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Sample records for number de-fg02-02er45964 electromagnetic

  1. Final Report, DOE Award Number DE-FG02-02ER45964, Electromagnetic Properties of Matter at X-ray Wavelengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, David Y.

    2007-01-01

    We report results of a collaborative study of photon and charged-particle interactions with matter between the University of Vermont and Argonne and Brookhaven National Laboratories. A major goal was to extend the study of electromagnetic properties of selected materials to as wide a spectral range as possible. This broad approach discloses systematic trends not apparent in isolated measurements and exploits the power of dispersion analysis and sum-rule constraints. Emphasis was largely on UV and X-ray processes and capitalized on the wide range of photon energies available at NSLS. A key finding is that, under favorable circumstances, dispersion theory relates dispersive processes (e.g. refractive index, dielectric constant) to spectral moments of absorptive processes. This appears to be a new method in optics; it yields significant simplifications and provides a precise, model-independent characterization of optical materials. Problems addressed included (a) x-ray magnetooptics; (b) UV/soft-x-ray processes in insulators and their contribution to visible dispersion; (c) demonstration of moments/dispersion analysis in glasses and applications to fiber-optic systems; (d) the optical constants of silicon and their application to the stopping power of silicon for charged-particles. Results include: (1) Resolution of a long-standing conflict over the relation between x-ray Faraday rotation and x-ray magnetic circular dichroism. Specifically, the Kramers-Kronig relations must be generalized to account for the breaking of time-reversal symmetry by magnetic fields. Experimental reports to the contrary were shown to be inconclusive. Reanalysis of x-ray Faraday rotation data supports the generalization. (2) Demonstration that the optical properties of dielectrics in their region of transparency are determined by a series expansion in spectral moments of the dielectrics infrared and ultraviolet absorption spectra. Application of this to silicate glasses clarifies the role of

  2. Large numbers hypothesis. II - Electromagnetic radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, P. J.

    1983-01-01

    This paper develops the theory of electromagnetic radiation in the units covariant formalism incorporating Dirac's large numbers hypothesis (LNH). A direct field-to-particle technique is used to obtain the photon propagation equation which explicitly involves the photon replication rate. This replication rate is fixed uniquely by requiring that the form of a free-photon distribution function be preserved, as required by the 2.7 K cosmic radiation. One finds that with this particular photon replication rate the units covariant formalism developed in Paper I actually predicts that the ratio of photon number to proton number in the universe varies as t to the 1/4, precisely in accord with LNH. The cosmological red-shift law is also derived and it is shown to differ considerably from the standard form of (nu)(R) - const.

  3. Radical Software. Number Two. The Electromagnetic Spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korot, Beryl, Ed.; Gershuny, Phyllis, Ed.

    1970-01-01

    In an effort to foster the innovative uses of television technology, this tabloid format periodical details social, educational, and artistic experiments with television and lists a large number of experimental videotapes available from various television-centered groups and individuals. The principal areas explored in this issue include cable…

  4. Electromagnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Grant, Ian S

    1990-01-01

    The Manchester Physics Series General Editors: D. J. Sandiford; F. Mandl; A. C. Phillips Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester Properties of Matter B. H. Flowers and E. Mendoza Optics Second Edition F. G. Smith and J. H. Thomson Statistical Physics Second Edition F. Mandl Electromagnetism Second Edition I. S. Grant and W. R. Phillips Statistics R. J. Barlow Solid State Physics Second Edition J. R. Hook and H. E. Hall Quantum Mechanics F. Mandl Particle Physics Second Edition B. R. Martin and G. Shaw the Physics of Stars Second Edition A. C. Phillips Computing for Scient

  5. The effects of electromagnetic fields on the number of ovarian primordial follicles: An experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Bakacak

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an electromagnetic field (EMF, generated close to the ovaries, on primordial follicles. A total of 16 rats were used in this study. The study group consisted of rats exposed to an EMF in the abdominal region for 15 min/d for 15 days. Both the study and control group were composed of eight rats. After the treatment period of 15 days, the ovaries of the rats were extracted, and sections of ovarian tissue were taken for histological evaluation. The independent samples t test was used to compare the two groups. In the study group, the means of the right and left ovarian follicle numbers were 34.00 ± 10.20 and 36.00 ± 10.53, respectively. The average total ovarian follicle number was 70.00 ± 19.03. In the control group, the means of the right and left ovarian follicle numbers were 78.50 ± 25.98 and 71.75 ± 29.66, respectively, and the average total ovarian follicle number was 150.25 ± 49.53. The comparisons of the means of the right and left ovarian follicle numbers and the means of the total ovarian follicle numbers between the study and control groups indicated that the study group had significantly fewer follicles (p < 0.001, p = 0.011, and p = 0.002, respectively. This study found a significant decrease in the number of ovarian follicles in rats exposed to an EMF. Further clinical studies are needed to reveal the effects of EMFs on ovarian reserve and infertility.

  6. The effects of electromagnetic fields on the number of ovarian primordial follicles: An experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakacak, Murat; Bostancı, Mehmet Sühha; Attar, Rukset; Yıldırım, Özge Kizilkale; Yıldırım, Gazi; Bakacak, Zeyneb; Sayar, Hamide; Han, Agahan

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an electromagnetic field (EMF), generated close to the ovaries, on primordial follicles. A total of 16 rats were used in this study. The study group consisted of rats exposed to an EMF in the abdominal region for 15 min/d for 15 days. Both the study and control group were composed of eight rats. After the treatment period of 15 days, the ovaries of the rats were extracted, and sections of ovarian tissue were taken for histological evaluation. The independent samples t test was used to compare the two groups. In the study group, the means of the right and left ovarian follicle numbers were 34.00 ± 10.20 and 36.00 ± 10.53, respectively. The average total ovarian follicle number was 70.00 ± 19.03. In the control group, the means of the right and left ovarian follicle numbers were 78.50 ± 25.98 and 71.75 ± 29.66, respectively, and the average total ovarian follicle number was 150.25 ± 49.53. The comparisons of the means of the right and left ovarian follicle numbers and the means of the total ovarian follicle numbers between the study and control groups indicated that the study group had significantly fewer follicles (p < 0.001, p = 0.011, and p = 0.002, respectively). This study found a significant decrease in the number of ovarian follicles in rats exposed to an EMF. Further clinical studies are needed to reveal the effects of EMFs on ovarian reserve and infertility. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  7. Source of vacuum electromagnetic zero-point energy and Dirac's large numbers hypothesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simaciu, I.; Dumitrescu, G.

    1993-01-01

    The stochastic electrodynamics states that zero-point fluctuation of the vacuum (ZPF) is an electromagnetic zero-point radiation with spectral density ρ(ω)=ℎω 3 / 2π 2 C 3 . Protons, free electrons and atoms are sources for this radiation. Each of them absorbs and emits energy by interacting with ZPF. At equilibrium ZPF radiation is scattered by dipoles.Scattered radiation spectral density is ρ(ω,r) ρ(ω).c.σ(ω) / 4πr 2 . Radiation of dipole spectral density of Universe is ρ ∫ 0 R nρ(ω,r)4πr 2 dr. But if σ atom P e σ=σ T then ρ ρ(ω)σ T R.n. Moreover if ρ=ρ(ω) then σ T Rn = 1. With R = G M/c 2 and σ T ≅(e 2 /m e c 2 ) 2 ∝ r e 2 then σ T .Rn 1 is equivalent to R/r e = e 2 /Gm p m e i.e. the cosmological coincidence discussed in the context of Dirac's large-numbers hypothesis. (Author)

  8. Chaotic advection at large Péclet number: Electromagnetically driven experiments, numerical simulations, and theoretical predictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueroa, Aldo; Meunier, Patrice; Villermaux, Emmanuel; Cuevas, Sergio; Ramos, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    We present a combination of experiment, theory, and modelling on laminar mixing at large Péclet number. The flow is produced by oscillating electromagnetic forces in a thin electrolytic fluid layer, leading to oscillating dipoles, quadrupoles, octopoles, and disordered flows. The numerical simulations are based on the Diffusive Strip Method (DSM) which was recently introduced (P. Meunier and E. Villermaux, “The diffusive strip method for scalar mixing in two-dimensions,” J. Fluid Mech. 662, 134–172 (2010)) to solve the advection-diffusion problem by combining Lagrangian techniques and theoretical modelling of the diffusion. Numerical simulations obtained with the DSM are in reasonable agreement with quantitative dye visualization experiments of the scalar fields. A theoretical model based on log-normal Probability Density Functions (PDFs) of stretching factors, characteristic of homogeneous turbulence in the Batchelor regime, allows to predict the PDFs of scalar in agreement with numerical and experimental results. This model also indicates that the PDFs of scalar are asymptotically close to log-normal at late stages, except for the large concentration levels which correspond to low stretching factors

  9. A possible effect of electromagnetic radiation from mobile phone base stations on the number of breeding house sparrows (Passer domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everaert, Joris; Bauwens, Dirk

    2007-01-01

    A possible effect of long-term exposure to low-intensity electromagnetic radiation from mobile phone (GSM) base stations on the number of House Sparrows during the breeding season was studied in six residential districts in Belgium. We sampled 150 point locations within the 6 areas to examine small-scale geographic variation in the number of House Sparrow males and the strength of electromagnetic radiation from base stations. Spatial variation in the number of House Sparrow males was negatively and highly significantly related to the strength of electric fields from both the 900 and 1800 MHz downlink frequency bands and from the sum of these bands (Chi(2)-tests and AIC-criteria, Pnegative relationship was highly similar within each of the six study areas, despite differences among areas in both the number of birds and radiation levels. Thus, our data show that fewer House Sparrow males were seen at locations with relatively high electric field strength values of GSM base stations and therefore support the notion that long-term exposure to higher levels of radiation negatively affects the abundance or behavior of House Sparrows in the wild.

  10. Chemicals, metals, and pesticide pits waste unit low induction number electromagnetic survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cumbest, R.J.; Mohon, D.

    1995-06-01

    An electromagnetic survey was conducted at the Chemicals, Metals, and Pesticide Waste Unit to identify any buried metallic objects that may be present in the materials used to fill and cover the pits after removal of pit debris. The survey was conducted with a Geonics EM-31 Terrain Conductivity Meter along north - south oriented traverses with 5-ft station intervals to produce a 5-ft by 5-ft square grid node pattern. Both conductivity and in-phase components were measured at each station for vertical dipole orientation with the common axis of the dipoles in the north - south and east - west orientations. The conductivity data clearly show elevated conductivities (2.1 to 7.0 mS/m) associated with the material over the pits, as compared with the surrounding area that is characterized by lower conductivities (1 to 2 mS/m). This is probably the result of the higher clay content of the fill material relative to the surrounding area, which has a higher sand to clay ratio and the presence of a plastic cover beneath the fill that has probably trapped water. Many metal objects are present in the survey area including manhole covers, monitoring well heads, metal, signs, drain culverts, abandoned wells, and BP waste unit marker balls. AU of these exhibit associated conductivity and in-phase anomalies of various magnitude. In addition to these anomalies that can be definitely associated with surface sources, conductivity and in-phase anomalies are also present with no obvious surface source. These anomalies are probably indicative of subsurface buried metallic objects. A high concentration of these objects appears to be present in the southwest corner of the survey area.

  11. Transfinite ordinals as axiom number symbols for unification of quantum and electromagnetic wave functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honig, W.M.

    1976-01-01

    The mapping of axioms into transfinite number fields provides a method whereby axioms and the magnitudes of experimental values can be distinguished in a clear manner. This procedure is shown also to result in a logical interpretation for the presence of exponential forms and for their imaginary arguments. (author)

  12. Design of Edible Oil Degradation Tool by Using Electromagnetic Field Absorbtion Principle which was Characterized to Peroxide Number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isnen, M.; Nasution, T. I.; Perangin-angin, B.

    2016-08-01

    The identification of changes in oil quality has been conducted by indicating the change of dielectric constant which was showed by sensor voltage. Sensor was formed from two parallel flats that worked by electromagnetic wave propagation principle. By measuring its amplitude of electromagnetic wave attenuation caused by interaction between edible oil samples and the sensor, dielectric constant could be identified and estimated as well as peroxide number. In this case, the parallel flats were connected to an electric oscillator 700 kHz. Furthermore, sensor system could showed measurable voltage differences for each different samples. The testing carried out to five oil samples after undergoing an oxidation treatment at fix temperature of 235oC for 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 minutes. Iodometry method testing showed peroxide values about 1.99, 9.95, 5.96, 11.86, and 15.92 meq/kg respectively with rising trend. Besides that, the testing result by sensor system showed voltages values 1.139, 1.147, 1.165, 1.173, and 1.176 volts with rising trend, respectively. It means that the higher sensor voltages showed the higher damage rate of edible oil when the change in sensor voltage was caused by the change in oil dielectric constant in which heating process caused damage in edible oil molecules structure. The more damage of oil structure caused the more difficulties of oil molecules to polarize and it is indicated by smaller dielectric constant. Therefore electric current would be smaller when sensor voltage was higher. On the other side, the higher sensor voltage means the smaller dielectric constant and the higher peroxide number.

  13. Design of Edible Oil Degradation Tool by Using Electromagnetic Field Absorbtion Principle which was Characterized to Peroxide Number

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isnen, M; Nasution, T I; Perangin-angin, B

    2016-01-01

    The identification of changes in oil quality has been conducted by indicating the change of dielectric constant which was showed by sensor voltage. Sensor was formed from two parallel flats that worked by electromagnetic wave propagation principle. By measuring its amplitude of electromagnetic wave attenuation caused by interaction between edible oil samples and the sensor, dielectric constant could be identified and estimated as well as peroxide number. In this case, the parallel flats were connected to an electric oscillator 700 kHz. Furthermore, sensor system could showed measurable voltage differences for each different samples. The testing carried out to five oil samples after undergoing an oxidation treatment at fix temperature of 235 o C for 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 minutes. Iodometry method testing showed peroxide values about 1.99, 9.95, 5.96, 11.86, and 15.92 meq/kg respectively with rising trend. Besides that, the testing result by sensor system showed voltages values 1.139, 1.147, 1.165, 1.173, and 1.176 volts with rising trend, respectively. It means that the higher sensor voltages showed the higher damage rate of edible oil when the change in sensor voltage was caused by the change in oil dielectric constant in which heating process caused damage in edible oil molecules structure. The more damage of oil structure caused the more difficulties of oil molecules to polarize and it is indicated by smaller dielectric constant. Therefore electric current would be smaller when sensor voltage was higher. On the other side, the higher sensor voltage means the smaller dielectric constant and the higher peroxide number. (paper)

  14. Translations on USSR Science and Technology, Biomedical and Behavioral Sciences, Number 45, Effects of Nonionizing Electromagnetic Radiation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1978-01-01

    Partial Contents: Cellular and Molecular Effects and the Mechanism of Action of Microwave Electromagnetic Fields on Biological Systems, Stimulatory Action of an Electrostatic Field on Development of a Candida...

  15. Engineering electromagnetics

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, David T; Hartnett, James P; Hughes, William F

    1973-01-01

    The applications involving electromagnetic fields are so pervasive that it is difficult to estimate their contribution to the industrial output: generation of electricity, power transmission lines, electric motors, actuators, relays, radio, TV and microwave transmission and reception, magnetic storage, and even the mundane little magnet used to hold a paper note on the refrigerator are all electromagnetic in nature. One would be hard pressed to find a device that works without relaying on any electromagnetic principle or effect. This text provides a good theoretical understanding of the electromagnetic field equations but also treats a large number of applications. In fact, no topic is presented unless it is directly applicable to engineering design or unless it is needed for the understanding of another topic. In electrostatics, for example, the text includes discussions of photocopying, ink-jet printing, electrostatic separation and deposition, sandpaper production, paint spraying, and powder coating. In ma...

  16. Electromagnetic wave matching device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirata, Yosuke; Mitsunaka, Yoshika; Hayashi, Ken-ichi; Ito, Yasuyuki.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention provides an electromagnetic wave matching capable of reducing a cost for the transmission system in a system of using electromagnetic waves for plasma heating of a thermonuclear reactor. Namely, incident electromagnetic waves are reflected by using a plurality of phase correction mirrors. The reflected electromagnetic waves are connected to an external transmission system through an exit. The phase correction mirrors have such a shape to receive a plurality of beam-like electromagnetic waves and output electromagnetic waves by the number different from the number of the received electromagnetic wave beams having a predetermined distribution. Further, at least two of the phase correction mirrors have such a shape to change the phase of the electromagnetic waves beams incident to the reflection surface of the phase correction mirrors by a predetermined amount corresponding to the position of the reflection surface. Then, the cost for transmission system can greatly be reduced. (I.S.)

  17. Electromagnetic pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Koji; Suetake, Norio; Aizawa, Toshie; Nakasaki, Masayoshi

    1998-01-01

    The present invention provides an electromagnetic pump suitable to a recycling pump for liquid sodium as coolants of an FBR type reactor. Namely, a stator module of the electromagnetic pump of the present invention comprises a plurality of outer laminate iron core units and outer stator modules stacked alternately in the axial direction. With such a constitution, even a long electromagnetic pump having a large number of outer stator coils can be manufactured without damaging electric insulation of the outer stator coils. In addition, the inner circumferential surface of the outer laminate iron cores is urged and brought into contact with the outer circumferential surface of the outer duct by an elastic material. With such a constitution, Joule loss heat generated in the outer stator coils and internal heat generated in the outer laminate iron cores can be released to an electroconductive fluid flowing the inner circumference of the outer duct by way of the outer duct. (I.S.)

  18. Translations on USSR Science and Technology, Biomedical and Behavioral Sciences, Number 14. Effects of Nonionizing Electromagnetic Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-11-07

    number of females that delivered litters, as well as those that died during or post partum , and developmental anomalies in the offspring and postnatal...reproductive glands (N. 0. Melik-Alaverdyan). The depression of reproductive capa- city of males could be attributed to changes in functional and...above functional changes in spermatozoa were associated with impaired functional activity of testicular mitochondria, as mani- fested by depressed

  19. Engineering Electromagnetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Se Yun

    2009-01-01

    This book deals with engineering electromagnetics. It contains seven chapters, which treats understanding of engineering electromagnetics such as magnet and electron spin, current and a magnetic field and an electromagnetic wave, Essential tool for engineering electromagnetics on rector and scalar, rectangular coordinate system and curl vector, electrostatic field with coulomb rule and method of electric images, Biot-Savart law, Ampere law and magnetic force, Maxwell equation and an electromagnetic wave and reflection and penetration of electromagnetic plane wave.

  20. Engineering electromagnetics

    CERN Document Server

    Ida, Nathan

    2015-01-01

    This book provides students with a thorough theoretical understanding of electromagnetic field equations and it also treats a large number of applications. The text is a comprehensive two-semester textbook. The work treats most topics in two steps – a short, introductory chapter followed by a second chapter with in-depth extensive treatment; between 10 to 30 applications per topic; examples and exercises throughout the book; experiments, problems  and summaries.   The new edition includes: updated end of chapter problems; a new introduction to electromagnetics based on behavior of charges; a new section on units; MATLAB tools for solution of problems and demonstration of subjects; most chapters include a summary. The book is an undergraduate textbook at the Junior level, intended for required classes in electromagnetics. It is written in simple terms with all details of derivations included and all steps in solutions listed. It requires little beyond basic calculus and can be used for self-study. The weal...

  1. Electromagnetic Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book is dedicated to various aspects of electromagnetic wave theory and its applications in science and technology. The covered topics include the fundamental physics of electromagnetic waves, theory of electromagnetic wave propagation and scattering, methods of computational analysis......, material characterization, electromagnetic properties of plasma, analysis and applications of periodic structures and waveguide components, etc....

  2. A short-term extremely low frequency electromagnetic field exposure increases circulating leukocyte numbers and affects HPA-axis signaling in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleijn, de Stan; Ferwerda, Gerben; Wiese, Michelle; Trentelman, Jos; Cuppen, Jan; Kozicz, Tamas; Jager, de Linda; Hermans, Peter W.M.; Kemenade, van Lidy

    2016-01-01

    There is still uncertainty whether extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) can induce health effects like immunomodulation. Despite evidence obtained in vitro, an unambiguous association has not yet been established in vivo. Here, mice were exposed to ELF-EMF for 1, 4, and 24

  3. Fast breeder reactor electromagnetic pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araseki, Hideo; Murakami, Takahiro

    2008-01-01

    Main pumps circulating sodium in the FBR type reactor have been mechanical types, not electromagnetic pumps. Electromagnetic pump of 1-2 m 3 /min has been used as an auxiliary pump. Large sized electromagnetic pumps such as several hundred m 3 /min have not been commercialized due to technical difficulties with electromagnetic instability and pressure pulsations. This article explained electromagnetic and fluid equations and magnetic Reynolds number related with electromagnetic pumps and numerical analysis of instability characteristics and pressure pulsations and then described applications of the results to FBR system. Magnetic Reynolds number must be chosen less than one with appropriate operating frequency and optimum slip of 0.2-0.4. (T. Tanaka)

  4. Applied Electromagnetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamashita, H; Marinova, I; Cingoski, V [eds.

    2002-07-01

    These proceedings contain papers relating to the 3rd Japanese-Bulgarian-Macedonian Joint Seminar on Applied Electromagnetics. Included are the following groups: Numerical Methods I; Electrical and Mechanical System Analysis and Simulations; Inverse Problems and Optimizations; Software Methodology; Numerical Methods II; Applied Electromagnetics.

  5. Applied Electromagnetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, H.; Marinova, I.; Cingoski, V.

    2002-01-01

    These proceedings contain papers relating to the 3rd Japanese-Bulgarian-Macedonian Joint Seminar on Applied Electromagnetics. Included are the following groups: Numerical Methods I; Electrical and Mechanical System Analysis and Simulations; Inverse Problems and Optimizations; Software Methodology; Numerical Methods II; Applied Electromagnetics

  6. Electromagnetic interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosanac, Slobodan Danko

    2016-01-01

    This book is devoted to theoretical methods used in the extreme circumstances of very strong electromagnetic fields. The development of high power lasers, ultrafast processes, manipulation of electromagnetic fields and the use of very fast charged particles interacting with other charges requires an adequate theoretical description. Because of the very strong electromagnetic field, traditional theoretical approaches, which have primarily a perturbative character, have to be replaced by descriptions going beyond them. In the book an extension of the semi-classical radiation theory and classical dynamics for particles is performed to analyze single charged atoms and dipoles submitted to electromagnetic pulses. Special attention is given to the important problem of field reaction and controlling dynamics of charges by an electromagnetic field.

  7. Electromagnetic cellular interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifra, Michal; Fields, Jeremy Z; Farhadi, Ashkan

    2011-05-01

    Chemical and electrical interaction within and between cells is well established. Just the opposite is true about cellular interactions via other physical fields. The most probable candidate for an other form of cellular interaction is the electromagnetic field. We review theories and experiments on how cells can generate and detect electromagnetic fields generally, and if the cell-generated electromagnetic field can mediate cellular interactions. We do not limit here ourselves to specialized electro-excitable cells. Rather we describe physical processes that are of a more general nature and probably present in almost every type of living cell. The spectral range included is broad; from kHz to the visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum. We show that there is a rather large number of theories on how cells can generate and detect electromagnetic fields and discuss experimental evidence on electromagnetic cellular interactions in the modern scientific literature. Although small, it is continuously accumulating. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Electromagnetic waves in stratified media

    CERN Document Server

    Wait, James R; Fock, V A; Wait, J R

    2013-01-01

    International Series of Monographs in Electromagnetic Waves, Volume 3: Electromagnetic Waves in Stratified Media provides information pertinent to the electromagnetic waves in media whose properties differ in one particular direction. This book discusses the important feature of the waves that enables communications at global distances. Organized into 13 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the general analysis for the electromagnetic response of a plane stratified medium comprising of any number of parallel homogeneous layers. This text then explains the reflection of electromagne

  9. Electromagnetic shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.S.

    1987-01-01

    An electromagnetic shield is described comprising: closed, electrically-conductive rings, each having an open center; and binder means for arranging the rings in a predetermined, fixed relationship relative to each other, the so-arranged rings and binder means defining an outer surface; wherein electromagnetic energy received by the shield from a source adjacent its outer surface induces an electrical current to flow in a predetermined direction adjacent and parallel to the outer surface, through the rings; and wherein each ring is configured to cause source-induced alternating current flowing through the portion of the ring closest to the outer surface to electromagnetically induce an oppositely-directed current in the portion of the ring furthest from the surface, such oppositely-directed current bucking any source-induced current in the latter ring portion and thus reducing the magnitude of current flowing through it, whereby the electromagnetic shielding effected by the shield is enhanced

  10. Electromagnetic Landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cermak, Daniel; Okutsu, Ayaka; Jørgensen, Stina Marie Hasse

    2015-01-01

    Daniel Cermak-Sassenrath, Ayaka Okutsu, Stina Hasse. Electromagnetic Landscape - In-between Signal, Noise and Environment. Installation and artist talk. 21th International Symposium on Electronic Art (ISEA) 2015, Vancouver, CAN, Aug 14-18, 2015.......Daniel Cermak-Sassenrath, Ayaka Okutsu, Stina Hasse. Electromagnetic Landscape - In-between Signal, Noise and Environment. Installation and artist talk. 21th International Symposium on Electronic Art (ISEA) 2015, Vancouver, CAN, Aug 14-18, 2015....

  11. Electromagnetic radiation optimum neutralizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, Igor

    2002-01-01

    This particular article relates to subtle electrical effects, and provides some evidence of a fundamental nature on how subtle low frequency electromagnetic fields might be utilized to protect human body against harmful effects of high frequencies electromagnetic radiation. I have focused my efforts on definite polar polymer compound named EMRON which is patented in the USA. This polar polymer compound can be excited by external high frequencies electromagnetic fields to generate subtle low frequency oscillations that are beneficial for cellular life structures. This concept is based on the possibility of existence of resonance phenomenon between polar polymers and biopolymers such as proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, etc. Low frequency patterns generated by defined polar polymer compound can interact with biostructures and transmit the signals that support and improve cellular functions in the body. The mechanism of this process was confirmed by number of studies. The animal (including human) brain is affected by electromagnetic waves to the extent that production of Alpha or Theta waves can be directly induced into brain by carrying an ELF (extremely low frequency, 5-12 Hz) signal on a microwave carrier frequency. EMRON does not reduce the power of electromagnetic fields. It 'shields' the cellular structures of the body against the harmful effects of EMR. The radiation is still entering the body but the neutralizing effect of EMRON renders the radiation harmless

  12. Electromagnetic Landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cermak, Daniel; Okutsu, Ayaka; Hasse, Stina

    2015-01-01

    Electromagnetic Landscape demonstrates in direct, tangible and immediate ways effects of the disruption of the familiar. An ubiquitous technological medium, FM radio, is turned into an alien and unfamiliar one. Audience participation, the environment, radio signals and noise create a site...

  13. Improved Electromagnetic Brake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Toby B.

    2004-01-01

    A proposed design for an electromagnetic brake would increase the reliability while reducing the number of parts and the weight, relative to a prior commercially available electromagnetic brake. The reductions of weight and the number of parts could also lead to a reduction of cost. A description of the commercial brake is prerequisite to a description of the proposed electromagnetic brake. The commercial brake (see upper part of figure) includes (1) a permanent magnet and an electromagnet coil on a stator and (2) a rotor that includes a steel contact plate mounted, with tension spring loading, on an aluminum hub. The stator is mounted securely on a stationary object, which would ordinarily be the housing of a gear drive or a motor. The rotor is mounted on the shaft of the gear drive or motor. The commercial brake nominally operates in a fail-safe (in the sense of normally braking) mode: In the absence of current in the electromagnet coil, the permanent magnet pulls the contact plate, against the spring tension, into contact with the stator. To release the brake, one excites the electromagnet with a current of the magnitude and polarity chosen to cancel the magnetic flux of the permanent magnet, thereby enabling the spring tension to pull the contact plate out of contact with the stator. The fail-safe operation of the commercial brake depends on careful mounting of the rotor in relation to the stator. The rotor/stator gap must be set with a tolerance between 10 and 15 mils (between about 0.25 and about 0.38 mm). If the gap or the contact pad is thicker than the maximum allowable value, then the permanent magnetic field will not be strong enough to pull the steel plate across the gap. (For this reason, any contact pad between the contact plate and the stator must also be correspondingly thin.) If the gap exceeds the maximum allowable value because of shaft end play, it becomes impossible to set the brake by turning off the electromagnet current. Although it may

  14. Electromagnetic shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tzeng, Wen-Shian V.

    1991-01-01

    Electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding materials are well known in the art in forms such as gaskets, caulking compounds, adhesives, coatings and the like for a variety of EMI shielding purposes. In the past, where high shielding performance is necessary, EMI shielding has tended to use silver particles or silver coated copper particles dispersed in a resin binder. More recently, aluminum core silver coated particles have been used to reduce costs while maintaining good electrical and physical properties. (author). 8 figs

  15. Electromagnetic Reciprocity.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldridge, David F.

    2014-11-01

    A reciprocity theorem is an explicit mathematical relationship between two different wavefields that can exist within the same space - time configuration. Reciprocity theorems provi de the theoretical underpinning for mod ern full waveform inversion solutions, and also suggest practical strategies for speed ing up large - scale numerical modeling of geophysical datasets . In the present work, several previously - developed electromagnetic r eciprocity theorems are generalized to accommodate a broader range of medi um, source , and receiver types. Reciprocity relations enabling the interchange of various types of point sources and point receivers within a three - dimensional electromagnetic model are derived. Two numerical modeling algorithms in current use are successfully tested for adherence to reciprocity. Finally, the reciprocity theorem forms the point of departure for a lengthy derivation of electromagnetic Frechet derivatives. These mathe matical objects quantify the sensitivity of geophysical electromagnetic data to variatio ns in medium parameters, and thus constitute indispensable tools for solution of the full waveform inverse problem. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Sandia National Labor atories is a multi - program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the US Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE - AC04 - 94AL85000. Signif icant portions of the work reported herein were conducted under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and CARBO Ceramics Incorporated. The author acknowledges Mr. Chad Cannan and Mr. Terry Pa lisch of CARBO Ceramics, and Ms. Amy Halloran, manager of SNL's Geophysics and Atmospheric Sciences Department, for their interest in and encouragement of this work. Special thanks are due to Dr . Lewis C. Bartel ( recently retired from Sandia National Labo ratories

  16. The new electromagnetic tetrads, infinite tetrad nesting and the non-trivial emergence of complex numbers in real theories of gravitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garat, Alcides

    How complex numbers get into play in a non-trivial way in real theories of gravitation is relevant since in a unified structure they should be able to relate in a natural way with quantum theories. For a long time this issue has been lingering on both relativistic formulations and quantum theories. We will analyze this fundamental subject under the light of new group isomorphism theorems linking local internal groups of transformations and local groups of spacetime transformations. The bridge between these two kinds of transformations is represented by new tetrads introduced previously. It is precisely through these local tetrad structures that we will provide a non-trivial answer to this old issue. These new tetrads have two fundamental building components, the skeletons and the gauge vectors. It is these constructive elements that provide the mathematical support that allows to prove group isomorphism theorems. In addition to this, we will prove a unique new property, the infinite tetrad nesting, alternating the nesting with non-Abelian tetrads in the construction of the tetrad gauge vectors. As an application we will demonstrate an alternative proof of a new group isomorphism theorem.

  17. Histories electromagnetism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burch, Aidan

    2004-01-01

    Working within the HPO (History Projection Operator) Consistent Histories formalism, we follow the work of Savvidou on (scalar) field theory [J. Math. Phys. 43, 3053 (2002)] and that of Savvidou and Anastopoulos on (first-class) constrained systems [Class. Quantum Gravt. 17, 2463 (2000)] to write a histories theory (both classical and quantum) of Electromagnetism. We focus particularly on the foliation-dependence of the histories phase space/Hilbert space and the action thereon of the two Poincare groups that arise in histories field theory. We quantize in the spirit of the Dirac scheme for constrained systems

  18. Electromagnetic topology: Characterization of internal electromagnetic coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmantier, J. P.; Aparicio, J. P.; Faure, F.

    1991-01-01

    The main principles are presented of a method dealing with the resolution of electromagnetic internal problems: Electromagnetic Topology. A very interesting way is to generalize the multiconductor transmission line network theory to the basic equation of the Electromagnetic Topology: the BLT equation. This generalization is illustrated by the treatment of an aperture as a four port junction. Analytical and experimental derivations of the scattering parameters are presented. These concepts are used to study the electromagnetic coupling in a scale model of an aircraft, and can be seen as a convenient means to test internal electromagnetic interference.

  19. Electromagnetically shielded building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, T.; Nakamura, M.; Yabana, Y.; Ishikawa, T.; Nagata, K.

    1992-01-01

    This invention relates to a building having an electromagnetic shield structure well-suited for application to an information network system utilizing electromagnetic waves, and more particularly to an electromagnetically shielded building for enhancing the electromagnetic shielding performance of an external wall. 6 figs

  20. Electromagnetically shielded building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, T; Nakamura, M; Yabana, Y; Ishikawa, T; Nagata, K

    1992-04-21

    This invention relates to a building having an electromagnetic shield structure well-suited for application to an information network system utilizing electromagnetic waves, and more particularly to an electromagnetically shielded building for enhancing the electromagnetic shielding performance of an external wall. 6 figs.

  1. Electromagnetic launchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolm, H.; Mongeau, P.; Williams, F.

    1980-09-01

    Recent advances in energy storage, switching and magnet technology make electromagnetic acceleration a viable alternative to chemical propulsion for certain tasks, and a means to perform other tasks not previously feasible. Applications include the acceleration of gram-size particles for hypervelocity research and the initiation of fusion by impact, a replacement for chemically propelled artillery, the transportation of cargo and personnel over inaccessible terrain, and the launching of space vehicles to supply massive space operations, and for the disposal of nuclear waste. The simplest launcher of interest is the railgun, in which a short-circuit slide or an arc is driven along two rails by direct current. The most sophisticated studied thus far is the mass driver, in which a superconducting shuttle bucket is accelerated by a line of pulse coils energized by capacitors at energy conversion efficiencies better than 90%. Other accelerators of interest include helical, brush-commutated motors, discrete coil arc commutated drivers, flux compression momentum transformers, and various hybrid electrochemical devices.

  2. Topological Foundations of Electromagnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Barrett, Terrence W

    2008-01-01

    Topological Foundations of Electromagnetism seeks a fundamental understanding of the dynamics of electromagnetism; and marshals the evidence that in certain precisely defined topological conditions, electromagnetic theory (Maxwell's theory) must be extended or generalized in order to provide an explanation and understanding of, until now, unusual electromagnetic phenomena. Key to this generalization is an understanding of the circumstances under which the so-called A potential fields have physical effects. Basic to the approach taken is that the topological composition of electromagnetic field

  3. Optimization and inverse problems in electromagnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Wiak, Sławomir

    2003-01-01

    From 12 to 14 September 2002, the Academy of Humanities and Economics (AHE) hosted the workshop "Optimization and Inverse Problems in Electromagnetism". After this bi-annual event, a large number of papers were assembled and combined in this book. During the workshop recent developments and applications in optimization and inverse methodologies for electromagnetic fields were discussed. The contributions selected for the present volume cover a wide spectrum of inverse and optimal electromagnetic methodologies, ranging from theoretical to practical applications. A number of new optimal and inverse methodologies were proposed. There are contributions related to dedicated software. Optimization and Inverse Problems in Electromagnetism consists of three thematic chapters, covering: -General papers (survey of specific aspects of optimization and inverse problems in electromagnetism), -Methodologies, -Industrial Applications. The book can be useful to students of electrical and electronics engineering, computer sci...

  4. Circuit modeling for electromagnetic compatibility

    CERN Document Server

    Darney, Ian B

    2013-01-01

    Very simply, electromagnetic interference (EMI) costs money, reduces profits, and generally wreaks havoc for circuit designers in all industries. This book shows how the analytic tools of circuit theory can be used to simulate the coupling of interference into, and out of, any signal link in the system being reviewed. The technique is simple, systematic and accurate. It enables the design of any equipment to be tailored to meet EMC requirements. Every electronic system consists of a number of functional modules interconnected by signal links and power supply lines. Electromagnetic interference

  5. High performance electromagnetic simulation tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedney, Stephen D.; Whites, Keith W.

    1994-10-01

    Army Research Office Grant #DAAH04-93-G-0453 has supported the purchase of 24 additional compute nodes that were installed in the Intel iPsC/860 hypercube at the Univesity Of Kentucky (UK), rendering a 32-node multiprocessor. This facility has allowed the investigators to explore and extend the boundaries of electromagnetic simulation for important areas of defense concerns including microwave monolithic integrated circuit (MMIC) design/analysis and electromagnetic materials research and development. The iPSC/860 has also provided an ideal platform for MMIC circuit simulations. A number of parallel methods based on direct time-domain solutions of Maxwell's equations have been developed on the iPSC/860, including a parallel finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) algorithm, and a parallel planar generalized Yee-algorithm (PGY). The iPSC/860 has also provided an ideal platform on which to develop a 'virtual laboratory' to numerically analyze, scientifically study and develop new types of materials with beneficial electromagnetic properties. These materials simulations are capable of assembling hundreds of microscopic inclusions from which an electromagnetic full-wave solution will be obtained in toto. This powerful simulation tool has enabled research of the full-wave analysis of complex multicomponent MMIC devices and the electromagnetic properties of many types of materials to be performed numerically rather than strictly in the laboratory.

  6. Ultra-Wideband Electromagnetic Pulse Propagation through Causal Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-04

    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2016-0112 Ultra-Wideband Electromagnetic Pulse Propagation through Causal Media Natalie Cartwright RESEARCH FOUNDATION OF STATE... Electromagnetic Pulse Propagation through Causal Media 5a.  CONTRACT NUMBER 5b.  GRANT NUMBER FA9550-13-1-0013 5c.  PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 61102F 6...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT When an electromagnetic pulse travels through a dispersive material each frequency of the transmitted pulse changes in both

  7. Intermediate energy electromagnetic interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcon, M.

    1994-11-01

    Polarization measurements in electromagnetic interactions are reviewed. Deep inelastic scattering of polarized electrons and muons an polarized targets, photoproduction of pseudoscalar mesons on protons, photonuclear reactions, and the electromagnetic structure of the deuteron are discussed. (K.A.)

  8. Intermediate energy electromagnetic interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcon, M.

    1994-11-01

    Polarization measurements in electromagnetic interactions are reviewed. Deep inelastic scattering of polarized electrons and muons an polarized targets, photoproduction of pseudoscalar mesons on protons, photonuclear reactions, and the electromagnetic structure of the deuteron are discussed. (K.A.).

  9. Nonlocal theory of electromagnetic wave decay into two electromagnetic waves in a rippled density plasma channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sati, Priti; Tripathi, V. K.

    2012-01-01

    Parametric decay of a large amplitude electromagnetic wave into two electromagnetic modes in a rippled density plasma channel is investigated. The channel is taken to possess step density profile besides a density ripple of axial wave vector. The density ripple accounts for the momentum mismatch between the interacting waves and facilitates nonlinear coupling. For a given pump wave frequency, the requisite ripple wave number varies only a little w.r.t. the frequency of the low frequency decay wave. The radial localization of electromagnetic wave reduces the growth rate of the parametric instability. The growth rate decreases with the frequency of low frequency electromagnetic wave.

  10. Electromagnetic Education in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajpai, Shrish; Asif, Siddiqui Sajida; Akhtar, Syed Adnan

    2016-01-01

    Out of the four fundamental interactions in nature, electromagnetics is one of them along with gravitation, strong interaction and weak interaction. The field of electromagnetics has made much of the modern age possible. Electromagnets are common in day-to-day appliances and are becoming more conventional as the need for technology increases.…

  11. A Discrete Scatterer Technique for Evaluating Electromagnetic Scattering from Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Trees by DaHan Liao Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. NOTICES Disclaimers The findings...for Evaluating Electromagnetic Scattering from Trees by DaHan Liao Sensors and Electron Devices Directorate, ARL...Technique for Evaluating Electromagnetic Scattering from Trees 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S

  12. Electromagnetic fields and life

    CERN Document Server

    Presman, A S

    1970-01-01

    A broad region of the electromagnetic spectrum long assumed to have no influence on living systems under natural conditions has been critically re-examined over the past decade. This spectral region extends from the superhigh radio frequencies, through de­ creasing frequencies, to and including essentially static electric and magnetic fields. The author of this monograph, A. S. Presman, has reviewed not only the extensive Russian literatur!;"l, but also al­l most equally comprehensively the non-Russian literature, dealing with biological influences of these fields. Treated also is literature shedding some light on possible theoretical foundations for these phenomena. A substantial, rapidly increasing number of studies in many laboratories and countries has now clearly established bio­ logical influences which are independent of the theoretically predictable, simple thermal effects. Indeed many of the effects are produced by field strengths very close to those within the natural environment. The author has,...

  13. Method of operating an electromagnet arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldie, F.T.D.

    1988-01-01

    A method is described for operating an electromagnet arrangement comprising a main electromagnet and a number of correction coils for applying correction fields to the field produced by the main electromagnet to produce a resultant desired homogeneous magnetic field in a given volume. The method comprises obtaining the least squares fit values for the correction coil currents. If the required current in any coil lies outside a range of permissible values for that coil current a special procedure is described to find the selection of coil currents providing the lowest squared deviation between the desired and actual fields consistent with the permissible currents in the coils. (author)

  14. Electromagnetic wave matching device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirata, Yosuke; Mitsunaka, Yoshika; Hayashi, Ken-ichi; Ito, Yasuyuki.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention provides a matching device capable of increasing an efficiency of combining beams of electromagnetic waves outputted from an output window of a gyrotron which is expected for plasma heating of a thermonuclear reactor and an electromagnetic wave transmission system as high as possible. Namely, an electromagnetic wave matching device reflects beams of electromagnetic waves incident from an inlet by a plurality of phase correction mirrors and combines them to an external transmission system through an exit. In this case, the phase correction mirrors change the phase of the beams of electromagnetic waves incident to the phase correction mirrors by a predetermined amount corresponding to the position of the reflection mirrors. Then, the beams of electromagnetic waves outputted, for example, from a gyrotron can properly be shaped as desired for the intensity and the phase. As a result, combination efficiency with the transmission system can be increased. (I.S.)

  15. Electromagnetic Gowdy universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charach, C.

    1979-01-01

    Following Gowdy and Berger we construct an inhomogeneous closed electromagnetic universe with three-torus topology. This model is obtained as a result of the homogeneity breaking in the electromagnetic Bianchi type-I universe and contains interacting gravitational and electromagnetic waves. This cosmological solution provides an exactly solvable model for the study of the nonlinear fully relativistic regime of coupled electromagnetic and gravitational fields in the early universe. The asymptotic behavior is considered (i) in the vicinity of the initial singularity and (ii) in the high-frequency limit. It is shown that the effects of coupling between electromagnetic and gravitational waves cause an evolution which is significantly different from that of the vacuum model. The influence of the primordial homogeneous electromagnetic field on the dynamics of the model is also discussed

  16. Electromagnetic ultrasonic guided waves

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Songling; Li, Weibin; Wang, Qing

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces the fundamental theory of electromagnetic ultrasonic guided waves, together with its applications. It includes the dispersion characteristics and matching theory of guided waves; the mechanism of production and theoretical model of electromagnetic ultrasonic guided waves; the effect mechanism between guided waves and defects; the simulation method for the entire process of electromagnetic ultrasonic guided wave propagation; electromagnetic ultrasonic thickness measurement; pipeline axial guided wave defect detection; and electromagnetic ultrasonic guided wave detection of gas pipeline cracks. This theory and findings on applications draw on the author’s intensive research over the past eight years. The book can be used for nondestructive testing technology and as an engineering reference work. The specific implementation of the electromagnetic ultrasonic guided wave system presented here will also be of value for other nondestructive test developers.

  17. Basic Electromagnetism and Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Moliton, André

    2007-01-01

    Basic Electromagnetism and Materials is the product of many years of teaching basic and applied electromagnetism. This textbook can be used to teach electromagnetism to a wide range of undergraduate science majors in physics, electrical engineering or materials science. However, by making lesser demands on mathematical knowledge than competing texts, and by emphasizing electromagnetic properties of materials and their applications, this textbook is uniquely suited to students of materials science. Many competing texts focus on the study of propagation waves either in the microwave or optical domain, whereas Basic Electromagnetism and Materials covers the entire electromagnetic domain and the physical response of materials to these waves. Professor André Moliton is Director of the Unité de Microélectronique, Optoélectronique et Polymères (Université de Limoges, France), which brings together three groups studying the optoelectronics of molecular and polymer layers, micro-optoelectronic systems for teleco...

  18. Review on Computational Electromagnetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Sumithra

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Computational electromagnetics (CEM is applied to model the interaction of electromagnetic fields with the objects like antenna, waveguides, aircraft and their environment using Maxwell equations.  In this paper the strength and weakness of various computational electromagnetic techniques are discussed. Performance of various techniques in terms accuracy, memory and computational time for application specific tasks such as modeling RCS (Radar cross section, space applications, thin wires, antenna arrays are presented in this paper.

  19. Static electromagnetic frequency changers

    CERN Document Server

    Rozhanskii, L L

    1963-01-01

    Static Electromagnetic Frequency Changers is about the theory, design, construction, and applications of static electromagnetic frequency changers, devices that used for multiplication or division of alternating current frequency. It is originally published in the Russian language. This book is organized into five chapters. The first three chapters introduce the readers to the principles of operation, the construction, and the potential applications of static electromagnetic frequency changers and to the principles of their design. The two concluding chapters use some hitherto unpublished work

  20. Model for Electromagnetic Information Leakage

    OpenAIRE

    Mao Jian; Li Yongmei; Zhang Jiemin; Liu Jinming

    2013-01-01

    Electromagnetic leakage will happen in working information equipments; it could lead to information leakage. In order to discover the nature of information in electromagnetic leakage, this paper combined electromagnetic theory with information theory as an innovative research method. It outlines a systematic model of electromagnetic information leakage, which theoretically describes the process of information leakage, intercept and reproduction based on electromagnetic radiation, and ana...

  1. Electromagnetic Interface Testing Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Electromagnetic Interface Testing facilitysupports such testing asEmissions, Field Strength, Mode Stirring, EMP Pulser, 4 Probe Monitoring/Leveling System, and...

  2. Electromagnetic production of associated strangeness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David, J C [Lyon-1 Univ., 69 - Villeurbanne (France). Inst. de Physique Nucleaire; [CEA Centre d` Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Dept. d` Astrophysique, de la Physique des Particules, de la Physique Nucleaire et de l` Instrumentation Associee; Fayard, C; Lamot, G H [Lyon-1 Univ., 69 - Villeurbanne (France). Inst. de Physique Nucleaire; Saghai, B [CEA Centre d` Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Dept. d` Astrophysique, de la Physique des Particules, de la Physique Nucleaire et de l` Instrumentation Associee

    1996-04-01

    A formalism, based on an isobaric approach using Feynman diagram techniques, which includes the nucleonic (spin {<=} 5/2), hyperonic (spin 1/2) and kaonic resonances, is developed. Using this formalism, a thorough investigation of electromagnetic strangeness processes is performed. A reaction mechanism, describing well enough the data, is found to include a reasonable number of baryonic resonances among a very large number of potential candidates. Predictions for the upcoming photoproduction polarization and electroproduction observables are presented, and their sensitivity to the phenomenological models ingredients are emphasized. (K.A.). 70 refs.; Submitted to Physical Review, C (US).

  3. Electromagnetic production of associated strangeness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, J.C.; CEA Centre d'Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette; Fayard, C.; Lamot, G.H.; Saghai, B.

    1996-04-01

    A formalism, based on an isobaric approach using Feynman diagram techniques, which includes the nucleonic (spin ≤ 5/2), hyperonic (spin 1/2) and kaonic resonances, is developed. Using this formalism, a thorough investigation of electromagnetic strangeness processes is performed. A reaction mechanism, describing well enough the data, is found to include a reasonable number of baryonic resonances among a very large number of potential candidates. Predictions for the upcoming photoproduction polarization and electroproduction observables are presented, and their sensitivity to the phenomenological models ingredients are emphasized. (K.A.)

  4. Simple Electromagnetic Analysis in Cryptography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdenek Martinasek

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the main principle and methods of simple electromagnetic analysis and thus provides an overview of simple electromagnetic analysis.The introductions chapters describe specific SPA attack used visual inspection of EM traces, template based attack and collision attack.After reading the article, the reader is sufficiently informed of any context of SEMA.Another aim of the article is the practical realization of SEMA which is focused on AES implementation.The visual inspection of EM trace of AES is performed step by step and the result is the determination of secret key Hamming weight.On the resulting EM trace, the Hamming weight of the secret key 1 to 8 was clearly visible.This method allows reduction from the number of possible keys for following brute force attack.

  5. Study on electromagnetic constants of rotational bands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdurazakov, A.A.; Adib, Yu.Sh.; Karakhodzhaev, A.K.

    1991-01-01

    Values of electromagnetic constant S and rotation bands of odd nuclei with Z=64-70 within the mass number change interval A=153-173 are determined. Values of γ-transition mixing parameter with M1+E2 multipolarity are presented. ρ parameter dependence on mass number A is discussed

  6. An Electromagnetic Beam Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to an electromagnetic beam converter and a method for conversion of an input beam of electromagnetic radiation having a bell shaped intensity profile a(x,y) into an output beam having a prescribed target intensity profile l(x',y') based on a further development...

  7. Classical electromagnetic radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Heald, Mark A

    2012-01-01

    Newly corrected, this highly acclaimed text is suitable for advanced physics courses. The author presents a very accessible macroscopic view of classical electromagnetics that emphasizes integrating electromagnetic theory with physical optics. The survey follows the historical development of physics, culminating in the use of four-vector relativity to fully integrate electricity with magnetism.

  8. High frequency electromagnetic dosimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Sánchez-Hernández, David A

    2009-01-01

    Along with the growth of RF and microwave technology applications, there is a mounting concern about the possible adverse effects over human health from electromagnetic radiation. Addressing this issue and putting it into perspective, this groundbreaking resource provides critical details on the latest advances in high frequency electromagnetic dosimetry.

  9. Electromagnetically Operated Counter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, H D; Goldberg, M I

    1951-12-18

    An electromagnetically operated counter wherein signals to be counted are applied to cause stepwise rotation of a rotatable element which is connected to a suitable register. The mechanism involved consists of a rotatable armature having three spaced cores of magnetic material and a pair of diametrically opposed electromagnets with a suitable pulsing circuit to actuate the magnets.

  10. Electromagnetic cyclotron harmonic waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnuma, T.; Watanabe, T.; Hamamatsu, K.

    1981-09-01

    Electromagnetic electron cyclotron harmonic waves just below the electron cyclotron harmonics are investigated numerically and experimentally. Backward waves which are observed to propagate nearly perpendicular to the magnetic field just below the electron cyclotron frequency in a high density magnetoplasma are confirmed to be in accord with the theoretical electromagnetic cyclotron waves. (author)

  11. Electromagnetic shaft seal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Kenji.

    1994-01-01

    As an electromagnetic shaft seal, there are disposed outwarding electromagnetic induction devices having generating power directing to an electroconductive fluid as an object of sealing, and inwarding electromagnetic induction device added coaxially. There are disposed elongate rectangular looped first coils having a predetermined inner diameter, second coils having the same shape and shifted by a predetermined pitch relative to the first coil and third coil having the same shape and shifted by a predetermined pitch relative to the second coil respectively each at a predetermined inner diameter of clearance to the outwarding electromagnetic induction devices and the inwarding electromagnetic induction device. If the inwarding electromagnetic induction device and the outwarding electromagnetic induction device are operated, they are stopped at a point that the generating power of the former is equal with the sum of the generating power of the latter and a differential pressure. When three-phase AC is charged to the first coil, the second coil and the third coil successively, a force is generated in the advancing direction of the magnetic field in the electroconductive fluid by the similar effect to that of a linear motor, and the seal is maintained at high reliability. Moreover, the limit for the rotational angle of the shaft is not caused. (N.H.)

  12. Introduction to engineering electromagnetics

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Yeon Ho

    2013-01-01

    This text provides students with the missing link that can help them master the basic principles of electromagnetics. The concept of vector fields is introduced by starting with clear definitions of position, distance, and base vectors. The symmetries of typical configurations are discussed in detail, including cylindrical, spherical, translational, and two-fold rotational symmetries. To avoid serious confusion between symbols with two indices, the text adopts a new notation: a letter with subscript 1-2 for the work done in moving a unit charge from point 2 to point 1, in which the subscript 1-2 mimics the difference in potentials, while the hyphen implies a sense of backward direction, from 2 to 1. This text includes 300 figures in which real data are drawn to scale. Many figures provide a three-dimensional view. Each subsection includes a number of examples that are solved by examining rigorous approaches in steps. Each subsection ends with straightforward exercises and answers through which students can c...

  13. Curved electromagnetic missiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, J.M.; Shen, H.M.; Wu, T.T.

    1989-01-01

    Transient electromagnetic fields can exhibit interesting behavior in the limit of great distances from their sources. In situations of finite total radiated energy, the energy reaching a distant receiver can decrease with distance much more slowly than the usual r - 2 . Cases of such slow decrease have been referred to as electromagnetic missiles. All of the wide variety of known missiles propagate in essentially straight lines. A sketch is presented here of a missile that can follow a path that is strongly curved. An example of a curved electromagnetic missile is explicitly constructed and some of its properties are discussed. References to details available elsewhere are given

  14. Electromagnetic spatial coherence wavelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castaneda, R.; Garcia-Sucerquia, J.

    2005-10-01

    The recently introduced concept of spatial coherence wavelets is generalized for describing the propagation of electromagnetic fields in the free space. For this aim, the spatial coherence wavelet tensor is introduced as an elementary amount, in terms of which the formerly known quantities for this domain can be expressed. It allows analyzing the relationship between the spatial coherence properties and the polarization state of the electromagnetic wave. This approach is completely consistent with the recently introduced unified theory of coherence and polarization for random electromagnetic beams, but it provides a further insight about the causal relationship between the polarization states at different planes along the propagation path. (author)

  15. Nonlinear surface electromagnetic phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Ponath, H-E

    1991-01-01

    In recent years the physics of electromagnetic surface phenomena has developed rapidly, evolving into technologies for communications and industry, such as fiber and integrated optics. The variety of phenomena based on electromagnetism at surfaces is rich and this book was written with the aim of summarizing the available knowledge in selected areas of the field. The book contains reviews written by solid state and optical physicists on the nonlinear interaction of electromagnetic waves at and with surfaces and films. Both the physical phenomena and some potential applications are

  16. Study on coupled shock absorber system using four electromagnetic dampers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukumori, Y; Hayashi, R; Okano, H; Suda, Y; Nakano, K

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the electromagnetic damper, which is composed of an electric motor, a ball screw, and a nut, was proposed. The electromagnetic damper has high responsiveness, controllability, and energy saving performance. It has been reported that it improved ride comfort and drivability. In addition, the authors have proposed a coupling method of two electromagnetic dampers. The method enables the characteristics of bouncing and rolling or pitching motion of a vehicle to be tuned independently. In this study, the authors increase the number of coupling of electromagnetic dampers from two to four, and propose a method to couple four electromagnetic dampers. The proposed method enables the characteristics of bouncing, rolling and pitching motion of a vehicle to be tuned independently. Basic experiments using proposed circuit and motors and numerical simulations of an automobile equipped with the proposed coupling electromagnetic damper are carried out. The results indicate the proposed method is effective. (paper)

  17. Electromagnetic Effects in SDF Explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichenbach, H; Neuwald, P; Kuhl, A L

    2010-02-12

    The notion of high ion and electron concentrations in the detonation of aluminized explosive mixtures has aroused some interest in electro-magnetic effects that the SDF charges might generate when detonated. Motivated by this interest we have started to investigate whether significant electro-magnetic effects show up in our small-scale experiments. However, the design of instrumentation for this purpose is far from straightforward, since there are a number of open questions. Thus the main aim of the feasibility tests is to find - if possible - a simple and reliable method that can be used as a diagnostic tool for electro-magnetic effects. SDF charges with a 0.5-g PETN booster and a filling of 1 g aluminum flakes have been investigated in three barometric bomb calorimeters with volumes ranging from 6.3 l to of 6.6 l. Though similar in volume, the barometric bombs differed in the length-to-diameter ratio. The tests were carried out with the bombs filled with either air or nitrogen at ambient pressure. The comparison of the test in air to those in nitrogen shows that the combustion of TNT detonation products or aluminum generates a substantial increase of the quasi-steady overpressure in the bombs. Repeated tests in the same configuration resulted in some scatter of the experimental results. The most likely reason is that the aluminum combustion in most or all cases is incomplete and that the amount of aluminum actually burned varies from test to test. The mass fraction burned apparently decreases with increasing aspect ratio L/D. Thus an L/D-ratio of about 1 is optimal for the performance of shock-dispersed-fuel combustion. However, at an L/D-ratio of about 5 the combustion still yields appreciable overpressure in excess of the detonation. For a multi-burst scenario in a tunnel environment with a number of SDF charges distributed along a tunnel section a spacing of 5 tunnel diameter and a fuel-specific volume of around 7 l/g might provide an acceptable compromise

  18. Statistical electromagnetics: Complex cavities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naus, H.W.L.

    2008-01-01

    A selection of the literature on the statistical description of electromagnetic fields and complex cavities is concisely reviewed. Some essential concepts, for example, the application of the central limit theorem and the maximum entropy principle, are scrutinized. Implicit assumptions, biased

  19. Broadband Electromagnetic Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-23

    The objectives of this project are to continue the enhancements to the combined Broadband Electromagnetic and Full Encirclement Unit (BEM-FEU) technologies and to evaluate the systems capability in the laboratory and the field. The BEM instrument ...

  20. Magnetorheological suspension electromagnetic brake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bica, Ioan

    2004-01-01

    The magnetorheological suspension (MRS) brake is of the monoblock type. The main part of the electromagnetic brake is an electromagnet, between whose poles two MRS disks are placed. For distances between disks of 0.65x10 -3 m±10%, revolutions of the electric motor, coupled to the electromagnetic brake, ranging between 200 and 1600 rev/min and braking powers of up to 85 W, there are no differences in revolutions between the disks of the electromagnetic brake. For fixed revolutions of the electric motor, the revolution of the parallel disk can be modified continuously by means of the intensity of the magnetic field. In all cases, the quantity of MRS is of 0.35x10 -3 kg

  1. Computational electromagnetic-aerodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Shang, Joseph J S

    2016-01-01

    Presents numerical algorithms, procedures, and techniques required to solve engineering problems relating to the interactions between electromagnetic fields, fluid flow, and interdisciplinary technology for aerodynamics, electromagnetics, chemical-physics kinetics, and plasmadynamics This book addresses modeling and simulation science and technology for studying ionized gas phenomena in engineering applications. Computational Electromagnetic-Aerodynamics is organized into ten chapters. Chapter one to three introduce the fundamental concepts of plasmadynamics, chemical-physics of ionization, classical magnetohydrodynamics, and their extensions to plasma-based flow control actuators, high-speed flows of interplanetary re-entry, and ion thrusters in space exploration. Chapter four to six explain numerical algorithms and procedures for solving Maxwell’s equation in the time domain for computational electromagnetics, plasma wave propagation, and the time-dependent c mpressible Navier-Stokes equation for aerodyn...

  2. OPAL detector electromagnetic calorimeter

    CERN Multimedia

    1988-01-01

    Half of the electromagnetic calorimeter of the OPAL detector is seen in this photo. This calorimeter consists of 4720 blocks of lead glass. It was used to detect and measure the energy of photons, electrons and positrons by absorbing them.

  3. The classical electromagnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Eyges, Leonard

    2010-01-01

    This excellent text covers a year's course in advanced theoretical electromagnetism, first introducing theory, then its application. Topics include vectors D and H inside matter, conservation laws for energy, momentum, invariance, form invariance, covariance in special relativity, and more.

  4. Mathematics and electromagnetism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Danta, M.

    2000-01-01

    Symbiosis between mathematics and electromagnetism is analyzed in a simple and concise manner by taking a historical perspective. The universal tool character of mathematical models allowed the transfer of models from several branches of physics into the realm of electromagnetism by drawing analogies. The mutual interdependence between covariant formulation and tensor calculus is marked. The paper focuses on the guiding idea of field theory and Maxwell's equations. Likewise, geometrization of interactions in connection with gauge fields is also noted. (Author)

  5. The ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2003-01-01

    Michel Mathieu, a technician for the ATLAS collaboration, is cabling the ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter's first end-cap, before insertion into its cryostat. Millions of wires are connected to the electromagnetic calorimeter on this end-cap that must be carefully fed out from the detector so that data can be read out. Every element on the detector will be attached to one of these wires so that a full digital map of the end-cap can be recreated.

  6. Electromagnetic Fields Exposure Limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Mr. T.P. (Tjerk) KUIPERS Senior Adviser Health Physics Military Healthcare & Occupational Health Expertise Co-ordination Centre Support...Test of Biological Integrity in Dogs Exposed to an Electromagnetic Pulse Environment”, Health Physics 36:159-165, 1979. [11] Baum, S.J., Ekstrom, M.E...Electromagnetic Radiation”, Health Physics 30:161-166, 1976. [12] Baum, S., Skidmore, W. and Ekstrom, M., “Continuous Exposure of Rodents to 108 Pulses

  7. Electromagnetic Manifestation of Earthquakes

    OpenAIRE

    Uvarov Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    In a joint analysis of the results of recording the electrical component of the natural electromagnetic field of the Earth and the catalog of earthquakes in Kamchatka in 2013, unipolar pulses of constant amplitude associated with earthquakes were identified, whose activity is closely correlated with the energy of the electromagnetic field. For the explanation, a hypothesis about the cooperative character of these impulses is proposed.

  8. Electromagnetic Manifestation of Earthquakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uvarov Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In a joint analysis of the results of recording the electrical component of the natural electromagnetic field of the Earth and the catalog of earthquakes in Kamchatka in 2013, unipolar pulses of constant amplitude associated with earthquakes were identified, whose activity is closely correlated with the energy of the electromagnetic field. For the explanation, a hypothesis about the cooperative character of these impulses is proposed.

  9. Electromagnetic reverberation chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Besnier, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Dedicated to a complete presentation on all aspects of reverberation chambers, this book provides the physical principles behind these test systems in a very progressive manner. The detailed panorama of parameters governing the operation of electromagnetic reverberation chambers details various applications such as radiated immunity, emissivity, and shielding efficiency experiments.In addition, the reader is provided with the elements of electromagnetic theory and statistics required to take full advantage of the basic operational rules of reverberation chambers, including calibration proc

  10. Electromagnetic fields, environment and health

    CERN Document Server

    Perrin, Anne

    2013-01-01

    A good number of false ideas are circulating on the effects of non-ionizing radiations on our health, which can lead to an oversimplification of the issue, to potentially dangerous misconceptions or to misleading data analysis. Health effects may be exaggerated, or on the contrary underplayed. The authors of this work (doctors, engineers and researchers) have endeavored to supply validated and easily understandable scientific information on the electromagnetic fields and their biological and health effects. After a general review of the physics of the waves and a presentation of non-ionizing r

  11. Electromagnetic processes and interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheck, F.

    1983-01-01

    The electron and muon are important tools in testing the structure of the fundamental electromagnetic interactions. On the other hand, if these interactions are known, they serve as ideal probes for the internal structure of complex hadronic targets such as nucleons and nuclei. Purely electromagnetic interactions play a distinctive role, for obvious experimental reasons: At low and intermediate energies the effective electromagnetic coupling is larger by many orders of magnitude than the weak couplings, so that electromagnetic processes are measurable to much higher accuracy than purely weak processes. The present chapter deals primarily with applications of charged leptons to problems of nucleon and nuclear structure, and to selected precision tests of quantum electrodynamics (QED) at low momentum transfers. In most of these applications the electromagnetic interactions effectively appear in the form of external fields in the leptonic particle's Dirac equation. This is the domain where the physics of (electromagnetically) interacting leptons can still be described in the framework of an effective, though relativistic, single particle theory. (orig.)

  12. Covariant electromagnetic field lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadad, Y.; Cohen, E.; Kaminer, I.; Elitzur, A. C.

    2017-08-01

    Faraday introduced electric field lines as a powerful tool for understanding the electric force, and these field lines are still used today in classrooms and textbooks teaching the basics of electromagnetism within the electrostatic limit. However, despite attempts at generalizing this concept beyond the electrostatic limit, such a fully relativistic field line theory still appears to be missing. In this work, we propose such a theory and define covariant electromagnetic field lines that naturally extend electric field lines to relativistic systems and general electromagnetic fields. We derive a closed-form formula for the field lines curvature in the vicinity of a charge, and show that it is related to the world line of the charge. This demonstrates how the kinematics of a charge can be derived from the geometry of the electromagnetic field lines. Such a theory may also provide new tools in modeling and analyzing electromagnetic phenomena, and may entail new insights regarding long-standing problems such as radiation-reaction and self-force. In particular, the electromagnetic field lines curvature has the attractive property of being non-singular everywhere, thus eliminating all self-field singularities without using renormalization techniques.

  13. Electromagnetic characteristics of carbon nanotube film materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Wei

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotube (CNT possesses remarkable electrical conductivity, which shows great potential for the application as electromagnetic shielding material. This paper aims to characterize the electromagnetic parameters of a high CNT loading film by using waveguide method. The effects of layer number of CNT laminate, CNT alignment and resin impregnation on the electromagnetic characteristics were analyzed. It is shown that CNT film exhibits anisotropic electromagnetic characteristic. Pristine CNT film shows higher real part of complex permittivity, conductivity and shielding effectiveness when the polarized direction of incident wave is perpendicular to the winding direction of CNT film. For the CNT film laminates, complex permittivity increases with increasing layer number, and correspondingly, shielding effectiveness decreases. The five-layer CNT film shows extraordinary shielding performance with shielding effectiveness ranging from 67 dB to 78 dB in X-band. Stretching process induces the alignment of CNTs. When aligned direction of CNTs is parallel to the electric field, CNT film shows negative permittivity and higher conductivity. Moreover, resin impregnation into CNT film leads to the decrease of conductivity and shielding effectiveness. This research will contribute to the structural design for the application of CNT film as electromagnetic shielding materials.

  14. Accurate Electromagnetic Modeling Methods for Integrated Circuits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sheng, Z.

    2010-01-01

    The present development of modern integrated circuits (IC’s) is characterized by a number of critical factors that make their design and verification considerably more difficult than before. This dissertation addresses the important questions of modeling all electromagnetic behavior of features on

  15. The Electromagnetic Impact of Wind Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-06

    Applied Project 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE THE ELECTROMAGNETIC IMPACT OF WIND TURBINES 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Gregory Sasarita and Charles R...DISTRIBUTION CODE A 13. ABSTRACT (maximum 200 words) The objective of this project was to investigate the impact that a wind turbine can have on

  16. Calculation of nucleon electromagnetic form factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renner, D.B.; Brower, R.; Dolgov, D.; Eicker, N.; Lippert, Th.; Negele, J.W.; Pochinsky, A.; Schilling, K.

    2003-01-01

    The formalism is developed to express nucleon matrix elements of the electromagnetic current in terms of form factors consistent with the translational, rotational, and parity symmetries of a cubic lattice. We calculate the number of these form factors and show how appropriate linear combinations approach the continuum limit

  17. Electromagnetically Induced Transparency In Rydberg Atomic Medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Li; Cong, Lu; Chen, Ai-Xi

    2018-03-01

    Due to possessing big principal quantum number, Rydberg atom has some unique properties, for example: its radiative lifetime is long, dipole moment is large, and interaction between atoms is strong and so on. These properties make one pay attention to Rydberg atoms. In this paper we investigate the effects of Rydberg dipole-dipole interactions on electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) schemes and group velocity in three-level systems of ladder type, which provides theoretical foundation for exploring the linear and nonlinear characteristics of light in a Rydberg electromagnetically-induced-transparency medium.

  18. Anomalous correlation between hadrons and electromagnetic particles in hadron and gamma-ray families

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamada, Masanobu; Funayama, Yoshimi

    1986-01-01

    Correlations in relative (energy-weighted) distance between hadrons and electromagnetic particles are studied in the families observed in Chacaltaya emulsion chamber experiment. It is found that the observed number of hadrons which accompany electromagnetic in very close vicinity, say -5 , and it means there exists anomalous correlation between hadrons and electromagnetic particles in the characteristic spread of atmospheric electromagnetic cascade. The results are also compared with those of Japan-USSR joint chamber exposed at Pamir observatory. (author)

  19. Electromagnetic fields and their impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prša, M. A.; Kasaš-Lažetić, K. K.

    2018-01-01

    The main goal of this paper is to briefly recall some different electromagnetic field definitions, some macroscopic sources of electromagnetic fields, electromagnetic fields classification regarding time dependences, and the ways of field determination in concrete cases. After that, all the mechanisms of interaction between electromagnetic field and substance, on atomic level, are described in details. Interaction between substance and electric field is investigated separately from the substance and magnetic field interaction. It is demonstrated that, in all cases of the unique electromagnetic field, total interaction can be treated as a superposition of two separated interactions. Finally, the main electromagnetic fields surrounding us is cited and discussed.

  20. Efficiency improvements of electromagnetic flow control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spong, E.; Reizes, J.A.; Leonardi, E.

    2005-01-01

    In turbulent flow, frictional resistance and heat transfer are controlled to a large degree by the intensity of the turbulence fluctuations in the near vicinity of a surface. In the case of a weak electrically conducting fluid, such as seawater, turbulence intensity can be controlled by subjecting the fluid to electromagnetic fields. This technique, known as Electro-magneto-hydro-dynamic (EMHD) flow control, has been shown to have promise as a means of reducing the turbulence intensity, and hence heat transfer or frictional drag of turbulent boundary layers. Unfortunately EMHD flow control currently suffers from poor efficiency due to the high energy requirements of the electromagnetic field. A numerical study has been conducted in which a new electromagnetic actuator design has been developed to provide a more efficient spatial distribution of the electromagnetic forces. The new actuator design has then been coupled to an ideal flow sensor. A flow control subroutine, embedded in the numerical model, uses the velocity information from the ideal sensor to determine the appropriate actuating force to apply to the flow at each time step. The new actuator design has been shown to be capable of successfully attenuating a sequence of artificial low speed streaks in a simplified model of a low Reynolds number turbulent boundary layer. Thus, a potential solution to the poor efficiency of EMHD flow control has been offered by providing the means whereby the expensive electromagnetic forces can be strategically and sparingly applied to the flow

  1. A class of non-null toroidal electromagnetic fields and its relation to the model of electromagnetic knots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arrayás, Manuel; Trueba, José L

    2015-01-01

    An electromagnetic knot is an electromagnetic field in vacuum in which the magnetic lines and the electric lines coincide with the level curves of a pair of complex scalar fields ϕ and θ (see equations (A.1), (A.2)). When electromagnetism is expressed in terms of electromagnetic knots, it includes mechanisms for the topological quantization of the electromagnetic helicity, the electric charge, the electromagnetic energy inside a cavity and the magnetic flux through a superconducting ring. In the case of electromagnetic helicity, its topological quantization depends on the linking number of the field lines, both electric and magnetic. Consequently, to find solutions of the electromagnetic knot equations with nontrivial topology of the field lines has important physical consequences. We study a new class of solutions of Maxwell's equations in vacuum Arrayás and Trueba (2011 arXiv:1106.1122) obtained from complex scalar fields that can be interpreted as maps S 3 →S 2 , in which the topology of the field lines is that of the whole torus-knot set. Thus this class of solutions is built as electromagnetic knots at initial time. We study some properties of those fields and consider if detection based on the energy and momentum observables is possible. (paper)

  2. Gravitation and electromagnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Apsel, D

    1979-01-01

    Through an examination of the Bohm-Aharonov experiment, a new theory of gravitation and electromagnetism is proposed. The fundamental assumption of the theory is that the motion of a particle in a combination of gravitational and electromagnetic fields is determined from a variational principle of the form delta integral /sub A//sup B /d tau =0. The form of the physical time is determined from an examination of the Maxwell-Einstein action function. The field and motion equations are formally identical to those of Maxwell-Einstein theory. The theory predicts that even in a field-free region of space, electromagnetic potentials can alter the phase of a wave function and the lifetime of a charged particle. The phase alteration has been observed in the Bohm-Aharonov experiment. There is an indication that the lifetime alteration has shown up in a recent CERN storage ring experiment. Experimental tests are proposed. (11 refs).

  3. Applied electromagnetic scattering theory

    CERN Document Server

    Osipov, Andrey A

    2017-01-01

    Besides classical applications (radar and stealth, antennas, microwave engineering), scattering and diffraction are enabling phenomena for some emerging research fields (artificial electromagnetic materials or metamaterials, terahertz technologies, electromagnetic aspects of nano-science). This book is a tutorial for advanced students who need to study diffraction theory. The textbook gives fundamental knowledge about scattering and diffraction of electromagnetic waves and provides some working examples of solutions for practical high-frequency scattering and diffraction problems. The book focuses on the most important diffraction effects and mechanisms influencing the scattering process and describes efficient and physically justified simulation methods - physical optics (PO) and the physical theory of diffraction (PTD) - applicable in typical remote sensing scenarios. The material is presented in a comprehensible and logical form, which relates the presented results to the basic principles of electromag...

  4. Metamaterial electromagnetic wave absorbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Claire M; Liu, Xianliang; Padilla, Willie J

    2012-06-19

    The advent of negative index materials has spawned extensive research into metamaterials over the past decade. Metamaterials are attractive not only for their exotic electromagnetic properties, but also their promise for applications. A particular branch-the metamaterial perfect absorber (MPA)-has garnered interest due to the fact that it can achieve unity absorptivity of electromagnetic waves. Since its first experimental demonstration in 2008, the MPA has progressed significantly with designs shown across the electromagnetic spectrum, from microwave to optical. In this Progress Report we give an overview of the field and discuss a selection of examples and related applications. The ability of the MPA to exhibit extreme performance flexibility will be discussed and the theory underlying their operation and limitations will be established. Insight is given into what we can expect from this rapidly expanding field and future challenges will be addressed. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. The theory of electromagnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, D S

    1964-01-01

    The Theory of the Electomagnetism covers the behavior of electromagnetic fields and those parts of applied mathematics necessary to discover this behavior. This book is composed of 11 chapters that emphasize the Maxwell's equations. The first chapter is concerned with the general properties of solutions of Maxwell's equations in matter, which has certain macroscopic properties. The succeeding chapters consider specific problems in electromagnetism, including the determination of the field produced by a variable charge, first in isolation and then in the surface distributions of an antenna. The

  6. Lectures on electromagnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Ashok

    2013-01-01

    These lecture notes on electromagnetism have evolved from graduate and undergraduate EM theory courses given by the author at the University of Rochester, with the basics presented with clarity and his characteristic attention to detail. The thirteen chapters cover, in logical sequence, topics ranging from electrostatics, magnetostatics and Maxwell's equations to plasmas and radiation. Boundary value problems are treated extensively, as are wave guides, electromagnetic interactions and fields. This second edition comprises many of the topics expanded with more details on the derivation of vari

  7. Electromagnetic clutches and couplings

    CERN Document Server

    Vorob'Yeva, T M; Fry, D W; Higinbotham, W

    2013-01-01

    Electromagnetic Clutches and Couplings contains a detailed description of U.S.S.R. electromagnetic friction clutches, magnetic couplings, and magnetic particle couplings. This book is divided into four chapters. The first chapter discusses the design and construction of magnetic (solenoid-operated) couplings, which are very quick-acting devices and used in low power high-speed servo-systems. Chapter 2 describes the possible fields of application, design, construction, and utilization of magnetic particle couplings. The aspects of construction, design, and utilization of induction clutches (sli

  8. Essentials of Computational Electromagnetics

    CERN Document Server

    Sheng, Xin-Qing

    2012-01-01

    Essentials of Computational Electromagnetics provides an in-depth introduction of the three main full-wave numerical methods in computational electromagnetics (CEM); namely, the method of moment (MoM), the finite element method (FEM), and the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. Numerous monographs can be found addressing one of the above three methods. However, few give a broad general overview of essentials embodied in these methods, or were published too early to include recent advances. Furthermore, many existing monographs only present the final numerical results without specifyin

  9. Electromagnetic Fields in Reverberant Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogt-Ardatjew, Robert Andrzej

    2017-01-01

    The phenomenon of resonating electromagnetic (EM) fields has been commonly and successfully exploited in reverberation chambers (RC) for the purpose of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) testing, as well as modeling multipath environments. Although largely successful, the currently used statistical

  10. New perspectives on classical electromagnetism

    OpenAIRE

    Cote, Paul J.

    2009-01-01

    The fallacies associated with the gauge concept in electromagnetism are illustrated. A clearer and more valid formulation of the basics of classical electromagnetism is provided by recognizing existing physical constraints as well as the physical reality of the vector potential.

  11. Electromagnetic fields in stratified media

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Kai

    2009-01-01

    Dealing with an important branch of electromagnetic theory with many useful applications in subsurface communication, radar, and geophysical prospecting and diagnostics, this book introduces electromagnetic theory and wave propagation in complex media.

  12. Electromagnetic interference: a radiant future!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leferink, Frank Bernardus Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Although Electromagnetic Interference and Electromagnetic Compatibility are well established domains, the introduction of new technologies results in new challenges. Changes in both measurement techniques, and technological trends resulting in new types of interference are described. These are the

  13. Low frequency electromagnetic field sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Min; Zhou Yan; He Yicheng; Zheng Zhenxing; Liu Sunkun

    2000-01-01

    The measurement technique of low frequency electromagnetic field is reported. According to this principle, the authors have designed a sensor, which is used to measure the natural electromagnetic field, SLEMP and electromagnetic signals generated by some explosions. The frequency band of this sensor is from 0.08 Hz to 2 MHz

  14. Electromagnetic radiation detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Jay L.; Hansen, Gordon J.

    1976-01-01

    An electromagnetic radiation detector including a collimating window, a cathode member having a photoelectric emissive material surface angularly disposed to said window whereby radiation is impinged thereon at acute angles, an anode, separated from the cathode member by an evacuated space, for collecting photoelectrons emitted from the emissive cathode surface, and a negatively biased, high transmissive grid disposed between the cathode member and anode.

  15. Disconnected electromagnetic form factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilcox, Walter

    2001-01-01

    Preliminary results of a calculation of disconnected nucleon electromagnetic factors factors on the lattice are presented. The implementation of the numerical subtraction scheme is outlined. A comparison of results for electric and magnetic disconnected form factors on two lattice sizes with those of the Kentucky group is presented. Unlike previous results, the results found in this calculation are consistent with zero in these sectors

  16. Electromagnetic distance measurement

    CERN Document Server

    1967-01-01

    This book brings together the work of forty-eight geodesists from twenty-five countries. They discuss various new electromagnetic distance measurement (EDM) instruments - among them the Tellurometer, Geodimeter, and air- and satellite-borne systems - and investigate the complex sources of error.

  17. Equivalence principles and electromagnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, W.-T.

    1977-01-01

    The implications of the weak equivalence principles are investigated in detail for electromagnetic systems in a general framework. In particular, it is shown that the universality of free-fall trajectories (Galileo weak equivalence principle) does not imply the validity of the Einstein equivalence principle. However, the Galileo principle plus the universality of free-fall rotation states does imply the Einstein principle.

  18. Electromagnetic Environments Simulator (EMES)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varnado, G.B.

    1975-11-01

    A multipurpose electromagnetic environments simulator has been designed to provide a capability for performing EMR, EMP, and lightning near stroke testing of systems, subsystems and components in a single facility. This report describes the final facility design and presents the analytical and experimental verification of the design

  19. Pregnancy and electromagnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisseriex, Ch.; Laurent, P.; Cabaret, Ph.; Bonnet, C.; Marteau, E.; Le Berre, G.; Tirlemont, S.; Castro, H.; Becker, A.; Demaret, Ph.; Donati, M.; Ganem, Y.; Moureaux, P.

    2011-07-01

    This document briefly indicates the status of knowledge regarding the effect of magnetic fields on biological tissues and pregnancy, outlines the lack of data on some frequencies and the weakness of studies on long term effects on child development. It evokes the issue of exposure assessment and that of identification of workstations exposed to electromagnetic fields

  20. Electromagnetic structure of nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, R.G.

    1986-07-01

    A brief review is given of selected topics in the electromagnetic structure of nucleons and nuclei, including nucleon form factors from both quantum chromodynamics and electron scattering data, measurements of the deuteron and triton form factors, quasi-elastic scattering, and the EMC effect. 47 refs., 13 figs

  1. "Hearing" Electromagnetic Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojo, Marta; Munoz, Juan

    2014-01-01

    In this work, an educational experience is described in which a microwave communication link is used to make students aware that all electromagnetic waves have the same physical nature and properties. Experimental demonstrations are linked to theoretical concepts to increase comprehension of the physical principles underlying electromagnetic…

  2. Electromagnetic resonance waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villaba, J.M.; Manjon, F.J.; Guirao, A.; Andres, M.V.

    1994-01-01

    We describe in this paper a set of experiments designed to make qualitative and quantitative measurements on electromagnetic resonances of several simple systems. The experiments are designed for the undergraduate laboratory of Electricity and Magnetism in Physics. These experiments can help the students understanding the concept of resonance, which appears in different fields of Physics. (Author) 8 refs

  3. Scattering of electromagnetic waves into plasma oscillations via plasma particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, A.T.; Dawson, J.M.

    1975-01-01

    A plasma subjected to an intense electromagnetic wave can exhibit a large number of parametric instabilities. An interesting example which has received little attention is the decay of the electromagnetic wave into a plasma oscillation with the excess energy and momentum being carried off by electrons. This process has been simulated on a one-and-two-halves dimensional electromagnetic code. The incident electromagnetic wave had a frequency near the plasma frequency so that decay into a plasma oscillation and a backscattered electromagnetic wave was excluded. As expected, the threshold for this instability was very large , so it is unlikely that this instability is competitive in most laser plasmas. Nevertheless, the physical mechanism involved provides a means for absorption of laser light and acceleration of particles in a plasma containing large amplitude plasma oscillations

  4. Electromagnetic Methods of Lightning Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakov, V. A.

    2013-11-01

    Both cloud-to-ground and cloud lightning discharges involve a number of processes that produce electromagnetic field signatures in different regions of the spectrum. Salient characteristics of measured wideband electric and magnetic fields generated by various lightning processes at distances ranging from tens to a few hundreds of kilometers (when at least the initial part of the signal is essentially radiation while being not influenced by ionospheric reflections) are reviewed. An overview of the various lightning locating techniques, including magnetic direction finding, time-of-arrival technique, and interferometry, is given. Lightning location on global scale, when radio-frequency electromagnetic signals are dominated by ionospheric reflections, is also considered. Lightning locating system performance characteristics, including flash and stroke detection efficiencies, percentage of misclassified events, location accuracy, and peak current estimation errors, are discussed. Both cloud and cloud-to-ground flashes are considered. Representative examples of modern lightning locating systems are reviewed. Besides general characterization of each system, the available information on its performance characteristics is given with emphasis on those based on formal ground-truth studies published in the peer-reviewed literature.

  5. Gauge theory of weak, electromagnetic and dual electromagnetic interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soln, J.

    1980-01-01

    An SU 2 x U 1 algebra, in addition to the ordinary electric charge, also establishes the existence of the dual electric charge. This is taken as an indication of the existence of dual electromagnetic interactions in nature. Here, the unification of weak, electromagnetic and dual electromagnetic interactions is performed. The Yang-Mills-type group which contains the electromagnetic, dual electromagnetic and weak currents is SUsub(L,2) x U 1 x U' 1 . The masses of vector mesons are generated through the Higgs-Kibble mechanism. A simple consistency requirement suggests that dual electromagnetism and ordinary electromagnetism have the same strengths, leading the theory to a rather good agreement with experiments. (author)

  6. Muon number nonconservation in gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, T.P.; Li, L.F.

    1977-01-01

    The question of separate conservation of muon and electron number is considered in the context of unified gauge theories of weak and electromagnetic interactions. Theories with heavy neutral leptons, Higgs scalars, and doubly charged heavy leptons are discussed. 28 references

  7. Wave propagation in electromagnetic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, J.L.

    1990-01-01

    This book is concerned with wave propagation in reacting media, specifically in electromagnetic materials. An account is presented of the mathematical methods of wave phenomena in electromagnetic materials. The author presents the theory of time-varying electromagnetic fields, which involves a discussion of Faraday's laws, Maxwell's equations and their application to electromagnetic wave propagation under a variety of conditions. The author gives a discussion of magnetohydrodynamics and plasma physics. Chapters are included on quantum mechanics and the theory of relativity. The mathematical foundation of electromagnetic waves vis a vis partial differential equations is discussed

  8. Electromagnetic Signatures of SMBH Coalescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnittman, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    When two supermassive black holes (SMBHs) approach within 1-10 mpc, gravitational wave (GW) losses begin to dominate the evolution of the binary, pushing the system to merge in a relatively small time. During this final inspiral regime, the system will emit copious energy in GWs, which should be directly detectable by pulsar timing arrays and space-based interferometers. At the same time, any gas or stars in the immediate vicinity of the merging 5MBHs can get heated and produce bright electromagnetic (EM) counterparts to the GW signals. We present here a number of possible mechanisms by which simultaneous EM and GW signals will yield valuable new information about galaxy evolution, accretion disk dynamics, and fundamental physics in the most extreme gravitational fields.

  9. Numerical analysis of electromagnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou Pei Bai

    1993-01-01

    Numerical methods for solving boundary value problems have developed rapidly. Knowledge of these methods is important both for engineers and scientists. There are many books published that deal with various approximate methods such as the finite element method, the boundary element method and so on. However, there is no textbook that includes all of these methods. This book is intended to fill this gap. The book is designed to be suitable for graduate students in engineering science, for senior undergraduate students as well as for scientists and engineers who are interested in electromagnetic fields. Objective Numerical calculation is the combination of mathematical methods and field theory. A great number of mathematical concepts, principles and techniques are discussed and many computational techniques are considered in dealing with practical problems. The purpose of this book is to provide students with a solid background in numerical analysis of the field problems. The book emphasizes the basic theories ...

  10. Electromagnetic wave energy converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, R. L. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    Electromagnetic wave energy is converted into electric power with an array of mutually insulated electromagnetic wave absorber elements each responsive to an electric field component of the wave as it impinges thereon. Each element includes a portion tapered in the direction of wave propagation to provide a relatively wideband response spectrum. Each element includes an output for deriving a voltage replica of the electric field variations intercepted by it. Adjacent elements are positioned relative to each other so that an electric field subsists between adjacent elements in response to the impinging wave. The electric field results in a voltage difference between adjacent elements that is fed to a rectifier to derive dc output power.

  11. Electromagnetic fields and waves

    CERN Document Server

    Iskander, Magdy F

    2013-01-01

    The latest edition of Electromagnetic Fields and Waves retains an authoritative, balanced approach, in-depth coverage, extensive analysis, and use of computational techniques to provide a complete understanding of electromagnetic—important to all electrical engineering students. An essential feature of this innovative text is the early introduction of Maxwell's equations, together with the quantifying experimental observations made by the pioneers who discovered electromagnetics. This approach directly links the mathematical relations in Maxwell's equations to real experiments and facilitates a fundamental understanding of wave propagation and use in modern practical applications, especially in today's wireless world. New and expanded topics include the conceptual relationship between Coulomb's law and Gauss's law for calculating electric fields, the relationship between Biot-Savart's and Ampere's laws and their use in calculating magnetic fields from current sources, the development of Faraday's law from e...

  12. Nanofocusing of electromagnetic radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gramotnev, D. K.; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.

    2014-01-01

    Nanofocusing of electromagnetic radiation, that is, reducing the cross sections of propagating optical modes far beyond the diffraction limit in dielectric media, can be achieved in tapered metal-dielectric waveguides that support surface plasmon-polariton modes. Although the main principles...... radiation on the nanoscale. Here, we present the underlying physical principles of radiation nanofocusing in metallic nanostructures, overview recent progress and major developments, and consider future directions and potential applications of this subfield of nano-optics....

  13. Electromagnetic Hammer for Metalworking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, S. A.; Brunet, F.; Dowd, A.; Durham, R.; Ezell, J.; Gorr, G.; Hartley, D.; Jackson, F.; Marchand, J.; Macfarlane, W.; hide

    1986-01-01

    High eddy currents apply pressure for cold-forming. Coil housing constructed for mechanical strength to hold coil against magnetic force, to maintain electrical contact with coil ends, and to maintain insulation between coil turns. Drilled holes placed to facilitate release of bubbles during potting. In contrast with mechanical hammers, electromagnetic hammer requires no dynamic material contact with workpiece; consequently, produces almost no change in metal grain structure.

  14. Electromagnetic compatibility and earths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duque Henao, Alan; Casas Ospina, Favio

    2001-01-01

    It is such the increment of applications of electric and electronic equipment in the modern companies that the lack of control of the electromagnetic perturbations, brings, get big losses and difficulties in the normal operations. The paper contribute to ago with base in the challenges that day-by-day are confronting, where the settings to earth, to be the foundation of the electric building, are fundamental for a good coexistence among the different equipment s

  15. Hard Electromagnetic Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richard, F.

    1987-09-01

    Among hard electromagnetic processes, I will use the most recent data and focus on quantitative test of QCD. More specifically, I will retain two items: - hadroproduction of direct photons, - Drell-Yan. In addition, I will briefly discuss a recent analysis of ISR data obtained with AFS (Axial Field Spectrometer) which sheds a new light on the e/π puzzle at low P T

  16. Introduction to electromagnetic theory

    CERN Document Server

    Owen, George E

    2003-01-01

    A direct, stimulating approach to electromagnetic theory, this text employs matrices and matrix methods for the simple development of broad theorems. The author uses vector representation throughout the book, with numerous applications of Poisson's equation and the Laplace equation (the latter occurring in both electronics and magnetic media). Contents include the electrostatics of point charges, distributions of charge, conductors and dielectrics, currents and circuits, and the Lorentz force and the magnetic field. Additional topics comprise the magnetic field of steady currents, induced ele

  17. Electromagnetic polarizabilities of hadrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friar, J.L.

    1988-01-01

    Electromagnetic polarizabilities of hadrons are reviewed, after a discussion of classical analogues. Differences between relativistic and non-relativistic approaches can lead to conflicts with conventional nuclear physics sum rules and calculational techniques. The nucleon polarizabilities are discussed in the context of the non-relativistic valence quark model, which provides a good qualitative description. The recently measured pion polarizabilities are discussed in the context of chiral symmetry and quark-loop models. 58 refs., 5 figs

  18. Electromagnetism and interconnections

    CERN Document Server

    Charruau, S

    2009-01-01

    This book covers the theoretical problems of modeling electrical behavior of the interconnections encountered in everyday electronic products. The coverage shows the theoretical tools of waveform prediction at work in the design of a complex and high-speed digital electronic system. Scientists, research engineers, and postgraduate students interested in electromagnetism, microwave theory, electrical engineering, or the development of simulation tools software for high speed electronic system design automation will find this book an illuminating resource.

  19. Electromagnetic radiation unmasked

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, P.

    1996-01-01

    This article describes the nature of the electromagnetic waves, what they are and how do they affect us. Current concern is focused on exposure to low level power-frequency magnetic fields like microwave radiation from mobile phones and leaking microwave ovens; high power radiation from defence and airport radars; fields close to high voltage transmission lines; radio frequency fields from industrial welders and heaters and DC magnetic fields in aluminium smelters. These fields with frequency less than 300 GHz do not carry sufficient energy to break chemical bonds and it is assumed that they cannot damage cell DNA. The amount of radiation absorbed by a human exposed to far field electromagnetic radiation (EMR) depends on the orientation and size of the person. In the 30-300 MHz range it is possible to excite resonance in the whole or partial body such as the head. It is emphasised that since there are some evidence that electromagnetic fields do harm, a policy of prudent avoidance is recommended, especially for children. ills

  20. The electromagnetic dark sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez, Jose Beltran; Maroto, Antonio L.

    2010-01-01

    We consider electromagnetic field quantization in an expanding universe. We find that the covariant (Gupta-Bleuler) method exhibits certain difficulties when trying to impose the quantum Lorenz condition on cosmological scales. We thus explore the possibility of consistently quantizing without imposing such a condition. In this case there are three physical states, which are the two transverse polarizations of the massless photon and a new massless scalar mode coming from the temporal and longitudinal components of the electromagnetic field. An explicit example in de Sitter space-time shows that it is still possible to eliminate the negative norm state and to ensure the positivity of the energy in this theory. The new state is decoupled from the conserved electromagnetic currents, but is non-conformally coupled to gravity and therefore can be excited from vacuum fluctuations by the expanding background. The cosmological evolution ensures that the new state modifies Maxwell's equations in a totally negligible way on sub-Hubble scales. However, on cosmological scales it can give rise to a non-negligible energy density which could explain in a natural way the present phase of accelerated expansion of the universe.

  1. Coherent hybrid electromagnetic field imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Bradly J [Jemez Springs, NM; Guenther, David C [Los Alamos, NM

    2008-08-26

    An apparatus and corresponding method for coherent hybrid electromagnetic field imaging of a target, where an energy source is used to generate a propagating electromagnetic beam, an electromagnetic beam splitting means to split the beam into two or more coherently matched beams of about equal amplitude, and where the spatial and temporal self-coherence between each two or more coherently matched beams is preserved. Two or more differential modulation means are employed to modulate each two or more coherently matched beams with a time-varying polarization, frequency, phase, and amplitude signal. An electromagnetic beam combining means is used to coherently combine said two or more coherently matched beams into a coherent electromagnetic beam. One or more electromagnetic beam controlling means are used for collimating, guiding, or focusing the coherent electromagnetic beam. One or more apertures are used for transmitting and receiving the coherent electromagnetic beam to and from the target. A receiver is used that is capable of square-law detection of the coherent electromagnetic beam. A waveform generator is used that is capable of generation and control of time-varying polarization, frequency, phase, or amplitude modulation waveforms and sequences. A means of synchronizing time varying waveform is used between the energy source and the receiver. Finally, a means of displaying the images created by the interaction of the coherent electromagnetic beam with target is employed.

  2. Electromagnetic force on a brane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Li-Xin

    2016-01-01

    A fundamental assumption in the theory of brane world is that all matter and radiation are confined on the four-dimensional brane and only gravitons can propagate in the five-dimensional bulk spacetime. The brane world theory did not provide an explanation for the existence of electromagnetic fields and the origin of the electromagnetic field equation. In this paper, we propose a model for explaining the existence of electromagnetic fields on a brane and deriving the electromagnetic field equation. Similar to the case in Kaluza–Klein theory, we find that electromagnetic fields and the electromagnetic field equation can be derived from the five-dimensional Einstein field equation. However, the derived electromagnetic field equation differs from the Maxwell equation by containing a term with the electromagnetic potential vector coupled to the spacetime curvature tensor. So it can be considered as generalization of the Maxwell equation in a curved spacetime. The gravitational field equation on the brane is also derived with the stress–energy tensor for electromagnetic fields explicitly included and the Weyl tensor term explicitly expressed with matter fields and their derivatives in the direction of the extra-dimension. The model proposed in the paper can be regarded as unification of electromagnetic and gravitational interactions in the framework of brane world theory. (paper)

  3. Electro-magnetic properties of heavy nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsuka, Takaharu

    1989-01-01

    Two topics of electro-magnetic properties of heavy nuclei are discussed. The first topic is the M1 excitation from well-deformed heavy nuclei, and the other is the sudden increase of the isotope shift as a function of N in going away from the closed shell. These problems are considered in terms of the particle-number projected (Nilsson-) BCS calculation. (author)

  4. Rydberg atoms ionization by microwave field and electromagnetic pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaulakys, B.; Vilutis, G.

    1995-01-01

    A simple theory of the Rydberg atoms ionization by electromagnetic pulses and microwave field is presented. The analysis is based on the scale transformation which reduces the number of parameters and reveals the functional dependencies of the processes. It is shown that the observed ionization of Rydberg atoms by subpicosecond electromagnetic pulses scale classically. The threshold electric field required to ionise a Rydberg state may be simply evaluated in the photonic basis approach for the quantum dynamics or from the multiphoton ionization theory

  5. Near-Field Spectral Effects due to Electromagnetic Surface Excitations

    OpenAIRE

    Shchegrov , Andrei ,; Joulain , Karl; Carminati , Rémi; Greffet , Jean-Jacques

    2000-01-01

    International audience; We demonstrate theoretically that the spectra of electromagnetic emission of surface systems can display remarkable differences in the near and the far zones. The spectral changes occur due to the loss of evanescent modes and are especially pronounced for systems which support surface waves. PACS numbers: 78.20. – e, 05.40. – a, 44.40. + a, 87.64.Xx Spectroscopy of electromagnetic radiation is perhaps the most powerful exploration tool employed in natural sciences: ast...

  6. Random numbers from vacuum fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Yicheng; Kurtsiefer, Christian; Chng, Brenda

    2016-01-01

    We implement a quantum random number generator based on a balanced homodyne measurement of vacuum fluctuations of the electromagnetic field. The digitized signal is directly processed with a fast randomness extraction scheme based on a linear feedback shift register. The random bit stream is continuously read in a computer at a rate of about 480 Mbit/s and passes an extended test suite for random numbers.

  7. Random numbers from vacuum fluctuations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Yicheng; Kurtsiefer, Christian, E-mail: christian.kurtsiefer@gmail.com [Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Center for Quantum Technologies, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 2, Singapore 117543 (Singapore); Chng, Brenda [Center for Quantum Technologies, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 2, Singapore 117543 (Singapore)

    2016-07-25

    We implement a quantum random number generator based on a balanced homodyne measurement of vacuum fluctuations of the electromagnetic field. The digitized signal is directly processed with a fast randomness extraction scheme based on a linear feedback shift register. The random bit stream is continuously read in a computer at a rate of about 480 Mbit/s and passes an extended test suite for random numbers.

  8. Method of moments in electromagnetics

    CERN Document Server

    Gibson, Walton C

    2007-01-01

    Responding to the need for a clear, up-to-date introduction to the field, The Method of Moments in Electromagnetics explores surface integral equations in electromagnetics and presents their numerical solution using the method of moments (MOM) technique. It provides the numerical implementation aspects at a nuts-and-bolts level while discussing integral equations and electromagnetic theory at a higher level. The author covers a range of topics in this area, from the initial underpinnings of the MOM to its current applications. He first reviews the frequency-domain electromagnetic theory and t

  9. Electromagnetic fields in biological systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lin, James C

    2012-01-01

    "Focusing on exposure, induced fields, and absorbed energy, this volume covers the interaction of electromagnetic fields and waves with biological systems, spanning static fields to terahertz waves...

  10. Handheld Broadband Electromagnetic UXO Sensor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Won, I. J; San Filipo, William A; Marqusee, Jeffrey; Andrews, Anne; Robitaille, George; Fairbanks, Jeffrey; Overbay, Larry

    2005-01-01

    The broadband electromagnetic sensor improvement and demonstration undertaken in this project took the prototype GEM-3 and evolved it into an operational sensor with increased bandwidth and dynamic...

  11. Battlefield Electromagnetic Environments Office (BEEO)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Battlefield Electromagnetic Environments Office (BEEO) develops, maintains, and operates the Army Materiel Command (AMC) databases for spectrum management, per...

  12. Electromagnetic shielding formulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlberg, E.

    1979-02-01

    This addendum to an earlier collection of electromagnetic shielding formulae (TRITA-EPP-75-27) contains simple transfer matrices suitable for calculating the quasistatic shielding efficiency for multiple transverse-field and axial-field cylindrical and spherical shields, as well as for estimating leakage fields from long coaxial cables and the normal-incidence transmission of a plane wave through a multiple plane shield. The differences and similarities between these cases are illustrated by means of equivalent circuits and transmission line analogies. The addendum also includes a discussion of a possible heuristic improvement of some shielding formulae. (author)

  13. Handbook of electromagnetic compatibility

    CERN Document Server

    1995-01-01

    This""know-how""book gives readers a concise understanding of the fundamentals of EMC, from basic mathematical and physical concepts through present, computer-age methods used in analysis, design, and tests. With contributions from leading experts in their fields, the text provides a comprehensive overview. Fortified with information on how to solve potential electromagnetic interference (EMI) problems that may arise in electronic design, practitioners will be betterable to grasp the latest techniques, trends, and applications of this increasingly important engineering discipline.Handbook of E

  14. Introduction to electromagnetic engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Harrington, Roger E

    2003-01-01

    This study of electromagnetic theory introduces students to a broad range of quantities and concepts, imparting the necessary vector analysis and associated mathematics and reinforcing its teachings with several elementary field problems. Based on circuit theory rather than on the classical force-relationship approach, the text uses the theory of electric circuits to provide a system of experiments already familiar to the electrical engineer; a series of field concepts are then introduced as a logical extension of circuit theory. Virtually unobtainable elsewhere, this text was written by a pr

  15. Biological Effects of Nonionizing Electromagnetic Radiation. Volume III, Number 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-03-01

    were allowed to regenerate to radioactive gold implants for the treatment of 52 the fingerbud stage. pa t ien ts wi th advanced head and neck cancer are...program is corn- (BRH) researcher in experimental embryology , d i ed V pleted , Burdette expects to receive a follow-up November 10 at the age of 75. Dr...I-a lbumin was carried out over a 5-hrperi od , after exposure of the dog’ s head for 20 mm 04 36 NAVY ENVIRONMENT : MICROWAVE DISPERS ION AND to

  16. Biological Effects of Nonionizing Electromagnetic Radiation. Volume V, Number 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    microwaves on the Immune system will role of modulation and temperature. Radioisotope be investigated in inbred mice strains. Microwave methods will be...transmission MAGNETIC FIELDS ON THE HEALING OF line, and a monopole antenna. Antennas were THE OSTEOTOMIZED RABBIT RADIUS. (Eng.) De designed to...implanted in the flanks of + M phase). and after 24 hr was 60.4%. 18.5%. and C3H/HeJ mice ) in live and dead mice . The results 21.1%, respectively

  17. Biological Effects of Electromagnetic Radiation. Volume II, Number 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-12-01

    limb . Magnetotherapy proved superior to all of gain; total serum protein; Na+, and K~ ; and rectal the methods tested so far. These include electro...indicate that magnetotherapy has an crease. None of these changes exceeded normal limits, inhibitory effect on the CNS , a spasmolytic action on peripheral...are attributed to differences in the state of ascites fluid proteins during tumor develop— 0685 EXPERIENCE WITH MAGNETOTHERAPY FOR PAINFUL ment

  18. Biological Effects of Nonionizing Electromagnetic Radiation. Volume IV. Number 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-03-01

    29- gauge thermocouples were inserted into the tumor center and in its deepest aspect. Thermocouples 6429 EMPLOYMENT OF MAGNETOTHERAPY IN THE CON...hyperthermia generally ranged from slight to severe erythema. Although good data were difficult to The therapeutic effectiveness of magnetotherapy obtain...subcutaneous tissue can be heated to 41-42 C for received magnetotherapy in addition to the con- periods up to 2 hr after RT without any evidence of I

  19. Biological Effects of Nonionizing Electromagnetic Radiation. Volume IV. Number 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-01

    absorbed power levels. The effect of EMR on CCAs will be evaluated using the following parameters: beat rate, maximum diastolic potential, action 0591...cerebral forma- superior olive were similar to those evoked by tions examined. The swelling of the cytoplasm was acoustic pulses presented binaurally at a

  20. Electromagnetic field induced biological effects in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaszuba-Zwoińska, Jolanta; Gremba, Jerzy; Gałdzińska-Calik, Barbara; Wójcik-Piotrowicz, Karolina; Thor, Piotr J

    2015-01-01

    or be derived from a combination of many sources. Reported symptoms associated with electromagnetic fields are characterized by the overlapping effect with other individuals with these symptoms exhibited a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations, related to exposure to a single or multiple sources of EMF. The phenomenon of electromagnetic hypersensitivity in the form of dermatological disease is associated with mastocytosis. The biopsies taken from skin lesions of patients with EHS indicated on infiltration of the skin layers of the epidermis with mastocytes and their degranulation, as well as on release anaphylactic reaction mediators such as histamine, chymase and tryptase. The number of people suffering from EHS in the world is growing describing themselves as severely dysfunctional, showing multi organ non-specific symptoms upon exposure to low doses of electromagnetic radiation, often associated with hypersensitivity to many chemical agents (Multiple Chemical Sensitivity-MCS) and/or other environmental intolerances (Sensitivity Related Illness-SRI).

  1. Metamaterials beyond electromagnetism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadic, Muamer; Bückmann, Tiemo; Schittny, Robert; Wegener, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Metamaterials are rationally designed man-made structures composed of functional building blocks that are densely packed into an effective (crystalline) material. While metamaterials are mostly associated with negative refractive indices and invisibility cloaking in electromagnetism or optics, the deceptively simple metamaterial concept also applies to rather different areas such as thermodynamics, classical mechanics (including elastostatics, acoustics, fluid dynamics and elastodynamics), and, in principle, also to quantum mechanics. We review the basic concepts, analogies and differences to electromagnetism, and give an overview on the current state of the art regarding theory and experiment—all from the viewpoint of an experimentalist. This review includes homogeneous metamaterials as well as intentionally inhomogeneous metamaterial architectures designed by coordinate-transformation-based approaches analogous to transformation optics. Examples are laminates, transient thermal cloaks, thermal concentrators and inverters, ‘space-coiling’ metamaterials, anisotropic acoustic metamaterials, acoustic free-space and carpet cloaks, cloaks for gravitational surface waves, auxetic mechanical metamaterials, pentamode metamaterials (‘meta-liquids’), mechanical metamaterials with negative dynamic mass density, negative dynamic bulk modulus, or negative phase velocity, seismic metamaterials, cloaks for flexural waves in thin plates and three-dimensional elastostatic cloaks. (review article)

  2. Metamaterials beyond electromagnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadic, Muamer; Bückmann, Tiemo; Schittny, Robert; Wegener, Martin

    2013-12-01

    Metamaterials are rationally designed man-made structures composed of functional building blocks that are densely packed into an effective (crystalline) material. While metamaterials are mostly associated with negative refractive indices and invisibility cloaking in electromagnetism or optics, the deceptively simple metamaterial concept also applies to rather different areas such as thermodynamics, classical mechanics (including elastostatics, acoustics, fluid dynamics and elastodynamics), and, in principle, also to quantum mechanics. We review the basic concepts, analogies and differences to electromagnetism, and give an overview on the current state of the art regarding theory and experiment—all from the viewpoint of an experimentalist. This review includes homogeneous metamaterials as well as intentionally inhomogeneous metamaterial architectures designed by coordinate-transformation-based approaches analogous to transformation optics. Examples are laminates, transient thermal cloaks, thermal concentrators and inverters, ‘space-coiling’ metamaterials, anisotropic acoustic metamaterials, acoustic free-space and carpet cloaks, cloaks for gravitational surface waves, auxetic mechanical metamaterials, pentamode metamaterials (‘meta-liquids’), mechanical metamaterials with negative dynamic mass density, negative dynamic bulk modulus, or negative phase velocity, seismic metamaterials, cloaks for flexural waves in thin plates and three-dimensional elastostatic cloaks.

  3. The basis of electromagnetism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waldron, R.A.

    1980-01-01

    Observations on fast mesons in cyclotrons have necessitated a revision of the earlier version of the ballistic theory. Insufficient information was available when the theory was first published to permit a unique choice of the velocity-dependent factors occurring in electromagnetic force formulas, and the forms chosen did not lead to an explanation of the decay times of fast mesons that were observed subsequently. These observations provide the information needed to permit a unique choice of the velocity-dependent factors. The new forms of the force formulae explain all observations, and lead to the conclusion that the velocities of mesons in cyclotrons are many times that of light. If these velocities could be directly measured, it would provide a method of discriminating between the Lorentz-Einstein and the ballistic theories, although it would not confirm the latter. In this revised form of the theory, magnetism appears as a residual effect of the velocity dependence of electric force laws, and the whole of electromagnetism then follows from a single basic equation, a modified form of Coulomb's law. (Auth.)

  4. Electro-magnetic flowmeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dean, S.A.

    1980-01-01

    Full details of the invention are given. A sensing unit assembly for an electromagnetic flux distortion flowmeter for use in liquid metal coolant of a nuclear reactor is described. The assembly comprises coils of electrically insulated conductors each wound on an individual former. The formers and coils are mounted coaxially on a spine to form at least three spaced groups arranged end to end. Each group comprises two secondary coils and an intermediate primary coil. Leads extend along a duct formed in the spine, each lead terminating at a common end. Alternative versions of the assembly are also described. The primary coil leads are connected to an alternating power supply; those for the secondary coils connected to suitable display instrumentation. When liquid metal flows along the conductor the electromagnetic field is disturbed and the induced voltage in the secondary coils is disturbed-(set at zero for no flow); the distortion depends on the rate of flow. When the induced voltage differential of at least two of the groups falls or rises outside a pre-set level a trip signal is initiated to shut down the reactor. (UK)

  5. A hybrid power system for unmanned aerial vehicle electromagnetic launcher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiren; Wu, Jun; Huang, Shengjun

    2018-06-01

    According to the UAV electromagnetic catapult with fixed timing, a hybrid energy storage system consist with battery and super capacitor is designed, in order to reduce the volume and weight of the energy storage system. The battery is regarded as the energy storage device and the super capacitor as power release device. Firstly, the battery charges the super capacitor, and then the super capacitor supplies power to electromagnetic catapult separately. The strategy is using the Buck circuit to charge the super capacitor with constant current and using the Boost circuit to make super capacitor provide a stable voltage circuit for electromagnetic catapult. The Simulink simulation results show that the designed hybrid energy storage system can meet the requirements of electromagnetic catapult. Compared with the system powered by the battery alone, the proposed scheme can reduce the number of batteries, and greatly reduce the volume and weight of the energy storage system.

  6. Electromagnetic Modeling of Human Body Using High Performance Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Cho-Kuen; Beall, Mark; Ge, Lixin; Kim, Sanghoek; Klaas, Ottmar; Poon, Ada

    Realistic simulation of electromagnetic wave propagation in the actual human body can expedite the investigation of the phenomenon of harvesting implanted devices using wireless powering coupled from external sources. The parallel electromagnetics code suite ACE3P developed at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory is based on the finite element method for high fidelity accelerator simulation, which can be enhanced to model electromagnetic wave propagation in the human body. Starting with a CAD model of a human phantom that is characterized by a number of tissues, a finite element mesh representing the complex geometries of the individual tissues is built for simulation. Employing an optimal power source with a specific pattern of field distribution, the propagation and focusing of electromagnetic waves in the phantom has been demonstrated. Substantial speedup of the simulation is achieved by using multiple compute cores on supercomputers.

  7. Inductive-pulsed power supplying system for a betatron electromagnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otrubyannikov, Yu.A.; Safronov, A.S.

    1984-01-01

    Circuit of producing quasitriangular current pulses designed for the pulsed power supply system of betatron electromagnet is described. Introduction of additional winding into electromagnet provides circuit galvanic isolation, artificial commutation of basic circuit thyristors and inductive power input to the winding during thyristor commutation. The considered system is used for excitation of betatron electromagnet up to 18 MeV. Magnetic field energy equals 1100 Y. The maximal voltage in energy storage capacitor - 4.8 kV. Current amplitude in basic winding - 335 A. The number of loops in basic winding equals 80, in additional one - 32. Current pulse duration in electromagnet-3.8 ms. The system provides operation with controlled current pulse frequency from 0 up to 150 Hz. The maximal consumption power - 18 kW

  8. Electromagnetic terrorism – threats in buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Kuchta

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the impact of electromagnetic pulses (high power and high frequency pulses — weapon E on technical infrastructure of buildings [1]. The use of modern technologies in intelligent building management i.e. human resources, control and automation systems, efficient buildings space management, requires using a large number of integrated electronic systems. From technical point of view, the intelligent building is a building in which all subsystems (e.g. technical security, air conditioning, ventilation, lighting, power, electricity, etc., interact with each other and create human-friendly environment. The use of specialized electronic systems, processors, microcontrollers in these subsystems may be a trigger of the use of weapons E as an alternative of terrorist attack— disabling automatic building management systems.[b]Keywords[/b]: electromagnetic weapons, distortion, sensitivity, susceptibility

  9. Ionization in a quantized electromagnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonoskov, I. A.; Vugalter, G. A.; Mironov, V. A.

    2007-01-01

    An analytical expression for a matrix element of the transition from a bound state of an electron in an atom to continuum states is obtained by solving the problem of interaction of the electron with a quantized electromagnetic field. This expression is used to derive formulas for the photoelectron spectrum and the rate of ionization of the simplest model atomic system upon absorption of an arbitrary number of photons. The expressions derived are analyzed and compared with the corresponding relationships obtained via other approaches. It is demonstrated that there are differences as compared to the case of the classical field. In particular, the photoelectron spectrum exhibits dips due to the destructive interference of the transition amplitudes in the quantized electromagnetic field

  10. Sparse Spatio-temporal Inference of Electromagnetic Brain Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stahlhut, Carsten; Attias, Hagai Thomas; Wipf, David

    2010-01-01

    The electromagnetic brain activity measured via MEG (or EEG) can be interpreted as arising from a collection of current dipoles or sources located throughout the cortex. Because the number of candidate locations for these sources is much larger than the number of sensors, source reconstruction...

  11. Radome electromagnetic theory and design

    CERN Document Server

    Shavit, Reuven

    2018-01-01

    Radome Electromagnetic Theory and Design explores the theoretical tools and methods required to design radomes that are fully transparent to the electromagnetic energy transmitted or received by the enclosed antenna. A radome is a weatherproof and camouflaged enclosure that protects the enclosed radar or communication antenna, and are typically used on a fixed or moving platform such as an aircraft, ship or missile.

  12. Electromagnetic actuation in MEMS switches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira Hansen, Roana Melina de; Mátéfi-Tempfli, Mária; Chemnitz, Steffen

    . Electromagnetic actuation is a very promising approach to operate such MEMS and Power MEMS devices, due to the long range, reproducible and strong forces generated by this method, among other advantages. However, the use of electromagnetic actuation in such devices requires the use of thick magnetic films, which...

  13. Electromagnetic compatibility in power electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Costa , François; Revol , Bertrand

    2014-01-01

    Scientists largely attribute the recent deterioration of the electromagnetic environment to power electronics. This realization has spurred the study of methodical approaches to electromagnetic compatibility designs as explored in this text. The book addresses major challenges, such as handling numerous parameters vital to predicting electro magnetic effects and achieving compliance with line-harmonics norms, while proposing potential solutions.

  14. Electromagnetic direct implicit PIC simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langdon, A.B.

    1983-01-01

    Interesting modelling of intense electron flow has been done with implicit particle-in-cell simulation codes. In this report, the direct implicit PIC simulation approach is applied to simulations that include full electromagnetic fields. The resulting algorithm offers advantages relative to moment implicit electromagnetic algorithms and may help in our quest for robust and simpler implicit codes

  15. Gravitational scattering of electromagnetic radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooker, J. T.; Janis, A. I.

    1980-01-01

    The scattering of electromagnetic radiation by linearized gravitational fields is studied to second order in a perturbation expansion. The incoming electromagnetic radiation can be of arbitrary multipole structure, and the gravitational fields are also taken to be advanced fields of arbitrary multipole structure. All electromagnetic multipole radiation is found to be scattered by gravitational monopole and time-varying dipole fields. No case has been found, however, in which any electromagnetic multipole radiation is scattered by gravitational fields of quadrupole or higher-order multipole structure. This lack of scattering is established for infinite classes of special cases, and is conjectured to hold in general. The results of the scattering analysis are applied to the case of electromagnetic radiation scattered by a moving mass. It is shown how the mass and velocity may be determined by a knowledge of the incident and scattered radiation.

  16. Electromagnetic current in weak interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, E.

    1983-01-01

    In gauge models which unify weak and electromagnetic interactions, the weak neutral-current interaction also involves the electromagnetic current. The exact nature of such a component can be explored using e + e - experimental data. In recent years, the existence of a new component of the weak interaction has become firmly established, i.e., the neutral-current interaction. As such, it competes with the electromagnetic interaction whenever the particles involved are also charged, but at a very much lower rate because its effective strength is so small. Hence neutrino processes are best for the detection of the neutral-current interaction. However, in any gauge model which unifies weak and electromagnetic interactions, the weak neutral-current interaction also involves the electromagnetic current

  17. Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) and TEMPEST Test Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Electromagnetic Interference (EMI), Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) and TEMPEST testing are conducted at EPG's Blacktail Canyon Test Facility in one of its two...

  18. Hybrid synchronous motor electromagnetic torque research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvorkova Elena E.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Electromagnetic field distribution models in reluctance and permanent magnet parts were made by means of Elcut. Dependences of electromagnetic torque on torque angle were obtained.

  19. Focusing of electromagnetic waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhayalan, V.

    1996-01-01

    The focusing of electromagnetic waves inside a slab has been examined together with two special cases in which the slab is reduced to a single interface or a single medium. To that end the exact solutions for the fields inside a layered medium have been used, given in terms of the outside current source in order to obtain the solutions for the focused electric field inside a slab. Both exact and asymptotic solutions of the problem have been considered, and the validity of the latter has been discussed. The author has developed a numerical algorithm for evaluation of the diffraction integral with special emphasis on reducing the computing time. The numerical techniques in the paper can be readily applied to evaluate similar diffraction integrals occurring e.g. in microstrip antennas. 46 refs

  20. Solved problems in electromagnetics

    CERN Document Server

    Salazar Bloise, Félix; Bayón Rojo, Ana; Gascón Latasa, Francisco

    2017-01-01

    This book presents the fundamental concepts of electromagnetism through problems with a brief theoretical introduction at the beginning of each chapter. The present book has a strong  didactic character. It explains all the mathematical steps and the theoretical concepts connected with the development of the problem. It guides the reader to understand the employed procedures to learn to solve the exercises independently. The exercises are structured in a similar way: The chapters begin with easy problems increasing progressively in the level of difficulty. This book is written for students of physics and engineering in the framework of the new European Plans of Study for Bachelor and Master and also for tutors and lecturers. .

  1. PANDA electromagnetic calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semenov, P.A.; Kharlov, Yu.V.; Uzunian, A.V.; Chernichenko, S.K.; Derevschikov, A.A.; Davidenko, A.M.; Goncharenko, Y.M.; Kachanov, V.A.; Konstantinov, A.S.; Kormilitsin, V.A.; Matulenko, Yu.A.; Meschanin, A.P.; Melnick, Y.M.; Minaev, N.G.; Mochalov, V.V.; Morozov, D.A.; Novotny, R.W.; Ryazantsev, A.A.; Soldatov, A.P.; Soloviev, L.F.

    2009-01-01

    PANDA is a challenging experimental setup to be implemented at the high-energy storage ring (HESR) at the international facility FAIR, GSI (Germany). PANDA physics program relies heavily on the capability to measure photons with excellent energy, position and timing resolution. For this purpose PANDA proposed to employ electromagnetic calorimeters using two different technologies: compact crystal calorimeter cooled to -25 deg. C around target and lead-scintillator sandwich calorimeter with optical fibers light collection (so-called shashlyk calorimeter) in the forward region. Institute for High Energy Physics (IHEP) PANDA group reports on two types of measurements performed at IHEP, Protvino: radiation hardness of the PWO crystals at -25 deg. C and testbeam studies of the energy and position resolution of the shashlyk calorimeter prototype in the energy range up to 19 GeV.

  2. Electromagnetic form factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desplanques, B.

    1987-01-01

    Electromagnetic form factors, in first approximation, are sensitive to spatial distribution of nucleons and to their current. In second approximation, more precise effects are concerned, whose role is increasing with momentum transfer and participating essentially of short range nuclei description. They concern of course the nucleon-nucleon interaction while approaching each other and keeping their free-state identity, but also mutually polarizing one the other. In this last effect, radial and orbital excitations of nucleon, the nucleon mesonic cloud modification and the nucleon antinucleon pair excitation are included. In this paper, these contributions are discussed while trying to find the important elements for a good description of form factors. Current questions are also discussed. Light nuclei are essentially concerned [fr

  3. Electromagnetic scattering theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, J. F.; Farrell, R. A.

    1986-01-01

    Electromagnetic scattering theory is discussed with emphasis on the general stochastic variational principle (SVP) and its applications. The stochastic version of the Schwinger-type variational principle is presented, and explicit expressions for its integrals are considered. Results are summarized for scalar wave scattering from a classic rough-surface model and for vector wave scattering from a random dielectric-body model. Also considered are the selection of trial functions and the variational improvement of the Kirchhoff short-wave approximation appropriate to large size-parameters. Other applications of vector field theory discussed include a general vision theory and the analysis of hydromagnetism induced by ocean motion across the geomagnetic field. Levitational force-torque in the magnetic suspension of the disturbance compensation system (DISCOS), now deployed in NOVA satellites, is also analyzed using the developed theory.

  4. Causal electromagnetic interaction equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinoviev, Yury M.

    2011-01-01

    For the electromagnetic interaction of two particles the relativistic causal quantum mechanics equations are proposed. These equations are solved for the case when the second particle moves freely. The initial wave functions are supposed to be smooth and rapidly decreasing at the infinity. This condition is important for the convergence of the integrals similar to the integrals of quantum electrodynamics. We also consider the singular initial wave functions in the particular case when the second particle mass is equal to zero. The discrete energy spectrum of the first particle wave function is defined by the initial wave function of the free-moving second particle. Choosing the initial wave functions of the free-moving second particle it is possible to obtain a practically arbitrary discrete energy spectrum.

  5. Nucleon Electromagnetic Form Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marc Vanderhaeghen; Charles Perdrisat; Vina Punjabi

    2007-10-01

    There has been much activity in the measurement of the elastic electromagnetic proton and neutron form factors in the last decade, and the quality of the data has greatly improved by performing double polarization experiments, in comparison with previous unpolarized data. Here we review the experimental data base in view of the new results for the proton, and neutron, obtained at JLab, MAMI, and MIT-Bates. The rapid evolution of phenomenological models triggered by these high-precision experiments will be discussed, including the recent progress in the determination of the valence quark generalized parton distributions of the nucleon, as well as the steady rate of improvements made in the lattice QCD calculations.

  6. Electromagnetic properties of neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ould-Saada, F.

    1996-01-01

    Electromagnetic properties of neutrinos and their implications are discussed, and the experimental situation summarised. Spin precession in solar magnetic fields presents a solution of the solar neutrino problem. A magnetic moment, μ ν , of the order of 10 -11 μ B would be needed. In the simplest extension of the standard model, with no-vanishing neutrino masses, dipole moment interactions are allowed through higher order processes. A neutrino mass of ≅10 eV would give μ ν ≅10 -18 μ B , much smaller than the present experimental upper limit of 2x10 -10 μ B . Although model-dependent, upper bounds on dipole moments from astrophysics and cosmology are 10 to 100 times more stringent. Any values of μ ν , larger than the SM predictions, would then signal the onset of new physics. Among the processes sensitive to the magnetic moment, νe - scattering presents two advantages: it is a pure weak, theoretically well understood process, and the recoil electron can be easily measured. A hypothetical electromagnetic contribution to the cross-section would dominate at low energies. A low background detector, MUNU, being built at the Bugey nuclear reactor is presented.It is based on a gas TPC, surrounded by a scintillator. The threshold on the electron recoil energy can be set very low, around 500 keV, giving the experiment a good sensitivity to the magnetic moment of the ν e , extending down to 2x10 -11 μ B . (author) 15 figs., 5 tabs., 96 refs

  7. Electromagnetic properties of neutrinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ould-Saada, F [Zurich Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. fuer Physik

    1996-11-01

    Electromagnetic properties of neutrinos and their implications are discussed, and the experimental situation summarised. Spin precession in solar magnetic fields presents a solution of the solar neutrino problem. A magnetic moment, {mu}{sub {nu}}, of the order of 10{sup -11} {mu}{sub B} would be needed. In the simplest extension of the standard model, with no-vanishing neutrino masses, dipole moment interactions are allowed through higher order processes. A neutrino mass of {approx_equal}10 eV would give {mu}{sub {nu}}{approx_equal}10{sup -18} {mu}{sub B}, much smaller than the present experimental upper limit of 2x10{sup -10} {mu}{sub B}. Although model-dependent, upper bounds on dipole moments from astrophysics and cosmology are 10 to 100 times more stringent. Any values of {mu}{sub {nu}}, larger than the SM predictions, would then signal the onset of new physics. Among the processes sensitive to the magnetic moment, {nu}e{sup -} scattering presents two advantages: it is a pure weak, theoretically well understood process, and the recoil electron can be easily measured. A hypothetical electromagnetic contribution to the cross-section would dominate at low energies. A low background detector, MUNU, being built at the Bugey nuclear reactor is presented.It is based on a gas TPC, surrounded by a scintillator. The threshold on the electron recoil energy can be set very low, around 500 keV, giving the experiment a good sensitivity to the magnetic moment of the {nu}{sub e}, extending down to 2x10{sup -11} {mu}{sub B}. (author) 15 figs., 5 tabs., 96 refs.

  8. Hupa Numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Ruth, Ed.; And Others

    An introduction to the Hupa number system is provided in this workbook, one in a series of numerous materials developed to promote the use of the Hupa language. The book is written in English with Hupa terms used only for the names of numbers. The opening pages present the numbers from 1-10, giving the numeral, the Hupa word, the English word, and…

  9. Triangular Numbers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Admin

    Triangular number, figurate num- ber, rangoli, Brahmagupta–Pell equation, Jacobi triple product identity. Figure 1. The first four triangular numbers. Left: Anuradha S Garge completed her PhD from. Pune University in 2008 under the supervision of Prof. S A Katre. Her research interests include K-theory and number theory.

  10. Proth Numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwarzweller Christoph

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article we introduce Proth numbers and prove two theorems on such numbers being prime [3]. We also give revised versions of Pocklington’s theorem and of the Legendre symbol. Finally, we prove Pepin’s theorem and that the fifth Fermat number is not prime.

  11. Electromagnetic transients in power cables

    CERN Document Server

    da Silva, Filipe Faria

    2013-01-01

    From the more basic concepts to the most advanced ones where long and laborious simulation models are required, Electromagnetic Transients in Power Cables provides a thorough insight into the study of electromagnetic transients and underground power cables. Explanations and demonstrations of different electromagnetic transient phenomena are provided, from simple lumped-parameter circuits to complex cable-based high voltage networks, as well as instructions on how to model the cables.Supported throughout by illustrations, circuit diagrams and simulation results, each chapter contains exercises,

  12. Differential forms on electromagnetic networks

    CERN Document Server

    Balasubramanian, N V; Sen Gupta, D P

    2013-01-01

    Differential Forms on Electromagnetic Networks deals with the use of combinatorial techniques in electrical circuit, machine analysis, and the relationship between circuit quantities and electromagnetic fields. The monograph is also an introduction to the organization of field equations by the methods of differential forms. The book covers topics such as algebraic structural relations in an electric circuit; mesh and node-pair analysis; exterior differential structures; generalized Stoke's theorem and tensor analysis; and Maxwell's electromagnetic equation. Also covered in the book are the app

  13. Electromagnetic modeling in accelerator designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, R.K.; Chan, K.C.D.

    1990-01-01

    Through the years, electromagnetic modeling using computers has proved to be a cost-effective tool for accelerator designs. Traditionally, electromagnetic modeling of accelerators has been limited to resonator and magnet designs in two dimensions. In recent years with the availability of powerful computers, electromagnetic modeling of accelerators has advanced significantly. Through the above conferences, it is apparent that breakthroughs have been made during the last decade in two important areas: three-dimensional modeling and time-domain simulation. Success in both these areas have been made possible by the increasing size and speed of computers. In this paper, the advances in these two areas will be described

  14. Electromagnetic foundations of electrical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Faria, J A Brandao

    2008-01-01

    The applications of electromagnetic phenomena within electrical engineering have been evolving and progressing at a fast pace. In contrast, the underlying principles have been stable for a long time and are not expected to undergo any changes. It is these electromagnetic field fundamentals that are the subject of discussion in this book with an emphasis on basic principles, concepts and governing laws that apply across the electrical engineering discipline. Electromagnetic Foundations of Electrical Engineering begins with an explanation of Maxwell's equations, from which the fundament

  15. Essentials of Electromagnetics for Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wolf, David A.

    2000-11-01

    Essentials of Electromagnetics for Engineering introduces the key physical and engineering principles of electromagnetics. Throughout the book, David de Wolf describes the intermediate steps in mathematical derivations that many other textbooks leave out. He covers in depth the concepts of fields and potentials and then progresses to magnetostatics, Maxwell's equations, electrodynamics and wave propagation, waveguides, transmission lines, and antennas. At each stage, de Wolf stresses the physical principles underlying the mathematical results. He also includes homework exercises, a separate chapter on numerical methods in electromagnetics, and a broad range of worked examples to illustrate important concepts. Solutions manual available.

  16. Sagan numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Mendonça, J. Ricardo G.

    2012-01-01

    We define a new class of numbers based on the first occurrence of certain patterns of zeros and ones in the expansion of irracional numbers in a given basis and call them Sagan numbers, since they were first mentioned, in a special case, by the North-american astronomer Carl E. Sagan in his science-fiction novel "Contact." Sagan numbers hold connections with a wealth of mathematical ideas. We describe some properties of the newly defined numbers and indicate directions for further amusement.

  17. Electromagnetic-acoustic coupling in ferromagnetic metals at liquid-helium temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gordon, R A

    1981-01-01

    Electromagnetic-acoustic coupling at the surface and in the bulk of ferromagnetic metals at liquid-helium temperatures has been studied using electromagnetically excited acoustic standing-wave resonances at MHz frequencies in a number of ferromagnetic metals and alloys of commercial interest...

  18. Conical electromagnetic radiation flux concentrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, E. R.

    1972-01-01

    Concentrator provides method of concentrating a beam of electromagnetic radiation into a smaller beam, presenting a higher flux density. Smaller beam may be made larger by sending radiation through the device in the reverse direction.

  19. Earthquake prediction with electromagnetic phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayakawa, Masashi, E-mail: hayakawa@hi-seismo-em.jp [Hayakawa Institute of Seismo Electomagnetics, Co. Ltd., University of Electro-Communications (UEC) Incubation Center, 1-5-1 Chofugaoka, Chofu Tokyo, 182-8585 (Japan); Advanced Wireless & Communications Research Center, UEC, Chofu Tokyo (Japan); Earthquake Analysis Laboratory, Information Systems Inc., 4-8-15, Minami-aoyama, Minato-ku, Tokyo, 107-0062 (Japan); Fuji Security Systems. Co. Ltd., Iwato-cho 1, Shinjyuku-ku, Tokyo (Japan)

    2016-02-01

    Short-term earthquake (EQ) prediction is defined as prospective prediction with the time scale of about one week, which is considered to be one of the most important and urgent topics for the human beings. If this short-term prediction is realized, casualty will be drastically reduced. Unlike the conventional seismic measurement, we proposed the use of electromagnetic phenomena as precursors to EQs in the prediction, and an extensive amount of progress has been achieved in the field of seismo-electromagnetics during the last two decades. This paper deals with the review on this short-term EQ prediction, including the impossibility myth of EQs prediction by seismometers, the reason why we are interested in electromagnetics, the history of seismo-electromagnetics, the ionospheric perturbation as the most promising candidate of EQ prediction, then the future of EQ predictology from two standpoints of a practical science and a pure science, and finally a brief summary.

  20. Classical electromagnetism in a nutshell

    CERN Document Server

    Garg, Anupam

    2012-01-01

    This graduate-level physics textbook provides a comprehensive treatment of the basic principles and phenomena of classical electromagnetism. While many electromagnetism texts use the subject to teach mathematical methods of physics, here the emphasis is on the physical ideas themselves. Anupam Garg distinguishes between electromagnetism in vacuum and that in material media, stressing that the core physical questions are different for each. In vacuum, the focus is on the fundamental content of electromagnetic laws, symmetries, conservation laws, and the implications for phenomena such as radiation and light. In material media, the focus is on understanding the response of the media to imposed fields, the attendant constitutive relations, and the phenomena encountered in different types of media such as dielectrics, ferromagnets, and conductors. The text includes applications to many topical subjects, such as magnetic levitation, plasmas, laser beams, and synchrotrons.

  1. Electromagnetic Hadronic Form-Factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, Robert G.

    2005-01-01

    We present a calculation of the nucleon electromagnetic form-factors as well as the pion and rho to pion transition form-factors in a hybrid calculation with domain wall valence quarks and improved staggered (Asqtad) sea quarks

  2. Biological effects of electromagnetic fields

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-02-28

    Feb 28, 2012 ... radiofrequency emitting sources are radars, mobile phones and their base stations, ... and industrial applications, could have effect on living organisms. ...... Hazards of Electromagnetic Pollution (Msc Thesis). Department of ...

  3. Hadronic processes and electromagnetic corrections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scimemi, I.

    2004-01-01

    The inclusion of electromagnetism in a low energy effective theory is worth further study in view of the present high precision experiments (muon g - 2, π 0 → γγ, τ decays, etc.). In particular in many applications of chiral perturbation theory, one has to purify physical matrix elements from electromagnetic effects. The theoretical problems that I want to point out here are following: the splitting of a pure QCD and a pure electromagnetic part in a hadronic process is model dependent: is it possible to parametrise in a clear way this splitting? What kind of information (scale dependence, gauge dependence,) is actually included in the parameters of the low energy effective theory? I will attempt to answer these questions introducing a possible convention to perform the splitting between strong and electromagnetic parts in some examples

  4. Electromagnetic shower detector-calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appel, J.A.

    1975-01-01

    A brief review of the state-of-the-art of electromagnetic calorimeters is presented. The choice of detector based on the experimental requirements in cost, spatial resolution, energy resolution, and hadron rejection is discussed

  5. Electromagnetic field sources in radiofrequency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, C.; Sebastiao, D.; Ladeira, D.; Antunes, M.; Correia, L.M.

    2010-01-01

    In the scope of the monIT Project, several measurements were made of electromagnetic fields in Portugal. This paper presents an analysis of the sources operating in the radiofrequency range, resulting from 2429 measurements in 466 locations.

  6. Electromagnetic matrix elements in baryons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipkin, H.J.; Moinester, M.A.

    1992-01-01

    Some simple symmetry relations between matrix elements of electromagnetic operators are investigated. The implications are discussed for experiments to study hyperon radiative transitions and polarizabilities and form factors. (orig.)

  7. Wave propagation in electromagnetic media

    CERN Document Server

    Davis, Julian L

    1990-01-01

    This is the second work of a set of two volumes on the phenomena of wave propagation in nonreacting and reacting media. The first, entitled Wave Propagation in Solids and Fluids (published by Springer-Verlag in 1988), deals with wave phenomena in nonreacting media (solids and fluids). This book is concerned with wave propagation in reacting media-specifically, in electro­ magnetic materials. Since these volumes were designed to be relatively self­ contained, we have taken the liberty of adapting some of the pertinent material, especially in the theory of hyperbolic partial differential equations (concerned with electromagnetic wave propagation), variational methods, and Hamilton-Jacobi theory, to the phenomena of electromagnetic waves. The purpose of this volume is similar to that of the first, except that here we are dealing with electromagnetic waves. We attempt to present a clear and systematic account of the mathematical methods of wave phenomena in electromagnetic materials that will be readily accessi...

  8. Eulerian numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Petersen, T Kyle

    2015-01-01

    This text presents the Eulerian numbers in the context of modern enumerative, algebraic, and geometric combinatorics. The book first studies Eulerian numbers from a purely combinatorial point of view, then embarks on a tour of how these numbers arise in the study of hyperplane arrangements, polytopes, and simplicial complexes. Some topics include a thorough discussion of gamma-nonnegativity and real-rootedness for Eulerian polynomials, as well as the weak order and the shard intersection order of the symmetric group. The book also includes a parallel story of Catalan combinatorics, wherein the Eulerian numbers are replaced with Narayana numbers. Again there is a progression from combinatorics to geometry, including discussion of the associahedron and the lattice of noncrossing partitions. The final chapters discuss how both the Eulerian and Narayana numbers have analogues in any finite Coxeter group, with many of the same enumerative and geometric properties. There are four supplemental chapters throughout, ...

  9. Multiforms, dyadics, and electromagnetic media

    CERN Document Server

    Lindell, Ismo V

    2015-01-01

    This book applies the four-dimensional formalism with an extended toolbox of operation rules, allowing readers to define more general classes of electromagnetic media and to analyze EM waves that can exist in them. End-of-chapter exercises. Formalism allows readers to find novel classes of media. Covers various properties of electromagnetic media in terms of which they can be set in different classes.

  10. The law of electromagnetic force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.J. Kutkovetskyy

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Calculation peculiarities for Lorentz force, Ampere force, interaction of parallel electric currents, and the moment of electrical machines are analyzed. They have exceptions on application, and they are the rules which result from the law of electromagnetic force as coordinate derivative of the operating magnetic flow. An addition to the direction of electromagnetic force action is proposed. Standards of salient-pole electrical machine designing are considered.

  11. Advanced Model of Electromagnetic Launcher

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel Leubner

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An advanced 2D model of electromagnetic launcher is presented respecting the influence of eddy currents induced in the accelerated ferromagnetic body. The time evolution of electromagnetic field in the system, corresponding forces acting on the projectile and time evolutions of its velocity and current in the field circuit are solved numerically using own application Agros2d. The results are then processed and evaluated in Wolfram Mathematica. The methodology is illustrated with an example whose results are discussed.

  12. Electromagnetic processes in light nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velazquez Campos, H.A.

    1981-01-01

    With the framework of the cluster model within the supermultiplet scheme is developed algebra for oscillator cluster configurations. With this algebra and the selection rules for electromagnetic multipole transitions we calculate transition matrix elements and radiative widths. The electromagnetic transition probabilities show big differences. Responsible for this are the exchange terms of the orbital partitions of our oscillator cluster configurations. Detailed calculations are presented for the case of γ-radiative capture transitions in 6 Li nucleus. (orig.) [de

  13. Electromagnetic pump technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prabhakar, R.

    1994-01-01

    Fast Breeder Reactors have an important role to play in our nuclear power programme. Liquid metal sodium is used as the coolant for removing fission heat generated in fast reactors and a distinctive physical property of sodium is its high electrical conductivity. This enables application of electromagnetic (EM) pumps, working on same principle as electric motors, for pumping liquid sodium. Due to its lower efficiency as compared to centrifugal pumps, use of EM pumps has been restricted to reactor auxiliary circuits and experimental facilities. As part of our efforts to manufacture fast reactor components indigenously, work on the development of two types of EM pumps namely flat linear induction pump (FLIP) and annular linear induction pump (ALIP) has been undertaken. Design procedures based on an equivalent circuit approach have been established and results from testing a 5.6 x 10E-3 Cum/s (20 Cum/h) FLIP in a sodium loop were used to validate the procedure. (author). 7 refs., 6 figs

  14. ELECTROMAGNET CALORIMETER (ECAL)

    CERN Multimedia

    R. Rusack

    Installation is under way of the last piece of the electromagnetic calorimeter. This is the preshower (ES) that sits in front of the two endcap calorimeters. The construction of the ES was completed in December and went through a detailed set of tests in December and January. The two preshower detectors have a total of 4300 silicon sensors with 137,000 strips. After final assembly and system testing in January, only two of the strips were found to be defective. Once CMS was fully opened a new support structure (‘Gazprom’) was put into place underneath the beam pipe, to support the Surkov platform, on which the preshower installation takes place. In the early hours of 26th February the first two Dees, which form the ‘ES+’ endcap,  were transported to P5 , a journey that took two and a half hours. The Dees, still inside environmental protection boxes, were then lowered  underground and moved to the ‘+’ end of CMS. Installation start...

  15. Fracture induced electromagnetic radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frid, V; Rabinovitch, A; Bahat, D

    2003-01-01

    In our laboratory, we combine accurate electromagnetic radiation (EMR) measurements during fracture of rocks (carbonate and igneous) and transparent materials (glass, PMMA and glass ceramics) with careful fractographic methods. A critical analysis of experimental observations, accumulated here during the last decade together with supporting material from the works of other authors are used in this study to demonstrate the failure of all current models to explain the properties of EMR arising from fracture. The basic elements of a new model are proposed. These are (a) the EMR amplitude increases as long as the crack continues to grow, since new atomic bonds are severed and their contribution is added to the EMR. As a result, the atoms on both sides of the bonds are moved to 'non-equilibrium' positions relative to their steady state ones and begin to oscillate collectively in a manner similar to Debye model bulk oscillations - 'surface vibrational optical waves'; (b) when the crack halts, the waves and the EMR pulse amplitude decay by relaxation. These basic elements are already enough to describe the characteristics of the experimentally obtained isolated individual EMR pulses. These characteristics include the shape of the EMR pulse envelope, and the frequency, time duration and rise - fall time of the pulse

  16. Fracture induced electromagnetic radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frid, V [Geological and Environmental Sciences Department, Deichmann Rock Mechanics Laboratory of the Negev, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva (Israel); Rabinovitch, A [Physics Department, Deichmann Rock Mechanics Laboratory of the Negev, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva (Israel); Bahat, D [Geological and Environmental Sciences Department, Deichmann Rock Mechanics Laboratory of the Negev, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva (Israel)

    2003-07-07

    In our laboratory, we combine accurate electromagnetic radiation (EMR) measurements during fracture of rocks (carbonate and igneous) and transparent materials (glass, PMMA and glass ceramics) with careful fractographic methods. A critical analysis of experimental observations, accumulated here during the last decade together with supporting material from the works of other authors are used in this study to demonstrate the failure of all current models to explain the properties of EMR arising from fracture. The basic elements of a new model are proposed. These are (a) the EMR amplitude increases as long as the crack continues to grow, since new atomic bonds are severed and their contribution is added to the EMR. As a result, the atoms on both sides of the bonds are moved to 'non-equilibrium' positions relative to their steady state ones and begin to oscillate collectively in a manner similar to Debye model bulk oscillations - 'surface vibrational optical waves'; (b) when the crack halts, the waves and the EMR pulse amplitude decay by relaxation. These basic elements are already enough to describe the characteristics of the experimentally obtained isolated individual EMR pulses. These characteristics include the shape of the EMR pulse envelope, and the frequency, time duration and rise - fall time of the pulse.

  17. Electromagnetism of Bacterial Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainiwaer, Ailiyasi

    2011-10-01

    There has been increasing concern from the public about personal health due to the significant rise in the daily use of electrical devices such as cell phones, radios, computers, GPS, video games and television. All of these devices create electromagnetic (EM) fields, which are simply magnetic and electric fields surrounding the appliances that simultaneously affect the human bio-system. Although these can affect the human system, obstacles can easily shield or weaken the electrical fields; however, magnetic fields cannot be weakened and can pass through walls, human bodies and most other objects. The present study was conducted to examine the possible effects of bacteria when exposed to magnetic fields. The results indicate that a strong causal relationship is not clear, since different magnetic fields affect the bacteria differently, with some causing an increase in bacterial cells, and others causing a decrease in the same cells. This phenomenon has yet to be explained, but the current study attempts to offer a mathematical explanation for this occurrence. The researchers added cultures to the magnetic fields to examine any effects to ion transportation. Researchers discovered ions such as potassium and sodium are affected by the magnetic field. A formula is presented in the analysis section to explain this effect.

  18. Electromagnetic fields and cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Neeta; Mathur, R.; Behari, J.

    1997-01-01

    Several studies in recent years have raised the possibility that exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMFs) may be hazardous to human health, in particular by promotion or initiation of cancer. Recent reports have indicated increased cancer risk from industrial and domestic exposure to environmental ELF fields and to RF fields that are amplitude modulated at ELF. EMF fields have been reported to affect biological systems in various ways, affecting changes in the morphology and or functional behavior of cells, which have been observed in a variety of tissues. Although the mechanism of interaction of EMFs with living cells are not known, it has been proposed that they have multiple effects and can affect cell signalling, including modification of plasma membrane permeability and ion transport. Our findings suggest that EMFs can affect post translational modification of proteins such as poly ADP-ribosylation by epigenetic mechanism and that the effect of EMFs are highly specific regarding both the cell type and the frequency and amplification of the applied field. (author)

  19. Mapping Earth's electromagnetic dimensionality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, J. J.; Kelbert, A.; Bedrosian, P.

    2017-12-01

    The form of a magnetotelluric impedance tensor, obtained for a given geographic site through simultaneous measurement of geomagnetic and geoelectric field variation, is affected by electrical conductivity structure beneath the measurement site. Building on existing methods for characterizing the symmetry of magnetotelluric impedance tensors, a simple scalar measure is developed for measuring the (frequency dependent) proportion of the impedance tensor that is not just a one-dimensional (1D) function of depth ("non-1D-ness"). These measures are applied to nearly 1000 impedance tensors obtained during magnetotelluric surveys, those for the continental United States and obtained principally through the National Science Foundation's EarthScope project. Across geomagnetic/geoelectric variational periods ranging from 30 s to 3,000 s, corresponding to crustal and upper mantle depths, it is shown that local Earth structure is very often not simply 1D-depth-dependent - often less than 50% of magnetotelluric impedance is 1D. For selected variational frequencies, non-1D-ness is mapped and the relationship between electromagnetic dimensionality and known geological and tectonic structures is discussed. The importance of using realistic surface impedances to accurately evaluate magnetic-storm geoelectric hazards is emphasized.

  20. The CPLEAR Electromagnetic Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Adler, R; Bal, F; Behnke, O; Bloch, P; Damianoglou, D; Dechelette, Paul; Dröge, M; Eckart, B; Felder, C; Fetscher, W; Fidecaro, Maria; Garreta, D; Gerber, H J; Gumplinger, P; Guyon, D; Johner, H U; Löfstedt, B; Kern, J; Kokkas, P; Krause, H; Mall, U; Marin, C P; Nanni, F; Pagels, B; Pavlopoulos, P; Petit, P; Polivka, G; Rheme, C; Ruf, T; Santoni, C; Schaller, L A; Schopper, A; Tauscher, Ludwig; Tschopp, H; Weber, P; Wendler, H; Witzig, C; Wolter, M

    1997-01-01

    A large-acceptance lead/gas sampling electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL) was constructed for the CPLEAR experiment to detect photons from decays of $\\pi^0$s with momentum $p_{\\pi^0} \\le 800$ MeV$/c$. The main purpose of the ECAL is to determine the decay vertex of neutral-kaon decays $\\ko \\rightarrow \\pi^0\\pi^0 \\rightarrow 4 \\gamma$ and $\\ko \\rightarrow \\pi^0\\pi^0\\pi^0 \\rightarrow 6 \\gamma$. This requires a position-sensitive photon detector with high spatial granularity in $r$-, $\\varphi$-, and $z$-coordinates. The ECAL --- a barrel without end-caps located inside a magnetic field of 0.44 T --- consists of 18 identical concentric layers. Each layer of $1/3$ radiation length (X${_0}$) contains a converter plate followed by small cross-section high-gain tubes of 2640 mm active length which are sandwiched by passive pick-up strip plates. The ECAL, with a total of $6$ X${_0}$, has an energy resolution of $\\sigma (E)/E \\approx 13\\% / \\sqrt{E(\\mathrm{GeV})}$ and a position resolution of 4.5 mm for the shower foot. ...

  1. NEMP (Nuclear Electromagnetic Pulse)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grunow, H.K.

    The variety of measures discussed in this contribution can be used to achieve with minimum effort a damping of 10 6 :1 (120 dB) between the interfering pulses in the networks and lines outside the buildings and the lines leading to the semiconductors. Expert knowledge, experience, and insight into the systems are required to solve this task optimally. The procedure to be adopted for NEMP protection differs only slightly from that used for achieving electromagnetic compatibility and lightning protection. Industry has developed the equipment for overvoltage protection and offers graded protection systems, experienced experts and systems engineers are available. This potential of the industry could be used to sponsor a pilot project, e.g. by public research funds. One of the goals of such a project could be to work out reliable data for cost estimated for large projects. Even if one would not accept the hypothetical probability of a nuclear war as a reason good anough to start such a project, it would not be justified to deny the necessity of additional expenditure for setting up a ''NEMP emergency system'' for protection waterborne traffic on purely financial grounds. (orig./RW) [de

  2. General Geometry and Geometry of Electromagnetism

    OpenAIRE

    Shahverdiyev, Shervgi S.

    2002-01-01

    It is shown that Electromagnetism creates geometry different from Riemannian geometry. General geometry including Riemannian geometry as a special case is constructed. It is proven that the most simplest special case of General Geometry is geometry underlying Electromagnetism. Action for electromagnetic field and Maxwell equations are derived from curvature function of geometry underlying Electromagnetism. And it is shown that equation of motion for a particle interacting with electromagnetic...

  3. Radiation and propagation of electromagnetic waves

    CERN Document Server

    Tyras, George; Declaris, Nicholas

    1969-01-01

    Radiation and Propagation of Electromagnetic Waves serves as a text in electrical engineering or electrophysics. The book discusses the electromagnetic theory; plane electromagnetic waves in homogenous isotropic and anisotropic media; and plane electromagnetic waves in inhomogenous stratified media. The text also describes the spectral representation of elementary electromagnetic sources; the field of a dipole in a stratified medium; and radiation in anisotropic plasma. The properties and the procedures of Green's function method of solution, axial currents, as well as cylindrical boundaries a

  4. Transfinite Numbers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Transfinite Numbers. What is Infinity? S M Srivastava. In a series of revolutionary articles written during the last quarter of the nineteenth century, the great Ger- man mathematician Georg Cantor removed the age-old mistrust of infinity and created an exceptionally beau- tiful and useful theory of transfinite numbers. This is.

  5. The Pressure and Magnetic Flux Density Analysis of Helical-Type DC Electromagnetic Pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Geun Hyeong; Kim, Hee Reyoung

    2016-01-01

    The developed pressure was made by only electromagnetic force eliminating probability of impurities contact, therefore the high reactivity materials such as alkali were best match to electromagnetic pump. The heavy ion accelerator facility by Rare Isotope Science Project (RISP) in Korea is trying to construct accelerator using liquid lithium for high efficiency of acceleration by decreasing charge state. The helical-type DC electromagnetic pump was employed to make a charge stripper that decrease charge state of heavy ion. The specification of electromagnetic pump was developed pressure of 15 bar with flowrate of 6 cc/s in the condition of 200℃. The pressure of DC electromagnetic pump was analyzed in the aspects of current and number of duct turns. The developed pressure was almost proportional to input current because relatively low flowrate made negligible of the electromotive force and hydraulic pressure drop. The pressure and magnetic flux density of helical-type DC electromagnetic pump were analyzed. The pressure was proportion to input current and number of duct turns, and magnetic flux density was higher when ferromagnet was applied at electromagnetic pump. It seems that number of duct turns could be increase and ferromagnet could be applied in order to increase pressure of DC electromagnetic pump with constant input current

  6. Electromagnetic fields of Nanometer electromagnetic waves and X-ray. New frontiers of electromagnetic wave engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The investigating committee aimed at research on electromagnetic fields in functional devices and X-ray fibers for efficient coherent X-ray generation and their material science, high-precision manufacturing, X-ray microscope, application to medical and information communication technologies, such as interaction between material and nanometer electromagnetic waves of radiated light and X-ray, interaction between microwaves and particle beams, theory and design of high-frequency waveguides for resonator and accelerator, from January 2003 to December 2005. In this report, we describe our research results, in particular, on the topics of synchrotron radiation and Cherenkov radiation, Kyushu synchrotron light source and its technology, nanometer electromagnetic fields in optical region, process of interaction between evanescent waves and near-field light, orthogonal relation of electromagnetic fields including evanescent waves in dispersive dielectrics, optical amplification using electron beam, nanometer electromagnetic fields in focusing waveguide lens device with curved facets, electromagnetic fields in nanometer photonic crystal waveguide consisting of atoms, X-ray scattering and absorption I bio-material for image diagnosis. (author)

  7. Chocolate Numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Ji, Caleb; Khovanova, Tanya; Park, Robin; Song, Angela

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we consider a game played on a rectangular $m \\times n$ gridded chocolate bar. Each move, a player breaks the bar along a grid line. Each move after that consists of taking any piece of chocolate and breaking it again along existing grid lines, until just $mn$ individual squares remain. This paper enumerates the number of ways to break an $m \\times n$ bar, which we call chocolate numbers, and introduces four new sequences related to these numbers. Using various techniques, we p...

  8. Number theory

    CERN Document Server

    Andrews, George E

    1994-01-01

    Although mathematics majors are usually conversant with number theory by the time they have completed a course in abstract algebra, other undergraduates, especially those in education and the liberal arts, often need a more basic introduction to the topic.In this book the author solves the problem of maintaining the interest of students at both levels by offering a combinatorial approach to elementary number theory. In studying number theory from such a perspective, mathematics majors are spared repetition and provided with new insights, while other students benefit from the consequent simpl

  9. Electromagnetic brain imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekihara, Kensuke

    2008-01-01

    Present imaging methods of cerebral neuro-activity like brain functional MRI and positron emission tomography (PET) secondarily measure only average activities within a time of the second-order (low time-resolution). In contrast, the electromagnetic brain imaging (EMBI) directly measures the faint magnetic field (10 -12 -10 -13 T) yielded by the cerebral activity with use of multiple arrayed sensors equipped on the head surface within a time of sub-millisecond order (high time-resolution). The sensor array technology to find the signal source from the measured data is common in wide areas like signal procession for radar, sonar, and epicenter detection by seismic wave. For estimating and reconstructing the active region in the brain in EMBI, the efficient method must be developed and this paper describes the direct and inverse problems concerned in signal and image processions of EMBI. The direct problem involves the cerebral magnetic field/lead field matrix and inverse problem for reconstruction of signal source, the MUSIC (multiple signal classification) algorithm, GLRT (generalized likelihood ratio test) scan, and adaptive beamformer. As an example, given are results of magnetic intensity changes (unit, fT) in the somatosensory cortex vs time (msec) measured by 160 sensors and of images reconstructed from EMBI and MRI during electric muscle afferent input from the hand. The real-time imaging is thus possible with EMBI and extremely, the EMBI image, the real-time cerebral signals, can inversely operate a machine, of which application directs toward the brain/machine interface development. (R.T.)

  10. The Radio And Very Low Frequency (VLF) Electromagnetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Radio And Very Low Frequency (VLF) Electromagnetic Response Of A Layered Earth Media With Variable Dielectric Permittivity. ... A radio frequency of 125 KHz and a very low frequency (VLF) of 20 KHz were used in the computations and the field parameters studied over a dimensionless induction number, B. The ...

  11. On e(+)e(-) pair production by colliding electromagnetic pulses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Narozhny, NB; Bulanov, SS; Mur, VD; Popov, VS

    2004-01-01

    Electron-positron pair production from vacuum in an electromagnetic field created by two counterpropagating focused laser pulses interacting with each other is analyzed. The dependence of the number of produced pairs on the intensity of a laser pulse and the focusing parameter is studied with a

  12. Nice numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Barnes, John

    2016-01-01

    In this intriguing book, John Barnes takes us on a journey through aspects of numbers much as he took us on a geometrical journey in Gems of Geometry. Similarly originating from a series of lectures for adult students at Reading and Oxford University, this book touches a variety of amusing and fascinating topics regarding numbers and their uses both ancient and modern. The author intrigues and challenges his audience with both fundamental number topics such as prime numbers and cryptography, and themes of daily needs and pleasures such as counting one's assets, keeping track of time, and enjoying music. Puzzles and exercises at the end of each lecture offer additional inspiration, and numerous illustrations accompany the reader. Furthermore, a number of appendices provides in-depth insights into diverse topics such as Pascal’s triangle, the Rubik cube, Mersenne’s curious keyboards, and many others. A theme running through is the thought of what is our favourite number. Written in an engaging and witty sty...

  13. Electromagnetic aquametry electromagnetic wave interaction with water and moist substances

    CERN Document Server

    Kupfer, Klaus

    2006-01-01

    This book covers all aspects of Electromagnetic Aquametry. It summarizes the wide area of metrology and its applications in electromagnetic sensing of moist materials. The physical properties of water in various degrees of binding interacting with electromagnetic fields is presented by model systems. The book describes measurement methods and sensors in the frequency domain, TDR-techniques for environmental problems, methods and sensors for quality assessment of biological substances, and nuclear magnetic resonance techniques. Environmental sciences, as well as civil and geoengineering, fossil fuels, food and pharmaceutical science are the main fields of application. A very wide frequency sprectrum is used for dielectric measurement methods, but the microwave range is clearly dominant. Multiparameter methods as well as methods of principal components and artificial neural networks for density independent measurements are described.

  14. Electromagnetic and mechanical design of RFX Magnetizing Winding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guarnieri, M.; Modena, C.; Schrefler, B.A.; Stella, A.

    1985-01-01

    This paper presents the RFX Magnetizing Winding design and describes its most significant features. Two numerical codes have been used for the magnetic design and a number of solutions, complying with the design specifications, have been obtained. The most attractive of them have been studied in detail from the electromagnetic point of view and a comparison is given here together with an analysis of the stress states. The finite element procedure used is discussed in the paper and the results of the comparison indicated above are presented together with the main electromagnetic parameters and winding features

  15. Broadband electromagnetic environments simulator (EMES)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollard, N.

    1977-01-01

    A new test facility has been developed by Sandia Laboratories for determining the effects of electromagnetic environments on systems and components. The facility is capable of producing uniform, vertically polarized, continuous wave (CW) and pulsed fields over the frequency range of dc to 10 GHz. This broadband capability addresses the electromagnetic radiation (EMR) threat and is ideally suited to computer controlled sweeping and data acquisition. EMES is also capable of producing uniform transient fields having the wave shape and magnitude characteristic of a nuclear electromagnetic pulse (EMP) and near lightning. The design consists of a truncated, triplate, rectangular coaxial transmission line. The spacing between the flat center conductor and the ground planes is 4 meters. The line is terminated in its characteristic impedance of 50 ohms. At frequencies below the first resonance of the facility it behaves as a typical coaxial system. Above resonance, a wall of electromagnetic absorbing material provides a nonreflecting termination. Thus, EMES essentially combines the elements of a transmission line and an anechoic chamber. It will not radiate electromagnetic energy into the surrounding area because it is a shielded transmission line

  16. Attracting electromagnet for control rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Kazuo; Sasaki, Kotaro.

    1989-01-01

    Non-magnetic material plates with inherent resistivity of greater than 20 μΩ-cm and thickness of less than 3 mm are used for the end plates of attracting electromagnets for closed type control rods. By using such control rod attracting electromagnets, the scram releasing time can be shortened than usual. Since the armature attracting side of the electromagnet has to be sealed by a non-magnetic plate, a bronze plate of about 5 mm thickness has been used so far. Accordingly, non-magnetic plate is inserted to the electromagnet attracting face to increase air source length for improving to shorten the scram releasing time. This method, however, worsens the attracting property on one hand to require a great magnetomotive force. For overcoming these drawbacks, in the present invention, the material for tightly closing end plates in an electromagnet is changed from bronze plate to non-magnetic stainless steel SUS 303 or non-magnetic Monel metal and, in addition, the plate thickness is reduced to less than 5 mm thereby maintaining the attracting property and shortening the scram releasing time. (K.M.)

  17. Electromagnetic potentials without gauge transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chubykalo, A; Espinoza, A; Alvarado Flores, R

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we show that the use of the Helmholtz theorem enables the derivation of uniquely determined electromagnetic potentials without the necessity of using gauge transformation. We show that the electromagnetic field comprises two components, one of which is characterized by instantaneous action at a distance, whereas the other propagates in retarded form with the velocity of light. In our attempt to show the superiority of the new proposed method to the standard one, we argue that the action-at-a-distance components cannot be considered as a drawback of our method, because the recommended procedure for eliminating the action at a distance in the Coulomb gauge leads to theoretical subtleties that allow us to say that the needed gauge transformation is not guaranteed. One of the theoretical consequences of this new definition is that, in addition to the electric E and magnetic B fields, the electromagnetic potentials are real physical quantities. We show that this property of the electromagnetic potentials in quantum mechanics is also a property of the electromagnetic potentials in classical electrodynamics.

  18. Electromagnetic coupling of high-altitude, nuclear electromagnetic pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    We have used scale models to measure the predicted coupling of electromagnetic fields simulating the effects of high-altitude nuclear electromagnetic pulses (HEMP) on the interior surfaces of electronic components. Predictive tools for exterior coupling are adequate. For interior coupling, however, such tools are in their infancy. Our methodological approach combines analytical, computational, and laboratory techniques in a complementary way to take advantage of their separate strengths. Computer models are a promising tool, as they can be used to treat complex objects with arbitrary shapes, dielectrics, and cables, and multiple apertures. Laboratory tests can expand the domain of investigation even further

  19. Number names and number understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejersbo, Lisser Rye; Misfeldt, Morten

    2014-01-01

    This paper concerns the results from the first year of a three-year research project involving the relationship between Danish number names and their corresponding digits in the canonical base 10 system. The project aims to develop a system to help the students’ understanding of the base 10 syste...... the Danish number names are more complicated than in other languages. Keywords: A research project in grade 0 and 1th in a Danish school, Base-10 system, two-digit number names, semiotic, cognitive perspectives....

  20. Funny Numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodore M. Porter

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The struggle over cure rate measures in nineteenth-century asylums provides an exemplary instance of how, when used for official assessments of institutions, these numbers become sites of contestation. The evasion of goals and corruption of measures tends to make these numbers “funny” in the sense of becoming dis-honest, while the mismatch between boring, technical appearances and cunning backstage manipulations supplies dark humor. The dangers are evident in recent efforts to decentralize the functions of governments and corporations using incen-tives based on quantified targets.

  1. Transcendental numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Murty, M Ram

    2014-01-01

    This book provides an introduction to the topic of transcendental numbers for upper-level undergraduate and graduate students. The text is constructed to support a full course on the subject, including descriptions of both relevant theorems and their applications. While the first part of the book focuses on introducing key concepts, the second part presents more complex material, including applications of Baker’s theorem, Schanuel’s conjecture, and Schneider’s theorem. These later chapters may be of interest to researchers interested in examining the relationship between transcendence and L-functions. Readers of this text should possess basic knowledge of complex analysis and elementary algebraic number theory.

  2. Electromagnetic Radiation Measurements and Safety Issues of some Cellular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mousa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available As the mobile telecommunication systems are tremendously growing allover the world then the numbers of handheld andbase stations are also rapidly growing and it became very popular to see these base stations distributed everywhere in theneighborhood and on roof tops which has caused a considerable amount of panic to the public in Palestine concerning witherthe radiated electromagnetic field from these base stations may cause any health effect or hazard. This paper focuses on theradiated electromagnetic energy from some typical mobile base stations around the city of Nablus. The exposure levels dueto these stations were measured and compared to some international standard guidelines like ICNIRP and FCC to see if itmeets these standards, this is in order to answer some of the public fear and concern. The results are presented and somecomments are made on the other sources of electromagnetic radiation in the 200 kHz to 3 GHz range.

  3. Electromagnetic micropores: fabrication and operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basore, Joseph R; Lavrik, Nickolay V; Baker, Lane A

    2010-12-21

    We describe the fabrication and characterization of electromagnetic micropores. These devices consist of a micropore encompassed by a microelectromagnetic trap. Fabrication of the device involves multiple photolithographic steps, combined with deep reactive ion etching and subsequent insulation steps. When immersed in an electrolyte solution, application of a constant potential across the micropore results in an ionic current. Energizing the electromagnetic trap surrounding the micropore produces regions of high magnetic field gradients in the vicinity of the micropore that can direct motion of a ferrofluid onto or off of the micropore. This results in dynamic gating of the ion current through the micropore structure. In this report, we detail fabrication and characterize the electrical and ionic properties of the prepared electromagnetic micropores.

  4. Moving Manifolds in Electromagnetic Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David V. Svintradze

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available We propose dynamic non-linear equations for moving surfaces in an electromagnetic field. The field is induced by a material body with a boundary of the surface. Correspondingly the potential energy, set by the field at the boundary can be written as an addition of four-potential times four-current to a contraction of the electromagnetic tensor. Proper application of the minimal action principle to the system Lagrangian yields dynamic non-linear equations for moving three dimensional manifolds in electromagnetic fields. The equations in different conditions simplify to Maxwell equations for massless three surfaces, to Euler equations for a dynamic fluid, to magneto-hydrodynamic equations and to the Poisson-Boltzmann equation.

  5. Perturbations in electromagnetic dark energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiménez, Jose Beltrán; Maroto, Antonio L.; Koivisto, Tomi S.; Mota, David F.

    2009-01-01

    It has been recently proposed that the presence of a temporal electromagnetic field on cosmological scales could explain the phase of accelerated expansion that the universe is currently undergoing. The field contributes as a cosmological constant and therefore, the homogeneous cosmology produced by such a model is exactly the same as that of ΛCDM. However, unlike a cosmological constant term, electromagnetic fields can acquire perturbations which in principle could affect CMB anisotropies and structure formation. In this work, we study the evolution of inhomogeneous scalar perturbations in this model. We show that provided the initial electromagnetic fluctuations generated during inflation are small, the model is perfectly compatible with both CMB and large scale structure observations at the same level of accuracy as ΛCDM

  6. Gauge invariant fractional electromagnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazo, Matheus Jatkoske

    2011-01-01

    Fractional derivatives and integrations of non-integers orders was introduced more than three centuries ago but only recently gained more attention due to its application on nonlocal phenomenas. In this context, several formulations of fractional electromagnetic fields was proposed, but all these theories suffer from the absence of an effective fractional vector calculus, and in general are non-causal or spatially asymmetric. In order to deal with these difficulties, we propose a spatially symmetric and causal gauge invariant fractional electromagnetic field from a Lagrangian formulation. From our fractional Maxwell's fields arose a definition for the fractional gradient, divergent and curl operators. -- Highlights: → We propose a fractional Lagrangian formulation for fractional Maxwell's fields. → We obtain gauge invariant fractional electromagnetic fields. → Our generalized fractional Maxwell's field is spatially symmetrical. → We discuss the non-causality of the theory.

  7. Gauge invariant fractional electromagnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazo, Matheus Jatkoske, E-mail: matheuslazo@furg.br [Instituto de Matematica, Estatistica e Fisica - FURG, Rio Grande, RS (Brazil)

    2011-09-26

    Fractional derivatives and integrations of non-integers orders was introduced more than three centuries ago but only recently gained more attention due to its application on nonlocal phenomenas. In this context, several formulations of fractional electromagnetic fields was proposed, but all these theories suffer from the absence of an effective fractional vector calculus, and in general are non-causal or spatially asymmetric. In order to deal with these difficulties, we propose a spatially symmetric and causal gauge invariant fractional electromagnetic field from a Lagrangian formulation. From our fractional Maxwell's fields arose a definition for the fractional gradient, divergent and curl operators. -- Highlights: → We propose a fractional Lagrangian formulation for fractional Maxwell's fields. → We obtain gauge invariant fractional electromagnetic fields. → Our generalized fractional Maxwell's field is spatially symmetrical. → We discuss the non-causality of the theory.

  8. Advanced electromagnetics and scattering theory

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This book present the lecture notes used in two courses that the late Professor Kasra Barkeshli had offered at Sharif University of Technology, namely, Advanced Electromagnetics and Scattering Theory. The prerequisite for the sequence is vector calculus and electromagnetic fields and waves. Some familiarity with Green's functions and integral equations is desirable but not necessary. The book  provides a brief but concise introduction to classical topics in the field. It is divided into three parts including annexes. Part I covers principle of electromagnetic theory. The discussion starts with a review of the Maxwell's equations in differential and integral forms and basic boundary conditions. The solution of inhomogeneous wave equation and various field representations including Lorentz's potential functions and the Green's function method are discussed next. The solution of Helmholtz equation and wave harmonics follow. Next, the book presents plane wave propagation in dielectric and lossy media and various...

  9. Electromagnetic corrections to baryon masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durand, Loyal; Ha, Phuoc

    2005-01-01

    We analyze the electromagnetic contributions to the octet and decuplet baryon masses using the heavy-baryon approximation in chiral effective field theory and methods we developed in earlier analyses of the baryon masses and magnetic moments. Our methods connect simply to Morpurgo's general parametrization of the electromagnetic contributions and to semirelativistic quark models. Our calculations are carried out including the one-loop mesonic corrections to the basic electromagnetic interactions, so to two loops overall. We find that to this order in the chiral loop expansion there are no three-body contributions. The Coleman-Glashow relation and other sum rules derived in quark models with only two-body terms therefore continue to hold, and violations involve at least three-loop processes and can be expected to be quite small. We present the complete formal results and some estimates of the matrix elements here. Numerical calculations will be presented separately

  10. Heliborne time domain electromagnetic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, S.

    2009-01-01

    Atomic Minerals Directorate (AMD), are using heliborne and ground time domain electromagnetic (TDEM) system for the exploration of deep seated unconformity type uranium deposits. Uranium has been explored in various parts of the world like Athabasca basin using time domain electromagnetic system. AMD has identified some areas in India where such deposits are available. Apart from uranium exploration, the TDEM systems are used for the exploration of deep seated minerals like diamonds. Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) is involved in the indigenous design of the heliborne time domain system since this system is useful for DAE and also it has a scope of wide application. In this paper we discuss about the principle of time domain electromagnetic systems, their capabilities and the development and problems of such system for various other mineral exploration. (author)

  11. Clinical importance of electromagnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruppe, I.

    1993-01-01

    The clinical importance of most of the electromagnetic fields is not highly. Mostly they only have thermal effects, produced by energy-absorption. About 1 C increase of whole-body-temperature is valid for tolerable limit. For measuring is used the SAR-Value (Specific Absorption Rate) in W/kg body mass. SAR = 0,8W/kg for the whole body is valid to be safety. For the evaluation of possible other effects of electromagnetic fields the scientific knowledges are till now not sufficient to allow a final statement. That could be impacts of electromagnetic fields to conduction or switch processes in the nerves or brains, in the framwork of cellular regulations, in the genetic reactions are occurig is little, but if is necessary to find it out in scinentific investigations. (orig.) [de

  12. Current-voltage characteristic of a resonant tunneling diode under electromagnetic radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Hatefi Kargan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available  In this paper, current-voltage characteristic of a resonant tunneling diode under electromagnetic radiation has been calculated and compared with the results when there is no electromagnetic radiation. For calculating current -voltage characteristic, it is required to calculate the transmission coefficient of electrons from the well and barrier structures of this device. For calculating the transmission coefficient of electrons at the presence of electromagnetic radiation, Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD method has been used and when there is no electromagnetic radiation Transfer Matrix Method (TMM and finite diffirence time domain method have been used. The results show that the presence of electromagnetic radiation causes resonant states other than principal resonant state (without presence of electromagnetic radiation to appear on the transmition coefficient curve where they are in distances from the principal peak and from each other. Also, the presence of electromagnetic radiation causes peaks other than principal peak to appear on the current-voltage characteristics of the device. Under electromagnetic radiation, the number of peaks on the current-voltage curve is smaller than the number of peaks on the current-voltage transmission coefficient. This is due to the fact that current-voltage curve is the result of integration on the energy of electrons, Thus, the sharper and low height peaks on the transmission coefficient do not appear on the current-voltage characteristic curve.

  13. Transfinite Numbers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    this is a characteristic difference between finite and infinite sets and created an immensely useful branch of mathematics based on this idea which had a great impact on the whole of mathe- matics. For example, the question of what is a number (finite or infinite) is almost a philosophical one. However Cantor's work turned it ...

  14. Electromagnetic processes during phase commutation in field regulated reluctance machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishkov, A. N.; Sychev, D. A.; Zemlyansky, A. A.; Krupnova, M. N.; Funk, T. A.; Ishmet'eva, V. D.

    2018-03-01

    The processes of currents switching in stator windings have been explained by the existence of the electromagnetic torque ripples in the electric drive with the field-regulated reluctance machine. The maximum value of ripples in the open loop control system for the six-phase machine can reach 20 percent from the developed electromagnetic torque. This method allows one to make calculation of ripple spike towards average torque developed by the electromotor for the different number of phases. Application of a trapezoidal form of current at six phases became the solution. In case of a less number of phases than six, a ripple spike considerably increases, which is inadmissible. On the other hand, increasing the number of phases tends to the increase of the semiconductor inverter external dimensions based on the inconspicuous decreasing of a ripple spike. The creation and usage of high-speed control loops of current (HCLC) have been recommended for a reduction of the electromagnetic torque’s ripple level, as well as the appliance of positive current feedback in switching phase currents. This decision allowed one to receive a mean value of the torque more than 10%, compared to system without change, to reduce greatly ripple spike of the electromagnetic torque. The possibility of the electric drive effective operation with FRRM in emergency operation has been shown.

  15. Electromagnetic processes in strong crystalline fields

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    We propose a number of new investigations on aspects of radiation from high energy electron and positron beams (10-300 GeV) in single crystals and amorphous targets. The common heading is radiation emission by electrons and positrons in strong electromagnetic fields, but as the setup is quite versatile, other related phenomena in radiation emission can be studied as well. The intent is to clarify the role of a number of important aspects of radiation in strong fields as e.g. observed in crystals. We propose to measure trident 'Klein-like' production in strong crystalline fields, 'crystalline undulator' radiation, 'sandwich' target phenomena, LPM suppression of pair production as well as axial and planar effects in contributions of spin to the radiation.

  16. Mathematical methods of electromagnetic theory

    CERN Document Server

    Friedrichs, Kurt O

    2014-01-01

    This text provides a mathematically precise but intuitive introduction to classical electromagnetic theory and wave propagation, with a brief introduction to special relativity. While written in a distinctive, modern style, Friedrichs manages to convey the physical intuition and 19th century basis of the equations, with an emphasis on conservation laws. Particularly striking features of the book include: (a) a mathematically rigorous derivation of the interaction of electromagnetic waves with matter, (b) a straightforward explanation of how to use variational principles to solve problems in el

  17. A review of electromagnetic missiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, T.T.; Shen, H.M.; Myers, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    Theoretical results are reviewed pertaining to the behavior of transient electromagnetic fields in the limit of great distances from their sources. In 1985 it was shown that pulses of finite total radiated energy could propagate to a distant receiver, delivering energy that decreases much more slowly than the usual r - 2 . Such pulses have been referred to as electromagnetic (EM) missiles. The types first discovered propagate along a straight line with a monotonically (though slowly) decreasing time-integrated flux. Other types are now known. One type can be made to rise and fall with increasing distance; another is the curved EM missile. Early efforts to classify EM missiles are reviewed

  18. Measurement of advanced electromagnetic radiation

    OpenAIRE

    Bajlo, Darko

    2017-01-01

    For the purpose of detecting advanced electromagnetic radiation predicted by Wheeler-Feynman absorber theory for the case of incomplete absorption of retarded electromagnetic radiation, pulses in duration of 6 ns to 24 ns, wavelength from 91 cm to 200 cm where supplied to three different transmitting antennas. Detection was done with a λ/20 monopole antenna in the advanced time window at a time 2r/c before the arrival of the center of the retarded pulse. At distances ranging from 430 cm to 18...

  19. Gauge invariant fractional electromagnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazo, Matheus Jatkoske

    2011-09-01

    Fractional derivatives and integrations of non-integers orders was introduced more than three centuries ago but only recently gained more attention due to its application on nonlocal phenomenas. In this context, several formulations of fractional electromagnetic fields was proposed, but all these theories suffer from the absence of an effective fractional vector calculus, and in general are non-causal or spatially asymmetric. In order to deal with these difficulties, we propose a spatially symmetric and causal gauge invariant fractional electromagnetic field from a Lagrangian formulation. From our fractional Maxwell's fields arose a definition for the fractional gradient, divergent and curl operators.

  20. Nonlinear classical theory of electromagnetism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pisello, D.

    1977-01-01

    A topological theory of electric charge is given. Einstein's criteria for the completion of classical electromagnetic theory are summarized and their relation to quantum theory and the principle of complementarity is indicated. The inhibiting effect that this principle has had on the development of physical thought is discussed. Developments in the theory of functions on nonlinear spaces provide the conceptual framework required for the completion of electromagnetism. The theory is based on an underlying field which is a continuous mapping of space-time into points on the two-sphere. (author)

  1. Electromagnetic reciprocity in antenna theory

    CERN Document Server

    Stumpf, Martin

    2018-01-01

    The reciprocity theorem is among the most intriguing concepts in wave field theory and has become an integral part of almost all standard textbooks on electromagnetic (EM) theory. This book makes use of the theorem to quantitatively describe EM interactions concerning general multiport antenna systems. It covers a general reciprocity-based description of antenna systems, their EM scattering properties, and further related aspects. Beginning with an introduction to the subject, Electromagnetic Reciprocity in Antenna Theory provides readers first with the basic prerequisites before offering coverage of the equivalent multiport circuit antenna representations, EM coupling between multiport antenna systems and their EM interactions with scatterers, accompanied with the corresponding EM compensation theorems.

  2. Electromagnetic computations for fusion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, L.R.

    1989-09-01

    Among the difficulties in making nuclear fusion a useful energy source, two important ones are producing the magnetic fields needed to drive and confine the plasma, and controlling the eddy currents induced in electrically conducting components by changing fields. All over the world, researchers are developing electromagnetic codes and employing them to compute electromagnetic effects. Ferromagnetic components of a fusion reactor introduce field distortions. Eddy currents are induced in the vacuum vessel, blanket and other torus components of a tokamak when the plasma current disrupts. These eddy currents lead to large forces, and 3-D codes are being developed to study the currents and forces. 35 refs., 6 figs

  3. Electromagnetic compatibility principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Weston, David A

    2001-01-01

    This totally revised and expanded reference/text provides comprehensive, single-source coverage of the design, problem solving, and specifications of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) into electrical equipment/systems-including new information on basic theories, applications, evaluations, prediction techniques, and practical diagnostic options for preventing EMI through cost-effective solutions. Offers the most recent guidelines, safety limits, and standards for human exposure to electromagnetic fields! Containing updated data on EMI diagnostic verification measurements, as well as over 900 drawings, photographs, tables, and equations-500 more than the previous edition

  4. The STAR endcap electromagnetic calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allgower, C.E.; Anderson, B.D.; Baldwin, A.R.; Balewski, J.; Belt-Tonjes, M.; Bland, L.C.; Brown, R.L.; Cadman, R.V.; Christie, W.; Cyliax, I.; Dunin, V.; Efimov, L.; Eppley, G.; Gagliardi, C.A.; Gagunashvili, N.; Hallman, T.; Hunt, W.; Jacobs, W.W.; Klyachko, A.; Krueger, K.; Kulikov, A.; Ogawa, A.; Panebratsev, Y.; Planinic, M.; Puskar-Pasewicz, J.; Rakness, G.; Razin, S.; Rogachevski, O.; Shimansky, S.; Solberg, K.A.; Sowinski, J.; Spinka, H.; Stephenson, E.J.; Tikhomirov, V.; Tokarev, M.; Tribble, R.E.; Underwood, D.; Vander Molen, A.M.; Vigdor, S.E.; Watson, J.W.; Westfall, G.; Wissink, S.W.; Yokosawa, A.; Yurevich, V.; Zhang, W.-M.; Zubarev, A.

    2003-01-01

    The STAR endcap electromagnetic calorimeter will provide full azimuthal coverage for high-p T photons, electrons and electromagnetically decaying mesons over the pseudorapidity range 1.086≤η≤2.00. It includes a scintillating-strip shower-maximum detector to provide π 0 /γ discrimination and preshower and postshower layers to aid in distinguishing between electrons and charged hadrons. The triggering capabilities and coverage it offers are crucial for much of the spin physics program to be carried out in polarized proton-proton collisions

  5. Electromagnetic geothermometry theory, modeling, practice

    CERN Document Server

    Spichak, Viacheslav V

    2015-01-01

    Electromagnetic Geothermometry explores, presents and explains the new technique of temperature estimation within the Earth's interior; the Electromagnetic technique will identify zones of geothermal anomalies and thus provides locations for deep drilling. This book includes many case studies from geothermal areas such as Travale (Italy), Soultz-sous-Forêts (France) and Hengill (Iceland), allowing the author and reader to draw conclusions regarding the dominating heat transfer mechanisms, location of its sources and to constrain the locations for drilling of the new boreholes. Covering a to

  6. Integral equation methods for electromagnetics

    CERN Document Server

    Volakis, John

    2012-01-01

    This text/reference is a detailed look at the development and use of integral equation methods for electromagnetic analysis, specifically for antennas and radar scattering. Developers and practitioners will appreciate the broad-based approach to understanding and utilizing integral equation methods and the unique coverage of historical developments that led to the current state-of-the-art. In contrast to existing books, Integral Equation Methods for Electromagnetics lays the groundwork in the initial chapters so students and basic users can solve simple problems and work their way up to the mo

  7. The STAR endcap electromagnetic calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allgower, C.E.; Anderson, B.D.; Baldwin, A.R.; Balewski, J.; Belt-Tonjes, M.; Bland, L.C.; Brown, R.L.; Cadman, R.V.; Christie, W.; Cyliax, I.; Dunin, V.; Efimov, L.; Eppley, G.; Gagliardi, C.A.; Gagunashvili, N.; Hallman, T.; Hunt, W.; Jacobs, W.W.; Klyachko, A.; Krueger, K.; Kulikov, A.; Ogawa, A.; Panebratsev, Y.; Planinic, M.; Puskar-Pasewicz, J.; Rakness, G.; Razin, S.; Rogachevski, O.; Shimansky, S.; Solberg, K.A.; Sowinski, J.; Spinka, H.; Stephenson, E.J.; Tikhomirov, V.; Tokarev, M.; Tribble, R.E.; Underwood, D.; Vander Molen, A.M.; Vigdor, S.E. E-mail: vigdor@iucf.indiana.edu; Watson, J.W.; Westfall, G.; Wissink, S.W.; Yokosawa, A.; Yurevich, V.; Zhang, W.-M.; Zubarev, A

    2003-03-01

    The STAR endcap electromagnetic calorimeter will provide full azimuthal coverage for high-p{sub T} photons, electrons and electromagnetically decaying mesons over the pseudorapidity range 1.086{<=}{eta}{<=}2.00. It includes a scintillating-strip shower-maximum detector to provide {pi}{sup 0}/{gamma} discrimination and preshower and postshower layers to aid in distinguishing between electrons and charged hadrons. The triggering capabilities and coverage it offers are crucial for much of the spin physics program to be carried out in polarized proton-proton collisions.

  8. Electromagnetic Compatibility of Devices on Hybrid Electromagnetic Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konesev, S. G.; Khazieva, R. T.; Kirillov, R. V.; Gainutdinov, I. Z.; Kondratyev, E. Y.

    2018-01-01

    There is a general tendency to reduce the weight and dimensions, the consumption of conductive and electrical insulating materials, increase the reliability and energy efficiency of electrical devices. In recent years, designers have been actively developing devices based on hybrid electromagnetic components (HEMC) such as inductive-capacitive converters (ICC), voltages pulse generators (VPG), secondary power supplies (SPS), capacitive storage devices (CSD), induction heating systems (IHS). Sources of power supplies of similar electrical devices contain, as a rule, links of increased frequency and function in key (pulse) modes, which leads to an increase in electromagnetic interference (EMI). Nonlinear and periodic (impulse) loads, non-sinusoidal (pulsation) of the electromotive force and nonlinearity of the internal parameters of the source and input circuits of consumers distort the shape of the input voltage lead to an increase in thermal losses from the higher harmonic currents, aging of the insulation, increase in the weight of the power supply filter units, resonance at higher harmonics. The most important task is to analyze the operation of electrotechnical devices based on HEMC from the point of view of creating EMIs and assessing their electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) with power supply systems (PSS). The article presents the results of research on the operation of an IHS, the operation principle of a secondary power supply source of which is based on the operation of a half-bridge autonomous inverter, the switching circuit of which is made in the form of a HEMC, called the «multifunctional integrated electromagnetic component»" (MIEC).

  9. Electromagnetic Fields and Public Health: Mobile Phones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... waves through a network of fixed antennas called base stations. Radiofrequency waves are electromagnetic fields, and unlike ionizing radiation ... waves through a network of fixed antennas called base stations. Radiofrequency waves are electromagnetic fields, and unlike ionizing radiation ...

  10. Higher-order techniques in computational electromagnetics

    CERN Document Server

    Graglia, Roberto D

    2016-01-01

    Higher-Order Techniques in Computational Electromagnetics explains 'high-order' techniques that can significantly improve the accuracy, computational cost, and reliability of computational techniques for high-frequency electromagnetics, such as antennas, microwave devices and radar scattering applications.

  11. Electromagnetic problems in nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eloranta, E.H.

    1998-01-01

    The paper reviews the electromagnetic characterization of fractured rock during various phases of radioactive waste disposal investigations and construction, and also discusses the methods of the electromagnetic safeguards monitoring

  12. Monitoring of electromagnetic pollution inside switchyard substation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrateur

    selected circuit of two 220Kv power lines inside El- Hadjar electrical post often requiring ... human body exposure to the electromagnetic radiation .... electromagnetic behavior at the industrial .... partnership with Algerian company of electricity.

  13. Combined Approach for Solving the Electromagnetic Induction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nafiisah

    boundary. For example, in electromagnetic induction imaging, it is the magnetic ... Applications of electromagnetic .... The first integral is referred to as a single layer potential and is continuous across ..... Scattering Theory, 2nd ed., Springer.

  14. Electromagnetic Compatibility Design of the Computer Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zitai, Hong

    2018-02-01

    Computers and the Internet have gradually penetrated into every aspect of people’s daily work. But with the improvement of electronic equipment as well as electrical system, the electromagnetic environment becomes much more complex. Electromagnetic interference has become an important factor to hinder the normal operation of electronic equipment. In order to analyse the computer circuit compatible with the electromagnetic compatibility, this paper starts from the computer electromagnetic and the conception of electromagnetic compatibility. And then, through the analysis of the main circuit and system of computer electromagnetic compatibility problems, we can design the computer circuits in term of electromagnetic compatibility. Finally, the basic contents and methods of EMC test are expounded in order to ensure the electromagnetic compatibility of equipment.

  15. Nuclear structure investigations with electromagnetic probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drechsel, D.

    1987-01-01

    This paper is related to the study of electromagnetic interactions, current of hadronic systems, deep inelastic scattering, quasifree scattering, low energy theorems and electromagnetic reactions above pion threshold. (A.C.A.S.) [pt

  16. Production of gravitation waves by electromagnetic radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchner, K.; Rosca, R.

    1980-01-01

    An exact solution of Einstein's equations is presented that corresponds to an axisymmetric bundle of electromagnetic waves with finite cross section. Outside this bundle, there is gravitational radiation parallel to the electromagnetic radiation. If no static electromagnetic fields are present, the frequency of the gravitational waves is twice the frequency of the electromagnetic waves. Einstein's energy complex vanishes identically. The covariant energy complex, however, yields also a radial momentum. (author)

  17. Biologic effects of electromagnetic radiation and microwave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Hua

    2002-01-01

    Electromagnetic radiation and microwave exist mankind's environment widely. People realize they disserve authors' health when authors make use of them. Electromagnetic radiation is one of the major physic factors which injure people's health. A review of the biologic mechanism about electromagnetic radiation and microwave, their harmful effects to human body, problems in authors' research and the prospect

  18. Electromagnetic Pulse Coupling Analysis of Electronic Equipment

    OpenAIRE

    Hong Lei; Qingying LI

    2017-01-01

    High-intensity nuclear explosion caused by high-altitude nuclear electromagnetic pulse through the antenna, metal cables, holes and other channels, coupled with very high energy into the electronic device, and cause serious threats. In this paper, the mechanism, waveform, coupling path and damage effect of nuclear electromagnetic pulse is analyzed, and the coupling mechanism of nuclear electromagnetic pulse is studied.

  19. Low frequency electromagnetic fields and health problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahedi, A.; Cosic, I.

    1996-01-01

    Full text: Electromagnetic fields developed around the electric circuits are considered as magnetic pollution and these fields are produced wherever electric appliances or machinery are used at home as well as at workplace. Electric fields and magnetic fields around the home are produced by anything with electric current flowing through it including: the street power lines, the home wiring system, electric ovens, refrigerators, washing machines, electric clothes dryers, vacuum cleaners, television sets, video cassette recorders, toasters, light bulbs, clock radios, electric blankets, mobile phones, etc. In the workplace they would be produced by: nearby power lines, factory machinery, computers/video display units, lights, photocopiers, electrical cabling etc. As one can see, human life is strongly dependent on using-electric appliance. A large number of studies have been undertaken to find out the correlation between electromagnetic fields and health problems. The following significant results have been reported [Lerner E.J., IEEE Spectrum, 57-67, May 1984]: (a) Induction of chromosomal defects in mice spermatogenetic cells following microwave radiation in the Ghz range; (b) Changes in the calcium balance of living cats' brains exposed to microwaves modulated at extremely low frequencies; (c) Alternation of nerve and bone cells exposed to extremely low frequency fields; (d) Decreased activity of the immune cells of mice exposed to modulated microwaves; (e) Apparent increase in deformed foetuses among miniature swine exposed to intense power-line frequency fields. The mostly investigated effect is the effect of electromagnetic irradiation in particular one produced by power lines, and cancer. More than 100 epidemiological studies have been reported but no conclusive result was achieved. A number of studies with laboratory animals were also inconclusive. However, some of these experiments have shown improvements in immune system and tumour suppression when

  20. Electromagnetic hypersensitivity: Fact or fiction?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genuis, Stephen J.; Lipp, Christopher T.

    2012-01-01

    As the prevalence of wireless telecommunication escalates throughout the world, health professionals are faced with the challenge of patients who report symptoms they claim are connected with exposure to some frequencies of electromagnetic radiation (EMR). Some scientists and clinicians acknowledge the phenomenon of hypersensitivity to EMR resulting from common exposures such as wireless systems and electrical devices in the home or workplace; others suggest that electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS) is psychosomatic or fictitious. Various organizations including the World Health Organization as well as some nation states are carefully exploring this clinical phenomenon in order to better explain the rising prevalence of non-specific, multi-system, often debilitating symptoms associated with non-ionizing EMR exposure. As well as an assortment of physiological complaints, patients diagnosed with EHS also report profound social and personal challenges, impairing their ability to function normally in society. This paper offers a review of the sparse literature on this perplexing condition and a discussion of the controversy surrounding the legitimacy of the EHS diagnosis. Recommendations are provided to assist health professionals in caring for individuals complaining of EHS. - Highlights: ► Many people report symptoms when near devices emanating electromagnetic fields(EMF). ► Electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS) research has generated conflicting outcomes. ► Recent evidence suggests pathophysiological change in some individuals with EHS. ► EHS patients consistently report profound social and personal challenges. ► Clinicians need to be apprised of the EHS condition and potential interventions.

  1. Heat Radiators for Electromagnetic Pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campana, R. J.

    1986-01-01

    Report proposes use of carbon/carbon composite radiators in electromagnetic coolant pumps of nuclear reactors on spacecraft. Carbon/carbon composite materials function well at temperatures in excess of 2,200 K. Aluminum has melting temperature of only 880 K.

  2. Solved problems in classical electromagnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Franklin, Jerrold

    2018-01-01

    This original Dover publication is the companion to a new edition of the author's Classical Electromagnetism: Second Edition. The latter volume will feature only basic answers; this book will contain some problems from the reissue as well as many other new ones. All feature complete, worked-out solutions and form a valuable source of problem-solving material for students.

  3. An electromagnetic system for biosensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2008-01-01

    The invention relates to an electromagnetic system for biosensors, in which the system can switch quickly between high magnetic gradients, without the need of movement of mech. elements. This is realized by two independent emu which are sepd. in the region of the pole shoes over a gap, in which a

  4. Particle acceleration by electromagnetic pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, H.M.

    1982-01-01

    Particle interaction with plane electromagnetic pulses is studied. It is shown that particle acceleration by a wavy pulse, depending on the shape of the pulse, may not be small. Further, a diffusive-type particle acceleration by multiple weak pulses is described and discussed. (author)

  5. Proposed electromagnetic wave energy converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, R. L.

    1973-01-01

    Device converts wave energy into electric power through array of insulated absorber elements responsive to field of impinging electromagnetic radiation. Device could also serve as solar energy converter that is potentially less expensive and fragile than solar cells, yet substantially more efficient.

  6. Electromagnetic properties of excited bands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salading, J.X.

    1980-01-01

    In this paper the predictions of various microcopic and phenomenological models for the electromagnetic properties of nuclei are compared with experiment. The discussion centers on five case studies and illustrates that there often exist certain key matrix elements which permit to differentiate between various models. (orig.)

  7. Synthetic aperture controlled source electromagnetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fan, Y.; Snieder, R.; Slob, E.; Hunziker, J.W.; Singer, J.; Sheiman, J.; Rosenquist, M.

    2010-01-01

    Controlled?source electromagnetics (CSEM) has been used as a de?risking tool in the hydrocarbon exploration industry. Although there have been successful applications of CSEM, this technique is still not widely used in the industry because the limited types of hydrocarbon reservoirs CSEM can detect.

  8. Biological effects of electromagnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, E.

    1993-01-01

    In this generally intelligible article, the author describes at first the physical fundamentals of electromagnetic fields and their basic biological significance and effects for animals and human beings before dealing with the discussion regarding limiting values and dangers. The article treats possible connections with leukaemia as well as ith melatonine production more detailed. (vhe) [de

  9. [Applications of electromagnetic radiation in medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miłowska, Katarzyna; Grabowska, Katarzyna; Gabryelak, Teresa

    2014-05-08

    Recent decades have been devoted to the intense search for the response to questions related to the impact of radiation on the human body. Due to the growing fashion for a healthy lifestyle, increasing numbers of works about the alleged dangers of electromagnetic waves and diseases that they cause appeared. However, the discoveries of 20th century, and knowledge of the properties of electromagnetic radiation have allowed to broaden the horizons of the use of artificial sources of radiation in many fields of science and especially in medicine. The aim of this paper is to show that although excessive radiation or high doses are dangerous to the human body, its careful and controlled use, does not pose a threat, and it is often necessary in therapy. The possibility of using ionizing radiation in radiotherapy, isotope diagnostics or medical imaging, and non-ionizing radiation in the treatment for dermatological disorders and cancers will be presented. The unique properties of synchrotron radiation result in using it on a large scale in the diagnosis of pathological states by imaging methods.

  10. Applications of electromagnetic radiation in medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Miłowska

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent decades have been devoted to the intense search for the response to questions related to the impact of radiation on the human body. Due to the growing fashion for a healthy lifestyle, increasing numbers of works about the alleged dangers of electromagnetic waves and diseases that they cause appeared. However, the discoveries of 20th century, and knowledge of the properties of electromagnetic radiation have allowed to broaden the horizons of the use of artificial sources of radiation in many fields of science and especially in medicine. The aim of this paper is to show that although excessive radiation or high doses are dangerous to the human body, its careful and controlled use, does not pose a threat, and it is often necessary in therapy. The possibility of using ionizing radiation in radiotherapy, isotope diagnostics or medical imaging, and non-ionizing radiation in the treatment for dermatological disorders and cancers will be presented. The unique properties of synchrotron radiation result in using it on a large scale in the diagnosis of pathological states by imaging methods.

  11. Implantable devices in the electromagnetic environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Santini

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years we are witnessing a dramatic increase in the number of CIEDs implanted. At the same time new emitters are constantly entering the marketplace and more and more medical procedures are based on electromagnetic fields as well. Therefore, the topic of the interaction of CIEDs with the EMI is a real, actual and challenging one. In the non-medical environment several types of devices may be intentional or non-intentional sources of EMI. Most of the studies reported in literature focused on mobile phones, metal detectors, as well as on headphones or digital players, but many other instruments and tools may generate electromagnetic fields. In the medical environment most of the attention is paid to MRI and recently new PM and MRI conditional ICDs have been developed and launched in the market, but the risk of interaction is present also with ionizing radiation, electrical nerve stimulation and electrosurgery. Pacemaker/ICD manufacturers are incorporating state of the art technology to make implantable devices less susceptible to EMI. However, patients and emitter manufacturers should be aware that limitations exist and that there is not complete immunity to EMI.

  12. Electromagnetic engineering - from dc to light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Austin, B.A.

    1984-01-01

    Electromagnetic engineering is of great importance to modern world. Some of its various applications can be found in communications science. There is little agreement between the East and West about electromagnetic radiation effects. Although the West believes that there is no danger in power frequency fields, standards for the maximum power densities to which humans may be exposed were laid down by various national and international bodies. Two other effects of electromagnetic energy include: a) The possible ignition of flammable vapours and gases by electromagnetic radiation and; b) the electromagnetic pulse. The application of radar is also discussed

  13. Velocity measurement of conductor using electromagnetic induction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Gu Hwa; Kim, Ho Young; Park, Joon Po; Jeong, Hee Tae; Lee, Eui Wan

    2002-01-01

    A basic technology was investigated to measure the speed of conductor by non-contact electromagnetic method. The principle of the velocity sensor was electromagnetic induction. To design electromagnet for velocity sensor, 2D electromagnetic analysis was performed using FEM software. The sensor output was analyzed according to the parameters of velocity sensor, such as the type of magnetizing currents and the lift-off. Output of magnetic sensor was linearly depended on the conductor speed and magnetizing current. To compensate the lift-off changes during measurement of velocity, the other magnetic sensor was put at the pole of electromagnet.

  14. A System for Electromagnetic Field Conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    A system is provided for conversion of a first electromagnetic field into a desired second electromagnetic field, for example for coupling modes between waveguides or into microstructured waveguides. The system comprises a complex spatial electromagnetic field converter that is positioned...... for reception of at least a part of the first electromagnetic field and that is adapted for conversion of the received field into the desired electromagnetic field, and wherein at least one of the first and second fields matches a mode of a microstructured waveguide. It is an important advantage of the present...

  15. Particle physics in intense electromagnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurilin, A.V.

    1999-01-01

    The quantum field theory in the presence of classical background electromagnetic field is reviewed giving a pedagogical introduction to the Feynman-Furry method of describing non-perturbative interactions with very strong electromagnetic fields. A particular emphasis is given to the case of the plane-wave electromagnetic field for which the charged particles' wave functions and propagators are presented. Some general features of quantum processes proceeding in the intense electromagnetic background are argued. The possibilities of searching new physics through the investigations of quantum phenomena induced by a strong electromagnetic environment are also discussed

  16. Electromagnetic-gravitational conversion cross sections in external electromagnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoang Ngoc Long; Dang Van Soa; Tuan Tran, A.

    1994-09-01

    The classical processes: the conversion of photons into gravitons in the static electromagnetic fields are considered by using Feynman perturbation techniques. The differential cross sections are presented for the conversion in the electric field of the flat condenser and the magnetic field of the solenoid. A numerical evaluation shows that the cross sections may have the observable value in the present technical scenario. (author). 11 refs

  17. Electromagnetic nonlinear gyrokinetics with polarization drift

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duthoit, F.-X.; Hahm, T. S.; Wang, Lu

    2014-01-01

    A set of new nonlinear electromagnetic gyrokinetic Vlasov equation with polarization drift and gyrokinetic Maxwell equations is systematically derived by using the Lie-transform perturbation method in toroidal geometry. For the first time, we recover the drift-kinetic expression for parallel acceleration [R. M. Kulsrud, in Basic Plasma Physics, edited by A. A. Galeev and R. N. Sudan (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1983)] from the nonlinear gyrokinetic equations, thereby bridging a gap between the two formulations. This formalism should be useful in addressing nonlinear ion Compton scattering of intermediate-mode-number toroidal Alfvén eigenmodes for which the polarization current nonlinearity [T. S. Hahm and L. Chen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 266 (1995)] and the usual finite Larmor radius effects should compete

  18. Large amplitude parallel propagating electromagnetic oscillitons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cattaert, Tom; Verheest, Frank

    2005-01-01

    Earlier systematic nonlinear treatments of parallel propagating electromagnetic waves have been given within a fluid dynamic approach, in a frame where the nonlinear structures are stationary and various constraining first integrals can be obtained. This has lead to the concept of oscillitons that has found application in various space plasmas. The present paper differs in three main aspects from the previous studies: first, the invariants are derived in the plasma frame, as customary in the Sagdeev method, thus retaining in Maxwell's equations all possible effects. Second, a single differential equation is obtained for the parallel fluid velocity, in a form reminiscent of the Sagdeev integrals, hence allowing a fully nonlinear discussion of the oscilliton properties, at such amplitudes as the underlying Mach number restrictions allow. Third, the transition to weakly nonlinear whistler oscillitons is done in an analytical rather than a numerical fashion

  19. Electromagnetic Wave Attenuation in Atmospheric Pressure Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Shu; Hu Xiwei; Liu Minghai; Luo Fang; Feng Zelong

    2007-01-01

    When an electromagnetic (EM) wave propagates in an atmospheric pressure plasma (APP) layer, its attenuation depends on the APP parameters such as the layer width, the electron density and its profile and collision frequency between electrons and neutrals. This paper proposes that a combined parameter-the product of the line average electron density n-bar and width d of the APP layer (i.e., the total number of electrons in a unit volume along the wave propagation path) can play a more explicit and decisive role in the wave attenuation than any of the above individual parameters does. The attenuation of the EM wave via the product of n-bar and d with various collision frequencies between electrons and neutrals is presented

  20. Electromagnetic Dissociation and Spacecraft Electronics Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norbury, John W.

    2016-01-01

    When protons or heavy ions from galactic cosmic rays (GCR) or solar particle events (SPE) interact with target nuclei in spacecraft, there can be two different types of interactions. The more familiar strong nuclear interaction often dominates and is responsible for nuclear fragmentation in either the GCR or SPE projectile nucleus or the spacecraft target nucleus. (Of course, the proton does not break up, except possibly to produce pions or other hadrons.) The less familiar, second type of interaction is due to the very strong electromagnetic fields that exist when two charged nuclei pass very close to each other. This process is called electromagnetic dissociation (EMD) and primarily results in the emission of neutrons, protons and light ions (isotopes of hydrogen and helium). The cross section for particle production is approximately defined as the number of particles produced in nucleus-nucleus collisions or other types of reactions. (There are various kinematic and other factors which multiply the particle number to arrive at the cross section.) Strong, nuclear interactions usually dominate the nuclear reactions of most interest that occur between GCR and target nuclei. However, for heavy nuclei (near Fe and beyond) at high energy the EMD cross section can be much larger than the strong nuclear interaction cross section. This paper poses a question: Are there projectile or target nuclei combinations in the interaction of GCR or SPE where the EMD reaction cross section plays a dominant role? If the answer is affirmative, then EMD mechanisms should be an integral part of codes that are used to predict damage to spacecraft electronics. The question can become more fine-tuned and one can ask about total reaction cross sections as compared to double differential cross sections. These issues will be addressed in the present paper.

  1. Time domain electromagnetic metal detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoekstra, P.

    1996-01-01

    This presentation focuses on illustrating by case histories the range of applications and limitations of time domain electromagnetic (TDEM) systems for buried metal detection. Advantages claimed for TDEM metal detectors are: independent of instrument response (Geonics EM61) to surrounding soil and rock type; simple anomaly shape; mitigation of interference by ambient electromagnetic noise; and responsive to both ferrous and non-ferrous metallic targets. The data in all case histories to be presented were acquired with the Geonics EM61 TDEM system. Case histories are a test bed site on Molokai, Hawaii; Fort Monroe, Virginia; and USDOE, Rocky Flats Plant. The present limitations of this technology are: discrimination capabilities in terms of type of ordnance, and depth of burial is limited, and ability of resolving targets with small metallic ambient needs to be improved

  2. Electromagnetic transitions in the atom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulehla, I.; Suk, M.; Trka, Z.

    1990-01-01

    Methods to achieve excitation of atoms are outlined and conditions necessary for the occurrence of electromagnetic transitions in the atomic shell are given. Radiative transitions between the energy states of the atom include stimulated absorption, spontaneous emission, and stimulated emission. Selection rules applying to the majority of observed transitions are given. The parity concept is explained. It is shown how the electromagnetic field and its interaction with the magnetic moment of the atom lead to a disturbance of the energy states of the atom and the occurrence of various electro-optical and magneto-optical phenomena. The Stark effect and electron spin resonance are described. X-rays and X-ray spectra, the Auger effect and the internal photoeffect are also dealt with. The principle of the laser is explained. (M.D.). 22 figs., 1 tab

  3. Magnetic correlates in electromagnetic consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liboff, A R

    2016-01-01

    We examine the hypothesis that consciousness is a manifestation of the electromagnetic field, finding supportive factors not previously considered. It is not likely that traditional electrophysiological signaling modes can be readily transmitted throughout the brain to properly enable this field because of electric field screening arising from the ubiquitous distribution of high dielectric lipid membranes, a problem that vanishes for low-frequency magnetic fields. Many reports over the last few decades have provided evidence that living tissue is robustly sensitive to ultrasmall (1-100 nT) ELF magnetic fields overlapping the γ-frequency range often associated with awareness. An example taken from animal behavior (coherent bird flocking) lends support to the possibility of a disembodied electromagnetic consciousness. In contrast to quantum consciousness hypotheses, the present approach is open to experimental trial.

  4. Radiation Safety of Electromagnetic Waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, A.Z.

    2009-01-01

    The wide spread of Electromagnetic Waves (EMW) through the power lines, multimedia, communications, devices, appliances, etc., are well known. The probable health hazards associated with EMW and the radiation safety criteria are to be reviewed. However, the principles of the regulatory safety are based on radiation protection procedure, intervention to combat the relevant risk and to mitigate consequences. The oscillating electric magnetic fields (EMF) of the electromagnetic radiation (EMR) induce electrical hazards. The extremely high power EMR can cause fire hazards and explosions of pyrotechnic (Rad Haz). Biological hazards of EMF result as dielectric heat, severe burn, as well as the hazards of eyes. Shielding is among the technical protective measures against EMR hazards. Others are limitation of time of exposure and separation distance apart of the EMR source. Understanding and safe handling of the EMR sources are required to feel safety.

  5. ELECTROMAGNETIC CALORIMETER (ECAL)

    CERN Multimedia

    D. Barney

    2012-01-01

      All necessary improvements to the online system and configuration to cope with the high-pile-up running conditions in 2012 have been commissioned successfully before the start of data-taking and during 2012 RunA. Hardware interventions included a rework of the preshower HV distribution system (increasing the number of working silicon sensor channels by 2%) and the deployment of two new lasers (blue and green) to improve the long-term stability of the monitoring system. The new lasers were deployed before the start of 2012 running and have been steadily producing monitoring constants since April, in parallel with the old laser, which is still used for the default monitoring corrections. Improvements to the DAQ include a firmware upgrade to recover on-the-fly from many types of suspected single-event upsets (SEUs). Configuration changes include new zero-suppression settings applied online and a new tuning for the algorithm to reduce the rate of anomalous signals firing the Level-1 trigger. Moreo...

  6. ELECTROMAGNETIC CALORIMETER (ECAL)

    CERN Multimedia

    D. Petyt

    2013-01-01

    In a break with tradition, the ECAL general meetings during the April CMS Week were devoted to a series of brainstorming sessions, focusing on a small number of hot-topic items. These included sessions on ECAL upgrades, analysis of 2012 detector performance and resolution, software development plans and a review of the ECAL calibration sequence. These sessions were well attended and extremely productive, and have helped to define and guide the direction of the ECAL effort planned for LS1. The area of ECAL upgrades has been particularly active over the past several months. A note summarising the test-beam performance of crystal matrices, irradiated with proton fluences representative of the end of Phase 1 LHC running, has been prepared and is being reviewed by ECAL. This important note provides data to tune and validate the simulation of ECAL ageing that has been implemented in CMSSW. This simulation is being used by the ECAL group and others to evaluate the physics performance of the ECAL at the end of Pha...

  7. ELECTROMAGNETIC CALORIMETER (ECAL)

    CERN Multimedia

    D. Barney

    2013-01-01

    The CMS ECAL, comprising barrel (EB), endcaps (EE) and preshower (ES) detectors, operated reliably throughout the 2012 (proton-proton) and early 2013 (proton-lead) running periods. The data quality was excellent, with more than 98% of the delivered luminosity declared good for physics in 2012, and close to 100% in 2013. The number of active channels – ~99% in the EB/EE and ~97% in the ES – was stable during 2012-’13. The ECAL performance, as measured by the electron energy scale and resolution and Z→ee mass resolution in both barrel and endcaps, is excellent and very stable in time (see Figure 1 for an example, and CMS-DP-2013-007: https://cds.cern.ch/record/1528235) following a dedicated calibration using the full 2012 CMS dataset. Figure 1 (a) and (b): The mass resolution of the Z peak, reconstructed from its di-electron decay mode, as a function of time for the barrel (a) and endcaps (b). The sample is inclusive (no cut on the amount of bremsstrahlung undergone...

  8. ELECTROMAGNETIC CALORIMETER (ECAL)

    CERN Multimedia

    P. Bloch

    ECAL Barrel The integration of the last Supermodule was completed early July. The insertion of the second half Barrel (EB+) was performed in the second half of July. The Barrel ECAL (36 Supermodules comprising 61200 channels) is now complete, and its cabling campaign has just started. Each Supermodule has been tested after insertion. The number of dead or partially-dead channels amounts to only 28 (0.05% of the total), a performance showing the excellence of the quality control during the whole construction process. The Barrel Off-detector electronics is installed in the CMS Service cavern (with the exception of a few Trigger modules), ready to be connected to the Supermodules after cabling. The ECAL DAQ has been integrated with the CMS DAQ system: at the end of August one supermodule was included in a CMS global run, allowing us to record cosmic muons in both ECAL and DTs. ECAL Endcaps The Endcaps crystal production is proceeding at full speed, and the delivery rate (summing both producers) exceeds ...

  9. Detection of Metallic and Electronic Radar Targets by Acoustic Modulation of Electromagnetic Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    by Acoustic Modulation of Electromagnetic Waves 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Gregory J... Program 13 List of Symbols, Abbreviations, and Acronyms 18 Distribution List 19 Approved for public release; distribution is...4 Fig. 4 Flowchart of wireless experiment to receive acoustically modulated radar waveforms

  10. Electromagnetic hypersensitivity: Fact or fiction?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genuis, Stephen J., E-mail: sgenuis@ualberta.ca [University of Alberta (Canada); Lipp, Christopher T. [Faculty of Medicine at the University of Calgary (Canada)

    2012-01-01

    As the prevalence of wireless telecommunication escalates throughout the world, health professionals are faced with the challenge of patients who report symptoms they claim are connected with exposure to some frequencies of electromagnetic radiation (EMR). Some scientists and clinicians acknowledge the phenomenon of hypersensitivity to EMR resulting from common exposures such as wireless systems and electrical devices in the home or workplace; others suggest that electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS) is psychosomatic or fictitious. Various organizations including the World Health Organization as well as some nation states are carefully exploring this clinical phenomenon in order to better explain the rising prevalence of non-specific, multi-system, often debilitating symptoms associated with non-ionizing EMR exposure. As well as an assortment of physiological complaints, patients diagnosed with EHS also report profound social and personal challenges, impairing their ability to function normally in society. This paper offers a review of the sparse literature on this perplexing condition and a discussion of the controversy surrounding the legitimacy of the EHS diagnosis. Recommendations are provided to assist health professionals in caring for individuals complaining of EHS. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Many people report symptoms when near devices emanating electromagnetic fields(EMF). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS) research has generated conflicting outcomes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Recent evidence suggests pathophysiological change in some individuals with EHS. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EHS patients consistently report profound social and personal challenges. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Clinicians need to be apprised of the EHS condition and potential interventions.

  11. Next Generation CALICE Electromagnetic Calorimeter

    OpenAIRE

    Grondin, Denis; Jeans, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents mechanical R&D for the CALICE Silicon-tungsten electromagnetic calorimeter. After the physics ECAL prototype, tested in 2006 (DESY-CERN), 2007 (CERN), 2008 (FNAL) and before the design of different 'modules 0' (barrel and endcap) for a final detector, a technological ECAL prototype, called the EUDET module, is under design in order to have a close to full scale technological solution which could be used for the final detector, taking into account future industrialisation o...

  12. Next Generation CALICE Electromagnetic Calorimeter

    OpenAIRE

    Grondin, Denis; Jeans, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents mechanical R&D for the CALICE Silicon-tungsten electromagnetic calorimeter. After the physics ECAL prototype, tested in 2006 (DESY-CERN), 2007 (CERN), 2008 (FNAL) and before the design of different "modules 0" (barrel and endcap) for a final detector, a technological ECAL prototype, called the EUDET module, is under design in order to have a close to full scale technological solution which could be used for the final detector, taking into account future industrialisation o...

  13. The law of electromagnetic induction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.J. Kutkovetskyy

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical models of the electromagnetic induction law which do not take into account Faraday’s restrictions are not in full accordance with the physical phenomenon and so they are not laws. Their incomplete correspondence with real devices results in such "paradoxes" as unlimited magnetic field of unipolar generators, infinite sizes of inductors for DC and AC machines modeled, and so on.

  14. The KLOE fiber electromagnetic calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Incagli, Marco

    1998-01-01

    The construction and equipment of the KLOE electromagnetic calorimeter has ended in March 1997. In parallel to the construction, all modules have been tested at the Cosmic Ray Test Stand (CRTS) facility, in Frascati National Laboratories (Rome). The construction technique, based on scintillating fibers alternated to very thin (0.5 mm) grooved lead planes, is described and the main results both from the CRTS and from a preliminary Test Beam with low energy electrons and muons are reported in this note

  15. Electromagnetic Calorimeter for HADES Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez-Ramos P.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL is being developed to complement dilepton spectrometer HADES. ECAL will enable the HADES@FAIR experiment to measure data on neutral meson production in heavy ion collisions at the energy range of 2-10 AGeV on the beam of future accelerator SIS100@FAIR. We will report results of the last beam test with quasi-monoenergetic photons carried out in MAMI facility at Johannes Gutenberg Universität Mainz.

  16. Electromagnetic excitation of a generic cavity with a variable e-beam pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleetwood, R.; Kerris, K.; Merkel, G.; Roberts, H.; Smith, M.

    1987-01-01

    Relativistic electron-beam nose-erosion techniques have been employed to produce an electron beam with variable pulse shape and bremsstrahlung capability (''dial a pulse''). This capability has been employed to excite a large number of electromagnetic fields inside a canonical cavity. Electron-beam and bremsstrahlung pulse-shape parameters have been varied to produce changes in the electromagnetic cavity response. For example, generic cavity test parameters such as displacement currents or conduction currents can be emphasized or de-emphasized. A theoretical interpretation of these electromagnetic excitations is presented

  17. Electromagnetic fluctuation spectra of collective oscillations in magnetized Maxwellian plasmas for parallel wave vectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vafin, S.; Schlickeiser, R.; Yoon, P. H.

    2016-05-01

    The general electromagnetic fluctuation theory for magnetized plasmas is used to calculate the steady-state wave number spectra and total electromagnetic field strength of low-frequency collective weakly damped eigenmodes with parallel wavevectors in a Maxwellian electron-proton plasma. These result from the equilibrium of spontaneous emission and collisionless damping, and they represent the minimum electromagnetic fluctuations guaranteed in quiet thermal space plasmas, including the interstellar and interplanetary medium. Depending on the plasma beta, the ratio of |δB |/B0 can be as high as 10-12 .

  18. Electromagnetism on anisotropic fractal media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostoja-Starzewski, Martin

    2013-04-01

    Basic equations of electromagnetic fields in anisotropic fractal media are obtained using a dimensional regularization approach. First, a formulation based on product measures is shown to satisfy the four basic identities of the vector calculus. This allows a generalization of the Green-Gauss and Stokes theorems as well as the charge conservation equation on anisotropic fractals. Then, pursuing the conceptual approach, we derive the Faraday and Ampère laws for such fractal media, which, along with two auxiliary null-divergence conditions, effectively give the modified Maxwell equations. Proceeding on a separate track, we employ a variational principle for electromagnetic fields, appropriately adapted to fractal media, so as to independently derive the same forms of these two laws. It is next found that the parabolic (for a conducting medium) and the hyperbolic (for a dielectric medium) equations involve modified gradient operators, while the Poynting vector has the same form as in the non-fractal case. Finally, Maxwell's electromagnetic stress tensor is reformulated for fractal systems. In all the cases, the derived equations for fractal media depend explicitly on fractal dimensions in three different directions and reduce to conventional forms for continuous media with Euclidean geometries upon setting these each of dimensions equal to unity.

  19. Electromagnetic brake/clutch device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vranish, John M. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    An electromagnetic brake/clutch device includes a drive shaft supported by at least one bearing for transmitting torque, a housing, affixed to prevent its rotation, surrounding the drive shaft, and an electromagnetically activated device within the housing to selectively prevent and allow rotation of the drive shaft. The electromagnetically activated device includes a plurality of cammed rollers to prevent counter-clockwise rotation of the drive shaft. The drive shaft includes a circumferential disk and the housing includes a reaction ring for engagement with the plurality of cammed rollers. The plurality of cammed rollers are released from engagement with the circumferential disk and the reaction ring by a plurality of tripping mechanisms within the housing. The tripping action uses the locking force to act as a release force merely by changing the boundary conditions of the roller interface angles. The tripping mechanisms include trippers for disengaging the plurality of cammed rollers and an anvil shaped portion for providing lateral movement of the trippers. The plurality of cammed rollers is preloaded to engagement with the circumferential disk and reaction ring by a spring, and is located with respect to an adjacent tripping mechanism with another spring.

  20. Gravitational radiation from electromagnetic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikishov, A.I.; Ritus, V.I.

    1989-01-01

    It is shown that the spectrum of gravitational radiation of a charge e with mass m, undergoing finite motion in an electromagnetic field, smoothly varying in the neighborhood of the orbit over a region of the order of the radius of curvature, differs in the ultrarelativistic limit from the spectrum of the charge's electromagnetic radiation. The difference consists of the frequency-independent coefficient 4πGm 2 Λ 2 /e 2 , where Λ is of the order of the Lorentz factor of the charge and depends on the direction of the wave vector and on the behavior of the field in the above-indicated region. For a plane-wave external field the gravitational and electromagnetic spectra are strictly proportional to each other for arbitrary velocities of the charge. Localization of the external forces near the orbit violates this proportionality of the spectra and weakens the gravitational radiation by an amount of the order of the square of the Lorentz factor

  1. Electromagnetic separator of plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasilin, V.V.; Nezovibatko, Yu.N.; Poklepach, G.S.; Shvets, O.M.; Taran, V.S.; Tereshin, V.I.

    2005-01-01

    The progress in the widespread utilization of the PVD methods is determined in many respects by the plasma quality and, therefore, the necessity of an application of plasma separators, in particular magnetic separators. One needs to note that traditional magnetic separators have a number of problems their using, namely their unwieldiness, the presence of the isolated cameras and so on. We have proposed, manufactured and investigated the simple separator of plasma that doesn't require using additional cameras. As a source of metallic plasma the standard cathode vaporizer in the installation 'BULAT 6' was in use. Plasma stream from the cathode flowed through the not protected by isolation spiral solenoid. The solenoid input (from the cathode side) was under floating potential. The solenoid output was connected to the autonomous power supply system. The solenoid was prepared with stride winding and 90 degree turn. The solenoid current was 20-90 A and the solenoid voltage with respect to the vessel (earth) was +15 V. In this case drifting charged particles could freely fly out from the interior solenoid region to its boundary. The glow of the turned flow of plasma was observed during the supplying of the cathode and the solenoid. Plasma flow was separated from the coils and extended along the axis of solenoid. One can assume that this device ensures radial electric with respect to the bulk of plasma (the diameter of the bulk of plasma is comparable with the cathode diameter), the toroidal magnetic field, produced by solenoid, was of an order of 20 Oe. Magnetic field strength was sufficient for the magnetization of electrons, but it was rather small for magnetizing the ions and charged micro-droplets. The experiments carried out with aluminum cathode on the deposition of coatings at the stainless steel substrate have shown the high effectiveness of this separator operation. Coatings without droplets were obtained also on the glass substrate with HF- displacement

  2. Understanding possible electromagnetic counterparts to loud gravitational wave events: Binary black hole effects on electromagnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palenzuela, Carlos; Lehner, Luis; Yoshida, Shin

    2010-01-01

    In addition to producing loud gravitational waves, the dynamics of a binary black hole system could induce emission of electromagnetic radiation by affecting the behavior of plasmas and electromagnetic fields in their vicinity. We study how the electromagnetic fields are affected by a pair of orbiting black holes through the merger. In particular, we show how the binary's dynamics induce a variability in possible electromagnetically induced emissions as well as an enhancement of electromagnetic fields during the late-merge and merger epochs. These time dependent features will likely leave their imprint in processes generating detectable emissions and can be exploited in the detection of electromagnetic counterparts of gravitational waves.

  3. Suppression and control of leakage field in electromagnetic helical microwiggler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohigashi, N. [Kansai Univ., Osaka (Japan); Tsunawaki, Y. [Osaka Sangyo Univ. (Japan); Imasaki, K. [Institute for Laser Technology, Osaka (Japan)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    Shortening the period of electromagnetic wiggler introduces both the radical increase of the leakage field and the decrease of the field in the gap region. The leakage field is severer problem in planar electromagnetic wiggler than in helical wiggler. Hence, in order to develop a short period electromagnetic wiggler, we have adopted {open_quotes}three poles per period{close_quotes} type electromagnetic helical microwiggler. In this work, we inserted the permanent magnet (PM) blocks with specific magnetized directions in the space between magnetic poles, for suppressing the leakage field flowing out from a pole face to the neighboring pole face. These PM-blocks must have higher intrinsic coersive force than saturation field of pole material. The gap field due to each pole is adjustable by controlling the leakage fields, that is, controlling the position of each iron screw set in each retainer fixing the PM-blocks. At present time, a test wiggler with period 7.8mm, periodical number 10 and gap length 4.6mm has been manufactured. Because the ratio of PM-block aperture to gap length is important parameter to suppress the leakage field, the parameter has been surveyed experimentally for PM-blocks with several dimensions of aperture. The field strength of 3-5kG (K=0.2-0.4) would be expected in the wiggler.

  4. Three-dimensional transient electromagnetic modeling in the Laplace Domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizunaga, H.; Lee, Ki Ha; Kim, H.J.

    1998-01-01

    In modeling electromagnetic responses, Maxwell's equations in the frequency domain are popular and have been widely used (Nabighian, 1994; Newman and Alumbaugh, 1995; Smith, 1996, to list a few). Recently, electromagnetic modeling in the time domain using the finite difference (FDTD) method (Wang and Hohmann, 1993) has also been used to study transient electromagnetic interactions in the conductive medium. This paper presents a new technique to compute the electromagnetic response of three-dimensional (3-D) structures. The proposed new method is based on transforming Maxwell's equations to the Laplace domain. For each discrete Laplace variable, Maxwell's equations are discretized in 3-D using the staggered grid and the finite difference method (FDM). The resulting system of equations is then solved for the fields using the incomplete Cholesky conjugate gradient (ICCG) method. The new method is particularly effective in saving computer memory since all the operations are carried out in real numbers. For the same reason, the computing speed is faster than frequency domain modeling. The proposed approach can be an extremely useful tool in developing an inversion algorithm using the time domain data

  5. Scalar, electromagnetic, and gravitational fields interaction: Particlelike solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bronnikov, K.A.; Melnikov, V.N.; Shikin, G.N.; Staniukovich, K.P.

    1979-01-01

    Particlelike static spherically symmetric solutions to massless scalar and electromagnetic field equations combined with gravitational field equations are considered. Two criteria for particlelike solutions are formulated: the strong one (solutions are required to be singularity free) and the weak one (singularities are admitted but the total energy and material field energy should be finite). Exact solutions for the following physical systems are considered with their own gravitational field: (i) linear scalar (minimally coupled or conformal) plus electromagnetic field; (ii) the same fields with a bare mass source in the form of charged incoherent matter distributions; (iii) nonlinear electromagnetic field with an abritrary dependence on the invariant F/sub alphabeta/F/sup alphabeta/; and (iv) directly interacting scalar and electromagnetic fields. Case (i) solutions are not particlelike (except those with horizons, in which static regions formally satisfy the weak criterion). For systems (ii), examples of nonsingular models are constructed, in particular, a model for a particle--antiparticle pair of a Wheeler-handle type, without scalar field and explict electric charges. Besides, a number of limitations upon nonsingular model parameters is indicated. Systems (iii) are proved to violate the strong criterion for any type of nonlinearity but can satisfy the weak criterion (e.g., the Born--Infeld nonlinearity). For systems (iv) some particlelike solutions by the weak criterion are constructed and a regularizing role of gravitation is demonstrated. Finally, an example of a field system satisfying the strong criterion is given

  6. Fuel saver based on electromagnetic induction for automotive engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siregar, Houtman P.; Sibarani, Maradu

    2007-12-01

    In the considered research is designed and analyzed the performance of the fuel saver which is based on electromagnetic induction for automotive diesel engine. The fuel saver which is based on permanent magnet has sold in market and its performance has tested. In comparison to the former fuel saver, in the proposed work is produced fuel saver which is based on electromagnetic induction. The considered research is the continuation of my former work. Performance of the produced fuel saver which is installed in the fuel line of internal combustion engine rig is compared to the performance of the standard internal combustion engine rig Speed of the engine, wire diameter of coil, and number of coil which is coiled in the winding of the the fuel saver are chosen as the testing variables. The considered research has succeeded to design the fuel saver which is based on electromagnetic induction for saving the automotive fuel consumption. Results of the research show that the addition of the fuel saver which is based on electromagnetic induction to the flow of the diesel fuel can significantly save the automative fuel consumption. In addition the designed fuel saver can reduce the opacity of the emission gas.

  7. Long Wavelength Electromagnetic Light Bullets Generated by a 10.6 micron CO2 Ultrashort Pulsed Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-29

    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2016-0365 Long Wavelength Electromagnetic Light Bullets Generated by a 10.6 micron CO2 Ultrashort Pulsed Source Jerome Moloney...SUBTITLE "Long Wavelength Electromagnetic Light Bullets Generated by a 10.6 micron CO2 Ultrashort Pulsed Source 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA9550-15-1-0272 5b...Wavelength Electromagnetic Light Bullets Generated by a 10 µm CO2 Ultrashort Pulsed Source Grant/Contract Number AFOSR assigned control number. It must

  8. Capture of charged particles by transverse electromagnetic waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davydovskii, V Ya; Sapogin, V G; Ukolov, A S

    1975-01-01

    An estimate is made of the maximum possible number of resonance particles interacting with a plane, transverse electromagnetic wave. The estimate is obtained by means of a distribution function, which is expressed in terms of the integrals of motion of the particles in the wave. Values of proton fluxes accelerated by an amplitude-modulated wave in the solar corona coincide with those observed during bursts of sporadic radioemission. (SJR)

  9. Matrix elements and transition probabilities of interaction of electromagnetic field with a hydrogen-like atom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajput, B.S.

    1977-01-01

    Using the reduced expansions of second quantized electromagnetic vector potential operator in terms of irreducible representations of Pioncare group in the interaction Hamiltonian, the exact matrix elements of interaction of electromagnetic field with a hydrogenic atom have been derived and the contributions of transitions for different combinations of angular momentum quantum numbers to the transition probabilities of various lines in Lyman-, Balmer-, and Paschen-series have been computed. (author)

  10. The multilevel fast multipole algorithm (MLFMA) for solving large-scale computational electromagnetics problems

    CERN Document Server

    Ergul, Ozgur

    2014-01-01

    The Multilevel Fast Multipole Algorithm (MLFMA) for Solving Large-Scale Computational Electromagnetic Problems provides a detailed and instructional overview of implementing MLFMA. The book: Presents a comprehensive treatment of the MLFMA algorithm, including basic linear algebra concepts, recent developments on the parallel computation, and a number of application examplesCovers solutions of electromagnetic problems involving dielectric objects and perfectly-conducting objectsDiscusses applications including scattering from airborne targets, scattering from red

  11. Electromagnetic force support for thermonuclear device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimoto, Makoto; Yoshida, Kiyoshi; Tachikawa, Nobuo; Omori, Junji.

    1992-01-01

    The device of the present invention certainly supports electromagnetic force exerted on toroidal magnetic field coils. That is, a pair of support members are disposed being abutted against each other between toroidal magnetic field coils disposed radially in the torus direction of a vacuum vessel. Both of the support members are connected under an insulative state by way of an insulative structural portion having an insulation key. In addition, each of the support members and each of the toroidal magnetic field coils are connected by electromagnetic force support portions having a metal taper key and a metal spacer and supporting the electromagnetic force. With such a constitution, the electromagnetic force exerted on the toroidal magnetic field coils is supported by the electromagnetic force support portion having the metal taper key and the metal spacer. As a result, stable electromagnetic force support can be attained. Further, since the insulative structural portion has the insulation key, it can be assembled easily. (I.S.)

  12. An omnidirectional electromagnetic absorber made of metamaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Qiang; Cui Tiejun; Jiang Weixiang; Cai Bengeng

    2010-01-01

    In a recent theoretical work by Narimanov and Kildishev (2009 Appl. Phys. Lett. 95 041106) an optical omnidirectional light absorber based on metamaterials was proposed, in which theoretical analysis and numerical simulations showed that all optical waves hitting the absorber are trapped and absorbed. Here we report the first experimental demonstration of an omnidirectional electromagnetic absorber in the microwave frequency. The proposed device is composed of non-resonant and resonant metamaterial structures, which can trap and absorb electromagnetic waves coming from all directions spirally inwards without any reflections due to the local control of electromagnetic fields. It is shown that the absorption rate can reach 99 per cent in the microwave frequency. The all-directional full absorption property makes the device behave like an 'electromagnetic black body', and the wave trapping and absorbing properties simulate, to some extent, an 'electromagnetic black hole.' We expect that such a device could be used as a thermal emitting source and to harvest electromagnetic waves.

  13. Anisotropic conducting films for electromagnetic radiation applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallo, Francesca; Lagally, Max G.; Rojas-Delgado, Richard

    2015-06-16

    Electronic devices for the generation of electromagnetic radiation are provided. Also provided are methods for using the devices to generate electromagnetic radiation. The radiation sources include an anisotropic electrically conducting thin film that is characterized by a periodically varying charge carrier mobility in the plane of the film. The periodic variation in carrier mobility gives rise to a spatially varying electric field, which produces electromagnetic radiation as charged particles pass through the film.

  14. The finite element method in electromagnetics

    CERN Document Server

    Jin, Jianming

    2014-01-01

    A new edition of the leading textbook on the finite element method, incorporating major advancements and further applications in the field of electromagnetics The finite element method (FEM) is a powerful simulation technique used to solve boundary-value problems in a variety of engineering circumstances. It has been widely used for analysis of electromagnetic fields in antennas, radar scattering, RF and microwave engineering, high-speed/high-frequency circuits, wireless communication, electromagnetic compatibility, photonics, remote sensing, biomedical engineering, and space exploration. The

  15. Homology in Electromagnetic Boundary Value Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pellikka Matti

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We discuss how homology computation can be exploited in computational electromagnetism. We represent various cellular mesh reduction techniques, which enable the computation of generators of homology spaces in an acceptable time. Furthermore, we show how the generators can be used for setting up and analysis of an electromagnetic boundary value problem. The aim is to provide a rationale for homology computation in electromagnetic modeling software.

  16. Interacting electromagnetic waves in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffiths, J.B.

    1976-01-01

    The problem is considered of finding exact solutions of the Einstein-Maxwell equations which describe the physical situation of two colliding and subsequently interacting electromagnetic waves. The general theory of relativity predicts a nonlinear interaction between electromagnetic waves. The situation is described using an approximate geometrical method, and a new exact solution describing two interacting electromagnetic waves is given. This describes waves emitted from two sources mutually focusing each other on the opposite source. (author)

  17. Electromagnetic wave analogue of electronic diode

    OpenAIRE

    Shadrivov, Ilya V.; Powell, David A.; Kivshar, Yuri S.; Fedotov, Vassili A.; Zheludev, Nikolay I.

    2010-01-01

    An electronic diode is a nonlinear semiconductor circuit component that allows conduction of electrical current in one direction only. A component with similar functionality for electromagnetic waves, an electromagnetic isolator, is based on the Faraday effect of the polarization state rotation and is also a key component of optical and microwave systems. Here we demonstrate a chiral electromagnetic diode, which is a direct analogue of an electronic diode: its functionality is underpinned by ...

  18. Scattering of light and other electromagnetic radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Kerker, Milton

    1969-01-01

    The Scattering of Light and Other Electromagnetic Radiation discusses the theory of electromagnetic scattering and describes some practical applications. The book reviews electromagnetic waves, optics, the interrelationships of main physical quantities and the physical concepts of optics, including Maxwell's equations, polarization, geometrical optics, interference, and diffraction. The text explains the Rayleigh2 theory of scattering by small dielectric spheres, the Bessel functions, and the Legendre functions. The author also explains how the scattering functions for a homogenous sphere chan

  19. Electromagnetic wave in a relativistic magnetized plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasovitskiy, V. B.

    2009-01-01

    Results are presented from a theoretical investigation of the dispersion properties of a relativistic plasma in which an electromagnetic wave propagates along an external magnetic field. The dielectric tensor in integral form is simplified by separating its imaginary and real parts. A dispersion relation for an electromagnetic wave is obtained that makes it possible to analyze the dispersion and collisionless damping of electromagnetic perturbations over a broad parameter range for both nonrelativistic and ultrarelativistic plasmas.

  20. Advanced computational electromagnetic methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Wenxing; Elsherbeni, Atef; Rahmat-Samii, Yahya

    2015-01-01

    This new resource covers the latest developments in computational electromagnetic methods, with emphasis on cutting-edge applications. This book is designed to extend existing literature to the latest development in computational electromagnetic methods, which are of interest to readers in both academic and industrial areas. The topics include advanced techniques in MoM, FEM and FDTD, spectral domain method, GPU and Phi hardware acceleration, metamaterials, frequency and time domain integral equations, and statistics methods in bio-electromagnetics.

  1. Electromagnetic ``black holes'' in hyperbolic metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolyaninov, Igor

    2013-03-01

    We demonstrate that spatial variations of the dielectric tensor components in a hyperbolic metamaterial may lead to formation of electromagnetic ``black holes'' inside this metamaterial. Similar to real black holes, horizon area of the electromagnetic ``black holes'' is quantized in units of the effective ``Planck scale'' squared. Potential experimental realizations of such electromagnetic ``black holes'' will be considered. For example, this situation may be realized in a hyperbolic metamaterial in which the dielectric component exhibits critical opalescence.

  2. Manager's Role in Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, Noel B.; Lewis, Catherine C.

    2013-01-01

    This presentation captures the essence of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) engineering from a project manager's perspective. It explains the basics of EMC and the benefits to the project of early incorporation of EMC best practices. The EMC requirement products during a project life cycle are identified, along with the requirement verification methods that should be utilized. The goal of the presentation is to raise awareness and simplify the mystique surrounding electromagnetic compatibility for managers that have little or no electromagnetics background

  3. Electromagnetic Radiation Interface System and Method

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Steinbrecher, Donald H

    2005-01-01

    .... The termination section may comprise an electrical resistance for capturing substantially all the electromagnetic wave energy received by each respective bristle to thereby prevent reflections...

  4. Friction & Wear Under Very High Electromagnetic Stress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cowan, Richard S; Danyluk, Steven; Moon, Francis; Ford, J. C; Brenner, Donald W

    2004-01-01

    This document summarizes initial progress toward advancing the fundamental understanding of the friction, wear and mechanics of interfaces subjected to extreme electromagnetic stress, high relative...

  5. Electromagnetic compatibility methods, analysis, circuits, and measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Weston, David A

    2016-01-01

    Revised, updated, and expanded, Electromagnetic Compatibility: Methods, Analysis, Circuits, and Measurement, Third Edition provides comprehensive practical coverage of the design, problem solving, and testing of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) in electrical and electronic equipment and systems. This new edition provides novel information on theory, applications, evaluations, electromagnetic computational programs, and prediction techniques available. With sixty-nine schematics providing examples for circuit level electromagnetic interference (EMI) hardening and cost effective EMI problem solving, this book also includes 1130 illustrations and tables. Including extensive data on components and their correct implementation, the myths, misapplication, misconceptions, and fallacies that are common when discussing EMC/EMI will also be addressed and corrected.

  6. Integral methods in low-frequency electromagnetics

    CERN Document Server

    Solin, Pavel; Karban, Pavel; Ulrych, Bohus

    2009-01-01

    A modern presentation of integral methods in low-frequency electromagnetics This book provides state-of-the-art knowledge on integral methods in low-frequency electromagnetics. Blending theory with numerous examples, it introduces key aspects of the integral methods used in engineering as a powerful alternative to PDE-based models. Readers will get complete coverage of: The electromagnetic field and its basic characteristics An overview of solution methods Solutions of electromagnetic fields by integral expressions Integral and integrodifferential methods

  7. Electromagnetic compatibility of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabayan, H.S.

    1983-01-01

    Lately, there has been a mounting concern about the electromagnetic compatibility of nuclear-power-plant systems mainly because of the effects due to the nuclear electromagnetic pulse, and also because of the introduction of more-sophisticated and, therefore, more-susceptible solid-state devices into the plants. Questions have been raised about the adequacy of solid-state-device protection against plant electromagnetic-interference sources and transients due to the nuclear electromagnetic pulse. In this paper, the author briefly reviews the environment, and the coupling, susceptibility, and vulnerability assessment issues of commercial nuclear power plants

  8. Electromagnetic microinstabilities in tokamak plasmas using a global spectral approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falchetto, G. L

    2002-03-01

    Electromagnetic microinstabilities in tokamak plasmas are studied by means of a linear global eigenvalue numerical code. The code is the electromagnetic extension of an existing electrostatic global gyrokinetic spectral toroidal code, called GLOGYSTO. Ion dynamics is described by the gyrokinetic equation, so that ion finite Larmor radius effects are taken into account to all orders. Non adiabatic electrons are included in the model, with passing particles described by the drift-kinetic equation and trapped particles through the bounce averaged drift-kinetic equation. A low frequency electromagnetic perturbation is applied to a low -but finite- {beta}plasma (where the parameter {beta} identifies the ratio of plasma pressure to magnetic pressure); thus, the parallel perturbations of the magnetic field are neglected. The system is closed by the quasi-neutrality equation and the parallel component of Ampere's law. The formulation is applied to a large aspect ratio toroidal configuration, with circular shifted surfaces. Such a simple configuration enables one to derive analytically the gyrocenter trajectories. The system is solved in Fourier space, taking advantage of a decomposition adapted to the toroidal geometry. The major contributions of this thesis are as follows. The electromagnetic effects on toroidal Ion Temperature Gradient driven (ITG) modes are studied. The stabilization of these modes with increasing {beta}, as predicted in previous work, is confirmed. The inclusion of trapped electron dynamics enables the study of its coupling to the ITG modes and of Trapped Electron Modes (TEM) .The effects of finite {beta} are considered together with those of different magnetic shear profiles and of the Shafranov shift. The threshold for the destabilization of an electromagnetic mode is identified. Moreover, the global formulation yields for the first time the radial structure of this so-called Alfvenic Ion Temperature Gradient (AITG) mode. The stability of the

  9. Process for washing electromagnetic filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guittet, Maurice; Treille, Pierre.

    1980-01-01

    This process concerns the washing of an electro-magnetic filter used, inter alia, for filtering the drain-off waters of nuclear power station steam generators, by means of a washing water used in closed circuit and freed, after each cleaning, of the solids in suspension it contains, by settlement of these solids. This invention enables the volume of water to be evaporated to be divided by 50, thereby providing a solid assurance of better safety, apart from a very significant saving [fr

  10. Electromagnetic launcher for heavy projectiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlov, A. V.; Kotov, A. V.; Polistchook, V. P.; Shurupov, A. V.; Shurupov, M. A.

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, we present the electromagnetic launcher with capacitive power source of 4.8 MJ. Our installation allows studying of the projectile acceleration in railgun in two regimes: with a solid armature and with a plasma piston. The experiments with plasma piston were performed in the railgun with the length of barrel of 0.7-1.0 m and its inner diameter of 17-24 mm. The velocities of lexan projectiles with weight of 5-15 g were in a range of 2.5-3.5 km/s. The physical mechanisms that limit speed of throwing in railgun are discussed.

  11. Continuum mechanics of electromagnetic solids

    CERN Document Server

    Maugin, GA

    1988-01-01

    This volume is a rigorous cross-disciplinary theoretical treatment of electromechanical and magnetomechanical interactions in elastic solids. Using the modern style of continuum thermomechanics (but without excessive formalism) it starts from basic principles of mechanics and electromagnetism, and goes on to unify these two fields in a common framework. It treats linear and nonlinear static and dynamic problems in a variety of elastic solids such as piezoelectrics, electricity conductors, ferromagnets, ferroelectrics, ionic crystals and ceramics. Chapters 1-3 are introductory, describing the e

  12. Electromagnetic fields in fractal continua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balankin, Alexander S., E-mail: abalankin@ipn.mx [Grupo “Mecánica Fractal”, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, México D.F., 07738 Mexico (Mexico); Mena, Baltasar [Instituto de Ingeniería, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México D.F. (Mexico); Patiño, Julián [Grupo “Mecánica Fractal”, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, México D.F., 07738 Mexico (Mexico); Morales, Daniel [Instituto Mexicano del Petróleo, México D.F., 07730 Mexico (Mexico)

    2013-04-01

    Fractal continuum electrodynamics is developed on the basis of a model of three-dimensional continuum Φ{sub D}{sup 3}⊂E{sup 3} with a fractal metric. The generalized forms of Maxwell equations are derived employing the local fractional vector calculus related to the Hausdorff derivative. The difference between the fractal continuum electrodynamics based on the fractal metric of continua with Euclidean topology and the electrodynamics in fractional space F{sup α} accounting the fractal topology of continuum with the Euclidean metric is outlined. Some electromagnetic phenomena in fractal media associated with their fractal time and space metrics are discussed.

  13. Electromagnetic weak turbulence theory revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, P. H. [IPST, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Ziebell, L. F. [Instituto de Fisica, UFRGS, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Gaelzer, R.; Pavan, J. [Instituto de Fisica e Matematica, UFPel, Pelotas, RS (Brazil)

    2012-10-15

    The statistical mechanical reformulation of weak turbulence theory for unmagnetized plasmas including fully electromagnetic effects was carried out by Yoon [Phys. Plasmas 13, 022302 (2006)]. However, the wave kinetic equation for the transverse wave ignores the nonlinear three-wave interaction that involves two transverse waves and a Langmuir wave, the incoherent analogue of the so-called Raman scattering process, which may account for the third and higher-harmonic plasma emissions. The present paper extends the previous formalism by including such a term.

  14. Flipping the Electromagnetic Theory classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Andrew J.

    2017-08-01

    Electromagnetic Theory is a required junior-year course for Optics majors at the University of Rochester. This foundational course gives students their first rigorous exposure to electromagnetic vector fields, dipole radiation patterns, Fresnel reflection/transmission coefficients, waveguided modes, Jones vectors, waveplates, birefringence, and the Lorentz model of refractive index. To increase the percentage of class time devoted to student-centered conceptual reasoning and instructor feedback, this course was recently "flipped". Nearly all of the mathematically-intensive derivations were converted to narrated screencasts ("Khan Academy" style) and made available to students through the course's learning management system. On average, the students were assigned two 10-15 minute videos to watch in advance of each lecture. An electronic survey after each tutorial encouraged reflection and counted towards the student's participation grade. Over the past three years, students have consistently rated the videos as being highly valuable. This presentation will discuss the technical aspects of creating tutorial videos and the educational tradeoffs of flipping a mathematically-intensive upper-level course. The most important advantage is the instructor's increased ability to identify and respond to student confusion, via activities that would consume too much time in a lecture-centered course. Several examples of such activities will be given. Two pitfalls to avoid are the temptation for the instructor not to update the videos from year to year and the tendency of students not to take lecture notes while watching the videos.

  15. Electromagnetic probes of the QGP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bratkovskaya E. L.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the properties of the QCD matter across the deconfinement phase transition in the scope of the parton-hadron string dynamics (PHSD transport approach. We present here in particular the results on the electromagnetic radiation, i.e. photon and dilepton production, in relativistic heavy-ion collisions. By comparing our calculations for the heavy-ion collisions to the available data, we determine the relative importance of the various production sources and address the possible origin of the observed strong elliptic flow v2 of direct photons. We argue that the different centrality dependence of the hadronic and partonic sources for direct photon production in nucleusnucleus collisions can be employed to shed some more light on the origin of the photon v2 “puzzle”. While the dilepton spectra at low invariant mass show in-medium effects like an enhancement from multiple baryonic resonance formation or a collisional broadening of the vector meson spectral functions, the dilepton yield at high invariant masses (above 1.1 GeV is dominated by QGP contributions for central heavy-ion collisions at ultra-relativistic energies. This allows to have an independent view on the parton dynamics via their electromagnetic massive radiation.

  16. Interpreting Electromagnetic Reflections In Glaciology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisen, O.; Nixdorf, U.; Wilhelms, F.; Steinhage, D.; Miller, H.

    Electromagnetic reflection (EMR) measurements are active remote sensing methods that have become a major tool for glaciological investigations. Although the basic pro- cesses are well understood, the unambiguous interpretation of EMR data, especially internal layering, still requires further information. The Antacrtic ice sheet provides a unique setting for investigating the relation between physical­chemical properties of ice and EMR data. Cold ice, smooth surface topography, and low accumulation facilitates matters to use low energy ground penetrating radar (GPR) devices to pene- trate several tens to hundreds of meters of ice, covering several thousands of years of snow deposition history. Thus, sufficient internal layers, primarily of volcanic origin, are recorded to enable studies on a local and regional scale. Based on dated ice core records, GPR measurements at various frequencies, and airborne radio-echo sound- ing (RES) from Dronning Maud Land (DML), Antarctica, combined with numerical modeling techniques, we investigate the influence of internal layering characteristics and properties of the propagating electromagnetic wave on EMR data.

  17. Electromagnetic field effects in explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasker, Douglas

    2009-06-01

    Present and previous research on the effects of electromagnetic fields on the initiation and detonation of explosives and the electromagnetic properties of explosives are reviewed. Among the topics related to detonating explosives are: measurements of conductivity; enhancement of performance; and control of initiation and growth of reaction. Hayes...()^1 showed a strong correlation of peak electrical conductivity with carbon content of the detonation products. Ershov.......^2 linked detailed electrical conductivity measurements with reaction kinetics and this work was extended to enhance detonation performance electrically;...^3 for this, electrical power densities of the order of 100 TW/m^2 of explosive surface normal to the detonation front were required. However, small electrical powers are required to affect the initiation and growth of reaction.......^4,5 A continuation of this work will be reported. LA-UR 09-00873 .^1 B. Hayes, Procs. of 4th Symposium (International) on Detonation (1965), p. 595. ^2 A. Ershov, P. Zubkov, and L. Luk'yanchikov, Combustion, Explosion, and Shock Waves 10, 776-782 (1974). ^3 M. Cowperthwaite, Procs. 9th Detonation Symposium (1989), p. 388-395. ^4 M. A. Cook and T. Z. Gwyther, ``Influence of Electric Fields on Shock to Detonation Transition,'' (1965). ^5 D. Salisbury, R. Winter, and L. Biddle, Procs. of the APS Topical Conference on Shock Compression of Condensed Matter (2005) p. 1010-1013.

  18. Electromagnetic wave energy conversion research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, R. L.; Callahan, P. S.

    1975-01-01

    Known electromagnetic wave absorbing structures found in nature were first studied for clues of how one might later design large area man-made radiant-electric converters. This led to the study of the electro-optics of insect dielectric antennae. Insights were achieved into how these antennae probably operate in the infrared 7-14um range. EWEC theoretical models and relevant cases were concisely formulated and justified for metal and dielectric absorber materials. Finding the electromagnetic field solutions to these models is a problem not yet solved. A rough estimate of losses in metal, solid dielectric, and hollow dielectric waveguides indicates future radiant-electric EWEC research should aim toward dielectric materials for maximum conversion efficiency. It was also found that the absorber bandwidth is a theoretical limitation on radiant-electric conversion efficiency. Ideally, the absorbers' wavelength would be centered on the irradiating spectrum and have the same bandwith as the irradiating wave. The EWEC concept appears to have a valid scientific basis, but considerable more research is needed before it is thoroughly understood, especially for the complex randomly polarized, wide band, phase incoherent spectrum of the sun. Specific recommended research areas are identified.

  19. Electromagnetic form factors of hadrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zidell, V.S.

    1976-01-01

    A vector meson dominance model of the electromagnetic form factors of hadrons is developed which is based on the use of unstable particle propagators. Least-square fits are made to the proton, neutron, pion and kaon form factor data in both the space and time-like regions. A good fit to the low-energy nucleon form factor data is obtained using only rho, ω, and phi dominance, and leads to a determination of the vector meson resonance parameters in good agreement with experiment. The nucleon-vector meson coupling constants obey simple sum rules indicating that there exists no hard core contribution to the form factors within theoretical uncertainties. The prediction for the electromagnetic radii of the proton is in reasonable agreement with recent experiments. The pion and kaon charge form factors as deduced from the nucleon form factors assuming vector meson universality are compared to the data. The pion form factor agrees with the data in both the space and time-like regions. The pion charge radius is in agreement with the recent Dubna result, but the isovector P-wave pion-pion phase shift calculated from the theory disagrees with experiment. A possible contribution to the form factors from a heavy rho meson is also evaluated

  20. Millimeter waves: acoustic and electromagnetic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziskin, Marvin C

    2013-01-01

    This article is the presentation I gave at the D'Arsonval Award Ceremony on June 14, 2011 at the Bioelectromagnetics Society Annual Meeting in Halifax, Nova Scotia. It summarizes my research activities in acoustic and electromagnetic millimeter waves over the past 47 years. My earliest research involved acoustic millimeter waves, with a special interest in diagnostic ultrasound imaging and its safety. For the last 21 years my research expanded to include electromagnetic millimeter waves, with a special interest in the mechanisms underlying millimeter wave therapy. Millimeter wave therapy has been widely used in the former Soviet Union with great reported success for many diseases, but is virtually unknown to Western physicians. I and the very capable members of my laboratory were able to demonstrate that the local exposure of skin to low intensity millimeter waves caused the release of endogenous opioids, and the transport of these agents by blood flow to all parts of the body resulted in pain relief and other beneficial effects. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Electromagnetic scattering from buried objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brock, B.C.; Sorensen, K.W.

    1994-10-01

    Radar imaging and detection of objects buried in soil has potentially important applications in the areas of nonproliferation of weapons, environmental monitoring, hazardous-waste site location and assessment, and even archeology. In order to understand and exploit this potential, it is first necessary to understand how the soil responds to an electromagnetic wave, and how targets buried within the soil scatter the electromagnetic wave. We examine the response of the soil to a short pulse, and illustrate the roll of the complex dielectric permittivity of the soil in determining radar range resolution. This leads to a concept of an optimum frequency and bandwidth for imaging in a particular soil. We then propose a new definition for radar cross section which is consistent with the modified radar equation for use with buried targets. This radar cross section plays the same roll in the modified radar equation as the traditional radar cross section does in the free-space radar equation, and is directly comparable to it. The radar cross section of several canonical objects in lossy media is derived, and examples are given for several object/soil combinations

  2. BETA (Bitter Electromagnet Testing Apparatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Evan M.; Birmingham, William J.; Rivera, William F.; Romero-Talamas, Carlos A.

    2017-10-01

    The Bitter Electromagnet Testing Apparatus (BETA) is a 1-Tesla (T) prototype of the 10-T Adjustable Long Pulse High-Field Apparatus (ALPHA). These water-cooled resistive magnets use high DC currents to produce strong uniform magnetic fields. Presented here is the successful completion of the BETA project and experimental results validating analytical magnet designing methods developed at the Dusty Plasma Laboratory (DPL). BETA's final design specifications will be highlighted which include electromagnetic, thermal and stress analyses. The magnet core design will be explained which include: Bitter Arcs, helix starters, and clamping annuli. The final version of the magnet's vessel and cooling system are also presented, as well as the electrical system of BETA, which is composed of a unique solid-state breaker circuit. Experimental results presented will show the operation of BETA at 1 T. The results are compared to both analytical design methods and finite element analysis calculations. We also explore the steady state maximums and theoretical limits of BETA's design. The completion of BETA validates the design and manufacturing techniques that will be used in the succeeding magnet, ALPHA.

  3. Food collection and response to pheromones in an ant species exposed to electromagnetic radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cammaerts, Marie-Claire; Rachidi, Zoheir; Bellens, François; De Doncker, Philippe

    2013-09-01

    We used the ant species Myrmica sabuleti as a model to study the impact of electromagnetic waves on social insects' response to their pheromones and their food collection. We quantified M. sabuleti workers' response to their trail, area marking and alarm pheromone under normal conditions. Then, we quantified the same responses while under the influence of electromagnetic waves. Under such an influence, ants followed trails for only short distances, no longer arrived at marked areas and no longer orientated themselves to a source of alarm pheromone. Also when exposed to electromagnetic waves, ants became unable to return to their nest and recruit congeners; therefore, the number of ants collecting food increases only slightly and slowly. After 180 h of exposure, their colonies deteriorated. Electromagnetic radiation obviously affects social insects' behavior and physiology.

  4. Electromagnetic Interference in Patients with Implanted Cardioverter-Defibrillators and Implantable Loop Recorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos de Sousa

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Modern life exposes us all to an ever-increasing number of potential sources of electromagnetic interference (EMI and patients with Implantable rhythm devices (IRD like pacemakers, implantable cardioverter defibrillators or implantable loop recorders often ask about the use of microwave ovens, walking through airport metal detectors and the use of cellular phones. Electromagnetic interference occurs when electromagnetic waves emitted by one device impede the normal function of another electronic device. The potential for interaction between implanted pacing systems and cardioverter-defibrillators (electromagnetic interference, EMI has been recognized for years.1,2,3,4. It has been shown that EMI can produce clinically significant effects on patients with implanted pacemakers and ICDs. For these reasons the following text discusses the influence of several EMI generating devices on IRD .

  5. Numerical simulation of compact intracloud discharge and generated electromagnetic pulse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babich, L. P.; Bochkov, E. I.; Kutsyk, I. M.

    2015-06-01

    Using the concept of the relativistic runaway electron avalanche, numerical simulation of compact intracloud discharge as a generator of powerful natural electromagnetic pulses (EMPs) in the HF-UHF range was conducted. We evaluated the numbers of electrons initiating the avalanche, with which the calculated EMP characteristics are consistent with measured ones. The discharge capable of generating EMPs produces runaway electrons in numbers close to those in the source of terrestrial γ-flashes (TGF) registered in the nearest space, which may be an argument for a joint EMP and TGF source.

  6. Electromagnetic Chirps from Neutron Star-Black Hole Mergers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnittman, Jeremy D.; Dal Canton, Tito; Camp, Jordan B.; Tsang, David; Kelly, Bernard J.

    2018-01-01

    We calculate the electromagnetic signal of a gamma-ray flare coming from the surface of a neutron star shortly before merger with a black hole companion. Using a new version of the Monte Carlo radiation transport code Pandurata that incorporates dynamic spacetimes, we integrate photon geodesics from the neutron star surface until they reach a distant observer or are captured by the black hole. The gamma-ray light curve is modulated by a number of relativistic effects, including Doppler beaming and gravitational lensing. Because the photons originate from the inspiraling neutron star, the light curve closely resembles the corresponding gravitational waveform: a chirp signal characterized by a steadily increasing frequency and amplitude. We propose to search for these electromagnetic chirps using matched filtering algorithms similar to those used in LIGO data analysis.

  7. Electromagnetic response of a highly granular hadronic calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adloff, C.; Blaha, J.; Blaising, J.J. [Savoie Univ., CNRS/IN2P3, Annecy-le-Vieux (FR). Lab. d' Annecy-le-Vieux de Physique des Particules] (and others)

    2010-12-15

    The CALICE collaboration is studying the design of high performance electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters for future International Linear Collider detectors. For the hadronic calorimeter, one option is a highly granular sampling calorimeter with steel as absorber and scintillator layers as active material. High granularity is obtained by segmenting the scintillator into small tiles individually read out via silicon photo-multipliers (SiPM). A prototype has been built, consisting of thirty-eight sensitive layers, segmented into about eight thousand channels. In 2007 the prototype was exposed to positrons and hadrons using the CERN SPS beam, covering a wide range of beam energies and incidence angles. The challenge of cell equalization and calibration of such a large number of channels is best validated using electromagnetic processes. The response of the prototype steel-scintillator calorimeter, including linearity and uniformity, to electrons is investigated and described. (orig.)

  8. Electromagnetic response of a highly granular hadronic calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adloff, C.; Blaha, J.; Blaising, J.J.

    2010-12-01

    The CALICE collaboration is studying the design of high performance electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters for future International Linear Collider detectors. For the hadronic calorimeter, one option is a highly granular sampling calorimeter with steel as absorber and scintillator layers as active material. High granularity is obtained by segmenting the scintillator into small tiles individually read out via silicon photo-multipliers (SiPM). A prototype has been built, consisting of thirty-eight sensitive layers, segmented into about eight thousand channels. In 2007 the prototype was exposed to positrons and hadrons using the CERN SPS beam, covering a wide range of beam energies and incidence angles. The challenge of cell equalization and calibration of such a large number of channels is best validated using electromagnetic processes. The response of the prototype steel-scintillator calorimeter, including linearity and uniformity, to electrons is investigated and described. (orig.)

  9. Seismic-electromagnetic precursors of Romania's Vrancea earthquakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enescu, B.D.; Enescu, C.; Constantin, A. P.

    1999-01-01

    Diagrams were plotted from electromagnetic data that were recorded at Muntele Rosu Observatory during December 1996 to January 1997, and December 1997 to September 1998. The times when Vrancea earthquakes of magnitudes M ≥ 3.9 occurred within these periods are marked on the diagrams.The parameters of the earthquakes are given in a table which also includes information on the magnetic and electric anomalies (perturbations) preceding these earthquakes. The magnetic data prove that Vrancea earthquakes are preceded by magnetic perturbations that may be regarded as their short-term precursors. Perturbations, which could likewise be seen as short-term precursors of Vrancea earthquakes, are also noticed in the electric records. Still, a number of electric data do cast a doubt on their forerunning nature. Some suggestions are made in the end of the paper on how electromagnetic research should go ahead to be of use for Vrancea earthquake prediction. (authors)

  10. GSM base station electromagnetic radiation and oxidative stress in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurekli, Ali Ihsan; Ozkan, Mehmed; Kalkan, Tunaya; Saybasili, Hale; Tuncel, Handan; Atukeren, Pinar; Gumustas, Koray; Seker, Selim

    2006-01-01

    The ever increasing use of cellular phones and the increasing number of associated base stations are becoming a widespread source of nonionizing electromagnetic radiation. Some biological effects are likely to occur even at low-level EM fields. In this study, a gigahertz transverse electromagnetic (GTEM) cell was used as an exposure environment for plane wave conditions of far-field free space EM field propagation at the GSM base transceiver station (BTS) frequency of 945 MHz, and effects on oxidative stress in rats were investigated. When EM fields at a power density of 3.67 W/m2 (specific absorption rate = 11.3 mW/kg), which is well below current exposure limits, were applied, MDA (malondialdehyde) level was found to increase and GSH (reduced glutathione) concentration was found to decrease significantly (p < 0.0001). Additionally, there was a less significant (p = 0.0190) increase in SOD (superoxide dismutase) activity under EM exposure.

  11. At the heart of the waves - Electromagnetic fields in question

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ndagijimana, Fabien; Gaudaire, Francois

    2013-01-01

    This document briefly presents a book in which the author describes what an electromagnetic wave is, the use of electromagnetic waves, how an information is transmitted by means of an electromagnetic wave, what wave modulation is, what multiplexing is, what the characteristics of an antenna are, how waves propagate, how electromagnetic shielding works, what the CEM (electromagnetic compatibility) is, and how a cellular phone network works, in the framework of electromagnetic fields risk assessment

  12. Himass electromagnetic launcher at Los Alamos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmermann, E.L.; Fowler, C.M.; Foley, E.; Parker, J.V.

    1986-01-01

    The HIMASS electromagnetic launcher is a unique large-bore, large-mass railgun driven by a helical flux compression generator. Two experiments were conducted at 3 to 4 MA current levels. The objective of the experiments was to study the effects of scaling, ablation, and material parameters on electromagnetic launcher performance. Data from these two experiments are presented

  13. Electromagnetic Radiation Originating from Unstable Electron Oscillations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul Rasmussen, Jens; Pécseli, Hans

    1975-01-01

    Electromagnetic oscillations in the range 300 – 700 MHz were observed from an unmagnetized argon discharge with an unstable electron velocity distribution function.......Electromagnetic oscillations in the range 300 – 700 MHz were observed from an unmagnetized argon discharge with an unstable electron velocity distribution function....

  14. [Mechanisms of electromagnetic radiation damaging male reproduction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Lei; Chen, Hao-Yu; Wang, Shui-Ming

    2012-08-01

    More and more evidence from over 50 years of researches on the effects of electromagnetic radiation on male reproduction show that a certain dose of electromagnetic radiation obviously damages male reproduction, particularly the structure and function of spermatogenic cells. The mechanisms of the injury may be associated with energy dysmetabolism, lipid peroxidation, abnormal expressions of apoptosis-related genes and proteins, and DNA damage.

  15. Electromagnetic Radiation from QCD Matter: Theory Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Chun

    2016-12-15

    Recent theory developments in electromagnetic radiation from relativistic heavy-ion collisions are reviewed. Electromagnetic observables can serve as a thermometer, a viscometer, and tomographic probes to the collision system. The current status of the “direct photon flow puzzle” is highlighted.

  16. Faraday· Father of Electromagnetism

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    He went on to perform whatever simple experiments he could, following the instruc- tions. One such experiment was with an electrostatic machine he constructed and this started his long and fruitful tryst with electromagnetism which was to end with the conceptualization of electromagnetic fields some four decades later.

  17. International Conference on Microelectronics, Electromagnetics and Telecommunications

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, N; Kumar, S; Raj, C; Rao, V; Sarma, G

    2016-01-01

    This volume contains 73 papers presented at ICMEET 2015: International Conference on Microelectronics, Electromagnetics and Telecommunications. The conference was held during 18 – 19 December, 2015 at Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, GITAM Institute of Technology, GITAM University, Visakhapatnam, INDIA. This volume contains papers mainly focused on Antennas, Electromagnetics, Telecommunication Engineering and Low Power VLSI Design.

  18. Electromagnetic processes in relativistic heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertulani, C.A.; Rio de Janeiro Univ.

    1987-05-01

    A study of the processes generated by the electromagnetic interaction in relativistic nuclear, and atomic collisions is presented. Very strong electromagnetic fields for a very short time are present in distant collisions with no nuclear contact. Such fields can also lead to interesting effects, which are discussed here. (orig.)

  19. Upper High School Students' Understanding of Electromagnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saglam, Murat; Millar, Robin

    2006-01-01

    Although electromagnetism is an important component of upper secondary school physics syllabuses in many countries, there has been relatively little research on students' understanding of the topic. A written test consisting of 16 diagnostic questions was developed and used to survey the understanding of electromagnetism of upper secondary school…

  20. Narrow field electromagnetic sensor system and method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McEwan, T.E.

    1996-01-01

    A narrow field electromagnetic sensor system and method of sensing a characteristic of an object provide the capability to realize a characteristic of an object such as density, thickness, or presence, for any desired coordinate position on the object. One application is imaging. The sensor can also be used as an obstruction detector or an electronic trip wire with a narrow field without the disadvantages of impaired performance when exposed to dirt, snow, rain, or sunlight. The sensor employs a transmitter for transmitting a sequence of electromagnetic signals in response to a transmit timing signal, a receiver for sampling only the initial direct RF path of the electromagnetic signal while excluding all other electromagnetic signals in response to a receive timing signal, and a signal processor for processing the sampled direct RF path electromagnetic signal and providing an indication of the characteristic of an object. Usually, the electromagnetic signal is a short RF burst and the obstruction must provide a substantially complete eclipse of the direct RF path. By employing time-of-flight techniques, a timing circuit controls the receiver to sample only the initial direct RF path of the electromagnetic signal while not sampling indirect path electromagnetic signals. The sensor system also incorporates circuitry for ultra-wideband spread spectrum operation that reduces interference to and from other RF services while allowing co-location of multiple electronic sensors without the need for frequency assignments. 12 figs

  1. Human health and exposure to electromagnetic radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennis, J.A.; Muirhead, C.R.; Ennis, J.R.

    1992-07-01

    This review consists of three main parts. In the first the general features of electromagnetic fields and their interactions with the human body are described. The second part deals with the epidemiological evidence for effects on general health and birth outcome. The third part describes the epidemiological evidence from occupational and residential studies of a possible association between electromagnetic field exposures and cancer. (author)

  2. Combine material against electromagnetic pulse disturbance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yan

    2004-01-01

    A novel combined material is introduced, which is hard against electromagnetic pulse disturbance, The attenuation characteristics and the penetration probability of the combine material is discussed in detail. The penetration probability of electromagnetic wave is calculated approximately and the characteristic curve is measured for this material. (authors)

  3. Science 101: Can Electromagnetic Waves Affect Emotions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Bill

    2017-01-01

    The answer to this month's question, "Can electromagnetic waves affect emotions," is yes. Wherever there are electromagnetic (EM) waves (basically everywhere!), there is the potential for them directly or indirectly to affect the emotions. But what about the likely motivation behind the originally-posed question? Can EM waves affect your…

  4. Wave fronts of electromagnetic cyclotron harmonic waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnuma, T.; Watanabe, T.

    1982-01-01

    In an inhomogeneous high-density magnetized plasma, the spatial properties of the wave fronts and ray trajectories of electromagnetic ordinary and extraordinary cyclotron harmonic waves are investigated. Those waves which are radiated from a local source are found to have wave fronts which are almost parallel to the magnetic field. Also, the reflective properties of the electromagnetic cyclotron harmonic waves are confirmed

  5. Project Physics Tests 4, Light and Electromagnetism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA. Harvard Project Physics.

    Test items relating to Project Physics Unit 4 are presented in this booklet. Included are 70 multiple-choice and 22 problem-and-essay questions. Concepts of light and electromagnetism are examined on charges, reflection, electrostatic forces, electric potential, speed of light, electromagnetic waves and radiations, Oersted's and Faraday's work,…

  6. Electromagnetic and thermal analysis of electromagnet for SMART control element drive mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huh, H.; Kim, J. H.; Park, J. S.; Kim, Y. W.; Kim, J. I.

    1999-01-01

    A numerical electromagnetic and thermal analysis was performed for the electromagnet which is installed in the control element drive mechanism(CEDM) of the integral reactor SMART. A model for the electromagnetic analysis of the electromagnet was developed and theoretical bases for the model were established. Design parameters related to thrust force were identified, and the optimum design point was determined by analyzing the trend of the magnetic saturation with finite element method. Also It is important that the temperature of the electomagnet windings be maintained within the allowable limit of the insulation, since the electromagnet of CEDM is always supplied with current during the reactor operation. So the thermal analysis of the winding insulation which is composed of polyimide and air were performed by finite element method. The electromagnetic and thermal properties obtained here will be used as input for the optimization analysis of the electromagnet

  7. X-ray electromagnetic application technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The investigating committee aimed at research on electromagnetic fields in functional devices and X-ray fibers for efficient coherent X-ray generation and their material science, high-precision manufacturing, particularly for X-ray electromagnetic application technology from January 2006 to December 2008. In this report, we describe our research results, in particular, on the topics of synchrotron radiation and free-electron laser, Saga Synchrotron Project, X-ray waveguides and waveguide-based lens-less hard-X-ray imaging, X-ray nanofocusing for capillaries and zone plates, dispersion characteristics in photonics crystal consisting of periodic atoms for nanometer waveguides, electromagnetic characteristics of grid structures for scattering fields of nano-meter electromagnetic waves and X-rays, FDTD parallel computing of fundamental scattering and attenuation characteristics of X-ray for medical imaging diagnosis, orthogonal relations of electromagnetic fields including evanescent field in dispersive medium. (author)

  8. Limits on new forces coexisting with electromagnetism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kloor, H.; Fischbach, E.; Talmadge, C.; Greene, G.L.

    1994-01-01

    We consider the limits arising from different electromagnetic systems on the existence of a possible new electromagnetic analogue of the fifth force. Although such a force may have no intrinsic connection to electromagnetism (or gravity), its effects could be manifested through various anomalies in electromagnetic systems, for appropriate values of the coupling strength and range. Our work generalizes that of Bartlett and Loegl (who considered the case of a massive vector field coexisting with massless electrodynamics) to encompass a broad class of phenomenological interactions mediated by both scalar and vector exchanges. By combining data from both gravitational and electromagnetic systems, one can eventually set limits on a new force whose range λ extends from the subatomic scale (λ∼10 -15 m) to the astrophysical scale (λ∼10 12 m)

  9. Improvements relating to electromagnetic pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, D.F.

    1975-01-01

    Reference is made to electromagnetic pumps suitable for use in pumping molten Na, and particularly to annular linear induction pumps that may for example be used to pump molten Na at temperatures up to 650 0 in situations where it is not possible to provide cooling. Previous designs of such pumps have employed disk-shaped coils around the outside of the annulus, the coils being energised from a three-phase power supply to produce a travelling radial field. The pump system described obviates the necessity for joints between the coils. It also allows the use of all types of high temperature insultation, simplified manufacture, and enables the windings to be located on the inside of the annulus. Full constructional details are given. (U.K.)

  10. A broadband electromagnetic UT system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Repplinger, W.; Salzburger, H.J.

    1985-01-01

    An ultrasonic testing system based on contactless electromagnetic acoustic (E.M.A.) transduction has been developed by which broadband ultrasonic pulses are excited. This system overcomes disadvantages of usual E.M.A. transducers with meanderlike coil configuration, namely the excitation of narrowband pulses and the symmetrical radiation pattern. By dividing up a meanderlike coil into single elements and a time-delayed firing of the elements, whereby the time delay is given by the distance of the elements and the phase velocity of the wave propagating along the surface, the ultrasonic pulse radiated in one preferred direction becomes broadband by constructive interference. The signals radiated in the opposite direction do no more interfere. Its amplitude is smaller than that of the other direction, so that the transducer becomes uni-directional. This technique can be applied for the excitation of all dispersionless waves (bulk waves and guided waves)

  11. Electromagnetic structure of the deuteron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilman, R.; Gross, Franz

    2001-01-01

    Recent measurements of the deuteron electromagnetic structure functions A, B, and T 20 extracted from high energy elastic ed scattering, and the cross sections and asymmetries extracted from high energy photodisintegration gamma + d to n + p, are reviewed and compared to theory. The theoretical calculations range from nonrelativistic and relativistic models using the traditional meson and baryon degrees of freedom, to effective field theories, to models based on the underlying quark and gluon degrees of freedom of QCD, including nonperturbative quark cluster models and perturbative QCD. We review what has been learned from these experiments, and discuss why elastic ed scattering and photodisintegration seem to require very different theoretical approaches, even though they are closely related experimentally

  12. Tracking Electromagnetic Energy With SQUIDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    A superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) is a gadget used to measure extremely weak signals, specifically magnetic flux. It can detect subtle changes in energy, up to 100 billion times weaker than the electromagnetic energy required to move a compass needle. SQUIDs are used for a variety of testing procedures where extreme sensitivity is required and where the test instrument need not come into direct contact with the test subject. NASA uses SQUIDs for remote, noncontact sensing in a variety of venues, including monitoring the Earth s magnetic field and tracking brain activity of pilots. Scientists at NASA s Goddard Space Flight Center have been making extensive use of this technology, from astrophysical research, to tracking the navigational paths of bees in flight to determine if they are using internal compasses. These very sensitive measurement devices have a wide variety of uses within NASA and even more uses within the commercial realm.

  13. Ultrarelativistic electromagnetic pulses in plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashour-Abdalla, M.; Leboeuf, J. N.; Tajima, T.; Dawson, J. M.; Kennel, C. F.

    1981-01-01

    The physical processes of a linearly polarized electromagnetic pulse of highly relativistic amplitude in an underdense plasma accelerating particles to very high energies are studied through computer simulation. An electron-positron plasma is considered first. The maximum momenta achieved scale as the square of the wave amplitude. This acceleration stops when the bulk of the wave energy is converted to particle energy. The pulse leaves behind as a wake a vacuum region whose length scales as the amplitude of the wave. The results can be explained in terms of a snow plow or piston-like action of the radiation on the plasma. When a mass ratio other than unity is chosen and electrostatic effects begin to play a role, first the ion energy increases faster than the electron energy and then the electron energy catches up later, eventually reaching the same value.

  14. Electromagnetic theory for filamentary superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, W.J. Jr.

    1975-01-01

    It is shown that a multifilament superconductor, made up of a bundle of twisted filaments embedded in a normal matrix, can be treated as a new state of matter with anisotropic electrical and magnetic properties. Macroscopic electromagnetic field vectors, which satisfy Maxwell's equations, are defined in terms of averages over the ''microscopic'' fields. However, the sources for the field, i.e., the current and charge densities and the magnetization and polarization, differ in some respects from those for ordinary matter. In particular, since the elementary magnetic dipole moments are distributed along lines rather than located at fixed points, the definition of the magnetization transverse to the filaments differs by a factor of 2 from that for ordinary matter, and the definition of the macroscopic current density is also slightly modified. Constitutive relationships among the field vectors in terms of permeabilities, dielectric constants, and conductivities are examined in the limits of strong and weak fields

  15. Efficient transformer for electromagnetic waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, R.B.

    A transformer structure for efficient transfer of electromagnetic energy from a transmission line to an unmatched load provides voltage multiplication and current division by a predetermined constant. Impedance levels are transformed by the square of that constant. The structure includes a wave splitter, connected to an input transmission device and to a plurality of output transmission devices. The output transmission devices are effectively connected in parallel to the input transmission device. The output transmission devices are effectively series connected to provide energy to a load. The transformer structure is particularly effective in increasing efficiency of energy transfer through an inverting convolute structure by capturing and transferring energy losses from the inverter to the load.

  16. An electromagnetic micro-undulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nassiri, A.; Turner, L.R.

    1997-01-01

    Microfabrication technology using the LIGA (a German acronym for Lithography, Electroforming, and Molding) process offers an attractive alternative for fabricating precision devices with micron-sized features. One such device is a mm-sized micro-undulator with potential applications in a table-top synchrotron light source for medical and other industrial uses. The undulator consists of a silver conductor embedded in poles and substrate of nickel-iron. Electromagnetic modeling of the undulator is done using the eddy current computer code ELEKTRA. Computations predict a field pattern of appropriate strength and quality if the current can be prevented from being shunted from silver by the nickel-iron poles either through insulation or through slotted poles. The design of the undulator along with the computational results are discussed

  17. Integrated Circuit Electromagnetic Immunity Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sketoe, J. G.

    2000-08-01

    This handbook presents the results of the Boeing Company effort for NASA under contract NAS8-98217. Immunity level data for certain integrated circuit parts are discussed herein, along with analytical techniques for applying the data to electronics systems. This handbook is built heavily on the one produced in the seventies by McDonnell Douglas Astronautics Company (MDAC, MDC Report E1929 of 1 August 1978, entitled Integrated Circuit Electromagnetic Susceptibility Handbook, known commonly as the ICES Handbook, which has served countless systems designers for over 20 years). Sections 2 and 3 supplement the device susceptibility data presented in section 4 by presenting information on related material required to use the IC susceptibility information. Section 2 concerns itself with electromagnetic susceptibility analysis and serves as a guide in using the information contained in the rest of the handbook. A suggested system hardening requirements is presented in this chapter. Section 3 briefly discusses coupling and shielding considerations. For conservatism and simplicity, a worst case approach is advocated to determine the maximum amount of RF power picked up from a given field. This handbook expands the scope of the immunity data in this Handbook is to of 10 MHz to 10 GHz. However, the analytical techniques provided are applicable to much higher frequencies as well. It is expected however, that the upper frequency limit of concern is near 10 GHz. This is due to two factors; the pickup of microwave energy on system cables and wiring falls off as the square of the wavelength, and component response falls off at a rapid rate due to the effects of parasitic shunt paths for the RF energy. It should be noted also that the pickup on wires and cables does not approach infinity as the frequency decreases (as would be expected by extrapolating the square law dependence of the high frequency roll-off to lower frequencies) but levels off due to mismatch effects.

  18. A Linear Electromagnetic Piston Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Paul H.

    Advancements in mobile hydraulics for human-scale applications have increased demand for a compact hydraulic power supply. Conventional designs couple a rotating electric motor to a hydraulic pump, which increases the package volume and requires several energy conversions. This thesis investigates the use of a free piston as the moving element in a linear motor to eliminate multiple energy conversions and decrease the overall package volume. A coupled model used a quasi-static magnetic equivalent circuit to calculate the motor inductance and the electromagnetic force acting on the piston. The force was an input to a time domain model to evaluate the mechanical and pressure dynamics. The magnetic circuit model was validated with finite element analysis and an experimental prototype linear motor. The coupled model was optimized using a multi-objective genetic algorithm to explore the parameter space and maximize power density and efficiency. An experimental prototype linear pump coupled pistons to an off-the-shelf linear motor to validate the mechanical and pressure dynamics models. The magnetic circuit force calculation agreed within 3% of finite element analysis, and within 8% of experimental data from the unoptimized prototype linear motor. The optimized motor geometry also had good agreement with FEA; at zero piston displacement, the magnetic circuit calculates optimized motor force within 10% of FEA in less than 1/1000 the computational time. This makes it well suited to genetic optimization algorithms. The mechanical model agrees very well with the experimental piston pump position data when tuned for additional unmodeled mechanical friction. Optimized results suggest that an improvement of 400% of the state of the art power density is attainable with as high as 85% net efficiency. This demonstrates that a linear electromagnetic piston pump has potential to serve as a more compact and efficient supply of fluid power for the human scale.

  19. Research on the electromagnetic structure of movable coil electromagnet drive mechanism for reactor control rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jige; Yian Huijie; Wu Yuanqiang; Wu Xinxin; Yu Suyuan; He Shuyan

    2007-01-01

    The movable coil electromagnet drive mechanism (MCEDM) is a new drive scheme for the reactor control rod, and it has a simple structure, good security and reliability property, etc. MCEDM with an air cooled structure has been used in the land research reactor. In order to apply MCEDM to the mobile reactor, experimental and theoretical study on the electromagnet with an oil-water cooled structure and a single magnetic flux circuit (called the type A electro-magnet) has been completed. It is proven by the experiment and theory that the oil-water cooled structure is an excellent measure to increase the coil current of MCEDM. Moreover, a type B electromagnet with an oil-water cooled structure and double magnetic flux circuits is designed to further increase the magnetic force of MCEDM. The analysis of finite element method shows that the type B electromagnet could double the saturation current of type A electro-magnet and the magnetic force of type B electromagnet is greater than that of the type A electromagnet. Moreover, it is proven that the dynamic property of type B electromagnet is better than type A electromagnet. (author)

  20. Electromagnetic and thermal history during microwave heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, T.; Valente, M.A.; Monteiro, J.; Sousa, J.; Costa, L.C.

    2011-01-01

    In microwave heating, the energy is directly introduced into the material resulting in a rapid and volumetric heating process with reduced thermal gradients, when the electromagnetic field is homogeneous. From those reasons, the microwave technology has been widely used in the industry to process dielectric materials. The capacity to heat with microwave radiation is related with the dielectric properties of the materials and the electromagnetic field distribution. The knowledge of the permittivity dependence with the temperature is essential to understand the thermal distribution and to minimize the non-homogeneity of the electromagnetic field. To analyse the history of the heating process, the evolution of the electromagnetic field, the temperature and the skin depth, were simulated dynamically in a ceramic sample. The evaluation of the thermal runaway has also been made. This is the most critical phenomenon observed in the sintering of ceramic materials because it causes deformations, or even melting on certain points in the material, originating the destruction of it. In our study we show that during the heating process the hot spot's have some dynamic, and at high temperatures most of the microwave energy is absorbed at the surface of the material. We also show the existence of a time-delay of the thermal response with the electromagnetic changes. - Highlights: → Electromagnetic field, the temperature and the skin depth were simulated dynamically. → The evaluation of the thermal runaway has been made. → A time-delay of the thermal response with the electromagnetic changes exists.

  1. Electric converters of electromagnetic strike machine with capacitor supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usanov, K. M.; Volgin, A. V.; Kargin, V. A.; Moiseev, A. P.; Chetverikov, E. A.

    2018-03-01

    The application of pulse linear electromagnetic engines in small power strike machines (energy impact is 0.01...1.0 kJ), where the characteristic mode of rare beats (pulse seismic vibrator, the arch crash device bins bulk materials), is quite effective. At the same time, the technical and economic performance of such machines is largely determined by the ability of the power source to provide a large instantaneous power of the supply pulses in the winding of the linear electromagnetic motor. The use of intermediate energy storage devices in power systems of rare-shock LEME makes it possible to obtain easily large instantaneous powers, forced energy conversion, and increase the performance of the machine. A capacitor power supply of a pulsed source of seismic waves is proposed for the exploration of shallow depths. The sections of the capacitor storage (CS) are connected to the winding of the linear electromagnetic motor by thyristor dischargers, the sequence of activation of which is determined by the control device. The charge of the capacitors to the required voltage is made directly from the battery source, or through the converter from a battery source with a smaller number of batteries.

  2. Utilization Of Carbon Nanotubes In Electromagnetic Wave Detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Hanis Zakariah

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Direct detection of hydrocarbon by an active source using electromagnetic (EM energy termed seabed logging (SBL has shown very promising results. However, currently available electromagnetic wave technology has a number of challenges include sensitivity and frequency matching. This paper presents development of the carbon nanotubes (CNTs as electromagnetic wave detector due to outstanding properties of carbon nanotubes. They are currently one of the desired materials for advanced technologies. Two types of detectors were developed in this work, carbon nanotube-based (D1 and without nanotube-based (D2 detectors. Various configuration and arrangement for each type of detector were investigated to determine the one with the highest detection measurement and stability of frequency stability of detection system. It was found that 20 turn-coils coil placed at its centre gives the maximum detection of induction voltage, 39.61 mV. However, the 20 turn- coils with CNTs which gives 36.50 mV is the preferred EM detectors due to the stability in frequency of the detection system.

  3. Measurement of Ultra-Short Solitary Electromagnetic Pulses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Gescheidtova

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In connection with the events of the last few years and with the increased number of terrorist activities, the problem of identification and measurement of electromagnetic weapons or other systems impact occurred. Among these are also microwave sources, which can reach extensive peak power of up to Pmax = 100 MW. Solitary, in some cases several times repeated, impulses lasting from tp E <1, 60>ns, cause the destruction of semiconductor junctions. These days we can find scarcely no human activity, where semiconductor structures are not used. The problem of security support of the air traffic, transportation, computer nets, banks, national strategic data canter’s, and other applications crops up. Several types of system protection from the ultra-short electromagnetic pulses present itself, passive and active protection. The analysis of the possible measuring methods, convenient for the identification and measurement of the ultra-short solitary electromagnetic pulses in presented in this paper; some of the methods were chosen and used for practical measurement. This work is part of Research object MSM262200022 "Research of microelectronic systems".

  4. Nucleon Structure Studies with Electromagnetic Probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vineyard, Michael F.

    2011-01-01

    Summarized in this report is the progress achieved during the period from March 1, 2008 to June 14, 2009 under contract number DE-FG02-03ER41252. This is the final technical report under this contract. The experimental work described here is part of the electromagnetic nuclear physics program of the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS) Collaboration at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab) that published 17 journal articles during the period of this report. One of these journal articles reported on the results of precise measurements of the neutron magnetic form factor. I was a spokesperson on this experiment and the publication of these results is the culmination of years of effort by a small subset of the CLAS Collaboration. As usual, undergraduate students were involved in all aspects of this work. Three Union College students participated in this program during the window of this report and one presented a paper on his work at the 2009 National Conference on Undergraduate Research (NCUR22). In this report, I discuss recent progress on the measurements of the neutron magnetic form factor and describe my service work for the CLAS Collaboration.

  5. Exposure of Nurses to Electromagnetic Fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zmyslony, M.; Mamrot, P.; Politanski, P.

    2004-01-01

    Devices that produce electromagnetic fields (EMF) within the range of 0-300 GHz are widely used in surgical and diagnostic procedures. As a result a large number of physicians and other groups of medical personnel may be exposed to EMF. Even if patients' exposure, sometimes quite high, is inevitable or even recommended, medical personnel should be substantially protected against EMF exposure. Evaluation of nurses' exposure to EMF was based on an analysis of EMF magnitudes in the surrounding of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and electrosurgical units. These two kinds of apparatus are the strongest EMF sources in health service facilities. The measurements were performed according to the norms and hygiene regulations binding in Poland. Measurements performed by the Nofer Institute of Medicine in Lodz, and data collected by the Central Database on EMF Sources were used in the analysis. The Central Database is run by the Nofer Institute of Medicine at the behest of the Chief Sanitary Inspector. The study showed that nurses' exposure to EMF emitted by MRI and electrosurgical units complies with Polish norms and hygiene regulations and can be classified as negligible or allowable. It was found that work of nurses in exposure to EMF emitted by MRI and electrosurgical units can be regarded as safe, which means that their health should not be endangered by the performed job. (author)

  6. Effects of Sm addition on electromagnetic interference shielding property of Mg-Zn-Zr alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Chubin [Chongqing University, College of Materials Science and Engineering, National Engineering Research Center for Magnesium Alloy, Chongqing (China); Gannan Normal University, Jiangxi Provincial Engineering Research Center for Magnesium Alloy, Ganzhou (China); Pan, Fusheng; Chen, Xianhua [Chongqing University, College of Materials Science and Engineering, National Engineering Research Center for Magnesium Alloy, Chongqing (China); Luo, Ning [Gannan Normal University, Jiangxi Provincial Engineering Research Center for Magnesium Alloy, Ganzhou (China)

    2017-06-15

    The electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding of Sm-containing magnesium alloys in the 30-1500 MHz testing frequency range was investigated by coaxial cable method. The results demonstrated that Mg-3Zn alloys displayed the best electromagnetic shielding property. When 0.5 wt% of Zr was added for crystal grain refinement, the shielding effectiveness (SE) was apparently reduced. The addition of the rare earth element Sm in ZK magnesium alloys can improve the electromagnetic interference shielding of magnesium alloys. The main reason for the differences in electromagnetic interference shielding of magnesium alloys was the change in conductivity. The addition of Zr in Mg-Zn alloys can refine the grains and consequently improve the grain boundary area significantly. Therefore, the number of irregularly arranged atoms at the grain boundaries increased, decreasing the conductivity of magnesium alloys and leading to a decrease in the electromagnetic interference shielding. Following the Sm addition, the Mg-Zn-Sm phase was precipitated at the grain boundaries and in cores. The precipitation of Sm-containing rare earth phases could consume the solid-soluted Zn atoms within the Mg, resulting in an increase in electrical conductivity and electromagnetic interference shielding improvement. (orig.)

  7. Research on Acoustic Emission and Electromagnetic Emission Characteristics of Rock Fragmentation at Different Loading Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fujun Zhao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationships among the generation of acoustic emission, electromagnetic emission, and the fracture stress of rock grain are investigated, which are based on the mechanism of acoustic emission and electromagnetic emission produced in the process of indenting rock. Based on the relationships, the influence of loading rate on the characteristics of acoustic emission and electromagnetic emission of rock fragmentation is further discussed. Experiment on rock braking was carried out with three loading rates of 0.001 mm/s, 0.01 mm/s, and 0.1 mm/s. The results show that the phenomenon of acoustic emission and electromagnetic emission is produced during the process of loading and breaking rock. The wave forms of the two signals and the curve of the cutter indenting load show jumping characteristics. Both curves have good agreement with each other. With the increase of loading rate, the acoustic emission and electromagnetic emission signals are enhanced. Through analysis, it is found that the peak count rate, the energy rate of acoustic emission, the peak intensity, the number of pulses of the electromagnetic emission, and the loading rate have a positive correlation with each other. The experimental results agree with the theoretical analysis. The proposed studies can lead to an in-depth understanding of the rock fragmentation mechanism and help to prevent rock dynamic disasters.

  8. The eighth national electromagnetics meeting. Extended abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eloranta, E.; Jokela, K.

    1998-01-01

    The National Electromagnetics Meeting has been arranged annually since 1991 in Finland. The purpose of the meeting is to convene the persons working with problems of electromagnetics and to enhance the interaction between different research groups in different disciplines. The eighth meeting was held at the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) August 27, 1998. The meeting is also the national meeting of the URSI (L'Union Radio-Scientifique Internationals)(Commission B: Fields and Waves) and the IEEE MTT/AP/ED Finland Chapter (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc.). The report includes the extended abstracts of the presentations given in the National Electromagnetics Meeting at STUK. (orig.)

  9. Electromagnetic radiation due to spacetime oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chitre, D.M.; Price, R.H.; Sandberg, V.D.

    1975-01-01

    Wave equations are derived in the Newman-Penrose formalism for mixed electromagnetic and gravitational perturbations on both a flat spacetime background and a slightly charged (Q 2 very-much-less-than GM 2 ) Reissner-Nordstroem background. The physical meaning of these equations is discussed and analytical results are derived for nonrelativistic sources and for ultrarelativistic particle motions. The relationship between even-parity (TM) electromagnetic radiation multipoles in the long-wavelength approximation and static multipoles is shown to be the same as for classical radiation, suggesting a simple picture for electromagnetic radiation induced by gravitational perturbations

  10. Status of FED/INTOR electromagnetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, J.G.

    1983-02-01

    This report provides a summary of the electromagnetic studies, calculations, and conclusions in the evolution of the base design of FED/INTOR (Fusion Engineering Device/International Tokamak Reactor). The electromagnetic feastures include the startup, control, disruptions, and design of structures. This report provides information concerning the evolution of the electromagnetic studies on FED and the justification for the eddy current design feature. The report shows that a major design feature required is the provision of a low induction and resistive path for toroidal currents to flow in the structures in order to provide self-stabilization and to manage the disruption energy dissipation

  11. Development of a strong electromagnet wiggler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, M.J.; Deis, G.A.; Holmes, R.H.; Van Maren, R.D.; Halbach, K.

    1987-01-01

    The Strong Electromagnet (SEM) wiggler is a permanent magnet-assisted electromagnet under development at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) as part of the Induction Linac Free-Electron-Laser (IFEL) program. This concept uses permanent magnets within the wiggler to provide a reverse bias flux in the iron and thus delay the onset of magnetic saturation. The electromagnet coils determine the wiggler field and operate at low current densities by virtue of their placement away from the midplane. We describe here the design approach used and test data from a 7-period wiggler prototype that includes curved pole tips to provide wiggle-plane focusing. 7 refs

  12. Genetic effects of nonionizing electromagnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, Henry

    2001-01-01

    Due to the increased use of electricity and wireless communication devices, there is a concern on whether exposure to nonionizing electromagnetic fields (50/60 Hz fields and radiofrequency radiation) can lead to harmful health effects, particularly, genetic effects and cancer development. This presentation will review recent research on genetic effects of power line frequency and radiofrequency electromagnetic fields. Even though the mechanism of interaction is still unknown, there is increasing evidence that these electromagnetic fields at low intensities can cause genetic damage in cells. There is also evidence suggesting that the effects are caused by oxidative stress. (author)

  13. The Method of Moments in electromagnetics

    CERN Document Server

    Gibson, Walton C

    2014-01-01

    Now Covers Dielectric Materials in Practical Electromagnetic DevicesThe Method of Moments in Electromagnetics, Second Edition explains the solution of electromagnetic integral equations via the method of moments (MOM). While the first edition exclusively focused on integral equations for conducting problems, this edition extends the integral equation framework to treat objects having conducting as well as dielectric parts.New to the Second EditionExpanded treatment of coupled surface integral equations for conducting and composite conducting/dielectric objects, including objects having multipl

  14. The eighth national electromagnetics meeting. Extended abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eloranta, E.; Jokela, K. [eds.

    1998-09-01

    The National Electromagnetics Meeting has been arranged annually since 1991 in Finland. The purpose of the meeting is to convene the persons working with problems of electromagnetics and to enhance the interaction between different research groups in different disciplines. The eighth meeting was held at the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) August 27, 1998. The meeting is also the national meeting of the URSI (L`Union Radio-Scientifique Internationals)(Commission B: Fields and Waves) and the IEEE MTT/AP/ED Finland Chapter (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc.). The report includes the extended abstracts of the presentations given in the National Electromagnetics Meeting at STUK. (orig.)

  15. Electromagnetic Characterization Of Metallic Sensory Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wincheski, Russell A.; Simpson, John; Wallace, Terryl A.; Newman, John A.; Leser, Paul; Lahue, Rob

    2012-01-01

    Ferromagnetic shape-memory alloy (FSMA) particles undergo changes in both electromagnetic properties and crystallographic structure when strained. When embedded in a structural material, these attributes can provide sensory output of the strain state of the structure. In this work, a detailed characterization of the electromagnetic properties of a FSMA under development for sensory applications is performed. In addition, a new eddy current probe is used to interrogate the electromagnetic properties of individual FSMA particles embedded in the sensory alloy during controlled fatigue tests on the multifunctional material.

  16. Interactions between electromagnetic fields and matter

    CERN Document Server

    Steiner, Karl-Heinz

    2013-01-01

    Interactions between Electromagnetic Fields and Matter deals with the principles and methods that can amplify electromagnetic fields from very low levels of signals. This book discusses how electromagnetic fields can be produced, amplified, modulated, or rectified from very low levels to enable these for application in communication systems. This text also describes the properties of matter and some phenomenological considerations to the reactions of matter when an action of external fields results in a polarization of the particle system and changes the bonding forces existing in the matter.

  17. Scattering theory of stochastic electromagnetic light waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Zhao, Daomu

    2010-07-15

    We generalize scattering theory to stochastic electromagnetic light waves. It is shown that when a stochastic electromagnetic light wave is scattered from a medium, the properties of the scattered field can be characterized by a 3 x 3 cross-spectral density matrix. An example of scattering of a spatially coherent electromagnetic light wave from a deterministic medium is discussed. Some interesting phenomena emerge, including the changes of the spectral degree of coherence and of the spectral degree of polarization of the scattered field.

  18. Liquid metal degassing in electromagnetic mixing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pakhomov, A I; EHL' -FAVAKHRI, KAMAL' -ABD-RABU MOKHAMED [LENINGRADSKIJ POLITEKHNICHESKIJ INST. (USSR)

    1977-01-01

    Experimental results for laboratory and industrial conditions are presented showing the favourable effect of electromagnetic mixing on hot metal degassing process. It has been found that the intensity and duration of the mixing process increase with the degree of iron and steel degassing. Initiation of cavitation phenomena during hot metal electromagnetic mixing is intensified because of the presence of alien inclusions in the metal reducing the tensile strength of the liquid metal. This is the most substantial factor contributing to the gas content in the process of electromagnetic mixing.

  19. Experimental evaluation of structural integrity of scram release electromagnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patri, Sudheer; Ruhela, S.P.; Punniyamoorthy, R.; Vijayashree, R.; Chandramouli, S.; Kumar, P. Madan; Rajendraprasad, R.; Rao, P. Vijayamohana; Narmadha, S.; Sreedhar, B.K.; Rajan, K.K.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The structural integrity of scram release electromagnet is evaluated against thermal shocks. • A simple test facility, employed for simulating the thermal shocks in a typical FBR, is presented. • The cold shock experienced by electromagnet during scram is simulated. • The testing qualified electromagnet for 11.6 yr of reactor operation. - Abstract: Prototype fast breeder reactor (PFBR), under construction at Kalpakkam, India, plays an important role in the commercialisation of fast breeder reactors (FBR) in India. It consists of two independent, fast acting and diverse shutdown systems. An electromagnet (EM) immersed in sodium acts as scram release device for the second shutdown system of prototype fast breeder reactor. The inside of EM is sealed from the sodium to achieve the required response time and to prevent the exposure of EM coil to sodium. As the EM response time is an important parameter for reactor safety, the integrity of EM is to be maintained under all anticipated loadings. The EM experiences thermal shocks and thermal stresses during reactor transients such as scram. The dissimilar weld joint present in EM is more susceptible to fatigue failure due to these thermal stresses. Failure of weld joint results in the entry of sodium into the EM, increasing its response time with associated safety implications. In this connection, the structural integrity of EM against thermal shocks was experimentally evaluated in Thermal Shock Test Facility. The EM was subjected to 1000 cycles of thermal shocks, which constitutes 29% of total number of shocks required to qualify the EM for 40 years of reactor operation, thus qualifying it for 11.6 yr of reactor operation. The testing has enhanced the confidence level for safe and reliable operation of EM of DSRDM in PFBR. The testing not only qualified the EM for use in reactor but also provided input for licensing the erection of DSRDM on reactor pile. Moreover, it provided a direction for

  20. A rigorous analysis of high-order electromagnetic invisibility cloaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weder, Ricardo

    2008-01-01

    There is currently a great deal of interest in the invisibility cloaks recently proposed by Pendry et al that are based on the transformation approach. They obtained their results using first-order transformations. In recent papers, Hendi et al and Cai et al considered invisibility cloaks with high-order transformations. In this paper, we study high-order electromagnetic invisibility cloaks in transformation media obtained by high-order transformations from general anisotropic media. We consider the case where there is a finite number of spherical cloaks located in different points in space. We prove that for any incident plane wave, at any frequency, the scattered wave is identically zero. We also consider the scattering of finite-energy wave packets. We prove that the scattering matrix is the identity, i.e., that for any incoming wave packet the outgoing wave packet is the same as the incoming one. This proves that the invisibility cloaks cannot be detected in any scattering experiment with electromagnetic waves in high-order transformation media, and in particular in the first-order transformation media of Pendry et al. We also prove that the high-order invisibility cloaks, as well as the first-order ones, cloak passive and active devices. The cloaked objects completely decouple from the exterior. Actually, the cloaking outside is independent of what is inside the cloaked objects. The electromagnetic waves inside the cloaked objects cannot leave the concealed regions and vice versa, the electromagnetic waves outside the cloaked objects cannot go inside the concealed regions. As we prove our results for media that are obtained by transformation from general anisotropic materials, we prove that it is possible to cloak objects inside general crystals

  1. Electromagnetic Properties Analysis on Hybrid-driven System of Electromagnetic Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jingbo; Han, Bingyuan; Bei, Shaoyi

    2018-01-01

    The hybrid-driven system made of permanent-and electromagnets applied in the electromagnetic motor was analyzed, equivalent magnetic circuit was used to establish the mathematical models of hybrid-driven system, based on the models of hybrid-driven system, the air gap flux, air-gap magnetic flux density, electromagnetic force was proposed. Taking the air-gap magnetic flux density and electromagnetic force as main research object, the hybrid-driven system was researched. Electromagnetic properties of hybrid-driven system with different working current modes is studied preliminary. The results shown that analysis based on hybrid-driven system can improve the air-gap magnetic flux density and electromagnetic force more effectively and can also guarantee the output stability, the effectiveness and feasibility of the hybrid-driven system are verified, which proved theoretical basis for the design of hybrid-driven system.

  2. [Effect of electromagnetic radiation on discharge activity of neurons in the hippocampus CA1 in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Jun; Chen, Su; Liu, Xiang-Ming; Hao, Dong-Mei

    2013-09-01

    In order to explore effect of electromagnetic radiation on learning and memory ability of hippocampus neuron in rats, the changes in discharge patterns and overall electrical activity of hippocampus neuron after electromagnetic radiation were observed. Rat neurons discharge was recorded with glass electrode extracellular recording technology and a polygraph respectively. Radiation frequency of electromagnetic wave was 900 MHZ and the power was 10 W/m2. In glass electrode extracellular recording, the rats were separately irradiated for 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 min, every points repeated 10 times and updated interval of 1h, observing the changes in neuron discharge and spontaneous discharge patterns after electromagnetic radiation. In polygraph recording experiments, irradiation group rats for five days a week, 6 hours per day, repeatedly for 10 weeks, memory electrical changes in control group and irradiation group rats when they were feeding were repeatedly monitored by the implanted electrodes, observing the changes in peak electric digits and the largest amplitude in hippocampal CA1 area, and taking some electromagnetic radiation sampling sequence for correlation analysis. (1) Electromagnetic radiation had an inhibitory role on discharge frequency of the hippocampus CA1 region neurons. After electromagnetic radiation, discharge frequency of the hippocampus CA1 region neurons was reduced, but the changes in scale was not obvious. (2) Electromagnetic radiation might change the spontaneous discharge patterns of hippocampus CA1 region neurons, which made the explosive discharge pattern increased obviously. (3) Peak potential total number within 5 min in irradiation group was significantly reduced, the largest amplitude was less than that of control group. (4) Using mathematical method to make the correlation analysis of the electromagnetic radiation sampling sequence, that of irradiation group was less than that of control group, indicating that there was a tending

  3. Calculation of electromagnetic force in electromagnetic forming process of metal sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Da; Liu Xuesong; Fang Kun; Fang Hongyuan

    2010-01-01

    Electromagnetic forming (EMF) is a forming process that relies on the inductive electromagnetic force to deform metallic workpiece at high speed. Calculation of the electromagnetic force is essential to understand the EMF process. However, accurate calculation requires complex numerical solution, in which the coupling between the electromagnetic process and the deformation of workpiece needs be considered. In this paper, an appropriate formula has been developed to calculate the electromagnetic force in metal work-piece in the sheet EMF process. The effects of the geometric size of coil, the material properties, and the parameters of discharge circuit on electromagnetic force are taken into consideration. Through the formula, the electromagnetic force at different time and in different positions of the workpiece can be predicted. The calculated electromagnetic force and magnetic field are in good agreement with the numerical and experimental results. The accurate prediction of the electromagnetic force provides an insight into the physical process of the EMF and a powerful tool to design optimum EMF systems.

  4. 1st Applied Electromagnetic International Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Othman, Mohd; Aziz, Mohamad; Malek, Mohd

    2015-01-01

    In this book, experts from academia and industry present the latest advances in scientific theory relating to applied electromagnetics and examine current and emerging applications particularly within the fields of electronics, communications, and computer technology. The book is based on presentations delivered at APPEIC 2014, the 1st Applied Electromagnetic International Conference, held in Bandung, Indonesia in December 2014. The conference provided an ideal platform for researchers and specialists to deliver both theoretically and practically oriented contributions on a wide range of topics relevant to the theme of nurturing applied electromagnetics for human technology. Many novel aspects were addressed, and the contributions selected for this book highlight the relevance of advances in applied electromagnetics to a variety of industrial engineering problems and identify exciting future directions for research.

  5. Method and apparatus for measuring electromagnetic radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Been, J. F. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    An apparatus and method are described in which the capacitance of a semiconductor junction subjected to an electromagnetic radiation field is utilized to indicate the intensity or strength of the radiation.

  6. Detection of electromagnetic radiation using nonlinear materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Harold Y.; Liu, Mengkun; Averitt, Richard D.; Nelson, Keith A.; Sternbach, Aaron; Fan, Kebin

    2016-06-14

    An apparatus for detecting electromagnetic radiation within a target frequency range is provided. The apparatus includes a substrate and one or more resonator structures disposed on the substrate. The substrate can be a dielectric or semiconductor material. Each of the one or more resonator structures has at least one dimension that is less than the wavelength of target electromagnetic radiation within the target frequency range, and each of the resonator structures includes at least two conductive structures separated by a spacing. Charge carriers are induced in the substrate near the spacing when the resonator structures are exposed to the target electromagnetic radiation. A measure of the change in conductivity of the substrate due to the induced charge carriers provides an indication of the presence of the target electromagnetic radiation.

  7. Electromagnetic wave analogue of an electronic diode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shadrivov, Ilya V; Powell, David A; Kivshar, Yuri S; Fedotov, Vassili A; Zheludev, Nikolay I

    2011-01-01

    An electronic diode is a nonlinear semiconductor circuit component that allows conduction of electrical current in one direction only. A component with similar functionality for electromagnetic waves, an electromagnetic isolator, is based on the Faraday effect of rotation of the polarization state and is also a key component in optical and microwave systems. Here we demonstrate a chiral electromagnetic diode, which is a direct analogue of an electronic diode: its functionality is underpinned by an extraordinarily strong nonlinear wave propagation effect in the same way as the electronic diode function is provided by the nonlinear current characteristic of a semiconductor junction. The effect exploited in this new electromagnetic diode is an intensity-dependent polarization change in an artificial chiral metamolecule. This microwave effect exceeds a similar optical effect previously observed in natural crystals by more than 12 orders of magnitude and a direction-dependent transmission that differs by a factor of 65.

  8. Coupled seismic and electromagnetic wave propagation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schakel, M.D.

    2011-01-01

    Coupled seismic and electromagnetic wave propagation is studied theoretically and experimentally. This coupling arises because of the electrochemical double layer, which exists along the solid-grain/fluid-electrolyte boundaries of porous media. Within the double layer, charge is redistributed,

  9. Tabletop Models for Electrical and Electromagnetic Geophysics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Charles T.

    2002-01-01

    Details the use of tabletop models that demonstrate concepts in direct current electrical resistivity, self-potential, and electromagnetic geophysical models. Explains how data profiles of the models are obtained. (DDR)

  10. Electromagnetic fields: the new European directive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moureaux, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    A European directive is specifying the thresholds for exposure to electromagnetic fields. The risk assessment approach proposed should enable worker health to be taken better into account. An overview of the new provisions. (author)

  11. Electromagnetic field computation by network methods

    CERN Document Server

    Felsen, Leopold B; Russer, Peter

    2009-01-01

    This monograph proposes a systematic and rigorous treatment of electromagnetic field representations in complex structures. The book presents new strong models by combining important computational methods. This is the last book of the late Leopold Felsen.

  12. Electromagnetic Behaviour of Metallic Wire Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Chui, S T

    2013-01-01

    Despite the recent development and interest in the photonics of metallic wire structures, the relatively simple concepts and physics often remain obscured or poorly explained to those who do not specialize in the field. Electromagnetic Behaviour of Metallic Wire Structures provides a clear and coherent guide to understanding these phenomena without excessive numerical calculations.   Including both background material and detailed derivations of the various different formulae applied, Electromagnetic Behaviour of Metallic Wire Structures describes how to extend basic circuit theory relating to voltages, currents, and resistances of metallic wire networks to include situations where the currents are no longer spatially uniform along the wire. This lays a foundation for a deeper understanding of the many new phenomena observed in meta-electromagnetic materials.   Examples of applications are included to support this new approach making Electromagnetic Behaviour of Metallic Wire Structures a comprehensive and ...

  13. Electromagnetic sounding of the Earth's interior

    CERN Document Server

    Spichak, Viacheslav V

    2015-01-01

    Electromagnetic Sounding of the Earth's Interior 2nd edition provides a comprehensive up-to-date collection of contributions, covering methodological, computational and practical aspects of Electromagnetic sounding of the Earth by different techniques at global, regional and local scales. Moreover, it contains new developments such as the concept of self-consistent tasks of geophysics and , 3-D interpretation of the TEM sounding which, so far, have not all been covered by one book. Electromagnetic Sounding of the Earth's Interior 2nd edition consists of three parts: I- EM sounding methods, II- Forward modelling and inversion techniques, and III - Data processing, analysis, modelling and interpretation. The new edition includes brand new chapters on Pulse and frequency electromagnetic sounding for hydrocarbon offshore exploration. Additionally all other chapters have been extensively updated to include new developments. Presents recently developed methodological findings of the earth's study, including seism...

  14. Electromagnetic radiation-2450 MHz exposure causes cognition ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    83

    Electromagnetic radiation-2450 MHz exposure causes cognition deficit with mitochondrial. 1 ... decrease in levels of acetylcholine, and increase in activity of acetyl ...... neuronal apoptosis and cognitive disturbances in sevoflurane or propofol ...

  15. Resonant Electromagnetic Shunt Damping of Flexible Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgsberg, Jan Becker

    2016-01-01

    Electromagnetic transducers convert mechanical energy to electrical energy and vice versa. Effective passive vibration damping of flexible structures can therefore be introduced by shunting with an accurately calibrated resonant electrical network thatcontains a capacitor to create the desired...

  16. 2nd Applied Electromagnetic International Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Sulaiman, Hamzah; Othman, Mohd; Aziz, Mohamad; Malek, Mohd

    2017-01-01

    In this book, experts from academia and industry present the latest advances in scientific theory relating to applied electromagnetics and examine current and emerging applications particularly within the fields of electronics, communications, and computer technology. The book is based on presentations delivered at APPEIC 2015, the 2nd Applied Electromagnetic International Conference, held in Krabi, Thailand in December 2015. The conference provided an ideal platform for researchers and specialists to deliver both theoretically and practically oriented contributions on a wide range of topics relevant to the theme of nurturing applied electromagnetics for human technology. Many novel aspects were addressed, and the contributions selected for this book highlight the relevance of advances in applied electromagnetics to a variety of industrial engineering problems and identify exciting future directions for research.

  17. Nanomechanical electric and electromagnetic field sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datskos, Panagiotis George; Lavrik, Nickolay

    2015-03-24

    The present invention provides a system for detecting and analyzing at least one of an electric field and an electromagnetic field. The system includes a micro/nanomechanical oscillator which oscillates in the presence of at least one of the electric field and the electromagnetic field. The micro/nanomechanical oscillator includes a dense array of cantilevers mounted to a substrate. A charge localized on a tip of each cantilever interacts with and oscillates in the presence of the electric and/or electromagnetic field. The system further includes a subsystem for recording the movement of the cantilever to extract information from the electric and/or electromagnetic field. The system further includes a means of adjusting a stiffness of the cantilever to heterodyne tune an operating frequency of the system over a frequency range.

  18. Carbon nanostructure composite for electromagnetic interference

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-05-30

    based composite materials for electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding. With more and more electronic gadgets being used at different frequencies, there is a need for shielding them from one another to avoid interference.

  19. Baryons electromagnetic mass splittings in potential models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genovese, M.; Richard, J.-M.; Silvestre-Brac, B.; Varga, K.

    1998-01-01

    We study electromagnetic mass splittings of charmed baryons. We point out discrepancies among theoretical predictions in non-relativistic potential models; none of these predictions seems supported by experimental data. A new calculation is presented

  20. CONSEQUENCES OF SYMMETRY GROUPS FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC PROPERTIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacFarlane, A. J.; Sudarshan, E. C.G.

    1963-06-15

    The electromagnetic properties of SU/sub 3/ supermultiplets are obtained formally by a unitary transformation of a theory whose SU/sub 3/ invariant strong interactions are perturbed by merely charge-independent interactions. Several new results are presented, but the emphasis is on the simplicity and power of the method. Electromagnetic properties of the first and second kinds are distinguished, the former being independent of the precise manner in which the particular electromagnetic property depends on the electric charge current density. It is shown that all except two relations between the magnetic moments of the baryon octet hold equally well for other electromagnetic properties like self energies and Compton scattering amplitudes. (auth)

  1. Scattering of electromagnetic waves by obstacles

    CERN Document Server

    Kristensson, Gerhard

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of Scattering of Electromagnetic Waves by Obstacles is to give a theoretical treatment of the scattering phenomena, and to illustrate numerical computations of some canonical scattering problems for different geometries and materials.

  2. Mapping Bedrock Topography using Electromagnetic Profiling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mapping Bedrock Topography using Electromagnetic Profiling. ... will be constructed The area under study is within the Abakaliki Shales Geologic Formation. ... micaceous sandstone; micaceous siltstone, sandy shales and shelly limestone.

  3. Propagation of SLF/ELF electromagnetic waves

    CERN Document Server

    Pan, Weiyan

    2014-01-01

    This book deals with the SLF/ELF wave propagation, an important branch of electromagnetic theory. The SLF/ELF wave propagation theory is well applied in earthquake electromagnetic radiation, submarine communication, thunderstorm detection, and geophysical prospecting and diagnostics. The propagation of SLF/ELF electromagnetic waves is introduced in various media like the earth-ionospheric waveguide, ionospheric plasma, sea water, earth, and the boundary between two different media or the stratified media. Applications in the earthquake electromagnetic radiation and the submarine communications are also addressed. This book is intended for scientists and engineers in the fields of radio propagation and EM theory and applications. Prof. Pan is a professor at China Research Institute of Radiowave Propagation in Qingdao (China). Dr. Li is a professor at Zhejiang University in Hangzhou (China).

  4. Mass shifts of charmoniums and electromagnetic signals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, T.; Miyamura, O.; Hirose, K.; Kanki, T.

    1988-04-01

    Mass of psi' below deconfining transition is discussed. It is sensitive to change of string tension. Observations of masses of charmoniums in hot fire ball by electromagnetic probes are considered.

  5. Dispersion characteristics of electromagnetic waves in dipolar (m=±1) modes travelling along a magnetized plasma column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benova, E.; Ghanashev, I.; Zhelyazkov, I.

    1992-01-01

    The modelling of isotropic plasma columns sustained by travelling electromagnetic waves in the dipolar mode (angular dependence exp imφ, m=±1) shows that the m=±1 modes have identical dispersion characteristics. In the presence of an external static magnetic field, however, the modes behave rather differently. This observation arose in studying the axial structures of magnetized plasma columns surrounded by vacuum and produced by travelling electromagnetic waves in the dipolar modes. We examine the propagation of electromagnetic waves along a homogeneous cold plasma column of radius R and electron number density n immersed in an axial constant magnetic field. (author) 3 refs., 3 figs

  6. The results of experimental studies of VLF-ULF electromagnetic emission by rock samples due to mechanical action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panfilov, A. A.

    2014-06-01

    The paper presents the results of laboratory experiments on electromagnetic emissions excitation (the electric component of electromagnetic fields) by rock samples due to different forms of mechanical stress applications. It was shown that samples generate electric impulses with different spectra when the impact action, gradual loading or dynamic friction is applied. It was ascertained that level and spectral compositions of signals, generated by rock samples, change with an increasing number of hits. It was found that strong electromagnetic signals, generated while rock samples were fracturing, were accompanied by repetitive weak but perceptible variations in the electric field intensity in short frequency ranges.

  7. Geomagnetic oriented electromagnetic radiation in the ionosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benton, C.U.; Fowles, H.M.; Goen, P.K.

    1976-08-01

    Strong bursts of electromagnetic radiation were observed in the ionosphere during the Waso rocket Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP) experiment. The pulses have a frequency content from below 20 MHz to above 70 MHz. They vary in duration between 5 μs and 2 ms and in peak-amplitudes of 2 mV/m to greater than 200 mV/m. These pulses show a high degree of geomagnetic correlation and are of unknown origin

  8. Electromagnetic Transport From Microtearing Mode Turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guttenfelder, W.; Candy, J.; Kaye, S.M.; Nevins, W.M.; Wang, E.; Bell, R.E.; Hammett, G.W.; LeBlanc, B.P.; Mikkelsen, D.R.; Yuh, H.

    2011-01-01

    This Letter presents non-linear gyrokinetic simulations of microtearing mode turbulence. The simulations include collisional and electromagnetic effects and use experimental parameters from a high beta discharge in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). The predicted electron thermal transport is comparable to that given by experimental analysis, and it is dominated by the electromagnetic contribution of electrons free streaming along the resulting stochastic magnetic field line trajectories. Experimental values of flow shear can significantly reduce the predicted transport.

  9. Multiple electromagnetic excitations of relativistic projectiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llope, W.J.; Braun-Munzinger, P.

    1992-01-01

    Conditions optimum for the first experimental verification of the multiplication electromagnetic excitations of nuclei in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions are described. The relative magnitudes of three important physical processes that might interfere with such a measurement are compared to the predicted strengths for the single and multiple electromagnetic excitations for various choices of the projectile mass and beam energy. Strategies are presented for making inferences concerning the presence of multiple excitation strength in experimental data

  10. Mathematics and electromagnetism; Matematicas y electromagnetismo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Danta, M.

    2000-07-01

    Symbiosis between mathematics and electromagnetism is analyzed in a simple and concise manner by taking a historical perspective. The universal tool character of mathematical models allowed the transfer of models from several branches of physics into the realm of electromagnetism by drawing analogies. The mutual interdependence between covariant formulation and tensor calculus is marked. The paper focuses on the guiding idea of field theory and Maxwell's equations. Likewise, geometrization of interactions in connection with gauge fields is also noted. (Author)

  11. Simulation of electromagnetic aggression on components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adoun, G.; Coumar, O.

    1997-01-01

    Numerical simulation techniques can be used for studying the behaviour of electronic components exposed to electromagnetic aggression. This article discusses CW analysis on a CMOS-technology logic NAND gate under electromagnetic aggression of different amplitudes (2.5 V 5 V), frequencies (100 MHz and 1 GHz) and phase. Numerical simulations were conducted using three codes: Spice code was used for solving electronic circuits, and the Atlas and Dessis codes were used for examining internal component behaviour. (authors)

  12. Protecting the Power Grid From Electromagnetic Pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Sarah

    2004-10-01

    A nuclear explosion high in the Earth's atmosphere does no immediate known harm to living things, but the resulting electromagnetic pulse (EMP) from a single detonation could degrade 70 percent or more of the country's electrical service in an instant, warns the Commission to Assess the Threat to the United States from Electromagnetic Pulse Attack, which presented its findings to the U.S. Congress in July.

  13. Wireless data transmission from inside electromagnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huertas, José Ignacio; Barraza, Roberto; Echeverry, Julian Mauricio

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes analytical and experimental work developed to evaluate the effects of the electromagnetic fields produced by high-voltage lines (400 kV) on wireless data transmission at the 900MHz band. In this work the source of the data transmission is located inside the electromagnetic field and the reception station is located at different distances from the power lines. Different atmospheric conditions are considered.

  14. ELECTROMAGNETIC MWD/LWD - WHERE AND WHY?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Steiner

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Application of electromagnetics as a mean of data transfer from bottom hole assembly to the surface during deep well drilling is described. Particularly, it is convenient when drilling with foam, aerated mud or air drilling in underbalance condition. Historic development of electromagnetics (EM and of EM Measurement While Drilling (EM MWD is elaborated briefly. Accentuated is the problem of attenuation of EM waves propagating through the rocks.

  15. HIGH POWER APPLICATIONS OF ELECTROMAGNETIC DEVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VASILE DOBREF

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available For the next generation, conventional weapon will touch the best performance limits and will became more and more what in what more an important part plans of improvement systems of weapon to the future. Physical laws that govern electromagnetic propulsion of guns, enabling them higher speeds than those of conventional arms projectiles. This is substantially benefit electromagnetic weapons - using electricity as energy for an lectromagnetic weapons.

  16. Apparatus and Methods for Mitigating Electromagnetic Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Steven M. (Inventor); Niedra, Janis M. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Apparatus, methods, and other embodiments associated with mitigation of magnetic fields are described herein. In an embodiment, a method for mitigating an electromagnetic field includes positioning a mitigating coil around a linear alternator of linear motor so that the mitigating coil is coaxially located with an alternator coil; arranging the mitigating coil to generate a field to mitigate an electromagnetic field generated by the alternator coil; and passing an induced current from the alternator coil through the mitigating coil.

  17. INVESTIGATION OF ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS IN RESIDENTIAL AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušan MEDVEĎ

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to investigation of impact of electromagnetic fields around the electrical equipment used in a residential area and their impact on the human body. This paper was based on sets of measurements of magnetic induction B with magnetometer and on computational simulations in ANSYS for particular appliances often used in household. The results from measurements and simulations led to setting out the recommendations for practical action in the form of elimination of harmful electromagnetic radiation.

  18. Monte-Carlo simulation of electromagnetic showers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amatuni, Ts.A.

    1984-01-01

    The universal ELSS-1 program for Monte Carlo simulation of high energy electromagnetic showers in homogeneous absorbers of arbitrary geometry is written. The major processes and effects of electron and photon interaction with matter, particularly the Landau-Pomeranchuk-Migdal effect, are taken into account in the simulation procedures. The simulation results are compared with experimental data. Some characteristics of shower detectors and electromagnetic showers for energies up 1 TeV are calculated

  19. Detection of electromagnetic radiation using micromechanical multiple quantum wells structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datskos, Panagiotis G [Knoxville, TN; Rajic, Slobodan [Knoxville, TN; Datskou, Irene [Knoxville, TN

    2007-07-17

    An apparatus and method for detecting electromagnetic radiation employs a deflectable micromechanical apparatus incorporating multiple quantum wells structures. When photons strike the quantum-well structure, physical stresses are created within the sensor, similar to a "bimetallic effect." The stresses cause the sensor to bend. The extent of deflection of the sensor can be measured through any of a variety of conventional means to provide a measurement of the photons striking the sensor. A large number of such sensors can be arranged in a two-dimensional array to provide imaging capability.

  20. Electromagnetic form factors in the light-front dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karmanov, V.A.; Smirnov, A.V.

    1992-01-01

    It is shown that the electromagnetic vertex of a nucleus (and of any bound system), expressed through the wave function in the light-front dynamics at relativistic values of momentum transfer, contains a contribution of nonphysical form factors which increases the total number of invariant form factors (for the deuteron from 3 up to 11). This fact explains an ambiguity in the form factors calculated previously. The physical and nonphysical form factors are covariantly separated. Explicit expressions for physical form factors of systems with spin 0, 1/2 and 1 through the vertex functions are obtained. (orig.)

  1. Electromagnetically induced transparency with quantized fields in optocavity mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Sumei; Agarwal, G. S.

    2011-01-01

    We report electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) using quantized fields in optomechanical systems. The weak probe field is a narrowband squeezed field. We present a homodyne detection of EIT in the output quantum field. We find that the EIT dip exists even though the photon number in the squeezed vacuum is at the single-photon level. The EIT with quantized fields can be seen even at temperatures on the order of 100 mK, thus paving the way for using optomechanical systems as memory elements.

  2. Medical applications of electromagnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Henry C.; Singh, Narendra P.

    2010-04-01

    In this article, we describe two possible applications of low-intensity non-ionizing electromagnetic fields (EMF) for the treatment of malaria and cancer, respectively. In malaria treatment, a low-intensity extremely-low frequency magnetic field can be used to induce vibration of hemozoin, a super-paramagnetic polymer particle, inside malaria parasites. This disturbance could cause free radical and mechanical damages leading to the death of the parasite. This concept has been tested in vitro on malaria parasites and found to be effective. This may provide a low cost effective treatment for malaria infection in humans. The rationale for cancer treatment using low-intensity EMF is based on two concepts that have been well established in the literature: (1) low-intensity non-thermal EMF enhances cytotoxic free radicals via the iron-mediated Fenton reaction; and (2) cancer cells have higher amounts of free iron, thus are more susceptible to the cytotoxic effects of EMF. Since normal cells contain minimal amount of free iron, the effect would be selectively targeting cancer cells. Thus, no adverse side effect would be expected as in traditional chemotherapy and radiation therapy. This concept has also been tested on human cancer cell and normal cells in vitro and proved to be feasible.

  3. Medical applications of electromagnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, Henry C; Singh, Narendra P, E-mail: hlai@u.washington.ed [Department of Bioengineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-5061 (United States)

    2010-04-15

    In this article, we describe two possible applications of low-intensity non-ionizing electromagnetic fields (EMF) for the treatment of malaria and cancer, respectively. In malaria treatment, a low-intensity extremely-low frequency magnetic field can be used to induce vibration of hemozoin, a super-paramagnetic polymer particle, inside malaria parasites. This disturbance could cause free radical and mechanical damages leading to the death of the parasite. This concept has been tested in vitro on malaria parasites and found to be effective. This may provide a low cost effective treatment for malaria infection in humans. The rationale for cancer treatment using low-intensity EMF is based on two concepts that have been well established in the literature: (1) low-intensity non-thermal EMF enhances cytotoxic free radicals via the iron-mediated Fenton reaction; and (2) cancer cells have higher amounts of free iron, thus are more susceptible to the cytotoxic effects of EMF. Since normal cells contain minimal amount of free iron, the effect would be selectively targeting cancer cells. Thus, no adverse side effect would be expected as in traditional chemotherapy and radiation therapy. This concept has also been tested on human cancer cell and normal cells in vitro and proved to be feasible.

  4. Hybrid rail gun electromagnetic accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, K.W.; Hachen, H.; Lee, A.; Legh, G.; Lin, T.; Mattay, S.; Wipf, S.

    1983-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental investigations on hybrid rail accelerators are presented. It is shown that the side surface areas and in some cases sabots of the projectile can be used to provide substantial amount of additional thrust. Moreover, it is shown that in most cases examined, external magnetic fields can be conveniently incorporated in the accelerator designs to supplement the rail-induced fields. Total thrusts in excess of 10 MN for kilogram-sized projectiles can in principle be established with driving currents of the order of 1 MA. No obvious stress limitations are foreseen. The percentages of thrust from external magnetic fields are sufficiently high that the use of which should be encouraged. The increased flexibility in the projectile shapes available permits the use of the proposed hybrid electromagnetic launcher technology in a variety of new areas, such as thrust boosts in conventional chemical rockets and other similar applications. Furthermore, the additional thrust obtained from the use of side surface areas greatly increases the maximum permissable thrust otherwise limited by material strength considerations. Thrust analyses for projectiles in several hybrid rail accelerator designs are discussed. Some laboratory experimental observations are presented

  5. Octonionic matrix representation and electromagnetism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chanyal, B. C. [Kumaun University, S. S. J. Campus, Almora (India)

    2014-12-15

    Keeping in mind the important role of octonion algebra, we have obtained the electromagnetic field equations of dyons with an octonionic 8 x 8 matrix representation. In this paper, we consider the eight - dimensional octonionic space as a combination of two (external and internal) four-dimensional spaces for the existence of magnetic monopoles (dyons) in a higher-dimensional formalism. As such, we describe the octonion wave equations in terms of eight components from the 8 x 8 matrix representation. The octonion forms of the generalized potential, fields and current source of dyons in terms of 8 x 8 matrix are discussed in a consistent manner. Thus, we have obtained the generalized Dirac-Maxwell equations of dyons from an 8x8 matrix representation of the octonion wave equations in a compact and consistent manner. The generalized Dirac-Maxwell equations are fully symmetric Maxwell equations and allow for the possibility of magnetic charges and currents, analogous to electric charges and currents. Accordingly, we have obtained the octonionic Dirac wave equations in an external field from the matrix representation of the octonion-valued potentials of dyons.

  6. Disentanglement of Electromagnetic Baryon Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadasivan, Daniel; Doring, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Through recent advances in experimental techniques, the precise extraction of the spectrum of baryonic resonances and their properties becomes possible. Helicity couplings at the resonance pole are fundamental parameters describing the electromagnetic properties of resonances and enabling the comparison of theoretical models with data. We have extracted them from experiments carried out at Jefferson Lab and other facilities using a multipole analysis within the Julich-Bonn framework. Special attention has been paid to the uncertainties and correlations of helicity couplings. Using the world data on the reaction γp -> ηp , we have calculated, for the first time, the covariance matrix. Our results are useful in several ways. They quantify uncertainties but also correlations of helicity couplings. Second, they can tell us quantitatively how useful a given polarization measurement is. Third, they can tell us how the measurement of a new observable would constrain and disentangle the resonance properties which could be helpful in the design of new experiments. Finally, on the subject of the missing resonance problem, model selection techniques and statistical tests allow us to quantify the significance of whether a resonance exists. Supported by NSF CAREER Grant No. PHY-1452055, NSF PIF Grant No. 1415459, by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Nuclear Physics under contract DE-AC05-06OR23177, and by Research Center Julich through the HPC grant jikp07.

  7. Electromagnetic trapping of neutral atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metcalf, H.J.

    1986-01-01

    Cooling and trapping of neutral atoms is a new branch of applied physics that has potential for application in many areas. The authors present an introduction to laser cooling and magnetic trapping. Some basic ideas and fundamental limitations are discussed, and the first successful experiments are reviewed. Trapping a neutral object depends on the interaction between an inhomogeneous electromagnetic field and a multiple moment that results in the exchange of kinetic for potential energy. In neutral atom traps, the potential energy must be stored as internal atomic energy, resulting in two immediate and extremely important consequences. First, the atomic energy levels will necessarily shift as the atoms move in the trap, and, second, practical traps for ground state neutral atoms atr necessarily very shallow compared to thermal energy. This small depth also dictates stringent vacuum requirements because a trapped atom cannot survive a single collision with a thermal energy background gas molecule. Neutral trapping, therefore, depends on substantial cooling of a thermal atomic sample and is inextricably connected with the cooling process

  8. Medical applications of electromagnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, Henry C; Singh, Narendra P

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we describe two possible applications of low-intensity non-ionizing electromagnetic fields (EMF) for the treatment of malaria and cancer, respectively. In malaria treatment, a low-intensity extremely-low frequency magnetic field can be used to induce vibration of hemozoin, a super-paramagnetic polymer particle, inside malaria parasites. This disturbance could cause free radical and mechanical damages leading to the death of the parasite. This concept has been tested in vitro on malaria parasites and found to be effective. This may provide a low cost effective treatment for malaria infection in humans. The rationale for cancer treatment using low-intensity EMF is based on two concepts that have been well established in the literature: (1) low-intensity non-thermal EMF enhances cytotoxic free radicals via the iron-mediated Fenton reaction; and (2) cancer cells have higher amounts of free iron, thus are more susceptible to the cytotoxic effects of EMF. Since normal cells contain minimal amount of free iron, the effect would be selectively targeting cancer cells. Thus, no adverse side effect would be expected as in traditional chemotherapy and radiation therapy. This concept has also been tested on human cancer cell and normal cells in vitro and proved to be feasible.

  9. Electromagnetic fields in cased borehole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ki Ha; Kim, Hee Joon; Uchida, Toshihiro

    2001-01-01

    Borehole electromagnetic (EM) measurements, using fiberglass-cased boreholes, have proven useful in oil field reservoir characterization and process monitoring (Wilt et al., 1995). It has been presumed that these measurements would be impossible in steel-cased wells due to the very large EM attenuation and phase shifts. Recent laboratory and field studies have indicated that detection of EM signals through steel casing should be possible at low frequencies, and that these data provide a reasonable conductivity image at a useful scale. Thus, we see an increased application of this technique to mature oilfields, and an immediate extension to geothermal industry as well. Along with the field experiments numerical model studies have been carried out for analyzing the effect of steel casing to the EM fields. The model used to be an infinitely long uniform casing embedded in a homogeneous whole space. Nevertheless, the results indicated that the formation signal could be accurately recovered if the casing characteristics were independently known (Becker et al., 1998; Lee el al., 1998). Real steel-cased wells are much more complex than the simple laboratory models used in work to date. The purpose of this study is to develop efficient numerical methods for analyzing EM fields in realistic settings, and to evaluate the potential application of EM technologies to cross-borehole and single-hole environment for reservoir characterization and monitoring

  10. Multifunctional hybrids for electromagnetic absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huynen, I.; Quievy, N.; Bailly, C.; Bollen, P.; Detrembleur, C.; Eggermont, S.; Molenberg, I.; Thomassin, J.M.; Urbanczyk, L.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → EM absorption requires low dielectric constant and ∼1 S/m electrical conductivity. → New hybrids were processed with CNT-filled polymer foam inserted in Al honeycomb. → The EM absorption in the GHz range is superior to any known material. → A closed form model is used to guide the design of the hybrid. → The architectured material is light with potential for thermal management. - Abstract: Electromagnetic (EM) interferences are ubiquitous in modern technologies and impact on the reliability of electronic devices and on living cells. Shielding by EM absorption, which is preferable over reflection in certain instances, requires combining a low dielectric constant with high electrical conductivity, which are antagonist properties in the world of materials. A novel class of hybrid materials for EM absorption in the gigahertz range has been developed based on a hierarchical architecture involving a metallic honeycomb filled with a carbon nanotube-reinforced polymer foam. The waveguide characteristics of the honeycomb combined with the performance of the foam lead to unexpectedly large EM power absorption over a wide frequency range, superior to any known material. The peak absorption frequency can be tuned by varying the shape of the honeycomb unit cell. A closed form model of the EM reflection and absorption provides a tool for the optimization of the hybrid. This designed material sets the stage for a new class of sandwich panels combining high EM absorption with mass efficiency, stiffness and thermal management.

  11. Electromagnetic forces on type-II superconducting rotating cylinders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saif, A.G.; Refai, T.F.; El-Sabagh, M.A.

    1995-01-01

    Analytical solutions of the electromagnetic fields are presented for a system composed of an infinitely long superconducting cylinder rotating about its axis and placed parallel to two infinitely long normal conducting wires. Both wires carry the same alternating current. From the obtained electromagnetic fields the electromagnetic power loss on the cylinder surface, electromagnetic forces due to induced currents, electromagnetic torque, and the work opposing the rotation of the cylinder are calculated. (orig.)

  12. Transformation electromagnetics and metamaterials fundamental principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Werner, Douglas H

    2013-01-01

    Transformation electromagnetics is a systematic design technique for optical and electromagnetic devices that enables novel wave-material interaction properties. The associated metamaterials technology for designing and realizing optical and electromagnetic devices can control the behavior of light and electromagnetic waves in ways that have not been conventionally possible. The technique is credited with numerous novel device designs, most notably the invisibility cloaks, perfect lenses and a host of other remarkable devices.Transformation Electromagnetics and Metamaterials: Fundamental Princ

  13. Integrable parameter regimes and stationary states of nonlinearly coupled electromagnetic and ion-acoustic waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, N.N.

    1998-01-01

    A systematic analysis of the stationary propagation of nonlinearly coupled electromagnetic and ion-acoustic waves in an unmagnetized plasma via the ponderomotive force is carried out. For small but finite amplitudes, the governing equations have a Hamiltonian structure, but with a kinetic energy term that is not positive definite. The Hamiltonian is similar to the well-known Hacute enon endash Heiles Hamiltonian of nonlinear dynamics, and is completely integrable in three regimes of the allowed parameter space. The corresponding second invariants of motion are also explicitly obtained. The integrable parameter regimes correspond to supersonic values of the Mach number, which characterizes the propagation speed of the coupled waves. On the other hand, in the sub- as well as near-sonic regimes, the coupled mode equations admit different types of exact analytical solutions, which represent nonlinear localized eigenstates of the electromagnetic field trapped in the density cavity due to the ponderomotive potential. While the density cavity has always a single-dip structure, for larger amplitudes it can support higher-order modes having a larger number of nodes in the electromagnetic field. In particular, we show the existence of a new type of localized electromagnetic wave whose field intensity has a triple-hump structure. For typical parameter values, the triple-hump solitons propagate with larger Mach numbers that are closer to the sonic limit than the single- as well as the double-hump solitons, but carry a lesser amount of the electromagnetic field energy. A comparison between the different types of solutions is carried out. The possibility of the existence of trapped electromagnetic modes having a larger number of humps is also discussed. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics

  14. Number Sense on the Number Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Dawn Marie; Ketterlin Geller, Leanne; Basaraba, Deni

    2018-01-01

    A strong foundation in early number concepts is critical for students' future success in mathematics. Research suggests that visual representations, like a number line, support students' development of number sense by helping them create a mental representation of the order and magnitude of numbers. In addition, explicitly sequencing instruction…

  15. Broadband electromagnetic analysis of compacted kaolin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bore, Thierry; Scheuermann, Alexander; Wagner, Norman; Cai, Caifang

    2017-01-01

    The mechanical compaction of soil influences not only the mechanical strength and compressibility but also the hydraulic behavior in terms of hydraulic conductivity and soil suction. At the same time, electric and dielectric parameters are increasingly used to characterize soil and to relate them with mechanic and hydraulic parameters. In the presented study electromagnetic soil properties and suction were measured under defined conditions of standardized compaction tests. The impact of external mechanical stress conditions of nearly pure kaolinite was analyzed on soil suction and broadband electromagnetic soil properties. An experimental procedure was developed and validated to simultaneously determine mechanical, hydraulic and broadband (1 MHz–3 GHz) electromagnetic properties of the porous material. The frequency dependent electromagnetic properties were modeled with a classical mixture equation (advanced Lichtenecker and Rother model, ALRM) and a hydraulic-mechanical-electromagnetic coupling approach was introduced considering water saturation, soil structure (bulk density, porosity), soil suction (pore size distribution, water sorption) as well as electrical conductivity of the aqueous pore solution. Moreover, the relaxation behavior was analyzed with a generalized fractional relaxation model concerning a high-frequency water process and two interface processes extended with an apparent direct current conductivity contribution. The different modeling approaches provide a satisfactory agreement with experimental data for the real part. These results show the potential of broadband electromagnetic approaches for quantitative estimation of the hydraulic state of the soil during densification. (paper)

  16. Potential of Nanocellulose Composite for Electromagnetic Shielding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabila Yah Nurul Fatihah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, most people rely on the electronic devices for work, communicating with friends and family, school and personal enjoyment. As a result, more new equipment or devices operates in higher frequency were rapidly developed to accommodate the consumers need. However, the demand of using wireless technology and higher frequency in new devices also brings the need to shield the unwanted electromagnetic signals from those devices for both proper operation and human health concerns. This paper highlights the potential of nanocellulose for electromagnetic shielding using the organic environmental nanocellulose composite materials. In addition, the theory of electromagnetic shielding and recent development of green and organic material in electromagnetic shielding application has also been reviewed in this paper. The use of the natural fibers which is nanocelllose instead of traditional reinforcement materials provides several advantages including the natural fibers are renewable, abundant and low cost. Furthermore, added with other advantages such as lightweight and high electromagnetic shielding ability, nanocellulose has a great potential as an alternative material for electromagnetic shielding application.

  17. Expanding the use of real‐time electromagnetic tracking in radiation oncology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupelian, Patrick A.; Willoughby, Twyla R.; Meeks, Sanford L.

    2011-01-01

    In the past 10 years, techniques to improve radiotherapy delivery, such as intensity‐modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), image‐guided radiation therapy (IGRT) for both inter‐ and intrafraction tumor localization, and hypofractionated delivery techniques such as stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT), have evolved tremendously. This review article focuses on only one part of that evolution, electromagnetic tracking in radiation therapy. Electromagnetic tracking is still a growing technology in radiation oncology and, as such, the clinical applications are limited, the expense is high, and the reimbursement is insufficient to cover these costs. At the same time, current experience with electromagnetic tracking applied to various clinical tumor sites indicates that the potential benefits of electromagnetic tracking could be significant for patients receiving radiation therapy. Daily use of these tracking systems is minimally invasive and delivers no additional ionizing radiation to the patient, and these systems can provide explicit tumor motion data. Although there are a number of technical and fiscal issues that need to be addressed, electromagnetic tracking systems are expected to play a continued role in improving the precision of radiation delivery. PACS number: 87.63.‐d PMID:22089017

  18. The Super Patalan Numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Richardson, Thomas M.

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the super Patalan numbers, a generalization of the super Catalan numbers in the sense of Gessel, and prove a number of properties analagous to those of the super Catalan numbers. The super Patalan numbers generalize the super Catalan numbers similarly to how the Patalan numbers generalize the Catalan numbers.

  19. Influence of constant, alternating and cyclotron low-intensity electromagnetic fields on fibroblast proliferative activity in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afinogenov, Gennadi; Afinogenova, Anna; Kalinin, Andrey

    2009-12-16

    Available data allow assuming the presence of stimulation of reparative processes under influence of low-intensity electromagnetic field, commensurable with a magnetic field of the Earth. Research of effects of low-intensity electromagnetic fields on fibroblast proliferative activity in human lungs in cell culture was performed.The influence of a constant electromagnetic field, an alternating electromagnetic field by frequency of 50 Hz and cyclotron electromagnetic field with identical intensity for all kinds of fields - 80 mcTl - on value of cellular mass and a correlation of live and dead cells in culture is investigated in three series of experiments. We used the universal electromagnetic radiator generating all three kinds of fields and supplied by a magnetometer which allows measuring the intensity of accurate within 0.1 mcTl including taking into account the Earth's magnetic field intensity.The peak value for stimulation cellular proliferation in the present experiences was two-hour influence by any of the specified kinds of electromagnetic fields. The irradiation by cyclotron electromagnetic field conducts positive dynamics in growth of live cells (up to 206+/-22%) and decreases the number of dead cells (down to 31+/-6%). Application of cyclotron magnetic fields promoted creation of optimum conditions for proliferation. As a result of researches we observed the reliable 30% increase of nitro-tetrazolium index (in nitro-tetrazolium blue test) after irradiation by cyclotron electromagnetic field in experience that testifies to strengthening of the cell breathing of living cells.In our opinion, it is necessary to pay attention not only to a pure gain of cells, but also to reduction of number dead cells that can be criterion of creation of optimum conditions for their specific development and valuable functioning.

  20. Heliborne time-domain electromagnetic (TEM) surveys for uranium exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaturvedi, A.K.

    2015-01-01

    Airborne geophysical surveys have been used extensively in petroleum, mineral exploration, and environmental mapping. Of all the geophysical methods, Electromagnetic (EM) methods, both ground and airborne are used to map the conductive ore bodies buried in the resistive bed rock. Mapping resistivity variations can help unravel complex geological problems and identify areas of hidden potential. Besides the traditional applications to ground water investigations and other natural resource exploration and geological mapping, a number of new applications have been reported. These include hazardous-waste characterization studies, precision agriculture applications, archaeological surveys etc. Airborne Electromagnetic (AEM) methods have undergone rapid improvements over the past few decades. Several new airborne Time Do-main EM (TDEM) systems appeared; existing systems were updated and/or enhanced. The use of natural field (passive) EM surveys continued to increase, with new or improved systems becoming available for both airborne and ground surveys. The number of large airborne survey systems with combined EM, magnetic, gravimetric and gamma-ray spectrometric capabilities also increased. Exploration of a mineral deposit is a multi-stage and multi-disciplinary approach that commences from regional investigations and concludes with establishing of a deposit. As economics play a major role in exploration, a proper integrated study is always beneficial in narrowing down the potential mineral target zones. Heliborne geophysical surveys are being conducted world-wide for exploration of base metals, gold, phosphorite, oil, uranium etc. that are very effective tool in identifying zones of interest accurately, economically and with less span of time. These surveys give a very good insight of surface and sub-surface geophysical signatures that can be attributed to geology with proper modeling. Heliborne Time - domain Electromagnetic (TEM) methods are well known for search of

  1. Biological effects of electromagnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabriel, C.

    1996-01-01

    The effects of electromagnetic (em) fields on biological systems were first observed and exploited well over a century ago. Concern over the possible health hazards of human exposure to such fields developed much later. It is now well known that excessive exposure to em fields may have in undesirable biological consequences. Standards were introduced to determine what constitute an excessive exposure and how to avoid it. Current concern over the issue of hazards stems mainly from recent epidemiological studies of exposed populations and also from the results of laboratory experiments in which whole animals are exposed in vivo or tissue and cell cultures exposed in vitro to low levels of irradiation. The underlying fear is the possibility of a causal relationship between chronic exposure to low field levels and some forms of cancer. So far the evidence does not add up to a firm statement on the matter. At present it is not known how and at what level, if at all, can these exposure be harmful to human health. This state of affair does not provide a basis for incorporating the outcome of such research in exposure standards. This paper will give a brief overview of the research in this field and how it is evaluated for the purpose of producing scientifically based standards. The emphasis will be on the physical, biophysical and biological mechanisms implicated in the interaction between em fields and biological systems. Understanding such mechanisms leads not only to a more accurate evaluation of their health implications but also to their optimal utilization, under controlled conditions, in biomedical applications. (author)

  2. Electromagnetic energy and food processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mudgett, R.

    1988-01-01

    The use of electromagnetic energy in food processing is reviewed with respect to food safety, nutritional quality, and organoleptic quality. The effects of nonionizing radiation sources such as microwave and radio-frequency energy and ionizing radiation sources, e.g. radioactive cobalt-60 and caesium-137, on the inactivation of microbes and nutrients are compared with those of conventional heating processes both in terms of their kinetic behavior and their mechanisms of interaction with foods. The kinetics of microwave and conventional thermal inactivation are considered for a generalized nth-order model based on time and temperature conditions. However, thermal inactivation effects are often modeled by 1 st-order kinetics. Microbial and nutrient inactivation by ionizing sources are considered for a 1 st-order model based on radiation dose. Both thermal and radiation resistance concepts are reviewed and some typical values of radiation resistance are given for sensitive vegetative bacterial cells, yeasts, and molds and for resistant bacterial spores and viruses. Nonionizing microwave energy sources are increasingly used in home and industrial food processing and are well-accepted by the American public. But, despite recent Food and Drug Administration approval of low and intermediate ionizing radiation dose levels for grains and other plant products and the fact that irradiated foods are sold in more than 20 countries of the world, public fears in the U.S. about nuclear energy may limit the role of ionizing radiation in food processing and preservation and may also limit the use of nuclear fuels as an alternate source of electrical energy. (33 refs.)

  3. Interaction of attosecond electromagnetic pulses with atoms: The exactly solvable model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popov, Yu. V.; Kouzakov, K. A.; Vinitsky, S. I.; Gusev, A. A.

    2007-01-01

    We consider the exactly solvable model of interaction of zero-duration electromagnetic pulses with an atom. The model has a number of peculiar properties which are outlined in the cases of a single pulse and two opposite pulses. In perspective, it can be useful in different fields of physics involving interaction of attosecond laser pulses with quantum systems

  4. Marching on in anything: solving electromagnetic field equations with a varying physical parameter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijhuis, A.G.; Zwamborn, A.P.M.; Smith, P.D.; Cloude, S.R.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the determination of electromagnetic fields for a (large) number of values of a physical parameter. We restrict ourselves to the case where the linear system originates from one or more integral equations. We apply an iterative procedure based on the minimization of an

  5. Reflection of electromagnetic wave from the boundary of the piezoelectric half-space with cubic symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berberyan, A. Kh; Garakov, V. G.

    2018-04-01

    A large number of works have been devoted to investigation of the influence of the piezoelectric properties of a material on the propagation of elastic waves [1–3]. Herewith, the quasi-static piezoelasticity model was mainly used. In the problem of an electromagnetic wave reflection from an elastic medium with piezoelectric properties, it is necessary to consider hyperbolic equations [4].

  6. Electromagnetic projectile acceleration utilizing distributed energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, J.V.

    1982-01-01

    Circuit equations are derived for an electromagnetic projectile accelerator (railgun) powered by a large number of capacitive discharge circuits distributed along its length. The circuit equations are put into dimensionless form and the parameters governing the solutions derived. After specializing the equations to constant spacing between circuits, the case of lossless rails and negligible drag is analyzed to show that the electrical to kinetic energy transfer efficiency is equal to sigma/2, where sigma = 2mS/Lq 2 0 and m is the projectile mass, S the distance between discharge circuit, Lthe rail inductance per unit length, and q 0 the charge on the first stage capacitor. For sigma = 2 complete transfer of electrical to kinetic energy is predicted while for sigma>2 the projective-discharge circuit system is unstable. Numerical solutions are presented for both lossless rails and for finite rail resistance. When rail resistance is included, >70% transfer is calculated for accelerators of arbitrary length. The problem of projectile startup is considered and a simple modification of the first two stages is described which provides proper startup. Finally, the results of the numerical solutions are applied to a practical railgun design. A research railgun designed for repeated operation at 50 km/sec is described. It would have an overall length of 77 m, an electrical efficiency of 81%, a stored energy per stage of 105 kJ, and a charge transfer of <50 C per stage. A railgun of this design appears to be practicable with current pulsed power technology

  7. Mass Estimate for a Lunar Resource Launcher Based on Existing Terrestrial Electromagnetic Launchers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon Roesler

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Economic exploitation of lunar resources may be more efficient with a non-rocket approach to launch from the lunar surface. The launch system cost will depend on its design, and on the number of launches from Earth to deliver the system to the Moon. Both of these will depend on the launcher system mass. Properties of an electromagnetic resource launcher are derived from two mature terrestrial electromagnetic launchers. A mass model is derived and used to estimate launch costs for a developmental launch vehicle. A rough manufacturing cost for the system is suggested.

  8. The inverse problem for the refractometry diagnostics of electromagnetic turbulence in plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazarian, A [Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics

    1994-06-01

    Turbulence is an important property of laboratory plasmas. A number of relevant diagnostics are based on the interaction of an electromagnetic beam with plasma. Here we discuss a refractometry technique, where information on plasma properties is obtained by probing plasma with a plane polarized electromagnetic beam. It is shown that the problem of recovering statistical properties of plasma turbulence from the line integrated data can be solved uniquely using a realistic model of plasma. Analytical expressions relating statistics of both the random density and random magnetic fields to the measured statistics have been found. This information is of importance in studies of plasma turbulence. (author).

  9. The inverse problem for the refractometry diagnostics of electromagnetic turbulence in plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazarian, A.

    1994-01-01

    Turbulence is an important property of laboratory plasmas. A number of relevant diagnostics are based on the interaction of an electromagnetic beam with plasma. Here we discuss a refractometry technique, where information on plasma properties is obtained by probing plasma with a plane polarized electromagnetic beam. It is shown that the problem of recovering statistical properties of plasma turbulence from the line integrated data can be solved uniquely using a realistic model of plasma. Analytical expressions relating statistics of both the random density and random magnetic fields to the measured statistics have been found. This information is of importance in studies of plasma turbulence. (author)

  10. On the coupling of fluid dynamics and electromagnetism at the top of the earth's core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton, E. R.

    1985-01-01

    A kinematic approach to short-term geomagnetism has recently been based upon pre-Maxwell frozen-flux electromagnetism. A complete dynamic theory requires coupling fluid dynamics to electromagnetism. A geophysically plausible simplifying assumption for the vertical vorticity balance, namely that the vertical Lorentz torque is negligible, is introduced and its consequences are developed. The simplified coupled magnetohydrodynamic system is shown to conserve a variety of magnetic and vorticity flux integrals. These provide constraints on eligible models for the geomagnetic main field, its secular variation, and the horizontal fluid motions at the top of the core, and so permit a number of tests of the underlying assumptions.

  11. Enhanced electromagnetic emission from plasmas containing positive dust grains and electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukla, P.K.; Shukla, Nitin; Stenflo, L.

    2007-01-01

    Large amplitude high-frequency (HF) electromagnetic (EM) waves can scatter off dust-acoustic waves in plasmas containing positive dust grains and electrons, and can thus be responsible for HF enhanced electromagnetic emissions (EEE). An expression for the ensemble average of the squared HF-EEE vector potential is therefore derived, following the standard parametric interaction formalism and adopting the Rostoker superposition principle. The results should be useful for deducing the dust plasma parameters (e.g. the dust number density and dust charge) in situ, and HF intense EM beams can thus be used for diagnosis of positive dust-electron plasmas in space and laboratories

  12. Quantum resonances of Landau damping in the electromagnetic response of metallic nanoslabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-López, S G; Makarov, N M; Pérez-Rodríguez, F

    2018-05-15

    The resonant quantization of Landau damping in far-infrared absorption spectra of metal nano-thin films is predicted within the Kubo formalism. Specifically, it is found that the discretization of the electromagnetic and electron wave numbers inside a metal nanoslab produces quantum nonlocal resonances well-resolved at slab thicknesses smaller than the electromagnetic skin depth. Landau damping manifests itself precisely as such resonances, tracing the spectral curve obtained within the semiclassical Boltzmann approach. For slab thicknesses much greater than the skin depth, the classical regime emerges. Here the results of the quantum model and the Boltzmann approach coincide. Our analytical study is in perfect agreement with corresponding numerical simulations.

  13. The Synchronous Generators Rated Speed’s Influence on Electromagnetic Stresses and on Costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeta Spunei

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available During the design of synchronous generators is very important to establish the values of their electromagnetic stresses. The specific literature recommends that these stress values are to be chosen from the curves obtained during experimental design, where the independent values are the polar pitch and the number of pole pairs. The authors of this work propose a method of finding the dependency between the electromagnetic stress and the synchronous generator rated speed to rapidly estimate the stresses in a given interval of rated speed values.

  14. Electromagnetic Radiation : Variational Methods, Waveguides and Accelerators Including seminal papers of Julian Schwinger

    CERN Document Server

    Milton, Kimball A

    2006-01-01

    This is a graduate level textbook on the theory of electromagnetic radiation and its application to waveguides, transmission lines, accelerator physics and synchrotron radiation. It has grown out of lectures and manuscripts by Julian Schwinger prepared during the war at MIT's Radiation Laboratory, updated with material developed by Schwinger at UCLA in the 1970s and 1980s, and by Milton at the University of Oklahoma since 1994. The book includes a great number of straightforward and challenging exercises and problems. It is addressed to students in physics, electrical engineering, and applied mathematics seeking a thorough introduction to electromagnetism with emphasis on radiation theory and its applications.

  15. Electromagnetic damping of neutron star oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDermott, P.N.; Savedoff, M.P.; Van Horn, H.M.; Zweibel, E.G.; Hansen, C.J.

    1984-01-01

    Nonradial pulsations of a neutron star with a strong dipole magnetic field cause emission of electromagnetic radiation. Here we compute the power radiated to vacuum by neutron star g-mode pulsations and by torsional oscillations of the neutron star crust. For the low-order quadrupole fluid g-modes we have considered, we find electromagnetic damping to be considerably more effective than gravitational radiation. For example, a 0.5 M/sub sun/ neutron star with a core temperature approx.10 7 K has a g 1 -mode period of 371 ms; for this mode were find the electromagnetic damping time to be tau/sub FM/approx.0.3 s, assuming the surface magnetic field strength of the neutron star to be B 0 approx.10 12 gauss. This is considerably less than the corresponding gravitational radiation time tau/sub GR/approx.3 x 10 17 yr. For dipole g-mode oscillations, there is no gravitational radiation, but electromagnetic damping and ohmic dissipation are efficient damping mechanisms. For dipole torsional oscillations, we find that electromagnetic damping again dominates, with tau/sub EM/approx.5 yr. Among the cases we have studied, quadrupole torsional oscillations appear to be dominated by gravitational radiation damping, with tau/sub GR/approx.10 4 yr, as compared with tau/sub EM/approx.2 x 10 7 yr

  16. The electromagnetic potentials without the gauge transformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espinoza, Augusto; Chubykalo, Andrey; Rodriguez, Alejandro Gutierrez; Hernandez, Maria de los Angeles [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas (Mexico). Unidad Academica de Fisica

    2011-07-01

    In this note we show that the use of the Helmholtz theorem lead to derivation of uniquely determined electromagnetic potentials without making use of the gauge transformation. These potentials correspond to the potentials obtained by imposing so-called Coulomb condition (gauge) in the traditional approach. We show that the electromagnetic field comprises two components, one of which is characterized by its instantaneous action at a distance, whereas another one propagates in the retarded form with the velocity of light. One of the theoretical consequences of this new definition is that the electromagnetic potentials are real physical quantities as well as the electric and magnetic fields. We show that the reality of the electromagnetic potentials in quantum-mechanics is also a property of these potentials in the classical electrodynamics. Equations for potentials obtained in our approach are already separated with respect to vector and scalar potentials, so there is no necessity in using the gauge transformations and, accordingly, in making use of either Lorentz or Coulomb condition. The vector potential and scalar potential introduced thus are uniquely defined. The scalar potential is a generator of the so called instantaneous action at a distance, whereas the solenoidal vector potential can propagate with the velocity of light and it is responsible for the retarded action of the electromagnetic field. (author)

  17. Analyzing high school students' reasoning about electromagnetic induction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelicic, Katarina; Planinic, Maja; Planinsic, Gorazd

    2017-06-01

    Electromagnetic induction is an important, yet complex, physics topic that is a part of Croatian high school curriculum. Nine Croatian high school students of different abilities in physics were interviewed using six demonstration experiments from electromagnetism (three of them concerned the topic of electromagnetic induction). Students were asked to observe, describe, and explain the experiments. The analysis of students' explanations indicated the existence of many conceptual and reasoning difficulties with the basic concepts of electromagnetism, and especially with recognizing and explaining the phenomenon of electromagnetic induction. Three student mental models of electromagnetic induction, formed during the interviews, which reoccurred among students, are described and analyzed within the knowledge-in-pieces framework.

  18. Electromagnetic-Tracked Biopsy under Ultrasound Guidance: Preliminary Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakime, Antoine; Deschamps, Frederic; Marques De Carvalho, Enio Garcia; Barah, Ali; Auperin, Anne; Baere, Thierry De

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study was designed to evaluate the accuracy and safety of electromagnetic needle tracking for sonographically guided percutaneous liver biopsies. Methods: We performed 23 consecutive ultrasound-guided liver biopsies for liver nodules with an electromagnetic tracking of the needle. A sensor placed at the tip of a sterile stylet (18G) inserted in a coaxial guiding trocar (16G) used for biopsy was localized in real time relative to the ultrasound imaging plane, thanks to an electromagnetic transmitter and two sensors on the ultrasound probe. This allows for electronic display of the needle tip location and the future needle path overlaid on the real-time ultrasound image. Distance between needle tip position and its electronic display, number of needle punctures, number of needle pull backs for redirection, technical success (needle positioned in the target), diagnostic success (correct histopathology result), procedure time, and complication were evaluated according to lesion sizes, depth and location, operator experience, and “in-plane” or “out-of-plane” needle approach. Results: Electronic display was always within 2 mm from the real position of the needle tip. The technical success rate was 100%. A single needle puncture without repuncture was used in all patients. Pull backs were necessary in six patients (26%) to obtain correct needle placement. The overall diagnostic success rate was 91%. The overall true-positive, true-negative, false-negative, and failure rates of the biopsy were 100% (19/19) 100% (2/2), 0% (0/23), and 9% (2/23). The median total procedure time from the skin puncture to the needle in the target was 30 sec (from 5–60 s). Lesion depth and localizations, operator experience, in-plane or out-of-plane approach did not affect significantly the technical, diagnostic success, or procedure time. Even when the tumor size decreased, the procedure time did not increase. Conclusions: Electromagnetic-tracked biopsy is accurate to

  19. Electromagnetic analysis of transient disruption forces on the ITER shield modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotulski, J.D.; Coats, R.S.; Pasik, M.F.

    2007-01-01

    There are potential abnormal operating environments where the disruption of the plasma currents inside a tokamak induce eddy currents in the shield modules. These currents interact with the large magnetic fields to produce forces in the modules which could potentially cause mechanical failure in the modules and vacuum vessel. For this reason the design and qualification of the ITER shield modules requires appropriate high-fidelity electromagnetic simulations that capture the physics of these situations. These simulations need to include an accurate representation of the disruption currents as well as an accurate electromagnetic model of the shield modules. The purpose of this presentation is to describe the electromagnetic analysis that has been completed using the OPERA-3D product to characterize the forces on the shield modules allocated to the US. We first describe the electromagnetic model of the system which consists of the disruption currents and the shield modules attached to the vacuum vessel. The disruption currents are represented in OPERA-3D using superposition of a large number of solenoids with independent time variation to account for the spatial and temporal variation of the plasma current and position. In addition, the simplified electromagnetic model of the shield modules will be described and discussed. Once the modeling has been described the simulation results are presented. The force computation are also presented and the results discussed. These forces are then used by a mechanical analysis program to compute stresses and torques on a module during the disruption of the plasma currents. (orig.)

  20. Expanding the use of real-time electromagnetic tracking in radiation oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Amish P; Kupelian, Patrick A; Willoughby, Twyla R; Meeks, Sanford L

    2011-11-15

    In the past 10 years, techniques to improve radiotherapy delivery, such as intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) for both inter- and intrafraction tumor localization, and hypofractionated delivery techniques such as stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT), have evolved tremendously. This review article focuses on only one part of that evolution, electromagnetic tracking in radiation therapy. Electromagnetic tracking is still a growing technology in radiation oncology and, as such, the clinical applications are limited, the expense is high, and the reimbursement is insufficient to cover these costs. At the same time, current experience with electromagnetic tracking applied to various clinical tumor sites indicates that the potential benefits of electromagnetic tracking could be significant for patients receiving radiation therapy. Daily use of these tracking systems is minimally invasive and delivers no additional ionizing radiation to the patient, and these systems can provide explicit tumor motion data. Although there are a number of technical and fiscal issues that need to be addressed, electromagnetic tracking systems are expected to play a continued role in improving the precision of radiation delivery.