
Microphysics of deep convection. Fountain. (Water Vapor). Intrusion. (Ozone). Circulation. Mass and Energy. Budget. Thermal, Radiation and. Chemistry. Hydrological Cycle. Global ... 厂 Represented as time of overpass. 厂 Shallow: Short lived ... NEW Definition of WET & DRY Spell Introduced. Wind Shear. Temperature ...
Crystal-Growing Crucible To Suppress Convection
Richter, R.
1986-01-01
Platform under growth region stabilizes melt for more uniform crystal growth. In new crucible, platform just below growth interface so melt is too shallow to support convection. Critical depth for onset of pertinent instability calculated from heat flux through surface of melt, volume coefficient of thermal expansion, thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, and kinematic viscosity.
Determination of the convective heat transfer coefficient
Spierings, D.; Bosman, F.; Peters, T.; Plasschaert, F.
The value of the convective heat transfer coefficient (htc) is determined under different loading conditions by using a computer aided method. The thermal load has been applied mathematically as well as experimentally to the coronal surface of an axisymmetric tooth model. To verify the assumptions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Theodore M. Porter
2012-12-01
Full Text Available The struggle over cure rate measures in nineteenth-century asylums provides an exemplary instance of how, when used for official assessments of institutions, these numbers become sites of contestation. The evasion of goals and corruption of measures tends to make these numbers “funny” in the sense of becoming dis-honest, while the mismatch between boring, technical appearances and cunning backstage manipulations supplies dark humor. The dangers are evident in recent efforts to decentralize the functions of governments and corporations using incen-tives based on quantified targets.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rauf, A., E-mail: raufamar@ciitsahiwal.edu.pk [Department of Mathematics, Comsats Institute of Information Technology, Sahiwal 57000 (Pakistan); Siddiq, M.K. [Centre for Advanced Studies in Pure and Applied Mathematics, Department of Mathematics, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 63000 (Pakistan); Abbasi, F.M. [Department of Mathematics, Comsats Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Meraj, M.A. [Department of Mathematics, Comsats Institute of Information Technology, Sahiwal 57000 (Pakistan); Ashraf, M. [Centre for Advanced Studies in Pure and Applied Mathematics, Department of Mathematics, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 63000 (Pakistan); Shehzad, S.A. [Department of Mathematics, Comsats Institute of Information Technology, Sahiwal 57000 (Pakistan)
2016-10-15
The present work deals with the steady laminar three-dimensional mixed convective magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) boundary layer flow of Casson nanofluid over a bidirectional stretching surface. A uniform magnetic field is applied normal to the flow direction. Similarity variables are implemented to convert the non-linear partial differential equations into ordinary ones. Convective boundary conditions are utilized at surface of the sheet. A numerical technique of Runge–Kutta–Fehlberg (RFK45) is used to obtain the results of velocity, temperature and concentration fields. The physical dimensionless parameters are discussed through tables and graphs. - Highlights: • Mixed convective boundary layer flow of Casson nanofluid is taken into account. • Impact of magnetic field is examined. • Convective heat and mass conditions are imposed. • Numerical solutions are presented and discussed.
Testing particle filters on convective scale dynamics
Haslehner, Mylene; Craig, George. C.; Janjic, Tijana
2014-05-01
Particle filters have been developed in recent years to deal with highly nonlinear dynamics and non Gaussian error statistics that also characterize data assimilation on convective scales. In this work we explore the use of the efficient particle filter (P.v. Leeuwen, 2011) for convective scale data assimilation application. The method is tested in idealized setting, on two stochastic models. The models were designed to reproduce some of the properties of convection, for example the rapid development and decay of convective clouds. The first model is a simple one-dimensional, discrete state birth-death model of clouds (Craig and Würsch, 2012). For this model, the efficient particle filter that includes nudging the variables shows significant improvement compared to Ensemble Kalman Filter and Sequential Importance Resampling (SIR) particle filter. The success of the combination of nudging and resampling, measured as RMS error with respect to the 'true state', is proportional to the nudging intensity. Significantly, even a very weak nudging intensity brings notable improvement over SIR. The second model is a modified version of a stochastic shallow water model (Würsch and Craig 2013), which contains more realistic dynamical characteristics of convective scale phenomena. Using the efficient particle filter and different combination of observations of the three field variables (wind, water 'height' and rain) allows the particle filter to be evaluated in comparison to a regime where only nudging is used. Sensitivity to the properties of the model error covariance is also considered. Finally, criteria are identified under which the efficient particle filter outperforms nudging alone. References: Craig, G. C. and M. Würsch, 2012: The impact of localization and observation averaging for convective-scale data assimilation in a simple stochastic model. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc.,139, 515-523. Van Leeuwen, P. J., 2011: Efficient non-linear data assimilation in geophysical
International symposium on transient convective heat transfer: book of abstracts
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1996-01-01
The international symposium on convective heat transfer was held on 19-23 August 1996, in Cesme, Izmir, Turkey. The spesialists discussed forced convection, heat exchangers, free convection and multiphase media and phase change at the meeting. Almost 53 papers were presented in the meeting
Probing the transition from shallow to deep convection
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kuang, Zhiming [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States); Gentine, Pierre [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)
2016-05-01
In this funded project we highlighted the components necessary for the transition from shallow to deep convection. In particular we defined a prototype of shallow to deep convection, which is currently being implemented in the NASA GISS model. We also tried to highlight differences between land and oceanic convection.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Syahira Mansur
2016-10-01
Full Text Available The unsteady boundary layer flow of a nanofluid past a stretching/shrinking sheet with a convective surface boundary condition is studied. The effects of the unsteadiness parameter, stretching/shrinking parameter, convective parameter, Brownian motion parameter and thermophoresis parameter on the local Nusselt number are investigated. Numerical solutions to the governing equations are obtained using a shooting method. The results for the local Nusselt number are presented for different values of the governing parameters. The local Nusselt number decreases as the stretching/shrinking parameter increases. The local Nusselt number is consistently higher for higher values of the convective parameter but lower for higher values of the unsteadiness parameter, Brownian motion parameter and thermophoresis parameter.
Subcritical thermal convection of liquid metals in a rapidly rotating sphere
Cardin, P.; Schaeffer, N.; Guervilly, C.; Kaplan, E.
2017-12-01
Planetary cores consist of liquid metals (low Prandtl number Pr) that convect as the core cools. Here we study nonlinear convection in a rotating (low Ekman number Ek) planetary core using a fully 3D direct (down to Ek=10-7) and a quasi geostrophic (down to Ek=10-10) numerical simulations. Near the critical thermal forcing (Rayleigh number Ra), convection onsets as thermal Rossby waves, but as Ra increases, this state is superceded by one dominated by advection. At moderate rotation, these states (here called the weak branch and strong branch, respectively) are continuously connected. As the planetary core rotates faster, the continuous transition is replaced by hysteresis cycles and subcriticality until the weak branch disappears entirely and the strong branch onsets in a turbulent state at Ekrotation relevant for planetary interiors, thermal convection of liquid metals in a sphere onsets and shuts down through a subcritical bifurcation. This scenario may be relevant to explain the lunar and martian dynamo extinctions.
Natural Convection Heat Transfer in Concentric Horizontal Annuli Containing a Saturated Porous Medi
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ahmed F. Alfahaid, R.Y. Sakr
2012-10-01
Full Text Available Natural convection in horizontal annular porous media has become a subject receiving increasing attention due to its practical importance in the problem of insulators, such as ducting system in high temperature gas-cooled reactors, heating systems, thermal energy storage systems, under ground cable systems, etc. This paper presents a numerical study for steady state thermal convection in a fully saturated porous media bounded by two horizontal concentric cylinders, the cylinders are impermeable to fluid motion and maintained at different, uniform temperatures. The solution scheme is based on two-dimensional model, which is governed by Darcy-Oberbeck-Boussinesq equations. The finite element method using Galerkin technique is developed and employed to solve the present problem. A numerical simulation is carried out to examine the parametric effects of Rayleigh number and radius ratio on the role played by natural convection heat transfer in the porous annuli. The numerical results obtained from the present model were compared with the available published results and good agreement is observed. The average Nusselt number at the heating surface of the inner cylinder is correlated to Rayleigh number and radius ratio.Keywords: Natural convection, numerical investigation, saturated porous media, finite element method, concentric horizontal annuli.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Moukalled, F.; Darwish, M. [American Univ. of Beirut (Lebanon)
1997-01-01
The bounded skew central difference scheme (NVF SCDS) is used to study numerically the combined effect of vertical ({epsilon}{sub y}) and horizontal ({epsilon}{sub x}) eccentricities on natural convection in an annulus between a heated horizontal cylinder and its square enclosure. Four Rayleigh numbers (Ra = 10{sup 3}, 10{sup 4}, 10{sup 5}, and 10{sup 6}), three aspect ratios (R/L = 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3), and eccentricity values ranging from {minus}0.3 to 0.3 are considered. At constant enclosure aspect ratio, the total heat transfer increases with increasing Rayleigh number. For constant Rayleigh-number values, convection contribution to total heat transfer decreases with increasing values of R/L. For conduction-dominated flows, heat transfer increases with increasing {vert_bar}{epsilon}{sub y}{vert_bar} and/or {vert_bar}{epsilon}{sub x}{vert_bar}. For convection-dominated flows, heat transfer increases with decreasing {epsilon}{sub y} for {epsilon}{sub y} < 0, decreases with increasing {epsilon}{sub y} for {epsilon}{sub y} > 0, and decreases with decreasing {epsilon}{sub x} for {epsilon}{sub x} < 0. For the case when conduction and convection are of equal importance, there is a critical {epsilon}{sub x} for which the total heat transfer is minimum.
Effects of Nonequilibrium at Edge of Boundary Layer on Convective Heat Transfer to a Blunt Body
Goekcen, Tahir; Edwards, Thomas A. (Technical Monitor)
1996-01-01
This investigation is a continuation of a previous study on nonequilibrium convective heat transfer to a blunt body. In the previous study, for relatively high Reynolds number flows, it was found that: nonequilibrium convective heat transfer to a blunt body is not strongly dependent on freestream parameters, provided that the thermochemical equilibrium is reached at the edge of boundary layer; and successful testing of convective heat transfer in an arc-jet environment is possible by duplicating the surface pressure and total enthalpy. The nonequilibrium convective heat transfer computations are validated against the results of Fay and Riddell/Goulard theory. Present work investigates low Reynolds number conditions which are typical in an actual arc-jet flow environment. One expects that there will be departures from the Fay and Riddell/Goulard result since certain assumptions of the classical theory are not satisfied. These departures are of interest because the Fay and Riddell/Goulard formulas are extensively used in arc-jet testing (e.g., to determine the enthalpy of the flow and the catalytic efficiency of heat shield materials). For practical sizes of test materials, density of the test flow (and Reynolds number) in an arc-jet is such that thermochemical equilibrium may not be reached at the edge of boundary layer. For blunt body flows of nitrogen and air, computations will be presented to show the effects of thermochemical nonequilibrium at the boundary layer edge on nonequilibrium heat transfer.
Sezin, Fatin
2009-01-01
It is instructive and interesting to find hidden numbers by using different positional numeration systems. Most of the present guessing techniques use the binary system expressed as less-than, greater-than or present-absent type information. This article describes how, by employing four cards having integers 1-64 written in different colours, one…
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
this is a characteristic difference between finite and infinite sets and created an immensely useful branch of mathematics based on this idea which had a great impact on the whole of mathe- matics. For example, the question of what is a number (finite or infinite) is almost a philosophical one. However Cantor's work turned it ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 3. Transfinite Numbers - What is Infinity? S M Srivastava. General Article Volume 2 Issue 3 March 1997 pp 58-68. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/002/03/0058-0068 ...
Physical balances in subseafloor hydrothermal convection cells
Jupp, Tim E.; Schultz, Adam
2004-05-01
We use a simplified model of convection in a porous medium to investigate the balances of mass and energy within a subseafloor hydrothermal convection cell. These balances control the steady state structure of the system and allow scalings for the height, permeability, and residence time of the "reaction zone" at the base of the cell to be calculated. The scalings are presented as functions of (1) the temperature TD of the heat source driving the convection and (2) the total power output ΦU. The model is then used to illustrate how the nonlinear thermodynamic properties of water may impose the observed upper limit of ˜400°C on vent temperatures. The properties of water at hydrothermal conditions are contrasted with those of a hypothetical "Boussinesq fluid" for which temperature variations in fluid properties are either linearized or ignored. At hydrothermal pressures, water transports a maximum amount of energy by buoyancy-driven advection at ˜400°C. This maximum is a consequence of the nonlinear thermodynamic properties of water and does not arise for a simple Boussinesq fluid. Inspired by the "Malkus hypothesis" and by recent work on dissipative systems, we speculate that convection cells in porous media attain a steady state in which the upwelling temperature TU maximizes the total power output of the cell. If true, this principle would explain our observation (in previous numerical simulations) that water in hydrothermal convection cells upwells at TU ˜ 400°C when driven by a heat source above ˜500°C.
Turbulent forced convection of nanofluids downstream an abrupt expansion
Kimouche, Abdelali; Mataoui, Amina
2018-03-01
Turbulent forced convection of Nanofluids through an axisymmetric abrupt expansion is investigated numerically in the present study. The governing equations are solved by ANYS 14.0 CFD code based on the finite volume method by implementing the thermo-physical properties of each nanofluid. All results are analyzed through the evolutions of skin friction coefficient and Nusselt number. For each nanofluid, the effect of both volume fraction and Reynolds number on this type of flow configuration, are examined. An increase on average Nusselt number with the volume fraction and Reynolds number, are highlighted and correlated. Two relationships are proposed. The first one, determines the average Nusselt number versus Reynolds number, volume fraction and the ratio of densities of the solid particles to that of the base fluid ( \\overline{Nu}=f(\\operatorname{Re},φ, ρ_s/ρ_f) ). The second one varies according Reynolds number, volume fraction and the conductivities ratio of solid particle to that of the base fluid ( \\overline{Nu}=f(\\operatorname{Re},φ, k_s/k_f) ).
Uncertainty associated with convective wet removal of entrained aerosols in a global climate model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
B. Croft
2012-11-01
Full Text Available The uncertainties associated with the wet removal of aerosols entrained above convective cloud bases are investigated in a global aerosol-climate model (ECHAM5-HAM under a set of limiting assumptions for the wet removal of the entrained aerosols. The limiting assumptions for the wet removal of entrained aerosols are negligible scavenging and vigorous scavenging (either through activation, with size-dependent impaction scavenging, or with the prescribed fractions of the standard model. To facilitate this process-based study, an explicit representation of cloud-droplet-borne and ice-crystal-borne aerosol mass and number, for the purpose of wet removal, is introduced into the ECHAM5-HAM model. This replaces and is compared with the prescribed cloud-droplet-borne and ice-crystal-borne aerosol fraction scavenging scheme of the standard model.
A 20% to 35% uncertainty in simulated global, annual mean aerosol mass burdens and optical depth (AOD is attributed to different assumptions for the wet removal of aerosols entrained above convective cloud bases. Assumptions about the removal of aerosols entrained above convective cloud bases control modeled upper tropospheric aerosol concentrations by as much as one order of magnitude.
Simulated aerosols entrained above convective cloud bases contribute 20% to 50% of modeled global, annual mean aerosol mass convective wet deposition (about 5% to 10% of the total dry and wet deposition, depending on the aerosol species, when including wet scavenging of those entrained aerosols (either by activation, size-dependent impaction, or with the prescribed fraction scheme. Among the simulations, the prescribed fraction and size-dependent impaction schemes yield the largest global, annual mean aerosol mass convective wet deposition (by about two-fold. However, the prescribed fraction scheme has more vigorous convective mixed-phase wet removal (by two to five-fold relative to the size-dependent impaction
Density maximum effect on Soret-induced natural convection in a square porous cavity
Alloui, Z.; Robillard, L.; Vasseur, P.
2010-10-01
This paper reports a numerical study on the effect of density maximum on Soret-induced convection in a square porous cavity. Dirichlet boundary conditions for temperature are applied to the vertical walls of the enclosure, while the two horizontal ones are assumed impermeable and insulated. The non-dimensional equations for momentum, energy and concentration are solved by a finite volume method with power-law scheme for convection and diffusion. A parametric study is undertaken as a function of the main dimensionless group characterizing the problem, namely the thermal Rayleigh number, RT, the solutal Rayleigh number, RS, the Lewis number Le and an extremum parameter γ, which quantifies the effect of the nonlinear equation of state. The results are presented in the form of streamlines, isotherms and isoconcentration lines for various values of the governing parameters. Comprehensive Nusselt number data are presented as functions of the governing parameters mentioned above.
Non-Darcy natural convection in a square cavity filled with a porous medium
Saeid, Nawaf H.; Pop, I.
2005-01-01
The steady natural convection in a square cavity filled with a porous medium with the non-Darcy model (Darcy-Forchheimer model) is numerically studied in the present paper. The left vertical wall of the cavity is heated to a constant temperature Th, while the right wall is cooled to a constant temperature Tc. Both the horizontal walls are adiabatic. The finite volume numerical method is used to solve the non-dimensional governing equations. The results are presented to show the effect of the inertial parameter on the average Nusselt number and the fluid circulation in the porous cavity for different values of Rayleigh number. It is found that increasing the inertial effects parameter leads to a slowdown in the natural convection currents in the cavity and reduces the average Nusselt number for constant values of Rayleigh number.
Is convective precipitation increasing? The case of Catalonia
Llasat, M. C.; Marcos, R.; Turco, M.
2012-04-01
A recent work (Turco and Llasat, 2011) has been performed to analyse the trends of the ETCCDI (Expert Team on Climate Change Detection and Indices) precipitation indices in Catalonia (NE Iberian Peninsula) from 1951 to 2003, calculated from a interpolated dataset of daily precipitation, namely SPAIN02, regular at 0.2° horizontal resolution. This work has showed that no general trends at a regional scale have been observed, considering the annual and the seasonal regional values, and only the consecutive dry days index (CDD) at annual scale shows a locally coherent spatial trend pattern. Simultaneously, Llasat et al (2009, 2010) have showed an important increase of flash-flood events in the same region. Although aspects related with vulnerability, exposure and changes in uses of soil have been found as the main responsible of this increase, a major knowledge on the evolution of high rainfall events is mandatory. Heavy precipitation is usually associated to convective precipitation and therefore the analysis of the latter is a good indicator of it. Particularly, in Catalonia, funding was raised to define a parameter, designated as β, related with the greater or lesser convective character of the precipitation (Llasat, 2001). This parameter estimates the contribution of convective precipitation to total precipitation using 1-min or 5-min rainfall intensities usually estimated by rain gauges and it can be also analysed by means of the meteorological radar (Llasat et al, 2007). Its monthly distribution shows a maximum in August, followed by September, which are the months with the major number of flash-floods in Catalonia. This parameter also allows distinguishing between different kinds of precipitation events taking into account the degree of convective contribution. The main problem is the lack of long rainfall rate series that allow analysing trends in convective precipitation. The second one is related with its heterogeneous spatial and temporal distribution. To
A continuous and prognostic convection scheme based on buoyancy, PCMT
Guérémy, Jean-François; Piriou, Jean-Marcel
2016-04-01
A new and consistent convection scheme (PCMT: Prognostic Condensates Microphysics and Transport), providing a continuous and prognostic treatment of this atmospheric process, is described. The main concept ensuring the consistency of the whole system is the buoyancy, key element of any vertical motion. The buoyancy constitutes the forcing term of the convective vertical velocity, which is then used to define the triggering condition, the mass flux, and the rates of entrainment-detrainment. The buoyancy is also used in its vertically integrated form (CAPE) to determine the closure condition. The continuous treatment of convection, from dry thermals to deep precipitating convection, is achieved with the help of a continuous formulation of the entrainment-detrainment rates (depending on the convective vertical velocity) and of the CAPE relaxation time (depending on the convective over-turning time). The convective tendencies are directly expressed in terms of condensation and transport. Finally, the convective vertical velocity and condensates are fully prognostic, the latter being treated using the same microphysics scheme as for the resolved condensates but considering the convective environment. A Single Column Model (SCM) validation of this scheme is shown, allowing detailed comparisons with observed and explicitly simulated data. Four cases covering the convective spectrum are considered: over ocean, sensitivity to environmental moisture (S. Derbyshire) non precipitating shallow convection to deep precipitating convection, trade wind shallow convection (BOMEX) and strato-cumulus (FIRE), together with an entire continental diurnal cycle of convection (ARM). The emphasis is put on the characteristics of the scheme which enable a continuous treatment of convection. Then, a 3D LAM validation is presented considering an AMMA case with both observations and a CRM simulation using the same initial and lateral conditions as for the parameterized one. Finally, global
The Mechanism of First Raindrops Formation in Deep Convective Clouds
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Khain, Alexander; Prabha, Thara; Benmoshe, Nir; Pandithurai, G.; Ovchinnikov, Mikhail
2013-08-22
The formation of first raindrops in deep convective clouds is investigated. A combination of observational data analysis and 2-D and 3-D numerical bin microphysical simulations of deep convective clouds suggests that the first raindrops form at the top of undiluted or slightly diluted cores. It is shown that droplet size distributions in these regions are wider and contain more large droplets than in diluted volumes. The results of the study indicate that the initial raindrop formation is determined by the basic microphysical processes within ascending adiabatic volumes. It allows one to predict the height of the formation of first raindrops considering the processes of nucleation, diffusion growth and collisions. The results obtained in the study explain observational results reported by Freud and Rosenfeld (2012) according to which the height of first raindrop formation depends linearly on the droplet number concentration at cloud base. The results also explain why a simple adiabatic parcel model can reproduce this dependence. The present study provides a physical basis for retrieval algorithms of cloud microphysical properties and aerosol properties using satellites proposed by Rosenfeld et al. ( 2012). The study indicates that the role of mixing and entrainment in the formation of the first raindrops is not of crucial importance. It is also shown that low variability of effective and mean volume radii along horizontal traverses, as regularly observed by in situ measurements, can be simulated by high-resolution cloud models, in which mixing is parameterized by a traditional 1.5 order turbulence closure scheme.
Oscillatory convection in low aspect ratio Czochralski melts
Anselmo, A.; Prasad, V.; Koziol, J.; Gupta, K. P.
1993-11-01
Modeling of the crucible in bulk crystal growth simulations as a right circular cylinder may be adequate for high aspect ratio melts but this may be unrealistic when the melt height is low. Low melt height is a unique feature of a solid feed continuous Czochralski growth process for silicon single crystals currently under investigation. At low melt heights, the crucible bottom curvature has a dampening effect on the buoyancy-induced oscillations, a source of inhomogeneities in the grown crystal. The numerical results demonstrate how the mode of convection changes from vertical wall-dominated recirculating flows to Benard convection as the aspect ratio is lowered. This phenomenon is strongly dependent on the boundary condition at the free surface of the melt, which has been generally considered to be either adiabatic or radiatively cooled. A comparison of the flow oscillations in crucibles with and without curved bottoms at aspect ratios in the range of 0.25 to 0.50, and at realistic Grashof numbers (10 7 < Gr < 10 8) illustrate that changing the shape of the crucible may be an effective means of suppressing oscillations and controlling the melt flow.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Beltran, Jorge I. LLagostera; Trevisan, Osvair Vidal [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Energia
1990-12-31
Natural convection flow induced by heating from below in a irregular porous cavity is investigated numerically. The influence of the modified Rayleigh number and geometric ratios on heat transfer and fluid flow is studied. Global and local Nusselt for Rayleigh numbers covering the range 0 - 1600 and for several geometric ratios. The fluid flow and the temperature field are illustrated by contour maps. (author) 6 refs., 10 figs., 7 tabs.
Transient Natural Convection in Porous Square Cavity Heated and Cooled on Adjacent Walls
M. S. Selamat; I. Hashim; M. K. Hasan
2012-01-01
Transient natural convection in a square cavity filled with a porous medium is studied numerically. The cavity is assumed heated from one vertical wall and cooled at the top, while the other walls are kept adiabatic. The governing equations are solved numerically by a finite difference method. The effects of Rayleigh number on the initial transient state up to the steady state are investigated for Rayleigh number ranging from 10 to 2×102. The evolutions of flow patterns and temperature distri...
Entropy Generation for Natural Convection in a Darcy – Brinkman Porous Cavity
Ali Mchirgui; Nejib Hidouri; Mourad Magherbi; Ammar Ben Brahim
2013-01-01
The paper provides a numerical investigation of the entropy generation analysis due to natural convection in an inclined square porous cavity. The coupled equations of mass, momentum, energy and species conservation are solved using the Control Volume Finite-Element Method. Effect of medium permeability and inclination angle on entropy generation is analysed. It was found that according to the Darcy number and the porous thermal Raleigh number values, the entropy generati...
Using Jupiter's gravitational field to probe the Jovian convective dynamo.
Kong, Dali; Zhang, Keke; Schubert, Gerald
2016-03-23
Convective motion in the deep metallic hydrogen region of Jupiter is believed to generate its magnetic field, the strongest in the solar system. The amplitude, structure and depth of the convective motion are unknown. A promising way of probing the Jovian convective dynamo is to measure its effect on the external gravitational field, a task to be soon undertaken by the Juno spacecraft. We calculate the gravitational signature of non-axisymmetric convective motion in the Jovian metallic hydrogen region and show that with sufficiently accurate measurements it can reveal the nature of the deep convection.
Gregarious convection and radiative feedbacks in idealized worlds
Mapes, B. E.
2016-06-01
What role does convection play in cloud feedbacks? What role does convective aggregation play in climate? A flurry of recent studies explores "self-aggregation" of moist convection in diverse simulations using explicit convection and interactive radiation. The implications involve upper level dry areas acting as infrared windows—the climate system's "radiator fins." A positive feedback maintains these: dry columns undergo radiative cooling which drives descent and further drying. If the resulting clumpiness of vapor and cloud fields depends systematically on global temperature, then convective organization could be a climate system feedback. How reconcilable and how relevant are these interesting but idealized studies?
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ku David N
2010-07-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background The finite volume solver Fluent (Lebanon, NH, USA is a computational fluid dynamics software employed to analyse biological mass-transport in the vasculature. A principal consideration for computational modelling of blood-side mass-transport is convection-diffusion discretisation scheme selection. Due to numerous discretisation schemes available when developing a mass-transport numerical model, the results obtained should either be validated against benchmark theoretical solutions or experimentally obtained results. Methods An idealised aneurysm model was selected for the experimental and computational mass-transport analysis of species concentration due to its well-defined recirculation region within the aneurysmal sac, allowing species concentration to vary slowly with time. The experimental results were obtained from fluid samples extracted from a glass aneurysm model, using the direct spectrophometric concentration measurement technique. The computational analysis was conducted using the four convection-diffusion discretisation schemes available to the Fluent user, including the First-Order Upwind, the Power Law, the Second-Order Upwind and the Quadratic Upstream Interpolation for Convective Kinetics (QUICK schemes. The fluid has a diffusivity of 3.125 × 10-10 m2/s in water, resulting in a Peclet number of 2,560,000, indicating strongly convection-dominated flow. Results The discretisation scheme applied to the solution of the convection-diffusion equation, for blood-side mass-transport within the vasculature, has a significant influence on the resultant species concentration field. The First-Order Upwind and the Power Law schemes produce similar results. The Second-Order Upwind and QUICK schemes also correlate well but differ considerably from the concentration contour plots of the First-Order Upwind and Power Law schemes. The computational results were then compared to the experimental findings. An average error of 140
Carroll, Gráinne T; Devereux, Paul D; Ku, David N; McGloughlin, Timothy M; Walsh, Michael T
2010-07-19
The finite volume solver Fluent (Lebanon, NH, USA) is a computational fluid dynamics software employed to analyse biological mass-transport in the vasculature. A principal consideration for computational modelling of blood-side mass-transport is convection-diffusion discretisation scheme selection. Due to numerous discretisation schemes available when developing a mass-transport numerical model, the results obtained should either be validated against benchmark theoretical solutions or experimentally obtained results. An idealised aneurysm model was selected for the experimental and computational mass-transport analysis of species concentration due to its well-defined recirculation region within the aneurysmal sac, allowing species concentration to vary slowly with time. The experimental results were obtained from fluid samples extracted from a glass aneurysm model, using the direct spectrophometric concentration measurement technique. The computational analysis was conducted using the four convection-diffusion discretisation schemes available to the Fluent user, including the First-Order Upwind, the Power Law, the Second-Order Upwind and the Quadratic Upstream Interpolation for Convective Kinetics (QUICK) schemes. The fluid has a diffusivity of 3.125 x 10-10 m2/s in water, resulting in a Peclet number of 2,560,000, indicating strongly convection-dominated flow. The discretisation scheme applied to the solution of the convection-diffusion equation, for blood-side mass-transport within the vasculature, has a significant influence on the resultant species concentration field. The First-Order Upwind and the Power Law schemes produce similar results. The Second-Order Upwind and QUICK schemes also correlate well but differ considerably from the concentration contour plots of the First-Order Upwind and Power Law schemes. The computational results were then compared to the experimental findings. An average error of 140% and 116% was demonstrated between the experimental
Sakiadis flow of Maxwell fluid considering magnetic field and convective boundary conditions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mustafa, M., E-mail: meraj-mm@hotmail.com [School of Natural Sciences (SNS), National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST), Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Khan, Junaid Ahmad [Research Centre for Modeling and Simulation (RCMS), National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST), Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Hayat, T. [Department of Mathematics, Quaid-I-Azam University 45320, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Nonlinear Analysis and Applied Mathematics (NAAM) Research Group, King Abdulaziz University, P. O. Box 80257, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Alsaedi, A. [Nonlinear Analysis and Applied Mathematics (NAAM) Research Group, King Abdulaziz University, P. O. Box 80257, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia)
2015-02-15
In this paper we address the flow of Maxwell fluid due to constantly moving flat radiative surface with convective condition. The flow is under the influence of non-uniform transverse magnetic field. The velocity and temperature distributions have been evaluated numerically by shooting approach. The solution depends on various interesting parameters including local Deborah number De, magnetic field parameter M, Prandtl number Pr and Biot number Bi. We found that variation in velocity with an increase in local Deborah number De is non-monotonic. However temperature is a decreasing function of local Deborah number De.
Numerical study of natural melt convection in cylindrical cavity with hot walls and cold bottom sink
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ahmanache Abdennacer
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Numerical study of natural convection heat transfer and fluid flow in cylindrical cavity with hot walls and cold sink is conducted. Calculations are performed in terms of the cavity aspect ratio, the heat exchanger length and the thermo physical properties expressed via the Prandtl number and the Rayleigh number. Results are presented in the form of isotherms, streamlines, average Nusselt number and average bulk temperature for a range of Rayleigh number up to 106. It is observed that Rayleigh number and heat exchanger length influences fluid flow and heat transfer, whereas the cavity aspect ratio has no significant effects.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, Xuan; Zikanov, Oleg
2017-01-01
Highlights: • 2D convection flow develops with internal heating and strong axial magnetic field. • Poloidal magnetic field suppresses turbulence at high Hartmann number. • Flow structure is dominated by large-scale counter-rotation vortices. • Effective heat transfer is maintained by surviving convection structures. - Abstract: We explore the effect of poloidal magnetic field on the thermal convection flow in a toroidal duct of a generic liquid metal blanket. Non-uniform strong heating (the Grashof number up to 10 11 ) arising from the interaction of high-speed neutrons with the liquid breeder, and strong magnetic field (the Hartmann number up to 10 4 ) corresponding to the realistic reactor conditions are considered. The study continues our earlier work , where the problem was solved for a purely toroidal magnetic field and the convection was found to result in two-dimensional turbulence and strong mixing within the duct. Here, we find that the poloidal component of the magnetic field suppresses turbulence, reduces the flow's kinetic energy and high-amplitude temperature fluctuations, and, at high values of Hartmann number, leads to a steady-state flow. At the same time, the intense mixing by the surviving convection structures remains able to maintain effective heat transfer between the liquid metal and the walls.
Guervilly, C.; Cardin, P.
2017-12-01
Convection is the main heat transport process in the liquid cores of planets. The convective flows are thought to be turbulent and constrained by rotation (corresponding to high Reynolds numbers Re and low Rossby numbers Ro). Under these conditions, and in the absence of magnetic fields, the convective flows can produce coherent Reynolds stresses that drive persistent large-scale zonal flows. The formation of large-scale flows has crucial implications for the thermal evolution of planets and the generation of large-scale magnetic fields. In this work, we explore this problem with numerical simulations using a quasi-geostrophic approximation to model convective and zonal flows at Re 104 and Ro 10-4 for Prandtl numbers relevant for liquid metals (Pr 0.1). The formation of intense multiple zonal jets strongly affects the convective heat transport, leading to the formation of a mean temperature staircase. We also study the generation of magnetic fields by the quasi-geostrophic flows at low magnetic Prandtl numbers.
Friedson, A. James; Gonzales, Erica J.
2017-11-01
We explore the conditions under which ordinary and double-diffusive thermal convection may be inhibited by water condensation in the hydrogen atmospheres of the ice giants and examine the consequences. The saturation of vapor in the condensation layer induces a vertical gradient in the mean molecular weight that stabilizes the layer against convective instability when the abundance of vapor exceeds a critical value. In this instance, the layer temperature gradient can become superadiabatic and heat must be transported vertically by another mechanism. On Uranus and Neptune, water is inferred to be sufficiently abundant for inhibition of ordinary convection to take place in their respective condensation zones. We find that suppression of double-diffusive convection is sensitive to the ratio of the sedimentation time scale of the condensates to the buoyancy period in the condensation layer. In the limit of rapid sedimentation, the layer is found to be stable to diffusive convection. In the opposite limit, diffusive convection can occur. However, if the fluid remains saturated, then layered convection is generally suppressed and the motion is restricted in form to weak, homogeneous, oscillatory turbulence. This form of diffusive convection is a relatively inefficient mechanism for transporting heat, characterized by low Nusselt numbers. When both ordinary and layered convection are suppressed, the condensation zone acts effectively as a thermal insulator, with the heat flux transported across it only slightly greater than the small value that can be supported by radiative diffusion. This may allow a large superadiabatic temperature gradient to develop in the layer over time. Once the layer has formed, however, it is vulnerable to persistent erosion by entrainment of fluid into the overlying convective envelope of the cooling planet, potentially leading to its collapse. We discuss the implications of our results for thermal evolution models of the ice giants, for
Convective equilibrium and mixing-length theory for stellarator reactors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ho, D.D.M.; Kulsrud, R.M.
1985-09-01
In high ..beta.. stellarator and tokamak reactors, the plasma pressure gradient in some regions of the plasma may exceed the critical pressure gradient set by ballooning instabilities. In these regions, convective cells break out to enhance the transport. As a result, the pressure gradient can rise only slightly above the critical gradient and the plasma is in another state of equilibrium - ''convective equilibrium'' - in these regions. Although the convective transport cannot be calculated precisely, it is shown that the density and temperature profiles in the convective region can still be estimated. A simple mixing-length theory, similar to that used for convection in stellar interiors, is introduced in this paper to provide a qualitative description of the convective cells and to show that the convective transport is highly efficient. A numerical example for obtaining the density and temperature profiles in a stellarator reactor is given.
Behaviors and transitions along the path to magnetostrophic convection
Grannan, A. M.; Vogt, T.; Horn, S.; Hawkins, E. K.; Aggarwal, A.; Aurnou, J. M.
2017-12-01
The generation of magnetic fields in planetary and stellar interiors are believed to be controlled primarily by turbulent convection constrained by Coriolis and Lorentz forces in their electrically conducting fluid layers. Yet relatively few laboratory experiments are capable of investigating the different regimes of turbulent magnetohydrodynamic convection. In this work, we perform one laboratory experiment in a cylinder at a fixed heat flux using the liquid metal gallium in order to investigate, sequentially: Rayleigh-Bènard convection without any imposed constraints, magnetoconvection with a Lorentz constraint imposed by vertical magnetic field, rotating convection with a Coriolis constraint imposed by rotation, and finally the magnetostrophic convective regime where both Coriolis and Lorentz are imposed and equal. Using an array of internal and external temperature probes, we show that each regime along the path to magnetostrophic convection is unique. The behaviors and transitions in the dominant modes of convection as well as their fundamental frequencies and wavenumbers are investigated.
Convective equilibrium and mixing-length theory for stellarator reactors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ho, D.D.M.; Kulsrud, R.M.
1985-09-01
In high β stellarator and tokamak reactors, the plasma pressure gradient in some regions of the plasma may exceed the critical pressure gradient set by ballooning instabilities. In these regions, convective cells break out to enhance the transport. As a result, the pressure gradient can rise only slightly above the critical gradient and the plasma is in another state of equilibrium - ''convective equilibrium'' - in these regions. Although the convective transport cannot be calculated precisely, it is shown that the density and temperature profiles in the convective region can still be estimated. A simple mixing-length theory, similar to that used for convection in stellar interiors, is introduced in this paper to provide a qualitative description of the convective cells and to show that the convective transport is highly efficient. A numerical example for obtaining the density and temperature profiles in a stellarator reactor is given
Zhou, Quan; Stevens, Richard Johannes Antonius Maria; Sugiyama, K.; Grossmann, Siegfried; Lohse, Detlef; Xia, K.
2010-01-01
The shapes of the velocity and temperature profiles near the horizontal conducting plates' centre regions in turbulent Rayleigh–Bénard convection are studied numerically and experimentally over the Rayleigh number range 108 ≲ Ra ≲ 3 × 1011 and the Prandtl number range 0.7 ≲ Pr ≲ 5.4. The results
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Khan, Masood; Malik, Rabia, E-mail: rabiamalik.qau@gmail.com; Munir, Asif [Department of Mathematics, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan)
2015-08-15
In this article, the mixed convective heat transfer to Sisko fluid over a radially stretching surface in the presence of convective boundary conditions is investigated. The viscous dissipation and thermal radiation effects are also taken into account. The suitable transformations are applied to convert the governing partial differential equations into a set of nonlinear coupled ordinary differential equations. The analytical solution of the governing problem is obtained by using the homotopy analysis method (HAM). Additionally, these analytical results are compared with the numerical results obtained by the shooting technique. The obtained results for the velocity and temperature are analyzed graphically for several physical parameters for the assisting and opposing flows. It is found that the effect of buoyancy parameter is more prominent in case of the assisting flow as compared to the opposing flow. Further, in tabular form the numerical values are given for the local skin friction coefficient and local Nusselt number. A remarkable agreement is noticed by comparing the present results with the results reported in the literature as a special case.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khan, Masood; Malik, Rabia; Munir, Asif
2015-01-01
In this article, the mixed convective heat transfer to Sisko fluid over a radially stretching surface in the presence of convective boundary conditions is investigated. The viscous dissipation and thermal radiation effects are also taken into account. The suitable transformations are applied to convert the governing partial differential equations into a set of nonlinear coupled ordinary differential equations. The analytical solution of the governing problem is obtained by using the homotopy analysis method (HAM). Additionally, these analytical results are compared with the numerical results obtained by the shooting technique. The obtained results for the velocity and temperature are analyzed graphically for several physical parameters for the assisting and opposing flows. It is found that the effect of buoyancy parameter is more prominent in case of the assisting flow as compared to the opposing flow. Further, in tabular form the numerical values are given for the local skin friction coefficient and local Nusselt number. A remarkable agreement is noticed by comparing the present results with the results reported in the literature as a special case
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fangyang Yuan
2018-01-01
Full Text Available A coupled numerical model for nanorod-based suspension flow is constructed, and the convective heat transfer and resistance characteristics of the nanofluid duct flow are investigated. The numerical results are verified by experimental results and theoretical models. Most of nanorods are located randomly in the bulk fluid, while particles near the wall aligned with the flow direction. Friction factor of nanofluids with nanorods increases with higher particle volume concentration or aspect ratio, but the increment reduces when the Reynolds number gets larger. The relative Nusselt number is obtained to characterize the intensity of convective heat transfer. The results show that the Nusselt number of nanofluids increases when the particle volume concentration or aspect ratio becomes larger. Compared to increasing the aspect ratio of nanorods, increasing the particle volume concentration would be more effective on enhancing the convective heat transfer intensity in industrial applications although it will cause a slight increase of resistance.
Kumar, Vikash; Rani, Abha; Singh, Ajay Kumar
2017-12-01
The problem of conjugate free convection from a vertical fin embedded in a fluid-saturated porous medium is investigated. The governing nonlinear equations are solved iteratively by a highly implicit finite difference scheme. In this paper, the results based on four models, viz the Darcy model, the Brinkman model, the non-Darcian model with nonlinear inertia and viscous terms, and also the non-Darcian model with viscous, nonlinear inertia and velocity square terms, are compared. It is seen that fin cooling is more effective at higher Grashof or Darcy numbers due to stronger convection effects. The local Nusselt number is observed to increase with the Grashof or Darcy numbers and decrease slightly with the conduction-convection parameter. The limitation of the Darcy's law is observed at higher values of permeability when the non-Darcian models are more relevant.
Mixed convection around calandria tubes in a ¼ scale CANDU-6 moderator circulation tank
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Atkins, M.D.; Rossouw, D.J.; Boer, M. [Nuclear Science Division, School of Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa); Kim, T., E-mail: tong.kim@wits.ac.za [Nuclear Science Division, School of Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa); Rhee, B.W.; Kim, H.T. [Severe Accident and PHWR Safety Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2017-05-15
Highlights: • A secondary jet is formed at a stagnation region and is directed towards the center of the MCT. • The secondary jet undergoes the significant dissipation and mixing due to calandria tubes (CTs). • Its cooling effectiveness is reduced on the CTs in the bottom of the MCT. • With forced convection dominance, peak heat transfer is on the upper CT surface. • With natural convection dominance, peak heat transfer is on the lower CT surface. - Abstract: This study experimentally characterizes mixed convection around calandria tubes (CTs) in a ¼ scale CANDU-6 moderator circulation tank (MCT) that uses air as the working fluid. In a full scale CANDU-6 reactor that undergoes a postulated dual failure with a loss-of-coolant accident without the emergency core cooling system available, mixed convection heat transfer occurs around the CTs. The cooling effectiveness of the moderator is diminished as an emergency heat sink if overheating eventually leads to film boiling. To prevent the onset of film boiling, local sub-cooling margins of the moderator needs to be maintained or else the critical heat flux should be increased. Circulating the moderator which interacts with the overheated CTs increases the heat transfer into the moderator which may suppress film boiling. The present experimental results demonstrate that the cooling effectiveness of the circulating moderator, in particular the secondary jet, is attenuated substantially as it is convected away from the inner wall towards the center of the MCT. The momentum of the secondary jet is diffused through the CTs. At a low jet Reynolds number, the secondary jet becomes ineffective so that some overheated CTs positioned in the other half of the MCT are cooled only by natural convection.
Mamgain, Ashu; Rajagopal, E. N.; Mitra, A. K.; Webster, S.
2018-03-01
There are increasing efforts towards the prediction of high-impact weather systems and understanding of related dynamical and physical processes. High-resolution numerical model simulations can be used directly to model the impact at fine-scale details. Improvement in forecast accuracy can help in disaster management planning and execution. National Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasting (NCMRWF) has implemented high-resolution regional unified modeling system with explicit convection embedded within coarser resolution global model with parameterized convection. The models configurations are based on UK Met Office unified seamless modeling system. Recent land use/land cover data (2012-2013) obtained from Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) are also used in model simulations. Results based on short-range forecast of both the global and regional models over India for a month indicate that convection-permitting simulations by the high-resolution regional model is able to reduce the dry bias over southern parts of West Coast and monsoon trough zone with more intense rainfall mainly towards northern parts of monsoon trough zone. Regional model with explicit convection has significantly improved the phase of the diurnal cycle of rainfall as compared to the global model. Results from two monsoon depression cases during study period show substantial improvement in details of rainfall pattern. Many categories in rainfall defined for operational forecast purposes by Indian forecasters are also well represented in case of convection-permitting high-resolution simulations. For the statistics of number of days within a range of rain categories between `No-Rain' and `Heavy Rain', the regional model is outperforming the global model in all the ranges. In the very heavy and extremely heavy categories, the regional simulations show overestimation of rainfall days. Global model with parameterized convection have tendency to overestimate the light rainfall days and
Mamgain, Ashu; Rajagopal, E. N.; Mitra, A. K.; Webster, S.
2017-12-01
There are increasing efforts towards the prediction of high-impact weather systems and understanding of related dynamical and physical processes. High-resolution numerical model simulations can be used directly to model the impact at fine-scale details. Improvement in forecast accuracy can help in disaster management planning and execution. National Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasting (NCMRWF) has implemented high-resolution regional unified modeling system with explicit convection embedded within coarser resolution global model with parameterized convection. The models configurations are based on UK Met Office unified seamless modeling system. Recent land use/land cover data (2012-2013) obtained from Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) are also used in model simulations. Results based on short-range forecast of both the global and regional models over India for a month indicate that convection-permitting simulations by the high-resolution regional model is able to reduce the dry bias over southern parts of West Coast and monsoon trough zone with more intense rainfall mainly towards northern parts of monsoon trough zone. Regional model with explicit convection has significantly improved the phase of the diurnal cycle of rainfall as compared to the global model. Results from two monsoon depression cases during study period show substantial improvement in details of rainfall pattern. Many categories in rainfall defined for operational forecast purposes by Indian forecasters are also well represented in case of convection-permitting high-resolution simulations. For the statistics of number of days within a range of rain categories between `No-Rain' and `Heavy Rain', the regional model is outperforming the global model in all the ranges. In the very heavy and extremely heavy categories, the regional simulations show overestimation of rainfall days. Global model with parameterized convection have tendency to overestimate the light rainfall days and
Research of heat transfer of staggered horizontal bundles of finned tubes at free air convection
Novozhilova, A. V.; Maryna, Z. G.; Samorodov, A. V.; Lvov, E. A.
2017-11-01
The study of free-convective processes is important because of the cooling problem in many machines and systems, where other ways of cooling are impossible or impractical. Natural convective processes are common in the steam turbine air condensers of electric power plants located within the city limits, in dry cooling towers of circulating water systems, in condensers cooled by air and water, in radiators cooling oil of power electric transformers, in emergency cooling systems of nuclear reactors, in solar power, as well as in air-cooling of power semiconductor energy converters. All this makes actual the synthesis of the results of theoretical and experimental research of free convection for heat exchangers with finned tube bundles. The results of the study of free-convection heat transfer for two-, three- and four-row staggered horizontal bundles of industrial bimetallic finned tubes with finning factor of 16.8 and equilateral tubes arrangement are presented. Cross and diagonal steps in the bundles are the same: 58; 61; 64; 70; 76; 86; 100 mm, which corresponds to the relative steps: 1.042; 1.096; 1.152; 1.258; 1.366; 1.545; 1.797. These steps are standardized for air coolers. An equation for calculating the free-convection heat transfer, taking into account the influence of geometrical parameters in the range of Rayleigh number from 30,000 to 350,000 with an average deviation of ± 4.8%, has been obtained. The relationship presented in the article allows designing a wide range of air coolers for various applications, working in the free convection modes.
Open Channel Natural Convection Heat Transfer on a Vertical Finned Plate
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Park, Joo Hyun; Heo, Jeong Hwan; Chung, Bum Jin
2013-01-01
The natural convection heat transfer of vertical plate fin was investigated experimentally. Heat transfer systems were replaced by mass-transfer systems, based on the analogy concept. The experimental results lie within the predictions of the existing heat transfer correlations of plate-fin for the natural convections. An overlapped thermal boundary layers caused increasing heat transfer, and an overlapped momentum boundary layers caused decreasing heat transfer. As the fin height increases, heat transfer was enhanced due to increased inflow from the open side of the fin spacing. When fin spacing and fin height are large, heat transfer was unaffected by the fin spacing and fin height. Passive cooling by natural convection becomes more and more important for the nuclear systems as the station black out really happened at the Fukushima NPPs. In the RCCS (Reactor Cavity Cooling System) of a VHTR (Very High Temperature Reactor), natural convection cooling through duct system is adopted. In response to the stack failure event, extra cooling capacity adopting the fin array has to be investigated. The finned plate increases the surface area and the heat transfer increases. However, the plate of fin arrays may increase the pressure drop and the heat transfer decreases. Therefore, in order to enhance the passive cooling with fin arrays, the parameters for the fin arrays should be optimized. According to Welling and Wooldridge, a natural convection on vertical plate fin is function of Gr, Pr, L, t, S, and H. The present work investigated the natural convection heat transfer of a vertical finned plate with varying the fin height and the fin spacing. In order achieve high Rayleigh numbers, an electroplating system was employed and the mass transfer rates were measured using a copper sulfate electroplating system based on the analogy concept
The amplitude of the deep solar convection and the origin of the solar supergranulation
Rast, Mark
2017-11-01
Recent observations and models have raised questions about our understanding of the dynamics of the deep solar convection. In particular, the amplitude of low wavenumber convective motions appears to be too high in both local area radiative magnetohydrodynamic and global spherical shell magnetohydrodynamic simulations. In global simulations this results in weaker than needed rotational constraints and consequent non solar-like differential rotation profiles. In deep local area simulations it yields strong horizontal flows in the photosphere on scales much larger than the observed supergranulation. We have undertaken numerical studies that suggest that solution to this problem is closely related to the long standing question of the origin of the solar supergranulation. Two possibilities have emerged. One suggests that small scale photospherically driven motions dominate convecive transport even at depth, descending through a very nearly adiabatic interior (more more nearly adiabatic than current convection models achieve). Convection of this form can meet Rossby number constraints set by global scale motions and implies that the solar supergranulation is the largest buoyantly driven scale of motion in the Sun. The other possibility is that large scale convection driven deeep in the Sun dynamically couples to the near surface shear layer, perhaps as its origin. In this case supergranulation would be the largest non-coupled convective mode, or only weakly coupled and thus potentially explaining the observed excess power in the prograde direction. Recent helioseismic results lend some support to this. We examind both of these possibilities using carefully designed numerical experiments, and weigh thier plausibilities in light of recent observations.
Robertson, Franklin R.; Roads, John; Oglesby, Robert; Marshall, Susan
2004-01-01
One of the most fundamental properties of the global heat balance is the net heat input into the tropical atmosphere that helps drive the planetary atmospheric circulation. Although broadly understood in terms of its gross structure and balance of source / sink terms, incorporation of the relevant processes in predictive models is still rather poor. The work reported here examines the tropical radiative and water cycle behavior as produced by four contemporary climate models. Among these are the NSIPP-2 (NASA Seasonal to Interannual Prediction Project) which uses the RAS convective parameterization; the FVCCM, a code using finite volume numerics and the CCM3.6 physics; FVCCM-MCRAS again having the finite volume numerics, but MCRAS convective parameterization and a different radiation treatment; and, finally, the NCEP GSM which uses the RAS. Using multi-decadal integrations with specified SSTs we examine the statistics of radiative / convective processes and associated energy transports, and then estimate model energy flux sensitivities to SST changes. In particular the behavior of the convective parameterizations is investigated. Additional model integrations are performed specifically to assess the importance representing convective inhibition in regulating convective cloud-top structure and moisture detrainment as well as controlling surface energy fluxes. To evaluate the results of these experiments, a number of satellite retrievals are used: TRMM retrievals of vertical reflectivity structure, rainfall rate, and inferred diabatic heating are analyzed to show both seasonal and interannual variations in vertical structure of latent heat release. Top-of-atmosphere radiative fluxes from ERBS and CERES are used to examine shortwave and longwave cloud forcing and to deduce required seasonal energy transports. Retrievals of cloud properties from ISCCP and water vapor variations from SSM/T-2 are also used to understand behavior of the humidity fields. These observations
Thermal convection in a magnetized conducting fluid with the Cattaneo-Christov heat-flow model
Bissell, J. J.
2016-11-01
By substituting the Cattaneo-Christov heat-flow model for the more usual parabolic Fourier law, we consider the impact of hyperbolic heat-flow effects on thermal convection in the classic problem of a magnetized conducting fluid layer heated from below. For stationary convection, the system is equivalent to that studied by Chandrasekhar (Hydrodynamic and Hydromagnetic Stability, 1961), and with free boundary conditions we recover the classical critical Rayleigh number Rc(c )(Q ) which exhibits inhibition of convection by the field according to Rc(c )→π2Q as Q →∞ , where Q is the Chandrasekhar number. However, for oscillatory convection we find that the critical Rayleigh number Rc(o )(Q ,P1,P2,C ) is given by a more complicated function of the thermal Prandtl number P1, magnetic Prandtl number P2 and Cattaneo number C. To elucidate features of this dependence, we neglect P2 (in which case overstability would be classically forbidden), and thereby obtain an expression for the Rayleigh number that is far less strongly inhibited by the field, with limiting behaviour Rc(o )→π √{Q }/ C , as Q →∞ . One consequence of this weaker dependence is that onset of instability occurs as overstability provided C exceeds a threshold value CT(Q); indeed, crucially we show that when Q is large, CT∝1 / √{Q }, meaning that oscillatory modes are preferred even when C itself is small. Similar behaviour is demonstrated in the case of fixed boundaries by means of a novel numerical solution.
Numerical Simulation of a Convective Turbulence Encounter
Proctor, Fred H.; Hamilton, David W.; Bowles, Roland L.
2002-01-01
A numerical simulation of a convective turbulence event is investigated and compared with observational data. The numerical results show severe turbulence of similar scale and intensity to that encountered during the test flight. This turbulence is associated with buoyant plumes that penetrate the upper-level thunderstorm outflow. The simulated radar reflectivity compares well with that obtained from the aircraft's onboard radar. Resolved scales of motion as small as 50 m are needed in order to accurately diagnose aircraft normal load accelerations. Given this requirement, realistic turbulence fields may be created by merging subgrid-scales of turbulence to a convective-cloud simulation. A hazard algorithm for use with model data sets is demonstrated. The algorithm diagnoses the RMS normal loads from second moments of the vertical velocity field and is independent of aircraft motion.
MHD natural convection in open inclined square cavity with a heated circular cylinder
Hosain, Sheikh Anwar; Alim, M. A.; Saha, Satrajit Kumar
2017-06-01
MHD natural convection in open cavity becomes very important in many scientific and engineering problems, because of it's application in the design of electronic devices, solar thermal receivers, uncovered flat plate solar collectors having rows of vertical strips, geothermal reservoirs, etc. Several experiments and numerical investigations have been presented for describing the phenomenon of natural convection in open cavity for two decades. MHD natural convection and fluid flow in a two-dimensional open inclined square cavity with a heated circular cylinder was considered. The opposite wall to the opening side of the cavity was first kept to constant heat flux q, at the same time the surrounding fluid interacting with the aperture was maintained to an ambient temperature T∞. The top and bottom wall was kept to low and high temperature respectively. The fluid with different Prandtl numbers. The properties of the fluid are assumed to be constant. As a result a buoyancy force is created inside the cavity due to temperature difference and natural convection is formed inside the cavity. The Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) code are used to discretize the solution domain and represent the numerical result to graphical form.. Triangular meshes are used to obtain the solution of the problem. The streamlines and isotherms are produced, heat transfer parameter Nu are obtained. The results are presented in graphical as well as tabular form. The results show that heat flux decreases for increasing inclination of the cavity and the heat flux is a increasing function of Prandtl number Pr and decreasing function of Hartmann number Ha. It is observed that fluid moves counterclockwise around the cylinder in the cavity. Various recirculations are formed around the cylinder. The almost all isotherm lines are concentrated at the right lower corner of the cavity. The object of this work is to develop a Mathematical model regarding the effect of MHD natural convection flow around
Solutocapillary convection in spherical shells
Subramanian, Pravin; Zebib, Abdelfattah; McQuillan, Barry
2005-01-01
A linear stability study of solutocapillary driven Marangoni instabilities in small spherical shells is presented. The shells contain a binary fluid with an evaporating solvent. The viscosity is a strong function of the solvent concentration, the inner surface of the shell is assumed impermeable and stress free, while nonlinear boundary conditions are modeled and prescribed at the receding outer boundary. A time-dependent diffusive state is possible and may lose stability through the Marangoni mechanism due to surface tension dependence on solvent concentration (buoyant forces are negligible in this microscale problem). A frozen-time or quasisteady state linear stability analysis is performed to compute the critical Reynolds number and degree of surface harmonics, as well as the maximum growth rate of perturbations at specified parameters. The development of maximum growth rates in time was also computed by solving the initial value problem with random initial conditions. Results from both approaches are in good agreement except at short times where there is dependence on initial conditions. The physical problem models the manufacturing of spherical shells used as targets in inertial confinement fusion experiments where perfect sphericity is demanded for efficient fusion ignition. It is proposed that the Marangoni instability might be the source of observed surface roughness. Comparisons with the available experiments are made with reasonable qualitative and quantitative agreement.
Equilibrium Transport in Double-Diffusive Convection
2011-06-01
convection changes in other environments. External planetary systems, such as the atmospheric makeup of planets within our solar system, are...21) where ( fx ,fy) are the Floquet factors in x and y. Substituting Equation (21) in the linearized governing equations and collecting...the individual Fourier components reduces the stability problem to matrix form Equation (13). Maximizing the growth rates with respect to ( fx ,fy,m
Natural convection cooling of spent fuels depository
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Menant, B.
2000-01-01
The operating CASCAD Facility was commissioned at Cadarache since 1990. Spent fuels are being storage for a 50 years period. The heat giving by the wastes is evacuated essentially by natural convection. The Trio U software is applied to the thermohydraulic operating of the system. The results allow to illustrate the installation and show system instabilities effects which appear at many scales. (A.L.B.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hayat, T. [Department of Mathematics, Quaid-I-Azam University 45320, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Nonlinear Analysis and Applied Mathematics (NAAM) Research Group, Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Iqbal, Rija [Department of Mathematics, Quaid-I-Azam University 45320, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Tanveer, Anum, E-mail: qau14@yahoo.com [Department of Mathematics, Quaid-I-Azam University 45320, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Alsaedi, A. [Nonlinear Analysis and Applied Mathematics (NAAM) Research Group, Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia)
2016-06-15
This paper looks at the influences of magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) and thermal radiation on peristaltic transport of a pseudoplastic nanofluid in a tapered asymmetric channel. The tapered channel walls satisfy convective boundary conditions. The governing equations for the balance of mass, momentum, temperature and volume fraction for pseudoplastic nanofluid are first formulated and then utilized for long wavelength and small Reynolds number considerations. Effects of involved parameters on the flow characteristics have been plotted and examined. It is observed that the heat transfer Biot number shows a dual behavior on the temperature of nanofluid particles whereas the mass transfer Biot number with its increasing values enhances the fluid temperature. - Highlights: • Mathematical model for peristalsis of pseudoplastic nanofluid is formulated. • Analysis has been made in a tapered asymmetric channel. • Magnetohydrodynamic aspects have been outlined. • Influence of thermal radiation is investigated. • Convective conditions for both heat and mass transfer are present.
MHD natural convection in an inclined square porous cavity with a heat conducting solid block
Sivaraj, C.; Sheremet, M. A.
2017-03-01
This paper deals with natural convection in an inclined porous cavity with a heat conducting solid body placed at its center under the influence of the applied magnetic field of different orientations. The left and right vertical walls of the cavity are maintained at different temperatures Th and Tc, respectively, while the horizontal walls are adiabatic. The governing coupled partial differential equations were solved using a finite volume method on a uniformly staggered grid system. The effects of the inclination angles of the magnetic field and cavity and the Hartmann number on the flow and thermal fields are investigated in detail. Numerical results are presented in terms of isotherms, streamlines and average Nusselt numbers. In general, the results indicate that the inclusion of the magnetic field reduces the convective heat transfer rate in the cavity. It is also found that an increase in the angle of the applied magnetic field produces a non-linear variation in the average Nusselt numbers.
Effects of convective motion in n-octane pool fires in an ice cavity
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Farahani, Harried Farmahini; Jomaas, Grunde; Rangwala, Ali S.
2015-01-01
of time. Using these experimental results, two dimensionless numbers (Marangoni and Rayleigh) were calculated. The Marangoni number represents the surface tension driven flows in the fuel layer and the Rayleigh number represents the buoyancy driven flows in the fuel layer. The results of this study showed...... performed by burning n-octane in cylindrically shaped ice cavities of 5.7 cm diameter. The first set of experiments was intended to provide a clear understanding of the geometry change of the cavity and displacement of the fuel layer. The results of these experiments showed that the rate of melting...... two major convective phases; in the first half of the burning time, the buoyancy driven flows (Rayleigh) were dominant, while Marangoni convection was dominant in the second half of the burning time. The role of these mechanisms in affecting the flow and melting the ice is discussed. (C) 2015...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Inoue, Ken; Hattori, Naozo
2002-01-01
Combined forced and natural convection in a bundle of vertical cylinders has been studied numerically by use of Riemann geometry. The cylinders heated uniformly are arranged in an equilateral triangular pattern, and three bundle spacings, s/D=1.1, 1.5 and 1.9. Numerical calculations are made of the combined convection of air (Pr=0.7) in a subchannel of the bundle at the ratios of modified Grashof number to Reynolds number Gr*/Re from 1 to 10 5 . The results show that reverse flows appear along the center line in the subchannel with increasing Gr*/Re. Local Nusselt numbers for the thermally fully-developed region are well correlated with Gr*/Re. (author)
Simulating North American mesoscale convective systems with a convection-permitting climate model
Prein, Andreas F.; Liu, Changhai; Ikeda, Kyoko; Bullock, Randy; Rasmussen, Roy M.; Holland, Greg J.; Clark, Martyn
2017-10-01
Deep convection is a key process in the climate system and the main source of precipitation in the tropics, subtropics, and mid-latitudes during summer. Furthermore, it is related to high impact weather causing floods, hail, tornadoes, landslides, and other hazards. State-of-the-art climate models have to parameterize deep convection due to their coarse grid spacing. These parameterizations are a major source of uncertainty and long-standing model biases. We present a North American scale convection-permitting climate simulation that is able to explicitly simulate deep convection due to its 4-km grid spacing. We apply a feature-tracking algorithm to detect hourly precipitation from Mesoscale Convective Systems (MCSs) in the model and compare it with radar-based precipitation estimates east of the US Continental Divide. The simulation is able to capture the main characteristics of the observed MCSs such as their size, precipitation rate, propagation speed, and lifetime within observational uncertainties. In particular, the model is able to produce realistically propagating MCSs, which was a long-standing challenge in climate modeling. However, the MCS frequency is significantly underestimated in the central US during late summer. We discuss the origin of this frequency biases and suggest strategies for model improvements.
Natural convection cooling of the IFMIF target and test cell
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Slobodchuk, V. [Institute for Reactor Safety, Research Centre of Karlsruhe, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Stratmanns, E. [Institute for Reactor Safety, Research Centre of Karlsruhe, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)], E-mail: stratmanns@irs.fzk.de; Gordeev, S.; Heinzel, V.; Leichtle, D. [Institute for Reactor Safety, Research Centre of Karlsruhe, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Moeslang, A. [Institute for Material Research I, Research Centre of Karlsruhe, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Simakov, S.P. [Institute for Reactor Safety, Research Centre of Karlsruhe, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)
2007-10-15
The present work summarizes efforts on the simulation of natural convection cooling within the IFMIF target and test cell. The simulations have been performed with the STAR-CD code using the k-{omega} high-Reynolds number turbulence model. A dedicated thermohydraulic model has been devised including Lithium loop components. Nuclear heat production has been calculated by the Monte-Carlo code McDeLicious for different parts of the target and test cell walls and was used as input for the STAR-CD simulations. Helium atmospheres at several pressures from 0.1 to 10{sup -5} MPa have been investigated. In order to limit the maximum temperature of the concrete walls to 80 deg. C it was necessary to add thermal insulation layers to the hot Lithium loop surfaces and a conceptual system of two cooling layers in different depths of the concrete walls.
Unsteady Squeezing Flow of Carbon Nanotubes with Convective Boundary Conditions.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tasawar Hayat
Full Text Available Unsteady flow of nanofluids squeezed between two parallel plates is discussed in the presence of viscous dissipation. Heat transfer phenomenon is disclosed via convective boundary conditions. Carbon nanotubes (single-wall and multi-wall are used as nanoparticles which are homogeneously distributed in the base fluid (water. A system of non-linear differential equations for the flow is obtained by utilizing similarity transformations through the conservation laws. Influence of various emerging parameters on the velocity and temperature profiles are sketched graphically and discussed comprehensively. Analyses of skin fraction coefficient and Nusselt number are also elaborated numerically. It is found out that velocity is smaller for squeezing parameter in the case of multi-wall carbon nanotubes when compared with single-wall carbon nanotubes.
Conjugate natural convection in a square porous cavity
Baytaş, A. C.; Liaqat, A.; Groşan, T.; Pop, I.
Steady-state conjugate natural convection in a square cavity filled with a porous medium is studied numerically in this paper. The enclosure consists of two horizontal conductive walls of finite thickness and two vertical walls at different uniform temperatures. The focus is on the role of solid-fluid conductivity ratio, k, on the flow and heat transfer characteristics and the average Nusselt number, , over the vertical hot and cold walls of the cavity for a limited set of particular parameters. It was shown that the interface temperature, θw, along the top of the solid wall decreases with the increase in the wall conductivity k. Also, the values of decreases with the increase of the values of the parameter k. Comparison with known results from the open literature when the wall thickness of the horizontal solid walls is neglected (non-conjugate problem) is excellent.
Convective instabilities in liquid centrifugation for nuclear wastes separation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Camassa, R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM (United States)
1995-10-01
The separation of fission products from liquid solutions using centrifugal forces may prove an effective alternative to chemical processing in cases where radioactive materials necessitate minimal mixed-waste products or when allowing access to sophisticated chemical processing is undesirable. This investigation is a part of the effort to establish the feasibility of using liquid centrifugation for nuclear waste separation in the Accelerator Driven Energy Production (ADEP) program. A number of fundatmental issues in liquid centrifugation with radioactive elements need to be addressed in order to validate the approach and provide design criteria for experimental liquid salt (LiF and BeF{sub 2}) centrifuge. The author concentrates on one such issue, the possible onset of convective instabilities which could inhibit separation.
Sweeping jet for convective heat transfer of a flat plate
Park, Tongil; Kara, Kursat; Kim, Daegyoum
2017-11-01
A fluidic oscillator, which generates unsteady sweeping jet without any actuator and moving parts, has received much attention due to its attractive features: high durability to shock and vibration and no electromagnetic interference. In this work, we apply the fluidic oscillator to improve the performance of convective heat transfer. The sweeping jet impinges vertically on a heated flat plate. By varying Reynolds number and nozzle-to-plate spacing, we experimentally investigate the characteristics of a heat transfer rate of the plate and examine flow fields to find the flow characteristics responsible for enhancing heat transfer. Temperature on the plate was measured with thermocouples, and flow fields were obtained with planar particle image velocimetry. From the flow fields, dominant flow structure is extracted using proper orthogonal decomposition.
Soluto-capillary convection in micro-encapsulation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Subramanian, P.; Zebib, A.
2005-01-01
Spherical shells used as laser targets in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments are made by micro-encapsulation. In one phase of manufacturing, the spherical shells contain a solvent (fluoro-benzene, FB) and a solute (polystyrene, PAMS) in a water-FB environment. Evaporation of the FB results in the desired hardened plastic hollow spherical shells, 1-2 mm in diameter. Perfect sphericity is demanded for efficient fusion ignition and the observed surface roughness maybe driven by Marangoni instabilities due to surface tension dependence on the FB concentration (buoyant forces are negligible in this micro-scale problem). Here we model this drying process and compute nonlinear, time-dependent, axisymmetric, variable viscosity, infinite Schmidt number soluto-capillary convection in the shells. Comparison with results from linear theory and available experiments are made. (authors)
Dorao, C. A.; Drewes, S.; Fernandino, M.
2018-02-01
During the past few decades, heat transfer during convective flow boiling inside pipes has been widely studied with the goal of unveiling the physics of the process. Different heat transfer mechanisms have been suggested based on different assumptions. This fact has resulted in a large number of models including different dimensionless numbers and in some cases up to a dozen of adjusted parameters. Here, we show that the convective flow boiling heat transfer coefficient is equivalent to the one for single-phase flow when the influence of the vapour velocity is taken into account.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shewale Vinod C.
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Spherical cavity receiver of solar concentrator is made up of Cu tubing material having cavity diameter 385 mm to analyze the different heat losses such as conduction, convection and radiation. As the convection loss plays major role in heat loss analysis of cavity receiver, the experimental analysis is carried out to study convective heat loss for the temperature range of 55-75°C at 0°, 15°, 30°, 45°, 60°, and 90° inclination angle of downward facing cavity receiver. The numerical analysis is carried out to study convective heat loss for the low temperature range (55-75°C as well as high temperature range (150-300 °C for no wind condition only. The experimental set-up mainly consists of spherical cavity receiver which is insulated with glass wool insulation to reduce the heat losses from outside surface. The numerical analysis is carried out by using CFD software and the results are compared with the experimental results and found good agreement. The result shows that the convective loss increases with decrease in cavity inclination angle and decreases with decrease in mean cavity receiver temperature. The maximum losses are obtained at 0° inclination angle and the minimum losses are obtained at 90° inclination angle of cavity due to increase in stagnation zone in to the cavity from 0° to 90° inclination. The Nusselt number correlation is developed for the low temperature range 55-75°C based on the experimental data. The analysis is also carried out to study the effect of wind speed and wind direction on convective heat losses. The convective heat losses are studied for two wind speeds (3 m/s and 5 m/s and four wind directions [α is 0° (Side-on wind, 30°, 60°, and 90° (head-on wind]. It is found that the convective heat losses for both wind speed are higher than the losses obtained by no wind test. The highest heat losses are found for wind direction α is 60° with respect to receiver stand and lowest heat losses are found
A Study on the Mixed Convection Heat Transfer in a Vertical Cylinder Using Electroplating System
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ko, Bong Jin
2008-02-01
opposed flows depending on the directions of forced flows with respect to the buoyancy forces. For a laminar flow, the heat transfer rate of buoyancy aided flow is larger than the corresponding forced convection heat transfer due to the increased flow velocity while the heat transfer rate of buoyancy opposed flow is smaller. However for a turbulent flow, the buoyancy opposed flow shows higher heat transfer rates than corresponding forced convective flow due to the increased turbulent production and the buoyancy aided flow shower lower heat transfer rates due to laminarization. Mixed convection heat transfer in a vertical cylinder with aiding flow and opposing flow studied experimentally for Reynolds numbers ranging from 4,000 to 10,000 with a constant Grashof number 6.2x109 and Prandtl number about 2000. The experimental results reproduced the trend of mixed convection heat transfer phenomena in a turbulent situation and agree well with the study performed by Y. Parlatan(1996). The analogy experimental method successfully simulates the mixed convection heat transfer system and seems to be a useful tool for heat transfer studies for HTGR as well as the systems with high buoyancy condition and high Prandtl number fluid, as the electroplating method not only provides useful information regarding heat transfer but also has a cost-effective advantage over any other comparable experimental method
Adjoint optimization of natural convection problems: differentially heated cavity
Saglietti, Clio; Schlatter, Philipp; Monokrousos, Antonios; Henningson, Dan S.
2017-12-01
Optimization of natural convection-driven flows may provide significant improvements to the performance of cooling devices, but a theoretical investigation of such flows has been rarely done. The present paper illustrates an efficient gradient-based optimization method for analyzing such systems. We consider numerically the natural convection-driven flow in a differentially heated cavity with three Prandtl numbers (Pr=0.15{-}7) at super-critical conditions. All results and implementations were done with the spectral element code Nek5000. The flow is analyzed using linear direct and adjoint computations about a nonlinear base flow, extracting in particular optimal initial conditions using power iteration and the solution of the full adjoint direct eigenproblem. The cost function for both temperature and velocity is based on the kinetic energy and the concept of entransy, which yields a quadratic functional. Results are presented as a function of Prandtl number, time horizons and weights between kinetic energy and entransy. In particular, it is shown that the maximum transient growth is achieved at time horizons on the order of 5 time units for all cases, whereas for larger time horizons the adjoint mode is recovered as optimal initial condition. For smaller time horizons, the influence of the weights leads either to a concentric temperature distribution or to an initial condition pattern that opposes the mean shear and grows according to the Orr mechanism. For specific cases, it could also been shown that the computation of optimal initial conditions leads to a degenerate problem, with a potential loss of symmetry. In these situations, it turns out that any initial condition lying in a specific span of the eigenfunctions will yield exactly the same transient amplification. As a consequence, the power iteration converges very slowly and fails to extract all possible optimal initial conditions. According to the authors' knowledge, this behavior is illustrated here for
Convective Weather Avoidance with Uncertain Weather Forecasts
Karahan, Sinan; Windhorst, Robert D.
2009-01-01
Convective weather events have a disruptive impact on air traffic both in terminal area and in en-route airspaces. In order to make sure that the national air transportation system is safe and efficient, it is essential to respond to convective weather events effectively. Traffic flow control initiatives in response to convective weather include ground delay, airborne delay, miles-in-trail restrictions as well as tactical and strategic rerouting. The rerouting initiatives can potentially increase traffic density and complexity in regions neighboring the convective weather activity. There is a need to perform rerouting in an intelligent and efficient way such that the disruptive effects of rerouting are minimized. An important area of research is to study the interaction of in-flight rerouting with traffic congestion or complexity and developing methods that quantitatively measure this interaction. Furthermore, it is necessary to find rerouting solutions that account for uncertainties in weather forecasts. These are important steps toward managing complexity during rerouting operations, and the paper is motivated by these research questions. An automated system is developed for rerouting air traffic in order to avoid convective weather regions during the 20- minute - 2-hour time horizon. Such a system is envisioned to work in concert with separation assurance (0 - 20-minute time horizon), and longer term air traffic management (2-hours and beyond) to provide a more comprehensive solution to complexity and safety management. In this study, weather is dynamic and uncertain; it is represented as regions of airspace that pilots are likely to avoid. Algorithms are implemented in an air traffic simulation environment to support the research study. The algorithms used are deterministic but periodically revise reroutes to account for weather forecast updates. In contrast to previous studies, in this study convective weather is represented as regions of airspace that pilots
Regimes of Axisymmetric Flow and Scaling Laws in a Rotating Annulus with Local Convective Forcing
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Susie Wright
2017-07-01
Full Text Available We present a numerical study of axisymmetric flow in a rotating annulus in which local thermal forcing, via a heated annular ring on the outside of the base and a cooled circular disk in the centre of the top surface, drives convection. This new configuration is a variant of the classical thermally-driven annulus, where uniform heating and cooling are applied through the outer and inner sidewalls respectively. The annulus provides an analogue to a planetary circulation and the new configuration, with its more relaxed vertical thermal boundary conditions, is expected to better emulate vigorous convection in the tropics and polar regions as well as baroclinic instability in the mid-latitude baroclinic zone. Using the Met Office/Oxford Rotating Annulus Laboratory (MORALS code, we have investigated a series of equilibrated, two dimensional axisymmetric flows across a large region of parameter space. These are characterized in terms of their velocity and temperature fields. When rotation is applied several distinct flow regimes may be identified for different rotation rates and strengths of differential heating. These regimes are defined as a function of the ratio of the horizontal Ekman layer thickness to the non-rotating thermal boundary layer thickness and are found to be similar to those identified in previous annulus experiments. Convection without rotation is also considered and the scaling of the heat transport with Rayleigh number is calculated. This is then compared with existing work on the classical annulus as well as horizontal and Rayleigh-Bénard convection. As with previous studies on both rotating and non-rotating convection the system’s behaviour is found to be aspect ratio dependent. This dependence is seen in the scaling of the non-rotating Nusselt number and in transitions between regimes in the rotating case although further investigation is required to fully explain these observations.
Mixing across fluid interfaces compressed by convective flow in porous media
Hidalgo, Juan J.; Dentz, Marco
2018-03-01
We study the mixing in the presence of convective flow in a porous medium. Convection is characterized by the formation of vortices and stagnation points, where the fluid interface is stretched and compressed enhancing mixing. We analyze the behavior of the mixing dynamics in different scenarios using an interface deformation model. We show that the scalar dissipation rate, which is related to the dissolution fluxes, is controlled by interfacial processes, specifically the equilibrium between interface compression and diffusion, which depends on the flow field configuration. We consider different scenarios of increasing complexity. First, we analyze a double-gyre synthetic velocity field. Second, a Rayleigh-B\\'enard instability (the Horton-Rogers-Lapwood problem), in which stagnation points are located at a fixed interface. This system experiences a transition from a diffusion controlled mixing to a chaotic convection as the Rayleigh number increases. Finally, a Rayleigh-Taylor instability with a moving interface, in which mixing undergoes three different regimes: diffusive, convection dominated, and convection shutdown. The interface compression model correctly predicts the behavior of the systems. It shows how the dependency of the compression rate on diffusion explains the change in the scaling behavior of the scalar dissipation rate. The model indicates that the interaction between stagnation points and the correlation structure of the velocity field is also responsible for the transition between regimes. We also show the difference in behavior between the dissolution fluxes and the mixing state of the systems. We observe that while the dissolution flux decreases with the Rayleigh number, the system becomes more homogeneous. That is, mixing is enhanced by reducing diffusion. This observation is explained by the effect of the instability patterns.
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Md. Jashim Uddin
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Two-dimensional, steady, laminar and incompressible natural convective flow of a nanofluid over a connectively heated permeable upward facing radiating horizontal plate in porous medium is studied numerically. The present model incorporates Brownian motion and thermophoresis effects. The similarity transformations for the governing equations are developed by Lie group analysis. The transformed equations are solved numerically by Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg fourth-fifth order method with shooting technique. Effects of the governing parameters on the dimensionless velocity, temperature and nanoparticle volume fraction as well as on the dimensionless rate of heat and mass transfer are presented graphically and the results are compared with the published data for special cases. Good agreement is found between numerical results of the present paper and published results. It is found that Lewis number, Brownian motion and convective heat transfer parameters increase the heat and mass transfer rates whilst thermophoresis decreases both heat and mass transfer rates.
NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF NATURAL CONVECTION IN A PRISMATIC ENCLOSURE
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Walid AICH
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Natural convection heat transfer and fluid flow have been examined numerically using the control-volume finite-element method in an isosceles prismatic cavity, submitted to a uniform heat flux from below when inclined sides are maintained isothermal and vertical walls are assumed to be perfect thermal insulators, without symmetry assumptions for the flow structure. The aim of the study is to examine a pitchfork bifurcation occurrence. Governing parameters on heat transfer and flow fields are the Rayleigh number and the aspect ratio of the enclosure. It has been found that the heated wall is not isothermal and the flow structure is sensitive to the aspect ratio. It is also found that heat transfer increases with increasing of Rayleigh number and decreases with increasing aspect ratio. The effects of aspect ratio become significant especially for higher values of Rayleigh number. Eventually the obtained results show that a pitchfork bifurcation occurs at a critical Rayleigh number, above which the symmetric solutions becomes unstable and asymmetric solutions are instead obtained.
Natural convection in asymmetric triangular enclosures heated from below
Kamiyo, O. M.; Angeli, D.; Barozzi, G. S.; Collins, M. W.
2014-11-01
Triangular enclosures are typical configurations of attic spaces found in residential as well as industrial pitched-roof buildings. Natural convection in triangular rooftops has received considerable attention over the years, mainly on right-angled and isosceles enclosures. In this paper, a finite volume CFD package is employed to study the laminar air flow and temperature distribution in asymmetric rooftop-shaped triangular enclosures when heated isothermally from the base wall, for aspect ratios (AR) 0.2 <= AR <= 1.0, and Rayleigh number (Ra) values 8 × 105 <= Ra <= 5 × 107. The effects of Rayleigh number and pitch angle on the flow structure and temperature distributions within the enclosure are analysed. Results indicate that, at low pitch angle, the heat transfer between the cold inclined and the hot base walls is very high, resulting in a multi-cellular flow structure. As the pitch angle increases, however, the number of cells reduces, and the total heat transfer rate progressively reduces, even if the Rayleigh number, being based on the enclosure height, rapidly increases. Physical reasons for the above effect are inspected.
Natural convection in asymmetric triangular enclosures heated from below
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kamiyo, O M; Angeli, D; Enzo Ferrari, Universita di Modena e Reggio Emilia, via Vignolese 905, I-41125 Modena (Italy))" data-affiliation=" (DIEF – Dipartimento di Ingegneria Enzo Ferrari, Universita di Modena e Reggio Emilia, via Vignolese 905, I-41125 Modena (Italy))" >Barozzi, G S; Collins, M W
2014-01-01
Triangular enclosures are typical configurations of attic spaces found in residential as well as industrial pitched-roof buildings. Natural convection in triangular rooftops has received considerable attention over the years, mainly on right-angled and isosceles enclosures. In this paper, a finite volume CFD package is employed to study the laminar air flow and temperature distribution in asymmetric rooftop-shaped triangular enclosures when heated isothermally from the base wall, for aspect ratios (AR) 0.2 ≤ AR ≤ 1.0, and Rayleigh number (Ra) values 8 × 10 5 ≤ Ra ≤ 5 × 10 7 . The effects of Rayleigh number and pitch angle on the flow structure and temperature distributions within the enclosure are analysed. Results indicate that, at low pitch angle, the heat transfer between the cold inclined and the hot base walls is very high, resulting in a multi-cellular flow structure. As the pitch angle increases, however, the number of cells reduces, and the total heat transfer rate progressively reduces, even if the Rayleigh number, being based on the enclosure height, rapidly increases. Physical reasons for the above effect are inspected
Scaling the heterogeneously heated convective boundary layer
Van Heerwaarden, C.; Mellado, J.; De Lozar, A.
2013-12-01
We have studied the heterogeneously heated convective boundary layer (CBL) by means of large-eddy simulations (LES) and direct numerical simulations (DNS). What makes our study different from previous studies on this subject are our very long simulations in which the system travels through multiple states and that from there we have derived scaling laws. In our setup, a stratified atmosphere is heated from below by square patches with a high surface buoyancy flux, surrounded by regions with no or little flux. By letting a boundary layer grow in time we let the system evolve from the so-called meso-scale to the micro-scale regime. In the former the heterogeneity is large and strong circulations can develop, while in the latter the heterogeneity is small and does no longer influence the boundary layer structure. Within each simulation we can now observe the formation of a peak in kinetic energy, which represents the 'optimal' heterogeneity size in the meso-scale, and the subsequent decay of the peak and the development towards the transition to the micro-scale. We have created a non-dimensional parameter space that describes all properties of this system. By studying the previously described evolution for different combinations of parameters, we have derived three important conclusions. First, there exists a horizontal length scale of the heterogeneity (L) that is a function of the boundary layer height (h) and the Richardson (Ri) number of the inversion at the top of the boundary layer. This relationship has the form L = h Ri^(3/8). Second, this horizontal length scale L allows for expressing the time evolution, and thus the state of the system, as a ratio of this length scale and the distance between two patches Xp. This ratio thus describes to which extent the circulation fills up the space that exists between two patch centers. The timings of the transition from the meso- to the micro-scale collapse under this scaling for all simulations sharing the same flux
Mixed convection heat transfer from confined tandem square cylinders in a horizontal channel
Huang, Zhu
2013-11-01
This paper presents a numerical study on the two-dimensional laminar mixed convective flow and heat transfer around two identical isothermal square cylinders arranged in tandem and confined in a channel. The spacing between the cylinders is fixed with four widths of the cylinder and the blockage ratio and the Prandtl number are fixed at 0.1 and 0.7 respectively. The mixed convective flow and heat transfer is simulated by high accuracy multidomain pseudospectral method. The Reynolds number (Re) is studied in the range 80 ≤ Re ≤ 150, the Richardson number (Ri) demonstrating the influence of thermal buoyancy ranges from 0 to 1. Numerical results reveal that, with the thermal buoyancy effect, the mixed convective flow sheds vortex behind the cylinders and keeps periodic oscillating. The variations of characteristic quantities related to flow and heat transfer processes, such as the overall drag and lift coefficients and the Nusselt numbers, are presented and discussed. Furthermore, the influence of thermal buoyancy on the fluid flow and heat transfer are discussed and analysed. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Natural and Mixed Convection in Square Vented Enclosure Filled with Metal Foam
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Luma Fadhil Ali
2015-11-01
Full Text Available Steady natural and mixed convection flow in a square vented enclosure filled with water-saturated aluminum metal foam is numerically investigated. The left vertical wall is kept at constant temperature and the remaining walls are thermally insulated. Forced convection is imposed by providing an inlet at cavity bottom surface, and a vent at the top surface. Natural convection takes place due to the temperature difference inside the enclosure. Darcy-Brinkman-Forchheimer model for fluid flow and the two-equation of the local thermal non-equilibrium model for heat flow was adopted to describe the flow characteristics within the porous cavity. Numerical results are obtained for a wide range of width of the inlet as a fraction of the height of the enclosure (, the porosity of aluminum foams (, , Grashof numbers (, and Reynolds number (. Effects of pertinent physical parameters are performed in terms of the flow and temperature fields, as well as the average Nusselt number variations. The results show that the average Nusselt number increases with and and decreases with the porosity increasing. The fluid temperature distribution has a little difference from the solid matrix temperature distribution.
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Mohammed Hussein A.
2008-01-01
Full Text Available The problem of the laminar upward mixed convection heat transfer for thermally developing air flow in the entrance region of a vertical circular cylinder under buoyancy effect and wall heat flux boundary condition has been numerically investigated. An implicit finite difference method and the Gauss elimination technique have been used to solve the governing partial differential equations of motion (Navier Stocks equations for two-dimensional model. This investigation covers Reynolds number range from 400 to 1600, heat flux is varied from 70 W/m2 to 400 W/m2. The results present the dimensionless temperature profile, dimensionless velocity profile, dimensionless surface temperature along the cylinder, and the local Nusselt number variation with the dimensionless axial distance Z+. The dimensionless velocity and temperature profile results have revealed that the secondary flow created by natural convection have a significant effect on the heat transfer process. The results have also shown an increase in the Nusselt number values as the heat flux increases. The results have been compared with the available experimental study and with the available analytical solution for pure forced convection in terms of the local Nusselt number. The comparison has shown satisfactory agreement. .
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Tasawar Hayat
Full Text Available This article presents the simultaneous effects of convective heat and mass conditions in boundary-layer flow of nanoliquid due to a nonlinear curved stretching surface. A nonlinear curved stretching surface is used to generate the flow. Thermophoretic diffusion and random motion features are also incorporated. Convective heat and mass conditions are imposed at boundary. Suitable variables are utilized to convert the nonlinear partial differential system into nonlinear ordinary differential system. The obtained nonlinear systems are solved numerically through shooting technique. Plots are displayed in order to explore the role of physical flow variables on the solutions. The skin-friction coefficient and local Nusselt and Sherwood numbers are computed and examined. Our findings indicate that the local Nusselt and Sherwood numbers are reduced for larger values of thermophoresis parameter. Keywords: Nonlinear curved stretching surface, Nanoparticles, Convective heat and mass conditions, Numerical solution
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Imad Khan
Full Text Available This article concerns with mixed convection, heat and mass transfer characteristics of Eyring-Powell nanofluid over a cone and plate with chemical reactive species. The nonlinear partial differential equations (PDEâS are normalized by means of appropriate transformations. Governing equations are solved computationally by using shooting technique with fifth order Runge-Kutta scheme. A comparison for the cone and plate is given in each graph and table. The effects of emerging physical parameters such as porosity parameter, Lewis number, Prandtl number, Brownian moment, magnetic field parameter, thermophoresis parameter and mixed convection parameter on the momentum, temperature and concentration profiles are examined through graphs and tables. Keywords: Mixed convection flow, Eyring-Powell nanofluid, Chemical reaction, Cone and plate
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Pensiri Sompong
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The effects of wavy geometry on natural convection in an enclosure with two wavy vertical walls and filled with fluid saturated porous media are investigated numerically by using finite element method. The wavy enclosure is transformed to a unit square in the computational domain and the finite element formulations are solved in terms of ξη-coordinate based on iterative method. In order to investigate the effects of interested parameters, the values of wave amplitude (λ = 0.05 and 0.1 and number of undulations (n = 1 and 2 are chosen with constants Ra = 105, Da = 10−3, and Pr = 0.71. It is found that the increase in number of undulations has small effect on natural convection inside the enclosure whereas the increase in wave amplitude reduces the strength of convection because higher wave volume plays a barricade role.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aihara, Toshio; Maruyama, Shigenao; Choi, Jun-Seop.
1985-01-01
Recently, the research on free convection in vertical ducts has become active again concerning the problem of cooling in nuclear reactor accidents and the cooling of electronic equipment. Generally, in the convection heat transfer in ducts, when the wall temperature is high, the fluid temperature in the ducts conspicuously changes, accordingly, the temperature dependence of the properties cannot be neglected. In this study, about the laminar free convection in parallel plates and a circular pipe having uniform wall temperature, the numerical analysis taking the temperature dependence of all properties into account was carried out, thus the effect of the temperature dependence of properties exerted on free convection heat transfer was clarified, and the relation to the solution in constant properties was examined. Moreover, by introducing a new representative dimension, it was attempted to express mean heat transfer coefficient which is independent of the form of ducts in unified way. The mean Nusselt number of the constant property solution using entrance pressure condition agreed very well with the exact numerical solution. (Kako, I.)
Mixed convection flow of nanofluid in a square enclosure with an intruded rectangular fin
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cong, Ran; Zhou, Xuanyu; De Souza Machado, Bruno; Das, Prodip K., E-mail: prodip.das@ncl.ac.uk [School of Mechanical and Systems Engineering Newcastle University Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 7RU United Kingdom (United Kingdom)
2016-07-12
Mixed convection flow in enclosures has been a subject of interest for many years due to their ever increasing applications in solar collectors, electronic cooling, lubrication technologies, food processing, and nuclear reactors. In comparison, little effort has been given to the problem of mixed convection in enclosures filled with nanofluids, while the addition of nanoparticles in a fluid base to alter specific material properties is considered a feasible solution for many heat transfer problems. Mixed convection of nanofluids is a challenging problem as the addition of nanoparticles changes the fluid’s thermo-physical properties as well as due to the complex interactions among inertia, viscous, and buoyancy forces. In this study, a two-dimensional steady-state numerical model has been developed to investigate mixed convection flow of nanofluids in a square enclosure with an intruded rectangular fin and to optimize the fin geometry for maximizing the heat transfer using the Constructal design. The model has been developed using ANSYS-FLUENT for various fin geometries. Flow fields, temperature fields, and heat transfer rates are examined for different values of Rayleigh and Reynolds numbers for several geometries of the fin with the aim of maximizing the heat transfer from the fin to the surrounding flow. Outcome of this study provides important insight into the heat transfer behavior of nanofluids, which will help in developing novel geometries with enhanced and controlled heat transfer for solar collectors and electronic devices.
Visualization of Natural Convection Heat Transfer on a Single Sphere using the Electroplating System
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, Dong Young; Chung, Bum Jin [Kyunghee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)
2016-05-15
The natural convective flows on outer sphere rise along surface. At top of sphere, the flows are lifted-up plume shape. For laminar flows, the local heat transfer shows maximum at the bottom of sphere and a monotonic decreases as flows approached to the top. The laminar natural convection heat transfer on a single sphere has been studied experimentally and numerically by several researchers. However, relatively less study has been performed for turbulent flows as it requires large facilities to achieve high Rayleigh numbers. The flows, which occur transition, is hard to experiment because of unstable. This study tried measurement of heat transfer and visualization external natural convection on a single sphere. The basic idea is that the plating patterns of copper on the sphere in mass transfer system will reveal the amount of heat transfer according to angular distance from the bottom. This study simulated natural convection on a single sphere and performed a mass transfer experiment using heat and mass transfer analogy concept. For visualization experiment, streak form plating pattern was observed. In this case, it seems that turbulence sets on the top of sphere and increases local heat transfer.
A community benchmark for viscoplastic thermal convection in a 2-D square box
Tosi, N.; Stein, C.; Noack, L.; Hüttig, C.; Maierová, P.; Samuel, H.; Davies, D. R.; Wilson, C. R.; Kramer, S. C.; Thieulot, C.; Glerum, A.; Fraters, M.; Spakman, W.; Rozel, A.; Tackley, P. J.
2015-07-01
Numerical simulations of thermal convection in the Earth's mantle often employ a pseudoplastic rheology in order to mimic the plate-like behavior of the lithosphere. Yet the benchmark tests available in the literature are largely based on simple linear rheologies in which the viscosity is either assumed to be constant or weakly dependent on temperature. Here we present a suite of simple tests based on nonlinear rheologies featuring temperature, pressure, and strain rate-dependent viscosity. Eleven different codes based on the finite volume, finite element, or spectral methods have been used to run five benchmark cases leading to stagnant lid, mobile lid, and periodic convection in a 2-D square box. For two of these cases, we also show resolution tests from all contributing codes. In addition, we present a bifurcation analysis, describing the transition from a mobile lid regime to a periodic regime, and from a periodic regime to a stagnant lid regime, as a function of the yield stress. At a resolution of around 100 cells or elements in both vertical and horizontal directions, all codes reproduce the required diagnostic quantities with a discrepancy of at most ˜3% in the presence of both linear and nonlinear rheologies. Furthermore, they consistently predict the critical value of the yield stress at which the transition between different regimes occurs. As the most recent mantle convection codes can handle a number of different geometries within a single solution framework, this benchmark will also prove useful when validating viscoplastic thermal convection simulations in such geometries.
Mixed convection flow of nanofluid in a square enclosure with an intruded rectangular fin
Cong, Ran; Zhou, Xuanyu; De Souza Machado, Bruno; Das, Prodip K.
2016-07-01
Mixed convection flow in enclosures has been a subject of interest for many years due to their ever increasing applications in solar collectors, electronic cooling, lubrication technologies, food processing, and nuclear reactors. In comparison, little effort has been given to the problem of mixed convection in enclosures filled with nanofluids, while the addition of nanoparticles in a fluid base to alter specific material properties is considered a feasible solution for many heat transfer problems. Mixed convection of nanofluids is a challenging problem as the addition of nanoparticles changes the fluid's thermo-physical properties as well as due to the complex interactions among inertia, viscous, and buoyancy forces. In this study, a two-dimensional steady-state numerical model has been developed to investigate mixed convection flow of nanofluids in a square enclosure with an intruded rectangular fin and to optimize the fin geometry for maximizing the heat transfer using the Constructal design. The model has been developed using ANSYS-FLUENT for various fin geometries. Flow fields, temperature fields, and heat transfer rates are examined for different values of Rayleigh and Reynolds numbers for several geometries of the fin with the aim of maximizing the heat transfer from the fin to the surrounding flow. Outcome of this study provides important insight into the heat transfer behavior of nanofluids, which will help in developing novel geometries with enhanced and controlled heat transfer for solar collectors and electronic devices.
Sainsbury-Martinez, Felix; Browning, Matthew; Miesch, Mark; Featherstone, Nicholas A.
2018-01-01
Low-Mass stars are typically fully convective, and as such their dynamics may differ significantly from sun-like stars. Here we present a series of 3D anelastic HD and MHD simulations of fully convective stars, designed to investigate how the meridional circulation, the differential rotation, and residual entropy are affected by both varying stellar parameters, such as the luminosity or the rotation rate, and by the presence of a magnetic field. We also investigate, more specifically, a theoretical model in which isorotation contours and residual entropy (σ‧ = σ ‑ σ(r)) are intrinsically linked via the thermal wind equation (as proposed in the Solar context by Balbus in 2009). We have selected our simulation parameters in such as way as to span the transition between Solar-like differential rotation (fast equator + slow poles) and ‘anti-Solar’ differential rotation (slow equator + fast poles), as characterised by the convective Rossby number and △Ω. We illustrate the transition from single-celled to multi-celled MC profiles, and from positive to negative latitudinal entropy gradients. We show that an extrapolation involving both TWB and the σ‧/Ω link provides a reasonable estimate for the interior profile of our fully convective stars. Finally, we also present a selection of MHD simulations which exhibit an almost unsuppressed differential rotation profile, with energy balances remaining dominated by kinetic components.
Porter, M. J.; Fuelberg, H.; Pickering, K.; Crawford, J.; Brune, W.; Cohen, R.; Heikes, B.; Sachse, G.; Singh, H.; Wennberg, P.
2005-12-01
One must understand the generation of NOx by lightning (LNOx) and its vertical redistribution by convection to quantify the atmospheric processing of reactive nitrogen species. This study addresses these themes by revisiting Jeker's concept of "lightning tracing" (Jeker et al., JGR, 2000) using INTEX-A data gathered from June to August 2004. Kinematic trajectories calculated with output from the National Weather Service's Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) model are initialized along several convectively influenced flights and then followed back to their most recent intersection with lightning flashes observed by the National Lightning Detection Network. Since the RUC data are hourly at a 20 km spacing, their resolution is much greater than usually available with global data. This procedure allows a meteorological assessment of the sample's age since convection, which then is compared to its observed chemistry. In addition, the influence of the most recent lightning encounter on the chemical data is contrasted to the influence of lightning accumulated along the entire back trajectory. Finally, an analysis of the number of flashes encountered along the trajectory provides a means to quantify LNOx production. Performing this "lightning tracing" over multiple flights spanning the entire troposphere allows the construction of a post-convective LNOx vertical profile for INTEX-A.
A common origin for ridge-and-trough terrain on icy satellites by sluggish lid convection
Barr, Amy C.; Hammond, Noah P.
2015-12-01
Ridge-and-trough terrain is a common landform on outer Solar System icy satellites. Examples include Ganymede's grooved terrain, Europa's gray bands, Miranda's coronae, and several terrains on Enceladus. The conditions associated with the formation of each of these terrains are similar: heat flows of order tens to a hundred milliwatts per meter squared, and deformation rates of order 10-16-10-12 s-1. Our prior work shows that the conditions associated with the formation of these terrains on Ganymede and the south pole of Enceladus are consistent with vigorous solid-state ice convection in a shell with a weak surface. We show that sluggish lid convection, an intermediate regime between the isoviscous and stagnant lid regimes, can create the heat flow and deformation rates appropriate for ridge and trough formation on a number of satellites, regardless of the ice shell thickness. For convection to deform their surfaces, the ice shells must have yield stresses similar in magnitude to the daily tidal stresses. Tidal and convective stresses deform the surface, and the spatial pattern of tidal cracking controls the locations of ridge-and-trough terrain.
Archimedean Proof of the Physical Impossibility of Earth Mantle Convection
Herndon, J. Marvin
2010-01-01
Eight decades ago, Arthur Holmes introducted the idea of mantle convection as a mechanism for continental drift. Five decades ago, continental drift was modified to become plate tectonics theory, which included mantle convection as an absolutely critical component. Using the submarine design and operation concept of "neutral buoyancy", which follows from Archimedes' discoveries, the concept of mantle convection is proven to be incorrect, concomitantly refuting plate tectonics, refuting all ma...
Strategic Repositioning for Convection Business Case Study: AR Vendor
Anindita, Pratisara Satwika; Toha, Mohamad
2013-01-01
The study aims to determine suitable position and strategy in order to reach superiority in convection business based on the company strengths and weaknesses. A study conducted in late 2012 at AR Vendor, a home-based convection company which focus on the t-shirt screen printing service. In response to the issue of the below average profit margin, the company has to rethink their position and strategy in handling the convection business environment. While AR Vendor business may growth in accor...
Forced convection in nanoparticles doped nematics without reorientation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hakobyan, M.R.; Hakobyan, R.S.
2016-01-01
The problem of forced convection in the cell of nanoparticles doped nematic liquid crystal with both boundaries being free, plane and isotherm is discussed. These boundary conditions (offered by Rayleigh) allow to get simple and exact solution for boundary-value problem, from which its most important peculiarities can be clearly seen. Particularly, there appears a possibility to induce convection without reorientation of liquid crystal director. It was shown that nanoparticles could have significant influence on the convection
Primary Issues of Mixed Convection Heat Transfer Phenomena
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chae, Myeong-Seon; Chung, Bum-Jin
2015-01-01
The computer code analyzing the system operating and transient behavior must distinguish flow conditions involved with convective heat transfer flow regimes. And the proper correlations must be supplied to those flow regimes. However the existing safety analysis codes are focused on the Light Water Reactor and they are skeptical to be applied to the GCRs (Gas Cooled Reactors). One of the technical issues raise by the development of the VHTR is the mixed convection, which occur when the driving forces of both forced and natural convection are of comparable magnitudes. It can be encountered as in channel of the stacked with fuel elements and a decay heat removal system and in VHTR. The mixed convection is not intermediate phenomena with natural convection and forced convection but independent complicated phenomena. Therefore, many researchers have been studied and some primary issues were propounded for phenomena mixed convection. This paper is to discuss some problems identified through reviewing the papers for mixed convection phenomena. And primary issues of mixed convection heat transfer were proposed respect to thermal hydraulic problems for VHTR. The VHTR thermal hydraulic study requires an indepth study of the mixed convection phenomena. In this study we reviewed the classical flow regime map of Metais and Eckert and derived further issues to be considered. The following issues were raised: (1) Buoyancy aided an opposed flows were not differentiated and plotted in a map. (2) Experimental results for UWT and UHF condition were also plotted in the same map without differentiation. (3) The buoyancy coefficient was not generalized for correlating with buoyancy coefficient. (4) The phenomenon analysis for laminarization and returbulization as buoyancy effects in turbulent mixed convection was not established. (5) The defining to transition in mixed convection regime was difficult
Forced and free convection turbulent boundary layers in gas lasers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Woodroffe, J.A.
1975-01-01
Approximate expressions for the effect on optical path length through a turbulent vertical boundary layer caused by the combined presence of forced and free convection were obtained to first order in the asymptotic cases of dominant forced convection and dominant free convection. The effect in both cases is a reduction of the boundary-layer thickness. Characteristic scaling lengths are presented which aid in the optical analysis of the flowfield
Effect of an External Oriented Magnetic Field on Entropy Generation in Natural Convection
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Atef El Jery
2010-05-01
Full Text Available The influence of an external oriented magnetic field on entropy generation in natural convection for air and liquid gallium is numerically studied in steady-unsteady states by solving the mass, the momentum and the energy conservation equations. Entropy generation depends on five parameters which are: the Prandtl number, the irreversibility coefficients, the inclination angle of the magnetic field, the thermal Grashof and the Hartmann numbers. Effects of these parameters on total and local irreversibilities as well as on heat transfer and fluid flow are studied. It was found that the magnetic field tends to decrease the convection currents, the heat transfer and entropy generation inside the enclosure. Influence of inclination angle of the magnetic field on local irreversibility is then studied.
Doubly stratified mixed convection flow of Maxwell nanofluid with heat generation/absorption
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Abbasi, F.M., E-mail: abbasisarkar@gmail.com [Department of Mathematics, Comsats Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Shehzad, S.A. [Department of Mathematics, Comsats Institute of Information Technology, Sahiwal 57000 (Pakistan); Hayat, T. [Department of Mathematics, Quaid-i-Azam University, 45320, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); NAAM Research Group, Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Ahmad, B. [NAAM Research Group, Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia)
2016-04-15
Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) doubly stratified flow of Maxwell nanofluid in presence of mixed convection is analyzed in this article. Effects of thermophoresis, Brownian motion and heat generation/absorption are present. The flow is induced due to linear stretching of sheet. Mathematical formulation is made under boundary layer approach. Expressions of velocity, temperature and nanoparticles concentration are developed. The obtained results are plotted and discussed to examine the variations in temperature and nanoparticles concentration due to different physical parameters. Numerical computations are made to obtain the values of local Nusselt and Sherwood numbers. Impact of sundry parameters on the flow quantities is analyzed graphically. - Highlights: • Double stratified flow of Maxwell nanofluid with mixed convection is modeled. • Thermophoresis and Brownian motion effects are encountered. • Computations are made to obtain the solution expressions. • Numerical values of local Nusselt and Sherwood numbers are computed and examined.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Najam, M.; Amahmid, A.; Hasnaoui, M.; El Alami, M.
2003-01-01
We present a numerical study of laminar unsteady mixed convection in a two dimensional horizontal channel containing heating blocks periodically mounted on its lower wall while its upper wall is maintained cold at a constant temperature. The flow is assumed to be fully developed and periodic conditions are used in the longitudinal direction of the channel. The parameters governing the problem are the Reynolds number (0.1≤Re≤200), the Rayleigh number (10 4 ≤Ra≤10 6 ) and the relative height of the blocks (0.25≤B=h ' /H ' ≤0.5). The effect of the forced flow on the natural convection cells is studied for different values of the governing parameters. The conditions corresponding to the displacement of these cells and the unsteadiness of the flow are determined. The fully developed forced flow is found to reduce considerably the heat transfer through the cold surface of the channel at relatively large Re
Minakuchi, H.; Takagi, Y.; Okano, Y.; Gima, S.; Dost, S.
2014-01-01
A numerical simulation study was carried out to investigate the relative contributions of thermal and solutal Marangoni convections on transport structures in a liquid bridge under zero gravity. The liquid bridge in the model represents a three dimensional half-zone configuration of the Floating Zone (FZ) growth system. Three dimensional field equations of the liquid zone, i.e. continuity, momentum, energy, and diffusion equations, were solved by the PISO algorithm. Computations were performed using the open source software OpenFOAM. The numerical simulation results show that the flow field becomes three-dimensional and time-depended when the solutal Marangoni number is larger than the critical value. It was also shown that not only flow patterns but also the azimuthal wave number (m) changes due to the competing contributions of thermal and solutal Marangoni convective flows.
Hayat, T.; Ahmed, Bilal; Alsaedi, A.; Abbasi, F. M.
2018-03-01
The present communication investigates flow of Carreau-Yasuda nanofluid in presence of mixed convection and Hall current. Effects of viscous dissipation, Ohmic heating and convective conditions are addressed. In addition zero nanoparticle mass flux condition is imposed. Wave frame analysis is carried out. Coupled differential systems after long wavelength and low Reynolds number are numerically solved. Effects of different parameters on velocity, temperature and concentration are studied. Heat and mass transfer rates are analyzed through tabular values. It is observed that concentration for thermophoresis and Brownian motion parameters has opposite effect. Further heat and mass transfer rates at the upper wall enhances significantly when Hartman number increases and reverse situation is noticed for Hall parameter.
Ferrofluid convective heat transfer under the influence of external magnetic source
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Sheikholeslami
2018-03-01
Full Text Available Ferrofluid convective heat transfer in a cavity with sinusoidal cold wall is examined under the influence of external magnetic source. The working fluid is Fe3O4-water nanofluid. Single phase model is used to estimate the behavior of nanofluid. Vorticity stream function formulation is utilized to eliminate pressure gradient source terms. New numerical method is chosen namely Control volume base finite element method. Influences of Rayleigh, Hartmann numbers, amplitude of the sinusoidal wall and volume fraction of Fe3O4 on hydrothermal characteristics are presented. Results indicate that temperature gradient enhances as space between cold and hot walls reduces at low buoyancy force. Lorentz forces cause the nanofluid velocity to reduce and augment the thermal boundary layer thickness. Nusselt number augments with rise of buoyancy forces but it decreases with augment of Lorentz forces. Keywords: Nanofluid, Natural convection, Magnetic source, CVFEM, Sinusoidal wall
Cumulus convection and the terrestrial water-vapor distribution
Donner, Leo J.
1988-01-01
Cumulus convection plays a significant role in determining the structure of the terrestrial water vapor field. Cumulus convection acts directly on the moisture field by condensing and precipitating water vapor and by redistributing water vapor through cumulus induced eddy circulations. The mechanisms by which cumulus convection influences the terrestrial water vapor distribution is outlined. Calculations using a theory due to Kuo is used to illustrate the mechanisms by which cumulus convection works. Understanding of these processes greatly aids the ability of researchers to interpret the seasonal and spatial distribution of atmospheric water vapor by providing information on the nature of sources and sinks and the global circulation.
Urban Influences on Convection and Lightning Over Houston
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Gauthier, Michael L
2006-01-01
The research presented in this dissertation addresses a fundamental question regarding urban, ultimately anthropogenic, influences on convection as it relates to lightning production and precipitation structure...
Fourth Convection and Moisture Experiment ER2 MODIS Airborne Simulator
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Convection And Moisture EXperiment (CAMEX) 4 focused on the study of tropical cyclone (hurricane) development, tracking, intensification, and landfalling impacts...
Natural convection in superposed fluid-porous layers
Bagchi, Aniruddha
2013-01-01
Natural Convection in Composite Fluid-Porous Domains provides a timely overview of the current state of understanding on the phenomenon of convection in composite fluid-porous layers. Natural convection in horizontal fluid-porous layers has received renewed attention because of engineering problems such as post-accident cooling of nuclear reactors, contaminant transport in groundwater, and convection in fibrous insulation systems. Because applications of the problem span many scientific domains, the book serves as a valuable resource for a wide audience.
Thermal convection thresholds in a Oldroyd magnetic fluid
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Perez, L.M. [Departamento de Ingenieria Metalurgica, Universidad de Santiago de Chile, Av. Bernardo OHiggins 3363, Santiago (Chile); Bragard, J. [Departamento de Fisica y Matematica Aplicada, Universidad de Navarra, 31080 Pamplona (Spain); Laroze, D., E-mail: david.laroze@gmail.co [Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research, D 55021 Mainz (Germany); Instituto de Alta Investigacion, Universidad de Tarapaca, Casilla 7D, Arica (Chile); Martinez-Mardones, J. [Instituto de Fisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso, Casilla 4059, Valparaiso (Chile); Pleiner, H. [Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research, D 55021 Mainz (Germany)
2011-03-15
We report theoretical and numerical results on convection for a magnetic fluid in a viscoelastic carrier liquid. The viscoelastic properties is given by the Oldroyd model. We obtain explicit expressions for the convective thresholds in terms of the parameters of the system in the case of idealized boundary conditions. We also calculate numerically the convective thresholds for the case of realistic boundary conditions. The effect of the Kelvin force and of the rheology on instability thresholds for a diluted suspensions are emphasized. - Research highlights: > We study the linear analysis of the convection in magnetic fluids. > The Rheological properties are given by the Oldroyd model. > The numerical results are performed by the Spectral method.
Inside the supernova: A powerful convective engine
Herant, Marc; Benz, Willy; Hix, W. Raphael; Fryer, Chris L.; Colgate, Stirling A.
1994-01-01
We present an extensive study of the inception of supernova explosions by following the evolution of the cores of two massive stars (15 and 25 Solar mass) in multidimension. Our calculations begin at the onset of core collapse and stop several hundred milliseconds after the bounce, at which time successful explosions of the appropriate magnitude have been obtained. Similar to the classical delayed explosion mechanism of Wilson, the explosion is powered by the heating of the envelope due to neutrinos emitted by the protoneutron star as it radiates the gravitational energy liberated by the collapse. However, as was shown by Herant, Benz, & Colgate, this heating generates strong convection outside the neutrinosphere, which we demonstrate to be critical to the explosion. By breaking a purely stratified hydrostatic equilibrium, convection moves the nascent supernova away from a delicate radiative equilibrium between neutrino emission and absorption, Thus, unlike what has been observed in one-dimensional calculations, explosions are rendered quite insensitive to the details of the physical input parameters such as neutrino cross sections or nuclear equation of state parameters. As a confirmation, our comparative one-dimensional calculations with identical microphysics, but in which convection cannot occur, lead to dramatic failures. Guided by our numerical results, we have developed a paradigm for the supernova explosion mechanism. We view a supernova as an open cycle thermodynamic engine in which a reservoir of low-entropy matter (the envelope) is thermally coupled and physically connected to a hot bath (the protoneutron star) by a neutrino flux, and by hydrodynamic instabilities. This paradigm does not invoke new or modified physics over previous treatments, but relies on compellingly straightforward thermodynamic arguments. It provides a robust and self-regulated explosion mechanism to power supernovae that is effective under a wide range of physical parameters.
Effect of rotation on ferro thermohaline convection
Sekar, R; Ramanathan, A
2000-01-01
The ferro thermohaline convection in a rotating medium heated from below and salted from above has been analysed. The solute is magnetic oxide, which modifies the magnetic field established as a perturbation. The effect of salinity has been included in magnetisation and in the density of the ferrofluid. The conditions for both stationary and oscillatory modes have been obtained using linear stability analysis and it has been found that stationary mode is favoured in comparison with oscillatory mode. The numerical and graphical results are presented. It has been observed that rotation stabilises the system.
Measurement of natural convection by speckle photography
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wernekinck, U.; Merzkirch, W.
1986-01-01
The principle of speckle photography can be applied to the measurement of density variations in fluids. A modification of existing experimental arrangements allows for the measurement of large values of the light deflection angles as they may occur in heat and mass transfer situations. The method is demonstrated for the case of a helium jet exhausting into still air and the natural convective flow along a heated plate. The obtained data are compared with results measured with classical optical interferometers, and good agreement is found. The advantages of the new technique over the classical optical methods are briefly discussed. 11 references
Coupled Michigan MHD - Rice Convection Model Results
de Zeeuw, D.; Sazykin, S.; Wolf, D.; Gombosi, T.; Powell, K.
2002-12-01
A new high performance Rice Convection Model (RCM) has been coupled to the adaptive-grid Michigan MHD model (BATSRUS). This fully coupled code allows us to self-consistently simulate the physics in the inner and middle magnetosphere. A study will be presented of the basic characteristics of the inner and middle magnetosphere in the context of a single coupled-code run for idealized storm inputs. The analysis will include region-2 currents, shielding of the inner magnetosphere, partial ring currents, pressure distribution, magnetic field inflation, and distribution of pV^gamma.
Hamiltonian Description of Convective-cell Generation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krommes, J.A.; Kolesnikov, R.A.
2004-01-01
The nonlinear statistical growth rate eq for convective cells driven by drift-wave (DW) interactions is studied with the aid of a covariant Hamiltonian formalism for the gyrofluid nonlinearities. A statistical energy theorem is proven that relates eq to a second functional tensor derivative of the DW energy. This generalizes to a wide class of systems of coupled partial differential equations a previous result for scalar dynamics. Applications to (i) electrostatic ion-temperature-gradient-driven modes at small ion temperature, and (ii) weakly electromagnetic collisional DW's are noted